Great Women of Imperial Rome: Mothers and Wives of the Caesars [1° ed.] 9780415408981, 0415408989

Drawing from a broad range of documentation this book vividly characterizes eleven royal women who are brought visually

200 116 10MB

English Pages 376 [377] Year 2006

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Great Women of Imperial Rome: Mothers and Wives of the Caesars [1° ed.]
 9780415408981, 0415408989

Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication
Table of Contents
List of illustrations
Acknowledgments
Maps
Genealogical tables
Introduction
1 Livia: first lady of the empire
2 Antonia: “supreme in beauty and mind”
3 Agrippina the Elder: heroine of the Rhine bridge
4 Agrippina the Younger: sister of Caligula, mother of Nero
5 Domitia Longina: the survivor
6 Plotina: the new Livia
7 Sabina: wife of the “Greekling”
8 Faustina the Elder: the eternal empress
9 Faustina the Younger: a new Messalina?
10 Julia Domna: the philosopher
11 Julia Mamaea: a woman in charge
12 Epilogue: the later Roman empresses
Appendix: Chronology of the Roman Empire
Numismatic references
Notes
Bibliography
Index

Citation preview

GREAT WOMEN OF IMPERIAL ROME

“All women, because of their innate weakness, should be under the control of guardians,” writes Cicero, curtly summarizing the status of women in Ancient Rome. Yet Roman women had more control than many believe. Stories of female artists, teachers, doctors, and even gladiators are scattered through the history of Imperial Rome; a Roman woman did not change her name when she married, her husband could not control her property or dowry, and she was free to divorce. Royal women in particular – the wives, daughters, sisters and mothers of emperors – have made a profound impression on Roman history, long overlooked. This lively and attractive book vividly characterizes eleven such women, spanning the period from the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BC to the third century AD and with an epilogue surveying empresses of later eras. The author’s compelling biographies reveal their remarkable contributions toward the legacy of Imperial Rome, often tinged with tragedy, courage, and injustice. • • •

A pregnant Roman princess saves a Roman army through an act of personal heroism. Three third-century empresses rule the most powerful state on earth, presiding over unprecedented social and political reform. Though revered by her husband, an empress is immortalized in history for infidelity and corruption by students of her greatest enemy.

Drawing from a broad range of documentation, Jasper Burns has painted portraits of these exceptional women that are colorful, sympathetic, and above all profoundly human. The women and their worlds are brought visually to life through photographs of over 300 ancient coins and through the author’s own illustrations. This book will be highly valuable to numismatists, students and scholars of Roman history or women’s studies, and enjoyable to any reader. Jasper Burns is a freelance author and illustrator. He has written numerous books and articles on ancient history, prehistoric history, and numismatics.

This page intentionally left blank

GREAT WOMEN OF IMPERIAL ROME Mothers and wives of the Caesars

Jasper Burns

ROUTLEDGE

Routledge Taylor & Francis Group

LONDON AND NEW YORK

First published 2007 by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Simultaneously published in the UK by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business © 2007 Jasper Burns Typeset in Garamond 3 by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN10: 0–415–40897–0 (hbk) ISBN10: 0–415–40898–9 (pbk) ISBN10: 0–203–96707–7 (ebk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–40897–1 (hbk) ISBN13: 978–0–415–40898–1 (pbk) ISBN13: 978–0–203–96707–1 (ebk)

To my father, James R. Burns With thanks to Peter A. Clayton

This page intentionally left blank

CONTENTS

List of illustrations Acknowledgments Maps Genealogical tables

ix xxi xxiii xxv

Introduction

1

1 Livia: first lady of the empire

5

2 Antonia: “supreme in beauty and mind”

25

3 Agrippina the Elder: heroine of the Rhine bridge

41

4 Agrippina the Younger: sister of Caligula, mother of Nero

59

5 Domitia Longina: the survivor

85

6 Plotina: the new Livia

107

7 Sabina: wife of the “Greekling”

125

8 Faustina the Elder: the eternal empress

141

9 Faustina the Younger: a new Messalina?

155

10 Julia Domna: the philosopher

181

11 Julia Mamaea: a woman in charge

207

vii

CONTENTS

12 Epilogue: the later Roman empresses Appendix: Chronology of the Roman Empire Numismatic references Notes Bibliography Index

viii

231 246 268 270 316 325

I LLU S TR ATI ONS

FIGURES 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22

Portrait of Livia Lifetime portrait coin of Julius Caesar Portrait coin of the young Octavian Silver denarius of Mark Antony Portrait coin of Cleopatra VII, queen of Ptolemaic Egypt Livia’s elder son Tiberius as emperor on a silver denarius Nero Claudius Drusus, the younger son of Livia, on a gold aureus Obverse: portraits of Augustus (right) and Marcus Agrippa (left); reverse: chained crocodile commemorating the capture of Egypt Copper coin (as) of the deified Augustus, minted posthumously Provincial portrait of Livia on a bronze dupondius Silver tetradrachm showing Livia as the Greek goddess Hera Octavian’s sister Octavia with her husband Mark Antony The goddess Diana, possibly with the features of Augustus’ daughter Julia Julia’s second husband, Marcus Agrippa, on a copper as Julia, Augustus’ daughter, with her sons, Gaius (right) and Lucius (left) Augustus (center) with his grandsons, Gaius and Lucius Livia’s ceremonial carriage, or carpentum, drawn by two mules Tiberius as emperor, seated on a curule chair Portrait coin of Livia, probably commemorating her recovery from serious illness Portrait of Livia on a provincial bronze coin The deified Livia as Pax (Peace) on a bronze dupondius Bronze sestertius depicting statues of the deified Livia and Augustus in their temple ix

4 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12

Portrait of Antonia Portrait of Antonia’s father Mark Antony on a gold aureus Octavia, Antonia’s mother, portrayed on a silver cistophoric tetradrachm Fulvia, Mark Antony’s first wife, on a bronze coin Two posthumous coin portraits of Antonia Posthumous portrait of Antonia’s husband, Nero Claudius Drusus Posthumous portrait of Antonia’s elder son, Germanicus Expressive portrait of Antonia’s younger son Claudius as emperor Bronze sestertius showing a triumphal arch erected on the Appian Way in honor of Drusus, Antonia’s husband Antonia’s brother-in-law, the emperor Tiberius Drusus the Younger, the son of Tiberius and husband of Antonia’s daughter Livilla Coin issued in the name of Drusus, Antonia’s grandson Antonia’s twin grandsons, Tiberius Gemellus and Germanicus Gemellus Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII Rhoemetalces I, king of Thrace, with his wife Pythodoris (behind) Aulus Vitellius, as emperor Herod Agrippa I, king of Judaea Antonia’s grandson Gaius “Caligula,” as emperor Silver denarius showing Antonia as the goddess Ceres Portrait of Agrippina the Elder Provincial portrait of Marcus Agrippa, Agrippina’s father Superb portrait of Agrippina the Elder on a sestertius Copper as of Germanicus Agrippina’s elder sons, Nero and Drusus Agrippina’s nemesis Tiberius, as emperor Legionary eagle between two military standards on a silver cistophoric tetradrachm Germanicus holding an eagle-tipped scepter on a bronze dupondius Germanicus in his triumphal chariot (quadriga, with four horses) on a bronze dupondius Caligula portrait on a bronze sestertius Agrippina the Elder’s honorary carpentum on a bronze sestertius Caligula addressing the troops on a bronze sestertius x

24 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 39 40 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 57

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

3.13 Posthumous Agrippina the Elder portrait on a bronze sestertius 3.14 A caricature-like portrait of Agrippina the Elder on a silver denarius 4.1 Portrait of Agrippina the Younger 4.2 Gaius Caligula’s sisters: (left to right) Agrippina (as Securitas), Drusilla (as Concordia), and Julia Livilla (as Fortuna) 4.3 Agrippina the Younger portrait on a gold aureus 4.4 Nero as Caesar at the age of 13 or 14, on a silver tetradrachm 4.5 Dramatic portrait of Agrippina’s brother Caligula on a silver denarius 4.6 Caligula making a sacrifice in front of a temple dedicated to the deified Augustus 4.7 Agrippina the Younger’s uncle Claudius as emperor 4.8 Crude portrait of Messalina, Roman empress and wife of Claudius 4.9 Portrait of Britannicus, Claudius’ son by Messalina 4.10 Messalina, wife of Claudius, holding miniature figures of her children, Octavia and Britannicus 4.11 Galba, Roman emperor in AD 68–69 4.12 Claudius and Agrippina the Younger on a silver cistophoric tetradrachm 4.13 Agrippina and her carpentum on a bronze sestertius 4.14 Nero as Princeps Iuventutis, the “Prince of Youth,” on a silver denarius 4.15 The infant Hercules strangling the serpents sent by Hera to kill him 4.16 Portraits of Nero (left) and Claudius (right) on a silver tetradrachm 4.17 Silver denarius showing Nero facing his mother Agrippina 4.18 Nero and Agrippina on a silver denarius 4.19 The Mother Goddess Cybele, enthroned 4.20 Bronze coin showing Nero facing his first wife Octavia 4.21 Portrait of Poppaea, Nero’s second wife, on a billon tetradrachm 4.22 Roman ship on a coin of Roman empress Tranquillina 4.23 Portrait of Agrippina the Younger on a silver drachm 4.24 Portrait sestertius of Nero 4.25 Statilia Messalina, third and final wife of Nero, on a bronze coin 5.1 Portrait of Domitia 5.2 Caricature-like portrait of Galba on a silver denarius xi

57 57 58 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 84 102

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9

Silver denarius of Otho Portrait sestertius of Vitellius Superb portrait of Vespasian on a bronze sestertius Flavia Domitilla, wife of Vespasian, on a silver denarius Portrait of Domitian as Caesar under Vespasian on a silver denarius Portrait of Domitian’s older brother Titus as Caesar on a bronze sestertius Domitia Longina shown with her husband Domitian on a silver didrachm Portrait of Domitia Longina on a silver denarius Silver denarius showing Flavia Julia, the daughter of Titus Denarius of Domitia, with the smaller figure of her deceased son beside her Domitia’s son on a silver denarius Domitia Longina on a provincial bronze coin Julia Titi, daughter of Titus, on a bronze dupondius Bronze sestertius showing Domitian sacrificing at a shrine of Minerva Isis and Serapis, both honored by Domitian on a silver tetradrachm Splendid portrait of Domitian as emperor on a bronze sestertius Bronze sestertius of Titus showing the Flavian Amphitheater, or “Colosseum” Nerva, Domitian’s successor as emperor, on a bronze sestertius Domitia Longina (right), with her husband Domitian on a provincial bronze coin Portrait of Plotina Portrait of Trajan on a bronze sestertius Portrait of Plotina on a bronze sestertius Portrait of Trajan’s deified father, Marcus Ulpius Traianus, on a gold aureus Bronze sestertius of Trajan commemorating the Alimenta system Posthumous portrait of Marciana, Trajan’s sister, on a silver denarius Coin portrait of Trajan’s niece Matidia the Elder, wife of the emperor Hadrian, on a silver denarius Trajan’s Column, celebrating the emperor’s conquest of Dacia, on a bronze dupondius View of the façade of Trajan’s Forum in Rome on a gold aureus xii

102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 103 103 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 106 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

6.10 Silver denarius of Plotina showing the Altar to Pudicitia 6.11 A seated Pudicitia, pulling a veil over her face, on a bronze sestertius 6.12 Trajan (seated) with Parthamaspates (kneeling), bronze sestertius 6.13 Trajan, holding a spear and parazonium (sword), on a bronze sestertius 6.14 Trajan (seated) shown addressing his troops on a bronze sestertius 6.15 A provincial portrait of Trajan on a silver tetradrachm 6.16 Plotina on a gold aureus 6.17 Portrait of Hadrian on his earliest bronze sestertius issue 6.18 Bronze sestertius of Trajan (left) presenting a globe to Hadrian 7.1 Portrait of the empress Sabina 7.2 Matidia I, with her daughters Sabina and Matidia II, on a bronze sestertius 7.3 Portrait of Sabina showing one of her more elaborate hairstyles 7.4 Vigorous portrait of Hadrian as emperor on a bronze sestertius 7.5 Sabina, with one of her simpler hairstyles, on a copper as 7.6 Hadrian (far right) with his troops on a bronze sestertius 7.7 Coin of King Antiochus IV of Commagene 7.8 Provincial portrait of Sabina on a billon tetradrachm 7.9 Sappho, shown playing a lyre on a bronze coin 7.10 Hadrian’s Bithynian friend Antinous on a bronze hemidrachm 7.11 Bronze sestertius with personification of the Nile River 7.12 Artistic portrait of Antinous, Hadrian’s boyfriend, on a bronze coin 7.13 Hadrian’s portrait on a bronze sestertius 7.14 Portrait of Sabina on a bronze sestertius 7.15 The deified Sabina on a bronze sestertius 8.1 Portrait of Faustina the Elder 8.2 The emperor Hadrian, showing his age, on a bronze sestertius 8.3 Lucius Aelius Caesar, Hadrian’s first choice to succeed him 8.4 Gold aureus of Faustina the Elder’s husband Antoninus as Caesar 8.5 Posthumous coin portrait of Faustina the Elder 8.6 Bronze coin showing Galerius Antoninus, the son of Faustina and Antoninus Pius 8.7 Portrait of Faustina the Younger, daughter of Faustina the Elder and Antoninus Pius, on a gold aureus xiii

121 121 121 121 121 121 121 122 122 124 137 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 140 150 150 150 150 150 150

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

8.8 Bronze dupondius of the young Marcus Aurelius 8.9 Antoninus Pius as emperor on a bronze sestertius 8.10 Lucius Verus, the son of Lucius Aelius Caesar, on a bronze sestertius 8.11 Posthumous veiled portrait of Faustina the Elder on a silver denarius 8.12 Aeternitas, the personification of eternity, on a bronze dupondius of Faustina the Elder 8.13 Bronze sestertius of Faustina showing Cybele as savior 8.14 Temple of the Divine Faustina on a bronze sestertius, her statue enthroned within 8.15 Seated statue of the deified Faustina enthroned in a triumphal chariot 8.16 Two views of the Circus Maximus on bronze sestertii 8.17 Gold aureus showing Faustina the Younger with three of her children 8.18 Bronze sestertius showing Antoninus Pius (left) beside Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 8.19 An Indian conception of Faustina the Elder on an imitation gold aureus 8.20 Portrait sestertius of Faustina the Elder 8.21 Faustina the Elder ascending to heaven on the back of an eagle 8.22 Faustina holding hands with her husband Antoninus Pius 8.23 Column of Antoninus Pius depicted on a bronze sestertius 9.1 Portrait of Faustina the Younger 9.2 Portrait of a young Faustina the Younger on a gold aureus 9.3 Marcus Aurelius as Caesar on a bronze sestertius 9.4 A gold aureus marking the marriage of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger 9.5 Bronze sestertius of Faustina with Cybele, “the Great Mother,” on the reverse 9.6 Bronze sestertius of Antoninus Pius showing the first of two pairs of twin sons born to his daughter Faustina and Marcus Aurelius 9.7 Faustina, with six of her fourteen or fifteen children, on a bronze sestertius 9.8 The twin sons of Faustina and Marcus Aurelius, Commodus and Antoninus, in a throne-like crib 9.9 Bronze sestertius showing Marcus Aurelius (left) shaking hands with his junior co-emperor, Lucius Verus 9.10 Lucius Verus, co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius, on a bronze sestertius xiv

150 150 150 151 151 151 151 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 152 152 154 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 176 176

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

9.11 Annia Lucilla, Faustina’s daughter, in the guise of Fecunditas, with her three children by Lucius Verus 9.12 Lucilla, the wife of Lucius Verus and daughter of Faustina the Younger 9.13 Portrait of Marcus Aurelius as emperor on a bronze sestertius 9.14 Bronze sestertius showing Faustina as MATRI CASTRORUM, or “Mother of the Camp” 9.15 Provincial coin portrait of the young Commodus as Caesar 9.16 Provincial portrait of Faustina the Younger on a copper drachm 9.17 Bronze sestertius minted in honor of Faustina after her death and deification 9.18 The deified Faustina borne aloft to heaven on a peacock 9.19 Bronze sestertius minted by Commodus in honor of the deified Marcus Aurelius 9.20 Bronze medallion showing Commodus as emperor wearing a cuirass 9.21 Portrait coin of Bruttia Crispina, the wife of Commodus 9.22 The emperor Commodus as the Roman Hercules on a bronze sestertius 10.1 Portrait of Julia Domna 10.2 Busts of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna on a provincial bronze coin 10.3 Impression of the temple of Elagabal in Emesa, Syria, on a bronze coin 10.4 Coin showing two views of the temple of Baal at Heliopolis in Syria 10.5 Sensitive portrait of Septimius Severus as emperor on a bronze sestertius 10.6 Early portrait of Julia Domna on a bronze sestertius 10.7 Julia Domna (facing) with her sons, Caracalla (left) and Geta (right), on a gold aureus 10.8 Helvidius Pertinax, the successor to Commodus, on a bronze sestertius 10.9 Bronze sestertius of Didius Julianus, Roman emperor for 66 days 10.10 Bronze sestertii of (left) Manlia Scantilla and (right) Didia Clara, the wife and daughter, respectively, of Didius Julianus 10.11 Silver denarius of Pescennius Niger, pretender to the throne after the murder of Commodus 10.12 Sestertius of Clodius Albinus, governor of Britain and Caesar under Septimius Severus 10.13 The young Caracalla as Caesar on a gold aureus xv

176 176 176 176 177 177 177 177 177 178 178 178 180 202 202 202 202 202 202 202 203 203 203 203 203

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

10.14 Portrait of Julia Domna on a silver denarius struck in Laodicea, Syria 10.15 Septimius Severus on horseback, holding a spear, on a gold aureus 10.16 The god Serapis, depicted on a bronze coin 10.17 The Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus on a silver denarius 10.18 Copper as of Julia Domna showing the domed Temple of Vesta in Rome 10.19 Two very different coin portraits of Plautilla, the wife of Caracalla 10.20 Silver denarius of Septimius Severus showing the Dea Caelestis, or Celestial Goddess 10.21 Julia Domna as the goddess Cybele on a gold aureus 10.22 Provincial bronze coin that seems to show the animosity between Caracalla (left) and his younger brother Geta 10.23 Aureus of Septimius Severus (center) on horseback with his two sons, Caracalla and Geta 10.24 Late portrait of Septimius Severus on a bronze sestertius 10.25 Five-story funeral pyre of Severus on a silver denarius 10.26 Portrait sestertius of Caracalla as emperor 10.27 Geta as emperor on a bronze sestertius 10.28 Coin presenting the confronted busts of Caracalla and Geta, with Geta and his name having been intentionally erased after his murder 10.29 Portrait of Julia Domna on a bronze sestertius 10.30 Caracalla with a shield on a silver tetradrachm 10.31 The deified Julia Domna on a bronze sestertius 11.1 Portrait of Julia Mamaea 11.2 Coin portrait of Julia Maesa, the younger sister of Julia Domna and mother of Julia Mamaea 11.3 Julia Soaemias, the older sister of Julia Mamaea and the daughter of Julia Maesa 11.4 Portrait of Julia Mamaea on a silver denarius 11.5 Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus, Caracalla’s successor as emperor, on a bronze sestertius 11.6 A family resemblance emphasized: (left) the deified Caracalla on a silver denarius; (right) Elagabalus on a bronze sestertius 11.7 Severus Alexander, as Caesar, on a silver denarius 11.8 Silver denarius of Elagabalus at the time of his accession 11.9 Elagabalus in his priestly robes 11.10 Reverse of a gold aureus of Elagabalus showing the sacred stone of the god Elagabal xvi

203 203 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 206 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 226

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

11.11 Julia Paula, Elagabalus’ first wife, on a bronze sestertius 11.12 Denarius showing Aquilia Severa, a one-time Vestal Virgin and twice married to Elagabalus 11.13 Annia Faustina, one of Elagabalus’ wives, on a bronze coin 11.14 Severus Alexander as emperor on a bronze sestertius 11.15 Portrait of Julia Mamaea on a bronze sestertius 11.16 Bi-metallic medallion of Severus Alexander, showing the Colosseum in Rome 11.17 Portrait of Julia Maesa on a bronze sestertius 11.18 Sallustia Orbiana, the wife of Severus Alexander, on a bronze sestertius 11.19 Severus Alexander with his wife Sallustia Orbiana 11.20 Silver drachm of the Sassanid Persian king Artaxerxes (Ardashir) I 11.21 Reverse of bronze sestertius of Severus Alexander honoring the sun god Sol 11.22 Bi-metallic medallion of Julia Mamaea 11.23 Aureus showing Severus Alexander, distributing largess, with Liberalitas 11.24 Severus Alexander on horseback, preceded by Victory, on a bronze sestertius 11.25 Portrait of the emperor Maximinus I on a bronze sestertius 11.26 Sensitive portrait of Severus Alexander on a gold aureus 11.27 Unusual left-facing portrait of Julia Mamaea on a copper as 11.28 Provincial portrait of Julia Mamaea on a potin tetradrachm 12.1 Portrait of Helena, the mother of Constantine I 12.2 Silver denarius of Caecilia Paulina, the deified wife of the emperor Maximinus I 12.3 Bronze sestertius of Maximinus I, the husband of Caecilia Paulina 12.4 Silver antoninianus of Sabinia Tranquillina, the wife of Gordianus III 12.5 Bronze sestertius of Gordianus III 12.6 Bronze sestertius of Otacilia Severa, the wife of Philip I 12.7 Bronze sestertius of Philip I 12.8 Bronze dupondius of Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius 12.9 Bronze double-sestertius of Trajan Decius 12.10 Bronze sestertius of Herennius Etruscus, the elder son of Herennia Etruscilla and Trajan Decius 12.11 Bronze sestertius of Hostilian, the younger son of Herennia Etruscilla and Trajan Decius 12.12 Bronze sestertius of the emperor Trebonianus Gallus xvii

226 226 226 226 226 226 227 227 227 227 227 227 227 228 228 228 228 228 230 240 240 240 240 240 240 241 241 241 241 241

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

12.13 Gold binio of Volusian, the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Baebiana 12.14 Silver antoninianus of Cornelia Supera 12.15 Bronze dupondius of Aemilian 12.16 Bronze sestertius of the deified Egnatia Mariniana, wife (?) of Valerian I 12.17 Bronze sestertius of Valerian I 12.18 Silver drachm of Shapur I, king of Sassanian Persia and captor of Valerian I 12.19 Cornelia Salonina, wife of Gallienus, shown on a bronze sestertius 12.20 Bronze sestertius of Gallienus 12.21 Silver medallion of Valerian II 12.22 Antoninianus of Saloninus, the younger son of Salonina and Gallienus 12.23 Bronze sestertius of Postumus 12.24 Portrait of Septimia Zenobia (Bat-Zabbai) on an antoninianus 12.25 Antoninianus of Aurelian with a portrait of Vabalathus, son of Zenobia 12.26 Gold medallion of Claudius II Gothicus 12.27 Copper as of Severina, the wife of Aurelian 12.28 Gold aureus of Aurelian 12.29 Gold aureus of Probus 12.30 Copper follis of Diocletian as senior Augustus 12.31 Copper follis of Maximianus as junior Augustus 12.32 Copper follis of Valeria Galeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius 12.33 Bronze medallion of Galerius as Caesar 12.34 Flavia Julia Helena, mother of Constantine I (“the Great”), on a bronze follis 12.35 Gold solidus of Constantius I Chlorus as Caesar 12.36 Flavia Maxima Fausta, wife of Constantine I, on a bronze follis 12.37 Gold solidus of Constantine I 12.38 Aelia Eudoxia, wife of Arcadius, on a gold solidus 12.39 Gold solidus of Arcadius 12.40 Gold solidus showing Aelia Eudocia, wife of Theodosius II 12.41 Gold medallion of Theodosius II 12.42 Aelia Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II and wife of Marcian 12.43 Gold solidus of Marcian 12.44 Galla Placidia, daughter of Theodosius I, on a gold solidus 12.45 Gold solidus of Honorius 12.46 Solidus depicting Licinia Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian III 12.47 Gold solidus of Valentinian III xviii

241 241 241 241 242 242 242 242 242 242 242 242 242 243 243 243 243 243 243 243 243 243 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 244 245 245 245 245

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

MAPS 1 2 3 4

City of Rome Central Italy Roman Empire, c. AD 150 Eastern Roman Empire, c. AD 150

xxiii xxiii xxiv xxiv

GENEALOGICAL TABLES 1 2 3 4

The The The The

Julio-Claudians Flavians Antonines Severans

xxv xxvi xxvii xxviii

xix

This page intentionally left blank

ACK N OWLED G ME NT S

Previous publishing experiences had taught me that getting a book into print can be a long and often frustrating process. However, the setbacks on this project made me wonder if the shades of the empresses were working against me. I can only hope that they are finally pleased. To make a long and complicated story short, the book was to be published by the Rubicon Press. However, the unfortunate deaths of the principals of that company – Anthea and Robin Page – left the book in limbo. Enter Peter A. Clayton, who very kindly took the project under his wing. He introduced it to Richard Stoneman at Routledge, who successfully recommended it for publication. I am greatly indebted to both of these gentlemen for their interest in and support of my work. My sincere gratitude is also due to the numismatists and dealers in ancient coins who generously gave permission for the use of their photographs of coins. I am obliged to Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Edward J. Waddell, Ltd., Harlan J. Berk, Numismatik Lanz München, Freeman and Sear, Heather Howard, and Italo Vecchi. I believe that their pictures have greatly enhanced this volume. I am also indebted to them for the great majority of the coin attributions, though any errors are strictly my own. I would also like to thank the editors of The Celator: Journal of Ancient and Medieval Coinage for serializing an earlier, much shorter version of the manuscript. The publishers of The Celator – Wayne G. Sayles and Kerry K. Wetterstrom – have also published many of my articles on ancient Roman art, coins, and history. I am grateful to them for their support and encouragement. I owe an incalculable debt to the sculptors, celators (coin die engravers), historians, poets, and other ancient writers who left vivid records of these women, their associates, and their times. I am also greatly indebted to numerous modern historians, whose research and inspired accounts of the past have been my guides. Especially valuable to me have been the works of Barbara Levick, Diana E. E. Kleiner, Anthony R. Birley, Anthony A. Barrett, J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Julian Bennett, John Bray, Michael Grant, Carlin A. Barton, Royston Lambert, and xxi

AC K N O W L E D G M E N T S

Karl Galinsky. Also, this book would not have been possible without many fine translations of ancient texts, especially in the Loeb Classical Library, by scholars such as C. R. Whittaker, David Magie, Earnest Cary, H. W. Bird, Robert Graves, and many others. Thanks are due to Anthony R. Birley and Taylor & Francis Books/Routledge for permission to use translations from Hadrian: The Restless Emperor. I would like to express my appreciation to my parents, James R. and Jaquelin Caskie Burns, for their unwavering support and encouragement. In addition, my father contributed many key translations of Latin texts and gave valuable suggestions and feedback. This book would certainly never have been written without the influence of his enthusiasm for Roman language and culture and his fostering of my childhood interest in ancient history. Indispensable encouragement has also come from other members of my family, including my brothers David and Philip, my aunt and uncle, Marge and Rudolf Freund, and my cousins Mark and Pat Caskie, Jaqui Freund, and Martha Dabney Jones. There are numerous friends and fellow students of classical culture who have provided encouragement and valuable suggestions. Heather Howard, Sandy Brenner, and Daniel Best – their enthusiasm for ancient coins and culture has inspired me. Vital support and encouragement have also come from Claude A. Ripley, Joan Ripley, Serena Nanda, Donald S. Miller, and Kim Harrell. And I would like to thank Jack Wilson for dragging me, kicking and screaming, into the world of computers. Pliny the Elder wrote in his Historia Natura (2.V.18) that God is man helping man. Clearly, I have received my share of divine assistance in the preparation of this book.

xxii

A Milvian Bridge TIB ER

Camp of the Praetorian Guard

RIV ER

Mausoleum* of Augustus

Mausoleum of Hadrian

S TIU AR of Nero Bath M S

Column of "Baths of Marcus Aurelius Diocletian Temple of Hadrian Pantlieon Baths ot (Constantine

U

MP

CA

Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace)

Stadium of Domilian Baths a Column of-! Agrippa Traian Temple of Jupiter Theater of Marcellus

Roman Forum Imperial Palace

AUHELIANE WALL

Traian's Market Imperial Forums Portico of Livia Baths of Trajan

Home of Vestals.

Baths of Titus Temple of Venus and Rome Colosseum Arch Titus Portico and Temple of Claudius Septizonium

an

pi

Ap

Circus Maximus

ay

W

Baths of Caracalla

Map 1 City of Rome

Perusi Perugi

Adriatic Sea

Planasia Pianosa Centumcellae Civitavecchia \

Lorium

e Tibur Rom Tivol Rom i e

Fucin e Lake

Gabii

Osa ti Alb a Antium Arzio

CAMPANIA

Ponza_ Neapolis Baiaeb Napr e Herculaneum Psndateria Misenum

Tyrrhenian Sea Map 2 Central Italy

Pompeii

Capreae\ Capri

Brundisium > Brindisi

NORTH California SEA Antonine Wall Hadrian's Wall Eboracum York BRITANNIA Londrium Toutoburg Forest London Colonia Agriciption Xanthium TreveforumMoguntiacum GERMANIA Trier Vicus Intarvicus CA Medicunum GAUL Miltas Carnunium SP DACIA PANNONIA IA Lugdunum ALPS Aquelels N Dyons Siscia SE Samium Medicunum Memausum A B L A CK DALMATIAMarcos Caesaraugusta SEA Ravenoa Satagossa AD MOESIA Spalato Byzantium R LUSITANIA TARRACONENSIS IA Constantino PONTUS T Rome ARMENIA THRACE IC Tarraco ARMENIA Corduba Hadrianopolis ITALY SEA MINOR Tarragona Malica Corcodus SITHYNIA MACEDONIA ASTAMINOR BAETICA Ancyra CAPPADOCIAN Pergamum Colonia Romula GREECE Samosata Tyana LESECOSE Carthago Nova TYRRHENIAN Corcyra Snyrna Carshae PARTHIAN EMPIRE Faoustinopolis Tarsus SEA Actisut Cartagona Krolon EphesusTrajacopolis Arnoids MESOPOTAMIA Hatra SACILY SYRIA Cresiphon Emossa Carthage MAURETANIA Sparta Cythera Rhodes Palneyon Babylon AFRICA Krossus Berytus CYPRUS Beinz Dermarous CRITE Tyre MEDITERRANEAN SEA RALESTATE Cyrene Jerusalem Leptis Magna PERSIAN GULF JUDAS Alexandria CYRENAICA ARASIA Manchis Petra HIBERNIA

Casifa Velrag

NABATAER

EGYPT LIBYA

Map 3 Roman Roman Empire,Empire, c. c. Map 3

M O E S I

Marcianopolis

Antinopolis Thybes

150

AD 150 AD

Tomi

B

L

A

CA

C

SP

IA

S E

Nicopolis

BALKAN MTNS. THRACE

N

IS

R

G

TI

IA

ION

Byzantium SE A Constantinople MACEDONIA Hadrianopolis Chalcedon Plotinopolis Thessalonica P O N T U Berinthus B I T H YAN I ARMENIA CORCYRA MINOR A R M E N I GREECE GALATI Troy A S I CAPPADOCIA LESBOS A c t im u Pergamum PHRYGIA Ancyra Caesarea Delpha S m y ran Sardis Philadelphia Tyana COMMAGENE Athetis Tripolis Samosata Ephesu LYDIA Faustinopolis Augusta Edessa Sparta Kibyra CILICIA Anazarbus Carrhae Stratonice GARIA Side Seleucia Hierapolis(Bambyce Antioch Tarsus Cythera c e Apamea P A R T H I A K n o s s u R h o d e Trajanapolis L a o d i a SYRIA MESOPOTAMIA Aradu Raphanen E M P I R CRETE Palmyra Emesa CYPRU Byblos E Heliopolis ( B a a l b e k UP Berytus Clesiphon H Cyren RA M E D I T E R R A D a m a s sc u Tyr TE N E A S E S Babylon RI VE R J e r u s a l e JUDAEA C Y R E N A I C Alexandri E

IV

R

R

NILE

EA NAB

E G Y P L I B Y

ATA

Petra

A R A B I

Antinoopoli D RE A SE

ER

IV

R

Thebas/kamak/Lunor

Colossi of Memnon

Map 4 Eastern Eastern Roman Roman Empire, Empire, c.c. AD AD 150 150 Map 4

N IA RS PE ULF G

Masada

Memphis

Nero G"lesar

Lucius G"lesar

Table 1 The Julio-Claudians

Gaius Caesar

Julia

Dmsus II

G"lesar

})nISUS

Dmsilla

Julia Li\~lla

Livilla

OCTAVIA

G'lAUDIUS

Domitia Lepida

ANTONIA II Antonia I

AGRIPPINA II

NERO

Gil. Domitius Ahellobarbus

CALIGUL.-\.

('~nllanicus

Dntsus I

Britamucus

Messalina

M. Valerius Messala Barbatus

Gil. DOJ1lilius Ahenob."ll"bus

L. Domitius Ahenob."ll"bus

Julia

G. Marcellus

Marcellus

Octavia

Julia Atia

Mark Antony

Caius Octavius

M. Alius Ballnls

T. aaudius Nero

TIBERI US

llVIA

Tiberius Gemellus

Lhilla

Vipsania

AUGUSTUS

Agrippa Julia II AGIUPPINA I PostlUlllIS

Marcus Agrippa

Scribonia

Julius Caesar

SahiullS II

Table 2 The Flavians

nus H.,,;us S.,bimts III -

Tit,,~ ~la';IIS

TIllIS ~la\;us S.,bi",,!

Corb"lo

~la';a

~la,;us

Vespasian II

Tims

no)" dkd ill infauCj'

DOM[TI .\N

Cassia lnngilla

DOMIT I ..\ LONGIN..\

T ITUS

H .AVIAJU LIA (l ULIA '1'['1'1)

Al'1'~-.:ina T Cl'mlla

~la';us SabinH~ r"eS')'1Sia I'olla

Clemens

DOlilililla

[I

Domitian "

Ha,ia Domitilla III

Ha';a Dotuitilla

VESI'AS IAN

Arria Fadilla

F;UlSlill~

DOII"iti"

Table 3 The Antonines

ALl lolLi"".

1 ..[. Aureli us

I.UCIUS VJ.:HUS - LVCILL"

Aclius Cacsar

~'\di"S

I . Adms Aurciius

... 1

boy T. Gille.;:, A nh"';llll.

AIlIlL

FI\US' I1NI\ II

Com ilicia

Vel'llS

D."i,i, L",ill" 1

II"a Con ul;ri" EIIlS';U"

_Ooll1;I ;:O Lurilla II

n,II", H,, ~

T ." melitls COMMo nus - CHlSI'IN.'" Fulnls :\,11011;11115

s f"'''Ii'' '-,,,,im V!\USJ1 N.' " I

M. Galcrills Aurelia M. Aurel ius Fill.... " A" loll;"". All rd illst\IlI OllilU's Faditl:.

:\NTON I NUS PI US

T A,,,',Ii,,, '-"1",,

Table 4 The Severans

Gel •

1'. Scpl;IlI;". SEIYrIM IUS SEV ERUS

Fulvia Pia

3) ANN IA

OHBlAN." -SEVERUS ALEXANDEH

~·A 1J.'n'INA

EL"GABALUS

JULIA SOAEMI.'\.t;

GETA

girl

J ULIA MAMAEA

C. julius Avitus Alexianus

Gessi"s M."lfci.u ""

J ULIA M:\ESA

j"I;".lh.s;""".

J ULI A Dm1NA

V,ui", Marcelliis

2) AQUi Ll A SEVERA

IlJ ULIA PAUL"

Sc.~.

l' U\UTlLl_" - CARAC."LL"

C. Fllhi"s I'I.ll1li"mls

Scpt;IlI;" 0