This book is designed for use as an undergraduate text on engineering electromagnetics. Electromagnetics is one of the m
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Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Title......Page 2
Preface......Page 4
Contents......Page 11
11 Overview ......Page 17
12 The Electromagnetic Model......Page 19
13 SI Units and Universal Constants......Page 23
Summary......Page 25
21 Overview......Page 27
22 Vector Addition and Subtraction......Page 29
23.1 Scalar or Dot Product......Page 31
23.2 Vector or Cross Product......Page 33
23.3 Products of Three Vectors......Page 34
24 Orthogonal Coordinate Systems......Page 36
24.1 Cartesian Coordinates......Page 37
24.2 Cylindrical Coordinates......Page 43
24.3 Spherical Coordinates......Page 48
25 Gradient of a Scalar Field......Page 54
26 Divergence of a Vector Field......Page 58
27 Divergence Theorem......Page 63
28 Curl of a Vector Field......Page 67
29 Stokes's Theorem......Page 74
210.1 Identity I......Page 77
210.2 Identity II......Page 78
211 Field Classification and Helmholtz's Theorem......Page 79
Summary......Page 81
Problems......Page 82
31 Overview......Page 87
32 Fundamental Postulates of Electrostatics in Free Space......Page 89
33 Coulomb's Law......Page 91
33.2 Electric Field due to a Continuous Distribution of Charge......Page 96
34 Gauss's Law and Applications......Page 100
35 Electric Potential......Page 105
35.1 Electric Potential due to a Charge Distribution......Page 107
36 Material Media in Static Electric Field......Page 112
36.1 Conductors in Static Electric Field......Page 113
36.2 Dielectrics in Static Electric Field......Page 117
37 Electric Flux Density and Dielectric Constant......Page 120
37.1 Dielectric Strength......Page 123
38 Boundary Conditions for Electrostatic Fields......Page 126
39 Capacitances and Capacitors......Page 131
310 Electrostatic Energy and Forces......Page 135
310.1 Electrostatic Energy in Terms of Field Quantities......Page 138
310.2 Electrostatic Forces......Page 141
311 Solution of Electrostatic BoundaryValue Problems......Page 143
311.1 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations......Page 144
311.2 BoundaryValue Problems in Cartesian Coordinates......Page 145
311.3 BoundaryValue Problems in Cylindrical Coordinates......Page 147
311.4 BoundaryValue Problems in Spherical Coordinates......Page 149
311.5 Method of Images......Page 151
Problems......Page 158
41 Overview......Page 165
42 Current Density and Ohm's Law......Page 166
43 Equation of Continuity and Kirchhoff's Current Law......Page 172
44 Power Dissipation and Joule's Law......Page 174
45 Governing Equations for Steady Current Density......Page 175
46 Resistance Calculations......Page 177
Summary......Page 181
Problems......Page 182
51 Overview......Page 185
52 Fundamental Postulates of Magnetostatics in Free Space......Page 187
53 Vector Magnetic Potential......Page 193
54 The BiotSavart Law and Applications......Page 195
55 The Magnetic Dipole......Page 201
56 Magnetization and Equivalent Current Densities......Page 205
57 Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability......Page 209
58 Behavior of Magnetic Materials......Page 211
59 Boundary Conditions for Magnetostatic Fields......Page 214
510 Inductances and Inductors......Page 216
511 Magnetic Energy......Page 225
511.1 Magnetic Energy in Terms of Field Quantities......Page 226
512.1 Forces and Torques on CurrentCarrying Conductors......Page 229
512.2 DirectCurrent Motors......Page 234
512.3 Forces and Torques in Terms of Stored Magnetic Energy......Page 235
Problems......Page 238
61 Overview......Page 243
62 Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction......Page 245
62.1 A Stationary Circuit in a TimeVarying Magnetic Field......Page 246
62.2 Transformers......Page 247
62.3 A Moving Conductor in a Magnetic Field......Page 250
62.4 A Moving Circuit in a TimeVarying Magnetic Field......Page 254
63 Maxwell's Equations......Page 258
63.1 Integral Form of Maxwell's Equations......Page 260
63.2 Electromagnetic Boundary Conditions......Page 263
64 Potential Functions......Page 266
64.1 Solution of Wave Equations......Page 268
65.1 The Use of Phasors—A Review......Page 270
65.2 TimeHarmonic Electromagnetics......Page 274
65.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum......Page 278
Summary......Page 282
Problems......Page 283
71 Overview......Page 287
72 Plane Waves in Lossless Media......Page 288
72.1 Doppler Effect......Page 294
72.2 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves......Page 296
72.3 Polarization of Plane Waves......Page 298
73 Plane Waves in Lossy Media......Page 302
73.1 LowLoss Dielectrics......Page 305
73.2 Good Conductors......Page 306
74 Group Velocity......Page 311
75 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the Poynting Vector......Page 313
75.1 Instantaneous and Average Power Densities......Page 316
76 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries......Page 319
76.1 Normal Incidence on a Good Conductor......Page 324
77 Oblique Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries......Page 328
77.1 Total Reflection......Page 330
77.2 The Ionosphere......Page 334
77.3 Perpendicular Polarization......Page 336
77.4 Parallel Polarization......Page 340
77.5 Brewster Angle of No Reflection......Page 342
Problems......Page 345
81 Overview......Page 351
82 General TransmissionLine Equations......Page 353
83 TransmissionLine Parameters......Page 356
83.1 Microstrip Lines......Page 361
84 Wave Characteristics on an Infinite Transmission Line......Page 362
84.1 Attenuation Constant from Power Relations......Page 366
85 Wave Characteristics on Finite Transmission Lines......Page 368
85.1 OpenCircuited and Shortcircuited Lines......Page 371
85.2 Characteristic Impedance and Propagation Constantfrom Input Measurement......Page 372
85.3 Reflection Coefficient and StandingWave Ratio......Page 375
86 The Smith Chart......Page 381
86.1 Admittances on Smith Chart......Page 389
87 TransmissionLine Impedance Matching......Page 392
Summary......Page 396
Problems......Page 397
91 Overview......Page 401
92 General Wave Behaviors along Uniform Guiding Structures......Page 402
92.1 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves......Page 405
92.2 Transverse Magnetic Waves......Page 406
92.3 Transverse Electric Waves......Page 409
93.1 TM Waves in Rectangular Waveguides......Page 415
93.2 TE Waves in Rectangular Waveguides......Page 419
93.3 Attenuation in Rectangular Waveguides......Page 424
94 Other Waveguide Types......Page 428
95 Cavity Resonators......Page 429
95.1 Rectangular Cavity Resonators......Page 430
95.2 Quality Factor of Cavity Resonators......Page 434
Summary......Page 437
Problems......Page 438
101 Overview......Page 441
102 The Elemental Electric Dipole......Page 443
103 Antenna Patterns and Directivity......Page 445
104 Thin Linear Antennas......Page 451
104.1 The HalfWave Dipole......Page 454
105.1 TwoElement Arrays......Page 457
105.2 General Uniform Linear Arrays......Page 461
106 Effective Area and Backscatter Cross Section......Page 466
106.1 Effective Area......Page 467
106.2 Backscatter Cross Section......Page 469
107 Friis Transmission Formula and Radar Equation......Page 470
Problems......Page 475
A1 Fundamental SI (Rationalized MKSA) Units......Page 480
A2 Derived Quantities......Page 481
A3 Multiples and Submultiples of Units......Page 483
B2 Physical Constants of Electron and Proton......Page 484
B4 Conductivities......Page 485
B5 Relative Permeabilities......Page 486
Bibliography......Page 488
Answers to OddNumbered Problems......Page 490
INDEX......Page 498
BACK ENDPAPERS......Page 511
Cheng
Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics Cheng
undamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics
Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics Pearson New International Edition David K. Cheng Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics David K. Cheng
ISBN 9781292026589
9 781292 026589
www.pearson.com/uk
9781292026589_CV_Final.indd 1
7/2/13 11:21 AM
Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics David K. Cheng
Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk © Pearson Education Limited 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any afﬁliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners.
ISBN 10: 1292026588 ISBN 13: 9781292026589
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Printed in the United States of America
Preface
This book is designed for use as an undergraduate text on engineering electromagnetics. Electromagnetics is one of the most fundamental subjects in an electrical engineering curriculum. Knowledge of the laws governing electric and magnetic fields is essential to the understanding of the principle of operation of electric and magnetic instruments and machines, and mastery of the basic theory of electromagnetic waves is indispensible to explaining actionatadistance electromagnetic phenomena and systems. Because most electromagnetic variables are functions of threedimensional space coordinates as well as of time, the subject matter is inherently more involved than electric circuit theory, and an adequate coverage normally requires a sequence of two semestercourses, or three courses in a quarter system. However, some electrical engineering curricula do not schedule that much time for electromagnetics. The purpose of this book is to meet the demand for a textbook that not only presents the fundamentals of electromagnetism in a concise and logical manner, but also includes important engineering application topics such as electric motors, transmission lines, waveguides, antennas, antenna arrays, and radar systems. I feel that one of the basic difficulties that students have in learning electromagnetics is their failure to grasp the concept of an electromagnetic model. The traditional inductive approach of starting with experimental laws and gradually synthesizing them into Maxwell's equations tends to be fragmented and incohesive; and the introduction of gradient, divergence, and curl operations appears to be ad hoc and arbitrary. On the other hand, the extreme of starting with the entire set 'of Maxwell's equations, which are of considerable complexity, as fundamental postulates is likely to cause consternation and resistance in students at the outset. The question of the necessity and sufficiency of these general equations is not addressed, and the concept of the electromagnetic model is left vague. This book builds the electromagnetic model using an axiomatic
iii
approach in stepstfirst for static electric fields, then for static magnetic fields, and finally for timevarying fields leading to Maxwell's equations. The mathematical basis for each step is Helmholtz's theorem, which states that a vector field is determined to within an additive constant if both its divergence and its curl are specified everywhere. A physical justification of this theorem may be based on the fact that the divergence of a vector field is a measure of the strength of its flow source and the curl of the field is a measure of the strength of its vortex source. When the strengths of both the flow source and the vortex source are specified, the vector field is determined, For the development of the electrostatic model in free space, it is only necessary to define a single vector (namely, the electric field intensity E) by specifying its divergence and its curl as postulates. All other relations in electrostaticsfor free space, including Coulomb's law and Gauss's law, can be derived from the two rather simple postulates. Relations in material media can be developed through the concept of equivalent charge distributions of polarized dielectrics. Similarly, for the magnetostatic model in free space it is necessary to define only a single magnetic flux density vector B by specifying its divergence and its curl as postulates; all other formulas can be derived from these two postulates. Relations in material media can be developed through the concept of equivalent current densities. Of course, the validity of the postulates lies in their ability to yield results that conform with experimental evidence. For timevarying fields, the electric and magnetic field intensities are coupled. The curl E postulate for the electrostatic model must be modified to conform with Faraday's law. In addition, the curl B postulate for the magnetostatic model must also be modified in order to be consistent with the equation of continuity. We have, then, the four Maxwell's equations that constitute the electromagnetic model. I believe that this gradual development of the electromagnetic model based on Helmholtz's theorem is novel, systematic, pedagogically sound, and more easily accepted by students. A short Chapter 1 of the book provides some motivation for the study of electromagnetism. It also introduces the source functions, the fundamental field quantities, and the three universal constants for free space in the electromagnetic model. Chapter 2 reviews the basics of vector algebra, vector calculus, and the relations of Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems. Chapter 3 develops the governing laws and methods of solution of electrostatic problems. Chapter 4 is on steady electric current fields and resistance calculations. Chapter 5 deals with static magnetic fields. Chapter 6, on timevarying electromagnetic fields, starts with Faraday's law of 'D. K. Cheng, "An alternative approach for developing introductory electromagnetics," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Newsletter, pp. 1113, Feb. 1983.
electromagnetic induction, and leads to Maxwell's equations and wave equations. The characteristics of plane electromagnetic waves are treated in Chapter 7. The theory and applications of transmission lines are studied in Chapter 8. Further engineering applications of electromagnetic fields and waves are discussed in Chapter 9 (waveguides and cavity resonators) and Chapter 10 (antennas, antenna arrays, and radar systems). Much of the material has been adapted and reduced from my larger book, Field and Wave Electromagneticst, but in this book I have incorporated a number of innovative pedagogical features. Each chapter of this book starts with an overview section that provides qualitative guidance to the topics to be discussed in the chapter. Throughout the bo.ok workedout examples follow important formulas and quantitative relations to illustrate methods for solving typical problems. Where appropriate, simple exercises with answers are included to test students' ability to handle related situations. At irregular intervals, a group of review questions are inserted after several related sections. These questions serve to provide an immediate feedback of the topics just discussed and to reinforce students' qualitative understanding of the material. Also, a number of pertinent remarks usually follow the review questions. These remarks contain some points of special importance that the students may have overlooked. When new definitions, concepts, or relations are introduced, short notes are added in the margins to emphasize their significance. At the end of each chapter there is a summary with bulleted items summarizing the main topics covered in the chapter. I hope that these pedagogical aids will prove to be useful in helping students learn electromagnetics and its applications. Many dedicated people, besides the author, are involved in the publication of a book such as this one. I wish to acknowledge the interest and support of Senior Editor Eileen Bernadette Moran and Executive Editor Don Fowley since the inception of this project. I also wish to express my appreciation to Production Supervisor Helen Wythe for her friendly assistance in keeping the production on schedule, as well as to Roberta Lewis, Amy Willcutt, Laura Michaels, and Alena Konecny for their contributions. Jim and Rosa Sullivan of TechGraphics were responsible for the illustrations. To them I offer my appreciation for their fine work. Above all, I wish to thank my wife, Enid, for her patience, understanding and encouragement through all phases of my challenging task of completing this book. D.K.C.
'D. K. Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics, 2nd ed., AddisonWesley, Reading, Mass., 1989.
An Introductory Note to the Student This book is your guide as you embark on the journey of learning engineering electromagnetics. Two questions may immediately come to mind: What is electromagnetics and why is it important? A short answer to the first question is that electromagnetics is the study of the effects of electric charges at rest or in motion. It is important because electromagnetic theory is essential in explaining electromagnetic phenomena and in understanding the principle of operation and the characteristics of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic engineering devices. Contemporary society relies heavily on electromagnetic devices and systems. Think, for example, of microwave ovens, cathoderay oscilloscopes, radio, television, radar, satellite communication, automatic instrumentlanding systems, and electromagnetic energy conversion (motors and generators). The basic principles of electromagnetism have been known for over one hundred Mty years. To study a mature scientific subject in an organized and logical way it is necessary to establish a valid theoretical model, which usually consists of a few basic quantities and some fundamental postulates (hypotheses, or axioms). Other relations and consequences are then developed from these postulates. For instance, the study of classical mechanics is based on a theoretical model that defines the quantities mass, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and energy. The fundamental postulates of the model are Newton's laws of motion, conservation of momentum, and conservation of energy. These postulates cannot be derived from other theorems; but all other relations and formulas in nonrelativistic mechanics (situations where the velocity of motion is negligible compared to the velocity of light) can be developed from these postulates. Similarly, in our study of electromagnetics we need first to establish an electromagnetic model. Chapter 1 of this book defines the basic quantities of our electromagnetic model. The fundamental postulates are introduced in gradual steps as they are needed when we deal with static electric fields, static
magnetic fields, and timevarying fields in separate chapters. Various theorems and other results are then derived from these postulates. Engineering applications of the principles and methods developed throughout the text are explored further in the last several chapters. In order to express our postulates and derive useful results in succinct forms, we must have the proper mathematical tools. In electromagnetics we most often encounter vectors, quantities that have both a magnitude and a direction. Hence, we must be proficient in vector algebra and vector calculus. These are covered in Chapter 2 on Vector Analysis. We must not only acquire a facility in manipulating vectors, but also understand the physical meaning of the various operations involving vectors. A deficiency in vector analysis in the study of electromagnetism is similar to a deficiency in algebra and calculus in the study of physics. Proficiency in the use of mathematical tools is essential for obtaining fruitful results. Most likely, you have already studied circuit theory. Circuit theory deals with lumpedparameter systems consisting of components characterized by lumped parameters as resistances, inductances, and capacitances. Voltages and currents are the main system variables. For dc circuits the system variables are constants, and the governing equations are algebraic equations. The system variables in ac circuits are timedependent; they are scalar quantities and are independent of space coordinates. The governing equations are ordinary differential equations. On the other hand, most electromagnetic variables are functions of time as well as of space coordinates. Many are vectors. Even in static cases the governing equations are, in general, partial differentialequations. But partial differential equations can be broken up into ordinary differential equations, which you have encountered in courses on physics and linear system analysis. In simple situations where m e t r i e s exist, partial differential equations reduce to ordinary differential equations. The separation of time and space dependence is achieved by the use of phasors. Because of the need for defining more quantities and using more mathematical manipulations in electromagnetics, you may initially get the impression that electromagnetic theory is abstract. In fact, electromagnetic theory is no more abstract than circuit theory in the sense that the validity of both can be verified by experimentally measured results. We simply have to do more work in order to develop a logical and complete theory that can explain a wider variety of phenomena. The challenge of electromagnetic theory is not in the abstractness of the subject mattsr but rather in the process of mastering the electromagneticmodel and the associated rules of operation. You will find that each chapter of this book starts with an OVERVIEW section that introduces the topics to be discussed in the chapter. As new definitions, concepts, or relations are introduced, short notes appear in the margins to draw your attention to them. At the end of some related sections, vii
at irregular intervals, are REVIEW QUESTIONS, which serve to provide an immediate feedback of the topics just discussed and to reinforce your qualitative understanding of the material. You should be able to answer these questions with confidence. If not, you should go back to these sections and clear up your doubts. A REMARKS box usually follows the review questions. It contains some points of special importance that you may have overlooked, but that you should understand and remember. At the conclusion of each chapter there is a SUMMARY section that itemizes the more important results obtained in the chapter. Its function is to emphasize the significance of these results without repeating the mathematical formulas. Throughout the book new terms and important statements are printed in boldface italic,and the more important formulas are boxed. Workedout examples are provided to illustrate methods for solving typical problems. Where appropriate, simple exercises with answers are included. You should do these exercises as they occur, so that you can see if you have mastered the basic quantitative skills just presented. The problems at the end of a chapter are used to extend what you have learned from the chapter and to test your ability in tackling new situations. Answers to oddnumbered problems, included at the end of the book, give you a selfcheck and reassurance on your progress. The learning of electromagnetics is an intellectual journey; this book is your guide, but you must bring along your dedication and perseverance. As we hope you will you explore the territory of engineering ele~troma~netics, have a stimulating and rewarding experience. The author.
Learning is not attained by chance; it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence.
Abigail Adams &letter to John Quincy Adams, 1780)
Contents CHAPTER 1
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MODEL
2
11 Overview 2 12 The Electromagnetic Model 4 13 SI Units and Universal Constants 8 Summary 10 CHAPTER 2
VECTORANALYSIS
12
21 Overview 12 22 Vector Addition and Subtraction 14 23 Vector Multiplication 16 23.1 Scalar or Dot Product 16 23.2 Vector or Cross Product 18 23.3 Products of Three Vectors 19
24 Orthogonal Coordinate Systems 21 24.1 Cartesian Coordinates 22 24.2 Cylindrical Coordinates 28 24.3 Spherical Coordinates 33
25 26 27 28 29 210
Gradient of a Scalar Field 39 Divergence of a Vector Field 43 Divergence Theorem 48 Curl of a Vector Field 52 Stokes's Theorem 59 Two Null Identities 62 210.1 Identity I 62 210.2 Identity I1 63
21 1 Field Classification and Helmholtz's Theorem 64 Summary 66 Problems 67
c
HA PT E R 3
STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS 72
31 Overview 72 32 Fundamental Postulates of Electrostatics in Free Space 74 33 Coulomb's Law 76 33.1 Electric Field due to a System of Discrete Charges 81 33.2 Electric Field due to a Continuous Distribution of Charge 81 34 Gauss's Law and Applications 85 35 Electric Potential 90 35.1 Electric Potential due to a Charge Distribution 92 36 Material Media in Static Electric Field 97 36.1 Conductors in Static Electric Field 98 36.2 Dielectrics in Static Electric Field 102 37 Electric Flux Density and Dielectric Constant 105 37.1 Dielectric Strength 108 38 Boundary Conditions for Electrostatic Fields 111 39 Capacitances and Capacitors 116 310 Electrostatic Energy and Forces 120 310.1 Electrostatic Energy in Terms of Field Quantities 123 310.2 Electrostatic Forces 126 31 1 Solution of Electrostatic BoundaryValue Problems 128 311.1 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 129 311.2 BoundaryValue Problems in Cartesian Coordinates 130 311.3 BoundaryValue Problems in Cylindrical Coordinates 132 311.4 BoundaryValue Problems in Spherical Coordinates 134 31 1.5 Method of Images 136 Summary 143 Problems 143
CHAPTER 4
STEADYELECTTUC CURRENTS 150 41 42 43 44 45 46
Overview 150 Current Density and Ohm's Law 151 Equation of Continuity and Kirchhoff's Current Law 157 Power Dissipation and Joule's Law 159 Governing Equations for Steady Current Density 160 Resistance Calculations 162 Summary 166 Problems 167 I
STATICMAGNETICFIELDS 170
CHAPTER 5
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 510 511
Overview 170 Fundamental Postulates of Magnetostatics in Free Space 172 Vector Magnetic Potential 178 The BiotSavart Law and Applications 180 The Magnetic Dipole 186 Magnetization and Equivalent Current Densities 190 Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability 194 Behavior of Magnetic Materials 196 Boundary Conditions for Magnetostatic Fields 199 Inductances and Inductors 201 Magnetic Energy 210 511.1 Magnetic Energy in Terms of Field Quantities 211
512 Magnetic Forces and Torques 214 512.1 Forces and Torques on CurrentCarrying Conductors 214 512.2 DirectCurrent Motors 219 512.3 Forces and Torques in Terms of Stored Magnetic Energy 220
Summary 223 Problems 223
C HA PT E R 6
.
TIMEVARYINGFIELDSAND MAXWELL'SEQUATIONS 228 61 Overview 228 62 Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction 230 A Stationary Circuit in a TimeVarying Magnetic Field 231 Transformers 232 A Moving Conductor in a Magnetic Field 235 A Moving Circuit in a TimeVarying Magnetic Field 239 63 Maxwell's Equations 243 63.1 Integral Form of Maxwell's Equations 245 63.2 Electromagnetic Boundary Conditions 248 64 Potential Functions 251 64.1 Solution of Wave Equations 253 65 TimeHarmonic Fields 255 65.1 The Use of PhasorsA Review 255 65.2 TimeHarmonic Electromagnetics 259 65.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 263 Summary 267 Problems 268 62.1 62.2 62.3 62.4
CHAPTER 7
PLANEELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 272 71 Overview 272 72 Plane Waves in Lossless Media 273
'
72.1 Doppler Effect 279 72.2 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves 281 72.3 Polarization of Plane Waves 283
73 Plane Waves in Lossy Media 287 73.1 LowLoss Dielectrics 290 73.2 Good Conductors 291
74 Group Velocity 296 75 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the Poynting Vector 298 75.1 Instantaneous and Average Power Densities 301
76 Normal Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries 304 76.1 Normal Incidence on a Good Conductor 309
77 Oblique Incidence of Plane Waves at Plane Boundaries 313 77.1 77.2 77.3 77.4 77.5
Total Reflection 315 The Ionosphere 319 Perpendicular Polarization 321 Parallel Polarization 325 Brewster Angle of No Reflection 327
Summary 330 Problems 330
CHAPTER 8
TRANSMISSION LINES 336 81 Overview 336 82 General TransmissionLine Equations 338 83 TransmissionLine Parameters 341 83.1 Microstrip Lines 346
84 Wave Characteristics on an Infinite Transmission Line 347 84.1 Attenuation Constant from Power Relations 351
85 Wave Characteristics on Finite Transmission Lines 353 85.1 OpenCircuited and Shortcircuited Lines 356 85.2 Characteristic Impedance and Propagation Constant from Input Measurements 357 85.3 Reflection Coefficient and StandingWave Ratio 366
86 The Smith Chart 366 86.1 Admittances on Smith Chart 374
87 TransmissionLine Impedance Matching 377 Summary 381 Problems 382
xiii
C HA PT E R 9
WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITYRESONATORS 386
91 Overview 386 92 General Wave Behaviors along Uniform Guiding Structures 387 92.1 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves 390 92.2 Transverse Magnetic Waves 391 92.3 Transverse Electric Waves 394 93 Rectangular Waveguides 400 93.1 TM Waves in Rectangular Waveguides 400 93.2 TE Waves in Rectangular Waveguides 404 93.3 Attenuation in Rectangular Waveguides 409 94 Other Waveguide Types 413 95 Cavity Resonators 414 95.1 Rectangular Cavity Resonators 415 95.2 Quality Factor of Cavity Resonators 419 Summary 422 Problems 423
C HA PT E R 10
ANTENNASAND ANTENNAARRAYS 426 101 102 103 104
Overview 426 The Elemental Electric Dipole 428 Antenna Patterns and Directivity 430 Thin Linear Antennas 436 104.1 The HalfWave Dipole 439
105 Antenna Arrays 442 105.1 TwoElement Arrays 442 105.2 General Uniform Linear Arrays 446
106 Effective Area and Backscatter Cross Section 451 106.1 Effective Area 452 106.2 Backscatter Cross Section 454
107 Friis Transmission Formula and Radar Equation 455 Summary 460 Problems 460
A P P E N D IX ES
A
SYMBOLS AND
UNITS
A1 Fundamental SI (Rationalized MKSA) Units 465 A2 Derived Quantities 446 A3 Multiples and Submultiples of Units 468
B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5
S O M E U S E F U L M A T E R I A CLO N S T A N T S

Constants of Free Space 469 Physical Constants of Electron and Proton 469 Relative Permittivities (Dielectric Constants) 470 Conductivities 470 Relative Permeabilities 471
INDEX
BACK ENDPAPERS
Left: Some Useful Vector Identities Gradient, Divergence, Curl, and Laplacian Operations in Cartesian Coordinates Right: Gradient, Divergence, Curl, and Laplacian Operations in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
C H A P T E R

1 1
Definition of
Two kinds of charges: positive and negative
Field: a spatial distribution of a quantity
Fields and waves help explain action at a distance.
1
0V E R V I E W
Electromagneticsis the study of the electric and magnetic phenomena caused by electric charges at rest or in motion. The existence of electric charges was discovered more than two and a half milleniums ago by a Greek astronomer and philosopher Thales of Miletus. He noted that an amber rod, after being rubbed with silk or wool, attracted straw and small bits of paper. He attributed this mysterious property to the amber rod. The Greek word for amber is elektron, from which was derived the words electron, electronics, electricity, and so on. From elementary physics we know that there are two kinds of charges: positive and negative. Both positive and negative charges are sources of an electric field. Moving charges produce a current, which gives rise to a magnetic field. Here we tentatively speak of electric field and magnetic field in a general way; more definitive meanings will be attached to these terms later. AJield is a spatial distribution of a quantity, which may or may not be a function of time. A timevarying electric field is accompanied by a magnetic field, and vice versa. In other words, timevarying electric and magnetic fields are coupled, resulting in an electromagnetic field. Under certain conditions, timedependent electromagnetic fields produce waves that radiate from the source. The concept of fields and waves is essential in the explanation of action at a distance. For instance, we learned from elementary mechanics that masses attract each other. This is why objects fall toward the Earth's surface. But since there are no elastic strings connecting a freefalling object and the Earth, how do we
The Electromagnetic Model explain this pheomenon? We explain this actionatadistance phenomenon by postulating the existence of a gravitational field. Similarly, the possibilities of satellite communication and of receiving signals from space probes millions of miles away can be explained only by postulating the existence of electric and magnetic fields and electromagnetic waves. In this book, Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics, we study the fundamental laws of electromagnetism and some of their engineering applications.
Circuit cannot explain mobile phone communication.
a
model
A simple situation will illustrate the need for electromagneticfieldconcepts. Figure 11 depicts a mobile telephone with an attached antenna. On transmit, a source at the base feeds the antenna with a messagecarrying current at an appropriate carrier frequency. From a circuittheory point of view, the source feeds into an open circuit because the upper tip of the antenna is not connected to anything physically; hence no current would flow, and nothing would happen. This viewpoint, of course, cannot explain why communication can be established between moving telephone units. Electromagnetic concepts must be used. We shall see in Chapter 10 that when the length of the antenna is an appreciable part of the carrier wavelength, a nonuniform current will flow along the openended antenna. This current radiates a timevarying electromagnetic field in space, which propagates as an electromagnetic wave and induces currents in other antennas at a distance. The message is then detected in the receiving unit. In this first chapter we begin the task of constructing an electromagnetic model, from which we shall develop the subject of engineering electromagnetics.
1
Antenna
FIGURE 11 A mobile telephone.
Inductive and deductive approaches
There are two approaches in the development of a scientific subject: the inductive approach and the deductive approach. Using the inductive approach, one follows the historical development of the subject, starting with the observations of some simple experiments and inferring from them laws and theorems. It is a process of reasoning from particular phenomena to general principles. The deductive approach, on the other hand, postulates a few fundamental relations for an idealized model. The postulated relations are axioms, from which particular laws and theorems can be derived. The validity of the model and the axioms is verified by their ability to predict consequences that check with experimental observations. In this book we prefer to use the deductive or axiomatic approach because it is more concise and enables the development of the subject of electromagnetics in an orderly way. Three essential steps are involved in building a theory based on an idealized model. STEP 1 Define
Steps for developing a theory from an idealized model
The circuit model
some basic quantities germane to the subject of study. Specify the rules of operation (the mathematics) of these quantities. STEP 3 Postulate some fundamental relations. (These postulates or laws are usually based on numerous experimental observations acquired under controlled conditions and synthesized by brilliant minds.) STEP 2
A familiar example is the circuit theory built on a circuit model of ideal sources and pure resistances, inductances, and capacitances. In this case the basicquantities are voltages (V), currents (I),resistances.(R), inductances (L), and capacitances (C); the rules of operations are those of algebra, ordinary differential equations, and Laplace transformation; and the fundamental postulates are Kirchhoff's voltage and current laws. Many relations and formulas can be derived from this basically rather simple model, and the
The three steps for developing an electromagnetic theory from an electromagnetic model
Basic quantities in the electromagnetic model: source quantities and field quantities
Electric charges
responses of very elaborate networks can be determined. The validity and value of the model have been amply demonstrated. In a like manner, an electromagnetic theory can be built on a suitably chosen electromagnetic model. In this section we shall take the first step of defining the basic quantities of electromagnetics. The second step, the rules of operation, encompasses vector algebra, vector calculus, and partial differential equations. The fundamentals of vector algebra and vector calculus will be discussed in Chapter 2 (Vector Analysis), and the techniques for solving partial differential equations will be introduced when these equations arise later in the book. The third step, the fundamental postulates, will be presented in three substeps as we deal with static electric fields, static magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields, respectively. The quantities in our electromagnetic model can be divided roughly into two categories: source quantities and field quantities. The source of an electromagnetic field is invariably electric charges at rest or in motion. However, an electromagnetic field may cause a redistribution of charges, which will, in turn, change the field; hence the separation between the cause and the effect is not always so distinct. We use the symbol q (sometimes Q) to denote electric charge. Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter and exists only in positive or negative integral multiples of the charge on an electron, e. e = 1.60 x 10l9
Unit of charge: coulomb (C)
(C),
where C is the abbreviation of the unit of charge, coulomb.' It is named after the French physicist Charles A. de Coulomb, who formulated Coulomb's law in 1785. (Coulomb's law will be discussed in Chapter 3.) A coulomb is a very large unit for electric charge; it takes 1M1.60 x 1019) or 6.25 million trillion electrons to make up  1(C).In fact, two 1(C)charges l(m) apart will exert a force of approximately 1 million tons on each other. Some other physical constants for the electron are listed in Appendix B2. The principle of conservation of electric charge, like the principle of conservation of energy, is a fundamental postulate or law of physics. It states that electric charge is conserved; that is, it can neither be created nor be destroyed. This is a law of nature and cannot be derived from other principles or relations. Electric charges can move from one place to another and can be redistributed under the influence of an electromagnetic field; but the algebraic sum of the positive and negative charges in a closed (isolated) system remains
'The system of units will be discussed in Section 13.
Conservation of electric charge is a fundamental postulate of physics.
unchanged. The principle of conservation of electric charge must be satisfied at all times and under any circumstances. Any formulation or solution of an electromagneticproblem that violates the principle of conservation of electric charge must be incorrect. Although, in a microscopic sense, electric charge either does or does not exist at a point in a discrete manner, these abrupt variations on an atomic scale are unimportant when we consider the electromagnetic effects of large aggregates of charges. In constructing a macroscopic or largescale theory of electromagnetism we find that the use of smoothedout average density functions yields very good results. (The same approach is used in mechanics where a smoothedout mass density function is defined, in spite of the fact that mass is associated only with elementary particles in a discrete manner on an atomic scale.) We define a volume charge density, p,, as a source quantity as follows:
. Aq p, = lim AV+O Av Volume, surface, and line charge densities average densities in the macroscopic sense
(12)
where Aq is the amount of charge in a very small volume Av. How small should Av be? It should be small enough to represent an accurate variation of p, but large enough to contain a very large number of discrete charges. For example, an elemental cube with sides as small as 1 micron m or 1pm) has a volume of 1018(m3),which will still contain about 10" (100 billion) atoms. A smoothedout function of space coordinates, p,, defined with such a small Av is expected to yield accurate macroscopic results for nearly all practical purposes. In some physical situations an amount of charge Aq may be identified with an element of surface As, or an element of line AG. In such cases it will be more appropriate to define a surface charge density, p,, or a line charge density, pc: Aq p, = lim AS+O As
Charge densities are point functions.
(C/m3),
(C/m2),
Aq pt = lim (C/m). ato A 8 Except for certain special situations, charge densities vary from point to point; hence p,, p,, and pc are, in general, pointfunctions of space coordinates. Current is the rate of change of charge with respect to time; thatis;..
where I itself may be timedependent. The unit of current is coulomb per second (CIS),which is the same as ampere (A). A current must flow through a
\
Current is not a point function. but current density is.
Four fundamental electromagnetic field quantities: E, B, D, H
finite area (a conducting wire of a finite cross section, for instance); hence it is not a point function. In electromagnetics we define a vector point function cuvrent density, J , which measures the amount of current flowing through a unit area normal to the direction of current flow. The boldfaced J is a vector whose magnitude is the current per unit area(~/m')and those direction is the direction of current flow. There are four fundamental vector field quantities in electromagnetics: electric field intensity E, electric flux density (or electric displacement) D, magnetic flux density B, and magnetic field intensity H. The definition and physical significance of these quantities will be explained fully when they are introduced later in the book. At this time we want only to establish the following. Electric field intensity E is the only vector needed in discussing electrostatics (effects of stationary electric charges) in free space; it is defined as the electric force on a unit test charge. Electric displacement vector D is useful in the study of electric field in material media, as we shall see in Chapter 3. Similarly, magnetic flux density B is the only vector needed in discussing magnetostatics (effects of steady electric currents) in free space and is related to the magnetic force acting on a charge moving with a given velocity. The magnetic field intensity vector H is useful in the study of magnetic field in material media. The definition and significance of B and H will be discussed in Chapter 5. The four fundamental electromagnetic field quantities, together with their units, are tabulated in Table 11. In Table 11, V/m is volt per meter, and T stands for tesla or voltsecond per square meter. When there is no time variation (as in static, steady, or stationary cases), the electric field quantities E and D and the magnetic field quantities B and H form two separate vector pairs. In timedependent cases, however, electric and magnetic field quantities
TABLE
11
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDQUANTITIES
Symbols and Units for Field Quantities
Field Quantity
I
Symbol
Unit
Electric field intensity
E
v/m
Electric flux density (Electric displacement)
D
C/m2
Magnetic flux density
B
T
Magnetic field intensity
H
A/m
Magnetic
are coupled; that is, timevarying E and D will give rise to B and H, and vice versa. All four quantities are point functions. Material (or medium) properties determine the relations between E and D and between B and H. These relations are called the constitutive relations of a medium and will be examined later. The principal objective of studying electromagnetism is to understand the interaction between charges and currents at a distance based on the electromagnetic model. Fields and waves (time and spacedependent fields) are basic conceptual quantities of this model. Fundamental postulates, to be enunciated in later chapters, will relate E, D, B, H and the source quantities; and derived relations will lead to the explanation and prediction of electromagnetic phenomena.
The SI, or MKSA. units
A measurement of any physical quantity must be expressed as a number followed by a unit. Thus we may talk about a length of three meters, a mass of two kilograms, and a time period of ten seconds. To be useful, a unit system should be based on some fundamental units of convenient (practical)sizes. In mechanics, all quantities can be expressed in terms of three basic units (for length, mass, and time). In electromagnetics a fourth basic unit (for current) is of is an MKSA system built from needed. The SZ (International ~ ~ s t e m ' Units) the four fundamental units listed in Table 12. All other units used in electromagnetics, including those appearing in Table 11, are derived units expressible in terms of meters, kilograms, seconds, and amperes. For example, the unit for charge, coulomb (C), is amperesecond (A  s); the unit for electric field intensity (V/m) is kg.m/A s3; and the unit for magnetic flux density, tesla (T),is kg/A. s2. More complete tables of the units for various quantities are given in Appendix A. In our electromagnetic model there are three universal constants, in addition to the field quantities listed in Table 11. They relate to the
Quantity
Unit
Length Mass Time Current
meter kilogram second ampere

Abbreviation
m kg s
A
13
Three universal constants in electromagnetic model
SI UNITSA N D UNIVERSAL CONSTANTS
9
properties of the free space (vacuum). They are as follows: velocity of electromugnetic wave (including light) in free space, c; permittivity of free space, E,; and permeability of free space, p,. Many experiments have been performed for precise measurement of the velocity of light, to many decimal places. For our purpose it is sufficient to remember that (16)
(in free space)
The other two constants, E, and p,, pertain to electric and magnetic phenomena, respectively: E, is the proportionality constant between the electric flux density D and the electric field intensity E in free space, such that (17)
(in free space)
po is the proportionality constant between the magnetic flux density B and the magnetic field intensity H in free space, such that
(18)
(in free space)
The values of E, and po are determined by the choice of the unit system, and they are not independent. In the SI system, which is almost universally adopted for electromagneticswork, the permeability of free space is chosen to be (in free space)
(19)
where H/m stands for henry per meter. With the values of c and p, fixed in Eqs. (16) and (19) the value of the permittivity of free space is then derived from the following relationships:
(in free space)
(110)
(in free space)
(111)
Universal Constants Velocity of light in free space Permeability of free space
I
Symbol c
Value
Unit
3 x lo8
m/s H/m
4n x
Permittivity of free space
where F/m is the abbreviation for farad per meter. The three universal constants and their values are summarized in Table 13. Now that we have defined the basic quantities and the universal constants of the electromagnetic model, we can develop the various subjects in electromagnetics. But, before we do that, we must be equipped with the appropriate mathematical tools. In the following chapter we discuss the basic rules of operation for vector algebra and vector calculus.
SUMMARY This chapter laid the foundation for our study of engineering electromagnetism. We adopt a deductive or axiomatic approach and construct an electromagnetic model. Basic source quantities (charge, charge densities, current density) and field quantities (E, D, B, H) are defined, the unit system (SI) is specified, and the three universal constants for free space (po, c, cO)are given. With this framework we can develop the various topics by introducing the fundamental postulates in subsequent chapters. We shall do this gradually, in steps. But first we need to be familiar with the mathematics that will be used to relate the different quantities. A secure knowledge of vector analysis is essential. Chapter 2 presents the required material on vector algebra and vector calculus. REVIEW Q U E S T I O N S Q.l1 What is electromagnetics? Q.l2 Describe two phenomena or situations, other than the mobile telephone depicted in Fig. 11, that cannot be adequately explained by circuit theory. Q.13 What are the three essential steps in building an idealized model for the study of a scientific subject? Q.l4 What are the source quantities in the electromagnetic model?
Q.15 What is meant by a pointfunction? Is charge density a point function? Is current a point function? Q.l6 What are the four fundamental SI units in electromagnetics? Q.l7 What are the four fundamental field quantities in the electromagnetic model? What are their units? Q.l8 What are the three universal constants in the electromagnetic model, and what are their relations?

Scalar
Vector
Coordinatesystem independence
2 1 0 V E R V I E W In our electromagnetic model some of the quantities (such as charge, current, and energy) are scalars; and some others (such as electric and magnetic field intensities) are vectors. Both scalars and vectors can be functions of time and position. At a given time and position, a scalar is completely specified by its magnitude (positive or negative, together with its unit). Thus we can specify, for instance, a charge of I(&) at a certain location at t = 0. The specification of a vector at a given location and time, on the other hand, requires both a magnitude and a direction. How do we specify the direction of a vector? In a threedimensional space, three numbers are needed, and these numbers depend on the choice of a coordinate system. It is important to note that physical laws and theorems relating various scalar and vector quantities must hold irrespective of a coordinate system. The general expressions of the laws of electromagnetism do not require the specffication of a coordinate system. A particular coordinate system is chosen only when a problem of a given geometry is to be analyzed. For example, if we are to determine the magnetic field at the center of a currentcarrying wire loop, it is more convenient to use rectangular coordinates if the loop is rectangular, whereas polar coordinates will be more appropriate if the loop is circular in shape. The basic electromagnetic relation governing the solution of such a problem is the same for both geometries.
Vector Analysis Because many electromagnetic quantities are vectors, we must be able to handle (add, subtract, and multiply) them with ease. In order to express specific results in a threedimensional space, we must choose a suitable coordinate system. In this chapter we will discuss the three most common orthogonal coordinate systems: Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. We will see how to resolve a given vector into components in these coordinates and how to transform from one coordinate system to another. The use of certain differential operators enables us to express the fundamental postulates and other formulas in electromagnetics in a succinct and general manner. We will discuss the significance of gradient, divergence, and curl operations and prove divergence and Stokes's theorems. This chapter on vector analysis deals with three main topics: 1. 2.
3.
Vector algebraaddition, subtraction, and multiplication of vectors. Orthogonal coordinate systemsCartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. Vector calculusdifferentiation and integration of vectors; gradient, divergence, and curl operations.
We also prove two important null identities involving repeated applications of differential operators.
22 VECTORADDITIONAND SUBTRACTION
0
We know that a vector has a magnitude and a direction. A vector Ascan be written as
where A is the magnitude (and has the unit and dimension) of A:
which is a scalar. a, is a dimensionless unit vector having a unity magnitude; it specifies the direction of A. We can find a, from the vector A by dividing it by its magnitude.
A
A
IAl
A'
a,==
Finding the unit vector from a vector
The vector A can be represented graphically by a directed straightline segment of a length IAl = A with its arrowhead pointing in the direction of a,, as shown in Fig. 21. Two vectors are equal if they have the same magnitude and the same direction, even though they may be displaced in space. Since it is difficult to write boldfaced letters by hand, it is a common practice, in writing, to use an arrow or a bar over a letter or A) or a wiggly line under a letter (A) to distinguish a vector from a scalar, This distinguishing mark, once chosen, should never be omitted whenever and wherever vectors are written. Two vectors A and B, which are not in the same direction nor in opposite directions, such as given in Fig. 22(a), determine a plane. Their sum is another vector C in the same plane. C = A + B can be obtained graphically in two ways:
(A
Distinguishing marks for vectors
1.
By the parallelogram rule: The resultant C is the diagonal vector of the
FIGURE 21 Graphical representation of vector A.
22
(a) W o vectors, A and B.
15
VECTORADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
(b) Parallelogram rule.
(c) Headtotail rule, A B. FIGURE 22 Vector addition, C = A + B = B + A.
+
(d) Headtotail rule, B + A.
parallelogram formed by A and B drawn from the same point, as shown in Fig. 22(b). By the headtotail rule: The head of A connects to the tail of B. Their 2. sum C is the vector drawn from the tail of A to the head of B; and vectors A, B, and C form a triangle, as shown in Fig.22(c). C = A + B = B + A, as illustrated graphically in Fig. 22(d). Vector subtraction can be defined in terms of vector addition in the following way:
where  B is the negative of vector B. This is illustrated in Fig. 23. NOTE:It is meaningless to add or subtract a scalar from a vector, or to add or subtract a vector from a scalar. EXERCISE 21
Three vectors A, B, and C, drawn in a headtotail fashion, form three sides of a triangle. What is A + B + C? What is A + B  C?
FIGURE 23 Vector subtraction, D = A
 B = A + (B).
(b) Parallelogram rule.
(a) W o vectors, A and B.
(c) Headtotail rule.
23
VECTOR
MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of a vector A by a positive scalar k changes the magnitude of A by k times without changing its direction (k can be either greater or less than 1).
It is not sufficient to say "the multiplication of one vector by another" or "the product of two vectors" because there are two distinct and very different types of products of two vectors. They are (1) the scalar or dot product, and (2) the vector or cross product. These will be defined in the following subsections. 23.1
SCALAR OR DOT PRODUCT
The scalar or dot product of two vectors A and B is denoted by A  B ("A dot B"). The result of the dot product of two vectors is a scalar. It is equal to the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the cosine of the angle between them. Thus, Definition of scalar or dot product of two vectors
n A. B
AB cos OAB.
(26)
In Eq. (26)the symbol 2 signifies "equal by definition," and OAB is the smaller angle between A and B and is less than n radians (180°),as indicated in Fig. 24. From the definition in Eq. (26)we see that the dot product of two vectors (1)is less than or equal to the product of their magnitudes; (2)can be either a positive or a negative quantity, depending on whether the angle between them is smaller or larger than x/2 radians (90");(3)is equal to the product of the magnitude of one vector and the projection of the other vector FIGURE 24 'Illustrating the dot product of A and B.
upon the first one; and (4) is zero when the vectors are perpendicular to each other. From Eq. (26) we can see that Dot product is commutative.
Finding the magnitude of a vector
A . B = B.A.
(27)
Thus the order of the vectors in a dot product is not important. (The dot product is commutative.) Also,
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A=IAI= Equation (29) enables us to find the magnitude of a vector when the expression of the vector is given in any coordinate system. We simply form the dot product of the vector with itself, (A .A), and take the positive square root of the scalar result.
EXAMPLE21 Use vectors to prove the law of cosines for a triangle.
The law of cosines is a scalar relationship that expresses the length of a side of a triangle in terms of the lengths of the two other sides and the angle between them. For Fig. 25 the law of cosines states that
We prove this by considering the sides as vectors; that is,
FIGURE 25 Illustrating Example 21.
In order to find the magnitude of C we take the dot product of C with itself, as in Eq. (28).
Since OAB is, by definition, the smaller angle between A and B and is equal to (180"  a) we know that cos OAB = cos(180°  a) = cosa. Therefore,
The square root of both sides of Eq. (211) gives the law of cosines in Eq. (210). Note that no coordinate system needs to be specified in this problem.
23.2 VECTOR OR CROSS PRODUCT
A second kind of vector multiplication is the vector or cross product. Given two vectors A and B, the cross product, denoted by A x B ("A cross B"), is another vector defined by (212)
Definition of vector or cross product of two vectors
where OAB is the smaller angle between the vectors A and B (b For this case we construct a spherical Gaussian surface So with R > b outside the electron cloud. We obtain the same expression for Jso Eds as in case (a). The total charge enclosed is
Consequently,
Notice that this relationship follows the inverse square law and could have been obtained directly from Eq. (38). We see that outside the charged cloud, the E field is exactly the same as if the total charge has been concentrated on a single point charge at the center. This result holds, in general, for any spherically symmetrical charged region even when p, is a function of R. EXERCISE 3.4
Given E = a,(20/r2) (mV/m) in free space, find p, at the point (3, 4,l) (crn).
EXERCISE 35
A positive charge Qis uniformly distributed on a very thin spherical shell of radius b in air. Find E everywhere. Plot IEl versus R. ANS. 0 for 0 < R c b; a,(Q/4ze,R2) for R > b.
Earlier, in connection with the null identity in Eq. (2105), we noted that a curlfree vector field could always be expressed as the gradient of a scalar field. We can then define a scalar electric potential V from Eq. (34) such that Electrostatic field intensity from electric potential
(326) because scalar quantities are easier to handle than vector quantities. If we can determine V more easily, then E can be found by a gradient operation, which is a straightforward differentiation process. The reason for the inclusion of a negative sign in Eq. (326) will be explained presently.
Electric potential does have physical significance, and it is related to the work done in carrying a charge from one point to another. In Section 32 we defined the electric field intensity as the force acting on a unit test charge. Therefore in moving a unit charge from point P I to point P , in an electric field, work must be done against thejeld and is equal to
Many paths may be followed in going from P I to P,. Two such paths are drawn in Fig. 38. Since the path between P , and P , is not specified in Eq. (327), the question naturally arises: How does the work depend on the path taken? A little thought will lead us to conclude that W/qin Eq.(327) should not depend on the path; if it did, one would be able to go from P I to P , along a path for which W is smaller and then to come back to P , along another path, achieving a net gain in work or energy. This result would be contrary to the principle of conservation of energy. We have already alluded to the pathindependent nature of the scalar line integral of the irrotational (conservative) E field when we discussed Eq. (37). Analogous to the concept of potential energy in mechanics, Eq. (327) represents the difference in electric potential energy of a unit charge between point P , and point P I . If we denote the electric potential energy per unit charge by V (the electric potential) we have Electrostatic potential difference between P, and P, equals the work done in moving a unit charge from P, to P,
What we have defined in Eq. (328) is a potential djljrerence (electrostatic voltage) between points P , and P I . We cannot talk about the absolute potential of a point any more than we can talk about the absolute phase of a
FIGURE 38 Two paths leading from PI to P , in an electric field.
FIGURE 39 Relative directions of E and increasing K
Choosing a reference zeropotential point
Electric field lines are perpendicular to esuipotential and surfaces.
EXERCISE 3.6
36.1
phasor or the absolute altitude of a geographical location. A reference zeropotential point, a reference zero phase (usually at t = 0), or a reference zero altitude (usually at sea level) must first be specified. In most (but not all) cases the zeropotential point is taken at infinity. When the reference zeropotential point is not at infinity (for example, when it is at "the ground"), it should be specifically stated. We make two more important observationshere about Eq. (328). First, the negative sign must be included in order to conform with the convention that in going against the E field the electric potential V increases. For instance, when a d c battery of a voltage Vois connected between two parallel conductingplates, as in Fig. 39, positive and negative charges accumulate on the top and bottom plates, respectively. The E field is directed from positive to negative charges, while the potential increases in the opposite direction. Second, we know from Section 25, when we defined the gradient of a scalar field, that the direction of VV is normal to the surfaces of constant V: Hence if we use directedfield lines orflux lines to indicate the direction of the E field, they are everywhere perpendicular to equipotential lines and equipotential surfaces. Determine the work done by the electric field E = a,xay2y (V/m) in moving a unit positive charge from position PI( 2,0,0) to position P2(5, 1,3). The distances are in (m).
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DUE TO A CHARGE DISTRIBUTION
The electric potential of a point at a distance R from a point charge q referred to that at infinity can be obtained readily from Eq. (328):
which gives Electrostatic potential of a point charge referred to infinity
This is a scalar quantity and depends on, besides q, only the distance R. The potential difference between any two points P2 and P I at distances R, and R1, respectively, from q is
v' I 
 v 2  v
p14:E0(;2 
;I)
The electric potential at R due to a system of n discrete charges q,, q,,. ..,q, located at R;, R;, ...,En is, by superposition, the sum of the potentials due to the individual charges:
Since this is a scalar sum, it is, in general, easier to determine E by taking the negative gradient of V than from the vector sum in Eq. (314) directly.
EXAMPLE37 An electric dipole consisting of equal and opposite point charges +q and q separated by a small distanced is shown in Fig. 310. Determine the potential V and the electric intensity E at an arbitrary point P a t a distance R >> d from the dipole.
mGURE 310
An electric dipole.
+
Let the distances from the charges q and q to the field point P be R+ and R  respectively. The potential at P can be written directly from Eq. (331).
If d 0 region subject to the boundary condition that V = 0 at y = 0 and at infinity. The direct
'See, for instance, D. K. Cheng, Field and Wave Electronuygnetics, Second Edition, pp. 158159, AddisonWesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass., 1989.
construction of such a solution is difficult. On the other hand, if we removed the conducting plane and replaced it by an image point charge Q at y = d, as shown in Fig. 327(b), neither the situation in the y > 0 region nor the boundary conditions would be changed. The potential at a point P(x, y,z) due to the two charges can be written down by inspection.
Image of a point charge near a large conducting plane
and Since the given boundary conditions are satisfied, Eqs. (3153a) and (3153b) represent the correct solution by virtue of the uniqueness theorem.
b)
In order to find the induced charge distribution on the conducting surface, we first determine the electric field intensity. From Eq. (3153a) we have
y 2 0.
(3154)
FIGURE 327 Point charge and grounded plane conductor (Example 324).
(a) Physical arrangement.
(Image charge) (b) Image charge and field lines.
The induced surface charge density is, from Eqs. (346) and (3154),
It must be emphasized that the method of images can be used to determine the fields only in the region where the image charges are not located. Thus, in Example 324, the point charges + Q and  Q cannot be used to calculate V or E in the y < 0 region. As a matter of fact, both V and E vanish in the y < 0 region.
EXERCISE 3.21
Find the total amount of charge induced on the surface of the infinite conducting plane in Example 324.
B.
Line Charge Near a Parallel Conducting Cylinder We now consider the problem of a line charge pc(C/m) located at a distance d from the axis of a parallel, conducting, circular cylinder of radius a. Both the line charge and the conducting cylinder are assumed to be infinitely long. Figure 328(a) shows a cross section of this arrangement. Before we approach this problem by the method of images, we note the following: (1) The image must be a parallel line charge inside the cylinder in order to make the cylindrical surface at r = a an equipotential surface. Let us call this image line charge pi. (2) Because of symmetry with respect to the line OP, the image line charge must lie somewhere along OP, say at point Pi, which is at a distance di from the axis (Fig. 328b). We need to determine the two unknowns, pi and di. As a first step, let us assume that
Image line charge
At this stage, Eq. (3156) is just a trial solution (an intelligent guess), and we are not sure that it will hold true. We proceed with this trial solution until we find that it fails to satisfy the boundary conditions. However, if Eq. (3156) does lead to a solution that satisfies all boundary conditions, then by the uniqueness theorem it is the only solution. Our next job will be to see whether we can determine di. The electric potential at a distance r from a line charge of density pd can be obtained by integrating the electric field intensity E given in Eq. (323):
(a) Line charge and parallel conducting cylinder.
(b) Line charge and its image.
FIGURE 328 Cross section of line charge and its image in a parallel, conducting, circular cylinder.
Note that the reference point for zero potential, r,, cannot be at infinity because setting ro = c~ in Eq. (3157) would make Vinfinite everywhere else. Let us leave r0 unspecified for the time being. The potential at a point on or outside the cylindrical surface is obtained by adding the contributions of pc and pi. In particular, at a point M on the cylindrical surface shown in Fig. 328(b) we have
In Eq. (3158) we have chosen, for simplicity, a point equidistant from pc and pi as the reference point for zero potential so that the In r, terms cancel. Otherwise, a constant term should be included in the right side of Eq. (3158), but it would not affect what follows. Equipotential surfaces are specified by ri = Constant. r
(3159)
If an equipotential surface is to coincide with the cylindrical surface (OM = a), the point Pi must be located in such a way as to make triangles OMP, and OPM similar. These two triangles already have one common angle, LMOP,. Point Pi should be chosen to make L OMP, = L OPM. We have
ri r
di a
a  Constant. d
==
From Eq. (3160) we see that if
the image line charge pd, together with p,, will make the dashed cylindrical surface in Fig. 328(b) equipotential. As the point M changes its location on the dashed circle, both ri and r will change; but their ratio remains a constant that equals a/d. Point Pi is called the inverse point of P with respect to a circle of radius a. The image line charge pi = pt can then replace the cylindrical conducting surface, and V and E at any point outside the sutface can be determined from the line charges p, and p,. By symmetry we find that the parallel cylindrical surface surrounding the original line charge p, with radius a and its axis at a distance di to the right of P is also an equipotential surface. This observation enables us to calculate the capacitance per unit length of an openwire transmission line consisting of two parallel conductors of circular cross section.
Determine the capacitance per unit length between two long, parallel, circular conducting wires of radius a. The axes of the wires are separated by a distance D. SOLUTION
Refer to the cross section of the twowire transmission line shown in Fig. 329. The equipotential surfaces of the two wires can be considered to have been generated by a pair of line charges +p, and p, separated by a distance (D  2dJ = d  d,. The potential difference between the two wires is that between any two points on the respective wires. Let subscripts 1 and 2 denote the wires surrounding the equivalent line charges +pd and pd, respectively. We have, from Eqs. (3158) and (31601,
and, similarly,
FIGURE 329 Cross section of twowire transmission line and equivalent line
charges (Example 325).
We note that V, is a positive quantity, whereas V2 is negative because a < d. The capacitance per unit length is
where
from which we obtain?
d = $(D + JiF=ZF). Using Eq. (3163) in Eq. (3162), we have Capacitance per unit length of parallel wires
Since In [x
+J x T ]
= cosh'x for x
> 1,
Eq. (3164) can be written alternatively as
cosh  '(D/2a)
'The. other solution, d = JXL)  JDZ larger than a
 4a2), is discarded because both D and d are usually much
When the diameter of the wires is very small in comparison with the distance of separation, (D/2a)>> 1, Eq. (3164) simplifies t o
EXERCISE 3.22
A long power transmission line, 2(cm) in radius, is parallel to and situated 10(m) above the ground. Assuming the ground to be an infinite flat conducting plane, find the capacitance per meter of the line with respect to the ground.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4327 Write Poisson's and Laplace's equations in vector notation for a simple medium. 4328 Write Poisson's and Laplace's equations in Cartesian coordinates for a simple medium. 4329 If V2U = 0, why does it not follow that U is identically zero? 4330 A iixed voltage is connected across a parallelplate capacitor. a) Does the electric field intensity in the space between the plates depend on the permittivity of the medium? b) Does the electric flux density depend on the permittivity of the medium? Explain. 4.331 Assume that fixed charges + Q and Q are deposited on the plates of an isolated parallelplate capacitor. a) Does the electric field intensity in the space between the plates depend on the permittivity of the medium? b) Does the electric flux density depend on the permittivity of the medium? Explain. 4.332 State in words the uniqueness theorem of electrostatics. 4.333 What is the image of a spherical cloud of electrons with respect to an infinite conducting plane? 4.334 What is the image of an infinitely long line charge of density pc with'respect to a parallel conducting circular cylinder? 4335 Where is the zeropotential surface of the twowire transmission line in Fig. 329?
SUMMARY This chapter deals with the static electric fields of charges that are at rest and do not change with time. After having defined the electric field intensity E as the force per unit charge, we '0 presented the two fundamental postulates of electrostatics in free space that specify the divergence and the curl of E, derived Coulomb's law and Gauss's law, which enabled us to determine the electric field due to discrete and continuous charge distributions, introduced the concept of the scalar electric potential, considered the effect of material media on static electric field, discussed the macroscopic effect of induced dipoles by finding the equivalent polarization charge densities, defined electric flux density or electric displacement, D, and the dielectric constant, discussed the boundary conditions for static electric fields, defined capacitance and explained the procedure for its determination, found the formulas,for stored electrostatic energy, used the principle of virtual displacement to calculate the force on an object in a charged system, introduced Poisson's and Laplace's equations and illustrated the method of solution for simple problems, and explained the method of images for solving electrostatic boundaryvalue problems.
PROBLEMS P.31 The cathoderay oscilloscope (CRO) shown in Fig. 32 is used to measure the voltage applied to the parallel deflection plates. a) Assuming no breakdown in insulation, what is the maximum voltage that can be measured if the distance of separation between the plates is h? b) What is the restriction on L if the diameter of the screen is D? c) What can be done with a fixed geometry to double the CRO's maximum measurable voltage? P.32 Three 2(PC) point charges are located in air at the comers of an
equilateral triangle that is 10 (crn) on each side. Find the magnitude and direction of the force experienced by each charge. P.33 Two point charges, Q, and Q,, are located at (0,5,  1) and (0,  2,6),
respectively. Find the relation between Q, and Q2 such that the total force on a test charge at the point P(O, 2,3) will have a) no ycomponent, and b) no zcomponent. P34 Three point charges Q, = 9 (pC), Q2 = 4 (pC), and Q, = 36 (pC) are arranged on a straight line. The distance between Q, and Q, is 9 (cm). It is claimed that a location can be selected for Q2 such that each charge will experience a zero force. Find this location. P35 In Example 38 determine the position of the point P on the zaxis beyond which the disk may be regarded as a point charge if the error in the calculation of E is not more than 1%. P.36 A line charge of uniform charge density p8 forms a circle of radius b that lies in the xyplane in air with its center at the origin. a) Find the electric field intensity E at the point (0, 0, h). b) At what value of h will E in part (a) be a maximum? What is this maximum? c) Explain why E has a maximum at that location. P.37A line charge of uniform density pc forms a semicircle of radius b in the upper half xyplane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric field intensity at the center of the semicircle. P.38 A spherical distribution of charge p = p,[1  (R2/b2)] exists in the region 0 < R d b. This charge distribution is concentrically surrounded by a conducting shell with inner radius Ri(>b) and outer radius R,. Determine E everywhere. P.39Two infinitely long coaxial cylindrical surfaces, r = a and r = b (b > a), carry surface charge densities p,, and p,, respectively. a) Determine E everywhere. b) What must be the relation between a and b in order that E vanishes for r > b?
+
PA10 Determine the work done in carrying a 5(pC) charge from P1(l, 2, 4) to P2(2, 8, 4) in the field E = axy a,x a) along the parabola y = 2x2, and b) along the straight line joining P , and P,.
+
P.311Repeat problem P.310 if the field is E = axy  a+. P.312A finite line charge of length L carrying uniform line charge density pc is coincident with the xaxis. a) Determine V in the plane bisecting the line charge. b) Determine E from pd directly by applying Coulomb's law. c) Check the answer in part (b) with VK
P313 The polarization in a dielectric cube of side L centered at the origin is given by P = PO(aXx+ ayy + a,z). a) Determine the surface and volume boundcharge densities. b) Show that the total bound charge is zero. P.314The polarization vector in a dielectric sphere of radius b is P = axPo. a) Determine the surface and volume charge densities. b) Show that the total bound charge is zero. PA15 The axis of a long dielectric tube of inner radius ri and outer radius r, coincides with the zaxis. A polarization vector P = Po(ax3x a,4y) exists in the dielectric. a) Determine the surface and volume charge densities. b) Show that the total bound charge is zero.
+
PA16 A positive point charge Q is at the center of a spherical dielectric shell of an inner radius Ri and an outer radius R,. The dielectric constant of the shell is e,. Determine E, D, and P as functions of the radial distance R. P.317Solve the following problems: a) Find the breakdown voltage of a parallelplate capacitor, assuming that the conducting plates are 50 (mm) apart and the medium between them is air. b) Find the breakdown voltage if the entire space between the conducting plates is filled with plexiglass, which has a dielectric constant 3 and a dielectric strength 20 (kV/mm). c) If a 10(mm) thick plexiglass is inserted between the plates, what is the maximum voltage that can be applied to the plates without a breakdown? P.318Assume that the z = 0 plane separates two lossless dielectric regions = 2 and E,, = 3. If we know that El in region 1 is a,2y with  a, 3x + a,(5 + z), what do we also know about E, and D, in region 2? Can we determine E, and D, at any point in region 2? Explain. P.319Dielectric lenses can be used to' collimate electromagnetic fields. In Fig. 330 the left surface of the lens is that of a circular cylinder, and the right surface is a plane. If El at point P(r,, 45", z) in region 1 is a,5  a93, what must be the dielectric constant of the lens in order that E, in region 3 is parallel to the xaxis? P320 The space between a parallelplate capacitor of area S is filled with a dielectric whose permittivity varies linearly from e, at one plate (y = 0) to e, at the other plate (y = d). Neglecting fringing effect, find the capacitance. PA21 Assume that the outer conductor of the cylindrical capacitor in Example 316 is grounded and that the inner conductor is maintained at a potential Vo.
FIGURE 330 A dielectric lens (Problem P.319).
a) Find the electric field intensity, E(a), at the surface of the inner conductor. b) With the inner radius, b, of the outer conductor fixed, find a so that E(a) is minimized. c) Find this minimum E(a). d) Determine the capacitance under the conditions of part (b). P.322The radius of the core and the inner radius of the outer conductor of a very long coaxial transmission line are ri and r,, respectively. The space between the conductors is filled with two coaxial layers of dielectrics. The dielectric constants of the dielectrics are c,, for r, < r < b and E , ~ for b c r < r,. Determine its capacitance per unit length. P.323A spherical capacitor consists of an inner conducting sphere of radius R, and an outer conductor with a spherical inner wall of radius R,. The space in between is filled with a dielectric of permittivity c. Determine the capacitance. P.324Three capacitors 1 (pF), 2 (pF),and 3 (pF) are connected as shown in Fig. 331 across a 120volt source. Calculate the electric energy stored in each capacitor. P.325Calculate the energy expended in moving a point charge 500 (PC) from P1(2, n/3,  1) to P,(4,  n/2,  1) in an electric field E = ar6r sin 4 + a43rcos 4 (vm)by a) first moving from 4 = n/3 to n/2 at r = 2, then from r = 2 to 4 at 4 =  z/2, and
b) first moving from r = 2 to 4 at 4 = n/3, then from 4 = n/3 to n/2 at r = 4. P.326For a coaxial capacitor of length L, use the method of virtual displacement to find the force between the inner conductor (radius a) and the
120 (V) FIGURE 331
Capacitors across a battery (Problem P.324).
outer one (radius b) that carry charges + Q and  Q, respectively. The permittivity of the insulating material is E. HINT:First assume the inner and outer radii to be a and a + r, respectively; then differentiate with respect to r.
PA27 A parallelplate capacitor of width w, length L, and separation d has a solid dielectric slab of permittivity E in the space between the plates. The capacitor is charged to a voltage Vo by a battery, as indicated in Fig. 332. Assuming that the dielectric slab is withdrawn to the position shown and the switch is opened, determine the force acting on the slab. Switch
,I FIGURE 332 A
partially filled parallelplate capacitor (Problem P.327).
P328 The upper and lower conducting plates of a large parallelplate capacitor are separated by a distance d and maintained at potentials Vo and 0, respectively. A dielectric slab of dielectric constant 6.0 and uniform thickness 0.8d is placed over the lower plate. Assuming negligible fringing effect, determine the following by solving Laplace's equation: a) the potential and electric field distribution in the dielectric slab, b) the potential and electric field distribution in the air space between the dielectric slab and the upper plate, and c) the surface charge densities on the upper and lower plates.
P.329Assume that the space between the inner and outer conductors of a long coaxial cylindrical structure is filled with an electron cloud having a volume density of charge p, = A/r for a < r < b, where a and b are, the radii of the inner and outer conductors, respectively. The inner conductor is maintained at a potential I/,, and the outer conductor is grounded. Determine the potential distribution in the region a < r < b by solving Poisson's equation. P.330If the space between the inner and outer conductors of the coaxial structure in problem P.329 is free space, find the expression for V(r) in the region a < r < b by solving Laplace's equation. From V(r), obtain the surface charge densities on the conductors and the capacitance per unit length of the structure. Compare your result with Eq. (390). PA31 An infinite conducting cone of halfangle a is maintained at potential and insulated from a grounded conducting plane, as illustrated in Fig. 333. Determine a) the potential distribution V(9) in the region a < 8 < n/2, b) the electric field intensity in the region a < 9 < 42, and c) the charge densities on the cone surface and on the grounded plane.
FIGURE 333 An infinite conducting cone and a grounded conducting plane (Problem P.331).
P.332 For a positive point charge Q located at a distance d from each of two grounded perpendicular conducting halfplanes shown in Fig. 334, find the expressions for a) the potential and the electric field intensity at an arbitrary point P(x, y), and b) the surface charge densities induced on the two halfplanes.
FIGURE 334. A point charge Q equidistant from two grounded perpendicular conducting halfplanes (Problem P.332).
P333 Determine the systems of image charges that will replace the conducting boundaries that are maintained at zero potential for a) a point charge Q located between two large, grounded, parallel conducting planes as shown in Fig. 335(a), and b) an infinite line charge pc located midway between two large, intersecting conducting planes forming a 60degree angle, as shown in Fig. 335(b).
(a) Point charge between grounded parallel planes. FIGURE 335 Diagrams for Problem P.333.
(b) Line charge between grounded intersecting plane.
PA34 An infinite line charge of 50 (nC/m) lies 3 (m) above the ground, which is at zero potential. Choosing the ground as the xyplane and the line charge as parallel to the xaxis, find by the method of images the following: a) E at (0, 4, 3), and b) E and p, at (0, 4, 0). PA35 The axis of a long twowire parallel transmission line are 2 (cm)apart. The wires have a radius 3 (mm) and are maintained at potentials 100 (V) and  100 (V). Find a) the location of the equivalent line charges relative to the wire axes, b) the equivalent line charge density of each wire, and c) the electric field intensity at a point midway between the wires.
+

4 1
Ohm's law
Two types of currents caused by motion of free charges
Convection electric currents are not governed by Ohm's law.
0V E R V I E W
In Chapter 3 we dealt with electrostatic problems, field problems associated with electric charges at rest. We will now consider charges in motion that constitute current flow. From dc circuit theory you are familiar with problems of current flow in a conductive medium such as a metal wire. The governing relation in such cases is O h ' s law, which states that the voltage across two terminals equals the product of the current and the resistance between the terminals. If the voltage is applied across a good insulator, little current will flow because of a very high resistance. How then do we explain the fact that current flows in a cathoderay tube (such as that shown in Fig. 32), where the medium is a vacuum, an open circuit? Apparently Ohm's law does not apply in this case. There are two types of electric current caused by the motion of free charges: convection currents and conduction currents. Convection currents are due to the motion of positively or negatively charged particles in a vacuum or rarefied gas. Familiar examples are electron beams in a cathoderay tube and the violent motions of charged particles in a thunderstorm. Convection currents, the result of hydrodynamic motion involving a mass transport, are not governed by Ohm's law. The mechanism of conduction currents is different from that of convection currents. In their normal state the atoms of a conductor occupy regular positions in a crystalline structure. The atoms consist of positively charged nuclei
Steady Electric Currents
Conduction electric currentr, are governed by Ohm's law.
surrounded by electrons in a shelllike arrangement. The electrons in the inner shells are tightly bound to the nuclei and are not free to move away. The electrons in the outermost shells of a conductor atom do not completely fill the shells; they are valence or conduction electrons and are only very loosely bound to the nuclei. These latter electrons may wander from one atom to another in a random manner. The atoms, on the average, remain electrically neutral, and there is no net drift motion of electrons. When an external electric field is applied on a conductor, an organized motion of the conduction electrons will result, producing an electric current. The average drift velocity of the electrons is very low (on the order of or lon3m/s) even for very good conductors because they collide with the atoms in the course of their motion, dissipating part of their kinetic energy as heat. This phenomenon manifests itself as a damping force, or resistance, to current flow. The relation between conduction current density and electric intensity gives us a point form of Ohm's law. Both types of currents will be discussed in this chapter.
42 CURRENTDENSITY AND O H M ' S LAW A)
Convection current Consider the steady motion of one kind of charge carriers, each of charge q (which is negative for electrons), across an element of surface As with a velocity u, as shown in Fig. 41. If N is the number of charge
FIGURE 41 Conduction current due to drift motion of charge carriers across a surface.
carriers per unit volume, then in time At each charge carrier moves a distance uAt, and the amount of charge passing through the surface As is AQ=Nqu.a,AsAt
(C).
(41)
Since current is the time rate of change of charge, we have N== At
Definition of current density
Nqu a,,As = Nqu As
(A).
(42)
In Eq. (42) we have written As = a,As as a vector quantity. It is convenient to define a vector point function, volume current density, or simply current density, J, in amperes per square meter, J = Nqu
(A/m2),
(43)
so that Eq. (42) can be written as AI = J a b .
(44)
The total current I flowing through an arbitrary surface S is then the flux of the J vector through S:
The product Nq is, in fact, free charge per unit volume, so we may rewrite Eq. (43) as Relation between convection current density and velocity of charge carrier
which is the relation between the convection current density and the velocity of the charge carrier.
EXAMPLE41 Assume a free charge density of 0.3 (nC/mm3) in a vacuum tube. For a current density of a,2.4 (A/mm2), find (a) the total current passing through a hemispherical cap specified by R = ~(rnm),0 < 8 < 42, 0 < q5 < 27r; and (b) the velocity of the free charges.
Given:
R = 5 (mm).
=
So2'
= 27r =
B)
2.4 (cos 8)(S2sin 8 dB dq5)
ST
 120.n
60 sin 8 d(sin 8)
r3: 
= 6 0 = ~  188.5 (A).
Conduction current In the case of conduction currents there may be more than one kind of charge carriers (electrons, holes, and ions) drifting with different velocities. Equation (43) should be generalized to read J=
Niqiui i
(A/m2).
(47)
As indicated in Section 41, conduction currents are the result of the drift motion of charge carriers under the influence of an applied electric field. The atoms remain neutral (p, = 0). It can be justified analytically that, for most conducting materials, the average drift velocity is directly proportional to the electric field intensity. For metallic conductors we write (m/s), (48) where p, is the electron mobility measured in (m2/Vs). The electron (m2/V*s) for mobility for copper is 3.2 x (m2/V*s). It is 1.4 x ue = peE
aluminum and 5.2 x we have
(m2/V.s)for silver. From Eqs. (43) and (48)
~epeE, (49) where p, = Ne is the charge density of the drifting electrons and is a negative quantity. Equation (49) can be rewritten as J=
Point form of Ohm's law
where the proportionality constant, a = p,lr,, is a macroscopic constitutive parameter of the medium called conductivity. Equation (410) is the point form of Ohm's law. For semiconductors, conductivity depends on the concentration and mobility of both electrons and holes:
Definition of conductivity
where the subscript h denotes hole. In general, p, # p,,. For germanium, typical values are p, = 0.38, ph = 0.18; for silicon, pe = 0.12, ph= 0.03 (m2/V s). Equation (410) is a constitutive relation of a conducting medium. The unit for a is ampere per voltmeter (A/V0m)or siemens per meter (S/m). Copper, the most commonly used conductor, has a conductivity 5.80 x lo7(S/m). On the other hand, the conductivity of germanium is around 2.2 (S/m), and that of silicon is 1.6 x (S/m). The conductivity of semiconductors is highly dependent on (increases with) temperature. Hard rubber, a good insulator, has a conductivity of only 1015(S/m). Appendix B4 lists the conductivities of some other frequently used materials. The reciprocal of conductivity is called resistivity, in ohmmeters (SZ am). We prefer to use conductivity; there is really no compelling need to use both conductivity and resistivity.
SI unit for conductivity
EXERCISE dl
For a current density of 7 (A/mmz) in copper, find
a) b)
the electric intensity, and the electron drift velocity.
ANS. (a) 0.121 (V/m), (b) 3.57 x 104(m/s).
We recall Ohm's law from circuit theory that the voltage V;, across a resistance R, in which a current Z flows from point 1 to point 2, is equal to RZ; that is,
'V,, = RI.
(412)
Here R is usually a piece of conducting material of a given length; V1,is the voltage between two terminals 1 and 2; and I is the total current flowing from
42
'
CURRENT DENSITY AND OHM'SLAW
155
terminal 1 to terminal 2 through a finite cross section. Equation (412) is not a point relation. We now use the point form of Ohm's law, Eq. (4lo), to derive the voltagecurrent relationship of a piece of homogeneous material of conductivity a, length /, and uniform cross section S, as shown in Fig. 42. Within the conducting material, J = oE, where both J and E are in the direction of current flow. The potential difference or voltage between terminals 1 and 2 is
The total current is I =
J.
J  d s= JS,
Using Eqs. (413) and (414) in Eq. (4lo), we obtain
FIGURE 42 Homogeneous conductor with a constant cross section.
which is the same as Eq. (412). From Eq. (415) we have the formula for the resistance of a straight piece of homogeneous material of a uniform cross section for steady current (d.c.): Resistance of a straight homogeneous material of uniform cross section
EXAMPLE 42 a)
b)
Determine the dc resistance of 1 (km) of copper wire having a 1(mm) radius. If an aluminium wire of the same length is to have the same resistance, what should its radius be?
Since we are dealing with conductors of a uniform cross section, Eq. (416) applies.
a)
For copper wire, a, = 5.80 x 10' (S/m): 8 = 103(m),
S,, = lo^)^ =
(m2).
We have
e 103 R,, = = 5.49 5.80 x lo7 x 10m6n a,, b)
(a).
For aluminum wire, a,, = 3.54 x lo7 (S/m):
r = 1.28 x 10 (m), or 1.28(mm). Conductance, and its Sl unit
4
EXERCISE 4.2
The conductance, G, or the reciprocal of resistance, is useful in combining resistances in parallel. The unit for conductance is (52I), or siemens (S).
Three resistors having resistances l(MQ), 2(MQ), and 4(MQ) are connected in parallel. Calculate the overall conductance and resistance. A m 1.75 (pS),0.571 (Ma).
43
EQUATION O F CONTINUITY AND KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENT LAW 157
REVIEW Q U E S T I O N S Q.41 Explain the difference between conduction current and convection current. Q.42 What is the relation between convection current density and the velocity of charge carriers? Q.43 Define mobility of the electron in a conductor. What is its SI unit? 4.44 What is the point form for Ohm's law? 4 . 4 5 Define conductivity. What is its SI unit? Q.46 How does the resistance of a round conducting wire change if its radius is doubled?
43 EQUATION OF CONTINUITYAND KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENTLAW Principle of conservation of charges
The principle of consemation of charge is one of the fundamental postulates of physics. Electric charges may not be created or destroyed; all charges either at rest or in motion must be accounted for at all times. Consider an arbitrary volume V bounded by surface S. A net charge Q exists within this region. If a net current I flows across the surface out of this region, the charge in. the volume must decrease at a rate that equals the current. Conversely, if a net current flows across the surface into the region, the charge in the volume must increase at a rate equal to the current. The current leaving the region is the total outward flux of the current density vector through the surface S. We have
Divergence theorem, Eq. (269), may be invoked to convert the surface integral of J to the volume integral of V. J. We obtain, for a stationary volume,
In moving the time derivative of p, inside the volume integral, it is necessary to use partial differentiation because p, may be a function of time as well as of space coordinates. Since Eq. (419) must hold regardless of the choice of V; the
i
integrands must be equal. Thus we have Equation of continuity
This point relationship derived from the principle of conservation of charge is called the equation of continuity. For steady currents, charge density does not vary with time, dp,/dt = 0. Equation (420) becomes
Steady electric current is solenoidal.
Thus, steady electric currents are divergenceless or solenoidal. Equation (421) is a point relationship and holds also at points where p, = 0 (no flow source). It means that the field lines or streamlines of steady currents close upon themselves, unlike those of electrostatic field intensity that originate and end on charges. Over any enclosed surface, Eq. (421) leads to the following integral form:
fsJ*ds = 0,
(422)
which can be written as
Kirchhoff's current law
Equation (423) is an expression of Kirchhofs current law. It states that the algebraic sum of all the currentsflowing out of a junction in an electric circuit b zero. In Subsection 36.1 we stated that charges introduced in the interior of a conductor will move to the conductor surface and redistribute themselves in such a way as to make p, = 0 and E = 0 inside under equilibrium conditions. We are now in a position to prove this statement and to calculate the tihe it takes to reach an equilibrium. Combining Ohm's law, Eq. (4lo), with the equation of continuity and assuming a constant o, we have
In a simple medium, V E = pule, and Eq. (424) becomes
The solution of Eq. (425) is
AA
Volume density of charge decays exponentially with time.
Definition of relaxation time
EXERCISE4 3
POWP.R ISS SIP AT ION AND
159
JOULE'S LAW
(426) where p, is the initial charge density at t = 0. Both p, and po can be functions of the space coordinates, and Eq. (426) says that the charge density at a given location will decrease with time exponentially. An initial charge density p, will decay to l/e or 36.8% of its value in a time equal to
The time constant z is called the relaxation time. For a good conductor such as coppera = 5.80 x lo7(S/m), e r t., = 8.85 x 10 l2 (F/m)z equals 1.53 x 1019(s), a very short time indeed. Given that the dielectric constant and conductivity of rubber to be 3.0 and 10 l5 (S/m) respectively, find a) b)
the relaxation time, and the time required for a charge density to decay to 1% of its initial value.
ANS. (a) 7.38 hrs., (b) 1 day 10 hrs.
44 POWERDISSIPATION AND JOULE'S LAW
We indicated earlier that under the influence of an electric field, conduction electrons in a conductor undkgo a drift motion macroscopically. Microscopically, these electrons collide with atoms on lattice sites. Energy is thus transmitted from the electric field to the atoms in thermal vibration. The work Aw done by an electric field E in moving a charge q a distance AG is qE.(Ad), which corresponds to a power
where u is the drift velocity. The total power delivered to all the charge carriers in a volume dv is
which, by virtue of Eq. (47), is dP = EJdv, dP E  J dv
(W/m3).
Thus the point function E.J is a power density under steadycurrent conditions. For a given volume V the total electric power converted into heat is Joule's law
This is known as Joule's law. (Note that the SI unit for P is watt, not joule, which is the unit for energy or work.) Equation (429) is the corresponding point relationship. In a conductor of a constant cross section, dv = ds dd, with dd measured in the direction J. Equation (430) can be written as
P=
J1
Edd
I
Jds=VI,
where I is the current in the conductor. Since V = RI, we have
Equation (431) is, of course, the familiar expression for ohmic power, representing the heat dissipated in resistance R per unit time. 45 GOVERNINGEQUATIONS FOR STEADYCURRENTDENSITY
As we see, the current density vector J is a basic quantity in the study of steady electric currents. According to Helmholtz's theorem the description of J requires the specification of its divergence and its curl. For steady currents, V J = 0, as in Eq. (421). The curl equation is obtained by combining Ohm's law (J = aE) with V x E = 0; that is, V x (J/o) = 0. The differential form and the correspondingintegral form of the governing equationsfor steady current density are given below. Governing Equations for Steady Current Density Differential Form
Integral Form
45
GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR STEADY CURRENT DENSITY
161
We recall from Section 38 that at an interface between two different media: (i) a divergencelessjield has a continuous normal component (see Eq. 377); and (ii) a curlfieejield has a continuous tangential component (see Eq. 372). The consequence of (i) and Eq. (432) is Boundary condition for normal component of current density
At the boundary of two ohmic media with conductivities a , and a2,the consequence of (ii) and Eq. (433) is Jlt Jzt => Q1 Qz
Boundary condition for tangential component of current density
EXERCISE 4.4
Two blocks of conducting material are in contact at the z =I) plane. At a point P in the interface, the current density is J, = 10(a,3+az4)(A/mZ) in medium 1 (conductivity a,). Determine Jz at P in medium 2 if a, = 2a1.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.47 What is the physical significance of the equation of continuity? Q.48 State Kirchhofs current law in words. Q.49 Define relaxation time. What is the order of magnitude of the relaxation time in copper? Q.410 State Joule's law. Express the power dissipated in a volume (a) in terms of E and a, and (b) in terms of J and a. Q.411 What are the boundary conditions of the normal and tangential components of steady current at the interface of two media with different conductivities?
In Section 39 we discussed the procedure for finding the capacitance between two conductors separated by a dielectric medium. These conductors may be of arbitrary shapes, as was shown in Fig. 319, which is reproduced here as Fig. 43. In terms of electric field quantities the basic formula for capacitance can be written as
where the surface integral in the numerator is carried out over a surface enclosing the positive conductor and the line integral in the denominator is from the negative (lowerpotential) conductor to the positive (higherpotential) conductor. When the dielectric medium is lossy (having a small but nonzero conductivity), a current will flow from the positive to the negative conductor, and a currentdensity field will be established in the medium. Ohm's law, J = aE, ensures that the streamlines for J and E will be the same in an isotropic medium. The resistance between the conductors is
FIGURE 43 Two conductors in a lossy dielectric medium.       +   .
where the line and surface integrals are taken over the same L and S as those in Eq. (436). Comparison of Eqs. (436) and (437) shows the following interesting relationship: Relation connecting C and R (or O ) between two conductors
Equation (438) holds if e and a of the medium have the same space dependence or if the medium is homogeneous (independent of space coordinates). In these cases, if the capacitance between two conductors is known, the resistance (or conductance) can be obtained directly from the e/d ratio without recomputation.
EXAMPLE43 Find the leakage resistance per unit length
a)
b)
a)
between the inner and outer conductors of a coaxial cable that has an inner conductor of radius a, an ouiter conductor of inner radius b, and a medium with cbnductivity o, and of a parallelwire transmission line consisting of wires of radius a separated by a distance D in a medium with conductivity a.

The capacitance per unit length of a coaxial cable has been obtained as Eq. (390) in Example 316:
Hence the leakage resistance per unit length is, from Eq. (438),
b)
The conductance per unit length is G, = l/R1. For the parallelwire transmission line, Eq. (3165) in Example 325 gives the capacitance per unit length:
Therefore if we use the relationship in Eq. (438), the leakage resistance
per unit length is quickly found to be E 1 R; =  (L) =  coshl a c; na
(g)
The conductance per unit length is G; = 11%. In certain situations, electrostatic and steady current problems are not exactly analogous, even when the geometrical configurations are the same. This is because current flow can be confined strictly within a conductor (which has a very large a in comparison to that of the surrounding medium), whereas electric flux usually cannot be contained within a dielectric slab of finite dimensions. The range of the dielectric constant of available materials is very limited (see Appendix B3), and the fluxfringing around conductor edges makes the computation of capacitance less accurate. The procedure for computing the resistance of a piece of conducting material between specified equipotential surfaces (or terminals) is as follows: 1. 2.
3.
4
Choose an appropriate coordinate system for the given geometry. Assume a potential difference V, between conductor terminals. Find electric field intensity E within the conductor. (If the material is homogeneous, having a constant conductivity, the general method is to solve Laplace's equation V2V = 0 for V in the chosen coordinate system, and then obtain E =  V V ) Find the total current I=
5.
EXAMPLE 44 
I I Jds=
aEdq
where S is the crosssectional area over which I flows. Find resistance R by taking the ratio Vo/I. 


A conducting material of uniform thickness h and conductivity a has the shape of a quarter of a flat circular washer, with inner radius a and outer radius b, as shown in Fig. 44. Determine the resistance between the end faces.
SOLUTION Obviously, the appropriate coordinate system to use for this problem is the cylindrical coordinate system. Following the foregoing procedure, we first
FIGURE 44 A quarter of a flat conducting circular washer (Example 44).
assume a potential difference Vo between the end faces, say V = 0 on the end faceaty =O(d,=O)and V = Voontheendfaceatx =O($ = n/2). Weareto solve Laplace's equation in V subject to the following boundary conditions:
Since potential V is a function of coordinates simplifies to
4 only, Laplace's equation in cylindrical
The general solution of Eq. (442) is which, upon using the boundary conditions in Eqs. (441a) and (441b), becomes
The current density is
The total current I can be found by integrating J over the 4 = 7r/2 surface at which d s = a+hdr. We have
2 a h b ln.b 
Therefore,
When the given geometry is such that J can be determined easily from a total current I, we may start the solution by assuming an I. From I, J and E = J/o are found. Then the potential difference Vo is determined from the relation r
where the integration is from the lowpotential terminal to the highpotential terminal. The resistance R = Vo/I is independent of the assumed I, which will be canceled in the process. EXERCISE 4.5
The radii of the inner and outer conductors of a coaxial cable are a and b respectively, and the medium inbetween has a conductivity u. Find the leakage resistance between the conductors per unit length by first assuming a leakage current I from the inner to the outer conductor, then determiningJ, E, Vo,and R, = Vo/Z. Check your result with Eq. (439).
REVIEW QUESTIONS Q.412 What is the relation between the conductance and the capacitance formed by two conductors immersed in a lossy dielectric medium that has permittivity e and conductivity a? 4.413 What is the relation between the resistance and the capacitance formed by two conductors immersed in a lossy dielectric that has dielectric constant E, and conductivity a? REMARKS
..
...
1

1
The total leakage mistancc between two parallel conductors of length f is equal to the teakage resistance per unit length dii:tded bit (not multiplied by1 t4 1..  . . ... .. .  . . ..  . .. ... . ... . . . . . ..... . . ... .._ ._ . . .. ... .. ....
SUMMARY In this chapter we considered two types of steady electric currents: convection currents (not , governed by Ohm's law) and conduction currents, defined conductivity that led to the point form of Ohm's law,
introduced the equation of continuity and the concept of relaxation time, studied Joule's law and power dissipation, obtained the governing equations for steady current density, examined the boundary conditions for current density, and discussed methods for resistance calculations.
PROBLEMS PA1 A dc voltage of 6 (V) applied to the ends of 1 (km) of a conducting wire of 0.5 (mm)radius results in a current of 116(A). Find a) the conductivity of the wire, b) the electric field intensity in the wire, c) the power dissipated in the wire, d) the electron drift velocity, assuming electron mobility in the wire to be 1 . 4 103(m2/V.s). ~ PA2 A long, round wire of radius a and conductivity a is coated with a material of conductivity 0.1~. a) What must be the thickness of the coating so that the resistance per unit length of the uncoated wire is reduced by 50%? b) Assuming a total current I in the coated wire, find J and E in both the core and the coating material. PA3 Lightning strikes a lossy dielectric spheree = 1.2e0, a = 10(S/m)of radius 0.1 (m) at time t = 0, depositing uniformly in the sphere a total charge 1(mC). Determine, for all t, a) the electric field intensity both inside and outside the sphere, b) the current density in the sphere. PA4 Refer to Problem P.43. a) Calculate the time it takes for the charge density in the sphere to diminish to 1% of its initial value. b) Calculate the change in the electrostatic energy stored in the sphere as the charge density diminishes from the initial value to 1% of its value. What happens to this energy? c) Determine the electrostatic energy stored in the space outside the sphere. Does this energy change with time? PA5 Find the current and the heat dissipated in each of the five resistors in the network shown in Fig. 45 if and if the source is an ideal dc voltage generator of 0.7 (V) with its positive polarity at terminal 1. What is the total resistance seen by the source at terminal pair 12?
FIGURE 45 A network problem (Problem P.45).
P.46 Two lossy homogeneous dielectric media with dielectric constants = 2, er2= 3 and conductivities al = 15(mS), o2 = 10(ms) are in contact at the z = 0 plane. In the z > 0 region (medium 1) a uniform electric field El = a,20 a, 50 (V/m) exists. Find (a) E2 in medium 2, (b) Jl and J,, (c) the angles that J1and J2make with the z = 0 plane, and (d) the surface charge density at the interface. PA7 The space between two parallel conducting plates each having an area S is filled with an inhomogeneous ohmic medium whose conductivity varies linearly from a, at one plate (y = 0) to a, at the other plate (y = d). A dc voltage Vo is applied across the plates. Determine a) the total resistance between the plates, and b) the surface charge densities on the plates. P.48 A dc voltage 'V, is applied across a parallelplate capacitor of area S. The space between the conducting plates is filled with two different lossy dielectrics of thicknesses dl and d2, permittivities el and e2, and conductivities a, and a,, respectively, as shown in Fig. 46. Determine a) the current density between the plates, b) the electric field intensities in both dielectrics, and C) the equivalent RC circuit between terminals a and b.
FIGURE 46 Parallelplate capacitor with two lossy dielectrics (Problem P.48). PA9 A dc voltage 'V, is applied across a cylindrical capacitor of length L.
The radii of the inner and outer conductors are a and b, respectively. The space between the conductors is filled with two different lossy dielectrics
having, respectively, permittivity E , and conductivity a , in the region a < r < c, and permittivity E , and conductivity a , in the region c < r < b. Determine a) the equivalent RC circuit between the inner and outer conductors, and b) the current density in each region. HINT: Use the results in Example 43(a). P.410 Refer to the flat conducting quartercircular washer in Example 44 and Fig. 44. Find the resistance between the top and bottom flat faces. P.411 Refer to the flat conducting quartercircular washer in Example 44 and Fig. 44. Find the resistance between the curved sides. P.412 Find the resistance between two concentric spherical surfaces of radii R , and R, ( R , < R,) if the space between the surfaces is filled with a homogeneous and isotropic material having a conductivity a.

0 V E R V I E W Earlier we discussed the interaction between electric charges at rest by introducing the concept of electric field. We saw in Chapter 3 that electric field intensity E is the only fundamental vector field quantity required for the study of electrostatics in free space. In a material medium it is convenient to define a second vector field quantity, the electric flux density (or electric displacement) D, to account for the effect of polarization. The following two equations form the basis of the electrostatic model:
5 1
VD = p,, Two basic equations of the electrostatic model
VxE=O.
(51) (52)
The electrical property of the medium determines the relation between D and E:If the medium is linear and isotropic, we have the simple constitutive relation D = EE, where the permittivity E is a scalar. The phenomenon of magnetism was discovered when pieces of magnetic lodestone were found to exhibit a mysterious attractive power. Since the lodestone pieces were found near the ancient Greek city called Magnesia, the derived terms magnet, magnetism, magnetization, and magnetron have come into use. We study magnetism by introducing the concept of magneticfield. A magnetic field can be caused by a permanent magnet (like the magnetized lodstone), by moving charges, or by a current flow.
Static Magnetic Fields When a small test charge q is placed in an electric field E, it experiences an electric force F,, which is a function of the position of q. Electric intensity defined in terms of force on a stationary charge
(53) When the test charge is in motion in a magnetic field characterized by a magnetic flux density B,? experiments show that charge q also experiences a magnetic force
F, given by Magnetic flux density defined in terms of force experienced by a moving charge
S1 unit for B
where u (m/s) is the velocity of the moving charge, and B is measured in webers per square meter (Wb/m2)or teslas (T).:The total electromagneticforce on a charge q is, then, F = F, + F,; that is,
Lorentz's force equation
fMagnetic flux density is also called nuylnetic h d w t i a m , mainly in physics texts. $One weber per square meter or one tesla equals lo4 gauss in CGS units. The earth's magnetic field is about 4 gauss or 0.5 x 104T. (A weber is the same as a voltsecond.)
which is called Lorentz's force equation. Its validity has been unquestionably established by experiments. We may consider F,/q for a small q as the definition for electric field intensity E (as we did in Eq. 3I), and F,/q = u x B as the defining relation for magnetic flux density B. Alternatively, we may consider Lorentz's force eq ation as a fundamental postulate of our electromagnetic model; it cann t be derived from other postulates. Charges in motion produ e a current that, in turn, creates a magnetic field. Steady currents are accompanied by static magnetic fields, which are the subject of study of this chapter. We begin the study of static magnetic fields in free space by two postulates specifying the divergence and the curl of B. From the solenoidal character of B a vector magnetic potential is defined, which is shown to obey a vector Poisson's equation. Next we derive the BiotSavart law, which can be used to determine the magnetic field of a currentcarrying circuit. The postulated curl relation leads directly to Ampkre's circuital law, which is particularly useful when symmetry exists. The macroscopic effect of magnetic materials in a magnetic field can be studied by defining a magnetization vector. Here we introduce another vector field quantity, the magnetic field intensity H. From the relation between B and H we define the permeability of the material, and discuss the behavior of magnetic materials. We then examine the boundary conditions of B and H at the inteiface of two different magnetic media; define self and mutual inductances; and discuss magnetic energy, forces, and torques.
\
IN FREESPACE 52 FUNDAMENTALPOSTULATES OF MAGNETOSTATICS
To study magnetostatics (steady magnetic fields) in free space or in nonmagnetic material,? we need only consider the magnetic flux density vector, B. The twofundamental postulates of magnetostatics that specify the divergence and the curl of B in nonmagnetic media are Divergence of B vanishes
and Curl of static B in nonmagnetic media
(in nonmagnetic media)
(57)
'Except for ferro~agneticmaterials (nickel, cobalt, iron, or their alloys), the permeability of substances is very close (within 0.01%) to p, for free space. (See table in Appendix B5.)In this book, for simplicity,when we deal with magnetic fields in nonferromagnetic materials such as air, water, copper, and aluminum, we will consider them to be in free space.
In Eq. (57) po is the permeability of free space: po = 411 x lo'
(H/m)
(see Eq. 19), and J is the current density (A/m2).Since the divergence of the curl of any vector field is zero, we obtain from Eq. (57)
V  J = 0,
(58)
which is consistent with Eq. (421) for steady currents. Taking the volume integral of Eq. (56) and applying the divergence theorem, we have There are no magnetic flow sources (no isolated magnetic charges).
Net magnetic flux flowing out of any closed surface is zero.
where the surface integral is carried out over the bounding surface of an arbitrary volume. Comparison of Eq. (59) with Eq. (36) leads us to conclude that there is no magnetic analogue for electric charges. There are no magnetic j b w sources, and the magnetic flrrx lines always close upon themselves. Equation (59) is also referred to as an expression for the law of conservation of magnetic flun because it states that the total outward magnetic flux through any closed surface is zero. The traditional designation of north and south poles in a permanent bar magnet does not imply that an isolated positive magnetic charge exists at the north pole and a corresponding amount of isolated negative magnetic charge exists at the south pole. Consider the bar magnet with north and south poles in Fig. 5l(a). If this magnet is cut into two segments, new south and
FIGURE 51 Successive division of a bar magnet.
North and south magnetic poles cannot be isolated.
north poles appear, and we have two shorter magnets as in Fig. 5l(b). If each of the two shorter magnets is cut again into two segments, we have four magnets, each with a north pole and a south pole as in Fig. 5l(c). This process could be continued until the magnets are of atomic dimensions; but each infinitesimally small magnet would still have a north pole and a south pole. Obviously, then, magnetic poles cannot be isolated. The magnetic flux lines follow closed paths from one end of a magnet to the other end outside the magnet and then continue inside the magnet back to the first end. The designation of north and south poles is in accordance with the fact that the respective ends of a bar magnet freely suspended in the earth's magnetic field will seek the north and south directions.' The integral form of the curl relation in Eq. (57) can be obtained by integrating both sides over an open surface and applying Stokes's theorem. We have
(in nonmagnetic media)
AmpBre's circuital law in nonmagnetic media
(510)
where the path C for the line integral is the contour bounding the surface S, and I is the total current through S. The sense of tracing C and the direction of current flow follow the righthand rule. Note that Eq. (510) is a derived relation from the curl postulate for B. It is a form of Ampdre's circuital law, which states that the circulation of the magneticflux density in a nonmagnetic medium around any closed path is equal to times the total current flowing through the s&we bounded by the path. AmpBre's circuital law is very useful in determining the magnetic flux density B caused by a current I when there is a closed path C around the current such that the magnitude of B is constant over the path. The following is a summary of the two fundamental postulates of magnetostatics in free space: 'We note here parenthetically that examination of some prehistoric rock formations has led to the belief that there have been dramatic reversals of the earth's magnetic field every ten million years or so. The earth's magnetic field is thought to be produced by the rolling motions of the molten iron in the earth's outer core, but the exact reasons for the field reversals are still not well understood. The next such reversal is predicted to be only about 2000 years from now. One cannot conjecture all the dire consequences of such a reversal, but among them would be disruptions in global navigation and drastic changes in the migratory patterns of birds.
Two fundamental postulates of magnetostatics in nonmagnetic media
Postulates of Magnetostatics in nonmagnetic media Differential Form
Integral Form
V * B= 0
fsB.ds = 0
v x B=poJ
I B  U = p0I I
EXAMPLE51 An infinitely long, straight, solid, nonmagnetic conductor with a circular cross section of radius b carries a steady current I. Determine the magnetic flux density both inside and outside the conductor.
First we note that this is a problem with cylindrical symmetry and that Amp4re's circuital law can be used to advantage. If we align the conductor along the zaxis, the magnetic flux density B will be #directed and will be constant along any circular path around the zaxis. Figure 52(a) shows a cross section of the conductor and the two circular paths of integration, C1 and C2,inside and outside, respectively, the currentcarryingconductor. Note again that the directions of C1 and C2 and the direction of I follow the righthand rule. (When the fingers of the right hand follow the directions of C1 and C2, the thumb of the right hand points to the direction of I.)
a)
Inside the conductor:
The current through the area enclosed by C1 is
Therefore, from Amp6re's circuital law,
FIGURE 52 Magnetic flux density of an infinitely long circular conductor carrying a current I out of paper (Example 51).
b)
Outside the conductor:
Path C2 outside the conductor encloses the total current I. Hence
Examination of Eqs. (511) and (512) reveals that the magnitude of B increases linearly with r , from 0 until r , =b, after which it decreases inversely with r2.The variation of B4 versus r is sketched in Fig. 52(b). EXERCISE 51
An infinitely long, very thin cylindrical conducting tube of radius b carries a uniform surface current J, = a, J, (Alm). Find B everywhere. ANS 0 for r < b, abp,J,b/r for r > b.
Determine the magnetic flux density inside a closely wound toroidal coil with an air core having N turns of coil and carrying a current I. The toroid has a mean radius b, and the radius of each turn is a.
Figure 53 depicts the geometry of this problem. Cylindrical symmetry ensures that B has only a 4component and is constant along any circular path about the axis of the toroid. We construct a circular contour C with radius r as shown. For (ba) < r < b + a, Eq. (510)leads directly to
f
B  d l = 2nrB4 = poNZ,
where we have assumed that the toroid has an air core with permeability po. Therefore, PONZ B=a4B4=a 2nr '
(ba) < r < (b+a).
B = 0 for r < (ba) and r > (b+a), because the net total current enclosed by a contour constructed in these two regions is zero.
EXERCISE 5.2
Find the magnetic flux density inside a very long cylindrical solenoid with an air wre having n turns per meter and carrying a current I.
FIGURE 53 A currentcarrying toroidal wil (Example 52).
I
core
I
REVIEW QUESTIONS 451 What is the expression for the force on a test charge q that moves with velocity u in a magnetic field of flux density B? 452 Verify that tesla (T), the unit for magnetic flux density, is the same as voltsecond per square meter (V s/mZ). 4 . 1 3 Write Lorentz's force equation. 4 . 1 4 What are the two fundamental postulates of magnetostatics? Q.55 Which postulate of magnetostatics denies the existence of isolated magnetic charges? Q.56 State the law of conservation of magnetic flux. 457 State Ampkre's circuital law. Q58 In what manner does the Bfield of an infinitely long straight filament carrying a direct current I vary with distance?
.
53 VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL
The divergencefree postulate of B in Eq. (56), V  B = 0, assures that B is solenoidal. As a consequence, B can be expressed as the curl of another vector field, say A, such that Partial definition of vector magnetic potential A
SI unit for A
The vector field A so defined is called the vector magnetic potential. Its SI unit is weber per meter (Wblm). Thus if we can find A of a current distribution, B can be obtained from A by a differential (curl) operation. This is quite similar to the introduction of the scalar electric potential V for the curlfree E in electrostatics (Section 35) and the obtaining of E from the relation E = VK However, the definition of a vector requires the specification of both its curl and its divergence. Hence Eq. (514) alone is not sufficient to define A; we must still specify its divergence. How do we choose V A? Before we answer this question, let us take the curl of B in Eq. (514) and substitute it in Eq. (57). We have
.
VxVx
A=poJ.
(515)
Here we digress to introduce a formula for the curl curl of a vector.' V x V xA=V(V.A)V2A,
(516a)
V2A = V(V.A)V x V x A.
(516b)
or Equations (516a) or (516b) can be regarded as the definition of V2A, the Laplacian of A. For Cartesian coordinates it can also be verified by direct substitution that V2A = a x V 2 ~+, ayV2Ay+ azV2A,.
(517)
Thus, for Cartesian coordinates the Laplacian of a vector field A is another vector field whose components are the Laplacian (the divergence of the gradient) of the corresponding components of A. This, however, is not true for other coordinate systems. EXERCISE 53
Verify Eq. (517) in Cartesian coordinates.
We now expand V x V x A in Eq. (515) according to Eq. (516a) and obtain
.
V(V A)  V2A = poJ.
(518)
With the purpose of simplifying Eq. (518) to the greatest extent possible we choose Coulomb condition for divergence of A
and Eq. (518) becomes (520)
Operator form of vector Poisson's equation
This is a vector Poisson's equation. In Cartesian coordinates, Eq. (520) is equivalent to three scalar Poisson's equations:
"This formula can be readily verified in Cartesian coordinates by direct substitution. 'This relation is called Coulomb condition or Coulomb gauge.
Each of these three equations is mathematically the same as the scalar Poisson's equation, Eq. (3126) in electrostatics. In free space the equation
has a particular solution (see Eq. 338),
Hence the solution for Eq. (521a) is
We can write similar solutions for A, and A,. Combining the three components, we have the solution for Eq. (520): Finding vector magnetic potential from current density
Equation (522) enables us to find the vector magnetic potential A from the volume current density J. The magnetic flux density B can then be obtained from V x A by differentiation. Vector potential A relates to the magnetic flux @ through a given area S that is bounded by contour C in a simple way: (523) SI unit for magnetic flux
Relation between vector magnetic potential and magnetic flux
The SI unit for magnetic flux is weber (Wb), which is equivalent to teslasquare meter (Tm2). Using Eq. (514) and Stokes's theorem, we have
Thus, vector magnetic potential A does have physical significance in that its line integral around any closed path equals the total magnetic flux passing through the area enclosed by the path.
54 THE BIOTSAVARTLAW AND APPLICATIONS
In many applications we are interested in determining the magnetic field due to a currentcarrying circuit. For a thin wire with crosssectional area S, dv' equals S de', and the current flow is entirely along the wire. We have J dv' = JS dd' = I d l ' ,
(525)
54
THEBIOTSAVART LAWA N D APPLICATIONS
181
and Eq. (522) becomes Finding vector magnetic potential from current in a closed circuit
where a circle has been put on the integral sign because the current I must flow in a closed path,' which is designated C'. The magnetic flux density is then
It is very important to note in Eq. (527) that the unprimed curl operation implies differentiations with respect to the space coordinates of the jeld point, and that the integral operation is with respect to the primed source coordinates. The integrand in Eq. (527) can be expanded into two terms by using the following identity (see Eq. 2115):
We have, with f = 1/R and G = dl', B=$fc[:V
x dl'+(O+)x
dl'].
Now, since the unprimed and primed coordinates are independent, V x d l ' equals 0, and the first term on the right side of Eq. (529) vanishes. The distance R is measured from dd' at (x', y', z') to the field point at (x, y, z). Thus we have 1 R
 = [(x
x1)2 +(y y')2+(z z')~]
+Weare now dealing with direct (nontimevarying)currents that give rise to steady magnetic fields. Circuits containing timevarying sources may send timevarying currents along an open 1 wire and deposit charges at its ends. Antennas are examples.
I
where aRis the unit vector directed from the source point to the field point. Substituting Eq. (530) in Eq. (529), we get BiotSavart law for finding magnetic flux density from current in a closed circuit
(531) Equation (531)is known as BiotSavart law.It is a formula for determining B caused by a current I in a closed path C', and was derived from the divergence postulate for B. Many books use BiotSavart law as the starting point for developing magnetostatics, but it is difficult to see the experimental procedure used to establish such a precise and complicated relation as Eq. (531). We prefer to derive both Amp6re's circuital law and BiotSavart law from our simple divergence and curl postulates for B. Sometimes it is convenient to write Eq. (531) in two steps:
with
which is the magnetic flux density due to a current element IdG'. An alternative and sometimes more convenient form for Eq. (532b) is
A direct current I flows in a straight wire of length 2L. Find the magnetic flux density B at a point located at a distance r from the wire in the bisecting plane: (a) by determining the vector magnetic potential A first, and (b) by applying BiotSavart law. SOLUTION Direct currents exist only in closed circuits. Hence the wire in the present problem must be a part of a currentcarrying closed loop. Since we do not
54
THEBIOTSAVART LAWAND APPLICATIONS
183
FIGURE 54 A currentcarrying straight wire (Example 53).
know the rest of the circuit, Amp6re's circuital law cannot be used to advantage. Refer to Fig. 54. The currentcarrying line segment is aligned with the zaxis. A typical element on the wire is dl' = a, dz'. The cylindrical coordinates of the field point P are (r,40). a)
Byfinding B &rn have A=a,
"'I 4x
V x A. Substituting R = ,/
=
into Eq. (526) we
dz'
LJ=
Therefore,
Cylindrical symmetry around the wire assures that aA,/a& = 0. Thus,
When r [email protected] The selfinductance of loop C , is defined as the magnetic Jux linkage per unit current in the loop itself; that is,
for a linear medium. The selfinductance of a loop or circuit depends on the geometrical shape and the physical arrangement of the conductor constituting the loop or circuit, as well as on the permeability of the medium. With a linear medium, selfinductance does not depend on the current in the loop or circuit. A conductor arranged in an appropriate shape (such as a conducting wire wound as a coil) to supply a certain amount of selfinductance is called an inductor. Just as a capacitor can store electric energy, an inductor can storage magnetic energy, as we shall see in Section 511. When we deal with 'In circuit theory books, the symbol M is frequently used to denote mutual inductance. We use
L,,here, as M has been used for magnetization.
510
INDUCTANCES AND INDUCTORS
203
only one loop or coil, there is no need to carry the subscripts in Eq. (579), and inductance without an adjective will be taken to mean selfinductance. The procedure for determining the selfinductance of an inductor is as follows: 1. Procedure for determining selfinductance
2. 3. 4.
Choose an appropriate coordinate system for the given geometry. Assume a current I in the conducting wire. Find B from I by AmHre's circuital law, Eq. (5lo), if symmetry exists; if not, BiotSavart law, Eq. (531) must be used. Find the flux linking with each turn, @, from B by integration: @=
5. 6.
Bods,
where S is the area over which B exists and links with the assumed current. Find the flux linkage A by multiplying @ by the number of turns. Find L by taking the ratio L = All.
Only a slight modification of this procedure is needed to determine the mutual inductance LIZbetween two circuits. After choosing an appropriate coordinate system, proceed as follows: Assume I, + Find B, ,Find @, by integrating B, over surface S, + Find flux linkage A,, = [email protected],, + Find L12 = Al21Z1
EXAMPLE58

N turns of wire are tightly wound on a toroidal frame of a rectangular cross section with dimensions as shown in Fig. 515. Assuming the permeability of the medium to be po, find the selfinductance of the toroidal coil.
It is clear that the cylindrical coordinate system is appropriate for this problem because the toroid is symmetrical about its axis. Assuming a current I in the conducting wire, we find, by applying Eq. (510) to a circular path with radius r ( a < r < b):
This result is obtained because both B, and r are constant around the circular path C. Since the path encircles a total current NI, we have 2arB4 = poNI
FIGURE 515 A closely wound toroidal coil (Example 58).
and
which is the same as Eq. (513) in Example 52 for a toroidal coil with a circular cross section. Next we find
The flux linkage A is N @ or
Finally, we obtain Inductance of an Nturn closely wound toroidal coil
We note that the selfinductance is not a function of I (for a constant medium permeability) and that it is proportional to the square of the number of turns. The qualification that the coil be closely wound on the toroid is to minimize the linkage flux around the individual turns of the wire.
510
INDUCTANCES A N D INDUCTORS
205
EXAMPLE59 Find the inductance per unit length of a very long solenoid having n turns per unit length. The permeability of the core is p.
The magnetic flux density inside a very long solenoid can be obtained from Eq. (580) by regarding the solenoid as a toroidal coil with an infinite radius. In such a case the dimensions of the cross section of the core are very small in comparison with the radius, and the magnetic flux density inside the solenoid is approximately constant. We have, from Eq. (580),
(Cr)
B = p  I = pnl,
where n is the number of turns per unit length. Thus, B = pnl,
which is constant inside the solenoid. Hence, where S is the crosssectional area of the solenoid. The flux linkage per unit lengtht is Therefore the inductance per unit length is Inductance par unit length of a long solanoid
(585) Equation (585) is an approximate formula, based on the assumption that the length of the solenoid is very much greater than the linear dimensions of its cross section. A more accurate derivation for the magnetic flux density and flux linkage per unit length near the ends of a finite solenoid will show that they are less than the values given, respectively, by Eqs. (582) and (584). Hence the total inductance of a finite solenoid is somewhat less than the values of L',as given in Eq. (585) multiplied by the length.
EXAMPLE510 An air coaxial transmission line has a solid inner conductor of radius a and a very thin outer conductor of inner radius b. Determine the inductance per unit length of the line. 'We use a prime to indicate quantities that are per unit length.
Refer to Fig. 516. Assume that a current I flows in the inner conductor and returns via the outer conductor in the other direction. Because of the cylindrical symmetry, B has only a #+component. Assume also that the current I is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the inner conductor. We find the values of B first.
a)
Inside the inner conductor, Olrla. From Eq. (51I),
b)
Between the inner and outer conductors, alrlb. From Eq. (512),
Now consider an annular ring in the inner conductor between radii r and r + dr. The current in a unit length of this annular ring is linked by the flux that can be obtained by integrating Eqs. (586) and (587). We have
But the current in the annular ring is only a fraction (2nr dr/na2=2r dr/a2) FIGURE 516 Two views of a coaxial transmission line (Example 510).
5 10 INDUCTANCES A N D INDUCTORS
207
of the total current I. Hence the flux linkage for this annular ring is
The total flux linkage per unit length is
The inductance of a unit length of the coaxial transmission line is therefore Inductance per unit length of a coaxial transmission line
The first term po/8n. arises from the flux linkage internal to the solid inner conductor; it is known as the internal inductance per unit length of the inner conductor. The second term comes from the linkage of the flux that exists between the inner and the outer conductors; this term is known as the external inductance per unit length of the coaxial line. If the inner conductor is a thin hollow tube, then the pO/8n term does not exist; we would only have external inductance.
Calculate the internal and external inductances per unit length of a transmission line consisting of two long parallel conducting wires of radius a that carry currents in opposite directions. The axes of the wires are separated by a distance d, which is much larger than a.
SOLUTION The internal selfinductance per unit length of each wire is, from Eq. (590) po/8n. So for two wires we have
To find the external selfinductance per unit length, we first calculate the magnetic flux linking with a unit length of the transmission line for an
FIGURE 517 A twowire transmission line (Example 511).
assumed current I in the wires. In the xzplane where the two wires lie, as in Fig. 517, the contributing B vectors due to the equal and opposite currents in the two wires have only a ycomponent:
The flux linkage per unit length is then
=
n
ln
da (T)
pol
d a
s ln 11
(W/m).
Therefore,
L"[email protected]' I
d 1 n a
(Hlm),
and the total selfinductance per unit length of the twowire line is Inductance per unit length of a parallelwire transmission line
5  10
INDUCTANCES AND INDUCTORS
209
It can be proved formally that the mutual inductance L,, between two circuits C, and C2 obtained from the magnetic flux linking C, due to a unit current in C, is the same as the mutual inductance L,, obtained from the magnetic flux linking C, due to a unit current in C,; that is, L,, = L,,. Therefore, as a first step in working a problem of determining mutual inductance, we should examine the given geometry and use the simpler of the two ways. EXAMPLE 512 Determine the mutual inductance between a conducting rectangular loop and a very long straight wire as shown in Fig. 518.
In the present problem we see that it is quite simple to assume a current in the long straight wire, write the magnetic flux density, and find the flux linking with the rectangular loop. However, it would be more involved to find the magnetic flux density and the flux linking with the straight wire due to an assumed current in the rectangular loop. Let us designate the long straight wire as circuit 1 and the rectangular loop as circuit 2. Magnetic flux density B, due to a current I , in the wire is, by FIGURE 518 A conducting rectangular loop and a long straight wire (Example 512).
applying Ampiire's circuital law,
The flux linkage A,,
= cD12
is
C
where ds, = a'hdr. Combination of Eqs. (596) and (597) gives
Hence the mutual inductance is
So far we have discussed self and mutual inductances in static terms. However, we know that resistanceless inductors appear as shortcircuits to steady (dc) currents; it is obviously necessary that we consider alternating currents when the effects of inductances on circuits and magnetic fields are of interest. A general consideration of timevarying electromagnetic fields (electrodynamics)will be deferred until the next chapter. In Section 310 we discussed the fact that work is required to assemble a group of charges and that the work is stored as electric energy. We certainly expect that work also needs to be expended in sending currents into conducting loops and that it will be stored as magnetic energy. Consider a single closed loop with a selfinductance L , in which the current is initially zero. A current generator is connected to the loop, which increases the current it from zero to I,. From physics we know that an electromotive force (emf) will be induced in the loop that opposes the current change. An amount of work must be done to overcome this induced emf. Let v , = L, di,/dt be the voltage across the inductance. The work required is
which is stored as magnetic energy.
Now consider two closed loops C, and C2 carrying currents i, and i2, respectively. The currents are initially zero and are to be increased to I, and I,, respectively. To find the amount of work required, we first keep i2 = 0 and increase i, from zero to I,. This requires a work W, in loop C,, as given in Eq. (5100); no work is done in loop C,, since i, = 0. Next we keep i, at I, and increase i, from zero to I,. Because of mutual coupling, some of the magnetic flux due to i, will link with loop C,, giving rise to an induced emf that must be overcome by a voltage Y,, = L,, di2/dt in order to keep i, constant at its value I,. The work involved is
+
In Eq. (5101), the plus sign applies if I, and I, in C, and C, are such that their magnetic fields strengthen each other and the minus sign applies if their magnetic fields oppose each other. At the same time a work W, must be done in loop C2 in order to counteract the induced emf as i, is increased from 0 to I,. W2, = 3L21X.
(5102)
The total amount of work done in raising the currents in loops C, and C, from zero to I, and I,, respectively, is then the sum of W,, W,,, and W,,: Magnetic energy atored in two coupled currentcarrying loops
(5103) which is the energy stored in the magnetic field of the two coupled currentcarrying loops. For a current I flowing in a single inductor with inductance L, the stored magnetic energy is
Magnetic energy stored in an inductance
EXERCISE 5.8
511.1
Express the stored magnetic energy in terms of flux linkage ct, and current I in an inductor having an inductance L.
MAGNETIC ENERGY I N TERMS OF FIELD QUANTITIES
When we discussed electrostatic energy in Subsection 310.1, we found it convenient to express We in terms of field quantities E and D, as was done in Eqs. (3105) and (3106). From our work so far we notice the following analogous relations between the quantities in electrostatics and those in
212
CHAPTER 5 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS magnetostatics : Electrostatics
E D E
Magnetostatics B H llP
It turns out that we could correctly write magnetic energy W, in a linear medium in terms of B and H from Eq. (3105) using the above analogy. Thus, Magnetic energy in terms of 6 and H T
On using the constitutive relation H = B/p for a linear medium, we can write Magnetic energy in terms of 6 and p
A separate formal derivation of Eqs. (5105) and (5106) will not be included here. We will deal with electric and magnetic energies again in Section 75 when we discuss flow of electromagnetic power. If we define a magnetic energy density, w,, such that its volume integral equals the total magnetic energy (5107) we can write w, as
By using Eq. (5104) in conjunction with Eq. (5105) or Eq. (5106), we can often determine selfinductance more easily from stored magnetic energy calculated in terms of B and/or H, than from flux linkage. We have
By using stored magnetic energy, determine the inductance per unit length of an air coaxial transmission line that has a solid inner conductor of radius a and a very thin outer conductor of inner radius b.
This is the same problem as that in Example 510, in which the selfinductance was determined through a consideration of flux linkages. Refer again to Fig. 516. Assume that a uniform current I flows in the inner conductor and returns in the outer conductor. The magnetic energy per unit length stored in the inner conductor is, from Eqs. (586) and (5106),
The magnetic energy per unit length stored in the region between the inner and outer conductors is, from Eq. (587) and (5106X
Therefore, from Eq. (5109) we have
which is the same as Eq. (590). The procedure used in this solution is comparatively simpler than that used in Example 510.
EXERCISE5.9
A current I flows in the Nturn toroidal coil in Fig. 515. a) b)
Obtain an expression for the stored magnetic energy. Use Eq.(5109) to determine its selfinductance and check your result with Eq. (581).
ANS. (a) b,(N~)*hIn (b/a)]/4~1 (J).
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.525 Define (a) the mutual inductance between two circuits, and @) the selfinductance of a single coil. Q 5 2 6 What is meant by the internal inductance of a conductor? 4.527 Write the expression for the stored magnetic energy of two coupled currentcarrying loops. 4528 Write the expression for stored magnetic energy in terms of field quantities.
512 MAGNETIC FORCES
A N D TORQUES
Earlier we noted that a charge q moving with a velocity u in a magnetic field with flux density B experiences a magnetic force F, given by Eq. (54), which is repeated below:
F,=~uxB
(N).
(5113)
In this section we will discuss various aspects of forces and torques on currentcarrying circuits in static magnetic fields. 512.1
FORCES AND TORQUES ON CURRENTCARRYING CONDUCTORS
Let us consider an element of conductor dd with a crosssectional area S. If there are N charge carriers (electrons)per unit volume moving with a velocity u in the direction of dG, then the magnetic force on the differential element is, according to Eq. (5113),
512
MAGNETIC FORCES A N D TORQUES
215
where e is the electronic charge. The two expressions in Eq. (5114) are equivalent, since u and d l have the same direction. Now, since NeSlul equals the current in the conductor, we can write Eq. (5114) as
The magnetic force on a complete (closed) circuit of contour C that carries a current I in a magnetic field B is then Magnetic force on a currentcarrying circuit in a magnetic field
When we have two circuits carrying currents I1 and I,, respectively, the situation is that of one currentcarrying circuit in the magnetic field of the other. In the presence of the magnetic flux B,,, which was caused by the current I, in C,, the force F,, on circuit C2 can be written as (5117a) where B1, is, from the BiotSavart law in Eq. (531),
Combining Eqs. (5117a) and (5117b), we obtain Amp6re'r law of force between two currentcarrying circuits
which is Amp2reYslaw of force between two currentcarrying circuits. It is an inversesquare relationship and should be compared with Coulomb's law of force in Eq. (313) between two stationary charges. We see that the force formula for two currentcarryingcircuits is much more complicated than that for two stationary charges. In actual computation it is convenient to break the formidablelooking Eq. (5118) into two steps as represented by Eqs. (5117a) and (5117b). The force F,, on circuit C1due to magnetic flux caused by current I, in C, is obtained from Eq. (5118) by simply interchanging 1 and 2 in the subscripts. Newton's third law governing action and reaction assures that Fzl = F12.
Determine the force per unit length between two infinitely long, thin, parallel conducting wires carrying currents I, and I, in the same direction. The wires are separated by a distance d.
Let the wires lie in the yzplane and the lefthand wire be designated circuit 1, as shown in Fig. 519. This problem is a straightforward application of Eq. (5117a). Using Fi2 to denote the force per unit length on wire 2, we have where B,,, the magnetic flux density at wire 2, set up by the current I, in wire 1, is constant over wire 2. Because the wires are assumed to be infinitely long and cylindrical symmetry exists, it is not necessary to use Eq. (5117b)for the determination of B,,. We apply Amptire's circuital law and write, from Eq. (5la,
Substitution of Eq. (5120) in Eq. (5119) yields
Force of attraction (repulsion) between wires carrying currents in the same direction (in opposite directions)
We see that the force on wire 2 pulls it toward wire 1. Hence the force between two wires carrying currents in the same direction is one of attraction (unlike the force between two charges of the same polarity, which is one of repulsion).
FIGURE 519 Force between two parallel currentcarrying wires (Example 514).
5  12
EXERCISE 5.10
217
MAGNETIC FORCES AND TORQUES
Assume that a current I, flows in the rectangular loop in Fig. 518 in the clockwise direction. Determine the net force on the loop.
ANS
ark
IlIZhw/2d(d+ w).
Let us now consider a small circular loop of radius b and carrying a current Z in a uniform magnetic field of flux density B. It is convenient to resolve B into two components, B = B, + BII, where B, and BII are perpendicular and parallel, respectively, to the plane of the loop. As illustrated in Fig. 520(a), the perpendicular component B, tends to expand the loop (or contract it if the direction of Z is reversed), but exerts no net force to move the loop. The parallel component BIIproduces an upward force dF, (out from the paper) on element dl, and a downward force (into the paper) dF2 = dF, on the symmetrically located element dl,, as shown in Fig. 52qb). Although the net force on the entire loop caused by BIIis also zero, a torque exists that tends to rotate the loop about the xaxis in such a way as to align the magnetic field (due to I) with the external BIIfield. The differential torque produced by dF, and dF2 is dT = ax(dF)2b sin 4 = a,(Zdd BIIsin 4)2b sin
4
= a,2Zb2Bll sin2 4 d4,
where dF = JdFJ = ldF21 and dd = )dd,l= ldd21= bd+. The total torque acting on the loop is then
FIGURE 520 A circular loop in a uniform magnetic field B = B,
+ BII.
If the definition of the magnetic dipole moment in Eq. (545) is used,
m = a,Z(ab2) = a,IS, where a, is a unit vector in the direction of the right thumb (normal to the plane of the loop) as the fingers of the right hand follow the direction of the current, we can write Eq. (5123) as Torque experienced by a currentcarrying circuit in a mttgnetic field
(5124) The vector B (instead of BII)is used in Eq. (5124) because m x (B, + BII)= m x B,,. This is the torque that aligns the microscopic magnetic dipoles in magnetic materials and causes the materials to be magnetized by an applied magnetic field. It should be remembered that Eq. (5124) does not hold if B is not uniform over the currentcarrying loop.
EXAMPLE5.15 A rectangular loop in the xyplane with sides b, and b2 carrying a current Z lies in a ungorm magnetic field B = axBx+ a, By+ azBz.Determine the force and. torque,onthe loop.
Resolving B into perpendicular and parallel components B, and Bll,we have
Assuming that the current flows in a clockwise direction, as shown in Fig. 521, we find that the perpendicular component azBzresults in forces Zb,Bz on sides (1) and (3) and forces Zb2Bzon sides (2) and (4), all directed toward the center of the loop. The vector sum of these four contractingforces is zero, and no torque is produced. The parallel component of the magnetic flux density, BII,produces the following forces on the four sides:
Again, the net force on the loop, F, + F2 + F, + F,, is zero. However, these forces result in a net torque that can be computed as follows. The torque TI,, due to forces F, and F, on sides (I) and (3), is
512
MAGNETIC FORCES AND TORQUES
219
FIGURE 521 A rectangular loop in a uniform magnetic field (Example 515).
the torque T24, due to forces F2 and F4 on sides (2) and (4), is T2, = ayZb1b2Bx.
(5127b)
The total torque on the rectangular loop is then T = T13 + T2, = Zblb2(axBy ayBx)
(N m).
(5128)
Since the magnetic moment of the loop is m = a,Zbl,b2, the result in = m x B. Hence in spite of the Eq. (5128) is exactly T = m x (axBx+ayBy) fact that Eq. (5124) was derived for a circular loop, the torque formula holds also for a rectangular loop. As a matter of fact, it can be proved that Eq. (5124) holds for a planar loop of any shape as long as it is located in a uniform magnetic field. 

612.2
DIRECTCURRENT MOTORS
Principle of operation of dc motors
The principle of operation of directcurrent (dc) motors is based on Eq. (5124). Figure 522(a) shows a schematic diagram of such a motor. The magnetic field B is produced by a field current I, in a winding around the pole pieces. When a current Z is sent through the rectangular loop, a torque results that makes the loov rotate in a clockwise direction as viewed from the +xdirection. This is illustrated in Fig. 522(b). A split ring with brushes is necessary so that the currents in the two legs of the coil reverse their directions every half of a turn in order to maintain the torque T always in the
(b) Schematic view from +x direction. (a) Perspective view. FIGURE 522 Illustrating the principle of operation of dc motor.
same direction; the magnetic moment m of the loop must have a positive zcomponent. To obtain a smooth and efficient operation, an actual dc motor has many such rectangular loops wound and distributed around an armature with a ferromagnetic core. The ends of each loop are attached to a pair of conducting bars arranged on a small cylindrical drum called a cornmutotor. The commutator has twice as many parallel conducting bars insulated from one another as there are loops. 612.3
FORCES AND TORQUES I N TERMS OF STORED MAGNETIC ENERGY
All currentcarrying conductors and circuits experiencemagnetic forces when situated in a magnetic field. They are held in place only if mechanical forces, equal and opposite to the magnetic forces, exist. Except for special syrnmetrical cases (such as the case of the two infinitely long, currentcarrying, parallel conducting wires in Example 514), determining the magnetic forces between currentcarrying circuits by Amp6re's law of force is often a tedious task. We now examine an alternative method of finding magnetic forces and torques based on the principle of virtual displacement. This principle was used in Subsection 310.2 to determine electrostatic forces between charged conductors. If we assume that no changes in flux linkages result from a virtual differential displacement d l of one of the currentcarrying circuits, there will be no induced emf s, and the sources will supply no energy to the system. The mechanical work, F, d l , done by the system is at the expense of a decrease in the stored magnetic energy, W,. Here, F, denotes the force under the
512
MAGNETICFORCES AND TORQUES
221
constantflux condition. We have F,*dd
=
dWm
=
(VWJ.dd,
from which it follows that Determining magnetic force on a currentcarrying circuit, by method of virtual displacement
In threedimensional space, the vector equation (5130) is actually three equations. For instance, in Cartesian coordinates the force in the xdirection is
Similar expressions can be written for the other directions. If the circuit is constrained to rotate about an axis, say the zaxis, the mechanical work done by the system will be (T,),d4, and Toque about a given axis on a currentcerrying circuit in a magnetic field, by method of virtual displacement
which is the zcomponent of the torque acting on the circuit under the condition of constant flux linkages.
Consider the electromagnet in Fig. 523 in which a current I in an Nturn coil produces a flux in the magnetic circuit. The crosssectional area of the core is S. Determine the lifting force on the armature. FIGUCE 523
An electromagnet (Example 516).
Let the armature take a virtual displacement dy (a differential increase in y) and the source be adjusted to keep the flux @ constant. A displacement of the armature changes only the length of the air gaps; consequently, the displacement changes only the magnetic energy stored in the two air gaps. We have, from Eq. (5106),
 a2 dy. PO
s
An increase in the airgap length (a positive dy) increases the stored magnetic energy if @ is constant. Using Eq. (5130), we obtain the force in the ydirection:
Here the negative sign indicates that the force tends to reduce the airgap length; that is, it is a force of attraction.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4529 Give the integral expression for the force on a closed circuit that carries a current I in a magnetic field B. 4.530 Write the formula expressing the torque on a currentcarrying circuit in a magnetic field. 4531 Explain the principle of operation of dc motors. 4.532 What is the relation between the force and the stored magnetic energy in a system of currentcarrying circuits under the condition of constant flux linkages?
SUMMARY ,
A charge in motion in a region where electric and magnetic fields exist experiences both an electric force and a magnetic force. The total electromagneticforce is given by the Lorentz's force equation. After introducing the formula for the magnetic force on a moving charge in a magnetic field, we presented the two fundamental postulates of magnetostatics in free space that specify the divergence and the curl of B,
derived Amp6re's circuital law, which enabled us to determine the magnetic flux density due to a current distribution under conditions of symmetry, introduced the concept of magnetic vector potential, derived BiotSavart law for determining B caused by a current flowing in a closed path, discussed the microscopic effect of induced dipole moments by finding the equivalent magnetization current densities, defined magnetic field intensity, H, and relative permeability, compared the behavior of different magnetic materials, found the boundary conditions for static magnetic fields, defined selfinductance and mutual inductance, and explained the procedure for their determination, found the formula for stored magnetic energy, discussed the forces and torques on currentcarrying circuits in magnetic fields, and explained the principle of operation of directcurrent motors.
PROBLEMS P S I A point charge Q with a velocity u = axuo enters a region having a uniform magnetic field B = axBx ayBy azBZ.What E field should exist in
+
+
the region so that the charge proceeds without a change of velocity? P.52 Find the total magnetic flux through a circular toroid with a rectangular cross section of height h. The inner and outer radii of the toroid are a and b, respectively. A current I flows in N turns of closely wound wire around the toroid. Determine the percentage of error if the flux is found by multiplying the crosssectional area by the flux density at the mean radius. What is the error if b/a = 5?
FIGURE 524 A finite straight conductor ~arrfinga current I (Problem P.53).
FIGURE 525 A thin conducting sheet carrying a
current I (for Problems P.54 and P.55).
P53 A direct current I flows in a straight filamentary conductor PIP2. a) Prove that B at a point P, whose location is specified by the perpendicular distance r and the two angles a, and a, shown in Fig. 524 is PZ
BP = 4~ (sin i2 sin a,). b) Verify that Eq. (5135) reduces to Eq. (535) when the wire is infinitely long. P.54A current I flows lengthwise in a very long, thin conducting sheet of width w, as shown in Fig. 525. Assuming that the current flows into the paper, determine the magnetic flux density B, at point P,(O, d).
P55 Refer to Problem P.54 and Fig. 525. Find the magnetic flux density B, at point P2(w + d,, 0). p.!% A current I flows in the inner conductor of an infinitely long coaxial line and returns via the outer conductor. The radius of the inner conductor is a, and the inner and outer radii of the outer conductor are b and c, respectively. Find the magnetic flux density B for all regions and plot IBI versus r.
P.57A thin conducting wire of length 3w forms a planar equilateral triangle. A direct current I flows in the wire. Find the magnetic flux density at the center of the triangle. P58 Refer to Fig. 526. Determine the magnetic flux density at a point P on the axis of a solenoid with radius b and length L, and with a current I in its N turns of closely wound coil. Show that the result reduces to that given in Eq. (582) when L approaches infinity. Hint: Use Eq. (537).
P59 A direct current I flows in an infinitely long wire of a radius 2(mm) along the zaxis.
FIGURE 526 A solenoid with circular cross section (Problem P.58).
a) Obtain the vector magnetic potential A at r > 2 ( m ) from the expression of B in Eq. (512). Choose the reference zero potential at wire surface. b) If I = 10(A), determine from A the total amount of magnetic flux passing through a square loop specified by z = +0.3(m) and y = 0.1 (m) and 0.7 (m). P.510A dc surface current with density a,Jao flows in an infinite conducting sheet coinciding with the xyplane. a) Determine the magnetic flux density B at (O,O,z) and at (0,0, z). b) Find the vector magnetic potential A at (O,O,z) from B. Choose the reference zero potential at an arbitrary point z = 2,. P.511 A very large slab of material of thickness d lies perpendicularly to a uniform magnetic field of intensity Ho = a,Ho. Ignoring edge effect, determine the magnetic field intensity in the slab: a) if the slab material has a permeability p, and b) if the slab is a permanent magnet having a magnetization vector Mi = a,Mt. P.512 A circular rod of magnetic material with permeability p is inserted coaxially in a very long air solenoid. The radius of the rod, a, is less than the inner radius, b, of the solenoid. The solenoid's winding has n turns per unit length and carries a current I. a) Find the values of B, H, and M inside the solenoid for r < a and for a w2 > d). P.518 Calculate the force per unit length on each of three equidistant, infinitely long, parallel wires 10(crn) apart, each carrying a current of 25 (A) in the same direction. A cross section of the arrangement is shown in Fig. 529. Specify the direction of the force. P.519The cross section of a long thin metal strip and a parallel wire is shown in Fig. 530. Equal and opposite currents I flow in the conductors. Find the force per unit length on the conductors. PSU) The bar AA' in Fig. 531 serves as a conducting path (such as the blade
FIGURE 527 A long, straight wire and a conducting equilateral triangular loop (Problem P.516).
FIGURE 528 Two coplanar rectangular loops, h, >> h2 (Problem P.517).
FIGURE 529 Three equidistant, infinitely long, currentcarrying wires (Problem P.518).
FIGURE 530 Cross section of parallel strip and wire conductor (Problem P.519).
q ,
FIGURE 531 Force on end conducting bar (Problem P.520).
of a circuit breaker) for the current I in two very long parallel lines. The lines have a radius b and are spaced at a distance d apart. Find the direction and the magnitude of the magnetic force on the bar. PS21 A dc current I = 10(A)flows in a triangular loop in the xyplane as in Fig. 532. Assuming a uniform magnetic flux density B = a,6(mT) in the region, find the forces and torque on the loop. The dimensions are in (cm).
FIGURE 532 A triangular loop in a uniform magnetic field (Problem P.521).
P5.22 A small circular turn of wire of radius rl that carries a steady current I, is placed at the center of a much larger turn of wire of radius r2 (r2 >> r,) that carries a steady current I, in the same direction. The angle between the normals of the two circuits is 8 and the small circular wire is free to turn about its diameter. Determine the magnitude and the direction of the torque on the small circular wire.

6 1 0 V E R V I E W So far we have only dealt with fields that do not change with time. (In constructing the electrostatic model we defined an electric field intensity vector, E, and an electric flux density (electric displacement) vector, D. The fundamental governing differential equations are VxE=O, Fundamental governing equations for electrostatic model
V*D = p,. For linear and isotropic (not necessarily homogeneous) media, E and D are related by the constitutive relation I D = EE.
Constitutive relation for the electric model
(367x63)
For the magnetostatic model we defined a magnetic flux density vector, B, and a magnetic field intensity vector, H. The fundamental governing differential equations are V.B = 0,
Fundamental governing equations for magnetostatic model Constitutive relation for the magnetic model
VxH=J. The constitutive relation for B and H in linear and isotropic media is
1 H=B. Cc
(566166)
We observe that E and D in the electrostatic model are not related to B and H in the magnetostatic model. In a conducting medium, static electric and
TimeVarying Fields and Maxwell's Equations Electromngnetostatic field
magnetic fields may both exist and form an electromagnetostatic&Id. A static electric field in a conducting medium causes a steady current to flow that, in turn, gives rise to a static magnetic field. However, the electric field can be completely determined from the static electric charges or potential distributions. The magnetic field is a consequence; it does not enter into the calculation of the electric field. Static models are simple, but they are inadequate for explaining timevarying electromagnetic phenomena. Static electric and magnetic fields do not give rise to waves that propagate and carry energy and information. Waves are the essence of electromagnetic action at a distance. In this chapter we will see that a changing magnetic field induces an electric field, and vice versa. Under timevarying conditions it is necessary to construct an electromagneticmodel in which the electric field vectors E and D are properly related to the magnetic field vectors B and H. We will begin with a fundamental postulate that modifies the V x E equation in Eq. (61) and leads to Faraday's law of electromagneticinduction. The concepts of transformer emf and motional emf will be discussed. With the new postulate we will also need to modify the V x H equation in order to make the governing equations consistent with the law of conservation of charge. The two modified curl equations together with the two divergence equations (62) and (64), are known as Maxwell's equations and form the foundation of electromag
230
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS netic theory. The governing equations for electrostatics and magnetostatics are special forms of Maxwell's equations when all quantities are independent of time. Maxwell's equations can be combined to yield wave equations that predict the existence of electromagnetic waves propagating with the velocity of light. The solutions of the wave equations, especially for timeharmonic fields, will be discussed in this chapter.
62 FARADAY'SLAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

A major advance in electromagnetic theory was made by Michael Faraday, who, in 1831, discovered experimentally that a current was induced in a conducting loop when the magnetic flux linking the loop changed. The quantitative relationship between the induced emf and the rate of change of flux linkage, based on experimental observation, is known as Faraday's law, It is an experimental law and can be considered as a postulate. However, we do not take the experimental relation concerning a finite loop as the starting point for developing the theory of electromagnetic induction. Instead, we follow our approach in Chapter 3 for electrostatics and in Chapter 5 for magnetostatics by stating a fundamental postulate and developingfrom it the integral forms of Faraday's law. Thefundamental postulate for electromagnetic induction is Fundamental postulate for electromagnetic induction
Electric field intensity in timevarying magnetic field is not conservative.
Equation (67)expresses a pointfunction relationship; that is, it applies to every point in space, whether it be in free space or in a material medium. The electric Jield intensity in a region of timevarying magnetic pux density is therefore nonconservative and cannot be expressed as the negative gradient of a scalar potential. Taking the surface integral of both sides of Eq. (67) over an open surface and applying Stokes's theorem, we obtain
Equation (68)is valid for any surface S with a bounding contour C, whether or not a physical circuit exists around C. Of course, in a field with no time variation, aB/at = 0, Eqs. (67) and (68) reduce to Eqs. (61) and (37), respectively, for electrostatics.
In the following subsections we discuss separately the cases of a stationary circuit in a timevarying magnetic field, a moving conductor in a static magnetic field, and a moving circuit in a timevarying magnetic field. 62.1
A STATIONARY CIRCUIT I N A TIMEVARYING MAGNETIC FIELD
For a stationary circuit with a contour C and surface S, Eq. (68) can be written as
If we define V = fc E . ~ C= emf induced in circuit with contour C
(V) (610)
and
B = Js B. ds = magnetic flux crossing surface S
(Wb),
(611)
then Eq. (69) becomes
Faraday's law of e~ectromagnetic induction
Lmnz's law of transformer emf
Equation (612) states that the electromotiue force induced in a stationary closed cwcuit is equal to the negative rate of increase of the magnetic fix linking the circuit. This is a statement of Faratfay's law of electromagnetic induction. The negative sign in Eq. (612) is an assertion that the induced emf will cause a current to flow in the closed loop in such a direction as to oppose the change in the linking magnetic flux. This assertion is known as Lenz's law. The emf induced in a stationary loop caused by a timevarying magnetic field is a transformer emf.
EXAMPLE 61
A circular loop of N turns of conducting wire lies in the xyplane with its center at the origin of a magnetic field specified by B = a, B, cos (nr/2b)sin a t , where b is the radius of the loop and w is the angular frequency. Find the emf induced in the loop.
SOLUTION The problem specified a stationary loop in a timevarying magnetic field; hence Eq. (612) can be used directly to find the induced emf, V . The
232
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS magnetic flux linking each turn of the circular loop is
= Job
= I
[a, Bo cos
sin
ot] .(a,2nr dr)
(:  1) Bo sin a t .
Since there are N turns, the total flux linkage is NO, and we obtain
K
Boo cos o t
(V).
As the phase of cos o t leads that of sin o t by 90°, we see that the phase of the induced emf lags behind that of the flux linkage by 90". EXERCISE 6.1
Find the emfinduced in the Nturn circular loop of radius b in Example 61 if the magnetic flux density is B = a,Bo(br)cos wt. What is the phase relationship between the induced emf and the magnetic field? ANS. Y
n wb3B, sin wt, lags 90" behind B in phase. 3
= N
62.2 TRANSFORMERS
Functions of a transformer
A transformer is an alternatingcurrent (ac) device that transforms voltages, currents, and impedances. It usually consists of two or more coils coupled magnetically through a common ferromagnetic core, such as that sketched in Fig. 61. For the closed path in the magnetic circuit traced by magnetic flux @, we have where N,, N2 and i,, i2 are the numbers of turns and the currents in the primary and secondary circuits, respectively. The left side of Eq. (613) is the closed line integral 4 ~ . d t ?around the transformer core, a consequence of [email protected] circuital law as expressed in Eq. (563), and represents the net magnetomotive force (mmfSI unit: ampereturn). We have noted, in accordance with Lenz's law, that the induced mmf in the secondary circuit, N2i2, opposes the flow of magnetic flux created by the mmf in the primary circuit, N,i,. On the right side of Eq. (613) W denotes the reluctance of the
FIGURE 61 Schematic diagram of a transformer.
Conditions of an ideal transformer
Current re'ati0n for an ideal transformer
magnetic circuit, which depends on the geometry and is inversely proportional to the permeability of the core material.' Equation (613) for a magnetic circuit is analogous to an expression of Kirchhoff s voltage law for a dc electric circuit, which says that the net emf around a closed circuit is equal to the sum of the resistances times the current. Here W and Q, are analogous to resistance and current respectively. For ideal transformers we assume there is no leakage flux, and that p + co,W = 0. Equation (613) becomes
Equation (614) states that the ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary windings of an ideal transformer is equal to the inverse ratio of the numbers of t m . Faraday's law tells us that
and
'The calculation of the reluctance of a magnetic circuit is similar to that of a resistance in an electric circuit, but the result can only be approximate because of the existence of leakage flux and the nonuniformity of the crosssectional area of the transformer core. (Leakage flux is that part of magnetic flux that does not link with the entire magnetic circuit.) We will not elaborate on the determination of here. The SI unit for reluctance is reciprocal henry (H').
234
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
the proper signs for v, and v2 having been taken care of by the designated polarities in Fig. 61. From Eqs. (615) and (616) we have
Voltage relation for an ideal transformer
Thus, the ratio of the voltages across the primary and secondary windings of an ideal transformer is equal to the turns ratio. When the secondary winding is terminated in a load resistance RL, as shown in Fig. 61, the effective load seen by the source connected to primary winding is
Resistance transformation by an ideal transformer
which is the load resistance multiplied by the square of the turns ratio. For a sinusoidal source v,(t) and a load impedance Z,, the effective load seen by the source is (Nl/N2)2ZL,an impedance transformation. We have Impedance transformation by an ideal transformer
Why an exact analysis of a real transformer is difficult
Defintion of eddy current Principle of induction heating
We note from Section 510 that the inductance of a coil is proportional to the , for an ideal permeability of the medium. Thus, the assumption of an infinite u transformer also implies infinite inductances. For real transformers we have the following reallife conditions: the existence of leakage flux, noninfinite inductances, nonzero winding resistances, and the presence of hysteresis and eddycurrent losses. The nonlinear nature of the ferromagnetic core (the dependence of permeability on magnetic field intensity) further compounds the difficulty of an exact analysis of real transformers. When timevarying magnetic flux flows in the ferromagnetic core, an induced emf will result in accordance with Faraday's law. This induced emf will produce local currents in the conducting core normal to the magnetic flux. These currents are called eddy currents. Eddy currents produce ohmic power loss and cause local heating. As a matter of fact, this is the principle of induction heating. Induction furnaces have been built to produce high
(a)
Co)
FIGURE 62 Laminated cores in a timevarying magnetic field.
lamination for reducing eddycurrent power 108s 'Ore
EXERCISE 6.2
enough temperatures to melt metals. In transformers this eddycurrent power loss is undesirable and can be reduced by using core materials that have high permeability but low conductivity (high p and low a). Ferrites are such materials. For lowfrequency, highpower applications, an economical way for reducing eddylcurrent power loss is to use laminated cores; that is, to make transformer cores out of stacked ferromagnetic (iron) sheets, each electrically insulated from its neighbors by thin varnish or oxide coatings. The insulating coatings should be parallel to the direction of the magnetic flux, as shown in Fig. 62(a), so that eddy currents normal to the flux are restricted to the laminated sheets. The arrangement in Fig. 62(b) with insulated layers normal to the magnetic flux clearly has little effect in reducing eddycurrent power loss. It can be proved that the total eddycurrent power loss decreases as the number of laminations increases. The amount of powerloss reduction depends on the shape and size of the cross section as well as on the method of lamination. A resistance of 75 (a) is to be converted into 300(a) by means of an ideal transformer. What turnsratio should the transformer have? ANS. 2:l.
823 A MOVING CONDUCTOR I N A STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD
When a conductor moves with a velocity o in a static (nontimevarying) magnetic field B as shown in Fig. 63, a force F, = qu x B will cause the freely movable electrons in the conductor to drift toward one end of the conductor and leave the other end positively charged. This separation of the positive and negative charges creates a Coulornbian force of attraction. The chargeseparation process continues until the electric and magnetic forces balance each other and a state of equilibrium is reached. At equilibrium,
236
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
O
O
O B O
FIGURE 63 A conducting bar moving in a magnetic field.
which is reached very rapidly, the net force on the free charges in the moving conductor is zero. To an observer moving with the conductor there is no apparent motion, and the magnetic force per unit charge F,/q = u x B can be interpreted as an induced electric field acting along the conductor and producing a voltage
If the moving conductor is a part of a closed circuit C, then the emf generated around the circuit is
Definition of motional emf
This is referred to as a fixcutting emf or a motional emf. Obviously, only the part of the circuit that moves in a direction not parallel to (and hence, figuratively, "cutting") the magnetic flux will contribute to Y' in Eq. (622).
EXAMPLE62 A metal bar slides over a pair of conducting rails in a uniform magnetic field B = a,B, with a constant velocity u, as shown in Fig. 64. a)
b) c)
Determine the opencircuit voltage V, that appears across terminals 1 and 2. Assuming that a resistance R is connected between the terminals, find the electric power dissipated in R. Show that this electric power is equal to the mechanical power required to move the sliding bar with a velocity u. Neglect the electric resistance of the metal bar and of the conducting rails. Neglect also the mechanical friction at the contact points.
a)
The moving bar generates a fluxcutting emf. We use Eq. (622) to find the opencircuit voltage Vo:
=
b)
s2:
(axu x a=SO) (a,,d l )
When a resistance R is connected between terminals 1 and 2, a current Z = uBoh/R will flow from terminal 2 to terminal 1, so the electric power, P,, dissipated in R is (uB0hl2 P, = z2R = R
c)
0.
(624)
The mechanical power, Pm, required to move the sliding bar is Pm=F*u
(W),
(625)
where F is the mechanical force required to counteract the magnetic force, F,, which the magnetic field exerts on the currentcarrying metal bar. From Eq. (5116) we have
F.=Z
J dl x
B = axZBoh
,
(N).
2'
The negative sign in Eq. (626) arises because current I flows in a direction opposite to that of d l . Hence, F=Fm=axIBoh=axuB~h2/R
(N).
FIGURE 6 4 A metal bar sliding over conducting rails (Example 62).
(627)
238
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS Substitution of Eq. (627) in Eq. (625) proves that P, = P,, which upholds the principle of conservation of energy.
EXAMPLE 63 P
Farad.y dirk goner8tor
The Foraday disk gelmator consists of a circular metal disk rotating with a constant angular velocity o in a uniform and constant magnetic field of flux density B = a,Bo that is parallel to the axis of rotation. Brush contacts are provided at the axis and on the rim of the disk, as depicted in Fig. 65. Determine the opencircuit voltage of the generator if the radius of the disk is b.
Let us consider the circuit 122'341'1. Of the part 2'34 that moves with the disk, only the straight portion 34 "cuts" the magnetic flux. We have, from Eq. (623, V, = f ( w x B)*dt
which is the emf of the Faraday disk generator. To measure Vo, we must use a voltmeter of a very high resistance so that no appreciable current flows in the circuit to modify the externally applied magnetic field. FIGURE 65 Faraday disk generator (Example 63).
02.4
A M O V I N G CIRCUIT I N A TIMEVARYING MAGNETIC FIFLD
When a charge q moves with a velocity u in a region where both an electric field E and a magnetic field B exist, the electromagnetic force F on q, as measured by a laboratory observer, is given by Lorentz's force equation:
[email protected]+u lorentz's force equation
x B).
(55x629)
To an observer moving with q, there is no apparent motion, and the force on q can be interpreted as caused by an electric field E', where
Hence, when a conducting circuit with contour C and surface S moves with a velocity u in a field (E, B), we use Eq. (631) in Eq. (68) to obtain General form of Fareday's law
I :,S f E'*dd=
*ds+
(uxB)*dd
(V).
Equation (632) is the general form of Furaday's krw for a moving circuit in a timevarying magnetic field. The line integral on the left side is the emf induced in the moving frame of reference. The first term on the right side represents the transformer emf due to the time variation of B, and the second term represents the motional emf due to the motion of the circuit in B. If we designate the left side of Eq. (632) by
v =fCEDdt = emf induced in circuit C measured in the moving frame, (633)
it can be proved in general that Eq. (632) is equivalent to Another form of Feradey's law
which is of the same form as Eq. (612). Of course, if a circuit is not in motion, yl reduces to Y. Hence, Faraday's law that the emf induced in a closed circuit equals the negative timerate of increase of the magnetic flux linking a
240
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EOUATIONS circuit applies to a stationary circuit as well as a moving one. Either Eq. (632) or Eq. (634) can be used to evaluate the induced emf in the general case.
Determine the opencircuit voltage of the Faraday disk generator in Example 63 by using Eq. (634).
We solved the problem in Example 63 by using Eq. (622), which is Eq. (632) with aB/at = 0. In order to use Eq. (634), we first find the magnetic flux linking the circuit 122'341'1 in Fig. 65, which is the flux passing through the wedgeshaped area 2'342'.
and
which is the same as Eq. (628).
EXERCISE 6.3
Determine the opencircuit voltage that appears across terminals 1 and 2 in Example 62 by using Eq.(634).
An h by w rectangular conducting loop is situated in a changing magnetic field B = a, B, sin o t . The normal of the loop initially makes an angle a with a,, as shown in Fig. 66. Find the induced emf in the loop: (a) when the loop is at rest, and (b) when the loop rotates with an angular velocity o about the xaxis.
a)
When the loop is at rest, we use Eq. (612): =
J Bads
= (a, Bo sin
ot) (a, hw)
= Bohw sin o t cos a.
(a) Perspective view.
(b) View from +x direction.
FIGURE 66 A rectangular conducting loop rotating in a changing magnetic field (Example 65).
Therefore,
y =  d=o dt
B0So cos o t cos a,
(637)
where S = hw is the area of the loop. The relative polarities of the terminals are as indicated. If the circuit is completed through an external load, L;; will produce a current that will oppose the change in 0.
b)
When the loop rotates about the xaxis, both terms in Eq. (632) contribute: the first term contributes the transformer emf L;; in Eq. (637), and ,the second term contributes a motional emf .L;;', where n
= J2'
+
I.
o) x (a,, Bo sin or)
[(an
(a. dx)
o) x (a, Bosin ot)
I
(axdx)
242
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS Note that the sides 23 and 41 do not contribute to "I;;' and that the contributions of sides 12 and 34 are of equal magnitude and in the same direction. If a = 0 at t = 0, then a = wt, and we can write "I;;' = BoSw sin wt sin wt.
(638)
The total emf induced or generated in the rotating loop is the sum of "I;; in Eq. (637) and "I;;' in Eq. (638):
v = BoSw(cos2wt  sin2wt) = BoSw cos 2wt,
(639)
which has an angular frequency 2w. Thus the arrangement in Fig. 66 is a generator of second harmonics. by applying Eq. (634) We can determine the total induced emf directly. At any time t, the magnetic flux linking the loop is
v
@(t) = B(t). [a,(t)S] = BoSsin wt cos a = BoS sin
wt cos wt = ~ B , Ssin 2wt.
Hence,
as before.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.61 What constitutes an electromagnetostaticfield? In what ways are E and B related in a conducting medium under static conditions? Q.62 Write the fundamental postulate for electromagnetic induction. Q.63 State Lenz's law. Q.64 Write the expression for transformer emf. Q.65 How do the primarytosecondary voltage and current ratios in an ideal transformer depend on the turns ratio of its windings? Q.66 What are eddy currents? Q.67 What is the principle of inductiong heating? 4.68 Why are materials having high permeability and low conductivity preferred as transformer cores? Q.69 Why are the cores of power transformers laminated? 4.610 Write the general form of Faraday's law. 4.611 What is a Faraday disk generator?
The fundamental postulate for electromagnetic induction assures us that a timevarying magnetic field gives rise to an electric field. This assurance has been amply verified by numerous experiments. The V x E = 0 equation (61) must therefore be replaced by Eq, (67)in the timevarying case. We now have the following collection of two curl equations, (67) and (65), and two divergence equations, (62) and (64):
VxH=J, VD = p,, VB = 0. In addition, we know that the principle of conservation of charge must be satisfied at all times. The mathematical expression of charge conservation is the equation of continuity:
The crucial question here is whether the set of four equations in (6Ma,b, c, and d) is now consistent with the requirement specified by Eq. (641) in a timevarying situation. That the answer is in the negative is immediately obvious by simply taking the divergence of Eq. (6Mb), Equation (642) follows from the null identity, Eq. (2109), which asserts that

244
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS the divergence of the curl of any wellbehaved vector field is zero. Since Eq. (641) indicates that V gJ does not vanish in a timevarying situation, Eq. (640b) is, in general, not true. and d) be modified so that they are How should Eqs. consistent with Eq. (641)? First of all, a term ap,/at must be added to the right side of Eq. (642):
Using Eq. (640c) in Eq. (643), we have
which implies that
Time rate of change of D gives rise to a displacement current density.
Differential (operator) form of Maxwell's equations
Equation (644) indicates that a timevarying electric field will give rise to a magnetic field, even in the absence of a free current flow (i.e., even when J = 0). The additional term aD/at is necessary to make Eq. (644) consistent with the principle of conservation of charge. It iseasy io verify that aD/at has thekmension of a current density (SI unit: A/m2). The term aD/at is called displacement current density, and its introduction in the V x H equation was one of the major contributions of James Clerk Maxwell (18311879). In order to be consistent with the equation of continuity in a timevarying situation, both of the curl equations in (61) and (65) must be generalized. The set of four consistent equations to replace the inconsistent equations in Eqs. (640a, b, c, and d) is VxE=VxH=J+, V.D = p,, V*B= 0. They are known as MaxweU's equations. Note that p, in Eq. (64%) is the volume density of free charges, and J in Eq. (645b) is the density of pee currents, which may comprise both convection current (p,u) and conduction current (aE). These fourequations, together with the equation of continuity in Eq. (641) and Lorentz's force equation in Eq. (59, form the foundation of
The four Maxwell's equations are not all independent.
EXERCISE 6.4
63.1
electromagnetic theory. These equations can be used to explain and predict all macroscopic electromagnetic phenomena. Although the four Maxwell's equations in Eqs. (645a,b, c, and d) are consistent, they are not all independent. As a matter of fact, the two divergence equations, Eqs. (645c and d), can be derived from the two curl equations, Eqs. (645a and b), by making use of the equation of continuity, Eq. (641). See Exercise 6.4 below. Take the divergence of the two curl equations (645a) and (645b) and derive the two divergence equations (64%) and (645d)with the aid of the equation of continuity (641).
INTEGRAL FORM OF MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
The four Maxwell's equations in (645a, b, c, and d) are differential equations that are valid at every point in space. In explaining electromagnetic phenomena in a physical environment we must deal with finite objects of specified shapes and boundaries. It is convenient to convert the differential forms into their integralform equivalents. We take the surface integral of both sides of the curl equations in Eqs. (645a) and (645b) over an open surface S with a contour C and apply Stokes's theorem to obtain Integral form of Maxwell's equations
and
Taking the volume integral of both sides of the divergence equations in Eqs. (645c) and (645d) over a volume V with a closed surface S and using divergence theorem, we have
and
246
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
TABLE61
MAXWELL'SEQUATIONS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
Differential Form
Integral Form
[email protected]
Faraday's law VxH=J+
aD
.ds
Amp6re7scircuital law Gauss's law
V  D = p, P
No isolated magnetic charge
The set of four equations in (646a, b, c, and d) is the integral form of Maxwell's equations. Both the differential and integral forms of Maxwell's equations as well as their significance are listed in Table 61 for easy reference.
An ac source of amplitude Vo and angular frequency o , v, = Vosinot, is connected across a parallelplate capacitor C,, as shown in Fig. 67. (a) Verify that the displacement current in the capacitor is the same as the conduction current in the wires. (b) Determine the magnetic field intensity at a distance r from the wire.
a)
The conduction current in the connecting wire is
For a parallelplate capacitor with an area A, plate separation d, and a dielectric medium of permittivity E, the capacitance is
With a voltage vc appearing between the plates, the uniform electric field intensity E in the dielectric is equal to (neglecting fringing effects) E = vc/d, whence
The displacement current is then
FIGURE 67 A parallelplate capacitor connected to an ac voltage source (Example 66).
b)
which is what we wanted to verify. The magnetic field intensity at a distance r from the conducting wire can be found by applying the generalized Amphe's circuital law, Eq. (646b), to contour C in Fig. 67. Two typical open surfaces with rim C may be chosen: (1) a planar disk surface S,, or (2) a curved surface S, passing through the dielectric medium. Symmetry around the wire ensures a constant H4 along the contour C. The line integral on the left side of Eq. (646b) is fc H d l = 2nrH4.
For the surface S,, only the first term on the right side of Eq. (646b) is nonzero because no charges are deposited along the wire and, consequently, D = 0. Jsi a d s = ic = clvoacos at.
Since the surface S, passes through the dielectric medium, no conduction current flows through S,. If the second surface integral were not there, the right side of Eq. (646b) would be zero. This would result in a contradiction. The inclusion of the displacementcurrent term by Maxwell eliminates this contradiction. As we have shown in part (a), i, = ic. Hence we obtain the same result whether surface S1 or surface S , is chosen. Equating the two previous integrals, we find that H4= Cl v, w cos a t . 2nr
248
63.2
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
ELECTROMAGNETIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
In order to solve electromagnetic problems involving contiguous regions of different constitutive parameters, it is necessary to know the boundary conditions that the field vectors E, D, Byand H must satisfy at the interfaces. Boundary conditions are derived by applying the integral form of Maxwell's equations (646a, byc, and d) to a small region at an interface of two media in manners similar to those used in obtaining the boundary conditions for static electric and magnetic fields. The integral equations are assumed to hold for regions containing discontinuous media. (You should review the procedures followed in Sections 38 and 59.) In general, the application of the integral form of a curl equation to a flat closed path at a boundary with top and bottom sides in the two touching media yields the boundary condition for the tangential components. On the other hand, the application of the integral form of a divergence equation to a shallow pillbox at an interface with top and bottom faces in the two contiguous media gives the boundary condition for the normal components. The boundary conditions for the tangential components of E and H are obtained from Eqs. (646a) and (646b), respectively: Boundary condition for tangential component of E
Boundary condition for tangential component of H
(647b) We note that Eqs. (647a) and (647b) for the timevarying case are exactly the same as Eq. (372) for static electric fields and Eq. (571) for static magnetic fields, respectively, in spite of the existence of the timevarying terms in Eqs. (646a) and (646b). Similarly, the boundary conditions for the normal components of D and B are obtained from Eqs. (646c) and (646d):
Boundary condition for normal component of D
(647~) where the reference normal direction is outward from medium 2; and
Boundary condition for normal component of B
(647d) These are the same as, respectively, Eq. (375b) for static electric fields and Eq.
(568) for static magnetic fields because we start from the same divergence equations. In the following we summarize the boundary conditions of two important special cases. A.
Interface between two lossless media A lossless linear medium can be specified by a permittivity e and a permeability p, with a = 0. There are usually no free charges and no surface currents at the interface between two lossless media. We set p, = 0 and J, = 0 in Eqs. (647c) and (647b), and obtain the boundary conditions listed in Table 62. We see that in this case E,, H,, D, and B, are all continuous at the interface.
B.
Interface between a dielectric and a perfect conductor A perfect conductor is one with an infiniteconductivity. In the physical world we have an abundance of "good conductors" such as silver, copper, gold, and aluminium, whose conductivities are of the order of 107(S/m). (See the table in Appendix B4.) In order to simplify the analytical solution of field problems, good conductors are often considered perfect conductors in regard to boundary conditions. In the interior of a perfect conductor the electric field is zero (otherwise, it would produce an infinite current density), and any charges the conductor will have will reside on the surface only. The interrelationship between (E, D) and (B, H) through Maxwell's equations ensures that B and H are also zero in the interior of a conductor in a timevarying situation. Consider an interface between a lossless dielectric (medium 1) and a perfect conductor (medium 2). In medium 2, E, = 0, H, = 0, D, = 0, and B, = 0. The general boundary conditions in Eqs. (647a, b, c, and d) reduce to those listed in Table 63. In this case, E, and B, are continuous, but H, and D, are discontinuous by an amount equal to the surface current density J , and surface charge density p,, respectively. It is important to note that, when we apply Eqs. (649b) and (649c), the reference normal is outward from the surface of the conductor (medium 2).
250
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDSAND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
TABLE63
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS BETWEEN A DIELECTRIC (MEDIUM 1) AND A
PERFECT CONDUCTOR (MEDIUM2) (TIMEVARYING CASE)
On the Side of Medium 1
EXERCISE 6.5
On tbe Side of Medium 2
Assume that the y = 0 plane separates air in the upper halfspace (y >O) from a good conductor and that a surface charge density p, = Cl sinfix and a surface current density J, = a,C,cosfix exist on the interface. (C,, C,, and fi are constants.) Determine E and H in the air at the interface.
ANS E = ay(Cl/~,)sin px, H = a,C, cos fix. REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.612 Write the differentialform of Maxwell's equations. 4.613 Explain the significance of displacement current. Q.614 Write the integral form of Maxwell's equations, and identify each equation with the proper experimental law. Q.615 State the boundary conditions for E, and for B,. Q.616 State the boundary conditions for H,and for D,. Q.617 Why is the E field immediately outside of a perfect conductor perpendicular to the conductor surface? Q.618 Why is the H field immediately outside of a perfect conductor tangential to the conductor surface? Q.619 Can a static magnetic field exist in the interior of a perfect conductor? Explain. Can a timevarying magnetic field? Explain.
In Section 53 the concept of the vector magnetic potential A was introduced because of the solenoidal nature of B (V B = 0):
If Eq. (650) is substituted in the differential form of Faraday's law, Eq. (67), we get
Since the sum of the two vector quantities in the parentheses of Eq. (652) is curlfree, it can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar. To be consistent with the definition of the scalar electric potential V in Eq. (326) for electrostatics, we write
from which we obtain In timevarying case, E is a function of both scalar electric potential V and vector magnetic potential A.
(653) In the static case, aA/at = 0, and Eq. (653) reduces to E =  VK Hence E can be determined from V alone, and B from A by Eq. (650). For timevarying fields, E depends on both V and A; that is, an electric field intensity can result both from accumulations of charge through the VV term and from timevarying magnetic fields through the  aA/at term. Inasmuch as B also depends on A, E and B are coupled. Let us substitute Eqs. (650) and (653) into Eq. (645b) and make use of the constitutive relations H = B/p and D = EE.We have
where a homogeneous medium has been assumed. Recalling the vector
252
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS identity for V x V x A in Eq. (516a), we can write Eq. (654) as
Now, the definition of a vector requires the specification of both its curl and its divergence. Although the curl of A is designated Bin Eq. (650),we are still at liberty to choose the divergence of A. We let Lorentz condition for potentials
which makes the second term on the right side of Eq. (655) vanish and reduces Eq. (655) to a simplest possible form. We then have Wave equation for vector potential A
Equation (657)is the nonhomogeneous wave equationfor vector potential A. It is called a wave equation because its solutions represent waves traveling with a velocity equal to 1 1 6e. This will become clear in Subsection 64.1 when the solution of wave equations is discussed. The relation between A and V in Eq. (656) is called the Lorentz condition (or Lorentz gauge) for potentials. It reduces to the condition V * A = 0 in Eq. (519) for static fields. A corresponding wave equation for the scalar potential V is Wave potential %r scalar potential V
which is the nonhmogeneous wave equation for scalar potential K Hence the Lorentz condition in Eq. (656) uncouples the wave equations for A and for V: Note the similarities of Eqs. (657) and (658), and the analogy among the quantities: A K J p,,, and p l/e. N
EXERCISE 6.6


Derive the wave equation (658) for V by using Eq. (653) in Eq. (640c).
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.620 How are the scalar electric potential V and the vector magnetic potential A defined? Q.621 What is a wave equation?
,."
I


. . . . . .."
.. 
..
. .
.. .. .
.
.. . ...
Timevarying potential functions Y and A satisfy the wave equation
L
64.1
. .
 "l
/
SOLUTION OF WAVE EQUATIONS
We now consider the solution of the nonhomogeneous wave equation (658) for scalar potential V due to a charge distribution p, in a restricted region. Let an elemental point charge p,dv' be situated at the origin at time t. At a distance R far away from the origin we can assume spherical symmetry (that is, V depends only on R and t, not on 8 or 4). Using Eq. (3129),we can write Eq. (658) as
We now introduce a new variable
1 V(R,t ) =  U(R,t), R which simplifies Eq. (659)to
Equation (661) is a onedimensional homogeneous wave equation. It can be verified by direct substitution (see Problem P.611) that any twicedifferentiable function of ( t  R&) is a solution of Eq. (661). We write The function at new distance R + AR at a later time t
+ At is
U ( R + AR, t + At) = f [ t + At  ( R + AR)&] which equals f (t  R&)
and retains its form if At =
ARG = AR/up. The
254
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS A N D MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS quantity
Velocity of wave propagation in a medium with constitutive parameters E and p is 1/56.
1 up = 
(663)
fi
is the velocity of wave propagation, a characteristic of the medium. In air, it is equal to c = 1 1 6 . From Eqs. (660) and (662) we have
To determine what the specific function f(t  R/u$ must be, we note from Eq. (329) that for a static point charge p(t)Avl at the origin,
Comparison of Eqs. (664) and (665) enables us to identify
The potential due to a charge distribution over a volume V' is then Finding retarded scalar potential V from charge distribution
Equation (667) indicates that the scalar potential at a distance R from the source at time t depends on the value of the charge density at an earlier time (t  R/up). For this reason, V(R, t) in Eq. (667) is called the retarded scalar potential. The solution of the nonhomogeneous wave equation, Eq. (657), for vector magnetic potential A can proceed in exactly the same way as that for K The vector equation, Eq. (657), for A can be decomposed into three scalar equations, each similar to Eq. (658)for V; The retarded vector potential is thus given by Finding retarded vector potential A from current distribution
Circuit theory ignores timeretardation effect
J(t  R/u )
dv'
(Wb/m).
The electric and magnetic fields derived from A and V by differentiation will obviously also be functions of (t  R/u$ and therefore retarded in time. It takes time for electromagnetic waves to travel and for the effects of timevarying charges and currents to be felt at distant points. In circuit theory this timeretardation effect is ign~redand instant response is assumed.
EXERCISE 6.7
A radar signal sent from earth to the moon is received back on the earth after a delay of 2.562 (s). Determine the distance between the surfaces of earth and the moon at that moment in kilometers and in miles. ANS. 3.843 x lo5(km), or 238,844 miles.
EXERCISE 68
What is the distance equivalent to one light year? ANS. 9.46 x lo1*(km), or 5.88 trillion miles.
REVIEW QUESTIONS Q.622 What does retarded potential mean in electromagnetics? Q.623 In what ways do the retardation time and the velocity of wave propagation depend on the constitutive parameters of the medium?
Timeharmonic fields are sinusoidal fields.
Maxwell's equations and all the equations derived from them so far in this chapter hold for electromagnetic quantities with an arbitrary timedependence. The actual type of time functions that the field quantities assume depends on the source functions p, and J. In engineering, sinusoidal time functions occupy a unique position. They are easy to generate; arbitrary periodic time functions can be expanded into Fourier series of harmonic sinusoidal components; and transient nonperiodic functions can be expressed as Fourier integrals. Hence for source functions with an arbitrary time dependence,electrodynamic fields can be determined in terms of those caused by the various frequency components of the source functions. The application of the principle of superposition (adding the results due to the various frequencies) will give us the total fields. In this section we examine timeharmonic (steadystate sinusoidal) field relationships. 
65.1
THE USE OF PHASORSA
REVIEW
For timeharmonic fields it is convenient to use a phasor notation. At this time we digress briefly to review the use of phasors. Conceptually, it is simpler to discuss a scalar phasor. The instantaneous (timedependent) expression of
256
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS a sinusoidal scalar quantity, such as a current i, can be written as either a cosine or a sine function. If we choose a cosine function as the reference (which is usually dictated by the functional form of the excitation), then all derived results will refer to the cosine function. The specification of a sinusoidal quantity requires the knowledge of three parameters: amplitude, frequency, and phase. For example, i(t) = locos (ot + $),
(669)
where 1, is the amplitude; o is the angular frequency (rad/s)o is always equal to 21tJ f being the frequency in hertz; and 4 is the phase angle referred to the cosine function. We can also write i(t) in Eq. (669) as a sine function if we wish: i(t) = 1, sin (at + qY), with qY = 4 + z/2. Thus it is important to decide at the outset whether our reference is a cosine or a sine function, then to stick to that decision throughout a problem. To work directly with an instantaneous expression such as the cosine function is inconvenient when differentiations or integrations of i(t) are involved because they lead to both sine (firstorder differentiation or integration) and cosine (secondorder differentiation or integration) functions and because it is tedious to combine sine and cosine functions. For instance, the loop equation for a series RLC circuit with an applied voltage v(t) = Vo cos o t is
If we write the resulting current i(t) in the form of Eq. (669), Eq. (670) yields lo[oLsin =
( o t + $ ) + ~cos ( o t + 4 ) + 
1 sin ( o f + $ ) wc
& cos a t .
I (671)
Obviously, complicated mathematical manipulations are required in order to determine the unknown 1, and $ from Eq. (671). It is much simpler to use exponential functions? by writing the applied voltage as o(t) = Vo cos o t = Ws[(Voe'o)ejwf] = We(r/,eiwf)
(672)
and i(t) in Eq. (669) as i(t) = we [([email protected])eiwf ] = We(lsejrof),
'ejm'
= cos wt
+ j sin wt,w s wt = &(eN1), sin wt =
4m(ejm').
where We means "the real part of." In Eqs. (672) and (673),
Phasors: polar forms of complex quantities containing amplitude and phase information
are (scalar) phasors that contain amplitude and phase information but are independent o f t . The phasor I/, in Eq. (674) with zero phase angle is the reference phasor. From Eq. (673) we have di dt
 = We(jol,ejmf),
and
676)
idt = i O s ( i e j m f ) .
Substitution of Eqs. (672) through (677) in Eq. (670) yields
Converting phasors to instantaneous sinusoidal time functions
from which the current phasor I, can be solved easily. Note that the timedependent factor ejm' disappears from Eq. (678)because it is present in every term after the substitution in Eq. (670)and is therefore canceled. After I, has been determined, the instantaneous current response i(t) can be found from Eq. (673) by multiplying I, by ejm' and taking the real part of the product. If the applied voltage had been given as a sine function such as v(t) = Vosin o t , the series RLCcircuit problem would be solved in terms of phasors in exactly the same way; only the instantaneous expressions would be obtained by taking the imaginary part of the product of the phasors with ejmt. The complex phasors represent the magnitudes and the phase shifts of the quantities in the solution of timeharmonic problems.
Write the phasor expression I, for the following current functions using a cosine reference. a)
i(t) = I0 cos (wt  30°), and
b)
i(t) = I, sin (wt + 0 . 2 ~ ) .
SOLUTION
For cosine reference we write i(t) = We(Isejmf). a)
i(t) = lo cos (cot  30") = W~[(Ioej30)ejm'].
Thus, 1, =  Ioej 3 v =

~
~
5n/6. / ~
~ =: z O j e j~
258
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS b)
+
i(t) = I , sin (at 0.274
 g , [ ( l o e i 0.2n)ej "12. e j @ t ] , where the e  j "I2 factor is needed because the phase of sin ot lags behind that of cos ot by 90" or 4 2 (rad). We have
Is = ( 1 ~ ~ j o . 2 n ) e  i n / = 2 I,~~O.~X,
1 EXERCISE 6.9
Find the phasor expressions I; for the current functions in Example 67 using a sine reference, i(t) = 4m(ILejm'). ANS (a) I,ejz13, or Ioei2n13. (b)IOej0.2n.
EXAMPLE 68
Write the instantaneous expressions v(t) for the following phasors using a cosine reference: a) b)
'V, = Voeini4, 'V,=3j4.
a)
v(t)= We[KeicOt]
and
= W , [(Voejn14)[email protected]] = Vo cos (wt
b)
+ ~14).
'v, = 3  j 4 = J w e j t a n  1 (  4 / 3 )  5ej53.10 Thus, v(t) = Ws[(5ej 53.14ejmt] = 5 cos (at 53.1 ").
EXERCISE6.10
Write the phasor expression E for the voltage v(t) = locos (wt45'). ANS. i o e  j n 1 4 .
EXERCISE 6.11
1 EXERCISE 6.12
Write the instantaneous expression v(t) for the phasor < = 4 + j 3 using a cosine reference.
Write the instantaneous expression u(t) for the phasor reference.
=4
+j3
using a sine
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.624 What is a phasor? Are phasors functions o f t ? Functions of w? Q.625 What is the difference between a phasor and a vector?
65.2
TIMEHARMONIC ELECTROMAGNETICS
Field vectors that vary with space coordinates and are sinusoidal functions of time can similarly be represented by vector phasors that depend on space coordinates but not on time. As an example, we can write a timeharmonic E field referring to cos wt as where E(x, y, z) is a vector phasor that contains information on direction, magnitude, and phase. From Eqs. (676) and (677)we see that, if E(x, y, z; t) is to be represented by the vector phasor E(x, y, z), then aE(x, y,z; t)/at and jE(x, y,z; t)dt would be represented by vector phasors jwE(x, y,z) and E(x, y, z)/jw, respectively. Higherorder differentiations and integrations with respect to t would be represented by multiplications and divisions, respectively, of the phasor E(x, y, z) by higher powers of jw. We now write timeharmonic Maxwell's equations (645a, b, c, and d) in terms of vector field phasors (E, H) and source phasors (p,, J) in a simple (linear, isotropic, and homogeneous) medium as follows. Timeharmonic Maxwell's equations in terms of phasors
The spacecoordinate arguments and the subscript s indicating a phasor quantity have been omitted for simplicity. The fact that the same notations 'If the time reference is not explicitly [email protected],
it is customarily taken as ws of.
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
260
are used for the phasors as are used for their corresponding timedependent quantities should create little confusion because we will deal almost exclusively with timeharmonic fields (and therefore with phasors) in the rest of this book. When there is a need to distinguish an instantaneous quantity from a phasor, the time dependence of the instantaneous quantity will be indicated explicitly by the inclusion of a t in its argument. REVIEW QUESTION 4626 Discuss the advantages of using phasors in electromagnetics.
In terms of phasors we can write timeharmonic wave equation (658) for scalar potential V as
Helmholtz's equation for scalar potential V
where
Definition of wave number
271f k==Up
271
/I
is called the wavenumber. It is a measure of the number of wavelengths in a span of 271. Similarly, the phasor form of timeharmonic wave equation (657) for vector potential A is Helmholtz's equation for vector potential A
Equations (681) and (683) are referred to as nonhomogeneous Helmholtz's equations. W
EXERCISE 6.13
Write the phasor form for the Lorentz condition for potentials, Eq. (656).
REVIEW QUESTION 4.627 D e h e wavenumber. What is its SI unit?
The solution of the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz's equation (681)for V can be obtained from Eq. (667). The potential V(R, t) involves a time advance R/up for p,, which is equivalent to a phase lead of w(R/up)or kR. In phasor notation this requires a multiplying factor ejkR.Hence the phasor form for Eq. (667) is Phasor form for retarded scalar potential
Similarly, the phasor solution of Eq. (683) for A is Phasor form for retarded vector potential
These are the expressions for the retarded scalar and vector potentials due to timeharmonic sources. Now the Taylorseries expansion for the exponential factor ejkRis
Thus, if
or if the distance R is very small in comparison to the wavelength 1, e  j k Rcan
262
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
Procedure for determining instantaneous electric and magnetic fields
be approximated by 1. Equations (684) and (685) then simplify to the static expressions in Eqs. (339) and (522), respectively. The formal procedure for determining the electric and magnetic fields due to timeharmonic charge and current distributions is as follows: Find phasors V(R) and A(R) from Eqs. (684) and (685). 1. 2. Find phasors E(R) = VV jwA and B(R) = V x A. Find instantaneous E(R, t) [email protected][E(R)ejmt] and B(R, t) =~ e [ B ( ~ ) e j ~ ' ] 3. for a cosine reference. The degree of difficulty of a problem depends on how difficult it is to perform the integrations in Step 1. We will use this procedure to determine the radiation properties of antennas in Chapter 10.
EXAMPLE69 Given that the electric field intensity of an electromagnetic wave in a nonconducting dielectric medium with permittivity r = 9eo and permeability Po is E(z, t) = a,5 cos (109t Bz) (V/m), (688) find the magnetic field intensity H and the value of B.
The given E(z, t) in Eq. (688) is a harmonic time function with angular frequency o = lo9(rad/s). Using phasors with a cosine reference, we have E(z) = a, 5ejsz.
(689)
The magnetic field intensity can be calculated from Eq. (680a). H(z) =  V x E jw0
In order to determine B, we use Eq. (680b). For a nonconducting medium, a = 0, J = 0. Thus,
Equating Eqs. (689) and (691), we require
From Eq. (690) we obtain
The phasor H(z) in Eq. (692) corresponds to the following instantaneous time function: H(z, t) = ax0.0398 cos (109t  102)
(693)
(A/m).
REVIEW QUESTIONS Q.628 Write the phasor expression of scalar electric potential V(R)in terms of charge distribution p,. Q.629 Write the phasor expression of vector magnetic potential A(R) in terms of current distribution J.
65.3
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
In sourcefiee nonconducting media characterized by Maxwell's equations (645% b, c, and d) reduce to Maxwell's equations in sourcefree nonconducting media
VxE=p,
dH at
aE VXH=E, at
E
and ,u(a = 0)
(694a) (694b)
264
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS Equations (694a, b, c, and d) are firstorder differential equations in the two variables E and H. They can be combined to give a secondorder equation in E or H alone. To do this, we take the curl of Eq. (694a) and use Eq. (694b):
.
Now V x V x E = V(V E) V2E = V2E because of Eq. (694c). Hence we have
or, since up = I/&, Homogeneous wave equation for E
In an entirely similar way we can also obtain an equation in H: Homogeneous wave equation for H
Equations (696) and (697) are homogeneous vector wave equations. We can see that in Cartesian coordinates Eqs. (696) and (697) can each be decomposed into three onedimensional, homogeneous, scalar wave equations. Each component of E and of H will satisfy an equation exactly like Eq. (661), whose solutions represent waves. We will extensively discuss wave behavior in various environments in the next chapter. For timeharmonic fields it is convenient to use phasors. Thus Eq. (696) becomes
Homogeneous Helmholtz's equation for phasor E,
in view of Eq. (682a). Similarly, Eq. (697) leads to Homogeneous Helmholtz's equation for phasor H,
'Subscript s has been added to emphasize that E, and H, are phasors and are not the same as the timedependent E and H in Eqs. (696) and (697).
The solutions of Eqs. (698) and (699) represent propagating waves, which will be the subject of study of the next chapter. REVIEW QUESTION Q.630 Explain why there may be nonvanishing solutions for electric and magnetic fields in sourcefree regions.
The electromagnetic spectrum and applications
The visiblelight spectrum
Wireless transmission
Microwave radar bands
The electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated experimentally extends from very low power frequencies through radio, television, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, Xray, and gamma (+ray (HZ).Figure 68 shows the electromagnetic specfrequencies exceeding trum divided into frequency and wavelength ranges on logarithmic scales according to application and natural occurrence. The term "microwave" is somewhat nebulous and imprecise; it could mean electromagneticwaves above a frequency of 1(GHz) and all the way up to the lower limit of the infrared band, encompassing UHF, SHF, EHF, and mmwave regions. The wavelength range of visible light is from deep red at 720(nm) to violet at 380(nm), or from 0.72km) to 0.38 (pm), corresponding to a frequency range of from 4.2 x 1014(Hz) to 7.9 x 1014 (Hz). The bands used for radar, satellite communication, navigation aids, television (TV), FM and AM radio, citizen's band radio (CB), sonar, and others are also noted. Frequencies below the VLF range are seldom used for wireless transmission because huge antennas would be needed for efficient radiation of electromagnetic waves and because of the very low data rate at these low frequencies. There have been proposals to use these frequencies for strategic global communication with submarines submerged in conducting seawater. In radar work it has been found convenient to assign alphabet names to the different microwave frequency bands. They are listed in Table 64. In the next chapter we shall discuss the characteristics of plane electromagnetic waves and examine their behavior as they propagate across discontinuous boundaries.
266
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
Wavelength (m) Frequency (Hz)
Classification
Applications
 loz4
1015 

ymrays
 loz1
I I 1 I I
1012

1
(A) lo'' lols (E&) ( m ) lo9

  10"
Xrays

 10" 
(mm)
Sterilization
Infrared
Night vision
(PHz)
(cm) lo'

(THz)
 lo9 (GHZ)
(m) 1  10 lo2  lo6 (MHz) (km) lo3104  105 'lo3 ( ~ H z ) (Mm) lo6 = 60 (Hz)
,,, 
lo8

 1 (Hz)
Medical diagnosis
Ultraviolet
(pm)

Food irradiation, cancer therapy
m,
wave EHF (30300 GHz)
Radar, space exploration Radar, satellite communication
SHF (330 GHz) UHF (3003000 MHz) Radar, TV, navigation FM. police, mobile VHF (30300 M H ~ ) m, radio, air tr&c control HF (330 MHz) MF (3003000 kHz) LF (30300 kHz) VLF (330 kHz) ULF (3003000 HZ) SLF (30300 H ~ ) ELF (330 HZ)
Facsimilie, SW radio, citizen's band AM, maritime radio, direction finding Navigation, tadio hacon Navigation, sonar Telephone audio range Communication with submerged submarine, electric power Detection of buried metal objects
Wavelength range of human vision: 720 (nm)380 (nm) (Deep red) (Violet) F'IGURE 68 Spectrum of electromagnetic waves.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4631 What is the wavelength range of visible light? Q.632 Why are frequencies below the VLF range rarely used for wireless transmission?
TABLE
64
RADAR BANDDESIGNATIONS FOR MICROWAVE FREQUENCIES Frequency Range (GHz)
Band
.
I
.
"

"
,
.
Waveleogtb Range (cm)
. .
.
.
..._,_,
,
1, Electromagnetic w a v e of at!ji.eqwnties propagate in a given medium with the same velocity, up = l/v!i(r. 2. The operating frequency of microwave ovens is around 2.4S(GHzI. .. .
L.

..
.

..._.._ .
j j 1
SUMMARY P
In timevarying situations electric and magnetic fields are coupled and the postulates that we introduced in previous chapters for static fields no longer suffice. In this chapter we added a fundamental postulate for electromagnetic induction, introduced Faraday's law that relates quantitatively the emf induced in a circuit to the time rate of change of flux linkage, explained that the induced emf may be decomposed into two parts: a transformer emf and a motional (fluxcutting) emf, discussed the characteristics of ideal transformers, obtained a set of four Maxwell's equations (two divergence and two curl equations) that are consistent with the equation of continuity, considered the general boundary conditions for field vectors at the interface of contiguous regions of different constitutive parameters, expressed electric and magnetic field intensities in terms of a scalar electric potential function V and a vector magnetic potential function A,
268
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
derived nonhomogeneous wave equations for V and A, introduced the concept of retarded potentials, converted wave equations into Helmholtz's equations for timeharmonic fields, and discussed the electromagnetic spectrum in sourcefree space.
PROBLEMS P.61 ~ x ~ r ethe s s transformer emf induced in a stationary loop in terms of timevarying vector potential A. P.62 The circuit in Fig. 69 is situated in a magnetic field
B = a,3 cos (5z107t3ny)
(pT). Assuming R = 15(a), find the current i. P.63 A stationary rectangular conducting loop of width w and height h is situated near a very long wire carrying a current i , as in Fig. 610. Assume i , = I, sin wt and the selfinductanceof the rectangular loop to be L. Find the induced current i, in the loop. HINT:Use phasors. P.64 In Fig. 610 assume a constant current i , = I,, but that the rectangular loop moves away with a constant velocity n = ayuo.Determine i2 when the loop is at a position as shown. P.65 A 10(crn) by 10(cm) square conducting loop having a resistance R = 0.5(Q) rotates in a constant magnetic field B = ay0.04(T) with an FIGURE 69 A circuit in a timevarying magnetic field (Problem P.62).
FIGURE 610 A rectangular loop near a long currentcarrying wire (for Problems P.63 and P.64).
angular frequency o = 100n(rad/s) about one of its legs, as shown in Fig. 611. Assuming that the loop initially lies in the xzplane, find the induced current i a) if the selfinductance of the loop is neglected, and b) if the selfinductance of the loop is 3.5 (mH).
FIGURE 611 A rotating square loop in a constant magnetic field (Problem P.65).
P.66 A conducting sliding bar oscillates over two parallel conducting rails in
a sinusoidally varying magnetic field B = a,5 cos ot
(mT), as shown in Fig. 612. The position of the sliding bar is given by x = 0.35(1 cosot)(m), and the rails are terminated in a resistance R = 0.2(S1). Find i.
FIGURE 612 A conducting bar sliding over parallel rails in a timevarying magnetic field (Problem P.66). P.67 Determine the frequency at which a timeharmonic electric field intensity causes a conduction current density and a displacement current density of equal magnitude in a) seawater with E, = 72 and a = 4(S/m), and b) moist soil with E, = 2.5 and a = 103(S/m).
270
CHAPTER 6 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS P.68 Calculations concerning the electromagnetic effect of currents in a good conductor usually neglect the displacement current even at microwave frequencies. a) Assuming E, = 1 and a = 5.70 x 10' (S/m) for copper, compare the magnitude of the displacement current density with that of the conduction current density at 100(GHz). b) Write the governing differential equation for magnetic field intensity H in a sourcefree good conductor. P.69 An infinite current sheet J = aX5(A/m)coinciding with the xyplane separates air (region 1, z > 0) from a medium with b2= 2 (region 2, z < 0). Given that Hi = a, 30 + a,40 +a,20 (A/m), find a) H2, b) B2, c) angle a, that B, makes with the zaxis, and d) angle u2 that B2 makes with the zaxis. P.610 Write the boundary conditions that exist at the interface of free space and a magnetic material of infinite (an approximation) permeability. P.611 Prove by direct substitution that any twice differentiable function of (t  R&) is a solution of the homogeneous wave equation, Eq. (661). P.612 Write the component scalar equations for the set of four Maxwell's equations (680a, b, c, and d): a) in Cartesian coordinates if the field phasors are functions of z only, and b) in spherical coordinates if the field phasors are functions of R only. P.613 Assuming E(z, t) = 50 cos (2n1OYt kz) (V/m) in air, sketch the following waveforms and label the absissas: a) E(t) versus t at z = 100.1251, where 1is the wavelength, b) E(t) versus t at z =  100.1251, and c) E(z) versus z at t = T/4, where T is the period of the wave. P.614 The electric field of an electromagnetic wave
r) + ] ( a)
[ (
E(z, t) = a,E, cos 108a t  is the sum of
[email protected], t) = a,0.03 sin 10% t  
$
(vlm)
(v/m)
and
[ (
3 I1
E,(z, t) = a,0.04 cos 108a t     . Find E, and $.
(V/m).
P.615 The magnetic field intensity of an electromagnetic wave
H(R, t) = a, Ho cos (ot  kR)
(A/m)
is the sum of H,(R,t)=a,104sin(wtkR)
(A/m)
and H,(z, t) = a,2 x
cos (ot k~ + a)
(A/m).
Find Ho and a. P.616 Starting from the phasor Maxwell's equations (680a, b, c, and d) in simple media with timeharmonic charge and current distributions obtain a) the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz's equation for E, and b) the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz's equation for H. P.617 A short conducting wire carrying a timeharmonic current is a source of electromagnetic waves. Assuming that a uniform current i(t) = 1,cosot flows in a very short wire dd placed along the zaxis, a) determine the phasor retarded vector potential A at a distance R in spherical coordinates, and b) find the magnetic field intensity H from A. p.618 A 60(MHz) electromagnetic wave exists in an airdielectric coaxial cable having an inner conductor with radius a and an outer conductor with inner radius b. Assuming perfect conductors, and the phasor form of the electric field intensity to be
a) find k, b) find H from the V x E equation, and c) find the surface current densities on the inner and outer conductors. P.619 It is known that the electric field intensity of a spherical wave in free space is E(R, 9; t) = a, sin 9 cos (2x109tkR) R
(V/m).
Determine the magnetic field intensity H(R, 9; t) and the value of k. P.620 Given that E(x, z; t) = ayO.l sin (10nx) cos (6.n109t/?z)
(V/m)
in air, find H(x, z; t) and /?. P.621 Given that H(x, z; t) = ay2 cos (15nx) sin (6x109t/?z) in air, find E(x, z; t) and /?.
(A/m)

0V E R V I EW
In Section 65 we showed that in a sourcefree nonconducting simple medium, Maxwell's equations can be combined to yield homogeneous vector wave equations in E and in H. These two equations, Eqs. (696) and (697), have exactly the same form. For example, the sourcefree wave equation for E is
7 1
In Cartesian coordinates, Eq. (71) can be decomposed into three onedimensional, homogeneous, scalar wave equations. Each component equation will be of the form of Eq. (661), whose solution represents a wave propagating in the medium with a velocity
Since timevarying E and H are coupled through Maxwell's curl equations (694a) and (694b), the consequence is an electromagnetic wave, which we use to explain electromagnetic action at a distance. The study of the behavior of waves that have a onedimensional spatial dependence is the main concern of this chapter. We begin the chapter with a study of the propagation of timeharmonic planewave fields in an unbounded homogeneous medium. Medium parameters such as intrinsic impedance, attenuation constant, and phase constant will be introduced. The meaning of skin depth, the depth of wave penetration into a
Plane Electromagnetic Waves good conductor, will be explained. Electromagnetic waves carry with them electromagnetic power. The concept of Poynting uector, a power flux density, will be discussed. We will study the behavior of a plane wave incident obliquely on a plane boundary. The laws governing the reflection and refraction of plane waves as well as the conditions for no reflection and for total reflection will be examined. Definition of uniform plane wave
Definition of Wavefront
A uniformplane waue is a particular solution of Maxwell's equations with E assuming the same direction, same magnitude, and same phase in infinite planes perpendicular to the direction of propagation (similarly for H). Strictly speaking, a uniform plane wave does not exist in practice because a source infinite in extent would be required to create it, and practical wave sources are always finite in extent. But, if we are far enough away from a source, the wavefront (surface of constant phase) becomes almost spherical; and a very small portion of the surface of a giant sphere is very nearly a plane. The characteristicsof uniform plane waves are particularly simple, and their study is of fundamental theoretical, as well as practical, importance.
72 PLANE WAVES IN LOSSLESS MEDIA
In this and future chapters we focus our attention on wave behavior in the sinusoidal steady state. Sinusoidal quantities will be represented by phasors without a subscript s, for simplicity. In situations where instantaneous time functions 273
are discussed, the time dependence of the relevant quantities will be shown explicitly with the symbol t in their arguments. The sourcefree wave equations in nonconducting simple media becomes a homogeneous vector Helmholtz's equation (see Eq. 698): Homogeneous vector Helmholtz's equation in E in nonconducting simple media
where k is the wavenumber. In a medium characterized by E and p, we have, from Eq. (682a),
In Cartesian coordinates, Eq. (73) is equivalent to three scalar Helmholtz's equations, one each in the components Ex,E,, and E,. Writing it for the component Ex, we have
Consider a uniform plane wave characterized by a uniform Ex (uniform magnitude and constant phase) over plane surfaces perpendicular to z; that is, a2EX/ax2= 0
and
a2Ex/ay2= 0.
Equation (75) simplifies to
which is an ordinary differential equation because Ex,a phasor, depends only on z. The solution of Eq. (76) is readily seen to be
where E: and E; are arbitrary constants that must be determined by boundary conditions. Let us now examine the first phasor term on the right side of Eq. (77) and write For a cosine reference, the instantaneous expression for E in Eq. (78) is E(z, t) = a, E: (z, t) = a,ge [E: (z)ej"'] = a,@~[E:ej("~~~)]= a,E:
COS(O~ kz).
(79)
FIGURE 71 Wave traveling in positive z direction E:(z, t) = E i cos (at kz), for several values oft.
Of
a
traveling wave
Equation (79) has been plotted in Fig. 71 for several values of t. At t = 0, E,+(z,0) = E,+cos kz is a cosine curve with an amplitude E;. At successive times the curve effectively travels in the positive z direction. We have, then, a traveling wave. If we fix our attention on a particular point (a point of a particular phase) on the wave, we set cos(wt kz) = a constant, or wt  kz = A constant phase, from which we obtain
Definition velocity
Of
phase
Equation (710) assures us that the velocity of propagation of an equiphase front (the phase velocity) is equal to the velocity of light. Wavenumber k bears a definite relation to the wavelength.
as has been noted in Eqs. (682a and b). We can see, without replotting, that the second phasor term on the right side of Eq. (77), E;ejkz, represents a cosinusoidal wave traveling in the z direction with the same velocity up. If we are concerned only with the wave traveling in the +z direction, we set E; = 0. However, if there are discontinuities in the medium, reflected waves traveling in the opposite direction must also be considered, as we will see later in this chapter.
The associated magnetic field H can be found from the V x E equation (68Oa):
which leads to H,+ = 0,
Thus H; is the only nonzero component of H corresponding to the E in Eq. (78), and since
Eq. (712b) yields k UP
H = a,,H; (2) = a, E,+(z)
We have introduced a new quantity, q, in Eq. (713): q = op/k, or Intrinsic impedance of medium
which is called the intrinsic impedance of the medium. In air 9, = = 120z = 377 (52). H;(z) is in phase with E,+(z),and we can write the instantaneous expression for H as H(z, t) = a, H;(z, t) = a, Ws[H;(z)e = a,
EXERCISE 7.1
jcD']
E,+ cos ( a t  kz). 9
Starting from the phasor expression E =axE; (2)=a,& ejkzfor a uniform plane wave traveling in the  2 direction, determine the associated H = a,H;(z). Evaluate the ratio E; (z)/H,(2).
R E V I E W QUESTIONS Q.71 Define uniform plane wave. Q.72 What is a wavefront? 4.73 What is a traveling wave? 4.74 Define phase velocity. 4.75 Define intrinsic impedance of a medium. What is the value of the intrinsic impedance of free space?
A uniform plane wave with E = axExpropagates in a lossless simple medium = 4, p, = 1, o = 0) in the +zdirection. Assume that Ex is sinusoidal with a frequency 100(MHz) and has a maximum value of (V/m) at t = 0 and (E,
a)
b) c)
+
Write the instantaneous expression for E for any t and z. Write the instantaneous expression for H. Determine the locations where Ex is a positive maximum when t = 108(s).
First we find k:
a)
Using cos ot as the reference, we find the instantaneousexpression for E to be
E(z, t) = axEx= a,10~ cos (2x108t kz + $).
+
Since Ex equals when the argument of the cosine function equals zerothat is, when 2n108tkz+ t,b = 0, we have, at t=O and z=&,
t,b = kz =
g)(i)a =
(rad).
Thus, E(Z,t) = a,104 cos 2n108t  z + 3 6
This expression shows a shift of &(m)in the +zdirection and could have been written down directly from the statement of the problem.
b)
The instantaneous expression for H is
where
Hence, 10~ H(z, t) = a 60n cos [2n108t
c)

F i)] (Z

(A/m).
we equate the argument of the cosine function to f 2nn in At t = order to make Ex a positive maximum:
from which we get 13 3 z,=jjfzn
(m),
n=O,1,2 ,...;
z,>O.
Examining this result more closely, we note that the wavelength in the given medium is
E(z, 0) = FIGURE 72
cos* z 3
8j
E and H fields of a uniform plane wave at t = 0 (Example 71).
Hence the positive maximum value of Ex occurs at
The E and H fields are shown in Fig. 72 as functions of z for the reference time t = 0.
72.1
DOPPLER EFFECT
Meaning Of effect
When there is relative motion between a timeharmonic source and a receiver, the frequency of the wave detected by the receiver tends to be different from that emitted by the source. This phenomenon is known as Doppler e$ect.t The Doppler effect manifests itself in acoustics as well as in electromagnetics. Perhaps you have experienced the changes in the pitch of a fastmoving locomotive whistle. In the following we give an explanation of the Doppler effect. Let us assume that the source (transmitter) T of a timeharmonic wave of a frequency f moves with a velocity u at an angle 0 relative to the direct 'C. Doppler (18031853).
(a) At t = 0.
(b) At t = At.
FIGURE 73 Illustrating the Doppler effect.
line to a stationary receiver R, as illustrated in Fig. 73(a). The electromagnetic wave emitted by T in air at a reference time t = 0 will reach R at
At a later time t = At, T has moved to the new position T',and the wave emitted by T' at that time will reach R at
= At
+ C1 [ri  2r,(u At)cos 8 + (u At)2]112.
If (u At), 1. Under this condition it is convenient to use Eq. (743) and neglect 1 in comparison with a/w.We write
Propagation constant of a good conductor
y = u + j / ? r (1 + j 9 S ,
where we have used the relations
J;= (ejn12)1/2 = ejxl4 = (1 and w = 27Cf:Equation (751) indicates that u and /?for a good conductor are approximately equal and both increase as and For a good conductor,
fi
Attenuation constant and phase constant of a good conductor are equal.
&.
(752)
The intrinsic impedance of a good conductor is Relation between intrinsic impedance and attenuation constant of a good conductor
which has a phase angle of 45". Hence the magnetic field intensity lags behind the electric field intensity by 45". The phase velocity in a good conductor is Phase velocity in a good conductor
which is proportional to Jf and 1/&
Consider copper as an example:
a = 5.80 x lo7
(S/m), p = 4 a ~ l O  ~ (H/m), up = 720(m/s)
at
3 (MHz),
which is many orders of magnitude slower than the velocity of light in air. The wavelength of a plane wave in a good conductor is Wavelength in a good conductor
For copper at 3(MHz), 1 = 0.24(1nm). As a comparison, a 3(MHz) electromagnetic wave in air has a wavelength of 100(m). At very high frequencies the attenuation constant a for a good conductor, as given by Eq. (752), tends to be very large. For copper at 3 (MHz),
Skin depth
Finding skin depth from conductivity and permeability of conductor and frequency
Since the attenuation factor is e"", the amplitude of a wave will be attenuated by a factor of e' = 0.368 when it travels a distance 6 = l/a. For (m), or 0.038 (mrn).At 10 copper at 3 (MHz) this distance is (112.62) x (GHz) it is only 0.66 (pm)a very small distance indeed. Thus a highfrequency electromagnetic wave is attenuated very rapidly as it propagates in a good conductor. The distance 6 through which the amplitude of a traveling plane wave decreases by a factor of e or 0.368 is called the skin depth or the depth of penetration of a conductor:
Since a = B for a good conductor, 6 can also be written as
At microwave frequencies the skin depth or depth of penetration of a good conductor is so small that fields and currents can be considered as, for all practical purposes, confined in a very thin layer (that is, in the skin) of the conductor surface.
EXAMPLE 74 The electric field intensity of a linearly polarized uniform plane wave propagating in the +zdirection in seawater is E = a,100 cos (107nt)(Vim) at z = 0. The constitutive parameters of seawater are E, = 72, pr = 1, and o = 4 (Slm). a)
b) c)
Determine the attenuation constant, phase constant, intrinsic impedance, phase velocity, wavelength, and skin depth. Find the distance at which the amplitude of E is 1%of its value at z = 0. Write the expressions for E(z, t) and H(z, t) at z = 0.8 (m) as functions oft.
Hence we can use the formulas for good conductors. a)
Attenuation constant:
Phase constant:
Intrinsic impedance:
Phase velocity:
Wavelength:
Skin depth:
b)
Distance z , at which the amplitude of wave decreases to 1% of its value atz=O:
z, c)
1
=  In
a
4.605 100 = = 0.518 8.89
(m).
In phasor notation,
E(z) = aX100e ""ejsZ. The instantaneous expression for E is
E(z, t ) = W r [E(z)ejm] = @e[a,100eazej('t8z' ] = aX100e"" cos ( o t  f l ~ ) . At z = 0.8 (m)we have
E(0.8, t) = a,100e0.8a cos (107nt0.8B) = a,0.082 cos (1O7zt 7.1 1) = a,0.082 cos (1O7zt47.5")+
(V/m). We know that a uniform plane wave is a TEM wave with E IH and that both are normal to the direction of wave propagation a,. Thus H = ayHy. To find H(z, t), the instantaneous expression of H as a function oft, we must not make the mistake of writing Hy(z,t)= E,(z, t)/qe because this would be mixing real time functions E,(z, t ) and H,(z, t ) with a complex quantity qc. Phasor quantities E,(z) and Hy(z)must be used. That is,


'7.1 1 (rad)= 7.1 1 x (180Jn)= 407.4", which is equivalent to 407.4"  360" = 4 7 3 in phase relations.
from which we obtain the relation between instantaneous quantities
For the present problem we have, in phasors,
Note that both angles must be in radians before combining. The instantaneous expression for H at z = 0.8 (m) is then H(0.8, t) = a,0.026 cos (107nt 1.61) = a,0.026 cos (107zt92.3")
(A/m). We can see that a 5(MHz) plane wave attenuates very rapidly in seawater and becomes negligibly weak a very short distance from the source. (Field amplitudes at a depth of 0.8(m) are reduced to 0.082/100 = 0.00082 times their value at the surface.) Even at very low frequencies, longdistance communication with a submerged submarine is very difficult.
W
EXERCLTE 7.7
Determine the frequency at which the skin depth in seawater is ten meters. Calculate the corresponding wavelength in seawater and compare it to that in air.
AM 633 (Hz), 62.8 (m), 474 (km). REVIEW QUESTIONS Q.715 What distinguishes a good conductor from a good insulator at a given frequency? Q.716 What is meant by the skin depth of a conductor?
Definition of phem velocity
Dispersion
Definition of Group velocity
In Eq. (710) we defined the phase velocity, up, of a singlefrequency plane wave as the velocity .of propagation of an equiphase wavefront. The relation between up and the phase constant, /I, is
For plane waves in a lossless medium, P = k = o h is a linear function of w. As a consequence, the phase velocity up= 1 / f i is a constant that is independent of frequency. However, in some cases (such as wave propagation in a lossy dielectric, as discussed previously, or along a transmission line, or in a waveguide) the phase constant is not a linear function of a ; waves of different frequencies will propagate with different phase velocities. Because all informationbearing signals consist of a band of frequencies, waves of the component frequencies will travel with different phase velocities, causing a distortion in the signal wave shape. The signal "disperses." The phenomenon of signal distortion caused by a dependence of the phase velocity on frequency is called dispersion. In view of Eqs. (750) and (739), we conclude that a lossy dielectric is a dispersive medium. An informationbearing signal normally has a small spread of frequencies (sidebands)around a high carrier frequency. Such a signal comprises a "group" of frequencies and forms a wave packet. A group vebcity is the velocity of propagation of the wavepacket envelope (of a group of frequencies). Consider the simplest case of a wave packet that consists of two traveling waves having equal amplitude and slightly different angular frequencies wo + Aw and woAm (Ao > 1. Examples are metallic reflectors and waveguides. Under such conditions we are generally allowed to use the perfectconductor approximation (a + a)and obtain good results. This approximation simplifies all our formulas. Consider the incident field vector phasor given in Eqs. (784) and (785): Ei(z) = a,EioejfllZ,
incidence on a plane conducting boundary: r= 1,
(784x7108)
This wave impinges on a perfectly conducting plane boundary at z = 0. Substituting oo for a in Eq. (753), we find q, = 0. This is as expected, and the conducting boundary acts as a short circuit. From Eqs. (794) and (795) we see that r =  1 and z = 0.Consequently, Ero = rEio= Eio,and E,, = zEio= 0. The incident wave is totally reflected with a phase reversal, and no power is transmitted across a perfectly conducting boundary. We have E,(z) = a, Ei0ejfllZ,
and El(z) = Ei(z)+ E,(z) = a, =
a,j2Eio sin Plz,
(7110)
40cos Biz.
= ay2
'I1
Equations (7112) and (7113) show that E,(z) and H,(z) are in time quadrature (E, lags behind H I by 90" because of the j factor). Both represent standing waves, and from Eq. (779) we conclude that no average power is associated with the total electromagnetic wave in medium 1. In order to examine the spacetime behavior of the total field in medium 1, we first write the instantaneous expressions corresponding to the electric and magnetic field intensity phasors obtained in Eqs. (7112) and (7113): E,(z, t) = Ws[E,(~)ej"~]= a,2Eio sin B,z sin ot, Total fields E, and H, exhibit standing waves for normal incidence on a plane conducting boundary.
(7114)
H,(z, t) = [email protected],(z)ej"'] = ay2Ei, cos j?,z cos ot. 'I1
Both E,(z, t) and H,(z, t) possess zeros and maxima at fixed distances from the conducting boundary for all t. For a given t, both El and HI vary sinusoidally with the distance measured from the boundary plane. (z is negative in medium 1.) The standing waves of El = a,E, and H, = ayH, are shown in Fig. 79 for several values of ot. We see that El vanishes at the infinitely conducting boundary; it also is zero at points that are multiples of d1/2 from the boundary. The standing wave of H I is shifted from that of El by a quarter wavelength (d1/4).
A ypolarized uniform plane wave (Ei,Hi) with a frequency 100(MHz) propagates in air in the + x direction and impinges normally on a perfectly conducting plane at x = 0. Assuming the amplitude of Ei to be 6(mV/m), write the phasor and instantaneous expressions for a)
b) c)
Ei and Hi of the incident wave; E, and H, of the reflected wave; and El and H, of the total wave in air.
At the given frequency 100(MHz), o = 2n:f = 2n x lo8
(rad/s),
z=o FIGURE 79 Standing waves of El = a,E, and HI = a,H, for several values of wt.
a)
For the incident wave ( a traveling wave): i) Phasor expressions: Ei(x) = a,6 x 103ej2"x/3
ii) Instantaneous expressions: Ei(x, t ) = We [Ei(x)ejmt]
(v/m)7
b)
For the rejected wave (a traveling wave): i) Phasor expressions: E,(x) = ay6 x 103ej2"x/3
(v/m),
ii) Instantaneous expressions: E,(x, t) = WeCE,(x)ejmt]
c)
For the total wave (a standing wave): i) Phasor expressions:
ii) Instantaneous expressions: El(x, t) = We[E1(x)ejm'] = ay12 x
EXERCISE 7.12
:( )
sin  x sin (2x x 10%)
For the problem in Example 78, find the locations for IE,I,,, A M IEII,,,atx=
(2n+ 1)3/4(m), IH,I,,atx=
(V/m),
and JH,I,,.
3n/2(m),n=O, 1,2,...,
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.722 Define reflection [email protected] and transmission coeficient. What is the relationship between them for normal incidence? Q.723 What are the values of the reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface with a perfectly conducting boundary? 4.724 What is a standing wave? Q.725 Define standingwave ratio. What is its relationship with reflection coefficient? Q.726 What is the standingwaveratio of the combined incident and reflected waves from a perfectly conducting boundary at normal incidence?
77 O B L I Q U E INCIDENCE O F PLANEWAVESAT PLANEBOUNDARIES
incidence
All angles are measured from the normal to the boundary.
Snell's law of reflection
We now consider the more general case of a uniform plane wave that impinges on a plane boundary obliquely. Refer to Fig. 710, where the z = 0 planet is the interface between medium 1 (el, p,) and medium 2 (E,, p,). The plane containing the normal to the boundary surface and the wavenumber vector a, is called the plane of incidence. Three angles are in evidence: the angle of inchfence 8,, the angle of reflection Or, and the angle of refraction (or angle of transmission) 8, representing, respectively, the angles that the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves make with the normal to the boundary. Lines AO, O'A', and O'B are the intersections of the wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) of the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves respectively, with the plane of incidence. Since both the incident and the reflected waves propagate in medium 1 with the same phase velocity u, ,the distances OA' and AO' must be equal. Thus,
Equation (7116) assures us that the angle of reflection reflection equal to fhe angle of incidence, which is Snell's law of reflection.
'There is no loss of generality here, because we can always assign our coordinate system such that the zaxis is perpendicular to the boundary plane.
z=o FIGURE 710 Uniform plane wave incident obliquely on a plane dielectric boundary.
In medium 2 the time it takes for the transmitted wave to travel from 0 to B equals the time for the incident wave to travel from A to 0'. We have

sin 0,  u,, 00' sin oi upl '
0s AO'
from which we obtain s i n 4 up2 ===
Snell's law of refraction
Index Of refraction a medium
sin Oi
Of
up,
81
8,
n,, n,
1
where n, and n, are the indices of refraction for media 1 and 2, respectively. The index of refruction of a medium is the ratio of the speed of light (electromagnetic wave) in free space to that in the medium; that is, n = c/up. The relation in Eq. (7117) is known as SneU's luw of refructwn.
77 OBLIQUE INCIDENCE OF PLANE WAVES A T PLANE BOUNDARIES315
For media with equal permeability, pl = p,, Eq. (7117) becomes 2
Snell's law of refraction for p, = p,
sin 8,
q1
n,
where q1 and q, are the intrinsic impedances of the media. Note that we have derived Snell's law of reflection and law of refraction from a consideration of the ray paths of the incident, reflected, and refracted waves at an infinite surface. No mention has been made of the polarization of the waves. Thus Snell's laws are independent of wave polarization. 77.1 TOTAL REFLECTION
Phenomenon Of total reflection when e, < E,
Critical angle
Let us now examine Snell's law in Eq. (7118) for E, > €,that is, when the wave in medium 1 is incident on a less dense medium 2. In that case, 8, > 8,. Since 8, increases with Oi, an interesting  situation arises when 8,.= n/2, .  at which angle the refracted wave will glaze along the interface; a further increase in 8, would result in no refracted wave, and the incident wave is then said to be totally reflected. The angle of incidence 8, (which corresponds to the threshold of total reflection 8, = 742) is called the critical angle. We have, by setting 8, = n/2 in Eq. (7118),
Jz, C
sin 9, =
Formula for critical angle
8, = sin'
/$ (2) = sin'
(PI = ~ 2 ) .
This situation is illustrated in Fig. 711, where a,,, ab, and a,, are unit vectors denoting the directions of propagation of the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves, respectively. What happens mathematically if 8, is larger than the critical angle &(sin 0, > sin 8, = From Eq. (7118) we have sin 8, =
Jz
G)? sin 8, > 1,
which does not yield a real solution for 8,. Although sin 8, in Eq. (7121) is still real, cos 8, becomes imaginary when sin 0, > 1:
FIGURE 711 Plane wave incident at critical angle, 6, > 6,.
In medium 2 the unit vector a,, in the direction of propagation of a typical transmitted (refracted) wave, as shown in Fig. 710, is akt= ax sin 8, +a, cos 8,.
(7123)
Both E, and H, vary spatially in accordance with the following factor: e jflzs,'R = jflz(x sin O,+zcosO,) > (7124) (where R is a radius vector as in Eq. 722.) When Eqs. (7118) and (7119) for 8, > 8, are used, the expression in Eq. (7124) becomes
,
where a, = / I ~ ~ ( € sin2 ~ / ei E ~1)
(7125a)
and (7125b) sin 8i ~ The upper sign in Eq. (7122) has been abandoned because it would lead to B2x
=B
Z
INCIDENCE 77 OBLIQUE

Evanescent and surface waves
OF
PLANE WAVES A T PLANE BOUNDARIES317
the impossible result of an increasing field as z increases. We can conclude fr6m (7125) that for Oi > 8, an evanescent wave exists along the interface (in the xdirection), which is attenuated exponentially (rapidly) in medium 2 in the normal direction (zdirection).This wave is tightly bound to the interface and is called a surface wave. It is illustrated in Fig. 711. It is a nonuniform plane wave; no power is transmitted into medium 2 under these conditions. (See Problem P.727.)
The permittivity of water at optical frequencies is 1.756,. It is found that an isotropic light source at a distance d under water yields an illuminated circular area of a radius 5 (m). Determine d.
m=
The index of refraction of water is n, = 1.32. Refer to Fig. 712. The radius of illuminated area, O'P = 5 (m), corresponds to the critical angle 8, = sin
(k)
= sin'
(&)
= 9.2"
Hence,
d =  OP
tan 8,

5 = 4.32 tan 49.2"
(m).
As illustrated in Fig. 712, an incident ray with 0, = 8, at P results in a reflected ray and a tangential refracted ray. Incident waves for 8, < 8, are partially reflected back into the water and partially refracted into the air above, and those for 8, > 8, are totally reflected (the evanescent surface waves are not shown). FIGURE 712 An underwater light source (Example 79).
Water
Light Source
EXAMPLE710
A dielectric rod or fiber of a transparent material can be used to guide light or an electromagnetic wave under the conditions of total internal reflection. Determine the minimum dielectric constant of the guiding medium so that a wave incident on one end at any angle will be confined within the rod until it emerges from the other end.
Refer to Fig. 713. For total internal reflection, 8, must be greater than or equal to 8, for the guiding dielectric medium; that is, sin 8, P sin 8,.
(7126)
Since 8, = 4 2  4 , Eq. (7126) becomes cos 0, 2 sin 8,.
(7 127)
From Snell's law of refraction, Eq. (7118), we have 1 sin 8, = 
(Note.that the roles of r, and r 2 in Fig. 713 have been interchanged from those in Fig. 710.) Substituting Eq. (7128) in Eq. (7127) and using Eq. (7119), we obtain Jl 
$ sin28.
P sin 8, =
1
which requires 21
Minimum dielectric constant for optical fiber
+ sin24.
Since the largest value of the right side of (7129) is reached when 81 = 4 2 , we require the dielectric constant of the guiding medium to be at least 2, which corresponds to an index of refraction n, = $. This requirement is satisfied by glass and quartz.
FIGURE 713 Dielectric rod or fiber guiding electromagnetic wave by total internal reflection.
EXERCISE7.13
A 30(MHz) uniform plane wave emerges from a lossless dielectric medium ( E = 2.25eo,p = po) into air through a plane boundary at z = 0.The angle of incidence
is 30". Find the angle of refraction, and the phase constants both in the dielectric medium and in air.
EXERCISE 7.14
Find the critical angle in Exercise 7.13. Determine the attenuation and phase constants in air if the incident angle is 60".
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.727 Define plane of incidence. 4.728 State Snell's law of rejection in words. 4.729 State Snell's law of refraction in terms of the indices of refraction of the media, and in terms of the intrinsic impedances of two contiguous nonmagnetic media. Q.730 Define critical angle. What is meant by total rejection? 4.731 Define surface wave.
77.2 THE IONOSPHERE
Composition of ionosphere
plasmas
In the earth's upper atmosphere, roughly from SO to 500(km) in altitude, there exist layers of ionized gases called the ionosphere. The ionosphere consists of free electrons and positive ions that are produced when ultraviolet radiation from the sun is absorbed by the atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere. The charged particles tend to be trapped by the earth's magnetic field. The altitude and character of the ionized layers depend both on the nature of the solar radiation and on the composition of the atmosphere. They change with the sunspot cycle, the season, and the hour of the day in a very complicated way. The electron and ion densities in the individual ionized layers &e essentially equal. Ionized gases with equal electron and ion densities are called plasmas.
The ionosphere plays an important role in the propagation of electromagnetic waves and affects telecommunication. Because the electrons are much lighter than the positive ions, they are accelerated more by the electric fields of electromagnetic waves passing through the ionosphere. Analysis has shown that the effect of the ionosphere or plasma on wave propagation can be studied on the basis of an effective permittivity E,: Effective permittivity of plasma
where w, is called the plasma angular frequency and
In Eq. (7131) N is the number of electrons per unit volume, and e and m are, respectively, the electronic charge and mass. From Eqs. (742) and (7130) we obtain the propagation constant as
When f < fp, y becomes real, indicating an attenuation without propagation. On the other hand, if f > fp, y is purely imaginary, and electromagnetic waves will propagate unattenuated in the ionosphere (assuming negligible collision losses). If the value of e, m, and e0 are substituted into Eq. (7131),we find a very simple formula for the plasma (cutoff) frequency: fp
Formula for ~lasrna frequency
r9 f i
(HZ).
(7133)
As we have mentioned before, N at a given altitude is not a constant; it varies with the time of the day, the season, and other factors. The electron density of the ionosphere ranges from about 101°/m3 in the lowest layer to 1012/m3in the highest layer. Using these values for N in Eq. (7133), we find fp to vary from 0.9 to 9(MHz). Hence, for communication with a satellite or a space station beyond the ionosphere we must use frequencies much higher than 9(MHz) to ensure wave penetration through the layer with the largest N at any angle of incidence. Signals with frequencies lower than 0.9 (MHz) cannot penetrate into even the lowest layer of the ionosphere but may propagate very far around the earth by way of multiple reflections at the ionosphere's boundary and the earth's surface. Signals having frequencies between 0.9 and 9 (MHz) will penetrate partially into the lower ionospheric layers but will eventually be turned back where N is large.
EXAMPLE 711 When a spacecraft reenters the earth's atmosphere, its speed and temperature ionize the surrounding atoms and molecules and create a plasma. It has been estimated that the electron density is in the neighborhood of 2 x 10' per (cm3).Discuss the plasma's effect on frequency usage in radio communication between the spacecraft and the mission controllers on earth.
For 1
N = 2 x 10' per (cm3) = 2 x 1014 per (m3),
Eq. (7133) gives f, = 9 x = 12.7 x 10' (Hz), or 127(MHz). Thus, radio communication cannot be established for frequencies below 127(MHz).
REVIEW QUESTIONS Q732 What is the composition of the ionosphere? Q.733 What is the significance of plasma frequency? We have remarked previously that Snell's laws and consequently the critical angle for total reflection are independent of the polarization of the incident electric field. However, the formulas for the reflection and .transmission coefficients are polarizationdependent. In the following two subsections we discuss the behaviors of perpendicular polarization and parallel polarization separately.
77.3
PERPENDICULAR POLARIZATION
Meaning of perpendicular polarization
For oblique incidence with perpendicular polarization, E, is perpendicular to the plane of incidence, as illustrated in Fig. 714. Noting that aki= ax sin Bi + a, cos Bi, we have, from Eqs. (723) and (725), Ei(x, z) = ay Ei0ejS~(xsin et+zcos 03 Eio Hi(x, z) = (ax cos Bi+a, sin Bi)ejS1(X&ei+zcos83, ?1
where
has been used in place of k , in a lossless medium.
(7136)
FIGURE 714 Plane wave incident obliquely on a plane dielectric boundary (perpendicular polarization).
For the reflected wave,
akr= a, sin 0, a, cos 0,. The reflected electric and magnetic fields are q x , z) = aY Er O
jP1(x sin 0,  2 cos 0,)
Era (a, cos 0, +a, sin ~ ~ ) e  j ~ 1 ( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~(71 Hr(x,z) = r 39)  ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ) . '11
For the transmitted wave, akt= a, sin 0, + a, cos 4 , we have Et(x,Z) = a E ejPAx Y
to
sin 0, +z ws 0,)
There are four unknown quantities in the above equations, namely, Ero, Eta, Or, and 0,. Their determination follows from the requirements that the tangential components of E and H be continuous at the boundary z = 0.
From Eiy(x, 0) + Ery(x, 0) = E,,(x, 0) we have E, ,  j f i l x s i n O i + ~  j f i l x s i n O , = ~ ,jfi2xsin0, a0 roe to Similarly, from Hix(x,0) + Hrx(x,0) = Htx(x,0) we require
=
 cos ,jeiP2"'"
0,.
(7144)
'I2 Because Eqs. (7143) and (7144) are to be satisfied for all x, all three exponential factors that are functions of x must be equal ("phasematching"). Thus, Blx sin 8, = blx sin 8, = p2x sin 8,, which leads to Snell's law of reflection (8, = 8,) and Snell's law of refraction (sin Ot/sin 8, = b1/p2 = nl In2). Equations (7143) and (7144) can now be written simply as Eio +Era = 40
(7145)
and Eto cos Oi = cos O,, 'I1 'I2 from which E,, and Eto can be found in terms of Eio. The reflection and transmission coefficients are 1
(Eio Era)
Reflection coefficient for perpendicular polarization
and Transmission coefficient for perpendicular polarization
When 8, = 0,making 8, = 8, = 0, these expressions reduce to those for normal incidenceEqs. (794) anh (795)as they should. Furthermore, T, and z, are related in the following way: Relation between reflection and transmission coefficients for perpendicular polarization
which is similar to Eq. (796) for normal incidence. 'These are sometimes referred to as Fresnel's equdons.
If medium 2 is a perfect conductor, q, =O. We have T, = = 0 (E,, = 0). The tangential E field on the surface of the conductor vanishes, and no energy is transmitted across a perfectly conducting boundary.
 1(E,, = E,,) and z,
EXAMPLE712 The instantaneous expression for the electric field of a uniform plane wave in air is E,(x, z; t) = ay10cos (ot + 3x 4z)
(V/m).
The wave is incident on a perfectly conducting plane boundary at z = 0.
c)
Find phase constant Pi, angular frequency o , and angle of incidence, 6,. Find E,(x, z). Discuss the behavior of E,(x, z; t).
a)
The phasor expression for Ei is
a) b)
Ei(x,z) = ay10ej3xj4z, which represents a perpendicularly polarized wave propagating in the x and +zdirections. In view of Eqs. (720) and (721) we have
ki = akiki = ax(& sin 6,) + az(/ll cos O,), where we have noted that in the lossless medium 1, k, =
Thus,
sin 6, = 3, and
p1 cos Bi = 4, from which we obtain
B1 = J
3 V '
=5
(rad/m), and
5
Oi = tan'  = 36.9". 4
b)
Also, B, = o/c, and o = pic = 5 x (3 x 10') = 1.5 x log(radls). For a perfectly conducting interface, T, =  1, E,, = E,, =  10, and EJx, z) = ay1Oej3"+j4', which propagates in the x and zdirections.
C)
E1(x,z)=E,(x,z)+E,(x,z)  ay1qej4zej4~ej3x =
ay20j(sin4z)ei3",
77
OBLIQUEINCIDENCE OF PLANE WAVES AT PLANE BOUNDARIES 325 which corresponds to an instantaneous expression El(x, z; t) = aY20(sin42) cos (1.5 x 109t+ 3x~12). Thus, El(x, z ; t) is composed of a standing wave in the 2direction and a traveling wave in the xdirection. The standing wave has a value zero at 4z = nn, or z = nn/4 (n = 0,1,2, .. .). The traveling wave is a nonuniform plane wave since its amplitude is not constant in the zdirection.
77.4
PARALLEL POLARIZATION
Meaning Of polarization
When a uniform plane wave with parallel polarization is incident obliquely on a plane boundary, Ei lies in the plane of incidence (Hi is perpendicular to the plane of incidence), as illustrated in Fig. 715. The incident and reflected electric and magnetic field intensity phasors in medium 1 are: Ei(x,z) = Ei0(8, cos ei a, sin 6JejP1(" "'"
Oi+=
Cos
Oi),
(7150)
FIGURE 715 Plane wave incident obliquely on a plane dielectric boundary barallel polarization).
[email protected],z) = a, e j/?~(xsinBi+z c o s 8s) ?1 Er(x,z) = ErO(axcos Or +a, sin 0,)ejsl(" ',"
cos
(7152)
The transmitted electric and magnetic field intensity phasors in medium 2 are Et(x,z) = EtO(axcos Ot a, sin Ode js2(" Ot + " 'Os Bt), (7154)
Continuity requirements for the tangential components of E and H at z = 0 lead again to Snell's laws of reflection and refraction, as well as to the following two equations:
(EiO+ErO)cos Oi = Eto cos O,,
(7156)
Solving for Ero and E,, in terms of E,,, we obtain Reflection coefficient for parallel polarization
'I

 q2cos 8, + rl, cos 8,
and Transmission coefficient for parallel polarization
Zll =
Eio
=
21, cos oi q2cos 8, q , cos
+
It is easy to verify that Reflection and transmission relation between coefficients for parallel polarization
(7160) Equation (7160) is seen to be different from Eq. (7149) for perpendicular polarization except when 8, = 0, = 0, which is the case for normal incidence. If medium 2 is a perfect conductor ('1, = 0), Eqs. (7158) and (7159) simplify to Tll =  1 and zll = 0, respectively, making the tangential compo'These are also referred to as Fresnel's equations.
77
Of
sunglasses for reducing sun glare
77.5
OBLIQUE INCIDENCE OF PLANE WAVESA T PLANE BOUNDARIES 327
nent of the total E field on the surface of the conductor vanish, as expected. We note here that the choices of the reference directions of E, and H, in Figs. 714 and 715 are all arbitrary. The actual directions of E, and H, may or may not be the same as those shown, depending on whether T, in Eq. (7147) and rllin Eq. (7158) is positive or negative, respectively. versus O,, we will find the former always If we plot Jl?,12 and lrI1l2 greater than the latter except for Oi = 0, where they are equal. This means that when an unpolarized wave strikes a plane dielectric interface, the reflected wave will contain more power in the component with perpendicular polarization than that with parallel polarization. A popular application of this fact is the design of Polaroid sunglasses to reduce sun glare. Much of the sunlight received by the eye has been reflected from horizontal surfaces on earth. Because (r,I2> Irll12,the light reaching the eye is predominantly perpendicular to the plane of reflection (same as the plane of incidence), and hence the electric field is parallel to the earth's surface. Polaroid sunglasses are designed to filter out this component.
BREWSTER ANGLE O F N O REFLECTION
We note from the expression for reflection coefficient in Eq. (7158) that the numerator is the difference of two terms. This leads us to inquire whether there is a combination of ql, q2, and Oi that makes rll= 0 for no reflection. Denoting this particular Oi by OBI1, we require q2 cos I), = q1 cos OBll.
(7161)
Squaring both sides of Eq. (7161) and using Eq. (7117), we obtain
Brewster angle of no reflection
Formula for Brewster angle
The angle OBI1is known as the Brewster angle of no reflection for the case of parallel polarization.
An alternative form for Eq. (7163) is Alternative formula for Brewster angle
EXERC~SE 7.15
oBl,= tanI&
= tan'
(2) ,
142)
Verify that Eqs. (7163) and (7164) are equivalent.
At this point the reader may wonder why we did not examine the Brewster angle for no reflection for perpendicular polarization. Mathematically we could find a formula for O, the angle of incidence Oi that would make l7, vanish. Setting the numerator of Eq. (7147) to zero, the condition in conjunction with Snell's law of reflection, Eq. (7117), would yield
It is now clear that O,, does not exist if p, = p2, as usually is the case for wave media. Because of the difference in the formulas for Brewster angles for perpendicular and parallel polarizations, it is possible to separate these two types of polarization in an unpolarized wave. When an unpolarized wave such as random light is incident upon a boundary at the Brewster angle OBI/ given by Eq. (7164), only the component with perpendicular polarization will be reflected. Thus a Brewster angle is also referred to as a polarizing angle. Based on this principle, quartz windows set at the Brewster angle at the ends of a laser tube are used to control the polarization of an emitted light beam.
EXAMPLE713 An electromagnetic wave impinges from air on the surface of water, which has a dielectric constant of 80.
a) b)
Determine the Brewster angle for parallel polarization, OBI,, and the corresponding angle of transmission. If the wave has perpendicular polarization and is incident from air on the water surface at 6, = OB1l,find the reflection and transmission coefficients.
SOLUTION a)
The Brewster angle of no reflection for parallel polarization can be obtained directly from Eq. (7163):
77
OBLIQUE INCIDENCE OF PLANEWAVESA T PLANEBOUNDARIES 329
OBll = sin' = sin'
1
J
d1+1(1180) = 81.0".
The corresponding angle of transmission is, from Eq. (7118), 0, = sin = sin
b)
zl)=sinl( 'r 
(k)
1
)
JX
= 6.384
For an incident wave with perpendicular polarization, we use Eqs. (7147) and (7148) to find T, and z, at 8, = 81.0" and 0, = 6.38" (ql =377Q, qz=377/&=40.1Q): cos 81"  377 cos 6.38" rl = 40.1 40.1 cos 81" + 377 cos 6.38"
zl =
=;
0.967,
2 x 377 xcos 81" = 0.033. 40.1 cos 81" + 377 cos 6.38"
We note that the relation between T, and satisfied.
2,
given in Eq. (7149) is
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4734 Define perpendicular polarization and parallel polarization for oblique incidence of plane waves at a plane boundary.
Q.735 Under what conditions will the reflection and transmission coefficients for perpendicular polarization be the same as those for parallel polarization? Q.736 Define Brewster angle. When does it exist at an interface of two nonmagnetic media? Q.737 Why is a Brewster angle also called a polarizing angle?
SUMMARY At very large distances from a finite source radiating electromagnetic waves, a small portion of the wavefront is very nearly a plane. Thus the study of uniform plane waves is of particular importance. In this chapter we examined the behavior of uniform plane waves in both lossless and lossy media, explained Doppler effect when there is relative motion between a timeharmonic source and a receiver, discussed the polarization of plane waves and showed the relation between linearly polarized and circularly polarized waves, explained the significant of a complex wavenumber and a complex propagation constant in a lossy medium, o
studied the skin effect in conductors and obtained the formula for skin depth, introduced the concept of signal dispersion and explained the difference between phase and group velocities, discussed the flow of electromagnetic power and Poynting's theorem, studied the reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves at plane boundaries for both normal incidence and oblique incidence, derived Snell's laws of reflection and refraction, explained the effect of ionosphere on wave propagation, and examined the conditions for total reflection and for no reflection.
PROBLEMS P.71 (a) Obtain the wave equations governing the E and H fields in a sourcefree conducting medium with constitutive parameters E, p, and a. (b) Obtain the corresponding Helmholtz's equations for timeharmonic fields. p.72 A 1(GHz) Doppler radar on the ground is used to determine the location and speed of an approaching airplane. Assuming that the signal reflected from the airplane at an elevation angle of 15.5" showed a time delay of 0.3 (ms) and a frequency shift of 2.64 (kHz), find the distance, height, and speed of the airplane. P.73 Obtain a general formula that expresses the phasor E(R)in terms of the phasor H(R) of a TEM wave and the intrinsic impedance of the medium, where R is the radius vector.
P.74 The instantaneous expression for the magnetic field intensity of a uniform plane wave propagating in the +y direction in air is given by
a) Determine k, and the location where Hzvanishes at t = 3(ms). b) Write the instantaneous expression for E. P.75 The Efield of a uniform plane wave propagating in a dielectric medium is given by E(t, z) = ax2 cos (10%z/J5) a,, sin (10%z/$)
(V/m).
a) Determine the frequency and wavelength of the wave. b) What is the dielectric constant of the medium? c) Describe the polarization of the w$ve. d) Find the corresponding Hfield. P.76 Show that a plane wave with an instantaneous expression for the electric field E(z, t) = a,E,, sin (wt kz) +a,,E2, sin (wt  kz + $) is elliptically polarized. P.77 A 3(GHz), ypolarized uniform plane wave propagates in the +xdirection in a nonmagnetic medium having a dielectric constant 2.5 and a loss tangent 0.05. a) Determine the distance over which the amplitude of the propagating wave will be cut in half. b) Determine the intrinsic impedance, the wavelength, the phase velocity, and the group velocity of the wave in the medium. c) Assuming E = aY50sin (6x109t+ n/3)(V/m) at x = 0, write the instantaneous expression for H for all t and x. P.78 Determine and compare the intrinsic impedance, attenuation constant (in both Np/m and dB/m), and skin depth of copper [a,, = 5.80 x 10' (S/m)], and brass [a,, = 1.59 x lo7(S/m)] at the following frequencies: (a) 1(MHz), and (b) 1(GHz). P.79 Given that the skin depth for graphite at 100(MHz) is 0.16(mm), determine (a) the conductivity of graphite, and (b) the distance that a 1(GHz) wave travels in graphite such that its field intensity is reduced by 30(dB). P.710 There is a continuing discussion on radiation hazards to human health. The following calculations provide a rough comparison. a) The U.S. standard for personal safety in a microwave environment is that the power density be less than 10(mW/cm2). Calculate the corresponding standard in terms of electric field intensity. In terms of magnetic field intensity.
b) It is estimated that the earth receives radiant energy from the sun at a rate of about 1.3 (kW/m2)on a sunny day. Assuming a monochromatic plane wave (which it is not), calculate the equivalent amplitudes of the electric and magnetic field intensity vectors. P.711 Show that the instantaneous Poynting vector of a circularly polarized plane wave propagating in a lossless medium is a constant that is independent of time and distance. P.712 Assuming that the radiation electric field intensity of an antenna system is find the expression for the average outward power flow per unit area. P.713 From the point of view of electromagnetics, the power transmitted by a lossless coaxial cable can be considered in terms of the Poynting vector inside the dielectric medium between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. Assuming that a dc voltage Vo applied between the inner conductor (of radius a) and the outer sheath (of inner radius b) causes a current I to flow to a load resistance, verify that the integration of the Poynting vector over the crosssectional area of the dielectric medium equals the power Vol that is transmitted to the load.
P.714A uniform plane wave in air with Ei(x, t) = a, 50sin(108 t  fix) (V/m) is incident normally on a lossless medium (E, = 2, p, = 8, a = 0) in the region x 2 0.Find a) E, and H,, b) r, z, and S, and c) E, and H,. P.715 A uniform plane wave propagates in the +z(downward) direction into the ocean (E, = 72, p, = 1, a = 4 S/m). The magnetic field at the ocean surface (z = 0) is H(0, t) = a, 0.3 cos 108t(A/m). a) Determine the skin depth and the intrinsic impedance of the ocean water. b) Find the expressions of E(z, t) and H(z, t) in the ocean. c) Find the average power loss per unit area in the ocean as a function of z. P.716 For uniform plane waves in medium 1 incident normally on an plane interface with medium 2, obtain the ratios: a) H,,/Hi0 and compare with the reflection coefficient in Eq. (794), and b) H,,/Hi0 and compare with the transmission coefficient in Eq. (795). P.717 A righthand circularly polarized plane wave represented by the phasor
impinges normally on a perfectly conducting wall at z = 0.
a) Determine the polarization of the reflected wave. b) Find the induced current on the conducting wall. c) Obtain the instantaneous expression of the total electric intensity based on a cosine time reference. P.718 Determine the condition under which the magnitude of the reflection coefficient equals that of the transmission coefficient for a uniform plane wave at normal incidence on an interface between two lossless dielectric media. What is the standingwave ratio in dB under this condition? P.719 A uniform plane wave in air with Ei(z) = a,lOej6"(V/m) is incident normally on an interface at z = 0 with a lossy medium having a dielectric constant 2.25 and a loss tangent 0.3. Find the following: a) The phasor expressions for Er(z), Hr(z), E,(z), and H,(z). b) The standingwave ratio for the wave in air. c) The expressions for timeaverage Poynting vectors in air and in the lossy medium. P.720 A uniform sinusoidal plane wave in air with the following phasor expression for electric intensity is incident on a perfectly conducting plane at z = 0. a) Find the frequency and wavelength of the wave. b) Write the instantaneous expressions for Ei(x, z ; t) and Hi(x, z; t), c) Determine the angle of incidence. d) Find Er(x, z) and H,(x, z) of the reflected wave. e) Find E,(x, z) and H,(x, z) of the total field in air. P.721 For the case of oblique incidence of a uniform plane wave with perpendicular polarization on a plane boundary with E, = e0, e2 = 2.256,, pl = p2 = pO,as shown in Fig. 714, assume Eio = 20 (V/m), f = 100(MHz), and Oi = 30". a) Find the reflection and transmission coefficients. b) Write the instantaneous expression for E,(x, z; t) and H,(x, z; t). P.722 For the case of oblique incidence of a uniform plane wave with parallel polarization on a plane boundary with E, = E,, E, = 2.25e0, pl = p2 = p,, as shown in Fig. 715, assume H, = 0.053(A/m), f = 100(MHz), and 6, = 30". a) Find the reflection and transmission coefficients. b) Write the instantaneous expressions for Et(x, z; t) and Ht(x,z; t). a) Suggest a method for measuring the maximum electron density in the ionosphere. b) Assuming N,,, = 8 x 10'' per cubic meter, discuss the choice of minimum usable frequency for communicating with a space station beyond the ionosphere.
c) What happens at oblique incidence on the ionosphere if a lower frequency is used? P.724 A uniform plane wave is incident on the ionosphere at an angle of incidence Oi= 60". Assuming a constant electron density and a wave frequency equal to onehalf of the plasma frequency of the ionosphere, determine a) r, and z,, and b) r,,and T i , . Interpret the significance of these complex quantities. P.725 A 10(kHz) electromagnetic wave in air with parallel polarization is incident obliquely on an ocean surface at a neargrazing angle Oi = 88". Using = 81, p, = 1, and a = 4(S/m) for seawater, find (a) the angle of refraction O,, (b) the transmission coefficient T I , ,and (c) the distance below the ocean surface where the field intensity has been diminished by 30(dB). P.726 A light ray is incident from air obliquely on a transparent sheet of thickness d with an index of refraction n, as shown in Fig. 716. The angle of incidence is Oi. Find (a) O,, (b) the distance 8, at the point of exit, and (c) the amount of the lateral displacement 4, of the emerging ray.
FIGURE 716 Lightray impinging obliquely on a transparent sheet of refraction index n (Problem P.726).
P.727 A uniform plane wave with perpendicular polarization represented by Eqs. (7135) and (7136) is incident on a plane interface at z = 0, as shown in Fig. 714. Assuming E , < E , and Oi > O,, (a) obtain the phasor expressions for the transmitted field (E,, H,), and (b) verify that the average power transmitted into medium 2 is zero. P.728 A uniform plane wave of angular frequency o in medium 1 having a refractive index n, is incident on a plane interface at z = 0 with medium 2 having a refractive index n, ( u, u, c u, and Eq. (943) holds. As the operating frequency increases much above the cutoff frequency, both up and u, approach u asymptotically. The exact value of o,depends on the eigenvalue h in Eq. (926)that is, on the particular TM or TE mode.
EXAMPLE92 P
Consider a parallelplate waveguide of two perfectly conducting plates separated by a distance b and filled with a dielectric medium having constitutive parameters (E, p), as shown in Fig. 93. The plates are assumed to be infinite in extent in the xdirection. (Fields do not vary in the xdirection.) a)
Obtain the timeharmonic field expressions for TM modes in the guide.
b)
Determine the cutoff frequency.
SOLUTION a)
Let the waves propagate in the +zdirection. For TM modes, Hz = 0. With harmonic time dependence it is convenient to work with field intensity phasors and write Ez(y,z) as E:(Y)~~~. Since there is no variation in the xdirection, Eq. (922) becomes
The general solution for Eq. (944) is E,O(y) = A, sin hy + B, cos hy. FIGURE 93 An infinite parallelplate waveguide.
(945)
398
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES A N D CAVITY RESONATORS Since the tangential component of the electric field must vanish on the surface of the perfectly conducting plates, the following boundary conditions should be satisfied: (i) At y = 0, E:(O) = 0, and (ii) At y = b, E:(b) = 0. Boundary condition (i) requires B, = 0; and boundary condition (ii) requires sin hb = 0, or hb = nn, which determines the value of the eigenvalue h:
Hence, E:(y) in Eq. (945) must be of the following form: E:(y) = A,, sin
(y),
where the amplitude A, depends on the strength of excitation of the particular TM wave. The only other nonzero field components are obtained from Eqs. (911) and (914), keeping in mind that H: = 0 and aE:/a~ = 0.
(?) .
Ey0 (y) =   A, COS h
The y in Eq. (949) is the propagation constant that can be determined from Eq. (924):
b)
The cutoff frequency is the frequency that makes y = 0. We have
Cutoff frequency of a parallelplate waveguide
which, of course, checks with Eq. (926). Waves with f >f, propagate with a phase constant /?,given in Eq. (929); and waves with f 5 f, are evanescent. Depending on the values of n, there are different possible propagating TM modes (eigenmodes) corresponding to the different eigenvalues h. Thus there are the TM, mode (n = 1) with cutoff frequency (A)),= 1/2b&, the TM, mode (n = 2) with (S,), = l/b&, and so on. Each mode has its own characteristics. When n = 0, E, = 0
and only the transverse components H , and E, exist. Hence TM, mode is the TEM mode, a special case, for which& = 0.
REVIEW QUESTIONS Q.91 Why are the common types of transmission lines not useful for longdistance signal transmission at microwave frequencies in the TEM mode? Q.92 Why are lumpedparameter elements connected by wires not useful as resonant circuits at microwave frequencies? 4.93 What are the three basic types of propagating waves in a uniform waveguide? 4.94 Explain why singleconductor hollow or dielectricfilled waveguides cannot support TEM waves. Q.95 Define wave impedance. 4.96 In what way does the wave impedance in a waveguide depend on frequency: a) For a propagating TEM wave? b) For a propagating TM wave? c) For a propagating TE wave? 4.97 What are eigenvalues of a boundaryvalue problem? Q.98 What is meant by a cuto$frequency of a waveguide? Q.99 Can a waveguide have more than one cutoff frequency? On what factors does the cutoff frequency of a waveguide depend? Q.910 Is the guide wavelength of a propagating wave in a waveguide longer or shorter than the wavelength in the corresponding unbounded dielectric medium? Q.911 What is an evanescent mode?
400
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
The parallelplate waveguide analyzed in Example 92 assumed the plates to be of an infinite extent in the transverse xdirection; that is, the fields do not vary with x. In practice, these plates are always finite in width, with fringing fields at the edges. Electromagnetic energy will leak through the sides of the guide and create undesirable stray couplings to other circuits and systems. Thus practical waveguides are usually uniform structures of a cross section of the enclosed variety. In this section we will analyze the wave behavior in hollow rectangular waveguides. In the following discussion we draw on the material in Section 92 concerning general wave behaviors along uniform guiding structures. Propagation of timeharmonic waves in the +zdirection with a propagation constant y is considered. TM and TE modes will be discussed separately. As we have noted previously, TEM waves cannot exist in a singleconductor hollow or dielectricfilled waveguide. 93.1 TM WAVES I N RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES
Consider the waveguide sketched in Fig. 94, with its rectangular cross section of sides a and b. The enclosed dielectric medium is assumed to have constitutive parameters E and p. For TM waves, Hz = 0 and E, is to be solved from Eq. (922). Writing Ez(x,y, z) as E,(x, Y, z) = E%, y)e Yz, we solve the following secondorder partial differential equation:
FIGURE 94 A rectangular waveguide.
(952)
We assume that the solution E,O(x, y) can be expressed as the product of a function X(x) depending only on x and a function Y(y) depending only on y:
The method of separation of variables
In Subsection 311.5 we mentioned the uniqueness theorem, which guarantees that a solution of Eq. (954), however obtained, is the only possible solution if it satisfies the problem's boundary conditions. By assuming a product solution such as that in Eq. (954), we follow the method of separation of variables. Substituting Eq. (954) in Eq. (953) and dividing the resulting equation by X(x)Y( y), we have
Since the left side of Eq. (955) is a function of x only and the right side is a function of y only, both sides must equal a constant in order for the equation to hold for all values of x and y. Calling this constant (separation constant) k;, we obtain two separate ordinary differential equations: d2x(x) + k:X(x) = 0, and dx2
where k; = h2  k2X. The general solutions of Eqs. (956) and (9.57) are
+ A, cos k,x Y(y) = B, sin k, y + B2cos k,,y.
X(x) = A, sin k,x
and
(959) (960)
The appropriate forms to be chosen for X(x) and Y(y) must be such that their product in Eq. (954) satifies the following boundary conditions:
1.
In the xdirection: E,O(O,y) = 0, and E:(a, y) = 0.
2.
In the ydirection: E,O(x, 0) = 0, and E:(x, b) = 0.
Obviously, then, we must choose: X(x) in the form of sin k,x,
402
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS Y(y) in the form of sin kyy,
nn k =b7
n = 1,2,3, ...;
and the proper solution for E:(x, y) is
(7 )
E:(x, y) = E, sin x sin .
r;
Y)
(v/mh
where E, has been written for the product AIBl, which is to be determined from the excitation conditions of the waveguide. The other field components can be obtained from Eqs. (911) through (914) by setting H: = 0. The eigenvalue h end propagation constant y are related to k, and ky by Eqs. (958) and (924), respectively. We have
Every combination of the integers m and n defines a possible mode that may be designated as the TM, mode; thus there are a double infinite number of TM modes. The first subscript denotes the number of halfcycle variations of the fields in the xdirection, and the second subscript denotes the number of halfcycle variations of the fields in the ydirection. The cutoff of a particular mode is the condition that makes y vanish. For the TM, mode, the cutoff frequency is, from Eq. (926), Cutoff frequency of TM,, mode
Alternatively, we may write 3, = u/f, = 2n/h, or Cutoff wavelength of TM,, mode
\
where Ac is the cute$ wavelength.
For TM modes in rectangular waveguides, neither m nor n can be zero. Otherwise, E;(x, y) in Eq. (965) and all other field components would vanish. Hence, the TM,, mode has the lowest cutoff frequency of all TM modes in a rectangular waveguide. The expressions for the phase constant j3 and the wave impedance ZTMfor propagating modes in Eqs. (929) and (934), respectively, apply here directly.
EXAMPLE 93 A rectangular waveguide having interior dimensions a = 2.3 (cm) and b = 1.0 (cm) is filled with a medium characterized by e, = 2.25, /S = 1.
a) b)
,
Find h, f,, and 1,for TM, mode. If the operating frequency is 15% higher than the cutoff frequency, find (Z)TM1l, (B)TMll,and (LgLMl1. Assume the waveguide to be lossless for propagating modes.
SOLUTION
a)
For the TM,, mode, we use m = n = 1in Eqs. (966), (968), and (969).
( 1 Ma'
b)
2n h
==
2n 1.83 342.6
(cm).
At f = 1.15f, = 1.15 x 10.9 = 12.54 (GHz), TM,, is a propagating mode. The expressions for Z,, 8, and 1, in Eqs. (934), (929), and = = 0.494. (930) all contain the factor ,/We have
Jw
and 2n (lg)mll= = 2n  0.0323 (m) = 3.23 (cm). (j3h~a1 194.5
404
EXERCISE9 3
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
For f c (f,),,,, TM,, is an evanescent mode. Find the attenuation constant for TM,, mode in the waveguide in Example 93 at f = 0.85f,. What is the distance in the waveguide over which field amplitudes will be reduced by a factor of e  I or 36.8%?
ANS. 180.5 (Np/m), 5.5 (mm). W EXERCISE 9.4
For the waveguide in Example 93 find the cutoff frequencies for TM,, and TM,, modes.
ANS. 20.5 (GHz), 13.3 (GHz). 93.2 TE WAVES I N RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES
For transverse electric waves, E, = 0, we solve Eq. (936) for Hz. We write (970)
Hz(&Y,z) = H:(x, ~ ) e  ~ " ,
where H:(x, z) satisfies the following secondorder partialdifferential equation:
Equation (971) is seen to be of exactly the same form as Eq. (953). The solution for H:(x, y) must satisfy the following boundary conditions. 1.
In the xdirection: aH: ax aH:   0 (E,, = 0) ax
  0 (E,,= 0)
2.
at x = 0, at x = a.
In the ydirection:
It is readily verified that the appropriate solution for H:(x, y) is
H:(x, y) = H, cos
(F (7 x) cos
y)
(Aim).
The other field components are obtained from Eqs. (911) through (914): E;(X, y) =I$ h
(7) (Fx) (7 H, cos
sin
y),
o
Ey(x,Y) =

(T) Hosin (Fx) cos (Fy),
j o p mn
jp
H;(, y) = 1 h2 (E) b Ho cos
.
TE, mode has the lowest cutoff frequency of all TE modes in a rectangular waveguide with
(5 17 ), sin
y
where h and y have the same expressions as those in Eqs. (966) and (967), respectively, for TM modes. Equation (968) for cutoff frequency also applies here. For TE modes, either m or n (but not both) can be zero. If a > b, h = n/a is the smallest eigenvalue and the cutoff frequency is the lowest when m = 1 and n = 0:
a>b.
The corresponding cutoff wavelength is
.
Cutoff wavelength of TE, mode
Dominant mode
The importance of the TE,, mode in a rectangular waveguide
The mode having the lowest cutoff frequency (longest cutoff wavelength) is called the dominant mode. Hence the TE,, mode is the dominant mode of a rectangular waveguide with a > b. Because the TE,, mode has the lowest attenuation of all modes in a rectangular waveguide and its electric field is definitely polarized in one direction everywhere, it is of particular importance. We will examine its field structure and other characteristicsmore in detail later in this chapter. (a) What is the dominant mode of an a x b rectangular waveguide if a < b? What is its cutoff wavelength? (b) What are the cutoff frequencies in a square waveguide (a = b) for TM, TE,,, and TE,, modes?
,,
AN& (a) 2b, (b) l/a&.
A TE,, wave at 10 (GHz) propagates in a rectangular waveguide with inner dimensions a = 1.5 (cm) and b = 0.6 (crn), which is filled with polyethylene (E, = 2.25, p, = 1).Determine (a) the phase constant, (b)the guide wavelength, (c) the phase velocity, and (d) the wave impedance.
406
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
At f = 10" (Hz) the wavelength in unbounded polyethylene is
A =  =U
f
3 x lo8 =2 x lo8 x 10l0 10l0
J225
0.02 (m).
The cutoff frequency for the TE,, mode is, from Eq. (981), U
f ==
2a
a)
2 x lo8 2 x (1.5 x
= 0.667 x 10''
The phase constant is, from Eq. (938),
= 74% = 234
b)
EXERCISE9.6
(rad/m).
The guide wavelength is, from Eq. (930).
A
W
(Hz).
0.02
 0.0268 (m).
c)
The phase velocity is, from Eq. (933),
d)
The wave impedance is, from Eq. (939),
Which TM and TE modes can propagate in the polyethylenefilled rectangular waveguide in Example 94 if the operating frequency is 19 (GHz)? What are their cutoff frequencies?
,.
ANS. TElo,TE,,, TEol,TE, ,, and TM, Cutofffrequencies in (GHz):6.67,13.3,16.7, 17.9, and 17.9.
EXAMPLE95 (a) Write the instantaneous field expressions for the TE,, mode in a rectangular waveguide having sides a and b. (b) Sketch the electric and magnetic field lines in typical xy, yz, and xzplanes. (c) Sketch the surface currents on the guide walls.
a)
The instantaneous field expressions for the dominant TE,, mode are obtained by multiplying the phasor expressions in Eqs. (976) through
1.o
Electric field lines
 Magnetic field lines 0
(4 FIGURE 95 Field lines for TE,, mode in rectangular waveguide.
(980) with ej(atpZ)and then taking the real part of the product. We have, for m = 1 and n = 0 (h,, = wla), (983)
Ex(x, Y, 2; t) = 0,
H,(x, y, z; t) =
Bt oa H,
w
Hz(x, y, z; t) = H, cos
sin
(986)
(988)
where
b)
We see from Eqs. (983) through (988) that the TE,, mode has only three nonzero field componentsnamely, Ey, H,, and Hz. In a typical xyplane, say, when sin (cot  Pz) = 1, both Eyand H, vary as sin (axla) and are independent of y, as shown in Fig. 95(a). In a typical yzplane, for example at x = a12 or sin (wxla) = 1 and cos (wxla) = 0, we only
408
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
FIGURE 96 Surface currents on guide walls for TE,, mode in rectangular
waveguide.
have Eyand H,, both of which vary sinusoidally with Pz. A sketch of Ey and H, at t = 0 is given in Fig. 95(b). The sketch in an xzplane will show all three nonzero field componentsEy, H,, and Hz. The slope of the H lines at t = 0 is governed by the following equation:
(g)H$(): (: =
c)
tan
tan ~ z ,
which can be used to draw the H lines in Fig. 95(c). These lines are independent of y. The surface current density on guide walls, J,, is related to the magnetic field intensity by Eq. (647b):
Js = a, x H,
(991)
where a, is the outward normal from the wall surface and H is the magnetic field intensity at the wall. We have, at t = 0, (992) (993)
J,(X = 0) = ay Hz(O, y, z; 0) = ay H, cos Bz, J,(x = a) = ayH,(a, y, z; 0) = J,(x = O), J,(y =O)=a,Hz(x, 0, z; 0)azHx(x,Oy z; 0)
():
H, sin
(: x)
sin Pz,
The surface currents on the inside walls at x = 0 and at y = b are sketched in Fig. 96.
EXERCISE 9.7
As waves propagate along a waveguide, charges are deposited on the inner surface of its walls. Find the expressions for the surface charge distributions a) b)
along the center lines of the top and bottom walls, and along the side walls for the TE,, mode at t = 0
ANS. (a) p,
= ( w p ~ a / l r ) H , s i n ~(C/m2) ~ ~ z on
top wall, (b) 0.
EXAMPLE96 Standard airfilled rectangular waveguides have been designed for the radar bands listed in Table 64. The inner dimensions of a waveguide suitable for Xband applications are: a = 2.29 cm (0.90 in.) and b = 1.02 cm (0.40 in.). If it is desired that the waveguide operates only in the dominant TE,, mode and that the operating frequency be at least 25% above the cutoff frequency of the TE,, mode but no higher than 95% of the next higher cutoff frequency, what is the allowable operatingfrequency range?
(m), the two modes having the (m) and b = 1.02 x For a = 2.29 x lowest cutoff frequencies are TE,, and TE,,. Using Eq. (968), we find
C
(f,),, =  = 13.10 x lo9 (Hz). a Thus the allowable operatingfrequency range under the specified conditions is 1.25(f,)~~~, 5 f 5 O.~~(~,)TE'O or 8.19 (GHz) 5 f s 12.45 (GHz).
93.3 ATTENUATION IN RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES
Causes for attenuation in waveguides
Attenuation in a waveguide arises from two sources: lossy dielectric and imperfectly conducting walls. Losses modify the electric and magnetic fields within the guide, making exact solutions difficult to obtain. However, in practical waveguides the losses are usually very small, and we can assume that the transverse field patterns of the propagating modes are not appreciably affected by them. A real part of the propagation constant will now appear as the attenuation constant, which accounts for power losses. The attenuation constant consists of two parts:
410
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS where ad is the attenuation constant due to losses in the dielectric and a, is that due to ohmic power loss in the imperfectly conducting walls. The analytical determination of ad and ac is somewhat tedious. Here we will merely outline the general procedure for their determination. To find a, we note from Section 73 that the effects of a lossy dielectric on wave propagation can be studied by considering a complex permittivity
Attenuation due to a lossy dielectric increases with dielectric conductivity and with frequency.
Attenuation due to finite wall conductivity is inversely proportional to the square root of wall conductivity, but depends on the mode and the frequency in a complicated way.
f E,, mode has the
lowest attenuation in a rectangular waveguide.
where e"/& = o,&od is the loss tangent and ad is the equivalent conductivity of the dielectric. Use of e, in place of E in Eq. (924) will yield a complex propagation constant y, the real part of which is a,. It will be found that adis directly proportional to a, and decreases with the ratio (A/f ). To find a, we use Eq. (857), which was derived from the law of conservation of energy,
where P(z) is the timeaverage power propagated along the guide at z, and PL(z)is the timeaverage power loss per unit length at z. P(z) can be found from the transverse electric and magnetic field intensities using Eq. (779). In order to calculate PL(z),it is necessary to consider the power loss in all four guide walls due to a finite conductivity oc. This requires the integration of IJ,~~R, over the inner surfaces per unit length of the walls, where J, and R, denote, respectively, the surface current density on, and the intrinsic resistance (see Eq. 753) of the wall conductors. The expressions of a, for TM, and TE,,,, are different because of different current distributions. They depend on guide dimensions and the ratio (&If) in a complicated way. For all propagating modes, a, is directly proportional to R,, which, in turn, is inversely proportional to the square root of the wall conductivity a,. Naturally a, is zero (no power loss) if the guide walls are infinitely conducting (0,
+
~0).
In Fig. 97 are plotted typical a, curves as functions of the operating frequency f for TE,, and TM,, modes in a 2.29 (cm) x 1.02 (cm)rectangular copper waveguide. From Eq. (968) we find (A),, = 6.55 (GHz) and (A),, = 16.10 (GHz). The curves show that the attenuation constant increases rapidly toward infinity as the operating frequency approaches the cutoff frequency. In the operating range (f >A), both curves possess a broad minimum. The attenuation constant of the TE,, mode is everywhere lower than that of the TM,, mode. These facts have direct relevance in the choice of operating modes and frequencies.
FIGURE 97 Attenuation due to wall losses in rectangular copper waveguide for TE,, and TM,, modes. a = 2.29 (cm),b = 1.02 (cm).
EXAMPLE97 An airfilled 5.0 (cm) x 2.5 (cm) rectangular waveguide, 0.8 (m) long, is to deliver 1.2 (kW) to a matched load at 4.5 (GHz). Assuming an attenuation constant of 0.05 (dB/m), find (a) the required average input power to the waveguide, (b) the total amount of power dissipated in the walls of the waveguide, and (c) the maximum value of the electric intensity within the guide.
Given: a = 5.0 x
(m), b = 2.5 x lo' (m).
= 3 x 10' (Hz) = 3 (GHz).
The next higher modes are TE,, and TE,,, both of which have a cutoff frequency equal to 6 (GHz) > 4.5 (GHz). Thus, the only propagating mode at 4.5 (GHz) is the TE,, mode. a)
a = 5 x lo, (dB/m) = 5.75 x (Np/m). Pin= Plmde2d= 1.2 x 103eZ"(5.75X10J)x0.8
1.2 x 103e0.0092 = 1,211 (W). Power dissipated = Pin  Plead =
b)
=
1,211  1,200= 11 (W).
412
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS c)
For TE,, mode, the phasor expressions for the transverse field components can be written from Eqs. (984) and (986) as E,O= E, sin
and
5
H: =  'lo
)(:
x
Jq(:
where q0 =
sin
.),
m,and ?,/
in Eq. (986) has been written as oJGJW (see Eq. 938). Since the maximum fields occur at the input end, we have, from Eq. (779),
Substituting the numbers in Eq. (9101), we obtain the following:
from which we find
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.912 Explain the method of separation of variables for solving partial differential equations. Q.913 What is meant by the dominant mode of a waveguide? What is the dominant mode of a parallelplate waveguide? Q.914 State the boundary conditions to be satisfied by E, for TM waves in a rectangular waveguide. Q.915 Which TM mode has the lowest cutoff frequency of d l the TM modes in a rectangular waveguide? Q.916 State the boundary conditions to be satisfied by Hz for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide.
.
?From Eq. (779),
where E = a,E; and H = a,H: + azHE Hence, W4E x H*) = n,l$?H:, ofphase with E; and their product has no real part.
since H: is 90" out
Q.917 Which mode is the dominant mode in a rectangular waveguide if (a) a > b, (b) a < b, and (c) a = b? Q.918 What is the cutoff wavelength of the TE,, mode in a rectangular waveguide if a > b? Q.919 Which are the nonzero field components for the TE,, mode in a rectangular waveguide? Q.920 Why is the TE,, mode in a rectangular waveguide of particular practical importance? Q.921 Why are waveguides not used for VHF and lower frequency bands?
EXERCISE 9.8
.
Find the maximum amount of 10(GHz) average power that can be transmitted through an airfilled a = 2.25(cm), b = l.OO(cm) rectangular waveguide at the TE,, mode without a breakdown.
& The attenuation constlnt due to w s l lo=$ in a waveguide iinverrely proporlianal to tlxe squamroot of wall ccmductigsy,
1I
94 OTHERWAVEGUIDE TYPES
We recall from Sec. 92 that the procedure used for analyzing the wave behaviors along uniform waveguides started with the solution of a homogeneous vector Helmholtz's equation in the plane of the guide cross section. A complete solution depends on the shape and dimensions of the cross section. Following this procedure, we obtained the operating characteristics of rectangular waveguides in Section 93. In this section we briefly discuss some other waveguide types that also find practical applications.
414
Optical fibers are waveguides at optical frequencies. They are flexible, and have very low attenuation and very large bandwidth.
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES A N D CAVITY RESONATORS First, we mention hollow circular waveguides, which are, in fact, round metal pipes. A complete analysis of the wave behaviors along a circular waveguide involves the solution of a twodimensional Helmholtz's equation in the circular cross section of the guide in polar coordinates (r, 4). This, in turn, requires a knowledge of Bessel's differential equation and Bessel functions. We shall not attempt such a solution in this book, except to point out that, as in rectangular waveguides, both TM and TE modes with characteristic cutoff frequencies may exist. Dielectric slabs and rods without conducting walls can also support TM and TE guidedwave modes that are confined essentially within the dielectric medium. Outside the guide medium the fields fall exponentially. These are stray fields and may cause interference problems between neighboring circuits. A type of waveguide of particular importance for optical frequencies consists of a very thin fiber of a dielectric material, typically glass, cladded with a sheath having a slightly lower index of refraction. Such optical waveguides are generally called optical fibers. An illustration of a cladded optical fiber was shown in Fig. 718. The operation of an optical fiber can be explained in terms of total internal reflection, as was done in Example 710 for Fig. 713. The core diameter of optical fibers is usually in the range of 25 to 100 (pm), and an attenuation as low as 114 (dB/km) can be attained at infrared frequencies. Compared with an attenuation of about 30 (dB/km) for hollow metal waveguides and hundreds of dB/km for ordinary coaxial cables, this lowattenuation feature is a tremendous advantage for optical fibers. Moreover, at infrared frequencies the available bandwidth is such that a single fiberoptic circuit can carry about 20 million telephone channels or 20 thousand television channels. Optical fibers are hairthin and flexible, and thousands of them can be bundled together to form an important part of an endoscope, a medical instrument for examining the interior of a hollow human organ such as the bronchial tubes, the colon, the bladder, and so on. Images are effectively transmitted through the optical waveguides.
95 CAVITYRESONATORS
Cavity resonators are enclosed metal boxes.
We have previously pointed out that at microwave frequencies, ordinary lumpedcircuit elements such as R, L, and C are difficult to make, and stray fields become important. Circuits with dimensions comparable to the operating wavelength become efficient radiators and will interfere with other circuits and systems. Furthermore, conventional wire circuits tend to have a high effective resistance both because of energy loss through radiation and as
Electromagnetic fields are confined inside the boxes. Radiation and highresistance effects are eliminated* resulting in a very high Q.
95.1
a result of skin effect. To provide a resonant circuit at UHF and higher frequencies, we look to an enclosure (a cavity) completely surrounded by conducting walls. Such a shielded enclosure confines electromagnetic fields inside and furnishes large areas for current flow, thus eliminating radiation and highresistance effects. These enclosures have natural resonant frequencies and a very high Q (quality factor), and are called cavity resonutors.
RECTANGULAR CAVITY RESONATORS
Consider a rectangular waveguide with both ends closed by a conducting wall. The interior dimensions of the cavity are a, b, and d, as shown in Fig. 98. Let us disregard for the moment the probeexcitation part of the figure. Since both TM and TE modes can exist in a rectangular guide, we expect TM and TE modes in a rectangular resonator too. However, the designation of TM and TE modes in a resonator is not unique because we are free to choose x or y or z as the "direction of propagationyy;that is, there is no unique "longitudinal direction." For example, a TE mode with respect to the zaxis could be a TM mode with respect to the yaxis. For our purposes we choose the zaxis as the reference "direction of propagation." In actuality, the existence of conducting end walls at z = 0 and z = d gives rise to multiple reflections and sets up standing waves; no wave propagates in an enclosed cavity. A threesymbol (map) subscript is needed to designate a TM or TE standing wave pattern in a cavity resonator.
FIGURE 98 Excitation of cavity modes by a coaxial line.
(a) Probe excitation.
(b) b o p excitation.
416
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
(A) TM,,,
Modes
The phasor expression for the sole longitudinal field component, E,(x, y, z) = E:(z, ~ ) e  ~for = , TM,, modes in a waveguide has been given in Eqs. (952)and (965).Note that the longitudinal variation for a wave traveling in the +zdirection is described by the factor eYzor ejsz. This wave will be reflected by the end wall at z = d; and the reflected wave, going in the zdirection, is described by a factor ejBZ. The superposition of a term with ejsz and another of the same amplitude with ejsz results in a standing wave of the [email protected] or cosflz type. Which should it be? The answer to this question depends on the particular field component. Consider the transverse component E,,(x, y, z). Boundary conditions at the conducting surfaces require that it be zero at z = 0 and z = d. This means that (1) its zdependence must be of the sin /.?ztype, and that (2) /I = pn/d. The same argument applies to the other transverse electric field component E,(x, y, z). The relations between the transverse components, E,O and E,O, and E: have been given in E ~ S . (913)and (914), in which H: vanish for TM modes. We recall that the appearance of the factor ( y) in Eqs. (913) and (914) is the result of a differentiation with respect to z. Thus, if E,(x, y, z) depends on sin Bz, we can conclude from Eq. (914), which contains the factor (y), that E,(x, y, z) must vary according to cos flz. We have, for the TM,, mode, For TM,,, modes, m#O and n f O
E,(x, Y,Z)= E:(x, y) cos
All other field components can be written by using E, in Eqs. (911) through (914) and noting that multiplication by ( y) signifies a partial differentiation with respect to z. Substituting B = pn/d in Eq. (967), we obtain the resonant frequency for TM,, modes (u = I/&): Resonant frequency of cavity resonator
f P =
'
(Hz).
Equation (9103) states the obvious fact that the resonant frequency increases as the order of a mode becomes higher. (B) TEm, Modes For TE,,, modes (E, = 0) the phasor expressions for the standingwave field components can be written from Eqs. (976) and (977) through (980). We follow the same rules as those we used for TM,, modes; namely, (1) the transverse (tangential) electric field components must
vanish at z = 0 and z = d, and (2) the factor y indicates a negative partial differentiation with respect to z. The first rule requires a sin (pnzld) factor in E,(x, y, z) and Ey(x,y, z), as well as in H,(x, y, z); and the second rule indicates a cos(pnz/d) factor in H,(x, y,z) and Hy(x,y, z). We have For TE,, modes, p#O; m and n are not both zero.
= H, cos
Degenerate modes
A cavity resonator may be excited by a small probe or loop.
c > (y (y
H,(x, y, z) = H:(X, y) sin z
x) cos
y) sin
(5,),
All other field components can be written by using Hz in Eqs. (911) through (914) and by noting that multiplication by (y) signifies a partial differentiation with respect to z. The expression for resonant frequency, fmp, remains the same as that obtained for TM,, modes in Eq. (9103). Different modes having the same resonant frequency are called de~eneratemodes. Thus TM,, and TE,,, modes are always degenerate if none of the mode indices is zero. The mode with the lowest resonant frequency for a given cavity size is referred to as the dominant mode (see Example 98). A particular mode in a cavity resonator (or a waveguide) may be excited from a coaxial line by means of a small probe or loop antenna. In Fig. 98(a)a probe is shown that is the tip of the inner conductor of a coaxial cable; it protrudes into a cavity at a location where the electric field is a maximum for the desired mode. The probe is, in fact, an antenna that couples electromagnetic energy into the resonator. Alternatively, a cavity resonator may be excited through the introduction of a small loop at a place where the magnetic flux of the desired mode linking the loop is a maximum. Figure 98(b) illustrates such an arrangement. Of course, the source frequency from the coaxial line must be the same as the resonant frequency of the desired mode in the cavity. As an example, for the TE,,, mode in an a x b x d rectangular cavity, there are only three nonzero field components: E,, =: jmw  H, sin X
a H, =  d H, sin H, = H, cos
(:
(:
(E x) (i sin
X)
cos
x) sin
(i
z),
(z),i
This mode may be excited by a probe inserted in the center region of the top or bottom face where E,, is maximum, as shown in Fig. 98(a), or by a loop to couple a maximum Hx placed inside the front or back face, as shown in Fig. 98(b). The best location of a probe or a loop is affected by the impedancematching requirements of the microwave circuit of which the resonator is a part.
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
A commonly used method for coupling energy from a waveguide to a cavity resonator is the introduction of a hole or an iris at an appropriate location in the cavity wall. The field in the waveguide at the hole must have a component that is favorable in exciting the desired mode in the resonator.
A cavity resonator may also be excited through an iris.
Determine the dominant modes and their frequencies in an airfilled rectangular cavity resonator for (a) a > b > d, (b) a > d > b, and (c) a = b = d, where a, b, and d are the dimensions in the x, y, and zdirections, respectively.
As usual, we choose the zaxis as the reference "direction of propagation." For TM,, modes, Eq. (9102) shows that neither m nor n can be zero, bbt that p can be zero. For TE,, modes, Eq. (9104) indicates that Hzdoes not vanish even if both m and n are zero, provided p is not zero. However, if Hzis independent of both x and y, Eqs. (911) through (914) show that there will be no transverse field components at all. Thus, for TE,, modes, p cannot be zero, and either m or n (but not both) can be zero. The modes of the lowest orders in a rectangular cavity resonator are TMllo,
TEoll,
and TElol.
The resonant frequency for both TM and TE modes is given by Eq. (9103). a)
For a > b > d, the lowest resonant frequency is
b)
where c is the velocity of light in free space. Therefore TMllo is the dominant mode. For a > d > b, the lowest resonant frequency is
and TElol is the dominant mode. c)
For a = b = d, all three of the lowestorder modes (namely, TMllo, TEol,,and TE,,,) have the same field patterns. The resonant frequency of these degenerate modes is
EXERCISE 9.9
Determine the four lowest resonant frequencies of an airfilled 2.5 (cm)x 1.5 (cm) x 5.0(cm) rectangular cavity resonator and identify their modes. ANS 6.71, 8.49, 10.44, 11.66 (GHz).
95.2
QUALITY FACTOR OF CAVITY RESONATOR
A cavity resonator stores energy in the electric and magnetic fields for any particular mode pattern. In any practical cavity the walls have a finite conductivity (a nonzero surface resistance), and the resulting power loss causes a decay of the stored energy. The quality factor, or Q, of a resonator, like that of any resonant circuit, is a measure of the bandwidth of the resonator and is defined as Definition of the (1 of a resonator
I
Timeaverage energy stored at a resonant frequency Q = 2n Energy dissipated in one period of this frequency
I (Dimensionless).
(9111)
Let W be the total timeaverage energy in a cavity resonator. We write where We and Wmdenote the energies stored in the electric and magnetic fields, respectively. If P , is the timeaveragepower dissipated in the cavity, then the energy dissipated in one period is P, divided by frequency, and Eq. (9111) can be written as Formula for computing the (1 of a cavity resonator
T I Q =
(Dimensionless).
In determining the Q of a cavity at a resonant frequency, it is customary to assume that the loss is small enough to allow the use of the field patterns without loss. We will now find the Q of an a x b x d cavity for the TElo, mode that has three nonzero field components given in Eqs. (9105),(9106) and (9107). The timeaverage stored electric energy is
420
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS The total timeaverage stored magnetic energy is {IHx12+ IHz121dv
From Eq. (9103) the resonant frequency for the TElOl mode is
Substitution offlo1 from Eq. (9116) in Eq. (9114)proves that, at the resonant frequency, We = W,. Thus,
To find P,, we note that the power loss per unit area is
go= 31JsI2Rs = 31HtI2Rs,
(9118)
where lHtl denotes the magnitude of the tangential component of the magnetic field at the cavity walls. The power loss in the z = d (back) wall is the same as that in the z = 0 (front)wall. Similarly, the power loss in the x = a (left)wall is the same as that in the x = 0 (right)wall; and the power loss in the y = b (upper) wall is the same as that in the y = 0 (lower) wall. We have
Using Eqs. (9117) and (9119) in Eq. (9113), we obtain
where flol has been given in Eq. (9116).
W
EXERCISE9.10
The total stored energy, in a lossy cavity decays exponentially according to e2"1, and the rate of change of W with time is equal to the power, P,, dissipated in the cavity walls. Show that the attenuation constant a is related to cavity Q by the formula a = 42Q.
a) b)
a)
What should be the size of a hollow cubic cavity made of copper in order for it to have a dominant resonant frequency of 10 (GHz)? Find the Q at that frequency.
For a cubic cavity, a = b = d. From Example 98, part (c), we know that TMllo, TEoll, and TElO1are degenerate dominant modes having the same field patterns and that
Therefore, 3 x lo8 =2.12 x a= X 1O1O
\/Z
= 21.2
b)
(m)
(mm).
The expression of Q in Eq. (9120) for a cubic cavity reduces to
For copper, a = 5.80 x lo7 (S/m), we have
A h i g h 4 cavity resonator has a very narrow bandwidth.
The Q of a cavity resonator is thus extremely high in comparison with that obtainable from lumped LC resonant circuits. In practice, the preceding value is somewhat lower because of losses through feed connections and surface irregularities. As we know from circuit theory,  . the response variable (voltage  or current) in a resonant circuit is a maximum at the resonant frequency and faus off sharply in a highQ circuit as the frequency deviates from the resonant frequency on either side. Thus, a highQ cavity resonator is very selective and has a narrow bandwidth.
422
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES A N D CAVITY RESONATORS
EXERCISE 9.11
Assuming that the cubic cavity in Example 99 is made of brass and filled with a lossless dielectric material (cr = 3, p, = I), determine a) b)
the lowest resonant frequency, and the quality factor Q.
ANS. 5.78 (GHz), (b) 4,230.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.922 What are cavity resonators? What are their most desirable properties? 4.923 Are the field patterns in a cavity resonator traveling waves or standing waves? How do they differ from those in a waveguide?
4.924 Referring to the zaxis, which of the following modes cannot exist in a rectangular cavity resonator: TM,,
,,TM,,,,
TM,
,,, TE,, ,,TE,,,,
TE,?,,
Explain.
Q.925 What is meant by degenerate modes? 4.926 Define the quality factor, Q, of a resonator. 4.927 What fundamental assumption is made in the derivation of the formulas for the Q of cavity resonators? Q.928 Explain why the measured Q of a cavity resonator is lower than the calculated value.
SUMMARY In this chapter on waveguides and cavity resonators we discussed the method for analyzing the wave behavior along uniform guiding structures by solving homogeneous vector Helmholtz's equations, examined the general characteristics of TM and TE waves, explained the cutoff and highpass properties of waveguides, analyzed the field and current distributions of the dominant TE,, mode in a rectangular waveguide,
discussed the method for determining the attenuation constant of propagating modes in a rectangular waveguide, and showed typical ac curves as functions of frequency, and explained the wave modes, determined the resonant frequencies, and verified the highQ property of rectangular cavity resonators.
PROBLEMS P.91 (a) Plot the wave impedancesfor an airfilled waveguide versus the ratio (f/&) for TM and TE modes. (b) Compare the values of Z,, and Z,, at f = 1.lL and 2.2f,. P.92 For uniform waveguides,'use appropriate relations in Section 92 to: a) prove that the universal diagram relating u,/u and f,/f is a quartercircle with a unity radius, b) plot the universal graph of &/A versus f If,, and c) find ug/u, Ag/A and u,/u at f = 1.25f,. P.93 Assume that a TE wave of a frequency f is launched along the zdirection in the parallelplate waveguide in Fig. 93. The dielectric medium between the plates has constitutive parameters E and p. (a) Find the phasor expression for H:(y). (b) Find the cutoff frequency for the TE, mode. (c) Write the instantaneous expression for all the field components of the TE, mode. P.94 For the airfilled parallelplate waveguide in Fig. 93, a) obtain the phasor expressions of all field components for TE modes, b) determine the cutoff frequency for the TE,, mode, and c) find the surface current densities on the conducting plates. Do the currents on the two plates flow in the same direction, or in opposite directions? P.95 Guide wavelength and impedances can be measured by means of a detector attached to a probe moving along a slotted section of a waveguide. Assuming that when a shorting conducting plane is placed at the load end of a lossless hollow 2.50 (cm) x 1.25 (cm) rectangular waveguide operating at the TE,, mode, adjacent voltage minima are 2.65 (cm) apart. When the shorting plane is replaced by a load, it is found that the SWR is 2.0 and that the voltage minima have been shifted toward the load by 0.80 (cm). Find (a) the operating frequency, (b) the load impedance, and (c) the power delivered to the load for an input power of 10 (W). P.96 For an airfilled a x b rectangular waveguide operating at frequencyf in the TM,, mode, (a) write the phasor expressions for all the field components, and (b) findf,, A,, and A%. P.97 A standard airfilled Sband rectangular waveguide has dimensions
424
CHAPTER 9 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS a = 7.21 (cm) and b = 3.40 (cm). What mode types can be used to transmit electromagnetic waves having the following wavelengths? a) 1 =10 (cm), and b) 1= 5 (cm). P.98 Calculate and list in ascending order the cutoff frequencies (in terms of the cutoff frequency of the dominant mode) of an a x b rectangular waveguide for the following modes: TE,,, TE,,, TE,,, TE,,, TE,,, TM,,, TM,,, and TM,, (a) if a = 2b, and (b) if a = b. P.99 An airfilled a x b (b < a < 2b) rectangular waveguide is to be constructed to operate at 3 (GHz) in the dominant mode. We desire the operating frequency to be at least 20% higher than the cutoff frequency of the dominant mode and also at least 20% below the cutoff frequency of the next higherorder mode. a) Give a typical design for the dimensions a and b. b) Calculate for your design 8, up, A, and the wave impedance at the operating frequency. P.910 Calculate and compare the values of j?,up, u,, A, and Z,,,, for a 2.5 (cm) x 1.5 (cm) rectangular waveguide operating at 7.5 (GHz): a) if the waveguide is hollow, and b) if the waveguide is filled with a dielectric medium characterized by E, = 2, H = 1 and o = 0. P.911 Starting from Eq. (965), a) obtain the expressions of E:(x, y) E,O(x,y), H,O(x,y), and H,O(x,y) for the TM,, mode, and b) obtain a formula for the average power Pa, transmitted along an a x b waveguide. P.912 The instantaneous expression for E, of a TM mode in an airfilled 5.0 (cm) x 2.5 (cm) rectangular waveguide is E, = E, sin (100nx)sin (100ny)cos (2n101°t  Bz) (V/m). a) What is the mode of operation? b) Calculatef,, B, ZTM,and 1,. P.913 The instantaneous expression for Hz of a TE mode in an airfilled 2.5 (cm) x 2.5 (cm) square waveguide is Hz = 0.3 cos (80ny)cos ( a t  2802) (A/m). a) What is the mode of operation? b) Calculatef,, f, Z,,, and 4. c) Assuming negligible losses, calculate the average power flow in the waveguide. P.914 The attenuation of propagating modes in a waveguide due to a lossy dielectric can be studied in terms of a complex permittivity cd and an equivalent conductivity odshown in Eq. (997). (a) Substitute Eq. (997) in Eq. (924) to obtain a formula for the attenuation constant ad due to lossy dielectric in terms of the ratiof,/t (b) Calculate adin a 2.50 (cm) x 1.25 (cm)
rectangular waveguide operating at 4.0 (GHz). The dielectric medium has a dielectric constant 4 and an equivalent conductivity 3 x 10 (S/m). P.915 An electromagnetic wave is to propagate along an airfilled a x b rectangular waveguide at the dominant mode. Assume a = 2.50 (cm) and the usable bandwidth to be between 1.15(f,),, and 15% below the cutoff frequency of the next higher mode. a) Calculate and compare the permissible bandwidth for b = 0.25a, b = 0.50a, and b = 0.75~. b) Calculate and compare the average powers transmitted along the three guides in part (a) at 7 (GHz) if the maximum electric intensity is 10 (kV/m). Neglect the losses. P.916 Given an airfilled lossless rectangular cavity resonator with dimensions 8 (cm) x 6 (cm) x 5 (cm), find the first eight lowestorder modes and their resonant frequencies. p,, P.917 An airfilled rectangular cavity with brass wallsr,, a = 1.57 x 10' (S/m)has the following dimensions: a = 4 (cm), b = 3 (cm), and d = 5 (cm). a) Determine the dominant mode and its resonant frequency for this cavity. b) Find the Q and the timeaverage stored electric and magnetic energies at the resonant frequency, assuming H, to be 0.1 (A/m). P.918 If the rectangular cavity in Problem P.917 is filled with a lossless dielectric material having a dielectric constant 2.5, find a) the resonant frequency of the dominant mode, b) the Q, and c) the timeaverage stored electric and magnetic energies at the resonant frequency, assuming Ho to be 0.1 (A/m). P.919 Equation (9121)indicates that the quality factor Q,,, for TE,,, mode in a cubic resonant cavity (a = b = d) can be written as
where 6 is the skin depth of the cavity walls. a) If the cavity is made of brass, determine a so that a quality factor of 6,500 is obtained. b) Find the resonant frequency. c) What will Qlol be if the cavity is made of copper? P.920 For an airfilled rectangular copper cavity resonator, a) calculate its Q for the TE,,, mode if its dimensions are a = d = 1.8b = 3.6 (cm), and b) determine how much b should be increased in order to make Q 20% higher.

Functions of antennas
1 0 1 0 V E R V I E W In Chapter 7 we studied the propagation characteristics of plane electromagnetic waves in sourcefree media without considering how the waves were generated. Of course, the waves must originate from sources, which in electromagnetic terms are timevarying charges and currents. In order to radiate electromagnetic energy efficiently in prescribed directions, the charges and currents must be distributed in specific ways. Antennas are structures designed for radiating and receiving electromagnetic energy effectively in a prescribed manner. Each antenna has a characteristic input impedance, and can be viewed as a transducer for matching the feeding transmission line or waveguide to the intrinsic impedance of the surrounding medium. Without an efficient antenna, electromagnetic energy would be localized, and wireless transmission of information over long distances would not be possible. In this chapter we will first study the radiation fields and characteristic properties of an elemental electric dipole. We then consider finitelength thin linear antennas, of which the halfwavelength dipole is an important special case. The radiation characteristics of a linear antenna are largely determined by its length and the manner in which it is excited. To obtain more directivity and other desirable properties, a number of such antennas may be arranged together to form an antenna array. Some basic properties of simple arrays will be considered. We will discuss the concepts of the effective area of receiving antennas and the backscattering cross section of scatterers. We will also examine the power
Antennas and Antenna Arrays transmission relation between transmitting and receiving antennas, including the radar equation. Procedure for determining radiation characteristics of an antenna
In general, the analysis of the radiation characteristicsof an antenna follows the three steps below: 1.
Determine the magnetic potential A from known or assumed current distribution J on the antenna. For harmonic time dependence, the phasor retarded vector potential is, from Eq. (685), R where k =
dv',
~ f= 2n/A i is the wavenumber.
2.
Find the magnetic field intensity H from A. See Eq. (650).
3.
Find the electric field intensity E from H. See Eq. (680b) with J = 0 in space.
After knowing E and H, all other radiation characteristics of the antenna can be determined. 427
428
CHAPTER 10 ANTENNASA N D ANTENNA ARRAYS
102 THEELEMENTAL ELECTRIC DIPOLE
We first consider the radiation characteristics of a very short (compared to the operating wavelength), thin, conducting wire of length d/ that carries a timeharmonic current i(t) = Z cos wt = 9 . e [Ze '"'1, Hertzian dipole is a very short radiating current element.
(104)
as shown in Fin.  101. Such a current element is a building block of linear antennas, and is called a Hertzian dipole. To determine the electromagnetic field of a Hertzian dipole, we follow the three steps outlined in Section 101. STEP 1 Find the phasor representation of the retarded vector potential A.
From Eq. (101) we have
where /3 = k, = w/c = 2n/ll. Since (see Eq. 247) aZ= aRcos 8  a, sin 8,
(106)
the spherical components of A = aRAR+ a, A,
+ a, A,
are
cos 8,
H from A. From the geometry of Fig. 101 we expect no variation with respect to the coordinate 4. We have, from Eq. (299),
STEP 2 Find
FIGURE 101
A Hertzian dipole.
STEP 3
Find E from H.
1 =[aRJWE0
1 a R sin e ae
which gives
Far zone
Radiation fields are far fields.
where qo = Jpo/e0 z 120n (a). Equations (107) and (108) constitute the electromagnetic fields of a Hertzian dipole. These expressions are fairly complicated. However, in antenna problems we are primarily interested in the fields at distances very far from the antenna; that is, in regions where R >> A/2n, or /3R = 2nR/A >> 1. Under these circumstances (in the far zone) we could neglect 1/(/3R)' and 1/(BR)3terms and write thefarfield, or radiationfield, of the elemental electric dipole as
Far fields of a Hertzian dipole
E, =jE 471
(q)
qo/3sin e = q o ~ o ( ~ / m ) .
The other field components can be neglected.
b
REVIEW QUESTIONS Q.101 What are the essential functions of antennas?
Q.102 State the procedure for finding the electromagnetic field due to an assumed timeharmonic current distribution on an antenna structure.
430
CHAPTER10 ANTENNASAND ANTENNAARRAYS
4.103 What is a Hertzian dipole? Q.184 Define the far zone of an antenna. Q.105 What is meant by the radiation jelds of an antenna?
103 ANTENNA PATTERNS A N D DIRECTIVITY
Radiation pattern of an antenna, the antenna pattern
2plane and Hplane radiation patterns
No physical antennas radiate uniformly in all directions in space. The graph that describes the relative farzone field strength versus direction at a fixed distance from an antenna is called the radiation pattern of the antenna, or simply the antenna pattern. In general, an antenna pattern is threedimensional, varying with both 0 and 4 in a spherical coordinate system. The difficulties of making threedimensional plots can be avoided by plotting separately the magnitude of the normalized field strength (with respect to the peak value) yersus 0 for a constant q5 (an Eplane pattern) and the magnitude of the normalized field strength versus 4 for 0 = n/2 (the Hplane pattern).
Plot the Eplane and Hplane radiation patterns of a Hertzian dipole.
Since E, and H+ in the far zone are proportional to each other, we need only consider the normalized magnitude of E,. a)
Eplane pattern. At a given R, Ee is independent of 4; and from Eq. (1010) the normalized magnitude of E, is Normalized IE,J = lsin 01.
Pattern function is the normalized electric intensity function describing an antenna pattern.
b)
(1011)
This is the Eplane pattern function of a Hertzian dipole. For any given 4, Eq. (1011) represents a pair of circles, as shown in Fig. 102(a). Hplane pattern. At a given R and for 0 = n/2 the normalized magnitude of E, is lsin 01 = 1. The Hplane pattern is then simply a circle of unity radius centered at the zdirected dipole, as shown in Fig. 102(b).
I
103 ANTENNAPATTERNS AND DIRECTIVITY
(a) Eplane pattern.
431
@) Hplane pattern.
FIGURE 102 Radiation patterns of a Hertzian dipole.
Definition of and SI unit for radiation intensity
A commonly used parameter to measure the overall ability of an antenna to direct radiated power in a given direction is directive gain, which may be defined in terms of radiation intensity. Radiation intensity is the timeaverage power per unit solid angle. The SI unit for radiation intensity is watt per steradian (W/sr). Since there are R2 square meters of spherical surface area for each unit solid angle, radiation intensity, U, equals R2 times the timeaverage power per unit area or R2 times the magnitude of the timeaverage Poynting vector, Pa,: U = R2Pa,
(Wlsr).
(101.2)
The total theaverage power radiated is (1013) where d n is the differential solid angle, dQ = sinOdOd4. The directive gain, G,(O,4), of an antenna pattern is the ratio of the radiation intensity in the direction ( 4 4 ) to the average radiation intensity: Directive gain J
Isotropic or omnidirectional antennas do not exist in practice. Antenna directivity
Obviously, the directive gain of an isotropic or omnidirectional antenna (an antenna that radiates uniformly in all directions) is unity. However, an isotropic antenna does not exist in practice. The maximum directive gain of an antenna is called the directivity of the antenna. It is the ratio of the maximum radiation intensity to the average
432
CHAPTER 10 ANTENNASAND ANTENNAARRAYS radiation intensity and is usually denoted by D: (Dimensionless).
D=
In terms of electric field intensity, D can be expressed as Calculating directivity from farzone electric field intensity
(Dimensionless).
Directivity is frequently expressed in decibels, referring to unity.
EXAMPLE102 Find the directive gain and the directivity of a Hertzian dipole.
For a Hertzian dipole the magnitude of the timeaverage Poynting vector is
%,
= &WelEx H*l = ilEel IHol.
(1017)
Hence from Eqs. (109), (10lo), and (1012),
The directive gain can be obtained from Eq. (1014): GD(~¶ 4) =
I0 So
4a sin28
,z
(sin28)sin 8 dB d4
The directivity is the maximum value of GD(8,4):
which corresponds to 1010g,~1.5 or 1.76 (dB).
Definition of antenna gain
A measure of antenna efficiency is the power gain. The power gain, or simply the gain, G,, of an antenna referred to an isotropic source is the ratio of its maximum radiation intensity to the radiation intensity of a lossless
103 ANTENNAPATTERNS A N D DIRECTIVITY
433
isotropic source with the same power input. The directive gain as defined in Eq. (1014) is based on radiated power P,. Because of ohmic power loss, Pc, in the antenna itself as well as in nearby lossy structures including the ground, Pr is less than the total input power Pi. We have Pi = P,
+ Pd.
(1020)
The power gain of an antenna is then 4nUmax GP= 
Definition of radiation efficiency
(Dimensionless).
The ratio of the gain to the directivity of an antenna is the radiation eficiency, Cr:
1 cr =  = 
Antenna radiation resistance
(Dimensionless).
Normally, the efficiency of wellconstructed antennas is very close to 100%. A useful measure of the amount of power radiated by an antenna is radiation resistance. The radiation resistance of an antenna is the value of a hypothetical resistance that would dissipate an amount of power equal to the radiated power P, when the current in the resistance is equal to the maximum current along the antenna. A high radiation resistance is a desirable property for an antenna.
EXAMPLE103 Find the radiation resistance of a Hertzian dipole.
SOLUTION If we assume no ohmic losses, the timeaverage power radiated by a Hertzian dipole for an input timeharmonic current with an amplitude I is
Using the farzone fields in Eqs. (109) and (10lo), we find
In this last expression we have used 120.n for the intrinsic impedance of free space, q,, and substituted 27111 for 8. Since the current along the short Hertzian dipole is uniform, we refer the power dissipated in the radiation resistance R, to I. Equating 12R,/2 to P,, we obtain Radiation resistance of a Hertzian dipole
As an example, if d / = 0.011, R, is only about 0.08 (Q), an extremely small value. Hence a short dipole antenna is a poor radiator of electromagnetic power. However, it is erroneous to say without qualification that the radiation resistance of a dipole antenna increases as the square of its length because Eq. (1024) holds only if d l 0, z < 0.
I, sin B(h z), I, sin B(h z),
+
We are interested only in the farzone fields. The farfield contribution from the differentialcurrent element I dz is, from Eqs. (109) and (10lo),
Now R' in Eq. (1033) is slightly different from R measured to the origin of the spherical coordinates, which coincides with the center of the dipole. In the far zone, R >> h, The magnitude difference between 1/R' and 1/R is insignificant, but the approximate relation in Eq. (1034)must be retained in the phase term. Using Eqs. (1032) and (1034) in Eq. (1033) and integrating, we have
, j',~~Bsin' e jSR 47cR
Jl
sin B(h  Izl)ejfizCose dz.
The integrand in Eq. (1035) is a product of an even function of z, sin B(h  lzl), and
+
ejSzcose= cos (Bz cos 8) j sin (Bz cos 8), where sin (Bz cos 8) is an odd function of z. Integrating between symmetrical limits h and h, we know that only the part of the integrand containing the product of two even functions of z, sin p(h  Izl)cos (Bz cos O), yields a nonzero value. Equation (1035) then reduces to .I,voBsin8 jSR E ~ = Q o H + = I ZnR e
1;
sin ~ ( h z) cos (Bz cos 8)dz
438
CHAPTER 10 ANTENNASA N D ANTENNAARRAYS
where Pattern function of a linear dipole antenna having halflength h
F(8) =
sin 0
The factor IF(8)I is the Eplane pattern function of a linear dipole antenna. The exact shape of the radiation pattern represented by JF(8)Jin Eq. (1037) depends on the value of /?h = 2nhlL and can be quite different for different antenna lengths. The radiation pattern, however, is always symmetrical with respect to the 8 = 4 2 plane. Figure 104 shows the Eplane patterns for four different dipole lengths measured in terms of wavelength: 2h/L = i, 1, 3 and 2. The Hplane patterns are circles inasmuch as F(8) is independent of 4. From the patterns in Fig. 104 we see that the direction of maximum radiation tends to shift away from the 8 = 90" plane when the dipole length approaches 3L/2. For 2h = 2L there is no radiation in the 8 = 90" plane. FIGURE 104 Eplane radiation patterns for centerfed dipole antennas.
(a) 2hlA = 112.
(b)2hlA = 1 .
(c) 2hlA = 312.
(d) 2hlA = 2.
104.1
THEH A L F  W A V E DIPOLE
The halfwave dipole having a length 2h = 4 2 is of particular practical importance because of its desirable pattern and impedance characteristics. With Bh = 2nh/A = ./2, the pattern function in Eq. (1037) becomes Pattern function of a halfwave dipole
F(8) =
sin 8
This function has a maximum equal to unity at 8 = 90" and has nulls at 8 = 0" and 180". The corresponding Eplane radiation pattern is sketched in Fig. 10*a). The farzone field phasors are, from Eq. (1036), sin 0 The magnitude of the timeaverage Poynting vector is 1 cos [(z/2) cos 81 Pau(8)=  E H* = 2 3' .Rz sin 8 The total power radiated by a halfwave dipole is obtained by integrating Pa, over the surface of a great sphere:
P. =
1'1J:
Pav(0)Rzsin 8 dB d 4
1;
'0s' ~ ( ~ / ~ IB1 c d8. os sin 8
=
The integral in Eq. (1041) can be evaluated numerically to give a value 1.218. Hence P, = 36.5412 (W),
(1042)
from which we obtain the radiation resistance of a freestanding halfwave dipole: Radiation resistance of a halfwave dipole
R,== :2
73.1 (a).
Irn
Neglecting losses, we find that the input resistance of a thin halfwave dipole equals 73.1 (a) and that the input reactance is a small positive number that can be made to vanish when the dipole length is adjusted to be slightly shorter than L/2. (As we have indicated before, the actual calculation of the input impedance is tedious and is beyond the scope of this book.)
440
CHAPTER 10 ANTENNASAND ANTENNAARRAYS The directivity of a halfwave dipole can be found by using Eq. (1015). We have, from Eqs. (1012) and (1040),
and Directivity of a halfwave dipole
4aU,, 60 D== 1.64, (1045) P, 36.54 which corresponds to lOlog,, 1.64 or 2.15 (dB) referring to an omnidirectional radiator.
EXAMPLE105 A thin quarterwavelength vertical antenna over a perfectly conducting ground is excited by a timeharmonic source at its base. Find its radiation pattern, radiation resistance, and directivity.
Since current is charge in motion, we can use the method of images discussed in Subsection 311.5 and replace the conducting ground by the image of the .vertical antenna. A little thought will convince us that the image of a vertical antenna carrying a current I is another vertical antenna of the same length located below the ground. The image antenna carries the same current in the same direction as the original antenna. The electromagnetic field in the upper halfspacedue to the quarterwave vertical antenna in Fig. 105(a)is, then, the same as that of the halfwave antenna in Fig. 105(b). The pattern function in Eq. (1038) applies here for 0 5 8 1 n/2, and the radiation pattern drawn in dashed lines in Fig. 105(b)is the upper half of that in Fig. 10qa). The magnitude of the timeaverage Poynting vector, Pa,, in Eq. (1040), holds for 0 I 8 I 42. Inasmuch as the quarterwave antenna (a monopole) radiates only into the upper halfspace, its total radiated power is only onehalf that given in Eq. (1042): Consequently, the radiation resistance is
which is onehalf of the radiation resistance of a halfwave antenna in freespace.
(a) A vertical quarterwave monopole over conducting ground.
(b) Equivalent halfwave dipole radiating into upper halfspace. FIGURE 105 Quarterwave monopole over a conducting ground and its equivalent halfwave dipole.
To calculate directivity, we note that both the maximum radiation intensity, Urn,,, and the average radiation intensity, P,/2a, remain the same as those for the halfwave dipole. Thus, Directivity of a quarterwave monopole
which is the same as the directivity of a halfwave antenna. This antenna is known as a quarterwave monopole.
EXERCISE 10.2
A centerfed dipole of length 25 (cm)operating at 600 (MHz) radiates a total average power of 475 (W). Find the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic field intensities at the point P(100m, z/2,0).
ANS.2.17 (V/m), 5.75 (mA/m). REVIEW QUESTIONS 4.1012 Describe qualitatively the E and Hplane radiation patterns of a halfwave dipole antenna.
Q.lO13 What are the radiation resistance and directivity of a halfwave dipole antenna? 4.1014 What are the radiation resistance and directivity of a vertical quarterwave monopole over a conducting ground? Q.lO15 What is the image of a horizontal dipole over a conducting ground?
442
Antenna arraya
CHAPTER 10
ANTENNAS AND
ANTENNAARRAYS
As we have seen, singleelement linear antennas tend to spread radiated power over the broad beams in their radiation patterns. They have low directivity and their main beams point to fixed directions. These restrictions can be overcome by arranging a group of several antenna elements in various configurations (straight lines, circles, triangles, and so on) with proper amplitude and phase relations to give certain desired radiation characteristics. Such arrangements of antenna elements are called antenna mays. In this section we examine the basic theories and characteristics of linear antenna arrays (radiating elements arranged along a straight line). We first consider the simplest case of twoelement arrays. After some experience has been gained with them, we consider the basic properties of uniform linear arrays made up of many identical elements.
105.1 TWOELEMENT ARRAYS
The simplest array is one consisting of two identical radiating elements (antennas) spaced a distance apart. This arrangement is illustrated in Fig. 106. For simplicity, let us assume that the antennas are lined along the xaxis, and examine the farzone electric field of the individual antennas in the %direction.The antennas are excited with a current of the same magnitude, but the phase in antenna 1 leads that in antenna 0 by an angle 5. We have, at point P(%,$1,
,
jflRo
EO= E,F(%,$), R0
and
where F(%,4)is the pattern function of the individual antennas, and Emis an amplitude function. The electric field of the twoelement array is the sum of
FIGURE 106 A twoelement array.
E, and El. Hence,
In the far zone, R, >> d/2, and the factor 1/R, in the magnitude may be replaced approximately by l/Ro. However, a small difference between R, and R, in the exponents may lead to a significant phase difference, and a better approximation must be used. Because the lines joining the field point P and the two antennas are nearly parallel, we may write R,
E R,
 dsinOcos(6.
(1051)
Substitution of Eq. (1051) in Eq. (1050) yields
where bt, = fid sin 0 cos 4
+ 5.
(1053)
The magnitude of the electric field of the array is
where IF(0, (6)Imay be called the elementfactor, and Icos ($/2)1 the normalized array factor. The element factor is the magnitude of the pattern function of the individual radiating elements, and the array factor depends on array geometry as well as on the relative amplitudes and phases of the excitations in the elements. (In this particular case the excitation amplitudes are equal.)
444
CHAPTER 10 ANTENNASAND ANTENNAARRAYS
Principle of pattern multiplication
From Eq. (1054)we conclude that the pattern function of an array of identical elements is described by the product of the element factor and the arrayfactor. This property is called the principle of pattern multiplication.
Plot the Hplane radiation patterns of two parallel dipoles for the following two cases: (a) d = A/2, 5 = 0, and (b) d = A/4, 5 =  z/2.
Let the dipoles be zdirected and placed along the xaxis, as shown in Fig. 106. In the Hplane (8 = zj2), each dipole is omnidirectional, and the normalized pattern function is equal to the normalized array factor lA(q5)l. Thus
a)
Broadside array
d = A/2 (fld = z), 5 = 0:
The pattern has its maximum at cPo = fq2that is, in the broadside direction. This is a type of broadside array. Figure 107(a) shows this broadside pattern. Since the excitations in the two dipoles are in phase, their electric fields add in the broadside directions, 4 = f 742. At 4 = 0 and z the electric fields cancel each other because the 112 separation leads to a phase difference of 180".
FIGURE 107 Hplane radiation patterns of twoelement parallel dipole array.
(a) d = A/2,5 = 0.
(b) d = A/4,5 =  d 2 .
I
;
IA((b)I = cos  (cos (b  I),
Endfire array
which has a maximum at 4, = 0 and vanishes at (b = x. The pattern maximum is now in a direction along the line of the array, and the two dipoles constitute an endfire array. Figure 107(b) shows this endfire pattern. In this case the phase in the righthand dipole lags by n/2, which exactly compensates for the fact that its electric field arrives in the (b = 0 direction a quarter of a cycle earlier than the electric field of the lefthand dipole. As a consequence, the electric fields add in the (b = 0 direction. In the (b = n direction, the n/2 phase lag in the righthand dipole plus the quartercycle delay results in a complete cancellation of the fields.
EXAMPLE 107 Discuss the radiation pattern of a linear array of the three isotropic sources spaces 112 apart. The excitations in the sources are inphase and have amplitude ratios 1 :2 :1.
This threesource array is equivalent to two twoelement arrays displaced A12 from each other as depicted in Fig. 108. Each twoelement array can be considered as a radiating source with an element factor as given by Eq. (1055) and an array factor, which is also given by the same equation. By the principle of pattern multiplication we obtain
The radiation pattern represented by the normalized array function IA((b)I = lcos[(n/2)cos +]I2 is sketched in Fig. 109. Compared to the pattern
FIGURE 108 A threeelement array and its equivalent pair of displaced two
element arrays.
(a) Threeelement binomial array.
(b) Two displaced
twoelement arrays.
446
CHAPTER 10 ANTENNASAND ANTENNAARRAYS
FIGURE 109 Radiation pattern of threeelement broadside binomial array.
of the uniform twoelement array in Fig. 107(a),this threeelement broadside pattern is sharper (more directive). Both patterns have only main beams with no sidelobes.
Binomial arrays
EXERCISE 10.3
The threeelement broadside array is a special case of a class of sidelobeless arrays called binomial arrays. In a binomial array of N elements, the array factor is a binomial function (1 + ej*)N' and the excitation amplitudes vary according to the coefficients of a binomial expansion (N, I), n = 0, 1, 2,. .., N  1. For N = 3 the relative excitation amplitudes are ($) = 1, (f)= 2 and (3) = 1, as in Example 107. To obtain a directive pattern without sidelobes, d in a binomial array is normally restricted to be 4 2 . a) b)
What are the relative excitation amplitudes of a binomial array of four isotropic equiphase sources having a uniform spacing of L/3? Assuming the sources to be located along the yaxis, obtain the normalized array factor in the 0 = n/2 plane.
I
(;
ANs.(a)1:3:3:1, (b) cos cosd
105.2
>I' .
GENERAL UNIFORM LINEAR ARRAYS
We now consider an array of more than two identical antennas equally spaced along a straight line. The antennas are fed with currents of equal magnitude and have a uniform progressive phase shift along the line. Such an array is called a uniform linear m a y . An example is shown in Fig. 1010, where N antenna elements are aligned along the xaxis. Since the array elements are identical, the array pattern function is the product of the element
factor and the array factor. The normalized array factor in the xyplane is
where
*
=Bdcos4
+ 5.
The polynomial on the right side of Eq. (1058) is a geometric progression and can be summed up in a closed form:
Array factor of an Nelement uniform linear array
Assuming omnidirectional Hplane patterns for the identical array elements, we may derive several significant properties from IA($)I given in Eq. (1060). Mainbeam occurs at Y=O.
1.
Mainbeam direction. The maximum value of (A(JI)Ioccurs when JI = Oy or when Bd cos 4o
+ 5 = Oy
which leads to
.5
(1061) Bd Two special cases are of particular importance. a) Broadside array. For a broadside array, maximum radiation occurs at a direction perpendicular to the line of the arraythat C O S = ~ ~
FIGURE 1010 A general uniform linear array.,
Phase shifts 0
6
25
(N  215 ( N  116
448
CHAPTER 10 ANTENNASAND ANTENNAARRAYS is, at 4, = +42. This requires [ = 0, which means that all the elements in a linear broadside array should be excited in phase, as was the case in Example 10qa). b) Endjre array. For an endfire array, maximum radiation occurs at 4, = 0. Equation (1061) gives
Phased arrays
2. Sidelobes
We note that the direction of the main beam of a uniform linear array can be made to change (to scan) by changing the progressive phase shifts. Antenna arrays equipped with phase shifters to steer the main beam electronically are called phased arrays. Sidelobe locations. Sidelobes are minor maxima that occur approximately when the numerator on the right side of Eq. (1060) is a maximumthat is, when Isin([email protected]/2)1= 1, or when
The first sidelobes occur when
3.
Note that [email protected]/2= +n/2 (m= 0) does not represent locations of sidelobes because they are still within the mainbeam region. First sidelobe level. An important characteristicof the radiation pattern of an array is the level of the first sidelobescompared to that of the main beam, since the former is usually the highest of all sidelobes. All sidelobes should be kept as low as possible in order that most of the radiated power be concentrated in the mainbeam direction and not be diverted to sidelobe regions. Substituting Eq. (1062) in Eq. (1059), we find the amplitude of the first sidelobes to be
for large N. In logarithmic terms the first sidelobes of a uniform linear antenna array of many elements are 20 log,,(1/0.212) or 13.5 (dB) down from the principal maximum. This number is almost independent of N as long as N is large. (The sidelobe level is higher for small N.) One way to reduce the sidelobe level in the radiation pattern of a linear array is to taper the current distribution in the array elementsthat is, to make the excitation amplitudes in the elements in the center portion of an array higher than those in the end elements. (Problem P.lO14.) a
Taperingexcitation amplitudes reduces array sidelobea.
EXERCISE 10.4
Determine the level and the location of the first sidelobes in the array pattern of a fiveelement linear array with d = ;1/2 for
a) b)
broadside operation, and endfire operation.
ANS (a)  12.1 (dB) at 4 = f 53.1" and
+ 126.9".
(b)  12.1 (dB) at 4 = k66.4".
EXAMPLE108 For a fiveelement uniform linear array with 4 2 spacing, find the width of the main beam for (a) broadside operation, and (b) endfire operation.
The width of the main beam is the region of the pattern between the first nulls on either side of the direction of maximum radiation. The first nulls of the array pattern occur at $, that makes (see Eq. 1060)
For this example, $, = + 2n/5 = +0.4n. It is obvious that the corresponding null locations in & are different for broadside and endfire arrays because of the different values of implicit in $.