Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology of Speech, Language, and Hearing [1 ed.] 9781635507201, 9781635504682

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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology of Speech, Language, and Hearing [1 ed.]
 9781635507201, 9781635504682

Table of contents :
Preface
Acknowledgments
1 Introduction
Key Terms
Biology
Anatomy
Physiology
Anatomical Nomenclature
Anatomical Orientation
Anatomical Terms
Body Systems That Support Speech, Language, and Hearing
Cell
Tissues
Joints or Articulations
Organs
Systems
Cranial Nerves
Olfactory
Optic
Oculomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facial
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus
Accessory
Hypoglossal
Chapter Summary
References
2 Anatomy of Respiration
Introduction to Respiration
The Skeletal Framework for Respiration
The Bony Thorax
The Visceral Thorax
Respiratory Passages
Lungs
Respiratory Tissue and Gas Exchange
Muscles of Respiration
Patterns of Muscular Use in Respiration
Categorization of Muscles of Respiration
Primary Muscle of Inspiration
Accessory Muscles of Inspiration
Muscles of Expiration
Chapter Summary
Reference
3 Physiology of Respiration
Introduction to Physiology of Respiration
Forces of Respiration
Active Force of Respiration
Passive Forces of Respiration
Pressures Involved in Respiration
Physics of Respiration/Breathing
Understanding the Mechanical Cycle of Respiration
Quiet Respiration: Quiet Inspiration/Passive Expiration
Forced Respiration: Forced Inspiration/Forced Expiration
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Changes in Respiration With Advanced Age
Measurement of Respiration and Instrumentation
Measuring Rate
Measuring Pressure
Measuring Lung Volumes and Respiratory Capacities
Process of Gas Exchange
Chapter Summary
References
4 Anatomy of Phonation
Introduction
Larynx
Cartilages of the Larynx
Membranes and Ligaments
Muscles of the Larynx
Chapter Summary
References
5 Physiology of Phonation
Nonspeech (Biological) Functions
Breathing
Abdominal and Thoracic Fixation
Protection During the Swallow Reflex
Throat Clearing and Coughing
Phonation
Coordinative Structures of Voice
Theories of Phonation
Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory
Body-Cover Theory
Nonlinear Source-Filter Coupling Theory
Parameters of Voice
Elasticity, Stiffness, and Inertia
Acoustic Parameters
Amplitude and Intensity
Aerodynamic Parameters
Variations in Vocal Fold Closure Patterns, Mucosal Wave, and Periodicity of Vibration
Vocal Fold Closure
Movement of the Mucosal Wave
Regularity and Periodicity of Vibration
Vocal Register
Sustained Phonation and Attack
Linguistic Aspects of Phonation
Chapter Summary
References
6 Anatomy of Articulation, Swallowing, and Resonance
Introduction
Bones of the Face
Mandible
Maxillae
Anatomy of the Hard Palate
Zygomatic Bones
Nasal Bones
Palatine Bones
Inferior Nasal Conchae
Vomer
Lacrimal Bone
Bones of the Skull
Ethmoid
Frontal Bone
Parietal Bones
Temporal Bones
Occipital Bone
Sphenoid
Muscles of the Face
Orbicularis Oris
Transverse Muscles
Elevators
Depressors
Parallel Muscles: Incisivus Labii Superior and the Incisivus Labii Inferior
Supplementary Muscles of Facial Expression
Cavities of the Vocal Tract
The Oral Cavity
Buccal Cavities
Nasal Cavity
Pharynx
Muscles of the Tongue
Intrinsic Muscles of the Tongue
Extrinsic Muscles of the Tongue
Muscles of Mastication
Masseter (Figures 6–58 and 6–59)
Temporalis (Figures 6–58 and 6–60)
Medial Pterygoid (Figure 6–61)
Lateral Pterygoid (Figure 6–62)
Digastricus (Figures 6–58 and 6–63)
Mylohyoid (Figures 6–58 and 6–64)
Geniohyoid (Figures 6–53 and 6–58)
Platysma (Figure 6–34)
Muscles of the Velum
Elevators of the Velum
Depressors of the Velum
Muscles of the Pharynx
Pharyngeal Constrictors
Longitudinal Muscles of the Pharynx
Chapter Summary
References
7 Physiology of Articulation and Resonance
Introduction to Articulation and Resonance
Physiology of Articulation and Resonance
Role of the Lips in Articulation
Role of the Tongue in Articulation
Role of the Muscles of the Tongue in Articulation
Role of the Tongue in Consonant Production
Role of the Tongue in Vowel Production
Role of the Teeth in Articulation
Role of the Mandible in Articulation
Role of Cheeks in Articulation and Resonance
Role of Velum in Articulation and Resonance
Role of the Pharynx in Articulation
Chapter Summary
References
8 Physiology of Swallowing
Introduction to Swallowing
Process of Mastication and Deglutition
Oral Preparatory Stage Described
Oral Stage Described
Pharyngeal Stage Described
Esophageal Stage Described
Instrumentation
Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study/Modified Barium Swallow
Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallow
High-Resolution Manometry
Changes With Age
Childhood Development
Changes With Normal Aging
Coordination of Respiration and Deglutition
Chapter Summary
References
9 Anatomy of Hearing
Structures of the Auditory Mechanism
Outer Ear
Auricle
External Auditory Meatus
Tympanic Membrane
Middle Ear
Ossicles
Muscles of the Middle Ear
Landmarks of the Middle Ear Cavity
Inner Ear
Auditory System: Cochlea and Related Structures
Vestibular System
Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII)
Changes With Age (Presbycusis)
Chapter Summary
References
10 Physiology of Hearing and Balance
Properties of Sound
Physiology of the Outer Ear
Pinna and External Auditory Meatus
Physiology of the Middle Ear
Movement of the Tympanic Membrane and the Ossicular Chain
Eustachian Tube
Physiology of the Inner Ear
Stimulation of the Cochlea
Transduction
Auditory Central Nervous System
Afferent Pathway
Efferent Pathway
Auditory Cortex: Auditory Processing and Speech Perception
Vestibular System
Instrumentation
Otoscopy
Pure Tone Audiometry
Speech Reception Threshold
Tympanometry
Acoustic Reflex Testing
Otoacoustic Emissions
Auditory Brainstem Response
Electrocochleography
Types of Hearing Loss
Conductive Hearing Loss
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Mixed Hearing Loss
Chapter Summary
References
11 Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology: Part 1
Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons
Neuroglia
The Central Nervous System
The Brain
Chapter Summary
References
12 Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology: Part 2
The Lobes of the Cerebral Hemispheres
Frontal Lobes
Parietal Lobes
Temporal Lobes
The Occipital Lobes
Subcortical Structures
The Brainstem
The Cerebellum
The Thalamus
The Basal Ganglia
The Limbic System
The Spinal Cord
Blood Supply to the Brain
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Spinal Nerves
Chapter Summary
References
Glossary
Index

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