Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters
 9004092250, 9789004092259

Table of contents :
GEORG BUSOLT HIS CAREER IN HIS LETTERS
CONTENTS
Preface
Abbreviations
Chronological Table
I The Busolt Family
II Königsberg
III Kiel
IV Göttingen
Appendix I Perthes' Handbücher
Appendix II Schöne's Call to Kiel
Appendix III Wilhelm Weber in Göttingen
Bibliography of Georg Busolt
Catalogue of Letters
Catalogue of Documents
Sources of Letters
Illustrations
Index

Citation preview

GEORG BUSOLT

MNEMOSYNE BIBLIOTHECA CLASSICA BA TA VA COLLEGERUNT A. D. LEEMAN · H. W. PLEKET · C. J. RUI.JGH BIBLIOTHECAE FASCICULOS EDENDOS CURAVIT C . .J. RUIJGH, KLASSIEK SEMINARIUM, OUDE TURFMARKT 129, AMSTERDAM

SUPPLEMENTUM CENTESIMUM DEC IM UM TER TIUM

MORTIMER H. CHAMBERS

GEORG BUSOLT

GEORG BUSOLT HIS CAREER IN HIS LETTERS BY

MORTIMER H. CHAMBERS

E.J. BRILL LEIDEN • NEW YORK • K0BENHA VN • KOLN 1990

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Busolt, Georg, 1850-1920. Georg Busolt: his career in his letters / [edited] by Mortimer H. Chambers. p. cm.-(Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava. Supplementum; 113) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 90-04-09225-0 1. Busolt, Georg, 1850-1920-Correspondence. 2. HistoriansGermany-Correspondence. I. Chambers, Mortimer. II. Title. III. Series. DF212.B87A4 1990 938'.007202-dc20 89-71202 CIP

ISSN ISBN

0169-8958 90 04 09225 0

© Copyright 1990 by E. j. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or translated in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, microfiche or any other means without written permission from the publisher PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

CONTENTS

vii

Preface Abbreviations

X

Chronological Table

X1l

3

I

The Busolt Family

II

Konigsberg

11

III

Kiel

48

N

Gottingen

130

Appendix I

Perthes' Handbiicher

206

Appendix II

Schone' s Call to Kiel

207

Appendix III

Wilhelm Weber in Gottingen

216

Bibliography of Georg Busolt

220

Catalogue of Letters

228

Catalogue of Documents

233

Sources of Letters

233

Illustrations

235

Index

237

PREFACE

Among general histories of ancient Greece, two tower over all others and appear everywhere in scholarly literature: the Griechische Geschichte of Georg Busolt and that of Karl Julius Beloch. The day when a single author could produce such massive narratives, with such copious reference to primary sources and profound discussion of problem after problem, has passed and will not soon dawn again. When Beloch died in 1929, necrologies and evaluations of his work automatically appeared. By contrast, the death of Busolt in 1920 went unnoticed, with exception of minute routine notices in a few journals. No pupil came forward to describe and summarize his master's career. There was no Festschrift, no Kleine Schriften. No review of his achievement exists. In surveys of German historians 1 or of classical historiography,2 Busolt is simply absent. Even the Neue deutsche

Biographie has passed him by. Busolt thus remains the absolutely unknown author of indispensable books. Naturally, his writings remain, but it is time for a study that does more than simply catalogue the dates of his degrees and publications.3 This study of Busolt is based above all on his own letters, so far as I have been able to collect them from archives in Germany. William M. Calder III inspired the project by showing me the ten letters from Busolt to Wilamowitz in Gottingen, Busolt's final university. Herr Bernd Sosemann of Berlin then pointed me toward several others; gradually my collection increased, finally surpassing 100. But there seems to exist no Busolt "N achlass," so that we have but one letter (L 5 in this series) addressed to Busolt. Nevertheless, I believe we have enough documentation to provide a fairly comprehensive look at Busolt's interests and development as a historian. The documents also offer a look into German university life in the period within his lifetime, 1850-1920. B usolt corresponded with several noted scholars, above all Eduard Meyer and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, and many another 1 E.g. Deutsche Historiker, ed. H.-U. Wehler, 5 vols. (G1lttingen 1971-1972). 2 He is mentioned once by K. Christ, Von Gibbon zu Rostovtzeff (Darmstadt I 972, 2 I 979); but not in Christ's "Zur Entwicklung der alten Geschichte in Deutschland," Gesch. in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 22 (1971) 577-593, nor by K. J. Neumann, Entwicklung und Aufgaben der a/ten Geschichte (Strassburg 1910). 3 This much is done by K. Woldt in AltpreujJische Biographie l (Konigsberg 1941) 97, who drew on the Vita in Busolt's dissertation on Spinoza. Further brief data: Wer /st' s?8 (Leipzig 1922) 217; Deutsches biographisches Jahrbuch, Ueberleitungsband 2, 1917-1920 (Berlin-Leipzig 1928) 742; Chronik der Georg-August-Universitiit zu Gottingen, Rechnungsjahr 1897-1898 (GOUingen 1898) 9; Rechnungsjahre 1916-1920 (ib. 1923) 12-13. The most informative encyclopedia article known to me is that of G. Corradi in Enciclopedia ita/iana, vol. 8 (Milan 1930) 160.

viii

Preface

important academic is mentioned in his letters; and his words illuminate issues and procedures within the German academic world. I have allowed Georg Busolt to be the main actor, through his own words, which I have tried to supplement with my commentary. The letters do not, indeed, provide the material for an intimate biography or a full psychological portrait, but they do, I think, provide considerable material on the various turns in his career. On his work, which stands, an imperishable monument of German historical scholarship, I have hardly felt adequate to attempt an evaluation: it is, in the lapidary phrase of the late Herr Hermann Bengtson, "ein durchaus unentbehrliches Repertorium des Historikers von heute und morgen." Yet, apart from the briefest notices in journals, encyclopedias, and biographic dictionaries, scarcely a word has been written on Georg Busolt. All the more reason, then, for him to step forward through his own letters. In this work appear many critical comments on other scholars of the day, sometimes in formal academic documents, sometimes in remarks that were once written in confidence. I have wondered whether it was fair to these men to reprint such often harsh evaluations. In my doubts, I have tried to remember that every estimate was only one man's opinion and that their work does not stand or fall on some temporary criticism, however sharp. Moreover, all those mentioned have passed from us, and even their descendants will hardly resent a plain presentation of what was said about them, sometimes more than a century ago. Among those whose help has been essential to my project, I thank first the libraries and archives that have graciously allowed me permission to publish the several papers: these are listed in the catalogue of documents at the end. Among the libraries where I have had the honor to work, I must thank especially the staffs of the American Academy and of the Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Rome; of the Niedersachsische Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek in my second academic home for many years, Gottingen; of the Stadt-Archiv and the Universitats-Archiv, Gottingen; and of my own library at UCLA. Professors Calder and Sosemann have always generously and accurately responded to my inquiries. Beyond them I also thank Frau Gabriela Anicker for advice on decipherment and German idiom; Professor E. Badian of Harvard; Herr Hermann Bengtson of Munich; Herr HansUlrich Berner, who has helped beyond measure with academic prosopography; Herr Jochen Bleicken, Busolt's third successor in Gottingen, who discovered some

Preface

ix

of the documents on the Busolt-Volquardsen exchange; 4 Herr Walter Burkert of Zurich; Herr Karl Christ of Marburg, who has inspired many studies in academic history; Herr Jilrgen Deininger of Hamburg; Frau Christel Dietsch of the Kreisgemeinschaften Insterburg Stadt und Land e.V., Krefeld; Herr D. Doring, Karl-Marx-Universitiitsbibliothek, Leipzig; Sir Kenneth Dover; Herr E. Erxleben of Berlin; Herr Grobe, Bibliotheksamtmann, Niedersiichsische Staats- und Universitiitsbibliothek, Gottingen; Professor Christian Habicht of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, who saved me from many errors and gave me other invaluable advice; Herr Alfred HeuB, Busolt's second successor in Gottingen; Dr. sc. phil. C. Kirsten, Director of the Archiv, Akademie der Wissenschaften, D.D.R.; Herr Frank Kolb of Tilbingen, for his hospitality and guidance in Kiel; Frau Kossack, Bibliotheks-Amtsmiinnin, Marine-Akademie Milrwik, Flensburg; Dr. Stefan Kub6w, Director, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka, Wroclaw; Herr Otto Luschnat of Berlin; Professor Stella G. Miller of Cincinnati; Professor Leandro Polverini of Perugia, who provided the letters to Beloch; Herr Eberhard Ruschenbusch of Frankfurt; Dr. med. C. G. Schirren of Kiel; Professor Otto Skutsch of University College London; finally and especially, the late Herr Hans Busolt of Starnberg (1911-1987), who offered me encouragement and indispensable information about the Busolt family. M.H.C.

4 I must also mention Herr Bleicken's essay, "Die Herausbilding der Allen Geschichte in Gottingen: Von Heyne bis Busolt," in Die Klassische Altertumswissenschaft an der Georg-AugustUniversitllt Gottingen (GOttingen 1989) 98-127, which offers (pp. 122-127) a judicious evaluation of Busolt's work. Leo, Reitzenstein, and others are also treated.

ABBREVIATIONS

ADB Ath. Mitt. Berlin und die Antike Bonner Gelehrte

BPW BSA Bursian

CJ CR DLZ

GRBS Hist. Zeit. Meiggs-Lewis

JHS NDB NeueJahrb.

Allgemeine deutsche Biographie Athenische Mitteilungen Aufsii.tze, Ergiinzungsband zwn Katalog der Ausstellung im SchlojJ Charlottenburg (Berlin 1979) 150 Jahre Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitiit zu Bonn, 1818-1968, Bonner Gelehrte, Beitriige zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften in Bonn (Bonn 1968) Berliner philologische Wochenschrift Annual of the British School at Athens Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der classischen Altertumswissenschaft Classical Journal Classical Review Deutsche Literaturzeitung Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies Historische aitschrift R. Meiggs-D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical lnscriptions (Oxford 1969) Journal of Hellenic Studies Neue deutsche Biographie (Neue) Jahrbilcher fur Philologie und Piidagogik (later: ... fur das klassische Altertwn and ... fur Wissenschaft und Jugendbildung; the three form a continuous series)

LCB REG WKP ZPE ZStA Merseburg

literarisches Centralblatt Revue des etudes grecques Wochenschriftfur klassische Philologie aitschriftfur Papyrologie und Epigraphik Zentrales Staatsarchiv, D.D.R., Dienststelle Merseburg

Other abbreviations normally follow the American Journal of

Archaeology or L' annee philologique.

Abbreviations

xi

Other abbreviations normally follow the American Journal of Archaeology or L' annee philologique.

Tenninology. I have used the German term "promotion" to refer to obtaining a doctor's degree (likewise the verb "to promote"). "Habilitation" is a further stage in the German system, requiring additional publications, usually a major "Habilitationsschrift"; it is normally essential before a scholar can be considered for a chair. After Habilitation a scholar often became a Privatdozent, teaching without pay while awaiting a call to a chair. A Gymnasiallehrer is a teacher in a Gymnasium or preparatory school; some Gymnasiallehrer obtained the title Professor. In university terminology, "ao. Prof." = ausserordentlicher Professor, or Extraordinarius, or associate professor; "o. Prof." = ordentlicher Professor, or Ordinarius, or full professor. A "Kolleg" or "Privatkolleg" was a lecture course, for which students usually had to pay; the fee comprised the professor's "Horergeld." The Curator of a university is an official appointed by the state to oversee its operation. The Philosophical Faculty corresponds to a British Arts faculty or to an American faculty of Arts and Sciences or Letters and Sciences; the other faculties were usually those of law, medicine, and theology. Each is headed by a Dekan; the whole university is led by a Rektor. Editing. I have used the Leiden system, common in epigraphic editing, as follows. [abc]

letters restored or emended

letters omitted by the writer

(abc}

unnecessary letters or marks

[[abc]]

letters deleted by the writer

[ ... ]

illegible letters

Busolt's spelling is not always consistent in choices like "interessiren/ieren" and "-iss/iB"; normally I have printed what he appears to have written. I have also usually followed his punctuation, even at the cost of some inconsistency.

Xll

1850, 13 November 1869 1874 1875 1875/6 1878 1879 1880 1881 1897 1911 1920, 1 September

Chronological Table

Georg Busolt born Enters Albertus-U niversitat, Konigsberg Publishes Der zweite athenische Bund Ph.D., Konigsberg Travel in Italy and Greece Habilitation in Konigsberg, appointed Privatdozent Ao. Prof., Kiel, winter semester Marriage to Ida Busolt 0. Prof., Kiel Appointed o. Prof. in Gottingen, summer semester Created Geheirner Regierungs-Rat Dies in Gottingen

GEORG BUSOLT

HIS CAREER IN HIS LETTERS

OW"IERONE

THEBUSOLTFAMILY

The name Busolt is of great antiquity. A by-form of the name, in the spelling Pusolt, occurs in the medieval poem "Der Rosengarten," which probably dates from the second half of the 13th century, where a "Pusolt" is one of the heroic characters.I In more recent times, the family's oldest certain member is Hans Jakob Busold (ca. 1628-1692), a servant of the noble family of von Cuylenberg zu Waldeck, near Kassel.2 The town of Arolsen, near Waldeck, was essentially the origin of the Busolts; since the Reformation the family was always Lutheran. A letter from Hans Jakob Busold survives, addressed to one Jaenn Marten Jaeger, "valet de chambre de Monsieur le Conte de Waldeck, Piermont et Culenberg," in Arolsen; Busold writes of his recent trip to Basel, evidently as an attendant to the Count von Cuylenberg (5 Nov. 1650).3 He later became a merchant and church accountant in the village of Helsen near Arolsen. In 1666 he married Maria Elisabeth Butterweck (ca. 1640-1698). Hans Jakob Busold and Maria had eight children; the second especially concerns us, Johann Friedrich (1668-1709). Born in Helsen, he was enrolled in the church regi~·.,y there under the name Busolt (the two spellings, Busold/Busolt, are virtually indistinguishable aurally) and thus became the founder of the line that called itself Busolt. Johann Friedrich moved to Prussia and obtained a good education, at the Kollnisches Gymnasium, Berlin (1684-1687), then at the University of Jena (from 1688). He then became the first pastor in Walchow4 after the Thirty Years' War, in 1693. He had sufficient prestige to enable him to return to

1A critical edition: Die Gedichte vom Rosengarten zu Worms, ed. G. Holz (Halle 1893). Holz dates the poem to about 1250; about 1500 lines long, it belongs to the saga-tradition of the Nibelungenlied. "Pusolt" is one of the giants who guard the rose garden belonging to Kriemhilt, the bride of Siegfried. The character Pusolt is not found in other sagas and is probably an invention of the poet. The name is to be compared to Fasold, one of the giants in Wagner's Das Rheingold, and is actually written "Vasolt" in two manuscripts (Holz, p. 262). A translation from middle high German into German: Der Rosengarten, tr. H. A. Junghans (Leipzig 1876). 2 For details on the Busold/Busolt family, see G. Reepen in Altpreufiische Geschlechterkunde (originally published in Konigsberg, since 1953 in Hamburg), no. SO (1974) 1-8. Reepert's excellent genealogy is based on information given him by Walter Busolt (1875-1946), the father of Hans Busolt (n. 3 infra). 3 For a text of this letter (L I) and for other information about the family I am indebted to the late Herr Hans Busolt. 4 A village some 60 km. NW of Berlin.

4

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

Berlin and claim as his bride (also in 1693) Anna Louise Bodikker, the daughter of the Rector of the Kollnisches Gymnasium. The eldest son of this marriage, Johann Christian Busolt (1696-1747), like his father, attended the University of Jena and studied theology. After four years as a preacher in Halle, he became a chaplain to the Jung-Holstein Regiment in Konigsberg; he was later a clergyman in Schaaken, 24 km. northeast of Konigsberg. He married Sophie von Zangen, the daughter of a domestic servant in the household of King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia. Of their eight children, four were born in Schaaken and four in Konigsberg itself. The clergyman Johann Christian is thus the founder of the East Prussian branch of the family, to which the historian Georg was to belong. Johann Christian's eldest son, Gotthilf Friedrich Busolt (1729-1783), was born in Konigsberg and entered the university there in 1749, thus establishing the educational tradition that Georg was to follow. One letter of his in Latin survives, perhaps addressed to Kant in 1761.5 At Konigsberg he evidently studied theology, for he became a teacher and preacher in Buchholz, near Preussisch-Eylau, southeast of Konigsberg, from 1766 to 1783. Here in 1768 or 1769 he married Susanna Kerstein, who bore him four sons; two of these are important to us. The eldest son, Gotthilf Christoph Wilhelm Busolt (1770-1831), is probably the most notable member of the whole family.6 Georg the historian surpasses him in academic standing, but Gotthilf Christoph was a man of action, a fighter for democratic ideals in education, and an influential citizen of Konigsberg all his life. Despite its remote location and small size (in 1850, when Georg was born, the city had but 76,000 inhabitants)?, Konigsberg was a leading German city in respect of education, artistic life, and social services. Gotthilf Christoph was a prominent supporter of its progressive spirit. This preacher's son also studied theology but, rather than become a clergyman, saw his duty in furthering the education of his people. From 1795 he taught in the Altstadtliche Schule in Konigsberg and also earned a doctorate at the 5 The letter is addressed to "Fautor omni mentis adfectu eoque candido ad cineres usque venerande, colende": this may be Kant, who was then Privatdozent in the University of Konigsberg. The subject is not clear: the letter, written in submissive, apologetic tone, discusses in part whether "iuvenis noster nobilis" (not identified) will put aside military interests and remain a student. 6 See C. Krollmann in AltpreujJische Biographie I (Konigsberg 1941), who cites Busolt's autobiography, 30jahrige Erfahrungen aus Beobachtungen iiber Erziehung, Unterricht und Selbstentwicklung (Konigsberg 1829); and Reepen (n. 2 supra). 7 Fritz Gause, Die Geschichte der Stadt Konigsberg, 3 vols. (Cologne-Graz 1965-1971), II 555. In this section I rely heavily on this superb history.

5

The Busolt Family

Hans Jakob Busold = Maria Elisabeth Butterweck

ca. 1628-92

ca. 1640-1698

Johann Friedrich Busolt

1688-1709

I

Johann Christian B.

1696-1747

1702-?

1729-1783

I

1811-89

Julius AdolfB.

1818-1900

L1904

1858-1944

Ernst Gustav Adolf B.

1881-ca. 1950

1771-1848

= Rosalie Schultz

I

1751-1827

Ernst Christian B.

1782-1833

IDA BUSOLT

I

I

= Susanna Kerstein

I

Gotthilf Christoph = Louise Wilhelm B. Gramatzki

Gustav Conrad B.

Anna Louise Bodikker

= Sophie von Zangen

Gotthilf Friedrich B.

1770-1831

=

=

= Wilhelmina Schultz 1781-1862

= Ida Droz

11825-1859

I

GEORG BUSOLT

AnnaB.

1850-1920

1883-1943

I

Kurt B.

1885-1956

6

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

university in 1798.8 In 1798 he married Louise Gramatzki (1782-1833), the daughter of a wealthy

businessman, Daniel Gramatzki, who in 1788 had

established a home for needy families (the Gramatzkische Stift). Busolt had planned, as early as 1795, a "Biirgerschule," in which children would be trained for industry and handicraft as well as in German, French, and Polish. In this project Busolt showed his devotion to the humanistic and educational ideals of the Swiss educational reformer Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827). But the authorities rejected Busolt's plan, and in 1798 he resigned his position at the Altstadtliche Schule. He then traveled widely in Germany, visiting various schools in order to see what methods were in use. Busolt returned to Konigsberg in 1800 and obtained a position as a member of the commission for churches and schools. He published a number of papers and booklets on education, of which I can cite only one, his Rechenbuch fur Kinder9; but he worked above all for the methods of Pestalozzi in the lower ranking schools, the Volksschulen. Catastrophe, in the form of Napoleon's invasion of Prussia in 1807, brought the opportunity for reform. Busolt was elected to a newly formed city parliament of 102 members in 1809. In the same year he served on a commission, chaired by Wilhelm von Humboldt, to reform the schools of Konigsberg, and could now work more energetically for the broadening of the curriculum in the spirit of Pestalozzi. In this period Busolt lectured on educational methods and wrote for the "Volksfreund," a weekly paper of progressive orientation that lasted only a year. Probably owing to his marriage to Gramatzki's daughter, Busolt was able to buy a beautiful piece of land west of the town in the area called the Hufen. Here a former Stadtprasident, Theodor von Rippel, had laid out a park in the English style (that is, where it was permitted to stroll freely) and had built a pleasant summer house at the north end of the park. Busolt bought the land in 1796 after Hippel's death. He named the park Luisenwahl in honor of his wife; 10 others attribute the name to the fact that Queen Luise of Prussia stayed in the house in 1808 and

8 According to Reepen (n. 2 supra), Busolt's dissertation was on the philosophy of Kant. I cannot confirm this and do not know the title of the work. In Busolt's own application for a position in the school commission in Kllnigsberg (1800) he stated only that he had obtained a doctorate from the Philosophical Faculty (Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, XX. HA StA Konigsberg, EM 42 a No. 121, p. 11); in the list of his teachers he names Kant above all but includes others, and other bibliographic sources have not been helpful. 9 Konigsberg 1798, 49 pages. lO Gause, op. cit. II 225; H. M. Miihlpfordt, Konigsberg von A bis Z (Munich 1972) 94.

The Busolt Family

7

1809.1 1 In any case, the queen loved the park. In 1874 the sculptor Christian Rauch made a bust of her at the highest point of the park, and about 1900 the Konigin-Luise-Gediichtniskirche arose on its western border. The Emperor Wilhelm I, who had stayed as a boy at Luisenwahl with his mother the queen, bought the park in 1872, and Wilhelm II gave it to the city in 1914. In 1937 the house became a home for needy mothers. Meanwhile, in 1906, the street running around the north side of the park became Busoltstrasse, in which there was an elegant Busoltplatz: both named after the great man who had bought the park in 1796. He continued to live in town, in later years in Paradeplatz, the first square south of the university. Among his guests was Neidhardt von Gneisenau, the head of the corps of engineers, who stayed with him for several months during the period of reform. For our purposes, the family now divides, and we follow it through Ernst Christian Busolt (1771-1848), the second son of Gotthilf Friedrich and thus the younger brother of Gotthilf Christoph Wilhelm. Ernst Christian began the association with the farming and milling territory where Busolt the historian was born. This territory, like most of the former East Prussia, has been part of Russia since 1945, and direct research there is difficult. The region in question belonged to the Kreis, or administrative district, of the city of Insterburg 12 (now called Chernyakovsk), lying on the Angerapp River, east of Konigsberg (now Kaliningrad). In this flat, swampy, forested land several mills arose during the 18th century, and by 1757 documents attest one called Mtihle Keppurren.13 It was located some 2 km. west of the village of Jiinichen (now Swoboda), on the

11 R. Pawel, Das Ostpreu,Penbla/1 (Hamburg) 11 Sept. 1971; but this derivation of the name is probably only folk tradition. In June 1812, on the way to his Russian campaign, Napoleon considered staying in the house but rejected it as too small: W. Grosse, ib. 16 June 1962. 12 The former residents of Insterburg have maintained her memory through their organization, the Kreisgemeinschaften Insterburg Stadt und Land e.V., Krefeld, Federal Republic of Germany; I am indebted to the Kreisgemeinschaften for copies of research papers on the villages mentioned here. Gerhard Ulrich's Insterburg im Bild, 2 vols. (Krefeld 1966-1967), is especially to be noted.-For the current nomenclature of the towns I rely on the A/phabetisches Ortsnamenverzeichnis der deutschen Ortsgebiete unter fremder Verwa/tung nach dem Gebietsstand am 1.9.1939 II (Remagen 1955). 13 Such is the usual spelling, but Georg Busolt usually called it Milhlengut- (or Milhlen-Gut-) Keppurren. From 1736 at latest the mill was called Blockinnen (Preussisches Staatsarchiv, Konigsberg, Tgb.-Nr. 1181 F, 27 Feb. 1937; this document attests the name Milhle Keppurren in 1766). For the history of this milling village I draw on the papers mentioned (see previous note) and on the article "Milhle Keppurren" by Dr. Walter Grunert (1888-1971), lnsterburg's chief historian and former Oberstudienrat in the Insterburger Gymnasium, in Insterburger Brief 15 (1963) 55-58. Even in Germany this journal is not easy to consult; it is available in the Institut fiir Landeskunde, Marburg/Lahn.

8

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

Joduppe River (now the Yedupp); another stream, the Joduppis, flowed nearby, and the property contained some five lakes. About a half kilometer south was a farming plot, Grabowen; both were about 16 km. SW of Insterburg.1 4 Ernst Christian Busolt rented Grabowen at latest by 1818: his fourth child, Julius Adolf, was born there in that year. In December 1819 he bought Grabowen from one Daniel Miiller; along with it he obtained the mill at Milhle Keppurren. About 1842 Ernst Christian gave the farm at Grabowen to his eldest son, Gustav Conrad (1811-1889), who had for a time studied medicine in Konigsberg 15. The father now moved to the mill with his wife, the former Wilhelmine Schulz, and their other children; one Herr Buchholz was now the manager of the mill, as Ernst Christian lived in retirement until his death in 1848. His widow then sold Milhle Keppurren to the second son, Julius Adolf (1818-1900), who continued to work the mill while his brother Gustav Conrad farmed at Grabowen. For at least a generation the mill and land were profitable. Julius Adolf, at the mill, had sufficient standing to marry in 1849 Ida Droz (1825-1859). Though born in Tilsit in East Prussia, she was the daughter of Jean Pierre Droz (17901831) and of Henriette Borkmann (1803-1831). Ida's brother Numa Droz (18441899) was an eminent Swiss writer and statesman. Born in La Chaux-de-Fonds, in the canton of Neuchatel, he became editor of the National Suisse, a radical newspaper. Later, he entered politics and rose to become twice the Bundesprasident of the Swiss confederation (1881, 1887). He held several portfolios but is best remembered for his courageous defiance of Bismarck when the latter threatened to reply with force after Switzerland had expelled one August Wohlgemut, a German spy, in 1889. 16 The first child of Ida Droz's marriage to Julius Adolf Busolt, the historian Georg Busolt, was born at Milhle Keppurren, 13 November 1850, and

14 Lith. kepure = farming land; grabe =grave, graveyard. 15 W. Grunert, lnsterb. Brief 12 (1960) 29. I have found only one map useful for locating Miihle Keppurren and its surroundings: the 1:25000 map of East Prussia prepared by the Reichsamt fiir Landesaufnahme 1924 (pub!. 1928), sheet 1596. There was also a village called Keppurren (sometimes Keppurlauken), SW of Grabowen on the Opelis: the village is no longer traceable, the nearest settlement being Gryunkhayde. Some German encyclopedias (Brockhaus, Meyer), and others derived from them (e.g. in Italian and Spanish), say in error that Busolt was born in Keppurren. 16 Among Droz's publications are Instruction civique (Lausanne 1884), a series of recommendations for public education, and Essais economiques (Geneva 1896).

The Busolt Family

9

was thus partly Swiss in descent.17 Before proceeding to his life we may round off the history of the properties. Julius Adolf continued to work the mill until 1895, when he sold it to Leo Hundsdorfer. But industrialization was rendering such mills obsolete, and in 1897 the water-mill went out of operation, as did the nearby windmill in 1904. In 1919 the land passed to a daughter, Edith Hundsdorfer, who worked it from 1922 onward with her husband Hans Bethge (1894-1985); they were thus the final owners.18 The lakes were now drained for the sake of gaining farming and pasturing land. In 1938 the farm, now known as Gut Miihle Keppurren, was renamed Gut Friedrichsmiihle 19. To the south, Gustav Conrad Busolt kept Grabowen until 1885, when he sold it to Georg Falkenthal. In 1928 Grabowen was united with other farms into a "Gemeinde" centered on the village of Dreibriicken.

In 1938 Grabowen was renamed Gut Ro8weiden and continued as part of the Gemeinde until the cataclysm of 1945. As we have seen, the Busolt family had good educational traditions, and young Georg, the son of a prosperous landowner, should receive appropriate schooling. Miihle Keppurren was the center of a tiny hamlet; as late as 1871 there were but four dwellings, 12 families, and a population of 89, of whom 27 are known to have been literate. In March 1821 Ernst Christian Busolt, the new owner of Grabowen, had sought and received financial support from King Friedrich Wilhelm III to build a school in Keppurren. Indeed, the king granted Busolt and his fellow petitioners the wood for the school without charge and instructed his finance minister to pay for the building.20 Perhaps this school was weak in classical studies. In any case, Georg went about 2 km. south, to Jodlauken, a village of some 260 persons (the name persists today), where he studied under Pastor Pastinazi and a Herr Gebauhr. 21 Later he

17 Julius Adolf and Ida Busolt had three more children; after Ida's death Julius Adolf married Friderike Miillauer (1861) and had four more children; all eight, by both marriages, born at the mill. 18 I am indebted to Frau Ursula Tiede, the daughter of Herr and Frau Bethge, for a copy of the deed (Besitz-Document) to the property at Miihle Keppurren and for other documents. l9 The farm was overrun by Russian forces in 1945. The Russians used it as a source of provisions, and some Germans who returned after the war reported that the buildings, except two burned barns, were still standing. For a moving narrative of the catastrophe in East Prussia, see the account of the priest Hugo Linck, Konigsberg 1945-1948, ed. 2 (Leer 1952). See further Hans Graf von Lehnsdorf, Ostpreussisches Tagebuch (Munich 1961), Eng. tr. East Prussian Diary (London

1963).

20 W. Grunert, Joe. cit. 21 Busolt summarizes his education in the Vita to his Spinozas Lehre von den Ideen (Berlin 1875).

10

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

studied with a pastor, Herr Dewitz, in the larger village of Puschdorf (today Stantsiya Puschkarevo), a town of about 390 people, 29 km. west of Insterburg on the rail line to Konigsberg. Puschdorf was about 23 km. north of Miihle Keppurren and Busolt presumably resided with Herr Dewitz. In 1861 Busolt entered the Gymnasium in the comparatively large town (about 10,000) of Insterburg. This school could trace its history back to the 1500s but became a recognized Gymnasium only in 1860.22 Its first director, 1860-1888, was Dr. Eduard Krah (1820-1896), who accepted Busolt in the Gymnasium. Krah had been trained in classics at Konigsberg and published several pamphlets and classical papers.23 Here Busolt received the education in classical languages traditional for Prussia and obtained the Abitur that would qualify him for study in a university.

22 The Gymnasium had been a Realschule. In 1860 it became a Gymnasium with Realklassen; in 1862 the latter were separated into a Realschule. For interesting reminiscences and photographs of the Gymnasium, see 100 Jahre Gymnasium und Rea/gymnasium Insterburg, ed. F. Padeffke - G. Ulrich (Oldenburg 1961); Busolt is not mentioned. 23 Krah promoted in K1Jnigsberg in 1843. Among his publications are De Jixis quae dicuntur deorum et heroum epithetis (K1Jnigsberg 1856) and Beitriige zur Syntax des Q. Curtius Rufus, 2 parts (Insterburg 1886-1887). See Die Insterburger hohere Lehranstalt von 1826-1910 etc. (ib. 1910).

OIAPIBRlWO

KONIGSBERG

In autumn 1869 - for the winter semester, as German universities always call it -

Busolt took the step, by now inevitable for anyone in his family with

academic ambitions, of entering the Albertus-Universitlit in Konigsberg. The university, situated just north of the Konigs-Garten in the very center of the city, had rather more than 400 students.I Its library was inadequate, according to Friedlander, and only since 1862 had modernization of the original building been in progress; it had no physical laboratory until the 1880s. Yet Friedlander assures us that Konigsberg had a critical spirit and that the professors were not viewed as omniscient minor deities, "as in small university towns, for example Gottingen." Contact between faculty and students appears to have been cordial; the university still looked back with pride on her greatest son, Kant. In his first three years Busolt studied mainly history, under the medievalist Wilhelm Maurenbrecher (1838-1892)2 and more directly under Paul Laband (18381918).3 The latter was a legal and constitutional historian, especially of medieval Germany. In his greatest work, his Das Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches,4 we may see an early inspiration for Busolt's handbooks on Greek political institutions, although Busolt was to move away from Laband's strict systematic method toward a more clearly historical approach. Laband had come to Konigsberg in 1866 and left 1 A delightful memoir of Konigsberg: Ludwig FriedHinder, Erinnerungen, Reden und Studien l (Strassburg 1905) 37-124; see also Hans Prutz, Die konigliche Albertus-Universitiit zu Konigsberg i. Pr. im neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Konigsberg 1894); G. von Selle, Geschichte der AlbertusUniversitiit zu Konigsberg in Preuj)en, ed. 2 (Wiirzburg 1956). A description of the university, with pictures and portraits of some leading professors: W. Hubatsch, Die Albertus-Universitiit zu Konigsberg!Preussen in Bildern (ib. 1966). A good map of Konigsberg as of 1931 is published by Grllfe and Unzer Verlag, Munich. Note also R. Albinus, lexikon der Stadt Konigsberg Pr. und Umgebung (Leer 1985). - Friedllinder (1824-1909), a great Konigsberg figure, was born, promoted (1845), and gained Habilitation (1847) there; he was ao. Prof. in 1856 and o. Prof. from 1858 to 1892, when he retired to Strassburg. He published widely but is best known for his Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms, 3 vols. (Leipzig 1862-1871; revised by Wissowa, it reached a 9th-10th ed., 1921-1923). On him see A. Ludwich in Bursian 155 (1911) 1-24. 2 Maurenbrecher promoted in Bonn, 1861; he was o. Prof. in Konigsberg, 1869-1877, and then returned to Bonn. His major works include Karl V. und die deutschen Protestanten, 1545-1555 (Dilsseldorf 1865) and Geschichte der katholischen Reformation l (NOrdlingen 1880, no more pub!.). On him see G. Wolf, Wilhelm Maurenbrecher (Berlin 1893); W. Busch in ADB 52 (1906) 244-248; W. Hubatsch in Bonner Gelehrte, Geschichtswiss., 155-161 (portrait). 3 On Laband see Altpreuflische Biographie l (Konigsberg 1941) 377; P. Laband, Lebenserinnerungen (Kiel 1918). 4 3 vols. in 4, Tilbingen-Freiburg i. Br. 1876-1882; ed. 5, 4 vols., (Tiibingen 1911-1914).

12

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

in 1872 for a chair in Strassburg. The strongest influence on Busolt from the historical faculty was Karl Wilhelm Nitzsch (1818-1880)5. The time had not yet come in Konigsberg when an ancient historian worked solely on the Greco-Roman world. This kind of specialization was only now taking hold in German universities: the position and work of Mommsen were crucial for the separation of ancient from medieval history. Nitzsch received his doctorate in Kiel under J.G. Droysen6 and achieved Habilitation with a study of the Gracchi,7 in which he explained their work as originating in economic and social conditions. But in Kiel he taught both ancient and medieval history, and in research turned more and more to medieval studies. Nitzsch came to Konigsberg in 1862, again in charge of both ancient and medieval history. His work on German administrative history in the middle ages was above all a study of urban govemment.8 He too will have influenced Busolt toward the study of constitutions and political systems. He was called to Berlin in 1872 as a medievalist. He had taken issue with Mommsen on various matters in the history of the Roman Republic, but he and Mommsen had been friends as students (and called each other Du), so the master welcomed him in Berlin and was probably content to tum over to him the teaching of the Roman Republic.9 When Nitzsch left Konigsberg, Busolt was well into his first book, Der

zweite athenische Rund etc., which he dedicated to Nitzsch.10 Busolt was at all times a convinced German patriot (see for example L 87) and a true son of Prussia, characteristics that Friedlander found typical in the life of Konigsberg. Thus he begins with the approving observation that Germany had now solved the problem that the Greeks never did, that of achieving a national unity. This was the inspiration for a study of the second Athenian naval league, founded in 377 B.C.: one of the attempts to construct international unions in the Greek world. Busolt 5 On Nitzsch see ADB 23 (1886) 730-742 (J. Jastrow); Schleswig-Holstein. biogr. Lexikon V (Neumiinster 1979) 189-190 (K. Jordan), with literature cited there; H. Merzdorf, K. W. Nitzsch: Die menschlischen Grundlagen seiner Geschichtsschreibung (Leipzig 1913). 6 With his Polybius: Zur Geschichte antiker Politik und Historiographie (Kiel 1842). 1 Die Gracchen und ihre nlichsten Vorgiinger (Berlin 1847); see E. Tanow, Der Revolutionsbegriff und die spate romische Republik (Frankfun 1978) 67 ff. 8 For example Ministerialitiil und Burgerthum im 11. und 12. Jh. etc. (Leipzig 1859). 9 See Demandt, Berlin und die Antike, 82. Nitzsch's lectures on Roman history were edited posthumously by G. Thouret, Geschichte der romischen Republik, 2 vols. (Leipzig 1884-1885).

Mommsen himself had written his own great history of the Republic and hence rarely lectured on this period in Berlin. 10 Note the Nitzschean title of the introduction, Zur Bedeutung der Autonomie in hellenischen Bundesverfassungen. The book appeared in Neue Jahrb. Suppl. 7 (1874) 639-866 and also separately (same pagination); only the separate publication bears the dedication to Nitzsch.

Konigsberg

13

designed this work as an introduction to a larger study of federal leagues in this period, a plan that he did not continue. In a courteous, attentive review, G. Perrot paid tribute to the young scholar's precision and clarity: he had lifted the subject to a new plateau.I 1 Evidently, however, Nitzsch had not trained Busolt to handle inscriptions with professional care. Any study of the second league ought to include a detailed treatment of the famous inscription preserving its charter; 12 but Busolt gives neither a full text nor a translation of this document, and when he cites excerpts from it he includes restorations as if the letters were on the stone, without saying whether the restorations are the differing ones of Rangabe or of Schaefer. 13 Perrot also gently warned that the time was not ripe to assert that Germany had succeeded where Greece had failed: several generations must pass before such a judgment could be final. But if we note that one of Maurenbrecher' s works was a study of German history down through the unification of the state, 14 we may guess why Busolt had been influenced to see the process as definitive. Other reviews were complimentary, and there was little doubt that Busolt had begun a promising career. During his next two years in Konigsberg Busolt turned to philosophy, which had not lost its position as the queen of disciplines in Kant's university. In fact, it was considered de rigueur for German doctoral students in the 19th century to offer philosophy.IS Busolt studied under the veteran Karl Rosenkranz (18051879), 16 of whom Friedlander has given a colorful sketch. His lectures filled the largest rooms with hearers from all faculties and all walks of life. The Hegelian philosophy had inspired him with an enviable confidence in his own knowledge, l 1 Rev. crit. d' hist. et de litt. NS 2 (1876) 337-347. l2 lnscriptiones Graecae (JG) n2 43. 13 The inscription was edited by A. R. Rangabe, Antiquites helleniques II (Athens 1855) no. 381 (also 381 bis, p. 373); Arnold Schaefer (on whom seen. 146 infra) discussed it in his De sociis Atheniensiwn Chabriae et Timothei aetate in tabula publica inscriptis (Leipzig 1856). 14 Gn1ndung des deutschen Reiches, 1859-1871 (Leipzig 1892). 15 See for example the case of James Breasted, who was examined in philosophy by Zeller in 1894 while doing a doctorate in Egyptology in Berlin: Charles Breasted, Pioneer to the Past: the Story of James Henry Breasted, Archaeologist (New York 1943) 53-55. 16 Rosenkranz promoted in Halle in 1828 and even gained Habilitation there in that year, with Dissertatio de Spinozae philosophia; he was called to Kl!nigsberg in 1833 and (like Kant, whose works he edited in 12 volumes) remained there for the rest of his life with but two short interruptions. Apart from his many books, his Studien filled five volumes (Berlin 1839-1848); see E. Metzke, Rosenkranz und Hegel (Leipzig 1929); L. Esau, Karl Rosenkranz als Politiker (Halle 1935), and in AltpreujJische Biographie II (Marburg/Lahn 1967). Rosenkranz' own Konigsberger Skizzen, 2 pts. (Danzig 1842), include a chapter on the university, "Das Albertinum," pt. 2, 243283. He also wrote an autobiography, Von Magdeburg bis Konigsberg (Berlin 1873).

14

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

and only with difficulty was he persuaded not to give a series of lectures on abnormal psychology. Busolt also worked even more closely with the younger scholar Friedrich Ueberweg (1826-1871)17. On Ueberweg's death Busolt became the pupil of his successor, Julius Bergmann ( 1839-1904), 18 who arrived in 1872. Bergmann in turn departed for Marburg in 1874 as Busolt was finishing a second book, Die Grundzuge der Erkenntnistheorie und Metaphysik Spinozas. He dedicated it to Bergmann and with it won the Kant prize of 100 marks at Konigsberg. He now sought a publisher for his work and addressed the following somewhat narve letter to Carl Freiherr Cotta von Cottendorf (1835-1888) 19, the director of the firm of Cotta.

L3 Busolt to Carl Cotta Konigsberg 15n Aug 1874.20 Sehr geehrter Herr! Der Zweck meines Schreibens ist die Anfrage, ob Sie geneigt wiiren eine am 20n Juli mit dem vollen Preise von 100 M von der Konigsberger Universitiit gekronte und als 'Bereicherung der Wissenschaft' bezeichnete Preisschrift verlegen wiirden.21 Die ungefahr 15 Druckbogen starke Schrift ist eine Darstellung, Erliiuterung, Wiirdigung der [[Lehre]] Erkenntnistheorie und Metaphysik Spinozas. Eine beglaubigte Copie des Urtheils der Facultiit bin ich bereit auf Ihren Wunsch zu iibersenden. Zwar ist mein Name noch vollig in der Literatur unbekannt, doch wird im Winter eine umfangreichere Abhandlung von mir 'Forschungen zur Geschichte der bundesstaatlichen Bildungen bei den Hellenen' als ganzer Supplementband zu

17 Ueberweg was appointed o. Prof. of philosophy in Konigsberg in 1862. Also an Idealist, he published a System der Logik (ed. 5, Bonn 1882) and a GrundrijJ der Geschichte der Philosophie, 3 vols. (Berlin 1862-1P66, many eds.). See F. Schneider in Bonner Gelehrte, Philosophie und Altertumswiss. 41-54 (portrait). 18 Bergmann, Busolt's doctoral supervisor, was also a member of the Idealist school. He expressed his final theories in his System des objektiven Jdealismus (Marburg/Lahn 1903); he also wrote a two-volume Geschichte der Philosophie (Berlin 1892-1893). On him see J. Hanslmeier, NDB 2

(1955) 89-90.

19 This Cotta (1835-1888) was the grandson of the noted Johann Friedrich Cotta (1737-1832) and the last member of the family to head the firm. See L. Lohrer, Cotta: Geschichte eines Ver/ags ~Stuttgart 1959). O Under the date is written "18 Aug.," evidently by someone in the finn to show when the letter was received. 21 Busolt lost himself in this rather pompous sentence, which ought to have ended "zu verlegen."

Konigsberg

15

Fleckeisens Jahrbiicher fiir klassische Philologie22 erscheinen und wie ich nach dem Urtheile der Prof. [[von]] Gutschmid,23 Fleckeisen,24 Nitzsch erwarte, einige Aufmerksamkeit erregen. Es kommt mir darauf an, dass die Schrift bis Febr. 1875 im Druck vorliegt, da ich 1)25 das gleichzeitige Erscheinen beider Schriften wiinsche 2) einen Theil dieser Preisschrift als Inaugural-Dissertation benutzen mochte. Mit der Bitte mich umgehend26 zu benachrichtigen, ob und unter welchen Bedingungen Sie [[geneigt wiiren]] den Verlag der Schrift iibernehmen wiirden zeichne hochachtungsvoll Ihr Georg Busolt cand philos. Adr. Konigsberg i/P. Lobenicht Langg. 4727 Psc. Die Schrift ist dem Begriinder und Herausgeber der philos. Monatshefte Prof.

J. Bergmann gewidmet.28 Cotta did not print the book, but Mittler and Son did (Berlin 1875); I cannot evaluate Busolt's influence on the study of Spinoza.29 In 1875 he submitted parts 1-4 of this book as a dissertation, Spinozas Lehrevon den ldeen. He defended this dissertation, which Mittler also published, on 13 February 1875 and thus gained his Promotion. 30 22 This title gave way to Der zweite athenische Bumietc. (see bibliography) and was only Heft 7 within a Supplementband. 23 Hennann Alfred Freiherr von Gutschmid (1831-1887) promoted in Leipzig, 1854, and taught at Kiel, 1863-1873, and at Konigsberg, 1873-1876; after a year in Jena he went to Tiibingen. He wrote his Geschichte /rans und seiner Nachbar/tinder etc. (Tilbingen 1888) for the Encyclopedia Britannica, ed. 9, s.v. Persia. See ADB 49 (1904) 646-652 for an obituary by Riihl, his successor in Konigsberg and editor of his Kleine Schriften, 5 vols. (Leipzig 1889-1894). 24 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Alfred Fleckeisen (1820-1899) edited Plautus and Terence for Teubner and remained a Gymnasiallehrer, declining a chair in Tilbingen in 1857. He was Conrector of the Vitzthumisches Gymnasium in Dresden and editor (1855-1897) of the Jahrbiicher far Philologie und Ptldagogilc. See G. Goetz in Bursian 107 (1900) 125-147. 25 The number is inserted. 26 Underlined (by Cotta, ironically?). 27 A street in central Konigsberg south of the Schloss; correctly, Ulbenichtsche Langgasse. 28 The Philosophische Monatshefte were published in Berlin (later elsewhere), 1868-1931; Bergmann was editor and co-editor until 1876. The title later became Archiv fur systematische Philosophie und Soziologie.

29 In an unsigned notice, the Westminster Review, NS 49 (1876) 235, found Busolt's Grundzilge (the prize essay) a "thorough and well-founded" treatment of "the difficulties and insufficiences of the dogmatic monism" of Spinoza; H. H. Joachim cited it in A Study of the Ethics of Spinoza (Oxford 1901) xiv. Mittler had published Ueberweg's Grundrift; his acceptance of Busolt's book was thus no accident. 30 Busolt's first book, Der zweite athenische Bund, bears no designation as a doctoral thesis. But the Chronik der Georg-August-Universitt2t zu G6ttingen ... 1897-1898 (Gllttingen 1898) 9, in

16

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters So far Busolt had shown aptitude in both history and philosophy, and his

mentors evidently thought he should be encouraged in scholarship, for he now received a grant from the Prussian Kultusministerium for travel in Italy and Greece in 1875/6. We may guess that this was the decisive influence turning him from philosophy to history. He first visited Rome and frequented artistic and academic circles, but he clearly also found time for social life among a buoyant group of young men. He formed a special friendship with Victor Hehn (1813-1890), the Baltic German cultural historian who was spending the period 1875-1876 in Rome.31 Among Busolt's other acquaintances were the painter and etcher Wilhelm Krauskopf (1847-ca. 1907) and the astronomer Karl Remeis (1837-1882) of Bamberg. Busolt spent fall and winter 1875 in Rome and then moved on to Greece. From Athens he reported to Hehn as soon as he arrived, in a letter that shows how flattered he was by the interest that Hehn, an older man and a distinguished writer, showed in him.

L4 Busolt to Hehn Athenes. 3.3.76. Librarie Wilberg, Rue d'Hermes. Mein lieber Herr [[Staatsrath]] Hehn,32 Ihrem mir so erfreuliche[n], dringende[n]33 Wunsche gemasz melde ich Ihnen meine gliickliche Ankunft in Athen, die Sie gem mit den herzlichsten Grtiszen den

announcing his appointment there, said that he "promovine am 13 Febr. 1875 mit Dissenationen aus beiden Gebieten" (phiiosophy and history). 31 Hehn was born in Riga and in 1846 became Lektor in Gennan at the University of Dorpat (now the Estonian city of Tartu) in Russia. His liberalism brought him into suspicion and he was banished to Tula in 1851. Freed in 1855, he worked in the royal public library in St Petersburg, retiring with his pension to Berlin in 1873. He wrote the influential Kulturpf/anzen und Haustiere in ihrem Obergang von Asien nach Griechenland und /talien etc. (Berlin 1870); among his other works, note Das Salz, eine lculturhistorische Studie (Berlin 1873) and ltalien, Ansichten und Streif/ichter (St. Petersburg 1867). From 24 October 1875 to 15 June 1876 he resided near the Piazza di Spagna in the Via della Vite, 64: F. Noack, Das Deutschtum in Rom (Berlin-Leipzig 1927) II 247. See T. Schiemann, Viktor Hehn. Ein Lebensbild (Stuttgart 1894); Bursian 70 (1891) 1-62 (unsigned; ascribed to 0. Schrader by K. Deichgr!lber, NDB 8, 1969, 237). 32 Hehn had been ennobled in Russia and had received the title Staatsrat, but he made no use of the title and Busolt evidently realized he was being over-courteous in thus addressing him. 33 Busolt wrote "erfreulichem, dringendem."

Konigsberg

17

mir in Rom so lieb gewordenen Freunden, Krauskopf34 und Remeis35 mittheilen werden. lch schreibe gerade an Sic, weil mir beim Abschiede so zu Muth war, als [[ich]] ob Sic mir in Rom doch am meisten Werth wliren und dasz Sic mich auch nicht ganz ungern batten. Seit gestem Morgen bin ich nun in Athen, die Akropolis und die andem Reste des Alterthumes, die reine klare Luft, die Farbentone der Landschaft sind ja wunderbar, aber es ist doch nicht Rom.36 Es fehlt das anregende, grosze Treiben der Kilnstler und Gelehrtenwelt, die unendliche Fillle von Kunstschatzen, und der anziehende Charakter des Mittlelpunktes der katholischen Welt kann doch nicht mit dem immerhin interessanten orientalischen Leben mit modem-occidentalem Anstrich verglichen werden. Die durchaus nicht zahlreichen Deutschen sind in keinem Verein gesammeit,37 den Abend tiber sitzen sic, wie ich, zu Hause, oder sind in Familien. Die altem Stadttheile Athens sind, wie Sic wissen, dorfahnlich, schmutzig-orientalisch, die neuem dagegen setzen mich durch ihre Sauberkeit und Eleganz in Erstaunen. Namentlich das neue Akademie-Gebaude, im altgriechischen Stil aufgefilhrt,38 macht sich trotz einiger Wunderlichkeit sehr gut, ebenso das einfache kgl. Schlosz.39 Man sieht sehr viel Bauen und Arbeiten, man merkt, dasz Alles noch im Werden ist. Da im Instituts-

34 Wilhelm K•,uskopf, an etcher, worked for the Deutsches Archliologisches Institut in Rome,

1874-1877. 1 .• 1894 he became Professor in the Badische Akademie, Karlsruhe. See U. ThiemeF. Becker, Allgem. Lexi/con der bildenden Kunst/er 21 (Leipzig 1927) 471; for a complete review of his work, A. Roeper, BtJrsenblall far den Deutschen Buchhandel 74 (1907) 6641-0646. 35 Karl Remeis trained in law in Wiirzburg and Heidelberg and first visited Rome in 1875. In frequent visits there he was influenced by Italian astronomers and himself became a noted astronomer. He began his observations in the Rome observatory; these led to his Die Strahlung und die Temperatur der Sonne (Cologne etc. 1881). He also enjoyed musical and artistic circles, hence Busolt's meeting with him. He founded an observatory in his native Bamberg. See E. Zinner in Lebenslliufe aus Franken, ed. A. Chroust, V (Wiirzburg 1930) 313-319. 36 Compare Wilamowitz' memories of his first visit to Athens, summarized by W. M. Calder III, In Memoriam 0110 J. Brendel (Mainz 1976) 233-236 = Calder, Ulrich von WilamowitzMoellendorff, Selected Correspondence (Naples 1983) 293-296. 3? Busolt has in mind the Deutscher Kilnstlerverein of Rome, founded 6 November 1845, which united many Gennans in Rome who worked in various fields. Its highest membership, 180, was reached in 1877: Noack, op. cit (n. 31 supra) I 525-534, 637. 38 The Academy in Athens was built at the expense of Baron Sinas, a Greek of Vienna, by E. Ziller, to the designs of Theophil von Hansen (1813-1891). The foundations were laid in 1858; in 1874 the structure was finished, in 1887 the statuary. On the Gennan building program, see H. H. Russack, Deutsche bauen in Athen (Berlin 1942); on the Academy, 126-135 (I rely on Russack's dates). For narrative and excellent photographs of the 19th century construction, see S. G. Andreadis, Neo-Classical Architecture in Greece (Athens, Commercial Bank of Greece, 1967). 39 The Royal Palace, now the Parliament dominating Syntagma Square, was built in 1836-1840 to designs of Friedrich von Gllrtner (1792-1847), who based his work on the plans of his teacher Leo von Henze (1794-1864), court architect to the royal house of Bavaria. See Russack, op. cit. 67-74.

18

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

Gebaude40 kein Zimmer fur mich frei ist, so war ich genothigt, eine Kammer4 1 mir zu miethen, was mir schon nach wenigen Stunden durch Vermittelung des4 2 Herrn Wilberg [[und Beck]] gelang.43 Ich wohne in einer Nebenstrasze, dicht an der Hauptverkehrs-Ader, der Hermesstrasze, bei einer liebenswtirdigen, deutschen Familie Beck. Herr Beck besitzt mit Herrn Wilberg zusammen eine Leihebibliothek.44 Ftir das kleine Zimmer zahle ich den hier maszigen Preis von 55 Drachmen45, bekanntlich ist ja Alles in A then furchtbar theuer. Mit drei oder vier jungen Deutschen -

darunter Hofmaler Otto,46 der Krauskopf griiszen laszt esse ich in der Restauration des Hotel Athenes. 47 Es giebt gute, franzosische Kilche, doch nattirlich recht theuer, man speist nicht unter 3 Drachmen zu Mittag.

40 The Athens branch of the Deutsches Archllologisches Institut was founded in 1874. The original building no longer stands but was in Odos Akademias (probably no. 61, between Odos Hippokratous and Odos Charilaou Trikoupi). The present bulding in Odos Phidiou 1, occupied in September 1888, is a house built for Schliemann and originally rented by him to the InstituL 41 Corrected from "Zimmer." 42 Originally "der." 43 Karl Wilberg established a bookstore on the south side of Odos Ennou, just below Syntagma Square, at some time between 1854 and 1859. He specialized in serving the German community and is recommended in such guidebooks as Moritz Busch, Reisehandbuchfiir Griechenland (Trieste 1859) 41. He published a now rare guidebook to Athens and its environs (1871 etc.) preceding the first Baedeker to Greece, as well as the first 20 volumes of the Athenische Mittei/ungen, 18761895. In 1897, his bookstore having closed, Wilberg worked as a "Hiilfsarbeiter" in the Deutsches Archllologisches Institut, Athens (letters in the Institut; I thank Herr G. Jfihrens for this information). 44 Carl Beck, with whom Busolt lived in a street off Odos Ennou, founded a bookstore of his own in Ennou, from at latest 1884. He then formed a partnership with Barth (formerly of Barth and von Hirst, who had published the Mitteilungen, 1896-1900). The firm of Beck and Barth published the Mittei/ungen, 1901-1909, and had a shop in Odos Karageorgi Servias l; later, they were at Stadiou 2 and then at Stadiou 3. Barth then merged with C. G. Eleutheroudakis, enlarging the premises at Stadiou 3. Eleutheroudakis and Barth published the Mitteilungen, 1910-1914. Today the famous bookstore of Eleutheroudakis (since 1962 at Odos Nikis 4) maintains this tradition of international bookselling and publishing - still within a few yards of where Busolt lived. (I thank Mrs. Eleutheroudakis for some of this history.) 45 That is, monthly. 46 Johann Samuel Ouo (1798-1878) was a portrait painter and engraver much favored in Berlin society (he portrayed, among others, the opera soprano Lilli Lehmann). He was entrusted with ~veral studies of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (1840-1861) and obtained the title of royal Professor in 1844. See Thieme-Becker 26 (1932) 92; ADB 24 (1887) 757 (V. Donop). 47 The Hotel d'Ath~nes was near the University, at the SW comer of Odos Stadiou and Odos Korais, and was popular with German travelers. The Baedeker guide (ed. 4, 1909, p. 10) reports that a room cost 3-6 dr. and lunch 31'2 dr. including wine. The building (no longer a hotel) survives.

Konigsberg

19

Schauderhaft ist das Geldwesen.48 Man rechnet nach Drachmen und Lepta (d.h. beinahe Franksystem), allein man sieht diese Miinzen fast nur in Papier und Kupfer, als Silbergeld coursift49 gewohnlich der oestreichische Zwanziger50 (als5 1

90 Lepta), der oestreische Thaler (5 Drachmen 60 L.) der spanische Thaler (5 Dr. 80 L.) und der spanische Colonial-Thaler (6 Dr.). Die Rechnung ist ebenso complicirt, wie sie den Griechen zum Uebervortheilen Gelegenheit giebt. Gestem fand, wie52 alle 14 Tage, cine Sitzung der hiesigen Abtheilung des Instituts statt. Darnen nahmen daran nicht Theil, aber die Zahl der Theilnehmer betrug iiberhaupt nur

8. Die Sprache ist dabei deutsch. Ein Vortrag iiber die Lage von

Nisaea und der Insel Minoa, cine Beschreibung eines eben gefundenen, interessanten Portraitkopfes fiillten die Sitzung aus.53 Ein Herr, der eben aus Olympia zuriickkam, meldete, dasz man dort mit 150-180 Arbeitem flott weiter arbeite, in letzter Zeit aber nur einige lnschriften zu Tage gefordert habe. Kopf und

4 8 Busolt's report is valuable to the historian of Greek currency. When Greece achieved

independence, the first coins issued were Phoenixes (each divided into 100 lepta), in 1829. On the arrival of Otto of Bavaria as king of Greece (1833), the drachma replaced the Phoenix and was equivalent to ah-1ut .9 of the gold franc. In 1868 Greece joined the Latin Monetary Union (formed in 1865 by F:ance, Belgium, Italy, and Switzerland) and was to allow the free exchange of the francs of these nations; but the new system was actually introduced in Greece only in 1871. In 1876 Greece banned the circulation of all currencies except those of the Latin Monetary Union; but Busolt's letter shows that this ban was not yet effective in March. For further details, see The Banknotes of Greece (Athens, The Credit Bank, 1979) 19-61. Even as late as 1909 Baedeker warns that, in international Athenian hotels, prices were reckoned in gold francs (op. cit. 9). 49 Busolt originally began the word with "k." 50 This coin will have been the Austrian "Zwanzigkreuzer," which was used widely in eastern Europe. See F. von SchrOtter, Wiirterbuch der Munzkunde (Berlin-Leipzig 1930) 760. 51 Apparently corrected from "der." 52 Originally "eine." 53 For notes on the early years of the Institut in Athens see L. Wicken, Beitriige zur Geschichte des Deutschen Archiiologischen Instituts 1879 bis 1929 (Mainz 1979); C. Schuchhardt, Aus Leben und Arbeit (Berlin 1944) 140-145, reminiscences of Athens in 1887-1888 when Eugen Petersen and W. OOrpfeld were 1st and 2nd secretaries respectively. Busolt's meeting of 2 March 1876 is briefly reported, Ath. Mitt. 1 (1876) 95. The talk on Nisaea and Minoa was given by Habbo Gerhardus Lolling (1848-1894), the librarian of the Institut. He was the successor to Col. Leake as the connoisseur of the Greek landscape and wrote the first Baedeker guide to Greece (Leipzig 1882). His lecture appeared in Ath. Mitt. 5 (1880) 1-19. Lolling also wrote the section "Hellenische Landeskunde und Topographie" in Geographie und politische Geschichte des klassischen Altertums (NOrdlingen 1889, in Milller's Handbuch), 99352. On him see P. Wolters in Bursian 91 (1896) 10-28. The talk on a Roman portrait head was given by Ulrich Koehler (1838-1903), 1st secretary of the Institut, 1875-1886, and later professor of archaeology in Berlin. He edited IG II, parts 1-3 (Berlin 1877-1888) and wrote, along with many papers on inscriptions, Urkunden und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des delisch-attischen Seebundes (Abh. Ak. Berlin, Phil.-hist. Kl., 1869).

20

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

Anne der Nike fehlen noch.54 - Zurn Schlusze nun noch die Bemerkung, dasz die Seefahrt [[gleich]] zwar bei ziemlich bewegter See, doch gtinstigem Winde von Statten ging, und dasz ich einer der sehr wenigen Passagiere war, der von Seekrankheit vollig verschont blieb. Nur Kopfschmerzen machten mir den Aufenthalt in der Cajute hochst unangenehm. Ich war fast stets auf Deck [[,]] und erfreute mich an den wundervollen Ktisten und Inseln, an denen wir vorilberfuhren, oder an dem Spiel der Wellen und der Mo[w]en,55 die uns besUindig folgten. Ein [[alter]] der See gewohnter Grieche aus Zante, der jlimmerlich an56 einem Abend bei hohem Seegang litt, wunderte sich fiber mich, wie ich mit groszem Appetit asz und trank und meinte, ich ware doch ein bravo giovanetto. Im Uebrigen hat mir meine griechische Reisegesellschaft nicht gerade Respect eingefloszt. Unser cameriere meinte in Bezug auf sie 'sporca gente'. Nun aber schliesze ich in der Hoffnung, dasz auch Sie ein Lebenszeichen mir geben werden. Bis zum 1n Mai rich ten Sie etwaige Briefe nach Athen unter obiger Adresse, spaterhin gelangen Alie unter der Adresse: Dr. G. Busolt. Keppurren p. Jodlauken in Ost-Preuszen in meine Hande. Herzliche Grusze sendet Ihnen, lhrem Neffen57, Remeis, Krauskopf und dessen Braut58 so wie alien lieben Bekannten nochmals

1hr G. Busolt. An Krauskopf und Remeis schreibe ich auch einmal in den nachsten Wochen59 As Busolt's letter shows, the famous Hehn had paid his young acquaintance the compliment of urging him to write from Greece. Accordingly, Hehn kept the correspondence alive, scribbling a sketch of an entertainingly written reply on the back of Busolt's third page and on the top and left margin of the second.60 54 German excavations in Olympia began in 1875 under the direction of Ernst Curtius (18141896), the historian who was then professor of archaeology, Berlin. Busolt refers to the Nike of Paionios (see Pausanias 5.26.1), found 20-21 December 1875. The arms are still fragmentary, but the much-effaced head was later found, 11 March 1879. See E. Curtius-F. Adler, eds., Olympia, vol. 3 by G. Treu, "Die Bildwerke" etc. (Berlin 1897) 182-194, and Tafelband III (ib. 1894) Taf.

46-47.

55 "Ml!ven" apparently written. 56 Originally "in." 57 Hehn's nephew, Karl. He is mentioned in Hehn's letters to his brother Julius; cf. n. 68 infra. 58 Krauskopf met his wife, Ida, a daughter of a Pastor Ludecke, at the German embassy, Rome: Roeper (Joe. cit n. 34 supra) 6642. They were married in June 1876 (see L 7). 59 This sentence written down the left margin of the first page of the three-page letter. 60 Hehn's writing, hurried and full of abbreviated words, is difficult; I sincerely thank Herr HansUlrich Simon of the Schiller-Nationalmuseum Marbach a. N. for deciphering it

Konigsberg

21

Although the letter was not sent in this form, it is the only letter known to me addressed to Busolt. It gives a lively picture of the society he had left behind in Rome in spring 1876: "temptation at night, remorse in the morning."

LS Hehn to Busolt [March/April 1876] Ihren lieben Brief babe ich richtig empfangen und mich gefreut, da6 Sic die WinterSeefahrt gliicklich iiberstanden und auch gleich ein passendes Zimmer bei zuverlassigen Deutschen gefunden haben. Es wird Ihnen auch in Athen bei der herrlichen Jahreszeit, der wir entgegensehen, immer mehr gefallen und am Ende werden Sic von den Linien der attischen Berge [[und]] mit demselben Schmerz Abschied nehmen, wie vom Kapitol und Palatin. Wenn Sic vorlaufig die rom. Abendsgesellschaft vermissen, so hat das den Vortheil, da6 Sic Morgens bei Zeiten so ruhig und mit freiem Kopfe erwachen. [[Bei]] Wir in Rom leben noch immer nach der alten Weise: Abends Verfiihrung, Morgens Reue. Beliebt ist in neuester Zeit die Genzano-Kneipe61 geworden, Sic wissen, dieselbe, in der sich oben die Ragazzi62 zu versammeln pflegten, von der Arbeit zu erholen {gemacht ist).63 Dort pflegt Sandvo864 in der untern Halle seine Getreuen um sich zu sammeln [[ ... ]] und ist [[ ... ]] der erste tropf Aleatico gekostet, auf dem gefahrl[ichen] Wege immer weiter und weiter, zu [[ ... ]] schreiten. Einmal war selbst Fri. Ida, die Braut Krauskopfs, 65 zugegen; das Miidchen gefallt mir ganz wohl, zumal da sic den schonen Namen66 Ida fiihrt, welche an das luftige und doch alles Wesen der Welt in sich begreifende Idee67 erinnert. Julius68 aus Neapel ist wieder da, seine 61 This tavern (unidentified) will have been one that served wine from the village of Genzano in the Alban hills. Hehn may mean that a previously popular tavern, II Falcone, was now being supplanted. 62 This nickname denotes the Gennan students in the Deutsches Archlk>logisches Institut. 63 These words, unnecessary to the sentence, must have been written per incuriam. 64 Franz Sandvo8 (1833-1913), a fonner Gymnasiallehrer in Mecklenburg and editor (Westfalische Zeitung, Dortmund), became private secretary to the Gennan ambassador von Keudell (cf. n. 75 infra) in Constantinople and Rome. Evidently he was the idol of a group of young admirers. He wrote widely on Gennan speech and literature, sometimes under the name Xanthippus, e.g. So spricht das Volk (Berlin 1860), Was dunket euch um Heine? (Leipzig 1888), Gute alte deutsche Sprache (Berlin 1897). 65 Cf. L 4. 66 "den ... Namen" added above the line. 67 "das [sc. "won'1 Idee": perhaps a pun on the Hegelian thesis that Ideas control the world; or Hehn may have known that Busolt was in love with his cousin Ida Busolt (cf. L 6). 68 Julius Hehn was Victor's half brother, six years older, of the same father. Schiemann, op. cit. 265-302, prints several letters from Victor to Julius.

22

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

Taschen sind leerer als je und der Yater hat geschrieben, er solle sich nie wieder an der Schwelle des elterlichen Hauses blicken !assen. Jetzt, seit etwa acht oder vierzehn Tagen, lebt er vemtinftiger, geht Abends zu rechter 2'.eit nach Hause, hat einmal sogar Thee statt Wein getrunken und spricht, so weit ihm das moglich ist, mit gedlimpfter Stimme. Nachmittags hat er einige Male sogar, da Helbig69 verstummt ist, Damen-Giros in den Villen und Museen abgehalten und der schonen kleinen Imhof'70 verschiedene nackte Mlinnergestalten nicht tibel erkllirt. Ob das alles nur Maske ist, um seinen grtindlich zerrtitteten Ruf wieder herzustellen, oder wirkliche innere Umkehr, kann ich nicht beurtheilen. Jetzt handelt es sich darum, ihn von bier fortzuschaffen und nach Deutschland zu expediren und es soll weiter Geld dazu gesammelt werden. Ich weiB nicht, wo [[sich]] die Wohlthliter aufzutreiben sein werden; was mich betrifft, so babe ich schon einmal dick geblutet und mich damit, wie ich hoffe, flir immer losgekauft. Remeis, der noch immer so bang wie frtiher ist, versliumt k[eine] Gelegenheit, woes etwas zu sehen giebt und nimmt seine Touristen-Pflicht emsthaft. In neuester 2'.eit scheint seine Freundschaft mit Eghardt ("Tante VoB")71 besonders warm geworden zu sein. Er verla.Bt tibrigens in den nachsten Tagen Rom, um nach Bamberg zurtickzukehren. Puschell und PiehJ72 sind auch abgereist, der erste traumt nur von den Schatten, und diese

69 Wolfgang Helbig (1839-1915) was 2nd secretary (in effect, vice-director) of the Deutsches Archllologisches Institut, Rome, 1865-1887, and a brilliant, if unscrupulous, personality who deserves a monograph of his own. He was something of a Casanova and included young women in his tours of Roman museums. Mommsen indignantly asked in 1872 whether Helbig really took women ("Frauenzimmer," roughly "skirts") on his giri. To a similar inquiry in 1883 Helbig replied that he could hardly exclude female members of notable families, who owned private collections, from their own villas: L. Wickert (op. cit. n. 53 supra) 15. Helbig married the Russian Princess Nadina Schakowskoy and bought an elegant residence, the Villa Lante, on the Gianicolo (now the home of the Finnish Institute in Rome). He had studied under Curtius and Sauppe in G(jttingen and under Jahn, Ritschl, and Welcker in Bonn and was a highly productive scholar; see, e.g., his Untersuchungen ilber die campanische Wandmalerei (Leipzig 1873) and Das homerische Epos aus den Denkmalern erlautert (Leipzig 1884). On him see his own Eine Skizze meines wissenschaftlichen Bildungsganges (Copenhagen 1911); H. Speier in NDB 8 (1969) 459460; for a review of his shady career, including his probable forgery of the "oldest Latin inscription" on the Praenestine Fibula, MANI0S MED FHEFHAKED NVMASIOI, A.E. Gordon in CJ 78 (1982/3) 64-70. - Hehn probably means that Helbig was now on leave. 70 Perhaps a relative of Heinrich Imhof (1795-1869), a sculptor who lived in Rome, 1850-1869: Noack, op. cit. (n. 31 supra) II 290. 71 Herr Eghardt, whom I cannot identify, was evidently an employee in Rome of the Vossische Zeitung. This paper, one of the oldest and most important in Germany, had been published since I January 1761 (then called the Berlinische privilegierte Zeitung); from about 1865 it was often jokingly called "die gute alte Tante Vo8" by those who found it conservative and lacking innovation. But for its later history as a liberal, anti-Nazi paper, see B. S(jsemann, Das Eruie der Weimarer Republik in der Kritik demokratischer Publizisten etc. (Berlin 1976); id., in Hundert Jahre Ullstein (ib. 1977) 217-264. The Nazis forced the paper to close on 31 March 1934. 72 I cannot identify these, nor Pitter and Frohsommer, infra.

Konigsberg

23

sind immer duster und glaubt sich von Jedennann verfolgt und gehaBt. Der Verein73 leert sich immer mehr, besonders durch Auswanderung nach Neapel, mehrere Generalversamml[ungen] sind abgehalten worden, in denen lacherliche Lappalien mit gro8em Ernst, viel Wut und wenig Logik verhandelt worden sind. [[Neu war mir]] Das Alles ganz unter uns. Pitter und Frohsommer74 sind noch hier, doch sehe und hore ich von ihnen nichts. Keudell der Botschafter75 und Eghardt und seine Frau [[zusammen]] haben in Albanergeb.76 eine Villa gemiethet, die sie im April beziehen werden. Busolt returned from Greece in May 1876 and almost at once sent a report on his travels to Hehn, who was evidently back in Berlin. His main news was his reunion with his intended wife. L6 Busolt to Hehn

Insterburg, Goldap {p) er-Strasze 7. 30 Mai 1876. Lieber Hehn,

-

Sie gestatten wohl noch die alte romische Anrede - ich bin also gliicklich in das

Land der Kimmerier77 in einer78 trilben, regnerischen Nacht am 24n Mai 1'2

12 Uhr zurilckgekehrt, trotzdem war es ein schoner Tag, denn das geliebte

Madchen war treu geblieben, und ich konnte ihm sogleich bei der Ankunft den Ring geben. 79 1hr !anger Brief aus Rom hat mich ebenso erfreut, wie er interessant war.80 Die romischen Tage bleiben doch die schonsten der ganzen Reise-Zeit. In Griechenland habe ich Vieles erlebt, viele Kenntnisse geschopft, meist zu Fusz bin 73 On the Deutscher KUnstlerverein, see n. 37 supra. 74 Names probable, not quite certain. 75 Robert Felix Max Leopold von Keudell (1824-1903) was born in Konigsberg and studied philosophy there. He was a protege of Bismarck, an accomplished pianist (he gave Bismarck's wife piano lessons), and friend of the violinist Joseph Joachim. He was Bismarck's emissary to Constaninople in 1872 and to Rome in 1873; from 1876 to 1887 he was Ambassador in Rome; he later wrote Furst und Furstin Bismarck (Berlin-Stuttgart 1901). See H. von Poschinger, Bei Robert von Keudell (Berlin 1902); H. von Petersdorff, Biogr. Jahrb. und deutscher Nekrolog JO (Berlin

1907) 306-311.

76 The "Albanergebirge," or Alban hills south of Rome. 77 The Cimmerians were a nomadic people from south Russia who invaded parts of Asia Minor (Herodotus 1.6, al.); thus Busolt means a far-off northern land. 78 Corrected from "einem." 79 Busolt thus became engaged to his own first cousin Ida Busolt (1858-1944), the fourth child of Gustav Conrad Busolt, who owned the farm at Grabowen. He sent Hehn a copy of the card from Ida's father, by which "Busolt und Frau" announced the engagement at Insterburg, 24 May. 80 L 5.

24

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

ich8 1 kreuz und quer durch den Peloponnes gegangen, habe aber auch Manches von Nord-Griechenland, namentlich Delphi kennen gelemt. Kennen Sie Delphi? Eine so groszartig erhabene Natur findet man nur noch bei einem82 Heiligthume, dem Tempel des Apollon zu Bassai. Ohne Dolmetscher bin ich rnit einem oder mehreren Reisegefahrten gereist, habe die verschiedensten Stande, kurz Land und Leute in drei Monaten so kennen gelemt, dasz ich83 die Zustiinde Griechenlands trotz des nur dreimonatlichen Aufenthaltes8 4 besser als die Italiens kenne. Die Rilckreise erfolgte in der kurzen Zeit von zwolf Tagen, es zog mich doch ein machtiger Magnet in die Heimath. Sie begreifen, dasz ich in den ersten Tagen durch vielerlei Dinge, namentlich auch den Studienbericht an Falk85 so besetzt bin, dasz ich mich auf diese wenigen Worte beschranken musz. Ein anderes Mal mehreres. Wollen Sie so gut sein und mir schreiben, wie es Ihnen geht, wie es zuletzt in Rom aussah, aber bitte, vergelten Sie nicht meine Kilrze, sondem schreiben ebenso viel wie von Rom. Leider ging mir dieser werthe Brief, den ich mit andem Papieren in die Heimath sandte, mit dem Trinacria-Dampfer unter, er ruht bei Cap Matapan.86 Mit herzlichem Grusze an Ihren Neffen bleibe ich 1hr Verehrer G. Busolt. Busolt now took lodgings in Kessel Strasse, a short street north of the university. Here he plunged into writing his Habilitationsschrift, normally a more ambitious and original work than a doctoral thesis. This became Die Lakedaimonier

und ihre Bundesgenossen, a stout volume of some 480 pages. While writing, he was naturally looking for a vacant position in ancient history; he would then be financially established and could marry Ida. More especially, he asked Hehn's permission to dedicate the work to him as well as to his present mentor, von Gutschrnid. Hehn had clearly written a letter of congratulation over the engagement and had addressed the younger man as "hochgeschatzter"; he had invited the young

81 Inserted. 82 "einem" originally capitalized. 83 Inserted. 84 Busolt reached Athens on 2 March and departed 12 May, thus staying for pans of three months; but he calls his visit "dreimonatlich." 85 Adalbert Falk (1827-1900) was the Prussian Kultusminister (formal title: Minister der geistlichen, Unterrichts- und Medizinalangelegenheiten), 1872-1879. See E. Foerster, Adalbert Falk, sein Leben und Wirken etc. (Gotha 1927); S. Skalweit, NDB 5 (1961) 6-7. 86 There were five ships called Trinacria, all owned by the Kouloukountes company. The first one is in question here. It sank on 28 April 1876 off the southern tip of the Peloponnese, the ancient Tainaron; there were no survivors.

25

Konigsberg

couple to visit him in Berlin. Busolt's letter contains some interesting impressions of Italian cities and a report on the cultural life of Konigsberg in the 1870s.

L7 Busolt to Hehn Konigsberg i/P. Kessel-Str 7 2.11.76.

Mein hochverehrter Freund, ja so musz ich Sic doch nennen, 'mein sehr Heber Freund' kann ich doch nicht schreiben, wenn Sic, der so viel hoher Stehende, mich 'hochgeschatzter' anreden. Immer und immer babe ich es wirklich 'verbummelt', Ihnen fiir Ihren [[herzlichen]] Brief recht sehr zu danken, obwohl ich viel an Sie und die romische Z.eit gedacht babe. Auch meine Ida, die ich taglich mehr und mehr zu schatzen und zu lieben leme -

wenn noch eine Steigerung dieses Gefilhles moglich ware -

dankt Ihnen und

weisz es zu schatzen, von wem die Gratulation kommt. Gem mochten wir uns Ihnen vorstellen, das geht nun freilich, bis ich [[sie]] meine87 Ida heimgefiihrt babe, nicht [[,]] personlich, aber vielleicht geschieht es in den nachsten Monaten bildlich. Filr Ihr so getreues Bild meinen herzlichsten Dank, es hat einen der ersten Platze in meinem Album erhalten.88 Nun aber eine Bitte an Sie. Mochten Sie es wagen, als Ausdruck der Hochschatzung Ihrer Freundschaft und Ihrer Person, von mir die Widmung eines Buches Uber 'Die Lakedaimonier und ihre Bundesgenossen' (Verlag bei B. G. Teubner) anzunehmen[?]89 Sie wilrden mich erfreuen, wenn Sie gilnstig dieses Anerbieten annehmen und mir gestatten wilrden, in der Widmung [S]ie90 als 'Freund' zu bezeichnen. Ihnen und Gutschmid, meinem Lehrer, der von9 1 Ihnen stets mit groszer Hochachtung gesprochen, babe ich dieses Buch, das Resultat meiner Forschungen wahrend des letzten Jahres zugedacht. Zugleich soll es der9 2 Habilitation vorangehen und die93 akademische Laufbahn vorbereiten, die mich hoffentlich bald zur Selbststandigkeit und der damit verbundenen Erfilllung eines Wunsches filhren wird. Wollen Sie so gut sein, mir bald Ihre Entscheidung zu schreiben. Mir ware es lieb, obwohl erst im Januar das Buch in die Druckerei 87 Apparently written over "heim." 88 This sentence added at the bottom of the page. 89 A period written. 90 Not capitalized. 91 The "d" of "der" apparently written over "zu"; "von" badly written, but I see no alternative. 92 Added. 93 Written over "eine."

26

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

wandert und im Mai erscheinen wird.94 lch wagte dieses Anerbieten, weil die Kriti.ken meiner bisherigen Schriften [[,]] recht ehrenvoll waren -

namentlich von Breitenbach am Schlusse der Einleitung zu seiner Ausgabe der Hellenika Band III,9 5 femer von Riihl im lit. Centralblau,96 von Dr. Koser in den Mittheilungen aus der histor. Literatur ed. Foss,97 endlich in der Westminster-Review98 -

und damach

die Erwartung nicht so unberechtigt ist, das neue Buch werde iihnlichen Beifall finden. Wie Sie aus der Datirung ersehen, bin ich gegenwiirtig in Konigsberg, von wo aus ich alle 3 bis 4 Wochen meine Braut besuche.99 Ich arbeite an dem Buche und bereite rnich zur Habilitation vor, zu der ich im niichsten Sommer zu schreiten gedenke. Auf den Rath von Riihl, Gutschmid, Nissen IC)(), Maurenbrecher habe ich Halle ins Auge gefasst, wo gegenwiirtig der alte Herzberg allein die alte Geschichte vertriu.10 1 Im Siiden habe ich mir doch eine kleine Leber-Anschwellung in Folge von Wechselfieber in Athen geholt. Dasz ich [[iibrigens]] dasselbe gehabt wuszte ich bisher selbst nicht, ich fiihlte mich einige Wochen dort unwohl, ohne Schlimmes zu denken. Diese Leber-Anschwellung hat iibrigens wenig zu bedeuten, der Arzt empfahl rnir nur Schonung, ich darf nicht zu unregelmiiszig leben, nicht zu viel 94 Busolt was often optimistic about when his works would appear; the book was published in 1878 (preface dated 25 February). 95 Ludwig Breitenbach (1813-1885), a pupil of Bemhardy in Halle, remained a Gymnasiallehrer and was Professor at the Gymnasium in Wittenberg. He was the leading specialist of his time on Xenophon and edited the Hellenica in three volumes (Berlin 1873-1876). In the preface to vol. 3 (xvii-xviii) he praised Busolt's Der zweite athenische Bund for its political realism. On him see Iwan MUiier in Bursian 49 (1886) 292-296. 96 On Rilhl, see L 13. His review, LCB 27 (1876) 201-203, complimented especially the description of the league's constitution but pointed out that neither of the two Athenian leagues was a "Bundesstaat," rather they were "Staatenbilnde." Rilhl spells the author's name "Busold" throughout. 91 Mill. aus der histor. lill. 4 (1876) 196-199, where the reviewer, Reinhold Koser, also praised chap. 2 for its detailed treatment of the constitution of the league. Koser (1852-1914) was now a Hilfsarbeiter in the Prussian Academy and was to become Generaldirektor of the Geheimes Staatsarchiv and the leading archivist of his time. His most famous work is his Geschichte Friedrichs des Grossen, 4 vols. (Stuttgart, ed. 6-7, 1912-1914). On him see 0. Hintze, Hist. Zeit. 114 (1915) 65-87; B. vom Brocke, NDB 12 (1980) 613-615. 98 See n. 29 supra. 99 Ida evidently continued to live in Grabowen. lOO Heinrich Nissen (1839-1912), a pupil of Nitzsch, was now o. Prof. of ancient history in Marburg. He had written Kritische Untersuchungen uber die Que/lender vierten undfti.nften Dekade des livius (Berlin 1863) and would later issue ltalische landeskunde, 2 vols. (Berlin 1883-1902) and, among other writings, aDanischer-norwegischer Sprachfuhrer (Leipzig-Vienna 1893). On him see E. Kirsten in Bonner Gelehrte, Geschichtswiss., 190-208 (portrait facing p. 177). lOl Gustav Friedrich Hertzberg (1826-1907) was born in Halle and was long a professor there, writing Geschichte der Stadt Halle, 3 vols. (Halle 1889-1893). His most noted works are Die Geschichte Griechenlands unterder Herrschaft der Romer, 2 vols. (ib. 1866-1868) and Geschichte Griechenlands seit dem Absterben des antiken lebens bis zur Gegenwart, 4 vols. (Gotha 1876-1879); these treat eras of Greek history usually neglected. On him see G. Grimm, NDB 8 (1968) 717-718.

Konigsberg

27

trinken, dann wiirde sich die Sache nach Jahresfrist heben. Uebrigens hat sie das Gute gehabt, dasz ich definitiv vom Militiirdienst freigekommen bin. Wie beneide ich Sie um Ihre schone Reise durch Sicilien, 102 ich kenne nur Photographien von Syrakus, es geniigten aber diese Bilder in mir die Sehnsucht zu erwecken, diese an historischen Erinnerungen so reiche Stadt zu sehen, wo die Macht der Athener scheiterte, so oft gegen die Karthager gekampft wurde, bis endlich Marcellus diese ebenso bedeutende, wie durch ihre innere Geschichte so interessante Stadt in die Gewalt der Romer brachte. Welche Bilder miissen im Geiste vortiberziehen, wenn man die Euryalos-Hohe ersteigt und von derselben auf die Statte der einstigen hellenischen Groszstadt und die Hafen herabsieht. Syrakusl03 und Akragas das sind zwei empfindliche Liicken in meiner Reise! -

Rom babe ich auf der Riickreise nicht bertihrt, ich ftirchtete, ich wiirde

festgehalten werden und den Rest des Geldes ausgeben, den ich fiir Venedig zurtickgelegt. Auszerdem zog es mich machtig nach der Heimath. lch fuhr also von Neapel Uber Foggia -

Ancona -

Bologna direct nach Venedig, wo ich mich

einige Tage, in vollen Ziigen, diese ganz einzige Stadt genieszend, aufhielt. Aber die einstige Konigin des Meeres blickt sehr [[finster]] diister, interessant und reizvoll, aber unheimlich. lch mochte auf die Dauer in Venedig nicht wohnen. Mich zieht es mehr nach Statten, wo das Leben sich lebendig [[und heiter]] in erfrischender, heiterer Umgebung entwickelt. In Venedig konnte ich schwermiithig werden. Aber sehen muszte ich diese Stadt, sie behalt Reiz auch nachdem man viele Eindriicke empfangen und der Sinn davon etwas ermiidet ist. Hat Krauskopf Ihnen nicht geschrieben? Seit dem Juli ist er gliicklicher Ehemann und halt sich gegenwartig in Worlitz bei Dessau auf. Er hat an mich mehrere Male geschrieben und scheint sehr gliicklich zu leben. lch wiinsche das dem braven Menschen von Herzen. Julius104 wurde in Athen erwartet, am 15Il Mai war er noch nicht da. Wo er jetzt steckt, weisz ich nicht. lch habe kein rechtes Zutrauen, dasz trotz der erfreulichen Aussohnung mit seinem Yater etwas Vemiinftiges aus ihm werden wird. Ein Bummeln nach der Studentenzeit ist hochst gefahrlich und zeigtl05 von schwachem Charakter.

102 I cannot date this trip. 103 Umlaut omitted. Busolt nonnally used this mark over "y" even in common words and names such as Meyer. l04 See L 5. 105 The reading is certain, but Busolt continued the syntax as if he had written "zeugt," which would be preferable.

28

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

lch lebe ganz angenehm hier im Kreise meiner alten Universitiitsfreunde. Es ist eine geistig sehr regsame, etwas vom Geiste der kantischen Kritik angehauchte [[,]] Gesellschaft. Wissenschaftliches und politisches Leben - das letztere namentlich bei den Wahlen, die immerhin Aufregung verschaffen, obwohl hier die Fortschrittspartei so einseitig dominirt, dasz von 450 Wahlmlinnem 400 ihr angehorten 106 -

ist sehr rege, kilnstlerisches fehlt, auszer dasz jetzt unter der

Direction Stiigemannsl07 und des vom Leipziger Stadttheater gewonnen OberRegisseurs Seydel ein ganz vortreffliches Theater ist, das vorzugsweise 10 8 klassische Dramen und Opem cultivirt. Der Winter ist schon eingezogen, wir haben schon 3-4° Frost und Schneefall gehabt. In Italien war es doch anders, indessen halt unser Klima den Geist frischer. Ob Kants Kritik in Italien hiitte erstehen konnen, ist doch sehr fraglich? Mit herzlichen Grilszen an Ihren Neffen, 109 -

Dank iibrigens fiir den Grusz durch

Professor Walter, 110 einen hochst liebenswilrdigen Mann, er erwidert den Grusz -

seien Sie herzlich gegrilszt und behalten femerhin in gutem Andenken Ihren

Ihnen freundschaftlich ergebenen G. Busoit.111

106 Busolt was a political conservative (on his attitude toward "women's liberation" see L 104). The Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (DFP) was founded in 1861; it supported the unity of Gennany under Prussian leadership (this would have appealed to Busolt) and such liberal causes as the responsibility of ministers, separation of church and state, and civil marriage. It was strongest in cities and reached its height in the years before 1866, when many of its members (who later Conned the "National Liberals") defected. In 1884 the DFP fused with the "Liberale Vereinigung." Prussia used a complex system of voting in which financial standing played a part. "Wahlmllnner" were electors, used to choose members of the lower house of the Prussian parliament. Late in 1876 there was a sharp confrontation between the DFP and the National Liberals, in which the DFP fought for its old liberal positions, including more power for the parliament; a general election was held on 10 January 1877. 107 Max Stligemann (1843-1905) was a famous baritone, noted for his Don Giovanni. He directed the Kfinigsberger Stadttheater, 1875-1879, and also established symphonic concerts. His era in Kfinigsberg was a brilliant one, but he left because the city would not support his expensive budget: Gause, Gesch. der Stadt Konigsberg (Cologne-Graz 1965-1971) III 732. On him see H. Giittler, Altpreuj3ische Biographie II (Marbach/Lahn 1967) 689; on the history of the Stadttheater, E. Moser, Kiinigsberger Theatergeschichte (Konigsberg 1927); Kiinigsberger Stadttheater, Festschrift zur Wiedereriiffnung am 27. August 1918 (ib. 1918). Among those who served as music directors at the Stadttheater were Richard Wagner and Felix Weingartner. 108 "vor" evidently wriuen over "sein." l09 See L 4. l lO Julius Walter (1841-1922), through whom Hehn had sent greetings to Busolt, was o. Prof. of education in Kfinigsberg. Among his writings are the Kantian Die Lehre von der praktischen Vernunft in der griechischen Philosophie (Jena 1874) and Die Geschichte der Asthetik im Altertum (Leipzig 1893). 111 The last four sentences written down the left margin of the fourth and third pages respectively.

Konigsberg

29

Busolt's first opportunity to obtain a university position arose in 1877. Nissen was about to leave Marburg for Gottingen, where he became (1877-1879) that university's first Ordinarius for ancient history as opposed to classical philology or history in general. The faculty in Marburg appointed a committee or Kommission to nominate a successor, comprising Carl Julius Caesar, 112 Ernst Adolf Herrmann,113 Leopold Schmidt,114 Nissen himself, and Eduard Varrentrapp. 11 5 The report of the Kommission (25 June 1877) is extant in Marburg.116 The report evaluates three candidates: Busolt; Benedictus Niese (18491910),117 Privatdozent in Gottingen; and Victor Gardthausen (1843-1925), ao. Professor in Leipzig.118 The report discussed first Busolt, then Niese and Gardthausen, but with emphasis on the absolute neutrality of the order. The Kommission consulted von Gutschmid, who was now in Ttibingen. He stated that he thought Niese the better man in classical scholarship but Busolt stronger in history (see L 8, L 9); he evidently told Busolt his opinion. He is probably the source of the Kommission's statement that Busolt had somewhat neglected his philological training. The section of the report evaluating Busolt follows.

112 Caesar (1816-1886) promoted in Marburg and stayed there pennanently. He wrote especially on Greek lyric meters, e.g. Die Grundziige der griechischen Rhythmik etc. (Marburg 1861). On him see B. Niese in Bursian 49 (1886) 174-176; P. Hartwig in Centralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen 3 (1886) 514-524. 113 Hemnann (1812-1884), a specialist in Russian history, promoted in Berlin, 1837, gained Habilitation in Jena, and was o. Prof. in Marburg, 1857-1884. See E. Stengel, ADB 55 (1910) 489-493. 114 Schmidt (1824-1892) was o. Prof. of philosophy in Marburg, 1863-1892. He wrote Die Ethik der a/ten Griechen, 2 vols. (Berlin 1882); see T. Birt, ADB 54 (1908) 107-110. 115 1844-1911, o. Prof. of medieval and modem history in Marburg, 1874-1890 and 1901-1909. 11 6 Staatsarchiv Marburg, Best. 307d, Nr. 114, Bd. 1. 11 7 JOrgen Anton Benedictus Niese had been a pupil of von Gutschmid in Kiel before the latter moved to Konigsberg. He was to distinguish himself in classical philology (his edition of Josephus, 7 vols., Berlin 1885-1895) and no less in history with his Geschichte der griechischen und malcedonischen Staaten seit der Schlacht von Chaeronea, 3 vols. (Gotha 1893-1903), which was intended to continue Busolt's history in the same series of handbooks. Like Busolt, Niese also contributed to Mllller's Handbuch with his GrundrijJ der romischen Geschichte nebst Quellenkunde (ed. 5 by E. Hohl, Munich 1923). On Niese, see K. Boysen in Bursian 164 (1913) 41-64. 118 Gardthausen is best known for his Griechische PaltJographie (Leipzig 1879; ed. 2, 2 vols., ib. 1911-1913); he edited a Catalogus codicum Graecorum Sinaiticorum (Oxford 1886); in historical studies he wrote Augustus und seine ait, 2 vols. (Leipzig 1891-1904). See his autobiography in Die Geschichtswissenschaft der Gegenwart in Selbstdarstellungen, ed. S. Steinberg, II (Leipzig 1926) 85-116.

30

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

Dl Marburg d. 25n Juni [1877) Das Ergebni8 ausgedehnter Erkundigungen und langer Erwagungen glauben wir dahin zusammen fassen zu sollen, da8 wir die Aufmerksamkeit [[des Herm Ministers]] 11 9 auf drei jilngere Gelehrte hinlenken, welche nach verschiedenen Richtungen hin als Ersatz filr die entstandene Liicke unseres Lehrkorpers in Betracht zu ziehen sein wilrden. Hierzu bemerken wir ausdriicklich, da8 die Reihenfolge ihrer Aufzahlung keinen Ma8stab fiir unsere Werthschatzung derselben enthalt, sowie daB wir es zweckma8ig erachten wilrden fiir den Fall, daB der Herr Minister einen der beiden zuerst Genannten berufen sollte, wenn solches vorlaufig bis auf weitere Erprobung in der Eigenschaft eines auBerordentlichen Professors geschahe. Durch litterarische Leistungen hat sich Dr. Georg Busolt z.Z. in Konigsberg vortheilhaftl20 bekannt gemacht. Derselbe 1850 bei Insterburg geboren, studierte 1869-75 zu Konigsbergl21 in den ersten drei Jahren vorzugsweise Geschichte, in den beiden letzten Philosophie. Er veroffentlichte 1874 eine Schrift iiber den zweiten attischen Bund (Leipzig. 224 SS.8.) ferner nach seiner Promotion 1875 eine von der Universitat zu Konigsberg gekronte Preisschrift: .,die Grundzilge der Erkenntnistheorie und Metaphysik Spinozas" (Berlin. 186 SS.8.). Hierauf unternahm er eine Reise nach Rom und Griechenland und beschaftigte sich nach seiner Riickkehr im Sommer 1876 mit der Abfassung eines groBeren Werkes iiber den peloponnesischen Bund, dessen Erscheinen bevorsteht. Er beabsichtigt sich an einer preu8ischen Universitat zu habilitiren und verspricht nach Aussage seiner Lehrer ein [[tiichtiger]] anregender Docent zu werden. Die seltene Verbindung historischen und philosophischen Wissens, welche diesen jungen Gelehrten auszeichnet, berechtigt zu auBergewohnlichen Erwartungen, jedoch scheint er seine philologische Ausbildung auf der Universitat vernachlassigt zu haben. Und wenn manl22 auch [[ ...]] seiner Begabung und Energie zutrauen darf, daB er diesen Mangel123 vollstandig beseitigenl24 werde, so befinden wir uns doch nicht in der

119 The Kultusminister was still Adalben Falk. 120 Added above the line. 121 "zu KOnigsberg" originally placed after "Geschichte" later in the sentence. 122 "man ... darf' was originally "wir ... diirfen." 123 Originally "diese Lucke." 124 Originally "ausfUllen."

Konigsberg

31

Lage 125 ihn mit besonderem Nachdruck126 fiir die hier erledigte Professur zu empfehlen. Niese received, as the committee had pointed out, an equally strong evaluation, while Gardthausen fell short only in publications that would clearly show his abilities in historical research. For completeness' sake, and because it has not been published elsewhere, I give the rest of the report. Wahrend Busolts Interesse sich von vornherein gro8en historischen Problemen zuwandte, hat Dr. Benedictus Niese eine Reihe von Specialuntersuchungen veroffentlicht, welche von Scharfsinn Akribie und philologischer Bildung in sehr anerkennenswerter Weise zeugen. Derselbe 1849 auf Fehmam geboren, studirte seit 1863 in Kiel und Bonn Philologie und Geschichte, machte als Freiwilliger im 36. Regiment den franzosischen Krieg mit, promovirte 1872 in Kiel summa cum laude 127 und erhielt im Oberlehrer-Examen ein 2.eugnis ersten Grades. Eine kurze Zeit als Probecandidat am Gymnasium zu Flensburg thatig, hat er alsdann 2 Jahre die italienischen sowie die pariser Bibliotheken hauptsachlich fiir beabsichtigte kritische Ausgaben des Josephos und Stephanos von Byzanz durchforscht.128 Im Sommer 1876 habilitirte er sich in Gottingen fiir Philologie und Geschichte, 129 las im vergangenen Winter mit Erfolg ilber Homer und hatte fiir diesen Sommer Romische Kaisergeschichte angekilndigt. Seine Arbeiten haben [[ ... ]] bei den Fachgenossen verdienten Beifall gefunden: wir heben namentlich die Schrift ilber den homerischen Schiffskatalog als historische Quelle (Kiel. 1873. 59 SS.8.) sowie den im elften Band des Hermes erschienenen Aufsatz ilber die Urkunden bei Josephos hervor.130 Nach dem [[ ... ]] vorliegenden Material milssen wir dem{,} uns von verschiedenen Notabilitaten der historisch-archaologischen Wissenschaften ausgesprochenem Urtheil beischlie8en, da8 Dr. Niese rasch in einer ihm ilbertragenen Professur sich zurecht finden und als Lehrer wie als Forscher gleich ersprie8lich wirken wird. 125 "nicht in der Lage" above the line, written above something deleted. 126 "mit ... Nachdruck" bracketed, replaced with "unbedenklich" above the line; a marginal note initialed C. (Caesar) records: Nach Beschlu8 der Fak. in der Sitzung am 28/6 sind die Worte "mit besonderem Nachdruck" durch "unbedenldich" zu ersctzen. 127 With his De Stephani Byzantii auctoribus commentatio I (Kiel 1873). 128 "beabsichtigte ... des" originally after "Byzanz." 129 His Habilitation was based on his dissertation and on his Der homerische Schiffskata/og (Kiel

1873).

130 "Bemerkungen Uber die Urkunden bei Josephos Archaeol. B. XIII. XIV. XVI.," Hermes 11

(1876) 466-488.

32

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

In beiden Richtungen hat sich bereits der zu Leipzig wirkende auBerordentliche Professor Dr. Victor Gardthausen bewiihrt. Derselbe aus dem 131 Holsteinischen [[geboren]] stammend, studirte 1865-68 in Kiel und Bonn Philologie und Geschichte, promovirte im December 1868 in Kiet,132 nahm als Freiwilliger im 36. Regiment am franzosischen Kriege theil, verbrachte vor und nach dem Kriege mehrere Jahre in Italien mit Studien auf den dortigen Bibliotheken, wie er denn auch Athen besucht hat. Seit dem Sommer 1873 hat er in Leipzig als Privatdocent, neuerdings als auBerordentlicher Professor gelehrt und Uber Griech. und Rom. Quellenkunde, Griechische Geschichte, Geschichte der Rom. Republik und Kaiserzeit, Topographic von Rom, Griech. Paliiographie, Herodot, Cicero's Briefe, Tacitus und Ammianus Marcellinus mit Erfolg gelesen. Da iiuBere Umstiinde ihn notigten daneben eine anstrengende Bibliothekarstelle zu versehen, so muB man den FleiB um so hoher anschlagen, der ihm da eine Reihe tUchtiger Arbeiten auBerdem hervorzubringen ermoglichte. Dieselben betreffen die kritische Grundlage des Textes von Ammian's Geschichte, welche er Leipzig 1874 und 75 edirt hat,133 dagegen in neuerer Zeit die Griechische Paliiographie, Uber welche ein Handbuch von ihm in nahe Aussicht gestellt ist.13 4 Wir bedauem es daB seine Thiitigkeit sich von denjenigen Gebieten fern gehalten hat, welche [[von ...... ]] ftir das Studium [[ ...... ]] auf kleineren Universitiiten das hauptsiichliche Interesse in Anspruch nehmen. Namentlich fehlt es -

von der Ubrigens guten Abhandlung Uber

die geographischen Quellen Ammians abgesehenl35 - an Leistungen, welche Uber seinen Beruf als Historiker ein zweifelloses Urtheil verstatteten.136 Wir glauben dies um so weniger verschweigen zu dUrfen, als wir sonst einem [[ ... ]] Gelehrten, der sowol als lateinischer Philolog wie als akademischer Docent sich durchaus erprobt hat, die niichste Anwartschaft auf die erledigte Professur zuerkennen mUBten. gez. Casar. Herrmann. L. Schmidt. Nissen. Varrentrapp. [[die philosophische Facultiit]]

131 Written above something deleted. 132 The words "promovirte ... Kiel" in the right margin, after which is written and deleted "auf Grund einer raschen im Druck erschienenen Abhandlung unter dem Titel coniectanea Ammianea"; this was published in Kiel, 1869. 133 Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt (Leipzig 1874-1875). 134 N. 118 supra. 135 Gardthausen 's Habilitation in Leipzig was based on his Die geographischen Que/len Ammians (Leipzig 1873), also published in Neue Jahrb. Suppl. 6 (1872/3) 507-556. 136 Written above "ermllglichen" (deleted).

Konigsberg

33

The report makes it clear that the position called for equal competence in classical philology and ancient history. But, even though the order in which Busolt and Niese were discussed in the report was allegedly neutral, the committee met three days after the official date of the report and replaced the words "mit besonderem Nachdruck" in the evaluation of Busolt with "unbedenklich." This suggests that the writers were leaning toward him at the last minute and were trying to mitigate their criticism of his training in philology. In any case, the Philosophical Faculty chose Niese, "und zwar aus dem von der Facultiit geltend gemachten Grund"; evidently in the final discussions the need for a man equally strong in philology and history became paramount, and Niese received the call. Moreover, he already had his Habilitation, and it is noteworthy that Busolt was considered his equal even though he had not yet gained his full qualifications. Niese became ao. Professor at a salary of 2000 marks, with a subsidy of 400 marks for housing, as from 1 October 1877, with the specific charge of sharing the direction of the Seminar for ancient history. 137 We may digress briefly on Niese's career in Marburg. He became Ordinarius on 8 January 1880 at a salary of 3500 marks (plus 700 for housing). But in December 1880 Caesar and Schmidt, who had helped to select him in 1877, learned that the state was about to transfer him to Breslau. They appealed to the Curator at ~ ~arburg, asking him to prevent this change. He in turn wrote to the Kultusminister, 138 who however replied (27 December) that he had decided to transfer Niese to Breslau as from 1 April 1881 and could not accede to the request of Caesar and Schmidt. He authorized Marburg to offer proposals for a successor, "mit thunlichster Beschleunigung."139 The call went to Eugen Bormann (1842-1917), a pupil ofMommsen.140 He remained in Marburg until 1885, when he left permanently for Vienna. Niese then let it be known that he would be willing to return to Marburg, and the Philosophical Faculty proposed to the Academic Senate, in an eloquent letter, that he be

13? On the history of the seminar, see K. Christ, "Zurn lOOjllhrigen Bestehen des Seminars fiir Alte Geschichte der Philipps-Universitllt," Alma Mater Philippina, Sommersemester 1972, 11-14; id., in Academia Marburgensis (Marburg/Lahn 1977) 241-301. 138 Robert Viktor von Puttkamer (1828-1900) was Kultusminister 1879-1881; on him see Annemarie von Puukamer in Pommersc~ Lebensbilder I (Stettin 1934) 234-244. 13 9 See n. 116 supra; the letter is on p. 56. 140 Bonnann attended Schulpforte and promoted in Berlin with De Syriae provinciae Romanae partibus capita nonnulla, 1865. He collaborated on CIL VI and on JG XIV and himself edited CIL XI (Berlin 1888-1901). On him see W. Kubitschek in Die Feierlic~ Inauguration des Rektors der Wiener Universitlit ... /91711918 (Vienna 1917) 51-59.

34

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

recalled. 14 1 If this should encounter unforeseen obstacles, the faculty recommended Eduard Meyer (1855-1930), who was then ao. Professor in Leipzig and had just issued the first volume of his Geschichte des Altertums.142 But this time the faculty got its wish, and Niese returned in 1885, remaining until 1906, when he moved to Halle. Busolt duly finished his Die Lakedaimonier und ihre Bundesgenossen and published it in spring 1878; this earned him Habilitation (on 14 June) in Konigsberg, where he was now appointed Privatdozent as from summer semester 1878. In those times such appointments brought no salary beyond "Horergeld," 143 but they gave a young scholar recognition (Niese had been Privatdozent in Gottingen when he was appointed in Marburg) and practice in lecturing. Busolt sent a copy of his new book to Hehn, who acknowledged it and wrote that he planned to take it with him on a trip to Bad Ragaz. Busolt replied humorously to this compliment, for the work ("written in my tiny smoke-filled study") is hardly hammock reading, and gave Hehn an account of his first semester's teaching, an interesting look into the life of a Privatdozent. His letter portrays clearly his anxiety toward obtaining a position and hints at the contrast between his status and that of Hehn, a well-off bachelor ("where do you plan to go for the winter?"). LS Busolt to Hehn Konigsberg Kessel-Str 6 30 Sept. 1878. Hochverehrter Freund, mit einigem Schrecken las ich in Ihrem liebenswtirdigen Briefe, dasz Sic die Absicht batten, meine doch ziemlich trockenen Forschungen nach Ragazl44 mitzunehmen. Nun, ich will hoffen, dasz das in meiner etwas beengten und 141 Staatsarchiv Marburg (n. 115 supra), p. 70: "Haben wir ... schon darnals den Weggang Niese's schmerzlich empfunden, so isl der Wunsch jetzt ihn wieder zu gewinnen noch lebhafter feworden in Folge seiner hervorragenden literarischen Leistungen," etc. 42 Meyer became the universal historian of incredible range. His profound training in classics at the Johanneum in Hamburg enabled him to move directly into learning Hittite, Egyptian, and oriental languages. His major works are too many to cite even in selection. On him see K. Christ, Von Gibbon zu Rostovtzeff (Darmstadt 1972) 286-333; M. Gelzer, Gnomon 6 (1930) 622-624; E. Marohl, Eduard Meyer (Stuttgart 1941), with bibliography, a short autobiographic sketch, and a ''Gedllchtnisrede" by Ulrich Wilcken. 143 In fact, Busolt received some extraordinary remuneration (see L 28). 144 Now Bad Ragaz, a thermal resort at the confluence of the Tamina and the Rhine in Switzerland.

Konigsberg

35

verrliucherten Studirstube geschriebene Buch Ihnen beim Genusze der frischen, freien Natur nicht gar zu abschreckend vorgekommen ist. Mit freudiger Genugthuung kann ich Ihnen mittheilen, dasz es in der gelehrten Welt eine giinstige Aufnahme gefunden hat, wenigstens haben sich die ersten Autoritliten auf dem Gebiet der griechischen Geschichte in sehr wohlwollender Weise dariiber brieflich ausgesprochen. Das wlirmste Lob spendet wider Erwarten Gutschmid dem Boche, wlihrend er Uber meinen 'zweiten athenischen Bond' sich namentlich in Bezug auf das Philologische recht kiihl geliuszert hatte. Gutschmid meint, meine Schrift iiber die Lakedaimonier vermeide alle Pehler meiner frtihem Forschungen und vereinige deren Vorziige. Auch Nitzsch urtheilt ausnehmend giinstig, und ebenso haben Kirchhoff145 und Arnold Schaefer146 ihr( e) groszes Interesse an meinen Forschungen ausgedriickt und mich zur energischen Fortsetzung derselben ennuthigt. Kritiken in wissenschaftlichen Bliittern sind bisher noch nicht erschienen. Indessen darf ich mich bereits der Hoffnung hingeben, dasz sich die Kritik so iiber das Werk liuszern wird, dasz Sie sich der Widmung 147 nicht zu schlimen brauchen. Vielleicht interessiren Sie einige Mittheilungen dariiber, wie es mir als jun gem Privatdocenten im ersten Semester meiner Lehrthlitigkeit gegangen ist. Da ich von vome herein bescheidene Ansprilche stellte und mir nicht verhehlte, dasz ein Privatdocent zufrieden sein musz, wenn er iiberhaupt ein Colleg zu Stande bringt und eir;! praktische Docententhatigkeit ausiiben kann, so bin ich [[Uber]] von dem Verlauf des Semesters im Allgemeinen durchaus befriedigt. Ich las zweisttindig iiber das perikleische Zeitalter und die erste Periode des peloponnesischen Krieges, indem ich [[weiter..... ]] Riihls1 48 Vorlesung tiber griechische Geschichte fortsetzte. Im Sommer-Semester Iese ich dann Geschichte

145 Adolf Kirchhoff (1826-1908), a pupil of Lachmann and Bck:kh, studied and taught only in Berlin, where he was o. Prof. of classics, 1865-1908. He edited Euripides, Aeschylus, and Plotinus, as well as C/G IV 2 (Christian inscriptions, Berlin 1859) and CIA I and Supplements (ib. 1873-1891); and wrote Thukydides und sein Urkundenmaterial (ib. 1895). On him see 0. Schroeder in Bursian 141 (1908) 150-175. 146 Schaefer (1819-1883) was o. Prof. of history, Bonn. Best known to ancient historians through his Demosthenes und seine Zeit, ed. 2, 3 vols. (Leipzig 1885-1887), he exemplifies the older tradition in which stood figures like Nitzsch. Outstanding among all his works may be his Geschichte des siebenjahrigen Krieges, 2 vols. (Berlin 1867-1874). On him see R. Schmidt in Bonner Gelehrte, Geschichtswiss., 170-189 (portrait facing p. 176); J. Asbach, ADB 30 (1890)

521-524.

147 Busolt dedicated Die lakedaimonier to von Gutschmid and (with Hehn's permission: see L 7) to "meinem Freunde Victor Hehn," as "ebenso ein Zeichen besonderer Hochachtung, wie ein Hinweis auf die Lebendigkcit der werthvollen Erinncrungen, welche sich an die in Rom zusammen verlebten Stunden kniipfen." 148 On Ruhl see L 13.

36

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

von Hellas und Groszgriechenland von der siciliscben Expedition der Athener bis zurl49 Schlacbt bei Cbaeronea und dem Tode Timoleons. Es batten fiinf Studenten mein Colleg angenommen, und der Besucb war recbt regelmaszig. Mit dem Inhalthe meines Vortrages war man zufrieden. Ander Form des Vortrages feblte jedoch Mancbes, wie es ja bei einem jungen Docenten im ersten Semester nicht anders sein kann. lch las anfangs zu scbnell und babe micb aucb vom Heft noch nicht gehorig emancipirt. Docb das wird sicb ja wobl im nacbsten Semester finden. Die sogenannten 'bessem' Studenten verlangen beute zu Tage nicbt sowobl eine Darstellung der betreffenden Epochen, Uber die man liest, sondem so viel als moglicb Forscbungsmaterial. Und in der Regel wirdja aucb von den Docenten, so namentlicb von Gutscbmid, diesem Verlangen entgegengekommen. Allein ich theile mit Nitzsch die Ansicbt, dasz darunter die allgemeine historiscbe Bildung der Studenten leidet, wenn sie zu vie! Detailforscbungen zu boren bekommen, obwobl das ja in l50 methodiscber Hinsicht recbt bildend ist. Dafiir sind indessen die 'bistorischen Uebungen' im Seminar. Ich gebe also im Allgemeinen eine Darstellung, [[und]] erortere nur die wicbtigsten Streitfragen, und fiibre nur das bauptsacblicbste Forscbungsmaterial an. Da meine Zuborer recbt aufmerksam waren, so habe icb mit vielem Vergniigen docirt und icb bin iiberzeugt, dasz icb mich in keiner andem Lebensstellung151 so wohl fiihlen wiirde, wie in der eines Docenten. lcb kann mich gar nicht recht entschlieszen, den Gedanken einzufiihren, zunachst eine Stellung als Lehrer am Gymnasium zu suchen und darauf zu verzichten, alle meine Kraft dem Weiterforschen zu widmen. Nun sprechen aber auch sebr gewichtige Momente dafiir, dasz icb ( mich} 152 noch bis zum nachsten Sommer ausscblieszlicb bei der Universitatslaufbahn [[widmen]] bleibe. Wider alles Erwarten sind durcb Tod zweier jungen Professoren fiir alte Geschicbte im Sommersemester zwei Vacanzen eingetreten. Im Mai starb 32jahrig Professor

149 Originally "zum." 150 Added. 151 Originally "Lebenstellung." 152 "mich" and "bei" added; he forgot to delete "mich" after deleting "widmen."

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Villmansl53 in Straszburg, Endel54 Juli Professor J. J Millier in Ztirich. Nissen, dessen Stellung in [[Straszburg]] Gottingen unhaltbar geworden war, setzte seine Berufung nach Straszburg durcb.155 In Folge dessen ist Gottingen vacant geworden. Man hat sich bisher in Gottingen noch nicht entscheiden konnen, wie ich bore, will Mommsen Bormann nach Gottingen bringen. Andrerseits hat man auch Niese ins Auge gefasst. Sollte Niese berufen werden, so dtirfte wohl Marburg fiir mich frei werden, da die Opposition von Gutschmid und mein geflihrlichster Concurrentl56 fortfallt. Natilrlich verhalte ich mich, durch die Marburger Affaire vor anderthalb Jahren belehn,157 ganz passiv. An wen man in Zilrich denkt, weisz ich nicht. Daneben soil aber noch gegen Ende dieses Semester in Greifswald eine a.o. Professur filr alte Geschichte geschaffen werden, da Hirschl58 bereits ziemlich alt geworden ist. Sie sehen also, die Chancen sind so gut, wie sie es selten gewesen sind. Es ware thoricht, gerade jetzt die Flinte ins Korn zu werfen. lch mache mich vielmehr mit aller Kraft heran und hoffe, trotzdem ich Uber romische Geschichte Iese, im Frtihjahre den 2n Band ediren zu konnen.159 Mein Brautchen [sic] musz freilich warten, aber, wenn ich Gymnasiallehrer werden wilrde, so hatte ich doch zunachst einen so geringen Gehalt, dasz ich vor zwei Jahren nicht heirathen konnte. Und sollte ich unter den 153 Gustav Villmans (1845-1878), o. Prof. in Strassburg, was a pupil of Mommsen, who enlisted him to work on the Corpus lnscriptionum Latinarum. Two journeys to Africa to collect material appear to have weakened his health. He published De sacerdotiorum populi Romani quodom genere (Berlin 1868) and Exempla inscriptionum Latinarum in usum praecipue academicum, 2 vols. (ib. 1873). On him see Bursian (?) in Bursian 12 (1878) 1-2. 154 Written over something else. - Johann Jakob Millier (1847-1878) was trained in Zurich and taught there, becoming o. Prof. in 1875. Ill health forced him to stop teaching in 1877. A pupil of Max Bildinger (1828-1902), he published "Untersuchungen ilber den Geschichtsschreiber L. Marius Maximus" in Untersuc/,J,tngen zur romischen Kaisergeschichte, ed. Bildinger, III (Leipzig 1870) 17202 and work on the sources of Liudprand of Cremona in Untersuchungen zur mittleren Geschichte, ed. Bildinger (ib. 1871). On the successor to Millier, see on L 9. 155 On Nissen's departure from G0ttingen for Strassburg, seep. 39 infra. 156 Niese. 157 When Niese, not Busolt, was appointed ao. Prof. (D I supra). 158 Theodor Hirsch ( 1806-1881) was another mem berof the generation before specialist professors of ancient history: his main field was the history of Danzig. He promoted in Berlin, 1831, and later became director of the Danziger Stadtarchiv; his most famous work is Danzigs Handels- und Gewerbsgeschichte unter der Herrschaft des deutschen Ordens (Leipzig 1858). He was called to Greifswald as o. Prof. of history, 1865. He died suddenly on 17 February 1881 while lecturing. The putative appointment of an Extraordinarius, mentioned here by Busolt, was not made. Wilamowitz, who was then in Greifswald, wrote to Mommsen on the day Hirsch died, asking advice about a successor: Mommsen-Wilamowitz, Briefwechsel (Berlin 1935) no. 89, p. 104. Mommsen warned against Beloch ("dio ce ne guardi") and said "Besser als alle scheint mir Seeck"; Otto Seeck (1850-1921), a pupil of Mommsen and Privatdozent in Berlin, was appointed ao. Prof.; on him see chap. III n. 299. - On Hirsch see E. Winkelmann, ADB 13 (1881) 506-509; E. Bahr, Alf,reujJische Biographie III (Marburg/Lahn 1975) 956. 15 That is, a second volume of Die Lakedaimonier, which never appeared.

38

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

jetztigen Verhiiltnissen bis dahin nicht schon liingst eine Professur haben? Freilich mache ich mir keine Illusionen und empfinde die Ungewiszheit der Zukunft oft recht driickend und um so driickender als meine pecuniiire Existenz oft sehr zweifelhaft ist und ich mich mit Miihe und Noth durchschlagen musz. -

Der

Sommer verlief mir unter ernster Arbeit und ziemlich traurig, da Typhus in meiner Familie herrschte und namentlich die Schwester160 meiner Braut Wochen und Wochen hindurch sehr schwer krank lag. -

Nun aber wie geht es Ihnen? Wo

haben Sie den Sommer verlebt, und woher gedenken Sie, sich zum Winter hinzuwenden? Was treiben Sie in wissenschaftlicher Hinsicht? Ich hatte die Absicht, mich im September oder October einmal in Berlin sehen zu lassen, muszte aber diese Absicht aufgeben, weil es mir an den nothigen Mitteln fehlte. Bevor ich Professor werde[[n]), diirften wir uns schwerlich wiedersehen. Von Ihrem Versprechen,161 zu meiner Hochzeit zu kommen, entbinde ich Sie nicht. Sie konnen dabei zugleich Friedlander besuchen. -

Wissen Sie etwas von unsern romischen Bekanntschaften, als Krauskopf, Julius und Remeis? Hier in Thule 162 hort man wenig. Was macht Ihr Neffe? Ein literarisches Product von ihm ist mir bisher nicht zu Gesicht gekommen. -

Leben Sie recht wohl, seien Sie herzlich gegriiszt und behalten Sie in freundlichem Andenken Ihren Sie hochschiitzenden Freund Georg Busolt Busolt's correspondence with Hehn lapsed for a year, while he continued as Privatdozent in Konigsberg through his third semester, summer 1879. He then learned that a chair in Kiel had become vacant through the appointment of C. A. Volquardsen (1840-1917) in Gottingen; we may digress to look at the history of this appointment. Heinrich Nissen, as we have seen, was Professor of ancient history in Marburg (1870-1877). In 1877 Curt Wachsmuth (1837-1905) 163 left Gottingen for Heidelberg and Nissen was called as his successor, thus becoming the first Ordinarius for ancient history in Gottingen. Then in spring 1878 Villmans died in Strassburg, and Nissen at once had his eye on this chair. On 3 June 1878 he wrote 160 Either Maria (1853-?) or Bertha (1862-?). l6l Originally "Ihr Versprechen"; "Von" and "em" added. 162 The land (Iceland?) imagined as the northern end of the world by classical geographers. 163 On Wachsmuth, see chap. III n. 50.

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39

to the Kultusministerium that he might accept the appointment in Strassburg, "weil mir Strassburg fiir meine wissenschaftliche und personliche Existenz bedeutende Vortheile vor Gottingen zu bieten schiene." 164 He announced his intention to leave Gottingen, which was unhappy to lose him after only a year. Hermann Sauppe (1809-1893), the classicist, and Reinhold Pauli (1823-1882), the historian, wrote to the ministry on 21 June, bemoaning Nissen's sudden decision and professing themselves unable to name a successor before October.165 On 17 July the faculty in Gottingen drew up a list of candidates, in the order von Gutschmid (since 1877 in Tiibingen), Wachsmuth, and Ulrich Koehler, who was still working in Athens. Koehler declined consideration, preferring to stay in Greece, and Wachsmuth said he had no interest in returning to Gottingen.166 The faculty in Gottingen now had in effect no list and had to draw up a new one. Meanwhile Herzog in Berlin, who was responsible for Elsass-Lothringen in the Reichskanzler-Amt, delayed Nissen's departure until 1 April 1879. Gottingen's new list of 21 November 1878 added Niese and Volquardsen and retained von Gutschmid.167 Mommsen recommended von Gutschmid and then placed Niese ahead of Volquardsen.168 But on 4 July 1879 the Kultusminister, Adalbert Falk, wrote to Volquardsen informing him that he would be appointed. As we now know (see L 39), Volquardsen preferred to remain in Kiel, but he yielded to the pressure from the Kultusminister and agreed to take the chair in Gottingen. It is not clear what tipped the scales to Volquardsen: 169 perhaps his seniority and experience, but the appointment was not destined for great success. In any case, he was appointed as from 1 October 1879 at a salary of 5000 marks plus 540 marks for housing. Busolt heard of the chair in Kiel and saw it as his last hope for the foreseeable future; he wrote to Hehn asking for his help.

164 ZStA Merseburg, Rep. 76V 8 Sekt. 6, Tit. IV, Nr. l, Bd. VIII, p. 26. 165 lb. p. 30. 166 lb. p. 60. 167 lb. p. 79. 168 lb. p. 126 (9 December). 169 Christian August Volquardsen, a pupil of von Gutschmid in Kiel, had wriuen Untersuchungen

aber die Quellen der griechischen und sicilischen Geschichte bei Diodor (Kiel 1868) and was the first Ordinarius for ancient history there, 1874-1879. On him see K. Jordan in Geschichte der Christian-Albrechts-Universitlit Kiel 1665-1965 V (Ncumilnster 1969) 67-68.

40

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

L9 Busolt to Hehn Konigsberg Kessel-Str 6 24 Sept. 1879 Hochverehrter Freund, Sie werden gewiss i.iberrascht sein, nach Jahresfrist ganz unvennittelt von mir einen eingeschriebenen Briefl 70 zu erhalten. Nun ich liesz den Brief deshalb einschreiben, weil ich nicht weisz, wo Sie sich gegenwiirtig aufhalten, und es mir viel darauf ankommt, dasz Sie den Brief erhalten. Doch ich will gleich medias in res gehen! Es di.irfte Ihnen vielleicht bekannt sein, dasz durch die Versetzung Volquardsens von Kiel nach Gottingen der Lehrstuhl fi.ir alte Geschichte in Kiel vacant geworden ist. Vor Volquardsen hatten diesen Lehrstuhl meine Lehrer Nitzsch und Gutschmid inne.1 71 Volquardsen selbst ist Schi.iler Gutschmids. Alle drei haben mit Kiel ihre ak:ademische Laufbahn begonnen. Sie ersehen daraus, dasz die Traditionen kaum gi.instiger fi.ir mich lie gen konnen. In der That interessirt sich denn auch Nitzsch mit warmer Theilnahme fi.ir meine Berufung und Volquardsen ist -

wie mir Nitzsch schreibt, 'entschieden' fi.ir mich, [[']] ohne dasz ich je

Beziehungen zu ihm gehabt hlitte. Die Sache hat nur einen Haken. Volquardsen ist bereits in Gottingen, und die entscheidende Stimme in Kiel hat Schirren. 172 Mit diesem hat aber keiner meiner beiden Lehrer Beziehungen, Nitzsch kann sich leider nicht an ihn wenden, obwohl seiner Meinung nach die Sache ftir mich entschieden ware, wenn es nur gellinge, Schirren irgendwie in meinem Sinne zu interessiren.

170 In English tenninology, a registered letter. 171 Nitzsch, 1844-1862; von Gutschmid, 1862-1873. For a survey of ancient history in Kiel, see K. Telschow, "Die Aile Geschichte in Lehre und Forschung ... in Kiel bis zu ihrer Etablierung als eigensUlndiges Fach," in Symposionfiir Alfred Heuss, ed. J. Bleicken (Frankf. Althistorische Studien 12, 1986), 67-84. The arrival of von Gutschmid, 1863, marked the establishment of ancient history as a separate field (he became Ordinarius in 1866); Telschow carries the story down through Volquardsen's death (1917) but says little about Busolt 172 Carl Christian Gerhard Schirren (1826-1910), o. Prof. of medieval and modem history in Kiel, 1874-1910. Born in Riga, he was one of the Gennan natives of "Livland" (Livonia) who taught in the University of Dorpat until, by decision of Czar Alexander III, Russian began to be the compulsory language of instruction and Dorpat lost many of its best men. Schirren was forced from his post in 1869 after publishing his "LivUlndische Antwort" (see chap. IV n. 59). For infonnative memoirs about Dorpat, see A. von Harnack, Aus tier Friedens- und Kriegsarbeit (Giessen 1916) 362-373; for particulars about other scholars there, J. F. Gilliam, "Rostovtzefrs Obituary of Enmann," Antiquitas4, Beitr. zur Historia-Augusta-Forschung 14 (Bonn 1980) 103113; R. von Engelhardt, Die deutsche Universitiit Dorpat etc. (Munich 1933). Schirren was a specialist in the history of the Baltic provinces and wrote Quellen zur Geschichte des Untergangs livliindischer Se/bstiindigkeit, 8 vols. (Reva) 1861-1881). On him see K. Jordan (n. 169 supra), 69-71; F. Rachfal in C. Schirren, Zur Geschichte des Nordischen Krieges, Rezensionen (Kiel 1913) 1-62. Busolt became his close friend and dedicated to him his Geschichte III.2.

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Da theilte mir Rilhl vor e1mgen Tagen mit, dasz Schirren Lievliinder und wahrscheinlich mit Ihnen bekannt wlire.173 Sollte das der Fall sein, so kennen Sie nun meine Bitte. Wollten Sie an Schirren schreiben und in dieser Sache etwas filr mich thun, so brauche ich Ihnen ja nicht zu versichern, wie groszen, herzlichen Dank ich Ihnen schulden wilrde. Sie kennen meine Verhfiltnisse, und da Sie mir Ihre Freundschaft geschenkt haben, so bedarf keiner weitern Worte. Konnen Sie direct nichts filr mich thun, so vielleicht indirect durch Forchhammerl74 oder Herrmann.175 Friedllinder hat vor einiger Z.eit einmal geiiuszertl76, dasz, wie die Dinge einmal lligen, man nie genug in solchen Angelegenheiten thun konne. Und in jedem Fall hat Ihre Stimme in der gelehrten Welt einen gewichtigen Klang. Da die Sache in den niichsten Wochen zur Verhandlung kommt, so wilrden Sie schon giltigst moglichst schnell irgend ein Schreiben loslassen milssen, damit sich nicht Schirren filr einen Andern zuvor engagirt. - Auszer mir kommen ernstlich in Frage nur noch Niese und Gardthausen. 177 Gutschmid hat sich die Hiinde gebunden und durch eine vor zwei Jahren abgegebene officielle Erkliirung fiir mich entschieden. Er hat nlirnlich erkliirt, wenn es sich [[zwischen]] um mich oder Niese handele, so giibe er in philologischer Hinsicht Niese, in historischer mir den Vorzug. Damit wurde damals in Marburg die Sache gegen mich entschieden. 178 Kiel ist eine rein historische Professur. Niese hat aber den Vorzug, Holsteiner zu sein.179 Inzwischen habe ich nochmals mit Niese concurrirt und zwar mit Gltick. lch wurde vor einem Jahre primo loco inl80 Zurich vorgeschlagen, allein die Stelle wurde von der Regierung nicht besetzt.181 Es war das eine schmerzliche Enttiiuschung. Ebenso ilberraschend wie mir die Nachricht davon durch Friedlander zuging, kam bald darauf die Enttiiuschung. Kiel ist jetzt meine letzte Hoffnung, 173 Hehn, a native of Dorpat, had lived and taught there (n. 31 supra). 174 Peter Wilhelm Forchhammer (1801-1894) promoted in Kiel with Quaestiones Areopagiticae,

1828, gained Habilitation in 1829, and remained there for some 65 years. His travels to Greece led his Topographie von Athen (Kiel 1841). His largest single work was Prolegomena zur Mythologie als Wissenschaft (ib. 1891); in his Die Athener und Sokrates (Berlin 1837) he justified the condemnation of the philosopher. He represented the University of Kiel in the Prussian parliament. See J. SaB, ADB 48 (1904) 625-630; A. Hock and L. Pertsch, P. W. Forchhammer (Kiel 1898). 175 Probably the Herrmann of n. 113 supra: he was born in Dorpat and Hehn will have known him. 176 Apparently written over "sei." 177 In the competition for the chair at Kiel, these two and Busolt were indeed the final candidates; the faculty recommended Busolt to the Kultusminister (von Puttkamer: cf. n. 138 supra). to

178 Cf. D 1. 179 Niese was born on the small island Fehmam, Holstein. 180 Originally "von." 181 On the appointment to this chair, seep. 43 infra.

42

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

denn rnit der Besetzung von Kiel horen alle Chancen fur die niichsten Jahre auf und dann bleibt rnir schlieszlich doch nichts ii brig, als die akadernische Lautbahn {,) aufzugeben, I82 obwohl es rnir in meiner Lehrthiitigkeit so gut gegangen ist, und ich rnit Leib und Seele dabei bin. -

[[Dann endlich]] Im ersten Semester hatte ich im

Privatcolleg 5 Zuhorer, im 2n: 9, im letzten 12. Aber endlich muss ich auch ans Heirathen denken, sonst wird mein Brautchen [sic] alt Nun sind es schon bald vier Jahre her, seitdem wir uns verlobt haben. Viel Triibes haben wir durchmachen miissen, und doch haben uns Sorgen und Enttiiuschungen nur fester an einander geknilpft. Im letzten Sommer babe ich auch mit betriichtlichen materiellen Entbehrungen kiimpfen milssen, und oft erforderte es alle Energie den Muth nicht sinken zu !assen. Die Freudigkeit am weitern Schaffen schopfte ich aus den Erfolgen meiner Lehrthiitigkeit.- Ich babe mich auch um Ihretwillen sehr gefreut, dasz der erste Band meiner Lakedaimonier [[eine]] von der Kritik so iiberaus giinstig aufgenommen ist. Namentlich spenden die Italiener dem Bande ungemessenen Beifall.183 Auch die franzosischen Gelehrten zollen ihm reiches Lob, nur finden sie 184 merkwiirdiger und filr [[den die franzo]] sie wiederum charakteristischer Weise, dasz es eine politische Tendenzschrift ware. Denken Sie, unter dem Deckmantel griechischer Verhiiltnisse soll das Buch deutsche betreffen, und die Beurtheilung der spartanischen Politik soll eine Verurtheilung des deutschen Particularismus sein. (Lallier in der Revue critique Nr 32) l 85 Augenblicklich bin ich mit der Edition eines Bandes 'Forschungen zur griechischen Geschichte' beschiiftigt. lch hoffe, darin manche neue und auch Ihnen interessante

182 That is, become a Gymnasiallehrer, a possibility mentioned in L 8. 183 I cannot cite any reviews in Italian journals.

184 "Sie" originally written and deleted, "sie" above the line. 185 R. Lallier, in a complimentary review, Rev. crit. d'hist. et de litt. NS 8 (1879) 116-120, observed that Busolt had sought in his Der zweite athenische Bund "entre l'histoire de la Gr«:e et celle du peuple allemand des rapprochements sou vent forces et inexacts," and that he did the same in his new book. This is probably true, e.g. "Wie Preuszen dann ein grllszeres Fllderativsystem deutscher Staaten unter gewaltsamer Niederwerfung der widerstrebenden Elemente begrtindet, so vereinigte Sparta gleichfalls, wesentlich auf Grund mililllrischer Erfolge, eine Anzahl hellenischer Staaten unter seiner Hegemonie" (Die Lakedaimonier, 248-249); he also compared the Greek games to the German "Schiitzen-, Turner- und Sangerfeste" as an expression of national solidarity. He did qualify his comparisons ("Selbstverstllndlich beansprucht diese Parallele nicht, in jeder Hinsicht zutreffend zu sein .. ,"), but he did not conceal his impatience with Sparta's failure to establish a unified state comparable to Germany. In his Forschungen, preface, he replied to Lallier, not very convincingly, that his citations of modem events had no political Tendenz. His mature works are free of this Tendenz. See further E. Rawson, The Spartan Tradition in European Thought (Oxford 1969) 327 n. I.

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Ideen [[zu)] entwicke1tl86 zu haben. Binnen Monatsfrist wird das Buch erscheinen, 187 und ich werde dann so frei sein, Ihnen ein Exemplar zu tibersenden, ohne Sie zur Lekttire zu verpflichten. Um noch auf die Kieler Sache zurtickzukommen, so stelle ich ganz Ihrem Urtheile anheim, ob Ihre Bekanntschaft mit Schirren eine derartige ist, dasz Sie sich direct an ihn wenden konnen. Wollen hoffen, dasz dieses Mal keine neue Enttiiuschung eintritt, und dasz ich dann das Vergniigen habe, Sie Ihrem Versprechen gemiisz zu meiner Hochzeit hier zu sehen. Auch Friedlander diirfte sich dartiber freuen, Sie in seiner Heimatsstadt begrtiszen zu konnen. Einerl88 gtitigen Antwort entgegensehend grtiszt Sie herzlich 1hr ergebenster und dankbarer G Busolt. Wo steckt 1hr Herr Neffe? Wo ist Julius? Und haben Sie etwas von Krauskopf gehort? Busolt probably did not know what had actually happened to the appointment in Zurich for which he had been nominated in first place. The faculty formed the usual Kommissionl89 to recommend candidates to succeed Millier; the candidates were again, as for Marburg in 1877, the Extraordinarii Niese and Gardthausen and the Privatdozent Busolt, along with Johannes Schmidt (1850-1894), 190 Privatdozent in Halle. The committee ranked Schmidt ahead of Busolt, because as a Latin epigraphist he would be a better replacement for Miiller; of Busolt it said:191

D2 Herr Dr. Georg Busolt. gegenwiirtig in Konigsberg, war ursprtinglich Historiker und hat sich erst nach und nach mit philologischer Methode vertraut gemacht. Auch von ihm sind zwei literarische Leistungen anzufiihren, die verwandten Inhaltes sind, oder wenigstens in einer gewissen Continuitlit zu einander stehen. Die erste 186 Originally "entwickeln." 187 The preface to the Forschungen is dated 28 November 1879 and the book was published in January 1880. 188 First letter written over "I" (as from "lhrer"). 189 Representing Section 1of the philosophical faculty. 190 Johannes Schmidt promoted in Halle with De Herodoti quaefertur vita Homeri (Halle 1874); he later edited portions of CIL VIII, on Roman Africa. 191 Staatsarchiv des Kantons Ziirich, U 109 a 1, Dok. "Alte Geschichte" (undated). For a copy of this and the accompanying document D 3 I am indebted to Herr Walter Burkert.

44

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

fiihrt den Titel: "der zweite athenische Bund" [etc.]. Sodann das neulich erschienene Buch "die Lakedaimonier und ihre Bundesgenossen"I. Band, Leipzig 1878. Beide Werke zeichnen sich durch umfassendes Studium und gesunde, besonnene Kritik aus. Bildet auch die Kehrseite der klaren Darstellung eine gewisse Breite der Ausfiihrungen, die von Wiederholungen nicht frei ist, so ist immerhin zu bemerken, daB das letztere breit angelegte Werk mehr enthalt, als der Titel verspricht: es umfaBt im Grunde die ganze griechische Geschichte unter einem besonderen Gesichtspunkte. DaB sich Herr Busolt in seinen Studien nicht auf das griechische Alterthum beschrankt, beweist der Umstand daB er auch Vorlesungen tiber romische Geschichte angektindigt hat. Herr Busolt wird ebenso, wie Herr Schmidt, als anregende frische Personlichkeit geschildert; auch er hat die klassischen Orte selbst besucht, und fiir seine Vielseitigkeit spricht ebenfalls der Umstand, daB er frtiher eine wie berichtet wird von competenter Seitel92 gut aufgenommene Arbeit Uber Spinoza veroffentlicht hat. [[Die Section hat Herrn Schmidt deBwegen [sic] in den Vordergrund gestellt, weil er vor Allem Herrn Millier speziell in der romischen Verfassungskunde und romische Epigraphik ersetzen wi.irde, wahrend griechische Verfassungskunde und griechische Epigraphik, fi.ir die Herr Busolt eher qualifiziert erscheint, hierorts bereits ihre Vertretung hat.]] The last sentence above was deleted: the reason emerges from a second document of November 1878.193 Niese and Gardthausen are named as potential candidates; but then,

D3 Sollte man auf Berufung eines Professors verzichten mi.issen, so waren von Privatdozenten zu nennen: in erster Linie Dr [[Georg]] Joh. Schmidt, gegenwartig in Halle, in zweiter Linie Dr Georg Busolt, gegenwartig in Konigsberg.

l92 Surely Richard Avenarius (n. 194 infra). 193 Universitlitssarchiv, Zilrich, Protokolle der Philosophischen Fakultllt, November 1878, pp.

91-92.

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But two supporters of Busolt, Richard Avenarius (1843-1896) 194 and Hugo Bliimner (1844-1919),195 "wiinschen mindestens Gleichstellung des Dr Busolt mit Dr Schmidt, womit die Kommission sich einverstanden erklart. Mit dieser Modifikation wird das Kommissionsgutachten von der Sektion [D 2] zu dem ihrigen gemacht." Accordingly, the sentence in D 2 placing Schmidt ahead of Busolt was struck.196 Then came a dramatic piece of academic politics. The "Direktion des Erziehungswesens" yielded to the powerful Gerold Meyer von Knonau (1843-1931), Professor of medieval history and, like the deceased Miiller, a pupil of Biidinger 197; it killed the chair for ancient history and put Knonau in charge of this field as well, thus giving him double salary. The faculty advised against this arrangement, but Knonau was able to get his way, and Busolt was told that the government would not fund the chair.198 To return to Busolt's request to Hehn, that he should assist him in Kiel. I have no evidence showing whether Hehn wrote to anyone on Busolt's behalf. Meanwhile, the faculty in Kiel appointed a Kommission to recommend candidates. We do not have the report of the specialists, rather the report of the Philosophical Faculty to the Curator_l99 It is signed by Georg Hoffmann (1845-1933), who was Dekan in winter semester 1879.200 The faculty believed that the candidates D4 erstlich in ihrer wissenschaftlichen Thatigkeit gereifte Selbstandigkeit und die Fahigkeit neue, fruchtbringende Bahnen einzuschlagen, documentiren miiBten, und

194 Professor of philosophy, Zurich, since 1877. He had promoted in Leipzig with Ueber die beiden ersten Phasen des Spinozischen Pantheismus etc. (Leipzig 1868); doubtless Busolt's dissertation on Spinoza attracted Avenarius' interest. On him see M. Heinze, ADB 46 (1902) 147149; W. Strobl, NDB 1 (1953) 468. 195 Blilmner promoted in Berlin, 1866, and must have known Busolt when he was ao. Professor of archaeology in Konigsberg, 1875-1877. He was a friend of Friedlllnder, who could thus infonn Busolt of the deliberations in Zurich. He too went to Zurich in 1877. His largest work is his Technologie und Terminologie der Gewerbe und Kanste bei Griechen und Romern, 4 vols. (Leipzig 1874-1887); later, with H. Hitzig, he produced a text of and commentary on Pausanias, 3 vols. (Berlin-Leipzig 1896-1910). On him see 0. Waser in Bursian 190 (1921) 1-44. 196 Busolt wrote to Hehn (L 9) that he was named primo loco. If so, the faculty must have decided not to try for the more expensive Niese and Gardthausen, and Avenarius and Blilmner must have pushed Busolt ahead of Schmidt 197 Seen. 154 supra. 198 On this decision, 4 December 1878, see E. Gagliardi, H. Nabholz, and J. Strohl, Die Universitlit Zurich 1833-1933 und ihre Vorlliufer (Zurich 1938) 731-732. 199 Landesarchiv Schleswig-Holstein, Abt. 4 i 5, Nr. 787, pp. 260-273. 200 On Hoffmann see chap. III n. 20.

46

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

daB zweitens eine bereits einigermaBen von Erfolg zeugende akademische Lehrthiitigkeit wiinschenswerth sei. The faculty did not consider it a duty to rank the candidates Busolt, Niese, and Gardthausen -

they were again

with regard to their "Tiichtigkeit und

wissenschaftiche Bedeutung." Rather, the particular needs of Kiel should be paramount: Der gegenwiirtige Zweck erheischt einzig und allein, daB unter Beriicksichtigung der concreten BediirfniBe gerade unsrer Hochschule wir die Namen in der Reihenfolge anfiihren, wie ein jeder nach der Richtung und dem Character seiner Studien am meisten diesem BediirfniB zu entsprechen scheint. Das BediirfniB unsrer Hochschule, welche von vielen Studirenden der Philologie von ihrem ersten Eintritt bis zum SchluB Examen, ohne daB sie dieselbe verlaBen, besucht wird, richtet sich besonders darauf, daB der gesammte Stoff der alten Geschichte in griindlicher und charakteristischer, aber auch iibersichtlicher Darstellung den Horem vorgefiihrt werde. GewiB wiirde es unberechtigt sein, Einem der drei genannten Herrn die Fiihigkeit die[s]20l zu leisten absprechen zu wollen. IndeBen scheint nach seinen bisherigen Leistungen in eminenter Weise zu solchen groBeren, iibersichtlich und dabei doch griindlich gehaltenen Darstellungen befahigt: Busolt. Der Schwerpunkt der Verdienste der Beiden anderen liegt in vortrefflichen Einzelforschungen. The faculty seemed to want a long distance runner, a man who would represent ancient history through broad, solid narratives rather than through precise studies of a more specialized kind; philological expertise was to play a lesser part than it had done in Marburg in 1877. Such a man would be a contrast with the departed Volquardsen, who had published little, and nothing with a powerful narrative sweep. If the faculty could find its man in someone who had no post, and would thus be less expensive, so much the better.- The report on Busolt went on:

Georg Busolt, seit

1878 Winter Privatdocent in Konigsberg. Seine erste groBere

Arbeit ,,der zweite Athenische Seebund"202 in den Jahrbiichem fiir Philologie Supplement-blllld 7 (1874) S. 644-866 ist eine fleiBige und durch Sammlung und 201 "dieB" is written.

202 The title was actually Der rweite athenische Bund etc.

Konigsberg

47

Sichtung des Materials niitzliche Arbeit, die zwar in einzelnen Punkten Widerspruch erfahren, aber doch im Ganzen Beifall gefunden und anregend gewirkt hat. Sein neuestes Buch ,,Die Lakedaimonier und ihre Bundesgenossen" Band I, Leipzig 1878; 486 S., giebt eine durch Combinationsgabe ausgezeichnete Darstellung eines schwierigen Abschnitts der Griechischen Geschichte. Busolt hat eine Studien-Reise nach ltalien und Griechenland gemacht. Ueber seine akademische Lehrthiitigkeit liegen giinstige Informationen vor. The report goes on to survey the work of the two Extraordinarii, Niese of Marburg and Gardthausen of Leipzig, who were ranked second and third. We have seen from Busolt's letter to Hehn that his teaching was gaining a larger clientele. Good reports had reached Kiel, and the reviews of Die Lakedaimonier were supportive. This time, the disappointments in Marburg and Zurich gave way to success. The Curator in Kiel sent the report on to the Kultusminister, von Puttkamer, who accepted the ranking and appointed Busolt as Extraordinarius for ancient history, at a salary of 2800 marks, with 660 more for housing. The official date of appointment was 1 November 1879 (but the salary began on 15 October). Georg Busolt thus moved to Kiel in fall 1879.

KIEL

Busolt first lectured in Kiel in winter semester 1879; the catalogue of lectures still lists Volquardsen, but he was already in Gottingen (L 9). Busolt was first announced for summer semester 1880, with lectures on Alexander the Great (Mon., Tues., Thurs., Fri., at 8) and a seminar (Sat., 11). The lectures were given "privatim," that is, students had to pay for admission; the seminar was "offentlich." The custom of paying a professor for admission to lectures endured at least theoretically until recent times, although the "Horergeld" has long been merged into the professor's salary. The scheme had historical grounds, for through the 18th century a professor had to see personally to his auditorium or lecture hall and recovered these expenses through the fees for admission; in faculties with larger attendance, such as law or medicine, the money thus collected could be considerable. It became common for a professor to arrange a room in his home for lectures, and the charge for lectures given "privatim" met the cost of heating as well as augmenting his income. (Since this amount might vary from semester to semester, it was not strictly part of his official salary.) As university auditoria became more numerous in the 19th century, lectures were shifted there and only seminars persisted in the home. Busolt and many others offered these smaller classes without charge (offentlich, gratis, publice). These free classes in fact satisfied the requirement that a professor must give one free public lecture each semester. 1 The lecture course was still called the Kolleg or Privatkolleg. During his first semester he put the finishing touches to his Forschungen, which he dedicated to Franz Riihl (1845-1916) in the preface, signed 28 November 1879. Then, in autumn 1879, Georg Busolt found his true path. We have noticed that ancient history was now becoming separated from universal history in German universities, under the leadership of Mommsen above all. The time had come to write handbooks on a high scholarly level that would summarize and evaluate the state of historical knowledge. The publisher Emil Perthes of Gotha planned an ambitious series, the Handbucher der a/ten Geschichte.2 He was advised by Arnold 1 Seep. 161. Busolt lived at Karlstrasse 30; in 1884 he moved to Karlstrasse 7. The street, a central one in Kiel, has now disappeared into the medical complex. In 1888 he moved to Holtenauerstrasse 82; in 1892, to Reventlouallee (so the official Kiel address book; sometimes Reventlowallee) 28. These houses also no longer exist. 2 This famous publishing house, founded by Friedrich Christoph Perthes (1772-1843), had been in Gotha since 1822. Friedrich's son Andreas (1813-1890) managed it under the title Friedrich

49

Kiel

Schaefer of Bonn to enlist Busolt for the book on Greek history down to 338 B.C. This book was to join the succeeding section, Niese's continuation of the story down to 120 B.C.; the join was not achieved, for Busolt took Greek history down only to the end of the Peloponnesian War in his second edition. We may wonder whether Perthes knew what he was getting. The final chapter of Die Lakedaimonier is written in the handbook style of Busolt's

Griechische Geschichte, but Perthes could hardly have foreseen that successive volumes would grow to their stupendous proportions. But Perthes stood loyally by his author and finally published such a handbook to Greek history as can -

never?

again be written by one author. In view of the gigantic scale of the work -

the

third volume, in two parts and over 1600 pages, covers only the period 479-404the potential fourth volume on the era 404-338 would have been elephantine. It has been said, "It is better that an author should do what he is best able to do, rather than what- often for merely traditional reasons -

might (by some) be

expected of him,"3 and there is little doubt that handbooks were Busolt's vocation. True, the brilliant personalities do not glow with skillful characterization. The story unfolds with little tension or drama, and Beloch's comparable history offers more original, if sometimes surprising, judgments. With the universal sweep of Eduard Meyer there can be no comparison. But all the literary evidence, and the epigraphic and numismnic evidence in Busolt's time, stand in perfect order in the footnotes. It became a proverb among German students that, after Busolt stopped, "leider, leider, !eider muB man Quellen lesen." The second edition of volumes 1-11, far superior to the first, contains a great many subtle discussions and perceptions that one might not expect in the plodding structure of a handbook. The analyses of sources are masterly; that of Aristotle's

Constitution of the Athenians is unsurpassed to this day.4 "[N]ot only the allembracing notes, but the sober, if uninspiring, judgement of the narrative, makes Busolt's history still the most valuable help to the student."5 In the new edition, the scale of the documentation far outstrips that of other volumes in Perthes' series. It is hard to imagine that even the most disciplined "general reader" in Germany could have turned to this work if reading history was his hobby. Steven Lattimore Andreas Penhes Verlag. In 1874 he gave the firm to his son Emil; from 1 July 1889 it was in possession of a share-issuing company or Aktiengesellschaft. - For the final state of the Handbacher, see Appendix I. A discussion of Friedrich Perthes and his work: Borsenblattfur den Deutschen Buchhondel 28 (1972) 752-790. 3 E. Badian, Gnomon 36 (1964) 380-381. 4 Geschichte 112 13-54. 5 A. W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides I (Oxford 1945) v.

50

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

suggests to me that the massive footnotes were a reply to Busolt's critics, Niese and Wilamowitz, who could now hardly accuse him of superficiality. The simplest tribute to this work is the fact that it is still indispensable. We shall return to it in the proper order. Busolt was now financially able to marry, and he and his cousin Ida were married in Insterburg on 29 March 1880.6 Emotional happiness and a productive career seemed assured -

then came a terrible stroke. The earliest reviews of Die

Lakedaimonier had been favorable, though containing the inevitable criticisms. Now Benedictus Niese published a profound paper concerning traditions for early Greek history, built around a severe criticism of Die Lakedaimonier.1 One may agree with Niese that the title promised a study of Sparta's relations with her allies, not the general history of Peloponnesian states that Busolt actually presented; and that Argos, never an ally of Sparta, hardly deserves inclusion at all. Niese also faulted Busolt for using spurious genealogical traditions in late sources like Pausanias, without subjecting them to analysis. Busolt also (Niese went on) took material about early Greek tribes and their movements from Homer without criticism, nor was Pausanias a reliable source for the Spartan-Messenian wars.8 Busolt (we may be sure) was stung by this paper, but we have no evidence that he took any action. As we shall see, he later acknowledged the accuracy of some of Niese's criticisms. There is even a touching reference in a letter (L 111) to Niese's death in 1910. Meanwhile, in Kiel, he became accepted as a valued member of the faculty. In March 1881 Hermann Bonitz (1814-1888)9 wrote from the 6 The Busolts had three children: Ernst Gustav Adolf (1881-ca. 1950), Anna Berta (1883-1943), and Kurt (1885-1956). 7 Hist. Z,eit. 43 (1880) 385-410. This censorious paper had a bitter little postscript. The 'Zeitschrift published a paper by Busolt, "Das Ende der Perserkriege," vol. 48 (1882) 385-416, but the editor, H. von Sybel, added a note on p. 385: "Die Red. hat dem von B. Niese in der H. Z. 43, 385 ff. beklimpften Vf. die Aufnahme seines Artikels nicht verweigern wollen, wenngleich sie der Ansicht isl, daB er dazu neigt, Vermuthungen und bewiesene Thatsachen gleich zu achten." Busolt complained, surely with justice, about this gratuitous support of Niese's criticisms, in a footnote to his own paper, "Zur Schlacht bei Himera," Rhein. Mus. NF 40 (1885) 160 n. l: "Die Redaction der 'historischen Zeitschrift' hat vor Jahresfrist zu einem Aufsatze des Verfassers iiber 'das Ende der Perserkriege' bemerkt, 'dass er dazu neige, Vermuthungen und bewiesene Thatsachen gleich zu achten'. Diese Notiz isl o h n e mein Wissen und n a c h der Correctur von der Redaction hinzugefiigt worden. Sie hat dann meinem Ersuchen, diesen Thatbestand zu publiciren, nicht Folge geleistet." Busolt published nothing more in the Historische 'Zeitschrift. 8 There was for a long time considerable prejudice against Pausanias in Germany as many scholars followed and developed some severe criticisms by Wilamowitz. See "Pausanias and his Critics," in C. Habicht, Pausanias' Guide to Ancient Greece (Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 1985), 165-175. 9 The renowned scholar of Aristotle attended Schulpforte and was a pupil of Bockh in Berlin, but he had to leave the university for financial reasons before his promotion. In 1848 he became professor of classics in Vienna and organized classical teaching in the Austrian universities and gymnasia. He returned to Berlin as director of the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster (1867-1875)

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51

Kultusministerium in Berlin to Schirren, asking confidentially whether Busolt should be added to the Pri.ifungskommission, or board of examiners, in history. Schirren supported Busolt for this duty, and Bonitz replied: L 10 Bonitz to Schirren Berlin 21/3 81. Meinen verbindlichsten Dank, hochgeehrter Herr Professor, fiir das werthe Schreiben vom 19. d.M. Die darin angedeuteten Grtinde sind fiir mich unbedingt tiberzeugend; ich werde daher die Ernennung des Prof. Busolt zum Pri.ifungskomissar ftir alte Geschichte bei dem Herrn Minister 10 befiirworten u. habe keinen AnlaB an der Genehmigung dieses Antrages zu zweifeln. DaB Sie mit Prof. Busolt bisher tiber den Gegenstand meiner vertraulichen Anfrage nicht gesprochen haben, entspricht durchaus meinem Wunsche, und ich mochte ganz ergebenst empfehlen, auchjetzt von einer Mittheilung Abstand zu nehmen. Ohnehin muB die neue Emennung der Komission in wenig Tagen erfolgen. In vorztiglicher Hochachtung 1hr ergebenster H Bonitz Busolt now began to contribute reviews to the Literarisches Centralblatt in Leipzig. In that spring Franz Rtihl of Konigsberg asked him to take over the review of a book by Hermann Mtiller-Strtibing (1812-1893).1 1 Busolt wrote his review, a fairly long one, and sent it to the editor, Friedrich Zamcke (1825-1891), 12 with an accompanying letter that has an amusingly peremptory tone: and then became Vortragender Rat in the Prussian Kultusministerium. See Sander in ADB 47 (1903) 99-105; T. Gomperz in Bursian 57 (1889) 53-100. lO Robert von Puttkamer. 11 Miiller-Striibing originally studied law. He was jailed (1835-1840) for his alleged part in student riots and settled permanently in London, where he supported himself as a tutor and became a familiar figure in clubs; in later life he lived through the generosity of his friends. His writings, always polemical and original, include Aristophanes und die historische Kritik (Leipzig 1873) and Thukydideische Forschungen (Vienna 1881). His doctorate was from K()nigsberg, honoris causa. See J.C. Vollgraff, A. Buff, F. Riihl in Bursian 96 (1897) 88-105; A. Bauer, Thukydides und H. Miil/er-Strubing: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der philologischen Methode (N()rdlingen 1887). 12 Zarncke promoted in Rostock and was ao. Prof. and o. Prof. of German literature in Leipzig, 1854-1891. He was a co-founder and editor (1850-1891) of the Literarisches Centra/blatt, wrote thousands of reviews in it, and made it the leading critical weekly of Germany. See the necrology by his son in Bursian 86 (1905) 91-109; F. Vogt, Z-eit.fiir deutsche Philologie 25 (1893) 71-90.

52

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

L 11 Busolt to F. Zarncke Kiel, Karl-Str 30 2n April 1881 Sehr geehrter Herr College, auf ausdriicklichen Wunsch des Herm Prof. Riihl habe ich die Recension der neuen bedeutenden Schrift Miiller-Striibingsl3 iibemommen. Mein Referat ist verhiiltnissmiiszig lang. Es wird 211z Spalten [I]hresl4 Blattes fiillen. Allein schon ein Blick auf den Titel der Schrift diirfte zeigen, dasz eine Besprechung derselben auf vielerlei wichtige Dinge wenigstens kurz eingehen muszte, wenn sie iiberhaupt irgend einen Werth haben sollte. Ich denke, Sie erfiillen meine Bitte und nehmen die ganze Recension unverkiirzt auf. Die Schrift Miiller-Striibings verdient auch eine hervorragende Beriicksichtigung. -

Ferner haben Sie die Giite und drucken das Referat bald ab, denn das Buch ist schon ziemlich lange erschienen. 15 Hochachtungsvoll und ergebend G. Busolt. On 13 April 1881 Busolt became Ordinarius in Kiel. But meanwhile another unfriendly review was in preparation. On 1 February 1881 Wilamowitz wrote to his father-in-law Mommsen: "Ich habe fiir die Literaturzeitung eine Rezension von Busolt gemacht, die Dir hoffentlich gefiillt."16 This was a review of Busolt's

Forschungen zur griechischen Geschichte I. Busolt explained in his preface that he was deferring the second part of Die Lakedaimonier until the excavations at 13 'Alhivafow nohrda. Die attische Schrift vom Staate der Athener, Philologus Suppl. 4 (1880) Heft 1-2; also published separately (GOttingen 1880). Milller-Striibing assigned this work

{that of the "Old Oligarch") to the Athenian statesman Phrynichus and dated it to the middle years of the Peloponnesian War. - Ri!hl also arranged for Busolt to review in LCB A. Bauer's Themistok/es (L 14), Schubert's Geschichte der /ydischen Konige (L 23), and Beloch'sDie attische Politik seit Perikles (ib.). 14 "ihres" is written. 15 Busolt's review, signed (like all his others known to me in LCB) "G. B.," appeared in LCB 32

(1881) 609-612. 16 Mommsen-Wilamowitz, Briefwechse/ (Berlin 1935) no. 85, p. 103. The review appeared in DLZ 2 (1881) 971-973 {11 June)= Kl. Sehr. V.l 236-238. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (1848-1931) was the towering figure of his time in Greek studies. He promoted in Berlin, 1870, with Observationes criticae in comoediam graecam se/ectae, and returned to Berlin in 1897 after serving in Greifswald (1876-1883) and GOttingen (1883-1897). His own Erinnerungen (Leipzig 1928, ed. 2 1929; Eng. tr., My Recollections, tr. G. C. Richards, London 1930) survey his life to 1914. Aspects of his work are considered by 24 scholars in Wilamowitz nach 50 Jahren, ed. W. M. Calder lII et al. (Darmstadt 1985).

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53

Olympia should advance farther; meanwhile the Forschungen developed certain other points in the history of the Peloponnese. In the first of the three chapters of the Forschungen, Busolt restates his view, expressed in Die Lakedaimonier, that the Peloponnesian League was a purely political confederation, without any sacral or "racial" character. This was a contrast with the opinion of Curtius.17 Wilamowitz admitted that Busolt was right (this is now agreed), but found his arguments superficial and uncritical. He said the same for Busolt's argument in chapter 2, that there was no city or urban center in Pisa (also now accepted). In the third essay, on the foreign policy of Argos (Wilamowitz went on), Busolt had read much between the lines in Thucydides, "sonst herzlich wenig." It was also "ein starkes Stiick, daB das Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum fiir ihn nicht existiert." 18 Finally, the "ebenso gerechte wie vernichtende Kritik" of Niese against Die Lakedaimonier was equally appropriate to the present work. Other reviews of the Forschungen were kinder, 19 but Busolt, now under severe attack for the second time in two years, could not simply reflect, with Richard Bentley, that no man is ever written out of reputation save by himself alone. He turned for advice to Georg Hoffmann (1845-1933), professor of oriental languages in Kiel,20 who in turn suggested that he consult van Gutschmid, whom Hoffmann will have known: von Gutschmid had taught in Kiel and was also an expert on the Near East. He had not been Busolt's Doktorvater, but Busolt had studied under him in Konigsberg, 1873-1876, and had dedicated Die

Lakedaimonier to him (and to Hehn). According to van Gutschmid's friend Erwin Rohde (1845-1898),2 1 in a letter to Nietzsche, he was

17 See E. Curtius, Griechische Geschichte5 (Berlin 1878-1880) I 220 ff. Curtius had replied to Busolt, Hermes 14 (1879) 129-140, to which in tum Busolt's first chapter is a reply. 18 But Busolt did cite CIA, Forschungen 119. Perhaps Wilamowitz was hinting at Busolt's citation of the treaty paralleling Thuc. 5.47, which Busolt cites only from Kirchhoff's discussion, Hermes 12 (1877) 368-381, without referring to the improved text as published in CIA Suppl. 46 b (ed. Kirchhoff, Berlin 1877). It is now /G J3 83. 19 E.g. those of Eduard Meyer, LCB 31 (1880) 12S1-1252, and of R. Lallier, Rev. crit. d' hist. et

de litt. NS IO (1880) 143-145.

20 Johann Georg Ernst Hoffmann went to Kiel in 1872 as o. Prof. He worked especially on the Syriac tradition of ancient philosophy, e.g. Ausziige aus syrischen Akten persischer Miirtyrer (Leipzig 1880). He declined invitations to Tiibingen (where von Gutschmid now was) and to other universities, remaining permanently in Kiel. On him see T. Menzel, FuF 9 (1933) 102-103. 21 Rohde was now o. Prof. of classics in Tiibingen. His most famous work is Psyche: Seelencult und Unsterblichkeitsglaube der Griechen, 2 vols. (Freiburg i. Br. 1890-1894). On him see 0. Crusius, E. Rohde, Ein biographischer Versuch (Tiibingen-Leipzig 1902); W. Schmid in Bursian 103 (1899) 87-114; F. ScMII, ADB 53 (1907) 426-440; H. Cancik, "Erwin Rohde - ein Philologe der Bismarckzeit," Semper Apertus: Sechshundert Jahre Ruprecht-Karls-Universitiit Heidelberg 1386-1986 II, ed. W. Doerr (Berlin etc. 1985) 436-50S.

54

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters ein kleiner blasser Mann mit einem gewaltigen Schnauzbart. Personlich, wie alle Sachsen sehr zuvorkommend, innerlich wie mir scheint fein organisiert und ich traue ihm zu Kritiken Nieses und des Greifswalder Judex? Indessen man muss dabei den Muth nicht verlieren! In meiner hiesigen Wirksamkeit fiihle ich mich sehr wohl. Die collegialischen Verhaltnisse sind ausgezeichnet, wenngleich ab und zu ein Sturm im Glase Wasser eintritt. Mit der Bitte um giitige Benachrichtigung bin ich stets in vorziiglicher Hochachtung Ihr dankbarer ergebener G Busolt Von Gutschmid sent the letter on to Franz RiihI,35 his former colleague and now his successor in Konigsberg, with his own comments. He wished to avoid a quarrel with Wilamowitz, toward whom he was cool; but his attitude toward both Busolt and Niese is scarcely favorable, and he proposes to do nothing. His letter to Riihl is valuable as showing contemporary opinion of Wilamowitz, now aged 33. He probably also knew that Riihl thought well of Busolt; we have seen that Rilhl enlisted Busolt as a reviewer for the Literarisches Centralblatt. L13 Von Gutschmid to F. Riihl Verehrter Herr College Riihl! Zunachst die species facti, am Schluss habe ich mir erlaubt eine bescheidene Anfrage an Sie anzufiigen! 36

34 Here and elsewhere (e.g. in the preface to Geschichte Il) Busolt used this verb, but "bewliltigen" would be more usual German. 35 Riihl was professor of ancient history in Kcinigsberg, 1875-1910. He edited Eutropius and Xenophon's minor writings for Teubner and wrote, e.g., Chronologie des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit (Berlin 1897). See further A. Mentz in Bursian 181 (1919) 37-55. 36 The salutation and first sentence are written above the opening of Busolt's letter, the rest after the end.

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So also steht es. Den Wunsch Busolt's kann ich nicht erfiillen: ich habe jetzt mit Gotheins3 7 und allem Andern genug zu thun, wobei ich vermutlich in einen kriegerischen Halbgott hineintreiben wiirde,38 habe auch noch vor kurzem den Redactionen, die Recensionen von mir verlangen, energisch abgeschrieben, um mir die durch Sorge um meine Augen gegen friiher stark beschriinkte Arbeitszeit freizuhalten. Ferner wiirde eine kurze, unscharfe Anzeige von mir, der ich mich mit dem Inhalte der Busolt'schen Forschungen nur wenig beschiiftigt habe, ein einfacher Schlag ins Wasser sein. Leute von Wilamowitzens Schlage muss man mit Mistgabeln und Verachtungsbezeugungen bearbeiten, und bei Anwendung dieser Waffen zeigen, dass man das behandelte Thema versteht. Das haben Rohde und mehr noch Sie in mustergiiltiger Weise gethan.39 Ich wollte Ihnen also den Fall vorlegen, ob Sie etwas dabei thun konnen, weil der p.p. 40 Wilamowitz ja eine Specialitiit von Ihnen ist. Ich habe an Busolt's Arbeiten, auch an den Forschungen, seine Neigung zu konstruieren auszusetzen: er ist in seiner Betrachtungsweise dogmatisch, nicht politisch; der Inhalt4 1 kam mir, soweit ich mich erinnere, ganz plausibel vor. Niese's Recension seines friiheren Buches war im negativen Theile wohlberechtigt, der positive aber unrationell und roch nach Berliner Schwindet. 42 Das corpus delicti43 habe ich noch nicht zu Gesicht bekommen, es muss aber nach dem, was ich von mehreren Leuten gehort habe, ein Nonplusultra von Frechschniiuzigkeit sein. Haben Sie keine Lust, in der Sache etwas zu thun, nun, so ist's auch gut: der ungesund ehrgeizige Busolt hat das rechtens durch sein hastiges Arbeiten ein wenig mit verschuldet. Entschliessen Sie sich zum Gegentheil, so 37 Eberhard Gothein (1853-1923) was a cultural historian and economist. After his promotion and Habilitation in Breslau (1877, 1878) he was now Privatdozent there; later he held chairs in Karlsruhe, Bonn, and Heidelberg. Among his most famous works are Die Ku/turentwicklung Siidltaliens in Einzeldarstel/ungen (Breslau 1886) and Ignatius von Loyola und die Gegenreformation (Halle 1895). It is not clear what von Gutschmid had to do with him at this time. See Marie Luise Gothein, Eberhard Gothein (Stuttgart 1931); W. Zorn in Bonner Gelehrte, Geschichtswiss., 260271 (portrait facing p. 272). 38 It is notable that von Gutschmid, despite his seniority and reputation, evidently feared the sarcastic pen of Wilamowitz. 39 On Rohde and Wilamowitz, see infra. Riihl had fought no major battles with the "Greifswald rowdy," but he had taken issue with his paper (n. 30 supra) over Thuc. 1.138.3 (on Themistocles): Neuelahrb. 121 (1880)469-470. 40 "praetermissis praetermittendis," roughly "with title omitted," a way of avoiding titles such as Professor, Geheimrat, Ew. Hochwohlgeboren; it was used in formal and official documents but here sounds ironic. 4l Sc. of the Forschungen. 42 "Berlin-style flimflam": journalistic superficiality, slick rhetoric without substance. The phrase even had an anti-Semitic tone: many of the better-known Berlin journalists were Jews (Niese was neither a Berliner nor a Jew). 43 Wilamowitz' review.

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

58

wissen Sie, dass Sie fiir Ihre Exercitationes in corpore vili44 keinen bewundemderen Leser haben als Ihren ergebensten A v Gutschmid Tiibingen den 20. Juni 1881. P.S. Den Brief brauchen Sie mir nicht zuriickzuschicken, da ich ihn schon beantwortet habe. So far as I know, Riihl also took no action to reply to Wilamowitz in Busolt's defense. Busolt had dedicated the Forschungen to him and he may have thought any response would be suspect; perhaps he too chose to avoid a clash with the "warlike demigod." But behind the whole correspondence looms a famous literary quarrel of the 1870s -

the debate over Friedrich Nietzsche's essay, Die

Geburt der Tragodie aus dem Geiste der Musik (Leipzig 1872), which he wrote while he was ao. Professor of classical philology in BaseI.45 Wilamowitz wrote a searching attack on this work in his Zukunftsphilologie! (Berlin 1872), in the title hinting sarcastically at Wagner's "music of the future." He found Nietzsche's essay seriously wanting in classical and historical scholarship. Wagner himself came to Nietzsche's defense with an open letter addressed to him in the Norddeutsche allgemeine Zeitung, 23 June 1872; and Erwin Rohde also replied to Wilamowitz in his pamphlet Afterphilologie (Leipzig 1872), addressed to Wagner as "verehrter Meister." Wilamowitz fired off the final salvo in his Zukunftsphilologie!, Zweites Stuck (Berlin 1873). Later he was to look with amusement on his pamphlets, for whose publication he paid personally. He did not select them for reprinting in his Kleine Schriften, and he said of the first that it "hatte nicht gedruckt werden sollen." 46 Still, he did not renounce his criticisms and observed with satisfaction 44 "corpus vile" is philological slang: "Xenophon is a corpus vile for teaching grammar," i.e. something on which one can practice; thus Riihl's potential reply is called "your exercises on this object of low value" (Wilamowitz). 45 All the published documents in this quarrel, save Nietzsche's book, are collected by E. Grunder, Der Streit um Nietzsches "Geburt der Tragodie" (Hildesheim 1969). For letters between Nietzsche and Rohde, see the Briefwechsel (n. 22 supra), II.1-2. An indispensable discussion: W. M. Calder III, Nietzsche-Studien 12 (1983) 214-254 = Studies in the Modern History of Classical Scholarship (Naples 1984) 183-223. 46 Erinnerungen (Leipzig 1928) 130.

Kiel

59

that Nietzsche had followed his advice and had withdrawn from academic pursuits. 47 Von Gutschmid was a friend and supporter of Rohde: he had been Rohde's teacher in Kiel and had twice arranged for him to be called to universities where he himself was teaching.48 This relationship, and von Gutschmid's presumed lack of affection for Wilamowitz, may have suggested to Busolt (or to Hoffmann) that von Gutschmid would be his ally.49 Even though Busolt's appeal came to nothing, the correspondence teaches us something. The "Greifswalder Klopffechter" was not universally popular, and indeed he had something to learn about the proper tone in scholarly controversy. We might guess that jealousy played a part: Wilamowitz' obvious intellectual gifts, his good looks, his personal wealth and distinguished family were not necessarily social assets in academic life. And he paid a price. In 1877 he was considered for a chair in Gottingen when Curt Wachsmuth (18371905)50 left for Heidelberg, but the call went to Nissen, next in 1879 to Volquardsen. Then in 1881 Bonn, where Wilamowitz had first studied, appointed Eduard Liibbert (1830-1889) in classical philology. Wilamowitz remained in the provincial university, Greifswald, from 1876 until 1883: where, as Eduard Schwartz was to say laconically, he stayed too long- that is, he was not called to an appropriate chair.51

47 Ibid. W. M. Calder III points out that Wilamowitz dated the preface to the revised edition of his

Platon (Berlin 1920) on 15 October 1919, the 75th anniversary of Nietzsche's birth, and conjectures that this was "a secret dedication to Nietzsche, an apology for having hurt him": Joe. cit. (n. 45 supra), 253-254. 48 To Jena, 1876; to Tubingen, 1878, as successor of W. S. Teuffel (1820-1878). 4 9 Intellectual tension seems to have continued between Wilamowitz and Rohde. In DLZ 23 (1902) 3219, Wilamowitz wrote that E. Schwartz's Funf Vortriige uber den griechischen Roman (Berlin 1896) had destroyed the foundations of Rohde's Der griechische Roman und seine Vorliiufer (Leipzig 1876): "Rohdes Gebaude uberhaupt nicht mehr stehn kann," even though Schwartz had much favorable to say about Rohde's work. Nevertheless, Wilamowitz thought well of Rohde and in later years evidently bore him no malice, though Rohde was unable to forgive; see A. Henrichs in Wilamowitz nach 50 Jahren, ed. W. M. Calder III et al. (Darmstadt 1985) 284-286. 50 Wachsmuth was trained at Schulpforte, then at Bonn under Ritschl, whose daughter he married. He went to Marburg as o. Prof. in 1864. In 1869 he was called to Gottingen as o. Prof. of classics and ancient history, a chair that Mommsen had thought of accepting. In 1877 he moved to Heidelberg, in 1886 to Leipzig. He wrote Die Stadt Athen im Altertum, 2 vols. (Leipzig 18741890) and edited books 1-2 of Stobaeus, 2 vols. (Berlin 1884). See B. A. Muller in Bursian 136 (1907) 164-197. 51 Schwartz, Gesammelte Schriften I (Berlin 1938) 372; these stages in Wilamowitz' career are worked out by W. M. Calder III, Studi ital. di filol. class.3 3 (1985) 136-160. In fairness to Gottingen, the university did need to establish a chair in ancient history, and this may have tipped the scales in favor of Nissen and then Volquardsen. It is less easy to justify Bonn's appointment of Lubbert (on whom see L 55) over Wilamowitz in classics.

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

60

Busolt thus found no support against the attacks of Niese and Wilamowitz. With Niese he had a few more exchanges, but the two men then turned to other subjects;52 as we shall see, with Wilamowitz he was to become more closely involved. He tried to put these painful experiences behind him, although, as his letters show, he never came close to forgetting them. More important for history is that he changed and improved. His later publications show a far more critical use of sources and greater caution in drawing conclusions. He now worked steadily on his volume for Perthes. His first articles, published in 1882, were a series of studies on the formation of the Delian League, and other papers, especially on the fifth century, soon followed. Busolt's correspondence with Friedrich Zamcke gave him the opportunity to consult him in 1883 about the candidates for a chair in Germanic philology at Kiel. The faculty had identified two leading candidates, but "Berlin" (this must hint at the powerful Friedrich Althoff, 1839-1908)53 had its own favorite. The Philosophical Faculty in the University of Kiel was small: in 1883 it had but 22 Ordinarii, a fact explaining Busolt's becoming active in the search for a professor of German. He writes to Zamcke, asking his opinion of Henning, Berlin's man, and requesting permission to report Zamcke's evaluation to the faculty. It is not clear whether Zamcke expressed a judgment about Henning (but see L 25). L 16

Busolt to Zamcke Kiel d. 7n Juli 1883. Hochverehrter Herr Professor,54 gestatten Sie mir eine vertrauliche Anfrage. Wegen andauemder Kriinklicheit des Prof. Pfeiffer55 soil [[hier]] ein zweiter Ordinarius filr deutsche Sprache und 52 Busolt returned to the question of Pausanias' sources, "Zu den Quellen der Messeniaka des Pausanias," Neue Jahrb. 127 (1883) 814-816. Niese issued a further criticism, Gott. Gel. Anzeigen, 1884, 60; Busolt replied, "Sparta und der ionische Aufstand," Neue Jahrb. 129 (1884) 154-158. 53 Althoff became Vortragender Rat in the Prussian Kultusministerium in 1882 and Ministerialdirektor in 1897; he was named Wirklicher Geheimrat in 1907, when he retired. From 1882 he in effect controlled the appointments within the Prussian universities. For his life, see A. Sachse, FriedrichAltho.ffund sein Werk (Berlin 1928). Above all see B. vom Brocke, "Hochschulund Wissenschaftspolitik [etc.]": das 'System Althoff.'' in P. Baumgart, ed., Bildungspolitik in PreujJen zur uit des Kaiserreichs (PreuBen in der Geschichte I) (Stuttgart 1980) 1-118. 54 Again a more (and unnecessarily) deferential form than "Herr College," Busolt's usual form from one Ordinarius to another. 55 Friedrich Wilhelm Pfeiffer (1827-1893) promoted in Berlin, 1853, and came to Kiel as o. Prof. from Breslau in 1876. Ill health forced his retirement from teaching in 1884. His works include Das Ross im Altdeutschen (Breslau 1855); Altnordisches Lesebuch (Leipzig 1860).

Kiel

61

Litteratur hierher berufen werden.Einer Aufforderung der Regierung gemasz schlug die Facultat im Herbst vorigen Jahres Paul56 und Erdmann57 (Konigsberg) vor. Gegen diese Vorschlage ist aber von gewisser Seite gearbeitet worden. Man mochte von Berlin aus den Schwiegersohn Virchows,58 den a.o. Prof. Henning59 in Straszburg hierher bringen. Die Facultat ist aufgefordert worden, schleunigst zu berichten. Darf ich nun Sie bitten, mir umgehend (Dienstag Nachmittag haben wir Sitzung) zu schreiben, was Sie von Henning halten. 1hr gewichtiges Urtheil glaubte ich in der fiir unsere Facultiit so wichtigen Frage nicht entbehren zu konnen. Es wiirde mir erwiinscht sein, wenn Sie erlauben mochten, dasz ich 1hr Schreiben bei der Facultatsverhandlung benutze lch bin mit vorziiglicher Hochachtung Stets 1hr ergebenster G. Busolt. In considering whom to appoint in Germanic philology, the faculty in Kiel consulted Moriz Heyne (1837-1906), then Professor in Basel. He was not favorable to Paul: "[A]lles ist kleinlich, tiiftelnd ... Seine Lehrgabe wird sehr bemiingelt . . . lch wiirde ihn in keiner Weise an eine Universitiit, die eine Lehrpersonlichkeit braucht, empfehlen konnen." Moreover, Paul suffered eye

56 Hermann Paul (1846-1921) was now o. Prof. of German philology in Freiburg i. Br.; he was not appointed in Kiel but moved to Munich, 1893. Among his writings in German linguistics are Principien der Sprachgeschichte (Halle 1880), Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik (ib. 1881), and Deutsches Worterbuch (ib. 1897). On him see Beitrage zur Gesch. der deutschen Sprache und Lit. 46 (1922) 495-500 (autobiographic sketch and bibliography). 57 Oskar Hennann Theodor Erdmann (1846-1895) promoted and gained Habilitation in Konigsberg (1867, 1883), where he was now Oberlehrer in the Wilhelmsgymnasium; he was editor of the 'Zeitschriftfii.r deutsche Philologie and author of, e.g., Untersuchungen uber die Syntax der Sprache Otfrids, 2 vols. (Halle 1874-1876). He finally served as o. Prof. in Kiel, 1889-1895. See Faber in Altpreuj3ische Biographie l (Konigsberg 1941) 156; W. Gaither, ADB 48 (1904) 391-392. 58 Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821-1902) was one of the outstanding intellectual figures of the century. He was the founder of cellular pathology and the author of dozens of books and pamphlets on pathology, the history of science, and sociology. Professor in Berlin from 1856, he was one of the founders and the chainnan of the Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (cf. Busolt's comment, L 7 supra) in 1861, a determined liberal, an opponent of Bismarck, and an admirer of Schliemann. On him see Arnold Bauer, Rudo/f Virchow: Der politische Arzt (Berlin 1982); selected letters of his are in C. Andree, Rudolf Virchow als Prahistoriker (Cologne-Vienna 1976); on his relations with Schliemann, W. M. Calder III in Myth, Scandal, and History, ed. Calder and D. A. Traill (Detroit

1986) 30.

59 Rudolf Henning (1852-1930) became ao. Prof. in Strassburg in 1880 and o. Prof. in 1895. He

wrote Ober die sanctgallischen Sprachdenkmaler bis zum Tode Karls des Gr. (Strassburg 1874) and Nibelungenstudien (ib. 1883).

62

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

trouble and had to employ a "Vorleser." As to the other candidates, "iiber Erdmann und Pietsch60 ragt Henning thurmhoch empor."61 Wilhelm Scherer (1841-1886), then Professor in Berlin, also recommended against Paul. "[W]iiBte ich kaum eine wichtige Wahrheit zu nennen, deren Entdeckung auf ihn zuriickginge ... Das geringe Lehrtalent ... macht meiner Ansicht nach die Berufung Pauls an eine preuBische Universitiit nicht ratsam."6 2 These negative appraisals of Paul must have made it seem that Berlin would succeed with its candidate, Henning, but the appointment was delayed: see L 25. We now begin to have documentation on Busolt's correspondence with colleagues, especially through the 25 preserved letters to Eduard Meyer and the ten to Wilamowitz. German scholars of the time were punctilious about sending one another their writings and even proof sheets in advance of publication. The BusoltMeyer relationship was already established by the time of the first preserved letter. Meyer had reviewed Busolt's Forschungen and this is clearly not the first letter between them. Busolt thanks Meyer, who was then a Privatdozent in Leipzig, for some proofs. He soon turns to the possibility of finding another chair: he felt isolated in Kiel and wanted a more central location, nor did the severe climate agree with him. He offers an interesting comment on unemployment among holders of academic degrees.

L 18 Busolt to Eduard Meyer Kiel d. 8 Dec. 1883. Lieber Herr College, meinen herzlichsten Dank fur die Uebersendung der Correcturbogen.63 Ich finde mancherlei, was ich verwerthen kann. Verzeihen Sie, dasz ich mich so kurz fasse, aber meine Zeit ist auszerordentlich in Anspruch genommen. Handbuch, Seminar, Priifungs-Commission,64 Sitzungen aller Art (Facultiit, Consistorium, Lesehalle)65 endlich die Vorlesungen, das kommt nun

60 Paul Pietsch (1849-1927), then Privatdozent in Kiel. He promoted in Breslau, 1875, and went to Greifswald as ao. Prof. in 1885; from I 890 to 1910 he was in Berlin. 61 ZStA Merseburg, Rep. 76 ya Sekt. 9 Tit. IV, Nr. 1, Bd. V, p. 214 (25 April 1883). 62 lb. p. 216. 63 Probably from vol. I of Meyer's Geschichte des Altertums, published in 1884. Cf. L 20. 64 The board of examiners in history, which Busoltjoined in 1881 (L 10) and which dealt with the Kandidaten (infra). 65 In the University of Kiel, "das akademische Konsistorium" is in effect a chamber composed mainly of the Ordinarii. This body, the (smaller) academic senate, and the Rector comprise the academic administration. See further Satzung der Koniglichen Christian-Albrechts-Universitiit zu

Kiel

63

alles zusammen. Namentlich rauben auch die voluminosen Arbeiten der Kandidaten eine schone Z.eit. -

Hier, wie fast iiberall, hat mit diesem Semester die Zahl der

Studirenden erheblich abgenommen. Ein wahrer Segen! Wir bekommen schon so wie so nach einigen Jahren ein studirtes Proletariat. 900 unbesoldete Assessoren in Preuszen!66 Nachstes Jahr werden es 1000 werden! Und der Staat braucht jiihrlich etwa 150! -

Der Tod von Am. Schaefer hat eine schwer zu ersetzende Li.icke

gerissen!67 Er war ein unabhangiger Gelehrter. Man soll sich um Wachsmuth bemiihen.68 Dazu kommt die Vacanz in Mi.inchen. Giesebrecht will Ostern die Seminarleitung abgeben. Sie sitzen ja im Centrum und horen mancherlei. Wissen Sie, was man in Miinchen zu thun beabsichtigt?69 Sollte Nissen nach Bonn kommen, so folgt ihm Niese70 und auf Niese einer seiner Freunde oder ein Kandidat Gutschmids. G. hat deren mehrere, z. B. den Oberlehrer G. Zippel in Konigsberg, in den er vernarrt ist.71 Mir ware es schon recht, wenn ich irgendwie Kiel (Kiel 1917) 16. - The Lesehalle was probably the reading room of the university; Busolt will have served on a faculty committee responsible for its upkeep. 66 Assessors were persons who had received the necessary training for some branch of the civil . service and were awaiting positions (as teacher, judge, and so on). 67 Arnold Schaefer, Busolt's sponsor as author of the volume in Perthes' Handbiicher, died 19 November 1883. 68 That is, to replace Schaefer in Bonn; Wachsmuth remained in Heidelberg until 1886, when he moved to Leipzig. 69 Friedrich Wilhelm Benjamin von Giesebrecht (1814-1889), a pupil of Ranke in Berlin, became o. Prof. of history in Konigsberg, 1857; in 1862 the king of Bavaria brought him to Munich to succeed von Sybel and ennobled him. His leading work was his Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit bis zum Tode Friedrich Barbarossas, 6 vols. (Braunschweig 1855-1895, repr. in ed. 5, 1929-1930). See S. Riezler, ADB 49 (1904) 431-349. Giesebrecht announced his retirement at the end of 1884. The result was an acute tension between the Bavarian Kultusminister, Freiherr von Lutz, and the parliament or Landtag. The Landtag insisted on appointing two professors, of whom one must be Catholic; the other could be of any faith. Lutz favored Karl Theodor Heigel (1842-1915) and appointed him to the open chair; the Catholic appointment went to Hermann Grauert (1850-1924). These scholars, like Giesebrecht as well, were not primarily ancient historians. Only with the appointment of Giesebrecht's pupil Robert (later: von) Pohlmann (1852-1914) to a new chair of ancient history (1898) was the lack made good. See H. Dickerhof-FrOhlich, Das historische Studium an der Universitat Miinchen im 19. Jahrhundert (Munich 1979) 101-105; 203-206 (Lutz's letter to the Landtag); id. in Die LudwigMaximilians-Universitat in ihren Fakultllten, ed. L. Boehm-I. SpOrl, II (Berlin 1980) 274-278 (for these references I thank Herr Manfred Kraus, Munich). 70 Nissen did move from Strassburg to Bonn in 1884, retiring in 1911; Niese was now o. Prof. in Breslau and returned to Marburg in 1885, Bormann having gone to Vienna. 71 Gustav Otto Zippel (1850-1898) entered the University of Konigsberg when Busolt did in 1869 but became a pupil of Mommsen in Berlin. He wrote Die romische Herrschaft in lllyrien bis au/ Augustus (Leipzig 1877), Die Losung der konsularischen Prokonsuln in der fruhen Kaiserzeit (Konigsberg 1883), and Deutsche Volkerbewegungen in der Romerzeit (ib. 1895). He declined two university chairs to remain a Gymnasiallehrer in Konigsberg. He reviewed Busolt's Die Lakedaimonier in Wissenschaftl. Monats-Blllller 1 (1879) 33-42; a copy, inscribed "Seinem Freunde und Studiengeno[ssen: trimmed off] G. Zippe), d. Verfasser," is in the library of the University of California, Berkeley. See B. Schumacher, Altpreuflische Biographie II (Marburg/Lahn 1967) 845-846. Busolt's impatient word "vernarrt" suggests he was envious of von Gutschmid's high opinion ofZippel.

64

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

von Kiel verschoben werden sollte. Das Klima wirkt nicht gtinstig auf meine Gesundheit. Erfahren Sie etwas, so !assen Sie es mich wissen. Herzlichen Grusz

1hr G B.

In this letter to Meyer, Busolt mentions the academic committees on which he had to serve. Another such duty soon arose, in the same semester, on the death of the philosopher Gustav Thaulow (1817-1883).72 Probably Busolt's earlier training in philosophy brought him into the Kommission charged with choosing a successor. One candidate was August Krohn (1840-1889) of Halle; Busolt wrote to a fellow historian, Ernst Dtimmler (1830-1902),73 to ask about Krohn's work. L 19 Busolt to E. Di.immler

Kiel, Karl-Str 30 10 Jan. 1884.

Hochverehrter Herr College, als Mitglied der Commission, welche der Fakultat Vorschlage zur Wiederbesetzung des p0ttlp!JS ·datr~ ,J.~r

Trnx;ydides, 'work breaks off. But since Xenbph()lt ,as~~s 1'0. fol~~ a\'C)'\!.ic~~,4!9 Thtasybulus and Theramenes, it must have been ThedpQfitpus '

·,





·•

who di4 ~: . ; 1 '' , '

therefore he ~ies behind Diodorus' acount. Busolt points td o~her -Oiitrep"'1oies.

petween Xenophon and Diodorus, all -betraying ..a, systQmaii~ 'atf!ernpt· by_ Theopothpus to re~te, expand, and improve Xenophon. "I dere'n~·ofTheopbmpus."

do ndrbeiiey~µt:YOuf' '

'

'

~1')9

!fost,It to Meyer p~ Gottingen 30. vii. 09. Verehrter Hert Kollege, fortwahrend muss ich Ihnen dailk,en

rrnd noch-immer kllnn

ich Ihnen keine Gegenleistung bieten. Das ist fiir mich rein beschimend. Det Druck rneiner Gr. St. Altertiimer kann erst im Oktobet-beginnen.1 50 Ihre ~eMndlung des.

150 In the preface to vol. I of his Stadtskunde, Busolt, says that the volumewas.itot\vllelly·t,Mt4rl · even b;r the beginning of the war in August I 914; but s~. LL 111, 116 infra. · ·

170

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

Oxyrhynchos enthlilt wesentliche Dinge, mit denen ich vollig iibereinstimme, in anderen Punkten sind wir verschiedener Meinung, und ich muss an meiner Auffassung festhalten. Sie erklaren, dasz Xenophons Schlachtenschilderung unmoglich ist,"151 also hat X., der dabei war, sie erfunden. Das halte ich bei dem Charakter Xenophons fiir nicht richtig. N ach kompetentem militarischem Urteil ist Xenophons Schilderung einwandsfrei, die Theopomps sehr bedenklich.152 Der Erfinder ist zweifellos Theopompos. Er hat die Schlachtbeschreibung bei Kyzikos in Gegensatz zu Xen. gemacht. (1hr Theopomp Frgm 1: 8paat>l3o'1lA.O~ Kai 811paµev11~ Kai 'AAK$ta&rt~ = Diod. xiii [50] = Nep. Alcib. 5).1 53 Wenn 1) bei den Arginusen zuerst der ~ Fliigel der Peloponnesier besiegt wird ( d i e ~ halten auf dem linken Stand), und das unmoglich ist, nach Xen. zuerst der linke. 2) wenn nach Diod. Konon die Flotte des Kallikratidas [sich]tet, 154 nach Xen. umgekehrt K. den Konon sichtet, 3) wenn Diod wiederholt xoUoi sagt, wo bei X. ou xoAA.Oi steht, 4) wenn sich durchweg von 411-403

diese Umsetzungen Xenophons bei Diodor finden, -

so handelt es sich um ein

System, um systematische Umsetzung Xenophons. Zur Erganzung Xs sind daneben andere Quellen herangezogen, die auch gute Nach[rich]ten enthalten.1 55 Ich glaube nicht an Ihre Verteidigung Theopomps und werde im Hermes einfach eine Reihe Thatsachen zusammenstellen, die meine Ansicht bestatigen. 156 Nochmals schonen Dank und freundlichen Grusz von Ihrem ergebensten G. Busolt. Kromayers Hannibal! Unglaublich.157 151 Meyer, op. cit. 15, referring to the battle of Sardis. Busolt had already supported Xenophon's narrative over that of the Hell. Oxy. (n. 149 supra). 152 Busolt does not clarify whose military judgment he refers to. H. R. Breitenbach also found it likely that Xenophon drew on personal experience in his narrative of the last years of the Peloponnesian War: RE s.v. Xenophon, 1675-1679. 153 Compare Xenophon, Hell. 1.1.16-20 with Diodorus 13.50-51 (Busolt wrote "xiii 80" in error); see also Geschichte Ill 1527. 154 Mutilated, like "Nachrichten" infra, in a punch hole. 155 Busolt admitted (Geschichte Ill 1593 n. 7) that the geographic accuracy concerning the nearby islands (Diodorus 13.97.3) derived from Ephorus' personal observation. 156 "Zur Glaubwilrdigkeit Theopomps," Hermes 45 (1910) 220-249, with addendum, 468, so far as I know Busolt's last article. In this paper was offered "noch ein Beitrag filr die Identitlit" of the new historian, whose credibility Busolt placed below that of Xenophon. The comparative value of Xenophon and the Hell. Oxy. is still debated. I. A. F. Bruce, An Historical Commentary on the 'Hellenica Oxyrhynchia' (Cambridge 1967) 150-156, finds the Hell. Oxy. superior to Xenophon on the battle of Sardis, while G. A. Lehmann prefers Xenophon's account of the battle around Ephesus (Hell. 1.2.1-10) to that contained in a new frafment of the Hell. Oxy.: ZPE 26 (1977) 181-191. 15 Evidently Busolt did not approve of J. Kromayer's "Hannibal und Antiochos der Grosse, eine politisch-strategische Studie," Neue Jahrb. 19 (1907) 681-699.

Gottingen

171

In spring 1910 Busolt sent Meyer the promised article in which he argued that Theopompus was the source for the elaborated, inauthentic version of the battle of Cyzicus. His cautious tone (criticism of Meyer was inescapable, but he trusts Meyer will not resent it) may suggest that Meyer was inclined to be impatient of contradiction. The printing of the first volume of his Griechische Staatskunde is now to begin in June. Along with family matters, including the dissolution of his daughter's engagement, he is annoyed by the new edition of the Greek inscriptions -

apparently by the type in which they are now being printed. There is finally a

simple but touching reference to the death of his old adversary Niese. L 111 Busolt to Meyer Gottingen, 5 April 1910. Verehrter Herr College, der Ihnen angektindigte Hermes-Artikel, in dem ich nachzuweisen suche, dasz Theopompos doch erfunden und namentlich die Schilderung der Schlacht bei Kyzikos bei Diod-Ephoros gemacht hat, ist jetzt gedruckt.1 58 Morgen sende ich Ihnen einen Abzug. Es war dabei eine, nattirlich rein sachliche, Polernik gegen Ihre Auffassung unvermeidlich.159 Vebel nehmen werden Sie selbstverstiindlich meinen Widerspruch nicht. Es handelt sich ja um eine rein wissenschaftliche Diskussion. -

Der Druck meiner Staatsaltertilmer (40

Bogen) wird erst im Juni beginnen. Besasze ich doch Ihre Arbeits- und Gestaltungskraft! Allerdings hat mich hauslicher Kummer (die Entlobung meiner Tochter kurz vor der Hochzeit und Anderes) 160 und auch der neue Druck der Inschriften sehr aufgehalten. Alie Welt klagt Uber diesen Druck, sogar eine Anzahl Mitarbeiter an den Inscriptiones. Man klagt denn hier, wie in Konigsberg, Freiburg, Hamburg! 161 Lasst sich wirklich nichts dagegen machen? Konnen Sie nicht Ihren Einfluss einsetzen? -

Nieses Tod hat mich recht ergriffen. Wir haben

158 N. 156 supra. 159 I.e. against Meyer's Theopomps Hel/enika and his general acceptance of the narrative in the

Hell. Oxy. 160 I do not know to whom Anna Busolt had been engaged. In 1916 she married Wilhelm PflugMft (1879-1952); he served in the war and was decorated (Iron Cross, 2nd and 1st class). 161 Busolt complains that he has been delayed by the new edition of lnscriptiones Graecae, of which several volumes appeared in the period 1900-1914. This may mean that he had to spend time changing his references to the new numbers. The complaint "iiber diesen Druck" seems to refer to the new, smaller type face now being used.

172

Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

uns oft angeknurrt, aber doch nahe gestanden. 162 Wie hat Ihnen der amerikanische Aufenthalt bekommen? 163 Mit freundlichen Grilszen 1hr

ergebenster G. Busolt. The publication of the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia led to correspondence between Busolt and Meyer on military strategy. This may be the place to gather Busolt's surviving correspondence with Germany's leading historian of warfare, Hans Delbrtick ( 1848-1929), professor of modem history in Berlin and editor of the Preuj3ische Jahrbilcher, 164 again we shall ignore strict chronological order. The letters begin in 1905, soon after Delbrtick had published his Geschichle

der Kriegskunst 1, 165 a series of studies on various Greek campaigns. He had already worked out his view of the Persian Wars in his Die Perserkriege und die Burgunderkriege,166 and Busolt had taken issue with him in various parts of his Geschichte. Delbrtick was from a family long prominent in administration and scholarship and had been tutor to Prince Waldemar, second son of the crown prince Friedrich Wilhelm. He had served in the Franco-Prussian War and in the Gennan Reichstag (1884-1890). Though ultimately a conservative and monarchist, he was capable of criticizing the regime and praising the social democrats. He was a courageous man of action and brought a defiant spirit into his scholarship, which_ ranged from antiquity through the Great War. He relied on "Sachkritik" to modify

162 Niese had moved to Halle in 1906 and died there on 1 February 1910. 163 Meyer was visiting professor at Harvard University during the fall semester 1909/10. He offered "History of the Ancient World from Alexander the Great to Augustus" and "History and Monuments of the Ancient Near East," both lecture courses meeting three and two times a week respectively; and (primarily for graduates) "The Origin and Opening of the Second Punic War," a research course without announced hours. On this kind of exchange see B. vom Brocke, "Der deutsch-amerikanische Professoremiustausch," ail.fur Kulturaustausch 31 (1981) 128-182, esp. 137-142 (Der Harvard-Berlin Austausch). - "ist ... bekommen" would be more usual Geiman. 164 Delbrilck promoted in Berlin under von Sybel, 1873, and gained Habilitation there in 1881. He edited the Preuj3ische Jahrbucher with Treitschke from vol. 52 (1883) and was sole editor, 1889-1919, having succeeded Treitschke as o. Prof., 1896. He took the first two volumes of his most famous work, Geschichte der Kriegskunsl, through a third edition (Berlin 1920-1921); his biography of Gneisenau reached a fourth (ib. 1920). His lectures, Weltgeschichle, filled five volumes (ib. 1924-1928). On his work see K. Christ, Von Gibbon zu Rostovtzejf (Darmstadt 1972) 159-200 (provisional bibliography, 367); note A. Thimme, Hans Delbruck als Kritiker der wilheminischen Epoche (Diisseldorf 1955), and A. Bucholz, Hans Delbruck and the Germqn Military Establishment etc. (Iowa City 1985). 165 Vol. I covered Das Alter/um (Berlin 1900). The whole work reached a vol. V (by E. Daniels, ib. 1928). · 166 Berlin 1887. See Busolt, Geschichte 112 559 ff., on the campaign leading to Marathon in 490; ib. III 884, on Athenian resources in 431. Busolt's comments are generally respectful.

173

Gottingen

ancient traditions and to decide how things really happened, even if this entuled the jettisoning of statistics sincerely preserved in our primary sources. Busolt himself was anything but an obedient slave to ancient traditions, but his method was more cautious than that of his Berlin colleague; he preferred to combine and explain sources, accepting the good and eliminating the unreliable, as he did when reading Diodorus' inflated narratives. But only when ancient tradition had been shown to be inadequate was Busolt prepared to replace it with modern correction. Delbriick had evidently found some of Busolt's criticisms lacking in civility (the reader of Delbriick's fiery essays will find this a little ironic), ahd with his usual patient frankness Busolt sets forth his point of view on several of the campaigns in Delbriick's·survey.

L94 Busolt to Delbriick Gottingen, 31 Aug. 1905. Hochverehrter Herr College, indem ich Ihnen fur Ihren liebenswiirciigen Brief vom 26° Juli und di~ Zus.,endung des Artikels 167 meinen aufrichtigen Dank filisdriicke, bitte ich zugleic~

um

Entschuldigung, dasz ich erst heute antwotre. In den-letzten Tagen cies Semesters hatte ich beim besten Willen keine Minute Zoit und dann mus,ste ieh

s6fott nacti deD;l

Schlusse der Vorlesungen eine ReiS'e antreten,"mit der ich cine kurze Erholung in

der Schweiz verbarid. Nach der Rticlckehr ~atte ich filr das im Drucke befindliche Heft der l3eitrlige filr die alte Oeschicbte einen dringenden Au'fsatz ilbcr'lin~\cydides und den themistokleischen Mauerba\l zu vollenden, 168 den ich Ihnen zuschicken werde, da er Sie_ in methodisclier Hinsicht interessiren diirfte.

So bin ich erst _heute.

ium Schreiben gekommen. Was meine wissenschaftliche Gegnerschaft betrifft, so habe i 190 lange lebendig bleiben. Herodot hat doch noch Mitkiimpfer sprechen konnen. Unwillkiirlich erinnert man 186 Added. 187 Alfred Stenzel (1832-1906) occupied the ground floor at Reventlouallee 28, where Busolt had the second floor; he later moved to Gouingen, where he died. Stenzel's father was professor of history, Breslau. After studies in Berlin and GOttingen (here under the great Karl Friedrich GauB) he entered the Prussian navy, 1862. He served in combat and taught tactics and naval history at the Marine-Akademie, Kiel, 1875-1881 and 1894-1896. On his life and writings, see H. Kirchhoff in Stenzel's Kriegfuhrung zur See. Lehre vom Seekriege (Hanover-Leipzig 1913) XIII-XXXI perhaps his most important work. 188 Delbriick leaves out of his account (seen. 170 supra) the intentional thinning of the Greek center, which Herodotus attests, 6.111.3. Yet precisely this thinning allowed the Athenians to hold their casualties at Marathon down to 192. Dclbriick, evidently nervous about statistics, said that "Ueber den Verlust der Perser wissen wir nichts zuverlllssiges" (p. 50). Herodotus gives 6400 for the Persian fallen, 6.117.1. These numbers, 192 and 6400, can be brought into interesting relationships, and 6400 is probably somehow derived from 192: see H. C. Avery, Historia 22

(1973) 757, and W. F. Wyatt Jr., ib. 25 (1976) 483-484 (192 x 100 + 3 = 6400). 189 Originally "un-." 190 Hdt. 6.111.3.

Gottingen

179

sich bei der Verstlirkung der191 Fliigel an die Maszregeln Alexanders zu 192 der Schlacht bei Gaugamela.193 Auch da erfolgte ein Durchbruch des linken Centrums. 1st dieser Hinweis ebenso unzutreffend, wie er neu ist? lch betrachte es als einen Hauptbeweis fiir die Bedeutung des Miltiades, dasz er mit der ilberlieferten Schablone brach. Sollten nicht vielleicht die Saken die gesuchte Reiterei sein? 194 (Hdt IX 71. Arrian III 8, 1!195 u.s.w.) Bei lssos waren die Perser aufgestellt bt1t£~ t£ oµou 1eal ni~ol avaµ£µlyµEv0l (Arrian III 11,4)196 Da ich gerade bei Alexander bin, so mochte ich bemerken, dasz ich auch in Bezug auf die Feldziige desselben vielfach zu andem Ergebnissen gekommen bin und zwar wiederum in Folge einer grundsatzlichen Verschiedenheit in der Behandlung der Ueberlieferung. Sie halten es filr kaum glaublich, dasz am Granikos gar kein persisches Fuszvolk dabei gewesen sein sollte,197 weil unter den obwaltenden Umstanden gerade diese Waffe die groszte Wirksamkeit hatte entfalten miissen. Das ist schon richtig, aber hatten die Perser diese Einsicht? hatten sie vielleicht das Vertrauen an ihrem Fuszvolk verloren? (heiszt es doch von den hellenischen Soldnem wiederholt ci>~ µ6vol 611 avtippo1tol tj\ cpaAayyl) 198 Oder waren die asiatischen Fuszvolker noch nicht zur Stelle? Das sind alles Moglichkeiten, mit denen man rechnen muss, denn ich kann nicht annehmen, dasz Ptolemaios-Arrian vom persischen Fuszvolke geschwiegen hatte, wenn es dabei gewesen ware. Gerade, dasz man mit Griechen im persischen Lager zu kampfen hatte, war fiirl99 die Auffassung des Kampfes als eines helleni~chen Krieges gegen Barbaren hochst peinlich. Darum hat KleitarchDiodor be1 alien drei Schlachten die hellenischen Soldner unterdriickt und am Granikos sogar ..11- is written. 210 For the Persian reinforcements before Issus, see Arrian 1.8.5-8.

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Bei dem Alexander-Zuge vermindern Sie meiner Meinung nach zu stark die Perserheere, ebenso wie bei dem Mederkriege der Griechen die beiderseitigen Heere. Nach Hdt. zahlte das griechische Heer bei Plataiai 38,700 Hopliten. 211 Sie setzen die Zahl auf etwa 20,000 herab.21 2 Freilich war ein Tei! der Mannschaft von den Schiffen in Anspruch genommen, aber anderseits wurden, wie Sie mit Recht bemerken, ,,die hochsten Anstrengungen gemacht". Da die Flotte aus 110 Schiffen213 bestand und zwar zum groszem Tei! aus athenischen, so diirfen wir fiir die Athener einen Abgang von etwa 1000 Hopliten in Anschlag bringen. (Plut. Them. 14).214 Das athenische Feldheer bestand aber i. J. 431 aus 13,000 Hopliten und 1000 Rittern.215 Es liegt also kein zwingender Grund vor Herodots 8000 athenische Hopliten auf 5000 zu reduzieren, 216 eine Zahl, die doch auf rein subjektiver Schatzung beruht und in der Ueberlieferung gar keine Stiitze hat. Abgesehen von den Athenern und Lakedaimoniern zahlten nach Hdt. die Kontingente der iibrigen Hellenen: 17,300 Peloponnesier und 3400 NichtPeloponnesier.217 Von den 19 Zahlen Hdts konnten [[aber]] nur 3 Anstosz erregen: die 5000 Korinthier und die je 3000 der Megarer und Sikyonier. Allein nach Thuk. IV 70; 44,4; 42,3; III 114,4 hatten die Korinthier i.J. 424 gegen 4000 Hopliten, nachdem i.J. 425 212 gefallen waren218 und nachdem die Korinthier in den Kampfen mit den Korkyraiern sehr schwere Verlust erlitten hatten. 21 9 Ihre 5000 Hopliten bei Plataiai konnen also keinen Anstosz erregen. Der Aufschwung Athens nach den Perserkriegen bedeutete einen Riickgang Korinths. Wahrend des peloponnesischen Krieges erfolgte ein weiterer Riickgang. Und doch stellten die Korinthier am Nemea-Bache noch 3000 Hopliten.2 20 Aehnliches gilt von Sikyon und Megara. Aber die 10,000 Hopliten der Lakedaimonier, 5000 Spartiaten und 211 Hdt. 9.29.1. Delbriick underlined "Plataiai." For his analysis of Plataea and his estimate of the forces, see op. cit. I 80-88.

212 lb. 82. 213 Such is Herodotus' figure for the allied fleet gathered at Aegina in 479 before the battle of Plataea, 8.131.1.

214 Plutarch reports (Them. 14.2) that 14 hoplites and four archers fought on each Athenian ship; thus about 1000 hoplites would be needed for naval service.

215 Thuc. 2.13.6 (hoplites), 13.8 (1200 cavalry including bowmen, but 1000 cavalry are attested

elsewhere, e.g. Aristoph. Equ. 225). 216 So Delbriick, loc. cit. 217 Hdt. 9.28-2-6. 218 Thuc. 4.44.6. 219 For example, at the battle of Sybota in 433, Thuc. 1.48-49; around Corcyra itself, 3.76-80. Busolt's estimate of the Corinthian hoplite strength, 4000, is evidently based on Thuc. 4.70.1, where it is said Corinth supplied 2700 hoplites to Brasidas. Niese (n. 177 supra) also accepted Herodotus' 5000 Corinthian troops at Plataea. 220 In 394: Xen. Hell. 4.2.17.

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5000 Perioiken,22 1 sind doch am Ende unhaltbar. Allerdings zahlte der Heerbann Spartas von etwa 418 bis Leuktra222 in normaler Vollstiirke mit Einschluss der Perioiken nur 4800 Hopliten (darunter die 300 Logades)223 Damals waren die Perioiken in den Rahmen der taktischen Verbiinde der Spartiaten aufgenommen, zur Zeit der Perserkriege bildeten sie neben den Spartiaten eigene Heeresabteilungen. Es wird filr den Herrenstand der Spartiaten kein leichter Entschluss gewesen sein, die Unterthanen in ihre Reihen aufzunehmen und mit ihnen Enomotieen224 zu bilden. Nur die Notlage kann ihn dazu gezwungen haben, niimlich die grosze Verminderung der Bilrgerzahl, die wiihrend und in Folge des groszen Arkaderkrieges, des Erdbebens und des Helotenaufstandes erfolgt sein muss. 225 Wenn es i.Jahre 4182 26 noch mindestens 2200 wehrfahige Spartiaten gab, so kann sich deren Zahl zur Zeit der Perserkriege recht wohl auf 5000 belaufen haben. Ich werde demniichst im Hermes nachweisen, dasz es mit den 9000 Kleroi der Spartiaten seine Richtigkeit hat.227 Diese setzen genau 4800 Hopliten voraus, eine Zahl, die von den Lakedaimoniern als Normalzahl festgehalten wurde. Doch ich darf Ihre Zeit nicht noch liinger in Anspruch nehmen, und es ist die allerhochste Zeit, dasz ich schliesze. Das herrliche Frilhlingswetter lockt auch hinaus ins Freie und in den Wald. Ich bleibe wiihrend dieser Ferien zu Hause, Lehmann hat seine spanischen Reisepliine wieder aufgenommen, aber er will nicht allein reisen und wartet auf Krauske's Antwort.228 Er ist in diesem Winter, abgesehen von einer Halserkiiltung in vorletzter Woche, trotz dem Dekanat229 munterer und frischer als vor einem Jahre gewesen. Ich schiitze ihn immer hoher, je niiher ich ihn kennen lerne. Mit dem nochmaligen Ausdrucke des Dankes filr 1hr Wohlwollen bin ich 1hr ergebenster G. Busolt.

221 Hdt Joe. cit.

222 For Sparta's defeat in the battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C., see Xen. Hell. 6.4.4-15. 223 For this reckoning ("4700 bis 5000 Mann"), cf. Busolt-Swoboda, Staatskunde II 712. 224 The smallest units of the Spartan army recognized by Thucydides (5.68.3). 225 For these events, see Hdt. 1.66-68 (the war with Arcadia); Thuc. 1.101-103. 226 At the battle of Mantinea, Thuc. 5.66-73. 227 "Spartas Heer und Leuctra," Hermes 40 (1905) 387-449. 228 0110 Krauske (1859-1930) promoted in Berlin and was ao. Prof. of history in G1l1tingen, 1895-1902; he then moved as o. Prof. permanently to Konigsberg. He wrote Die Entwickelung der sttlndigen Diplomatie vom filnfzehnten Jahrhundert bis zu den Besch/assen von 1815 und 1818 (Leipzig 1885). On him see F. Meinecke, Hist. Zeit. 143 (1930) 220, who stresses his stature as a teacher and friend to many scholars. 229 Max Lehmann was Dekan of the Philosophical Faculty in G1lltingen, 1905/1906.

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In 1908 Delbriick sent Busolt a copy of a lecture on the voting groups in Rome, especially the tribes. Busolt writes in thanks but excuses himself for not having been able to study the paper thoroughly (cf. L 103). Soon afterward Busolt received the third edition of Delbriick' s biography of Gneisenau. L 101

Busolt to Delbriick Gottingen, 24 Jan. 1908. Hochverehreter Herr Kollege, wenn ich nicht schon Hingst Ihnen fiir die Uebersendung Ihres hochst anregenden Aufsatzes Uber die romischen Tribus und Centurien230 meinen Dank ausgesprochen habe, so liegt das daran, dasz ich hoffte, Zeit zu gewinnen, das Quellenmaterial nochmals durchzuarbeiten und daraufhin Ihnen meine Ansicht zu schreiben. Da kam aber die Publikation des griechischen Historikers (Theopompos?) 231 fiir 396/5 und manche unaufschiebbare andere Arbeit fiir meine Vorlesung. 232 So konnte ich nur Ihren Aufsatz lesen, musste aber sonst die Tribus und Centurien liegen !assen. Unter alien Umstanden ist aber die neue, selbststandige Aufrollung des Problems sehr erwtinscht und dankenswerth. Im Zusammenhange damit muss auch die schwierige Frage des Stimrnrechts der Proletarier zu ciceronischer Zeit behandelt werden. Die Leute haben ein zu groszes Stimmgewicht, als dasz sie damals blosz in den stadtischen Tribus gestimmt haben sollten.233 Doch mochte ich heute mit meinem Urteile zurtickhalten, erst muss ich Zeit zu eingehender Priifung gewinnen. Haben Sie daher die Gtite zunachst mit meinem herzlichen Danke dafiir fiirlieb zu nehmen, dasz Sie an mich gedacht haben. Vom Kollegen Lehmann bestelle ich einen Grusz. Er ist, Gott sei Dank, wieder auf dem Damm. Sein hartnackiger Katarrh flosste vor Weihnachten nur Besorgnisse ein. Mit freundlicher Empfehlung Ihr ergebenster G. Busolt. 230 "Konig Servius Tullius und das rOmische Wahlrecht," PreujJ. Jahrb. 131 (1908) 87-102. For discussion, see on L 103. 23! The Hellenica Oxyrhynchia (cf. p. 162 supra). 232 In winter semester I 907/8 Busolt lectured on "Griechische Geschichte von 413 an." 233 Busolt's point is not clear. In Cicero's time the people, both patricians and plebeians, who lived in Rome voted in the four urban tribes in the Comitia Tributa; all others voted in the 31 rustic tribes. Only if he meant by "damals" a much earlier time than that of Cicero could his statement, that the common people of the city voted in some tribes other than the four urban ones, be at least partly valid. In 312 Appius Claudius carried a measure allowing the city population to register in non-urban tribes, but this law was repealed in 304. See E. S. Staveley, Greek and Roman Voting and Elections (London 1972) 137-139.

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Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

L 102 Busolt to Delbriick Postcard Gottingen 17. iv. 08. Hochgehrter Herr Kollege, schonen Dank filr Ihren liebenswilrdigen Brief und die genussreichen Ferien-Abende, die mir die Lektilre der neuen Auflage Ihres Gneisenau 234 verschafft hat. lch freue mich, dasz Sie gegenilber Kromayer an dem Urteile des Polybios in militarischer Hinsicht festhalten. Die Verteidigung der Strategie des Antiochos und Perseus ist entschieden misslungen. 235 Das Wahrscheinlichste ist auch nicht immer das Thatsachliche. 236 Nach den historischen Uebungen im Wintersemester kann ich jetzt nachweisen, dasz Livius von 220 an bis 216 nur eine ganz wertlose, rhetorische und tendenzios romerfreundliche, in der Zeit des Pompeius entstandene Bearbeitung des Polybios bietet. 237 Mit freundlichem Grosz 1hr ergebenster G. Busolt Finally in May Busolt could reply in some detail to Delbriick's essay on Roman voting groups, which was in tum based on a dissertation by Francis F. Smith written under his direction. Smith argued a thesis that has not made much headway: the division of Roman citizens into classes based on wealth, which is attributed in the sources to the penultimate king Servius Tullius, was actually a product of a reform of 179 B.C. Busolt replies that, if the reform were really so late as 179, we should not find it ascribed to the far-off figure of Servius. Here too is an example of the cautious, and ultimately more successful, handling of texts and sources that Busolt practiced.

234 Delbrilck, Das Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Neidhardt von Gneisenau3, 2 vols. (Berlin 1908); the author reviewed his own book, PreujJ. Jahrb. 130 (1907) 501-506. Gneisenau had stayed with Busolt's ancestor, Gotthilf Christoph Wilhelm Busolt, a century earlier (p. 7). 235 Kromayer on Antiochus III, L 102 and n. 148; on Perseus of Macedon: Antike Schlachtfelder II (Berlin 1907) 294-328. 236 A gentle remark ad hominem, for Delbriick was the master of reconstructing military history according to what seemed to him "wahrscheinlich." 237 Busolt offered in winter semester 1907/8 "Historische Ubungen Uber die Quellen zur Geschichte des hannibalischen Krieges." He seems not to have worked up for publication the conclusion he sketches here. Many historians, by contrast, believe that Livy used Polybius directly (and contaminated him with other material) rather than through a version created in the first century. See A. Klotz, Livius und seine Vorglinger, 2 vols. (Berlin 1940-1941) and, briefly, in RE s.v. Livius, 840-846.

G5ttingen

185

L 103 Busolt to Delbriick Postcard G5ttingen, 20 Mai 1908 Verehrter Herr Kollege, endlich bin ich dazu gekommen, Smith's Timokratie238 und Ihren Aufsatz ilber rfimisches Wahlrecht239 zu studieren. Ich verdanke Ihnen viele Anregung, gegen das Hauptergebnis babe ich jedoch manche Bedenken: ich meine gegen die Einfiihrung der servianischen Klassenordnung i. J. 179. Wenn die Ueberlieferung sic dem Servius T. zuschrieb, so bedeutete das nichts Anderes, als dasz sic die 240 Ordnung als cine grundlegende, alte Institution der Gemeinde betrachtete und ilber die Zeit der Einfilhrung nichts wusste. 1"79 war aber doch die Annalistik, die solche Verfassungslinderungen verzeichnete, bereits ausgebildet. Eine Spur der Beriicksichtigung der Klassen bei der Heeresorganisation findet sich noch bei Polyb. VI 23,14. Sallust, de bell. lug. 86: Marius hebe die Soldaten aus non more maiorum ex classibus (nicht classe).241 Liv 40,51 bezieht sich our auf die Tribus-Bildung, bei denen 242 bisher our die Ansessigkeit, der Grundbesitz und die Geburt in Frage kamen, aber nicht die ~ des Census und andere [[ ... ]] causae. 243 Mit freundlichen Griiszen, denen sich gewiss auch Ernst Lehmann 244 anschlieszen wilrde, 1hr ergebenster G. Busolt

238 Francis F. Smith, Die rlJmische Timokratie (Berlin 1906). Smith (1881-?) was born in St. Petersburg and studied at a Gymnasium in Berlin, then at several German universities before promoting under DelbrUck, to whom he sent ten letters and three postcards (1906-1917) and a copy of his will; see the Delbr!lck Nachlass (n. 183 supra). A shorter version of Smith's book, RlJmische Heeresverfassung und Timokratie (Grtlfenhainichen 1906), also appeared. Embedded in DelbrUck's essay (see next note) is a review by him of the book by his pupil Smith. 239 See n. 230 supra 240 Added. 241 Polybius here reports that common soldiers wore a breast plate over the heart, but those rated above 10,000 drachmae wore a coat of chain mail: this is evidence for an ancient division of citizens according to wealth. The passage from Sallust also seems to show that soldiers had long been divided into classes based on census. 242 Badly written, but I see no alternative; the word refers to the tribes implied in "TribusBildung." 243 The passage from Livy, on which Smith relied to show that the "Servian" classes were established in 179, is obscure: the censors of 179 "mutarunt suffragia regionatimque generibus hominum causisque et quaestibus tribus discripserunt." This may mean that they "changed the arrangements for voting and organized all the tribes on a regional basis, according to the social class and situations (causis: "conditions"?) of the citizens and (the sources of?) their income." For discussion, see J. Suolahti, The Roman Censors (Helsinki 1963) 363 f., who, like some other historians, finds here an opportunity to "wealthy, landless city-dwellers, even to freedmen, and those who possessed a son, of transferring from an urban to a rural tribus, thus increasing their influence in the comitia centuriata." [But Suolahti must mean the Comitia Tributa, in which voters were organized according to their place of residence.] So more or less G. De Sanctis, Storia dei Romani IV.I (Turin 1923) 557 f., 606: a slightly different view, Staveley, op. cit 140 f. 244 A relative of Max Lehmann? - a correspondent of DelbrUck, 1895-1919.

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Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters

On 3 June 1910 Busolt wrote Delbrtick to thank him for his approving judgment on his paper in Hermes for that year (L 101, omitted). Delbrtick also said he would send Busolt the proofs of an article of his own to appear in Klio. Busolt returns the proofs on 1 July with some suggestions for making the paper even stronger. Delbrtick's positive thesis, which Busolt accepts, is that cavalry was much more effective in warfare than Meyer (in his Theopomps Hellenika) was prepared to admit.

L113 Busolt to Delbrtick Gottingen, 1 Juli 1910 Sehr geehrter Herr Kollege, gleichzeitig mit diesem Briefe sende ich die Korrektur245 zuriick. Ihre Anflihrungen sind ja so schlagend und tiberzeugend, dasz sich nichts dagegen einwenden laszt. Es giebt jedoch einige Flille, die sie noch bestatigen. Nach Hdt V 63 schlug thessalische Reiterei in der Ebene sogar lakonische Hopliten, nach VI 29 wird griechisches Fuszvolk unter Histaios von persischer Reiterei aufgerieben und zwar im regelrechten Kampf. Wahrend des Treffens

-ii i'.1t1t~ UCJ'tEpov opµri0e'iaa

£7tl7tl7t'tEl (!) 'tOlCJl "EI..A.flCJl. 'tO 0£ epyov 't'llttingen and returned there as ao. Prof., 1906; he became o. Prof. in 1916. Among his works are Die griechische Tragodie (Leipzig-Berlin 1930) and Gesta/ten aus He/las (Munich 1950). After a brief intellectual flirtation with Fascism (Antikes Fuhrertum, Leipzig-Berlin 1934), he became an anti-Fascist and was forbidden by the regime to teach after he became emeritus in 1937. He resumed teaching in 1947. On him see H. OOrrie, Gnomon 34 (1962) 634-636. 285 Richard Reitzenstein (1861-1931) promoted under Vahlen in Berlin, 1884, and gained Habilitation in Breslau, 1888. He taught in Rostock, Giessen, and Strassburg before succeeding Leo in G1>ttingen in 1914. Study in Rome inspired his Geschichte der griechischen Etymologika (Leipzig 1897); he wrote widely on the history of religion, above all Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen (Leipzig-Berlin 1910). On him see M. Pohlenz, Nachr. Gott. Gesell., Gesellschaftl. Mitt., 1930/1, 1-11. 286 On Ernst Komemann, see n. 56 supra. 287 Walther Kolbe (1876-1943) was a pupil of Koehler and Hirschfeld in Berlin, promoting in 1899 with Das Seewesen der Athene,. He held chairs in Rostock (1905-1918), Dorpat (1918), and Greifswald (1919-1927) before moving to Freiburg i. Br. as successor to Fabricius (1927-1942). He edited the inscriptions of Laconia and Messenia in JG V, 1 (Berlin 1913) and wrote Thukydides im Lichte der Urkunden (Stuttgart 1930). On him see H. U. Instinsky, Hist. Zeit. 168 (1943) 672673; W. Schuchhardt, Gnomon 19 (1943) 284-286. 288 Wilhelm Weber (1882-1948) promoted in Leipzig, 1907, and held chairs in Groningen and Frankfurt before moving to Tiibingen in 1918; in 1925 he went to Halle, in 1931 to Berlin. His main interest was in rulers and leadership, in harmony with his support of the Fascist regime: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrianus (Leipzig 1907), Princeps I (Stuttgart 1936), Romisches Herrschertum und Reich im 2. Jahrh. n. Chr. (ib. 1937). On him see J. Vogt, Gnomon 21 (1949) 176-179; V. Losemann, Nationa/sozialismus und Antike (Hamburg 1977) 48, 79 ff.

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W. Otto289 und Gelzer.290 Gewicht legen wir auch auf cine im Interesse der Lehrtiitigkeit moglichst umfassende Beherrschung des Gebietes der alten Geschichte, so dasz Schulten 291 u.A. ausscheiden. Eine Aeuszerung Ihrerseits wiirde als wertvollen Fingerzeig begrtiszen 1hr

Ihnen dankbar und ehrerbietigst ergebener G. Busolt.

We can follow the search for Busolt's successor through documents of the Kultusministerium. The faculty, assisted by the honorary professor Hugo Willrich (1867-1950), brought in its first report on 22 July 1920.292 The list was Gelzer, Weber, and Kolbe. The first desire of the faculty was to seek younger men, and Gelzer and Weber were therefore placed first and second. 293 Gelzer declined further consideration, so Weber was the next candidate. He visited Gottingen on 28 October, 294 and the faculty were evidently persuaded that he was their man, for they proposed a salary of 22,000 marks. An official in the ministry of finance, Herr Dulheuer, opposed the salary (though it was approximated in two cases in Gottingen), because Weber was still a comparatively young scholar and the pay was too high for an ancient historian, that is, "auf einem Lehrstuhl von keinesfalls iiberragender sachlicher Bedeutung.''295 289 Walter Otto (1878-1941) promoted under Wilcken in Breslau with Die Organisation der griechischen Priesterschaft im hellenistischen Agypten (Leipzig 1904); the Hellenistic age

remained his chief interest. He held chairs in Greifswald, Marburg, and Breslau before succeeding Wilcken in Munich, 1918, where he remained. In 1920 he became the editor of Miiller's Handbuch and transformed it from its classical limits into a "Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft." On him see H. Bengtson in Bursian 284 (1943) 22-48; Wilcken, Hist. 'Zeit. 165 (1942) 675-679. 290 Matthias Gelzer (1886-1974), a Swiss pupil of Wilcken (Studien zur byzantinischen Verwaltung Agyptens, Leipzig 1909), was o. Prof. of ancient history in Greifswald, 1915-1918, then in Strassburg, 1918-1919, and in Frankfurt, 1919-1955. One of the leaders of the German prosopographic school, he wrote Die Nobili1ii1 der romischen Republik (Leipzig-Berlin 1912), numerous political studies, and the leading biography of Caesar. On him see H. Strasburger, Gnomon 47 (1975) 817-824; J. Bleicken, C. Meier, and Strasburger, Ma11hias Gelzer und die romische Geschichle (Frankf. Althistorische Studien, 9, 1977). 291 On Adolf Schulten, seen. 55 supra. 292 ZStA Merseburg, Rep. 76 ya Sekt. 6, Tit. IV, Nr. 1, Bd. 27, pp. 281-283. Willrich promoted in Glittingen with De coniurationis Catilinae fontibus (Glittingen 1893) and remained there, serving as honorary professor, thus not an Ordinarius, 1917-1936. He also published Juden und Griechen vor der makkabiiischen Erhebung (Gl>ttingen 1895) and several quasi-popular narratives and biographies (Perikles, ib. 1936; Cicero und Caesar, ib. 1944). 293 ZStA Merseburg, loc. cit. p. 202: "die Fakulllit ... ging ... in erster Linie von dem Wunsche aus, die Fakulllit zu verjiingen." 294 ZStA Merseburg, loc. cit. p. 55. 295 ZStA Merseburg, loc. cit. p. 165.

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But during Weber's interview with the faculty in Gottingen he stated that, in addition to the courses in ancient history, he wished to have the exclusive right to teach courses in historical authors: that is, the classical faculty should not handle Thucydides, Tacitus, and others. This remarkable demand disturbed the classicists, who now led opposition to Weber's appointment. What happened next is unclear. Oral tradition in Gottingen holds that the faculty somehow created difficulties that caused Weber to decline the appointment. The dean of the faculty296 then (28 Dec. 1920) wrote the Kultusminister297 a discreet letter,298 explaining that Weber had shown an "ilberangstliche Sorge fiir allseitige Sicherungen" and that the faculty had feared that the appointment "konne zu einer Gefahr filr das friedliche Zusammenwirken in der Abteilung werden." Weber himself had called on individual colleagues "wegen weiterer Sicherungen," which had also aroused opposition. Since "auch Prof. Weber gegenilber die Pflicht bestand, ihn vor einigen Enttiiuschungen zu bewahren," there was little enthusiasm for the appointment. Moreover, L 123 Stille to Haenisch Die Fakultiit, die von den Einzelheiten erst nachtriiglich Kenntnis genommen hat, billigt einstimmig und in vollem Umfange die von ihren Mitgliedern und besonders dem von Prof. Brandi299 in dieser Sache abgegebene Erkliirung und vertraulichen Ausserungen. These latter "confidential communications" were presumably a narrative of Weber's behavior and of the faculty's reaction. A detailed letter from two classicists later provided a further narrative.300 The dean also requested permission not to move on to the third candidate, Kolbe: Was endlich den an dritter Stelle Vorgeschlagenen betrifft, so ist auch da durch das inzwischen erfolgte Ablehnen des 296 Hans Stille (1876-1966), o. Prof. of geology and palaeontology.

297 Konrad Haenisch (1876-1925), minister for "Wissenschaft, Kunst und Volksbildung" 19181921. On him see W. Hofmann, NDB 1 (1966) 442-444. 298 ZStA Merseburg, loc. cit. p. 202. 299 Karl Brandi (1868-1946), o. Prof. of medieval and modem history, 1902-1936. On him see S. KrUger, NDB 2 (1955) 523. 300 On 28 Feb. 1921, Pohlenz and Reitzenstein of the classical faculty submitted a detailed report of Weber's requests and attached it to a letter from the Dekan of the faculty to the Kultusminister; for this letter, see Appendix III.

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Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters Prof. [Weber]30 1 eine der wesentlichen Voraussetzungen filr seine Nennung fortgefallen.

That is, the two younger men had declined and Kolbe's appointment would not achieve the aim of appointing a younger man. Accordingly, Stille requested permission to construct a new list. This was granted by the Kultusminister in a rather testy letter addressed to the new Curator in Gottingen. 302 Since both Gelzer and Weber had declined the chair, he requested the faculty to offer new proposals. But: L 124 Haenisch to Valentiner ... Dabei wollen Sie der Fakultiit mitteilen, dass ich im Hinblick auf die bei der Berufung des Professors Weber zutage getretenen Schwierigkeiten es fiir erforderlich halte, bei den neuen Vorschliigen und Verhandlungen die Gesamtinteressen der alten Geschichte auch gegeniiber den Interessen der klassischen Philologie von Anfang an angemessen[[ er]] zu beriicksichtigen. On 7 January 1921 the new report was produced, in which Friedrich Munzer (1868-1942)303 and Ulrich Kahrstedt (1888-1962)304 were proposed. The 30l "Busolt" is written, clearly in error. 302 ZStA Merseburg, loc. cit p. 203; Justus Theodor Valentiner (1869-1952) was Curator, 19211932 and 1933-1937. 303 Miinzer was a pupil of Mommsen and Hirschfeld in Berlin and promoted with De gente Valeria (Berlin 1891). He gained Habilitation in Basel, 1896, and taught there until 1912; Gelzer was one of his students. He moved then to Kllnigsberg and in 1921 to Miinster. One of the greatest German prosopographers, he wrote some 5000 articles for Pauly's Rea/encyclopiidie; his main synthetic work is Romische Adelsparteien und Adelsfamilien (Stuttgart 1920). Born a Jew but a practicing Protestant, he was forced to take the middle name Israel (as were all Jewish men who did not have one of the officially designated "Jewish" first names; women lacking such names received the name Sara). He was arrested by the Nazis in 1938 and died at 74 in the Theresienstadt concentration camp. On him see M. Gelzer, Historia 2 (1953/4) 378-380. An account of his persecution and death, with his bibliography: A. Kneppe - J. Wiesehllfer, Friedrich Munzer, Ein Althistoriker rwischen Kaiserreich und Nationalsozialismu.s (Bonn 1983). 304 Kahrstedt promoted under Meyer in Berlin with Die Politik des Demosthenes (Berlin 1910); he gained Habilitation in Miinster and was Privatdozent there from 1912. A man of the right, he was active after the Great War in the Deutschnationale Volkspartei, which, despite its suppon of Hitler, was dissolved on 26 June 1933. Among his most imponant writings are Griechisches Staatsrecht I, Sparta und seine Symmachie (Gllttingen 1922), Staatsgebiet und Staatsangehorige in Athen (ib. 1934), and Untersuchungen zur Magistratur in Athen (ib. 1936). The influence on his thought from Meyer may be seen in his Pax Americana(Munich 1920), a kind of Polybian essay pointing to the inevitable rise of America as once Rome had become the world power. On him see E. Meyer, Gnomon 34 (1962) 428431, and especially Cornelia Wegeler, Die Se/bstbeschriinkung der Wissenschaft: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der klassischen Phi/ologie seit dem ausgehenden 19.

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faculty reaffirmed its wish for younger men, but was forced to consider older ones since the younger ones already considered had declined. One of the seniores was Munzer, then 52. The report paid tribute to Munzer's "[s]trenge Methode, mustergiltige Sorgsamkeit und feinste Interpretationskunst" in his earlier writings. His Romische Adelsparteien und Adelsfamilien had just appeared,

D5 und noch jetzt verdunkelt in der Darstellung die mit peinlichster Akribie durchgefiihrte genealogische Einzelarbeit, also das Material, etwas die leitenden Gedanken. Still, all periods of the Republic gained under Munzer "Anschaulichkeit und Farbe." Then came the objections to Munzer: Nur mag die in Munzers Charakter liegende Zuriickhaltung und ubergrosse Bescheidenheit, die jedem hochtonenden Wort ausweicht und durch das nuchtern gebotene Material die Gedanken in dem Leser selbst wachrufen will, der Breite der Wirkung wohl schaden. Durch Munzers Berufung nach Gottingen wurde gegenuber seinem Vorganger der Schwerpunkt althistorischer Arbeit von der griechischen in die romische Geschichte verlegt werden, ein Wechsel, der an sich etwas Gesundes hat, in diesem Falle aber die Gefahr einer gewissen Verengung in sich schliesst. The faculty turned therefore to Kahrstedt, once Privatdozent in Munster but now living in Berlin. He was recommended especially because of his broad interests and his youth. Es wird nicht zu bezweifeln sein, dass Karstedt das stiirkste Talent unter den jungeren Vertretern seines Faches Jahrhundert, untersucht am Beispiel des lnstituts fur Altertumskunde der Universitat Gottingen

(Diss. Vienna 1985) 65-71; 143-149.

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ist, und schliesslich besitzt er nicht nur die Gabe der Forschung, sondern er kann auch Geschichte schreiben, was bei den meisten seiner Fachgenossen zur Zeit !eider nicht der Fall ist. Moreover, he held no chair and could therefore be hired at a moderate salary: he was appointed for summer semester 1921 at a salary of 9900 marks. He became emeritus in 1952 and was succeeded in 1954 by Alfred HeuB (b. 1909), who, like Busolt himself, made the journey southward from Kiel. Eight days after his long letter to Wilamowitz, Busolt wrote his last letter known to me, a cordial, humorous note to Hermann Wagner (1840-1929), professor of geography, who was being honored on bis eightieth birthday. This letter too looks back over the years to Konigsberg days and is free of any self-pity. L 122 Busolt to H. Wagner305 Gottingen, 23 Juni 1920. Hochverehrter Herr Kollege und Jubilar,306 getliuscht habe ich mich !eider in der Hoffnung, dasz ich heute im Stande sein wilrde, zu Ihnen zu kommen, um Ihnen mit Glilck- und Segenswilnschen die Hand zu drilcken. Oft tauchten in diesen Tagen bei mir Gedanken an die hoffnungsvolle Konigsberger Jugendzeit auf, in der ich die akademische Laufbahn einschlug, Sie die ersten Grundsteine filr einen wissenschaftlichen Unterricht in der Geographic einlegten, 307 der Kaiser mit Bismarck das junge Reich ausbaute. Da erscholl einst 305 Wagner was o. Prof. of geography in GOttingen, 1880-1920. Busolt may have met him as

early as 1876, when Wagner became o. Prof. in Konigsberg. His most famous work is his edition of H. Guthe's Lehrbuch der Geographie (eds. 4-10, Hanover 1878 etc.); he also edited the Geographisches Jahrbuch, 1879-1920. In 1868 he edited the statistical part of the Almanach de Gotha. On him see L. Mecking, Geogr. Zeit. 35 (1929) 585-596; W. Meinardus, Petermanns Mitteilungen 75 (1929) 225-229; a bibliography down to 1920, ib. 66 (1920) 118-122. 306 On 23 June 1920, Wagner's 80th birthday, the sum of 15,000 marks was presented to him, the interest to be used at his discretion to suppon research; more than 800 colleagues and friends joined in this tribute. See Petermanns Mitt. 66 (1920) 117. 307 Busolt refers to Wagner's sb'Uggle for a more professional teaching of geography in German universities. About 1870, there were only three chairs of geography in Prussia; Wagner published an imponant paper, "Uber die wichtigste Ursache der geringen Erfolge im geographischen Unterricht auf unseren Mhem Schulen," Zeit.fiir mathem. und naturwiss. Unterricht 3 (1872) 95106. He called for the establishment of more chairs in the field, and in 1874 the Prussian government decided to create chairs in all its universities. Wagner was the first Ordinarius in Konigsberg.

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am 22n Mlirz in den Straszen der Ruf: ,,Hurrah! die Sache macht sich, der Kaiser ist nun achtzig"! 308 Seitdem ist der stolze Reichsbau zerknickt, aber von Ihrem wissenschaftlichen Bau, den Sic inzwischen in ununterbrochener, unermiidlicher Arbeit ausgefiihrt haben, konnen Sic mit Horaz sagen: Exegi monumentum acre perennius,309 und von sich mit Solon: .,ich werde alter, indem ich immer viel lerne."310 Daher konnen Ihre Schiiler, Freunde und Verehrer heute ausrufen: ,,Hurrah! die Sache macht sich, der Wagner ist nun achtzig"! Gott schiitze und segne Sic und bewahre uns und Ihnen noch recht lange Ihre korperliche und geistige Kraft und Frische! Das wiinscht von ganzem Herzen Ihr Ihnen treu ergebener und dankbarer G. Busolt. The first volume of Busolt's Griechische Staatskunde finally appeared in July 1920. He dedicated it to August von Mackensen (1849-1945) and to the Austrian epigraphist Adolf Wilhelm (1864-1950). The choice of Mackensen, the commander on the eastern front in the Great War, is interesting. He typifies the German discipline that Busolt admired; moreover, as Thomas Martin points out to me, he came to Konigsberg in 1876, just as Busolt returned from Greece, and the two contemporaries probably knew each other there. Busolt immediately set to work on the volume and wrote a large number of corrections in his own copy. This book, now in the library of Herr Hermann Bengtson of Munich, who became editor of Muller's Handbuch, is a precious document showing Busolt's continuing devotion to his long project. It was sent on after Busolt's death to Heinrich Swoboda (1856-1926), 311 who included some of these corrections in the "N achtrlige und Berichtigungen" at the end of volume II. Pohlenz had suggested Swoboda as the editor of the second volume, which had been printed as far as page

308 Kaiser Wilhelm I became 80 on 22 March 1877; Busolt was back in Konigsberg. 309 Horace, Odes 3.30.1.

310 [Plato], Amat. 133 c = Solon fr. 18 West: "fllpa.cr1Cro 6' aid noUa 6L6acr1Coµ£voc;. This was the motto of August BOCkh. 311 Swoboda promoted in Vienna under Hirschfeld with Tlwkydideische Quellenstudien (Innsbruck 1881) and studied in Berlin under Mommsen and Kirchhoff. He gained Habilitation at the German university (Charles University) in Prague, where he became ao. Prof. (1891) and o. Prof. (1899). His most important individual work is Die griechischen Volksbeschlusse (Leipzig 1890); he also wrote a brief Griechische Geschichte (ib. 1896) but is perhaps best known for his revision (ed. 6) of K. F. Hermann's Lehrbuch der griechischen Staatsaltertumer, 111. Abt. (Tiibingen 1913). On him see A. Stein in Bursian 219 (1928) 34-57.

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881. Beyond that point, Swoboda records that he shortened the manuscript,3 12 omitting nothing important and adding some notes by him and Adolf Wilhelm. Busolt's pupil Bleckmann313 was to prepare the index, but in the end Franz Jandebeur compiled it. Swoboda saw the second volume published in March 1926 and died on 13 June. All but 40 years had then passed since Busolt issued his first account of Greek constitutional antiquities in Milller's Handbuch. The Staatskunde remains the final installment, down to this time, in the series of constitutional handbooks by German scholars; the earlier manuals are well surveyed by Wilfried Gawantka and Beat Naf.3 14 Long before Busolt, and still after him, there has been a dialogue over whether there was such a thing as "the" Greek state and, if so, whether it can be described. In his first treatment (1887) Busolt attempted to sketch a "Begriff des Staates" but then settled down to discussing the better known states, above all Sparta and Athens. Meanwhile the achievement of Mommsen, who constructed a single "Staatsrecht" for Rome, stood like a beacon before Greek historians: could they not achieve a similar synthesis for the Greek states? 315 G. F. Schoemann, for example, had already discerned in the Greek states a general movement toward individual freedom, toward republican forms,3 16 but such an observation, even if true, can hardly provide the structure for a Staatsrecht. Bockh warned that the Greek states could not all be treated together,31 7 but "der griechische Staat" still invited discussion.318 So in his third edition Busolt wavered between the attempt at a kind of Staatsrecht and the recognition that such a work is impossible. These oscillations between the desirable and the possible deserve attention. "Man muB den Staat als Ganzes im Auge behalten ... ", yet "[e]in griechisches Staatsrecht nach dem Muster des von Mommsen entworfenen 312 The manuscript, along with all correspondence with Busolt, vanished when the archives of the Beck Verlag were destroyed in World War II. 313 See n. 98 supra. 314 W. Gawantka, Die sogenannte Polis: Entstehung, Geschichte und Kritik der modernen a/thistorischen Grundbegriffe des griechischen Staates etc. (Stuttgart 1985) passim; on the Staatskunde, 177 ff. B. Nllf, Von Perik/es zu Hitler? Die athenische Demokratie und die deutsche Althistorie bis 1945 (Bern-Frankfurt-New York 1986) 33, 54-59. 315 A. Andrewes actually cited Busolt's work as "Griechisches Staatsrecht," JHS 81 (1961) 1 n. 1, thus unconsciously attesting the understandable wish that such a book might exist 316 Griechische Alterthilmer, 2 vols. (Berlin 1855-1859): for discussion, see Nllf, op. cit. 33, 55. 317 Nllf, 54, citing B&kh's Encyc/oplidie und Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften (Leipzig 1877) 354. V. Thumser restated this difficulty, "Aufgaben eines zukiinftigen griechischen Staatsrechtes," Xenia Austriaca, Fest. der osterr. Mittelschulen zur 42. Versammlung dew. Philo/. und Schulmanner in Wien (Vienna 1893) 257-271. 318 V. Ehrenberg, for example, published Der Staal der Griechen in two parts: Der hellenische Staal; Der he/lenistische Staal (Berlin 1932).

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romischen liillt sich fiir die Zeit der politischen Selbstlindigkeit der griechischen Staaten nicht rekonstruieren."3 19 Thus "[m]an kann daher nur die allgemeinen staatsrechtlichen Grundbegriffe ... zusammenstellen," and "[d]as Ziel kann also nicht die Rekonstruktion eines einheitlichen, gemeingriechischen Staatsrechts sein, sondem nur eines staatsrechtlichen Systems."320 Busolt therefore went on to devote the first "Hauptteil" of volume I to the "Allgemeine Darstellung des griechischen Staates"; within this part more than 400 pages portray the Polis. Here he succeeds better than anyone else could have321 in uniting many common characteristics among the poleis -

kinship groups, administrators, laws, types of

constitutions. There is scarcely a pregnant judgment anywhere, but such evaluations were never in Busolt's style. Volume I, then, is Busolt's attempt at a Staatsrecht. Still, he must have felt on more solid ground when he reached volume II, the "Darstellung einzelner Staaten," which treats Sparta, Crete, and Athens in some 600 pages; there follow the "Zwischenstaatliche Beziehungen," in which the wheel that started with his first books, where he treated the Athenian and Spartan leagues, comes full circle. Volume II has over 1000 pages to volume I's 630, and it was originally designed to be even longer. With the most minute, one might say loving, care he inspects every institution, orders every inscription, lists every (at least German) dissertation or Abhandlung. It is true that the long delay between his writing the work and its appearance prevented the references from being strictly up to date, but we may wonder whether any of the critics who pointed to this defect could have approached Busolt's encyclopedic coverage. Because of its solidity and its being grounded on the best known individual states, volume II is more widely consulted than volume I -

though methodologically it is probably less original. As we have seen, he did

not finish his mammoth Geschichte, but he lived to greet the first volume of the Staatskunde in 1920. He died, still working as usual, on 1 September and was buried on 4 September near the chapel under tall trees in the peaceful Stadtfriedhof

319 Staatskunde l 2. 320 lb. 3, 29. But Busolt's successor, U. Kahrstedt, flung down the gauntlet to this view in his title, Griechisches Staatsrecht l, Sparta und seine Symmachie (GOttingen 1922), "um lluBerlich die

Oberzeugung zu bekunden, da6 wir Uber die Zeit der 'Staatsaltertilmer' auch filr Griechenland hinaus sind," p. v. Yet he had to admit (ib.) that "das Hauptstilck, ja fast das Ganze eines griechischen Staatsrechtes der klassischen Zeit eine Darstellung Spartas, Athens und ihrer Simmachien ist" - thus virtually abandoning his own position. 3 1 There seems to be no article "Polis" or "Stadtstaat" in Pauly's Rea/encyc/opiidie.

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in Gottingen. 322 If Solon really told Croesus that the happiest of men are those who die in a moment of fulfillment, he would surely have applied his maxim to the Ordinarius for ancient history in Gottingen, who (like his continuator Swoboda) nearly fulfilled Solon's suggested term of70 years for a man's life. But beyond his life, which hitherto has been little known, there stands his work -

what is it, why does it survive? There seem to be certain fortunate

moments in history for some scientific projects, a conjunction when a critical point has been reached in the progress of scholarship, when materials for research are ideally present, when the public is ready to receive a certain approach -

and when

a person appears with enough ability and courage to execute the work. Georg Busolt was small rather than large in stature, by no means the handsome, imposing figure that was Wilamowitz. He was from a limited social circle in East Prussia - a fact perhaps symbolized in his marriage to his cousin Ida Busolt. Like all other human beings, he could at times be insecure. He never reached the chief Prussian university, Berlin, as Meyer and Wilcken did, and even in Gottingen he does not appear to have been a major force: he was not in the Akademie and trained no student who became a university professor. His letters show him as punctilious, exact, kindly. It is, probably, just Busolt's modesty and intellectual plainness with his unapproached learning -

along

that have given his work its enduring value. He

was never a lofty theorist, and there is scarcely a "Busolt thesis" that attempts to explain any historical movement. He said of himself that he fitted "Bausteine" together. 323 He was interested in -

and felt responsible to -

what could be

proved or made plausible from good ancient sources; and he knew how to reject what was not solid. His handbooks steer their way through complex, sometimes muddled and contradictory primary evidence. Even today there is nothing else like them. At times, as we have seen, he found the kind of work he was doing less than appealing, but he tried to fulfill the task he accepted long before, when Arnold Schaefer proposed him as the writer of the Greek history in Perthes' series. We may say of him, as Walter Schmitthenner has said of another German scholar, that

322 Ida Busoll lived at Hoher Weg 5 unLil her death in January 1944. She was buried beside Georg but, owing lo wartime conditions, was given no grave marker. In 1980 I discovered Lhat Georg's gravestone had collapsed in Lwo, and Lhe inscription was facing Lhe ground. The historical faculty in GOttingen, under the leadership of Herr Jochen Blcicken, Busoll's third successor, has had it reconstructed and Lhe letters reworked, "Georg Busolt, Professor der alten Geschichte, geb. 13 November 1850, gesL 1 September 1920." 323 To Meyer, LL 58, 88.

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he had the "Ethos des Dienstes, das nicht anders als preuBisch und protestantisch genannt werden kann."324

324 Said of Horst Braunen (1922-1976), Hisl. Zeit. 225 (1977) 786.

APPENDIX I

PERTHES'HANDB0CHER The final state of the Handbucher der a/ten Geschichte (Gotha, Friedrich Andreas Perthes Verlag) was as follows. Serie I. I. Abteilung. Agyptische Geschichte, by A. Wiedemann. 1884, with Supplement, 1888. II. Abteilung. Geschichte der Phonizier (und Karthager). Not published. III. Abteilung. Geschichte des Volkes Israel (original title: Geschichte der Hebraer), by R. Kittel. Vol. I, eds. 5-6, Stuttgart-Gotha 1923; vol. II, ed. 6, ib. 1925; vol.

III, Halfte 1-2, eds. 1-2, Stuttgart (Kohlhammer) 1927-1929. IV. Abteilung. Babylonisch-Assyrische Geschichte, by C. P. Tiele. Part 1, 1886; part 2, 1888. V. Abteilung. Geschichte der Meder und Perser, by J. Pra~ek. Vol. I, 1906; vol. II, 1910. Serie II. I. Abteilung. Griechische Geschichtebis zur Schlacht bei Chaeroneia, by G. Busolt. Vol. I, ed. 2, 1893; vol. II, ed. 2, 1895; vol. III, part 1, 1897; part 2, 1904. [No more published.] II. Abteilung [in some copies, wrongly called "Erste Abteilung" on half-title page].

Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten seit der Schlacht bei Chaeronea, by B. Niese. Vol. I, 1893; vol. II, 1899; vol. III, 1903. III. Abteilung. Geschichte der Parther und Neuperser. Not published. Serie III. I. Abteilung. Die romische Geschichte bis au/ Casars Tod, by L. v. Urlichs. Not published. II. Abteilung. Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit, by H. Schiller. Vol. I, parts 12, 1883; vol. II, 1887.

APPENDIX IT

SCH•NE'S CALL TO KIEL1

As Friedrich Blass was about to leave Kiel for Halle, the faculty in Kiel appointed the usual committee to nominate a successor. The Philosophical Faculty drew up a list including Gotz,2 Marx.,3 Mendelssohn,4 Otto Ro8bach (18581931)5, and Paul Cauer,6 in that order. (For the minority report of Gering and Erdmann, see infra.) Schone was not on the list at all. Yet he had enough influence to work for himself behind the scenes and persuade Althoff and/or the Kultusminister to appoint him, representing that Konigsberg, where he had taken a chair in 1887, was bad for his health.7 His interesting correspondence with Althoff is published here as a comment on Busolt's wry comment, "Berlin seems to want to send us Schone." In the first letter preserved, Althoff explains to Schone the expressed wishes of the faculty in Kiel regarding Blass's successor but assures him that his appointment can be arranged.

L49 Althoff to Schone [not in Althoffs hand] Berlin den 10. Juni 1892. Abschrift! An Professor Dr. Schoene in Koenigsberg

Vertraulich.

Hochgeehrter Herr Professor! In Kiel legt die Fakultiit das Hauptgewicht auf einen Latinisten und hat deshalb vorgeschlagen: Gotz, Marx etc.

1 For the documents in this Addendum I have used the microfilms in the Landesarchiv SchleswigHolstein, Schleswig, Abt. 4 i 5, Nr. 792, pp. 286-323. The originals are in ZStA Merseburg, Rep. 76 va, Sekt. 9, Tit. IV, Nr. 1. 2 On Q()tz, see chap. III n. 242. 3 See chap. III n. 243. 4 See chap. III n. 244. 5 Ro8bach promoted in Rostock, 1882, and gained Habilitation in Breslau, 1887. He was ao. Prof. in Kiel, 1890-1895, and then moved pennanently to K()nigsberg. He wrote De Senecae philosophi librorum recensione et emendatione (Breslau 1888) and edited the Periochae of Livy for Teubner (Leipzig 1910). 6 See chap. III n. 234. 7 His biographer, Ehwald, adds that Sch()ne's isolation in K()nigsberg from his relatives in Berlin and his friends in Gennany "ihm biuere Empfindungen brachte": Bursian 181 (1919) 100.

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Ein Segmentvotum von Gering& und Erdmann9 verlangt dagegen einen Grazisten und bezeichnet als geeignet Zacher. IO Ich nehme an, daB Sie nach der Vielseitigkeit Ihrer Studien nicht bloB besser geeignet, sondern geneigt sein werden, unter Mitwirkung von Bruns 11 und Rossbach (Extraordin.) fiir die Vollstandigkeit des philolog. Lehrplanes einzustehen. Es ist deshalb meine Absicht, Sie dem Herrn Minister 12 fiir die Stelle in Vorschlag zu bringen. An eine Gehaltserhohung kann dabei leider nicht gedacht werden, da Blass nur 5000 M. hatte und deshalb schon die Bereitstellung Ihres jetzigen Gehaltes von 5200 M. einen ZuschuB erfordern wird, mehr als dieser ZuschuB aber nicht erreichbar ist.13 Ich bitte Sie, mir baldigst mitzutheilen, ob es hiernach Ihren Wiinschen entsprechen wiirde, nach Kiel versetzt zu werden. In Koenigsberg wiirden dann zum Okt., da G.R. Friedlaender 14 emeritirt ist, zwei philologische Vakanzen entstehen, so daB die moglichste Beschleunigung der Ersatzfrage nothig werden wiirde. In vorziiglicher Hochachtung Ihr ganz ergebenster Althoff. Schone replied two days later; Althoff had the upper hand, since Schone wanted to leave Konigsberg, but he still pointed with some pride to his work there and expressed unhappiness over the potential salary: his complaint reminds us of Busolt's remark about the high cost of living in Kiel.15 He also suggests (as a counter-move in the negotiations?) that he deserves some public recognition of his service, such as the title Geheimer Regierungsrat (a "Charakterisierung").

8 Hugo Gering (1847-1925) promoted in Halle, 1873, and came to Kiel in 1889 as o. Prof. of Nordic philology. He worked especially on Nordic sagas, e.g. Vol/stiindiges Worterbuch zu den Liedern der Edda (Halle 1903). He edited the Z-eitschr.fiir deutsche Philologie, 1889-1926. On him see F. Kauffmann, ib. 50 (1926) 339-361. 9 On Erdmann see chap. III n. 57. lO Konrad Zacher (1851-1907) promoted and gained Habilitation in Halle (1873, 1877) and was ao. Prof. in Breslau, 1881-1909. He worked especially on Aristophanes. In support of his nomination, Gering and Erdmann cited nis De nominibus graecis in aw~. ma, awv (Halle 1877) and Zur griechischen Nominalkomposition (Breslau 1886). On him see F. Skutsch in Bursian 145 (1909)

33-36.

11 On lvo Bruns, see chap. III n. 341. 12 Bosse (chap. III n. 334). 13 ScMne was finally appointed in Kiel at 5700 marks. 14 Friedlllnder (see chap. II n. 1) was Geheimer Regierungsrat and represented the University of Ktinigsberg in the Prussian parliament (1869-1892). l5 L 24, to Wilarnowitz; L 28, to Althoff.

Appendix II

209

LSO Schone to Althoff Konigsberg Sonntag d. 12 Juni 1892 Hochzuverehrender Herr Geheimrath! Auf Ihre giitige Zuschrift vom 1on die mir heute frilh zugegangen ist, beeile ich mich, vor Allem Ew. Hochwohlgeboren fiir das geneigte Wohlwollen, mit dem Sie gesonnen sind, den