Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography [9th revised edition] 9780321926982, 1292057750, 9781292057750, 0321926986

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Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography [9th revised edition]
 9780321926982, 1292057750, 9781292057750, 0321926986

Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Title......Page 7
Copyright......Page 8
Contents......Page 11
Preface......Page 20
Digital and Print Resources......Page 24
Book Walkthrough......Page 26
Key Learning concepts......Page 32
GEOSYSTEMS now Shale Gas: An Energy Resource for the Future?......Page 33
Geographic Analysis......Page 35
The Scientific Process......Page 37
Human–Earth Interactions in the 21st Century......Page 39
Critical Thinking 1.1 What is Your Footprint?......Page 40
Systems Organization in Geosystems......Page 43
Earth’s Dimensions......Page 46
Location and Time on Earth......Page 48
Latitude......Page 49
CT 1.2 Latitudinal Geographic Zones and Temperature......Page 51
CT 1.3 Where are You?......Page 52
The Scale of Maps......Page 54
CT 1.4 Find and Calculate Map Scales......Page 56
Modern Tools and Techniques for Geoscience......Page 58
Global Positioning System......Page 59
Remote Sensing......Page 60
CT 1.5 Test Your Knowledge about Satellite Imagery......Page 63
Key Learning concepts review......Page 65
Geosystems in action 1 Exploring Earth Systems......Page 44
GEOreports: 7 reports......Page 61
PART I The Energy–Atmosphere System......Page 68
Key Learning concepts......Page 70
GEOSYSTEMS now Chasing the Subsolar Point......Page 71
The Solar System, Sun, and Earth......Page 72
Solar Energy: From Sun to Earth......Page 73
Solar Activity and Solar Wind......Page 74
Electromagnetic Spectrum of Radiant Energy......Page 75
Incoming Energy at the Top of the Atmosphere......Page 77
The Seasons......Page 79
Critical Thinking 2.1 A Way to Calculate Sunrise and Sunset......Page 80
Annual March of the Seasons......Page 83
Key Learning concepts review......Page 88
Geosystems in action 2 Earth-Sun Relations......Page 84
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 82
CT 2.3 Use the Analemma to Find the Subsolar Point......Page 86
The human Denominator: The Earth-Sun System and the Seasons......Page 87
Key Learning concepts......Page 90
GEOSYSTEMS now Humans Help Define the Atmosphere......Page 91
Atmospheric Profile......Page 92
Atmospheric Composition Criterion......Page 93
Atmospheric Temperature Criterion......Page 95
Critical Thinking 3.1 Where is Your Tropopause?......Page 97
Natural Sources of Air Pollution......Page 99
Anthropogenic Pollution......Page 102
Natural Factors That Affect Pollutants......Page 106
CT 3.3 Evaluating Costs and Benefits......Page 110
The human Denominator: The Shared Global Atmosphere......Page 111
Key Learning concepts review......Page 112
Geosystems in action 3 Air Pollution......Page 108
Focus Study 3.1 Pollution......Page 100
Focus Study 3.2 Pollution......Page 104
CT 3.2 Finding Your Local Ozone......Page 98
GEO reports: 5 reports......Page 103
Key Learning concepts......Page 114
GEOSYSTEMS now Melting Sea Ice Opens Arctic Shipping Lanes, However.........Page 115
Energy and Heat......Page 116
Energy Pathways and Principles......Page 118
The Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming......Page 122
Earth–Atmosphere Energy Balance......Page 123
Daily Radiation Patterns......Page 127
A Simplified Surface Energy Budget......Page 128
The Urban Environment......Page 132
The human Denominator: Changes in Atmosphere and Surface Energy Budgets......Page 135
Key Learning concepts review......Page 136
Geosystems in action 4 Earth–Atmosphere Energy Balance......Page 124
Focus Study 4.1 Sustainable Resources......Page 130
Critical Thinking 4.1 A Kelp Indicator of Surface Energy Dynamics......Page 126
CT 4.2 Applying Energy-Balance Principles to a Solar Cooker......Page 129
GEO reports: 3 reports......Page 134
Key Learning concepts......Page 138
GEOSYSTEMS now The Mystery of St. Kilda’s Shrinking Sheep......Page 139
Temperature Scales......Page 141
Measuring Temperature......Page 142
Altitude and Elevation......Page 144
Cloud Cover......Page 145
Land–Water Heating Differences......Page 146
January and July Global Temperature Maps......Page 152
CT 5.2 Begin a Full Physical Geography Profile of Your Area......Page 154
Record Temperatures and Greenhouse Warming......Page 156
Heat Stress and the Heat Index......Page 159
The human Denominator: Global Temperatures......Page 161
KEY LEARNING concepts review......Page 162
Geosystems in action 5 Earth’s Highest Land Surface Temperatures......Page 143
Focus Study 5.1 Climate Change......Page 158
Critical Thinking 5.1 Compare and Explain Coastal and Inland Temperatures......Page 149
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 160
Key Learning concepts......Page 164
GEOSYSTEMS now Ocean Currents Bring Invasive Species......Page 165
Air Pressure......Page 167
Wind: Description and Measurement......Page 168
Critical Thinking 6.1 Measure the Wind......Page 170
Summary of Physical Forces on Winds......Page 172
Primary Pressure Areas and Associated Winds......Page 174
Upper Atmospheric Circulation......Page 177
Monsoonal Winds......Page 182
CT 6.2 What Causes the North Australian Monsoon?......Page 183
Surface Currents......Page 185
Thermohaline Circulation—The Deep Currents......Page 186
El Niño–Southern Oscillation......Page 187
Pacific Decadal Oscillation......Page 190
GEO reports: 5 Reports......Page 191
The human Denominator: Global Circulation......Page 192
Key Learning concepts review......Page 193
Geosystems in action 6 Atmospheric Circulation......Page 178
Focus Study 6.1 Sustainable Resources......Page 188
CT 6.3 Construct Your Own Wind-Power Assessment Report......Page 184
PART II The Water, Weather, and Climate Systems......Page 196
Key Learning concepts......Page 198
GEOSYSTEMS now Summer Fog Protects the World’s Tallest Trees......Page 199
Water’s Unique Properties......Page 200
Phase Changes and Heat Exchange......Page 201
Latent Heat Transfer Under Natural Conditions......Page 203
Relative Humidity......Page 204
Specialized Expressions of Humidity......Page 206
CT 7.2 Using Relative Humidity and Dew-Point Maps......Page 207
Adiabatic Processes......Page 208
Stable and Unstable Atmospheric Conditions......Page 209
Cloud Types and Identification......Page 212
Processes That Form Fog......Page 215
The human Denominator: Atmospheric Moisture......Page 218
Key Learning concepts review......Page 219
Geosystems in action 7 Adiabatic Heating and Cooling......Page 210
Critical Thinking 7.1 Iceberg Analysis......Page 202
CT 7.3 Identify Two Kinds of Fog......Page 216
GEO reports: 3 reports......Page 214
Key Learning concepts......Page 222
GEOSYSTEMS now On the Front Lines of Intense Weather......Page 223
Air Masses Affecting North America......Page 224
Atmospheric Lifting Mechanisms......Page 225
Convectional Lifting......Page 226
Orographic Lifting......Page 227
Frontal Lifting (Cold and Warm Fronts)......Page 229
Life Cycle of a Midlatitude Cyclone......Page 232
Weather Maps and Forecasting......Page 233
Thunderstorms......Page 236
Derechos......Page 240
Tornadoes......Page 241
Tropical Cyclones......Page 243
The human Denominator: Weather......Page 251
Key Learning concepts review......Page 252
Geosystems in action 8 Midlatitude Cyclones......Page 234
Focus Study 8.1 Natural Hazards......Page 248
Critical Thinking 8.1 Analyzing a Weather Map......Page 237
CT 8.2 Hazard Perception and Planning: What Seems to be Missing?......Page 250
GEO reports: 5 reports......Page 244
Key Learning concepts......Page 254
GEOSYSTEMS now Earth’s Largest Lake Warms with Changing Climate......Page 255
Water on Earth......Page 256
Distribution of Earth’s Water Today......Page 257
Water in the Atmosphere......Page 258
Water at the Surface......Page 259
Components of the Water Budget......Page 260
Critical Thinking 9.1 Your Local Water Budget......Page 264
Water-Budget Application: Hurricane Camille......Page 265
Drought: The Water Deficit......Page 266
Rivers and Lakes......Page 267
Groundwater Resources......Page 273
The Groundwater Environment......Page 274
Overuse of Groundwater......Page 275
Our Water Supply......Page 280
Water Supply in the United States......Page 282
CT 9.3 That Next Glass of Water......Page 283
The human Denominator: Water Use......Page 284
Key Learning concepts review......Page 285
Geosystems in action 9 Groundwater......Page 276
Focus Study 9.1 Climate Change......Page 270
Focus Study 9.2 Sustainable Resources......Page 278
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 281
Key Learning concepts......Page 288
GEOSYSTEMS now A Large-Scale Look at Puerto Rico’s Climate......Page 289
Review of Earth’s Climate System......Page 290
Critical Thinking 10.1 Finding Your Climate......Page 291
Tropical Rain Forest Climates......Page 296
Tropical Monsoon Climates......Page 297
Tropical Savanna Climates......Page 298
Marine West Coast Climates......Page 299
Mediterranean Dry-Summer Climates......Page 301
Humid Continental Mild-Summer Climates......Page 304
Subarctic Climates......Page 305
Tundra Climates......Page 308
GEO reports: 3 reports......Page 309
Characteristics of Dry Climates......Page 310
Tropical, Subtropical Hot Desert Climates......Page 311
Climate Regions and Climate Change......Page 312
The human Denominator: Climate Regions......Page 315
Key Learning concepts review......Page 316
Geosystems in action 10 Earth’s Climate System......Page 292
Key Learning concepts......Page 318
GEOSYSTEMS now Greenhouse Gases Awaken in the Arctic......Page 319
Population Growth and Fossil Fuels—The Setting for Climate Change......Page 320
Critical Thinking 11.1 Crossing The 450-ppm Threshold for Carbon Dioxide......Page 322
Methods for Long-Term Climate Reconstruction......Page 323
Earth’s Long-Term Climate History......Page 325
Methods for Short-Term Climate Reconstruction......Page 327
Earth’s Short-Term Climate History......Page 329
Earth’s Orbital Cycles......Page 331
Earth’s Carbon Budget......Page 332
CO2–Weathering Feedback......Page 333
Evidence for Present Climate Change......Page 336
Ice Melt......Page 337
Sea-Level Rise......Page 339
Extreme Events......Page 340
Contributions of Greenhouse Gases......Page 341
Sources of Radiative Forcing......Page 343
Radiative Forcing Scenarios......Page 346
Future Temperature Scenarios......Page 347
Taking a Position on Climate Change......Page 348
Action Now Means “No Regrets”......Page 349
Mitigating Climate Change: What Can You Do?......Page 350
The human Denominator: Taking Action on Climate Change......Page 351
Key Learning concepts review......Page 352
Geosystems in action 11 The Global Carbon Budget......Page 334
CT 11.2 Thinking Through an Action Plan to Reduce Human Climate Forcing......Page 344
GEO reports: 3 reports......Page 345
PART III The Earth–Atmosphere Interface......Page 354
Key Learning concepts......Page 356
GEOSYSTEMS now Earth’s Migrating Magnetic Poles......Page 357
The Pace of Change......Page 358
Critical Thinking 12.1 Thoughts about an “Anthropocene Epoch”......Page 360
Earth’s Crust......Page 361
Adjustments in the Crust......Page 362
Earth’s Magnetism......Page 363
Earth Materials and the Rock Cycle......Page 364
Igneous Processes......Page 365
Sedimentary Processes......Page 366
The Rock Cycle......Page 370
Seafloor Spreading......Page 372
CT 12.2 Tracking Your Location Since Pangaea......Page 376
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 377
Hot Spots......Page 378
CT 12.3 How Fast is the Pacific Plate Moving?......Page 382
The human Denominator: Earth Material and Plate Tectonics......Page 383
Key Learning concepts review......Page 386
Geosystems in action 12 The Geologic Cycle......Page 384
Focus Study 12.1 Sustainable Resources......Page 380
Key Learning concepts......Page 388
GEOSYSTEMS now The San Jacinto Fault Connection......Page 389
Studying Earth’s Topography......Page 390
Earth’s Hypsometry......Page 391
Critical Thinking 13.1 Comparing Topographic Regionsat Different Scales......Page 392
Continental Shields......Page 393
Building Continental Crust and Accretion of Terranes......Page 394
Crustal Deformation......Page 395
Folding and Broad Warping......Page 396
Faulting......Page 398
Orogenesis (Mountain Building)......Page 401
The Tetons and the Sierra Nevada......Page 403
Earthquakes......Page 406
Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude......Page 407
Fault Mechanics......Page 409
Earthquake Forecasting......Page 412
Earthquake Planning......Page 413
Volcanism......Page 16
Settings for Volcanic Activity......Page 414
Volcanic Landforms......Page 415
Effusive Eruptions......Page 416
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 418
CT 13.2 Ocean-Floor Tectonics Tour......Page 419
The human Denominator: Tectonics......Page 421
Key Learning concepts review......Page 422
Geosystems in action 13 Mountain Building......Page 404
Focus Study 13.1 Natural Hazards......Page 410
Key Learning concepts......Page 424
GEOSYSTEMS now Human-Caused Mass Movement at the Kingston Steam Plant, Tennessee......Page 425
Landmass Denudation......Page 426
Slopes......Page 427
Critical Thinking 14.1 Find a Slope; Apply the Concepts......Page 430
Factors Influencing Weathering Processes......Page 431
Physical Weathering Processes......Page 432
Chemical Weathering Processes......Page 433
Karst Topography......Page 437
Features of Karst Landscapes......Page 438
Caves and Caverns......Page 440
Mass-Movement Mechanics......Page 442
Classes of Mass Movements......Page 443
GEO reports: 5 reports......Page 447
The human Denominator: Weathering, Karst, and Hillslopes......Page 449
Key Learning concepts review......Page 450
Geosystems in action 14 Hillslopes As Open Systems......Page 428
Focus Study 14.1 Natural Hazards......Page 445
Key Learning concepts......Page 452
GEOSYSTEMS now Environmental Effects of Dams on the Nu River in China......Page 453
Drainage Basins and Drainage Patterns......Page 454
Drainage Divides......Page 455
Critical Thinking 15.1 Locate Your Drainage Basin......Page 457
Drainage Patterns......Page 458
CT 15.2 Identifying Drainage Patterns......Page 459
Stream Channel Processes......Page 462
Channel Patterns......Page 465
Graded Streams......Page 469
Depositional Landforms......Page 473
Humans and Floodplains......Page 478
Flood Protection......Page 479
GEO reports: 3 reports......Page 480
The human Denominator: Rivers, Floodplains, and Deltas......Page 482
Key Learning concepts review......Page 483
Geosystems in action 15 Meandering: Streams......Page 470
Focus Study 15.1 Environmental Restoration......Page 466
Key Learning concepts......Page 486
GEOSYSTEMS now Sand Dunes Prevent Coastline Erosion during Hurricane Sandy......Page 487
Global Oceans and Seas......Page 488
Properties of Seawater......Page 489
Physical Structure and Human Impacts......Page 490
Coastal System Components......Page 491
The Coastal Environment......Page 493
Sea Level......Page 494
Critical Thinking 16.1 Thinking Through a Rising Sea Level......Page 495
Waves......Page 497
Focus Study 16.2 Natural Hazards......Page 502
Coastal Deposition......Page 504
Barrier Beaches and Islands......Page 507
CT 16.2 Allocating Responsibility and Cost for Coastal Hazards......Page 509
Coastal Wetlands......Page 511
Eolian Transport of Dust and Sand......Page 513
Eolian Erosion......Page 514
Eolian Deposition......Page 516
The human Denominator: Oceans, Coasts, and Dunes......Page 522
Key Learning concepts review......Page 523
Geosystems in action 16 Wind-Blown Dune Forms......Page 518
Focus Study 16.1 Pollution......Page 492
CT 16.3 The Nearest Eolian Features......Page 521
GEO reports: 5 reports......Page 517
Key Learning concepts......Page 526
GEOSYSTEMS now Tidewater Glaciers and Ice Shelves Give Way to Warming......Page 527
Properties of Snow......Page 528
Alpine Glaciers......Page 529
Continental Ice Sheets......Page 531
Glacial Mass Balance......Page 532
Glacial Movement......Page 533
Erosional Landforms......Page 537
Depositional Landforms......Page 540
Permafrost and Its Distribution......Page 543
Periglacial Processes......Page 545
Humans and Periglacial Landscapes......Page 546
Ice-Age Landscapes......Page 547
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 549
Arctic and Antarctic Regions......Page 550
CT 17.2 A Sample of Life at the Polar Station......Page 551
The human Denominator: Glaciers and Permafrost......Page 554
Key Learning concepts review......Page 555
Geosystems in action 17 Glaciers As Dynamic Systems......Page 534
Focus Study 17.1 Natural Hazards......Page 530
Critical Thinking 17.1 Looking for Glacial Features......Page 539
CT 17.3 The IPY Accomplishment Continues......Page 553
PART IV Soils, Ecosystems, and Biomes......Page 558
Key Learning concepts......Page 560
GEOSYSTEMS now Desertification: Declining Soils and Agriculture in Earth’s Drylands......Page 561
Natural Factors in Soil Development......Page 562
Soil Horizons......Page 563
Physical Properties......Page 564
Chemical Properties......Page 568
Soil Erosion......Page 569
Desertification......Page 571
Critical Thinking 18.1 Soil Losses—What to Do?......Page 572
CT 18.2 Soil Observations......Page 573
The human Denominator: Soils and Land Use......Page 587
Key Learning concepts review......Page 588
Geosystems in action 18 Biological Activity in Soils......Page 567
Focus Study 18.1 Pollution......Page 578
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 581
Key Learning concepts......Page 590
GEOSYSTEMS now Species’ Distributions Shift with Climate Change......Page 591
Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles......Page 592
Converting Energy to Biomass......Page 593
Elemental Cycles......Page 596
Energy Pathways......Page 599
The Niche Concept......Page 605
Species Interactions......Page 606
Critical Thinking 19.1 Mutualism? Parasitism? Where Do We Fit in?......Page 607
Disturbance and Succession......Page 608
Biodiversity, Evolution, and Ecosystem Stability......Page 613
Biodiversity Fosters Ecosystem Stability......Page 614
Biodiversity on the Decline......Page 615
The human Denominator: Ecosystems and Biodiversity......Page 620
Key Learning concepts review......Page 621
Geosystems in action 19 Coastal Dead Zones......Page 600
Focus Study 19.1 Natural Hazards......Page 610
Focus Study 19.2 Environmental Restoration......Page 618
CT 19.2 Observe Ecosystem Disturbances......Page 609
GEO reports: 4 reports......Page 616
Key Learning concepts......Page 624
Geosystems now Invasive Species Arrive at Tristan da Cunha......Page 625
Biogeographic Realms......Page 626
Biomes......Page 627
Invasive Species......Page 628
Critical Thinking 20.1 Reality Check......Page 631
CT 20.2 Tropical Forests: A Global or Local Resource?......Page 635
Midlatitude Broadleaf and Mixed Forest......Page 638
Boreal and Montane Forest......Page 639
Temperate Rain Forest......Page 640
Mediterranean Shrubland......Page 641
Midlatitude Grassland......Page 642
Deserts......Page 643
Arctic and Alpine Tundra......Page 644
Island Biogeography for Species Preservation......Page 646
Focus Study 20.1 Environmental Restoration......Page 647
Anthropogenic Biomes......Page 648
The human Denominator: Anthropogenic Environments......Page 649
Key Learning concepts review......Page 650
Geosystems in action 20: Tropical Rain Forests and Amazon Deforestation......Page 636
GEO reports: 5 reports......Page 645
Appendix A Maps in this Text and Topographic Maps......Page 652
Appendix B The Köppen Climate Classification System......Page 657
Appendix C Common Conversions......Page 660
Glossary......Page 662
Index......Page 676

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