Geology

Методические указания предназначены для использования на практических занятиях по английскому языку.

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Оренбургский государственный университет» Кафедра английского языка естественно-научных и инженерно-технических специальностей

Е. П. КОЗЛОВА

GEOLOGY МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Рекомендовано к изданию Редакционно-издательским советом Государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Оренбургский государственный университет»

Оренбург 2003

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ББК K УДК

Рецензенты кандидат филологических наук, доцент Н. С. Сахарова кандидат филологических наук, доцент Л.Ф. Мачнева K-59

Козлова Е. П. Geology: Методические указания по английскому языку – Оренбург: ГОУ ВПО ОГУ,2003. - 58 c. Данные методические указания представляют собой подборку текстов, упражнений, диалогов по разговорным темам для студентов второго курса естественно-научного факультета. Предлагаемые упражнения и тексты способствуют развитию диалогической и монологической речи, а также развивают умения перевода и навыки говорения. Предназначено для использования на практических занятиях по английскому языку.

ББК

©Козлова Е.П.,2003 ©ОГУ ВПО ОГУ, 2003

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Введение Данные методические указания по английскому языку предназначены для студентов II курса естественно-научного факультета специальности «Геология». Основной целью методических указаний является подготовка студентов к самостоятельному чтению на английском языке оригинальной технической литературы по специальности, что соответствует требованиям программы по иностранным языкам для неязыковых вузов. Тематический отбор материала позволяет ознакомить студентов с терминологией по данной специальности. Методические указания состоят из 4 разделов, включающих основные тексты для изучающего чтения, тексты для письменного перевода, упражнения для развития навыков устной и письменной речи. Два дополнительных раздела содержат грамматические упражнения, построенные на примерах из текстов геологического профиля, и подборку текстов для самостоятельного чтения. Методические указания предназначены как для работы в аудитории, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.

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I Section I My speciality 1.1 Слова и словосочетания к тексту natural sciences – естественные науки specialist – специалист speciality – специальность specialized – специализированный geodesy – геодезия mineralogy – минералогия geochemistry – геохимия topography – топография geological surveying – геологическая съемка prospecting for mineral resources – поиски и разведка полезных ископаемых principles of paleontology – основы палеонтологии crystallography – кристаллография achievements – достижения at our disposal – в нашем распоряжении well-equipped laboratories – хорошо оборудованные лаборатории up-to-date – современный facilities – оборудование course paper – курсовая работа diploma paper (graduation thesis) – дипломная работа to graduate from the university – заканчивать университет post-graduate course – аспирантура fossil-окаменелость, ископаемое microscope- микроскоп slices of rocks- слои пород fine sand-мелкий песок valuable-ценный ores-руды deposit-месторождение indispensable-необходимый atmosphere – атмосфера hydrosphere – гидросфера scope – сфера solid – твердый geophysicist – геофизик oceanographer – океанограф meteorologist – метеоролог mineralogist – минеролог manner of occurrence - способ залегания

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1.2 Прочтите и переведите следующие словосочетания - establishment, educational establishment, higher educational establishment; - science, life sciences, geological sciences, natural sciences, The Faculty of Natural Sciences; - geology, geodesy, geography, geochemistry, geophysics; - language, foreign languages; - well-equipped, well-equipped laboratories, it will be equipped; - scientific, scientific research, scientific achievements; - field, magnetic field, radiation field. 1.3 Прочтите и переведите текст 1А My speciality The Orenburg State University is the largest higher educational establishment in our town. It has 1 Institute and 15 Faculties. I study at the Faculty of Natural Sciences. Our faculty was organized in 1998. It trains specialists on the following specialities: geography, biology, chemistry and geology. My future specialization is “Geological surveying and prospecting for mineral deposits”. We study mathematics, history, physics, chemistry, philosophy, computer studies and some others subjects. There are also such specialized subjects as geodesy, mineralogy, geochemistry, topography, principles of palaeontology, crystallography. Mastering one of the foreign languages enables us to read foreign literature and learn about the latest scientific and technical achievements abroad. At our disposal we have lecture halls, well-equipped laboratories, library, large sport centre. Up-to-date personal computers are used in the academic process and in scientific research. The computer network of our University is connected to the “Internet” system. The university has geological stations (Kuvandyk Region) for students’ practice and grounds for geodetical and mining surveying practical training. A course of study lasts five years. While studying at the University we are to fulfil course papers and a diploma paper (graduation thesis), which is submitted at the end of the fifth year. After graduating from the University students can continue their studies at the post-graduate course. The graduates of our faculty can work as engineers, teachers, research workers, inspectors, managers, etc. The word “geology” is derived from two Greek words meaning “ the study of the Earth”. By studying mountains, valleys and rivers, the geologist has amassed a necessary store of knowledge about the formation of the Earth, and the endless changes which have taken place since its formation. From fossils, he has read the story of life on the earth of years ago. With the microscope, he has discovered tiny minerals in thin slices of rock and fine sands, and by knowing the secrets of geology, he has found valuable ores and other mineral deposits that are indispensable in daily life. Geology includes the study of the continents, the ocean, the atmosphere, and the earth’s magnetic and radiation fields. Clearly, this scope is too broad for any one 7

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scientists, so geologists generally limit themselves to the solid earth. Geophysicists study the deep parts of the Earth and its fields; oceanographers study the hydrosphere; and meteorologists study the atmosphere. The mineralogist is most interested in that part of geology that deals with the process of mineral formation and their manner of occurrence. 1.4 Ответьте на следующие вопросы 1) What University do you study? 2) What faculty do you belong to? 3) When was your faculty organized? 4) What specialists does your faculty train? 5) What subjects do you study? 6) What does the course of study ends with? 7) How can the graduates continue their studies? 8) Do you have a wide range of job opportunities on completion of studies? 9) What is your future speciality? 10) What is geology and what it deals with? 11) What do geophysicists (oceanographers, meteorologists, mineralogists) study? 1.5 Вставьте предлоги там, где это необходимо (at, from, on, with, in, to, of) 1) Our faculty train specialists ….. different specialities. 2) Students are provided ….. everything necessary for their scientific career. 3) We often read the articles about the latest scientific achievements ….. abroad. 4) Such specialists are ….. great demand now. 5) Diploma paper is submitted ….. the end ….. the fifth year. 6) Geology is the study ….. the Earth and ….. particular the history, the structure, the processes operating in and on the Earth. 7) After graduating ….. the university students may go on with their study and research. 8) Geology has contributed a great deal ….. civilization. 9) The mineralogist studies that part of geology which deals….. the minerals. 1.6 Переведите следующие словосочетания процесс обучения; дипломная работа; ВУЗ; последние достижения в науке и технике; в нашем распоряжении; специализированные предметы; геологическая съемка; научные исследования; современное оборудование; в этом смысле; полезные ископаемые; поиски и разведка полезных ископаемых; процессы минералообразования; способы залегания; геологические станции и площадки; ценные руды; выпускники факультета.

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1.7 Переведите следующие предложения 1) Наш факультет готовит специалистов по таким специальностям, как геология, биология, химия, география. 2) Я должен выполнить курсовую работу к концу семестра. 3) Вчера мы переводили статью известного ученого о последних научных достижениях в области минералогии. 4) Лучшие выпускники имеют возможность продолжить обучение в аспирантуре. 5) Студенты могут пользоваться современными компьютерами и системой Интернет. 6) Геология изучает континенты, океан, атмосферу, магнитные и радиационные поля. 7) Новая библиотека – это уникальный комплекс, оснащенный современным оборудованием. 8) Мои любимые предметы – топография, кристаллография и геохимия. 1.8 Подберите из правой колонки правильный перевод русских словосочетаний. Выучите их 1) физическая геология 2) инженерная геология 3) геолог- разведчик 4) геология рудных месторождений 5) подземная геология 6) подводная геология 7) геология поверхности 8) шахтный геолог 9) морская геология 10) космическая геология 11) региональная геология 12) полевая геология 13) геолог-нефтяник 14) прикладная геология 15) геолог, занимающийся поисками твердых полезных ископаемых

a) exploration geologist b) hard- rock geologist c) field geology d) ore geology e) engineering geology f) applied geology g) marine geology h) aerial geology i) space geology g) submarine geology k) subsurface geology l) surface geology m) physical geology n) oil geologist o) mine geologist

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1.9 Прочтите и переведите текст. Озаглавьте его. Составьте диалог на основе прочитанного текста Unlike any other science, geology in the 20 th century introduced some basis changes into our ideas about the structure and evolution of the Earth, the bottom of the ocean , the global distribution of world resources and had in general a considerable impact on our present-day world outlook. This was noted in the book “A New Look at the Earth” by the Japanese geophysicist Seio Veda- a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy. He pointed out that out of all the modern sciences the most rapidly developing ones are sciences of the Earth. In recent time and especially in those branches of science which investigate the solid part of this planet, some truly phenomenal changes have taken place which seldom happen in any other areas of knowledge. These changes are very important and are of interest not only to an expect scholar, but to any educated individual. 1.10 Письменный перевод текста (1200 п.зн. – 45 мин.) Geology is the study of the Earth, and in particular the history, the structure, the evolution of life, and the processes that have moulded the Earth and its inhabitants. There are the academic and applied aspects of the geological science. The academic aspects include the study of history of life, the Earth and planets, and the processes that drive historical evolution. The study of historical evolution through “deep time” is what fundamentally distinguishes geology from most of the other physical sciences. The study of the processes that drive this evolution can involve the application of any physical or life sciences to understanding the Earth. This sense, geology is truly interdisciplinary science. The applied aspects of the science involve the interaction between humans and the Earth, the study of mineral resources, identification and mitigation of the Earth hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions, identification and mitigation of polluted groundwater. Geologists are also concerned with such problem as urbanization. The development of large cities has resulted in the building of large structures such as tall building and dows. Geology helps in designing foundation for these structures.

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1.11 Прочтите и переведите текст 1В Ural State Academy of Mining and Geology. The Ural State Academy of Mining and Geology was founded by an edict of the emperor Nikolay the 2 nd as the Ural Mining Institute in 1914. In 1993 the Institute got the status of the Academy of Mining and Geology. During the years of its activity the Academy has trained over 46 000 mining engineers for mining and geological enterprises, scientific research and designing institutions. About 4000 students study annually at the full-time department and 1500 students study by correspondence. The Academy has 9 faculties, 38 departments and 6 subsidiaries in other Ural towns. Training of specialists is performed in 9 fields, 20 specialties and 48 specializations. The Academy can boast of its unique geological (the village of Sukhoy Log) and geophysical (the village of Verkhnya Sisert) stations for students' practice and grounds for geodetical and mining surveying practical training. The Academy houses the Ural Mining-Geological Educational Complex, consisting of 22 technical schools and a college of mining-geological type. Scientific research and training of scientific staff is carried out in the spheres of geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. New technologies are being developed in the following modern trends: production technologies, fuel and power engineering, ecology and rational use of natural resources. Scientific potential of the academy makes it possible to solve problems of mining-geological industry beginning with prospecting and exploration of mineral resources and ending with raw materials preparation for the metallurgical industry. Situated in the center of the Ural mining region, which is the largest in the world, the academy has contributed greatly to the development of Russian mineral resources. The scientists and students of the Academy took an active part in prospecting of a number of mineral deposits and in the construction of such mining enterprises as "Uralasbest", "Chelyabinskugol", Severouralskiy bauxite mine and Kachkanarskiy GOK. The Academy has 25 licenses permitting to carry out different kinds of activities including: geological surveying, geodetical topography, mining surveying, landsurveying, blasting, ecological, designing work; engineering-geological surveying, engineering-ecological prospecting; educational activities; expertise of different enterprises. Ural Complex Geological Expedition has been founded in cooperation with the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Academy houses all – Russia scientific conference for students, postgraduates, scientific workers and teachers of mining establishments of higher learning, as well as "The Annual Ural Mineralogical School".

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1.12 Переведите следующие словосочетания из текста и выучите их mining surveying – geodetical practical trainingproduction technologies – fuel and power engineeringecology and rational use of natural resources – raw material preparation – engineering-geological surveying – engineering-ecological prospecting – scientific conference1.13 Разделите текст на абзацы. Озаглавьте каждую часть. Составьте план текста. Расскажите об учебной и научной деятельности Академии, используя следующие речевые образцы - The subject of the text (abstract) is… - The text deals with… - It should be noted that… - It is pointed out that… - It is obvious that…

1.14 Прочтите и переведите текст 1C Обсудите в группе содержание курса “Геология” в университете St.Andrew (Великобритания). Сравните его с программой подготовки специалистов-геологов в нашем университете. Составьте ряд вопросов, которые вы хотели бы задать студентам-сверстникам из университета St Andrews. Geological Course at St. Andrew University The study of Geology at St Andrew University (Britain) means the study of the First and Second level modules followed by 12 optional modules. The study of Geology at Honours level (3rd and 4th year) leads to either BSc Honours in Geology, or in Environmental Geology, or in Geoscience, depending on the modules studied. First level. First semester: Planet Earth and its Materials. Minerals, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are studied through lectures, practical classes and local field excursions. The economic importance of geological materials, energy resources and hydrogeology are explored, together with their associated environmental problems. All these aspects are incorporated in a module on the 12

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interpretation of geological maps. The module ends with a comparison of the nature and history of the Earth, Mercury, Venus, the Moon and Mars. Second semester: Earth Evolution and Environment begins by examining processes operating within the planet, including deformation and the creation of fold and fault structures in rocks. The theme then shifts to the surface landforms of the Earth and a study of the processes involved in their formation. An environmental approach to sediments and land forms leads on to the study of fossils, ecology and the evolution of life as recorded in the fossil record. Finally, the history of the Earth over 4,5 billion years is surveyed. A 5-day field course is held during the Easter vacation and affords field experience in areas distant from St Andrews. This is normally compulsory for students wishing to enter either Second level module. Second level.

Two modules are offered and each module includes 4 hours of lectures and 5 hours of practical per week and several field excursions (for ex. field mapping course). The Geological Record develops Earth Evolution and Environment with instruction in sediments, Earth history, fossils and ecology, environmental geology, geophysics, structures and mapping. Petrology expands Planet Earth and its materials, covering crystallography, mineral optics, mineralogy, igneous and metamorphic rocks, geochemistry and mapping. Honours Years.

In the Honours Years the prescribed Geology modules cover map interpretation, geological field techniques, remote sensing, computing and statistics, seminars, review essays, cartography, and an independent research project. 1.15 Прочтите и переведите текст I D. Ответьте на следующий вопрос Do you agree with some of Laura's friends who regard her to be a little mad because she spends so much time on her summer vacations in geological expeditions? Mapping the World From Norway to India to Chile: a British geology student Laura Robinson reflects on her far-flung expeditions. Three years before I had decided that I wanted to find out more about other cultures than I could through school exchange trips. But as a 17-year-old, I felt I needed help in traveling to a remote destination. So I joined a large expedition for young people that involved six weeks of scientific work, mountaineering and skiing in the Arctic of Norway. The trip to Norway made me realize that I could best understand other cultures by spending time near small settlements rather than through

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sightseeing and touring. So for the next summer, I planned a trip to India as a complete contrast to the Arctic. After the India trip, I began university, wanting to become an engineer. A geology course soon changed this idea, and I realized that I could combine my passion for traveling to new places with my academic work. So the following summer I joined a third-year student carrying out a geological mapping project in Spitsbergen, a Norwegian territory at 78 degrees north in the high Arctic. This year I decided to undertake my own project. As part of my course I have to produce a geological map of a 15-square-kilometer area. Many colleagues stay in Britain, but I wanted to work in a challenging environment. So I led an expedition to the Atacama in northern Chile, the driest desert in the world. Organizing the trip, working out logistics and fund raising took up a vast proportion of my year. We wrote more then 100 letters to various institutions before locating an area in which to study. I don't believe we could have completed the logistical and academic planning without the use of the Internet for communication with universities and companies here in Chile. Most of my friends think I am a little mad to take so much time on my summer holidays. But I feel it's worthwhile: I learn so much about myself and I get good geological experience. I now feel confident enough to begin planning an expedition for next year. Perhaps I will try a geological project in Greenland-although my ultimate goal is to work in the Antarctic. 1.14 Прочтите и переведите текст 1Е Перед вами материалы 31 Международного Геологического Конгресса, проходившего в „Бразилии в г. Рио-де-Жанейро. Используя эти материалы, проведите ролевую игру «пресс–конференция», на которой члены организационного комитета ответят на вопросы журналистов о предстоящей конференции. Подготовьте рекламные проспекты, бейджики с вашими именами International Geological Congress Message to Congress Participants August is fast approaching, bringing with it a date of outstanding importance in the geological calendar. The 31st International Geological Congress (IGC). The main theme of the 31st IGC is "Geology and Sustainable Development-Challenges for the Third Millennium". It is the clear that only by meeting these challenges successfully can we build a better global society, that is informed in regard to Earth Sciences and evenly balanced in terms of socio-economic development. Our task is to garner the geological contributions of the largest possible assembly of geoscientists and geology professionals. The second is to give participants the opportunity to acquaint themselves with the region's geological features, the nature of its mineral and energy resources, environmental problems and the possible solutions to such problems. The third is the exchange experiences that will effectively contribute to the advance of geosciences and Sustainable Development. 14

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It is our belief the event will be successful in achieving its main objectives. This is borne our by the fact that over 5,400 abstracts for the General Symposia have been received. In addition, most international societies and associations are reserving a spot for their own administrative and scientific meetings. Moreover, GEOEXPO is also receiving a great deal of interest. We look forward to seeing you in Rio-deJaneiro next August, Organizing Committee. Scientific Program The Scientific Program of the 31st IGC consists of Colloquia, Special Symposia, General Symposia, Short Courses, Workshops, and Field Trips. General subjects of the congress are the following: - Origin and evolution of the Earth; - Geosciences and human survival, environment, and natural hazards; - New perspectives for mineral exploration; - The role of geology for a sustainable society; - New technology for geosciences; - Progress of international geosciences projects; - Paleontology and historical geology; - Marine geology and pale oceanography; - Structural geology and geomechanics; - Geochemistry; - Exploration geophysics; - Seismogeology; - Hydrogeology; - Engineering geology; - Environmental geology; - Mathematical geology; - History of geosciences; - Geological education. Scientific Exhibits – GeoExpo Trends in development and techniques applicable to the geosciences in the third millennium, products and services meeting the new demands of society and the contribution of professionals in geology will offer to mediate conflicts and to provide the discovery and supply of new mineral wealth are on the agenda of GeoExpo, to be held with the 31st IGC. At the opportunity, more than 200 companies from various countries over the world will be showing the industry's most recent breakthroughs in geological processing technology, high-performance drilling equipment and a number of other techniques sought after by today's geologists. The large companies operating in the supply of equipment, products and services for geology, oil and mining have their eyes on this market. GeoExpo will be a landmark of the progress achieved by technology and geosciences. 15

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It is, therefore, the ideal forum for contacts, exchanges of experiences and business opportunities for all those who work either as technicians or businessmen in the fields of mineral exploitation, oil, applied computer science, equipment, laboratories, consultants, universities, and similar institutions. It is also the ideal setting for Geological Surveys from the five continents to display their most recent products, thereby establishing a link with the themes of the 31st IGC. Youth Congress The Organizing Committee is preparing special activities for the young people. Adolescents 12-18 aged, interested in geology, will have a great opportunity at the 31 st IGC to extend their knowledge of earth sciences. In addition to their contact with Brazilian teachers and professional people, concerned with the dissemination of the scientific knowledge among the public, these teenagers will be closely associated with interesting aspects of the culture and history of the Brazilian people. They will visit museums, laboratories, institutions and companies, as the most exciting and exotic geological environments. The Geological Survey of the Brazil and Brazilian universities will be organizing interesting, geology-orientated tourist trips to fill the time of these young people who, in addition to specific information, will be able to observe the various features of our physical environment and that can provide different landscapes of extraordinary beauty, the conservation of which will depend only upon our own conscience. These activities will be carried out by young voluntary Brazilian students of geological department and will enable integration and an exchange of experiences between participants of the same ages. Young people will have special session "Education for Truly, Sustainable Development" by Prof. William S. Fyfe, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, Canada; Field Trip-City of Rio de Janeiro - Geology-orientated tourism, for evaluation and analysis of the progressive development of geology and geomorphology.

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II Section II Minerals and Mineral Deposits 2.1 Слова и словосочетания к тексту organic / inorganic substances – органические / неорганические вещества property – свойство cleavage – слоистость gravity – тяжесть hardness – твёрдость, плотность luster – блеск sublimation – возгонка, сублимация liquid - жидкость aqueous solution – водный раствор molten - расплавленный magma - магма igneous rocks – извержение породы sedimentary rocks – осадочные породы metamorphic rocks – метаморфические породы profit - польза gangue / matrix – материнская порода country rock – коренная порода abundance – распространённость tabular – пластичный, слоистый filling – прокладка, заполнение fould - складка fault – разлом, сдвиг breccia - брекчия weathering – выветривание, эрозия primary - первичный secondary - вторичный dimensions - размеры exuastible – истощимый 2.2 С помощью словаря найдите транскрипцию и перевод следующих слов. Выучите их aluminium copper gold silver iron tin platinum

cromium nickel lead zink diamond salt limestone

cement sulphur cryolite asbestos oal oil gas

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2.3. Прочтите и переведите текст 1А Minerals and Mineral Deposits Minerals that make up the rocks, are defined as inorganic substances which occur naturally and have a definite chemical composition and physical properties. The major properties which are used for identification purposes are: 1)color; 2)crystal form; 3)cleavage; 4)specific gravity; 5)hardness; 6)luster. More than 2 000 minerals are known. Some are relatively simple compounds of elements in the solid state, others are complex. Minerals of use to man can be grouped into two broad categories : 1) metals, such as aluminium, copper, gold, silver, iron, tin, platinum, chromium, nickel, lead, zink, etc; 2) non-metals, such as diamond, salt, limestone, cement, sulphur, crydite, asbestos, etc. The term “mineral” is also applied for such organic substances as coal, oil and natural gas.Minerals may be formed by four general processes, which may be intimately related in nature : 1) from a gas by sublimation ; 2) from a liguid (agueous solution) ; 3) from a liguid / molten rock or magma ; 4) from a solid by metamorphism. Mineral deposits have been found both in rocks that lie beneath the oceans and in rocks that form the continents. Mineral deposit are not uniformly distributed in the earth’s crust. In certain regions unusual conditions caused the concentration of elements far in excess of normal abundance. These regions are called mineralogenetic provinces. Mineral deposits have different shapes, depending on how they were deposited. The most common shape is tabular, with the mineral deposit lying as a filling between more or less parallel layers of rocks. Mineral deposits are seldom egually rich throughout. After their formation mineral deposits may be deformed by folding, faulting, brecciation or weathering. Mineral deposits that are essentially as originally formed are called primary deposits. Deposits that have been altered by weathering or other superficial processes are secondary deposits. Every mineral deposit has limited dimensions. All mineral deposits are exhaustible. 2.4 Ответьте на следующие вопросы 1) What is mineral? 2)What are the major properties used for identification purposes? 3) How many minerals are known? 4)How can minerals be grouped? 5) What are the four general processes which form minerals? 6)Where are minerals concentrated? 18

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7)What is the most common shape of mineral deposits? 8)What processes may alter mineral deposits? 2.5 Вставьте предлоги там, где это необходимо(on, from, in, to, with, of, by) 1) The mineral quarts may have colors ranging … dark grey … green. 2) Cleavage is one … the most diagnostically useful mineralogical properties. 3) A convenient way of discussing mineral deposits is to classify them … the basis … the geological processes that have created them. 4) Minerals tend to be concentrated … rocks. 5) Most minerals are compounds … several elements, and it is rare to find pure elements … nature. 6) Most metals and inorganic chemicals and many other products essential … civilization are derived … minerals. 7) The Russian platform is covered … sedimentary rocks … different ages. 8) Minerals may be created … four general processes. 2.6 Переведите следующие словосочетания химический состав (структура); физические свойства; кристаллическая форма; в твёрдом состоянии, геологические процессы; земная кора; равномерно распределены; совершенно очевидно; могут быть деформированы; рудные месторождения; пласты пород; коренная порода; выветривание; концентрация элементов. 2.7 Переведите следующие предложения 1) Минералы представляют собой соединения различных элементов. 2) Выветривание – один из важных факторов формирования новых минералов. 3) Минералы могут быть классифицированы на основе разных геологических факторов. 4) Рудные минералы и материнская порода добываются вместе, а затем отделяются друг от друга. 5) Минералы являются очень важными природными ископаемыми. 6) Месторождения минералов могут встречаться не только в земной коре, но и в мантии, но современные технологии не позволяют обнаружить их. 7) Большинство минералов встречаются в породах. 8) Все месторождения полезных ископаемых исчерпаемы.

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2.8 Прочтите и переведите диалог. Перескажите его Igneous Rocks and their Minerals A.: Will you tell me what minerals igneous rocks contain? B.: As a matter of fact all igneous rocks contain metals. For example, iron and manganese are found in every igneous rocks. A.: What other metals can be found in igneous rocks? B.: Well, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and tin are also present in most igneous rocks. In some rocks one can find even small amounts of gold, silver and platinum. A.: I wonder in what form those metals occur. B.: As far as I know, metals occur as constituents of dark-coloured silicates. The more common metals occur in the form of sulphides and oxides. A.: Thank you very much for your explanation. B.: You are welcome. 2.9 Прочтите и переведите текст. Озаглавьте его. Составьте диалог на основе прочитанного текста The term “reserves” defines the amount of the mineral in a deposits by weight or volume. The weight of the mineral is expressed in tons or kilograms; the volume in cubic meters. For instance, coal, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, copper ores are expressed in tons; gold, platinum and some of the disseminated elements are shown in kilograms, quarries products – in cubic meters. Ore reserves (with the exception of ferrous metal ores) are calculated separately for the ore tonnage and for the content of metal. The calculation of reserves and the study of the deposit are aimed at determination of : 1) the reserves below the earth’s surface and their distribution by grades; 2) quality of the mineral; 3) properties of the mineral from the technological point of view and the fields of its industrial application; 4) geological and engineering condition for the proper selection of a mining method; 5) reliability of reserves calculation and study of the deposit to find proper application of the mineral for industrial needs. 2.10 Сделайте письменный перевод текста (1200 п.зн. – 45 мин.) All the properties of minerals are determined by the composition and internal atomic arrangement of their elements. Every mineral has a constant composition of elements in definite proportion. A mineral composition can vary slightly with an occasional substitution of other elements; but not enough substitutions takes place to create a new mineral. Relatively simple changes took place as the earth cooled from a molten mass. When we say that the molten earth «cooled», we mean that the ions comprising it because less active. This decrease in activity permitted many of the ions to respond to 20

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their electrical attractions. Some grouped together to form molecules of gases that became the atmosphere; others joined in compounds but retained fluid mobility in the waters of the ocean. Others joined together in the fixed positions of solids. Each mineral has a unique crystalline structure that will distinguish it from another mineral even if the two are composed of the same element or elements. Consider the minerals diamond and graphite, for example. Other minerals may have more complicated crystalline structure; they may contain more elements and have them joined together in more complex patterns. The color, shape and size of any given material may vary from one sample to another, but the internal atomic arrangement of its component elements is identical in all specimens of a particular mineral. 2.11 С помощью словаря найдите транскрипцию и перевод следующих словосочетаний к тексту 2В. Выучите их a) типы месторождений: magmatic deposit – contact deposit – metasomatic deposit – pegmatitiс deposit – hydrothermal deposit – residual deposit – metamorphic deposit – sedimentary deposit – organic deposit – placer deposit – metalliferrous deposit – b) названия минералов: feldspar –полевой шпат quarts – mica – clay – dolomite – gypsum – common salt (halite) – magnetite – zircon – garnet – bauxite – phosphate – manganese – peat – silica – uranium – vanadium – 21

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2.12 Прочтите и переведите текст 2В Types of mineral deposits Mineral deposits are generally classified on the basis of the geological processes responsible for their formation. They may be magmatic, contact, metasomatic, pegmatitic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, residual and regional metamorfie deposits. Magmatic deposits originated by cooling and the crystallization of magma and the concentrated minerals form part of the body of the igneous rocks. Magmatic deposits are relatively simple in mineral composition and few in number. Pegmatites, for example, are relatively coarse-grained rocks found in igneous and metamorphic regions. The great majority of them consist of feldspar and quartz, often accompanied by mica, but complex pegmatites contain unusual minerals and rare elements. Many pegmatites are regular tabular bodies; others are highly irregular. At the earth’s surface the action of the atmosphere and hydrosphere alters minerals and forms new ones that are more stable under the existing conditions. Sedimentary deposits are bedded deposits derived from pre-existing material by weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition and consolidation. The mineral deposits that are formed as a results of sedimentary and weathering processing are commonly grouped as follows: 1) sedimentary deposits, not including products of evaporations, 2) chemical evaporites, 3) placer deposits, 4) residual deposits, and 5) organic deposits. Sedimentary deposits are the extensive coal beds of the world, the great petroleum resources, clay deposits, limestone and dolomite beds, sulphur deposits, etc. Chemical evaporites consist of soluble salts formed by evaporation, in closed or partly closed shallow basins. Deposits of gypsum and common salt (halite) are found in many countries. Placers are the result of mechanical concentration whereby, heavy, chemically resistant, tough minerals are separated from light, friable minerals. The most important economic placer deposits are those formed by stream action. Stream and beach placers widespread in occurrence and include the famous gold placers of the world as well as deposits of magnetite zircon and garnet. Placer deposits of diamond and platinum ale less common. Large residual deposits of clay bauxite, from which aluminum is extracted, phosphate, iron and manganese have been worked in many parts of the world. Smaller deposits of nickel and other minerals have also been worked. Organic deposits are formed by the remains of animals and plants. Plants and animals collect and use various inorganic substances in their live processes and the concentration of certain of these substances upon the death of the organisms may result in the formation a mineral deposit. Coal and peat are formed from plant remains and represent concentrations of carbon from the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere . 22

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Petroleum originates by the accumulation of plant and animal remains. Many limestone and silica deposits are also formed by plant and animal activity. Some uranium, vanadium, copper and other metalliferous deposits are considered to have formed in part at least by the activity of organisms. 2.13 Ответьте на следующие вопросы 1) How are mineral deposits classified? 2) How are magmatic deposits originated? 3) Where are pegmatites found? What do they consist of? 4) What geological processes form sedimentary deposits? 5) How can mineral deposits formed as a result of sedimentary and weathering be grouped? 6) To what groups do the deposits of gypsum belong? 7) How are placer deposits formed? 8) Which mineral can be refered to the group of residual deposits? 9) Which minerals are formed by the activity of organisms? 2.14 Составьте план текста 2B и перескажите его 2.15 Прочтите и переведите текст 2C. Найдите транскрипцию подчёркнутых слов и выучите их наизусть Mineral Resources of the Orenburg Region The Orenburg Region is one of the few areas in Russia which is extremely rich in natural mineral deposits such as gas, oil, combustible shales, brown coal, ferrous and non – ferrous metals (f. ex. copper , nickel, zinc, lead). It is also worth noting the Sol-Iletsk deposits combining 800 million tons of extremely pure rock salt. More than 75 minerals have been discovered in over 2 500 surveyed deposits and almost all of them are of industrial significance. Parts of the region have yet to be fully surveyed. Consequently, there are many minerals waiting to be explored and discovered. The region has 8 desposits of brown coal, with aggregate reserves of 780 million tons. Brown coal pit mining is represented by the Tjulgan mine, which has commercial reserves of 202,6 million tons. Orenburg region iron ores belong to rare naturally alloyed ores with a high content of nickel and chromium. The reserves of asphaltite are estimated at 9 million tons which contains approximately 60 000 tons of vanadium pentoxide and 7 000 of nickel oxide. Asphaltite is found at a depth of 408-416 meters in sheets of 1-7 meters thick. Asbestos is one of the most important non-metallic raw mineral products. It has a high mechanical strength, elasticity and flexibility. Asbestos is heat and alkali resistant and has a high coefficient of fraction. Kijembay site, 400 km east of Orenburg, is one of the world’s largest and most valuable crystallite asbestos deposits. The main marble deposits are Aydyrlinskoye and Yasninskoye deposits. 23

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Aydyrlinskoye deposit:area-23 hectares; reserves-6,3 million cubic meters of white and grey marble. Yasninskoye deposit: annual output of 30 000 cubic meters of standard blocks and 30 000 cubic meters of treating blocks. The Orenburg Region has large reserves of gas and produces 6% of all gas output in Russia and a gas field is believed to be second to none in Europe. Its gas is distinguished for its multicomponent composition including ethane, butane, propane, sulphur, helium and condensate. This is a composition which can be used as an energy source or a valuable chemical raw material. The joint stock company Orenburggasprom representing the region’s gas industry is involved in gas recovery, gas processing, gas transportation. It is a powerful gas and chemical complex with an annual production volume of 25 billion cubic meters of cleaned gas. Since oil was first bored in 1937 the petroleum industry has developed in the north-west part of the region. Annual output of oil is currently between 8,4 million tons. The Orsk Oil Refinery and the Orenburg Experimental Oil Plant are the two main petroleum enterprises in the region. Key products include: various grades of gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, a range of lubricating oil, petroleum jelly and oil asphalt. 2.16 Перескажите текст 2D, используя следующую статистику по Оренбургской области Mineral Reserves (Proved reserves) Gas – 821,1 billion cubic meters Oil – 127,4 million tons Brown coal – 782,9 million tons Combustible shale – 4 billion tons Marble – 10 million cubic meters Granite – 8 million tons Copper ores – 30 million tons Iron ore – 415,1 billion tons 2.17 Прочтите и переведите текст 2D «Геологический музей ОГУ». Найдите транскрипцию подчеркнутых слов (названия минералов) и выучите их наизусть The Geological Museum of the Orenburg State University, with its varied, rich, and representative collection of minerals, was founded in 1976 and named after A.S.Homentovsky. It’s collection numbers more than one thousand five hundred exhibit pieces. The activity of the Geological Museum focuses on three avenues: training-exposition, public education, and fund-raising. Student, pupils, guests of our university visit our museum. To get to know the variety of minerals, their similarity and differences, let’s visit some exhibits of our museum. 24

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Minerals are natural substances, homogenous in composition and structure, formed as a result of physical-chemical processes in the earth’s crust. They are mainly hard crystal bodies, components of rocks and ore. Since ancient times, minerals have been given names according to some feature reflecting either 1) their composition (beryl consisting of the mineral beryllium ), 2) color (ruby from “rubber” the Latin for red), 3) chemical composition (tinaksite-titanium, natrium, potassium, silucum), 4) the geological place of discovery (chariote from the river, Chara) or 5) in recognition of great scientists (fersmanite named for the academian A.S.Fersman). In our hall we have the mineral pyrite (“pyres” is Greek for fire). The mineral also has other names such as “fool s gold” and “cat gold”. And, indeed, as fine dissemination in the rock on a fresh fracture, it looks like real gold. But this is only an external feature. This mineral is used in the chemical industry, namely, in producing sulfur acid. From the class of sulfites, pyrite among them, we proceed to that of oxides, quartz being among those most widely spread. Indeed, there is no other mineral in nature which can have so many varieties of color and other properties without changing its chemical composition. Violet quartz is called amethyst. Since ancient times amethyst has been one of the most popular stones known and loved by man. Modern technology employs the latent properties of quartz. This mineral is transparent for infra-red and ultra-violet rays of the spectrum. This property is used in producing lenses, prisms, and spectral windows for many optical devices. Quartz is an indispensable material for producing stable quartz generators and so on. On the territory of the Orenburg Region there are deposits of quartz (f. ex. in the west of the region, near Svetlyy). The next exhibit in our collection is devoted to……………………………… 2.18 Продолжите рассказ о минералах, находящихся в геологическом музее нашего университета 2.19 Прочтите и переведите текст 2E. Используя эту информацию, проведите ролевую игру (например, телевиз. программа « Времена »). Выберите ведущих, гостей, зрителей. Составьте список проблем, рассматриваемых в данном тексте. Обсудите их Future of Russia’s Natural Wealth National mineral resources have a key role to play in promoting Russia’s economic development in general and a factor which determines the economic wellbeing of its people. According to the statistics of the Ministry of National Resources of the Russian Federation, this country has in its possession 22 percent of the world’s forests, 20 percent of fresh water resources and 16 percents of the world’s mineral and raw material resources, including 32 percent of national gas (the world leader), 12 percent of oil and 12 percent of coal. Russia’s share of the world’s resources of iron and tin 25

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exceeds 27 percent, 36 percent of nickel, 11 percent of copper, 20 percent of cobalt, 12 percent of lead, 16 percent of zinc and 40 percent of metals of platinum groups. And last but least, Russia accounts for one third of the world’s resources of gold. This country boasts scores of that we call super-giant deposits of ores and other minerals of which less that one half is being actively developed now. These include the Norilsk field (copper, nickel, platinoids), Kursk Magnetic Anomaly and Kostomuksha deposits in Karelia (iron), Yakutia (diamonds), and the Olympiada Gold Field in Siberia. In the present deplorable state of our affairs, there is no development work in progress now even at such deposits of a truly unique size as the Sukhoi Log (gold, platinum), the Udokan field (copper with associated gold and silver) in Pribaikalye, and Tomtor in Yakutia. The total cost of the raws mined in Russia annually in recent time is estimated at 95-105 bln dollars at the current world prices. However one has to bear in mind that all of this potential natural wealth turns into tangible reality only through the vast amount of work of geologists, miners, technologists, experts in ore-dressing and metallurgists. In this, like all the other countries , the time interval from the discovery of a deposits to the start of it’s industrial use is 5 to 10 years in the traditional regions and 10 to 15 years in new and undeveloped ones. Development of mineral deposits calls for considerable investments into geological studies, prognostication, prospecting and initial development as well as the construction of the relevant industrial facilities, infrastructure and access roads. Of decisive role in translating these tasks into reality are our federal projects, including “Global changes of Environment and Climate”, “World Ocean”, “Resources-Saving Technologies”. Missing of this list, however, is a key program which could be entitled “Global Regularities of Siting of Mineral Resources as the Basis for Long – Term Prognostication of the Geoeconomic and Geopolitical Development of Russia”. Studies within this framework will practically map out prospect of development of various regions, the relative value of their mineral resources with the identification of those in deficit, and also potential zone of conflicts-clashes of interests of various countries in a perspective to 2015. Snags and Problems This country is facing a host of objective problems in the development of its natural resources. First, there are some very adverse conditions in this country for the exploration of mineral deposits with most of the field being located in the northern regions, including permafrost zones where, as a rule, there are no developed infrastructures and transport facilities which makes it necessary to rely on what we call shift methods of work. Another snag in the economic development of our polar territories is the fact that the Northeastern Passage practically does not function any more. Secondly, the economic links which functioned in the former Soviet Union have al been practically severed and defy any practical attempts at their restoration since the bulk of the natural resources of the CIS countries has been sold to foreign firms. 26

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One striking example to that effect is Kazakhstan where the world’s biggest chromium deposit at Kilmpersai is being developed by Japan. Its coppermolybdenum deposits at Jeskazgan and Kounrad are being developed by South Korea and its gold-fields are being mined by Israel. And there are also some geological problems – above all the reproduction of deposits which today make up for the volume of extraction only by one half of even one third. This applies to most of the mineral deposits (uranium, apatites copper, nickel platinum, etc.). Due to our obsolete machinery and the equipment we are now lagging behind the world level of raws – processing technologies. In this article entitled “Mineral Resources in the Strategy of Developed of Russia’s Economy” published in St. Petersburg in 1999, Vladimir Putin stressed that more than 70 percent of machinery at mining enterprises is over 10 years old-twice as much as such equipment in the developed countries. Finally, and even more important , has been a paradoxical situation which has emerged in Russia during the 1990s when as a result of the policy of taxation and disproportionate growth of the prices of electricity and transport we kind of lost from 30 to 60 percent of our tangible and economically viable mineral resources. What’s to be done? In a short term perspective - for the next one to three years - the main task consists in regulating the use of mineral resources with the help of economic controls. Expert recommendations to this effect have been sufficiently analyzed at the appropriate research institutes of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation. The main points of their recommendations are the follows: What we need are appropriate state regulations of the uses of our mineral wealth (tax, price and customs controls), control of the observance of licence agreements, including areas covering the effectiveness of the development of the deposits, observance of the technical norms of the extractions, processing and export of raws. At the same time we should keep in the focus our internal investment opportunities and promote the development of “home-made” mining machinery and equipment, piping, ore crushers, etc. Steps should be taken to specify some articles in the mining legislation to promote and encourage broader direct investments into the industry And problems of a different kind come on the agenda if one thinks of development prospects of the country’s mineral and raw material bases over the next 3 to 5 years. Of central importance here is a task of improvement of the technologies of mining, dressing, extraction and processing of raws.

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And it is just as important to apply new machinery and production lines in the development of deposits, including the recently developed combines at open-cut coal mines, drills for the making of shafts and extraction of diamond – breaking kimberlites, and vibration machinery – more economical than the traditional one by an order of magnitude – for rock crushing and dressing. 5. And last, a brief look at the development prospects of this country’s raw materials base over a longer period of 5 to 15 years. The key role here will belong to the achievements of what we call fundamental geological science – both national and international.

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III Section III Geological surveying and prospecting for mineral resources 3.1 Слова и словосочетания к тексту 3А to prospect – исследовать, делать изыскания, разведывать to work – разрабатывать working – разработка, горная выработка to exctract – извлекать, добывать to search (for) – искать (месторождение) search – поиски; syn. prospecting to prove – разведывать (характер месторождения), доказывать proved – разведанный, достоверный proving – предварительная разведка, опробование exploration – разведка месторождения (с попутной добычей), изыскательные работы drilling – бурение driving – проведение горизонтальной выработки opening – горная выработка seam – пласт survey/surveying – съемка, обследования, изыскания surveyor – топограф, геодезист, маркшейдер 3.2 Выберите из правой колонки правильный перевод русских словосочетаний 1) поиски экономически полезных ископаемых 2) гравитационное поле 3) стоимость геологических исследований 4) качество и количество 5) геологическая разведка (с попутной добычей) 6) находить признаки месторождения 7) предварительная оценка 8) методы разведки

a) geological exploration b) to find the signs of a deposit c) gravitational field d) prospecting methods e) the cost of geological investigation f) the search for economically useful deposits g) preliminary estimation h) quality and quantity

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3.3 Прочтите и переведите текст 3А Prospecting for Mineral Resources Before a mineral deposit can be worked, that is, before it can be extracted from the Earth for use by man, it must first be found. The search for economically useful mineral deposits is called prospecting. Prospecting work includes three stages: 1) finding the signs of the mineral; 2) finding the deposit; 3) exploring the deposit. To establish the quality and quantity of a mineral deposit, the type of country rock, etc. means to prove it and this process is called proving. Prospecting and proving are only two different processes of mining geological exploration, the latter includes drilling and driving of openings. The aim of prospecting is to search for economically useful deposits, to provide information on a preliminary estimation of the deposit and the costs of the geologicals investigation to be made. It also indicates whether it is available to continue the exploration or not. General indications of the possibility of exposing this or that mineral in a locality can be obtained by study its general topographical relief, the type of ground and its general natural conditions. Certain deposits are only found in a particular type of ground. Coal seams, for example, are found in sedimentary formations mainly consisting of sandstones and shales. Veins, on the other hand, are found in crystalline (igneous) rocks, and the type of country rock usually determines the type of minerals. Prospecting methods may be subdivided into direct and indirect methods. Direct methods include: 1) geologic and photography mapping; 2) the study of guides of ores; 3) and the field examination of the surface, supplemented by panning, trenching, drilling or sampling. Indirect methods are of two kinds: 1) geophysical methods, which include magnetic, electromagnetic and radioactive surveys, both from air and on the surface; electrical resistivity; gravimetric and seismic surveys on the surface; radioactivity and temperature surveys in boreholes; and 2) geochemical and botanical surveys. In geophysical prospecting, gravity, magnetic, electrical, seismic and radiometric methods are used. Some minerals such as iron and copper are magnetic: first the compass and later the more sensitive magnetometer have been used to detect them. The gravimeter, an instrument that can detect minute changes in the Earth’s gravitational field, can be used for detecting minerals that have densities different from those of surrounding formations. Electrical method includes using of volmeter and galvanometer for detecting an electrical potential of minerals. Seismic methods utilize information gained from the transmission of natural (earthquake) and artificial shock waves by different underground bodies. Ores of uranium and thorium give off radiation that can be detected by suitable instruments such as the Geiger counter. Geochemical and botanical methods of prospecting involve chemical analysis for traces of metals, systematic measurement of chemically influenced properties. Samples of soil, water, rocks, vegetation and humus, gases and air, microorganisms are collected and tested so that unusual concentrations can be identified. 30

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3.4 Ответьте на следующие вопросы 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

What is prospecting? What are the three main stages of prospecting? What processes does mining geological exploration include? What does prospecting work provide? Is it enough to know only the topographical relief of a locality for exposing this or that mineral? 6) How can prospecting methods be subdivided? 7) What do direct methods include? 8) What indirect methods do you know? 3.5 Определите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

The search for economically useful deposits is called proving. The science of geology can explain the manner of occurrence of ore deposits. As a rule prospecting work includes four stages. The study of general topographical relief and the type of ground makes it possible to expose this or that deposit. Geologists know that certain deposits are only found in a particular type of ground. As is know, veins are found in metamorphic rocks. Geochemical and botanical surveys are among the direct methods. Gravimeter is an instrument that can detect an electrical potential of mineral. 3.6 Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя следующие слова

exploration, prospectors, occurrence, deposits, quantity, quality, surveying, to search, search, geological, methods. 1) The search for primary gold ………… can be made by metallometric method of prospecting. 2) ………… includes drilling and driving of exploratory openings. 3) ………… for useful minerals which includes the whole range of ………… work directed to discovering workable deposits of valuable minerals. 4) To determine the ………… of a mineral and its ………… in relation to the current requirements of industry is the task of exploration. 5) ………… valuable minerals it is necessary to know their various distinctive features. 6) In recent year combined geophysical ………… by air has been used on a wide scale. 7) In the 19 th century mineral deposits were found by ………… who looked for visible evidence of mineralization. 31

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8) The theory of prospecting is an applied geological science studying the ………… of commercial deposits of industrial minerals and the most effective ………… of discovering them. 3.7 Переведите следующие словосочетания осадочные образования; коренная (основная порода); общие показания; песчаники и сланцы; возможность добычи; изверженные породы; съемки с воздуха и на земле; следы металлов; счетчик Гейгера; ударная волна; топографический рельеф; электрический потенциал; систематические измерения; геофизическая разведка. 3.8 Переведите следующие предложения 1) Поиски месторождений золота могут быть проведены с помощью этого метода. 2) Геологи изучают карты изысканий, составленные на основе предварительных поисков и прогнозирования возможных залеганий тех или иных металлов. 3) Изучение характера местности помогает при выборе методов разведки. 4) Данные геологические исследования предполагают проведение геологической разведки с попутной добычей. 5) Гидрохимические изыскания использовались для обнаружения месторождений урана, молибдена, цинка, меди. 6) Выбор метода разработки зависит от типа месторождения, а также от природных условий. 7) Одной из главных задач геологической разведки является поиск новых месторождений. 8) Чтобы установить размер и форму месторождения, необходимо определить его структуру, и особенно те характеристики, от которых зависят изыскательные работы. 9) Геохимические способы, применяемые на различных стадиях геологических исследований, используются для установления общей минерализации пород. 3.9 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Озаглавьте его. Составьте диалог на основе прочитанного текста Special place in geological prospecting is placed on microfossils. Microfossils, such as foraminifera, ostracoda and others are exceedingly small and necessitate detailed examination under the microscope. Micropaleontology has become a very specialized science with strong links with both zoology and botany. The value of these tiny fossils is that they are not easily destructible, and that they occur in large numbers and are thus a very good basis for rock zonation. Both for their own account as biological organisms and for their geological application these small fossils continue to attract the scientists’ attention. 32

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3.10 Сделайте письменный перевод текста (1200 п.зн. – 45 мин) Surveying – method of making relatively large-scale, accurate measurement of the Earth’s surface. Surveying is divided into the categories of plane surveying and geodetic surveying. Plane surveying concentrates on mapping relatively small areas, where the curvature of the Earth is not a significant factor; the calculations of plane trigonometry are sufficient. Geodetic surveying covers large areas of the globe, with all attendant corrections for the curvature of the Earth; such surveying must be very accurate, and geodetic instruments are precise. The history of surveying is very long. Before the 3 rd century BS the Chinese possessed some form of magnetic compass. By the 2 nd century BS the Greeks used the astrolabe, an instrument for measuring the altitudes of stars above the horizon. The Romans acquired Egyptian surveying instruments, to which they added the water level and the plane table. By the early 17 th century, the English mathematical Edmund Gunter developed a Surveying Chain, which marked out standard measures of distance. In the 1970s the metre - the basic unit for the metric system of measurement - was established. It became the fundamental standard of length for surveying. 3.11 Прочтите и переведите текст 3B. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы: 1) Why is air photography considered to be one of the advantageous methods of prospecting? 2) What is the method of prospecting based on X–rays and ultrasonic transmission used for? 3) What is the surveying of the earth’s resources from space based on? Methods Applied in Mineral Prospecting Highly effective aerial methods of prospecting from aircraft and helicopter have come into wide use. The use of air photographs allows the geologist to determine conditions favorable for economic mineralization. Such conditions may include the presence of faults and fracture zones, major igneous intrusions, dykes and pegmatites. Geomorphological information from air photographs is also used in mineral prospecting. For example, salt domes may be directly located on air photographs. Advances in the development of colour films are likely to increase the importance of this method (f. ex. copper districts may show large reddish areas near the ore bodies). Recent developments deal with the application of more complicated remote sensing systems to mineral exploration. Certain types of mineral deposits show strong and unique fluorescent properties, which may be used in mineral exploration. The possibility of using maser devices to excite spectral response in specific materials (e.g. fluorescent mineral) has been suggested. Radar, having the capacity to penetrate 33

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vegetation and to record the metallic content of surface may prove useful in combination with other forms of airborne mineral survey. A method of prospecting which is based on a combination of X–rays and ultrasonic transmission came into use. It is used to probe the atomic structures of minerals. This way gives much information, which gradually discovers the secrets of Earth’s interior. One of these secrets in the ways the chemical elements are incorporated in igneous rocks and how replacements of one element by another occur within the mineral groups. Geocosmic rays are used as a means of determining the size of an or deposit in the prospecting age stage Cosmic rays coming in from the depths of the Universe explore nearearth and interplanetary space. The geocosmic method is based on the fact that when the cosmic rays set into the atmosphere, the so-called secondary cosmic rays, muons, apper. The particles are capable of penetrating rather deep into the earth’s crust. Successful development of space research has made it possible to survey the earth’s resources from space by satellites. The advantages of this method are such that vast areas such as entire mountain belts and continents can be mapped synoptically. The greatest potential of surveying the earth’s resources from space for mineral exploration is based on the ability to map synoptically the geomorphology and general geological environment of very large areas. The results obtained provide more accurate and complete information than is available from conventional surveys. 3.12 Расскажите по-английски, что нового вы узнали из текста 3B. Какие факты были вам известны? 3.13 Прочтите и переведите текст 3С. Обратите внимание на следующие термины dip – падение (залежи); уклон, откол; strike – простирание, простираться; overburden – покрывающие породы, верхние отложения, наносы; trench – траншея, канава; pit – шахта, карьер, шурф; adit – горизонтальная подземная выработка, штольня; crosscut – квершлаг; borehole – скважина; steep – крутой; gently sloping – с небольшим наклоном.

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Exploration of Mineral Deposits Exploration is known to include to whole complex of investigation carried out for determining the industrial importance of a deposit. The main task is to determine the quality and quantity of mineral and the natural and economical conditions in which it occurs. The exploration of the deposit is divided into three stages, namely preliminary exploration, detailed exploration and exploitation exploration. The aim of preliminary exploration is to establish the general size of a deposit and to obtain an approximate idea of its shape, dimensions and quality. At this stage the geological map of the deposit is corrected. The information on the preliminary exploration is expected to give an all-round description of the deposit which will enable the cost of its detailed exploration to be estimated. The following points should be taken into consideration: 1) the shape and area of the deposit; 2) its depth and angles of dip and strike; 3) its thickness; 4) the properties of the surrounding rock and overburden; 5) the degree of uniformity of distribution of the mineral within the deposit and the country rock, etc. Preliminary exploration can make use of exploratory openings such as trenches, prospecting pits, adits, crosscuts and boreholes. They are planned according to a definite system, and some are driven to a great depth. The method of exploration to be chosen in any particular case depends on the thickness of overburden, the angle of dip, the surface relief, the ground water conditions and the shape of the mineral deposit. In prospecting for a seam one of the tasks of the preliminary survey is to establish the full geological sequence of rocks in the deposit. A prospecting pit therefore sunk to establish the thickness of the overburden and the angles of dip and strike. When the thickness of overburden seems to be small (up to 3 – 4 m) and the angles of dip is steep, trenches are used for exploration. In very gently sloping seams boreholes are used for exploration because neither trenches no pits can give results. There are special features in the search for veins which are less regular in shape and smaller in area along both the dip and the strike. Prospecting for veins under shallow overburden is said to be performed by trenching; under deep overburden it is by pits and crosscuts. The quality section of the mineral deposit is determined on the basis of analyses and test of samples taken from exploratory workings. The task of the detailed exploration is to obtain reliable information on the mineral reserves, their grades and distribution in the different sectors of the deposit. Detailed exploration data provide a much more exact estimate of the mineral reserves. Exploitation exploration is known to begin as soon as mining operation start. It provides data for detailed estimates of the ore reserves of individual sections. It facilitated the planning of current production and calculating the balance of reserves and ore mined. 35

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3.14 Определите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста 3С 1) The purpose of preliminary exploration is to establish the mineral reserves and their distribution in different sectors of the deposit. 2) An all round description of the deposit enable the cost of its detailed exploration to be estimated. 3) The properties of the surrounding rock and overburden are taken into consideration during the preliminary exploration. 4) In the search for veins the preliminary exploration established the full geological sequence of rocks in the deposit. 5) When the thickness of overburden is small and the angle of dip is steep, pits are sunk. 6) Trenches are used in search for veins. 7) The purpose of the detailed exploration is to find out the quantity of the deposit. 3.15 Составьте план текста 3C. Перескажите текст, используя план и данные слова to find out, to give an all – round description of the deposit, to take into consideration, to use, to depend on, to be prospected by, to determine, to obtain, to begin, to facilitate. 3.16 Прочтите и переведите текст 3D Petroleum and natural gas (prospecting and exploration) Petroleum is a naturally occuring hydrocarbon material of animal and vegetable origin. First formed in deep sedimentary beds, petroleum later migrated to its present position in porous underground rocks. Petroleum occurs as either a liquid, a gas, or a combination of both. The vast majority of petroleum deposits lie in natural rock at depths from 150 to 7,600 metres below the surface of the ground. The petroleum deposits, or reservoirs, are prevented from migrating upward by interventing layers of dence rock. As a general rule, the deeper deposits have higher internal pressures and contain greater quantities of the gaseous hydrocarbons. When it was discovered in the 19 th century that rock oil could yield a distilled product (kerosene) suitable for lanterns, sources of this oil were eagerly sought. It is now generally agreed that the first well drilled specially to find petroleum was that of .Edwin Drake in Pennsylvania, in 1859. The success of this well, drilled close to an oil seep, led to further drilling in the same vicinity and soon to exploration elsewhere. The growing demand for petroleum products led quickly to oil wells not only in the US but also in other countries. By the last quarter of the 20 th century, there were approximately 600,000 producing oil wells in more than 100 different countries. Oil is produced in every continent except Antarctica. 36

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Because of the widespread distribution of petroleum reservoirs it was possible for new discoveries to be made at a rapid rate through the 1950s. As one result, there was little incentive for the development of efficient production techniques. Because little use had been found for the natural gas produced along with crude oil, the gas often burned at the wells. Such wasteful practices were gradually halted, partly by the increasing difficulty of finding new petroleum reservoirs and partly by the increased uses found for natural gas. Drake’s original well was drilled close to a known surface seepage of crude oil, and for many years such seepages were the only reliable indicators of the presence of oil. As demand grew, however new methods were devised for exploring the petroleum potential of underground rock formations. There are now 3 major exploration methods: (1) surface feature mapping, (2) seismograph observations, and (3) Earth gravity surveys. But there is still no accurate way to predict the actual presence of underground petroleum deposits. Exploration methods carried out on the surface can only indicate the presence or absence of underground formations that are favourable for petroleum accumulation. 3.17 Выберите утверждение, соответствующее содержанию текста 1) Petroleum first formed … a) in metamorphic rocks. b) in sedimentary rocks. c) in igneous rocks. 2) Petroleum deposits lie at depths … a) from 1,500 to 7,600 metres. b) from 150 to 760 metres. c) from 150 to 7,600 metres. 3) The first well was drilled … a) in the 18 th century. b) in the 19 th century. c) in the 20 th century. 4) For many years the only reliable indicators of the presence of oil were … a) seismograph observations. b) Earth gravity surveys. c) surface seepages of crude oil. 3.18 Подготовьте краткий пересказ текста 3D

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3.19 Прочтите и переведите текст 3Е. Найдите дополнительные материалы по данному вопросу. Подготовьте доклады на английском языке и проведите ролевую игру в виде конференции «Geology of Gold Deposits». Обсудите выступления участников и выберите лучший доклад How can gold ore concentrations be predicted? A reliable prediction of the gold content in gold-bearing ores could only be made after a considerable body of knowledge about the reserves and projected resources of gold in the depleted and prospected deposits had been built up. As soon as we have figures we see a striking difference between the quantity of the noble metal deposited in the rocks of specific geologo-genetic types. The largest deposits (taking info account the extent of their erosion) serve as benchmarks helping estimate the maximum gold concentration levels in the so-called ore-forming systems associated with the formation of a particular deposit or a group of deposits. Thus, the concept of “ore-forming system” is still construed differently in different situations. In the case of hydrothermal gold ore deposits it normally implies a combination of regions where ore-bearing solutions form and migrate, to eventually settle as ores. The conditions in which such systems arise and their evolution have been studied but very little so far. The overwhelming majority of hydrothermal deposits (at least, 1500 around the world) contain up to 100 tons of gold each. Actually, they contain at least 70 percent of the total known reserves of gold and some 80 percent of the projected resources. To make projections, the manifestation of ore-forming systems of different genetic types is related to the differentiated gold-bearing capacity of different metallogenic provinces, zones and belts. Actually, some areas up to 1 000 km long may have just a few deposits with total reserves of a few hundred tons, while others, for example, the Abititi on the Canadian Shield (less then 300 km long) encompass dozens of fields with a total content in excess of 10 000 tons of the noble metal. The Canadian belt includes three clusters of very high concentration 12 000 to 3 000 tons. Similar clusters of gold within ore regions have been established in some other metallogenic provinces and belts as well. The ideas we have about the differentiated productivity of ore-forming systems and its maximum levels, and also about the linear cluster disposition of highly productive systems provide a basis for projections of new gold-bearing regions and for a reassessment of the prospect in those already discovered in Russia. Sources of vein gold in Russia Nearly all-Russian specialists share the view that the short-term prospects for the gold-mining industry in this country are linked to primary deposits. To remind, we have over 150 of them, only a few of them past the prospecting stage. The majority of these deposits date from the Phanerozoic (the last 600 million years) and are mostly gold-quartz and gold-carbonate veins. There are very slim hopes of any 38

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new discoveries of placer deposits (similar to Kolyma or Yenisei). On the bright side, the existing placer deposits have not been fully exhausted, according to specialists Nicolai Shilo, Boris Benevolsky, and Natalia Patyk-Kara. Promising sources of vein gold in the Urals and southern Siberia may be found in gold-bearing weathering crusts, both young and buried ancient formations. Deposits of this kind are expected to be discovered under the platform shield of the Voronezh land mass. A special role in the projections of new major gold concentrations in Russia is assigned to epithermal deposits, frequently termed “volcanogenic”. Significant discoveries associated with them were made in the 1970s and 1980s in the southern part of the Pacific volcanic belt. A single major deposit, Kubaka (in the Magadan region) has been discovered in the Russin part of the belt. The Amethyst deposit in the northern Kamchatka Peninsula and the Mnogovershinnoye deposit in the southern part of the Ohotsk-Chukot volcanogenic belt can be put in this class in terms of reserve size. The remaining deposits in the area can, at best, be placed in the median category (such as Aginskoye). The multiple development of highly productive ore forming systems within these geological structures containing gold-silver and gold bearing copper-porphyry deposits (f. ex, in the Carpathian Mountains and Chile) gives us reasons to assume that a more detailed exploration of the Okhotsk-Chukot volcanogenic belt and Kamchatka will produce new discoveries. As technological progress continues around the world, the depth of gold mines is likely to grow in the next few decades. In this country, however, it will hardly exceed one kilometer. Russian experts are, therefore, building their projections on this depth of gold ore occurence in existing and new areas. Time is ripe to make prospecting to depths of up to 1 km (instead of the maximum 300 – 500 m today) the order of the day. In other words, it is a realistic objective to raise annual gold production in Russia to 250 or even 300 tons in the 21 st century.

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IV Section IV Ecogeology 4.1. Перед вами правила составления аннотаций и рефератов. Прочтите внимательно данную информацию и используйте её в дальнейшей работе с текстом «Экогеология» Составление аннотации Аннотация специальной статьи или книги - это краткая характеристика оригинала, излагающая его содержание в виде перечня основных вопросов и иногда дающая критическую оценку. Объем аннотации обычно не превышает 500 печатных знаков. При составлении аннотации на статью или книгу на иностранном языке нужно проделать следующие операции: а) выписать название статьи (книги), фамилию и инициалы автора на иностранном языке; б) дать перевод названия статьи (книги); в) дать выходные данные журнала на иностранном языке: номер, год издания, место издания, том, серию выпуска, количество страниц аннотируемой статьи (от-до), количество рисунков, таблиц, библиографических названий и т.д.. в) дать очень краткое изложение содержания статьи. Составление реферата Реферат это конспективное изложение содержания статьи или книги, передающее её основной смысл. Реферат содержит в обобщенном виде все основные положения оригинала. Объем реферата определяется степенью важности реферируемого материала, хотя практически средний объем не превышает 2000 печатных знаков. Для примера вам предлагается статья из журнала Automobile Engineer “New Energy from Old Sources” 1. The resources of fossil fuel which made the industrial revolution possible and have added to the comfort and convenience of modern life were formed over a period of 600 million years. We will consume them in a few hundred years at current rates. Certain steps should be taken to find solutions of energy problems. 2. The current energy problem is the result of many complex and interrelated factors, including a world – wide demand for energy; inadequate efforts during the recent past to develop new energy resources; delays in the construction of nuclear power plants, automobile changes that increase gasoline consumption. Demand must, of necessity, be moderated, and intensive efforts must be made to expand the overall energy supply. 3. But energy is available to use in practically unlimited quantities from other sources. Large amounts of energy can be received from ocean tides and 40

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currents, from huge underground steam deposits, from the power of wind and from the heat of the Sun. The idea of heating houses with the warmth of the Sun has become popular in the last ten years. Since the U.S. News and World Report first told about solar heated homes near Washington some years ago, many similar projects have appeared around the country. 4. Most solar-heating systems coming on a market use a black surface to absorb the Sun’s heat. Engineers cover the surface with glass, which lets in the rays, hut holds heat. The heat is transferred to water that runs through small pipes. The hot water is then circulated through the house. The solar cell is another way to produce power from the Sun. It converts sunlight directly into electricity. These cells are used with great success in the space program, but remain far too expensive for widespread application. 5. Putting the wind to work researchers are showing great interest in the age-old windmill. Several big companies are now studying windmills. The companies are to analyses windmills ranging from 100 to 2 000 kilowatts. The smallest would provide sufficient electricity to power several homes; the largest could provide electricity to a small village. Образец аннотации текста Аннотация

(New Energy from Old Sources) (Новые ресурсы энергии из старых источников) Engineer, vol. 82, № 5, 1990, New York В этой статье рассматриваются вопросы получения энергии от таких источников, как солнце и ветер. Образец реферата текста Реферат New Energy from Old Sources

(Новые ресурсы энергии из старых источников) Engineer, vol. 82, № 5, 1990, New York Статья посвящена важной проблеме поиска путей получения энергии. Вследствие того, что залежи полезных ископаемых, являющихся в настоящее время основным источником энергии, истощаются, необходимо разрабатывать способы получения энергии из других источников. В качестве таковых автор предлагает использовать тепловую энергию солнца, ветер, приливные течения и подземные запасы пара. В статье приводятся данные о возможности отопления жилых домов за счет солнечного тепла и снабжения электроэнергией небольших поселков от ветряных мельниц. 41

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Упомянутые в статье источники смогут дать в будущем неограниченные возможности получения энергии. 4.2 Прочтите и переведите статью «Экогеология», опубликованную в журнале “Science in Russia” (№6, 2000г.). Составьте аннотацию и реферат статьи Ecogeology Speaking of the natural environment, we use the term ecology. This word was introduced in 1869 by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) for the science studying the relationship of organisms with their environment. For a long time ecological problems were considered in the context of biology and subsequently, of paleontology. But from the mid-20 th century on the ecological approach invaded virtually all disciplines, including geology. Today we are dealing with the ecology of the World Ocean, of organic communities and of conurbations. And so forth.We are witnessing the development of technological, engineering, landscape and medical ecologies, and ecoactivities in other fields as well…. A New Trend Such kind of proliferation of sundry ecologies became a nuisance already in the 1980s, hence the need to bring into some common denominator of sorts. Four major areas were identified in the long run – namely, the biological, geological, social and applied ecology. Ecological problems have always been a major concern during geological surveying and prospecting, especially in hydraulic and in engineering geology. At first the ecological aspects of such work were designated as geoecology or else geology of the environment; lately, however such notions as ecogeology, ecohydrogeology and ecogeophysics entered the stage. This ushers in a new trend within the earth sciences. Now all of them – geodynamics, geotectonics, the geology of useful minerals and ore mining – are oriented towards environmental protection. All that has given birth to an intermedia science, the ecological geology (ecogeology, for short). But in what particular does it differ from geology proper and disciplines related to engineering geology? Each science has its subject – matter and methods. As Professor Viktor Trofimov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) sees it, ecological geology is concerned with the lithosphere, or to be more exact, with its subsurface region subjected to active technogenic effects. Well and good, but the lithosphere is also the object of geology, is it not? Yes, of course. However, ecogeology is involved not only with the specific features of the lithosphere – its range of interests takes in related processes in the biosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere impacting geological processes (which every now and then entail disastrous consequence for the

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human community as well). That is why the lithosphere, or the earth’s shell, is likewise the object of ecological geology. Ecological Specifics of the Lithosphere Thus far only the uppermost part of the earth’s shell has been studied well enough. It supplies us with minerals and carries all the various civil – engineering facilities – industrial enterprises, transportation, communications and all. Before determining the extent of environmental modification and the damage that goes with it, we should have a clear idea of corresponding functions of the lithosphere. According to Professor Trofimov, these are the resource – related, geodynamic and geophysical – geochemical functions. Partway the latter two affect the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere which are in contact with the lithosphere and interact with it. Now, the lithosphere supplies biota, a totality of living organisms (man including), with vital mineral substances and diverse chemical compounds and elements (in solid, liquid and gaseous form). This is the resource function. The lithosphere is not only a depositary of useful minerals that originated dozens and hundreds of million years ago, it is also a producer of mineral substances consumed by the plant and animal kingdoms. The lithosphere’s resource function likewise encompasses what is known as the geological space in which biota exists. As to the geodynamic functions of the shell, the ongoing processes there are acting, directly or indirectly, on the living world – either by stepping up or by slowing down the vital activity of organisms; this action may be even the cause of their death. For instance, volcanic eruptions that spew forth a large amount of carbon dioxide, steam and vapors, sulfur compounds and other harmful substances. Disastrous earthquakes can even modify the climate on our planet and trigger huge natural calamities. Natural and technogenic processes are responsible for geochemical and geophysical anomalies in the lithosphere that may vary in their intensity. Such anomalies affect living organisms via the sanitary-hygienic and medico-biological condition of territories. Thereby the lithosphere has a direct bearing on human health. Lithosphere’s Resource Function A variety of exogenous factors are acting on the terrestrial surface and its rock. These are the circadian and seasonal temperature changes, the atmospheric moisture and the surface waters, particularly if they contain organic and inorganic acids. The temperature differentials erode solid rock and cause cracks and fissures in it; water seeps in and washes out readily soluble compounds and minerals. Insoluble ore elements are concentrated on the earth surface as a result of rock-erosion and denudation and come to be deposited in magmatic, metamorphic rocks transformed by erosion. It is under such conditions that commercial bodies of cobalt and nickel are formed, as well as kaolin (porcelain clay) and bauxites from which aluminum is mined. 43

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We know of deposits formed by sediments accumulated in the water medium. These are rock and potash salts, phosphorites, manganese ores, combustible shales, along with limestone, marl and sand which are used as building materials. Extant deposits are often acted upon by high temperature and pressure. Then rock and substances they contain undergo significant modifications: quartz sand and sandstone turn into hard quartzites, limestone becomes marble, and granite, acquiring a striated structure, transforms into gneiss. And so some ore bodies vanish without a trace, while others are modified, and still others are enriched. The metamorphic mountain rocks thus formed become ore-bearing. Conversely, native material on the surface of our planet is subject to degradation too as a result of water erosion. Water washers off various substances from the terrestrial surface and takes them away, either dissolved or suspended. The newly formed minerals often have a negative effect on the environment, as in the case of weathering and wind erosion: gaseous and readily soluble compounds, once they get into the hydrosphere and the atmosphere, do harm living organisms. Furthermore, carbon dioxide as well as compounds of sulfur, methane and ammonia affect the climate on a local and global scale. Soil, and surface and subsurface water are contaminated with toxic oxides and complex compounds which have a dire action on the environment and, penetrating trophic (food) chains, ultimately get into the human organism. Consequently, weathering and erosion processes are playing a dual role. On the one hand, they are involved in the formation of useful deposits and, on the other, they have a negative affect on the vital activity of organisms. Both effects have manifested them-selves throughout the geological history of our planet. And what concerns biota: erosion, while impairing some groups of organisms, is helpful for the development of others. All that is in the scheme of things. Human civilization has brought about dramatic changes in the situation on the earth’s surface. The period of accumulation of lithospheric resources, which took nearly 4 billion years, gave way to open-ended consumption, which has been on for several thousand years now. Humankind has been actively transforming the lithospheric surface. Geodynamic Function of the Lithospere Destructive natural processes may be sluggish and imperceptible in their course; but now and then they may come like a bolt from the blue and wreak havoc. The slow course of geological changes in the lithosphere and surrounding mantles can be broken both by natural and by anthropogenic factors; both have internal (endogenic) and external (exogenic) causes. Say, disastrous events like volcanic eruptions; earthquakes and emanation of gases from the earth’s interior are caused by planetary and cosmic factors, that is they are due to inherent, endogenic causes. Now we know it for certain: regions of eruptive and seismic activity are confined to lithospheric plate interfaces. The extension and the convergence or collision of plates interfere with the shell integrity. The faults thus formed are an opportune escape route for plutonic magma-its flows force their way up to the surface 44

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in the form of lava. As to elastic deformations accumulated at the sites of plate collisions or extensions, they are ultimately released in earthquakes, which, among other things, may also by cosmic factors, e.g. planetary gravitation changes, celestial bodies, and meteorites. These hitting the earth, give off huge amount of energy that modifies its surface. And more: the mass extinctions of certain plant and animal species in the last billion years, as some scientists believe, exhibited a definite periodic pattern and – what is most surprising indeed – concurred with the collisions of our planet with the heavenly bodies, the asteroids. A similar event took place 65 million years ago when many species disappeared from the face of the earth, among them, dinosaurs, cephalopod mollusks, plankton foraminifera, the absolute majority of bivalved and gastropod mollusks, and so forth. Such wholesale extinctions occurred between the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic, and the end of the Devonian, between the Proterozoic and Paleozoic, and in other periods. Some natural processes touch man and his living conditions, though the effect is not as immediate. These are regional and global desert encroachments, soil erosion, karst formation processes, changes in the level of the World Ocean and the like. Natural Medium Under Pressure Today the anthropogenic (maninduced) effect on the lithosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, large-scale and pervasive as it is, is fraught with consequences. For one, it results in global changes of the climate and rapid desert encroachment. The combustion of vast amounts of mineral fuel fills the atmosphere with carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds and water vapor; all that intensifies the hothouse effect. In a follow-up of this global process, the surface air temperature has been increasing fact in the past 20-25 years. The rate of this increase is much above the temperature rises of the Quaternary and even those that took place in the distant geological past. Global warming is increasingly impacting the natural landscapes: warmer climatic zones are encroaching on polar regions. Consequently, tundra and foresttundra landscapes are deteriorating fast, and the ice-belts of northern seas are shrinking. The rapid thawing of ice covers in both hemispheres as a result of higher temperatures may cause a significant rise in the level of the World Ocean whose swelling waters would flood vast tracts of lowlands. There are changes in the location of humid and arid zones. Belts of steppes and forest-steppes are expanding northwards, with deserts and semideserts moving next. Simultaneously, arid zones are contracting because of the intensive evaporation process touched off by global warming. Permafrost areas are shrinking too.

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Geopathogenic Zones This notion is still ambivalent. Some experts attribute geopathogenic zones to the heterogeneity of so far unknown fields; but others think they are engendered by deep-seated geophysical and geochemical anomalies, which, directly or indirectly, act upon biota’s condition. Most likely, geopathogenic zones are area where the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere as well as the upper and lower mantle of the earth – and possibly its core – display their characteristics in an unorthodox fashion. In turn, geophysical anomalies are thought to be the specific characteristics of corresponding fields – characteristics conditioned by geothermal effects, gravitation magnetic and electric fields as well as by vibration and acoustic effects of the lithosphere. Geochemical anomalies, the enhanced radiation background among them, are often of focal occurrence. Such anomalies arise in situ at shallow mineral deposits exhibiting relatively high radioactivity. This concerns not only respective ore bodies but also rock with the enhanced concentration of boron, barium, beryllium, chromium, nickel, lead and other elements whose isotopes are unstable. Also in this category are anomalies caused by anthropogenic pollution in the process of ore enrichment and commercial utilization. Geopathogenic zones occur not only at deposits of high – toxicity compounds but also in the vicinity of mines – say, in dumps and spoil heaps, in purification (sewage) works, and in aeration ponds. Geochemical factors are capable of inducing various pathologies. Some chemical elements and compounds may be in excess, while others – all too scarce the natural environment; in either case the effect may be harmful. Some elements are highly toxic, especially beryllium, the main component of beryl. Its bright – green transparent varieties are known as emerald – a precious stone dazzling in its beauty; and another beryl variety is aquamarine, a transparent stone having a pale blue or bluish – green color, also used as a gem. Beryllium is employed in the production of superhard alloys for the atomic industry and aerospace technology. Unfortunately, those who work with beryllium or live near beryllium – producing mills are exposed to a higher risk of lung cancer. Chromium and arsenic are also a health hazard: chromium causes bronchial cancer, and arsenic compounds induce locomotor diseases and lung cancer. High toxicity is exhibited by cadmium, mercury, thallium and lead. An excess of cadmium provokes atherosclerosis, hypertension, prostatic cancer and decay of bone tissue. Mercury, being a potent mutagen has an adverse effect on heredity. Even taken at low concentrations, thallium affects the cardiovascular system; it causes pathologies of joints as well as baldness. Its high concentrations interfere with the function of the gastrointestinal tract, result in hallucinations, convulsions and even death from respiratory paralysis. An excess of lead intoxicates the organisms and may be responsible for malfunctions of the central nervous system, liver, kidneys and the sex organs; lead is also a mutagen and destroys red blood cells. Besides native elements and compounds, we are now having quite an array of artificially synthesized organic compounds like benzene that causes leukemia as well as vinyl, chloride and bitumen’s that induce leukemias and liver malignancy. 46

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Proceeding from the great variety of pathogenic geochemical accumulations, many experts propose to divide them into two groups: geopathogenic geochemical anomalies related to natural processes, and technopathogenic ones, i.e. those produced by techogenesis. Both kinds of anomalies merit special attention from experts in ecological geology and from geoecologists and medics. Ecological Geology: What Now? Now geology is ecologically oriented too. Its hands – on fields take in every line of vital activity. But one point is stressed: ecogeology has gained recognition only with the progress of technogenesis when the further deterioration of the human environment has made it imperative to study and prognosticate the aftermath of geological and technogenic activities. Ecological geology has developed scientific methods of its own in the cognition of the world we live in like biology and ecology proper, ecogeology proceeds from theoretical concepts on trends in the evolution of material and nonmaterial world. As a science ecological geology must draw upon research methods of kindred sciences, such as physics, chemistry, biology, geography, mathematics and the soil science. Systems analysis is an integral part of this discipline, for its object is a single complex system endowed with a wide variety of characteristics and functions. Today this ecoscience can forecast the ecogeological condition of the natural environment, which is an essential part of new long-term development programs and managerial decision making. By Nikolai Yasamanov, Dr.Sc. (Geol. & Mineral.) Lomonosov Moscow State University

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V Section V Texts for Supplementary Reading Our Earth Our whole earth is nothing more than a round, bumpy ball with a rock crust. Much of the crust is covered by water, but underneath the oceans and seas, rivers and lakes, there are rocks. Some of the ball is covered by great cities. The skyscrapers and subways, paved streets and apartment buildings all rest on a deep layer of rocks. The green fields and tree-covered mountains, the mucky swamps and hot deserts lie just above the rocky crust. Our soil from which plants grow is made of rocks, and so the clothes we wear, the food we eat, the houses we live in, all began with the rocks that form the hard outside of our whirling earth. The crust hasn't always been hard. At the very beginning the earth was just a spinning mass of burning, smoking lava - the same kind of lava that sometimes hisses and spits out of our active volcanoes. But gradually the outside began to stop burning and smoking. It cooled off. As it cooled it hardened into the rocky crust. This hardened lava formed the first rocks of the world, and you can see them every day almost everywhere. They sometimes look quite slick and glassy, and sometimes you can see the grains in them, with nearly perfect crystal forms running all through it. They are called "igneous". The word means "fire", and fire is certainly what these rocks had been before they cooled and became hard. As the burning ball of the earth cooled, it didn't harden into anything very smooth. There were great deep hollows in the round ball, and they filled with water. It was a good thing it happened that way, too, for nothing can live without water. All around and about the hollow places that formed the great seas and oceans, huge mountains of stone rose up. Wind and rain, ice and snow, began to beat down on them and wear them down. Great boulders were carried from one place and put into another. Rain and ice ground the rocks into fine dirt and sand, which filled up the hollow places on the land, and settled in the bottoms of the rivers, lakes and seas. As this sand and dirt piled layer on thick layer through the countless ages, it pressed into hard rocks again. You can find them everywhere. They are usually made up of the same kind of sand, sometimes brightly colored, and often there are pieces of plants or even fossils to be found in them. These kinds of rocks are called "sedimentary" (sed-i-men-tary). That's because any dust, dirt, or sand that settles is called "sediment". Hocks piled on top of other rocks, as the earth shifted and changed. The rocks that were on the bottom were pressed down so that they didn't look like the same rocks that they were before. If five heavy football players pile up in a heap, the poor player on the bottom gets mashed and squeezed, and he doesn't look the same, either. So it is with some rocks. They began as sedimentary or igneous ones, but heat and water and time pressed them into another kind. There is a long word for these kinds of rocks. It is "metamorphic" (met-a-morfick). The word means "change". You can find them, too, although they will be harder to recognize than the others. 48

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Rocks to this very day keep changing and growing. There are a few volcanoes that still spit out their hot lava and when it cools it forms igneous rook. Wind and rain pile up sand and dirt, which is pressed together into sedimentary ones. We don't feel it, but the rocky crust of the earth is always shifting and squeezing and changing, and so metamorphic rocks keep forming too. People who know the stories of stones have only to look at a piece of rock to tell what kind it is. If you are interested enough to look and learn, you, too, will be able to read their stories. Founder of Geological Studies Prof. Yuri Mikhailovich Sheinmann (1901-1974), a prominent member of this country’s scientific community, began his studies in the region of Zabaikalye in 1926. And right from the start he made himself prominent with a series of publications on geological problems of Asia.By the mid-1930s he was alredy a recognized authority in the field of Earth tectonics. When the 17 International Geological Congress met in Moscow in the summer of 1937 Yuri Sheinmann was appointed its scientific secretary. And he made a tangible contribution to the success of this international forum . His first geological expedition was crowned with the discovery of a unique magmatic province in the north of Siberia which contained,among basalts,an exotic complex of volcanic,or igneous rock-ultrabasic and alkaline lavas and carbonates with a high content of calcium and carbon.His work at the Norilsk Geological Service (which included a course of lectures for geologists) brought him well - deserved recognition.In 1946 he defended a thesis for a Dr.Degree.His doctoral thesis was entitled «The History of Development of the Siberian Platform». From the late 1950s and to the end of his life worked at the Institute of Earth Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He was attracted by problems located,so to say ,on the border of tectonics (studying the structure and evolution of mineral resources of the Earth) and petrology (investigating the in-depth nature of magmatic processes).The crown of the scientific efforts and achievements was a book called «Studies of Plutonic Geology». Another major contribution provided by Dr.Sheinmann is related to magmatic geology. Proceeding from the available material on the Canadian and Baltic shields, the African, Brazilian and Indian platforms,and using his own observations in Siberia, the Russian geologist attacked a common notion that ultrabasic and basic magmas originate from a common source in the bowels of the Earth .Dr.Sheinmann was able to prove that the ultrabasic an basic magmatism develop from different sources which are not interconnected. 1968 saw the publication of his aforesaid monograph-«Essays on Plutonic Geology».In this publication data on the processes in the Earth crust and mantle are compared with the tectonics and chemistry of magmatic phenomena .The author singled out three types of structure of the planet :the greater part of the Earth’s surface which is not subject to contrast movements reaching down to considerably depths; areas under the oceanic undersea ridges, where movements are not very 49

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intense and where stretching prevail in the upper core ;and a special type of plutonic structure-tectospheres (down to the depth of 600 km). Russian Biologist A.Lyubishchev once said that the past of sciences is like a collection of unfinished architectural ensembles. And it was Dr.Yuri Sheinmann who laid the foundations of several such monuments. Northern Oil The far north of Russia is an inhospitable sheet of ice and snow more than half the size of the 48 contiguous United States. But to local and foreign companies hungry for new supplies, the lure of profits has started to make the region inviting. With huge reserves of oil and natural gas beneath frigid seas, the Russian Arctic is one of the last untapped treasure-troves of fuel. Russian oil companies in particular are hoping that the Arctic becomes their next Siberia, the main source of Russia’s combustible fuel for the last 30 years. By some measures, nearly half of Siberia’s oil reserves have been exhausted. «The Russian North has great potential to compensate for the drop in production in older wells in Siberia», said Vagit Alekperov,president of LUKoil Holdings. LUKoil has aligned with natural gas monopoly GAZprom, and Conoco, a U.S.oil company, to tap the Arctic. It is estimated that these companies, along with others, will invest more than $20 billion to extract its oil and gas. LUKoil says it plans to spend at least $5 billion to develop the Timan Pechora region in the Komi Republic – and the neighboring Nenets autonomous region .Developing the Russian Arctic’s energy resources, however ,will reguire many more billions of dollars than have been committed. «The whole Arctic shelf is a vast province of giant oil and das fields, but there is not enough money to develop all of it», said Igor Gramberg, Director of the Institute of Oceanology and Mineral Resources in St. Petersburg. Foreigners hare been reluctant to bet, largely because of Russia’s unstable history, shifting tax laws and reputation for violating contracts and reneging on debts. Conoco, which has operated in Russia for nearly a decade,has one modest operation,a goint venture with LUKoil in Timan Pechora known as the Polar Lights Company ,which poduces about 13 million barrels of oil a year. Conoco and LUKoil have agreed to develop another oil field-known as the Northern Territoryin Timan Pechora . Aside from the coast of drilling in the Arctic ,delivering gas and oil to market is perhaps the greatest challenge in a region that is almost always frozen. LUKoil has just completed a $ 40million oil terminal on the Pechora Sea, which will handle about 18 million barrels a year, with plans to triple that soon .The company has also spent the last two years creating an Arctic tanker fleet. LUKoil and other Russian companies are also planning a pipeline that will send oil south to the Gulf of Finland near St. Petersburg.

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The Technology of the Prediction of Coal Occurrence The technology of prediction of coal occurrence is based on the regularities of distribution of coals in the Earth’s crust. These regularities have been established as a result of the historical-geological analysis of the regional structures and geologicalstructural position of high-productive zones and levels of geological cross-section of sedimentary strata. It is established, firstly, that structures and complexes of the geosynclinal row are perspectiveless in relation to coal bearing capacity because their genesis and development are linked to the most active geotectonic regime, unfavourable for concentration and conservation of organic matter being initial for coals. Secondly, perspectiveless in relation to coals are also sedimentary complexes of sea paleoaquatories, unreachable for inflow of land-originated organic matter. The objects for prediction of coal occurrence are structures, consolidated to the time of their being located in the belt of climate, favourable to the growth of dry-land plants, in paleographic aspect representing the land with continental and coastal basin sedimentation. The most productive by coal content are coal-bearing formation formed in the zones between mobile and stable by their tectonic regime of development structures. The most high-quality coals are also linked to these zones. The tectonic structures revealed by deciphering aerospace imagery show themselves as faults and also as zones of anomalous composition and structure of coal-bearing deposits. Such character of space photo imagery is caused by single source of their origin – inherited development of long-life faults (deep structures) controlling in time and in space not only localization of coalbearing formations, but also their internal structure. The use of space snapshots allows to reveal geological objects, which are not always established by conventional methods-zones of intensive jointing; over- fault zones actuated in the process of many parameters of coal-bearing strata as a whole and a separate layers (including coal deposits). The Urals: 20 th century discoveries The late 1920s and early 30’s saw giant industrial projects built at Magnitogorsk, Berezniki and Solikamsk. Production of iron, copper and gold in the old industries was going up, mines were sunk to recover aluminum, nickel ore, chromites, potassium, sulfur, asbestos, talcum, coal, and many rare metals, and many rare metals, and wells were driven to pump oil. Metalworking advanced on a renovated technological basis. As one of this nation’s leading industrial centers, the Ural was severely short of researchers who could explore its geological structure and sum up the results of previous geological and geophysical studies. To deal with these complex problems at close range, a Geochemistry Institute was set up at the Ural Branch in 1932. In the late 1930s, the institute was reorganized to an Institute of Mining Geology. In 1966, the Academy’s Presidium changed the name of the former to the Geology and Geochemistry Institute.

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Between 1933 and 1936, the institute’s staff researchers carried out and published a series of studies on the geochemistry of basic magmas, minerals of the Ilmen Mountains, and comprehensive utilization of coals of the Chelyabinsk fields. Also at that time, the beginnings were laid for new methods of mineral prospecting and exploration. During the war with Germany in 1941-1945, the institute switched its research focus to ways to speed up the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources for the country’s defence needs, by turning the Ural region into the nation’s key mining and industrial center. Between 1945 and 1955, major breakthroughs were achieved in the geological exploration of the Urals lean iron ores, the enormous reserves of which had been known with certainty, but were not used on a commercial scale. Structural patterns of many native gold deposits were clarified, along with the potential oil and gas bearing capacity of the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains and the adjoining areas of the West Siberian Plain. In 1955 to 1970, the institute’s researchers worked to improve basic knowledge of principles employed in prospecting for critical minerals. To this end, they had to retrace the history of the terrestrial crust in the area and explore the forces that formed and distributed iron ores, bauxites, copper pyrites and gold in the local crust. In hydrogeology, the most significant breakthrough was made in developing a method to protect bauxite mines from surface and subterranean water in the Middle Urals and hydrochemical principles of prospecting for copper pyrite deposits in the Southern Urals. The principal problem, in which the institute’s efforts under Alexander Peive, a full member of the Academy, and Svyatoslav Ivanov, a corresponding member, were focused in 1970 to 1975, was developing a novel geotectonic and petrological theory to promote an understanding of the Urals’ metallogeny. The researchers advanced a hypothesis and made a geodynamic tectonic map, the first in the world, some 20 to 30 years before any projects of this kind were unveiled in developed countries. Alexander Dymkin, a corresponding member of the Academy, and Yuri Poltavets, working for the institute in 1975 to 1980, came up with a polygenic theory to explain the formation of iron, copper pyrite and complex metal ores, which allowed geologists to apply uncoventional prospecting techniques. They demonstrated stage by stage formation of ore deposits and the possibility of such deposits being discovered at depths of 1,000 to 1,500 m. In the years that followed, the institute’s scientists have discovered new type of gold-silver-tellurium deposits, succeeded in proving the main ore body of the Kempersai landmass, which contains unique reserves of chromium ores, to be the nation’s largest repository of osmium, iridium, and ruthenium, contained in recoverable form ( up to 30 percent ) in sulfides, sulfoarsenides, arsenides and solid solutions ( over a dozen mineral kinds and varieties ). In the 1980s, the institute’s researchers discovered, for the first time here, widespread occurrence of karst suffosive processes in the eastern Urals. The resulting holes and subsidence cause deformation and collapse of buildings, power dams, and 52

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other engineering structures and facilitate penetration of polluted surface water into productive water horizons. Among the institute’s more significant projects completed in the last decade of the 20th century, mention must be made of the following: 1) The institute’s researchers have established and substantiated a protective function the underground hydrosphere perfoms toward the environment. 2) A new type of copper pyrite deposits, previously unknown in this region, has been discovered among the sedimentary volcanogenic rock masses in the TagilMagnitogorsk Depression. 3) A first-ever general picture of evolution of chromite-platinum ores in Alpine-type complexes evolved, showing that platinum metals are present in increased, occasionally even high concentrations, in Mesozoic nickel-bearing weathering crusts, so common for the Urals. These crusts being the principle mineral source for the Ural’s advanced cobalt-nickel industry, they have an enormous importance for recovering platinum metals as byproducts.

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VI Section VI Grammar Revision Exercises The Active Voice 1) The largest employer of geologists has traditionally been the oil industry, although recently more opportunities have been available in environmental geology with consulting firms and government agencies. 2) The earth’s crust undergoes periodical compressions and tensions. 3) These students will be studying mineralogy during two semesters. 4) Rocks whether igneous or sedimentary constitute manuscripts of past earth history. 5) Scientists divided minerals into the rock-forming minerals and the ores. 6) Scientists are studying the geological past of our district. 7) Aerial photography plays an important part in prospecting virgin coal-fields. 8) Coal will yield large quantities of chemicals. 9) Since ancient times people have used sulphur for its medical properties in the treatment of people and animals. 10) The motion of the mantle is driving the surface motion of the continental plates, it’s driving mountain building, earthquakes and hot spots, like volcanoes. 11) Research on sea-floor hydrothermal mineralization and related processes has advanced rapidly from local to global scope through a sequence of discoveries. 12) This information will give us a basic understanding of what rocks actually are. 14) Measurements had shown that temperature increased. 14) Volcanic ash has hardened into rock. The Passive Voice 2) Many of the conclusions of physical geology are based on the conviction that modern processes also operated in the past. 3) A glacier is a mass of ice that has been formed by the recrystallization of snow. 3) Internal water is derived from the interior of the earth as a new resource. 4) Hard coals are mined practically everywhere. 5) The repetition of the outcrop may be very deceptive, when the surface has been planed down to one uniform slope or curve. 6) The coal-mining industry of the U.K. has been nationalized since 1947. 7) Disputed zones were found where rocks had been deposited during the time of the unconformities at the type section. 8) Acoustic detectors that can be operated at the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere are being developed. 9) The standard methods have been treated elsewhere and will not be repeated here. 10) Research has been concerned with measurement of magnetic field. 11) Our knowledge about the subcrustal origin of magma is based on data of geophysical research, petrological and geochemical relations between the igneous rocks and experiments results. 12) The use of spectroscopy for material analysis has been adapted for down-hole logging in both the coal and oil industries. 54

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13) Lord Kelvin’s calculation was based on the assumption that the earth was molten at its time of origin and has been cooling ever since. Modal Verbs 1)A substance may respond elastically to a rapid stress but may be deformed viscously by a stress applied over a long period of time. 2) Many features of the mid-ocean ridges can be explained by convection currents. 3) Life could have formed only in an oxygen-free environment. 4) A great deal of attention had to be paid to the exact design. 5) A program may consist of three instructions depending on the complexity of the task. 6) The equipment can be used to measure the solubilities of minerals in aqueous solutions up to 300 0 C. 7) It is to be expected that rocks will be ductile in nature under pressures and temperatures at which they would be brittle in ordinary laboratory tests. 1) It is evident that geology can be approached from several sides. 9) More research must be done before people will know for sure. 10) The student of Geological Department must know all the latest achievements of science and engineering. 11) The weight of rock would supply enough pressure to lift magma. 12) This heat can be converted into other forms. 13) The colour, shape and size of any given mineral may vary greatly. 14) The earth’s heat may be a remnant of its formation, or may be due to radioactive sources in the earth. 15) No one had been able to predict whether quarts could be deformed plastically or not. The Participle I 1) As time goes on, the proportion of coal coming from thick seams, where working is easy and cheap, tends to decline. 2) Of all the hard minerals currently being exploited on the continental shelf, sand and gravel are by far the largest in terms of both volume and value. 3) The professor told the students about the experiments now being carried on in the laboratory. 4) This comparison shows the importance of using this method for accurately calculating porosity in gas zones. 5) The nature of the sea floor is determined by four controlling factors. 6) The deposit can be worked with existing technology. 7) Designing new mining machines, engineers pay attention to geological condition in the mines. 8) Exploration by boring provides data and information relating to the existence of coal seams and the intervening data. 9) Geology is concerned with the processes operating in the earth. 55

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10) The pressure is due to the weight of the overlying rocks. 11) It is concerned with the history of the earth including the history of life. 12) The mud in a flooding river is aweatrered material. 13) Chemical weathering, acting on these small fragments, rearranges the elements into the new minerals. 14) It breaks from the main mass, forming cracks parallel to the surface. 15) About 30 samples, pertaining to the cancrinite-group minerals, from different localities were investigated using both analytical electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. The Participle II 1) Faults of this class ordinarily occur in horizontal or moderately inclined or folded rocks. 2) An obvious source of the heat flow is the heat generated by the decay of radioactive elements. 3) The rocks mapped are dated by comparison (correlation) with the type sections of the geologic columns. 4) One kind of garnet used for jewelery is pyrope, which has a deep bloodred color. 5) Modern glaciers deposit a distinctive type of debris made up of rock fragments. 6) Data transmitted during flight are usually provided by the experimenter on magnetic tapes. 7) Research at the University of California has been mainly on the origin of minerals found in shallow-seated ore deposits. 8) A mineral is an inorganic substance, produced by natural processes. 9) The methods used are new. 10) Geologists need specialized training in chemistry and physics. The Gerund 1) There are two important shortcomings to traditional methods of searching for near shore mineral resources. 2) Geologyhelps in designing fall buildings and dams. 3) Qualitative distribution of any particular element is revealed by either line scanning or area scanning. 4) Heat is the most important agent in causing recrys-tallization. 5) Working against the leveling action of gravity elevates the continents. 6) There are several stages in the diamond genesis: the origin of the diamond crystals nucleus with participating the crust carbon during the subduction processes; additional growing of diamond in mantle conditions in eclogite and peridotite zones of Earth, excess growing of diamond in the protokimberlitic magma. 7) Chemical methods were used for solving some cultural-historical problems on ceramics, 100 years before the first application (1993) of mineralogical methods. 8)They insisted on the question being reconsidered. 56

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9) Recent experimental data on the melting and phase transformations of iron and nickel to pressures provide important information to understand the nature of the earth’s solid inner core and liquid outer core. 10) Phase transformations study of minerals from pelagic ferro-manganese nodules was conducted in three directions: a) characterizing of matter from different growth zones of nodules; b) high temperature heating in dry air; c) experimental modelling metamorphic processes at high temperatures and pressures in at high temperatures and pressures in different media. The Infinitive 1) Large amounts of energy are necessary to deform rocks, generate magma, and cause metarmorphism. 2) The heat flow from the earth indicates the presence of sources of heat energy large enough to account for geologic processes. 3) There are several different kinds of measurements to be taken, which express important facts. 4) Our scientists were the first to synthesize diamonds. 5) To have any deposition there must exist a source of sediments. 6) The factors controlling this process are difficult to visualize. 7) Radioactivity energy is enough to cause all geological processes. 8) To finally recover the gold it is only necessary to scrape off the sludge of mercury and gold and refine it. 9) A true hypothesis will prove to be in harmony with newly discovered facts. 10) Hydrochemical prospecting to be described in the article has been used for finding uranium, molybdenum, zinc and copper deposits. 11) Geochemical methods are applied at different stages of geological investigations, and are used to establish the general mineralization of rocks (i.e. the areas of increased concentration of particular elements). 12) To detect such concealed deposits as coal, shale, iron, manganese, salts and others is very difficult. 13) The geological and physical conditions of the seam to be worked include its thickness, depth, hardness, etc. 14) To determine both the shape and the size of a deposit it is very important to establish its structure. The Complex Subject 1) Open cast mining seems to be the most productive system. 2) Extensive deposits of phosphatic sediments are known to exist off the coasts of the south-eastern United States. 3) The core is believed to be mainly molten iron with some nickel. 4) Bronze is thought to have been used by the ancients. 5) Convection is believed to be an important process in the mantle. 57

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6) The moon, Mars, and Venus do not appear to have liquid cores and also do not have fold mountain bells. 7) The earth’s core is thought to be responsible for geological processes. 8) The institute is expected to continue to participate in the instruction of graduate students. 9) This research seems to lay solid theoretical foundations. 10) In early times gems were believed to have other a attractions besides beauty. 11) When examined under the microscope, even the finest futts are found to consist of crystals and particles of glass. 12) The rocks of the mantle are believed to be poor conductors of heat. 13) The probable amount of cooling appears to be too small to account for crystal structures. 14) The craters on the moon, which is not protected by an atmosphere, are believed to have formed in this way. 15) Sapphires from basalts are supposed to crystallize under physical-chemical conditions of the lower crust. The Conditional Sentences 1) Were the scientists found the way to predict earthquakes, it would be possible to evacuate people from the regions. 2) If oxygen had been present, the amino acids that are starting point for life had been oxidized. 3) If this rise continuous to the center of the earth, the temperature where would be 400, 000 0 F. 4) Had this earthquake occurred in this area the losses would have been tremendous. 5) Provided the scientists make use of this method, they will get necessary results. 6) On condition that the mineral lies at a great distance from the surface, the deposit is to be worked by underground mining. 7) Had there been a nuclear power industry at that time it would have been unnecessary to enrich the raw uranium. 8) If primitive people didn’t have a sharp-edged fragment of obsidian, they would sharpen the stone to make axe a knife or a scraper from it. 9) Had they met with such difficulties before, they would have known what to do now. 10) If the diamonds are under action of solar light, ultra-violet and x-ray beams, they begin luminescence-to shine by various colours.

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Список использованных источников 1. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – Longman Group UK Limited, 2000. – 1675p. 2. Peter B. Norton “New Encyclopedia Britanica” – Chicago, 1994. – 1000p. 3. English for science and Technology. – Билингва, 1998. – 79с. 4. Баракова М. Я. Учебник английского языка для горных вузов. – М.: Высшая школа, 1987. – 294с. 5. Завгородняя В. А., Вихман Т. М. Природа и человек. Пособие по чтению на английском языке. - М.: Высшая школа, 1987. – 144с. 6. 16 th General Meeting of the international Mineralogical Association. Abstracts. – Disa, Italy, 1994. – 482p.

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