Hâfiz, Master of Persian Poetry: A Critical Bibliography: English Translations Since the Eighteenth Century 9780755611393, 9780755616442

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Hâfiz, Master of Persian Poetry: A Critical Bibliography: English Translations Since the Eighteenth Century
 9780755611393, 9780755616442

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Preface and Acknowledgements

The chief purpose of this book is to survey and record the English translations of Hafiz. My research has revealed a body of translations considerably more extensive than suggested by any previous account. A First-line Index has been prepared as a means of making these materials more accessible.The vast majority of English translations from Hafiz do not specify the original poem of which they are a translation. The works of Hafiz are voluminous and, since much of his poetry is written within the same relatively narrow set of symbolic conventions - leading to much superfi­ cial similarity of image and diction - it is often not at all easy to identify the specific original to which an English poem (often printed only under some such vague heading as ‘Ode from Hafiz’) is related. An added problem in compiling the First-Line Index has been the various unauthoritative printed texts or manuscripts which have been used by different translators, and, in any case, very often the volume employed as the basis of translations is not specified. One significant aspect of these translations is their influence on English poetry, and some of the so called spurious poems contained in these translated volumes have been employed extensively by English poets. To have ignored such an important aspect of these translations would have been unacceptable. For these reasons I have employed as my reference text Jam i-i Nusakh-i Hafiz edited by Mas‘ud Farzaad, Shiraviiviiviiviiz University Press, 1347/1968. Since the Variorum edition of Hafiz is not generally employed by Persian scholars, two lists of correspondences with the editions of the Divan of Hafiz by Qazvini & Ghani, and Par viz Natel-Khanlari, have been provided to facilitate the reader’s task. What is presented here is an updated and revised version of part of my Ph.D. thesis, enti­ tled, Translations o f Hafiz and their Influence on English Poetry since 111 I: A Study and a Critical Bibliog­ raphy\ presented under my married name of Pursglove at the University College of Swansea, Uni­ versity ofWales, U.K., in 1983. The book is divided into two parts.The first part seeks to make clear certain historical patterns which the accumulated materials presented in Part Two make it possible to discern, as well as throwing light on the diversity of approaches adopted to the transla­ tion of Hafiz’ poetry. The studies in this part have had to be made briefer and less wide-ranging than they might otherwise have been, so as to keep the whole book within manageable propor­ tions. Part Two of this book is intended to facilitate the identification of the translations of a common original, by means of a First-Line Index and a List of Translators. I have largely been concerned with printed materials. I have, though, included reference to some of the translations which are beginning to appear on the internet (where these are not merely republications of work already printed). New translations constantly come to light.Thus, thanks to Leonard Lewisohn I have, since completion of the main body of this book, learned of additional translations by Lewisohn and Robert Bly: of Ghazels 117, 359, 537,612 and Qit. 33 in The Soul is HereJo r Its Own Joy , ed. Robert Bly, Hopewell, N.J.,The Ecco Press, 1995, pp.238-245 and of ghazels 43 and 112 in The Thousands, 1, 2001 ,pp. 86-89. In the nature of the exercise some translations will inevitably have

escaped my attention. I believe, however that the vast majority of English versions from Hafiz are recorded here. Any omissions will not, I believe, be of a kind or extent sufficient to change the patterns which emerge in this survey. The English transliteration used in this book is based on the system employed by the Inter­ nationalJournal o f Middle East Studies (IJMES) published by The Middle East Studies Association of North America and Cambridge University Press. In the early stages of the preparation of this book, I benefited greatly from the patient advice of Dr. John Ramsaran and Professor C. J. L. Price - both now sadly deceased. For their advice and assistance in a variety of ways I am indebted to Professor A. K. S. Lambton, John HeathStubbs, Peter Hodgkiss, Christopher Weeks, Jon Meah, Dr. J. D. Gurney, Dr. Julie Scott Meisami, Dr. Dick Davis, Dr. Mohsen Ashtiani, Dr. Ahmad Ashraf and Mrs. Azar Ashraf. I have had generous help from my family, from my husband Glyn Pursglove and his late parents, from my daughters Valeh and Lalle and, above all, from my mother who has constantly supported and encouraged me.I dedicate this book to her, and to my late father. The publication of this book would have been impossible without the generous financial support of the Iran Heritage Foundation.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1. Abbreviated Persian terms. Gh. Qas. Qit. R. Tarj.

Ghazal Qasidih Qit ‘ih Ruba i Tarji‘band







2. Periodicals BSOAS

Bulletin ojthe School ojOriental and African Studies


International Journal o f Middle Eastern Studies


Journal o f the American Oriental Society


Journal o j Near Eastern Studies


Philological Quarterly

APPROACHES TO THE TRANSLATION OF HAFIZ Vous le connaissez par les traductions, mais les poetes ne se traduisent point. Peuton traduire de la musique? Voltaire.1 I do not hesitate to read ... all good books, in translations. What is really best in any book is translatable, any real insight or broad human sentiment. Emerson.2 Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafiz was born in Shiraz at the beginning of the 8th century of the Islamic era, that is, the fourteenth century A.D. The precise date of his birth is unknown probably between 1320 and 1326. One of the greatest of Persian poets, he studied widely and deeply in his home dty, for which he always retained a great affection. His first patron, Shah Abu Ishaq-i Inju, of whom Hafiz seems to have been particularly fond, was deposed in 1353 and re­ placed by the far less tolerant Mubariz al-Din Muhammad-i Mozaffari. After five years he, in turn, was succeeded by his son Shah Shuja, in whom Hafiz once again found a more generous patron. Indeed, Hafiz spurned invitations to take up residence at other courts, invitations won for him by the growing reputation of his work as a poet. Hafiz was a master of the ghazal, the distinctive Persian form of the lyric, though he also wrote accomplished poems in a range of other poetic forms. Using many of the expected ‘properties, of his inherited idiom, such as the praises of love and wine, his poetry sets up rich, teasing ambiguities of tone and meaning - how far (and where) are we to take the beloved and the wine ‘literally*? How far (and where) are we to interpret them as spiritual allegories? And are there, perhaps, dimensions of the poetry best understood in the light of the poet’s continuing need to gain and retain court patronage. Despite (or perhaps because of) such ambiguities, and because of the subtle beauty and technical sophistication of so much of his work, the fame of Hafiz soon spread far beyond his native Shiraz. He was a major influence on the later devleopment not just of Persian poetry, but on the work of poets in India, Turkey and elsewhere. From the 1600s onwards, European scholars and poets have made translations of his work into Latin, French and the other vernaculars. He has become a ‘world’ poet, as it were; this study is concerned to examine one of the ways in which that has come about. Part Two of this book records English translations from Hafiz made by over a hundred different translators - not taking into account the anonymous versions. The products of their efforts are gready varied in intention and achievement, in underlying philosophy, in form, in scholarship and understanding, and in most other imaginable respects.3This first chapter will at­ tempt to elucidate some of the different approaches which have been made to the problem of translating the poetry of Hafiz. It is by now a truism to say that poetry cannot be translated Robert Frost even (it seems) made its untranslatability a definition of the very nature of poetry.4

No encounter with a great poet in translation can ever be an adequate substitute for the experience of reading the original work. In general terms we must probably accept that no statement can ever fully be translated from one language to another.The words ‘home’ and ‘khanih’ may be synonyms according to the dictionary; in fact, to native speakers of the respective languages each evokes radically different norms of family and social structure, radically different architectural memories, different kinds of food, and so on. Only in the very crudest sense are the words ‘identical’ in meaning; each carries a wealth of cultural and emotional association which it does not share with the other. The poetic use of language, even more than the language of prose statement, exploits such associations. In direct proportion to the degree in which it exploits such resources, poetry is untranslatable. Nor, of course, can the ‘music’ of a line of verse be translated from one language to another. These are undeniable truths. Yet, if one grants the impossibility of the ‘perfect’ transla­ tion, one does not thereby rule out the belief that translation is an activity in which, though failure (by absolute standards) is inevitable, the act of failure can be valuable. In one of his letters to Carlyle, Goethe writes that say what one will of the inadequacy of translation, it remains one of the most important and valuable concerns in the whole of world affairs.5 Translation’s importance at, say, a political level is evident - frequently enough it provides the only means whereby one nation may speak to another. In the continuing history of literature its importance can scarcely be exaggerated. It is one of the major means by which the literature of any given language is constantly renewed and stimulated by new ideas, new forms, new ways of under­ standing the world. By providing the means whereby writers and critics can compare the nature and achievements of their own linguistic/literary tradition with those of a different tradition it enables them both to understand themselves better and, almost irrespective of any conscious choice, to change themselves. O f course translations may play a very conscious role in changes of literary direction. Andr£ Lefevere describes what is, after all, a recurrent historical situation: Translations of literary works are often used as weapons in the struggle between the canonized and non-canonized trends within the literary polysystem, a struggle which is often a matter of prestige. By the very fact of its canonization the reigning trend in the polysystem possesses great prestige at a given time, great enough, it would seem, to overshadow most, if not all challengers. The latter’s problem is to produce literary works that are equally prestigious in support of the alternative poetics they propose. Almost by definition these works will not be found inside the reigning literary trend. They will therefore have to be imported from outside the polysystem. This strategy not only confers prestige, but also relative immunity: the foreign work, having been produced outside the native poly system, cannot really be judged by native standards, precisely because it presents an alternative to them.6

Translations of Shakespeare served such a purpose for the French Romantics, translations of Chi­ nese Poetry for the Imagists - and translations from Eastern poetry, including translations from Hafiz, fed directly into the bloodstream of English Romanticism. Translators of Hafiz have doubt­ less pursued their task with a variety of motives: honest admiration of a great poet, and a desire to share their pleasure with compatriots unable to read the original; personal vanity, a concern for their own fame; an interest in comparative linguistics; the desire to produce a ‘crib* for students; and many, many others. For some, disinterested scholarship was paramount; others had idealistic motives. Samuel Robinson introduces his translations in the belief that productions which throw any light on the intellectual and moral condition of a portion of the great human family, and one so utterly different in its nature from our own, cannot be unimportant, and ought not to be uninteresting, to those who think that the proper study of mankind is man.7 Others put translations to more immediately practical purposes. Richardson's A Specimen o f Persian Poetry was first published in 1774; when it was republished in 1802 it was prefaced by an ‘Adver­

tisement’ which begins thus: The following work was originally published by Mr.Richardson in 1774, but at that time the study of the Persian language was not considered of that vast importance which it has since been found to be, to those gentlemen who had occasion to reside in the Honourable Company’s settlements in Hindoostan, either in a civil or a military capacity; but on their arrival in that country, they immediately perceived they had been greatly mistaken, and that no transaction or negotiation of consequence could possibly take place, or be carried on, without a knowledge of the court language of that extensive empire.8 Not surprisingly the ‘advertisement’ , seemingly the work of the volume’s editor, ‘S. Rousseau, Teacher of the Persian Language’ , goes on to extol the virtues of this particular volume in the study of the “court language of that extensive empire” .The volume’s Preface goes on to detail why such knowledge is of the greatest importance to the representatives of a great commercial body, whom a revolution unparalleled in the annals of any nation has placed as sovereigns over countries extensive, populous, and rich. So circumstanced, however, to still be under the necessity, in every transaction of moment with the powers of those countries, to correspond and converse with them by the intermediation of interpreters, whose ignorance perhaps is only to be equalled by their perfidy, is not only tedious, indecisive, and dangerous, but ill-suited to the dignity of Britain, as a powerful and learned nation.9

literary ideals and aesthetic values are scarcely important considerations here. Yet many of those who have sought to translate Hafiz have done so out of love for his poetry, and out of a desire, to the best of their abilities, to present his work to new readers. In tackling this self-appointed task they have had several difficulties to face, peculiar to the translation of Hafiz and Persian poetry, over and above the universal difficulties inherent in the translation of poetry, and alluded to earlier. One primary difficulty is in the unreliability of known texts of Hafiz’ poetry.Tradition has it that Hafiz prepared an authoritative edition of his poems in the year 770/1368. If this is true then, sadly, we must conclude that all trace of it, or of any manuscript descendants of it, has vanished. Manuscripts of the poems do, indeed, abound. Most, however, are altogether uncritical and untrustworthy; the same, unfortunately, has to be said of most of the printed editions of his work. At all stages of textual transmission, poems of doubtful authenticity have been interpolated; within poems of certain authenticity new and doubtful lines have often been inserted; scribes and editors, because of their presuppositions about, for example, the nature of the ghazal form, have not scrupled to rearrange the baits of a poem to satisfy their own sensibilities. By the very nature of the problems and materials under consideration, there can probably never be such a thing as an indisputably definitive edition such a thing, after all, would be impossible of achievement in the case of, say, Shakespeare, and the text of Hafiz presents far more severe problems. Certainly the numerous translators of Hafiz have worked from many different texts, of very greatly varying reliability. Many of the omissions recorded, for example, in the list of translations in Part Two, are doubtless explicable not by aesthetic choices on the part of the translator, but by the inadequacy of the text from which he was working. Even assuming that he had access to a text in which he could unreservedly put his trust, the would-be translator of Hafiz would still face many problems in undertaking the tricky operation of transmuting the original into English. We may illustrate such problems under two general head­ ings, cultural and linguistic. When an English translator seeks to produce a version of, say, the poems of Ronsard or Petrarch he doubtless faces many difficulties; yet in one respect he has a much easier task than that which faces the translator of Hafiz. In these other cases intended reader and translated poet share much common ground; both English reader and French or Italian poet are heirs of the larger traditions of classical culture, of Christian Church. Many of the allusions, many of the mythological types or historical incidents, to which the French or Italian poet will instinc­ tively turn in the composition of his poems are also part of the heritage of the educated English reader. Though there will be much that will be unfamiliar, the English reader will be aware that he and the poet live within the same cultural framework; for that reason the translator can take much for granted. Not so the translator from Hafiz. If Ronsard talks o f ‘Nardsse’ the English translator need do no more than transpose the name to ‘Narcissus’ . But what would the English reader make, for example, of the following passage from Hafiz, should the translator, as here, do no more than anglidse the allusions?: Hold the cup with reverence, for it is made from the skulls of Jamshid, Bahaman, and Qubad. Who knows where Kavus and Kai have gone, who knows how Jam’s

throne disappeared with the wind. By the sigh from her ruby lips, I see even now that tulips grow from the blood of Farhad’s eyes.10 Poet and reader inhabit very different, though related, cultural milieux. Allusion depends upon shared knowledge. Where writer and audience inhabit such differing domains of knowledge the translator is faced with the problem of finding ways of making his readers ‘competent’ . Batteries of footnotes, illustrative quotations, cross-references, and so on, may help, and yet such apparatus is all too likely to constitute an impenetrable shield around the true poetic spirit of the original. Further difficulties which await the English translator of Hafiz are inherent in the nature of the two languages - difficulties which are ultimately insurmountable. One illustration must suffice. It con­ cerns the third person singular in the two languages. Herman Bicknell defines the problem thus:

For the two words “he” and “she” [...] the Persian language has one word “u”. At first sight it might seem best to translate this monosyllable by “she”. This, however, is impossible: by doing so any mystical sense would be at once excluded. In many Persian odes, moreover, the abstract ideal may b illustrated rather than the charms of any single visible beauty.11

E.P. Evans, well defines the difference consequent upon the nature of the third person singular pronoun in Persian: This epicenity adds much to the interpretation of Persian poetry, both in a natural and in a mystical sense. The line of demarcation between the literal and the allegorical, the sensual and, the spiritual, is thus rendered faint and not easily identifiable.12 The ambiguity of pronoun is, in fact, one important element in that strategy of simultaneous levels of meaning which is one of the hallmarks of Hafiz’ poetry. Since no such grammatical ambiguity exists in English the effect is, quite simply, impossible of reproduction. The English translator has to be specific in ways, and at points, where his original contains no such specific information. For some translators the supposed implications have seemed disturbing: To avoid being suspected of disingenuousness, we must here also point out a blemish in our Author, too glaring for disguise, and which, if not explained away, might subject him to the same moral disgrace, which unfortunately attaches itself to some of the first poets, and even to some of the philosophers of antiquity. Well aware of the dishonour reflected upon VIRGIL and AN ACREON, from the names Alexis and Bathyllus, it is not without regret that we find HAFIZ, and indeed all the SUFI poets of this class, continually liable to the opprobrium of similar accusations ... Whether it be possible

that the sovereign monarch, his ministers, approved and ancientfriends, the mistress o f a chaste affection, or even a beloved wife, can be disguised under these allusions, or whether we must interpret them in that gross and masculine sense which shocks human nature, or through the medium of mysticism and allegory, is a point we leave for better judges to determine.13 If these and similar problems do not deter the intending translator he must then confront some choices which will dictate quite how he handles his original, quite how he presents it to a new audience. He must, for example, make a decision as to whether he will present Hafiz to his English readers in prose or in verse. O f course the translators of Hafiz are not the only translators of poetry who have had to make up their minds in this regard.The differences of opinion have been great and feelings have often run strongly on this issue. Schlegel may stand at one end of the spectrum: In particular - and this was a point he frequently emphasized - a verse work should always be rendered into verse, and, indeed, into verse of exacdy the same pattern. The horror with which he regarded a prose translation of poetry is reflected in the term he chose for it: ‘poetic manslaughter’ . Any such arbitrary alteration was in his eyes indefensible.14 Closely contemporary are the sentiments of AlexanderTytler, and his comments on the translation of lyrical poetry have a particular relevance to our own concern with the translation of Hafiz: there are certain species of poetry, of the merits of which it will be found impossible to convey the smallest idea in a prose translation. Such is Lyric poetry, where a greater degree of irregularity of thought, and a more unrestrained exuberance of fancy, is allowable than in any other species of composition. To attempt, therefore, a translation of a lyric poem into prose, is the most absurd of all undertakings; for those very characters of the original which are essential to it, and which constitute its highest beauties, if transferred to a prose translation, become unpardonable blemishes. The excessive range of the sentiments, and the play of fancy, which we admire in the original, degenerate in the translation into mere raving and impertinence. O f this the translation of Horace in prose, by Smart, furnishes proofs in every page.15 At the other end of the spectrum, however, we find those willing to put forward precisely the opposite case. John Middleton Murry, for example: Poetry ought always to be rendered into prose. Since the aim of the translator should be to present the original as exactly as possible, no fetters of rhyme or metre should be imposed to hamper this difficult labour. Indeed they may make it impossible.16

Mathew Arnold appears to have believed only that works of particular variety and richness - amongst which we would surely include the poetry of Hafiz should be translated into prose. We are left then with the paradoxical principle that the greater a poetic work is, the more desirable it is that it should be translated into prose: There are great works composed of parts so disparate that one translator is not likely to have the requisite gifts for poetically rendering all of them. Such are the works of Shakespeare and Goethe's ‘Faust'; and these it is best to attempt to render in prose only.17 A number of our translators of Hafiz have had no doubts that English prose was the appropriate medium, and have given a variety of reasons in justification of their choice. One argument is that the sense of the poem can be represented more accurately in prose: A word as to the dress in which the translator has thought it best to clothe his version. No one but must feel how much the language of poetry loses by being transmuted into that of prose; and this especially in the case of lyrical poetry, which depends so intimately for its effect on all the variety of modulation and the music of sound which the art and ear of the poet can give it. But he has wished above every thing else to preserve for his English reader the exact sense of the original, and not only the exact sense, but the peculiar and characteristic flavour - the aroma, so to say - of the Oriental style. This union, he thinks, is hardly possible in a metrical version.18 Another, perhaps subtler, argument, and one less readily answered, is that to translate into English verse forms is to impose upon the originals an alien and inappropriate set of formal considerations. Cowell’s best (and last) translations from Hafiz were in prose (though he had earlier produced verse translations) and he explains his turning to prose thus: I have not attempted to translate them into verse, because I was afraid of imposing a false form on the original; and I have therefore given a simple and faithful rendering into prose. Each reader must supply to the prose an ideal adorning of metre and rhyme; my translations, in fact, are like the plain woodcut, to which the imagination must add the requisite colouring.19 Cowell elsewhere observes of another group of his translations: We have not put them into a rhymed dress, preferring to leave them in a nebulous shape, which, without impressing an arbitrary form on the translation, leaves it to the reader’s own imagination to clothe them in some ideal form as he pleases. Our translations are strictly literal, as we wished to give the reader an idea of Hafiz as he really is; we have, therefore, studiously retained all the abrupt transitions and bold extravagancies which

characterise the original in a word, all those impulses of impassioned excitement which are the soul of lyric enthusiasm.20 There are demonstrable illogicalities in this argument, yet the fear that the forms of one poetic tradition can only distort the literature of a different tradition constitutes a sound and important recognition. O f the advocates for prose Colonel Wilberforce Clarke is, in this respect as in some others, the most dogmatic. He offers an apparatus of justification for his choice of medium: That poetry may be translated into prose, the Bible proves. The French have long practised the art of giving prose equivalents for verse, thus retaining exactness of rendering, without losing much of the melody. M.Keynard’s Dante in French prose is a better equivalent for the original than any of our rhymed versions. O f the lyrics in the Greek Anthology no versified renderings are as good as the few which Sainte Beuve made in prose ... Mr. Mathew Arnold, whether knowing Heine’s wish or not, rendered that untranslatable poet into prose ... Prose is coming to be regarded as the least inadequate vehicle for the rendering of foreign poetry. The reader may peruse :(a) “Gaspard de la Nuit” (1836) by Louis (Ludovic) Bertrand; or the modem edition (1869) by Charles Allelineau. (b) “Petits Poemes in Prose* by Charles Baudelaire. (c) “Pastels in Prose," a translation from French prose-poems by Mr.Stuart Merrill with a preface by Mr. Howells.21 One suspects that Baudelaire would, to say the least, have been surprised to find himself dted in justification of Colonel Clarke’s peculiarly graceless prose! If the translator settles on prose as his medium he is left, still, with a further dedsion to make. Does he wish to provide a word-for-word version, sacrifidng smoothness and idiomatic English for ‘fidelity’ to his original? To do so will produce, if well done, a serviceable crib. A number of translators of Hafiz have done predsely this, some of them with the needs of students in mind; the versions by the Iranis, by Jhaveri and by Memon, for example, are all of this kind. None of them pretend to any ambitions as regards the aesthetic pleasure of their readers perhaps ‘users’ would be a better word. Dadachanji might speak for other such translators too: The odes are translated as literal [sic] as possible with a view to make the students understand the construction very easily, however dry the translation may seem to any one but the student. Elegance in style is sacrificed for doseness of translation. A free translation in an elegant style will be of little advantage to the student.22

There remains another possible kind of prose translation. Not so doggedly literal, and with more pretence to elegance of manner and, indeed, to readability.The translator may, in short, seek to offer what Sir William Jones calls “a version in modulated but unaffected prose".23 Here the translator is ‘liberated’ from the pressures of rhyme and metre but not from the demands of lit­ eracy and euphony. Some of Jones’ own versions, plus those of Robinson and McCarthy stand out as examples of this procedure; it is perhaps one which has been adopted less frequently than one might have hoped. Certainly the reader of Robinson’s prose will get more idea of Hafiz than the reader of Payne will obtain from that writer’s strenuous versification. The danger is that the trans­ lator will merely produce something which is an awkward halfway house between prose and verse. J. Middleton Murry analyses the matter thus: Instead of resolutely making up his mind that the musical element of his poetry must be sacrificed, the translator grasps desperately at “poetical” phrases. He corrupts his own prose without bringing us an inch nearer to the poetry of his original.24 The majority of translators with, as it were, literary aspirations have, however, believed a verse translation to be desirable. Within that option there would seem to be three possible courses of action. The poet-translator may seek to imitate as closely as possible the verse forms of his original - its metre, rhyme scheme, and so on. Or he may choose to embody his perception of the original within traditional English verse forms - he must, after all, write in English and it is to English verse forms that the English language is best fitted. Or, amongst modern translators, at any rate, he may decide to make use of the possibilities of free verse. There is inevitably a somewhat blurred area here - one man’s (and one century’s) “modulated prose" can be strangely akin to the free verse of another man and another era. Many of the translators of Hafiz who have chosen to write in one or other of these forms of verse have not felt the need to justify or explain their choice.To some it is merely self-evident that “a straight prose translation of Hafiz is unthinkable".25 Richard Le Gallienne, however, argues the case at some length. Beneath his somewhat florid man­ ner are some interesting arguments, and some valuable discriminations are offered: One reason why a translation is usually little more than a joyless shadow of a great classic is that translators will persist in attempting the impossible, insist on teasing or torturing their English into metrical schemes, and in attempting rhythmical effects, literally foreign to the genius of the language. It thus results that unless the verse translator is prepared to sacrifice the metrical letter of his original, in the interests of its spirit, or by a literal unfaithfulness achieve the essential faithfulness, prose translations are not only the more veracious but much pleasanter reading ... Still, a poet is a poet, and his words were meant to go to the dance of feet and the sound of strings; and if in introducing him to another people it is necessary to fit his words to another dancemusic than that to which they were originally written, is it not better so than that he should go without music at all? The music of Persian verse may be more captivating than the music of our English lyric poetry, but it could hardly seem so to English ears, and,

at all events, English ears crave English music. Surely the only service of a translation is for it to make the foreign poet a poet of one’s own country - not to present him as a halfAnglidsed foreigner speaking neither his own language nor our ow n... No translation, however learned, is of any value that does not give at least some of the joy to the reader that was given by its original. Hafiz has for centuries been one of the great literary joys of the Orient. Is it good translation to turn what is such pleasure for the East into positive pain for the West?26 The argument is for verse translations, but not for verse translations in which the translator en­ deavours to imitate the verse-forms of the original. Avery and Heath-Stubbs also believe such translations to be a futile undertaking: It is impossible to reproduce with effect, either the monorhyme or the elaborate quantitive metres of the Persian.27 and Farzaad can only offer very grudging and limited praise to such efforts: the method of those who may try to render Hafiz with the preservation of both the Persian monorhyme and the Persian metre, while possibly laudable on other grounds, cannot be followed by the artistic translator; and to him must appear somewhat in the nature of literary acrobatics.28 Farzaad’s last image here irresistibly calls to mind Dryden’s witty comments on this kind of trans­ lation. Such a translator, Dryden reminds us: is encumbered with so many difficulties at once, that he can never disentangle himself from all. He is to consider, at the same time, the thought of his author, and his words, and to find out the counterpart to each in another language; and besides this, he is to confine himself to the compass of numbers and the slavery of rhyme. ’Tis much like dandng on ropes with fettered legs: a man may shun a fall by using caution; but the gracefulness of motion is not to be expected: and when we have said the best of it, ’tis but a foolish task; for no sober man would put himself into danger for the applause of escaping without breaking his neck.29 Apart from some isolated efforts by others, three English translators of Hafiz have under­ taken this “foolish task" at any length - Walter Leaf, John Payne and Paul Smith. The first may be said to deserve some applause for “escaping without breaking his neck"; the second and third can only be said to have taken heavy falls. Leaf’s Versionsfrom Hafez is in fact a very accomplished and intelligent piece of work, and the attempt to imitate the metre and rhyme-scheme of the original Persian poems is not undertaken lightly, or without a very specific purpose in mind. His choice is

based on a judgement, perhaps mistaken but nonetheless intelligent, about the nature of the poetic unity characteristic of Hafiz’ work. Leaf believed that “it is from the common metre and common rhyme alone that the ode gains a formal unity”.30 In this belief he felt it important and worth while to make an attempt, however poor, to give English readers some idea of this most indissoluble bond of spirit and form in Hafiz. And with it all, one must try to convey some faint reminder of the fact that Hafiz is, as few poets have been, a master of words and rhythms.31 Leaf does succeed in giving his reader some sense of the formal nature of his original - as much perhaps as could be given in an English version. At the same time his translations are readable. Yet the exercise does not, finally, satisfy. It informs and teaches, but does not, ultimately, convey a sense of Hafiz’ greatness. Payne, it has to be said, scarcely begins to convey any such sense. His three-volume monument to perverse ingenuity stands as a grim warning against this particular kind of verse translation. After surveying existing translations of Dante,Thomas Macauley reached the conclusion that translations ought never to be written in a verse which requires much command of rhyme. The stanza becomes a bed of Procrustes; and the thoughts of the unfortunate author are alternately racked and curtailed to fit their new receptacle.32 O f course Payne’s “receptacle* is only new in so far as it is an English version of a Persian form; yet few great poets can ever have been “racked and curtailed* by their translator more con­ sistently than Hafiz is tortured by Payne. Paul Smith’s Divan O fHafiz (1986), is heavily indebted to the efforts of his two predecessors. Smith, like Payne tortures Hafiz into English ghazal forms.The results are no more successful or attractive than Payne’s, and frequently almost as difficult to read and understand. It is hardly surprising, then, that many more English translators have chosen to make use of established English verse forms in translating Hafiz. The most serious objection here must be that which we have seen Cowell expressing earlier, and which is put most forcefully by Avery and Heath-Stubbs: the employment of the rhymed stanza-forms of traditional English verse inevitably leads to the imposition of formal conceptions which are ... alien to Oriental poetry.33 The phrase “formal conceptions” is perhaps the key one here. The difference between Persian poetic forms and those of England (or Europe) is not merely a matter of external features - not merely a matter of metrics and rhyme schemes, line lengths and stanza forms. Behind the typical forms of the two literary traditions there lie fundamentally different aesthetic principles, even contradictory conceptions of poetic unity and design. Walter Leaf’s sense of how basic these differ­

ences are has already been alluded to above; we may, then, take as our starting-point his remarks on the subject: We have learnt from our Greek masters to seek the unity of a poem in the thought or mood developed in it. Whether sensuous or intellectual, the unity is internal and essential. To a Persian poet this is not so; and that is a hard lesson which we must learn before we can do full justice to Eastern art. In the Persian ode we find a succession of couplets often startling in their independence, in their giddy transitions from grave to gay, from thought to m ood... It is from the common metre and common rhyme alone that the ode gains a formal unity ... Not, of course, that the ode is of necessity thus discursive and, to our mind, incoherent. Nature provides that even the poet carried outside himself shall often at least preserve a coherent mood, shall be dominated for awhile by one strong thought; only it is not to the East, as it is to most of us, a condition of perfect work that this should be the case. Many of the odes of Hafiz are as connected in thought as an ode of Horace; but this does not in itself constitute to the Persian a daim to beauty ... To this extreme discursiveness of matter the rigid frame of the metre supplies a corrective.34 It may be felt that Leaf does not provide an entirely satisfactory account of the kind of poetic unity which characterises the poems of Hafiz; yet he does, at least, display a dear awareness that the absence o f‘dassical* unity is by no means the same thing as the absence of unity of any sort. Some other translators do not appear to have shared this awareness. Rogers finds that the poems “give an appearance of patchwork that greatly detracts from their value as literary compositions".35Bicknell is sure that the reader will be struck by the“want of unity in many of the Odes".36Le Gallienne’s is the most far-reaching dissatisfaction. He describes the order of poems in the whole Divan as“pointlessly fantastic" and, in turning to the individual ghazals, observes that the constituent couplets are grouped together with hardly more regard to internal relation ... the majority of the odes seem merely a fortuitous concourse of unrelated couplets. It is but seldom that one continuous motive binds the couplets together. There seems, and actually is, no reason why the couplets of one ode should not just as fittingly have been induded in another ode.37 Confident in his assumption of the structural defidendes of Hafiz’ poetry, Le Gallienne takes upon himself its improvement: The difficulty of inconsequence I have endeavoured to overcome, partly by choosing those poems that were least inconsequent, partly by supplying links of my own, and partly by selecting and developing the most important motive out of the two or three different motives which one frequently finds in the same ode. Such material as I found

myself able to use in each ode I have used. The rest I have left. Once or twice I have developed the suggestion of a couplet into a complete ode, but only once or twice.38 Long before Le Gallienne had so displayed his lack of real comprehension other translators had begun to realise that they were dealing, not with poetry deficient in all unity, but with poetry written upon principles which they could not understand within the terms of their inherited clas­ sical literary theories. Richardson, writing in 1774, is wise enough to comment that before a decisive criticism ought to be hazarded on compositions of this kind, regard should be had to the genius of the eastern nations, to local and temporary allusions, to their religions and laws, their manners and customs, their histories and traditions; which, if not properly understood, must involve the whole in obscurity: and it must consequently be equally improper to set in judgement on the ghazel, and try it by the laws of the European ode, as to decide on Shakespeare according to the mechanical system of the French drama, or to condemn a fine Gothick building, because irreconcilable with the principles of Grecian architecture.39 John Hindley, in 1800, writes with considerable perception of the nature of the poetry in front of him. Aware that the “Ghazel had been declared by grammarians to be an unconnected composi­ tion, each verse having its own immediate imagery, and succeeding the other without any neces­ sary analogy or idea", his experience as a reader and translator has, it seems, been a little different. He tells us that If we attend only to the time, the place, the object, the intention, and the imagery of each Ghazel, the ideas for the most part appear to flow naturally, and without any absurd or harsh transition ... Under these circumstances, therefore, the Translator will only have to allow our Author, what he finds in the Grecian and Roman Lyric poets, and what we should be willing to allow any poet of our own, the liberty of glancing with the frenzied eye of inspiration from earth to heaven, from heaven to earth, in search of objects adapted to the subject of his composition; and, after attending to the minute turns of the versification, we suspect it will be his own fault, if he finds an insurmountable difficulty in explaining his Author’s meaning in a manner so perceptibly connected as to avoid exciting disgust in an English reader.40 If we allow for changes in critical vocabulary it is, I think, clear that Hindley perceived in Hafiz’ poetry the kind of unity which has been analysed by some critics and translators in our own time. Avery and Heath-Stubbs write, for example, of how Hafiz’ poetry stands outside classical concep­ tions of logical development, of beginning, middle, and end: Professor Gilbert Norwood has recently shown (in his Pindar, California University

Press, 1945) that the poems of Pindar, long supposed to be lacking in any dear thematic unity, are really bound together by the symbolic unity of their leading images. A very similar prindple is discernible in the poems of Hafiz. Each couplet is linked to others in the same poem by a leading image or idea, or by the repetition of a single word, though often in a varying sense. But the links are not necessarily explidt, but are often suppressed, depending on subconsdous assodation. Sometimes a couplet is thus linked to the one which immediately succeeds it. More often, perhaps, it has a doser connection with the next couplet but one, so that the several couplets of the poem may be said to be linked alternatively.41 As they acknowledge, the views of Avery and Heath-Stubbs are much influenced by the studies of G.M. Wickens. He discerns in the poems of Hafiz a kind of radial structure, a structure not of sequence but of elements arranged “spoke-like around a number of immutableJocal points* Such a structural prindple, he points out, has often been recognised as characteristic of Persian architecture (the central courtyard), garden-layout (the medial pool), carpet-design, mosaics, and miniatures.42 That a similar structural pattern should be characteristic of Persian poetry seems a very reasonable suggestion; if it is accepted then it does, of course, have important implications for the translator. It makes it both possible and imperative that his translations should seek ways of making available to the English reader a vision of such structures of theme and image. Julie Meisami writes, for example, that A type of structure frequently observed in the ghazal is that of ring composition, either in the form of a drcular progression in which the condusion of the poem restates or recapitulates its beginning, or a more complex organization into roughly concentric units around a midpoint which darifies and gives direction to the entire poem.43 While translators continue, however, to use European formal terms as ways of defining or describ­ ing Persian poems any such responsiveness to their true formal nature is unlikely. Translators mis­ leadingly insist on calling ghazals ‘odes’ or, perhaps even more confusing, ‘sonnets’ . Robinson informs us that “the Ghazel... is a kind of sonnet" but then has to tell us that in the matter of unity and design “the Persian Ghazel differs from the sonnet as widely as possible".44 Robinson’s reader can surely be forgiven for feeling that such use of terminology has made it harder, rather than easier, for him to get a sense of how the Persian ghazal works. Nakosteen seems to treat the two words as virtual synonyms, without ever justifying such an assumption. Farzaad initially makes a ringing assertion, but then goes along way towards qualifying it out of existence: The word “ghazal" means simply a sonnet. Its use in English tends to mystify the general reader and I hope will be discouraged. It is true that the Persian sonnet differs from the

English sonnet in certain technical details, such as the possible number of lines and the system of rhyming. Nevertheless, this does not justify to my mind the use of an unnecessary and even misleading word in English.45 The use of the term sonnet in this regard is surely all the more misleading; the reader interested enough to read Hafiz, even in translation, is likely to be interested enough to want to make the effort to understand the nature of his poetic forms. He deserves better than to be misled by such loose equivalences. Oddly enough only three translators seem to have taken seriously the implica­ tions of this particular equivalence. In The Hindoostani Intelligencer (VI, 1802) there appears a trans­ lation o f Gh.566 signed ‘Sadiq’ and cast in Shakespearean sonnet form. In The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register (20,1836) is printed an anonymous piece headed ‘Sonnet from Hafiz’ : I watched her coming - but she passed not by: I thought to win her smile - she did not deign To cast one glance from that love-kindling eye: I strove, with floods of tears, but strove in vain, To chase indifference from her heart; the rain Would scoop the flinty rock ere this might be! The listening birds, to hear me thus complain, AD night were wakeful; - on her pillow she Unbroken slumber took - unfeelingly. Then sought I, at her feet, but my last breath To breath, and, dying, end my misery: She came not near me, reckless of my death! Heaven shield her from the darts she heedeth not Expiring lovers’ sighs - from many a lone cell shot! The Spenserian sonnet is the most fluid of traditional English sonnet forms but its basically devel­ opmental structure still serves only to draw attention to the ‘foreign’ nature of the material here contained within it - Gh. 204. Elizabeth Bridges’ Sonnetsfrom Hafez are, in fact, formally unconven­ tional as sonnets and, in any case, most of them are, in her own words, “not translations", so the problem of incompatibility does not seriously arise. It is interesting to reflect that such considerations scarcely arose in the case of one of Hafiz’ poetic forms: the ruba ?. It might be said that the universal fame of Fitzgerald’s version of Khayyam had effectively ‘naturalised* the Persian quatrain as an adopted English poetic form - almost in the way that in the sixteenth century Wyatt and Surrey had ‘naturalised’ the Italian sonnet. Certainly it is striking that prior to Fitzgerald’s translation from Khayyam only two of Hafiz’ poems in the form had been translated (ft.213 by Jones, A.228 by Gore Ouseley). All other translations were produced after Fitzgerald, and several of them reveal his influence.

Given the inappropriate nature of most of the traditional English verse forms it is not surprising that some modern translators have turned to the use of free verse. Robert Lowell's famous volume Imitations contains some pertinent, if sweeping, comments: Strict metrical translators still exist. They seem to live in a pure world untouched by contemporary poetry. Their difficulties are bold and honest, but they are taxidermists, not poets, and their poems are likely to be stuffed birds. A better strategy would seem to be the now fashionable translations into free or irregular verse. Yet this method commonly turns out a sprawl of language, neither faithful nor distinguished, now on stilts, now low, as Dryden would say.46 The translations of H.B. Lister are certainly a poor argument for free verse translation; they are, to put it mildly, undistinguished poetically and cannot be said to give their reader more than the merest glimpse of the greatness of Hafiz. The versions by Avery and Heath-Stubbs put the case more persuasively - there is no suspicion here, as there is with Lister, that the medium has been chosen out of sheer laziness. John Heath-Stubbs is a poet with a particularly acute ear, and the unrhymed verse in loosely handled six-stress lines retains a degree of formality; the versification makes possible a sense of the couplet and it has its own distinctive music; yet it also offers the translator a degree of freedom within which to attempt to communicate the structures o f theme and image perceived in their original. Where free verse translations are concerned one can only regret that Basil Bunting’s versions from Hafiz should be so few in number, since they speak elo­ quently of the possibilities of this kind of translation. Beyond the choice of form, and beyond the problem of communicating within the literary structures of one tradition the aesthetic principles of a different tradition, the translator of Hafiz must also confront the question of Hafiz’ sufism and his poetry’s use (or otherwise) of the conven­ tional symbols and images of sufism. If he decides with Payne and Le Gallienne that Hafiz is no sufi, then, of course, the problem is largely solved: None of the Persian poets has been more strenuously and more persistently claimed as an affiliate and co-religionist by the mystical fraternity, known as the Soufis or Woolwearers, than Hafiz; and none, to my mind, with less colour of reason.47 If the translator believes with Le Gallienne that most readers of Hafiz’ poems “will be content to take them in their primary aspect as lyrical expressions of the joy and sorrow of earth",48 then he will save himself many difficulties. He will be able to say with Gertrude Stein that “a rose is a rose is a rose" - not for him the need to explicate, or to imply mystical significance. If, however, the translator takes the view that all or some of Hafiz’ poems are only “ostensibly lovesongs, but in reality metaphysical religious writings”49 then he must attempt to find means by which he can communicate this sense to his reader. Will it be enough to alert the reader in one’s introduction (as Bell does)? Or should the reader be provided with a glossary of sufi terms (as he is, for example, by

Rundall)? Or perhaps extensive footnotes should be used, coupled perhaps with explanations in­ terpolated within the text of the translations (as by Clarke)? All three have their advantages and disadvantages and are not, of course, mutually exclusive. Whatever choice the translator makes, his will be a difficult task to enable his readers to see that the poems are not merely epicurean or anacreontic, but, at the same time, to avoid giving the impression that Hafiz is merely a cold and scholarly allegorist. Such, then, are but a few of the problems facing the would-be translator of Hafiz. They constitute a formidable challenge. This chapter has indicated some of the various principles and understandings on which different translators have based their approach to that challenge. We can now go to consider and compare the fruits of their efforts. NOTES 1. From a letter to Marie de Vichy de Chamrond, Marquise Du DefFand, May 19, 17S4, Les Oeuvres Completes de Voltaire, ed. T. Besterman, Vol.99, 1971, p. 139.

2. R.W.Emerson, ‘Books’ in Society and Solitude, quoted from The Works o f Ralph Waldo Emerson, (Bohn’s Standard Library), 1894, n, p.83. 3. Among discussions of the range of English translations, those of particular interest include: A. J. Arberry, ‘Hafiz and His English Translators’ , Islamic Culture, 20, 1946, pp. 111-249; Eric Schroeder, ‘Verse Translation and Hafiz’ ,Journal o f Near Eastern Studies, 7, 1948, pp.209-22; Julie Scott Meisami, ‘Hafiz in English: Translation and Authority*, Edebiyat, N.S. 6, 1995, pp.55-79 and ‘Shams al-Dln Muhammad Hafiz’ , in O.Classe, ed., Encyclopedia o f Literary Translation into English, 2000,1, pp.6002. (See also Dick Davis, ‘Persian: Literary Translation into English’ on pages 1057-60 of Volume II of the same work). 4. “Poetry is what gets lost in translation”. Attributed to Frost in The Oxford Dictionary o f Quotations, 3rd edition, 1979, p.219. 5. Quoted from George Steiner’s After Babel, 1975, p.248. The original reads as follows: “Denn, was man auch von der Unzulanglichkeit des Ubersetzens sagen mag, so ist und bleibt es doch eins der wichtigsten and wiirdigsten Geschafte in dem allgemeinen Weltwesen” ( Goethes Briefe, ed. K.R.Mandelkow, 1967, IV, p.237). 6. Andre Lefevere, ‘Theory and practice - Process and Product’, Modem Poetry in Translation, 41 /42, 1981, pp. 19-27. The quotation occurs on pp.223. 7. Samuel Robinson, A Century o f Ghazels, 1875, pp.xii-xiii. 8. J. Richardson, A Specimen o f Persian Poetry, 2nd edition, 1802, p.iii. 9. ibid., pp.lx-x. 10. Variorum, Gh. 149, b.s 4-6, pp. 114-15 (my translation). 11. Herman Bicknell, Hafiz of Shiraz, 1875, p.xviii.

12. E. P.Evans, ‘Hafiz of Shiraz’ , Atlantic Monthly, 53, 1884, pp.94-108. The quotation is taken from p.96. 13. J.H.Hindley, Persian Lyrics, 1800, pp.89. 14. Margaret E. Atkinson, August Wilhelm Schlegel as a Translator of Shakespeare, 1958, p.2. 15. Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouslee, Essay on the Principles o f Translation (Orig.publ. 1791), quoted from the edition in Everyman ’ s Library (n .d., reprinting the expanded edition of 1813),

p.m. 16. J.Middleton Murry, Pencillings, n.d. (1923?), p. 129. 17. Quoted from Mathew Arnold, On the Classical Tradition, ed. R.H.Super, 1960, p. 167. 18. Samuel Robinson, A Century o f Ghazels, 1875, p.xiii. 19. E.B.Cowell, Macmillan s Magazine, XXX, 1874, p.254. 20. E.B.Cowell, Eraser s Magazine, 50, 1854, p.290. 21. Col. W.H.Clarke, The Divan Writtenby... Hafiz, 1891, p.x. 22. Hormusji Dadachanji, Close translation ... of fifty Odes of Hafiz, 1889, p.v. 23. Quoted by Clarke, op.cit., p.viii. 24. J. Middleton Murry, Pencillings, n.d. (1923?), p. 133. 25. M.Farzaad, To Translate Hafez, Tehran, 1935, p. 15. 26. R.Le Gallienne, Odesfrom the Divan o f Hafiz, 1905, pp.xiv-xv. 27. P. Avery and ]. Heath-Stubbs, Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1952, p. 15. 28. M.Farzaad, op.cit., p. 15. 29. Dryden, Preface to the ‘Translations from Ovid’s Epistles’ (1680), quoted from Dramatic Poesy and other Essays (Everyman’s Library), 1950, p. 152.

30. W. Leaf, Versionsfrom Hafiz, 1989, p. 5. 31. ibid., pp.67. 32. T.B.Macauley, ‘Dante ’ (1824). Quoted from Lord Macauley, Biographical, Critical $Miscellaneous Essays and Poetical Works, n.d. (1889?), p.411.

33. P. Avery and ]. Heath-Stubbs, Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1952, p. 15. 34. W.Leaf, Versionsfrom Hafiz, 1898, p.6. 35. Alexander Rogers. ‘The Ghazals of Hafiz’ , The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review, 3rd series, XXV, 1908, p. 127. 36. Herman Bicknell, Haftz o f Shiraz, 1875, p.xix. 37. R. Le Gallienne, Odes from the Divan o f Hafiz, 1905, p.xviii. 38. ibid., p.xviii.

39. J.Richardson, A Specimen o f Persian Poetry, 2nd edn., 1802, p.xviii. 40. J.H.Hindley, Persian Lyrics, 1800, pp. 1012. 41. P. Avery and J. Heath-Stubbs, Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1952, p. 11. 42.G.M.Wickens, ‘The Persian Conception of Artistic Unity in Poetry and its Implications in Other Fields’ , BSOAS, XIV, 1952, p.240; see also his ‘An Analysis of Primary and Secondary Significations in the third Ghazal of Hafiz', BSOAS, XIV, 1952, pp.627-38 and the reply contained in Mary Boyce’s ‘A Novel Interpretation of Hafiz’ , BSOAS, XV, 1953, pp.279-88. Also relevant is A.J.Arberry’s, ‘Orient Pearls at Random Strung’ , BSOAS., XI, 1946, pp.699-712. The debate has been continued and extended in such works as Henri Broms, ‘Continuity of Thought in the Poems of Hafiz', Studia Oriento/ia, (Helsinki), 39,1968, pp.7-33; R.M.Rehder, ‘The Unity of the Ghazals of Hafiz’ , Der Islam, 51, 1974. pp. 55-96; Michael C. Hillmann, ‘Hafez's “Turk of Shiraz" Again', Iranian Studies, 8, 1975, pp. 164-83 and Unity in the Ghazals of Hafez, Minneapolis 8c Chicago, 1976; Iraj Bashiri, ‘Hafiz' Shirazi Turk: A Structuralist’s Point of View', The Muslim World, 1979, pp. 178-97, 248-68; A.Bausani, ‘The Development of Form in Persian Lyrics: A Way to a Better Understanding of the Structure of Western Poetry', East and West, N.S.9, 1958, pp. 145-53; Julie Scott Meisami, Medieval Persian Court Poetry, Princeton N.J., 1987 (esp. Chapter 6) and ‘The Ghazal as Fiction: Implied Speakers and Implied Audience in Hafiz's Ghazals', in Intoxication: Earthly and Heavenly, Seven Studies on the Poet Hafiz o f Shiraz, ed. M. Gliinz and J. C. Biirgel, 1991, pp.89-103; Francis W. Pritchett, ‘Orient Pealrs Unstrung: The Quest for Unity in the Ghazal', Edehiydt, N.S. 4, 1993, pp. 119-35. See also the important article by Julie S. Meisami, ‘Arabic and Persian Concepts of Poetic Form: Divergences in Interrelated Poetic Systems’ , Proceedings o f the Xth Congress o f the International Comparative Literature Association (1982), ed. A. Balakian, New York and London, 1985, II, pp. 146-55.

43. Julie S. Meisami, ‘Arabic and Persian Concepts of Poetic Form: Divergences in Interrelated Poetic Systems’ , Proceedings o f the Xth Congress o f the International Comparative Literature Association (1982), ed. A. Balakian, New York and London, 1985, II, p. 150.. 44. Samuel Robinson, A Century o f Ghazels, 1875, pp.xiv-xv. 45. M.Farzaad, ‘An Adventure in Textual Criticism’ , Asiatic Review, 40, 1944, p.83. 46. Robert Lowell, Imitations, (Orig. publ. 1962). Quoted from the Faber paperback edition, 1971, pp.xixii. 47. J.Payne, The Poems o f Shemseddin Mohammed Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1901,1, p.xix. 48. R.Le Gallienne, Odesfrom the Divan o f Hafez, 1905, p.xxvi. 49. E.H.Palmer, ‘Hafiz, The Argosy, 3, 1867, p. 112.

‘A PERSIAN SONG’ AND ITS SUCCESSORS Some hold Translations not unlike to be The wrong-side of a Turkey tapistry. James Howell.1 In the notes to her translation of Ghazal 5 (which has become generally known as the Turk of Shiraz ghazal), Gertrude Bell remarks that Every translator of Hafiz has tried his hand upon this song, which is one of the most famous in the Divan. It is only right to inform the reader that the original is of great beauty.2 It is not literally true to say that “every translator* of Hafiz has produced a version of this poem; what is true is that most of the major translators have done so. The original poem has also received more detailed critical attention than almost any other single poem by Hafiz.3 For these reasons the poem can tie said to constitute a kind o f ‘test-piece’ ; consideration of a translator’s version of G hS is a particularly revealing manner of discovering his chief characteristics as a translator. There is, of course, a further aptness involved in the choice of this particular poem as our ‘test-piece*; the earliest important translation from Hafiz was that by Sir William Jones of this very poem. The relevant entry in Part Two of this book records some thirty-nine versions of the poem, by thirty seven different translators; it has also been one of the most imitated (as opposed to translated) of Hafizian originals, as Chapter 3 indicates. The original, as Gertrude Bell observes, is “of great beauty*. It is a difficult poem, open to various interpretations, and has become something of a critical battlefield. It has received a long and detailed study by Iraj Bashiri.4Though many details of his interpretation are debatable, we may take some features of hi s analysis as a guide to what we might look for in translations of the poem. He sees it as a poem wliich “has one main theme; ‘ishq (love)."5The poem, it is argued, “uses an intricate interplay of Stific and cosmic images, all developing the theme of love".6 Bashiri’s long and detailed study of these images is valuable and rewarding; we need not, however, expect our translators to have beer able to bring to bear on the poem that weight of information “based on cosmic and Stific concepts explained in the medieval Iranian texts"7 which lies behind Bashiri’s interpretation. Other critics, after all, have taken very different views of the poem. Rehder, for example, states very firmly that there is nothing ini this poem to cause us to believe that this is a religious or sufi poem, or that the beloved is in any way divine. In fact, the capricious and ruthless behaviour of the Turk, the blasphemous statement in bayt two, and the way in which the poet

invokes God’s help for the T urk, and the absence of any contrary evidence, suggest that this is a secular love-lyric ... It is real wine that the poet is drinking.8 Some other Western scholars have tried to find the unity of this ghazal in its multiplicity of themes and images. Professor A. J. Arberry asserts that: Hafiz’ technique is fundamentally thematic; by which is meant, that he constructs each lyric upon the basis of a limited number of themes selected from a repertory which is itself definitely restricted, and to a great extent conventional.9 He finds three themes: “one principal, one subsidiary, and one signature or ‘clasp’”, in the poem, and goes on to elucidate them as follows: The principal theme is - the fair charmer, beautiful, proud, unapproachable, the human, this-worldly reflection of the immortal loveliness of the Divine spirit. This theme is stated in line 1; lines 3, 4, 5, and 6 develop it, introducing variations in the form of fragments and reminiscences of other themes from the general stock-in-trade: the tumult of love (line 3), the unworthiness of the lover and the self-sufficiency of the beloved (line 4), the story of Yusuf and Zalikha as a myth of divine and profane love (line 5), and the sweet-bitter tongue of the beloved, symbolizing the pleasure and pain of loving (line 6 )... The subsidiary theme is - wine (and music) are the sole consolation of the lover, to compensate his sorrow over the incapacity of his love, and the transitory nature of mundane affairs, and to enable him to solve those mysteries of the spirit which baffle and defeat the reason. Line 2 introduces the theme; it is developed in line 7 ... and line 8. This is perhaps the most important and characteristic of all the themes used by Hafiz: it expresses supremely well his theory of the “intoxicated” lover (who has in his hand the Mirror of Alexander, the Cup of Jamshid), and symbolizes his rejection of all formal, "sober” life, whether it be the life of the cloistered Sufi, the orthodox theologian, or the philosopher ... These eight lines complete the statement and development of the chosen themes, to the evident and not unjustified satisfaction of the poet: it only remains therefore to sign the poem. Hafiz has a number of different devices for appending his signature,... The “dasp" theme here used is a very common one, but its present treatment is scarcely surpassed for beauty in the whole Divan.10 Michael Hillmann has tried to demonstrate the unity of this poem from another point of view. Repudiating Arberry’s analysis, Hillmann finds four separate themes: first, the speaker-lover’s emotion vis-a-vis the irresistible and aloof beloved (bayts 1,3, 4, 5, 6); second, the realization of the uniqueness of the present moment and the importance of living it and pondering it unteleologically (b. 2,8); third, the admonition to heed the knowing elder’s advice (b.7); and fourth, the speaker’s reflection on the

success of his own poetic performance. The tone also seems to vary; i.e., the humble abjection of the sf leaker’s courtly love stance and awe at the beloved’s perfection (b. 1, 3,4, 5,6), philosophizing (b. 2, 8), admonishment (b. 7), and self-praise (b. 9). And the images range from a geographical, pseudo-temporal setting (b. 1, 2, 3), literary allusion (fc.5), and love imagery (b. 1, 3,4, 5,6) to the use of what may seem to be symbol: fork (b. 1), Joseph (b. >), and the wise elder (b. 7), and the image of the poet himself in the nom de plume (b.9).

A Western reader fresh from the “Turk of Shiraz” ghazal probably experiences the initial sense of lack of unity ... 11 Hillmann here sets out initially to emphasise the lack of structural and thematic unity in this ghazal; for as he asserts later, "no two bayts are linked inevitably together by theme, imagery, or transi­ tional devices to account for their order. And the closing bayt seems wholly outside of the context of any of the themes and images developed in the previous bayts”. 12 Hillmann further asserts that “the ‘Turk of Shiraz’ ghazal seems to fail as a poem not because of any lapses in its rhythm, sound effects including rhyme, the vitality of its images and the statements, and the freshness of its conceits - it may be flawless in those terms - but because its organization of theme and imagery does not live up to the promise of these facets of the gh azalV 1 After offering a somewhat unconvincing argu­ ment as to the lack of unity in the poem, he hints at the possibility of another kind of interpreta­ tion, dependent on our judging this ghazal not as a ‘poem’ but as a ‘song’ .The premise is, unfortu­ nately, not extensively developed, and he is content simply to suggest that, “ if, in fact, Hafez composed the “Turk of Shiraz" to be recited or sung with musical accompaniment or an instrumen­ tal intelude, the unity oif the ghazal as a poem to be read and reread and scrutinized on the written page would be irrelevant, its other forming and attracting qualities assuring its effect in perform­ ance".14 Julie S. Meisami’s later study of this poem has taken up a number of these points, some­ what haphazardly mentioned in Hillmann’s book, and analysed our ‘test-piece’ in the context of courtly ideals. Her analysis deserves to be quoted at length. First her translation of the ghazal: Should that Turk of Shiraz take my heart into his hand, I’d give up, for his Hindu mole, all Samarqand and Bukhara. Saqi, bring the last of the wine, for in Paradise you’ll not find the banks of Ruknabad’s stream, or Mussalla’s rose garden. Alas! those jesting gypsies, so graceful, so disturbing, have robbed my heart of patience as Turks plunder the feast. O f our imperfect love the beloved’s beauty has no need: what need for paint, for mole and down, has the beauteous face’ ! From tliat daily-growing beauty which was Joseph’s, I knew that love would bring Zulaykha out from the veil of chastity. Though you revile and curse me, yet I will pray for you, for bitter answers well become sugared, ruby lips.

Listen to this advice, my love, for better than life itself Do the fortunate young love the counsel of wise elders: Talk of the minstrel and of wine; seek less the secret of Time, for no one has solved, or ever will, through wisdom that enigma. You have sung a ghazal and threaded pearls; come, sing sweetly, Hafiz, that the sphere may scatter the Pleiads’ necklace upon your verse.1S Meisami imagines the poet, who might be the singer of the song as well, at a court gathering: The speaker begins by addressing the friends in his audience, confiding to them his despair in love and his willingness to give all for a sign of favour; he thus establishes the central topics - the beloved’s irresistibility and remoteness, the lover’s suffering - that his song will explore. Invoking the saqi, he seeks solace in wine and the pleasures of the present company because, as he says, he can endure no more of this torment. (He also evokes the setting in which his lyric is performed: a pleasant, and probably courtly, garden in Shiraz.) Lines 1-3 are typical love-plaint material, and while ‘the last of the wine*.. is often read as ‘the eternal wine’ (that is, the wine of divine love)... it is not necessary to see in it more than its literal sense; his willingness to drink the dregs of the wine reinforces the lover’s desperation. Then follow two lines (4-5) which have excited mystical interpretation for generations, as the speaker ponders the perfection of his beloved - a beauty which, like that of Joseph, would drive anyone to distraction - and his own imperfect state, both givens of the fiction of courtly love. Again, glossing the beloved as divine is unnecessary. Even those who avow purity, says he (casting a sidelong glance at potentially hostile elements in the audience, the critics of his excess), would, like Zulaykha in the Koranic story of Joseph, be putty in the hands of such a beauty; but while they might criticize the beloved’s ill-treatment of the lover, he himself forgives it, ‘for bitter answers well become sugared ruby lips.’ He then addresses his beloved (lines 78) with advice meant to incense the ascetics: talk only of wine and music, for who can unravel love’s mysteries? The implication is that he will go on with his obsession despite the grief it brings him and the danger of ridicule from others, because this is, after all, the lover’s role. The final line returns us to the immediate context of the performance, as the singer praises the song, which is so excellent, so well constructed and adorned, that the very heavens will bestow on it the ‘Pleiads’ necklace’ in reward. Meisami is well aware that her interpretation of the poem does not account for all its complexities. Her reading, she concedes, is ‘oversimplified’ . She goes on, however, to observe that This admittedly over simplified reading has the advantage of dispensing with glosses, explications and commentaries relying on items which are not in the text itself, and which can only be put there with a considerable amount of strain. The shift in address

(to the friends, the saqi, the beloved) and in perspective are typical of the ghazal and reflect the conditions of its performance. As the singer moves from topic to topic among different implied addressees and between different segments of his audience, it is not only connections we must seek, but just such shifts, as well as repetitions, pauses for emphasis, and so on.16 The work of these last two scholars has widened the terms of the critical debate about the interpretation of Hafiz' ghazals; the perennial and underlying question, however, still seems to be whether to interpret Hafiz' poems as profane love lyrics, or as the expressions of mystical longing for the Divine Beloved. In the work of modern critics, such as Bashiri and Rehder, as well as in recent translations such as those by Paul Smith and Michael Boylan (both of whom see H&fiz as a Sufi poet) we meet continuations of a debate conducted by previous generations of readers and translators. In Gertrude Bell’s ludd and musical version of the poem, for example, we are offered a basically secular interpretation: Oh Turkish maid of Shiraz! in thy hand If thou’lt take my heart, for the mole on thy cheek I would barter Bokhara and Samarkand. Bring, Cupbearer, all that is left of thy wine! In the Garden of Paradise vainly thou’lt seek The lip of the fountain of Ruknabad, And the bowers of Mosalla where roses twine. They have filled the dty with blood and broil, Those soft-voiced Lulis for whom we sigh; As Turkish robbers fall on the spoil, They have robbed and plundered the peace of my heart. Dowered is my mistress, a beggar am I; What shall I bring her? a beautiful face Needs nor jewel nor mole nor the tiring-maid’s art. Brave tales of singers and wine relate, The key to the Hidden ‘twere vain to seek; No wisdom of ours has unlocked that gate, And locked to our wisdom it still shall be. But of Joseph’s beauty the lute shall speak; And the minstrel knows that Zuleika came forth, Love parting the curtain of modesty. When thou spakest ill of thy servant ’Twas well God pardon thee! for thy words were sweet;

Not unwelcomed the bitterest answer fell From lips where the ruby and sugar lay. But, fair Love, let good counsel direct thy feet; Far dearer to youth than dear life itself Are the warnings of one grown wise and grey! The song is sung and the pearl is strung. Come hither, Oh Hafiz, and sing again! And the listening Heavens above thee hung Shall loose o ’er thy verse the Pleiades’ chain.17 In her notes Miss Bell acknowledges that the poem might be read in a rather different manner though she is far from making any attempt to conceal her dissatisfaction with such interpretations: The whole poem has received a mystical interpretation which seems to me to add but little to its value or intelligibility; but in case any one should wish to gather the higher wisdom from it, I may mention that the mole, powder, and paint, of which a beautiful face does not stand in need, represent the ink, colour, dots, and lines of the Koran: and this is the explanation given to the couplet concerning Joseph and Zuleikha by a thorough-going Western mystic: “By reason of that beauty daily increasing that Joseph (the absolute existence, the real beloved, God) had, I (the first day) knew that love for him would bring Zuleikha (us, things possible) forth from the screen of chastity (the pure existence of God)." The learned translator seems to have felt that his version presented some difficulties, and he adds for the use of his weaker brethren the following comment; “In the world of non-existence and possibility, when I beheld the splendour of true beauty with different qualities, I knew for certain that Love would take us out of the ambush." This makes everything clear.18 The “thoroughgoing Western mystic" here handled with such dry sarcasm, though not named, is Clarke. The phrases quoted and mocked by Bell are to be found on page 42 of Clarke. It is ironic that Clarke’s own notes should, in turn, be concerned with the castigation of Sir William Jones’ translation of the poem, dismissed thus: Sir W. Jones made a translation of this ode, - expanding the eighteen lines of the original Persian into fifty-four lines of English; and giving neither the metre, nor the rhyme, nor the sense.19 The chain of dissatisfaction is evident and matters could not, perhaps, be otherwise, for each translator has striven to do something rather different, each has a different set of priorities, each has placed the features of the original in a different hierarchy of importance, each, quite simply,

has begun from a different understanding of the original and has then, within the limits of his or her ability, sought to communicate that understanding to the English reader. The process is particularly clear where Jones is concerned, since we have a prose version from his pen, as well as his famous ‘Persian Song’. We may, by analogy at any rate, regard the prose version as his ‘understanding’ of the original, and his ‘Song’ as embodying necessary emendations he found unavoidable in the process of making his understanding available to readers of English poetry. Both versions appear in his Grammar o f the Persian Language: If that lovely maid of Shiraz would accept my heart, I would give for the mole on her cheek the cities of Samarcand and Bokhara. Boy, bring me the wine that remains, for thou wilt not find in paradise the sweet banks of our Rocnabad, or the rosy bowers of Mosella. Alas! these wanton nymphs, these fair deceivers, whose beauty raises a tumult in our d ty , rob my heart of rest and patience, like the Turks that are seizing their plunder. Yet the charms of our darlings have no need of our imperfect love; what occasion has a face naturally lovely for perfumes, paint, and artifidal ornaments? Talk to me of the singers, and of wine, and seek not to disdose the secrets of futurity; for no one, however wise, ever has discovered, or ever will discover them. I can easily conceive how the enchanting beauties of Joseph affected Zoleikha so deeply, that her love tore the veil of her chastity. Attend, O my soul! to prudent councils; for youtlis of a good disposition love the advice of the aged better than their own souls. Thou hait spoken ill of me; yet I am not offended: may heaven forgive thee! thou hast spoken well: but do bitter words become a lip like a ruby which ought to shed nothing but sweet less? O Hafiz! when thou composest verses, thou seemest to make a string of pearls: come, sing them sweetly; for heaven stems to have shed on thy poetry the dearness and beauty of the Pleiades. The wildness and simplidty of this Persian song pleased me so much, that I have attempted to translate it in verse: the reader will excuse the singularity of the measure which I have used, if he considers the difficulty of bringing so many eastern proper names into our stanzas. I have endeavoured, as far as I was able, to give my translation the easy turn of the original; and I have, as nearly as possible, imitated the cadence and accent of the Persian measure; from wHch every reader, who understands musick, will perceive that the Asiatick numbers «ire capable o f as regular a melody as any air in Metastasio.

A Persian Song Sweet maid, if thou wouldst charm my sight, And bid these arms thy neck infold; That rosy cheek, that lily hand Would give thy poet more delight Than all Bocara’s vaunted gold, Than all the gems of Samarcand. Boy, let yon liquid ruby flow, And bid thy pensive heart be glad, Whate’er the frowning zealots say: Tell them their Eden cannot show A stream so clear as Rocnabad, A bow’r so sweet as Mosellay. Oh! when these fair, perfidious maids, Whose eyes our secret haunts infest, Their dear destructive charms display, Each glance my tender breast invades, And robs my wounded soul of rest, As Tartars Seize their destin’d prey. In vain with love our bosoms glow. Can all our tears, can all our sighs New lustre to those charms impart? Can cheeks where living roses blow, Where nature spreads her richest dies, Require the borrow’d gloss of art? Speak not of fate-ah! change the theme, And talk of odours, talk of wine, Talk of the flow’rs that round us bloom: ’Tis all a cloud, ’tis all a dream; To love and joy thy thoughts confine, Nor hope to pierce the sacred gloom. Beauty has such resistless pow’r, That ev’n the chaste Egyptian dame Sigh’d for the blooming Hebrew boy: For her how fatal was the hour,

When to the banks of Nilus came A youth so lovely and so coy! But ah! sweet maid, my counsel hear; Youth should attend when those advise Whom long experience renders sage, While musick charms the ravish’d ear; While sparkling cups delight our eyes, Be gay ; and scorn the frowns of age. What cruel answer have I heard! And yet, by heav’n, I love thee still: Can aught be cruel from thy lip? Yet say, how fell that bitter word From lips which streams of sweetness fill, Which nought but drops of honey sip? Go boldly forth, my simple lay, Whose accents flow with artless ease, Like orient pearls at random strung; Thy notes are sweet, the damsels say, But oh, far sweeter, if they please The nymph for whom these notes are sung!20 In b. 1 Jones makes extensive additions to the sensory imagery of his prose version. The introduction of the poet’s "sight" in the first line of ‘A Persian Song’ prepares the way for the images of the arms, rosy cheek and lily hand; the mole is omitted, presumably as representative of Eastern ideas of beauty which would not appeal to the eighteenth-century English reader with it too, of course, there vanishes its quite specific sufi meaning. In a related way the attractions of Bokhara and Samarqand are given a specific concreteness they do not have in the prose paraphrase; now the proper names are characterised in terms of" vaunted gold* and“gems".Yet, if we compare both these versions by Jones with, say, the plain paraphrase by Bashiri: If that Turk of Shiraz gains my heart, I will grant Samarqand and Bukhara for his Indian mole.21 we can see that even Jones’ prose paraphrase has made an important omission; in his prose version the beloved is at least a “lovely maid* of Shiraz, whilst in the poem she is merely a “sweet maid"; in neither is she specifically Turkish. Yet to omit this fact about her (or him) is to rob the poem of an important link with b. 3 md its talk of plundering Turks. Similarly, the omission of the place name Shiraz from the poetic version of b.l is again to make it hard for the reader to discern an important

link. Jones’ own prose-version of b. 3 talks of “these fair deceivers, whose beauty raises a tumult in our city". With this dty unnamed in his poetic version of bA, Jones now finds himself with little choice, in versifying b. 3 but to omit the reference there to “our dty": it becomes, quite inappropri­ ately, the rather furtive-sounding “our secret haunts". In his handling of h2 Jones once more adds unjustified adjectives, most of them particularising that which is left unparticularised in the origi­ nal; the “wine" is now“yon ruby liquid"; where Hafiz leaves implidt any details of those who might critidse his behaviour and attitude, Jones’ ‘Song’ personifies such critidsm in the form of“frowning zealots”. Even in his prose paraphrase uncalled for adjectives have begun to make their appear­ ance: his epithet “sweet” for the banks of Ruknabad has no source in the original. Where b. 3 is concerned we may once again use Bashiri’s paraphrase as a check on Jones’ fertile invention: Alas that these vivadous, beguiling, commotion-inspiring gypsies have taken patience from the heart just as the Turks took the public banquet.22 Here there are adjectives of considerable force in the original itself. Jones seeks, however, to elaborate the original into mildly oxymoronic constructions. The poetic version talks of* fair, per­ fidious maids” and “dear destructive charms”. The already powerful language of the original is heightened, almost to the point of melodrama, by words and phrases such as “perfidious", “infest" and “robs my wounded soul of rest”. Jones’ prose paraphrase of bA is quite faithful. The poetic version, however, again adds an excess of sensuous detail - the bosom that glows with love, the cheeks where “living roses blow”; all is phrased in terms of emotional ultimates - “all our tears ... all our sighs” and nature’s “richest” dies. Again and again ‘A Persian Song’ adds spurious intensity to that which is already intense; doys with irrelevant adjectives the dear outlines of the original’s imagery. Jones’ major intention seems to be to exaggerate the passion and sensuality of his origi­ nal. It is revealing that he praises the poem in terms of its “wildness and simplidty” just the qualities attractive to an indpiently romantic sensibility. Jones seeks to invest the poem with a kind of pseudo-Romantic spontaneity, a sense of poetic fury, of impassioned inspiration. This much is dear from the telling changes he makes in his translation of the final bait. Bashiri’s prose paraphrase will again make a convenient point of comparison: You have uttered a ghazal and pierced the pearl, O Hafiz; come and redte pleasantly because upon your verse the heavens scatter the necklace of the Pleiades.23 The original speaks of pierdng, or boring, pearls not of stringing them. It certainly says nothing of the method or art with which the pearls (the individual baits) are arranged to make the necklace (the whole poem). Jones’ final stanza is, therefore, seriously misleading: Go boldly forth, my simple lay, Whose accents flow with artless ease, Like orient pearls at random strung; Thy notes are sweet, the damsels say,

But oh, far sweeter, if they please The nymph for whom these notes are sung. “My simple lay*, “artless ease*, “at random strung*; all these phrases go to support Jones’ descrip­ tion of the poem as chanicterised by its* wildness and simplicity*. All of them, however, are Jones’ invention; all of them are imposed upon the poem by the translator. Jones’ own prose paraphrase is, in truth, very different: O Hafiz! when thou composest verses, thou seemest to make a string of pearls: come, sing them sweetly; for heaven seems to have shed on thy poetry the cleanness and beauty of the Pleiads. The phrases which Jones; has interpolated in ‘A Persian Song’ present an image of Hafiz strangely akin to the picture of Shaikespeare in Milton’s L’Allegro. Shakespeare, it may be remembered, there stands in antithesis to Ben Jonson: Then to the well-trod stage anon, Ifjonsons learned sock be on,

Or sweetest Shakespear fancies childe, Warble his native Wood-notes wilde.24 To present such an image of Hafiz as a kind of uneducated innocent is to falsify the nature of his intricate and learned art - even if it does acknowledge his lyric gifts. Yet more disturbingly, such a conception of the poet - writing at random, artless in his work - constitutes a kind of implicit permission to take liberties in the translation of his work. Jones himself does precisely that in this final stanza. The original, as Bashiri observes, carries the clear implication that “this type of com­ position ... is ... as tightly structured as the constellation of the Pleiades” .25The wording o f the final b. sets up a series of analogies a cluster of pearls: a cluster of stars: a poem. Any translation, like ' A Persian Song’ , which allows all mention of the Pleiades to slip out of its text clearly misrep­ resents quite seriously tte concluding image of the original; not trusting the imagery of Hafiz, Jones has replaced it with a sentimentally 'dramatic’ scene. Perhaps at this point, however, we can leave Jones temporarily, and examine how some other translators have treated the conclusion of the poem. Most of them talk of the stringing of pearls. Among the exceptions are the Iranis: Odes you have composed and pearls you have bored.26 Bicknell: Thy lay is versed, thy pearls are pierced, Come, HA’FIZ, sing it thus and please;27

Nakosteen: Haafez, you pierced with tools of words the pearls of thought.28 and Saberi: Hafez, you composed ghazals and pierced pearls.29 O f those translators who talk of pearls being “strung" only two translators follow Jones in provid­ ing a comment on the art or skill with which the activity has been performed. Both replace Jones’ “at random" with something rather different. Nott seems to recognise a greater degree of con­ scious art: The verses that compose shy song Are pearls, in beauteous order strung;30 Rundall, too, implicitly acknowledges the precision of the poem’s composition: Come, Hafiz, sweetly sing thine Ode; Its pearls are strung with dainty care.31 Jones, as we have seen, omits from ‘A Persian Song’ any mention of the Pleiades, and thereby destroys an important relation of imagery in the final bait. Almost without exception the translators who followed him have sought to find some means of relating the two images, and suggesting how “poetry" might be, as it were, the middle term which links the two images of pearls and stars. Most try to articulate a kind of causal link between the two images. Ahmad, for example, translates thus: Hafiz thou hast given out a hymn, and strung pearls. Come and chant it out cheerfully in order that the heavens may shower down the chain of Pleiades on thy poetry.32 Amongst other translators who establish a similar connection - the poet’s song will/may prompt the heavens to “shower down" the Pleiades - we may number Arberry, Browne, Bell, Bicknell, McCarthy, Clarke, Payne, Alston, Saberi and Paul Smith (who employs the rather unpoetical term “flings"33). Others assert a different kind of causal connection: because the heavens have already “poured" the Pleiades upon Hafiz, as it were, he is thus enabled to sing such beautiful poems. Robinson’s translation reads: Thou hast composed thy ghazel: thou hast strung thy pearls: come and sing it sweetly, O Hafiz! for heaven hath shed upon thy poetry the harmony of the Pleiades.34 and Nott translates as follows:

The verses that compose thy song Are pearls in beauteous order strung: Then, be the tuneful magic pour’d From forth thy lips; for heav’n has show’r’d Such brilliance, Hafez, on thy lays As gilds the sparkling Pleiades.35 Still others seek to establish a connection which is more a matter of correlation than cause and effect. Lister for example, offers the following version: Now thy pearls have been strung, O Hafez, and been formed in a sweet ghazel; For the harmony of thy verses resembles the song of the stars.36 Hindley makes an interesting interpretation which, while it omits any mention of a specific constellation, seeks to elaborate an analogy between poetic form and the disposition and quality of the stars: Thy Gazei-forming pearls are strung, Come, sweedy, HAFIZ, be they sung: For, Heav’n show’rs down upon thy lays Thoughts, which in star-like clusters blaze.37 Hindley’s prose paraphrase of the relevant b. is less individual: Thou hast composed thy Gazel, and strung thy pearls - Come, sing them sweetly, O HAFIZ! For, heaven has sprinkled over thy poetry the clearness and beauty (shining circle) of the Phriades.38 Hindley’s interpretation can at least be seen as an attempt to bring out some of the implications of the original even if, in the attempt, certain ideas are given over explicit force and undue prominence. Some other translators become merely over-florid and ornamentally fanciful. Miss Underwood, for examplle, introduces the utterly irrelevant and merely confusing imagery of the weaving of gowns: Oh! you weave well your pearls of song, Good Hafiz! May earth treasure you. May Pleaides who gleaming throng Weave golden gowns to pleasure you.39

Quite how one might ‘weave’ pearls is hard to imagine! Le Gallienne, characteristically, produces a sentimental extravaganza which quite conceals the dignity and clarity of the original. The whole of Le Gallienne’s last verse requires quotation: Sweetheart, if you would hearken me, I am a very wise old thing, And it were wise for you to hear. My little Turk, my cypress dear, So wise this wisdom that I sing, That some Jay on a shining string High up in heaven, tear by tear, As star by star, these songs shall hang At evening on the vestal sky, These little songs that HAFIZ sang To one that heard not on his knees: So well I sang them - even I That listening to them, Heaven’s Lord Tossed me from heaven as reward The small change of the Pleiades! These little songs that HAFIZ sang To one that heard not on his knees.40 The inappropriate Edwardianisms - “wise old thing” - and the sentimental dramatics of the imagined scene are all grotesquely at odds with the original. Like Jones, though with much less sympathy and far less understanding, Le Gallienne has presented us withamerely ‘charming’ Hafiz. A fundamental error seems to run through many of the versions we have been considering, and it concerns the handling of Hafiz’ imagery. Leaving aside, for the moment, Hafiz’ ‘music’ , it has become increasingly clear that the best of Hafiz’ poems have a power which in part resides in the network of images and symbols which they establish. As Eric Schroeder suggests in a valuable article,41 a primary responsibility should surely be to reproduce that network of imagery. As we have seen in our brief survey of how translators have handled the final b. of Gh. 5, too many versions elaborate and interpolate and, almost without exception, succeed only in trivialising or in muddying the clarity of the original imagery. Emotional intensives are added which distort the intellectual and emotional nature of the original. Schroeder, very appositely, quotes some words from Arthur Waley’s Preface to a volume of his translations from Chinese poetry: Above all, considering imagery to be the soul of poetry, 1 have avoided either adding images of my own or suppressing those of the original.42 Waley’s translations from the Chinese had their connections with the Imagist movement and, without necessarily wishing for ‘Imagist’ translations of Hafiz (or even believing them entirely

possible) one might very reasonably wish for translators of Hafiz who would heed some of Ezra Pound’s ‘Few Don’ts by an Imagiste’ : An Image is that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of tim e... It is the presentation of such a “complex" instantaneously which gives that sense of sudden liberation; that sense of freedom from time limits and space limits; that sense of sudden growth, which we experience in the presence of the greatest works of a rt... Use no superfluous word, no adjective, which does not reveal something. Don’t use such an expression as “dim land of peace. "It dulls the image. It mixes an abstraction with the concrete. It comes from the writer’s not realizing that the natural object is always the adequate sym bol... Use either no ornament or good ornament. *43 Some other remarks in the same text have an even more immediate relevance: That part of your |>oetry which strikes upon the imaginative eye of the reader will lose nothing by translation into a foreign tongue; that which appeals to the ear can reach only those who take it in the original44 and if you are using a symmetrical form, don’t put in what you want to say and then fill up the remaining vacuum with slush.45 It is undeniable that far too many translators of Hafiz have “dulled" the image; that far too many have replaced that in the original “which strikes upon the imaginative eye of the reader" with mere ornament of their own invention. At the other extreme is Coleman Barks who reduces Gh.S to six lines by stripping away all but a single bait of the original: Ruknabad Bring all the wine that’s left! When we’re dead and wandering Paradise, we won’t find a place more beautiful than this stream called Ruknabad, by the gardens with their roses in the town of Shiraz.46 The other problems which Pound here touches upon the problem of “that which appeals to the ear" and of form we must consider next. While it is hard to forgive some of the sillinesses commit­

ted by translators in their handling of Hafiz’ imagery, one can readily concede that the difficulties faced in dealing with Hafiz’ poetic music are necessarily somewhat more intractable. O f the thirty-nine translations of Gh. 5 recorded in Part Two of this book, ten are in prose, twenty-nine in verse (though sometimes - as, for example, with Saberi - the ‘verse’ is so loosely conceived that one might as readily describe it as prose). O f the ten prose versions, those by Jones and Hindley accompany verse translations by the same authors. Hindley believes that there is much that can survive in translation, and, interestingly enough, he puts emphasis on the question of imagery: That incomparable class of authors may be considered as rare indeed, which will bear to be despoiled of beauties, and afterwards allure and fascinate through the medium of a rude interpreter. A student, moderately versed in the Persian language, may be able to pronounce, even from a slight experience, that the plain and simple meaning of one of these Ghazels, (totally laying aside its isocatalectical and symphonious beauties, as well as the exquisiteness of its peculiar concise and metrical construction), will always please, by mere dint of its simplicity and beauty as a faithful and correct representation of natural imagery, and as the poetical outlines of a mind cast in a superior mould, and gifted with the most energetic powers of expression.47 O f the remaining prose translations, two - those by McCarthy and Robinson are in rhythmical prose which aspires, as it were, to the condition of the prose poem. In both cases each h. of the original is represented by a single short prose ‘verse’ . The reader is thus enabled to perceive the proportions of the original but, of course, all sense of the original’s creative tension between lyric energy and formal structure has been lost. McCarthy, however, is all too ready to amend and add to the original. If prose translation of poetry has a virtue to recommend it, it is surely that it allows a certain fidelity to the paraphrasaWe meaning of the original poem. There seems little serious point in the choice of prose rather than verse if one then proceeds to take the kinds of liberties that McCarthy takes. Here is his version of the opening bait: If that angel of Shiraz would take my heart in hand, I would give for her dark mole Samarkand and Bokhara.48 To address the Turk as “angel" is to omit things of importance and to replace them with irrelevant and confusing associations of word and image. Robinson is, on the whole, more faithful to the original, but he too often slips into a kind of lazy poetidsm of diction and cadence: Alas! those saucy lovely ones those charming disturbers of our dty bear away patience from my heart as Turkomans their repast of plunder.49

Some other prose translations attempt something rather different. The Iranis and the ‘Two Graduates’ present straightforward plain, prose translations intended to aid examination students. Their versions of b.6 will serve to illustrate their respective manners. First the ‘Two Graduates’ : Tell the tales of musicians and wine and care little for the mysteries of the world, for none with any art lias yet solved the enigma, nor ever will.50 and next the Iranis: Talk of musicians aid of wine, and seek no (elucidation of) the mysteries of the world, For with all the wiiidom none has solved or will ever solve this enigma.51 Ahmad’s translation is concerned to provide an elucidation of what he takes to be the sfifistic meaning of the lines, as well as providing a plain translation: Go on telling us alxmt musicians and wine, and do not enter into investigating the mysteries of the world, for no one has with wisdom ever unveiled this secret, nor will ever do; (i.e. employ yourselves in contemplating the glories of the Omnipotent, and praise him for the same without entering into a philosophical enquiry as to how, why, when, where and by what He created the universe; for these are questions which none has ever been able ito solve).52 Even more elaborately sufistic is the version by Clarke - passages from his notes to this poem have already been quoted, as judged rather scornfully by Gertrude Bell. What makes Clarke particularly difficult to read is not Iris often rather interesting, if over dogmatic, notes, but his habit of interpolating explanations within his prose translation itself. His version of this same h. thus reads: The tale of minstrel and of wine (of Love) utter; little seek the mystery of time; For this mystery, none solved by skill (thought and knowledge); and shall not solve.

In reply to verses 3 and 4; and after reproach for revealing the mysteries of Love, which is improper on the part of the holy Traveller, the Saki saith: What befell thee that thou revealedst the great mysteries; and castedest thyself into calamity and distress? “Utter the tale of Minstrel and of Wine" (that is, utter it on the Murshid’s part) and give exphmation of divine knowledge of Truths.53 For all the materials he assembles, for all the interpretations he offers, Clarke cannot fully be said to have performed what sire surely the duties of the translator. For certainly the English reader is

left with too much work to do if he is to reassemble all this material into a sense of the original poem. Clarke, if he is to be regarded as a translator, rather than as the writer of a commentary, leaves too much material unabsorbed, too much information unassimilated, so that the resulting version is indigestible, almost - in any worthwhile sense - unreadable. Like the other prose ver­ sions, this by Clarke has its uses. Yet from none of them could it be said that the English reader is likely to carry away much sense of the qualities of Gh. 5 as a poem, as opposed to a collection of ideas and allusions. As stated earlier, some further twenty nine versions of Gh.S have been made in a variety of verse forms in succession to Jones’ original ‘Persian Song’ . Passages from many of these have already been quoted in the course of this chapter. Though the handling of the original’s symbols, it has been suggested, is of great importance, it must not be forgotten that the larger questions of poetic form are also of the greatest significance here. The formal nature of the original can perhaps be most conveniently illustrated by quotation in full of Walter Leaf’s version, which reproduces the metre of the original, preserves its division into baits, and imitates its pattern of rhyme :u — / u — / u — / u— / / Agar‘anTurla Shlrazi ba-dast arad dil-i ma-ra Ba-lthil-i hmduvash bakhsham Samarkand u Bukhira-ia . 1. An if yon Turk of Shiraz land this heart would take to hold in fee, Bokhara town and Samarcand to that black mole my dower should be. 2. Ho, Said, pour the wine-fiask dry; in Eden’s bowers we ne’er shall find Mosalla’s rosy bed, nor streams of Ruknabad’s delightsome lea. 3. Alack these saucy Lulis, dear beguilers that the town embroil, The wantons tear the heartstrings as the Turks their plunder-banquetry. 4. On our frail love, the Loved One’s pure perfection no dependence knows; Can unguent, powder, paint and patch embellish faces fair, pardie? 5. Be wine and minstrel all thy theme; beware, nor plumb the depths of fate; For none hath found, nor e ’er shall find by wit, that great enigma’s key. 6. O f that fair favour Joseph wore, to make more fair the day, we know; For him love bade Zulaikha tear apart her veil of pudency. 7. Thy words were hard, yet I submit; forgive thee God! Thy words were good; The tart response beseemeth well the honeyed ruby lips of thee.

8. Give ear, my life ! Perpend my words; for more dear e ’en than life itself To youth, so blest of Fortune, speaks the sage advice of ancientry. 9. The ode is made, the pearls are strung; go, HAFIZ, sweetly sing thy lay; With jewels from the Pleiad crown doth Heav’n engem thy minstrelsy.54 Leaf is one translator who has sought, almost above all else, to reproduce the formal features of the original. The considerable pressure which this, of necessity, has exerted upon his wordchoice and phrasing have not, on the whole, resulted in too much distortion. His translation is as faithful as most in far freer verse forms and more faithful than some. Only occasionally are there some slightly forced awkwardnesses of phrasing as in the second halves of hs 3 and 4 .The some­ times irritating archaism:; are more a manner of Leaf’s time than a necessary by-product of the chosen form. The rhythms do, of course, sound unfamiliar to English ears; but they are not un­ pleasant, and upon acquaintance have a definite attraction. Why, after all, should a Persian poet be made to sound like an English poet? Is not the peculiar ‘foreigness’ of his music as much apart of his attraction as the ‘foreigness’ of his subject matter?Though we cannot reproduce the sounds of one language within the confines of another, Leaf’s “essay in Persian metre" suggests that we need not despair of presenting at least a distinct echo of the rhythms of the original. Three other translators have sought to reproduce the same formal features of the original as are imitated by Leaf - John Payne, Edward G. Browne and Paul Smith. Payne’s effort is almost entirely vitiated by his habits of diction which cultivate the archaic and the coyly ‘poetic’ almost to the point of the grotesque. He goes, indeed, one step further than Leaf in his attempt to make clear the form of the original, representing the beginning of each new hemistich by a capital letter. The peculiarities of his man­ ner (though in a relatively mild guise) are illustrated in his versions of b.s 2 and 4: Give, cupbearer, the wine that’s left; For thou’lt not find in Paradise The banks of Ruknabad nor yet Musella’s rosegarths all ablow. The beauty of the Friend of love Imperfect independent is; What need of patch and pencilling And paint have lovely faces, trow?55 Such translation falls at the very first hurdle - it is unlikely to find readers. There can be few who have negotiated, for pleasure, all three volumes of Payne’s Hafiz. Edward G. Browne observes: I think that no adequate idea of Persian poetry can be conveyed to the English reader unless the form is in some degree preserved, or at least imitated, even if it is found impossible to keep liie monorhyme throughout.56 His own version of Gh.S seeks, in fact, to preserve metre and monorhyme. His rhythmic touch is not as sure as Leafs, but the effort is a valiant one. His version of the first two b.s shows him,

however, yielding to that temptation to add uncalled for adjectives which Leaf largely resists: If that unkindly Shiraz Turk would take my heart within her hand, I*d give Bukhara for the mole upon her cheek, or Samarqand! Saqi, what wine is lift for me pour, for in Heaven thou wilt not see Musalla’s sweet rose-haunted walks, nor Ruknabad’s wave-dimpled strand.57 Paul Smith, has also followed their path, in producing as he calls it "a true ghazal"58 In doing so, he acknowledges the help he received from “the translations of Payne and Leaf".59 His version of the first two b.s clearly demonstrates his indebtedness to these two translators: If that Turkish One of Shiraz would take this heart in hand too, For that One’s Hinduish mole I’d barter Bokhara, Samakand too. Winebringer, the special leftover wine; for in Paradise will not be Found the bank of Ruknabad, nor Musalla’s rosescented land too.60 Although Smith inform us that, “in my translations I tried never to sacrifice the meaning or the content for the rhyme or length of line or the form,"61 his efforts are no more successful than those of his predecessors. The translation by Shahriar Shahriari reproduces the monorhyme of the original, though at the (inevitable) cost of acertain inexactness in the translation of Hafiz’ imagery. Herman Bicknell, like these four, imitates the metre of the original, but abandons the attempt to sustain the monorhyme. Indeed, he does not remain absolutely faithful to the form of the original, since, after eight couplets rhymed aa bb etc., h9 is represented by an octosyllabic quatrain rhymed abck The lack of a rhyme link between couplets leads to an increased sense of fragmentation; the monorhyme, looking both forward and backward as it does, is an important element of continuity; in its absence the reader is inclined to have an exaggerated sense of the independent and self-contained nature of each bait. None of the other verse translators seek to imitate the metre of the original. Many do, in various ways, respect the importance of the bait as the formal unit from which the whole poem is constructed. One way of doing this is illustrated in the translation by Avery and Heath-Stubbs. Their version is in free verse, though they adhere to a loose pattern of six-stress lines.These lines are arranged on the page as unrhymed distichs, and each of these distichs corresponds to one bait of the original. The distich form has the advantage, too, of preserving the essentially symmetrical form of the bait. They translate the first two h s as follows: If that Tartar, that fair-skinned Turk of Shiraz, gets hold of my heart I’ll give Bokhara and Samarkand for the Indian-black mole on his check. Boy, hand me the wine that is left; for in Paradise You won’t find the waters of Ruknabad, or Musalla’s rose-planted meadow.62

Aryanpur also uses ‘free’ distichs; however, his handling of English is too clumsy, his rhythms too uncertain and uninteresting, for his translation to be of any real value. What, for example, is one to make of the following: My meagre love’s rejected by my sweetheart, Before her beauty, my love is a cajole.63 which lacks clarity, grace, or, indeed, accuracy. Crowe also employs rather loosely rhythmic distichs, though the most distinctive features of his translation are his modernisation of reference and diction and his general freedom of interpretation. Here, for example, are his versions of the opening and closing lines of the poem: Winebringer, bring that expensive wine you’ve been saving, for the President of the World Bank or all the sheik’s land will not be found in Paradise!

Listening to this ghazal of Hafez is like stringing pearls; sing it sweetly, And wear that song like stars!64 The verse translations considered so far may all be said to have sought in different ways and degrees, to preserve the formal nature of the original. More abundant are translators who have imposed a purely English poetic form upon their Persian original.The most frequently employed such form has been the quatrain of octosyllabic iambic lines. B.E.P., Underwood, Rundall, Stallard and Arberry all present their versions of Gh. 5 in this form. In each case one quatrain stanza is made to correspond to one b of the original. Underwood and Stallard rhyme their quatrains abab; the others abcb - though Rundall’s use of rhyme is importantly individual, as will be noted shortly. This quatrain form, though its masses and energies are not those of the bait, does at least enable the English reader to see something of the construction of the original. He can see that the Persian poem is made up of nine units, each of equal length. He can, that is to say, have access to some limited sense of the proportions and shape of the original. O f the metre, of course, octosyllabic iambics will give him no information. An idea of the manner of individual translators is readily obtained if we compare their versions of bA : Boy, freely pour thy goblet’s store; Nor vainly hope, midst Irem’s glades, For Rocnabad’s enchanting shore, Or Mosella’s embowering shades. B.E.P.65

Drink wine! Both life and wine are sweet; For what grove as Mosella’s fair? As Roknabad no stream is fleet In Paradise nor anywhere. Underwood.66 Ho, Said! bring what wine remains, For e ’en in Paradise thou’lt ne’er Find streamlet’s banks like Ruknabad’s; No rosebowers of Musalla’ there. Rundall.67 Bring me wine, boy, all remaining; For in Paradise no flowers Fledge the Ruknabad, nor blossom Roses in Musalla’s bowers. Stallard.68 Wine, saki, wine; till all be gone! Thou’lt never find in Eden’s bowers Such watered meads as Roknabad, Nor fair Mosella’s blood-red flowers. Arberry.69 As has already been suggested the monorhyme is an important feature of the Persian origi­ nal. O f these five ‘quatrains’ translators only one makes any attempt to alert his English reader as to the existence of this important formal feature. The translations by B.E.P., Underwood, Stallard and Arberry have no rhyme link between stanzas; each new stanza introduces new rhyme sounds. Rundall, however, quite effectively mimics at least something of the original’s monorhyming struc­ ture. He introduces his translation with the following note: In this song each couplet ends in the word ra\ I have tried to reproduce this effect by ending each verse with the word there.7D How this works is clear if we look at his version of the final three b.s of the poem: Beloved! list to sound advice, For happy Youth should hold more rare Than life itself a Sage’s words, And counsel wise enshrined there.

Thou mockedst me; content was I! God pardon thee! thy speech was fair; Those ruby lips with sweetness fill’d, E’en bitter words are sweetened there. Come, Hafiz, sweetly sing thine Ode; Its pearls are strung with dainty care, And Heaven diffuses o ’er thy verse The Pleiad’s light which shineth there.71 Even this partial imitation of the original’s monorhyme undeniably contributes to the read­ er’s sense of the poem’s manner of organisation, assisting him to see in each quatrain/bait some­ thing more than the merely self-contained.Other stanzaic translators include Nott, Bell, Hindley and Jones. Jones’ translation has, of course, been quoted in its entirety earlier in this chapter. Each of his six-line stanzas corresponds to one b. of the original, but he contrives no kind of rhyme-link (save the repetition of his own stanza form) between stanzas. Nott’s six-line stanzas - rhymed aabbcc where Jones’ are rhymed abcabc - are, again, each equivalent to one b. of the original. Once more, a sense of the proportions of the original poem is preserved through such distinctively English stanzas though they themselves have no formal similarity with the Persian bait. Hindley’s use of stanzas is rather more misleading. His whole translation is in octosyllabic couplets, and each of his verses corresponds, once more, to one b. of Hafiz. However, his verses are of unequal length. His fifth, sixth and ninth verses are four lines long; his first, third and seventh verses are six lines long; his second verse contains eight lines and his fourth and eighth verses are made up of ten lines each. Yet each corresponds to a single bait; what were formal units of equal weight in the original have been transformed into differently weighted elements in a new structure. The architectural proportions of the original poem are altogether destroyed. Gertrude Bell’s translation presents a slightly different problem. Her translation is cast into four seven-line stanzas (rhymed abacbdc) each of which corresponds to two b. s, plus a quatrain (abab) which corresponds to the final b In the longer stanzas the fusion of two Persian b.s within a single English stanza does at least help to go some small way towards replacing that element of continuity which is in part provided by the vanished monorhyme. Since, however, each stanza is built up of three lines which correspond to one b. and four lines which correspond to another, much of the formal balance of the original is necessarily lost. With the partial exception of Bell and Hindley, all the verse translators so far considered construct their version on the principle of repeating a formal unit (distich, quatrain, stanza) which corresponds to the formal units (baits) of the original. Some other translations reveal no such principle. Lister’s version consists of eighteen lines of free verse, each line corresponding, ap­ proximately, to one hemistich of the original, i.e. each two lines in Lister are equivalent to one b. , though they are not presented as a separate unit. The pattern is clear in his translation of b.s three and four:

So, alas! for those saucy beauties, those charming disturbers of comfort, Who bear from my mind my patience, as the Turcomans plunder in wartime: Yet the beauty of these our maidens is independent of love, For a face that is lovely by nature requireth not paint or powder.72 The translations by Le Gallienne and Nakosteen make no attempt to preserve anything of the original’s formal structure. Le Gallienne’s version is in octosyllabic lines, arranged in several verse of varying length, with no recurrent rhyme scheme indeed no two verses share the same pattern of rhyme. Nothing of the form or pattern of the original is discernible; the original’s outlines are further blurred by that fanciful and ornamental imagery which Le Gallienne adds, and which was discussed earlier. Nakosteen’s free verse translation is in four long verse-paragraphs. The first corresponds to three b. s in the original, as does the second verse-paragraph; the third corresponds to two bs, and the last to a single b. While it may be argued that Nakosteen seeks thus to establish a structure of mood and argument, it must be realised that this structure is of his own making; in establishing it he necessarily interposes his own sense of form between the reader and Hafiz’ own artistic design. This discussion of the English versions of Gh.S has chiefly concentrated on two factors: their handling of the original poem’s chief images and their handling of the formal pattern of the origi­ nal. This discussion has, deliberately, concerned itself primarily with elements which are amongst those which ought to be most readily amenable to translation. Many of the alterations traced in the earlier part of this chapter can surely have litde justification. There is no good reason why the translator should not respect, and endeavour to preserve, that pattern of image and symbol which is the vehicle for much of the original’s meaning. Where the ‘form’ of Hafiz’ poem is concerned, the translator may, reasonably enough, feel that he does not wish to follow Leaf and Browne in reproducing the metre and monorhyme of the original. Yet if the details of the original verse-form cannot always be reproduced in English, there is every reason to think that the translator should feel a responsibility to find English equivalents which make possible a perception of the propor­ tions and design of the original. Howell, following Cervantes, compares a translation to the re­ verse of an Oriental carpet.73 In the best Persian carpets the underside presents a very dear and attractive, if less vivid, image of the design on the top. Surely we should ask at least that much from the translation of a Persian poem .The survey contained in this chapter suggests that, at least in the case of this particular poem, very few translators can be said to give an adequate picture of their original’s poetic pattern.

NOTES 1. James Howell, The Familiar Letters, ed. J. Jacobs, 1890, p. 329. 2. Gertrude Bell, Poemsfrom the Divan o f Hafiz, 2ndedn., 1928. 3. See Chapter One, Note 41.

4. Iraj Bashiri, ‘Hafiz’ Shirazi Turk: A Structuralist’s Point of View’ , The Muslim World, LXIX, 979, pp. 178-97, 248-68. 5. ibid., p. 187. 6. ibid., p. 187. 7. ibid., p, 191. 8. R.M.Rehder, ‘The Unity of the Ghazals of Hafiz’ , Der Islam, 51, 1974, pp.72-3. 9. Arberry, ‘Oriental Pearls at Random Strung’ , BOAS, XI, 1946, pp.704-5. 10. ibid., pp.706-7. 11. Michael C. Hillmann, Unity in the Ghazals o f Hafez, 1976, p. 16. 12. ibid., p. 144. 13. ibid., pp. 144-5. 14. ibid., p. 145. 15. julie S. Meisami, ‘Persona and generic conventions in medieval Persian lyric’ , Comparative Criticism, 12, 1990, p. 136.

16. ibid., pp. 136-7. 17. Gertrude Bell, Poemsfrom the Divan o f Hafiz, 2nd edn., 1928, pp.90-1. 18. ibid., p. 152. 19. Col. W.H.Clarke, The Divan Written by Hafiz, 1891, p.43. 20. Sir William Jones, A Grammar o f the Persian Language, 1771, pp. 135-40.

21.Bashiri, op.cit., p.248. 22.

ibid., p.252.

23. ibid., p.259. 24. Milton, Poetical Works, ed. H.Darbishire, 1958, p.423. 25. Bashiri, op.cit., p.260. 26. K.B.Irani and D.J.Irani, Hafiz (Odes 1-7S), 1925, p. 3. 27. Herman Bicknell, Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1875, p. 20. 28. Mehdi Nakosteen, The Ghazaliyyat of Haafez o f Shiraz, 1973, p. 167.

29. Reza Saberi, The Poems o f Hafez, 1995, p. 3. 30. John Nott, Select Odesfrom the Persian Poet HAFEZ, 1787, p.91. 31. Rundall, Selectionsfrom the Rubaiyat ScOdes o f Haftz, 1920, p. 121. 32. Hafiz Jalaluddin Ahmad, English Translation o f the Persian Entrance Course, 1891, p. 103. 33. Paul Smith, Divan o f Hafiz, V ol.2, 1986, p.[14]. 34. Samuel Robinson, A Century o f Ghazels, 1875, p. 2.

35. John Nott, op.tit., p.91. 36. H.B.Lister, Divan o f Hafiz infree verse, 1950, p.5. 37. J.H.Hindley, Persian Lyrics, 1800, p.49. 38. ibid., p.84. 39. E.W.Underwood, Songs o f Hafiz, 1917, p.43. 40. Richard Le Gallienne, Odesfrom the Divan o f Hafiz, 1905, p. 10. 41. Eric Schroeder, ‘Verse Translation and Hafiz’ , Journal o f Near Eastern Studies, VII, 1948, pp. 209-

22 .

42. Quoted on p.218 of Schroeder’s article; taken from Arthur Waley’s 170 Chinese Poems, 1938, p.33. 43. Ezra Pound, ‘A Few Don’ts by An Imagiste’ , Poetry, March, 1913, as reprinted in Imagist Poetry, ed. Peter Jones, 1972, pp. 130-4. The quotation occurs on pp. 130-1. 44. ibid., p. 133. 45 .ibid., p. 134-42. 46. Coleman Barks and Inayat Khan, The Hand o f Poetry, 1993, p. 164. Barks’ notes (p. 184) make dear his source in E.G. Browne’s Literary History o f Persia. 47. J.H.Hindley, Persian Lyrics, 1800, pp. 12-13. 48. J.H.McCarthy, Ghazelsfrom the Divan o f Hafiz, 1893, p. 39. 49. Samuel Robinson, A Century o f Ghazels, 1875, p, 1. 50. Two Graduates, An English Translation o f the Persian Entrance Course, 1890, p. 56. 51. K.B.Irani and D.J.Irani, Hafiz (Odes 1-7S), 1925, p.3. 52. Hafiz Jalaluddin Ahmad, English Translation o f the Persian Entrance Course, 1891, p. 103. 53. Col. W.H.Clarke, The Divan Writtenby... Hafiz, 1891, p.42. 54. Walter Leaf, Versionsfrom Hafiz, 1898, pp.278. 55. John Payne, The Poems o f Shemseddin Mohammed Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1901,1, p. 12. 56. E.G.Browne, The Literature o f Persia, A lecture delivered to the Persian Society, 1912, p.29. 57. E.G.Browne, A Literary History o f Persia, (Volume II: From Firdausi to Sa’di, 1906, p.27. 58. Paul Smith, Divan o f Hafiz, 1986, Vol.I, p.[106]. 59. ibid., Vol .H, p.[108]. 60. ibid., Vol. H, p.[14]. 61. ibid., Vol. I, p.[106]. 62. P.Avery and J. Heath-Stubbs, Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1952, p.22. 63. A.Aryanpur, Poetical Horoscope, 1965, p.2.

64. Thomas Rain Crowe, Winesellers Street, 1998, p. 15. 65. B.E.P., AsiaticJournal and Monthly Review, XIII, 1834, p. 34. 66. E.W. Underwood, Songs o f Hafiz, 1917, p.42. 67. Rundall, Selectionsfrom the Rubaiyat and Odes o f Hafiz, 1920, p. 120. 68. P.L. Stallard, Renderingsfrom the Dewan o f Hafiz, 1937, p. 6. 69. A.J.Arberry, Immortal Bose, 1948, p.96. 70. Rundall, o p .c it p. 120. 71. ibid., p .121. 72. H.B.Lister, Divan o f Hafiz infree verse, 1950, p. 5. 73. Interestingly enough Jones himself uses precisely the same analogy: “On peut dire 4 ce propos avec Michel de Cervantes: celui qui pretendroit juger, de quelque poeme que ce fut, dans une traduction litt£rale, pourroit aussi raisonnablement esperer de trouver, sur le revers d’une tapisserie, les figures qu’elle represente dans toute leur delicatesse 8c toute leur splendeur." Traite Sur la Poesie Orientale, quoted from Works, 1799, Vol.V., pp. 471-2.

IM ITATING HAFIZ The distinction between a translation and an original poem is not such a readily definable one as it might superficially appear to be. There exists a kind of poetry about which one hesitates to use either term with complete confidence. The differences are, perhaps, ones of degree rather than kind; in the middle ground the term ‘imitation’ seems of particular relevance. As so often in matters of this kind, John Dryden provides ludd and intelligent guidance. His Preface to his Trans­ lationsfrom Ovid's Epistles distinguishes three kinds of translation: First, that of metaphrase, or turning an author word by word, and line byline, from one language into another. Thus, or near this manner, was Horace his Art ofPoetry translated by Ben Jonson. The second way is that of paraphrase, ortranslation withlatitude, where the author is kept in view by the translator, so as never to be lost, but his words are not so stricdy followed as his sense; and that too is admitted to be amplified, but not altered. Such is Mr. Waller’s translation of Virgil’s Fourth Aeneid. The third way is that of imitation, where the translator (if now he has not lost that name) assumes the liberty not only to vary from the words and sense, but to forsake them both as he sees occasion; and taking only some general hints from the original, to run division on the groundwork, as he pleases. Such is Mr. Cowley’s practice in turning two Odes of Pindar, and one of Horace, into English.1 Translations of Hafiz which have been judged to fall in the first two of Dryden’s categories have been recorded in the first-line index contained in this book, and have been discussed in the preced­ ing chapters.2This chapter is concerned, rather, with those works which seem better discussed in the light of Dryden *s notion of the ‘imitation’ . Indeed, Dryden’s ensuing discussion of imitation has a particular relevance here. He considers the work and methods of Denham and Cowley, and concludes: I take imitation of an author, in their sense, to be an endeavour of a later poet to write like one who has written before him, on the same subject; that is not to translate his words, or be confined to his sense, but only to set him as a pattern, and to write as he supposes that author would have done, had he lived in our age, and in our country. Yet I dare not say that either of them have carried this libertine way of rendering authors (as Mr .Cowley calls it) so far as my definition reaches; for in the Pindaric Odes, the customs and ceremonies of ancient Greece are still preserved. But I know not what mischief may arise hereafter from the example of such an innovation, when writers of unequal parts to him shall imitate so bold an undertaking. To add and to diminish what we please, which is the way avowed by him, ought only to be granted to Mr.Cowley, and that too

only in his translation of Pindar; because he alone was able to make him amends, by giving him better of his own, whenever he refused his author’s thoughts. Pindar is generally known to be a dark writer, to want connection (I mean as to our understanding), to soar out of sight, and leave his reader at a gaze. So wild and ungovernable a poet cannot be translated literally; his genius is too strong to bear a chair, and Samson-like he shakes it off.3 The case of Pindar is, for Dryden, a special case; with “regular intelligible authors" imitations are not acceptable - or at least they should not be thought of, or judged, as translations: ’tis no longer to be called their work, when neither the thoughts nor words are drawn from the original; but instead of them there is something new produced, which is almost the creation of another hand. By this way, ’tis true, somewhat that is excellent may be invented ... To state it fairly; imitation of an author is the most advantageous way for a translator to show himself, but the greatest wrong which can be done to the memory and reputation of the dead.4 Dryden’s qualified approval where Pindar is concerned is suggestive; as was outlined in Chapter One, the Odes of Pindar have often been subjected to the same kind of disapproving criticism as has Persian poetry, at the hands of critics whose taste was formed upon basically clas­ sical models. If imitation is a suitable way of "rendering” Pindar, then perhaps it is also a suitable means by which to present Persian poetry to the English reader. Dryden suspected that the “exam­ ple of such an innovation” would produce much “mischief”; whether or not it has been “mischief1 is a matter of opinion, but what is certain is that imitation has become an important area of modem literary activity. Robert Lowells controversial Imitations* is but one recent example; even more controversial have been the translations of Ezra Pound - some, at least, of which are very definitely “imitations" in Dryden’s sense of the term. Pound’s Homage to Sextus Propertius has been defended by J.P. Sullivan within the concept of what he calls “creative translation".6 O f course there is one famous example in the field of Persian translation to which such phraseology might be applied: Btzgerald’s Rubaiyat o j Omar Khayyam is, in the highest and best sense of the phrase, a supreme imitation. Hugh Kenner (who has written at length on the translations of Ezra Pound) says of it that it occupies "an ambiguous ground between translation and original composition*.7With such a model to hand it is hardly surprising that a number of those eager to render Hafiz into English should have felt that the mode of the imitation was a desirable vehicle through which to express their understanding of his work. A number of writers have produced works which display umnistakeaWy the influence of Fitzgerald’s Omar Khayyam. Thomas Wright’s Rose-in-Hood; Being principally a presentmentfrom various translations o f the most striking thoughts o f the Persian poet, HAFIZ was privately printed in 1926. Wright, born in 1859, was a native of Olney and was a devotee of its most famous poetic inhabitant: William Cowper. Wright founded the Cowper Society in 1900. literary :sodeties were an enthusiasm ofWright’s in 1912 he founded the Blake Society and the title-page of Rose-in-Hood describes him as “Secretary

of the John Payne Society”. Wright wrote and published extensively; his publications included biographies of Sir Richard Burton, Defoe, Dickens, Blake, Walter Pater, Edward Fitzgerald and John Payne - as well as histories of lace-making and shoemaking! He also published poetic versions of material from Khayyam (Heart's Desire, 1925), and Sa‘di (Green Beryl, 1927). He died in 1936, the Times for 6th April, 1936, containing an unsympathetic obituary. His Rose-in-Hood, as its full tide indicates, owes no direct debt to Hafiz. Wright has worked from other translations: he men­ tions those by Payne, Jhaveri, the Iranis, Mulla and Clarke. Wright is quite explicit as to his pur­ pose: In the following poem I have endeavoured to do for Hafiz what Fitzgerald did for Omar Khayyam. I have introduced many of Hafiz’s principal thoughts, but at the same time I have constructed a poem with a beginning, a middle and an end, and - 1have taken with the original, liberties similar to those which Fitzgerald took with Omar Khayyam.8 But Wright’s exercise is, in truth, fundamentally different from Fitzgerald’s - as different, indeed, as are the literary merits of the two works. Fitzgerald, for all his creative freedoms, was translating Persian quatrains into English quatrains - even incorporating the rhyme-scheme of the original. His major innovation was, of course, to juxtapose the quatrains in such a way as to produce "something of an Eclogue” .9Whilst also seeking to construct a poem, Wright ’ s materials are far more disparate than Fitzgerald’s; he is not producing a version of Hafiz’ quatrains, his materials are taken from other parts of Hifiz’ work. His Preface perhaps puts the case at its most accurate when he claims no more than "my thoughts have been suggested by Hifiz”.10His pseudo-Fitzgerald quatrains (though he doesn’t in fact imitate their rhyme-scheme) occasionally do no more than decorate a single motif taken from the translations he has read. On page five, for example, appears the following: Oh Rose-in-Hood! he who but touches thy hand Is lost. For thy mole I would sell Samarcand And golden Bokhara. My soul in a net You’ve tangled. Forget you! I cannot forget. In Payne’s translation of Gh. 5 Wright could have read the following version of b. 1: So that but the Turk of Shiraz take My heart within her hand of snow, Bokhara, ay, and Samarkand On her black mole will I bestow.11 The additional material in Wright’s four lines has no source in the original. Elsewhere Wright frequently does little more than reversify Payne. On page sixteen, for example, Wright offers the following quatrain: The Sultan of Yezd - you recall, I once chanted His praises, and naught (he was civil) he granted; While the Sultan of Hurmouz, who scarcely had heard

My name, on me hundreds of favours conferred. His source in Payne is unmistakable: Hurmouz’ king, me all unknowing, Me an hundred favours did: Him of Yezd I saw, his praises Chanted and he gave me nought.12 Wright’s Preface notes that Payne’s translation is frequently “worrying to read, and the meaning is not everywhere dear".13 This puts matters in as mild a manner as a professed admirer of Payne might be expected to put it. If Wright, where he follows Payne, makes his meaning easier to follow, it cannot be said that he does much to raise the poetic temperature. Wright arranges his quatrains (there are some 101 all told) in eight sections with titles like ‘The Garden’ , ‘The Banqueting House of the Soul’, The Pursuit of the Ideal’ and ‘The Death of Rose in Hood’. Taken as a whole it is but a pale pastiche of second-hand motifs from Hafiz; a pleasantly dilettante exercise without substance. Fitzgerald’s influence is similarly paramount where Clarence K. Streit’s Hafiz, The Tongue o f the Hidden (1928) is concerned. A Californian, bom in 1896, a Rhodes scholar at Oxford, Streit became a journalist and an active propagandist for Atlantic Union. This volume appears to be his only work, or at any rate his only published work, in this particular field. Streit’s foreword expresses his sense of regret (one that is easy to share) that Fitzgerald published no translations from Hafiz, and speculates that Fitzgerald did not wish to encroach on territory which he regarded as his friend Cowell’s province. He observes, surely quite correctly, that Fitzgerald’s reading of Hafiz, did, however, exert an influence upon his translation of ‘Umar Khayyam. There is something apt, then, in the redprocal influence of that translation upon Streit’s version from Hafiz. Streit himself explains the procedure: What I have done, then, is briefly this: From the hundreds of poems that Hafiz wrote I have taken, here and there, stanzas that seemed best to give his spirit, and I have tried to express effectively in English rubaiyat what they meant to me. These rubaiyat I have sought to arrange in an order that would meet the requirements of English verse and would yet bring out the spirit of the Persian, as I felt it.14 The choice of the form is readily explained: Many of the stanzas in the ghazals of Hafiz lend themselves easily to the English rubai form, to which our ears already are tuned and in which we find the peculiar flavour of Persia requisite for any presentation of Hafiz.15 That that “peculiar flavour of Persia” resides in the form by virtue of Fitzgerald’s Omar Khayyam is hardly to be doubted. Streit’s procedure, very similar to Wright’s, is supported by an argument based upon the atomistic nature of the single bait - Streit calls them verses or stanzas. He believes that “the beauty of Hafiz we seek to recapture lies for us in the individual stanza, rather than in the

ghazal".16 Streit has, then, offered quatrain versions of individual baits - offering as self-contained poems (though arranged to make a larger whole) what are parts of poems in the original. Nor does his strategy of adaptation stop there: 1 have occasionally contracted into one rubai ideas expressed in a whole ghazal or in several couplets, whether contiguous or separated. In like manner I have at other times expanded a single couplet into more than one rubai, or combined both methods.17 More frequently, however, each of the Ruba'iyat is taken from a single bait in a particular ghazal. Streit’s quatrain no. 19,18for example, is clearly enough an embroidery upon the first b. of Gh.S (his version may be compared with Wright’s quoted earlier): Belle of Shiraz, grant me but love’s demand And for your mole - that clinging grain of sand Upon a cheek of pearl - Hafiz would give All of Boukhara, all of Samarkand! His no.47 will serve as another example: The pain of love is but one tale, no more, A hoary tale (it has been known of yore), Yet - strange it is - each lover that I hear Tells me a tale I had not heard before. This corresponds, clearly enough, to b .l of Gh. 55: Love has but a single story; yet, wondrously, every one tells a different tale.19 More re-organisation is evident, to take a different case, in his no. 17: Love hides behind the heart; despite her screen The mirror of the eye reflects her mien; I, who bow not to this world or the next, When I see love, I bow as to a queen. This quatrain has its sources in the first two b.s of G h .9\: My heart is the royal enclosure of his love, my eyes the mirror-holder of his countenance. I, who do not submit to the two worlds, owe obligation to his graces.20

As the preceding quotations will have shown, Streit’s is pleasant and competent versification, but his whole procedure is such as cannot be expected to provide a very adequate impression of the scope of Hlfiz. Hafiz is far more than a poet of fragments, a maker of small verse trifles. He is a poet of far greater range than the form of Streit’s version could ever hope to encompass; the decision to use only the quatrain form is, in fact, a decision to side-step the central problem of artistic unity in the poems of Hafiz. It is to hide from the English reader a sense of that multiplicity of concern, that counterpoint of meanings, and that imaginative transition from idea to idea, which are often the very greatness of the originals. This form of adaptation cannot represent Hifiz any more than an eighteenth-century Beauties of Milton could encapsulate the greatness of that poet. Fitzgerald’s influence also lies heavily on an earlier volume of Hafizian imitations: Justin Huntly McCarthy’s Hafiz in London (1886). Here, though, the influence is not so much in matters of form as in questions of tone and theme. The epicureanism of Rtzgerald’s Rubai/at here finds its echo. George Saintsbury characterised Fitzgerald’s poem in terms of “its sensuous fatalism, its ridicule o f asceticism and renunciation".21 These are precisely the notes which are struck once more in Hafiz in London: Hafiz, cease thy soul to trouble With the wherefore and the how; Laugh and love, for life’s a bubble; Drink till everything grows double, And the roses leave your brow.22 This Hafiz has no doubts that wisdom’s wisest truth Is, be merry while you may Cease regretting yesterday, Or about to-morrow thinking.23 Almost throughout the elegantly printed volume, with its delicately tinted ink, Hafiz serves as a persona for McCarthy’s ownjin-de-siecle sensibility. The collection’s dedication describes it as a tribute from the land O f Khayyam and presents its author as one who “was in Shiraz today" and who returns “with Persian roses crowned". The title-poem deserves quotation in full for its presentation of the book’s central strategy of identification and analogy: Hafiz in London! even so. For not alone by Rukni’s flow

Not only ‘neath the cypress groves, With soul on fire the singer roves, And tells the laughing stars his loves. Here in this dty - where I brood Beside the river’s darkling flood, And feed the fever in my blood With Eastern fancies quaintly traced On yellow parchment, half effaced In verses subtly interlaced Men eat and drink, men love and die, Beneath this leaden London sky, As eastward where the hoopoos fly, And through the tranquil evening air A muezzin from the turret stair Summons all faithful souls to prayer And we who drink the Saki’s wine Believe its juice no less divine Than filled, Hafiz, that cup of thine. Master and most benign of shades, Before thy gracious phantom fades To Mosellay’s enchanted glades, Breathe on my lips, and o ’er my brain Some comfort for thy child, whose pain Strives as you strove, but strives in vain. When sundown sets the world on fire, The music of the master’s lyre Deadens the ache of keen desire. Reading this painted Persian page, Where, half a lover, half a sage, You built your heart a golden cage,

My fancy skimming Southern seas, Wanders at twilight where the breeze Flutters the dark pomegranate trees. We all are sultans in our dreams O f gardens where the sunlight gleams On fairer flowers and dearer streams; And thus in dreams I seek my home Where dim Shiraz, dome after dome, Smiles on the water’s silver foam; The dandng girls, with tinkling feet And many-coloured garments, beat Their drums adown the twisted street; And while the revel sways along, The scented, flower-crowned, laughing throng Seem part and parcel of thy song. Hafiz, night’s rebel angels sweep Across the sun; I pledge you deep, And smiling, sighing, sink to sleep.24 Several of the poems which follow this title-poem are in the nature of free translations or imita­ tions of specific originals. Thus ‘Praise of Wine’ (pp. 67-9) has evident debts to GA.184. A dear indication of how McCarthy’s technique of imitation involves a consdous distortion, or at any rate limitation, of Hafiz’ meaning is dear if one compares ‘Praise of Wine’ with Robinson’s faithful prose version of the original. First, McCarthy’s poem: Once again the ruddy vintage storms the chambers of my brain, Steals my senses with its kisses, steals and yet shall steal again; But I do not blame the grape’s blood for the vengeances it wreaks When it plants its purple standard on the stronghold of my cheeks. May Allah confer his blessing on the hands that pluck the grape, May their footsteps never fail who tread its dusters out of shape. Since the love of wine was written by Fate’s finger on my brow, What is written once is written, and you cannot change it now;

Talk no babble about wisdom: in the awful hour of death, Is the breath of Aristotle better than the beggar’s breath? Spare me, pious friend, reproaches, for the selfsame God who chose You to be so wise and pious, made me love the wine and rose. Hafiz, spend thy life so wisely that when thou at last art dead, ‘Dead’ may not be all the comment, all the requiem that’s said.25 Second, Robinson’s translation: Again for a second time hath the wine deprived me of self-possession; again seduced me by its caresses and destroyed my self-control. A thousand praises on that ruddy wine which hath taken from my face its sallow complexion! Blessings on the hand which gathered the grape; may the foot never slip which crushed it together! Love was written on my brow by the hand of Fate; the fate which is written it is impossible to cancel. Breathe not a word about wisdom; for in the hour of death Aristotle must yield up his soul like the wretched Kurd. Go, pious man, and reproach me not! for what God hath created is not a trifling thing. Spend not thy life in such wise in the world that when thou art dead, they shall say only - “Dead!" Intoxicated with “Unity" from the cup of "the old original contract" will be every one who quaffeth the pure wine like Hafiz!26 It will be noted, for example, that the absence from ‘Praise of Wine* of the final bait of Robinson severely limits the significance of the wine praised in McCarthy’s poem - no reader of the ‘Praise of Wine’ would imagine that any religious or spiritual significance was intended, or possible. The poem, in short, has been moulded to serve purposes of McCarthy’s own. O f course McCarthy need not be criticised for this; his poems do not present themselves as translations. A similar transforming process is evident in most of the other Hafizian imitations contained in the volume. ‘Ghazel’ (pp.74-6) derives from Gh.5; ‘Long Ago’ (pp. 14-15) from Gh.71; ‘You and I’ (pp.25-7) from Gh. 115;‘Consolation’ (pp.28-30) from Gh.359;‘VineVisions’ (pp.49-51) from Gh.SOand‘A Night-Piece’ (pp.62-4) from Gii.433. Elsewhere, as in ‘Attar of Love’ (pp.58-9) versions from Hafiz are embedded within a framework of McCarthy’s own creation; ‘Attar of Love’ is a poem of six stanzas: of these, stanzas 3 and 4 are versions of b. s 1 and 2 of Gh. 129,27Still other of McCarthy’s poems are little more thanVictorian fantasias played upon Hafizian motifs and images. ‘Eld* (pp. 11-

13), for example, weaves the themes of youth and age, fatalism and epicureanism, amidst a deco­ ration of rose perfume and wine, in a fashion that owes little of substance to Hafiz himself. Some of McCarthy’s poems are presented as monologues by Hafiz; others seem to be cast as addresses to him (or to McCarthy’s own ‘Hafizian’ persona): Just a word within your ear, Hafiz: you’re a craven creature If you waste a single tear On the thought that every feature O f the fairest face a maid Ever showed the sun must fade.28 The collection ’ s image of Hafiz is very much a simplification; that much is clear when one considers the refrain that McCarthy provides as a summation of ‘Wisdom’ : Better be glad than sad, By the waves of Rocknabad.29 But for all that Hafiz is diminished by his passage to Victorian London, it cannot be denied that in his ‘Hafiz’ McCarthy has found an effective poetic mask for his own creative sensibility. In Hafiz McCarthy has discovered a philosophic and poetic stance - as much his own invention as objectively present in the Persian poet - which has enabled him to articulate his own view of his own times. Such, after all, is the nature of imitation. McCarthy finds in Hafiz a convenient vehicle for a prevalent late-Victorian world-view; another ‘imitator’ of Hafiz, Daniel Ladinsky, has re-presented the Persian poet in terms of a par­ ticular spiritual sensibility quite distinct from that of fourteenth-century Iran, and altogether more characteristic of late twentieth-century America.. Ladinsky’s Hafiz has appeared in four collec­ tions: I Heard God Laughing (1996), The Subject Tonight is Love (1996), The Gift: Poems by Hafiz, the Great Sufi Master (1999) and Love Poemsfrom God (2002).Though presented as ‘translations’ , very few (if any) of Ladinsky *s many versions from Hafiz could be identified with any certainty as poems which turn into English a specific original in ways which represent anything like the com­ plex of the Persian poet’s language and ideas. Ladinsky has, it seems, largely worked from transla­ tions by others and has reworked these materials into what are, effectively, poems of his own. In a Preface to The GiftyLadinsky declares: I began working with these poems by translating from Farsi (Persian) into English, which was remarkably demanding. I was aided by an unexpected gift; a friend in India sent me a complete phoptocopy of the most respected English translation of Hafiz, that of H. Wilberforce Clarke ... All of the poems in this book are based on Clarke’s translations and his vast footnotes.30

In ‘My Portrait of Hafez' in The Subject Tonight is Love, Ladinsky says this of his own work: I feel it is important to say that the poems in my three Hafiz publications - “The Gift", "I Heard God Laughing" and this volume - are not the result of scholarly disciplines in the traditional sense, though my dedication to this work is, I hope, extraordinary in the realm of the heart. Each of my published Hafiz poems, and the hundreds of still unpublished ones, represent space on a canvas; combined, they are my portrait of him. This unique portrait is derived from the study of thousands of pages of poems and text attributed to this fourteenth-century master poet; each page my eyes fell upon became a color on the mind’s palette which I often did freely m ix ... often when working with these hundred-year-old English renderings and translations [i.e. those of Wilberforce Clarke] - and when listening to hours of contemporary translations direcdy from the Farsi - 1felt I was a genetic scientist trying to discover some genuine DNA particles of Hafiz and thereupon reconstruct a manifestation of Love, for that is what a perfect man/woman is.31 Ladinsky’s metaphorical language does, at least, convey some idea of how much in the ‘mixture’ , the ‘reconstruction’ , of the resulting poems is hist rather than Hafiz’ . Certainly the Zen-like, occasionally merely whimsical , titles given to individual poems - e.g. ‘The Mule Got Lost and Drunk in Heaven’ , ‘Two Puddles Chatting’ and ‘Where Great lions Love to Piss’32 - are quite at odds with the nature of Hafiz’ work. Hafiz would, one suspects, find it very difficult to recognise much of his own in, for example, ‘Until’ : I think we are frightened every Moment of our lives Until we Know Him33 or in ‘The Vegetables’ : Today The vegetables would like to be cut By someone who is singing God’s Name How could Hafiz know Such top secret information? Because Once we were all tomatoes,

Potatoes, onions or Zucchini. 34 A follower of Meher Baba, and certainly influenced by the example of Coleman Barks’ versions from Rumi, Ladinsky has composed a great many texts which have clearly attracted (and perhaps even inspired) a particular audience. What is less certain is the rlevance and propriety of attaching the name of Hafiz quite so prominently to the whole exercise. One might very well, in this context, remember Dryden’s sentiments quoted earlier in this chapter: imitation of an author is the most advantageous way for a translator to show himself, but the greatest wrong which can be done to the memory and reputation of the dead.55 While Ladinsky’s ‘Hafiz’ may have done much for Landinsky’s own standing, it is hard to see that it has done much for the “memory" of the Persian poet. Many admirers of Hafiz will perhaps find themselves in agreement with the judgement of Murat Nemet-Nejat: Incredible as it may seem, there is not a single poem (qazel) of Hafiz of which any one of the poems in The Gift: Poems by H afiz The Great Sufi Master is a translation or adaptation or extrapolation or deconstruction; no poem in the book is in dialectic relation to a specific Persian text ... The Gift may give great delight as a new age religious/ inspirational text, decidedly less so, in my view, as a 20thcentury poem; but one should have no illusion one is reading Hafiz, either his text or his spirit.36 Others have not sought so completely to impose upon Hafiz patterns of thought and feeling of their own making as, in their different ways, poets such as McCarthy and Ladinsky have done. They have been content to produce individual poems in response to their reading of Hafiz. Sir William Jones’s ‘A Persian Song* was the progenitor not just of many later translations from Hafiz but also a number of other poetic responses. It was well-known to many of the English Romantic poets and was evidently assumed to be familiar to any cultivated reader.Thus Lord Byron, writing in 1811 to Robert Charles Dallas, could allude to it casually by way of emphasis and clarification: My dear sir - As Gifford has ever been my ‘Magnus Apollo’ , any approbation such as you mention, would, of course, be more welcome than “all Bokhara’s vaunted gold, than all the Gems of Smarkand".37 Jones’s translation was evidently much in Byron’s mind at the time, since in the same year he wrote a burlesque of ‘A Persian Song’ ; this was not published and the manuscript was long believed lost. It was, however, printed for the first time in Jerome McGann’s edition of Byron’s Complete Poetical Works in 1980. Byron’s stanzas - a witty exercise in burlesque which merits detailed comparison with ‘A Persian Song’ (reprinted in full on pp.29-30) - read as follows:

Bar Maid, if for this shilling white, Thou’dst let me love, nor scratch or scold, That ruddy cheek and ruddier hand Would give my Bardship more delight Than all the ale that e'er was sold, Than even a pot of ‘Cyder-And*. Girl, let your stupid booby go And bid him bring a pint of Beer Whate’er the droning Vicar swear Tell him, his Living cannot show A tap at once so strong and dear, A sofa like this Elbow chair. Oh! when these ogling Chambermaids Whose fingers fumble beds of down, Their dear expensive charms display, Each glance my dwindling cash invades And robs my purse of half a crown, As footpads on the Tumpike way. Speak not of pay - Oh, change the theme, And talk of Bitters, talk of Gin, Talk of Beef that begs thy coin, ’Tis all a scent, ’tis all a steam; (To) bread and cheese restrict thy din, Nor hope to touch the dear Sirloin. Brown Stout has such resistless power That even the pious Parish Priest Swore at the sauntering Pot Boy. To him how jovial is the hour When quaffing at the vestry’s feast The Punch that kills, but cannot cloy. What devilish answer have I heard? And yet, by Jove, I’ll kiss thee still. Can aught be cruel from thy lip? Yet say, why be so damned absurd As box my ears - (unpaid my Bill) And let such execration slip!

Go boldly forth my Parody, Whose stanzas flow just as I please Like - Lord knows what - to any tune, My Notes are brisk, as brisk can be But ah! much brisker might I seize The maid for whom I turn buffoon.38 Close comparison shows that Byron’s poem is a precise reworking of Jones’s translation, or at least of seven of its nine stanzas. Byron disregards the fourth and seventh stanzas but systemati­ cally adapts the material of all the other stanzas. Byron takes over the stanza-form o f 4A Persian Song* (this stanza-form, of course, bears no relation to anything in the original poem by Hifiz); indeed, Byron makes an effort to retain not just Jones’s rhyme pattern, but many of his rhyme sounds and, in several places, the very same words. In the opening stanza Jones enacts his abcabc pattern with the words “sight", “infold", “hand", “delight", “gold" and “Samarcand"; Byron echoes the sounds by using “white", “scold", “hand", “delight", “sold" and “Cyder-And" (two of Jones’s rhyme-words thus being re-used). “Cyder-And" looks, at first, to be no more than a rather ponder­ ous rhyme for “hand"; when, however, one sees it as a kind of long-distance rhyme (at one remove) for “Samarcand” it takes on precisely that quality of comic inventiveness in the creation of rhyme that one thinks of as characteristically Byronic. This kind of cross-referencing to the original is repeatedly necessary if one is to appreciate the skill and comedy of Byron’s burlesque. What is ‘exotic’ and at least semi-allegorical in Jones’ Hafiz becomes altogether more down-to-earth and familiar in Byron. A “sweet maid" becomes a “Bar Maid"; Jones’s wooer can offer nothing so con­ crete as a “shilling white". This “shilling white" can be seen as part of the comic deflation of Jones’s / Hafiz’“vaunted gold" and “gems".These images of wealth are also burlesqued in the last two lines of Byron's first stanza, with their very different images of human contentment - “all the ale that e ’er was sold" and a “pot of Cyder-And". It is hardly surprising, in such a context, that the sweet maid’s positively Petrarchan rosy cheek and lily hand have become a “ruddy cheek and ruddier hand",The distinctly English pub does not deal in the “liquid ruby" of (possibly) Sufistic wine; the instruction offered in Jones’s second stanza is altered accordingly.The “frowning zealots"(Muslim dogmatists disapproving of the wine-house and its inhabitants) are reduced to a single “droning Vicar". The pastoral images of the stream of Rocnabad and the bower of Mosellay are anglicised and domesticated, with delightful absurdity, in Byron’s simultaneously bathetic and hyperbolic lines Tell him, his Living cannot show A tap at once so strong and clear, A sofa like this Elbow chair. The third stanza offers a sustained piece of effective and detailed rewriting. Jones’s lines contain a thoroughly ‘poetic’ passage in the best eighteenth-century manner:

Oh! when these fair, perfidious maids, Whose eyes our secret haunts infest, Their dear destructive charms display, Each glance my tender breast invades, And robs my wounded soul of rest, As tartars seize their destin’d prey. The world of Byron’s parody is rooted far more deeply in economic realities. The “charms* are no longer “destructive*, merely “expensive*. What is invaded is no longer the lover’s breast or soul but his purse; in such a world the “fair, perfidious maids" are, very specifically, “ogling chambermaids” for whom the appropriate activity is to“fumble beds of down*. The rewriting of the stanza comes to a triumphant conclusion with a brilliantly apposite equivalent for the allusion to T artar bandits - “footpads on the T umpike way”. At every turn of the poem Byron displays the same capacity for witty substitution. “Odours” and “wine" become “bitters* and “gin"; the languishing request that the maid confine her thoughts to “love and joy* becomes a demand that the barmaid restrict her “din ... to bread and cheese*. Brown stout is held to have all the powers of beauty, except that it promotes curses rather than sighs. Beauty has such resistless pow’r, That ev’n the chaste Egyptian dame Sigh’d for the blooming Hebrew boy becomes Brown Stout has such resistless power That even the pious Parish Priest Swore at the sauntering Pot Boy. Where Jones’s / Hafiz’ lover stoically accepts refusal, Byron’s wooer resolves upon action, and the contrast is made especially vivid by Byron’s retention (almost unchanged) of the the first three lines of Jones’s penultimate stanza. Jones translates Hafiz (somewhat freely) as follows: What cruel answer have I heard! And yet, by heav’n, I love thee still: Can aught be cruel from thy lip? Byron may retain much from Jones’s lines, but he does so in the context of a radical change of tone: What devilish answer have I heard? And yet, by Jove, I’ll kiss thee still Can aught be cruel from thy lip?

In his adaptation of Jones’s final stanza, Byron distinguishes his own verses as “brisk" where jones’s are “sweet", and the discrimination is surely just. Well-nigh content in the sweetness of his own verse, the poet-lover of ‘A Persian Song’ accepts that he can only wait in the hope that these verses will have an effect upon the “sweet maid" he longs for. Byron’s protagonist prefers to think in terms o f more direct action: My Notes are brisk, as brisk as can be But ah! much brisker might I seize The maid for whom I turn buffoon. The judgement made in the final word of the poem is presumably to be understood both as the poetwooer’s comment on his own behaviour and as Byron’s semi-technical description of his own activity here (the O.E.D. defines the verb ‘buffoon’ as “to burlesque"). Byron’s parodic imitation of Hafiz is a sophisticated and subtle piece. Many other responses to the early English translations of Hafiz were, inevitably, rather plainer fare. In 1803 one ‘W .A.’ contributed to The Gentleman s Magazine the following piece: EPIGRAM Translated from HAFIZ the Persian Poet. In shades of palm-trees, and beside a stream, Hafiz the thoughtful thus took up his theme; And, as he sat, melodiously he sung, And tun’d his harp with strings of silver strung: Can the mistakes of good intentions raise The frowns of Anger? - that to worth gave praise. A silly sort of affectation, sure A friendly Muse, in grief, could not procure! Say then - ah, does it not impeach good sense To shew displeasure where there’s no offence? But there are sometimes wondrous whims in life, Which rise to turn good-nature into strife! Hence Care - in bowers of roses I’ll recline, And quaff the ruby joys of sparkling wine. Or in the barge of Pleasure sing of Love, Which rules on earth below, and heaven above.39 The poem is not, of course, a translation from Hafiz, though the writer has made use of some Hafizian ‘props’ - the palm trees, the bowers of roses, the sparkling wine, etc. Presumably ‘ W. A. ’ imagined himself to be doing what Ben Jonson defined as the function of imitation, converting the

“substance or riches of another poet, to his own use”;40 Hafiz would, though, scarcely recognise himself behind the eighteenth-century moralist’s mask he has here been persuaded to don.41 In the twentieth-century the most important set of Hafizian imitations is to be found in the work o f Elizabeth Bridges, but before considering these we can look briefly at the work of some lesser figures. R. A. Nicholson, as well as being a great scholar and translator of Arabic and Persian texts, was also an original poet of some merits. His early volume The Don and the Dervish (1911), as well as translations from Hafiz, contains a poem about Hafiz (which will be discussed a little later in this chapter) and a number of other poems strongly influenced by his reading of the Persian poet. There is ‘Ghazel’ , which imitates the mono-rhyme of the ghazal and is saturated in the char­ acteristic imagery and symbolism of Hafiz: Gone, O my love, my love, and all the grace of her, Musk-blowing curls and moon-browed fairy face of her! Zephyr, in Beauty’s garden dallying heavy-winged, Away with me, and seek the hiding-place of her! ’Twas who but she bewitched a thousand holy men: No wonder hapless I am charmed in chase of her. Her glance leaps golden-footed among the pines, her voice Nightingales jangle; nothing lacks a trace of her. O tyrant Love, I climb the desperate verge, but thou Lock’st up in cloud and rain the bright embrace of her.42 This is a poem ‘in the manner of Hafiz (complete with monorhyme), rather than an imitation of a specific original. Nicholson’s ‘Troll the Bowl’ in the same collection is an example of this second procedure, however. Its first stanza appears to be a loose version of h. 5 of Gh. 510, its last stanza a version of b.( 8) of the same poem: Drink to-day and thirst to-morrow, Lest tomorrow ne’er be thine. Smoothe the wrinkled brow of sorrow With a cup of rosy wine. Kai and Kaous - where be they? Perchance in this oblivious day. Gentle boy, with eyes of jet, Hy - thou know’st the Guebre’s door Bid mine host a flagon yet Carry to the same old score. Let cloak follow turban! I Sooner will go bare than dry.

Fill and pass the foaming glass! I was branded in the womb, Out upon me and alas, Drunkard till the day of doom. Heaven confound with melancholy The fool that never courted folly.+i Far less distinguished imitations are those by Henry Bertram Lister, to be found in his Gar­ landsfrom Hafiz published in 1939, 21 years prior to his Divan o f Hafiz infree verse. Garlandsfrom H afiz was privately printed (by the author on a hand press) in a limited edition of 65 copies. It opens with a piece headed ‘Beauty’ which is immediately recognisable as an imitation of Gh. 5, Lister “running division" upon Hafiz* “groundwork", to borrow Dryden’s phraseology:

If that beauty of Shiraz would take in her hand My heart I would give her Smarakand [sic]; For the mole on her face is more dear unto me Than the gold of the mine or the pearl of the sea. Ah, give me the joy of life - give me its wine, For the rose of Mosalla in beauty will shine, On the banks of the waters of Roknabad, When Spring has returned in her garment glad. O Paradise, Paradise, how can I glow, To think of the raptures the blessed all know, But the roses of Spring are more dear to my heart, Than the joys that are promised when I shall depart. For beauty is fairer than lustre of day, And it drives from my spirit ambition away, All my modesty melts into keen desire, My power to resist it, like straw on the fire.44 Others in Lister’s short collection of ‘garlands’ (there are 21 short poems) have a similar kind of relationship, in some cases even more distant, with specific poems by Hafiz. ‘Love’s Dream’ (p.2), for example,is derivedfrom Gh. 388; ‘Use thy Intelligence’ (p.4) from Gh. 117; ‘The World' (p.5) from Gh.50; ‘It isgone’ (p. 17) from G h.llS; others, such as ‘The Road of Love’(p.80) and ‘Destiny’ (p.ll) are little more than centos of phrases taken from a number of different originals. As might be expected from so fastidious a poet, Elizabeth Bridges’ imitations from Hafiz occupy a far higher aesthetic plane. Her collection Sonnetsfrom Hafez S^Other Verses was published in 1921 - in time for her, perhaps, to have been influenced by some of Ezra Pound's work in both

the theory and practice of translation. Her strategy is set out boldly enough in a note at the beginning of the slim volume: The last fifteen pieces in this book, which are founded on odes of Hafez, are not translations. Their aim is rather to convey if possible something of the original spirit than to give a faithful rendering of either thought or form; & I have not scrupled to omit, insert, alter or even deliberately to pervert the idea as fancy or feeling dictated.45 This, of course, is precisely the kind of “mischief’ which Dryden had in mind when he feared the consequences of early English models of imitation; in the reading, however, one does not wish to apply the word “mischief’ to the resulting poems, which are graceful and accomplished in their handling of English verse, and communicate as much, if not more, sense of Hafiz* great­ ness than is communicated by many of the more ‘faithfully’ literal translations. No. 31 in the collec­ tion (a translation of Gh.2) imitates both the monorhyrne and the takhallus of the original. Else­ where the sonnet form, or at least an interesting variation upon it, is used, as in her no. 24: DAWN I saw fair Fortune, one clear morning, touch Like the bright-sceptred sun’s first point of scorn, With slightest finger my full-ripen’d corn I glimps’d her beauty: slender was she, such As the moon’s waning sickle, paled afar, Or dawn’s faint star-sheaves that scarce vision’d are. I said, ‘O my life’s crowning queen, for thee Have I long toiled without repose or rest; In hope of thee, my harvest heavenly, Labour’d & waited, still thou lingerest, Tryest me still’ - she turning smil’d & said, ‘Though this be, be not thou uncomforted: Lo now already thy night-ending sun In world-seen splendour hath his day begun’ The first six lines here imitate b. 1 of Gh. 599; the next six lines are similarly related to 5.2 of the same poem. The final couplet is a conclusion by Bridges, in place of the further eight baits which complete Hafiz’ poem. How exquisitely Bridges has invested the lines with a delicate musicality is evident if one compares her version of these opening baits with the prose version of them by Cowell:

I saw the field of the azure sky and the sickle of the new moon; And I remembered my own field, and my season of harvest. I said, ‘Oh my fortune, thou hast been sleeping and the sun hath risen!’ It answered, ‘For all this despond not over the past!’47 This is a poem which G.M. Wickens has analysed in terms of the presence within it of two related image groups - the heavens and cultivation. With a poet’s perception Elizabeth Bridges, even in this incomplete translation, offers a more successful articulation of these two image groups than is to be found in any of the more literal versions of the poem. Formally very different is her no. 37, an imitation of G h .l: Arise, O Cup-bearer, & bring Fresh wine for our enrapturing! O minstrel, of our sorrow sing ‘O joy o f whose delight we dreamed, ‘O love that erst so easy seemed, ‘What toil is in thy travelling! ’ How in the lov’d one’s tent can I Have any rest or gaiety? Ever anon the horsemen cry, ‘O lingering lover, fare thee well!’ Ever I hear the jingling bell O f waiting steed & hamessry. O seeker who wouldst surely bring To happy end thy wandering, O learner who wouldst truly know, Let not earth’s loves arrest thee. Go! Mad thee with heaven’s pure wine & fling To those clear skies thy rapturing.48 The first verse is directly related to M, the second to bA ; the third is rather less directly related to b.7. Though it contains some fine lines this is not perhaps quite so successful an imitation; the “jingling bell" of verse two seems to trivialise the original, and there are grounds for feeling a little uneasy about some of the archaisms. One final, very successful, example of Bridges' imitations must suffice. No. 2 5 in the volume is a delightfully vivacious imitation of Gh. 540. It captures as well as one might hope to capture in English the sense of the simultaneously earthly and spiritual, and replaces Hafiz’ inimitable Persian music with some exquisitely melodious English verse. The use of alliteration is especially worthy of note in these lyrical octosyllabic quatrains:

Come let us drink & deeply drown In Heav’n’s pure wine our sorrowing! Fling ye earth’s faded garlands down, Scatter away life’s flowering! Though sorrow’s myriad armies strive To subjugate and stay us, we, O proud cup-bearer, will contrive To overcome their tyranny. O earth’s sad lover, drink & throw Unto high heaven thy misery: So shall perchance bright beauty know Thy longing need & bend to thee. Not in this life’s sad dty grow Immortal flowers: O friends, arise! Drink we the wine of truth & go To deathless joys of Paradise.49 Here each verse corresponds to one b. of the original; verse one to b. 1, verse two to t. 2, verse three to b.S, and verse four to b.9. By a judidous choice of motifs from the original, and by her own technical adroitness, Bridges has here produced a true imitation, a poem which can be read and admired independently of its ‘original’ , but which also communicates a sense of that original’s spirit and power. It can only be regretted that Elizabeth Bridges produced no more than fifteen versions from Hafiz. As it is, these fifteen short poems stand as a largely unimitated model of just how fruitfully the work of Hafiz can vitalize the work of an English poet, without any attempt at mere slavish literalism. Altogether more modest have been the achievements of those who have responded to their encounter with Hafiz, not by translating or imitating him, but by attempting themselves to write poems about him. One early example is to be found in The Asiatic Journal for 1816. It is unsigned (unless the signature appearing beneath the immediately succeeding poem - “Amicus, Westmin­ ster, December 1815" - is intended to apply here too).The poem consists of 104 octosyllabic lines - rhymed as couplets. In some only marginally helpful footnotes its author makes reference to, amongst other texts, the translations of Jones, Nott and Hindley, as well as to Sir Thomas Herbert's Travels in Persia and William Franklin’s Observations made on a tourjrom Bengal to Persia in the year 1186-87. The anonymous poet seems to be particularly indebted to Hindley, both to his introduc­ tion and to his translations and notes. We are told that the “dirge supposes the European reader already acquainted with some of the celebrated poems of H ajizn(in translation he adds), and that "through the whole of this elegy, the Hafizian style has been imitated, as will more particularly be seen in the repetitions, so common in the Persian poetry”.50In fact there is nothing of Hafiz* style

here - beyond the use of selected words and phrases from a few translated poems. Naturally there is nothing of Hafiz’ versification. There is no sense of the complex nature of his poetry, no hint as to his sufism.This Hafiz is a man who Poured forth his minstrel strains of love and made the wanton spring more gay.51 Rather than the “Hafizian style" promised, the poem actually displays an affinity with the classical tradition of the pastoral elegy, stemming ultimately from the first Idyll of Theocritus and the Lament fo r Bion often attributed to Moschus. It belongs, that is to say, in the tradition of Spenser’s ‘Astrophil’ and Milton’s ‘Lyddas’ .52Our anonymous elegy for Hafiz seeks to treat the Persian poet in the same way that Spenser treats Sidney or Milton Edward King. In its better moments (and they are not many) the poet does manage a mildly effective use of the pathetic fallacy: But ah! no more the echoed sound Dwells in the breeze and floats around; No more sweet music’s charms beguile, Nor sportive laugh nor dimpled smile; No more the lusdous cup invites With darling pleasure’s warm delights; In vain the rose displays her bloom, Hafiz is gone, and all is gloom, In vain her fragrant stores are shed, Hafiz is gone, and joy is fled: In vain her warbler’s notes we hear, Hafiz is gone, and all is drear. Theme of thy bard, lov’d Rocnabad, Ah! ask me not, who now is sad: Whose banks, what crystal stream, what grot, Grief, are thy haunts, O ask me not: Nor ask Mosella, now forlorn, Who from his fav’rite bow’rs is tom .53 The poem incorporates the obligatory allusions to rose and nightingale, to wine and cypress, but communicates little enough sense of its ostensible subject. One of the next English poets to write poems about Hafiz also wrote upon his death, or more strictly, upon his tomb. This was E.V. Kenealy, controversial Victorian lawyer, poetaster and translator, in his volume Poems and Translations of 1864. As well as ‘The Tomb of Hafez*, the volume indudes two other poems: ‘Hafez’ and ‘From the Persian: Hafez*. All three are in quite dreadful blank verse. ‘Hafez’ is a versification of the well-known story of how

Shemseddin Hafez, in his early youth, Loved Shakhi Nebat.54 Kenealy appears to have reworked Jones’ version of the story in his ‘On the Mystical Poetry of the Persians and Hindus' (Kenealy's preface contains a tribute to Sir William Jones). His ‘From the Persian: Hafez' is, in fact, not a translation at all. It is a versification of another passage from the same work by Jones - an extract from Sa‘di which Kenealy has mistaken, presumably through careless reading, for a poem by Hafiz.55 ‘The Tomb of Hafez’ retells another well-known anecdote - that of the argument over Hafiz’ burial. Amongst more modern poets are at least four who have written poems which take Hafiz as their subject, and all have produced rather more fitting tributes than those by Kenealy. In Verses and Translations (1902), by E.J. W. Gibb, a French form is employed to pay tribute to a Persian poet, in a ‘ Villanelle to Hafiz’ : Singer of the Persian Rose, Blithe and bright a life was thine. Where Ruknabad in silver flows, With the girl thy fancy chose, Thou wouldst play beneath the vine. Thou couldst banish all thy woes With a draught of ruby wine. Dear to thee were Springtide shows, And the bulbul’s lay divine. Now thou takest thy repose, Heedless of the fields ashine. Still within thy garden close Many a sunny hour is mine.56 Nicholson’s The Don and the Dervish contains the following perceptive, if over romanticised, piece called simply ‘Hafiz’ :

Where the low-bent willow-boughs Sleep along the sleeping lake, Revellers nodding rosy brows Home their way triumphal take.

Who is he that leads the throng, Lending music to a song? ’Tis a simple air he sings, But with so prevailing art, Each vibration of the strings Rings harmonious through the heart, like a wave at each rebound Passion trembles into sound. Nightingale of old Iran, Haunt’st thou yet Ruknabad’s vale, Dumbly marvelling that man Now unqueens the nightingale? Zuhra, mid the starry quire, Hangs her head and breaks her lyre.57 In the next decade there appeared two sonnets by Nizamat Jung. Both are worthy of quota­ tion. Only the first, T he Vigil of Hafiz’ refers explicitly to our poet, but the second ‘The Persian Poet and the Nightingale’ , printed together with the first, has an undeniable relevance: He bowed his head before the veil of Doom When in lone vigils did around him close like clouds, the shadowy wings of voiceless woes; And all was dark till, through the glow and gloom O f Suns that set to rise beyond the tomb, Unto his longing eyes did Heav’n disclose Life’s mystic symbol - Beauty’s perfect Rose, Blooming on earth with Eden’s primal bloom! Then darkness fled from out the heart of Night, And, trailing glory, blissful visions came, Hoating on golden pinions, swift and strong; Then in new worlds of rapture and of light All nameless yearnings found in Love a name, All voiceless passions found a voice in Song. From starlight groves the nightingale her song Sends forth upon the night to greet his ear, To wake his brooding soul that fain would hear A voice that in his heart lay prisoned long.

Some chord it touches at whose bidding throng Commingling joy and pain and hope and fear, And yearnings dumb that waited many a year The tranced ecstasy her notes prolong. Her voice of rapture melting into pain: Both yearn for happier haunts, serener skies, His heart’s song pulsing ‘neath the soft control O f hers, that soars and sinks and soars again Till ‘mongst the fading stars it fails and dies.58 P.L.Stallard has also devoted a sonnet to Hafiz, by way of preface to his Renderingsfrom the Demin (1937). Its archaic diction and its lack of clear structural purpose make it the least satisfac­ tory of these three ‘Hlfiz’ sonnets: Six centuries have gone since Hizr blest, At Baba Kuhi’s shrine, thy lips to song, And grave thou stood’st amidst the client throng At Abu Ishaq’s court: or wert the guest O f king or sage; but ever loved the best Youth’s simple speech, they say, thy books, thy dream But, most, thy Shiraz by the Rukni stream; And, last, in her loved earth wert laid to rest. Hath age turned savourless thy Saki’s wine; Thy lute’s intimate mode demoded made? Belike! Only I know that thou didst lean O ’er thy loved dust, yet found thy anodyne: Walked in thy crumbling world, yet unafraid: Believed not much, yet held thy faith serene!59 A previous translator of Hafiz who had also prefaced his translations with a poem of his own was John Payne.60 His ‘Prelude’ is, not uncharacteristically, an ambitious piece in monorhymed triplets. The versification is ponderous, the lines of unwieldy length, and the language frequently turgid. It is cast in the form of a monologue by Hafiz, inviting readers to his volume:

If your souls are sick with sorrow, here is that which shall appease; If your lips are pale with passion, here is that which hath the keys To the sanctuaries of solace and the halidomes of ease.

This particular Hafiz is, naturally enough, cast very much in the mould formed by Payne’s own understanding of the poems. It is Hafiz the epicurean who speaks out here: What is heav’n, that we should seek it? Wherefore question How or Why? See the roses are in blossom; see, the sun is in the sky; See, the land is lit with summer; let us live before we die.61 The best of such preludial poems (as her translations themselves are amongst the best) is that by Gertrude Bell. Here is a wiser, more perceptive view of the poet, a view which encompasses far more of his range and depth: Thus said the Poet: “When Death comes to you, All ye whose life-sand through the hour-glass slips, He lays two fingers on your ears, and two Upon your eyes he lays, one on your lips, Whispering: Silence!” Although deaf thine ear, Thine eye, my Hafiz, suffer Time’s eclipse, The songs thou sangest still all men may hear. Songs of dead laughter, songs of love once hot, Songs of a cup once flushed rose-red with wine, Songs of a rose whose beauty is forgot, A nightingale that piped hushed lays divine: And still a graver music runs beneath The tender love notes of those songs of thine, Oh, Seeker of the keys of Life and Death! While thou wert singing, the soft summer wind That o ’er Mosalla’s garden blew, the stream O f Ruknabad flowing where roses twined, Carried thy voice farther than thou could’st dream. To Isfahan and Baghdad’s Tartar horde, O ’er waste and sea to Yezd and distant Ind; Yea, to the sun-setting they bore thy word. Behold we laugh, we warm us at Love’s fire, We thirst and scarce dare tell what wine we crave, We lift our voices in G riefs dark-robed choir; Sing thou the wisdom joy and sorrow gave! If my poor rhymes held aught of the heart’s lore,

Fresh wreaths were theirs to lay upon thy grave Master and Poet, all was thine before!62 The materials surveyed in this chapter cannot, on the whole, be said to constitute a very impressive body of work. It is disappointing that with some few honourable exceptions the meet­ ing of English poets with Hafiz, outside the act of translation itself, should have proved so unpro­ ductive. In this respect the English response to Hafiz falls immeasurably short of, for example, that remarkable creative interaction of poets and cultures which is embodied in Goethe’s West-Ostlicher Divan. No comparable figure in English literature has undertaken an imaginative enterprise of such profundity and scope as Goethe’s ‘meeting’ with Hafiz. NOTES 1. John Dryden, Dramatic Poesj and other Essays (Everyman’s library, 1950), p. 151. 2. The division can, of course, only be somewhat arbitrary. The versions of Le Gallienne, included in the first-line index could, almost as readily, have been regarded as imitations; the versions from McCarthy’s Hafiz in London include some which might, perhaps, have been treated as translations. 3. Dryden, op.cit., pp. 152-3. 4. ibid., p. 153. 5. See, for example, John Simon, ‘Abuse of Privilege: Lowell as Translator’ , //udsonKevieir, 20, (19678), pp. 543-63, and the ensuing exchange of letters between Simon and Lowell in Hudson Review, 21 , (1968). 6. J.P.Sullivan, Ezra Pound and Sextus Propertius: A Study in Creative Translation, 1965. 7. ‘Translation’ , Princeton Encyclopaedia ofPoetry and Poetics, ed. A.Preminger, F. J. Warnke, andO. B. Hardison, Jr., 2nd edition, 1975, p.867. 8. Wright, Rose-in-Hood, 1926, pp.2-3. 9. Quoted in A.J.Arberry, The Romance o f the Rubaiyat, 1959, p. 161, in the course of a reprint of Fitzgerald’s first edition. 10. Wright, op.cit., p. 3. 11. John Payne, The Poems o f Shemseddin Mohammed Hafiz o f Shiraz, 1901, Vol.I, p. 12. 12. ibid., Vol.in, p. 153. 13. Wright, op.cit., p.2. 14. Clarence K.Streit, Hafiz, The Tongue o f the Hidden, 1928, p. 10. 15. ibid., p.9. 16. ibid., p.86. 17. ibid., p.90.

18. The pages are unnumbered in Streit’s versions of the poems. 19. Variorum, p.44(my translation). 20. Variorum, p.71 (my translation). 21. George Saintsbury, A History o f Nineteenth Century Literature, 1919 (orig.publ. 1896), p.209. 22. J. H. McCarthy, Hafiz in London, 1896, p.43. 23. ibid., p. 13. 24. ibid., pp. 1-5. 25. ibid., pp.67-9.

26. Samuel Robinson, A Century o f Ghazels, 1875, p.61. 27. In view of what is suggested in the Appendix to this volume, it may be of significance that all the poems of Hafiz upon which McCarthy seems to draw are amongst the one-tenth of the poems of Hafiz which Samuel Robinson translated. 28. McCarthy, op.cit., pp. 12-13. 29. ibid., p. 36. 30. Daniel Ladinsky, The Gift, 1999, pp.4-5. 31. Daniel Ladinsky, The Subject Tonight is Love,

1996, p.vi-vii.

32. All from The Gift, 1999, pp. 132, 171, 302. 33. ibid., p.204. 34. The Subject Tonight is Love, 1996, p.5. 35. John Dryden, Dramatic Poesy and other Essays (Everyman’s Library, 1950), p. 153. 36. http: / / home.jps.net / ~ nada/ hafiz.htm 37. The Works o f Lord Byron, Letters andJournals, ed. R. E. Prothero, 1903, II, p.27. 38. Byron, The Complete Poetical Works, ed. J. McGann, 1980,1, 342-3.For a discussion of Byron’s larger interest in matters Persian, see P. Loloi, ‘Byron in PersianCostume’ , The Swansea Review, 5, 1988, pp. 19-40. 39. The Gentlemans Magazine, LXXXVDI, 1817,1, p.62. 40. Ben Jonson, The Complete Poems, ed.G.Parfitt, 1975, p.448. 41. Amongst other works ‘derived’ from Hafiz may be mentioned the following; ‘Sufee Ode: Translated from the Persian’ (signed “Hafez”) in The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register, VIII, 1819, p. 132; ‘Verses from the Diwani of Hafiz’ , (Anon.), AsiaticJournal, XX, 1825, p.635; Rudyard Kipling, ‘Certain Maxims of Hafiz’ , included in Rudyard Kipling’s Verse, Inclusive Edition 1885-1926, 1927, pp.60-63; the ‘imitations’ by Louisa Costello discussed under the entry ‘Costello’ in the List of Translators; William Stigand, Acanthia, 1907, pp. 187-8. 42. R. A. Nicholson, The Don and the Dervish, 1911, p.71.

43. ibid., p.81. 44. The pages of Lister’s Garlandsfrom Hafizare unnumbered; my numbering is calculated by taking as page one the page on which this first poem appears. 45. Elizabeth Bridges, Sonnetsfrom Hafez and Other Verses, 1921, p. 3. 46. ibid., p. 32. 47. E.B.Cowell, Fraser s Magazine, L, 1854, p.292. 48. Bridges, op.cit., p.45. 49. ibid., p .33. 50. The AsiaticJournal, 1, 1816, pp.358-9. 51. ibid., pp. 358-9. 52. See James H. Hanford, The Pastoral Elegy and Milton’s Lyndas’, in The Tradition and the ?oem, ed.C.A.Patrides, 1961. 53. The AsiaticJournal, I, 1816, p. 359. 54. E.V.Kenealy, Poems and Translations, 1864, p. 136. 55. See the entry under ‘Costello’ in the List of Translators. 56. E.J.W.Gibb, Verses and Translations, Glasgow (Privately printed), 1902, p .34. 57. R. A.Nicholson, The Don and the Dervish, 1911, p.70. 58. Nizamat Jung, Islamic Culture, II 1928, p. 13. 59. P.L.Stallard, R “ enderingsfrom the Dewan o f Khwaja Shamsu'ddin Muhammad Hafiz Shiruzi, 1937. [Quotation from the Preface, page not numbered]. 60. John Payne, The Poems o f Shemseddin Mohammed Haftz o f Shiraz, 1901,Vol.I, p.viii. 61. Payne also wrote “Hafiz and Paul’ , a sonnet which improbably yokes Hafiz and St. Paul as “being both deceivers and yet true, / Both sorrowful and yet rejoicing still, / Both having nothing, yet possessing all” (Vigil and Vision, 1903, p.59) and The Death of Hafiz’ ( Carol and Cadence, 1908, pp. 1312), a thirty-line poem which ends thus: All night Hafiz sat by the murmuring stream, His head on his hand and his eyes on his dream. His brows were begirt with the moon’s aureole And with visions of Paradise filled was his soul. For cupmates, he drank with the Archangels Seven; They gave him to eat of the honey of Heaven.

All night thus he sat by the rivulet’s head; And when the morn morrowed, the poet was dead. 62. Gertrude Lowthian Bell, Poemsfrom the Divan of Hafiz (1897), Quoted from the second edition, 1928, pp.7-8.

FIRST LINE INDEX OF TRANSLATIONS In this First-Line Index I have endeavoured to record EnglishTranslations from the poetry of Hafiz. Translations of single baits, and very short fragments, often not consisting of more than two baits, have been excluded, although in cases where these are printed as part of a translator’s collection, they are mentioned in The List ofTranslators which begins on page 317. In compiling the index I have used as my reference text the Variorum edition of Hafiz. I have adopted Farzaad’s scheme of numbering the poems, and (where relevant) of numbering the individual baits within poems. In each case, numbers within parentheses correspond to items which bear no printed number in Farzaad’s text, but whose number can readily be deduced by the user of that volume. Poems of which I have been unable to trace English translations are not included in this list; similarly English translations purporting to be from Hafiz, and for which no original exists in the Variorum, are excluded. Poems which appear in the list are referred to by their numbers in Farzaad.The entry then continues with the Persian first line, followed by all known English translations of the poem, in chronological order of publication (no attempt is made to record later reprintings of transla­ tions). Reference is made by name, by volume number where necessary (indicated by roman numerals), and by page number. Where an individual translator was responsible for more than one publication, these publications are distinguished by the addition of an Arabic number after the translator’s name. All such references are explained in the List ofTranslators. The entries in the First-Line Index also provide the page number of each translation. Page numbers which appear within parentheses represent the deduced number in volumes which are unpaginated. The open­ ing words of every translation are provided: in the case of verse translations the whole of the first line is normally provided; in the case of prose translations a roughly equivalent passage is printed, though no attempt is made at absolute consistency in this respect.The typographical eccentricities of the originals have not been reproduced - e.g. Nakosteen’s habitual capitalisation of all initial words, or Clarke’s unusual use of the hyphen. Where the whole of a quoted first line was printed in italics this fact is not noticed in its appearance here. However I have recorded all instances where italics are used to distinguish between phrases within a line. Though largely devoted to printed sources, this index also takes some account of the translations from Hafiz beginning now to appear on the internet. Given the frequency with which web-sites are posted, revised and closed-down, I can provide no more than an indication of such materials. Since they cannot always be dated with any certainty, they appear (without page numbers) at the end of the relevant lists of translations. The List ofTranslators provides the name of all the translators included in The First-Line Index in alphabetical order; bibliographical information about their work appears after the au­ thor’s name, followed by the numbers of all the poems translated by each individual translator, thus making cross-referencing with the First-Line Index possible. Although the aim in the FirstLine Index has primarily been to record and identify (often a very difficult task) rather than to judge, the List ofTranslators offers some limited critical comment.

G h a z a liy d t



j j

Richardson, 3 Richardson, 5 Sadiq 8, 75 Cowell 7, 354 Cowell 11, 294 Bicknell, 3 Palmer 2, 53 Clarke, 1 McCarthy, 60 Arnold, 121 B e ll, 67 Payne, I, 1 Le Gallienne, 1 Nicholson 1,76 Underwood, 61 Rundall, 94 Obbardl, 1 Irani 2,1 Chapman, 59 Stallard, 15 Arberry 1, 83 Avery 1, 19 Rehder, 288 Aryanpur, 1 Nakosteen, 5 Hillmann, 118 Gray 1, 138 Smith, II, [7] Loloi 6, 35 Barks, 154 Gray 2, 37 Saberi 1, 1 Alston, 69 Pourafzal, 24 Crowe 2, 69 Shahriari

t Jji

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Fill, fill the cup with sparkling wine, Ho! come! O cup-bearer, carry round the wine, Boy the bowl, come hand it quickly, Haste, Saki, o haste! with the joy-giving bowl, Hither, hither oh cupbearer, hand round and give the cup; “Ala ya ayyuha’s-Sald” - pass round and offer thou the bowl, O Cup-Bearer! fill up the goblet, and hand it around to us all; Ho! O Saki, pass around and offer the bowl In good sooth, O Saki, bear round the wine and present the beaker. Ala y a! send the Cup round! O Said! brim and send; Arise, oh Cup-bearer, rise! and bring Ho, there, skinker! Fill the wine-cup; Pour and pass to me as well! Saki, for God’s love, come and fill my glass; Saki, pass the cup and pour, Come, Tavern Keeper, fill the glass! Ho there, O Said! 0 perfect Murshid! Ho! Said, dear, Companion, Friend! Mix thou the Cup Ho there, O Saqi! pass round and offer the bowl for a drink, Saqi, go round the circle with the bowl. Pour, pour the wine, Ho! Saki: aye, and speed! Ho, saki, haste, the beaker bring, Boy, bring the cup, and circulate the wine: Come pass me the cup quickly and hand it on; Serve the cup around, O ’Said, for love, I say, Cup-bearer ho, we pray relieve our soul. Hey, cupbearer, pass around a cup and hand it (to me); Saki, pass the cup around and then offer it to me, Hey, here Winebringer, circulate, offer the cup this way; Saqi, offer the cup to all, then give it to me Love seems easy in a circle of friends O Saki, bring around the cup of wine and then offer it to me, O Saqi, fill the bowl and pass it around. Hearken Saqi! Circulate the wine-flagon I need a drink, wine maiden, that cup with grape stain lined, Hey, Winebringer, bring us some more wine! O beautiful wine-bearer, bring forth the cup and put it to my lips

Arnold’s translation was first published two years previously (i.e. 1893) in The Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review, Vol. V, page 402. Le Gallienne's translation was first published two years previ­ ously (i.e. 1903) in The Fortnightly Review, Vol. 73, p. 1048. There are no significant differences

between the two versions. There are important variants in the two translations by Gray. Gh. 2



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BickneU, 29 Two Graduates, 57 Ahmad, 106 Clarke, 51 Bell, 80 Payne, I, 17 Underwood, 53 Bridges, 39 Irani 2, 2 Chapman, 66 Nakosteen, 109 Smith, II, [18] Gray 2, 39 Saberi 1, 2 Alston, 70 Crowe 1, 17 Shahriari

Oh! where are deeds of virtue, and this frail spirit where? There is a great difference between piety and me a sinner; Piety is quite away from me a sinner, The rectitude of work, - where? and, I ruined Where is my ruined life, and where the fame Where is it, righteousness, And I, poor sot, ah where? In my merry mood of drinking Where is the pious doer? and I the estray’d one, where? Where lies the we 11-being of my affairs and where my ruined self! There rectitude o f work, and here is gone The gap is deep and distance far Where’s work’s reward, where am I without recognition: where? There is the righteous one, here is ruined me. What has advisability got to do with me, a drunkard? A righteous one and a drunkard like me Where am I without recognition, where is work's reward: where? Where is sensible action, & my insanity whence?

G h. 3 f



Cowell 10, 301



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See the jocund spring of roses from the garden-bower is gone:


Nott, 127 Hindley, 63 Hindley, 91 Bicknell, 23 Two Graduates, 57 Ahmad, 107 Clarke, 44

Go, friendly Zephyr! wisp'ring greet O! go, thou kind Zephyr, go, speed thro' the lawn, O Zephyr, say with mildness to that delicate Fawn, O East! my story gently tell to yonder slender-shaped gazelle: O breeze, kindly tell that lovely fawn (my love) Breeze, would you inform that lovely fawn (my beloved) O breeze! with softness speak to the beautiful fawn

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Payne, I, 13 Le Gallienne, 11 Obbardl, 53 Irani 2, 5 Maitra, 56 Chapman, 77 Avery 1, 24 Rehder, 283 Aryanpur, 3 Nakosteen, 163 Smith, n, [15] Gray 2, 41 Saberi 1, 3 Crowe 1, 16 Ordoubadian

Wind of the East, to yonder Graceful gazelle go say, O love, if thou so cruel continuest to be, O, Morning Breeze, go forth and gently tell my message O morning breeze, say gently to that graceful Gazelle, O breeze! say with gentleness to that graceful gazelle, O breeze, speak softly to the lovely fawn, Soft wind, be kind, say to that slim gazelle: Soft wind, speak grace to that gazelle Zephyr! Tell that charming gazelle of mine, O eastern wind of hope, blow on. Soft breeze, to the graceful gazelle go gently and say: O dawn wind, gently say to that graceful gazelle: Zephyr, kindly tell that elegant gazelle that Summer breeze, go gently to the graceful gazelle and say: O, Wind, kindly tell that tender gazelle;

Gh.S (J 1

J *XS jti~i

Jones 1, 135 Jones 1, 137 Nott, 83 Hindley, 47 Hindley, 83 B.E.P., 34 Hutchinson, 192 Anon. 10, 349 Bicknell, 20 Robinson, 1 Two Graduates, 55 Ahmad, 102 Clarke, 400 McCarthy, 39 Bell, 71 Leaf, 27 Payne, I, 12 Le Gallienne, 8 Browne 1, 27 Underwood, 42 Rundall, 120 Irani 2, 3


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2 J Ol

If that lovely maid of Shiraz would accept my heart, Sweet maid, if thou would’st charm my sight, O, Pride of Shiraz, nymph divine! Fair maid of Shiraz, would’st thou take If that lovely maid of Shiraz would accept my heart, Would she accept this heart’s control, If Sheeraz’ beauty would receive If the fair Maid of Shiraz would list to my song, If that Shirazian Turk would deign to take my heart within his hand, If that beauty of Shiraz would take my heart in hand, If that slave of Shiraz captivates my heart Should that beloved of Shiraz attract my heart, If that Bold One (the true Beloved) of Shiraz gain our heart, If that angel of Shiraz would take my heart in hand, Oh Turkish maid of Shiraz! in thy hand An if yon Turk of Shiraz land this heart would take to hold in fee, So but that Turk of Shiraz take heart within her hand of snow, You little Turk of Shiraz-Town, If that unkindly Shiraz Turk would take my heart within her hand, If a sweet Turldsh maid I know If that Shirazi maid would take If that Turk of Shiraz would captivate my heart,

Chapman, 67 Stallard, 6 Arberry 2, 96 Lister, [5] Avery 1, 22 Rehder, 286 Aryanpur, 2 Nakosteen, 165 Hillmann, 12 Smith, II, [14] Meisami 3, 136 Barks, 164 Saberi 1, 2 Alston, 71 Crowe 1, 15 Ordoubadian Shahriari

For his dark mole give Samarqand to use, Should that little chit of Shiraz My Shiraz Turk is [sic] she but deign Boy, bring me the wine that remaineth, If that Tartar, that fair-skinned Turk of Shiraz, gets hold of my heart If that Shirazi Turk will take my heart in her hand If that Turk of Shiraz would satisfy my heart, I will bestow as token gifts those jeweled towns of East If that Turk(ish male/female, beloved) of Shiraz gains my heart If that Turlash One of Shiraz would take this heart in hand too, Should that Turk of Shiraz take my heart into his hand, Bring all the wine that's left! If that Turk of Shiraz wins my heart, If that young Turk of Shiraz Winebringer, bring that expensive wine you’ve been saving, for the Would that Shirazi Turk behold our heart; then, That beautiful Shirazi Turk, took control and my heart stole,

Arberry’s translation was first published two years earlier in The Bulletin ofthe School of Oriental and African Studies, XI, 1946, pp.711 -12. Hillmann’s translation was first published in ‘Hafez’s “Turk of Shiraz” again’, Iranian Studies, 8,1975, pp. 164-82.The poem by Barks might perhaps be regarded as an imitation rather than a translation. Gh. 6 fjlCiT olg—'+> j \ j & < tej* Sadiq 2, 32 Bicknell, 15 Clarke, 30 Leaf, 25 Payne, I, 8 Obbard 2, 53 Irani 2,1 Chapman, 62 Aryanpur, 4 Nakosteen, 57 Smith, II, [12] Boylan, 32 Saberi 1 ,4 Shahiiari

’Tis vain to conceal, My heart no longer brooks my hand: sages, aid for God my woe! For God’s Sake (come to my cry (relief). All bounds my heart is breaking, friends, haste to my salvation! From hand my heart goeth: help! help! Ye pious! My heart is getting out of hand, help me, my hearties, My heart goes out of my hands, O pious heart-possessors, help me, Out of my hand goeth my heart in sighs, My heart is out of control! Help me out, Sages! O rescue, friends, my troubled soul, My heart reaches out, for God’s sake help, friends of the Divine! Forsake me not, oh Lord; My heart is going out of my hand. O pious of the heart, I am lost in a love, so great

Gh. 7 tj i j f Ofj * j ■ ii) J



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Bicknell, 27 Clarke, SO Payne, I, 16 Irani 2,4 Chapman, 75 Smith, II, [17] Saberi 1, 5

Who to the Sultan’s courtiers hence will my prayer convey? To the Sultan’s attendants who will convey this prayer To the courtiers of the Sultan Who will bear this prayer for me? Who will convey this prayer of mine I flee demon-lust, God’s care presuming, To the attendants of the Monarch, who will be taking this prayer? Who will convey this request to the attendants of the king:

Clarke, 56 Irani 2, 6

Grace it will be if from beggars It will be a great favour if you hide not your face from us, beggars,

Chapman, 81

If now from beggars Thou shouldst not conceal

Gh. 9 b

J * —* ^

Richardson, 53 Richardson, 55 Sadiq 9, 112 Cowell 9, 116 Bicknell, 11 Clarke, 24 McCarthy, 57 Arnold, 131 Payne, I, 6 Obbard 2, 38 Irani 2, 4 Chapman, 71 Nakosteen, 313 Smith, II, [10] Wilson, 83 Gray 2, 43 Saberi 1, 6 Alston, 73 Crowe 1, 12 Ordoubadian

0 p1—*> c —f J L ? o 7



Hither, O Sophist hither fly, Approach O Sophist this cup which is a pure mirror, Here puritan come here, Come Sufi the bowl like a mirror doth shine, Come Sufi, andibehold my bowl, whose rays as a pure mirror shiney O Sufi (outwardly pure, inwardly impure)! In the magic mirror of the cup behold, O Sufi, Sufi hither gaze! for brightly shines the Mirror of the Cup; Soufi, come see; For the glass of the cup is bright. O Sufi strict, come here, the glass is dear! Come Sufi, for the glass of my bowl is dear, How brightly shines the mirror of the cup, Go bum the garb of holiness, O Sufi friend. O Sufi, come and see, for the cup’s mirror is bright: Sufi, approach and see the darity of this jewelled vintage Sufi, the mirror of the cup is dear. Come, Come, Sufi. The cup of wine is a dear mirror. Come, Sufi, for the cup is a dear mirror O pilgrim, come and look into the mirror of this glass of wine! Come, Sufi, see the dear mirror in the cup:

Gh. 10 0 fW

j T r j —!

Sadiq 5, 7 Bicknell 13 Two Graduates, 58 Ahmad, 108 Clarke, 28 Singh, 149 George, 43 Payne, I, 7 Obbard 2, 20 Irani 2, 5 Chapman, 79 Shastri, 21 Aryanpur, 5 Smith, II, [11] Saberi 1 ,6 Crowe 1,13

Arise, arise, my Hebe rise, Up Said! - let the goblet flow; Get up, cup-bearer, and hand over the decanter to me; O cup-bearer get up, and filling the glass with liquor, O Saki (murshid)! arise; and give the cup O spiritual preceptor! let me share thy kindness and attention, O cup-bearer! Arise (i.e. be attentive to me), and give me the cup; Up, sldnker, and give me In hand the bowl! Ho! Saki! Fetch me a cup of wine. Get up O Saqi, and give me the cup, Murshid arise, and give the cup of wine: Come, O Saqui, bring me the cup, Rise! O ’Sald! and bring us pure wine, Get up Winebringer, and give a cup from the bowl; Arise, Saqi! Give me the cup. Wake up Winebringer! And pour me a glass of wine.


Richardson, 29 Richardson, 31 Nott, 51 Sadiq 8, 72 Hutchinson, 188 Bicknell, 18 Two Graduates, 56 Ahmad, 104 Clarke, 35 Singh, 148 George, 41 Payne, I, 10 Le Gallienne, 5 Irani 2, 4 Chapman, 73 Avery 1, 20 Bausani, 146 Aryanpur, 6

With sullen pace stem winter leaves the plain, The beauty of the age of youth returns again to the meads, The youthful season’s wonted bloom Now the spring time of youth all the meadows disclose, Again on earth the vernal showers Arrayed in youthful splendour, the orchard smiles again; The garden has another splendor of youth; The garden again obtained its splendour of prime youth, The splendour of youth’s time (the murshid’s assembly) Once more the body and mind of the true devotee The freshness of the period of youth again belongs to the garden: The sheen of the season of youth Again on the garden glows; Heart have you heard the news! The garden has again acquired the splendour of youth; The Garden fills with dewy, scented things Again the garden has got the glitter of Spring: Once more the age of youth has returned to the garden Good news: to the sweet-singing nightingale!

Nakosteen, 269 Hillmann, 127 Smith, II, [13] Boylan, 28 Meisami, 3,138, Barks, 170 Saberi 1, 7 Alston, 74 Crowe 1, 14

The winter’s hostile mood is gone! The splendor of the time of youth is(has come) again The shine ofYouth’s time again upon thegarden glows; The splendor of youth, again The brilliance of youth’s time has returned to the gardens The glory of being young has come again! Once more the garden is in its splendor of youth. The splendour of the time of youth The rose speaks to the nightingale and says:

GhM 1j 4JL-a JJbl 0 ^ With reeling pace and half shut eyes,

Wilks, 117 G h .lS


L .j


The lute in softly pleasing strains Last night, from a musician, (may his mind be happy!) By night I heard from the minstrel (may his heart be happy!) But yestere’en upon mine ear At eve a son of song - his heart be cheerful long! During the night, from the musician, may whose heart always be happy,

A. H., 208 Scott, 180 Cowell 11, 294 Palmer 1,113 Bicknell, 31 Irani 2, 3 GA.16

j * c Jb - j J& j jjo i

j To lovers since thy beauty cried, to call them to thy presence high Since Thy beauty calledThy lovers to union withThee Lovers all to thine enjoyment Since thy beauty did invite, Since your beauty invited the lovers to a union with you, Thy beauty beckoned us to Thee, and lo! Since your beauty has invited Your lover to be united with You, O beloved, since Your good looks have seduced me into loving You,

Bicknell, 32 Clarke, 58 Payne, I, 19 Irani 2, 6 Chapman, 82 Smith, II, [20] Crowe 1, 19 Gh.17 «£ jT

Cowell 6, 277 Bicknell, 30




We are parted, my loved one! Severe was the blow: I, as thou knowest, went forth, and my heart with sorrow oppressed,

Clarke, 54 Payne, I, 18 Irani 2, 5 Chapman, 80 Smith, II, [19]

We went (to see thee depart); We’re gone, thou knowest and my heart, that’s eaten up with care; We have departed, and you and our sorrow-stricken heart know, We grieved for Thy departure, and the press You went, andYou knew that we went with a heart full of suffering;

GhAS Jb k


Bicknell, 25 Clarke, 46 Payne, I, 14 Irani 2, 3 Chapman, 69 Arberry 2, 98 Aryanpur, 7 Nakosteen, 327 Smith, II, [16] Saberi 1,8 Crowe 2, 68 Ordoubadian

Last night our Pir, the mosque forsaking, Last night (the first day of Eternity without beginning) From the mosque unto the winehouse Came our elder yesternight; Last night our sage came from the mosque to the tavern. From Masjid to the tavern came the Pir Elder quit the House of God, Brethren of faith: What shall we hereafter do? It was that yester eve, O friends, From the Mosque to Winehouse our Master came last night; Last night our Pir came from the mosque to the tavern. From the church to the Winehouse our Master came last night. From mosque to tavern sauntered our guru - yesternight;

GhA9 f ir A) Bicknell, 9 Two Graduates, 55 Ahmad, 100 Clarke, 20 Arnold, 127 BeU, 76 Payne, I, 4 Underwood, 37 Irani 2, 2 Chapman, 64 Shastri, 18 Aryanpur, 8 Avery 2, 216 Smith, II, [9] Loloi 3, 21 Gray 2, 45

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From the fire (of love) of my heart, In the heart’s fire my breast for love O f yonder fair consumeth; My breast was scorched by the fire of the heart, The love of my friend set my heart to fire From fire in my heart, my chest from grief for Beloved fair, burnt up; Pining for the beloved, the breast burned from the fire of the heart. From the fire in my heart, my chest from grief for the Beloved,

Gh.41 J t* J *

Bicknell, 59 Clarke, 100 Payne, I, 48

My friend to the Magians cloister came with a goblet Into the Magian’s cloister, came my Friend Into the tavern came, cup in hand, Yon sweetheart of mine,

Irani 2 ,1 9 Smith, II, [42] Saberi 1,21 Crowe 1, 29

With a cup in her hand, my beloved came inebriated to the temple To Winehouse, cup in hand came that Friend of mine; My friend came to the Magians’ house with a goblet in hand. With cup in hand, the Beloved one day walked into the Winehouse.



3 Of

Bicknell, 62 Clarke, 111 Leaf, 31 Payne, I, 56 Le Gallienne, 32 Irani 2, 16 Avery 1, 30 Rehder, 284 Aryanpur, 14 Squires, 69 Nakosteen, 237 Hillmann,59 Avery 2, 218 Smith, II, [49] Boylan, 40 Barb, 160 Gray 2, 59 Saberi 1,20 Crowe 2, 42 Lewis, 130 Ordoubadian Shahriari Bly




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With ruffled locks, with sweat drops dripping, beaming with smiles, (The Beloved), tress dishevelled, sweat expressed; Wild of mien, chanting a love-song, cup in hand, locks disarrayed, Flask in hand and verse-reriting, warm with wine and laughing-eyed, Last night, as half asleep I dreaming lay, With ruffled locks, perspiring, with laughing lips and intoxicated, With locks dishevelled, flushed in a sweat of drunkenness, Her hair in disarray, lips laughing; With dishevelled hair, smiling lips and drunken state, Half-way through the night What was the time? How well I know the hour. (With) tresses in disarray and perspiring and smiling lip Tresses dishevelled, sweat broken out, lips laughing, drunk, With a flagon in hand, singing a song and laughing, wine inside; With mussed-up hair and moistened brow Near midnight, in disarray, you come asking, Curls dishevelled, sweating, laughing, and drunk, Hair dishevelled, face sweating, lips smiling, and drunk; Look at this! The Beloved is drunk, His hair is messed up, Hair disheveled, smiling lips, sweating and tipsy, Tousled hair, sweating, a smile on her lips - drunk! Disheveled hair, sweaty, smiling, drunken, and Her hair was tangled, her mouth was still drunk

In the version dted as ‘Avery V the third person singular is employed throughout in its masculine form. In ‘Avery 2’ "he" is replaced by “she”. GA.43

C-JI j j j Lowe, 46 Clarke, 81 Payne, I, 34


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The red rose is in bloom, and the nightingale is intoxicated. In blossom is the crimson rose, and the rapt bulbul trills his song; Blossomed is the red rose; and intoxicated is the nightingale; The rose has flushed red, the bud has burst, Aflame with bloom is the red rose, the bulbul drink with spring; Full blown the red rose is and drunken Become is the nightingale. Since from this two-doored inn ’tis needful we should go, The red rose has blossomed, and the nightingale is in rapture; The red rose is open and the nightingale is drunk: The red rose has opened up (smiled) The red rose blooms and happily drunk is nightingale; This, as the roses open, and now The red rose bloomed and the nightingale became drunk. The dark red rose has bloomed

Cowell 11, 293 Bicknell, 60 Clarke, 109 Bell, 75 Leaf, 29 Payne, I, 55 Rogers 2,126 Irani 2, 16 Rehder, 286 Hillmann, 138 Smith, II, [48] Barks, 178 Saberi 1,19 Alston, 76

Cowell’s translation is reprinted in ‘Cowell, 12’ (p. 171) with only very minor changes. Gh.45 C m iit £

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Bicknell, 93 Clarke, 223 Payne, I, 126 Le Gallienne, 56 Smith, II, [110] Crowe 1, 50


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On the first day a line was written on every brow; this own: The cause of pleasure and of joy, In the Magian Elder’s favour life and joyance without spare is; The Abbot of the Wine-House for thy friend, life is a joy, because before eyes, Perfect Master there, is; Because the Perfect Master stands here before my eyes, Life is a joy!

GhM y T jT Lowe, 39

j *?^ That Night of Might of which recluses speak is tonight.

o j b C—f4TOf

Clarke, 80 Payne, I, 32 Le Gallienne, 21 Obbard 1,26 Irani 2,12 Chapman, 100 Smith, II, [31 ] Saberi 1, 24

What men of Khilvat call “the Night of power" to-night - is. That great night, whereof people of seclusion speak, tonight is. Thrice holy night! O hallowed rising moon! This is “the Night of Power," That Night of Power, which the people of the Sanctuary speak about, The cloistered call tonight ‘The night of power*. That which secluded ones call ‘The Night of Power’ tonight is: That night of Qadr about which people of khalrat speak is tonight.


of j>

4f*j *

Bicknell, 64 Clarke, 122 Payne, I, 60 Le Gallienne, 34 Rundall, 118 Irani 2, 20 Aryanpur, 16 Smith, II, [53] Saberi 1, 22 Crowe 1, 36

C~f o f

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J b i*

Seek in my brain no corner where good advice may dwell; With fancy for (perpetual union with) Thee, Since that thine image we have, O f liquor for us what need is? No! Said - take the wine away! What care I for rosy wine Because of your thought what do we care about wine? I don’t care for wine when I think of thee; Since we have You in our imagination, for wine what need is? Having your thought with me, what do I care for wine? If I have You in my mind, what use is wine?

Le Gallienne translates only b. 1; the rest of his version has no source in the Variorum text of this poem. GA.48

c— Bicknell, 66 Clarke, 129 Payne, II, 64 Irani 2, 18 Arberry 2,110 Smith, II, [56] Gray 2, 51 Saberi 1,26 Pourafzal, 140



c - j o ^SjT To him who has seclusion chosen of new and strange - What need? To him that hath chosen solitude, For him who hath solitude chosen, What need of sight-seeing has he who has chosen privacy? Who chose to dwell To he who has chosen solitude, of the world’s terrain what need is? To the recluse, what need is there of entertainment? For the one who has chosen seclusion, She who finds silence does not wandering desire;

Gh.49 C-.I

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Clarke, 210 Payne, I, 115 Irani 2, 26 Smith, II, [99]




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Since, abode in my heart, grief for him - hath taken, Since in my heart for her Abode concern hath taken, Since her love has found an abode in my heart, Since in my heart, grief for You a long residence has taken;

Gh. 50 CmI i)b j> jwAfi Waring, 209 Weston, 21 Emerson 2,730 Bicknell, 51 Robinson, 7 Clarke, 89 McCarthy, 13 Payne, I, 40 Le Gallienne, 23 Nicholson 1, 84 Obbard 2, 29 Irani 2, 8 Maitra, 60 Arberry 1, 89 Lister, [7] Avery 1, 26 Aryanpur, 18 Nakosteen, 33 Avery 2, 217 Smith, II, [37] Gray 2, 53 Saberi 1, 29 Alston, 79 Crowe 1, 27

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c *



“Come, for the house of hope is raised upon a weak foundation; Leave to the world th’ambitious views of man. Come! - the palace of heaven rests on aery pillars, Come hither! hope’s unsteady palace is trembling in its place; Come, for Hope’s strong castle is built on weak foundations; Come! For most unstable is the foundation of the Palace of Hope Come, for the House of Hope is built on sand: Come, for Hope's fortress-base Unstable as the sea is; ’Tis an unstable world: all fades and glides Ho there! Wine! Hope’s castle high, Come, Said, come.This Hall of Hope we call the world Come, for the palace of hope Come away! For the Palace of human hopes The house of hope is built on sand, Though the Castle-of-Hope is strong, Come, for our hopes are no more than a jerry-built house: Come! On the whim’s palace don’t depend. Arise, my soul, awake, beware! Come, hope’s palace is no more than a jerry built house: Come, for the House of Hope built on shaky sand is; Come, for the palace of hope has weak foundations. Come, for the palace of hope is mighty frail in foundation. Come, bring wine Come here, for the House of Hope, is built on quicksand;

Weston’s poem is a composite made up as follows: Verse one corresponds to h i of Gh.SO; verse two corresponds to b.(9) of Gh. 112; verse three corresponds to b .l of Gh.50.

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Clarke, 103 Payne, I, 50 Le Gallienne, 28 Obbard 2, 80 Irani 2, 8 Nakosteen, 311 Smith, II, [44] Saberi 1, 27 Crowe 1, 30 Pourafzal, 48 Crowe 2 ,8 Shahriari




< £ l i j Q j 4T oyntA) jiSZj

Clarke, 186 Payne, I, 99 Avery 1, 35 Smith, II, [85] Saberi 1, 39 Alston, 85

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In the snare ofThy tress, Love, in thy tress ensnared my heart A-Weed, of its own self, is; In the snare of your locks the heart is its own tormentor: In the cage ofYour curls my heart has caught itself: My heart has trapped itself in the snare of your tress. My heart walked into the snare of your tresses

Gh.66 ^ Clarke, 104 Payne, I, 51 Nicholson 1, 87 Obbard 2,18 Irani 2, 15 Smith, II, [45] Saberi 1, 39 Crowe 1, 31 Shahriari



The fresh ruby, thirsty for blood the ruby lip of the Beloved Dewy-fresh, blood-thirsty rubies That her lip, yon fair of mine, is; Soft ruby lip that I The lips of my beloved, luscious, red, and tempting, The succulent ruby lips athirst for blood are the lips of my beloved; Dew-fresh, bloodthirsty-ruby, lip of the Beloved fair of mine, is; Satiated rubies, thirsty for blood, are my beloved’s lips. Like blood dripping from the dew My eyes drown in tears, yet thirst for but one chance

Gh.68 tu Clarke, 107 Payne, I, 52 Obbard 1, 33 Irani 2, 15 Aryanpur, 23 Smith, II, [46] Gray 2, 65 Saberi 1,40 Crowe 1, 33




’Tis a (long) time since the passion for idols was my faith: From of old the love of fair ones Only wont and goal of mine is “I love my Own my All-Beloved,” this has been long It is an age since the love of the fair idols has been my religion, The love of beauties has long been my creed, It’s a long time since the love of beauties was an occupation of mine : For some time passionate idolatry has been my faith. For a long time, passion for the lovely ones has been my religion. It’s true: for prayer, the Wineshop is the best monk’s cell for me,

The curve ofThy tress is the snare of infidelity The curve of thy tress O f faith and unfaith the snare is; Who shall interpret the Beloved’s hair! Thy ringlet is of faith a snare Your hair’s curve is trap of faith and unfaithfulness, Your tress’s curve is the sane of belief and unbelief.


j t > Jf Clarke, 112 Payne, I, 57 Irani 2, 13 Arberry 2,109 Smith, II, [50] Saberi 1, 23 Crowe 1,34


J J*


With a single hair (delight) of its, A thousand hearts her tresses Bind with a single hair Your ringlets have tied down a thousand hearts with a single thread Her tresses with each sable hair A thousand hearts are captured by a single thread of hair; Your tress tied a thousand hearts to one strand of hair A thousand hearts have been captured by a single strand of hair,

Gh.76 c ~j

Clarke, 116 Payne, I, 58 Irani 2, 17 Avery 2, 219 Smith, II, [51] Saberi 1, 25 Shahriari

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When the form of thy heart-alluring eye brow, When the Maker the fashion and form, God, when He moulded the form of your heart-ravishing eyebrows, When God formed the shape of your heart-opening eyebrows, When The Creator, the form ofYour fascinating eyebrow portrayed, When God shaped the form of your exhilarant eyebrows, When God designed your features and joined your brows


Bicknell, 84 Robinson, 25 Clarke, 185 McCarthy, 77 Leaf, 33 Payne, I, 98

One, to Love’s eyes, the cell and wine house seem: No one has yet seen thy face, Thy face, none hath seen, No one hath beheld thy face, and yet thou hast a thousand watchers: No man thy face hath seen, yet the thronged wooers press around; No man hath seen thy visage, Though many an one thy spy is:

No one has seen thy face; a thousand eyes Mortal never won to view Thee No one hath beheld Thy face, and je t there are thousands No one has seen thy face and yet thou hast a thousand rival spiers; Although no one has seen thy face, None hath ever seen Thy face, No-one has seen your face and there are a thousand watchers: None has seen your face and there are a thousand rivals for you; A thousand arts in thousand ways have drawn your fancied face, No one has seen Your face, but crowd of a thousand watchers there is: No one has ever seen Your face No one has seen your face, yet there are a thousand rivals for you. Though You have thousands of lovers, No one has ever seen Your face,

Le Gallienne, 49 Nicholson 1, 91 Randall, 135 Irani 2, 25 Lister, [17] Smith. M., 114 Avery 1, 34 Levy 3,130 Nakosteen, 7 Smith, II, [84] Cloutier, [19] Saberi 1,48 Alston, 89 Crowe 1,44

On page 85 of Nicholson is a poem beginning ‘O Beauty worshipped ever’ , the first two verses of which appear to be somewhat free interpretations of b.s I and 5. Gh.78

j \ j» \ Clarke, 157 Payne, I, 80 Smith, II, [69] Saberi 1, 36 Alston, 82 Shahriari

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In the street of the tavern Each pathway-farer who unto The winehouse street his way knows, Every true wayfarer of the Winehouse’s street, the way knew; Any wayfarer who found his way to the street of the tavern, Every traveller who knows the way to the tavern Whoever had found his way to the tavern's Hock

Gh. 79

Waring, 220 Bicknell, 80 Clarke, 161 Payne, I, 82 Nicholson 1,79; 2,170 Nakosteen, 89 Smith, II, [71] Loloi 3, 23 Saberi 1, 37

“The Soofee, by the inspiration of wine, discovers hidden mysteries. The sages gain their deepest lore by wine’s resplendent light, From the wine’s sparkle (the glories of Love for God), The hidden secret of thingsThe wise from the wine-cup’s ray know; The writing on the pages of Rose The wine’s delightful ray within a radiant cup From the wine’s sparkle the hidden secret the wise may know; The Sufi has learned, from the wine’s rays, The Sufi learned the hidden secret from the radiance of wine.


Gh.82 lls> Cowell 12,160 Bicknell, 99 Clarke, 230 Bell, 81 Payne, 1,131 Le Gallienne, 60 Irani 2, 9 Arberry 2, 104 Aryanpur, 12 Nakosteen, 93 Smith, II, [115] Saberi 1,17 Crowe 1, 52 Shahriari

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When thou hearest the words of the wise, say not, ‘there is an error: ’ My friend, thou hearest amiss - the fault is thine, - some word; O Heart-ravisher! thou art not a speech-recogniser. Lady that hast my heart within thy hand, Say not, when the word of the wise Thou hearest, “The saying unfit is": Beloved, it is not for you to question the words of the wise, When you hear the words of pious men, say not that they are wrong; When thou dost hear the mystic preach, When j udging lovers don’t say “They are astray." The wise though old in years may counsel well, When hearing the master’s words, don’t say: “That, faulty is;" When you hear the words of men of heart, do not say they are wrong. Upon hearing the master’s words, don’t say: “This is wrong." When you hear the lovers* words, think them not a mistake

Gh. 83 ■ iC Waring, 202 Bicknell, 78 Clarke, 153 Payne, I, 77 O b b ard 2 ,13 Aryanpur, 11 Gray 1,139 Smith, II, [67] Loloi 1, 70 Gray 2, 49 Saberi 1,15



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“The singers, the wine, and the roses are at hand; O breeze of morn! where is the place O fragrant morning breeze (the Angel of Death)! Breeze of the dawning, where’s the Friend’s Abiding-place, ah where? Where is the resting place wherein my love reclines? Take me to my friend, O ’ the Dawn Breeze! O Dawn wind, where is the friend’s tranquil place? O fragrant breeze of morning, Beloved’s place for resting is where? Breath of dawn where is, O where is her home O dawn wind, where is my love’s resting-place? O morning breeze, where is the resting place of the beloved?

G hM Bicknell, 92 Robinson, 36 Clarke, 225 McCarthy, 113 Payne, I, 128

Better the drunkard void of fraud and wiles The Fast is over the Festival is come, and hearts are lifted up, The fast (the time of austerity and of inward purity) The Fast is ended, the Feast has arrived, Gone the Fast and come the Feast is And all hearts to joy awake;

Rogers 2, 127 Irani 2, 9 Lister, [22] Smith, II, [112] Saberi 1,16 Crowe 1,51

Why should he bear reproach who drinks his wine like me? The fast is over, the festival has come, and the hearts are in joy ; Now the fasting is O ’er and the feasting has come, The Fast is over and the Feast begun, hearts with joy are awake: Fasting went aside. The festival arrived and became exalted. The fasting is over, the feast has begun, and hearts full of joy are awake!

Gh. 85

Robinson, 24 Clarke, 184 McCarthy, 24 Payne, I, 97 Obbard 1, 5 Irani 2, 25 Lister, [16] Smith, II, [83] Saberi 1,17

Gone were heart and faith and the heart-stealer stood-up Went heart and faith; Heart and faith had departed, and the stealer stood up Gone my heart and faith are and the charmer, “My heart is torn in two “ I said. My lover sighed correction, My heart and religion are gone, and my beloved got up Gone was the heart and gone also was faith, My heart and faith are gone and the Heartstealer angrily rises, My heart and faith are gone, the heart-ravisher rose to admonition.

GhM c —L J l j >j Clarke, 212 Payne, 1,117 Obbard 1, 23 Smith, II, [101]


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Passed an age since the fire of passion Long for her, The fire of passion Burneth in this soul of ours. Long has the fire of love intense and wild for Him For a long time that fire of desire for You is in this soul of ours,

Gh.8 7 J __ aTT Ol—>■ wUJ-J JJ Robinson, 33 Clarke, 213 McCarthy, 118 Payne, I, 118 Irani 2, 24 Arberry 2, 106 Lister, [20] Aryanpur, 43 Nakosteen, 43 Smith, II, [102]

s£ 3 j

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The image of thy face is my companion in every path; In every path of Islam, The picture of thy face is with me in all my ways. The image of thy face to us In every road way-mate is ; The thought of your face is our fellow-traveller wherever we go; The image of thy face, my love, The fair image of thy dear face is companion in every journey; Sweetheart! I think of thee all the time! We feel an image of your face within our heart, In all paths, the image ofYour face is Way’s Mate: ours.


Saberi 1, 18

The thought of your face is our companion on every road.

Gh.SS C~>jl Bicknell, 40 Lowe, 1 Clarke, 71 Payne, I, 25 Irani 2, 18 Chapman, 89 Arberry 2,107 Aryanpur, 15 Smith, II, [25] Saberi 1, 22

J p j 4 » f j l > - 4—T T Bicknell, 42 Lowe, 8 Clarke, 73 Payne, I, 26 Chapman, 91 Aryanpur, 17 Smith, II, [26] Saberi 1,26 Alston, 77 Crowe 1,22

ftJT I have a nest to hold thee, ’tis in my eye’s bright centre: The balcony of the watch-tower of my eye is thy resting place, (O true Beloved!) the chamber of vision The apple of mine eye, my fair, Thy place of session grown is; The vision of mine eye Thy dwelling-place The pupil of my eye is your welcome nest ; This house of my eye is the home ofYours; The portico of my eyes’ sight is your nest. Your nest is on the porch This house in my eye is Your home.

Gh. 90

Lowe, 28 Clarke, 78 Payne, I, 130 Le Gallienne, 19 Obbard 1, 5 Irani 2,11 Chapman, 97 Smith, II, [29]

That bronzed one, whose is the sweetness of the world This blackish (beautiful) one (Muhammed), Yonder swart-skinned fair, all sweetness Do you see that dark girl yonder? Hail to the dark but handsome Prince! with every beauty blessed, That darkish beauty who possesses all the sweetness of the world, In Him the sweetness of the world to see; That darkish coloured One, the world’s sweetness is with that One;

Saberi 1,44 Shahriari

Wine-hued eyes, smiling lips, and a joyous heart belong What beauty, sweetness of the world with her lies

Gh. 91 c-y

c - xtb j\ s

Waring, 228 Bicknell, 44 Robinson, 3 Lowe, 14 Clarke, 75 McCarthy, 114 Payne, I, 27 Nicholson 1, 78 Rundall, 128 Irani 2, 11 Chapman, 95 Lister, [5] Smith M., 114 Aryanpur, 25 Hasan, 124 Smith, II, [27] Saberi 1,43 Alston, 87

“My heart is constantly filled with his love, Veiled in my heart my fervent love for him dwells, The heart is the veil behind which is hidden His love; The heart is the door-curtain o f her love, The heart is the chamber (comprehender) of love o f - His: The heart is a screen behind which He hideth His love: O f the love of her my heart the holy place is; My soul is the veil of his love, My heart is the curtained abode, the secret dwelling-place, of His love. My heart is the pavilion of Her love; The heart, a chamber for His love to be; He hath hidden his love in mercy behind the dark veil of the heart; My heart is the secret place where His love abides: The sanctuary of God’s love is my meagre heart, My heart is the canopy which shelters His love; Your Love is in my heart’s holy place:Yours. My heart is the private dwelling of her love. My heart is a curtained sanctuary

Gh. 93

Bicknell, 96 Clarke, 228 Payne, I, 129 Smith, II, [113]

My My My My

Gh.94 0*1$ J Bicknell, 98 Clarke, 229 Payne, I, 130 Smith, II, [114]

j * 4—T O f the cypress who’d make mention, if once my friend stood nigh? The tale of the cypress, In view of the shape of the Friend, O f cypress to speak were ill; To talk about the cypress in view of the Friend’s form, is an ill will;




Bicknell, 46 Lowe, 21 Clarke, 77 Payne, I, 29 Nicholson 1, 92 Rundall, 125 Irani 2, 10 Chapman, 93 Smith, II, [28] Saberi 1,44

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Prone at my friend’s high gates, my Will its head lays still; The head of my will and the threshold of my revered Friend, (Together are), - the head of our desire, The head of our purpose cleaves To the Loved One’s threshold - sill, Lo mine head upon the sill I lay the head of desire upon the threshold of the Holy Friend, The head of my desire is at the threshold of my friend’s court, Desire of men and threshold of the One The head of our desire is on the threshold of the Almighty Friend: Willing to serve, my head lies at the threshold .


Nott, 99 Hindley, 69 Hindley, 95 Cowell 2, 247 Bicknell, 50 Lowe, 72 Clarke, 87 Payne, I, 39 Rundall, 97 Irani 2, 26 Aryanpur, 26 Nakosteen, 175 Smith, II, [36] Saberi 1,46 Crowe 1,26

Haply, gale, if thou shouldst rove, Zephyr, should’st thou chance to rove Zephyr, shouldest thou chance to pass through the region Ye odorous gales, as ye merrily roam, Breeze of the morn, if hence to the land thou fleet - O f my friend, Zephyr, if thou should’st chance to pass O Breeze! If thy path should chance by the Land of - the Friend. Bring, wind of the East, and thou chance O Zephyrs of the morning! O morning breeze, if you chance to pass by the kingdom of the friend, O ’Zephyr: If you pass by the realm of my Yar* Blow on, O morning breeze, but gently move, O breeze, if you reach to the land over there of the Friend, Zephyr, if you happen to pass through the country of the friend, O wind, if you sre traveling abroad to the land of my Beloved,


4) Lowe, 33 Clarke, 79 Payne, I, 31 Irani 2, 11 Chapman, 98

j\ I have hope of kindness on the part of the Friend, O f a great favour from the threshold O f the august Friend’s pardon Hopeful, indeed, am I; I entertain hopes of favour from the friend’s threshold; I hope for some great favour from the Friend,


I hope the friend wil 1 grant to me From the threshold of the Friend, hopeful of a great favour am I; I am hoping for a kindness from my friend’s threshold.

Arberry 2, 119 Smith, II, [30) Saberi 1,45 Gh. 98 j IaCwX)

Jeto- J



This illustrious messenger, who has arrived from the country That letter-bearing courier who came from the country of the Friend That envoy (Jibr ‘ ,il) who arrived from the country of the Friend This messenger who has arrived from the country of my Friend, The messenger, letter-fraught, Who came from the land of the Friend That illustrious messenger, who came from the kingdom This illustrious messenger came from the country of my dear friend: The post-boy wind that comes from the land of my Friend That messenger who has arrived from the land of the Friend, That famous messenger, who came from the town of the friend, That letter-laden messenger The messenger who came from the land of the Master, The messenger who arrived from the land of my friend

Robinson, 5 Lowe, 61 Clarke, 85 McCarthy, 126 Payne, I, 36 Irani 2, 13 Lister, [6] Avery 1, 25 Smith, II, [34] Saberi 1,46 Alston, 88 Crowe 1, 25 Shahriari Gh. 99 C



Lowe, 68 Clarke, 86 Payne, I, 38 Irani 2, 14 Smith, II, [35] Saberi 1,47 Shahriari

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Welcome! O messenger of the anxious ones, Welcome! O Messenger of the Longing Ones, Welcome, messenger of gladness! Prithee, tidings tell of the Friend, O messenger of lovers, welcome to you! Welcome, messenger of happiness; Welcome, O messenger of the lovers. Well done O messenger, bring a message from my friend

Gh. 100

Bicknell, 69 Clarke, 134 Payne, I, 68 Le Gallienne, 39 Irani 2, 22 Smith, II, [59]

With friends ‘twere impoliteness deemed to boast oneself as skilled; Since the presentation of skill before the Beloved disrespect - is Though of deserving, indeed, to vaunt me Unto the Friend unfit is, I well could speak to her had I a mind As it is impudence to make a display of skill before the beloved, Because to show ability proudly before the Beloved disrespectful is,

Saberi 1,49

Although it is not polite to show one’s art before the friend,

GA.101 c-^ >

jL J iJ f

Bicknell, 71 Robinson 11 Clarke, 137 McCarthy, 61 Bell, 79 Payne, 1,69 Rogers 2,127 Irani 2, 19 Stallard, 30 Arberry 2,121 Lister, [9] Aryanpur, 27 Nakosteen, 263 Gray 1,140 Smith, II, [60] Gray 2, 67 Saberi 1,49 Pourafzal, 100



^ .3

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Aught fairer than parterre and spring with Hiss, oh! say - What is it? Is there aught sweeter than the delights of the garden More pleasant than the pleasure Is there aught dearer than the delights of the garden Mirth, Spring, to linger in a garden fair, More goodly than pleasance and mirth In garden and Spring what is? Each pleasant morning thou attainest count a gain; What can be more delightful than pleasure and enjoyment What more bright than lover’s ring is, What is fairer than the pleasure Is there anything sweeter in Life than the joys of the garden Enjoy good company in a garden at Spring. What else can happier be than pleasure’s cup What is more joyous than pleasure, friends and Spring garden? More pleasant than enjoying the garden and the Spring, is what? What is more joyous than pleasure, intimacy, the garden, and spring? What is better than the pleasure of companionship, garden and spring? What better than good friends in the garden in spring?

GA.102 J U jlT j Jones 1, 118 Bicknell, 74 Clarke, 143 Payne, I, 72 Irani 2, 22 Aryanpur, 28 Smith, II, [63] Saberi 1, 50


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1 JrM

Mourn, O nightingale! if with me thou regrettest the loss of thy friend, ’Tis a deep charm which wakes the lover’s (lame, O (distraught) bulbul (illusory lover)! Wail, bulbul, if with me Thy heart to friendship fain is: Wail on, O nightingale, if you have sympathy with me, O Nightingale! Sympathise with me and cry; O nightingale, cry, cry if your desire like me to be a lover is: Lament O nightingale, if you wish to be my friend.

Gh.103 4iUl> Clarke, 102 Bell, 70 Payne, I, 49 Smith, II, [43] Saberi 1, 58

id y

v 'j The sleep of that thy seducing eye Sleep on thine eyes, bright as narcissus flowers, The sleep of that seductive eye O f thine is not for nought; Sleep of that seducing eye ofYours, isn’t for nothing: The sleep of that riot-provoking narcissus of yours


'j* Clarke, 205 Payne, 1.113 Irani 2, 23 Smith, II, [97] Saberi 1, 58 Alston, 91

Save Thy threshold my shelter in the world - is none. Place save thy sill for me beneath The firmament is not; In this world, I can nowhere find shelter but at your threshold; Except for Your threshold, in the world my shelter is nowhere; Except your threshold, there is no refuge in the world for me. In this whole world

G h .\\S X A lfxi y


Waring, 224 Bicknell, 75 Robinson, 13 Clarke, 146 McCarthy, 9 Bell, 86 Payne, I, 74 Le Gallienne, 41 Nicholson 1, 94 Underwood, 51 Rundall, 133 Irani 2, 23 Arberry 2,125 Lister, [10] Aryanpur, 33 Nakosteen, 309 Smith, II, [64] Saberi 1,61 Crowe 1, 38 Shahriari

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“Do not calumniate, O pious zealot! Zealot, censure not the toper, guileless though thou keep thy soul: Censure not, thou pious man, in the purity of thy soul, O Zahid, pure of nature! censure not the profligates; Blame not, in the purity of Soul, O pious man, Lay not reproach at the drunkard’s door Rail not at the topers, zealot Clean-created, rind and core: Zahid, I beg you leave my sins alone; Blame not us wild rogues and gay, Scold not, Zahid, pious zealot O Zahid, outwardly religious one, outwardly of pure nature! O pious man of pure nature, reproach not the profligates; Blame not the drunkard, Zealot, Censure not, pious man, the lover of wine, Pious clergy! Don’t mind libertines like me, You are a soul devout and pure of heart O pious fanatic, so pure inside, do not criticise the lover of wine: Censure not the rends, O clean-natured ascetic! O hypocrite, you are so perfect, why do you criticize Let not the pious judge the meek;

Le Gallienne’s version had appeared two years previously in ‘Three Odes of Hafez*, Fortnightly Review, Vol. 73,1903,1048-50. Gh.116 ^

Emerson 1, 173 Bicknell, 77 Clarke, 151 Payne, I, 76 Underwood, 45 Obbard 2,21 Nakosteen, 301 Smith, II, [66] Crowe 1,40



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O f Paradise, O hermit wise, Zealot, avaunt! invite me not to wend to Heaven my way: O Zahid! Go: and invite me not towards Paradise: Go, o zealot! Never bid me Unto heaven; sooth to say, Oh Pious Zealot, why, prithee, Begone, O Zahid! ask me not to live, as if in Heaven, like thee, Take leave, O pious priest, you tempt me but the least O fanatic, never invite me to Paradise, and go far away; O fanatic, don’t invite me to Paradise

G h .n i j* i 3 Cowell 10, 301 Cowell 11, 293 Robinson, 14 Clarke, 148 McCarthy, 79 Bell, 74 Payne, 1,75 Arberry 2,124 Lister, [11 ] Aryanpur, 32 Nakosteen, 261 Smith, II, [65] Saberi 1, 61 Crowe 1,117 Shahriari

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Now breathes from the garden a breeze of paradise, Now that a gale of paradise breathes from the garden Now is the breeze of Paradise blowing from the garden, Now, that the fragrant breeze of Paradise Woweth Now a breeze of Paradise blows from the garden, From the garden of heaven a western breeze Now from the garden there breathe the breezes of Paradise Now that from the mead doth rise Now a breeze, like the breath of Heaven, The refreshing wine and charming beauties I enjoy, In life there is a time for soul’s serene repose Now the rose breathes the breeze of the garden of Paradise, Now that the heavenly breeze is blowing from the garden, Even the rose smells the breath of the garden of Paradise. The heavenly breeze comes to this estate,

Gh.l 18 Ijj j d * j j J j j j f j Bicknell, 82 Clarke, 169 Payne, I, 86 Nicholson 1, 93 Aryanpur, 31 Nakosteen, 285 Smith, II, [74] Saberi 1,59 Alston, 93 Bruijn, 78 Pourafzal, 153

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Arise, and let us strew our souls upon that Painter’s brush, who drew, A bulbul had a rose-leaf, pleasant of hue in his beak; ’Twas a bulbul did a rose leaf, Sweet of hue and scent, hold A Nightingale, uplifting in his beak A nightingale had a gay-coloured rose on bill; In ecstasy of union’s joy the lover’s heart will weep and Nightingale in beak, roseleaf of a colour that was pleasant held, A nightingale had a rose-petal of pretty color in his beak. A nightingale held in its beak A nightingale holding a colourful rose petal in his bill Nightingale held the petal so lovely in beak

G h .l 19

^ Clarke, 171 Payne, I, 88 Smith, II, [75] Gray 2, 73

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Thou sawest that, save the desire of violence and of tyranny, Intent, save of oppression, Thou seest, the fair hath not; You saw, except for cruelty, that one so fair didn’t have: You saw that my love meant nothing but injustice and abuse?

Saberi 1,60

Did you see that the beloved had nothing in mind but cruelty

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Bicknell, 90 Clarke, 202 Payne, I, 111 Irani 2, 14 Smith, II, [96] Saberi 1,63

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My Turk, of face so peri-like, last evening went away: That Bold One of Pari-face (the true Beloved) That fay-facedTurk, from-us-wardThat yesternight away went, That fairy-facedTurk, who passed by us last night, That Turk of an Angel’s face, Who from me last night away went, That fairy-faced Turk, who went away from my side last night,



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Clarke, 215 Payne, I, 119 Smith, II, [104]


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Every one of auspicious sight, who, for happiness, went, Each man of happy sight, who would The way of heart’s content fare, Every one with insight, who for the heart content went,




Clarke, 207 Payne, I, 114 Nicholson 1, 88 Underwood, 44 Irani 2, 25 Smith, II, [98] Saberi 1, 64





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O Saki (Murshid)! bring wine; Skinker, bring wine, for the month O f fasting and prayer hath past; Fetch me wine! for the Fast-month is o ’er, Tavern keeper, lo! - the moonrise on the fast of Ramazan! O Saqi, bring wine, for the month of fasting is over; Winebringer, bring wine; month of fasting and prayer has passed; Saqi, bring wine. For the month of fasting passed.


c i j c i j y j^ > U j* Robinson, 34 Clarke, 214 McCarthy, 40 Payne, 1 , 119 Lister, [22] Smith, II, [103] Saberi 1,64

j Jj If the hand of thy musky tresses hath committed a fault against me, (O true Beloved!) If from the hand ofThy musky tress, If the hand of thy musk-scented tresses hath sinned against me, If default from out thy musky Tress’s hair hath past, ’tis past; If the scent of thy musky tresses hath committed a fault against me; If a mistake out from Your musky hair has passed, it’s past; If your musky tress committed a wrong, let it be.


Gh. 124 ^ 3 j j oilii

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O sorrow! my (true Beloved remained in grief and sorrow for me My friend has fled! alas, my friend has fled, Alack, for the Loved One left us In sorrow and pain and went; O no, Beloved left me in grief, sorrow and pain and departed;

Clarke, 217 Bell, 100 Payne, I, 121 Smith, II, [106] Gh. 125

J* Robinson, 35 Clarke, 216 McCarthy, 92 Payne, I, 120 Le Gallienne, 54 Lister, [21] Smith, II, [105] Gray 2,75 Saberi 1,65


One sip from his ruby lip we tasted not, and he is gone; From His lip of ruby, a (single) draft we tasted not; One kiss from her lip we have not taken, - and she is gone: Never once her lip of ruby Did we pree; and she is gone; Without a sign she went away; Not a word from his smiling lips did we hear - he is gone ... he is gone. From your lip of ruby not once have we tasted, andYou have gone: We didn’t taste a drop from her ruby lip and she left. We had not yet tasted a drink from her ruby lips when she went.


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Clarke, 167 Payne, I, 85 Smith, II, [73] Gray 2, 77 Saberi 1,66 Crowe 1,42



Saki (Murshid)! come; for the true Beloved (God) Cupbearer, come, for the Friend From her visage the veil hath taken; Wine bringer come, for away the Beloved the veil took; Said come. My love has taken the veil from his face. Come, Saqi, the beloved took the veil off her face again. Winebringer, come quick! For the Beloved has taken off His veil.

GA.128 .c

Clarke, 164 Payne, I, 84 Nicholson 1, 90 Irani 2, 24 Avery 1, 31 Aryanpur, 34 Nakosteen, 169

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By concord with darkish beauty, the world Thy beauty - took. Thy beauty, in accord with grace, the world hath wholly taken. The calm circumference of life Thy beauty assisted by thy sweetness has conquered the world; Your beauty, making common cause with virtue, has subdued the world: The world’s captured by your beauty and grace. O conquering maid, O beauteous belle,

Hafiz, Master of Persian Poetry

Smith, n, [72] Saberi 1,67 Pourafzal, 162

By alliance with grace, the world was by Your beauty taken; Your beauty united with your charm conquered the world. Your goodness and your charm the whole world does embrace;

Gh.129 & Bicknell, 83 Robinson, 22 Clarke, 182 McCarthy, 56 Bell, 68 Payne, I, 95 Bridges, 43 Levy 1,77 Bowen, 97 Lister, [15] Avery 1,28 Nakosteen, 281 Meisami 1,163 Smith, n, [82] Gray 2, 79 Saberi 1,62 Alston, 94 Pourafzal, 118

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The greensward Bird to the fresh-sprung Flower spake In the hour of dawn the bird of the garden thus spoke At dawn, the bird of the sward In the dawn the bird of the garden spoke to the rose: The bird of gardens sang unto the rose, To the new blown rose the bulbul Spake this word at the break of day, Thus spake at dawn to the fresh-open’d rose Thus spoke at dawn the field-bird to the newly wakened rose: Early one morning the Nightingale said In the hour of dawn spoke a bird to a newly born rose in the garden: At dawn’s first breath the nightingale said to the opening rose: The time was early dawn, At dawn the bird of the meadow said to the new-risen rose: Bird of the garden said to opening rose at dawn of day: At dawn the nightingale spoke to the newly-risen rose: At dawn, the bird of the meadow said to the newly blooming rose: A nightingale said to a new-blown rose at dawn, Nightingale sang to flower as dawn did creep:

GA.130 C—i f Of & Robinson, 20 Clarke, 180 McCarthy, 47 Payne, I, 94 Lister, [14] Aryanpur, 35 Smith, II, [81] Saberi 1,68


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I have heard a sweet word which was spoken by the old man of Canaan I heard a pleasant speech that the old man of Kin‘an (the Murshid) I heard a sweet saying which was uttered by the old man of Canaan: A goodly saying have I heard, O f Canaan’s patriarch grey bespoken; I have heard a sweet phrase that was spoken by Jacob, The Sage’s advice, in my memory ’11 remain; I heard a saying that by the old man of Canaan they say is said: I have heard that the Old Man of Canaan made a good remark:


Bicknell, 100 Clarke, 231 Payne, I, 132 Le Gallienne, 62 Stallard, 3 Arberry 2, 100 Nakosteen, 29 Smith, II, [116] Saberi 1,74 Crowe 1, 53


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No remedy my pain can quiet - 1 ask for help. For our pain is no remedy, - Justice! For our pain no cure, ywis, is. Help! Oh help! Helpless we look for help - Sweet Heaven, save! Drug cannot physic sorrow such as ours. My distemper knows no mending O friends, assistance please. For our pain there is no remedy. Give Justice! Help! There is no remedy for our pain, help! Help! Is there no remedy for this pain?

GhA4Q £-1—>J l J — Bicknell, 102 Clarke, 233 Payne, I, 133 Smith, II, [117] Saberi 1,74

Aofc j I J . S From all the bevy of the fair, collect thy tax - ’tis due; From all the heart-ravishers, it is fit Behoving ’tis that charmers all To thee should homage pay, It is fitting that all sweethearts to Your praise pay: You are the one who is like a crown on the head of the fair ones


OW C'M'f Ol Borrow, 5 Clarke, 235 Payne, I, 134 Obbard 1,46 Aryanpur, 36 Smith, II, [118] Saberi 1,75




If shedding lovers Hood thou deem’st a matter slight, If, in thy religious order, the (shedding of the) Hood of the lover If in thy canon the sheddingThe blood of the lover is right, If, in accordance with your creed, to take a lover’s life is right, If your religion, the Hood of lovers demands; If in Your law the flow of lovers’ Hood is considered right: If, according to your religion, the lover’s Hood can be shed

GhA44 qL? J L

Bicknell, 103 Clarke, 236 Payne, I, 135 Obbard 1,47

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Look up! Muharram’s new-moon shines; ask for the wine-cup’s balm: Behold the new (crescent) moon of Muharram Behold the new moon of Muherrem! Quick, call for the goHet of wine. Come out and see the new Moharram moon


Smith, 11, [119)

See the new moon o f‘God’s Month’, demand the cup of wine:

GA.146 C j—*



Bicknell, 10S Clarke, 239 Payne, 1 , 136 Smith, II, [120]

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My heart desires the face so fair - of Farrukh; My heart, in desire of the face - of Farrukh, My heart, for desire of the visage so fair My heart, in dressing the face that’s so fair o f ‘Farrukh’ My heart, in desire for the face of Farrokh,

Saberi 1,76 Gh.148 Jp

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Ev’ry moment thy absence I mourn, Every moment I complain aloud on account of thy absence; Every breath I complain of the hand of separation! I complain every moment of the hand of thy separation. Every moment of the hand (of tyranny) of separation from thee, I complain every moment of the hand of separation. Every moment I have to complain at your hands of (your) separation. Every moment I bemoan me O f the hand of separation: Every moment I bewail my separation from Thee! With every breath I breathe in separation, Every breath that I breathe I complain of the hand Every moment I’m complaining about the hand of separation:

Hindley, 59 Hindley, 89 Robinson, 76 Dadachanji, 1 Clarke, 479 McCarthy, 33 Jhaveri 2, 17 Payne, II, 78 Rundall, 73 Obbard 2,61 Lister, [41] Smith, II, [280] Gh. 149 ib

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Waring, 210 Sadiq4, 7 Weston, 23 Bicknell, 133 Robinson, 53 Clarke, 199 McCarthy, 148 Sirajuddin, 13 Bell, 98 Payne, I, 234 Rogers 2,128


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“Wine and pleasure were wanting, what folly is this! Oh hide not our joys, them let the world see; The goblet kiss, and venerate with fear, Both wine and secret pleasures, what are they? Baseless all! Wine and sweet pleasure! What are they? Wine and hidden pleasure (love), ‘Wine and delightful pleasure* What are they? To drink wine and make enjoyment under a cover ‘The secret draught of wine and love repressed’ Drinking and mirth in secret, Things without base are they: Handle the cup with due respect: ’tis made indeed


lister, [30] Avery 1, 45 Nakosteen, 347 Smith, II, [206] Saberi 1,77

I tell you that wine and pleasure are without a foundation at all; What good in being a solitary, secret drinker? They say the rounds of wine with secret mirth Secret wine and pleasure, without any substance are they: What is secret drinking and pleasure but a baseless act?




Irani 1, 5

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If the breeze were to waft me a fragrance from your lane,


jb Bicknell, 153 Clarke, 469 Jhaveri 1,28 Payne, II, 70 Irani 1, 29 Arberry 2,108 Smith, II, [271] Saberi 1,77 Alston, 95


The aged vintner yesterday (his name be honoured yet!) Yesterday, the Pir, the wine-seller The old wine seller, may his mention be auspicious, Quoth the wine-seller old (Fair fall the name of him!) Last night the old wineseller Last night the vintner said to me The old Wineseller, bless his good name, said yesterday: Yesterday the old vintner, blessed be his memory, said: Yesterday the aged wine-seller,

GhASl jb



Clarke, 308 Jhaveri 1, 30 Payne, I, 186 Irani 1, 30 Nakosteen, 211 Smith, II, [162] Barks, 156 Saberi 1,78

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Last night, the news of the beloved, Last night, the wind gave news of the travelling friend, Yest’reven the wind brought news of Loved One from oversea: Last night the breeze gave the news of the travelled beloved; Last eve the scented wind brought back such fragrant news Last night the wind gave news of my travelling Beloved to me: Last night’s storm was a journey to the Beloved. Last night the wind gave me the news of my journeyed friend.


il—j jb Bicknell, 151 Clarke, 454

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That day of friendship when we met - Recall; That day of union of friends - remember:


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Jhaveri 1, 39 Bell, 109 Payne, II, 58 Le Gallienne, 111 Underwood, 59 Obbard 1, 8 Nakosteen, 191 Hillmann, 106 Smith, II, [260] Barks, 174 Gray 2, 85 Saberi 1,78

May the way of the meeting of friends (Lover and Beloved) Forget not when dear friend to friend returned, Days of union with the friends gone by, remembered, Forget not, 0 my heart, thine ancient friends: O f that dear day when first we met - Oh! Heart’s Delight, Remember al 1 the friends you met in the days now passed away. Recall, O heart, recall. May the day(s) of union (attachment, connection) of the loving ones The day of union with friends gone by, remember: Remember the day we met, Remember the day of union with the friends. May the day when the lovers were united be remembered.

GA.154 kS J J


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The sun of every vision,Thy beauty - be May your beauty be the sun of every eye Thy loveliness the sun of every eye be! May your beauty be the sun for all eyes; May thy beauty as the brightness of the sun on every lover shine, Sun of everyone’s eyesight Your beauty be; May your beauty be the sun of every sight.

Clarke, 314 Jhaveri 1,16 Payne, 1 , 190 Irani 1, 17 Obbard 2, 35 Smith, II, [166] Saberi 1,79 GA.1S5

If, to limit (of his capacity), the Sufi If the Sufi drinks wine by some fixed measure, If the Soufi drink with measure, Sweet to him its zest still be! If the Sufi drinks wine to his limit, then may it for him sweet be! If the Sufi drinks wine moderately, let him enjoy it!

Clarke, 428 Sirajuddin, 15 Payne, II, 41 Smith, n, [244] Saberi 1,79 GA.156


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Cowell 4, 642 Robinson, 49 Clarke, 315 McCarthy, 69 Jhaveri 1, 20

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C Jjj May thy beauty, my mistress increase every week; May thy beauty be perpetually on the increase; Ever increasing, Thy beauty - be! May thy beauty ever increase! may thy tulip-tinted cheek May your beauty be ever increasing.

Payne, I, 191 Irani 1, 20 Arberry 2,128 lister, [29] Smith, II, [167] Saberi 1,81 Shahriari

May thy beauty on the wax for aye be! May your beauty be ever on the increase! May the loveliness of thee May thy beauty perpetually he always increased in glory ; May Your beauty increasing eternally be; May your beauty be ever increasing, May your goodness always increase


—\ 3> O Clarke, 309 Jhaveri 1,20 Payne, I, 187 Irani 1, 21 Obbard 2, 55 Smith, II, [163] Saberi 1, 81 Shahriari

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O Khusrau! the ball of the sky O King, may the ball of the Sky be in the curve of your bat, O monarch, a ball in the crook of thy mall O sovereign, may the ball of the sky be in the curve of your bat! Hail, O King, and may the circling heavenly spheres O Monarch, in the curve ofYour mallet, ball of the sky for You be; O Monarch, may the sky’s ball be at the curve of your polo-stick. O Lord, this orb is no more than your bat and ball


'U AlV Clarke, 487 Jhaveri 1, 27 Payne, II, 83 Irani 1, 28 Smith, II, [285] Barks, 157

4$j £j j o L ^ Jl O just one! the draught-drinker of thy cup the sky - be! O helper, may the sky be the drinker of a mouthful from your cup O justice-doer, thy bosom-friend And cup-companion O just monarch, may the heavens be the drainers Just One, drinking companion ofYour cup the Sphere be! You that drain the sky’s dear cup,


o^jjf cS"JU ^3^3 Bicknell, 125 Clarke, 316 Payne, I, 192 Rogers 2,130 Irani 1,15 Nakosteen, 231 Smith, II, [168] Saberi 1,80

N e’er need thy body the physidans skill; In need of the physidan’s care, thy body - be not; Thy body of the leaches’ care For aye in need be not! When to the mead shall come the plund’ring autumn wind, May not your body stand ever in need of the capridous airs O love’s delight and peace of heart, May Your body, in the need of physidan’s care, never be! May your body be needless of the physidan’s care.




Clarke, 445 Jhaveri 1, 28 Payne, II, 52 Irani 1, 28 Smith, II, [2541 Cloutier, [11] Saberi 1,82

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T is a long time; and the Heart-possessor (God) a message - sent not; It is very long that the possessor of our heart Long 'tis since message my fair Anywise sendeth, For a long time past, the beloved has sent no message; It is ages and my Sweetheart’s greeting hasn't been sent; A long time For a long time my beloved has not sent me any message.


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Palmer 1, 5 Clarke, 421 Payne, II, 36 Le Gallienne, 103 Irani 1,11 Nakosteen, 215 Smith, II, [239] Saberi 1, 83




My heart with youthful ardour glows, Elderly of head, into my head youthful love - hath fallen: The love of a youngling maid In my head grown white hath fallen; A grievous folly shames my sixtieth year In my old age, the love for a youth has fallen into my head; My love in yesteryears for those capricious girls that once Young love, into my head covered by hair turned white, has fallen: Young love found me in old age.





Clarke, 345 Sirajuddin, 19 Payne, I, 212 Obbard 1,38 Nakosteen, 23 Smith, II, [185] Saberi 1, 83 Alston, 96

(O true Beloved!) when, into the mirror of the cup (of love), When the reflection of your face fell into the mirror of wine-cup, When thy face’s mirrored semblance On the goblet's shine befalleth, When that Thy Face of Light appeared reflected Through shining wine within this cup When on the mirror of the cup, reflection ofYour face’s shine falls; As the reflection of your face in the cup's mirror fell, O my Master, when the reflection of your face

Sadiq 5, 12 Robinson, 50 Clarke, 323

He, who gave thee that cheek that out rubies the rose, He who gave to thy cheek the bloom of the rose Who, to thy cheek, the hue of the (red) rose

McCarthy, 28 Payne, I, 199 Le Gallienne, 83 Rundall, 116 Arberry 2, 130 lister, [30] Nakosteen, 219 Smith, II, [174] Saberi 1, 84 Shahriari

He who enriched thy cheek with the Hoorn of the rose He who did of rose and wild rose On thy cheek the hue bestow, He who hath made thy cheek of the wild rose He who hath given Thy lovely cheek The Lord who gave those cheeks of thine He who gave to thy cheek its bloom, He who endowed your face with hue and grace like that Who to Your cheek, did rose and wild rose’s hue give, He who bestowed the colors of the rose and the jonquil to your face Whoever, to your face, such cheerful colors gave


Clarke, 475 Payne, II, 74 Irani 1, 10 Smith, II, [276] Saberi 1,85 Shahriari

Last night, to the rose, the violet spake; The violet spake to the rose last night And a goodly sign hath given; The violet said, last night, to the rose, and gave out a happy sign Last night the violet spoke out to the rose and a sweet sign gave, Last night the violet made a nice gesture and told the rose: Last night, pansy addressed flowers and itself displayed

Gh.165 jci! I O pliu> / —f \j Dadachanji, 9 Two Graduates, 61 Ahmad, 116 Clarke, 399 McCarthy, 121 Jhaveri 2, 32 Payne, II, 19 Arberry 2,131 Smith, II, [286] Saberi 1,85



The phoenix of the summit of good fortune will fall into our snare, If you happen to pass by our lodging, Shouldst thou (the beloved) pass by my lodging, (O true Beloved!) the Hum of the height of felicity The phoenix of the summit of fair fortune will fall into our snare If you happen to (or make up your mind to) pass by our abode, The Huma of fairest fortune Into our snare befalleth, The phoenix of felicity The Pure Bird of the highest faith in our snare will fall, If you happen to pass by my place,

Gh.167 L.jfi j*i j j j i Clarke, 478 Payne, II, 77 Smith, II, [279]

In our head the desire of passion for Thee - resol veth: The secret of the love of thee In this our brain still turneth. Inside my head my love for You secretly still turns;



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Waring, 203 Bicknell, 143 Clarke, 403 Jhaveri 1, 33 Payne, II, 23 Irani 1, 33 Obbard 1,34 Aryanpur, 37 Nakosteen, 97 Smith, n, [227] Saberi 1,86

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“Value the night of love; for after me the heavens will oft revolve, Plant thou the tree of friendship only ; Plant the tree of friendship, that, to fruit, Plant the tree of friendship it will bear fruit Plant friendship’s tree, for heart’s desire Plant the tree of friendship that it may bear the fruits Plant firm the tree of love, which every heart’s desire produces, Plant herb of friendship; it brings success. O f friendship grow a tree and tender it with grace, Plant tree of friendship that to heart’s desire fruitfulness brings: Plant the tree of friendship, for the fruit of your heart’s desire to bring.


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That one that, in his vision, Whosoever keeps the beauty of the face of beloved in view, Whoe’er the beauty o f the down On the Friend’s cheek in sight hath He who keeps in sight the beauty and the down of the beloved, That one who beauty of Beloved’s cheeks down in his vision has, He who has the beautiful features of the friend in sight, In truth, he has made a right use of his sight

Clarke, 318 Sirajuddin, 24 Payne, I, 194 Memon, 112 Smith, II, [170] Saberi 1,87 Alston, 97 Gh.170

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Clarke, 371 Jhaveri 1, 27 Leaf, 41 Payne, I, 233 Irani 1, 27 Obbard 2, 65 Memon, 125 Smith, II, [205] Saberi 1, 87

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At the time of (beholding) His face My heart can dispense with the garden, For the garden longs my heart not, when thy radiance it discerneth; In her face’s time no lover Inclination for the mead hath; During the sway of your face, My heart is lost in contemplation of thy face My heart does not worry about the garden Our heart has no need of garden when it ofYour face a trace has: In the presence of your face, my heart has no desire for the meadow.


Gh.171 ij t e


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Bicknell, 117 Clarke, 293 Jhaveri 1,35 Payne, I, 174 Irani 1,35 Obbard 1 ,4 Nakosteen, 63 Smith, II, [151]

The time has come when blithe and drunk, narcissus-like, we put That heart that is the hidden-dispiayer If the heart, which is (like a mirror) reflecting Divinity A heart, that is secret-discovering If the heart, which reflects the Invisible The heart that can the Future read has got the famous cup of Jam, Why should the heart that owns the World revealing cup Heart that found the Hidden Secret, cup of Jamshid’s might has;

Saberi 1, 89

What cares the heart that reveals the Unseen and has the cup of Jamshid


^yUaLi Clarke, 317 Payne, 1,193 Irani 1, 2 Memon, 137 Arberry 2,120 Smith, II, [169] Saberi 1, 88 Shahriari

That one (the murshid) who, in his hand the cup The winecup in hand whoso doth hold He who has a cup of wine in his hand He, who holds the cup in his hands, What man doth hold a winecup in his hand Anyone who the real winecup in the hand does hold, He who has a bowl of wine in hand Whoever holds a cup in hand

G A .I73 ij


Clarke, 467 Payne, II, 68 Jhaveri 1, 37 Smith, II, [269] Cloutier, [9]

«3jb Desire for thy lip, ever my heart - hath: My heart of thy lip desire for'er hath: My heart is continuously desiring your lips, The desire for Your lip my heart forever has: My heart is always

GA.174 vjUL, Clarke, 291 Payne, I, 172 Le Gallienne, 74 Irani 1,9

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I have an idol that, the canopy of the hyacinth around the rose - hath: A fair I have, who round the rose A screen of hyacinths arow hath; The face of my Beloved is a rose, I have an idol who has a canopy of hyacinths (i.e. ringlets)

Obbard 2, 19 Memon, 129 Smith, II, [150] Saberi 1,90

I have a sweetheart rosy. Her hair is black and fine and curly. I have a beloved who round his rose has a canopy of the hyacinth. I’ve a Beloved who around the rose the hyacinths gathering has: I have an idol who has a canopy of hyacinth around his rose.


Jete-jSul Jb Bicknell, 150 Dadachanji, 8 Clarke, 449 McCarthy, 146 Jhaveri 2, 31 Payne, 11, 51 Obbard 1,10 Memon, 109 Smith, II, [253] Gray 2, 87 Saberi 1,91 Pourafzal, 84

Never with harshness,man of wealth, the weak and needy treat: Whosoever possesses collected heart (i.e. peaceful mind) Everyone, who, his heart collected and the beloved acceptable - hath, Whosoever possesses a collected heart and an agreeable companion, He who has a collected heart and a beautiful Beloved, Who sweetheart kind and fair and mind The man who has a buoyant heart and fascinating friends He who has a composed mind and a darling beloved, Everyone having carefree heart and who an agreeable companion has, Everyone who has a clear mind and a lovely friend Whoever has a peaceful mind and a charming sweetheart She who walks with gathered mind and a loving friend

GhAT7 oT Bicknell, 118 Dadachanji, 9 Clarke, 146 McCarthy, 144 Jhaveri 2, 32 Payne, I, 175 Memon, 123 Arberry 2, 133 Aryanpur, 38 Nakosteen, 115 Smith, II, [152] Saberi 1, 92 Alston, 98 Shahriari

If thou desire to keep thy Loved one true, Whosoever keeps the side ( f (i.e. condescends to look at) the people (O true Beloved!) every one, Whosoever keeps the cause of the people of fidelity, He who takes the side of the faithful lovers, Whoever observance and faith With the people of faith keepeth, He who takes the part of the people of God, Whoever does the sanctity If with godly men friendship you make, Whoe’r can make and keep his vow of faith and amity Every one who is faithful, the people faithfully preserve; Whoever takes sides with the men of God, He who protects men of God He, who always keeps his trust in the One


GhA7S J t y j JJ *o

Wonderful harmony and great melody, The musician of love has marvellous instruments, Minstrel Love with voice and ghittern Wondrous skill possesseth: What a musician is that rascal Love! The bard of love has a wondrous lyre, and his songs are well-selected, The musician of love has wonderful instrument and tune. A lovely tune played the musician of love, My Minstrel o f love a great melody and wonderful harmony has: What a wonderful melody love’s minstrel has!


J**** j l 4T* Of Clarke, 319 Payne, I, 195 Irani 1, 3 Obbard 2, 9 Memon, 115 Smith, n, [171] Saberi 1,93

That one, from whose (fragrant) hyacinth lock, She, whose hyadnthine ringlet Civet in despite still holdeth, The beloved, on account of whose hyacinth tresses, That love, the fragrance from whose locks He from whose hyadnthive locks the dvet derives its light and lustre, That One, for Whose hyadnth curl, ambergris great envy has; She, by whose hyadnth ghalia has its efficacy,


AT Robinson, 44 Clarke, 295 McCarthy, 27 Sirajuddin, 12 Payne, I, 177 Le Gallienne, 76 Memon, 118 Lister, [26] Nakosteen, 189 Smith, n, [153] Saberi 1,94

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She is not the beauty who hath only waist and hair to boast of; That one is not the beloved, She is not the beloved who can only boast of waist and tresses: It is not a beautiful person who merely possesses (good) hair and waist, No true loveling’s she who only Waist and hair possesseth: Beauty alone will not account for her; She is not a beloved who merely possesses (long) hair . She is not the beauty to long for Her lure is more than lovely lines with comely curls That one is not the Beloved who only a waist and hair has, She is not a beloved who has [long] hair and [narrow] waist.

GhASl Z jijj j l _ay 4T U> 3j 1JO Clarke, 326 Payne, I, 210 Irani 1, 116 Memon, 132 Aryanpur, 40 Nakosteen, 221 Smith, II, [176] Saberi 1,95 Alston, 99

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Without the (true) Beloved’s beauty, The soul to life inclining, Without the Loved One’s grace, hath not: The soul, without the beauty of the Beloved, My soul, without the beauty of the beloved has no liking for the world. Without the friend I have no interest in life The world without my loved one’s grace is but Indination for World, my soul without Beloved’s grace, doesn’t have. The soul has no interest in the world without the face of the beloved. The soul that has not beheld


ajtai oLJ ? Clarke, 328 Jhaveri 1,40 Payne, I, 202 Obbard 2,49 Memon, 134 Arberry 2,135 Aryanpur, 41 Smith, n, [177] Saberi 1,96

The luminosity ofThy face, the (resplendent) moon - hath not: Even the moon does not possess the brightness of your face. Lo, the shining moon thy face’s Argent sheen hath not O Queen of Beauty proud the Moon hath not such brightness The moon has not the refulgence of your countenance. The radiance of thy body’s gleam The glow of your face, the moon doesn’t possess, The shining moon, the brightness ofYour face doesn’t have: The moon does not have the radiance of your face.


Jhaveri 1, 37 Irani 1, 37

My heart has no purity in it, without (seeing) your beauty, My heart without your beauty knows no ease and joy (lit. purity),



Bicknell, 146 Robinson, 61 Clarke, 113 McCarthy, 2 Sirajuddin, 247 Leaf, 43


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Again has wine my self-control subdued; Again for a second time hath the wine deprived me of self-possession; Again, from the power (of sense), wine took me: Again the wine has stolen from me my self-possession; Again wine has made me insensible, Again see me vanquished and laid low of wine;

Payne, II, 29 Le Gallienne, 99 Obbard 1,19 Lister [3] Smith, II, [232] Bunting, 32

Once again from myself hath wine ravished me? yea, Once more red wine hath turned my willing head, That Wine a second time has got into my head, Now again for a second time hath strong wine overcome my senses, Again the power over myself, that wine did waylay: I’m the worse for drink again, it’s



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Dadachanji, 11 Clarke, 481 McCarthy, 110 Jhaveri 2, 34 Payne, II, 80 Smith, II, [282]






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The desire for the wind of spring took me towards the desert. To the desert, me, the desire of the spring-breeze - took: The desire for the wind of spring took me towards the desert. Desire for the vernal breeze carried me away into the country, Longing for the wind of Springtime Did me to the open plain take, The desire for Spring breeze, me to desert’s plain took;


Clarke, 456 McCarthy, 52 Jhaveri 2, 23 Payne, II, 61 Le Gallienne, 114 Smith, II, [262] Saberi 1,96

In this dty is no idol that our heart - taketh: In the dty there is no beloved who can win my heart. There is not a Beloved in the dty that can ravish my heart. There’s no fair one in the dty That my heart shall carry; In all this dty not a girl for me! In this dty there is not a fair one who my heart’s sway takes; There is no lovely one in this town to win my heart.


J>j J * Clarke, 376 Payne, II, 1 Irani 1, 3 Arberry 2,137 Nakosteen, 73 Smith, II, [208] Kennedy M ., 95 Saberi 1,97

Aj f \

If, the heart’s grief from our memory, Except wine from our mind the thought O f the heart's care shall carry, If wine does not remove the sorrow of our heart from our memory, Except the wine put out of mind Were it not for the soothing wine If a cup of wine, never heart’s grief from our memory will take, Nothing can carry our thought away from the heart’s care - only love. If wine does not make our hearts forget their sorrow,

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Clarke, 468 Sirajuddin, 37 Payne, II, 69 Underwood, 47 Obbard 2, 40 Smith, n, [270]

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(Together are) I and rectitude and integrity. I “with rectitude and peace" no one will think of “it", Credit for worth and uprightness None doth to me assign; God and I, and a good heart yet! No one will consider me and “peace and safety" I have honesty and integrity and this, understanding is no one;

GA.190 4/


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Clarke, 240 Sirajuddin, 10 Payne, I, 138 Memon, 32 Nakosteen, 289 Smith, II, [122] Saberi 1, 98 Alston, 100

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In the morning, but bulbul (Hafiz) told a tale to the east wind At morning the nightingale told a story to the morning-breeze, The bulbul at dawn To the wind of the East his lament made At dawn the nightingale was complaining to the east wind, And once again the nightingale unfolded at the dawn his tale of woes The nightingale told the tale to the east wind in the morning: At dawn the nightingale told his story to the zephyr: At dawn the nightingale said to the breeze,



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Clarke, 246 Payne, 1 , 140 Irani 1, 6 Memon, 21 Smith, n, [124] Saberi 1, 99



Whose was the heart my love to slight?

Leaf, 24 Gh.194 ay -T



Bicknell, 111 Clarke, 256 Sirajuddin, 14 Payne, I, 145 Browne 2, 280 Obbard 1,12 Memon,86 Nakosteen, 299 Fatemi, 155 Smith, II, [128] Dalai, 237 Saberi 1, 100 Crowe 2, 73 Shahriari

j^ S 0 Jb 4^Ji> j * j pb

The Sufi has spread out his net, The Sufi (outward worshipper and hypocrite) The Sufi has spread the net and has drawn up the lid of the casket; The Soufi his snare set and open His trick-box anew hath made; The Sufi hath made display The Sufi spread his nets and opened wide his juggling-box The Sufi laid a snare and opened the cover of the casket. Our holy man has set his snare again The ascetic hath made display of his virtues Sufi set a trap and open the cover of his box of trickery made; The Sufi hath made display of his virtues and begun his blandishments; The Sufi set up a net and opened his box of tricks. O Sufi, come and open this bag of tricks; Dervish laid a trap with slight of hands and trick of the eyes

GA.195 * _r

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Bicknell, 107 Clarke, 244 Bell, 83 Payne, I, 139 Irani 1, 7 Underwood, 41 Obbard 1, 25 Memon, 3 Aryanpur, 42 Nakosteen, 251 Smith, II, [123] Saberi 1,101 Alston, 102



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A Bulbul drank his own heart’s blood, his joy was in a rose; A Bulbul (Hafiz) drank the blood of the liver The nightingale with drops of his heart's Wood ’Twas a bulbul drank his heart’s blood And a rose his own made; A nightingale drank its heart’s blood and obtained a rose; “Oh! Red Rose," said the Nightingale, “thee I’ll throne in love apart!" A Bulbul suffered toil and trouble and secured a lovely Rose. A nightingale having sucked the blood of its own heart acquired a rose, With much heart-blood, a nightingale got a rose, A nightingale had found a rose with blood and tears. A nightingale drank the heart’s blood and gained a rose; A nightingale’s heart bled until he obtained a rose, At the cost of swallowing his blood


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Clarke, 250 Jhaveri 1,18 Payne, I, 142 Irani 1, 18 Memon, 28 Arberry 2, 138 Aryanpur, 43 Smith, II, [126] Saberi 1,101 Crowe 1,54

Like the (swift) wind, resolution Like the wind, I will make up my mind My way, like breeze,To the Loved One’s abode I will make; I shall set out for the lane of the beloved, like the wind; I shall travel to the street of my beloved as swiftly as the wind; Like the wind my way I’ll wend As Zephyr I fly to the mansion of the friend, Like the breeze, my way to the end of the Beloved’s street 1*11 make; Like the wind, I will head toward the street of the beloved. Like the wind, I’ll make my way to the end of the Beloved’s street.


J jT Clarke, 265 Jhaveri 1,24 Payne, I, 151 Irani 1, 24 Memon, 19 Aryanpur, 44 Nakosteen, 195 Smith, II, [133] Saberi 1, 102 Crowe 2, 98

0‘j j J& j j ? 4ab> j * c-O

Into the curve of that doubled tress, We cannot catch hold of the curve of that double ringlet, Set the hand within that loveling’sTress of double ply one cannot; We cannot seize the curls of those douWe-parted ringlets; No hand can touch the ringlets of those lovely hair of yours One cannot touch her ringlets twofold. Tis but a distant dream, a wishful thought To place the hand into the curve of that hair’s curling, can’t be done: One can neither touch the ring of that doubled tress Since I can’t even run my fingers through Your hair,


o i# Clarke, 267 Jhaveri 1, 23 Payne, I, 153 Irani 1, 23 Memon, 25 Arberry 2,139 Smith, II, [134] Saberi 1, 103

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My heart from me, He took; She carried away my heart from me, and concealed her face, She bore away my heart And hid from me her face made: She snatched away my heart, and (then) hid her face from me; She captured my heart but hid her face from me. He stole my heart away, You took my heart away, and hidden from me Your face made; She took my heart and concealed her face from me.



Gh. 200


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O heart! the grief of love, Did you see, O heart, what once again the Love of the friend has done? Sawest thou, o heart, the havoc That Love’s pain hath wrought? Did you see O heart what the love of the beloved has done once again; Did you see, o heart, what the grief of the beloved did once again? Did you see, oh heart, what once again You’ve seen O heart, so again see what Love’s grief Did you see, O heart, what the woe of love did again? O heart, the pain of love burned once again

Clarke, 241 Jhaveri 1, 23 Payne, I, 137 Irani 1,24 Memon, 5 Hillmann, 65 Smith, II, [121] Saberi 1,106 Shahriari GA.201



Clarke, 260 Jhaveri 1, 33 Payne, I, 148 Irani 1, 33 Memon, 30 Smith, II, [130] Saberi 1,106 Crowe 2, 44 Shahriari

V,. «*»«■>*>


Friends! repentance of veiledness, O friends, the daughter of vine repented of her secrecy, Renouncement, o friend, of sedusionThe maid of the vine hath made; Friends, the daughter of the vine has renounced seclusion O friends! The daughter of the vine has repented of the veil. Friends, repentance of being veiled, the daughter o f the vine made; Friends, the daughter of vine repented of being veiled. Extra, extra, read all about it: the barmaid has taken off her veil! O friends, repented from drunkenness, daughter of vine

GA.202 Z j S


Bicknell, 115 Clarke, 262 Payne, I, 149 Nicholson 1, 101 Irani 1 ,6 Maitra, 68 Memon, 15 Arberry 2,141 Aryanpur, 47 Nakosteen, 83 Smith, II, [131] Gray 2, 91





Jam’s weird cup’s enigma shall be thine, as just, At the head of Jamshid’s cup, Thyself with the secret of Jemshid’s cup Acquainted ill thou canst make, O Fool who stepp’st not forth from Nature’s palace, In the secrets of the cup of Jamshid you can then cast a glance You shall be able to cast your glance on the mysteries of Jamshid’s cup You can cast your glance into the secret of the cup of Jamshed, It shall be manifest to thee Only when tavern-dust collyrium toyour eyes make, You too can view and secrets great see through A glance at mysteries o f Jamshid’s cup at that moment you can make, You can see the secret of Jamshid’s cup

Saberi 1,108 Alston, 104

You can have an insight of the secret of Jamshid’s Cup Would you learn the secrets of Jamsh d’s cup?

Gh.203 I— © ©wUOaC J o

Clarke, 268 Payne, I, 154 Memon, 38 Smith, II, [135] Saberi 1,104 Crowe 2, 25





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Memory be of that one, Be she mem Vied, who at parting Sign for us of mem’ry made not, May she be remembered, who did not remember me Remember that One Who when parting, Let the one who did not remember me when leaving on a journey O Beloved, since You took your shadow from the meadow, the birds

GA.204 3


viO J

Sadiq 2, 22 ShouQeen 2, 19 Anon. 9, 54 Robinson, 39 Clarke, 271 McCarthy, 50 Jhaveri 1,58 Payne, I, 156 Le Gallienne, 65 Memon, 41 Lister, [24] Nakosteen, 209 Smith, II, [137] Saberi 1,104

I stood in the way of my fair, I continued in fond expectation of my beloved, I watched her coming - but she passed not by: I laid my face in her path, but she passed not near me; On her (the beloved's) path, I laid my face in her path, but she came not nigh me: The torrent of our tears did not banish feelings of resentment (anger) My face in her way I laid, who passing thereby made not; In the Beloved’s Path I laid my face, I laid my face on her path but she did not pass over me. I have lain down my face in her path, I waited by my loved one’s way, I laid my face on Your path but me You did not pass by; I laid my face down on her path, but she did not pass by me.


Robinson, 38 Clarke, 269 McCarthy, 102 Jhaveri 1,22 Payne, I, 155 Irani, 23 Memon, 43


My heart-robber departed and gave to her adorer no notice, The Heart-Ravisher (God) departed; She who has stolen my heart has departed, The heart-ravisher went away, and did not inform She went away and aware of her going Her lovers distraught made not The beloved departed, and she gave no intimation thereof The beloved went without informing lovers

Now my heart-stealer has departed and she gave her adorer no notice;

Lister, [23] Aryanpur, 45 Smith, II, [136] Saberi 1,105

My darling went - a word to lovers didn’t send The Heartstealer left and hint of hearts caught, didn’t make; The beloved went away without informing the lovers.

GA.206 S j * JCu>




Bicknell, 113 Clarke, 258 Sirajuddin, 2 Leaf, 38 Payne, I, 146 Memon, 11 Farzaad 2, 43 Arberry 1,97 Farcaad 3, 32 Avery 1,42 Rice, 73 Aryanpur, 46 Nakosteen, 11 Hillmann, 40 Smith, II, [129] Boylan, 52 Loloi 2, [iii] Barks, 175 Dalai, 267 Gray 2, 89 Saberi 1,107 Alston, 103 Pourafzal, 40 Ordoubadian Shahriari

O f me my heart sought many a year the goblet of King Jam; Search for the cup of Jamshid For years the heart was seeking the cup of Jamshid from us; From the ringed goblet of Jamshid had my soul made long quest, For Jem ’s cup our heart requirement O f us many a year made For years the heart was seeking the cup of Jamshed from me. For years my ardent heart asked me for jamshiid’s chalice Long years my heart had made request For many years my heart asked For years my heart had been searching for Jamshid’s magic cup, ‘For years our heart has been seeking Jamshid’s glass of us, My heart for years asked me Jam’s cup to bring, My soul involved my days in searching years For years (my) heart sought (requested, demanded) the cup For Jamshid’s cup request of me my heart for many a year made, For years my heart sought the cup of Jamshid from me, Oh, the blind heart wanting Jam’s Cup from us: For many years my heart wanted something from me, I found him merry and laughing, a wine cup in his hand For years my heart asked me for Jamshid’s cup. For years my heart was demanding of me the cup of Jamshid. For years my heart begged of me Go search for Jam ’s Cup, cried my heart so vain, For long, our heart has yearned to possess Jamsheed’s Cup, For years my heart was in search of the Grail

Gh.207 Ijjl



Robinson, 42 Clarke, 284 McCarthy, 139 Jhaveri 1, 18




What hath brought on this intoxication, I know not! I know not what is the intoxication What hath induced this intoxication I know not! I do not know what that mischief is, that has turned its face towards us;

Bell, 89

What drunkenness is this that brings me hope What is it that this drunkenness On me of mine hath brought? I do not know what intoxication is this that has assailed me? What hath brought on this intoxication? I do not know what to us this face of intoxication has brought: What kind of intoxication is this that happened to us?

Payne, I, 167 Irani 1, 19 Lister, [25] Smith, II, [146] Saberi 1,109 GA.208

J j (£ J Clarke, 322 Payne, I, 198 Irani 1, 11 Smith, II, [173] Saberi 1,110

jjj Last night, news to me the messenger of the morning wind - brought, To me the East wind yesternight The tidings rare hath brought The messenger of the east wind, last night, brought me information Last night some good news to me the morning’s windy air brought, The zephyr’s breeze brought me the news last night

G6.209 L-^oi jlT*

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The east-wind at the morning-dawn brought a perfume At morning time, a perfume from the (true) Beloved’s tress, The east wind at the dawn of day brought a perfume At morning, the breeze brought to me fragrance The East wind, at the break of day, At dawn the Morning Breeze collects the fragrance The East wind, as morning dawned, brought perfume East breeze at daybreak a perfume from Beloved’s hair did bring:

Robinson, 71 Clarke, 441 McCarthy, 111 Sirajuddin, 16 Payne, II, 50 Obbard 1,29 lister, [38] Smith, II, [252] Gh.210

Ol—a Cowell 5, 250 Bicknell, 120 Dadachanji, 14 Clarke, 302 Jhaveri 2, 39 Leaf, 40 Payne, I, 181 Arberry 1,44 Arberry 3, 3 Nakosteen, 225






When my Loved One holds high the bright cup in his hand, When my Loved one takes the cup, When my beloved would take the cup into her hand, When my (true) Beloved the wine-cup in hand taketh, When the beloved takes the cup in her hand What time in his hand the bowl he shaketh, When my Beloved the cup in hand taketh, When the one I love takes a cup of wine in his hand When my beloved takes the wine-bowl in his hand Mark when my loved one fills her cup

When my friend (beloved) takes up (grasps) a (wine) cup When the beloved, the cup of wine in the hand takes, When my Friend lifts a glass in here, When my beloved takes the bowl of wine in her hand, When the Beloved holds up His glass of wine.

Hillmann, 97 Smith, II, [157] Barks, 179 Saberi 1, 111 Crowe 2, 31 Gh. 211 , »C> of 4—jloJ




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Were God to punish every one for his sins, If a person, for every sin Were God to chastise every one for his offences, If God upon every mortal Should visit every sin, If great Allah, should punish all sins, If God were to punish every person for each and every sin, If God were to punish us for our each and every sin,

Robinson, 75 Clarke, 477 McCarthy, 136 Payne, II, 76 lister, [39] Smith, II, [278] Crowe 2,71 Gh. 212 3


J* j* j

Clarke, 289 Jhaveri 1,31 Payne, I, 171 Le Gallienne, 71 Irani 1,31 Aryanpur, 48 Smith, II, [149] Saberi 1,111 Alston, 105

Save the love of those moon of face, My heart follows no other path save love of the moon-faced. Except the love of moonfaced maids, Save the pursuit of faces like the moon, My heart takes no path save that of the love of moon-faced one; Only the beauties’ love my heart’ll accept, Except for love of those moon of face, my heart a way doesn’t take: Except the love of the moon-faced ones, My heart will accept no other path

Gh.213 0j U J f y

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Bicknell, 121 Clarke, 305 Sirajuddin, 8 Payne, I, 183 Underwood, 74 Obbard 1,40 Aryanpur, 49 Smith, II, [159]

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By day seek virtue: wine, if quaffed by day, If the Said (the true Beloved) If the cup-bearer pours wine into the cup in this manner, When the skinker wine in winecup With this air y-casteth, Devout be in the daylight and drink thy wine by night, If God were Saki, and if God Himself should pour into this cup If the Said keeps serving wine this way, If the wine into the winecup the Winebringer in this way throws,


Saberi 1,113 Avery 3

If Saqi pours wine into the bowl in this way, If a wine-boy in this manner were to pitch wine into the bowl,


Waring, 213 Gore Ouseley, 29 Clarke, 287 Jhaveri 1, 32 Bell, 91 Payne, I, 169 Le Gallienne, 69 Irani 1, 32 Aryanpur, 50 Hasan, 125 Nakosteen 107 Smith, II, [148] Dalai, 243 Barks, 166 Crowe 1,55

“The enjoyment of the whole world is not worth a moment’s pain. “The whole world cannot compensate for one hour of care A world altogether to pass life a single moment in grief - is not worth: The world is not worth even a single moment’s life passed in pain, Not all the sum of earthly happiness The universe from end to end, One moment’s care unworth it is; Life is not worth the trouble; the whole sky, To put up with grief even for a moment The world isn’t worth spending a moment sad; To spend a moment in sorrow is not worth the whole world: To win this world and lose my soul in grief To grieve for a moment about all of creation is worthless: The world isn’t worth spending a moment sad; How much delight would make To worry even for a moment about all of creation is worthless.

Gh.215 ^ "T j Bicknell, 10 Clarke, 354 Jhaveri 1,29 Payne, I, 219 Irani 1, 29 Rundall, 126 Obbard 1,16 Arberry 2, 143 Levy 2, 87 Levy 2, 88 Aryanpur, 51 Levy 3,129 Fatemi, 65 Nakosteen, 25 Hillmann, 70 Smith, II, [192]



When beamed Thy beauty on creation’s morn, (O true Beloved!) in eternity without beginning The light of your beauty sprang from Divine Effulgence When Time Unbegun thy beauty’s sheen In manifestation set, In eternity without beginning, the lustre ofThy Beauty In Eternity-without-beginning the radiancy ofThy beauty At the Creation, the reflection of thy beauty, Thy beauty in eternity In eternity past the ray of your beauty breathed of its unveiling; In eternity past the ray of thy beauty of revelation breath struck At eternity rays of God’s beauty did transpire, In eternity long ago the rays ofThy beauty In Eternity without beginning the radiancy of thy beauty Out of the shell of space and time yet unbegun At the very beginning of things the ray of your beauty In Eternity beyond Time, Your radiant beauty, glorification struck;

Gray 2, 93 Saberi 1,114 Alston, 107 Pourafzal, 96 Shahriari Loloi 7, 128

On the eve of Creation the ray of your beauty broke forth. In the beginning of time, the effulgence of your beauty A ray of your beauty, O my Master You breathed luster on first day into every cell; The radiance of your goodness manifested in eternity In the beginning when the light of your beauty first came


^ Clarke, 483 Sirajuddin, 9 Payne, II, 81 Smith, II, [283] Saberi 1,115

Ojs?j * - '

In the morning when, his standard on the mountainous lands, When the King of the East fixed the standard on hills At dawntide, when the Orient’s king At dawn when King of the East, flag on the mountains pitched, In the morning, as the King of the East raised his flag

Gh.217 O f j f J h j oTb 4TJijpu

Clarke, 411 Jhaveri 1, 38 Payne, II, 27 Smith, n, [231] Boylan, 12 Saberi 1, 116

j r y oT j L j i j t l

(O Minstrel!) play a note, Strike a tune, in time with which a sigh can be breathed, Strike up a moving measure, So for it sigh one may; Strike a note, a melody so moving that a sigh one may give; The gentle breeze will blow a new Play a tune with which one can utter a sigh.


v —•*» ;
cjUL-T Clarke, 360




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I and refusal of wine! what a tale this - is!


o f

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What a rumour is it about my rejecting wine? Marry, what an idle story This of my renouncing wine is What a tale this my refusal, this my renouncing of wine, is; I and the denial of wine? What story is this? Who said I was to renounce wine?

Sirajuddin, 35 Payne, I, 223 Smith, II, [196] Saberi 1,119 Alston, 108 Gh. 223 J& U


Had I once more the power of enjoying thy society, If power be mine, as to union with Thee, Had I but the power to dwell in thy presence, If I have ability to have union with you, If union with thee vouchsafed To me of the sky shall be, To be with thee if it gave all Had I once more the power of enjoying the pleasure If the power of union with You, promised to me is, Since You have promised me union,

Robinson, 77 Clarke, 480 McCarthy, 22 Sirajuddin, 40 Payne, II, 79 Stallard, 22 Lister, [42] Smith, II, [281] Crowe 2, 30 Gh. 224

j&u Dadachanji, 5 Two Graduates, 61 Ahmad, 114 Clarke, 348 McCarthy, 109 Jhaveri 2, 25 Payne, I, 213 Aryanpur, 52 Nakosteen, 297 Smith, II, [186] Saberi 1, 120 Alston, 109



4—tJt Aj

The coin of the Soofee is not altogether pure and without alloy; The cash of a Sufi is the purest and most unalloyed of all; The coin of Sufi is the purest and most unalloyed of all; Not all purity without alloy is the coat of the Sufi; The coin of the Sufi is not altogether without alloy: The coin of a Sufi is not always pure and unalloyed, All the Soufi’s coin not wholly Pure from tincture of allay is; All that the Sufi teaches, we must not admire. These shining coins The patched old coat of the Sufi is not all unmixed purity, A Sufi’s gold is not always genuine and pure. Not every Sufi‘s coin is free from alloy,

GA.225 OiU Clarke, 359 Jhaveri 1,21 Payne, I, 222

jb j 0 f \

Pleasant is khilvat if my beloved, Privacy is pleasant, if the Beloved is really my Beloved. Sweet is seclusion, if the Friend In company with me be,

Irani 1, 21 Aryanpur, 53 Nakosteen, 43 Smith, II, [195] Saberi 1,121

Privacy is pleasant if the beloved becomes (exclusively) my beloved; Seclusion is good, if to Her I’ve access, At loved one’s side with love’s embrace, seclusion is a joyous place, Pleasant is being alone, if the beloved will with me be; Seclusion is good if the beloved be my companion.

Gh.226 4T

Robinson, 62 Clarke, 414 McCarthy, 29 Sirajuddin, 26 Payne, II, 30 Lister, [34] Smith, II, [233] Bunting, 31 Saberi 1, 121 Alston, 110

J o l jj


How should a tender verse proceed from a sorrowing heart? How a (lustrous) verse exciteth afresh the heart that is sorrowful How well a sweet verse can comfort a heavy heart! How can a sorrowful mind produce soft and tender (refreshing) verses, Dainty verse from woeful heart How forthcoming may there be Can a tender poem proceed from the depths of a sorrowing bosom? How a verse is the reviver of a heart that is full of despair! Isnt it poetical, a chap’s mind in the dumps? How can a doleful heart incite a delicate poem? Flowing verses are no solace

Gh.211 f Clarke, 303 Jhaveri 1, 31 Payne, I, 182 Irani 1, 31 Smith, II, [158]

J&U y ik jjul J j ) y> 4T 1j*> jto

In every desire, in whose search he (the lover) is not (swift) In the atmosphere where nothing save lightning is desired, In whatso love-questing, wherein, Excepting fireflaught, there is not, In that atmosphere (of love) where nothing but lightning is in demand, In the longing and searching of one who like lightning is not,

Gh.228 JL«£U


Waring, 206 Cowell 10, 301 Bicknell, 136 Clarke, 379 Jhaveri 1, 21 Payne, II, 4 Irani 1, 22 Stallard, 12 Aryanpur, 54

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“The roses have come, The rose has come forth! Oh! my friends, ’tis the hour Fair now the rose:- fairer than this Happy came the rose; and more happy than that aught - is not. The rose (spring) is welcome; and nothing pleasanter than this, The rose is come and best in Spring abideth Welcome is the arrival of the rose (spring); Blithe comes the rose, When the garden displays the fragrant rose,

Hasan, 126 Nakosteen, 259 Meisami 1 , 171 Smith, II, [211] Saberi 1,122

Welcome is the advent of spring Fair is the rose in bloom, but neV can fairer be Welcome to the rose; and naught more sweet than this, The rose came happily, no happier Spring is Pleasantly came the rose.

Gh.229 vj? Jones 1,134 Nott, 3 Shirazi, 184 R.D.C., 160 Derozio, 29 Cowell 1,88 Bicknell, 122 Robinson, 48 Clarke, 307 McCarthy, 125 Sirajuddin, 27 Bell, 93 Payne, I, 185 Le Gallienne, 82 Rogers 2,129 Nicholson 1, 86 Obbard 2, 76 Stallard, 10 Arberry 2,145 Lister, [28] Nakosteen, 217 Smith, II, [161] Loloi 6, 36 Saberi 1,123 Crowe 2, 9

(J ' j >



The rose is not sweet without the cheek of my beloved; Unless my fair-one’s cheek be near Without our girl or glass, the rose Ah! sweetly blushing damask rose, Say, what’s the rose without the smile The fairest of roses no longer is fair, Without the Loved one's cheek, the rose - Can charm not; The rose would not be sweet without the face of my beloved; Without the beloved's face, the rose - is not pleasant. The rose would not be fair without the face of my beloved: In absence of the face of the beloved and wine, The rose is not fair without the beloved’s face, The rose, sans the cheek of the Friend, is not goodly; The rose is not the rose unless thou see; Without a loved one's blooming cheek the rose is never fair, Never is wine Flowers, unless they deck the lover’s face are not enough Lacking thee the rose, Without the darling's face If I saw not the face o f my darling the rosebud would never be sweet; Without my loved one's face the rose The rose that hasn't the Beloved’s face isn’t worthwhile Without the beloved's face the rose seems very slight, The rose without the beloved's face is no good. A rose that isn’t the Beloved's face is worthless;

G/i.230 XU Jhaveri 1, 17 Irani 1, 18

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The Sun and Moon are not so bright as your face; The sun and the moon are not bright and shining like your face;


o i JA1JZBicknell, 140 Robinson, 57 Dadachanji, 4 Clarke, 394 McCarthy, 108 Bell, 104 Jhaveri 2, 24 Payne, II, 15 Obbard 1,11 Lister, [32] Aryanpur, 55 Nakosteen, 265 Smith, II, [220] Saberi 1,123 Pourafzal, 180 Shahriari


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The breeze shall waft its musky scent when morning-time - Shall be; The breath of the eastern breeze is scattering its musky odours; The breath of Zephyr will be musk-scattering, Musk-diffusing the breath of the morning breeze The breath of the breeze is shedding musk; The breath of Dawn’s musk-strewing wind shall blow, The breath of the Zephyr will become musk-distributing; Yet once more the East Wind’s breathings Musk-scattering will go; Sweet puffs of Spring’s light breezes scatter perfumes as they How, Now the breath of the Eastern breeze is scattering musty odours; Once more Zephyr spreads musk by its breeze, This aging world will soon revive its p ’rennial youth Blowing musk, breath of the breeze of morning will be; The breath of the zephyr musk-diffusing will be. The breath of west Wind will spray musk in the air ; Morning breeze, its fragrance will exhale

Gh. 232

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Clarke, 353 Sirajuddin, 38 Payne, I, 218 Nakosteen, 157 Smith, II, [191] Saberi 1,124

j& J j c —I OU-J As for me, out of my head, My love for the black-eyed (damsel) will never go away from my head, The love of black-eyed maids, indeed, My love for comely girls with amorous eyes As for me, love for those dark eyes, from my mind’s state won’t go; The love of the dark-eyed ones will never go out of my heart.

Gh. 233 j bj*

Clarke, 363 Jhaveri 1,41 Bell, 97 Payne, I, 226 Le Gallienne, 91 Aryanpur, 56 Nakosteen, 203

j Of j>&

“The day of separation from, and the night of dis-union with, I took omens (whether the day of separation would end or not) The days of absence and the bitter nights Parting’s day and night of sev’ranee From the Friend at last, is ended; The days of distance and the apart Separation day and seclusion night now end; Glad tidings, friends, the woes of parting days are gone,

Separation day and severance night from Beloved at last is ended; The day of separation and the night of distance from the beloved ended.

Smith, II, [199] Saberi 1,125 Alston, 111

The day and night


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In no one find I amity: what hath happened to those who are so loving? I do not see friendship among anyone; what befell friends? Friendship in none, I perceive. I do not see friendship anymore .When did friendship come to an end? In none can I find friendship: True love has vanished from every heart; In no one I see the quality of friendship: what has come over friends? Friendship in no one I see: To friends of old date what hath happened? What ails the times? Is friendship then no more? I see no lovers love confessing - to lovers what has happened? Fealty in none I see: Comradeship I see in none: In no person doth amity dwell, Love has departed from the scene, I see friendship in no one: to all the friends what’s happened? I do not see companionship in anyone. I see no trust among people; friends, where are thee?

In McCarthy’s volume the page dted above as page 34 is incorrectly numbered page 43.

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Clarke, 460 Sirajuddin, 1 Payne, II, 63 Arberry 2,148 Aryanpur, 59 Smith, II, [264] Saberi 1,128

Last night, to the wine-house Hafiz, a secluded recluse, yesterday repaired to a tavern, Cell-sitter Hafiz yestr’evenThe winehouse’s guest’s become; Zealot quit his cell last night, The pious clergy visited the tavern last night; Last night Hafiz, secluded,The Winehouse*s guest became; The hermit ascetic went to the tavern last night.

Gh. 238 j j j j pU?

jir ^

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(In the wish), that my heart’s work should be ended, my soul melted; In order to bring the occupation of heart to an end, My soul longed sore that my heart’s need Should be fulfilled; My soul consumed, but its aim didn’t get, My soul melted so that my heart would be fulfilled, My life melted down for the affair of the heart come to an end,

Clarke, 352 Sirajuddin, 27 Payne, I, 217 Aryanpur, 58 Smith, II, [190] Saberi 1,126 Gh.2 39 JL— f t l

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Last night (in the time of Muhammed) Last Night from His Highness Asaf a messenger with good news The messenger with the glad news from Asef last night is arrived, There came a message with news from A’saph yesterday Last night, from the court of Asaf, the messenger of good news Last night from Asaf Prince the happy message came. Messenger with news from presence of the Chief last night did come: Last night the courier of glad tidings arrived from His Excellency Asaf

Clarke, 320 Jhaveri 1, 34 Payne, I, 196 Rogers 2, 130 Irani 1, 34 Obbard 2, 23 Smith, II, [172] Saberi 1,129 G/i.240 ju T


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Clarke, 463 Payne, II, 65 Smith, II, [266] Saberi 1,130

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Love for Thee, the plant - of perturbation became, O f thy love the young shoot O f amazement there cometh; Out of love for You, plant’s shoot of astonishment came; Your love came as a sapling of amazement.

Gh. 241 T

of pjUi

Upon my thought engaged in prayer thine eyebrow's bow - Has come; In the midst of the prayers the remembrance of thine arched eyebrows When, in prayer, to me recollection of the curve ofThy eye-brow When in the midst of prayer came memory of thy arched eyebrows, While performing prayers as I remembered the arch of your eyebrows, When, in prayer, thy curving eyebrow To my memory doth come, When I was reminded of the curve of your eye-brows I stood to pray. Thy eyebrows arched my thoughts from prayer In the midst of my evening prayers, I was within the temple once in prayer knelt and worship bound, When in prayer Your eyebrow’s curve into memory comes, In my prayers, the curve of your eyebrow came to my mind. When I remembered, at prayer in the mosque, In prayer I recalled your eyebrows’ curved wake; Today, the wine in the Winehouse is clear

Bicknell, 149 Robinson, 65 Clarke, 419 McCarthy, 58 Jhaveri 1, 33 Payne, II, 34 Irani 1, 34 Obbard 1, 3 lister, [35] Nakosteen, 241 Smith, II, [237] Saberi 1,131 Alston, 113 Pourafzal, 78 Crowe 2, 28 Gh. 243 tAof j b U* Robinson, 47 Dadachanji, 1 Clarke, 306 McCarthy, 18 Jhaveri 2,18 Payne, I, 184 Rogers 2,129 Obbard 2, 62 Stallard, 14 Lister, [28] Aryanpur, 60 Smith, II, [160] Barks, 180 Saberi 1,131 Alston, 114

J e j f J?Glad tidings, O my heart! for the gentle breeze is come again, Good news, O heart! that the zephyr came back again; 0 heart! glad tidings that the morning breeze - hath come back. Glad tidings, O my heart! for the morning breeze has returned, 1 give you happy news, my heart, Good news, o my heart, for once more The zephyr of Spring Good news, O heart, that Zephyr’s breeze has come again, Rejoice, O heart! Good-tidings! Tidings, my heart! The westering gale The tidings are glad, O my heart, for the gentle breezes are blowing; Good News! My heart, zephyr has come again; O my heart, good news, for the breeze of the morning has returned; The morning breeze comes back, Glad tidings, O heart.The zephyr came again. Rejoice, O my heart,



0*7 jUj j L ^ j s^jjb Clarke, 425 Sirajuddin, 17 Payne, II, 39 Rogers 2, 128 Nicholson 1, 95 Arberry 2, 150 Aryanpur, 61 Nakosteen, 337 Smith, II, [242] Saberi 1, 132 Alston, 115

For the congratulation of the Pir, The zephyr came to congratulate the old wine-seller, The wine-seller old to gladden,The Easterly Breeze hath come; Zephyr, the old host, to congratulate comes here: Birds are piping on the boughs, the Zephyr blows a valentine The breeze of dawn these tidings fair Zephyr appeared the wine Sage to greet; O winer old and wise, the world again is paradise. To congratulate the Ancient Wineseller, the morning breeze came; The zephyr came to greet the wine-seller Pir and say that The morning breeze salutes the wine-seller,

Gh.245 juT


Clarke, 418 Sirajuddin, 6 Payne, II, 33 Aryanpur, 62 Smith, II, [236] Saberi 1,133

OT 4


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In the morning, to my pillow, At morn the waking fortune came to my pillow, Lo, at dawning wakeful Fortune to my bed hath come; At dawn the vigilant luck came to my bed, At early morning waking Fortune over to my bed did come: At dawn the awakened fortune came to my pillow,

Gh. 246 J__ IT

j )

Clarke, 264 Payne, I, 150 Irani 1, 8 Obbard 1, 22 Smith, II, [132] Saberi 1, 137 Shahriari





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After this, - (together are) my hand and the skirt of that lofty cypress Hand from skirt no more I’ll sever O f yon cypress tall and straight, Hence forth my hand will seize the skirt of that cypress, And for the rest, there is my hand, and the skirt of beauteous Saro, Now my hand will hold garment of that cypress tall and straight, From now on it will be my hand and the skirt of that tall cypress, From now on, that tall spruce has my command

Gh.247 O—

Clarke, 447 Payne, II, 53

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O thou whose pistachio (mouth) laugheth at the tale of candy! Thou whose mouth the tale of sugar Laugheth unto scorn,



Irani 1, 5 Memon, 106 Smith, II, [25SJ Saberi 1, 136

O you whose lips (lit. pistachios) laugh O you whose pistachio-like mouth O You Whose pistachio mouth laughs at the tale of candy, O you, whose pistachio has laughed at the story of sugar,

G/i.248 JL_ib


Bicknell, 139 Dadachanji, 3 Clarke, 390 McCarthy, 78 Jhaveri 2,21 Payne, II, 12 Obbard 1, 8 Aryanpur, 63 Hasan, 126 Nakosteen, 153 Smith, II, [218] Saberi 1,133 Shahriari

a j L o 7 AT


Not everyone whose face is bright, true love’s ensnaring - Knows; Not every one who brightened the face knows captivation of heart. Not every beloved one that up-ldndleth his face Not everyone who brightens the face knows conquest of hearts. It is not every one who kindles up his face Not each *tis that kindleth her face, Not every one that can a comely face display is an accepted lover ; From all beauties capturing hearts don’t expect, Not every person whose face can Hush is a second Majnun; Not every belle with face adorned Not every beauty whose face is bright, ways of a heartstealer knows; Not everyone who glows on the cheeks knows how to charm hearts. Not every painted face has charm

Gh. 249 j J L - jo

Waring, 211 Cowell 9, 243 Cowell 11, 291 Bicknell, 127 Robinson, 51 Clarke, 339 McCarthy, 116 Jhaveri 1,40 Singh, 153 George, 47 Payne, I, 208 Le Gallienne, 89 Rogers 2, 128 Obbard 2, 27 Memon, 82 Arberry 2,152


pL_jf 4T


“The glad tidings have come, that grief will not stay with us. Joyful news have come, my heart, the days of grief will soon be past, Glad news have come that the days of grief will not last; The joyful news has reached us, that woe - Shall not remain. The glad news is arrived that the days of grief are not for ever; Arrived the glad tidings The joyful news has come that the days of sorrow are not without end; The glad news is received, that the time of sorrow will not last (long), I have just received the happy news The good tidings have arrived that the days of grief will not last Come the glad news is that the days O f woe will not abide for ever; Comfort thee, heart - this much at least is true: Thy union with the moth, O Candle, count a gain, Good news has come, proclaim it wide! Glad tidings have reached that the days of agony are over. O Joyous news! The wintertide

Lister, [2] Aryanpur, 65 Hasan, 127 Nakosteen, 119 Smith, II, [182] Saberi 1, 135 Crowe 2, 29

Just arrived is the joyful news that our grief will not linger forever. Good news! Ended days of sorrow and pain; Good news has come that the days of sorrow will end: Glad tidings, friends - good news. Good news came: these times of difficulty won’t stay forever; The glad tidings came that the days of sorrow will not remain. Good news! These hard times won’t last forever;

GA.250 wUL> j UGf Dadachanji, 7 Clarke, 341 McCarthy, 142 Jhaveri 2, 29 Payne, I, 209 Nicholson 1, 99 Memon, 79 Aryanpur, 64 Smith, II, [183] Gray 2, 97 Saberi 1, 134 Shahriari

Jfjy jlT jjif 4T oTj Whosoever became the confidant of (his) heart Whoever became the confidant of his own heart, Whosoever became the confidant of his heart He who becomes a confidant of the heart of the Beloved, In the Friend’s high places every Heart’s initiate abideth He worships at the shrine of Love He, who had access to the heart, Those pure-in-heart, to truth will find their way; In Beloved’s home, he who was his heart’s confident, remained, Each one who became an intimate of the heart Whoever became his heart’s confidant Whoever was intimate with his heart, his love defined

Gh.251 J—

Clarke, 452 Payne, II, 57 Smith, II, [258]

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O sweet idol! by art, thy beautiful form, Thy fair form on goodly fashion, O Beloved mine,They’ve stablished; Sweet One, Your beautiful form as artifice They’ve made;

GA.254 oifcoj r 'jt jA j Dadachanji, 5 Clarke, 450 McCarthy, 42 Jhaveri 2, 26 Payne, II, 56 Smith, II, [257]

j\ * r


If your face is compared with the moon and the pleiades, If, to the moon and the Pleiades, comparison of thy face If your face is compared with the moon and the Pleiades, If they compared your face to the moon and the Pleiades, If thy face to the moon likened, Yea, and to the Perwin the’ve made, If to your face, the moon and Pleiades as a comparison they’ve made;


Clarke, 286 Jhaveri 1,19 Payne, 1 , 168 Le Gallienne, 67 Irani 1, 20 Memon, 99 Arberry 2,154 Smith, II, [147] Saberi 1,138

Thou wrotest not the account of thy state; We did not write to you the (state of) circumstances, No account of thee thou writest, Past although is many a day: The days go by, yet not a word you send; I did not write an account portraying my actual circumstances, Many days have passed and I have not written about my condition. These many days are gone, my friend, You never wrote explaining Yourself and it's many a day: Several days passed and you did not write anything about yourself.

Gh. 2S6 J__ b t a

Waring, 222 Clarke, 400 Jhaveri 1, 26 Payne, II, 20 Irani 1, 26 Obbard 2, 5 Maitra, 64 Memon, 91 Arberry 2,256 Aryanpur, 66 Smith, II, [225] Saberi 1,138 Pourafzal, 124 Shahriari

“Towards the mom I was liberated from all my afflictions: Last night, at morning time, Last night towards dawn, they freed me from annoyance, Yestermorn relief from sorrow, In the dawntide white, They gave me Last night, at the time of the early dawn Last night, at early dawn, from vexing doubts and troubling fears, Last night, at morning time, they (i.e. Fates) gave me deliverance Last night, at dawn, they freed me from grief Last dawn They brought my heart relief Last night at dawn I was relieved from grief; Last night before dawn, freedom from all suffering They gave me; Last night toward the dawn, salvation from sorrow I was given. They came just before dawn, as in grief I did plead; At the break of dawn from sorrows I was saved

GA.258 J L - fo j


Bicknell, 144 Clarke, 406 Jhaveri 1,26 Singh, 152 Bell, 108

j \


Angels I saw at night knock at the wine-house gate: Last night (in the hidden world) Last night I saw angels knocking at the tavem-door; I saw in the invisible world Last night I dreamed that angels stood without

George, 46 Payne, II, 25 Irani 1, 27 Underwood, 50 Memon, 97 Avery 2, 47 Aryanpur, 67 Nakosteen, 15 Avery 2,219 Gray 1,142 Smith, II, [229] Boylan, 48 Gray 2, 99 Saberi 1, 139 Alston, 117 Pourafzal, 112 Lewis, 258 Shahriari

Last night I saw that the angels were knocking at the door Yesternight the angels knocking At the wine-shops’s door I spied: Last night I saw that the angels knocked at the door of the Tavern, Two and seventy sects are fighting Last night I saw the angels knocking at the gate of the tavern, Last night I saw that angels knocked upon the wine-shop’s door: The angels knocked at the tavern-door last night, Pray let me share a dream with you, I saw last night how angels knocked at the wine-shop’s door Last night I saw angels knock on the tavern door. Last night I saw that on Winehouse’s door angels knocked, Last night I saw the angels Last night I saw angels knock on the tavern door. Last night I saw angels knock on the tavern’s door. Last night I saw the angels Angels knocked in my night dream at the tavern door; Last night I saw angels knock at the tavern door. At the gates of the tavern I saw the angels knock

GA.260 yi-.-Jj S

T ^

Bicknell, 138 Dadachanji, 2 Clarke, 387 McCarthy, 151 Jhaveri 2, 19 Payne, II, 10 Obbard 1,51 Memon, 76 Nakosteen, 303 Smith, II, [216] Saberi 1,140

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O Lord, what eagerness for blood these youthful Turks display! Would that the coins are assayed, O f coins (of hearts), is it that they (Fate and Destiny) Would that life’s coins were assayed, Would to God that they took all the cash to the touchstone, O f the current coin, I wonder, Can it be assay they take, It would be well if every mortal thing were by the touchstone tried. It is better that they test the ready money, If these competing market coins I wonder when of the heart’s coin a complete assay They take, Will it ever happen that they assay [people’s] golds,

GA.261 M-j Bicknell, 138 Clarke, 386 Sirajuddin, 22 Payne, II, 9

jS \jj o Sing, minstrel, to thy lyre the strain:*Unfated no one dies." If lawful the need of profligates, If the wine-seller grants the requests of the profligates, The wineseller’s sins, If he dully the winebibber’s need doth,


If the wine-seller fulfils the needs of profligates, If the vintner will accede If that Wineseller, an allowance for the drunkard’s need makes, If the vintner satisfies the need of the rends, If the wine-seller As wine seller answers the rends’ yearning plight,

Memon, 60 Arberry 2,158 Smith, II, [215] Saberi 1,140 Alston, 118 Pourafzal, 177 Gh. 262 o - jr





g jjj




He who in pride would blame me because I drink and love, For profligacy and love, Owing to profligacy and love-making, Yon meddler, at me who for love And toping outcry maketh, She, who opposes the secrets of the knowledge the unknown, For love and drunkenness that stupid one tries to censor me, That meddler carps me for being a rend and a lover

Bicknell, 135 Clarke, 377 Sirajuddin, 33 Payne, II, 2 Memon, 45 Smith, II, [209] Saberi 1,142 GA.263 ofji

jl jt


One day, when recollection of us thy musky reed - maketh, The day on which your musky pen may make mention o f us, If, one day, of us remembrance That thy musky reed do make, The day on which your musky pen remembers me, Upon the day thy musky pen When remembrance of us one day Your musky read makes; If your musky pen remembers me one day,

Clarke, 395 Sirajuddin, 23 Payne, II, 16 Memon, 55 Arberry 2,160 Smith, II, [221] Saberi 1,143 GA.265 i £

j ^

Sadiq 4, 56 Clarke, 437 Payne, II, 47 Irani 1, 4 Memon, 48 Smith, II, [249] Saberi 1, 144




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Oh where is faith I sigh, where’s generosity? Who is that one, who, by way of manliness, Where’s one who loyalty with me, O f generous intent, shall practise? Who is there, who out of magnanimity will show good faith to me, Is there anyone, who through generosity will be faithful to me, Where is one who through friendship will be faithful to me; Is there someone who can be kind to me through her own generosity?


Gh. 267 lLalC)


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Clarke, 424 Jhaveri 1, 23 Leaf, 45 Payne, II, 38 Irani, 23 Memon, 50 Aryanpur, 68 Smith, II, [241] Saberi 1, 141


j^ i

j j j Vi

O heart! consume. O my heart burn on, your fire performs many feats; Consume my heart, for thy burnings will surely win to the end; Burn, heart; for this thine ardency Full many a thing still doeth; Burn, O heart, for your burning will do many (wonderful) things; O heart! Burn, for your burning will accomplish many a thing. O Heart! Your suffering, miracles will do. O heart, burn: benefit to come your way such burning will make: Burn, O heart! For your burning will do many things.

Gh. 268 xSu

j —i

Clarke, 378 Sirajuddin, 18 Payne, II, 3 Memon, 53 Smith, II, [210] Saberi 1,142

I—> j




If again passing (by me), If the bird of fortune were to pass by me again, Unto us the bird of Fortune yet its way belike shall make, If the bird of fortune returns once again, If again the bird of Fortune a passage along this way shall make, If the bird of fortune passes over me again,


Clarke, 370 Sirajuddin, 5 Payne, I, 231 Memon, 58 Smith, II, [204] Saberi 1, 145

Inclination for the sward, How is it that my walking cypress is not inclined to go to a garden? Why is it that my cypress unto the meads, Now Spring is here, Why does not my gracefully walking cypress Why is it that meadow’s cypress, inclination for meadow doesn’t have, Why does my strutting cypress not come to the meadow?

Gh.270 j _j j -


Irani 1, 15 Obbard 2, 46

j-a b

J T IT o /


When my Turk disposes her musky, curly tresses round her forelock, When the ringlets of my love are opened out and dressed,


G h .n \ j

Jta o lijf

Clarke, 404 Jhaveri 1 25 Payne, II, 24 Irani 1, 25 Memon, 85 Arberry 2, 162 Aryanpur, 69 Smith, II, [228] Saberi 1,146






—irt ^

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Astonied at our glance-playing The ignorant feel perplexed at our love-affairs; At my ogling, in amazement All the tribe of lackwits goeth: The uninitiated (lit. ignorant) are amazed at our ogling; The uninitiated ones are confounded by our ogling: When I exchange the amorous glance The ignorant is perplexed that my love I show; Because of all my glancing, those without vision: The unaware are amazed at my ogling.

Gh.212 J— Clarke, 281 Sirajuddin, 20 BeU, 88 Payne, 1, 164 Memon, 88 Stallard, 26 Aryanpur, 70 Nakosteen, 149 Smith, II, [143] Saberi 1,148

j —)' c~*o j —J pMc

The slave of thy intoxicated eye, The crowned ones are slaves of your intoxicated narcissus, Slaves of thy shining eyes are even those Crowned Kings the bondmen of thy drowsed Nardssus-eyne The crowned kings themselves are but slaves Slaves whoTruth’s crown do wear: Enchanted by your eyes is even the King; The kings with crowns and royal thrones Those who wear crowns, slaves ofYour intoxicated eye are: The slaves of your languishing nardssus are the crowned ones.


Clarke, 282 Sirajuddin, 6 Payne, I, 165 Obbard 1, 17 Memon, 101 Smith, II, [144] Gray 2,101 Saberi 1,147

Those of lily perfume cause griefs dust to sit When the jessamine-scented beloveds take their seats When jasmine-breathed ones lay them down To rest, The jessamine-scented, dirty-minded, when they rest When jasmine scented ones set up the dust doud of sorrow When jasmine-scented ones lay, they lay down dust of grieving; When the jasmine-scented ones sit down When those who are fragrant like jasmines sit,


When sorrows upon seekers’ hearts settle, will not rattle

Gfc.274 aiiTU 4)


Clarke, 276 Payne, I, 160 Memon, 74 Arberry 2, 164 Aryanpur, 71 Levy 3, 131 Nakosteen, 31 Smith, II, [140] Saberi 1,149 Shahriari


x S " L-c-JT Jsu Aj 1j


Those Murshids, who (from exceeding firmness), Those with the glance Who gold of the dust they espy make, May those, who transform dust into elixir with a glance, Those eyes that with their alchemy Those who by a glance turn the dust to gold; Those who by a glance turn earth into a philosopher’s stone, Could those with powers absolute, Perfect Masters, Who, alchemy of dust with glance of an eye make, Would those who turn dust into gold by their look Those who turn lead into gold

Gh.275 ^

< /*** s>

Clarke, 280 Sirajuddin 23 Payne, 1 , 163 Rogers 2,129 Obbard 2, 56 Memon, 71 Farzaad 2, 44 Arberry 1, 103 Aryanpur, 72 Smith, II, [142] Saberi 1,150 Crowe 2, 95 Shahriari



o f c * J

j o ia j

I said: - “(O Beloved!) me, prosperous, I said “When will your mouth and lip realize my hope" “Thy mouth and thy lip ", I asked her, “Me West when will they make?" ‘From honeyed lips’ , said I, ‘What gain old men, forsooth?’ I questioned, “Can your mouth and lips prevail against me I asked, “How will your mouth and lips make me successful." When, oh when will thy mouth and lips “Ah, when shall I to thy mouth and lips attain?" I asked “When my lips will meet my desire?" I said: “Me blessed, Your mouth and lip when will they make?" I said: “When will your mouth and lips gratify me?" I said: “O Beloved, look at me. I am healthy and prosperous. I said, when will your lips mine satisfy?

Gh. 276 XS Clarke, 278 Sirajuddin, 11 Payne, 1 , 161 Obbard 2, 67 Memon, 68

J * 4—





If, in this way, heart-ravishingness, lovely ones make, If beautiful persons were to ravish hearts in this way, Fair ones, thus if use of charming Still they make, If in this way all sweethearts were to flirt and shew their fascination, If the beloveds capture hearts like this,

Smith, II, [141] Saberi 1,150 Shahriari

If the lovely ones go on stealing all hearts in this way, If the lovely ones evoke love in this way, When sweetheats with such charm lovers cajole,

Gh.277 qUCyo j& p jlT oT o Waring, 225 Robinson, 40 Dadachanji, 6 Clarke, 272 McCarthy, 131 Jhaveri 2, 28 Payne, I, 157 Memon, 63 Lister, [24] Aryanpur, 73 Nakosteen, 305 Smith, II, [138] Gray 2,103 Saberi 1,151 Alston, 119 Crowe 2, 38 Shahriari






“The priests who appear so devout before the altar, and in the pulpit, These preachers who in the pulpit and at the altar The preachers who make this show in the arch and on the pulpit, The (outward) admonishers who, These preachers who in the pulpit and at the altar These sermon-givers, who exhibit themselves in this manner Preachers, who in niche and pulpit All this great display do practise, The preachers, who make such a display in the altar and on the pulpit, All those preachers, who in pulpit or at altar make such a display, On pulpit or in altar, preachers preach, These preachers play their priestly games, Preachers who at the altar and the pulpit a great display make, Preachers who display their piety in prayer and pulpit The preachers, who display a glory in the mehrab and menbai, Preachers in the privacy of their closet Beware these preachers who use altar and pulpit as a stage On the pulpit, preachers, goodness display

Gh.278 wCJCyo

Waring, 205 Clarke, 274 Jhaveri 1,24 Payne, I, 158 Irani 1, 25 Memon, 66 Aryanpur, 74 Smith, II, [139] Saberi 1,152



“There are some who labour in the paths of love; Thou knowest what tale (it is) Do you know what the lute and the harp recount? Hark to the harp and the ghittem, What notification they make; Do you know what the harp and the lute are saying? Do you know what the harp and the lute say? This is what the lyre cries to say I think, Listen to song’s words that with harp’s strumming They make: Do you know what the harp and the lute implicate?


Gh. 279 jUby


Clarke, 283 Sirajuddin, 12 Payne, I, 166 Nicholson 1, 97 Obbard 2, 24 Memon, 94 Nakosteen, 345 Smith, II, [ 145] Saberi 1,153 Alston, 120 Crowe 2 ,8 6

j\ O ^ * OlT*j> j 4T


Wine without adulteration and the Said pleasing Pure wine and pleasing cup-bearer are two traps in the road, Wine without mixture and skinker gent Pure wine and fair women Spirits strong and Said pleasant-faced are the two snares Pure wine and a happy cup-bearer are two such snares of the way Wayfarers mark, there are two snares within our path, Unadulterated wine and Winebringer are two snares of the Way, The unadulterated wine and the beautiful Saqi are two snares Pure wine and a handsome cup-bearer In life, pure wine and the Winebringer are obstacles along the way

GA.280 ^ j >• Bicknell, 154 Clarke, 470 Payne, II, 70 Underwood, 66 Smith, II, [272]

45" Of'-Luo


When the young rose in crimson gay When now the rose upon the meadow from Nothing into Being springs, Now that from non-existence to existence into the sward Now that the rose has appeared in the garden from inexistence, Returns again to the pleasance the rose, alive from the dead; Now that the rose in the meads To life is returned from the dead, Now that the rose is risen from the dead, Since now from the heart of night the rose Now that from NOT the rose to east has come, The rose has come into the garden, from Nothingness into Being, Now that the rose from the realms of naught Now that to the field rose returns, from Nothing to Godhead, Now that the rose in the meadow came into being from non-being,


Clarke, 329 Sirajuddin, 3 Payne, I, 203 Smith, II, [178] Gray 2,105 Saberi 1, 154 Alston, 121 Shahriari

Years, in pledge for the wine of the grape, For years our poetical work was pledged to wine, Our Book, for this many a year, In pawn for the vinejuice red is; For many long years our book pawned for the grape's wine was: For years our notebook was pawned for wine. For years my book has been pawned for the red wine, For years my poems have been pawned for wine; For years, to the red wine, my heart was bound

GA.284 fjUJ Dadachanji, 11 Clarke, 356 McCarthy, 68 Jhaveri 2, 35 Payne, I, 220 Nakosteen, 193 Smith, II, [193] Saberi 1,155 Shahriari

May it be remembered that you had a glance (or favour) at us in secret. Be memory of that time (o true Beloved!) May it be remembered that you gave grace to us in secret. May the time be ever remembered, when you secretly looked at us, 0 remember how in secret Erst with us thy grace was, 1 well recall the secret home within your heart you once Remember how in that sacred time, given Your glance so full was: Remember that you had an eye on me secretly Happy days when your hand was by my side,



jU o ©


Bicknell, 126 Clarke, 337 Payne, I, 207 Nicholson 1, 102 Irani 1,14 Aryanpur, 76 Nasr, 36 Nakosteen, 329 Smith, II, [181] Gray 2, 107 Saberi 1, 156 Shahriari

ifls *




3 f t {J* 3 Ailsc-b* JO'

While aught of wine-house, of traced or said - Shall be, As long as name and trace of the tavern What while there of winehouse Name and trace shall still be, Till the scent of wine is forgot and the tavern buries its sign. As long as there will remain the name and trace of the tavern So long as of wine and tavern is trace, As long as the name and sign of the tavern and the wine remain So long as there remains a name or sign of wine As long as of wine and Winehouse a name and trace shall be, As long as the wine and tavern exist As long as there is a name and address of a tavern, As long as wine and tavern are around,

Nicholson’s version is a composite made up as follows: verses 1-3 correspond to b.s 1-3 of this Gh.; verse 4 is a version of b.8 of Gh. 6; verse 5 is a version of b. 5 of GA.231; verse 6,1 have been unable to identify; verse 7 is a version of b .l of G/i.6. Gh.286 0 j& U U Clarke, 343 Payne, I, 210 Irani 1,13 Levy 3, 133 Smith, II, [184] Saberi 1, 156 Alston, 122


k$ j j 3 j


(O true Beloved!) before this, In thy heart of yore, Beloved, More concern for lovers’ care was; Ere this you had more sympathy with your lovers Long ago, far more than now, were lover’s thoughts alive in you; In the good times gone by, Your care for lover’s welfare was; Before, you used to think of your lovers more than this. Formerly You bestowed more care on your lovers,

GA.287 sji J—

Cowell 14, 257 Dadachanji, 12 Clarke, 335 Bell, 101 Jhaveri 2, 36 Payne, I, 205 Le Gallienne, 87

j1 {J^3 j b

“Oh remember that my home was once the top of thy street, May it be remembered that the path of thy love was my abode. Mine be recollection of that time, when my dwelling, Has thou forgotten when thy stolen glance May this be remembered by you that the end of your street Be’t remembered that my dwelling Erst thy door anigh was, Time was your doorstep was my dwelling-place;

I am reminded of the days when your street was my abode. I remember when my dwelling in Your street’s vicinity was, Remembered be the time when I dwelt in your street, Remember the time when I had made the corner of your street

Abid, 66 Smith, II, [180] Meisami 2, 283 Saberi 1,157 Gh.288


3 &



(To the beloved), I said: I said “A mistake has been made, “Wrong," quoth I, “is this thou doest; Ill-advised the thing, to wit, is.* I said: “You made an error and thoughtless it was:* To the Beloved I said: “You have made a thoughtless mistake."

Clarke, 494 Sirajuddin, 30 Payne, II, 91 Smith, II, [288] Crowe 2,11

Gh.289 .3^—{ eji

3> . 4il> J* d~3>

Last night, in our (assembly of lovers for Zikr, formed like a) circle, Last night in our circle, we were talking of your ringlets. All the talk with us yest’reven O f those ringlets rare of thine was; All the long night we talked of your long hair: Last night, in our conclave, your ringlets Last night the story of your locks was told, In our circle last night, all the talk about Your hair was: Last night your tress was the subject of conversation in our assembly.



JcOj aC.J O I—

Clarke, 464 Jhaveri 1, 30 Payne, II, 66 Irani 1, 30 Smith, II, [267] Saberi 1,161


Last night, He (the true Beloved) came; She came last night and her cheeks were flushed, Here the fair, with cheek enkindles, Yesternight hath been; Last night she was coming with her cheeks aflame; Last night You came and Your cheek enflamed had been; Her face was glowing as she walked toward us last night.


J jfj* j * Dadachanji, 13

Vr-* J3

j 3!

J& f 4 T

Yesterday morning I happened (to drink) a cup or two,



Clarke, 433 McCarthy, 152 Jhaveri 2, 8 Payne, II, 44 Smith, II, [246] Saberi 1, 161

In the morning-time, me the opportunity of drinking Yesterday morning I chanced to drink a cup or two, Yesterday at morning time I happened to drink a cup or two Chance to me, at dawn, of drinking Beakers twain of wine At morning the chance for me to drink a few cups of wine Last night toward the dawn,


Clarke, 402 Sirajuddin, 28 Bell, 107 Payne, II, 22 Nicholson 1,83 Smith, II, [226] Saberi 1,162

Verily the jewel of the treasure of mysteries - is as it was: The jewel of the treasury of secrets The jewel of the secret treasury Still the pearl of mystery’s storehouse In the screen, as ’twas, is; Love’s hidden pearl is shining yet, Really, jewel of the treasury of Mystery is as it was: The pearl of the treasury of mysteries is the same as it used to be.

Nicholson’s translation is reprinted on p. 170 o f‘Nicholson 2’ , with one amusing difference: verse 14 of the 1911 version contains a “warm lass"; by 1922 this has become a “hot kiss*!

Gh.293 4USLo j

j ^ —9 L j

Clarke, 431 Payne, II, 43 Irani 1,12 Smith, II, [244] Saberi 1, 164



AijtLc 4> f t * o j O ojSL*

Lord! in the street of the wine-house Lord, in the street of the winehouse What clamour at day God, what tumult and uproar was there in the lane of the tavern Lord, in street of the Winehouse in the morning Lord, what was happening in the street of the tavern at dawn

Gh.294 4) j i r

Clarke, 388 Jhaveri 1, 32






In a pleasant dream, I beheld that in my hand, the cup - was I saw a pleasant dream, that there was a cup in my hand;

The wine-cup in my hand, Methought, in slumber’s feigning, was: I saw in a pleasant dream that I had a cup in my hand; Sweet dream I had: - Wine-cup I retain, In a happy dream I noticed that the cup my hand was holding: I saw in a happy dream that there was a bowl of wine in my hand.

Payne, II, 11 Irani 1, 32 Aryanpur, 79 Smith, II, [217] Saberi 1,163 Gh. 295 J Bicknell, 147 Robinson, 63 Clarke, 415 McCarthy, 106 Bell, 94 Payne, II, 31 Le Gallienne, 101 Majid, 16 Stallard, 19 Lister, [35] Smith, II, [234] Saberi 1,165 Alston, 124



Uj1f j k

The friend who made my house a dwelling where peris well might be, That friend who made my dwelling the abode of a Peri; That friend, by whom our house The beloved who made my house the home of an angel; My lady, that did change this house of mine Yon friend, by whom our dwelling A fay’s abiding-place was, This house hath been a fairy’s dwelling-place; That beloved on account of whom my house My Mistress dear did of my house devise To the lovely abode of a Peri, That one through whom our house the angels’ dwelling was, The beloved, because of whom our house was a fairyland, That beloved one,



Robinson, 46 Clarke, 301 McCarthy, 74 Sirajuddin, 36 Payne, I, 180 Le Gallienne, 80 Lister, [27] Aryanpur, 80 Smith, II, [156] Saberi 1,166

Gh. 304 * s j O l> 3 J *

Hindley, 66 Hindley, 93 Sadiq 2, 31 Robinson, 73 Dadachanji, 10 Clarke, 462 McCarthy, 76 Jhaveri 2, 34 Payne, II, 64 Stallard, 5 lister, [3] Nasr, 41 Smith, II, [265]

Jf y ,jiai p j f j t

Nothing, no nothing from my heart shall tear Never shall thine image be obliterated from the tablets of my heart Think not my fair those heav’nly dies, Never shall thine image be washed-out from the tablet of my heart Thy love shall never go from the tablet of (my) heart and soul. From the tablet of my heart and soul, Never shall thine image be blotted out from the book of my heart: Never will your love be wiped off from the tablet of my mind Lo, thine image from the tablet O f my heart and soul ne’er goeth; Ne’er from the tablets of my heart, From the tablet of my fond heart thine image will wash out, never, Thy form shall never leave the tablet of my heart and soul; From the book of my heart and soul Your image never goes :


A jj_

Out from my heart, I came; Life is ebbing away and my hope is not fulfilled by you, My heart from me’s gone and fruition, My case to amend cometh not; I came out from my heart and work’s dividend doesn’t come;


Gh. 323 j u j J C**f j f

9yOB JL/^ £

Robinson, 55 Clarke, 384 McCarthy, 115 Jhaveri 1,41 Payne, II, 7 Le Gallienne, 95 lister, [31] Aryanpur, 86 Smith, II, [214] Saberi 1,182 Alston, 129 Shahriari

4.. (?■>>•?J






4T cOyO JU*j

The good news is arrived, that Spring is returned in its verdure: Arrived the glad news that come hath spring, The glad tidings have come, the Spring is returned in its splendour: The glad tidings have come that spring time has arrived The good news is come that Spring’s At hand, with its verdure fine: O, I’ve good news for you - the spring, the spring! If gratuity should arrive, O, spend it on wine and roses, Good news! Spring came and buds opened; Good news came that Spring is here with a green coat so fine: The tidings came that the spring arrived and fresh plants grew. The good news has come Good news, spring is neigh [sic] and grass is green

Gh. 324

On account of the new moon (of the ‘id), The world has dyed black the eyebrow of the Eed The world with the new moon deckethThe Festival’s eyebrow-bend; The world has painted the crescent on the eyebrow of the Festival; The world, when watching for the Id, is pleased For the new moon, world drew celebration’s eyebrow’s bend; The world dyed the festival’s eyebrow with the crescent moon’s woad.

Clarke, 458 Jhaveri 1,16 Payne, II, 62 Irani 1, 16 Obbard 1,42 Smith, II, [263] Saberi 1,181 Gh.325 J U ~ jJ J jS L x 4 T ^

Clarke, 427 Payne, II, 40 Le Gallienne, 105 Irani 1, 1 Aryanpur, 87 Smith, II, [243] Cloutier, [5] Saberi 1,182 Shahriari

J m> j Come up hath the cloud azar; Come March-clouds are and the blowing Breezes of the new-born year; The winds of March blow up the clouds of spring, The clouds of March have appeared, The spring cloud appeared with New year Breeze; Clouds of March come and blowing is The breeze of the New Year Clouds borne The spring cloud came and the No-Rooz wind blew. Spring winds the March rain clouds feed

Gh. 326 J

Ij I jb


Cowell 14, 256 Clarke, 381 Sirajuddin, 36 Payne, II, 5 Obbard 1, 20 Smith, II, [211] Barks, 176 Saberi 1,183

f X j Jj^i>

wUjT ob

uu^5«- J Of J* Uc

“Oh friends of my bosom, remember last night's wine; O dear friends! of the friend of the night, O ye friends! remember our companion of last night, Companions, the comrade, the night time Remember me, my friends - your friend for this one night, Companions, the Friend through the night, bring to your mind: Dear friends, there’s a Friend Companions, your nightly friend recall!

Gh. 327 wLmj obiib c j ! j 4T" Lj Clarke, 485 Payne, II, 82 Irani 1, 10 Obbard 2, 26 Aryanpur, 88 Smith, II, [285] Saberi 1,184

Come for the standard of Mansur, the king - hath arrived. Up, for the conquering flag of Mensour the King is come! Come, the victorious banner of the monarch has arrived ; Come out! The banners of our King Mansur are waving free and high, Come, the victorious flag of Spring appeared, Hail! Come! The flag, standard of Victory, the King, has come! Come! For the victory flag of the king arrived.


L*c «^bj


Clarke, 396 Payne, II, 17 Irani 1, 12 Hasan, 129 Nakosteen, 199 Smith, II, [222] Saberi 1,185 Shahriari


From the morning-breeze,Thy pleasant perfume, who - perceived; Whoso the tale of thy scent, By th’East wind up-brought, heareth, He who smelt your pleasant fragrance from the east wind, Whoso inhaled thy fragrant smell from the morning breeze Whene’r your fragrant tress its scent transcends Whoever from morning breeze Your fragrant scent knew, Whoever sensed your pleasant scent from the zephyr In the morning breeze, your scent, whoever inhaled



Clarke, 420 Sirajuddin, 39 Payne, II, 35





O intimate friends (the crowd of lovers)! O companions! open the knot of the ringlet of the mistress, Away, companions, with the knots O f the Friend’s tress make ye!

Obbard 1, SO Nakosteen, 177 Smith, II, [238] Saberi 1, 186 Pourafzal, 150 Shahriari

Children, let us trip a measure; girls, let down your hair, Companions, friends, Companion; open, knot of beloved’s long tresses, please make! Companions, untie the knot of the beloved’s tress. Friends, let us join in waves of beloved’s hair; Friends, unlock the locks of the Beloved’s head

Gh. 334 j *

o tL S



Dadachanji, 14 Jhaveri 2, 39

Write a letter, O heart! to the beloved; O heart, write a letter to the Beloved.

Gh.339 Vb

j U —> J O cypress, lofty of stature, sweet of gait, Cypress of lofty stature, goodly of gait, Tall cypress, softly swaying, Cypress, sweetly moving, so tall and straight,

Clarke, 518 Payne, II, 111 Stallard, 16 Smith, II, [304] GA.340 j

Bicknell, 156 Dadachanji, 14 Clarke, 495 McCarthy, 75 Jhaveri 2, 39 Payne, II, 93 Obbard 2, 63 Nakosteen, 141 Gray 1, 143 Smith, II, [289] Gray 2, 115 Saberi 1,186 Crowe 2, 34 Shahriari



O Parrot! thou who dost of mysteries speak, Never O parrotl (i.e. divine instructor), speaker of secrets! Ho! O parrot (murshid)! Never, O parrot! Speaker of mysteries! O parrot, O speaker out of secrets, Ho, parrot, thou Love’s mysteries That utt’erst still, Here is to thee, O parrot, that knows and tells the secret love. Haafez, you are that parrot’s tongue of mysteries unseen, O Parrot, speaker of secrets, Ha, O parrot, you that speak the mysteries still, Ho, O parrot, speaker of secrets! O parrot, the revealer of secrets, Hey you, parrot! speaking in ridles, O bird of Paradise, your secrets disclose

5j ~


O you! (who) carried the ball of beauty from the beauties of time. OYou, who bear the ball of beauty from the beauties of all time, O you who have won the stake of beauty

Dadachanji, 16 McCarthy, 96 Jhaveri 2, 41 Gh.342 -f1— o * * v / # J Dadachanji, 15 McCarthy, 86 Jhaveri 2 ,4 0 Obbard 1,41 Obbard 2, 59

J j & j


j b i 01

a /






O musk-scented wind! go to that beloved, O musk-scented wind! go to my beloved, O musky wind, blow towards the side - abode - of that beauty, O scented Breeze, towards my sweetheart absent wing O fragrant breeze, go forth and find that dark-haired, dark-eyed beauty,

GA.343 i

oU OtH cli




j > \



It is a holiday and the season of spring, and friends (are) in expectation ’Tis the ‘id, and, at last, It is a holiday, and the rose and friends are in expectation. To-day is the day of festivity - Eed Come is the festal season, With friends and roses late: It’s the moon’s holiday time, the rose and friends anticipate: It’s ‘i d , there is the rose at last, and the friends are waiting. It is the festival [of Ramazan], the end of the rose, ‘id has come,

Dadachanji, 23 Clarke, 505 McCarthy, 62 Jhaveri 2, 48 Payne, II, 101 Smith, II, [296] Gray 2,119 Saberi 1,187 Alston, 130 Gh.345 J

Dadachanji, 18 Clarke, 503 McCarthy, 99 Bell, 90 Jhaveri 2,43 Payne, II, 99 Smith, II, [294] Gray 2,121 Saberi 1,189


j \ j




O Zephyr! bring perfume from the lane of such an one. O breeze from such a one’s street, O Zephyr, bring perfume from the street of such an one. From out the street of So and So, O gentle breeze, bring me fragrance from the street of so and so; From her stead a waft of fragrance, Eastland breeze, bring thou to me. Fragrance from the street of such a One, O breeze bring: O dawn wind, bring a whiff of dust from my love’s road. O zephyr, from the street of a certain one a pleasant scent bring me.

Gh. 346 j(.J x



Dadachanji, 22 Clarke, 507 McCarthy, 100 Jhaveri 2,48 Payne, II, 102 Le Gallienne, 118 Smith, II, [297] Gray 2,113 Saberi 1,188



j j f 0Ub» J > c j


Oh Zephyr! do not withhold passing by the house of the beloved, O breeze (murshid)! thy passing by the dwelling O zephyr, do not withhold passing by the house of the beloved, O morning breeze, do not grudge blowing by the house O East, by the Loved One’s dwelling To fare deny thou not Wind of the East, pass by my Loved One’s door, O breeze, Your passing by Beloved’s dwelling, don’t deny: O wind, don’t refuse to pass by the house of the beloved, Zephyr, a passing through the beloved’s house, spare not.

Gh.347 4> Of Dadachanji, 24 McCarthy, 31 Jhaveri 2, 50 Obbard 1, 37 Stallard, 11 Shastri, 19 [A] Shastri, 19 [B]


fj * fJO

oU^fb^flTU fj * pjb

I am the lover of the friend, what have I to do with infidelity and faith? I am the lover of my love: what have I to do with faith and unfaith? I am the lover of the Beloved, I am the lover of my One-Beloved. If, Friend, I love thee, what’s to me I am in love with the Friend, The arch of the door of prayer

Shastri's translation is presented as two distinct poems; [A] contains b.s 1 and 2; [B] contains b.s 4, 5 ,7 and 8. He offers no translation of b.6. Gh. 348 jL j w>L_j ^1 ~ Nott 9, Collegins, 7 Kennedy, 81 Barnes, 13 Bicknell, 163 Dadachanji, 21 Clarke, 516 McCarthy, 80 Jhaveri 2,4 6 Payne, II, 109 Underwood, 39



“Hither, boy, a goblet bring, Go, Boy! and bring a copious bowl, Hence every care! boy, bid the flagon flow; Here of wine, boy, a measure bring us out, Said, what gives me youth - Bring hither: Oh cup-bearer! bring the capital stock of youth. O Saki! me, youth’s capital - bring. O Cup-Bearer! bring the joy of youth: O Saki, bring the source of youth; Skinker, youth’s capital here come bring; Tavern keeper, glasses!


L it -

O Winebringer, youth’s joy to me here, bring: O Winebringer, bring me some wine, and one or two cups won’t do.

Smith, II, [303] Crowe 2, 83 Gh.349

j Dadachanji, 17 Clarke, 502 McCarthy, 97 Jhaveri 2, 42 Payne, II, 98 Rundall, 101 Smith, II, [293] Loloi 3, 24 Saberi 1,189 Alston, 132 Crowe 2, 87


o jjjf


J 0 ©J iJb- Jl

L# ^1

O Zephyr! bring fragrance from the dust ofThe door of the beloved. O breeze! from the dust of the true Beloved’s path, O Zephyr, bring fragrance from the dust of the path of the beloved. O breeze, bring the sweet smell of the dust of the Beloved’s door. Fragrance, East Wind, from the pathway Bring, Morning Breeze, the fragrance of that dust O breeze, from dust of the path of the beloved, a scent bring; Oh zephyr, bring me the fragrance of the dust from the beloved’s road, O zephyr, a pleasant scent from the earth of the road O morning breeze, bring me a whiff O wind, from the road where the Beloved has walked, bring me


Dadachanji, 20 Clarke, 501 McCarthy, 103 Jhaveri 2,45 Payne, II, 97 Aryanpur, 89 Smith, II, [292] Cloutier, [13] Gray 2,123 Saberi 1,190

Show face, and make me forget my own existence, (O beloved!) display thy face Show thy face, and make me forget my existence: Show me your face and take away the idea of my existence Show thy face and self’s existence From my memory tear away; I forget myself when your beauty display, Show Your face and my existence from my memory tear away ; Beloved - turn Your face Show your face and make me forget I exist. Show your face and make me forget my own life.


Dadachanji, 22 Clarke, 511 McCarthy, 63 Jhaveri 2,4 7 Payne, II, 106 Smith, II, [300]

It is the night of power and the book of separation is finished ’Tis the night of power; and closed is the book of separation: It is the night of power, and the book of separation is closed. To-night is the night of destiny, ’Tis Hallowe’en and shut the book of parting; It’s the Night of Power, closed is the book of separating;

Saberi 1,191 Crowe 2, 92

It is the night of union and the letter of separation is done. This is the night of Love, and we’re closing all books.


Dadachanji, 18 Clarke, 515 McCarthy, 82 Jhaveri 2,43 Payne, II, 108 Smith, II, [302] Cloutier, [7]

O heart! how long will you shed my blood? O heart! from the eye, some blood thou sheddest: O heart! how long will you shed my blood unashamed? O my heart, how long will you cause the eyes to shed tears of blood? How long, o heart, wilt shed my blood? Heart, through eye you bled some, you have shame at last; Heart - blood




Emerson 3,185 Dadachanji, 24 Clarke, 498 McCarthy, 41 Jhaveri 2, 50 Payne, II, 94 Aryanpur, 90 Smith, II, [290] Saberi 1,192 Alston, 133 Lewis, 134

'jf J__>J






If my darling should depart, If there be life (i.e. if I remain alive) I shall go once more If life were, to the wine-house, If I live I shall go once more to the wine-house. If I am granted more life, I will again go to the tavern. If life last me and the tavern I once more attain I wish another to live and visit tavern again; If I live another time to Winehouse I’ll turn my rein: another. If there be life, I will reach the tavern once again. If further life be granted me If life remains, I shall go back to the tavern

Gh.355 y£. jfJAjy c o -j

Cowell 11, 293 Bicknell, 160 Dadachanji, 16 Clarke, 504 McCarthy, 93 Jhaveri 2,41 Payne, II, 100 Nakosteen, 143 Smith, II, [295]

Jf ?J> .s 3 ,2 and 5 of G/i.359; verse 4 corresponds to b.( 16) of G/i.306. GA.361

j - j j u oji

Robinson, 83 Clarke, 539 McCarthy, 147 Bell, 110 Payne, II, 124 Obbard 1, 30 Lister,4

Who told thee, my soul, not to inquire about my condition; O Soul! who spake to thee, saying: Who told thee, my soul, not to ask about my states? Beloved, who has bid thee ask no more Tell me, o soul, who bade thee Thus of our case ask not, My Love! Who said to thee don’t ask about his welfare Who hath ordered thee, O my soul, not to ask about my condition,

Smith, II, [318]

O soul, who told to you: “The situation of our case, don’t ask;”

Gh. 389

H .H .,493 Hindley, 56 Hindley, 87 E.C., 351 Sadiq 5, 25 Gulchin 3,445 Gulchin 3,446 Anon. 4, 155 Clarke, 543 Payne, II, 126 Obbard 1,2 Shastri, 20 Hillmann, 134 Smith, II, [320] Cloutier, [24] Barks, 172 Saberi 1,206 Shahriari

0 love, how have I felt thy pain! Tho’ I have felt a lover’s woes, 1 have borne the anguish of love, which ask me not to describe: The anguish of love I have borne, In absence I have suffer’d much; I have suffered the anguish of love; ask me not how: What pangs of love I bore Ask me not to tell; Whilst banished from my love pine, Love’s pain, I have endured to such a degree Suffered for love such woe Have I, that ask not; I’ve felt of love returned the pangs adorable! Ask nothing more! What pain have I suffered for love? I have endured (undergone) pain(s) of love I’ve gained from love such sorrow, that, don’t ask: Don’t ask to what extent Don’t ask me to describe What pain of love I have suffered, ask not. Ask not what sorrows for love I endure

Gulchin’s translation on his page 446 is described as being in “the precise measure, manner, and form of the original". Gh.390




Clarke, 541 Kuka, 31 Payne, II, 125 Obbard 2,41 Masani, 108 Aryanpur, 95 Smith, II, [319] Gray 2,127 Saberi 1,207 Shahriari



l o


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The thought of the bulbul All the bulbul’s thought his lover How the rose may be is; The Bulbul’s everlasting thought is this, Nightingale’s only thought is that the rose his Beloved will be; The nightingale’s only thought is that the rose became his beloved. The nightingale ’s only thought is

Gh. 398

jZ* j Cowell 14, 256 Bicknell, 184 Clarke, 568 Payne, II, 142 Nakosteen, 341 Smith, II, [335] Saberi 1,212 Crowe 2,75

L b J p* L»Tj


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“I long for the strong wine and its man o’ermastering strength, I ask for bitter-tasting wine, which flings the strong man on the ground; Bitter (strong) wine, whose power is man-overthrowing, I desire That bitter wine I crave, whose might Man’s wit and will oppresses, O fill my cup with wine, with seasoned wine, Bitter wine, having strength to overpower a man is my desire; I want some bitter wine whose strength can knock a man down, Winebringer, more wine! Bring me some of that strong wine

G6.399 L

Anon. 1, 159 Anon. 8, 168 Bicknell, 176 Robinson, 87 Clarke, 558

Shiraz, to thee I pour the votive song, May every blessing be the lot How fair Shiraz! What beauties round it cluster! Hail, Shiraz! incomparable site! O Lord preserve it O happy! Shiraz, and its peerless site:



McCarthy, 23 Bell, 103 Payne, II, 136 Le Gallienne, 126 lister, [45] Avery 1, 51 Hillmann, 109 Smith, II, [329] Barks, 168 Saberi 1,213 Crowe 2,43 Shahriari

Hail, Shiraz! peerless site! Heaven defend it from every danger. All hail, Shiraz, hail! oh site without peer! Hail to Shiraz and its station past compare! Shiraz, dty of the heart, Hail thee, Shirez, a dty of the most unparalleled beauty, indeed; Oh my Shiraz, the nonpareil of towns Good for (congratulations to) Shiraz Hail Shiraz, dty situated on a site beyond compare! Shiraz / is the dty Blessed be Shiraz, and its peerless situation. Between two rivers, Shiraz is a dty built on a holy site. How beautiful is Shiraz’s unparalleled state

GA.400 (jiil_> a i ojb

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Clarke, 576 Payne, II, 149 Smith, n, [342] Saberi 1, 214


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When His (the true Beloved’s) tress, Whenas the East wind waveth Her ambergris-shedding tress, When breeze that blows ambergris blew Your hair into a mess, Since the Zephyr bent her ambergris-sattering tress,

G h .m Jf

Robinson, 91 Clarke, 575 McCarthy, 85 Payne, II, 148 lister, [46] Smith, II, [341] Saberi 1, 214 Crowe 2, 33

O Lord, that smiling rose, which thou gavest me in charge, O Lord! that fresh laughing rose whom to me, O Lord, that smiling rose, which thou entrusted to my keeping, Lord, that new-blown rose and smiling, O, my Lord, of that smiling rose, which thou gavest into my keeping, Lord, that fresh smiling rose that You entrusted into my keeping Lord, this smiling, fresh rose that you trusted to me O God, the beautiful rose that you once gave me,


Clarke, 574 Leaf, 49 Payne, II, 147 Obbard 1, 10 Smith, n, [340]

Last night from the corner of the wine-house, Rang through the dim tavern a voice yesterday, From the nook of the tavern last night a voice said, Last night, within the Tavern closed, I heard the Angel say, It was last night that the invisible messenger did say

Saberi 1, 216 Crowe 2,78

Last night a hatef from the corner of the tavern said: Last night the message was sent out from all the Winehouse:


J*5 Hindley, 52 Hindley, 85 Bicknell, 178 Clarke, 560 Payne, II, 137 Obbard 2, 37 Smith, II, [403] Saberi 1, 215 Shahriari




That Idol with ear-drops so bright, That Idol with heart of stone and ear-ornaments of silver Endurance, intellect, and peace have from my bosom flown, From me, tranquillity, power, and sense took, Easance and strength and sense from me ravished clean She has robbed me of my senses, strength and calm; Peace, power and sense, have from me been taken. A stony-hearted and silvery-necked idol Took away my serenity, patience and sense


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When Why ruby cup (ruddy lip), I drink, Whenas thy ruby cup I quaff, Where doth my wit remain? When I taste the cup your ruby lips provide, When I drink Your ruby cup, where do all my senses remain? O beloved, when I drink from Your red glass, I lose consciousness.

Clarke, 580 Payne, II, 151 Obbard 1,43 Smith, II, [344] Crowe 2, 80 GA.405


wLwj *£■ vjy Ob j

At morning from a viewless mentor glad tidings reached my ear: At morn, from the invisible messenger, At dawn from the Unseen Speaker Came the glad news to mine ear; At early dawn glad tidings reached my ear from the Unseen Voice; By mysterious voice at dawn I was told: At dawn, the invisible messenger to my ear happy news giving: At early dawn good tidings reached my ear from the Unseen voice At dawn, the voice of an invisible one gave me the tidings:

Bicknell, 183 Clarke, 566 Payne, II, 141 Browne 2, 279 Aryanpur, 96 Smith, II, [334] Dalai, 236 Saberi 1,216 GA.406 4JLj

Bicknell, 181



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To-day, when reigns a monarch of mild forgiving soul,

Clarke, 564 Payne, II, 140 Smith, II, [333] Saberi 1,217 Avery 3 Crowe 2, 96

In the age of the King, fault-forgiving, crime-covering, In the days of the error-hiding, Transgression-pardoning King, In the days of the King who hid errors In the era of the guilt-forgiving and fault-concealing king, In the reign of the error-forgiving, sin-covering Padshah, In the days when kings were honorable, fair, and forgiving,

Gh. 407

wUlii Bicknell, 179 Robinson, 89 Clarke, 563 McCarthy, 66 Payne, II, 139 Obbard 1 ,9 Lister, [45] Aryanpur, 97 Smith, II, [332] Gray 2,129 Saberi 1,218 Alston, 145

Ui j j

Last night a man expert and keen to me spake thus aside: Last night spake to me a quick-witted and experienced man and said, Last night, to me, a mystery-knower, Last night a man of wisdom said to me: Yestereven, one keen-witted, Myst’ry-knowing, said to me, Last night to me in dreams there came a wizard clever, A quick-witted fellow last night, well experienced uttered these words: Last night the Sage unfolded secrets great; Last night a wise knower of a mystery secretly said to me: Last night a wise, keen-minded one whispered to me, Last night an ingenious, intelligent person secretly told me: Yesterday a wise knower of hidden mysteries

G h .m

Nott, 19 Hindley, 73 Hindley, 97 Ghamzeda, 30 Gulchin 2, 19 Gulchin 3,444 Gulchin 3,445 Cowell 6, 572 Clarke, 549 Payne, II, 131 Le Gallienne, 124 Rundall, 132 Obbard 2, 52 Smith, II, [324] Saberi 1,219

Thy form has a resistless grace. Yes, thy form, my fair nymph, is of elegant mould, Yes, thy whole shape is delicately proportioned, Verily! thy whole form is beautifully proportioned, Thy body is perfect symmetry, and every limb is most lovely, Yes! your whole body is a model of symmetry, Yes! thy form my sweet nymph, is fair symmetry’s mould, Hail! queen of Earth’s fair ones! What beauty and grace O (true Beloved)! the form, Thou whose every part is charming, Every whit of thee is fair; Love, thou art fair - as delicate as dew O Beloved! thy form is altogether comely, Hail to thy face and its continuing beauty, Your form’s beautiful: each place, everywhere ofYours, is bliss. O you whose total form is pleasant and whose every part beautiful,

G h .m




Clarke, 571 Bell, 115 Payne, II, 145 Le Gallienne, 128 Obbard 2, 4 Meisami 1, 166 Smith, II, [337] Loloi 5, 35 Saberi 1, 220 Crowe 1, 57


The water-bank, and the willow-root The margin of a stream the willow’s shade, Fair are rill-bank and willow foot How my heart aches with happiness to-night “To sit by running waters, ‘neath the willows’ shade, The water’s edge, the willow’s foot, a taste for poems, a lovely friend; River’s bank and willow’s shade and a poetic mind and a friend By a stream-washed willow tree with inspiration and a friend: The side of the water, the foot of a willow, Happiness is: a river’s bank, the shade of a willow,.

Gh.410 1—jJ j >- l Bicknell, 185 Clarke, 572 Payne, II, 145 Le Gallienne, 130 Stallard, 33 Smith, n, [338] Saberi 1,220 Crowe 2,76

Although upon his moon-like cheek delight and beauty glow, The collection of beauteousness and of gracefulness All compact of grace and beauty Is my loved one’s moonlike face; For all her cruel grown-up ways, There in her face Kindness and Beauty Mixture of beauty and grace is in that one’s moonlike face; Her moon-like face is the meeting-place of beauty and grace O Beloved, I can see the beauty and grace in that moonlike face;


Ruined (undone), I am through grief I am drunken with loveliking For you tavern-friend of mine: I’m drunk with grief of love forWineliouse Friend of mine:

Clarke, S78 Payne, II, 150 Smith, II, [343] GA.412 ju 7

Clarke, 361 Payne, II, 138 Smith, II, [331] Saberi 1,221







Affrighted, became my heart; My heart is run wild and I, also, Poor wretch, am witless sheer: I am the dervish without a care and my heart became full of fear, My heart ran away from me and I, a dervish, wonder

Gh.413 ^JUac 4j ooJ T

Obbard 1, 28


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If after trying might and main I find I cannot do a thing,

Gh.414 &jj “We have tried our lot in this dty of our fortune, I tried my fortune in this dty lorn: In this dty, my fortune I have tried: Our fortune in this dty We’ve proven many a year; Once I thought to leave Shiraz, the place where fate had me located My luck in this dty I have tried. I have completely exhausted my fortune in this dty, We have tried our luck in this town. In this dty, in all these stores, I have spent

Cowell 14, 257 Bicknell, 186 Clarke, 573 Payne, II, 146 Obbard 1,26 Aryanpur, 98 Smith, II, [339] Saberi 1,222 Crowe 2 , 79 GA.418


Bicknell, 187 Clarke, 583 Payne, II, 153 Smith, II, [346]

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My heart is never of its rival rid. Release from Thy watcher, my heart obtained not: N e’er of thy watcher this heart of mine is quit; From that watcher, the heart of mine is never released:

Gh.419 —*2$ J ^

Clarke, 581 Payne, II, 152 Smith, H, [345]




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From the noose of Thy tress-tip, to none is freedom, From the lasso of thy tress-tip Is deliverance for none; From the noose ofYour hair’s tip there is deliverance for no one:

GA.421 jT j\ J lii \j ojp- J j ^ b

Nott, 71 Cowell 2, 154 Bicknell, 189 Clarke, 586 Payne, II, 154


Jo-jit oTjf Ob*

Come charming maid! - 1 feel the gale, O come, my fair mistress, but see, while I speak, Approach, for my life is inhaled from perfumes that part Come: for the perfume of my soul, Come, so the spirit’s fragrance That I may retrace from that cheek;


Obbard 2,15 Smith, II, [348] Crowe 1,58

Come, that I may smell life’s fragrance in thy face, Come, so that fragrance of my soul I may trace from that cheek; Come closer, so I can trace the smell o f my soul from Your cheek,

GA.422 Je>j\ ©U


Clarke, 585 Payne, II, 154 Smith, II, [347] Cloutier, [16]


The whole world, length and breadth, Thy beauty and loveliness take the world, Your beauty took the whole earth from top to bottom, side to side: Horizon to horizon Your beauty


Bicknell, 190 Clarke, 587 Payne, II, 155 Smith, II, [349] Crowe 1, 59

Since Fate first wrote that downy line my friend’s fair cheeks to grace, Since, around the (true) Beloved’s cheek, Since the cheek of our Friend the new-sprung down Ever since rounding the beloved’s cheek in down,Time drew the line, Ever since softening the Beloved’s cheek with down,

GA.426 &9l> I_© ^ b u iJj/Zj 4^JLo» £JT 4_r Bicknell, 192 Clarke, 589 Payne, II, 156 Fitzgerald, 166 Smith, II, [350]

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To guard thy face from eye of ill, God be for thee - Hafiz; From the evil eye, for thy good face God, Thy lovely cheek, God guard it From th’evil eye! prays Hafiz; Oh safe from the Evil Eye God save that fair face of thine May God guard your good face from eyes of evil ways, Hafiz,

Gh.427 f f j j ©b* j

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Bicknell, 194 Clarke, 591 Payne, II, 157 Browne 2, 279 Fatemi, 154 Smith, II, [351] Saberi 1,222

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I take my oath by Shah Shuja, his pomp and glory’s blaze, By the pomp of glory and of dignity of Shah Shuja* I swear, By the glory and might and power of Shah Shejaa I swear, I swear by the pomp and rank and glory of Shah Shuja* I swear by the glory and honour and high position of Shah Shuja By the power and glory and the pomp of Shah Shuja I swear, I swear by the splendor and glory and pomp of Shah Shoja’



oU j j j - J J L f f Clarke, 592 Payne, II, 158 Smith, II, [352]




By the pomp of the world-kindling fortune of Shah Shuja*, By the world illuminating splendour of Shah Shejaa his reign, By glory of the world-illuminating fortune of Shah Shuja’s reign,

GA.431 litJb\

31 £ *£ & J jf

Stallard, 24




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Lord God of Truth! Who in his heart


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Clarke, 613 Payne, II, 170 Smith, II, [364] Saberi 1, 232

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(Even as) in the rose-season O f repentance from wine in the rosetide, I’faith, I grow ashamed. From giving up wine in rose season, I became so ashamed; In the time of the rose, I became ashamed of my repentance from wine.

GA.452 j f


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Jones 1,20 Nott, 47 Hindley, 36 Hindley, 37 Hindley, 81 B.E.P., 85 Borrow, 5 Dickson, 411 Palmer 1,113









Boy, bring the wine, for the season of the rose approaches; Pour the grape’s empurpled tide; Hither bring the wine, boy! hither bring the wine, boy! Beds of flow’rs of gayest hue Boy, bring the wine, for, the season of Roses is arrived, Bring me wine - the rose to-day Boy, hand my friends the cup, ’tis time of roses now; Up, boy! ’tis the season of Roses, Come, bring the wine oh page of mine for now the roses blow,

Gft.453 J 3 * 3 4— ! CP

Clarke, 612 Payne, II, 169 Obbard 1 ,7 Smith, II, [363] Kennedy M ., 93 Saberi 1,233 Crowe 2, 101

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If, to Thy street, the power of arriving be mine, So but it were vouchsafed me to win unto thy street, If in thy lane there were for me a humble place for meeting thee, If it is in my power to make it over to Your street, If only it were given to me to win unto Thy street, If I find a chance to reach your street, If I happen to make it over to Your street,


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Every one who heard the points, that I touched in praise of his virtues, Every one that heard my remarks In praise of those good qualities At every word I utter In praise of those her graces, Whenever I of the Beloved sing, Whatever words I chance to use in praise ofVirtues sanctified, No matter how I define, beautiful girl, For every subtlety I expressed in praise of such fine graces, Any remark I made in praise of those merits, Everone who heard what I said

Two Graduates, 63 Ahmad, 118 Clarke, 628 Payne, II, 179 Le Gallienne, 138 Obbard 2, 34 Aryanpur, 103 Smith, II, [372] Saberi 1, Alston, 151 Gii.457 ^


—> ©* OThou, whose face (is) like paradise, Thou, whose cheek is like the gardens of the skies, Oh, thy face is heaven eternal! thy lips the heavenly fountains radiant You of Paradise face, heart and soul fortifies O you whose face is like paradise and whose ruby like Salsabil,

Clarke, 615 Payne, II, 171 Obbard 2, 47 Smith, II, [365] Saberi 1, 234

Obbard’s interpretation of the poem as a dialogue has no foundation in the original. GA.458 J—

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To the way-farer (the holy traveller), Love is guide enough to farers in Love’s road; To the wayfarer, love is really the sufficient guide: Love is guide enough to wayfarers on the road; To the pilgrim, love is the only guide,

Clarke, 618 Payne, II, 172 Smith, II, [366] Kennedy M ., 88 Crowe 2,15

Clarke incorrectly lists the poem under letter kiaf Gh.459 cfj L-.9S Clarke, 715 Mulla, 49 Payne, II, 247 Smith, II, [436] Saberi 1,236


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Bird, auspicious of foot, gracious of message, welcome! Hail to thee! thou bird of an auspicious face, of happy tidings, Welcome, bearer of glad tidings! Welcome bird of happy trace! Welcome, bird with the blessed feet; welcome, messenger of grace! Welcome, O bird of auspicious feet and happy message.

Gh. 460

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Nott, 27 Wilks, 275 Cowell 4, 136 Bicknell, 219 Clarke, 697 Mulla, 39 Payne, II, 231 Nakosteen, 137 Hillmann, 112 Smith, II, [421 ] Barks, 171 Saberi 1, 235 Pourafzal, 146

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Give, O give love’s sportful joys; Am’rous dalliance, youth, and wine, The pleasures of youth, love, and Friendship combine. Amorous dalliance, joys of youth-time, liquor of the ruby’s tint, Love-playing and youthfulness; Indulging love affairs, youth, wine of a ruby colour, Youth, loveliking and dalliance And wine of ruby hue; What are the contents of my joys? Love (-making) and youth and ruby-colored wine; Youthfulness and playing the game of love, and wine o f ruby hue, A gathering of good friends Love-making, youth, and ruby-colour wine, Making love, loving life, drinking ruby red wine,


Lover of the face - youthful, joyous, newly blossomed Enamoured am I of a fair one, A youngling new a-Wow; I am in love with the youthful, joyous, freshly-blossomed fair face: I am in love with the face of a youthful and a beautiful young person. I am in love with a youthful and joyous face!

Clarke, 701 Payne, II, 233 Smith, II, [423] Saberi 1,236 Crowe 1,67 Gh.463

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Clarke, 647 Payne, II, 190 Smith,

n, [382]

Saberi 1,237

Glad tidings! to (the abode Zu-Salam, suddenly descended Glad tidings! Behold, salvation On Dhou Selcm hath lit Happy news: to Zu-Salam, the thornless tree, has come salvation; Good news! Security has descended upon Shiraz.


pj —


Clarke, 634 Payne, II, 183 Smith, II,[375]

ij +urtLD j

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Hath not the time arrived Oh, is it not time that the Loved Ones, indeed, should relent, Hasn’t the time come for friends to show pity, to relent;

GhAGS ols > Clarke, 646 Leaf, 50 Payne, II, 188 Smith, II, [381] Saberi 1, 238

(>I 4T l-5>- &

O Saki (true Beloved)! Come back, my Saki, come ; for of love-service fain am I, Cupbearer, come! Lo, of desire for thy service I die, Wineseller come back, because to serve you I want to try; Come again, Saqi, for I desire to serve you.


Ja J J3a& j\ jC J Clarke, 676 Mulla, 31 Payne, II, 214 Smith, II, [405] Saberi 1, 238

Last night, me, from power took (and ruined) Last night sickness (i.e. the beauty) of your eyes Yesternight thy languorous glances O f my life and soul beraught me; Last night, the drunkenness ofYour eye overpowered me; Last night the love-sickness of your eye was taking life from me.


(****? J*. ^ Clarke, 645 Payne, II, 188 Obbard 1,13 Aryanpur, 104 Smith, II, [380] Saberi 1, 239 Alston, 152 Shahriari



Beyond limit - this that from my hand, Save only that faith and reason I’ve lost, beloved one, Save if I give up my faith, religion, strict devotion, Except putting heart and wisdom at stake, From my hand I’ve lost religion and reason, O Loved One; Except that I lost my faith and knowledge, Apart from loss of faith and learning, All my knowledge and piety I detest


Sadiq 6, 39 Cowell 10, 300 Cowell 11, 295 Bicknell, 221 Clarke, 703 Mulla, 40 Payne, II, 235 Maitra, 79

With pleasure I talk of my pain, “1 will ope the hidden secret, and relieve my spirit’s woe, I proclaim it aloud, and am glad at the utterance; Aloud I say it, and with heart of glee: Openly, I speak; and of my own utterance, I speak it in public, and I am happy in having said, Openly the words I utter, And heart-glad am I of it, I declare this openly and am pleased with my declaration,

Farzaad 3, 29 Aryanpur, 105 Nakosteen, 45 Smith, II, [425] Gray 2,131 Saberi 1,241 Alston, 153 Crowe 1,70 Shahriari

Openly I declare, and am glad of my declaration, Openly I announce, happily declare: I now will claim without disguise, declare with joy, These words I speak openly and my heart's happy about it: I speak frankly and that makes me happy: I am saying this quite openly and rejoice at what I am saying: I declare it openly and with joy, What will I say to you, I say openly and with great joy: Openly I admit, with much joy and such glee;


pol. *■*>



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Last night my tears, a torrent stream, stopped Sleep by force: Last night, with a torrent of tears, sleep’s part, - I dashed: Last night the torrent of tears waylaid sleep Last night, with the torrent of tears The passage of sleep I waylaid; Last night, by paths of dream, I seemed to pace In flood of tears last night, I tried to sleep, Last night, with a torrent of tears, sleep’s pathway I struck; Last night I was waylaying my sleep with the torrent of my tears, With a flood of tears, to sleep, I found my way

GA.473 ^ jT Robinson, 112 Clarke, 737 Mulla, 56 McCarthy, 3 Payne, III, 8 Obbard 2, 8 Lister, [57] Aryanpur, 107 Nakosteen, 187 Smith, II, [451] Kennedy M., 2 Saberi 1, 244 Shahriari

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Although I am old, and feeWe, and broken-hearted, Although old, shattered of heart, powerless, Howsoever much I have become a broken-hearted and a weak old man, Although I am old, and weak, and weary, Though weak and broken-hearted, Grown old and gray am I, Though I now am old and broken-hearted, Although I am old and feeble, just a vision of thy dear face, Though I am old, weak and in disgrace, Though old in age and tired at heart, no longer strong, Though old and brokenhearted and without any power I am, Though weak and brokenhearted, I am old and grey Although I grew old, infirm, and wounded at heart, Though I am old and decrepit and weak

Gh.474 j Clarke, 721 Mulla, 26




oiTj t r jj' ^juu j l > -

(O true Beloved!) on the workshop of the eye, I have portrayed the image of your face on the picture frame

Payne, II, 252 Smith, II, [441] Saberi 1,245 Shahriari

I’ve limned with thy face’s likeness The tablet o f mine eyne; Upon the eye’s drawing boardYour face’s form I drew with a line: I drew an image of your form in the gallery of the eye. My fantasy of thy vision, my inner sight takes a peek

Gh. 476

Clarke, 662 Mulla, 44 Payne, II, 202 Smith, II, [394] Saberi 1,247 Shahriari

If the dust of the sole of my idol’s foot give aid: If I succeed in obtaining the dust of the sole of the foot of my beloved, If I on the dust of the sole O f the foot of the fair one light, If the dust of the sole of my fair One’s foot gives light, If I find access to the dust under my beloved’s feet, If I find the dust under Beloved’s feet







$> —>■


Through my short (feeble) arm, I have been labouring under the load (of mortification) My soul, for poortith’s load in sorry case is; My arm’s too short and my heart a sorry case is; Having no access to you, I am under the burden, On account of my poverty I’m embarrassed to come before You Laden with my ignorant ties

Clarke, 684 Mulla, 34 Payne, II, 221 Smith, II, [411] Saberi 1,246 Alston, 154 Crowe 1,64 Shahriari Gh.478 p


Clarke, 711 Mulla, 43 Payne, A, 242 Obbard 1, 36 Smith, II, [432] Saberi 1,246 Shahriari



Although, from his tress, Although some difficulty has appeared in my work Though my case, indeed, is tangled Grown by those her tresses two, As all my life and all my cares and thoughts Though my work in Your long hair is tangled through, Though a knot fell in my work from her tress, like her hair, in my affairs there is a knot


p jb i j * T j * Clarke, 679 Mulla, 30 Payne, II, 217 Smith, II, [407] Saberi 1,248 Shahriari

In the secret house of my ease (the heart), I have a beautiful idol in my private mansion of pleasures, In my bosom’s pleasance-chamber Hid an idol fair I hold, In the secret home of my heart’s ease, sweet Idol fair I have: I have a pretty idol in my pleasure hideout In the secret house of joy I idolize my desire


Robinson, 106 Two Graduates, 64 Ahmad, 120 Clarke, 725 Mulla, 48 McCarthy, 48 Payne, III, 1 Lister, [54] Smith, II, [444] Kennedy M., 6 Saberi 1,248 Crowe 2, 19 Shahriari

I have made a compact with the mistress of my soul, I have pledged with my love I have pledged with my love, that so long as there is life in the body, With the true Beloved, a covenant is mine I have entered into an agreement with my beloved to the effect I have made a compact with the beloved of my soul, I have a compact with the Friend, Whilst soul in body still I have, With that mistress of mine I have come to an excellent understanding, With Beloved I have made a promise, I have a compact with the Friend whilst this soul is in a body I have promised to my beloved that as long as I have soul in my body I promised the Beloved that as long as my heart beats, I have made a sacred oath


p jfjj

jS -

O b« J AT O b*

Mulla, 59 Obbard 2, 3






j f (V

J ji

O physician leave me (lit. go away from my head); Patient speaks “Doctor, leave my bedside,

Obbard presents the poem as a dialogue - for which there is no justification in the original. Gh.483 p j#


Robinson, 108 Clarke, 727 Mulla, 53








Who am I, that I should pass over that fragrant heart; Who am I that, over that fragrant (noble) mind, I should pass: What am I that I should pass across that noble (lit., fragrant) mind

y t

McCarthy, 138 Payne, III, 2 Lister, [55] Smith, II, [445] Cloutier, [23] Kennedy M ., 5 Saberi 1,249

What am I that I should disdain that fragrant mind; Who am I that I should happen To thy fragrant memory? Who am I, that I should receive such great gifts Who am I that Your fragrant mind should now remember me? How could I dare to cross How am I blessed to be in Thy fragrant memory. Who am I to occur to that noble mind?

GA.484 fjtT* us**


Clarke, 652 Mulla, 21 Payne, II, 193 Le Gallienne, 140 Rundall, 127 Farzaad 1, 37 Farzaad 1,49 Nakosteen, 37 Smith, II, [385] Boylan, 16 Saberi 1, 252


3 Cf

Clarke, 688 Mulla, 37 Payne, II, 224 Smith, II, [414] Saberi 1, 264

4> y

O idol! With grief of love for thee what plaint, shall I make? O idol! what remedy am I to seek to obviate the grief This my love for thee, my fair one, On what wise shall I assain? O Beloved, what complaint from grief of love for You I’ll make; My idol, what should I do with the sorrow of your love?

Gh.505 (*—S’

Clarke, 953 Payne, III, 171

>■ \jj *jjLjj j



When (shall be) a little leisure, When shall the chance to visit The ancient Mage

4T ijLa£ jjT

be mine,

Both Clarke and Payne translate only b.s 1-3. Both include the poem in the Qita ‘at. GA.506 __'S'

Clarke, 674 Mulla, 31 Payne, II, 213 Smith, II, [403] Saberi 1,266 Crowe 1,62 Shahriari

Last night, I said: Last night I formed the intention of removing from my mind “From my heart," quoth I, “the passion O f her cheek away I’ll do!" Last night I said: “I’ll drive from mind this longing for Your face," Last night I said I would put her face’s love out of my head. Last night in depression, I screamed: Last night I said, “put longing out of your brain."


j f o o ij j Clarke, 649 Mulla, 20 Payne, II, 191 Obbard 1, 12 Smith, II, [383] Saberi 1,263

is' y j .

O morning cypress! without thee, O morning cypress! of what use are roses and rose-gardens Lacking thee, o swaying cypress, Lo! with rose and mead what do I? Without thee, O my Saro dear, with rose and garden-plot O cypress, with the rose and rosebud, without You, what can I do? Without you, O gliding cypress, with roses and rose garden,


pS* ojlauM/f

Waring, 214

I determined this morning, with an intention of repenting

Costello, 10 Clarke, 636 Payne, II, 184 Aryanpur, 111 Smith, II, [376] Saberi 1,266 Crowe 2, 51

This morning, I resolved, at last, In the morning, with the desire o f repentance (to my heart), I said At dawntide, intent on repentance, “For guidance," quoth I “I’ll sue:" At dawn I tried for repentance an augury make, At dawn I tried to repent, saying: “Guide me God, I needYou," At dawn I told myself I should consult God about repentance. This morning, while trying to repent, I said:




0*' y jz * J * * 'j y O*

Bicknell, 209 Clarke, 660 Mulla, 22 Payne, II, 200 Aryanpur, 112 Smith, II, [392] Saberi 1,267 Alston, 158 Shahriari

r? ^



J * AT lib-

While lasts the rose, the Lord forbid that I should drink not wine; God forbid that, in the rose-season, God forbid that I should give up drinking wine in the season of roses God in the rose-time keep me From e’er renouncing wine! In flower season, wine I never forsake, God forbid that in the rose season I should ever give up wine: Far be it that I quit drinking in the season of the rose. God forbid that I should ever fail Next spring, giving up wine, I deny

G h .S U

J*5 Clarke, 675 Mulla, 32 Payne, II, 213 Smith, II, [404] Saberi 1, 265



b ji cJJ'i

My eye, an ocean (of weeping) I make; I shall fill my eyes with an ocean of tears, Eyes an ocean making, patience To the wilderness Til cast My eyes cry an ocean; patience to wilderness I’ll cast; I will make an ocean from my eyes and throw patience into the desert.

GA.512 c-—t j j J&f A--J—AS

Clarke, 682 Mulla, 33 Payne, II, 219 Smith, II, [410] Barks, 173 Saberi 1, 268 Crowe 1,63

4T -C \ £ j ^ j3 J

For a long time past, in the tavern For a very long time I have been serving in the tavern; In the quarter of the winehouse Service many a year I practise Long, hard service in the Winehouse for many a long year I’ve done; For a long time I’ve done tavern-work, I have been serving in the tavern for quite some time now. I’ve done hard-labor for years in the Winehouse.




Clarke, 719 Mulla, 52 Payne, II, 250 Le Gallienne, 142 Aryanpur, 113 Smith, II, [439] Saberi 1, 269 Shahriari



Ju yQ j

j j ’*"’* ’

J3 sj*

Love for the lovely one and for the cup, I shall not give up indulging in love affairs and the cup of wine; Wine cup and love and loveling I’ll nevermore forsake; Heavens! do you think this is a time to choose I never forsake, my love, beauty and wine; Give up love for the beloved and for the cup of wine, I will not; I will not quit the love of my sweetheart and the cup of wine. Love of the Beloved and this wine, I will not leave behind


j 4j tfrTn, i ft) C*>*j Clarke, 664 Mulla, 23 Payne, II, 204 Nakosteen, 335 Smith, II, [395] Saberi 1, 270 Alston, 160 Crowe 2,53

C S j C^iUxo L -Jb -

Now, the good counsel of the time I see in that, What is advisable under the present circumstances This, for such as these the present Times, I see expedient The times have changed, It is so; in times like these, see the good advice I present: In my view, the best thing for me to do at present is: The only wise course for me now In hard times like these, listen to this good advice:


.1 Clarke, 631 Mulla, 56 Payne, II, 180 Smith, II, [373] Saberi 1,271 Crowe 2,4 9

0 4T

«*o j\ J

If, from my hand, there arise If ever I can manage to sit with the beloved, If it be granted me of Fate with yonder charmer to foregather, If to my hand it comes that I can sit down with my heartowner, If I succeed in being with the beloved, If ever I get the chance to sit down


p j j j j 4j&’j o Bicknell, 207 Robinson, 100 Clarke, 642 Mulla, 18




Both worlds, theTransient and Eterne, for Sab' and the Loved I’d yield: Through thy black eyelashes A thousand breaches in my faith, By your black eyelashes

Through thy black eyelashes Thy lashes black a thousand rents, Though thou hast made with thine eloquent eyes many breaches With your black eyelashes, a thousand holes in my faith you’ve made; With your black eyelashes you made a thousand penetrations Your black eye-lashes With your long curled eyelashes

McCarthy, 132 Payne, II, 187 Lister, [51] Smith, II, [379] Saberi 1,269 Alston, 159 Shahriari Gh.518

J \Sj 3* 4i> 4T^ Emerson 2, 729 Bicknell, 212 Clarke, 671 Mulla, 29 Payne, II, 209 Obbard 1,15 Arberry 1, 117 Aryanpur, 114 Levy 3,130 Smith, II, [400] Barks, 162 Saberi 1,272 Alston, 162 Crowe 1,61 Shahriari

yOei 'Jtf



OU« o ^ f _/>- >>

Boast not rashly, prince of pilgrims, of thy fortune. Within the Magians house of wine our Maker’s light - I see: In the tavern of the Magians, God’s light - I see: I behold the Light of God in the tavern of the Magi; In the Magians’ stead the very Light of God (o rare!) I see; In that Pagan’s house of call, God’s glory bright I see, Within the Magian tavern In the tavern I saw a light divine; In the tavern of the Magians I see the light of God. In the dwelling of the Master, God’s Light bright and clear I see. God’s Light, I see The light of God in the Magians’ tavern I see. In the ruins used as a tavern In the house of God, I can see God’s Light clearly. In the tavern of the Magi I see the bright light of Divine

Gh.519 JL j


Falconer, 46 Bicknell, 230 Two Graduates, 65 Ahmad, 122 Clarke, 739 Mulla, 57 Singh, 155 George, 49 Payne, III, 9 Rundall, 137 Obbard 1,7

AT C-f jjZ 4 What curse has fall’n upon the earth, Caused by the moon’s veering orb, what tumult and strife I see; What is the bustle that I see What is this uproar that I hear This tumult is what that, What is this tumult that I behold What noise and tumult there is in the fast revolutions of this sky! What tumult is this that I see What is all this perturbation In the Sphere I see? What is this confusion that I see as Time goes on? What is this daily turmoil that everywhere I see?

Stallard, 18 Smith, II, [452] Kennedy M ., 3

In this the lunatic last phase of Time What’s all this conflict in this lunatic sphere I see? What is all this consternation in planet earth I see?

Gh. 520 jrf Clarke, 702 Mulla, 39 Payne, II, 234 Smith, II, [424] Saberi 1, 273 Crowe 1,68 Shahriari

O tj—S'

Jl& A *S" 4 iU j ff.

Time’s grief whereof limit - none, I see, I do not know any remedy for the sorrows of time, For the cark of the time, Whereunto Bound or confine I see not, Time’s grief is such, that of its limit even a sign I don’t see; For the suffering of the world, of which I see no boundaries at all, My grief is so strong, that I don’t even see a hint of the end of time. Hardships and sorrows, for sometime are mine


3 J—


If, from this stage (this world) In case I leave this foreign place Lo from this dwelling of exile Homeward if e ’er I shall go, If from this place of wandering to my Home, should ever I go, If I ever go home from this desolate station, If from this ruined house, homeward bound

Clarke, 710 Mulla, 42 Payne, II, 242 Smith, II, [431] Saberi 1, 274 Shahriari Gh.522


oul-jv ^

Clarke, 669 Mulla, 25 Payne, II, 208 Nicholson 1, 80 Aryanpur, 115 Smith, II, [399] Gray 2,133 Saberi 1, 274 Alston, 163

JI 3 p jy Joyous that day when from this desolate abode Happy is that day when I shall leave this ruined place, Glad that day will be when, parting, From this waste abode go I, Happy the day when I, no more Blessed is the day when the ruined-home forsake, That day is happy when from this desolate dwelling I go: Happy that day that I leave this ruined house. Blissful is the day when I go from this house in ruins Happy the day when I shall quit



JUU 4s ? /

That one (the true Beloved, or the murshid) who, Me unto oppression, dust-like, For a trampling-stock she gave; You Who like dust of the path, me to be trampled by tyranny gave; I am now kissing the ground and apologizing at the feet of

Clarke, 707 Payne, II, 239 Smith, II, [428] Saberi 1, 275 Gh.S 24


jf 3 ? j - ^

c^u. jf Obtained was the sight (of the true Beloved) Your sight has been attained, Vouchsafed is the sight of the fair To me and her kiss and embrace, too; Promised to me was vision of the beloved, kiss and embrace too; Visiting became possible. Kissing and embracing, too.

Clarke, 680 Mulla, 57 Payne, II, 217 Smith, II, [408] Saberi 1, 276 Gh.52S

From the (true) Beloved, is my pain; My beloved is the cause of my pain Though he wound me, yet he healeth therewithal; From the Friend my dole is, delight no less; From the Beloved comes my pain as well as in Her lies my cure; The pain comes from the Friend and its cure also! From my friend comes the pain and its cure as well; From Beloved is my relief and my consternation also; My pain is from the beloved, and my remedy, too.

Clarke, 678 Mulla, 29 Leaf, 53 Payne, II, 215 Maitra, 72 Shastri, 22 Hasan, 131 Smith, II, [406] Saberi 1,278 GA. 526 C w f 4 T

Cowell 14, 256 Bicknell, 223 Clarke, 704 Mulla, 41 Payne, II, 236 Smith, II, [426] Gray 2,135 Saberi 1,280


c —1

f>1j> 4T

“I have the edict of the old man of the tavern, and ’tis an ancient saying, Amass the pearls which knowledge gives, and bear them thyself away, The decision of the Pir of the Magians, It is the opinion of the tavern-keeper From the Elder of the Magians, This pronouncement do I hold; The decision of the Ancient master I have been told: I have the judgment of the Magus and it is an ancient promise: I have the Magians’ Pir’s judgment, which is also an old saying:

Hafiz, Master o j Persian Poetry


From the Old Magi I have a sacred oath and decree

G h.Sll fZ-mJ fojL—j pt £>


j( j..


C*»0 J( J j

C«~ O U jL j


Heart given from the hand, lovers, We are intoxicated persons in exhilarated spirits, Care-nothing sots, who’ve given The heart from hand, are we; Yea, we are they who are sorrowfree and drunken, We are those without sorrow, and those who have lost their hearts; We topers are notorious rogues, you say, Lovers, hearts handed away, without care, full of intoxication are we; We are lovers, drunk and without worries, Heedless and intoxicated,

Clarke, 716 Mulla, 46 Payne, II, 248 Farzaad 1, 36 Farzaad 1,48 Nakosteen, 75 Smith, II, [437] Saberi 1, 278 Alston, 164 GA.528 s&h At

Mulla, 38 Payne, II, 232 Saberi 1, 279

J ■


w'fj b j U

We expected friendship from our friends, We expected a favourable view from our friends, The eye (of expectation) of friendship from friends Hoping friendliness From the friends abode we; From the friends, the eye of friendship’s expectation was ours; We expected companionship from companions. I expected friendship from my friends

Gh. 534 4T4>>lojf

Clarke, 658 Mulla, 58 Payne, II, 198 Smith, II, [390] Saberi 1,283

From us, wherefore seeketh thou peace, What order and peace can you expect from us Why seek’st thou righteousness from us? You want peace from us, when to drunkards an invitation we said? How can you look for advisability in me who welcomed the drunk

GA.537 4iUl>- oj j * Clarke, 720


o L iy

At the head of the wine-house,

^- J p j J \ Bicknell, 2 37 Clarke, 774 Payne, 111, 33 Smith, II, [477]


w u U

If from the rock of Badakhshan the ruby still Comes forth, If from the rock in Badakhshan the ruby - cometh forth, In Bede’kshan if the ruby From the rocky slate forth cometh, If the ruby from Badakhshan’s rocky slate comes out,

J^ j *



j l ___ J f

J l ___


Clarke, 455 Payne, II, 22 Smith, II, [465] Kennedy M ., 14 Saberi 1, 307


c J b J lo

s iM »-


kS J j



Ruby wine (love for the true Beloved) drink; Quaff the red wine and the face O f the moon-browed fair behold: Drink ruby wine and the faces of those moon of forehead fair see: Drink deeply His love and gaze at the face Imbibe the ruby wine and see the faces of the moon-browed.

GA.582 oT j M j

j A heart-alluring subtlety, I utter, Hear from me a trait heart-luring, A subtlety fascinating to the heart I say: “That moonface’s mole, see: Let me speak about a charming delicate matter:

Clarke, 456 Payne, III, 23 Smith, II, [466] Saberi 1, 306 GA.585




On the rank of profligates keep casting a glance To the toper crew some favour Prithee show, more worth than this is; To us intoxicated lovers glance our way, more than this; At the line of rends, cast a better look than this.

Clarke, 769 Payne, III, 28 Smith, II, [472] Saberi 1, 307 GA.587

j > & jr* J * By the soul of the Pir of the tavern, By the life of the Winehouse Elder And due of his grace, I swear, By the Soul of the Wineseller, by my thanks for generosity of His, By the life of the Perfect Master and due to His grace, I swear by the Pir of the tavern and the honor of his company I swear by the soul of the Elder in the Ruins,

Clarke, 780 Payne, III, 36 Smith, II, [481] Kennedy M., 15 Saberi 1, 308 Alston, 174 G/i.589

OJ J \_3Clarke, 778 Payne, III, 35 Smith, II, [480]


j —) JU>OThou (that hast) the (resplendent) sun, O thou, of whose bright beauty The sun’s the mirrorer, O You; You Whose beauty is so bright, the sun is but a mirror;


O you, for whose beautiful face the sun is a mirror-holder

Saberi 1, 310

Gh.S 90 ^_y cM_r ->



Robinson, 116 Clarke, 781 McCarthy, 126 Leaf, 59 Payne, III, 37 Rundall, 136 Lister, [59] Smith, II, [482] Kennedy M., 22 Saberi 1, 312



The violet is angered in envy of thy musky, waving ringlets; Torment (of envy) to the violet, The violet is vexed with envy of thy musk-scented tresses; Curled is the hair of hyacinth, jealous to match thy hair, for thee; Those browlocks of thine, musk-scattering, Thy musky tresses vex the violet, andJill it with envy, Lo, the violet is smothered with envy of thy wavering, musky locks, The violet is much tormented by that musk scented hainYours; The violets curl for envy ofThy sweet-scented curls, Your musk-rubbing lock is twisting the violet [from jealousy].


j Clarke, 786 Payne, III, 40 Smith, II, [485] Saberi 1, 313

fo u ro T c ~ o j otiif o ^

Mine is an eye, blood-shedding on account of the eye 1 have an eye, that all a-bleed Is for a bow, that brow of hers; I have an eye that is bleeding because of the eye of that bow, I have blood-shedding eyes because of that bow-like eyebrow.

fj c

GA.596 Jj1 ofJ


Clarke, 783 Payne, III, 39 Smith, II, [483] Kennedy M., 17 Saberi 1, 314 Alston, 176

j j l olo


j \j



The down (the world’s up-springing) of the true Beloved’s cheek, The down of the Beloved Before whose cheek the moon doth pale, The down of the Beloved’s cheek by which the moon is eclipsed, The moon’s beauty pales beside the fair cheek of the Beloved, The beloved’s face’s khat that eclipsed the moon, The downy beard round the cheeks of the Friend


Sadiq, 7, 52 Clarke, 785 Payne, III, 40 Smith, II, [484] Kennedy ML, 18 Saberi 1,315

Behold this rose, Pleasure’s rose-bush blossometh: The rosebush of pleasance blossomed is: Rosebush of joy blossomed: Winebringer with cheek of rose is where? The rose bush is in blossom now, The rose-bush of love is blooming. Where is the rose-cheeked Saqi?

Gh. 598 j _G ( Scott 2,128 Clarke, 787 Payne, III, 42 Smith, II, [486] Saberi 1, 316 Shahriari

to 3 r *


O! thou faithful messenger, tell me news of my beloved; O messenger of the true ones News of the absent Friend, Courier of lovers true, say thou; What news of Beloved do you messenger to the true lover, say? O courier of the righteous, tell us about our beloved. Tell me of my friend, my messenger of the Right

Gh. 599 ^3


lia f

She said, -Thou wentest forth to gaze upon the new moon; The beloved said: - “Forth, thou wentest for the spectacle She said:Thou wentest forth to behold the new moon; “On the new-risen moon Wentest thou forth," quoth she," to gaze. So she pouted and uttered these words; The Beloved said: “You went out, upon the new moon to gaze; You went forth to gaze at the newly-risen moon. She said: “You came out to watch the new moon.

GA.601 JJ Jj J iL , pi—:>


0 Saki! intoxicated with love's cup, I am; Foxed with the cup of Love Am I: bring wine forthright. O f Love’s sweet chalice have I deeply drunk; I’m drunk with love’s cup, Winebringer more wine be bringing! Caught in the cup of love am I. Bring wine forthwith, 1 have a hangover from the bowl of love. Give me some wine, Saqi. I’m drunk again on the wine of love - Winebringer, bring more wine! I am drunk with Love, bearer, bring me some wine


o /l Bicknell, 261 Robinson, 156 Clarke, 904 McCarthy, 12

3 ** x

Said, if dear to thee the wine-cup’s flow, Cup-bearer, hast thou a passion for wine, Saki! if desire be thine for wine, Come, cup-bearer, if thou hast a love of wine,

Payne, III, 130 Lister, [79] Smith, II, [568] Kennedy M., 79 Crowe 2 ,1 6

Skinker, for liquor if love be thine, Bring me nothing but wine, my boy, I have only a passion for drinking. O Winebringer, if Your love is for the wine, If love be in your heart, dispenser of wine, O Winebringer, ifYou really love us

Gh. 636

Clarke, 893 Payne, III, 120 Smith, II, [559]

O thou from shame of whose (ruddy) cheek, Thou, whose cheek for shame the roses maketh wet; From envy ofYour cheek the rose is drowned in sweat;

Gh. 637 —Sj oT 4—i

v*-i Bicknell, 262 Clarke, 913 Payne, III, 137 Smith, II, [576] Saberi 1, 327

O f Jam remind not, but present thy wine: His lip, I kiss, and down drink its - wine: Her lip I lass and wine I tipple: yea, Your lip I lass and then I drink its wine away: I am kissing her lips and sipping wine.


Robinson, 126 Clarke, 841 McCarthy, 35 Payne, III, 83 lister, 64 Smith, II, [526] Kennedy M ., 47 Saberi 1, 327

If at the voice of the turtle-dove and the nightingale, If to the voice of the bulbul and of the turtle-dove, If at the song of the turtle-dove and the nightingale If to the voice of bulbul And dove thou drink no wine, If I cannot induce you to drink, at the voice of the nightingale singing, If to voice of nightingale and dove, wine you won’t be drinking, Attend to the voice of the nightingale and the dove: If you do not drink wine to the songs

Gh. 639 $


Jones 3, 180 Nott, 115 Cowell 2, 91 Bicknell, 258

j * j J *s*

4—• ^

J i 4—w



To hide the gleam, O Saki! ’tis the shade of the cloud,

s .J j


Payne, III, 108

Hark ye,sldnker, here is cloud-shade; Here are Spring and river-side:

Maitra, 85 Aryanpur, 127 Smith, II, [549] Saberi 1, 370

O Saqi! Here are the shade of the doud, Saki! Watch the cloud’s shade, the brook, the Spring! O Winebringer, here is doud’s shade and stream’s bank in Spring; Saqi, it is spring, the shade of a doud, and the bank of a stream.

Alston, 189

Come, cup-bearer,

Gh. 715 J

Bicknell, 254 Robinson, 130 Clarke, 845 McCarthy, 120 Payne, III, 85 Anon. 12, 943 Lister, [66] Aryanpur, 128 Meisami 1, 160 Smith, II, [529] Meisami 3, 141 Saberi 1, 371 Alston, 191

__f f


In Pahlavi his strain began the bulbul on the cypress spray, The nightingale from the bough of the cypress From the cypress-bough, in Pahlavi shout, the bulbul, The nightingale, from the branch of the cypress, With courtly speech the bulbul, From off the cypress-spray, Pupil, genuine wisdom learn. From the bough of the cypress tree the nightingale chanted last evening, The nightingale on cypress branch remained, Last night, from cypress branch, the nightingale In the old Pahlavi language from a branch of the cypress, The nightingale, from the cypress branch, to a Pahlavi air, Last night, from the branch of a cypress, a nightingale was singing Last night from the branch of a cypress


j— Bicknell, 252 Robinson, 124 Clarke, 836 McCarthy, 94 Payne, III, 79 Rundall, 93 Obbard 2,81 Lister, [63] Smith M ., 115 Aryanpur, 129 Hasan, 133 Smith, II, [522] Kennedy M ., 45 Cloutier, [1]

3j—* 0 1—3

j*** &

O thou who art unlearned still, the quest of love essay: O thou who art without knowledge, O thou void of news (of love)! O thou, who art devoid of knowledge, Knowledge, o witless one, seek; Else cast of one side shalt thou be. O ignorant one! strive to become a master of knowledge; O thoughtless man, begin to work and think, O thou ignorant person, I bid thee to study until thou has learning, O you who are without knowledge, O ’ignorant, try in wisdom to abide! O uninformed person try to become well-informed: O ignorant one, try, so that a Master, open-eyed you’ll be. Oh ignorant one, seek knowledge or else you will be cast aside. You who’ve heard

Gray 2, 143 Saberi 1, 372 Alston, 192 Pourafzal, 72

O ignorant one, try to become a master of knowledge. O unaware, strive to be aware. O ignorant one, make serious efforts O youth with no knowledge of ancient ways bold,

Gh.718 vf—


O— ^

Robinson, 145 Clarke, 883 McCarthy, 90 Payne, III, 112 Lister, [74] Aryanpur, 130 Smith, II, [552] Saberi 1, 373 Alston, 193


c-flT One morning an unseen voice in friendly tone In the morning, the invisible speaker of the wine-house One morning a voice called to me from the tavern in amicable wise, Unto me the Unseen Speaker O f the inn, at break of day, In the morning an unseen voice, from the wine-house Like Jam take the cup - great secrets it displays, At dawn, Winehouse’s invisible speaker wishing me well did say: At dawn, the tavern’s messenger benevolently said: I heard at dawn


(jf— Clarke, 831 Singh, 156 George, 51 Payne, III, 74 Obbard 2,1 Smith, II, [517] Dalai, 251 Saberi 1, 373




O thou, in whose face (are) revealed the splendours of sovereignty; O Patron of mine! thou art not only a King in name, O you! The resplendence of royalty shines in your face: Thou, upon whose radiant cheek Bright the lights of kingship shine, Hail to thee, lord, upon whose face the lights of kingly glory shine, OYou, in Whose radiant face the manifestations of Royalty shine, You are not only the King O you on whose face the radiance of kingship is apparent

Qasayid Qas.3

Robinson, 78 Clarke, 488 McCarthy, 119 Payne, II, 85 Rundall, 112 Lister, [40]

The affection thou hast experienced will give thee, happiness, The white breath (of morn), The love thou hast known will cause thee happiness, At dawn, when the wind of the East At dawn’s white breath when zephyrs The affection that thou hast given will rebound to enrich thy delight,

Smith, II, [616]

When dawn’s white breath, scent of soul’s life sweetly takes,

Q asJ pj j - *>•.f

J — J** J p&l*’

Clarke, 654 Payne, II, 194 Smith, II, [387] Saberi, 250



jx~* \j$ >

In the morning, Jauza (Gemini) placed before me Orion, in the dawning, His baldric down doth lay, At morning Gemini placed before me the Koran’s preserving; The Gemini laid down its baldric before me at dawn.

Qas. 8 j

Bicknell, 354 Clarke, 1001 Payne, III, 225 Smith, II, [608]


4*0 s~ x~

> fjf

Earth’s ample tract, as Iram’s mead, with radiant youth is crowned; Youthful, like Iram’s garden, The light of the conquering Sultan’s Fair fortune once again Young again like the garden of Iram became earth’s terrain,

Qas. 9 Jb L -i Bicknell, 357 Clarke, 1005 Payne, III, 230 Smith, II, [612] „ Crowe 1, 84

Turn not the eye of pity from HAFIZ’ helpless state, Easily of the heart-ravishingness, O f charmerhood to boast thee A light affair is not; O f such charming of hearts one cannot very easily be boasting, When will I ever find a little time so I may serve the Perfect Master? Q ita ‘a t

QitA r-£~>J

Bicknell, 273 Clarke, 937 Payne, III, 156 Smith, II, [663] Crowe 1,75



Learn good and evil from thyself alone: From thyself, ask thou thyself both the good and the bad; Still question thyself of thy good and thy bad: You question yourself about your good and your bad? Why do you want to know if you are good or bad?





A) jS*H> (j.j* o

Bicknell, 320 Rogers 1,29 Clarke, 967 Payne, III, 184

«t Of j£ j cJU>4> pH*’ ^T*v^7 jb

Come back! from love of thee my soul is glowing; Return! my soul thy beauty waits to see. Come back! for an account of thy beauty, Come back, for soul on thy beauty await is;

Each of the translators places this poem in the Kuba ‘iyat.

$ 3j 3 3 ^ 3



Collegiate halls and learned strifes where arch and porch are high The hall, and the college, and the argument of knowledge; Hall and debate of learning, College and portico; Hall and college and debate < ning, arch and corridor;

Bicknell, 274 Clarke, 938 Payne, III, 157 Smith, II, [664] Qft.8 C? o f

Aita y > Acjy b ^ f



vl)l> OUj


iTuranshah, the world’s soul,' (Vazir)Turan Shah, the world’s Khan. Touranshah, the age’s Asef, He is the soul of all the world, Turan Shah, the Khan of the world and Chief of the age,

Bicknell, 289 Clarke, 948 Payne, III, 167 Smith, II, [674] Qit.9





Baha ud-Din,Truth’s light, (his rest be calm!) Baha, u-l-Hakk va Din - happy, be his resting-place! Beha-el-hecc-W’ed-din (fair be his rest-place!) Baha, u-l-Hakk va Din: happy be his place of resting!

Bicknell, 290 Clarke, 949 Payne, III, 167 Smith, II, [674] Qit. 10 Of j > ' j S

Bicknell, 282 Clarke, 943 Payne, III, 162 Smith, II, [669]


jf ©-*£

At morn my Genius, overcome with pain, In the morning, from exceeding sorrow, my power of verse-making, Wellaway, my power of versing, For excess of tribulation, At morning, from great grief, my power of making poetry

This morning, because of all my grief, while writing poetry,

Crowe 1,82 QitA2

o j —&>y



c tio b



God, Lover of us all, who never knoweth change, When the Merciful One, who dieth not this King, When God the Merciful, The One that dieth not, perceived When the merciful One, God Who does not die,

Bicknell, 288 Clarke, 948 Payne, III, 167 Smith, II, [673] Qit.13

jf (j*jlS* 4J"*

Bicknell, 270 Clarke, 935 Payne, III, 153 Browne 2, 290 Smith, II, [660] Dalai, 249

Hope not for boons from 4Amr or Zaid, O man by reason led: O man of wisdom! on the liberality o f4Amr or of Zaid, Reckon not on this man’s bounty Nor on that, O man of wit: iThe King of'Hurmuz did not see me\ O wise man, don’t set heart on this or that man’s generosity, The King of Hormuz did not see me,

QitAA obT o &_| ^ v j U l o Bicknell, 271 Clarke, 936 Payne, III, 154 Browne 2, 276 Abid, 69 Smith, II, [661] Dalai, 233

^ While yet the Shah was living, In the time of rule of Shah Shaikh Abu Ishak, In the days of the rule of the Sultan Shah Sheikh Abou Ishac iDuring the period of Shah Shaykh Abu During the reign of Shah Abu Ishaq In the time of the rulership of the Shah, Shaikh Abu Ishak, During the period of Shah Shaykh Abu Ishaq’s rule


?jLJ> Bicknell, 270 Clarke, 935 Payne, III, 153 Smith, II, [660]

iS j

J . j j * jT

The Holy Spirit, that angel high, The holy spirit that happy Surush (Jibra‘il), Lo, on Heav’n’s emerald-vaulted roof, On the emerald roof of the Heavens,

—aJfC Jj

Qit. 17 •A—U**



Gore Ouseley, 39


w'fJ j J^?—1—cf cJjv


“In the year 792, after the auspicious flight of Ahmed

Qft.20 JLiL-j I_oT JO A—r Bicknell, 273 Clarke, 937 Payne, III, 155 Stallard, 2 Smith, II, [662] Crowe 1,74

c J j tf'Jj


Time-choosing friend, hence to my master going, O friend, time-chooser! O time-keeping cup-companion, The Vizier for me bespeak Will you, my friend, whom I know all compact O friend, choose the time for me to speak to the master, O secretary, schedule me some time to speak to the Master,

Qit.22 ^ Bicknell, 285 Clarke, 946 Payne, III, 165 Smith, II, [672]

\S3J t j - f J* Opportunity flies, O brother, O brother! in passing away, opportunity In swiftness of passage, like the clouds, Brother, in passing away, swift

Q it-24

Bicknell, 285 Clarke, 946 Payne, III, 165 Le Gallienne, 188 Smith, II, [672]



j * jijt f *


My verse, conserve of rose, despoils the violet of its due, Sugar from the violet, My verse’ rose-conserve From vi’let syrup sugar taketh; Conserve of roses is this book of song, The rosejam of my verse took away the sugar from the violet;

Qit. 28 j# Bicknell, 292 Clarke, 950 Payne, III, 168


J ^ jJ j> 4TjT

To State and Faith a prop, his portal high, The great pillar of state and of faith, Aazem Kiwam-ed-daulet-W’ed-din, before whose door whilere

Kiwam-Ed-Din, strong pillar of the state, Kivamu-d-Din, the great pillar of faith and state, at whose door

Le Gallienne, 184 Smith, II, [675] Qit. 30

jjt jj I

OL-oj j j *

o jj


JT j


j Sj \j


4 > 1 ^

“Approve not ill:* this caution bear the envier of my lord; To the envious ones of our Khwaja speak, To him who jalouseth our Khwijeh say, “I’ll approve thou not Speak to those jealous of our Master, saying: “Don’t approve

Bicknell, 275 Clarke, 938 Payne, III, 157 Smith, II, [664] Qit.31

ji_)JJ Ufc 4j j f Bicknell, 293 Clarke, 951 Payne, III, 169 Smith, II, [676]

j Jj


taf olkL* o





Who to the Sultan’s majesty the story shall convey? That one is who - who will represent to His Highness, the Sultan Who is it that the Sultan Will tell what camel-cats, Who is the one who’ll go and tell to the Sultan:

Q it.ll j _} jj Cowell 13, 231 Bicknell, 267 Clarke, 933 Payne, III, 150 Abid, 72 Smith, II, [658] Kennedy M ., 87

Set not thy heart on the world and its goods Let not thy Heart the World’s vain goods pursue, On the world and its goods, plant not thy heart; Set thy heart not on the world and on its goods; Do not devote yourself to this world and worldly possession Don’t set your heart on the world and its possessions, Set not your heart on this world and its goods,


O^b-ot—iTl* ^ f JJjLZj Anon. 2, 586 Clarke, 474 Leaf, 48 Payne, II, 73 Le Gallienne, 116 Underwood, 49 Stallard, 28 Avery 1,49



O f j ^ l —*


Where Wine’s jolly votaries meet and get tipsy, At the head of the market, Send the criers round the market, call the royst’rers’ band to hear, At the Soul-adventurer’s mart-head Proclamation lo! they make, In the heart’s Market place go stand, my song, In the Market where the gamesters In Sweetheart Mart the Cryer cries In the market-place where they play tricks with the soul

j** J.

Rehder, 287 Smith, II, [275] Barks, 167 Crowe 1,56

At the head of the bazaar At head of the market the soul gamblers a proclamation make: Send those who can be hired At the gate of the marketplace, the soul-gamblers shout:

Q it.38

JT 4jJb


Bicknell, 283 Clarke, 944 Payne, III, 163 Smith, II, [670] Crowe 1, 83

4—S” None see nor hear the malice of the Sky; The sky’s malice, they see not; and hear not; They see not and they hear not The malice of the sphere; They do not see or hear of the malice of the sky, The blind and the deaf do not see or hear the resentment of the sky.

QitAZ j£ \ *3 jf

** 3

Bicknell, 287 Clarke, 947 Payne, III, 166 Smith, II, [673]



The brother ‘Adil - be his rest unvext! Brother Khwaja ‘Adil - unvexed be his rest, Lo, our brother Khwijeh Aadil, after living Brother Khwaja Adil’s rest be without worry

Q it.44

jo j Jones 4,167 Bicknell, 274 Clarke, 938 Payne, III, 156 Underwood, 67 Smith, II, [663] Crowe 1, 76

Learn from yon orient shell to love thy foe, Regard the morals by my volume taught; From the book of manners, to thee, I read A verse of faith and magnanimity From the Book of Noble Living I would read a verse toThee, From the Book of Morals I will read to you From the Book of Morals, let me read you

Qit.48 fcAjj

Bicknell, 294 Clarke, 952 Payne, III, 170

j ) jit

Come eat thou of the green-hued seed, and of a light digestion boast: Eat that green grain (of the grape), Eat of this green berry; easy O f digestion for it is:

Seest thou this little berry, this green pill? Whoso hasheesh - the green sweet grain Eat that green grain that is so easy to digest,

Le Gallienne, 186 Underwood, 69 Smith, II, [676] Q it. 50


t r


T oU j viur Isma’i l , Boast of Faith, of Kazis first, The glory of religion, chief of the Sultan Kazis, - Isma‘il, Mejdeddin, the King and Sultan Of the Cadis, Ismay’il, Ismail is dead, of men and cadis best: The Chief of the Sultan-Judges, glory of religion, Ismail,

Bicknell, 291 Clarke, 950 Payne, III, 168 Le Gallienne, 183 Smith, II, [675] Q it. 51


Bicknell, 298 Clarke, 955 Payne, III, 173 Smith, II, [679]

JjU ao O t J f


c —f

Jj ^ Bicknell, 286 Clarke, 946 Payne, III, 165 Le Gallienne, 182 Browne 2, 289 Smith, II, [672] Dalai, 246

o T (*£



—- J j

J j)

On Rabi’ul - Awwal's sixth, one Friday morn, The morning of Friday, it was; The morning of Friday it was, The sixth of Rebi the First, My little moon, the morning Friday was, It was the morning of Friday and the sixth of the first Rabi’ It was the morning of Friday and it was the sixth day of Rabiu, It was the morning of Friday and the sixth of the first Rabi-I

Q it.55

S Bicknell, 280 Clarke, 942 Payne, III, 160 Le Gallienne, ix Smith, II, [667] Crowe 1,81

j- j

O ^ jf

The beauty of these verses baffles praise: The beauty of this verse is independent of explanation; No expounding doth this poem s beauty need; Song such as this hath need of no man’s praise; The beauty of this verse is beyond an explanation; The beauty of this poem is beyond words.


Qit. 57 c ^ c ^ J ^ J ^ f j J b ^ J t e j J Ui J U

Bicknell, 294 Clarke, 952 Payne, III, 170 Smith, II, [676] Shahriari

With years and omens, health and wealth, Years, omen, state, wealth; and source and race (lineage), Years and blessings ever-during, Years and blessings and wealth, offspring, throne and power, Time & clime, & wealth & health, & root & fruit, & state & fate

Q it. 61 J L -o » j

J jJ L ->


it— &

Bicknell, 295 Clarke, 953 Payne, III, 170 Chapman, 125 Smith, II, [677]

Qfj— He was the prince of turbaned men, the lamp in halls The chief of men of turbans, the candle of the union of the assembly, He, the chief of turban-wearers Vizier of the happy King, The chief of the turbaned ones, the candle of gathered men; Chief of wearers of turbans, candle of the circle’s unity,

Q it. 67

J i&


j j j j Bicknell, 284 Clarke, 944 Payne, III, 163 Smith, II, [671]

A friend sent yesterday this message kind: Yesterday, me a message a friend sent, A friend unto me a message Yesterday sent, to wit, Yesterday a friend sent a message to me that said this:

Q it.7 8

^7 ^




Had merit’s lustrous gem been placed within the beggar’s breast, If, in reality, the beggar had the pure essence If at the first the beggar Had been of essence pure, If in reality, the beggar had been in his essence truly pure, What if the beggar had been truly pure in his begging,

Bicknell, 272 Clarke, 936 Payne, III, 155 Smith, n, [662] Crowe 1 , 73

Qit. 79

jjl #

\j>- j r

Bicknell, 286 Clarke, 947 Payne, III, 166 Smith, II, [673] Shahriari






Sweet fruit of Paradise’s choicest bower of bliss O Soul! that paradise-fruit that came to thy hand That fruit of Paradise Thou haddest in thy hand O soul, that fruit of Paradise that came into your hand, That fruit of paradise which came into your hands


_> 4>fj>- JjtA

J - 5!^ J 3 ~ i J j * Gore Ouseley, 38 Bicknell, xvi Smith, II, [679]

jAf £ 1j*-

“Khaja Hafiz, the spiritual lamp of the learned and devout, On spiritual men the lamp of Hifiz gleamed; The lamp of the men of spirituality is Khwaja Hafiz,

Q it.8 7

L-cT jpu y j

V5-J'U j1 j * Bicknell, 281 Clarke, 942 Payne, III, 161 Le Gallienne, 180 Smith, n, [668]


1j f o b f j j

Monarch whom the liberal claim, of lionheart, of ocean hand, Khusrau! O just one! thou justice-dealing monarch, Ocean-hand and lion-heart, lion-hearted, ocean handed King, monarch, O just one, O one with ocean hands, lion of heart!

Qit. 88 L -« Bicknell, 269 Clarke, 934 Payne, III, 152 Smith, II, [659] Kennedy M ., 86

y+e. U v


j Lj

c »«I o L >

^ wmTI aT* ©^b L jL

Saki, refill thy cup with wine, life’s pure elixir bring, Saki! the wine that is life’s elixir, bring; Skinker, wine that the Elixir Is of life, I prithee bring Winebringer, bring the wine that is the elixir of life, so the Dispenser of wine, the elixir of life, I ask Thee bring

Qit.89 L J j o1j jf


Breeze which at the morning biowest, O spring-breeze! if thou canst, O Wind of the East, an if thou may, O breeze of Spring, if you possibly can,

Bicknell, 298 Clarice, 955 Payne, ffl, 173 Smith, II, [679]


Bicknell, 297 Clarke, 954 Payne, III, 172 Le Gallienne, 187 Underwood, 74 Smith, II, [678]

Alas that the bright robe of youth should fade! Alas! the bright robe of the day of youth, Alas for the robe of youth’s days! Ah me, O you embroidered robe of my young days, Oh that Youth’s glowing gown must fade What regrets for that bright robe of youth’s day!

Qit.91 PJ6 J. Bicknell, 279 Clarke, 941 Payne, III, 159 Smith, II, [666] Crowe 1,80

s - !*

ofjdb Jfciy jC t) lAtiioO

O King, the host of Heaven protects thy way; O King! fellow-traveller with thee, Hail, o King! The hosts of heaven Are thy waymates: on and prosper, O King, the army of God’s Grace is Your companion; O mighty ruler, wake up! The army of God’s Grace is at your door.

Qit. 92 crJ J33- 3 y—t j- Ol> —e j

Bicknell, 276

O Shah, an envoy came from Heaven,

c - f OJ-.JxSj~» 'ALi

Clarke, 939 Payne, III, 158 Le Gallienne, 179 Smith, II, [665] Crowe 1,77

O Shah! from paradise, an envoy O bearer of glad news As Rizwan throned and Houri-like, Shah, out of heaven came now this sudden song, O King! From Paradise, bringer of happy news has come; O rich man, I have come from Paradise to bring you some happy news! K u b a ‘iya t

RA ij-

a---- -

Rundall, 82 Smith, II, [642] Sharib, 34

Of O King, so learned, generous, wise! Who can compare O King, who can compare with Your kindness, learning? O King! When in the court ofThy wisdom,

R .2 \ j U J —lU Bicknell, 311 Rogers 1, 26 Clarke, 963 Payne, III, 181 Majid, 45 Rundall, 59 Smith M., 116 Smith, II, [631] Sharib, 33 Saberi 2, 373 Shahriari

s —i iS S -T >




J jL J

j— taj

Save thine, no image ever haunts my brain, Naught but thy image is reflected in my eye; Save Thy picture, naught cometh into the vision Saving thine image, to our sight nought cometh; In crowds I see no image save thine own, I have no eyes for aught except Thine image sweet; Nothing I behold, save the Vision ofThee: Except Your image, nothing comes into that sight of ours, Nothing comes in our eyes except Thy face, Except your image nothing appeared in my view The only vision I have is your sight

R. 3 b

Bicknell, 326 Rogers 1, 31 Clarke, 970 Payne, III, 187 Majid, 52 Chapman, 22 Smith M., 115 Smith, II, [637]


It is a crime to seek to raise But self, It is a grievous error to exalt oneself, ’Tis a great sin - to uplift one’s self; A great fault ’tis to magnify oneself “ ‘Twere folly to thyself to be more kind, A mighty sin to pinnacle one’s self; It is an infamous thing to exalt oneself It is truly a great mistake for one to glorify oneself,


___ ;

vJ b Since that sad day when Heaven parted me from Thee, Since that sorrowful day when Fate took me from You, Since the day I was separated from Thee by the sky,

Rundall, 73 Smith, II, [644] Sharib, 33 R.7 Lj


A I,

Bicknell, 321 Rogers 1, 29 Clarke, 967 Payne, III, 184 Majid, 40 Rundall, 60 Smith, II, [635] Sharib, 33 Saberi 2, 374 Shahriari


j OL

J j t -^ f


j *-

Take wine to which delight we trace And come; Seize on the wine that joy excites, and come! Take wine joy-exciting; and come, Come back, for my soul on thy beauty await is; Come thou, and bring me wine, the source of joy; The joy-inspiring wine-cup take, and hither come! Take wine that gives joy, about it be discreet and come, Bring the joy-giving, inspiring, Wine, Pick up the pleasure-evoking wine and come Pick up the joy giving wine and come hither

R.S ©Ob 2}J) j f

Rundall, 44 Smith, II, [655] Sharib, 34

I said “If all my friends in my resolve will share, I said: “If in my determination all my friends participate, I said that, perhaps, for the sake of friends of mine,

R.9 Ai j p j b j f J* j j j 4j

Rundall, 75 Smith, II, [644]

u ii

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c if


O lips like sugar pure, refin’d! lost to my sight! O lips that are like pure sugar, which I can no longer see,

R .10

. U? pLUlf J j-*


Bicknell, 304 Rogers 1, 24 Clarke, 959

Drain with thy friend the wine-cup; this solicit; Sit with thy friend, and seek wine’s cup of bliss; With the friend, sit; the cup of wine - seek


cob j tjrrj


Go, sit with the Friend; The wine of the bowl go seek; Sit with the friend and the cup of wine, ask Come, sit with love, and, while the wine-cup flows Sit with the Friend; pour wine, and never stint; Sit down with the Friend and the cup of the wine seek, Sit with the friend and ask for the Goblet and the Wine,

Payne, III, 178 Majid, 36 Majid, 53 Chapman, 47 Smith, II, [628] Sharib, 34

K.12 to I said: “Thy lip!” Said she. “ ’Tis life’s pure river “ I asked: “What is thy lip?” “Life’s water ’tis," she said. I spake, saying: - “Thy lip?” Quoth I, “What’s thy lip?” “The water of Life,” said she. Quoth I, “Your lip?” “The fount of life,” she cried. “Thy lips?” I asked; quoth She “Water of life is there!" ‘Thy lip?’ I said. She said: ‘Life’s drink to all.’ I said: “What’s Your lip?” “Water of Life,”You told me. I said, “Your lip ” She said, “My lip is the water of life.” I said, your lips said, your lips we revive

Bicknell, 313 Rogers 1, 27 Clarke, 964 Payne, III, 182 Majid, 42 Rundall, 71 Chapman, 6 Smith, II, [632] Saberi 2, 374 Shahriari ft.13

To Him Who is supreme thy soul gave not a thought; Your mind didn’t think about the One Who is Almighty

Rundall, 81 Smith, II, [643] fl.16 c-O U

Bicknell, 310 Rogers 1,26 Clarke, 962 Payne, III, 180 Majid, 49 Rundall, 69 Chapman, 6 Smith, II, [631] Saberi 2, 374 Shahriari



j j juL-j* j j *

A moon faced fair one, cypress-like in height, One like the moon, like cypress in its grace, A moon, whose stature like to cypress (was) - straight, A moon with a shape As the cypress straight and fine, A girl whose figure shamed the cypress tall Fair as the moon, and cypress-like in symmetry, A Moon, of cypress stature, lovely line, A moon whose shape was straight like the tall cypress, That beauty, whose stature truly resembles a cypress, One, beautiful and full of grace

b jji-c j 1?UJ Rundall, 49 Smith, II, [653] Sharib, 35


c —f vyLs-f c i y



To-day, when lovers sever’d from the Friend repine, Today, when lovers far from the Friend are sorrowful, Today is the day of the separation of friends;

R. 18

C—f gJb I * J > f Jlij £-i O^4>

Rundall, 89 Smith, II, [657]

When Death strikes with his sword, a shield availeth naught; When death uses swords, shield as protector is worthless;

JU 9

J Bicknell, 319 Rogers 1, 29 Clarke, 966 Payne, III, 184 Majid, 48 Rundall, 85 Chapman, 19 Smith, II, [634] Saberi 2, 375 Shahriari

/ ~

j o *>. fj- j j j

My heart by grief is daily torn Another one; Each day my heart another burden bears; Daily my heart beneath - another load is; Still my heart a load aby, another; Each day some greater grief my heart hath borne; New burdens day by day my heart bears patiently; Each day under a new heart-load to sweat; Daily my heart under another burden does lie, another! Everyday another burden falls upon my heart, A new challenge everyday


3 yi>& Rundall, 58 Smith, II, [650] Sharib, 38

What complex, subtle moods doth my Ador’d employ! What subde and complex ways are used by my Beloved: My Beloved has no equal in the art of concealing and revealing,

Rundall here translates only b.\ ; b.2 is presented as a separate poem on the same page, beginning “With the pistachio nut Her tiny mouth doth vie". Smith’s version dted above contains only a translation of b. \ ; b.2 is translated as a separate poem, on the same page, beginning “Your small pouth with the pistachio nut does contend*.




The new wine of the rose-tree of our Youth is love! Fresh wine of the time of our Youth’s rosetree is love,

Rundall, 43 Smith, n, [655]

a 26



Rundall, 77 Smith, II, [643] Sharib, 37

^la5rJ As on a lute my fingers o ’erThy tresses stray; like on lute, my fingers stray over Your curls and play, like the flute, Thy lock of hair is in my hand,




Rundall, 62 Smith, II, [649]

In thought my Love is ever with me night and day; You are with me in every thought, each day and night;

Rundall’s poem dted above is a version of b. 1 ; he translates b.2 as a separate poem, on the same page, beginning “If she should smite me with oppression’s winged dart". Smith’s version dted above is only translation of bA ; his version of b.2 appears on the same page, beginning “If You should strike me with that knife of oppression”. R. 30 c-J


Rundall, 64 Sharib, 36

9 O -*





Grieving for love ofinee, my heart with Wood doth fill; Although my heart has become blood

R.31 ©Oj o j Ufeo^O j

co j oT j j j ' l j Drink, drink the Wine of Love! ’tis everlasting life! Drink wine, the wine of Love, for it is everlasting life; Drink wine, for this is the only everlasting life,


C —f


j) kXJL)

©JLj G'j

Smith, II, [649] Sharib, 36 Saberi 2, 375 Shahriari

C—f©wC oJLj IJi JLwJ

You are a lovely Moon and the sun is a slave ofYours: Thou art the full moon and the sun is Thy slave burning bright, You are the full moon for whom the sun is a slave. You are the moon and the sun is your slave;




Bicknell, 324 Rogers 1,30 Clarke, 969 Payne, III, 186 Majid, 42 Rundall, 86 Chapman, 10 Smith, II, [636] Shahriari

j Jj

When on thy belt I laid my hand, I thought, When to the girdle round thy waist my hand I brought, My hand, I put within thy girdle, My hand to thy zone I set, for I thought therein Around her waist my hand unchided stole: I grasp’d Thy girdle, longing, hoping, to obtain Inside thy girdle once I put my hand, I grasped Your belt hoping Your help I would obtain, I put my arms around your waist


^ jJ^JI

J&j Z

Rundall, 55 Smith, II, [651]

y O t ij

Love’s camping-ground is that fair, radiant cheek ofThine! Your beautiful bright cheek is love’s camping-ground,

fU l

Rundall, 76 Smith, II, [644]

The night hath passed, and yet I told but half my tale; The night has passed by, but I only told half of my tale;




Ujl j —


. j ^ r u j\

None wander homeless wretched in Thy Street save I! In Your street, no one is poor and homeless, except me! In Thy lane there is nobody more deplorable than our self,

R. 46 U j



Rundall, 70 Smith, II, [645] Sharib, 36

c£fo 0 ^ J*a& AT"

i f y oT

That beauteous fair*)'-fac’d One who my life hath sought That One, with an angel’s face Who my life was seeking, To the fairy-faced Beloved who wants to take my life’s string,



4£iJ jf

Smith, II, [627]


& J. J.

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When Paradise drew Your features, O my fair Beloved,

Smith’s version corresponds to b. 1 ; b.2 is translated as a separate poem, on page [652], beginning “Your shining grace has made the glorious sun Your slave”. R.48

Bicknell, 306 Rogers 1,25 Clarke, 960 Payne, III, 179 Majid, 43 Rundall, 63 Chapman, 17 Smith, II, [629] Saberi 2, 376 a s

Bleeding for love of thee this night I sleep ; To-night from grief for thee in Hood I sleep, To-night, through grief (of love) for thee, To-night, amidst blood, For lack of thy sight, I shall sleep; To-night I’ll sleep in blood for all my pain, To-night, through grief for Thee, in tears of blood I’ll sleep; Here, with blood sprinkled, down I lie and weep; In pool of blood through grief for You tonight I’ll sleep, Tonight, I will sleep in the middle of Hood.


CS£ Bicknell, 322 Rogers 1, 30 Clarke, 968 Payne, III, 185 Majid, 50 Rundall, 57 Chapman, 5 Smith, II, [635]

oT j Say! why have thy two locks, curved, twined, and bent? Whence do thy twisted locks their curl derive? Twist and turn and curl thy two locks Thy tress all this twist and turn And tanglement whence hath it ta’en? Whence did the tangles of your hair arise? What made Thy locks to curl in such a twisting maze? Why take the curls that turn and twine and twist? The twist and turn ofYour hair, what has caused it?

f t 52

c i j Zj


J3 ^ >

Rundall, 63 Smith, II, [648] Sharib, 48

Last night, through grief for Thee, I did not sleep till morn; From grief, last night I didn’t sleep until sun’s first ray; Yesterday, due to Thy sorrow; I didn’t sleep till the sun rose,


o " ji


Bicknell, 301 Rogers 1, 23 Clarke, 957 Payne, III, 177 Majid, 36 Majid 52 Rundall, 80 Chapman, 32 Smith, II, [625] Sharib, 48 Shahriari

For daring deeds to Khaibar’s hero go; O f valour ask the Khaiber’s hero brave; From the door-plucker of Khaibar O f courage, the plucker-up O f the portal of Kheiber ask; Manliness from the plucker of the door of Khaibar ask, “Ask strength of him who plucked at Khaibar’s door; O f manfulness ask him who Khaibar’s gate up-tore; Ask fortitude from who plucked Khaibar’s door: For courage from Ali, plucker of the door of Khaiber, ask: O f bravery, ask the opener of the door of Khyber, From warriors learn courage

J U 28


J *5 King of the world! to me, so poor, Thy mercy show! O King of the world, show Your mercy to me so poor!

Rundall, 84 Smith, II, [642] fl.129 — j j\

Bicknell, 316 Rogers 1,28 Clarke, 965 Payne, III, 183 Majid, 34 Majid, 42 Rundall, 56 Chapman, 3 Smith, II, [633] Sharib, 49



AT J— £>

God grant thy eye, by Babel magic taught, That eye of thine by Babylon’s enchantments taught, Thy eye, whose teacher is the sorcery of Babil; Thine eye, of the wizards of Babylon taught, Thine eye, of which the sorcery of Babil is the teacher, Those eyes that Babil’s sorceries hath taught, ’Twas Babil taught Thine eye the arts of sorcery; Eyes that do Babil’s sorcery impress, The sorcery ofYour Eye that Babylon’s sorcerers taught, Thy eye, whose teacher is the magic of Babul,

Saberi 2, 380 Shahriari

Your eyes, whose master is the Sorcerer of Babylon, At dawn your eyes from Jupiter learn


Lr r j * Cr*3J

J * 3^ - ’

Bicknell, 328 Rogers 1, 32 Clarke, 971 Payne, III, 187 Majid, 49 Rundall, 88 Chapman, 12 Smith, II, [638] Kennedy M., 98 Sharib, 48 Davis, 111 Saberi 2, 381 Shahriari






j l j o C—J J {$1

O friend, from harshness to thy foe abstain; O friend, let not thy heart be cruel to thy foe. O friend! from violence to the enemy, Thy heart from wrong to friend and foe draw in; Seek not to compass vengeance for Thy wrong, From foes who would oppress thee, friend, avert thy face; Shame! when thy violent heart the foeman saw; Friend, your heart from doing violence to foe, draw in; Keep your heart free from any wrong to friend or foe, O friend! From the tyranny of the enemy protect the heart of thine; My friend, hold back your heart from enemies, O friend, do not support the cruelty of the enemy. O friend, from your foes your heart release,

Kennedy’s translation is printed as stanzas three and four of a poem called ‘Quartrains [sic] Pure Delight’ . R.132

Rundall, 77 Smith, II, [643]

She whispered softly to my heart, “Thy speech is sweet! To my heart You softly said: “Your utterance: sweet!


Rundall, 83 Smith, II, [626]

Oh, should’st Thou ever leave Thy dwelling-place on high, IfYou should happen to be leaving Your Sacred Home,

J U 38 JU>


Bicknell, 314 Rogers 1, 28 Clarke, 964

If that dear musk-moled Fair undraped draw near, That moon, in beauty that no rival knows, (O God!) when the garment off from the body

Payne, III 182 Majid, 41 Rundall, 69 Chapman, 18 Smith, II, [632] Sharib, 49 Davis, 110 Saberi 2, 381 Shahriari Loloi 7, 126

That musky-moled moon, When she draweth the raiment’s screen As, one by one, the garments from her glide If that bright Moon, with whom in beauty none compare, When from our body falls that garment sown When that musky moon takes the garment off the body, When that one having scented skin lets clothes from the body fall, A black mole graced his face; he stripped, and shone When that moon, who is peerless in beauty One with such beauty none will make. When that black-moled beauty discards her dress


^ jlT

C m—;

Rundall, 65 Smith, II, [647] Sharib, 50

Ah! can I e ’er forget Thee, Lamp of Chigil, though O Lamp of Chigil, is it possible for me to forget You? OThe candle of Chagal! Thy forgetting fills me with woes,

fl.141 J f


'* - > . / *

Rundall, 42 Smith, II, [655] Sharib, 49

JU > £ j

See how that happy rose in this garden blows! See the rose in the beautiful garden that only joy knows, See in the garden of beauty the blessed rose in full bloom,

fl.142 j f

i f j — -J


Rundall, 42 Smith, II, [652] Saberi 2, 381 Shahriari

4— k l i *


J f





When o ’er the garden sigh’d the breeze - Nurse of the rose When across the garden breezed, comforter of the rose, When the zephyr became the rose”s nurse in the garden, The morning breeze tended to the rose,



Bicknell, 308 Rogers 1,25 Clarke, 961 Payne, III, 179 Majid, 41


jf OUj

Let not thy lip e ’er miss The goblet’s lip, Thy lip withdraw not from the bringing cup, A moment take not thy lip back Never divorced thy lip Make from the lip of the cup; Take not your lips from the tankard’ brimming lip,


Rundall, 46 Chapman, 35 Smith, II, [630] Saberi 2, 382 Loloi 7, 126

Upon the goblet’s lip cease not thy lips to press; No moment take the lip from lip of cup, Never, never separated your lip make from the cup’s lip; Do not withdraw your lips from the bowl’s lip Take, oh take not, those lips from the rim of the cup

R.144 pUy j j j c s~ j>

cAP" By nobles prized, to all the people dear; Beloved by commoners, to nobles, too, well-known, Acceptable to the heart of the high, Accepted of every heart, Whom high and low acclaim, The Sultan’s friend, known by the least to fame, Chosen by prince, friend of the low in seat; Acceptable to heart of the high and acclaimed by the low,

Bicknell, 324 Rogers 1, 30 Clarke, 969 Payne, III, 186 Majid, 53 Chapman, 9 Smith, U, [636] K.146 f



Bicknell, 306 Rogers 1,25 Clarke, 960 Payne, III, 179 Majid, 45 Rundall, 75 Chapman, 16 Smith, II, [629] Sharib, 52 Saberi 2, 382



OjUT j


Mad for thy kisses and caress I die; Through hope of kiss and thy embrace I die ; In desire for thy kiss and embrace, - I die. O f wish for thy lass and embrace I die; Ah, love, for kisses long withheld I die; Sore longing for Thy kiss and Thine embrace, I die! For thy embrace I long: I long for thy Because of longing for Your kiss and embrace, I die; I die in the desire of kissing and embracing, In desire for your kiss and embrace I died.

fl.147 jjT j j j ) j j Bicknell, 307 Rogers 1, 25 Clarke, 960 Payne, III, 179 Rundall, 76 Chapman, 18 Smith, II, [629]

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Since, friend, a night with thee to morning ran, One night with thee, my soul, since I have passed, O soul! since, with thee, Since a night with thee, o soul, Brought have I to dawn, Beloved! since till dawn I passed the night with Thee, Soul, since with thee a night to day I brought, O Soul, since with You I have brought a night into day,


Sharib, 51

beloved! I passed one whole night with Thee in pleasure,

R.148 p jh £9li 4T c Crossed in my hopes in life, gone far Have I; All my live-long life vain wishes I pursue A long life in pursuit of desire lost Life in quest of a wish lost and lived not have I: Through unfulfilTd desire I count my life as vain; Lost - long desire pursuing - all hopes are; The loss of a long life because of chasing a wish, have I; Desire’s destroyed my life; what gifts have I I wasted my whole life in pursuit of my goal. I spent my life chasing my wishes

Bicknell, 329 Rogers 1, 32 Clarke, 972 Payne, III, 187 Rundall, 65 Chapman, 52 Smith, II, [638] Davis, 110 Saberi 2, 382 Shahriari R.150

r *A


j jU J


Rundall, 56 Smith, II, [651]

O l* C -i> -


When I of satin’s soft and glossy sheen would speak, When I talk about the soft and glossy surface of satin,

Rundall’s version dted above corresponds to b. 1; b.2 is translated as a separate poem, on page 57, beginning “If for a hundred days Thou never seest me”. Smith’s version listed above is also of b. 1 only; his translation of b.2 appears, on the same page, as a separate poem beginning “If for a hun­ dred days You do not happen to see me”. H.153

r* Bicknell, 301 Rogers 1,23 Clarke, 957 Payne, III, 177 Rundall, 64 Chapman, 54 Smith, II, [625] Kennedy M., 98 Sharib, 52 Davis, 110 Saberi 2, 383

J J^



Nought from my life passed here Save grief have I, With naught but sorrow I my days prolong; The out-come of my life, - naught have I save grief Nought of existence had Have I, save grief; What is the outcome of my lonely life, save grief? The outcome of my life is only grief; I have had nothing from the life I have had, but grief? Nothing have I had from existence, save grief; I have no object of my own, save sorrow, What does life give me in the end but sorrow? O f the product of life, I have nothing nut suffering.



My life has only brought me sorrow;

Kennedy’s translation is printed as stanzas five and six of a poem called ‘Quartrains [sic] Pure Delight’ . JU55


J o ©ob


45" 4;

’Tis best with wine the heart to gladden and beguile, To make heart happy with wine is the best thing to do, Better that from the goblet of wine, we make our heart happy at last, It is best to uplift hearts with drink, with wine,

Rundall, 45 Smith, II, [654] Sharib, 50 Loloi 7, 126 J U 56

r - * JU The love-pain caused by thee I ever store; For all thy grief a place my heart retains: In my own heart, the place of grief for thee, - I make; Room for the grief of thee In my heart’s core I’ve made: My heart makes room for grief - for grief of you. I have made room within my heart for grief for Thee; With grief for thee my heart-place is so rent: Much room for grief for You in this heart I’ve made;

Bicknell, 333 Rogers 1, 33 Clarke, 974 Payne, III, 189 Majid, 43 Rundall, 63 Chapman, 32 Smith, H, [640] J U 59




Rundall, 68 Smith, II, [646] Sharib, 50




Who saw the Friend keep faith? I fain would see it too! The Friend remain faithful, I’d like to see too! Who has seen the faithfulness from a friend that I will see,

JU 61

rJA » x r j> j t j Rundall, 50 Smith, II, [653]


jj O wind of Death! when droops my head in shame and pain, Wind of death, whose head falls from shame and agony



fl.162 4__ vtaj

Bicknell, 325 Rogers 1, 30 Clarke, 970 Payne, III, 186 Majid, 50 Rundall, 41 Chapman, 3 Smith, II, [636] Kennedy M ., 98 Sharib, 51

I__ »

pi? ■■



Hear I joy’s bird that waves its pinion fleet? The sound of wings of birds of joy I hear, The beating of the pinion of the bird of joy, The wings of the bird of joy in flight Do I perceive? Methinks I hear joy beating with his wings; The flutt’ring pinions of the bird of Joy I hear! List! - the wing-beating of the joyous bird; The wing of the bird of joyfulness beating I perceive; The wings of the bird of joy I do perceive, The voice of the wings of joy I hear,

Kennedy’s translation is printed as the first two stanzas of a poem called 4Quartrains [sic] Pure Delight’ . 1U 63


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Rundall, 56 Smith, II,[626] Sharib, 53


L j (J

O Mistress mine! while life as off’ring 1 can make O my Beloved, while this life of mine I can be offering O my Beloved! I will not leave Thee easily,


( * i / 4 * ° * * us* Bicknell, 326 Rogers 1, 31 Clarke, 970 Payne, III, 186 Majid, 45 Rundall, 74 Chapman, 19 Smith, II, [637] Sharib, 51

f i./

cf& j


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From thee apart - more than the taper, torrent flood I weep; Away from thee than burning taper hotter tears I weep; In separation from thee, More than the candle, when thou’rt unnear, I weep; Alone I weep more tears than candles shed My candle weeps! still more, cut off from Thee, weep I! More than a candle, when from thee apart, More than the candle, when You are not near, I weep: I, in separation from Thee, more than a candle weep,



.464. Tarkib-band 1, 1.

M ai. 1,(1); 2,(2); 3,(4); 4,(7) Saqi-Nameh; 5; 6,( 8); 7,(7) Mughani Nameh.

Qit. 1,1; 2,5; 3,7; 4,8; 5,9; 6, 10; 7 , 12 ; 8 ,Gf.,158; 9,14; 10,13; 11,16; 12.GA.184; 13,20; 14,GA.251 15,25; 16,28; 17,31; 18,32; 19,33; 20,43; 21,44; 22,48; 23,50; 24,53; 25,54; 26,55; 27,64 28,67; 29,69; 30,70; 31,72; 32,71; 33,73; 34,78; 35,79; 36,88; 37,90; 38,87; 39,91; 40,77 41.R.27; 42.R.94; 43,62; 44,18; 45,27; 46,30; 47, 34; 48,45; 49,R.144; 50,57; 51,60; 52,74 53,92; 54,76. R.

1,2; 2,12; 3,16; 4,35; 5,33; 6,19; 7,48; 8,52; 9,53; 10,61; 11,86; 12,93; 13,109; 14,113; 15,117 16,119; 17,122; 18,123; 19,126; 20,129; 21,138; 22,143; 23,153; 24,170; 25,185; 26,194 27,196; 28,199; 29,206; 30,221; 31,227; 32,230; 33,69; 34,80; 35,108; 36,162; 37,7; 38,82 39,102; 40,111; 41,121; 42,130; 43,142; 44,146; 45,148; 46,183; 47,198; 48; 49,41; 50; 51,% 52; 53,114; 54,155; 55; 56,191; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61; 62; 63.

APPENDIX It is both natural and, to a degree, desirable that a translator should inform himself about the efforts of his predecessors in the field. He will look at the work of those who have gone before him hoping, perhaps, to learn both from their errors and their triumphs.The would-be translator of Hafiz may well look at the work of earlier translators to help him make a selection of poems, so that he can perhaps avoid those which have been translated a number of times and choose instead from amongst the many that remain untranslated. So much is, surely, healthy. It has often been said that a translation is an act of critical interpretation, and that a translator who took no interest in the work of those who had preceded him would be as misguided as the critic who did not bother to read the major essays already published on his subject. In the case of one translator of Hafiz, however, this attention to the work of his predeces­ sors seems to have come dangerously close to, and in some instances to have crossed, the bounda­ ries between, as it were, constructive influence on the one hand and plagiarism on the other. Justin Huntly McCarthy published his GhazelsJrom the Divan of Hafiz, Done into English in 1893. In his dedicatory Preface toW. E. Henley he says of his translations, modestly enough: Need I say that they make no attempt to swell the sum of Oriental scholarship? They are but a handful chosen at all adventure from the thousand pearls of the chaplet of Hafiz.1 In fact his volume contains rather more than a “handful” - it contains 136 translations. These, McCarthy, tells us were chosen “at all adventure” .They are, then, to be thought of as a more or less random selection. O f course many translators before and after McCarthy have presented selec­ tions from Hafiz. Indeed, most have done so; only a few very brave souls have attempted to turn into English anything approaching all the approximately 1,060 poems which make up the work of the Persian poet. One such selection was that of Samuel Robinson, A Century of Ghazels, or a Hun­ dred Odes Selected andTranslatedJrom the Diwan of Hafez, which, in fact, contains translations of 102 poems. If the reader consults the List ofTranslators he can confirm a rather startling statistic. If the list of poems translated by Robinson is compared with the list of those translated by McCarthy, it will be found that of the 102 translated by Robinson, a full 100 are also included in McCarthy's selection. It is remarkable, indeed, that making a choice “at all adventure" from over a thousand poems, McCarthy should have hit upon almost precisely the selection made some twenty years earlier by Robinson. Exploration of the coincidence reveals that it does not end there. Both ver­ sions are in prose; both set out their prose in a kind of Biblical verse form, with one short 'para­ graph' being equivalent to one bait of the original. As one looks just a little more closely one is struck, again and again, by similarities of phrasing and cadence. The effect is a cumulative one and quotation of a single instance gives but a faint impression of the extent of the similarity. Yet it is worthwhile, for example, to consider their versions of Gh. 308. Robinson first: If from thy garden I plucked a mouthful of fruit, what mattereth it? If in the

splendour of thy lamp I abased my looks to my feet, what mattereth it? O my Lord, if I - a sun-scorched man - reclined a moment under the shade of that tall cypress, what mattereth it? O signet of Jemshid, of auspicious memories, if a reflection from thee should fall upon my ruby-ring, what mattereth it? Wisdom hath gone out of the door of its dwelling, and if this wine be the cause, I foresaw what would happen in the house of faith: what mattereth it? The pious man of the dty seeketh the favour of the King and the Governor; if I prefer the favour of a fair picture, what mattereth it? My predous life hath alternated between wine and my beloved, and if aught hath befallen me, from this or from that, what mattereth it? The master knew that I was alover; and if Hafiz knoweth that I am in like case, what mattereth it ?2 Next McCarthy: If from thy garden I gathered a handful of flowers, what matter? If before the glory of thy lamp I bent my looks to my feet, what matter? O Lord, if I, a sun-stained man, rested a moment beneath the shadow of that tall cypress, what matter? O seal of Jamshid, of mighty memories, if a gleam from thee should be cast upon my ring, what matter? If Wisdom hath departed from its dwelling, and if this wine be the cause of calamity in the House of Faith, what matter? The devout man wooeth the favour of the king: if I value more the fasdnation of a fair image, what matter? My life hath varied between wine and my beloved: if ill have chanced to me from one or the other, what matter? The Master knew that I was a lover and kept silence; and if Hafiz knoweth it likewise, what matter?1 In at least one instance, McCarthy’s text contains a mis-translation which is probably accountable for by the influence of Robinson. In b. 1 of Gh.483 Robinson translates as follows: Who am I, that I should pass over that fragrant heart; that thou shouldest bestow on me such favours; - on me, on whose brow the dust of thy door-way would be a diadem !4 “Pass over* is here used in the sense of pass across’ . McCarthy’s translation of the same b. begins:

What am I that I should disdain that fragrant mind;5 His "disdain* has no source in the original Persian; it is surely based on a misunderstanding of Robinson’s “pass over", which McCarthy seems to have imagined bore the sense o f ‘disregard, ignore’. It was stated above that 100 of McCarthy’s poems have a parallel in Robinson; that leaves 36 unaccounted for. Again, an examination of the List ofTranslators will confirm that of that number, all but four are amongst the mere fifty ghazals translated by Hormusji Dadachanji and published in Bombay in 1889. Again the coincidence is considerable; especially when one remem­ bers that Dadachanji’s translations are, quite specifically, of a series of poems set for examination purposes in India. That McCarthy “at all adventure" should have hit upon the same poems (out of the over 900 still available as untranslated by Robinson) as a Board of Indian examiners is, to say the least, unlikely. In fact when one looks at the translations of the common thirty-two poems one finds that here McCarthy’s indebtedness goes beyond being 'influenced’ . In several cases it can only be said that he is guilty of plagiarism. Consider, for example, the two versions of Gh. 185. Here, first, is Dadachanji’s, complete with interpolated notes and explanations: (a) The desire for the wind of spring took me towards the desert. The wind brought thy

perfume and took away rest from us (i.e. from me), (b) Wherever there was a heart, thy eye took it away from the path. It did not take away only my sick broken heart (i. e. thou art the beloved of the whole world and not only mine.) (c) Last night, the cup of wine, on reaching thy lip, claimed to bestow life; (and thereby) dishonoured the life-giving (and) soul-bestowing lip. Or it dishonoured water of life and the holy spirit; or it derived this honour from (thy) life-giving and soul bestowing lip. (d) Last night, the chain of thy love, tied the hand of my desire; the army of sorrow threw down the foot of the army of my wisdom, (e) The amorous glance of that Turk of arched eyebrow pilfered us on the high-way: the mole on the cheek of that cypress of erect stature deprived us of our chattels, (f) My tears brought into the way thy strong heart (i.e. caused thee to look at me). The flood can carry stone to the path of the sea. (g) Do not talk of the sweet song of the nightingale before Hafiz. No mention can be made of the nightingale before the parrot.6 McCarthy’s version, allowing for the absence of interpolations and alternatives, is quite remark­ ably similar: The desire for the wind of spring took me towards the desert. The wind brought thy perfume and took away rest from me. Wherever there was a heart thy eye lured it away from the path; it did not take away only my sick, my broken heart.

Last night the cup of wine on reaching thy lip, claimed to bestow life; it derived this honour from thy life-giving and soul-bestowing lip. Last night the chain of thy love tied the hand of my desire : the army of sorrow threw down the power of the army of my wisdom. The glance of that girl of arched eyebrow robbed us on the highway: the mole on the cheek of that slender cypress deprived us of our hearts. My tears brought to the path thy stony heart. The flood can carry a stone to the bank of the river. Do not talk of the sweet song of the nightingale before Hafiz: no mention can be made of the nightingale before the parrot.7 It would perhaps be unkind to pursue the ‘origins’ of the remaining four of McCarthy’s translations. In fairness it must be said that McCarthy does not always seem to be merely depend­ ent upon his ‘influences’ ; there are, on occasion, differences which suggest a direct examination of the Persian (though it is hard to be sure; since Clarke’s heavily literal translation was also available to him he may also have consulted this). All that can be said is that he appears, after all, not to have been unduly modest in his statement that his translations “made no attempt to swell the sum of Oriental scholarship". Translations which are as largely derivative as his, and without acknowl­ edgement that they are so, can scarcely be regarded as major contributions to scholarship. NOTES 1. J. H. McCarthy, Ghazelsfrom the Divan of Hafiz, 1893, pp.v-vi. 2. Samuel Robinson, A Century of Ghazels, 1875, p.67. 3. McCarthy, op. cit., pp.36-7. 4. Robinson, op. cit., p. 108. 5. McCarthy, op.cit., p. 138. 6. Hormusji Dadachanji, Close translation ... of fifty OdesofHafizy 1889, p .l 1. 7. McCarthy, op. cit., pp. 110-11.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Works which are indexed in Part Two of this book are omitted from the following list. Bibliographical details of all such items can be found in the List ofTranslators. In the case of all books in the following list the place of publication can be assumed to be London unless otherwise specified. AAGAARD, BJARNE: Hafiz av Shiraz, Oslo, 1927. AGA KHAN: ‘Hafiz and the place of Iranian Culture in the World’ , Asiatic Review, 33,1937,11317. ‘ALAVI, PARTAU: Bank-i Jam s: Rahnamay-i Mushkalat-i Divan-i Hafiz, Tehran, 1349/1970. ANON.: ‘A brief notice of some of the Persian Poets. Hafiz’, The Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 4, 1836, 382-92. (This piece is sometimes attributed to one Lieutenant Newbold). ANON.: [Review article], Quarterly Review, 174, 1892, 33-62. ANON.: ‘The Divan of Hafiz’ , The Spectator, 80, 1898, 448. ARBERRY, A.J.: British Contributions to Persian Studies, 1942. - ‘Persian Jones’ , Asiatic Review, 40, 1944, 186-96. - ‘Hafiz-i Shirazi’ , Ruzgar-i Nau, IV, 1944-6, pt.l, 82-7; pt.II, 52-5; III, 41-5. - Asiatic Jones, 1946. - ‘Orient Pearls at Random Strung’ , BSOAS, XI, 1946, 699-712. - ‘Hafiz and His English Translators’, Islamic Culture, 20, 1946, 111-28, 229-49. - Sufism, 1950. - The Rubaiyat o f Omar Khayyam and other Persian Poems. An Anthology o f Verse Translations, ed. A. J. Arberry, 1954. - Classical Persian Literature, 1958. - The Romance of the Rubaiyat, 1959. - Shiraz: Persian City of Saints and Poets, Norman (Oklahoma), 1960. - Oriental Essays, 1960. ATKINSON, MARGARET: August Wilhehm Schlegel as a Translator o j Shakespeare, Oxford, 1958. BALDICK, JULIAN: ‘Persian Sufi Poetry up to the Fifteenth Century’ in George Morrison, ed., History o j Persian Literature, Leiden-Koln, 1981, 111 -32.

- Mystical Islam: An Introduction to Sufism, 1989. BASHIRI, IRAJ: ‘Hafiz’ Shirazi Turk: A Structuralist’s Point of View’ , The Muslim World, LXIX, 1979,178-97, 248-68. - ‘Hafiz and the Sufic Ghazal’ , Studies in Islam, January 1979, 35-67. BASNETT-McGUIRE, SUSAN: Translation Studies, 1980 (revised ed. 1990). BAUSANI, A .: ‘The Development of Form in Persian Lyrics: A Way to a Better Understanding of the Structure of Western Poetry’ , East and West, N.S.9, 1958, pp. 145-53.

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