Grammar for students to understand business English. Ч.1

Учебное пособие содержит тексты, лексические и функционально-смысловые таблицы, лексико-грамматические упражнения для са

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Grammar for students to understand business English. Ч.1

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

ЛИПЕЦКИЙ КООПЕРАТИВНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ (ФИЛИАЛ) ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ЦЕНТРОСОЮЗА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ «БЕЛГОРОДСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬСКОЙ КООПЕРАЦИИ»

Л.Л. Курченко О.В. Ермолова

ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Учебное пособие для экономических специальностей Часть I Рекомендовано к изданию научно-методическим советом института 2-е издание

Липецк 2006

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

ББК 81.2 Англ.я 73 К 93

Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой гуманитарно-социальных дисциплин Липецкого кооперативного института (филиала) БУПК Протокол № 2 от 20 октября 2006г.

Составители: Курченко Лидия Леонидовна, старший преподаватель кафедры гуманитарно-социальных дисциплин Липецкого кооперативного института Ермолова Ольга Викторовна, к.п.н., старший преподаватель кафедры гуманитарно-социальных дисциплин Липецкого кооперативного института Рецензент: Кузовлев Владимир Петрович, к.п.н., профессор, начальник отдела АСУП издательства «Просвещение»

К 93

Курченко Л.Л., Ермолова О.В. English for business communication. Учебное пособие для экономических специальностей. Часть 1. перераб. и доп./ Л.Л. Курченко, О.В.Ермолова. – 2-е изд. Липецкий кооперативный институт (филиал) БУПК, Липецк 2006 – 68 с.

Учебное пособие содержит тексты, лексические и функционально-смысловые таблицы, лексико-грамматические упражнения для самостоятельной работы студентов с текстами, ситуативные упражнения. Пособие предназначено для студентов I курса экономических специальностей. © Липецкий кооперативный институт, 2006 2

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

CONTENTS Введение ............................................................................................... 4 Unit 1 Test yourself ...............................................................................6 I. Sample test .........................................................................................6 II. Rulles of reading ...............................................................................8 Unit 2 Business communication ..........................................................11 I. Conversational Formulas For Successful Interaction ......................11 II. At the hotel ......................................................................................14 III. At the restaurant ............................................................................15 IV. Food and drinks .............................................................................17 V. In town ............................................................................................ 19 VI. Telephoning ...................................................................................20 VII. Activities ......................................................................................21 Unit 3. About Myself..........................................................................22 I. My friends and I ..............................................................................22 II. Tell your groupmates ......................................................................23 III. Life Events .....................................................................................24 IV. Activities .......................................................................................32 Unit 4 Education .................................................................................36 I. A visit to Cambridge ........................................................................36 II. My Institute ....................................................................................37 III. Higher Education in Russia ...........................................................38 IV. Higher education in Great Britain .................................................43 V. The English language in madern life .............................................46 UNIT 5. Across Great Britain, the USA, Russia ............................... 51 I. The Geographic position of the USA, the UK and Russia .............51 II. Economy of the USA ......................................................................52 III. Industry аnd Agriculture of the UK. .............................................54 IV. Sights ............................................................................................. 56 V. My native town ...............................................................................57 VI. Customs and traditions ..................................................................58 VII. Activities ......................................................................................59

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ВВЕДЕНИЕ Цель данного пособия – способствовать овладению студентами современным экономическим мышлением, представить разнообразные формы работы с оригинальной, адаптированной литературой для извлечения полной, основной и частичной информации для расширения экономического кругозора, приобщения студентов к другим культурам. Важной задачей пособия является расширение использования индивидуальных возможностей студентов, как в условиях аудиторной, так и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы. Таким образом, индивидуализация и дифференциация обучения составляет основу методики обучения студентов, так как студент предстает перед преподавателем как индивид с определенным уровнем развития способностей, как субъект учебной деятельности, характеризующийся разной степенью рациональности приемов выполнения задач, как личность со своим опытом, интересами, эмоциями и чувствами. Пособие состоит из 5 циклов (Unit). Каждый цикл включает различные формы индивидуализации и дифференциации обучения студентов: тексты для работы в аудитории с преподавателем с извлечением полной информации («Read, say and discuss»), тексты, содержащие лексикограмматические упражнения для самостоятельной работы в аудитории с целью извлечения основной или частичной информации («Read the text and do exercises on it in writing»), тексты, содержащие упражнения переводного характера, помогающие студентам реферировать, читать, аннотировать тексты по специальности («Read and do exercises in translation»). Выполнение упражнений в переводе предусматривает наличие знаний по грамматике в рамках обозначенных программой тем, а именно знание и умение распознавать и использовать: - конструкции, выражающие субъектно-предикативные отношения (с глаголами-связками, с глаголами, выражающими принадлежность); - грамматические явления, выражающие действие (в настоящем, прошлом, будущем) и характер его протекания; - средства определенности - неопределенности (артикль, местоимение), единичности - множественности предметов; интенсивности качества, порядка и количества предметов; 4

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- средства выражения определительных и определительнообстоятельственных отношений (конструкции с инфинитивом, причастием, герундием). Тексты имеют информационно-повествовательный характер и разработаны на основе тем, предусмотренных программой; включают упражнения, развивающие у студентов навыки работы со словарем. Данное пособие включает лексические, функциональносмысловые таблицы, которые дают возможность каждому студенту в силу своих индивидуальных способностей изъясняться на английском языке, систематизировать и обобщать информацию по различным проблемам в повседневных ситуациях общения, профессиональной коммуникации. На основе таблиц организуется как индивидуальная, так и парная работа со студентами. Ролевые игры, дискуссии, творческие задания по созданию проектов компаний организуются после работы над текстом. Для работы с мотивированными студентами в пособие включены тексты и задания повышенной сложности со значком (  ). Работа каждого цикла завершается разделом, содержащим упражнения по обогащению словарного запаса, развитию навыков самостоятельной работы у студентов, расширению культурологического и экономического кругозора.

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Unit 1 TEST YOURSELF I. Sample test 1. Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы в нужном времени A LETTER FROM LONDON Dear Alice, Hi! I’m on holiday in London. I 1______________(stay) with my friend, Lane. She 2______________(live) in the centre of London, near Hyde Park. I 3___________(be) here since Saturday and I 4_____________(already, do) lots of things. I 5____________(visit) the Tower of London, the British Museum and Madam Tussaud’s. I 6_____________(go) to Madam Tussaud’s on Monday. It 7______________(be) terrible. When I 8_____________(enter) the Chamber of Horrors, I 9___________(scream). Yesterday Kane and I 10 _____________(go) shopping. I 11_____________(want) to buy some souvenirs. But while I 12___________ (pay) for a T-shirt, someone 13__________(steal) my bag. Luckily, I 14______________(spend, already) nearly all my money. There 15__________(be) a lot of things I 16_____________(not, do) yet. I 17_____________(not, be) on a boat trip down the Thames yet, I 18____________(not, see) the Millennium Dome. If the weather 19___________(be) fine tomorrow, I 20____________(go) on a boat trip I hope Jane 21_____________(can) keep my company. I 22______________(like) London very much. I 23___________(never, see) a beautiful city. You 24__________(must) visit it some day. I 25____________(be) back in a week, so I 26___________(call) you then. 2. Задайте вопросы к тексту: “A letter from London” (общий, вопрос к подлежащему, разделительный, альтернативный, 3 специальных вопроса) 3. Из четырех вариантов (A), (B), (C), (D) выберите единственно правильный. 1. There’s no doubt that computers have _______our lives easier. (A) done (C) become (B) got (D) made

11. By the time we arrived at the station, the train_______ (A) left (C) had left (B) las left (D) was left 6

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

2. The journalist asked me________ (A) what was my favourite pastime (B) what my favourite pastime was (C) what is my favourite pastime (D) what my favourite pastime is

12. Mount Everest is _____mountain in the world. (A) high (C) the higher (B) highest (D) the highest

13. What do you want________? 3. You’ll be here tomorrow, _______? (A) me to do (C) I do (A) isn’t it (C) will you (B) that I'll do (D) for me to do (B) won’t you (D) will you be 14. If he lived in the country 4. There was________to eat and drink he______ happier. after the party. (A) was (C) will be (A) many (C) a lot (B) is (D) would be (B) lot of (D) lots of 15. Rome is famous for 5. ___________that strange man its________archaeological sites. sitting over there? (A) ancient (C) old - fashion (A) whose (C) who (B) old (D) modern (B) which (D) who’s 16. ____________operate a 6. A kangaroo has such strong legs computer is not as difficult as _________it can jump over a car. many people think. (A) so (C) as (A) to learn (C) learning (B) so as (D) that (B) to learning (D) learning to 7. Does he know_______ foreign languages? (A) some (C) any (B) some of (D) the

17.When did he arrive ______Moscow? (A) at (C) in (B) on (D) for

8. The telephone was___________by Alexander Graham Bell. (A) discovered (C) explored (B) invented (D) studied

18. Nobody ____________why people walk or talk in their sleep. (A) know (C) knew (B) knows (D) is knowing

9. This programme ______________me a lot of money. (A) cost (C) had costed (B) costed (D) was cost

19. There is oxygen on this planet! We _____________to breathe! (A) can (C) be able (B) will can (D) will be able 7

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10. It happened_______ our way home. (A) in (C) for (B) on (D) about

20. What will __________be like tomorrow? (A) the weather (C) weather (B) a weather (D) the weathers

II. Study the following rules of reading and use the table while reading if necessary. Основные правила чтения Таблица 1 Буквы ch (tch) sh th ck ng nk qu ph gh

c

g

Чтение согласных букв Звук Примеры и пояснения cheese сыр t  (ч) ship корабль  (шь) θ или ð thin тонкий that тот chick цыпленок k long длинный η think думать ηk quick [kwik] быстрый kw philosopher философ f не читается brought принес перед e, i, y, city [´siti] s город перед остальными буквами и на конце слова: cat [cæt] кошка k physics [´fiziks] физика

d3 g

перед e, i, y large [´la : d3] большой перед остальными буквами и на конце слова go [gou] ходить bag [bæg] сумка в начале слова и после глухих согласных на конце

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s

s z

x j

ks d3 Буква

b k w

Буквы a e i o u

Не читается перед m перед n перед r

слова sand [sænd] песок; cats [cæts] кошки между согласными и после звонких согласных rise [raiz]подниматься dogs [dogz] собаки fox лиса Jim Джим

Примеры dumb [d۸m ] немой knife [naif] нож write [rait]писать

Чтение гласных букв Гласные в открытом слоге Звуки ei i: ai ou ju u:

Примеры take, mate, race, Pete, be, he time, kite, pine tone, bone, rope tube rule

Гласные в закрытом слоге Буквы a e i o u

Звуки æ e i  ۸

9

Примеры bad, had, map pen, send, ten bit, kid, it hot, not bus, club

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Буквы ar or er ear ir ur

Буквы ee ea

oo ew ai ay ey ow ou au oa igh air are ear ere ire

Гласные в сочетании с буквой r Звуки Примеры a: car : sport her learn girl turn Гласные буквосочетания Звуки Примеры i: tree [tr i: ] дерево i: speak [spi:k] говорить или е dead [ded] мертвый (перед d) u: spoon [spu:n] ложка u look [luk] ju: new [nju:] pain [pein] боль ei day [dei] день hey [hei] сено ou window [windou] окно au brown [broun] коричневый au count [count] считать : Austria Австрия ou coat [cout] пальто ai high [hai] высокий ε



air воздух care забота near около here здесь fire огонь

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Гласные в сочетании с другими согласными Буквы Звук Примеры a (после w) want хотеть  a (перед ll или tall высокий  1+согласная) walk гулять a (перед ss или st)

a:

grass трава vast обширный

i (перед ld или nd)

ai

o (перед ld)

ou

child ребенок kind добрый cold холодный

Чтение буквы y Буква y 1) в начале слова 2) на конце односложных слов 3) на конце двух- и многосложных слов

Слог areexbe-

Звук

Примеры

j ai

yes [jes] да my [mai] мой

i

many [meni] много family [´fæmili] семья

Безударные слоги Звучание ri iks bi

Примеры about remember express become

UNIT 2 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION I. Conversational Formulas For Successful Interaction 1. Greetings and Inquiries about Life A. Hi. Hello. How do you do? How are you? How are you doing? B. Everything's OK. I am fine, thank you. Not too bad. As usual. Too much work, otherwise OK. Keeping busy. 11

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2. Introducing People A. Meet my friend Betsy. Let me introduce my friend Betsy. This is my friend Betsy. B. It's a pleasure to make your acquaintance. Pleased to meet you. A. Same here. Likewise. 3. Attracting People's Attention A. I'm sorry. Sorry to interrupt you. Excuse me. Pardon me. B. Yes? What is it? What can I do for you? Could / Can I help you? 4. Leaving A. Goodbye. Bye! See you soon. See you later. Thanks for inviting me. Thank you very much for having me. See you on Monday. Take care. Have fun. Have a good time. Have a good weekend. Take it easy. B. See you. Give my regards to your family. Say hello to Betsy. Give my love to our daughter. Give [a mutual friend] a hug when you see him/her.

5. Congratulations and Good Wishes A. Best wishes to all of you. Congratulations on your new job. Happy birthday. Happy Thanksgiving. Merry Christmas. Happy Easter. Have a happy holiday. B. Thanks for remembering my birthday. You have a good holiday, too. 6. Invitations and Offers A. May I invite you to the movies? I'd like to invite you to see a show with me. Are you free on Thursday? What are your plans for the holidays? Would you like to have dinner with me? When can we get together? Will 7:00 work for you? B. I'm sorry; I'm busy all next week. Great, it's a date. Eight would be better for me. Can I bring a friend? C. Agreed? Settled? Is it a deal? See you then. I'll pick you up at your place. I'll meet you at the theatre.

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7. Apologies A. I'm sorry. I am terribly sorry. Sorry to bother you. Excuse me. I apologize. I apologize for being late. 1 am sorry to have inconvenienced you. B. That's all right. It's OK! Don't worry yourself about it. No bother. No trouble at all. No harm done. It was my fault. 8. Requests A. Please open the window. Do you mind opening the window? Would you mind opening the window? Do you think you could open the window? Do you mind if I open the window? Would you mind if I opened the window? May I open the window? Is it all right if I open the window? C. Certainly, I'll be happy to do so. Be my guest. Suit yourself. Go ahead. It makes no difference to me. Please yourself. Go ahead. I'd rather you didn't, I have a cold. Please don't, I don't like drafts. 9. Thanks A. Thank you very much. I can never thank you enough. Thanks a lot. I appreciate what you did for me. Many thanks. Thanks a million. B. You're very welcome. It was my pleasure. My pleasure entirely. Think nothing of it. The pleasure was ours. It was a pleasure doing business with you. 10. Opinion In my view ... It seems to me that … That makes sense to me. You've got a point there. Right on! I'm not an expert, but I think you're on to something there [this is a good idea that may need further exploration]. You are entitled to your own opinion, but I still think otherwise. To my mind … In my opinion … 11. Agreement I agree with you. That's just what I think. Tell me about it! I couldn't agree with you more. You know it! That's right on target. Amen! 12. Disagreement I disagree with that point. I'm afraid you're mistaken. Far from it. I wouldn't say that. Not a chance. No way. Yeah, right [disparaging, said with falling intonation]. 13

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13. Surprise You don't say so! Fancy that! - Who'd have thought it? That's amazing. That's incredible! I don't believe it! 14. Advice I think you should do something about it. Why don't you see a doctor? I don't see why you should get upset about it. Take it easy. Relax. Don't panic. Take your time. Don't take it to heart. Stay cool. Don't let it get you down. 15. Appointments I would like to make an appointment to see Doctor Smith. What time is convenient for you [him/her]? I wonder if the doctor could see me at 2 o'clock? Is Doctor Smith available on Thursday at 3 o'clock? 16. Compliments You were superb! That was excellent. You've done a wonderful job. That's a fine piece of work. Well done. Terrific! Outstanding! Bravo! II. At the hotel What hotel shall we stay at? В какой гостинице мы остановимся? Have you any accommodation? Есть ли свободные номера? Where is the manager? Где администратор? I have booked a room. Я заказал номер. I have a reservation. У меня предварительный заказ. I would like a single room, Я хотел бы получить одноместный номер, a double room. двухместный номер. I want a room on the first (second, Я хочу номер на первом (втором, third) floor. третьем) этаже. How much is the room per night Сколько стоит номер в сутки (per week)? (неделю)? Does that include service (meals)? Включено ли в оплату обслуживание (питание)? Do you have anything cheaper? Есть ли у вас что-нибудь подешевле? This is too expensive. Это слишком дорого. Reserve a room for me, please. Оставьте, пожалуйста, номер за мной. 14

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I shall take it. Sign here, please. I hope you will like it here. Please give me breakfasts (dinner, supper) in my room. I will have dinner (supper) in the restaurant. Where is a hairdresser’s? Please, send up tea (coffee, sandwich). I must tidy myself up. Thank you for a pleasant stay.

Это подойдет. Распишитесь здесь, пожалуйста. Надеюсь, вам понравится у нас. Я прошу подавать мне завтрак (обед, ужин) в номер. Я буду обедать (ужинать) в ресторане. Где находится парикмахерская? Принесите, пожалуйста, чай (кофе, бутерброд). Мне нужно привести себя в порядок. Спасибо, здесь было очень приятно.

III. At the restaurant Let us have breakfast together. Позавтракаем вместе. Come to the café with us. Пойдемте с нами в кафе. I would be glad to. I am very hungry. С удовольствием. Я сильно проголодался. Where is the nearest restaurant? Где здесь поблизости ресторан? Is there a restaurant in the hotel? В гостинице есть ресторан? Which restaurant would you Какой ресторан Вы можете recommend? порекомендовать? I do not like Mexican food. It is too Я не люблю мексиканскую кухню. spicy for me. Она слишком острая для меня. We would like to order Russian Мы хотели бы заказать русские dishes. блюда. Here is the clock-room. Вот гардероб. Please, take my coat. Примите, пожалуйста, у меня пальто. Here is you check. Возьмите, пожалуйста, номерок. Good evening. Do you have a table Добрый вечер. У вас есть столик for three? на троих? Is this table vacant? Здесь свободно? Who is serving us? Кто здесь обслуживает? This table is vacant. Этот стол свободен. Right this way, please. Сюда, пожалуйста. Sorry, this table is reserved. Извините, этот стол заказан. Will you take a seat at that table? Садитесь за тот стол, пожалуйста. 15

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Можно сесть там? в углу? у окна? Я заказывал столик. Меня зовут… Стол заказан. Меню, пожалуйста. Что Вы посоветуете? Могу предложить Вам… В нашем ресторане подают блюда русской кухни. You can try oriental dishes. Вы можете попробовать блюда восточной кухни. What else, please? Что еще желаете? They serve very good meals here and Здесь хорошо кормят и цены the prices are quite reasonable. умеренные. Now what is there for desert? А что можно заказать на десерт? What specialties (national) dishes do Какие у Вас фирменные you have? (национальные) блюда? Take our order, please. Примите, пожалуйста, у нас заказ. Could we have a bottle of wine? Принесите, пожалуйста, бутылку вина. I am full. Nothing more, thanks. Я наелся. Больше ничего, спасибо. Please, bring me some… Подайте мне, пожалуйста, немного… I do not drink strong wine. Я не пью крепких вин. Please, pass me the pepper. Передайте, пожалуйста, перец. the salt соль the mustard горчицу the vinegar уксус the hours-radish хрен the sauce соус I do not like spicy food. Я не люблю острой пищи. Would you like some …? Не хотите ли немного …? My compliments to the food. Мне нравится ваша кухня. It was delicious. Было очень вкусно. Please, serve us quickly. Обслужите нас побыстрее, пожалуйста. Do not worry, I will serve you quickly. Не волнуйтесь, я обслужу Вас быстро. May I have the bill, please? Могу я получить счет? Could I have a table over there? in the corner? by the window? I have reserved a table. My name is… Reserved Menu, please. What do you recommend? I can offer you… Our restaurant serves Russian food.

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Пожалуйста, Ваш счет.

Here is your bill.

Bacon Ham Pressed caviare Corn flakes Picked mushrooms Salad Cheese Scrambled eggs Hard-boiled eggs Artichokes Eggplants Green peas Tomatoes Beetroot soup Broth Pea soup Potato soup Chicken soup Vegetable soup Noodle soup Fish soup Bean soup Cabbage soup Hot dog Tongue Fish in jelly

IV. Food and drinks Бекон Sandwich Ветчина Soft caviare Икра паюсная Sausage

Бутерброд Икра зернистая Колбаса

Кукурузные хлопья Маринованные грибы Салат из овощей Сыр Яичница

Butter

Масло сливочное

Omelet

Омлет

Sour cream White bread Rye bread

Яйца вкрутую

Soft- boiled eggs

Сметана Хлеб белый Хлеб черный (ржаной) Яйца всмятку

Артишоки Баклажаны Зеленый горошек Помидоры

Cabbage Onions Cucumbers

Капуста Лук Огурцы

Beans

Фасоль

Борщ Бульон Гороховый суп Картофельный суп Куриный суп Овощной суп

Beef Stroganoff Meatballs Steak Partridge

Бефстроганов Биточки Бифштекс Куропатка

Hamburger Cheeseburger

Chop Meat dumplinks Liver Roast beef

Гамбургер Мясная котлета с булкой, сыром и овощами Отбивная котлета Пельмени Печень Ростбиф

Sturgeon

Осетрина

Суп с лапшой Уха Фасолевый суп Щи Сосиски с булкой Язык Заливная рыба

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Flounder Crabs Shrimps Salmon Perch Lobster

Камбала Крабы Креветки Лососина Окунь Омар

Sardines Herring Pike perch Oysters Trout Pike

Сардины Сельдь Судак Устрицы Форель Щука

Sponge Roll (bun) Jam Jelly Fruit-cake Sweets (candy) Honey Ice cream Cookies Flake pies

Бисквит Булочка Варенье Желе Кекс Конфеты Мед Мороженое Печенье Пирожки слоеные Пирожное Пудинг Сахар Торт Шоколад

Apricot Pineapple Orange Grapes Cherry Pomegranate Grapefruit Pear Strawberry Lemon

Абрикос Ананас Апельсин Виноград Вишня Гранат Грейпфрут Груша Клубника Лимон

Mandarin Plum Sweet cherry Apple

Мандарин Слива Черешня Яблоко

Cake (pastry) Pudding Sugar Cake Chocolate White wine Brandy Whisky and soda Whisky on the rocks Neat Vermouth Port Rum Dry wine

Белое вино Gin Бренди Gin and tonic Виски с содовой Cocktail

Джин Джин с тоником Коктейль

Виски со льдом

Cognac Red wine Liqueur Beer Cherry Champagne

Коньяк Красное вино Ликер Пиво Херес Шампанское

Soda

Газированная вода Какао Кока-кола

Mineral water

Минеральная вода

Milk Milkshake

Молоко Молочный

Cocoa Coca-cola

Виски чистый Вермут Портвейн Ром Сухое вино

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Stewed fruit Coffee Lemonade Cream

Компот Кофе Лимонад Сливки

Sour milk Tonic Tea Juice

коктейль Простокваша Тоник Чай Сок

V. In town -ADMISSION BY -TICKET ONLY - ADMISSION FREE

Вход платный

-BUS STOP

Вход бесплатный

- ATTENTION!

Внимание

- DANGER!

Опасно!

- DEPARTMENT STORE - DETOUR - HAIRDRESSER’S

Универмаг

- CAUTION! - CLOSED - CUSTOMHOUSE - EMERGENCY EXIT - ENTRANCE

- HOTEL

Гостиница

- INFORMATION

Справочное бюро

- NO ADMISSION - NO ENTRY

Вход воспрещен Проход воспрещен Стоянка запрещена Фотографировать запрещено Не курить

- NO PARKING - NO PHOTOGRAPHING - NO SMOKING - NO SWIMMING - SERVICE ENTRANCE - SMOKING SECTION - STOP! - SUBWAY

Объезд Парикмахерская

Остановка автобуса Осторожно! Закрыто Таможня Запасный выход Вход

- HOURS: … TO … - MEN - PARKING

Выход Пристегните ремни! Скорая помощь Открыто с … до … Для мужчин Стоянка

- POLICE STATION - POST OFFICE

Полицейский участок Почтамт

- PRIVATE PROPERTY - PULL

Частная собственность К себе

- RESTAURAUNT

Ресторан

Место для курения Стойте!

- RESTROOMS

Туалет

- ROAD CLOSED

Проезд закрыт

Метро

- TAKEN (RESERVED)

Купаться запрещено Служебный вход

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- EXIT - FASTEN SAFETY BELTS! - FIRST AID

Занято (забронировано)

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Телефон Остановка трамвая Для женщин

- TELEPHONE - TRAM STOP - WOMEN

Стоянка такси Зал ожидания

- TAXI RANK - WAITING ROOM - WALK!

Идите!

VI. Telephoning a) When you make a phone call to a person in a company, you often have to call a switchboard of general number first, then ask the receptionist for the person you want to speak to. RECEPTIONIST

CALLER

1

2

The switchboard operator answers Smith, Thomas & Manton. Can I help you? OR Good morning, Smith, Thomas & Manton

Replying to the switchboard operator Can/ could I speak to … please? OR I’d like to speak to … OR Extension 8248 please.

4 3 Can’t get through? No, thanks, I’ll call back later. OR Could I leave a message for him/her? OR Could you put me through to his/her secretary? OR Can you ask him/her to call me back?

Being connected The line’s busy, will you hold? One moment, please. OR Hold the line please, I’ll put you through.

Getting through 5

6 My name is … (the first call only) OR It’s Chen Chen Ju here.

Greeting a caller Hello. Barry Smith speaking

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VII. Activities 1. Receiving Visitors. Thanks and Apologies Complete the dialogues. 1. Clive Harris:

Mr Sakai:

Responds: It’s a pleasure. Don’t mention it.

Thanks: Thank you very much for collecting me.

Asks polite question: 1. _____ __________ _______ ______ ?

Responds: 2. Yes, ________. It’ fine.

Thanks: It’s good of you to visit us. Thank you for sparing the time. I know you have a busy itinerary.

Responds: 3. _______ _______ _______. Mr Harris.

Responds: 5. _______ _______ _______ ________ to say so.

Adds polite comment: 4. I _______ coming to Britain. And I’m looking forward to my visit to Bibury systems.

2. Mr Sakai:

Derec:

Greets Derec and apologises:

Responds: _______ _________ ________. I like meeting visitors.

Hello, Mr Jones. _____ _______ _______ interrupt your work.

Use these expressions: It’s …

Would you like some…?

Thank you

Shall we have …?

That would be very nice.

Let’s go to …

You must …

This is …

Would you like to …?

What about …? What if we …? 21

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UNIT 3. ABOUT MYSELF I. Tell your group mates

appearance

education

about yourself and your friend. Use this table.

will, want to

looks, has /have, am/is

activities

is (am) fond of, is (am) mad about, is (am) interested in , adore to, enjoy, prefer, like, my joy is, is (am) involved in, is (am) engaged in

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…dancing,…reading,…cooking, ...visiting museums, …exhibitions, concert halls, …doing crosswords, …doing sports, …listening to music, …watching TV, …taking photographs, …playing computer games, …painting, …playing cards, …fishing

personal details

beautiful, attractive, a good complexion, a slender figure, of middle height, delicate (large, regular), features

…study at, …obtain knowledge, …get the profession of, …am (is) engaged in selfeducation, …become a qualified specialist

My friend and I

skills

features of character

…name is… …was born in …in …am (not) married …live in …studied at … ...left...studied... … entered…

Family

…have, have got …is friendly ..consists of …understand, trust one another …give a helping hand to …get together on special occasions …compromise with one another …celebrate holidays

can, like, enjoy

is /am/are/

sew, drive a car, ride a horse cook, knit, repair things, construct things

well-bred, decent, fair, friendly, sociable, generous, noble, honest, decisive, polite, hard working, authoritative tactful, boastful, ambitious, touchy, punctual (un)communicative

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II. Tell your groupmates about your family and family relations within the family a modern family …consists of …lose touch with …move away …take an immediate family …are expensive …take up rooms …can’t afford food, clothes, education

problems family …consists of …there is (are) …have, have got …is, works …studies …is (isn’t) married

traditions

activities 23

…are engaged in… … vacuum carpets … wipe and dust furniture …prepare food …do shopping …look after pets …wash dishes

relationships within the family …understand …support …give a helping hand …don’t betray …take care of …encourage

…don’t compromise with …miscompromising leads to… …yell at … for …don’t let … wear … go… …force…to … against my will …don’t let… make…decisions

Family, Family relations

government’s policy …gives financial help …safeguards rights …adopts laws defending (can get married without parents consent) …have the right to vote, to own property

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…have, follow …get together …have a holiday dinner …discuss problems …give and receive presents …sing songs on special occasions

Wishes, dreams of Parents, children want, expect, ask, don’t want to be polite, kind, friendly, hard working, punctual, not to be rude, to smoke; to be kind, to understand them, to give pocket money, to leave them alone to use alcohol, drugs

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III. Life Events 1. Look at the charts of life events for Harry and Sally, and make up a story about them a) Say when Sally met Harry Harry Sally Age age Born 1970 Born 1967 in Ontario, 0 0 Canada Went to Loughborough 11 Grammar School for 6 years 11 Joined a drama group. Start a life-long passion Went to London University 18 for 3 years Came to live in England 15 summer 1982 Started going out with Suzie. 19 Ended Christmas 1993 Went to Teacher Training 19 College for 3 years Went to live in Paris Feb22 July 1992 Taught in Poland for two 23 years Met Sally at a party 23 Met and married Paul 24 Got a job in a record shop August 1991. Had a 24 daughter. Polly born 13 Married Sally 23 March May 1992 25 1995. Promoted to store manager of the record shop 25 Came back to England Autumn 1995 with Polly but without Paul 1992 Bought a house in 26 Wimbledon Divorced Paul. Started 26 teaching in a school in London Sept 1993. Met Harry Christmas 1993 b) Ask questions about them a. When__________________? In 1970

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b. How long______________ at Loughborough Grammar School? Until________________________ c. How long____________________________? Three years. d. How long ________________________Suzie? _____________________ e. How long ______________________in Paris? _______________________ f. Where______________________________? At a party g. How long ____________________________ in the record shop? h. How long ____________________manager? Since___________________________ i. When_______________________________? ____23 March 1995. j. How long _____________________they ________________________in Wimbledon? k. How long _____________________Sally __________________________in Canada? ___________she was fifteen? l. How long __________________________ ________________________married to Harry? q. How long ____________________ ________________________interested in drama? m. When ______________________meet Paul? While________________________________ 25

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r. How long _______________________ _________________in the school in London? Since_________________ m. When ______________________________ married for the first time? n. When____________ Polly___________? How long_________________________ ________________________________ married to Paul? 2. What would you tell the groupmates about your life events? 3. Ask your groupmates about their important life events. 4. Look at the information about Georges, Keiko, Mark. Ask your partner questions about them.

a) Keiko Wilson Country

An interpreter

b) Georges Teste

Japan

A taxi driver

Country

France

Town

Tokyo

Town

Paris

Place of work

At the United Nations

Place of work

In the centre of Paris

Languages

Japanese, English and Russian

Languages

Family

Married to an American, two sons

Family

Free time

skiing

Free time

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No A dog (!)

Walking with his dog and football

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c) Mark King

A journalist for the BBC

Country

England

Town

Edinburgh

Place of work

In an office

Languages

English, Russian and German

Family

Married, three daughters

Free time

tennis

5. My Free Time Activities 1) Tell us what you like and what you don’t like to do in your free time I really enjoy …____________ But I don’t like … at all

I don’t much like…___________

I’m also fond of…__________

going to (the cinema, theatre, exhibition halls, disco, a night club, a casino) dancing visiting museums doing crosswords doing sports (skiing, tennis, football, judo, basketball, volleyball, ) watching TV taking photographs cooking playing (computer games, the guitar, the cards) sailing diving painting swimming reading eating in a restaurant 27

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I prefer… to …____________

I think that I’m good at …_______ I hate …________________ I think that … is a waste of time.

windsurfing fishing singing dancing driving a car riding a horse visiting friends collecting go hiking doing shopping sewing collecting (stamps, pictures, labels, cans, boxes, bottles) travelling

2) Tell us: about free time activities of young people. Use the words from the box. 85% Watching TV 60% Listening to tapes and CDs 55% Visiting friends and relations 40% Playing computer games

are fond of are keen on are mad about prefer…to… enjoy don’t like…very much

35% Going to clubs and Disco 27% Reading books and newspaper 20% Doing sports 3) How do you feel about these activities? Use the words given below. I really enjoy… I’m extremely interested in… I’m fascinated by… I’ve always wanted to learn about… I don’t much like… 28

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I’m bored by… 4) Write an application to International pen-friend club. International pen friend club First name: ______________________________________________ Surname: ________________________________________________ Age: ____________________________________________________ Brothers/sisters: ___________________________________________ Friends: _________________________________________________ Favourite subjects? ________________________________________ Hobbies: _________________________________________________ Sports: __________________________________________________ Pets: ____________________________________________________ Your country: _____________________________________________ 5) What country would you like to write to? Why? Great Britain [‘greit’britn] Germany [dʒə:məni] Australia [ :streiljə] Austria [ :streiə] Greece [gri:s] Italy [itəli] Belgium [beldʒəm] Bulgaria [b∧lgεriə] Brazil [brəzil] Canada [kænədə] Cuba [kju:bə] Finland [finlənd] Switzerland [switsələnd] Thailand [teilænd]

Sweden [swi:dən]

Norway [n :wer]

China [t∫αinə] Japan [dʒəpæn] Egypt [i:dʒipt] France [frα:ns] India [ndjə] Spain [spein] Korea [kəriə]

Mexico [meksikou] Hungary [h∧ŋgəri] the USA

Mongolia [m ŋgouljə] Turkey [kə:ki] Poland [poulənd] Denmark [dənmα:k] Indonesia [indounizjə]

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Iran [irα:n] Iraq [ira:k] Singapore [siŋgəp :] the Netherlands [ne∂ələndz] Columbia [kəl∧mbiə] Portugal [p :tjugəl] Israel [izreiəl] New Zealand [nju:zi:lənd]

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6. 1) Your Curriculum Vitae should be: • world processed • laser printed on good quality paper • no longer than two pages of A4 paper You should include: Personal details. The employer wants to know who you are and how to contact you (essential information only) Education. Work experience. Don't just describe the job - stress what you achieved and what you learnt. Positions of responsibility. If you do not have a lot of work experience, this section will show employers your potential. Skills. Be positive about your ability - never undersell your experience. Interests. Stress any significant achievements related to your interests. Referees. • Current students and recent graduates should choose an academic referee and a personal one (this could be an employer). • Get your referees permission first and tell them what you are applying for and what you would like them to stress in a reference. 2) Read Melanie Henderson’s CV. Ask questions on her Curriculum Vitae. Personal Details Address Melanie Henderson 99 Newlands Park Date of birth London 3.11.1978 SE 30 8 Tel: 017125650 Education 1997 – present Degree in French and Films Studies, University of London 30

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Degree performance to date: 2.1 Specialist subjects: British Cinema, The Narrative Technique 1992-1997 Royal Latin School, Aylesbury Levels: French (B), German (C), English (B), Film studies (A) GCSEs: French (A), German (A), English (A), History (B), Art (A), Maths (B), Economics (B) Work experience 1999 Information Officer, Futuroscope, France. Responsible for dealing with enquiries in a busy office, responding to 2000 enquiries a week. This demonstrated my ability to retain a professional approach and a sense of humour while working under pressure. 1998 Customer Services Assistant Provided support for customer enquiries. Dealing with customers’ complaints demonstrated my ability to remain calm under pressure. Explaining complex issues simply and clearly helped me to develop my communication skills. Positions of responsibility In my final year at school, I helped to organize a career fair for all final year students. Skills

Good working knowledge of Microsoft Word and Excel Spreadsheets Working knowledge of French and Italian Current clean driving licence Interests Travel: I have travelled extensively and independently in Europe. Music: I play the guitar in a semi-professional band and have done a number of gigs for school and students clubs. Referees Hamish Roberts Richard Gayle (Tutor at University of London) (Customer Services Manager) DAT 17 Woodland Avenue 31 Pleasant Street Oxford London OX GGR SE LSR 31

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IV. Activities *1. Read the poem On Sunday afternoon in the middle of July I like sitting in the sun just looking at the sky. I like listening to the birds singing in the trees — in July. I hate going to work when the sun shines Or standing in the rain, I hate queueing at a bus stop, Or trying to read a paper on a train. On cold December mornings I like walking through the snow I like watching all the people as off to work they go. I like dozing (дремать) in a chair, without a care - in December. On rainy April days I just like staying at home. I like reading a book or simply being alone. I like thinking of you, and all the thing that you do - in April But most of all I like loving you. You're a Sunday afternoon, a December morning too. You're an April day, sunshine in June - You're you. (Ray Kingsbury Patrick O'Shea) 2. Ask your partner whether he/she likes (hates) doing all these things. Let your partner use: I like it very much. No, not very much. I hate it. I really love it. 3. Ask and answer. Find out your friend’s likes and dislikes. Then sum up his/her answers and tell the class about his/her preferences (preference предпочтение). collecting things, spending money, flying, going by coach, travelling, taking photographs of yourself, of other people, meeting people, Do you enjoy travelling in a group, staying in hotels, staying with Do you hate your friends, staying at home during your holiday, reading guide-books, eating in restaurants? 4. Complete the following sentences. The status of parenthood results ……(1)…… certain rights and duties existing …..(2)…… parents and minor children. Modern statues in the United States provide that ……. (3)……. the father and the mother are 32

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natural guardians of their offspring. If it becomes necessary for the law of appointing alternative guardians, these people are known ……(4)…… guardians by law. Parents are responsible ……(5)…… the health, financial support, and education of their children. Illegitimate children are usually given into the custody of the mother, with the father providing support. 1. a) in 4. a) a like b) of b) as c) for c) for as if 2. a) among 5. a) to b) amongst b) for c) between c) about d) amidst d) in 3. a) all two b) both c) also d) even *5. Read the dialogue and say what problems the English teens come across? Do you have the same problems? Katie: I make lots of friends on holiday. Reporter: You’re still at school, aren’t you? Katie: Yes. I’ll leave next year, when I am 18. Reporter: Do you make most of your friends at school? Katie: Yes. In the evenings and at weekends I go out with school friends, and go to their parties. That's how I meet other people. Or I meet them on holiday. It's easier then, because you're more adventurous when you're away from home. Reporter: Why? Katie: I think it's because you have more freedom. You can do things, and then go away and forget about them. You become a different person. Even if you're very shy you can go and chat up a bloke. Reporter: Do you like foreign boys? Katie: Well, they're attractive just because they're foreign. But also they pay more attention to you than English boys. They're really interested in what you have to say. And they're more romantic. English boys often prefer to go out with their mates than with a girl. Reporter: Do you think English boys are shy?

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Katie: I don't really know. They certainly don't show their feelings. Perhaps it's because they're afraid to. I remember that I used not to show my feelings, because I was afraid of being rejected. Reporter: What do foreign boys think of English girls? Katie: I talked about this with some Swedish boys. They said they liked English girls. They thought we were friendly and outgoing, and good fun. Reporter: Would you prefer to marry a foreign boy? Katie: No, I don't think so. I want to marry an English man, when I'm about 30. I'm very traditional, really. I want a traditional marriage. I don't believe in this open marriage, where you can have affairs with other men while you're married. I believe that you stick with one person, and that's it. Reporter: Do you remember the first time you went out with a boy? Katie: Yes. I was 14. I was very worried, because I didn't know what he'd expect. Reporter: Was it all right? Katie: Yes. We walked round the park and talked about each other. I felt a bit silly. But after a while we got on like a house on fire! Reporter: When you go out with a boy, do you share the costs equally? Katie: Yes, but my boy-friend doesn't like it - he's even more traditional than me! He prefers to pay for me when we go out. But we're both still at school, and neither of us has any money, so that's not possible. I prefer to pay for myself. Why should a boy have to pay for everything? You always hear about girls wanting equality, but they expect their boy-friends to spend a fortune on them! Reporter: Have you ever secretly planned to meet a certain boy? Katie: Yes, once. He was called Simon, and he worked with my sister. I liked him, and wanted to go out with him. But he didn't ask me out. So I asked my sister to arrange all sorts of times when I would "accidentally" meet him. Reporter: Did your plan work? Katie: Yes, it was very successful! We went out together for five months. Reporter: Why did the relationship end? Katie: I met another boy on holiday, and I was in a holiday mood. When I came back to England, I just wasn't interested in Simon. He suddenly became boring. Reporter: What about the boy you met on holiday? 34

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Katie: We wrote to each other for a couple of weeks, and then that was it I never heard from him again. It's always like that: you say you'll write, and he says he'll write. You both say you’ll send a photo. And two weeks later, that's it! Finished! Reporter: So did you regret breaking up with Simon? Katie: No. I found out that he was a pig anyway! Reporter: How do you usually feel when a relationship ends? Katie: Depressed. Suicidal at times. I feel that I'm not a good person, and that it's all my fault. And I start thinking, "How can I change myself? How can I make myself be loved and wanted?" I feel desperate. Reporter: Do you sit at home, hoping that a letter will arrive, or that the telephone will ring? Katie: Oh, yes. I say to myself, "Please, God, let that telephone ring." I have said that so many times. And a couple of times I've said, "Please, God, don’t let that telephone ring!" *6. Groupwork. Look at the following statements. Choose those you agree with, and those you do not agree with, expressing the opinion of everyone in your group. Parents and teenagers. 1. Young people should only leave home after they are married. 2. Young people should never leave home without their parent's permission. 3. Young people who live at home should pay rent to their parents. 4. Young people should only stay at home when they can't find anywhere to live. 5. Young people who leave home are selfish. 6. Young people should be allowed to go to court to 'divorce' their parents. 7. The state should help young people find a home of their own. 8. Young people should allow elderly parents to live with them. Now discuss: • Do young people leave home in your country? Why? Why not? • Would you want to leave home soon? Why? Why not? • Do you agree with this proverb? Home is where the heart is. • Do you have similar proverbs in your language? • Try to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of leaving home as a young person. 35

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UNIT 4 EDUCATION I. A visit to Cambridge 1) Read, say and discuss. My name is Ann Berlina. I am a student at Moscow State Linguistic University. Last winter I spent ten days in the University City of Cambridge. It is built on a river called the Cam. Cambridge University, founded in 1209, is still one of the two best places to study in England; Oxford is the other. Students work very hard to obtain a place at «Oxbridge» - either at Oxford or at Cambridge. There is great rivalry between these two ancient universities: each wants to be better than the other, but in reality both are equally good. Today, Cambridge is famous not only for its university but also because it is a very picturesque and ancient city. Many of its buildings are very old, some were built about 700 years ago. Some of the older buildings are covered with beautiful plants such as ivy. Many are surrounded by green lawns and multicoloured flower-beds. Although all the colleges belong to the same university, each has its own character and style. In 1440 King Henry VI founded King's College, hoping that this would make people remember him. It is still the most famous college in Cambridge because its chapel is one of the finest churches in Western Europe. There are also many beautiful bridges across the Cam including the Mathematical Bridge and the Bridge of Sighs. In my view, Cambridge is a very pleasant city to live and study in. Since there are so many colleges, a large number of the city's inhabitants are young students. In the day-time the students work in libraries or attend lectures, while in the evenings they go back to their college rooms, or university lodgings. Sport plays a large part in university life. As Cambridge is on the river Cam rowing seems to be the most popular sport. There are "boathouses" all along the river bank and early in the mornings you'll see many students rowing, whatever the weather. The best of them are preparing for the famous annual boat race against their rivals from Oxford. This race attracts much attention: thousands of people line the banks of the Thames in London to cheer both teams on, and the race is broadcast on television in many different parts of the world. When visiting Cambridge, one should certainly take the time to have a 36

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look around the shops. There are many bookshops for students and tailors' shops where long traditional gowns are sold. At weekends shops are often crowded with tourists looking for souvenirs such as mugs, T-shirts. Students wear scarves of various colours in the winter when the weather is cold — at least-by English standards. They often complain of the wind and rain, as most of them travel around by bicycle. 2. Give some information about Cambridge and its university. If necessary use these words.  was founded, picturesque, beautiful, ancient, are surrounded, are covered, green lawns, beautiful bridges, is famous for;  are involved in sports, is popular, take part in, attracts the attention, souvenirs, shops and bookshops, are crowded. II. My Institute Are you proud of your institute? Say using this table. Students Our institute it they sport the institute there I We

prepares was founded participate broadcast is surrounded by by work attend take part in

- hard to obtain a place at the institute - in 2003 - programmes on specialized topics - music (classical, jazz, pop) - amusing parties, discoes, discussions - different activities - at the library - houses and green trees, shops, cafes - knowledge - a large part in the institute life - voluntary work - lectures and seminars - laboratories with modern equipment

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A course at the institute Teachers Each student

organize do plays has is rich in is located are can listen to enjoy get is obtain study trains takes pay are engaged in learn give lectures on

- some computer classes - in the centre of the town - the profession of an economist, a lawyer, a bookkeeper, an auditor, an expert in the science of commodities - highly qualified specialists in the fields of economy and law - a pleasant educational establishment to study - sport competitions - special shops, a bar for the study - a faculty of economy and science of commodities, a faculty of law - academic, non-academic and optional subjects - for 5 years - money for their education - research work - fundamental theoretical subjects, Philosophy, Foreign languages, Economics, History; Cooperative movement, The Theory and the History of Russian entrepreneurship, sociology, Psychology, Accounting

III. Higher Education in Russia 1. Moscow University 1) Read the text and say what you have learned about the history of Moscow University. An important part in the development of higher education in Russia was played by Moscow University which was founded in 1755. It was not by accident that Moscow was chosen as the place for the first Russian University. Moscow was situated in the centre of the country and it was easier for students to come there from all parts of the country, besides, life in the older capital was cheaper than in St Petersburg. Moscow University was opened on April, 26 (May, 7) 1755 in the three-storied building where the State Historical Museum is situated. But it was too small for the University and several houses in Mokhovaya Street were bought the next year. In 1786 the sum of 125,000 roubles was 38

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allotted (ассигновано) by the government to build a new University building. It was built by a famous Russian architect Kazakov in Mokhovaya Street. The University had three faculties: philosophy, law and medicine. The philosophy faculty was considered to be preparatory and study there was obligatory for all students. Philosophical, natural and philological disciplines were studied for 2 or 3 years. Special attention was paid to "the history of the Russian empire". After finishing the courses at the philosophy faculty, students could choose to study either law or medicine. At the law faculty students were taught civil law, commercial law, military law and law of the sea. Each student could work independently according to an individual plan of studies, which was based on the general university curriculum and he could study the disciplines, which he had chosen in any order he wished. The University also contained a library, a minerological museum, a "natural" museum, an anatomical theatre, a chemical laboratory, an astronomical observatory, etc. In accordance with the University Charter (устав) debates among students were organized. They were supervised by professors and "all lovers of the arts and sciences" (гуманитарные и естественнонаучные дисциплины) were welcome to these debates. The best students were awarded gold and silver medals at the end of each year. After graduation they were sent abroad to perfect their knowledge. All lectures were given in Latin. Professor Popovskiy who gave lectures on philosophy and literature was the first to propose giving lectures in Russian stating that "there exists no idea that can't be properly explained in Russian". But lectures in Russian were not allowed until 12 years later in 1767. The number of students at the University was small. Thus in 1755 there were only 61 students. Later their number gradually began to grow. Now at the University there are 16 faculties where more than 30,000 students are given instruction by about 10,000 teachers. (After "The History of Moscow"). 2) Make up 5 questions in writing on the text. 3) Retell the story. If necessary use the following phrases: …was founded in … … contained … There … only … …were given in … … was built by … … was the first to propose … … had … faculties … were awarded … … was paid to … … were sent … …were taught … … there are … … could work independently … 39

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2. University system in Russia 1) Pre – reading task. Check the meaning of the following words in your dictionary philology concrete spirit skill work-load graduate discipline civic ability pass institutions pertain responsibility deal with oral academy attach acquire amount significance advanced undergraduate post-graduate 2) Read the text and do exercises on it in writing. 1. The universities in Russia educate students in the “university” disciplines. Among the sciences there are Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, and among the Arts History, Philosophy, Economics, Law and Philology. While learning at a university or college, students have time to study not only such fundamental theoretical subjects as Mathematics, Chemistry, History and concrete disciplines pertaining to their speciality, but also such general-education subjects in the social and economic group of sciences as Philosophy and Economics. Great importance is also attached to educating students in the spirit of civic responsibility, to their acquiring organizational skills and the ability to perform social duties, as well as cultivating an interest in teamwork when dealing with co-workers. In the first years of learning, there are set subjects for one's speciality; in the latter years a certain amount of freedom in the choice of subjects is allowed, some of which are optional (факультативные). 2. The work-load of a student, including his individual out-of-class work, is planned to take up approximately 50-55 hours a week. During the period of learning, every student must pass 35-40 term examinations not counting the written and oral tests. In the last stages of learning, special significance is attached to the students developing their creative abilities and skills in their chosen speciality. This stage culminates in preparing and publicly presenting ("defending") a diploma paper (thesis, dissertation). 3. University graduates work as teachers in universities, colleges and secondary schools, in cultural institutions, research institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences and other establishments. 4. It is well-known that higher education must be closely connected with the development of science and advanced methods of production. This means that research and work in the actual production must be an 40

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integral part of the process of instruction, especially for undergraduates, while for post-graduates it is the chief form of activity. 3) Read and answer the questions: a) What is the main idea of the text? b) What is the university system like? 4) While reading match the number of the paragraph with the necessary letter. Say what the paragraph is about. 1 2 3 4 A. research work B. curriculum C. graduates D. work-load 5) Choose the right idea according to the text. A. University graduates work as teachers 1. in the latter years 2. in schools 3. in different establishments 4. in the spirit of civic responsibility B. While learning at a university the students have time to 1. work as teachers 2. study fundamental theoretical subjects 3. do sports 4. do voluntary work C. The work-load of an undergraduate consists of 1. Russian Academy of Sciences 2. 50-55 hours a week 3. freedom in the choice of subjects 4. instructions A

B

C

6) Match a line in A with a line in B to make a sentence. A B 1. In the last stages of learning a) students in «university» disciplines special significance is attached to 41

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2. Great importance is attached to

b) with the development of science and advanced methods of production 3. The universities in Russia educate c) concrete disciplines pertaining to their speciality 4. Higher education must be closely d) to educating students in the spirit connected of civic responsibility 5. While learning at a university e) the students developing their students study creative abilities and skills in their chosen speciality

7) Say if the following statements are true or false. Write «F» next to false, «T» next to true: A. University graduates work as economists in universities colleges, secondary schools, research institutes. B. Students obtain knowledge on mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, philosophy, economics. C. Great importance is attached to educating students in the spirit of civic responsibility. D. In the last stages of learning special significance is attached to ability to perform social duties. E. The work-load of a student including his individual, out-ofclass work takes up approximately 50-55 hours a week. A

B

C

D

E

8) Post reading task. Put the following phrases in the correct order to make up a short story about university system in Russia. 1. have time to study fundamental theoretical subjects…, general- a education subjects… 2. obtain knowledge in science… b 3. is attached to educating…acquiring…cultivating c 4. must be closely connected with… d 5. includes… takes up 50-55 hours a week e 6. must pass 35-40 term examinations f 7. graduates work as teachers g 8. is attached to the student developing h

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9) Find English equivalents of the following Russian phrases and learn them at home. Естественнонаучные дисциплины; гуманитарные дисциплины; теоретические дисциплины; общеобразовательные дисциплины; обязательные курсы; факультативные курсы; студент; выпускник; аспирант; научно-исследовательский институт; научноисследовательская работа; гражданская ответственность; навыки организаторской работы; развивать интерес к коллективному творчеству; внеаудиторная работа; семестровые экзамены, зачеты; творческие способности и навыки; избранная специальность; писать и защищать диплом; развитие науки и передовых методов производства; составная часть процесса обучения. IV. Higher education in Great Britain 1. Read the text below and do exercises on it. 1) Pre – reading task. Check the meaning of the following words in your dictionary. Institution, extra-mural, extension, refresher, preliminary, locate, medical, include, faculty, arts, science, technology, engineering, economics, commerce, agriculture, award, Bachelor, medicine, proceed, supervise, set, provide, hostel, accommodation, curriculum, department, law. 2) While reading. Answer the questions: a) What kinds of higher learning are there in Great Britain? b) What is the biggest university in England? c) What are the most common faculties in it? d) How do young people enter universities? HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN In Britain there are different kinds of institutions of higher learning: universities, colleges, university extra-mural departments, evening departments at colleges, extension groups or extension courses, refresher courses and preliminary courses. There are 22 universities in Great Britain: 43

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16 in England, 4 in Scotland, 1 in Wales and 1 in Northern Ireland. The bestknown universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Manchester, Liverpool, Durham, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol, Birmingham. Of these Oxford is the oldest, for its history goes back to the twelfth century. London University is the biggest of the modern English universities, and it consists of a great number of colleges and other institutions, including medical schools. A university usually has both faculties and departments. The most common faculties are arts, law, medicine, science and technology. The departments include, engineering, economics, commerce, agriculture, music and technology. After three years of study a university graduate is awarded with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later he may proceed to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Professors and lecturers give lectures to large groups of students and supervise the work of individual students in smaller groups. Oxford University is famous for its tutorial system. Each student has a tutor who plans the student's work, sets tasks and discusses with him what he has done. Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are admitted on equal terms with men, but the proportion of men is rather more than 75 per cent. Most of the universities provide hostel accommodation for their students, but many students live in private rooms. The rent is very high (135-170 pounds a year). Colleges provide a specialized training. There are colleges within universities, teacher training colleges, technical colleges of various types, colleges of arts and commerce. The curriculum of a college is not so wide and the course of studies is not so long as those at a university. (At present the student population in Great Britain is 443.000)

3) Match a question word in A with an answer in B A B 1. Whom...? a) London University is the biggest of the modern English universities; 2. What... b) the departments include engineering, economics, like? commerce. agriculture, music, technology; 3. What... for? c) Oxford university is famous for its tutorial system; 4. Where...? d) most universities provide hostel accommodation for their students; 5. What...? e) the student population in Great Britain is 443.000

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4) Without referring back to the article, put the following parts of sentences into the right order by numbering the 29 parts below. The first and the last parts are in the correct order. 1. In Britain there  is the biggest  including medical schools  of individual students  to the universities  college is not so wide  the best known universities  and it consists  give lectures  in smaller groups  examination and selection  provide  are different kinds of higher learning  are located in  of modern universities  of colleges and other institutions  of students and supervise the work  admission  the curriculum of a  Oxford, Cambridge, London, Manchester  Of a great number  to large groups  colleges  and the course of studies  London university  professors and lecturers  is by  a specialized training  is not so long as those at a university 5) Translate § 2 into your language. Translate ideas, not word for word.

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V. What is the role of the English language in modern life. Express your opinion.

education

activities

2

science

is used, speak, are organized, communicative

is studied, is, get, is spoken

…at schools, colleges, institutes …the second most spoken language …education abroad …different professions

is used, are done, teach, gives, is given

…world festivals, forums, …shows, sport competitions, exhibitions

The English language in modern life

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computers, scientific information on any subject, a lot of scientific works…, computer programmes …, English individually

role … is necessary, learn, is, want …to do business, to read …to speak fluently …a means of …to use in a job …to understand foreign culture …to understand films …to correspond with …is a world language (2/3 countries of the word) …the official language of 34 nations …to communicate with …to live in a foreign country

Travelling requires, communicate, travel, helps the knowledge, cafes, hotels, restaurants, airports, shops, to explore new ideas, to learn more about …, to relax, to meet new people, to feel comfortable

in every day’s life is used, are done, broadcast, are (is), are printed labels of goods, …advertisements, instructions of medicine, guide books 75% of world’s mail 60% of the world’s telephone calls 60% of the world’s radio stations

50% of periodicals 46

in the life of famous people study, know, could write, could speak

in modern business is, study, there are, meet, work, use, travel, speak …international; …a lot; …cultural differences …subsidiary companies …foreign colleagues Pilots, air traffic controllers, diplomats, politicians, scientists, doctors, students… English

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VI. Activities 1. Read the texts about Cambridge and Oxford and compare the two universities. What facts do you find most unusual. Cambridge* My visit to Cambridge has been an unusual experience. From whatever country one comes as a student one cannot escape the influence of the Cambridge traditions — and they go back so far. Here, perhaps, more than anywhere else, I have felt at one and the same time the Past, the Present and even the Future. The story of the University begins, as far as I know, in 1209 when several hundred students and scholars arrived in the little town of Cambridge after they had walked 60 miles from Oxford. These students had been studying in Oxford at that city's well-known schools. It was a hard life at Oxford for there was constant trouble between the people living in the town and the students. Then one day a student accidentally killed a man of the town. The Mayor (мэр) arrested three other students who were innocent (невиновны) and they were put to death. In protest, all the students moved elsewhere, some coming to Cambridge; and so the new University began. The Colleges join one another along the curve (изгиб) of the river Cam. Going through a college gate one finds one is standing in an almost square space of about 70 square yards (the size varies from college to college) known as the "court" or quadrangle (quad). Looking down into the court on all sides are the buildings where the students live. The Colleges are built on a plan common to all. There is a chapel (часовня), a library and a large dining-hall. The student gets a clear idea of much of the English architectural styles of the past 600 years - the bad as well as the good. There are nineteen colleges, including two for women students which were built near the end of the last century (women students do not have a very active part in University life at Cambridge by the way, but they work harder than men and one seldom sees them outside of the classrooms). It is difficult to walk around the quiet quads of the Colleges without feeling a sense of peace and scholarship (ученость).

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Oxford* Oxford is like London: it is international, it is old and it has great charm. It is also a town that grew up near the River Thames. Oxford is international because people from many parts of the world come to study at its university. They join the university "family" that has more than 9,000 members. The city of Oxford is old and historical. It has existed since 912. The university was established in the 12th century. The oldest of the twentyseven men's colleges is University College. Some of the other old colleges are Merton College, Magdalen College, and New College. You can see the charm of Oxford in the green fields and parks which surround the city and you can see it in the lawns and gardens which surround the colleges. You can see the charm of Oxford in the River Thames and its streams which pass near the city. Punting (punt - плоскодонка) is a favourite sport among the students at Oxford. It is a very peaceful sport and helps you to do a lot of thinking - especially if you are studying for an examination! When you go to Oxford, there are two things you must do: 1. Go to the top of the Radcliffe Camera (next to the Bodleian Library) and look out across the city. 2. Stay up till midnight and listen to Great Tom, the bass bell at Christ Church, which tolls 101 times each night. 2. Read the text about M.V. Lomonosov and understand the context. The contents are given in wrong order. Read it again and put its parts into correct order. M.V. Lomonosov 1. M.V. Lomonosov was the founder of Moscow University which was established in 1755. He devoted his whole life to spread science in the country. Many of his cherished ideas were realised only in our time. M.V. Lomonosov's memory is highly honoured in our country and many of our educational institutions are named after him. He belongs to the people of whom the whole cultured world is proud. 2. Soon Lomonosov became a student of Marburg University. There he studied chemistry, mining, natural history, physics, geometry, trigonometry, mechanics, hydraulics and hydrotechnique, and German, Latin and French languages. The three years stay in Marburg was very productive for M.V.Lomonosov. He became acquainted with the achievements of science in Europe at that time. 48

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3. The history of mankind knows many examples of people having numerous talents. Leonardo da Vinci was a great Italian painter and at the same time a gifted scientist. Alexander Borodin was a physician, an outstanding chemist and a brilliant musician. 4. When Lomonosov returned to Petersburg in 1741 he was ready to work for the good of his country. Soon he was appointed assistant professor at the Academy where he taught chemistry, mineralogy and versification. In 1745 M.V. Lomonosov was appointed; professor of chemistry. On his initiative the first chemical laboratory was built in Russia. 5. We can give other examples of gifted men, but there is hardly any other person more gifted than Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. He was a historian, mechanic, chemist; mineralogist, an artist and a poet. 6. In the winter of 1730 Lomonosov went to Moscow where he entered the Slavonic-Greek-Lalia Academy. He was a brilliant pupil and in 1735 he was sent to Petersburg to continue his studies at the University. In Petersburg Lomonosov began to study German, Latin, mathematics, rhetoric, geography, history and physics. He was an extremely capable student and soon was sent to continue his education abroad. 7. M.V. Lomonosov's talent as a poet also developed and even brought him popularity at the. imperial court. This improved his position at the Academy. M.V. Lomonosov also wrote treatises which played an important role in the development of the Russian language (Rhetoric and Russian Grammar). M.V. Lomonosov's Russian Grammar served as model for later Grammars. He did a lot for the development of out-language and literature. 8. In 1741 Lomonosov came back to Petersburg. These years of study made M. V. Lomonosov an all-round scientist and practician, ready to take up any kind of work. 9. Mikhail Lomonosov was born in Sepiember 1711 into the family of a fisherman. He began to work at an early age and often accompanied his father on long and dangerous voyages. During these voyages he observed nature, the life and customs of the people. Everything young Mikhail saw aroused a thirst for knowledge which was unusual in a boy of his age. But he could not get his education at home. 10. The combination of science with practice, with problems of everyday life was an organic feature of M. V. Lomonosov's work. All his work was done to serve his Motherland. "What joy it is to work for your country's good!" he would say. 49

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11. M.V. Lomonosov read public lectures on physics to spread education in Russia. Me made many theoretical investigations in physics. He wrote-several fundamental-works on physics. M.V. Lomonosov studied electricity and enriched this branch of physics with new and valuable observations and ideas. He also discovered the existence of an atmosphere around Venus. M.V. Lomonosov did a lot for developing the applied sciences. M.V. Lomonosov's scientific work covered-various questions of theoretical and applied physics and chemistry, chemical technology, theoretical and experiments meteorology and many others. M.V. Lomonosov was the founder of Russian scientific terminology.

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UNIT 5. ACROSS GREAT BRITAIN, THE USA, RUSSIA I. The Geographic position of the USA, the UK and Russia is different. Which factors make these countries different or similar? Use the table. …is…(isn’t) …is believed to be… …is considered to have …is rich in… …is… …is believed to be… …enjoys…

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a beautiful country, a stable and democratic society

a well- developed country

the largest trading nation

a highly industrialized country

the largest energy resources

an international reputation in the world

an important world producer of oil, gas, coal, steel

records of achievements in the fields of sports, arts, music

the largest exporter of goods

England, Wales

Scotland

records of achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, literature, technology Northern Ireland

50 states and Alaska

7 regions 89 subjects, a lot of republics

the Atlantic Ocean

the Pacific Ocean

mountains, plains, lakes Canada, China, Norway ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy

…is rich in …has …

A lot of mineral deposits (resources)

…grow(s) …

corn, wheat, oranges, grapefruit cattle

valleys, tundra, rivers Mexico, Ireland Mongolia, Finland mining industry, textile industry, light industry, chemical industry coal, gas non-ferrous metals cotton, flax, lemons, potatoes live stock

the North sea, the Irish Sea forests, Highlands, towns Georgia, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia electronics, shipbuilding, aircraft industry, space research

the English Channel

…has… there is…(are)… … is covered with …borders on …is bounded by …has a sea border with …has (hasn’t) a well developed

the Arctic Ocean, 12 seas taiga seas

silver, lead, nickel aluminium oats, sugar-beet, soy-beans

copper, zinc, iron ore barley, rye, peanuts

sheep

pigs

…is made up …consists of …includes …doesn’t include is washed by

… raise/ breed …

of

Korea, the Baltic States, France machine building industry automobile industry

gold, oil, iron maize, sunflower, tobacco, sugar-beet poultry

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lowlands, deserts, cities Kazakhstan, the Ukraine, Japan, the USA agriculture, animal husbandry, field husbandry

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II. ECONOMY OF THE USA Read the text and do exercises on it in writing 1) Pre-reading task. Check the meaning of the following words in your dictionary landscape dot cluster advertise fertile average skyscraper consumer goods vegetables tend giant deal with processing refine 2) While reading. Choose a sentence which expresses the main idea: a. New York is the biggest City of the United States; b. There is a lot of fruit raising areas; c. The USA has a lot of mineral deposits or resources; d. The USA is a highly developed industrialized country. ECONOMY OF THE USA The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized country. Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space research are highly developed in the States. Each region of the United States has characteristics of its own due to the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position. Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersy are biggest industrial regions of the country. The United States has a lot of mineral deposits or resources such as coal, gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. The south, especially Texas is rich in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. There are plenty of coal mines. Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the richest farming region of America and it is known as the Corn Belt. The land is fertile and well watered. They grow mostly corn and wheat there. Much livestock is also raised here. There is a lot of fruit raising area. For example, California oranges, grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits, wines and vegetables are shipped all over the States and to other parts of the world. The most important crops grown in the States are also tobacco, soy-beans, peanuts, grapes and many others. There are a lot of large and modern cities, but a great proportion of the country consists of open land dotted with farmhouses and small towns. The usual average town, in any part of the United States, has its Main Street with the same types of stores selling the same products. Many American residential areas tend to have a 52

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similar look. As to big cities their centres or downtowns look very much alike. Downtown is the cluster of skyscrapers imitations of New York giants. New York City is the first biggest city of the States. Its population is more than eight million people. It is a financial and advertising business centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the Hudson River. Industry of consumer goods is also developed here. Chicago with a population of more than three and a half million is the second largest city in the U.S.A. It deals in wheat and other grains, cattle, meat processing and manufacturing. Other big cities are Huston, an oil refining and NASA space research centre. New Orleans, a cotton industry centre, Los Angeles with Hollywood, Phyladelphia, a shipping commercial centre, Detroit, a world's leading motor car producer and many others. 3) Choose the right answer for the following questions. A. What industries are well-developed in the USA? 1. electronics, automobile 3. consumer goods 2. mineral deposits 4. meat processing B. How is field husbandry developed in the USA? 1. It grows soy-beans, tobacco, corn, wheat. 3. they grow corn. 2. there is a lot of fruit.

4. there are plenty of fields.

C. Is New York famous for 1. oil refining? 3.advertising? 2. motor cars? 4.coal mines? D. Is the climate of the USA favourable for the development of 1. oil. 3. agriculture. 2. land. 4. seaport. A B C D

4) Write out words from the box in two columns according to their meaning. Use exercise 1. page 71. Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Philadelphia, New York, California, Texas, New Jercy, Springfield, Des Moines, Lincoln, Sacramento, Harrisburg, Albany, Austin, Trenton

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a State

a Capital

5) Put the sentences in order according to the contents of the text. 1. The USA has a lot of mineral deposits or resources. 2. Huston is an oil refining and NASA space research centre. 3. The most important crops grown in the USA are tobacco, soy beans, peanuts, grapes. 4. Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, fruits, wines, vegetables are shipped in California. 5. The USA is a highly developed industrialized country. 6. Farming is well-developed in Nebraska. 1

2

3

4

5

a b c d e f 6

6) Complete sentences not changing the meaning of the first one. a) Is New York the biggest city of the states? Do you know _______. b) Does the US have a lot of mineral resources? Do you happen to know ___________. c) What is Nebraska famous for? Could you tell me ______________. d) What are the most important crops grown in the USA? Have you any idea ________________ . e) Where is New York City situated? I wonder __________________ . 7)* Find in text words that mean the following:  the dimenions of height, depth, width in which all things exist and move  a layer of matter, often deep under the earth, that has formed naturally.  to sent or transport sth /sb in a ship  a very tall modern city building  a town with a harbour used by large ships  petroleum found in rock underground  engaged in of concerned with commerce III. Industry and Agriculture of the UK Read the text. Compare the economy of the USA with that of Great Britain. Use the table below the text. In the past English industrial prosperity rested on a few important products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now the U.K. has a 54

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great variety of industries, for example heavy and light industry, chemical, aircraft, electrical, automobile and many other industries. The United Kingdom is considered one of the world's major manufacturing nations. Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have experienced a certain decline. Certain areas are traditionally noted for various types of industries. For instance, Newcastle is famous for coal industry, the county of Lancashire for its textile industry. The Midlands, or the central counties of England, are famous for the production of machinery, coal, motor cars and chemicals. In recent times regional industrial distinctions have become less clear as more and more new factories are built in the different parts of the country. Speaking about the cities of the United Kingdom the first mention should be made of London, the capital of the U.K. It is a big port on the River Thames, a major commercial, industrial centre. Leeds is a centre of clothing industry producing woollen articles. Glasgow is a major port on the River Clyde where shipbuilding industry is developed. Liverpool on the River Mersey is a flour milling and engineering centre. Birmingham is an iron and steel centre. Manchester is famous for textiles manufacturing. Three-quarters of the United Kingdom's land is dedicated to agriculture. About two per cent of the populations of the United Kingdom are engaged in agriculture, but the yields of English farms and pastures are very high. Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important crops grown. Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous types of livestock. Sheep is a source of both wool for textile industry and mutton for food industry. Mutton is the best liked English meat. Common features GB The USA

Differences GB

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The USA

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IV. Sights What are the capitals famous for?

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…is…

the capital of…, a historical centre

a political centre, an economic centre

…is… …was founded

an ancient city,

there is (are)… …is famous for… …affracts the attention of …

higher educational establishments

in… by 1147 U. Dolgoruky 2000 Romans J. Washington shops, supermarkets, department stores, financial organizations (the Stock Exchange, the Bank of England)

It is interesting to visit (see) One can’t but admire (visit) … …is visited … …are proud of, ..is famous for

Red Square, Pennsylvania, Avenue, Trafalgar Square

The Kremlin, the White House, Buckingham Palace

Capitol, Houses of Parliament, The Statue of Liberty

the National Gallery, the State Tretjakov Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery

Kennedy Centre, the Bolshoi Theatre, House Covent Garden, The Madame Tussaud’s

Washington Monument, the Mausoleum, A Column to Admiral Nelson

…are … … prides on …

New York, Washington, Sheffield

the Library of Congress, the Russian State Library, the British Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts Los Angeles, Bermingham, St. Petersberg

Chicago, Leeds, Moscow Sochi

Philadelphia, Glasgow Novosibirsk

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a commercial, financial, business centre the official residence of the … president

a scientific centre, a cosmopolitan city

numerous banks, offices, firms

research institutes, technical colleges, academies of art and music

an educational centre

a cultural centre, an administrative centre a modern, picturesque city

Cathedrals, churches, best hotels, theatres, palaces, monuments, exhibition halls the Kremlin Wall, The Ostankino Westminster Abbey Television Tower, Granovitaya Palace The Tower of London, St. Paul’s Cathedral, the Moscow Underground San Francisco, Edinburgh Vladivostok

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V. My native town activities take part in, are organized

sport competitions travelling exhibitions festivals, shows, celebrations, carnivals

an educational centrehas there is (are), obtain,

health for, – resort centre Is afamous there is, are …2 sanatoriums …mineral water …are cured by dirt

History therePast were (was), was founded, was, had

…few places to go …some schools …by Peter I … a small town …no much traffic one-storey and 2 storey houses

My town

57 …a lot of institutes …3 Universities …77 schools …155 Kindergardens … a lot of vocational schools …schools for handicapped children

Nowadays looks like, is considered to be, is, enjoys, sells, is known as

a cultural centre one can’t but visit, has, there is (are) … 3 theatres … churches …the exhibition hall …the Local Museum …sport clubs …fitness clubs …disco clubs …casinoes 57

…a modern town …an international reputation in the world …steel to more than 50 … the largest trading town …a lot of supermarkets, markets, departments stores …a highly industrialized city …a cultural centre …a health – resort centre

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VI. Customs. Traditions. What countries are these customs and traditions connected with? arrangements …are involved in …decorate homes …vacuum carpets …wipe / dust furniture …polish cutlery …check menu …prepare food …do shopping …buy / light candles …cook special dishes 58

reasons …relax …entertain themselves …follow customs and traditions …believe …attend …(don’t) ignore …is a day off …like the spirit of …enjoy the perfect atmosphere before

there are, observe, follow, celebrate New

Year’s Day, Christmas Epiphany, Shrovetide, Easter, May Day, Victory Day, Women’s Day, Independence Day, Constitution Day, St. Valentine’s Day, Thanksgiving Day, Halloween, April Fools Day, Washington’s, Lincoln’s Birthday Customs, traditions

What …like…? …is, (isn’t)… old-fashioned, most popular special, a family reunion day, perfect, ancient, funny, living, merry, religious, national, international

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the background of is /was/ observed, celebrated, connected with

activities …are engaged in ...buy souvenirs, presents … take part in parades, celebrations … go to church and stay for a service …get and send postcards …invite and are invited to parties …get together and have discussions …sing songs on special occasions …have a carnival …tell fortunes …ride a troika …climb a pole for a gift …make and wear fancy costumes …congratulate on … …take eucharist… …confess their sins to a priest

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VII. Activities 1. The USA States and their Capital 2. Which of the following words would you associate with the UK, the USA and Russia? Give reasons. The Kremlin Madame Tussaud’s The Statue of Liberty Westminster Abbey The Russian Museum The Bolshoi Theatre The Library of Congress The National Gallery The Tower of London Buckingham Palace 3. Read the story and say why the 1st May became international workers’ Day? MAY DAY History and tradition. May Day originated in the city of Chicago in the United States of America in 1886 as a workers' protest demonstration against the MacCormick International Harvesting Corporation. The low pay and big profits made by the company, which produced agricultural machinery and employed more than 30,000 workers at that time was the cause of this peaceful demonstration. When the workers reached the Haymarket the demonstration was attacked by mounted police, several workers lost their lives and hundreds were badly beaten. The Progressive press all over the world wrote about this shameful interference with the rights of workers. As an act of solidarity the 1st of May became an International Workers' day of protest and demonstrations in nearly all civilized countries of our planet. It is interesting to note that the fathers of the city of Chicago erected a statue of a policeman in the Haymarket stating that “due to the brave deeds of the Police law and order was restored” calling the workers “Hoodlums”, Hooligans and law breakers". Needless to say this statue to “law and order” was quickly removed by the public demand. 4. Read the text , use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11

12 13 14

15 16 17

THE THANKSGIVING DAY One day the people of the village suddenly saw a tall ____ who was walking ____ the street. They ____ very much, but this Indian came up to____, smiled and said, "Hallo, Yankee!". Few days ____ this Indian came to the village again together with some ____ Indians. They came as friends and helped the white ____ very much. But white men forgot about this help very ____, a few years later when many people from Europe came to America, they began to take the land away from the Indians and to kill ____. At ____ spring came. The people of New Plymouth began to plant corn, and the Indians showed them how ____ maize. In autumn the crops were very good and the people of New Plymouth wanted to make a holiday____. They asked the Indians to this dinner, and the Indians brought____ wild turkeys as a present. The turkey was an American bird. Very few people in Europe ____ about it but when they ate it at this dinner they liked it very much. The people of New Plymouth called their holiday "Thanksgiving Day". Since that time Thanksgiving Day ____ a great holiday in the ____ States of America, and since that day ____ have always had turkeys for the Thanksgiving Day.

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India Long Frighten They Late Others Man Quick

They Late Plant

Dine Something Heard

Has been United Americans

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5. Read the text. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

GEORGE BERNARD SHAW George Bernard Shaw _____in Dublin, Ireland, on July 26, 1856 ____father was a small official. Bernard Shaw attended school which he didn't like and which he remembered as a boy prison. He went to school as a "day boy" which meant that he had his afternoons free. And at home there was music-always music. His mother had a ___voice. He and___________ his sisters _____ sing well enough and there were, ____ the piano, many other _____ instruments always lying about. The sitting-room was seldom _____ in the evening, and music came to play an important ______part in young Shaw's life. At the age of fourteen, after ______ from secondary school, Shaw was put into a job as clerk in a land agents office. The monotonous daily routine, the _____figures and forms, the feeling that he had become an _______part of a machine, all that alarmed the youth. In many things he was _____ informed than most of his fellow_____. Shakespeare, Byron, Shelley and many other great poets and writers had been read and ______ by him. At his job he was quite _____and he had mastered the problems of his work without any ______. Yet he was far from _____ happy. Bernard Shaw felt that he had to leave and so in 1876 he said good-bye to Ireland and went to London.

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Bear He

Beauty He Can Beside Music Silence Educate Graduate

End Significant

Good Clerk Read Efficiency Difficult Be

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6. Read the text and choose A, B, C or D that fits best each space. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE The 1__ half of the XVI and the beginning of the XVII centuries are known 2__ the golden age of English literature. It was the time of the English Renaissance, and sometimes it 3__ "the age of Shakespeare". William Shakespeare, the 4___ and most famous of English writers, and probably the greatest playwright who ever 5___, was born in Stratford-onAvon. We know very 6___ about his life. The things that we know about Shakespeare's life begin with the date when he was baptized in 7__ church of Stratford, on April 26, 1564, when he was only a few days old. So he is believed 8__ on April 23. Though little is known about William's childhood, there is every reason 9__ that he was educated at the local Grammar School. When little over eighteen he married Anne Halthaway of Shottery. William lived in Stratford until he was about twenty-one, when he went to London. We do not know 10__Stratford-on-Avon. There is a story that Shakespeare's first job in London was 11__ rich men's horses at the theatre door. But nobody can be sure that this story is true. Later, Shakespeare 12 ___ an actor and a member of one of the chief acting 13___. Soon he began to write plays for this company and in a few years became a 14__ author. Shakespeare's experience as an actor (although he usually acted only small parts, like the Ghost in Hamlet) helped him greatly in the 15__ of his plays. His knowledge of the stage and his poetical genius made his plays the most wonderful ones ever 16__. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays. Among them there are deep tragedies, such as Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth, light comedies, such as All’s Well That Ends Well, Twelfth Night, historical dramas, such as Henry IV, Richard III. 17___ Shakespeare's plays were not published in his lifetime. So some of 18___ may have been lost in the fire the "Globe" burned down in 1613. Shakespeare spent the last years of his life at Stratford, where he died in 1616. He 19__ in the church of Stratford. A monument was erected in memory of the great playwright in the Poets Corner in 20__ Westminster Abbey. A B C D later latter latest 1 last as so such 2 how is calling is called calls 3 has called 62

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4 5 6 7 8

great has been living little the to the born

9 believe 10 why left he hold has become companies’ well-known being written he most they have been buried 20 the 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

greater is living less a to have been born to believe why he left

greatest lives least an was born

most greatest has… lived more little being born

held becomes company Good known write writing most them buried

believing why does she leave holding had become companies well writing to write mostly of themselves was buried

believed why did he leave to be held became company’s well know written wrote most of their is buried

a

an

-

7. Read the following text and decide which answer A , B, C or D best fits each space. CHARLIE CHAPLIN This is a story that Chaplin liked to tell about 1___. It happened after the great actor 2__ world famous. A theatre announced that a competition 3__ to see who could act like Charlie Chaplin. Those taking part 4__ dress like Chaplin, walk like Chaplin and act one of the roles in 5__ Chaplin film. When Charlie Chaplin 6__ about it, he 7__ as a joke, to take part in the competition himself. Naturally, he kept his plan secret from everybody. When the results of the 8__ were announced Chaplin said: "I didn't know whether to feel angry or only surprised. I 9__ win the first prize". A B C D he himself His 1 him had became was becoming becomes 2 became will be held would hold 3 Would be held was held could had to were to 4 must the a an 5 63

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6 7 8 9

Has heard solved play hadn’t won

was hearing decided show didn’t win

heard thought competition wasn’t won

had heard meant performance wouldn’t win

*8. Read about Sydney, Australia. Complete sentences using information from questions and answers below the text. SYDNEY Sydney has a population of (a) __ . It is Australia's largest and oldest city, and it is built around the harbour, named (b) ___. Captain Cook called it this when he sailed to the area in (c) ___. Sydney wasn't planned from the start, as many later Australian cities were. It has a tight, congested centre without wide boulevards. But it is a very (d) __ city, with the most energy and style of all Australian cities. In Sydney, the buildings are higher, the colours are brighter and the nightlife more exciting. North of the harbour is more residential, and the south is more industrial. The two shores are joined by the Sydney Harbour Bridge, which was built in (e) ___. The city centre is (f) ____. Sydney's most famous building, the Opera House, was opened in (g) ____. Designed in the 1950s by a young Danish architect, (h) ____, it is supposed to look like sails in the wind. It took 16 years to build. The best place to go shopping is (i) ____. The Post Office is (j) _____. The climate in New South Wales is (k) ____. There are some of the best beaches in the world, notably Bondi Beach and Manly. Tourist offices are open five days a week from (I) ____ to 5 pm. Complete the indirect questions. Here are the answers to the questions! Put a letter a-1next to each one. a) Do you know what _________? 1. ____ it is a very modern city. b) I've no idea what __________. 2. ___ 1770. c) I wonder when _____________. 3. ___ Joern Utzon. d) I wonder what sort __________. 4. ____ 9am. e) Do you know when _________? 5. ___ Port Jackson. f) Could you tell me where _____? 6. ___ It is generally warm, though it g) I've no idea when ___________. can get a little cold in winter. h) I haven't a clue who ________. 7. ___ It is on Martin Place. i) Could you tell me where ______? 8. ___ The best place is George Street and Pitt Street. j) Do you know where __________? 9. __3,700,000. 64

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k) I wonder what ____________ like. 10. ___1932. l) Do you happen to know what ___? 11. ____1973. 12. ___ It is south of the harbour. 9. Do you know that…? NAMING OF AUSTRALIA It isn't often that a place gets its name before it is discovered. But this is actually what happened to a continent — Australia! "Australia" means "southern" in Latin. When the map makers in the 17th century were studying the earth, they figured it out this way: there are all those great landmasses in the north, so there had to be a great tract of land in the Southern Hemisphere to balance them. They marked this empty space "Terra Australia Incognita" — the Unknown Land of the South. The Dutch, who got there first, called it New Holland. But in 1795, an English navigator, Matthew Flinders, called it "Australia," meaning South Land... Exactly what the map makers had called it before it was discovered. 10. Match the facts to the names. NAMES: a. Queen Victoria b. Charlie Chaplin c. Frankenstein's monster d. Leonardo Da Vinci e. Tutankhamun f. Robin Hood g. The three musketeers

h. Sherlock Holmes i. Tarzan j. Charles Dickens k. Davy Crockett l. Henry VIII m. Saint Christopher n. V. I. Lenin

o. Abraham Lincoln p. Napoleon Bonaparte q. Guy Fawkes r. Florence Nightingale s. John F. Kennedy t. Van Gogh u. William Shakespeare

FACTS: 1. …used to make people laugh. 2. …used to draw with his left hand. 3. …used to help travelers. 4. …used to rob the rich to give to the poor. 5. …used to live in the jungle. 6. …used to write plays. 7. …used to solve crimes. 8. …was a nineteenth century American president. 9. …used to get tired of his wives, he had six of them! 10. …used to work as a nurse in the Crimean War in the 1850s. 11. …used to paint lots of pictures of himself. 12. …was a famous French emperor. He won many battles. 65

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13. …was the Queen of England; she ruled for sixty-five years. 14. …was a famous Roman Catholic. He tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament. 15. …was a famous American. He died at the Alamo. 16. …used to fight all for one and one for all. 17. …was an American president. Lee Harvey Oswald shot him. 18. …used to kill people. 19. …was an Egyptian king. 20. …was an English novelist. He wrote Oliver Twist and David Copperfield. 21. used to be one of Russia's most famous leaders. 10. Read the text and answer questions on it. AMERICAN PAINTER Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) was the most distinguished woman painter of America. She spent most of her life in France. She was selftaught. She joined the impressionist group at the invitation of Degas, who became her lifelong friend. Although there was something of Manet and Renoir in her works, she imitated none of them and developed her own style, which shows a strong influence of Japanese print. Her individual style had a freshness and directness free from affection. Her favourite subject was womanhood. Almost all her works were devoted to the woman-and-child theme. Her treatment of it was characterized by a certain tenderness, yet it was objective and original and free from sentimentality. Questions 1. What is Mary Cassatt noted for? 2. Was her style unique? 3.What was her favourite subject? 11. Read the text and think of one word which best fits each gap. Influence, movement, medieval, painter, way, born, alive, persecution, expressed, impressed, to join. RUSSIAN PAINTER Vassili Surikov (1848 — 1916) was _____ in Siberia. In 1868 he set out for St. Petersburg on horseback _____ the Academy. The journey took him a year. On his ______ to St. V. Surikov made frequent stops in ancient towns of was greatly __________ by Moscow and it determined i way of life and work. 66

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V. Surikov was the first Russian ___________ to turn to the past of Russia for the subjects of his works. V. Surikov ____________ the past against the background of ordinary people. Surikov's masterpiece 'Boyarinja Morozova' (1884) is set in the-streets of _________ Moscow. Enormous in size and scale the canvas depicts the __________ of the 'old believers' by patriarch Nikon. The painting is very vivid and full of __________. The dynamism of the painting can be traced to the ancient Russian art. Surikov used a colourful palette. The colours and the surface rhythm make the painting___________. V. Surikov exerted a great ____________ on all the Russian artists of his time. 12. Read and say what you have learned about political system of Great Britain? Does it differ from Russia? the USA? BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION Monarchy Political stability owes much to the monarchy. Its continuity has been interrupted only once (the republic of 1649-60) in over thousand years. Today the Queen is not only the head of the State, but also is an important symbol of national unity. The royal title in Britain is: ‘Elizabeth the second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories: the Queen, the Head of the Commonwealth, the Defender of the Faith’. In law the Queen is the head of the executive; an integral part of the legislature, the head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the ‘supreme governor’ of the established Church of England. As a result of a long process of evolution, during which the monarchy’s absolute power has been progressively reduced, the Queen is impartial and act on the advice of her ministers. The Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many traditional ceremonies. Their visits to different parts of Britain and to many other countries attract considerable interest and publicity, and they are also closely involved in the work of many charities. Political Party System The political party system is an essential element in the working of the constitution. Although the parties are not registered of formally recognized in law, in practice most candidates in elections, and almost all winning candidates, belong to one of the main parties. Since 1945 eight general elections have been won by the Conservative Party and six by the Labor Party. 67

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A number of smaller parties are also represented in Parliament. Political parties have national and local organizations outside Parliament, and are also represented in local Government. Government The Government is formed by the party with majority support in the Commons. The Queen appoints its leader as Prime Minister. As head of the Government the Prime Minister appoints about 100 ministers, of whom about 20 are in the Cabinet – the senior group, which takes major policy decisions. Ministers are collectively responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for their own departments. The second large party forms the official Opposition, with its own leader and ‘shadow cabinet’. The Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and to present an alternative program. Policies are carried out by government departments and executive agencies staffed by politically neutral civil servants. They served the government of the day regardless of its political complexion. Over half the Civil Service – or about 295,000 civil servants – work in over 75 executive agencies. Agencies perform many of the executive functions of government, such as the payment of social security benefits and the issue of passports and drivers’ licences. They are headed by chief executives who are personally responsible for the performance of the agency and enjoy considerable freedom of financial, pay and personnel matters. Citizens charter Important new proposals to raise standards in the public services were set out in the Citizen’s charter, which was published by the Government in 1991. The proposals, which cover all public services and privatized utilities, involve more privatization, wider competition, further contracting-out and pay more closely related to performance. They also include requirements for published standards of service and results achieved, comprehensive information on service, consultation with users of services, better redress for the citizen when things go wrong, and tougher and more independent inspectorates and auditing. All major public services are expected to publish separate charters, and so far some 19 have done so.

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