Fundamentals of 5G Wireless Communications (Sachan Book 82)

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Fundamentals of 5G Wireless Communications

Dr. V. K. Sachan Professor

Copyright @ 2020, Smt. Jay Devi Sachan Memorial Publication House All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied as any material without the written permission of the authors. Photocopying in it or storing it in any medium as graphics, electronics, mechanical means and for the use of something is not transitory or accidental. Any violation of this will be subject to legal action and prosecution without notice.

First Edition: 2020 Published by

India Email ID: [email protected]

Preface 5G is the biggest opportunity ever for our industry. With capabilities much greater than today's networks, opportunities beyond our imagination will appear. With 5G, we will be able to digitalize industries and realize the full potential of a networked society. So far, cellular innovation has focused on driving data rates. With 5G, in addition we see the advent of low-latency Tactile Internet and massive IoT generating new opportunities for society. 5G brings new technology solutions to the 5G mobile networks including new spectrum options, new antenna structures, new physical layer and protocols designs and new network architectures. The authors review the deployment aspects such as Millimeter Wave Communication and transport network and explore the 5G performance aspects including speed and coverage and latency. The book also looks at all the sub-systems of the network, focusing on both the practical and theoretical issues. This text book “Fundamentals of 5G Wireless Communications” is organized into Seven Chapters. Chapter-1: Introduction to 5G Wireless Communication Chapter-2: Basics of 5G Wireless Networks Chapter-3: Wireless Systems and Standards of 5G Wireless Communication Chapter-4: Architecture of 5G Wireless Communications Chapter- 5: Modulation and Multiple Access Techniques for 5G Wireless Communications Chapter-6: Channels for 5G Wireless Communication Chapter-7: Millimeter-Wave Communications Salient Features Comprehensive Coverage of Basics of 5G Wireless Communications ,5G Wireless Networks, Wireless Systems and Standards of 5G Wireless Communications, Architecture of 5G Wireless Communications, Modulation and Multiple Access Techniques for 5G. New elements in book include Channels for 5G Wireless Communication and Millimeter-Wave Communications. Clear perception of the various problems with a large number of neat, well drawn and illustrative diagrams.

Simple Language, easy- to- understand manner. Our sincere thanks are due to all Scientists, Engineers, Authors and Publishers, whose works and text have been the source of enlightenment, inspiration and guidance to us in presenting this small book. I will appreciate any suggestions from students and faculty members alike so that we can strive to make the text book more useful in the edition to come. Dr. V. K. Sachan

Index Chapter -1: Introduction to 5G Wireless Communications …8 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Usage Scenario of 5G Wireless Communication 1.1.2 5G Specifications and Use Cases 1.2 Performance of 5G Wireless Communication 1.2.1 Speed 1.2.2 Latency 1.3 Standards of 5G Wireless Communication 1.3.1 5G NR 1.3.2 Spectrum 1.3.3 Unlicensed Spectrum 1.4 Technology of 5G Wireless Communications 1.5 Different Concerns of 5G Wireless Communication 1.5.1 Interference Issues 1.5.2 Surveillance Concerns 1.5.3 Health Concerns 1.5.4 Security Concerns 1.6 Applications of 5 G Wireless Communication System

Chapter-2: Basics of 5G Wireless Networks 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Cellular Systems Overview 2.2.1 Fifth Generation (5G) Requirements 2.3 Basics of 5G New Radio (NR) 2.4 Basics of 5G Next Generation Core Network 2.5 Mobile Network Technologies of 5G 2.5.1 Network Softwarization and Slicing 2.6 Cell Clustering 2.7 Physical Infrastructure Improvements 2.8 Enabling Technologies 2.8.1 Multi-Tenancy Support

… 22

Chapter-3: Wireless Systems and Standards of 5G Wireless …39 Communication 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Fifth Generations (5G) Technology 3.3 Challenges of 5G 3.3.1 Technological Challenges 3.3.2 Common Challenges 3.4 Requirement of 5G Wireless Communications 3.4.1 High Speed, High Capacity 3.4.2 Massive Connected Devices 3.4.3 Ultra-low Latency and Ultra-High Reliability 3.4.4 Energy Saving, Cost Saving 3.5 Radio Technology 3.5.1 Utilization of High Frequency Bands 3.5.2 Massive Element Antenna Technologies 3.6 Applications of 5G Wireless Communication 3.7 Advancement of 5G Wireless Communication 3.8 Advantages & Disadvantages of 5G Technology 3.8.1 Advantages of 5G Technology 3.8.2 Disadvantages of 5G Technology

Chapter -4: Architecture of 5G Wireless Communications … 46 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Generalized Physical Architecture of 5 G 4.2.1 Radio Access Network 4.2.2 Evolved Packet Core (EPC) 4.2.3 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 4.2 Architecture of 5G Wireless Communication 4.2.1 Overall Architecture of 5G Wireless Networks 4.2.2 Functional Layers of 5G 4.3 The security Architecture of 5G 4.3.1 Domains 4.3.2 Security Realms

4.4 Network Programmability 4.5 Machine Learning in Service Planning

Chapter- 5: Modulation and Multiple Access Techniques for 5G … 66 Wireless Communications 5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 Multiple Access Schemes for 5G 5.2 Basic Concept of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 5.2.1 The Principles of OFDM 5.2.3 5G Waveform Background 5.2.2 OFDM Technology in 5G Systems 5.2.4 Requirements of 5G Waveform 5.2.5 Cyclic Prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM) 5.2.6 Multipath Signal Transmission 5.2.7 Key Factors to Determining CP Length 5.2.8 CP Design in 5G NR 5.2.9 DFT-s-OFDM 5.2.10 DFT-S-OFDM and OFDMA 5.3 Modulation Considerations of 5G 5.3.1 5G Modulation: PSK & QAM 5.3.2 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) 5.3.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

Chapter-6: Channels for 5G Wireless Communications …87 6.1 Introduction 6.1.1 Logical Channels for NR 6.1.2 Transport Channel 6.1.3 Logical, Transport and Physical Channel Mapping 6.2 Propagation Channel Model 6.2.1 Channel Models for 5G 6.2.2 The objective for New 5G Channel Models 6.3 Channel Hierarchy in 5G 6.4 Communications System Channel Mapping in 5G

6.4.1 NR Logical Channels in 5G 6.4.2 NR Transport Channels in 5G 6.5 NR Physical Layer Data Channels in 5G 6.5.1 NR Downlink Physical Channels in 5G 6.5.2 Uplink Physical Channels in 5G

Chapter-7: Millimeter-Wave Communications

… 95

7.1 Introduction 7.1.1 Challenges in Designing the Next Generation Network 7. 2 Millimeter Wave 7.2.1 5G Millimeter Wave Basics 7.2.2 5G Millimeter Wave Propagation 7.2.3 Millimeter Wave Coverage 7.2.4 Advantages of Millimeter Wave Technology 7.2.5 Disadvantages of Millimeter Wave Technology 7.3 5G Massive MIMO & Beam-Forming 7.3.1 Massive MIMO 7.3.2 Challenges in Massive MIMO 7.3.3 Time or Frequency 7.3.4 Enhancements of Key Performance Requirements From IMTAdvanced to IMT-2020 7.3.5 Benefits of Massive MIMO 7.4 Beamforming 7.4.1 Working of Beamforming 7.4.2 Advantages of Beamforming 7.5 Spatial Diversity and Spatial Multiplexing 7.5.1 Multi-User MIMO 7.5.2 Multi-user Types 7.5.3 Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) 7.5.4 Multi-antenna Types 7.5.5 Streaming MIMO 7.5.6 Applications 7.5.7 Difference between 5G MIMO & Massive MIMO 7.5.8 Challenges and Advantages of 5G massive MIMO Short Questions and Answers

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Chapter-1: Introduction to 5G Wireless Communication 1.1 Introduction 5G is the fifth generation wireless technology for digital cellular networks that began to be widely implemented in 2019. The 5G frequency spectrum is divided into millimeter waves, midband and lowband. The low band uses a frequency range similar to that of the predecessor, 4G. The 5G millimeter wave is the fastest, with actual speeds often 1–2 Gb / s down. Frequencies are above 24 GHz and range up to 72 GHz, which is above the lower limit of the extremely high frequency band. The range is short, so more cells are required. Millimeter waves have difficulty going through many walls and windows, so the interior coverage is limited. The 5G midband is the most widely used in more than 20 networks. Speeds in a 100 MHz broadband are generally 100–400 Mb / s down. In the laboratory and occasionally in the field, speeds can exceed one gigabit per second. Frequencies deployed are 2.4 GHz to 4.2 GHz. Sprint and China Mobile are using 2.5 GHz, while others are mostly between 3.3 and 4.2 GHz, a range that offers greater range. Many areas can be covered simply by upgrading existing towers, reducing cost. The low 5G band offers similar capacity to the advanced 4G 5G networks are digital cellular networks, in which the service area covered by providers is divided into small geographic areas called cells. Analog signals representing sounds and images are digitized on the phone, converted by an analog-to-digital converter, and transmitted as a bit stream. All 5G wireless devices in a cell communicate by radio waves with a set of local antennas and a low power automatic transceiver (transmitter and receiver) in the cell, through the frequency channels assigned by the transceiver from a set of frequencies that are reused in other cells. Local antennas are connected to the telephone network and the Internet using a high-bandwidth fiber optic wireless network connection. As in other cellular networks, a mobile device that crosses from one cell to another is automatically "transferred" to the new cell. Verizon and some others are using millimeter waves. Millimeter waves have a shorter range than microwaves, therefore cells are limited to a smaller size. Millimeter waves also have more trouble going through the walls of the building. Millimeter wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used

in earlier cellular networks. They are only a few inches (several centimeters) long. Another technique used to increase data rate is massive MIMO (multiple input multiple output). Each cell will have multiple antennas that communicate with the wireless device, received by multiple antennas on the device, so multiple data streams will be transmitted simultaneously, in parallel. In a technique called beamforming, the base station computer will continually calculate the best path for radio waves to reach each wireless device, and will arrange multiple antennas to work together as phased arrays to create millimeter wave beams to reach to device. More than 20 networks are implemented using medium band spectrum; 2.4 to 4.2 GHz. Midband networks have a better range, bringing cost closer to the cost of 4G. The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System created and reviewed by the 3GPP. The family is a complete overhaul of GSM in terms of hardware and encryption methods, although some GSM sites may be adapted to transmit in the UMTS / WCDMA format. Performance, range and cost will be similar to 4G in the same band when 5G systems are fully developed and can access more carrier frequencies. The new 5G wireless devices also have 4G LTE capability, as new networks use 4G to initially establish connection to the cell, as well as in locations where 5G access is not available. 5G can support up to one million devices per square kilometer, while 4G only supports up to 100,000 devices per square kilometer.


Usage Scenario of 5G Wireless Communication

ITU-R has defined three main uses for 5G. They are Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) and Mass Machine Type Communications (mMTC), only eMBB is implemented in 2019; URLLC and mMTC are several years apart in most locations.

Figure 1.1: Projection of interrelated 5G service tiers It was during the implementation of 4G that telecommunications companies realized that they wanted different degrees of infrastructure to support different kinds of service. 5G enables three degrees of service that can be tailored to the special requirements of your customers' business models: ❖ Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) aims to serve more densely populated metropolitan centers with downlink speeds close to 1 Gbps (gigabits per second) indoors and 300 Mbps (megabits per second) outdoors. This would be accomplished by installing very high frequency millimeter wave (mmWave) antennas throughout the landscape: on lamp posts, the sides of buildings, tree branches, existing power towers, and in a new case of use proposed by AT&T, the top of city buses. Since each of these antennas, in the use case of the subway, would cover an area probably no larger than a baseball diamond, it would take hundreds, perhaps thousands, to fully service any densely populated downtown area. And since most would not be omnidirectional, its maximum beamwidth would only be about 4 degrees, mm. For more suburban and rural areas, eMBB would seek to replace the current 4G LTE system, with a new network of lowerpower omnidirectional antennas providing 50Mbps downlink service. ❖ Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC) enables machine-to-machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT) applications that a new wave of wireless clients can expect from their network, without imposing burdens on other classes of service. Experts in the M2M and logistics fields have recorded that 2G service was perfectly fine for the narrow service bands that their signaling devices required, and that later generations actually downgraded that service by

introducing new sources of latency. MMTC would seek to restore that level of service by implementing a compartmentalized level of service for devices that need downlink bandwidth as low as 100 Kbps (kilobits per second, right there with phone modems) but with a low latency of around 10 milliseconds (ms).. ❖ Ultra Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC) would address critical needs communications where bandwidth is not as important as speed, specifically, an end-to-end latency of 1 ms or less. This would be the level that the autonomous vehicle category addresses, where the decision time for the reaction to a possible accident is almost non-existent. URLLC could make 5G competitive with satellite, opening the possibility, even in the discussion phase among telecommunications companies, that 5G will replace GPS for geolocation.

1.1.2 5G Specifications and Use Cases The road to 5G started in 2015, with the ITU IMT-2020 framework, which sets out the general requirements and future development of next-generation mobile technology (IMT stands for International Mobile Telecommunications). ITU's overall objective for IMT-2020 / 5G was to accommodate "new demands, such as more traffic volume, many more devices with different service requirements, better quality of user experience (QoE) and better affordability by reducing even more costs.” The key driver of this effort was the need to "support new emerging use cases, including applications that require high data rate communications, a large number of connected devices, and ultra-low latency and high reliability applications." This is how the performance requirements compare to the previous generation IMT-Advanced (also known as 4G): 4G Advanced)

(IMT- 5G (IMT-2020)

Peak data (downlink)

rate 1Gbps


User-experienced rate

data 10Mbps








Connection density

100,000 km

Energy efficiency



Spectrum efficiency



Area traffic capacity

0.1Mbps/sq m

10Mbps/sq m

devices/sq 1,000,000 devices/sq km

1.2 Performance of 5G Wireless Communication 1.2.1 Speed 5G speeds will range from ~ 50Mbps to over 2 gigabits at startup, and it's expected to grow to even 100Gbps, 100 times faster than 4g. The fastest 5g, known as mmWave, offers speeds of up to 2Gbps. As of July 3, 2019, mmWave had a top speed of 1.8Gbps on the AT&T 5g network, much faster than the top 4g speed of 23.6Mbps on the T-Mobile network. However, the problem with this is that it cannot go through walls, trees, etc. due to high frequency. Sub-6 GHz 5g (5G midband), by far the most common, will generally deliver between 100 and 400 Mbps, but will have a much greater range than mmWave, without being limited by walls, trees, and other obstacles that interfere with transmission by mmWave. Low band spectrum offers the farthest area coverage, but is slower than the others, although still faster than 4g. The 5G NR speed in sub-6 GHz bands may be slightly higher than 4G with a similar amount of spectrum and antennas, although some 3GPP 5G networks will be slower than some advanced 4G networks, such as the T- / LTE / LAA network. Mobile, which reaches more than 500 Mbit / s in Manhattan and Chicago. The 5G specification also allows for LAA (license-assisted access), but LAA has not yet been demonstrated in 5G. Adding LAA to an existing 4G configuration can add hundreds of megabits per second to speed, but this is a 4G extension, not a new part of the 5G standard. The similarity in terms of performance between 4G and 5G in existing bands is because 4G is already approaching the Shannon limit on data communication rates. 5G speeds in the less common millimeter wave

spectrum, with their much more abundant bandwidth and shorter range, and therefore higher frequency reuse, can be substantially higher.

1.2.2 Latency In 5G, the "air latency" in sending equipment in 2019 is 8 to 12 milliseconds. Server latency should be added to "air latency". Verizon reports that the latency in its early 5G deployment is 30 ms. near towers you can reduce latency to 10-20 ms. 1–4 ms will be extremely rare for years outside the laboratory. Network simulation can be used to predict the performance of 5G networks before deployment.

1.3 Standards of 5G Wireless Communication Initially, the term was associated with the International Telecommunication Union's IMT-2020 standard, which required a theoretical peak download speed of 20 gigabits per second and 10 gigabits per second upload speed, along with other requirements. Then, the industry standards group 3GPP chose the 5G NR (New Radio) standards together with LTE as their proposal for submission to the IMT-2020 standard. The first phase of 3GPP 5G specifications in Release-15 is scheduled to complete in 2019. The second phase in Release-16 is due to be completed in 2020.5G NR can include lower frequencies (FR1), below 6 GHz, and higher frequencies ( FR2), above 24 GHz. However, the speed and latency in early FR1 deployments, using 5G NR software on 4G hardware (non-standalone), are only slightly better than new 4G systems, estimated at 15 to 50% better. IEEE covers several areas of 5G with a core focus in wire line sections between the Remote Radio Head (RRH) and Base Band Unit (BBU). The 1914.1 standards focus on network architecture and dividing the connection between the RRU and BBU into two key sections. Radio Unit (RU) to the Distributor Unit (DU) being the NGFI-I (Next Generation Front haul Interface) and the DU to the Central Unit (CU) being the NGFI-II interface allowing a more diverse and cost-effective network. NGFI-I and NGFI-II have defined performance values which should be compiled to ensure different traffic types defined by the ITU are capable of being carried. 1914.3 standard is creating a new Ethernet frame format capable of carrying IQ data in a much more efficient way depending on the functional split utilized. This is based on the 3GPP definition of functional splits. Multiple network

synchronization standards within the IEEE groups are being updated to ensure network timing accuracy at the UK is maintained to a level required for the traffic carried over it.

1.3.1 5G NR 5G NR (New Radio) is a new air interface developed for the 5G network. It is assumed to be the global standard for the air interface of 3GPP 5G networks. Pre-standard implementations 5GTF: The 5G network implemented by the US operator Verizon for fixed wireless access in the late 2010s uses a pre-standard specification known as 5GTF (Verizon 5G Technical Forum). The 5G service provided to customers in this standard is incompatible with 5G NR. According to Verizon, there are plans to upgrade 5GTF to 5G NR "once it meets our strict specifications for our customers." 5G-SIG : Pre-standard 5G specification developed by KT Corporation. Deployed at the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics.

1.3.2 Spectrum Large amounts of new radio spectrum (5G NR frequency bands) have been assigned to 5G to allow for its higher performance compared to 4G. For example, in July 2016, the US Federal Communications Commission. USA (FCC) released large amounts of bandwidth in the underused high-band spectrum for 5G. The Proposal Spectrum Frontiers (SFP) doubled the amount of unlicensed millimeter wave spectrum at 14 GHz and created four times the amount of flexible spectrum for mobile use that the FCC had authorized to date. In March 2018, European Union lawmakers agreed to open the 3.6 and 26 GHz bands by 2020. As of March 2019, there are 52 countries, territories, special administrative regions, disputed territories, and agencies that are considering Formally introducing certain spectrum bands for terrestrial 5G services, they are consulting on suitable spectrum assignments for 5G, have reserved spectrum for 5G, have announced plans to auction frequencies, or have already allocated spectrum for 5G use.

1.3.3 Unlicensed Spectrum MNOs are increasingly using unlicensed spectrum in the 2.4 and 5 gigahertz

(GHz) frequency bands. 5G networks will need to take advantage of the vast amount of spectrum available in these unlicensed bands to offload traffic in heavily congested areas and provide connectivity for billions of IoT devices. Advances in Wi-Fi, LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum (LTE-U), Licensed Assisted Access (LAA), and MulteFire, among others, provide better quality and regulated access to unlicensed spectrum.

1.4 Technology of 5G Wireless Communication New Radio Frequencies The 3GPP defined air interface for 5G is known as New Radio (NR), and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1 (below 6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave), each with different capabilities.

Frequency Range 1 (< 6 GHz) The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz, due to the scarcity of continuous spectrum in this crowded frequency range. The most widely used band for 5G in this range is around 3.5 GHz. Korean operators are using 3.5 GHz, although a millimeter wave spectrum has also been assigned.

Frequency Range 2 (> 24 GHz) The minimum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is 50 MHz and the maximum is 400 MHz, with two-channel aggregation supported in 3GPP version 15. In the United States, Verizon is using 28 GHz and AT&T is using 39 GHz. 5G can use frequencies up to 300 GHz. The higher the frequency, the greater the ability to withstand high data transfer rates without interfering with other wireless signals or being too crowded. Because of this, 5G can support approximately 1,000 more devices per meter than 4G.

FR2 Coverage 5G in the 24 GHz or higher range uses frequencies higher than 4G, and as a result, some 5G signals are not capable of traveling long distances (more than a few hundred meters), unlike 4G or low frequency signals 5G (sub 6 GHz). This requires placing 5G base stations every few hundred meters to use higher frequency bands. Furthermore, these higher frequency 5G signals cannot easily penetrate solid objects, such as cars, trees, and walls, due to the nature of these higher frequency electromagnetic waves. 5G cells can be

deliberately designed to be as unobtrusive as possible, finding applications in places like restaurants and shopping malls.

Small Cell Small cells are low power cellular radio access nodes operating on a licensed and unlicensed spectrum that have a range of 10 meters to a few kilometers. Small cells are critical to 5G networks, since 5G radio waves cannot travel long distances, due to the higher frequencies of 5G.

Cell types

Deployment environment

Homes, Femtocell businesses


Pico cell

Micro cell Metro cell Wi-Fi (for comparison)

Beam Forming

Public areas like shopping malls, airports, train stations, skyscrapers Urban areas to fill coverage gaps Urban areas to provide additional capacity Homes, businesses

Max. number of users Home: 4–8 Businesses: 16–32

Max. Output distance power (mW) from base station indoors: 10– 100 10s of outdoors: meters 200–1000

64 to 128

indoors: 100– 250 10s of outdoors: meters 1000–5000

128 to 256

outdoors: 5000−10000

more than 250

outdoors: hundreds 10000−20000 of meters

less than 50

indoors: 20– 100 outdoors: 200–1000

few hundreds of meters

few 10s of meters

Beamforming, as the name implies, is used to direct radio waves toward a target. This is accomplished by combining elements in an array of antennas such that signals at particular angles experience constructive interference while others experience destructive interference. This improves signal quality and data transfer rates. 5G uses beamforming due to the improved signal quality it provides. Beamforming can be accomplished using phased array antennas.

Massive MIMO Massive MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) antennas increase industry performance and capacity density by using large numbers of antennas and multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each antenna is individually controlled and can incorporate components of the radio transceiver. Nokia claimed a five-fold increase in capacity increase for a 64-Tx / 64-Rx antenna system. The term "massive MIMO" was coined by Nokia Bell Labs researcher Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in 2010, and launched on 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan. Of more than 562 separate 5G demos, tests, or trials of 5G technologies globally, at least 94 of them have involved testing massive MIMO in the context of 5G.

Edge Computing Edge computing is delivered by computer servers closest to the end user. Reduces latency and data traffic congestion.

Wi-Fi-Cellular Convergence One expected benefit of the transition to 5G is the convergence of multiple networking functions to achieve cost, power, and complexity reductions. LTE has targeted convergence with Wi-Fi band / technology via various efforts, such as License Assisted Access (LAA; 5G signal in unlicensed frequency bands that are also used by Wi-Fi) and LTE-WLAN Aggregation (LWA; convergence with Wi- Fi Radio), but the differing capabilities of cellular and Wi-Fi have limited the scope of convergence. However, significant improvement in cellular performance specifications in 5G, combined with migration from Distributed Radio Access Network (D-RAN) to Cloud- or Centralized-RAN (C-RAN) and rollout of cellular small cells can potentially narrow the gap between Wi- Fi and cellular networks in dense and indoor deployments. Radio convergence could result in sharing ranging from the aggregation of cellular and Wi-Fi channels to the use of a single silicone

device for multiple radio access technologies.

NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access) NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access) is a proposed multiple access technique for future cellular systems using power allocation.

SDN/NFV Initially, cellular mobile communication technologies were designed in the context of the provision of voice services and Internet access. Today, a new era of innovative tools and technologies is leaning toward developing a new set of applications. This suite of applications consists of different domains such as the Internet of Things (IoT), the network of connected autonomous vehicles, remotely controlled robots, and connected heterogeneous sensors to serve versatile applications. In this context, network outage has become a key technology to efficiently adopt this new market model.

Channel Coding Channel coding techniques for 5G NR have changed from Turbo codes in 4G to Polar codes for control channels and LDPC (Low Density Parity Verification Codes) for data channels.

Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum Like LTE on unlicensed spectrum, 5G NR will also support operation on unlicensed spectrum (NR-U). In addition to LTE's License Assisted Access (LAA) that allows operators to use those unlicensed spectrums to increase their operational performance for users, 5G NR will support independent operations without an NR-U license that will allow the establishment of new 5G NR networks in different environments without acquiring an operating license on a licensed spectrum, for example for a localized private network or lowering the barrier of entry to provide 5G Internet services to the public.

The Dicey Subject of Slicing

Figure 1.2: One scenario mobile operators envision for 5G network slicing Exactly what routes these network segments would take through the infrastructure is completely up in the air. T-Mobile and others have suggested that segments could divide internal network function classes, for example, divide mMTC eMBB from URLLC. Others, such as members of the Next Generation Mobile Network Alliance (NGMN), suggest that sectors could partition networks effectively (as suggested by the NGMN diagram above) than different classes of user equipment, using their respective Radio Access Technologies (RAT) sets would perceive quite different infrastructure configurations, even though they would be accessing resources from the same groups. Another suggestion made by some of the top industry customers at 5G industry conferences is that telecom companies offer the premium option of cutting your network by individual customer. This would give clients willing to invest heavily in edge computing services more direct access to the fiber optic fabric that supports the infrastructure, potentially giving a telecommunications company willing to provide such service a competitive advantage over a colocation provider. even one with facilities adjacent to a "carrier hotel".

1.5 Different Concerns of 5G Wireless Communication 1.5.1 Interference Issues The spectrum used by various 5G proposals will be close to that of passive remote sensing, such as Earth observation and meteorological satellites, particularly for monitoring water vapor. Interference will occur and will be potentially significant without effective controls. There has already been an increase in interference with some other previous uses of nearband. Interference in satellite operations impairs numerical weather forecasting performance with substantially detrimental economic and public safety impacts in areas such as commercial aviation. At the 2019 quadrennial World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC), atmospheric scientists advocated a strong damper of −55 decibels watts (dBW), European regulators agreed on a recommendation of −42 dBW, and US regulators (FCC) recommended a −20 dBW restriction, which is 150 times weaker than the European proposal. ITU decided on an −33 dBW intermediate until September 1, 2027 and then a standard −39 dBW. This is closer to the European recommendation, but even the highest delayed standard is much weaker than requested by atmospheric scientists, prompting warnings from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) that the ITU standard, 10 times Less stringent than its recommendation, it brings the "potential to significantly degrade the accuracy of the data collected." A representative of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) also warned of interference, and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) warned severely, saying that society risks "history repeating itself" by ignoring the warnings from atmospheric scientists. (referring to global warming, whose monitoring could be in danger). In December 2019, a bipartisan request was submitted from the US House Science Committee. USA To the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to investigate why there is such a discrepancy between the recommendations of the US military and civil science agencies. USA And the regulator, the FCC.

1.5.2 Surveillance Concerns Due to fear of possible espionage of foreign users by Chinese equipment vendors, several countries have taken steps to restrict or eliminate the use of

Chinese equipment on their respective 5G networks. The 5G security architecture is being adjusted to allow as much metadata to be collected as possible for mass surveillance purposes. A report released by the European Commission and the European Cyber Security Agency details the security issues surrounding 5G as it notoriously tries to avoid mentioning Huawei. The report warns against using a single provider for an operator's 5G infrastructure, especially those based outside of the European Union.

1.5.3 Health Concerns The development of technology has generated a variety of responses regarding concerns that 5G radiation could have adverse health effects. The Physics department at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem recently detailed how human sweat ducts act like a series of helical antennas when exposed to 5G wavelengths. When this occurs, EM waves interact in complex ways, resulting in possible health effects. Radiation-related health problems from cell phone towers and cell phones are not new. Although electromagnetic hypersensitivity is not scientifically recognized, diffuse symptoms like headache and tiredness have been claimed to be the result of exposure to electromagnetic fields like those with 5G and Wi-Fi. However, 5G technology presents a couple of new problems that depart from 4G technology, namely, higher microwave frequencies from 2.6 GHz to 28 GHz, compared to the 700–2500 MHz typically used by 4G. Because the highest millimeter wave used in 5G does not easily penetrate objects, this requires the installation of antennas every few hundred meters, which has caused concern among the public.

1.5.4 Security Concerns A team of researchers from ETH Zurich, the University of Lorraine and the University of Dundee published a document entitled, "A formal analysis of 5G authentication. IoT Analytics estimated an increase in the number of IoT devices, enabled by 5G technology, from 7 billion in 2018 to 21.5 billion in 2025. This can raise the attack surface for these devices to a substantial scale, and the capacity of DDoS attacks, crypto jacking, and other cyber attacks could increase proportionally.

1.6 Applications of 5 G Wireless Communication

System • Smart Home 5G takes advantage of the smart home concept, which is an automated home equipped with lighting, heating, or other electronic devices that can be remotely controlled using a smartphone or computer. Compared to existing wireless technologies like WLAN, Bluetooth Low Energy, Zigbee, Z-Wave and other similar technologies, 5G will contribute to the success of smart homes by providing reliable and easy-to-use connections to devices with various performance requirements.

Driverless Automobiles 5G Automotive Association has been promoting C-V2X communication technology that will first be implemented in 4G. It provides communication between vehicles and communication between vehicles and infrastructure, leading to an increase in autonomous cars (self-driving) and IOT (Internet of Things). Automotive industry experts believe incorporating 5G technology into upcoming autonomous cars will be vital in helping autonomous cars reach their full potential. The speed of this technology will enhance the capabilities of autonomous vehicles while making them effective at the same time. For a world in danger of spiraling towards the loss of a million of its species starting in 2030, you might think that the goal of removing drivers from moving vehicles would be somewhat lower on the list. But the autonomous vehicle (AV) use case exposes one of the critical needs of modern wireless infrastructure: It needs to connect people on the go with computers they can trust to save lives, with latency close to zero.

Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) For a cloud-based server to provide a credible real-time sensory environment to a wireless user, as the mobile processor manufacturer Qualcomm stated in a recent presentation, the connection

between that server and its user may need to supply up to 5 gigabits per second bandwidth.

Figure 1.3: Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) Furthermore, the computation-intensive nature of an AR workload may actually require such workloads to be directed to servers parked closer to their users, on systems that are relatively free of similar workloads processed for other users. In other words, AR and VR may be more suitable for small cell implementations anyway.

Cloud Computing The Internet is not only the conduit for content, but the facilitator of connectivity in wide area networks (WAN). 5G wireless technology offers the potential to deliver cloud computing services much closer to users than most hyperscale data centers from Amazon, Google, or Microsoft. By doing so, 5G could turn telecommunications companies into competitors with these cloud providers, particularly for highintensity, critical workloads. This is the edge computing scenario you may have heard of: bringing the processing power forward, closer to the customer, minimizing latencies caused by distance. If latencies can be eliminated enough, apps that currently require PCs could be relocated to smaller devices, perhaps even mobile devices that themselves have less processing power than the average smartphone.

Internet of Things In a home with low-latency 5G connectivity, today's so-called "smart devices" that are essentially smart phone-class computers could be replaced by dumb terminals that get their instructions from nearby edge computing systems. Kitchen appliances, climate control systems, and most importantly, health monitors can be made easier to produce and control. The role played by IoT centers today, which some manufacturers are producing today to cooperate alongside Wi-Fi routers, may be played in the future by 5G transmitters in the neighborhood, acting as service centers for all households in their coverage areas. Additionally, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications enable scenarios where devices such as manufacturing robots can coordinate with each other for construction, assembly, and other tasks, under the collective guidance of an M2M hub at the 5G base station.

Healthcare The Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) aspect could improve telehealth, remote patient monitoring, and remote surgery for patients or medical facilities with less access to existing high-speed networks. The availability of low-latency connectivity in rural areas would revolutionize critical care treatment for people across the country. Small town patients would no longer be forced to change their lives and move to larger cities, away from the livelihoods they know and love, only to receive the level of care to which they should be entitled. As recent trials in Mississippi demonstrate, 5G-level connectivity enables caregivers in rural and remote areas to receive real-time instruction and support from the world's best surgeons, wherever they are. To make the transition feasible in homes and businesses, telecommunications companies are looking to take customers on a 5G business route now, even before most of the true 5G services exist. More specifically, they are laying the "foundation" for

technology clues that can be more easily upgraded to 5G, once those 5G services are available. "It will not only be us humans who will consume the services," said Nick Cadwgan, director of mobile IP networks, speaking to ZDNet. "There will be a lot of services that consume software. If you look at all of this about mass machine-type communications [mMTC], in the past it has been primarily the human being, whether it's talking to a human being or, when we have the internet, the human being that requests software services and experiences. In the future, we are going to have software as an applicant, and that software is going to be talking to software. So, all the dynamics of the services that we will have to deliver through our networks are going to change."

Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications that would incorporate low-latency links between moving vehicles and cloud data centers, allowing much of the control and maintenance software for moving vehicles to operate from fixed data centers, with personnel and maintained.

Satellite Access Satellite access, which may include the ability of satellite transmission to fill gaps in geographically remote or neglected areas.

Wireline Convergence Wire line convergence, which would ultimately deliver the outcome that AT&T warned that Congress was absolutely necessary for the communications industry to survive: the phasing out of wire line infrastructure and the deconstruction of old phone lines and circuitswitched networks who were the backbone of the Bell System and other state-sanctioned monopoly service providers of the 20th century.

Chapter-2: Basics of 5G Wireless Networks 2.1 Introduction The new 5G mobile communications system will enable many new mobile capabilities to be realized, offering high speed, huge capacity, IoT capacity, low latency and much more, providing support for many new applications. The 5G mobile communication system provides a much higher level of performance than previous generations of mobile communication systems. The new 5G technology is not just the next version of mobile communications, evolving from 1G to 2G, 3G, 4G, but it provides a new approach that provides ubiquitous connectivity. 5G technology is very different. Previous systems had evolved more driven by what could be done with the latest technology. The new 5G technology has been driven by specific uses of ad applications. 5G mobile communications has been fueled by the need to provide ubiquitous connectivity for applications as diverse as automotive communications, remote control with haptic-style feedback, huge video downloads, as well as very low data rate applications such as remote sensors and what is called IoT, Internet of things. 5G can provide much greater flexibility and is therefore capable of supporting a much wider range of applications, from the low data rate requirements of the Internet of Things to very low data rate and very low latency applications.

5G Standardization Like all widely used systems, 5G mobile communications is governed by a number of standards. Based on 2G GSM, 3G UMTS and then 4G LTE, the 5G standard is under the auspices of 3GPP - Third Generation Partnership Project. 3GPP has several different working groups, each of which addresses different elements of the required standards. They are based on industry experts who give their time and are sponsored by relevant mobile communication companies. In this way, the standards are written and developed. By having a leading industry organization that controls the standards, stakeholders can influence the standards to ensure that the required functionality is obtained. In addition, since the standard is international, not only different companies can work on different elements of the system and know that they will interact, but also for the user, capabilities such as

roaming are available and, as a result, the costs of telephones are reduced, calls etc. from scale savings etc. 3GPP standards are updated as specific releases: each release refines the elements that have already been described and introduces new functionalities. Earlier versions contained the standards for GSM, UMTS and LTE. As 5G began to develop, it was also incorporated into the standards. The new versions also contain updates for previous systems: version 14, for example, contained many new functionality elements for LTE, as well as updates, etc., for UMTS and GSM.

2.2 Cellular Systems Overview As the different generations of cellular telecommunications have evolved, each one has brought its own improvements. The same is true of 5G technology. First Generation, 1G: These phones were analogue and were the first mobile or cellular phones to be used. Although revolutionary in their time they offered very low levels of spectrum efficiency and security. Second Generation, 2G: These were based around digital technology and offered much better spectrum efficiency, security and new features such as text messages and low data rate communications. Third Generation, 3G: The aim of this technology was to provide high speed data. The original technology was enhanced to allow data up to 14 Mbps and more. Fourth Generation, 4G: This was an all-IP based technology capable of providing data rates up to 1 Gbps.

Fifth Generation, 5G: When 5G was first applied for, a series of use cases arose: very high-speed data transfer as video downloads

get bigger and more common; remote control with low latency: examples of autonomous vehicles communicating with rad infrastructure to provide safe transport, as well as the example of experienced surgeons who can perform delicate surgeries remotely using a 5G link, both examples requiring mobile communications from very low latency; increased capacity for general data communications; ability to accommodate very low data rates and occasional communications for the Internet of Things, IoT, where a long-lasting battery is needed. 3GPP RELEASES 3GPP RELEASE Previous releases Release 14 Release 15 Release 16 Release 17

RELEASE DATE -Mid 2017 End 2018 2020 ~Sept 2021

DETAILS GSM, UMTS & LTE Elements on road to 5G 5G Phase 1 specification 5G Phase 2 specification

2.2.1 Fifth Generation (5G) Requirements As preliminary to the work of the new 5G mobile communications system, the general requirements were established. These were defined by the ITU as part of IMT2020. Even now with 5G as an active mobile communication system, it is useful to reference these requirements.

SUGGESTED 5G WIRELESS PERFORMANCE PARAMETER SUGGESTED PERFORMANCE Peak data rate At least 20Gbps downlink and 10Gbps uplink per mobile base station. This represents a 20 fold increase on the downlink over LTE. 5G connection At least 1 million connected devices per square density kilometre (to enable IoT support). 5G mobility 0km/h to "500km/h high speed vehicular" access. 5G energy efficiency The 5G spec calls for radio interfaces that are energy

efficient when under load, but also drop into a low energy mode quickly when not in use. 5G spectral efficiency 30bits/Hz downlink and 15 bits/Hz uplink. This assumes 8x4 MIMO (8 spatial layers down, 4 spatial layers up). 5G real-world data The spec "only" calls for a per-user download speed rate of 100Mbps and upload speed of 50Mbps. 5G latency Under ideal circumstances, 5G networks should offer users a maximum latency of just 4ms (compared to 20ms for LTE).

5G Communications System The 5G mobile cellular communication system is a major change in the way mobile communication networks operate. New network topologies, access networks and the like were defined and implemented.

5G New Radio, 5G NR 5G new radio is the new name for the 5G radio access network. It is made up of the different elements necessary for the new radio access network. Using much more flexible technology, the system can respond to the different and changing needs of mobile users, be it a small IoT node or a user with a lot of data, stationary or mobile. 5G NR or 5G New Radio is the new radio air interface that is being developed for 5G mobile communications. With the stringent requirements on the new 5G mobile communications standard, a completely new radio interface and radio access network has been developed. Called 5G New Radio or 5G NR, the new radio interface meets the growing needs for mobile connectivity. The development of 5G NR or 5G New Radio is key to enabling the 5G mobile communications system to work and offers a number of significant advantages compared to 4G. 5G NR has been developed from scratch taking the requirements and looking for the best technologies and techniques that will be available when 5G starts to be implemented. 5G NR uses modulation, waveforms and access technologies that will enable the system to meet the needs of high data rate services, those that need low latency and those that need low data rates and a long battery life, among others. The first iteration of 5G NR appeared in 3GPP Version 15. Specification drafts for Version 15 were approved in December 2017 and

are expected to be finalized in mid-2019. Version 15 forms phase one of a 5G mobile communication standard. . Version 16 will provide specifications for the second phase and is expected to end in December 2019.

2.3 Basics of 5G New Radio (NR) 5G New Radio has been developed to provide significant improvements in areas such as flexibility, scalability and efficiency, both in terms of energy use and spectrum. The 5G New Radio is capable of providing very high band communications with transmissions such as video transmission, as well as low latency communications for remote control vehicle communications, as well as low data rate and low bandwidth communications for communications. machine type. There are several cornerstones in the new radio used for 5G: ❖ New radio spectrum: The use of mobile communications is increasing rapidly, and the introduction of 5G will accelerate this trend with the application of many more applications. While improvements in spectrum efficiency will be made, they will not be able to accommodate the huge increases in usage, so more spectrum is needed. Version 15 also describes several new spectrum groups specifically for NR implementations. These range in frequency from 2.5 GHz to 40 GHz. Two bands for more immediate deployment are found in the 3.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz and 4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz regions. The spectrum from 3.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz is already It has been launched in countries like the USA. USA, Europe and certain Asian countries and could see the deployment from 2018. Other higher frequencies bands but below 40 GHz are also reserved for 5G, but this is only at the beginning since there is talk of the use of frequencies of up to 86 GHz. The advantage of higher frequency bands is that they are much wider and will be able to allow much higher signal bandwidths and will therefore support much higher data throughput rates. The downside in some respects is that they will have a much shorter range, but this is also an advantage because it will also allow for a much higher frequency reuse. ❖ Optimized OFDM: An early decision was made to use an OFDM form as a waveform for phase one of 5G New Radio. It has been used very successfully with 4G, the latest Wi-Fi standards, and many other systems, and came out as the optimal type of waveform for the variety of different applications for 5G. With the additional processing power

available for 5G, various forms of optimization can be applied. OFDM Basic Concept, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing The specific version of OFDM used in the NR 5G downlink is the OFDM cyclic prefix, CP-OFDM and is the same waveform that LTE has adopted for the downlink signal. Beamforming: Beamforming is a technology that has become a reality in recent years and offers some significant benefits for 5G. Beamforming allows the beam of the base station to be directed towards the mobile. In this way, the optimal signal can be transmitted to and received from the mobile, while reducing interference to other mobiles. Antenna beamforming concept used with 5G NR Movement at higher frequencies allows for much smaller antennas and the possibility of programmable high directivity levels. At frequencies above 24 GHz where the antennas are smaller, there is the possibility of having high-performance beam-beam antennas that can precisely direct power to the mobile in question, and also provide receiver gain in this direction. MIMO: MIMO, multiple input and multiple output have been employed in many wireless systems from Wi-Fi to today's 4G cellular system and it provides some significant improvements. Within 5G, MIMO will be one of the main technologies. 5G will take full advantage of multi-user MIMO, MU-MIMO, where it will provide multiple access capabilities to MIMO using the distributed and uncorrelated spatial location of various users. By implementing this, the gNB (5G base station) sends a CSI -RS (Channel Status Information Reference Signal) to the different user equipments and then, depending on the responses, the gNB calculates the spatial information for each user. It uses this information to calculate the information required for the precoding matrix (matrix W) where the data symbols are built into the signals for each of the elements in the gNB antenna array. Multiple data streams have their own weights that include phase offsets to each stream to allow waveforms to constructively interfere with the receiver. This maximizes the signal strength for the user while minimizing the signal and therefore interference with other users. In this way, the gNB can communicate with multiple devices simultaneously and independently through the use of spatial information. This means that 5G MU-MIMO allows UEs to function without the need to know the

channel or the additional processing to obtain the data streams. MUMIMO in the downlink significantly improves the capacity of gNB antennas. It is scaled with the minimum of the number of gNB antennas and the sum of the number of user devices multiplied by the number of antennas per UE device. This means that by using 5G MU-MIMO, the system can achieve capacity gains using much simpler gNB antenna arrays and UE devices. ❖

Spectrum sharing techniques: Much of the radio spectrum, although allocated, is not used in an efficient manner. One of the techniques being proposed is for spectrum sharing.

Unified design across frequencies: With the 5G New Radio utilising a wade variety of frequencies, possibly 3.4 to 3.6 GHz below 6GHz and then 24.25 to 27.5 GHz, 27.5 to 29.5 GHz, 37 GHz, 39 GHz and 57 to 71 GHz range as possibilities for the mmWave radio. It is important to have a common interface across these frequencies. Small cells: As network densification is required to provide the required data capacity, increased use of small cells and small cell networks are proposed. A small cellular network is a group of low power transmitting base stations that uses millimeter waves to improve the overall capacity of the network. The 5G small cell network operates by coordinating a group of small cells to share the load and reduce the difficulties of physical obstructions that become more important in the millimeter waves. Using these techniques and many others, the 5G New, 5G NR radio will be able to significantly improve the performance, flexibility, scalability, and efficiency of today's mobile networks. In this way, 5G will be able to ensure optimal use of available spectrum, whether licensed, shared, or unlicensed, and achieve this across a wide variety of spectrum bands.

2.4 Basics of 5G Next Generation Core Network Although initial 5G deployments used the core LTE network or possibly even 3G networks, the network needed to move to a much flatter structure to provide the necessary data capacity and low latency. The 5G NG NextGen core network will play a crucial role in enabling the overall performance of the 5G mobile communication system to meet its performance goals. The

core 5G NextGen, NG network will play a key role in enabling the performance of the 5G mobile communications system. The definition of the next generation architecture is the responsibility of the 3GPP System Architecture Technical Specification (SA) Group in Service and System Aspects. The requirements for the network for 5G will be particularly diverse. In one case, very high bandwidth communications are required, and in other applications there is a need for extremely low latency, and there are also requirements for low data rate communications for machine-to-machine and IoT applications. In the midst of this there will be normal voice communications, internet browsing and all the other applications that we have used and are used to using. As a result, the 5G NextGen network will need to accommodate a wide diversity of traffic types and must be able to accommodate each one with great efficiency and effectiveness. Font is often thought to be adaptable to all approaches, not offering optimal performance in any application, but this is what is needed for the 5G network. To achieve the requirements for the 5G network, various techniques are being employed. This will make the 5G network considerably more scalable, flexible, and efficient. ❖ Software defined networking, SDN: Using software defined networks; it is possible to run the network using software instead of hardware. This provides significant improvements in terms of flexibility and efficiency.. ❖

Network functions virtualisation, NFV: When using software defined networks, it is possible to execute the different network functions using only software. This means that generic hardware can be reconfigured to provide different functions and can be deployed as needed on the network.

Network slicing: Since 5G will require very different network types for different applications, a scheme known as network segmentation has been devices. Using SDN and NFV it will be possible to configure the type of network that an individual user will require for their application. In this way, the same hardware using different software can provide a low latency level for one user, while providing voice communications for another using different software, and other users may want other types of network performance and each You can have a portion of the network with the required Performance.

The performance required for the 5G NextGen network has been defined by the NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Network Alliance). The Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance is a mobile telecommunications association of mobile operators, providers, manufacturers and research institutes and, thanks to the experience of all parties, can develop strategies for next generation mobile networks, such as 5G. As such, the 5G NG core network, NextGen will be able to utilize much higher levels of flexibility to enable you to meet the ever increasing and diverse requirements imposed on you by the radio access network and the increased number of connections and traffic. 5G Timeline 5G technology has developed rapidly. The first actual deployments launched in 2019, and other deployments soon followed. Although there were some initial problems, many noticed a significant increase in speed. New phones were released to accommodate new technology, and these users were able to take advantage of much higher download speeds. Many countries were interested in rapidly deploying 5G technology, as effective communications enable economic growth and are seen as an essential element of modern life and industry. also deploy several years. The history of 5G technology involved many people and companies before it was successfully implemented and widely used. 5G mobile communications technology is rapidly developing and becoming the technology that everyone is moving towards. Not only will it be able to accommodate the super fast speeds that are required, but it will also be possible to accommodate the low data rate requirements for IoT and IoT applications. As such, 5G mobile communications will be able to span a large number of different applications and accommodate many different types of data. 5G Frequency Bands, Channels for FR1 & FR2 5G wireless technology uses a variety of frequency bands within the ranges known as FR1 below 7.225 GHz and FR2 above 24.250 GHz for the new 5G, 5G NR radio The new 5G, 5G NR radio uses a variety of different frequency bands. Like other mobile communication systems, frequency assignments are found in a variety of areas of the radio spectrum. The assignment of 5G mobile communication frequency bands is generally done by international agreement, although the numbering is done by 3GPP. This reduces

interference levels and makes roaming easier: the more bands there are, the harder it is to make radios that can roam universally. With the increasing use of mobile communications, additional frequencies and bands are needed to accommodate 5G technology. Not only will many of the existing bands be reused for 5G wireless technology, but new ones are being allocated. In a new feature for 5G mobile communications, frequencies in the millimeter wave region of the spectrum will be used. The much higher bandwidth available in these regions is much higher, allowing for higher data rates, but the signal range is shorter, although this will give better frequency reuse. Frequency Ranges, FR1 & FR2 Two different frequency ranges are available for the 5G technology and the different ranges have been designated FR1 - frequency range 1 and FR2 frequency range 2. The bands in frequency range 1, FR1 are envisaged to carry much of the traditional cellular mobile communications traffic. The higher frequency bands in range FR2 are aimed at providing short range very high data rate capability for the 5G radio. With 5G wireless technology anticipated to carry much higher speed data, the additional bandwidth of these higher frequency bands will be needed. Originally the FR1 band was intended to define bands below 6 GHz, but with anticipated additional spectrum allocations, the FR1 range has now been extended to 7.125 GHz. FREQUENCY RANGES, FR1 & FR2 FOR 5G NR FREQUENCY RANGE DESIGNATION FR1 FR2

FREQUENCY RANGE (MHZ) 410 - 7 125 24 250 - 52 600

FR1 5G Frequency Bands The frequency bands in FR1 use many of the same frequency bands as those used for 4G and other cellular mobile communication services. Over time, the channels and also the bands used to transport 5G data are expected to take over more of the bands already allocated to mobile or cellular telecommunications. In this way, 5G wireless technology will be able to carry the required traffic levels. Bands have been reserved for frequency division duplex, use of FDD or time division duplex, use of TDD. For the use of FDD,

frequency bands are required for the uplink and downlink, and therefore two bands are assigned. For TDD use, only a single channel is used for the link time slots are assigned for the uplink and downlink instead of different frequencies. As a result, for TDD only one band is needed. 5G FR1 FREQUENCY BANDS 5G NR FREQUENCY BAND n1 n2 n3 n5 n7 n8 n12 n20 n25 n28 n34 n38 n39 n40 n41 n50 n51 n66 n70 n71 n74 n75 n76 n77

UPLINK BAND DOWNLINK BAND DUPLEX (MHZ) (MHZ) MODE 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 1850 - 1910 1930 - 1990 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 824 - 849 869 - 894 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 880 - 915 925 - 960 699 - 716 729 - 746 832 - 862 791 - 821 1850 - 1915 1930 - 1995 703 - 748 758 - 803 2010 - 20225 2570 - 2620 1880 - 1920 2300 - 2400 2496 - 2690 1432 - 1517 1427 - 1432 1710 - 1780 1695 - 1710 663 - 698 1427 - 1470 -1432 - 1517 -1427 - 1432 3300 - 4200


n78 n79 n80 n81 n82 n83 n84 n86

3300 - 3800 4400 - 5000 1710 - 1785 8800 - 915 832 - 862 703 - 748 1920 - 1980 1710 - 1780



In addition to the FDD and TDD bands, other bands have been allocated to provide supplementary uplink and downlink capacity. The bands marked SDL are for supplementary downlinks and SUL are for supplementary uplinks. FR2 5G Frequency Bands The frequency range 2, FR2 5G bands are now starting to gain momentum with new development to make the microwave links viable for the large scale deployment that will be needed. Allocations are being made in many areas of the spectrum above 20 GHz as it is relatively lightly used at the moment. 5G FR2 FREQUENCY BANDS 5G NR FREQUENCY BAND n257 n258 n260 n261

UPLINK BAND DOWNLINK BAND DUPLEX (MHZ) (MHZ) MODE 26 500 - 29500 24 250 - 27 500 37 000 - 40 000 27 500 - 28 350

26500 - 29500 24 250 - 27 500 37 000 - 40 000 27 500 - 28 350


5G NR supports carrier aggregation to allow the system to provide the bandwidth required for very high speed data transfers. The specification allows up to 16 component carriers to be added using various combinations of inter-band and intra-band carrier aggregation. The feature can be used intelligently to overcome some of the problems that can occur not only with higher bandwidth, but also to overcome the problems of further path loss at higher frequencies. In terms of the above assignments, it will be seen that

supplemental uplinks, SUL and supplemental downlinks, SDL can be used. 5G NR frequency band parameters summary There are several different parameters that are specified for the 5G NR physical layer. Sometimes these are specified differently depending on the frequency of the 5G NR signal. Aspects such as the number of carriers, the subcarrier spacing, the modulation scheme and a series of other parameters. The following table summarizes the characteristics of the signal and differentiates them according to their use in frequency band 1, FR1 and frequency band 2, FR2. 5G NR PARAMETERS FOR DIFFERENT FREQUENCY BANDS 5G NR PARAMETER Bandwidth options per carrier Subcarrier spacing Maximum number of subcarriers Carrier Aggregation Moodulation schemes Radio frame length Subframe duration Duplex mode Multiple access scheme MIMO scheme



5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 50, 100, 200, 400 90, 100 MHz MHz 15, 30, 60 kHz

60, 120, 240 kHz

3300 (FFT 4096)

Up to 16 carriers QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM, uplink also allows π/2-BPSK (only for DFT-s-OFDM). 10ms 1ms FDD, TDD TDD Downlink: CP-OFDM Uplink: CP-OFDM; DFT-s-OFDM maximum of 2 code words mapped to maximum of 8 layers in downlink and to a maximum of 4 in uplink.

It is necessary to consult the 3GPP specifications to determine the exact details regarding the transmission bandwidth combinations, for a given frequency band, a subcarrier spacing for FR1 and FR2. The frequency band assignments for 5G NR are updated frequently as new bands become available in different countries. Many of the existing 3G and 4G mobile communications allocations will be reused for 5G wireless technology, but this will occur over time as 5G usage increases. Although it is anticipated that more frequency spectrum will be available for 5G wireless technology in the coming years. 3G services are anticipated to be phased out first, often before 3G services, allowing 2G to be used for some long-signal applications and 4G as 5G backup.

2.5 Mobile Network Technologies of 5G 2.5.1 Network Softwarization and Slicing Considering the actual deployment of 5G mobile communication networks, not only wireless networks should be involved but also the aspect of the fixed network and the importance of technological development regarding the architecture of the entire communication network should be taken into account . In Japan, the 5GMF network committee has a mission to carry out the studies mentioned above. The committee has paid special attention to the quality of end-to-end communication and has identified the need to develop fixed network technologies to accommodate reduced transmission latency or wider bandwidth properties in the radio access part. and desirable extremely flexible resource control as in radio access networks as Essential Requirements of 5G networks. To meet these requirements, the following four areas are considered the focus area of 5G mobile architecture research:

Network softwarization, Mobile front haul and backhaul Mobile edge computing (MEC), Management and orchestration.

A strategy has been developed to develop research in these areas. As for network software, it involves software for a broader area beyond ordinary SDN and NFV. It implies the concept of known division, which is a set of reserved network resources consisting of communication networks, data processing units, with the following extensions; (1) Horizontal extension to make conventional MEC in the context of NFV to involve the UE and the cloud and softwarizing, (2) The vertical extension contains not only control planes in the context of SDN but also data plans and finally (3) A flexible configuration of the hardware and software portion corresponds to each application. Network Softwarization is a general transformation trend to design, implement, implement, manage and maintain network equipment and / or network components through software programming, exploiting the nature of software, such as flexibility and speed throughout the cycle of equipment life / network components. The industry's effort in Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Network (SDN) are an integral part of this transformation. The basic concept of network software is "division" as defined in [ITU-T Y.3011], [ITU-T Y.3012]. The division allows logically isolated network partitions (LINP), considering a division as a unit of programmable resources such as network, computation and storage. Considering the wide variety of application domains that are compatible with the 5G or IMT-2020 network, it is necessary to extend the concept of segmentation to cover a wider range of use cases than the objectives of current SDN / NFV technologies, and the need to address a series of problems on how to use sectors created on the infrastructure defined by programmable software.

Figure 2.1: Network softwarization view of the 5G systems Figure 2.1 illustrates the network software view of 5G systems, consisting of a pair of outages created in a physical infrastructure by "network management and orchestration". A segment is the collection of virtual or physical network functions connected by links to create an end-to-end network system. In this figure, segment A consists of a radio access network (RAN), a mobile packet core, UE (User Equipment) / device, and cloud, each of which is a collection of virtual network functions or physical. Note that the entities are shown symbolically and the links are not described in Fig. 2.1 for simplicity. The "network management and orchestration" manages the life cycle of the sectors: creation, updating and deletion. It also manages the physical infrastructure and virtual resources, which are the abstraction of physical resources. The physical infrastructure consists of computing and storage resources that include UEs / devices (for example, sensors) and data centers, and network resources that include RAT, MFH, MBH, and transport. It should be noted that both compute / storage resources and network resources are distributed and available to create virtual network functions.

Network software will greatly enhance flexibility in the design, implementation, deployment, operation and maintenance of network functions and components, and will increase the speed of service delivery by making best use of the programmability. In addition, the application of "Slicing" will increase the efficiency and dynamics of 5G systems, as it allows the just-in-time assembly of network functions and components for service delivery in concert with the provision of advanced heterogeneous networks.

2.6 Cell Clustering During recent 3GPP standardization efforts, it was agreed that NR will support two different levels of mobility, namely RRC-driven and RRC-free mobility. For RRC-powered mobility, the transfer procedure will be similar to LTE, where the UE reports the measurement in neighboring and in-service cells when the measurements meet certain criteria, eg. neighboring cells compensate better than service cells. The network may reconfigure RRC in the UE to perform a transfer to a target cell. For mobility without RRC participation, measurements are handled at the PHY or MAC layer, for example. in channel status information reference signals (CSI-RS) or channel quality indicators (CQI). The UE will be configured to select a specific beam that may come from a different AP than the serving AP. 3GPP has recently agreed to standardize a protocol division with centralized PDCP and distributed RLC / MAC / PHY, it would be possible to maintain a single PDCP entity in a gNB while changing RLC / MAC and PHY from a transmit / receive point (TRxP) to another. This protocol division also allows groups of UE-specific base stations to be organized. The group will consist of at least two APs, where one of the APs is designated as group leader (CH). The CH finalizes the control plane and an interface to the CN, and can configure which other APs should be included in the cluster. All cells in the group transmit reference signals (eg CSI-RS) in beams for the UE to measure. The UE then reports the quality of the measured beams, directly to the CH, or through another AP that forwards the measurement reports to the CH. Based on the measurement reports, the CH can switch between different AP beams, relying only on PHY layer beam management and beam refinement procedures. Since the availability and configuration of the base station group is

transparent to the UE, the UE will not know which AP is the CH, or which neighboring cells are included in the group and which are outside the group. Instead, the UE will measure on all the beams it detects of the configured measurement objects. The network can decide whether multiple APs should be prepared to serve the UE, based on the transport capacity between the nodes, as well as the processing and storage capacity of the target node. To ensure connectivity within the cluster, it may be necessary to rely on the wide area coverage of low frequency RATs, eg. LTE-A, when the mm wave RAT has limited reliability, e.g. due to signal blocking. The lower frequency can transmit traffic and control signals from the CH to the UE, and aid in mobility within the cluster. This establishes a strong connection between multiple connectivity between frequencies and the wavelength mm. Additionally, the millimeter wave access pooling is expected to work even with wireless auto-reverse, where nodes can relay traffic using the millimeter wave air interface. However, this can introduce additional latencies to the system that must be considered.

2.7 Physical Infrastructure Improvements Formerly Mobile Edge Computing, Multi-Edge Edge Computing (MEC) offers application developers and content providers cloud computing capabilities and an IT service environment at the edge of the mobile network. This environment is characterized by ultra-low latency and high bandwidth, as well as real-time access to services that applications can take advantage of. Examples of these services are, information or location of the radio network. MEC provides a new ecosystem and value chain. Operators can open the edges of their networks, eg. Radio Access Network (RAN), to authorized third parties (for example, application providers), allowing them to quickly deploy innovative applications and services to subscribers, businesses and vertical segments. Multiple access edge computing will take advantage of new vertical business segments and services for consumers and business customers. MEC use cases include, but are not limited to:

Video analytics

Location services Internet-of-Things (IoT) Augmented reality Optimized local content distribution and Data caching It exclusively allows software applications to take advantage of local content and real-time information about the conditions of the local access network. By implementing various services and caching content at the network edge, core networks are relieved of increased congestion and can efficiently serve local purposes. One of the important features in the MEC is the Traffic Unloading Function (TOF) that improves the infrastructure to be able to redirect traffic from a global view to a local view. The TOF has three data plane interfaces (BBU, Serving GW, and Apps) and a single control interface (API). The data plane transports user data to / from the respective elements it connects. The BBU is virtual radio access, the Serving GW is an EPC element of the data plane, and applications run in the edge cloud and require access to the data plane. Data plane interfaces should be viewed as network adapters. Although there are three interfaces in the data plane, the two that connect to the BBU and Serving GW can be combined into a single network adapter that connects to the S1 interface. The close relationship between the MEC and the RAN depends on how the RAN is deployed or divided between the Remote Unit and the Central Unit also called EDGE cloud. The split option affects the fronthaul network discussed below. The allocation of functions between the RU and the CU, that is, the functional division, has a major impact on the transport network and the corresponding NGFI requirements regarding data rate, latency and synchronization, and indeed to the information accessible by the MEC. Figure 4-1 depicts a generic RAN signal processing chain for a mobile network. In principle, the division

between RU and CU can be between any of the blocks represented. We focus on three functional divisions, which capture the most relevant tradeoffs, denoted as A, B, and C in Figure 2.2. In general, the higher divisions in the processing chain offer less centralization gains in terms of RRU size and cooperative processing, while are reducing requirements in terms of speed, latency, and forward transport data synchronization. In Figure 2.2, Division A places antenna processing in the UK, thereby achieving a scalable way to accommodate 5G technologies such as Massive-MIMO in current CPRIbased C-RAN architectures. Division B is based on the transport of frequency domain symbols, which, unlike CPRI, varies according to cell load and allows statistical multiplexing gains. Finally, division C represents a superior or PDCP-like MAC division, and can represent return network type interfaces.

Figure 2.2 : Functional Split Option

2.8 Enabling Technologies Programmable virtualized infrastructure is considered a primary supporting technology for cutting. In principle, cutting could be accomplished without such infrastructure, however it would lack the considerable benefit of

dynamically installing custom architectures. To this end, the 5GPP effort has made significant progress in the field of virtualization and cloud technologies. In particular, work has been done to incorporate the plug-n-play implementation of clouds over physical infrastructure. Towards scheduling capacity, SDN has been extended to add multi-tenant support. Multi-tenancy support in infrastructure is key to supporting multiple possibly isolated sectors at the same time.

2.8.1 Multi-Tenancy Support Multi-client support is at the heart of the business model based on cutting to provide services. Without multiple tenure, the 5G operator cannot provide multiple existing services simultaneously and make the concept of outage moot. The platform in Figure 5-1 is capable of executing service and function specific management / orchestration code separately for each tenant (or, if done correctly, even separately for each service or function) and in isolation. Features / services are enabled to provide information about themselves as to whether they have multi-tenant capacity and whether they can be reused between tenants. The system architecture shown in figure 2.3 is designed not only to serve end-to-end (mobile) network services across multiple domains, but also includes provisions to provide support for multiple tenants. While multiclient support in the cloud environment already exists, the following three aspects of multiclient are considered for 5G with respect to the Network Slicing design paradigm: Infrastructure Sharing: Although cloud computing can be used to address traditional challenges such as scalability concerns and providing fast resource provisioning times, analysis is required when it comes to multi-carrier environments with time critical applications and services. Towards the construction of infrastructure exchange mechanisms for LTE, the evolutionary approach applies the SDN concept to a part of the traditional core network architecture. This evolutionary approach analyzes the traditional functions of the mobile network, such as PGW, SGW, MME, etc., and decides which functions should be implemented in the controller and which should be implemented in dedicated traditional hardware. Work in this direction focuses on cutting techniques to create multiple shared virtual core networks between multiple network operators. Spectrum Sharing: Dynamic spectrum access is a promising approach to increase spectrum efficiency and alleviate spectrum shortages. Many papers

investigate topics such as cooperative spectrum exchange under incomplete information. Other approaches are incentive compatible and individually rational and are used to determine the assigned frequency bands and prices for them. The idea is to find policies that guarantee the highest expected benefits through the joint sale of frequency bands. RAN Sharing: This class builds on hypervisor-based solutions to create the virtual eNB, which uses the physical infrastructure and resources of another eNB, as requested by the MNO Network Sharing: With reference to the architecture framework shown in Figure 2.3, the underlying SDN technology has been expanded by defining and integrating SDN-based controller paradigms in the form of SDM-O, SDM-C and SDM-functional components. X. For example, SDM-X runs applications that exclusively control shared network resources and functions; multi-tenant scheduler is an application that coordinates the sharing of resources between multiple tenants. Furthermore, the Inter-slice Broker at the MANO layer is also specifically designed to manage and organize the allocation of resources for network services and functions in different sectors and tenants. The SDM-O paradigm allows the management and orchestration between cuts and, therefore, has a fundamental role in the realization of multi-service and multi-client aspects of the 5G NORMA network.

Figure 2.3: Multi-Tenancy Support SDM-O's responsibilities are to map the segment templates representing the segment requirements along with the SLAs of the corresponding tenants with the available network resources. The SDM-O will make the decision on

which network functions can be shared between sectors / tenants, as well as their location on the network. E.g. For a V2X segment with strict latency requirements, SDM-O might tend to implement network functions closer to the edge of the network. On the other hand, for the eMBB segment with relaxed latency requirements, the network functions could be located in the central cloud. The SDM-O has a complete view (between cuts) of the different segments and requirements of the tenants, as well as the corresponding resources for the realization of the segment. In addition, SDMO incorporates domain-specific knowledge, that is, the logic of the network functions it organizes. Having such cross-cutting knowledge, the SDM-O can efficiently decide on the rules / instructions to be transmitted to other MANO entities, control applications, and SDM-X and SDM-C to properly orchestrate, administer, and control network functions and resources. The functions and resources of the network can be shared between different network segments and tenants. Such multiplexing improves the utilization of network resources and reduces the cost of implementing the network service. The 5G NORMA cross-cut control enables efficient sharing of these network resources and functions. SDM-O derives sharing rules from segment templates, and SLAs are implemented in the broker between segments in the form of policies. These policies are sent to SDM-X and SDM-O, which enforce these policies within their respective domains. E.g. Different virtual mobile network (vMNO) operators, which are the tenants of the same infrastructure, may have dedicated virtualized EPC (vEPC) implementations, but Gi-LAN (S) features like Firewall, Parental Control, DPI, etc. they can be common (shared) among all vMNOs. Each tenant segment will have its dedicated SDM-C to enforce specific policies for each segment, but policy enforcement and enforcement of Gi-LAN (S) Shares will be done by SDMX.

Chapter-3: Wireless Systems and Standards of 5G Wireless Communication 3.1 Introduction Radio technologies have evidenced rapid and multidirectional evolution with

the launch of analog cellular systems in the 1980s. Since then, digital wireless communication systems have a constant mission to satisfy the growing need of human beings ( 1G ... 4G, or now 5G). The fifth generation mobile network or simply 5G is the next revolution in mobile technology. The features and usability are far beyond the expectations of a normal human being. With its ultra high speed, it is potential enough to change the meaning of a cell phone's usability.

Figure 3.1: Features of 5G Technology With a host of innovative features, your smartphone would now be more parallel to the laptop. You can use the broadband internet connection; Other important features that fascinate people are more gaming options, wider multimedia options, connectivity everywhere, zero latency, faster response time, and high-quality sound and HD video that can be transferred to another cell phone without compromising audio and video quality.

3.2 Fifth Generations (5G) Technology If we look back, we will find that every next decade a generation is advancing in the field of mobile technology. Starting with the first generation (1G) in the 1980s, the second generation (2G) in the 1990s, the third generation (3G) in the 2000s, the fourth generation (4G) in 2010 and now the 5th generation (5G), we are moving towards more and more sophisticated and intelligent technology. 5G technology is expected to provide new frequency bands (much wider than the previous one) along with a wider spectral bandwidth per frequency

channel. As of now, predecessor mobile technologies (generations) have seen a substantial increase in maximum bitrate. It is not only the increase in bit rate that makes 5G different from 4G, but 5G is also advanced in terms of:

High increased peak bitrate Higher data volume per unit area (i.e. high system spectral efficiency) High capacity to allow more device connectivity simultaneously and instantaneously Lower battery consumption Better connectivity regardless of the geographic region you are in Greater number of support devices. Lower cost of infrastructure development. Greater reliability of communications.

3.3 Challenges of 5G Challenges are the inherent part of new development; So like all technologies, 5G also has big challenges to face. As we look at the past, that is, the development of radio technology, we find very rapid growth. From 1G to 5G, the trip is only 40 years old (considering 1G in 1980 and 5G in 2020). However, on this trip, the common challenges we observe are the lack of infrastructure, research methodology and cost. To understand these questions, 5G challenges are classified into the following two titles:

3.3.1 Technological Challenges

Inter-cell Interference − This is one of the main technological problems that must be solved. There are variations in the size of traditional macro cells and small concurrent cells that will lead to interference.

Figure 3.2: Technological Challenges Efficient Medium Access Control − In a situation where a dense deployment of access points and user terminals is required, user throughput will be low, latency will be high, and critical points will not be competent for cellular technology to provide high performance. It needs to be properly investigated to optimize technology. Traffic Management − Compared to traditional person-to-person traffic on cellular networks, a large number of machine-to-machine (M2M) devices in a cell can cause serious system challenges, i.e. radio access network (RAN) challenges. ), which will cause overload and congestion.

3.3.2 Common Challenges Multiple Services − Unlike other radio signal services, 5G would have a major task to offer services to heterogeneous networks, technologies and devices operating in different geographic regions. Therefore, the challenge is standardization to provide dynamic, universal, user-centric and data-rich wireless services to meet people's high expectations.

Figure 3.3: Challenges of 5G Infrastructure − Researchers face technological challenges of standardizing and applying 5G services. Communication, Navigation, & Sensing − These services depend largely on the availability of the radio spectrum, through which the signals are transmitted. Although 5G technology has great computing power to process the large volume of data that comes from different and different sources, but it needs more infrastructure support. Security and Privacy − This is one of the most important challenges that 5G needs to ensure the protection of personal data. 5G will have to define uncertainties related to security threats, including trust, privacy and cyber security, which are growing worldwide. Legislation of Cyber law − Cybercrime and other frauds can also increase with high speed and the ubiquitous 5G technology. Therefore, Cyber Law legislation is also an imperative issue, which is largely governmental and political in nature (national and international issue).

3.4 Requirement of 5G Wireless Communication 3.4.1 High Speed, High Capacity Since LTE has already been widely used worldwide and LTE-Advanced is also being developed in various nations or regions, some level of high-speed and high-capacity communication demands caused by increasing

communication traffic as a consequence of the increasing number of smartphones with rich devices the applications would be satisfied for the moment. However, if you talk about the 2020s, further advancement of the communications system would be unavoidable which should take into account the substantial penetration of portable devices, rich video content provided by 4K or 8K video systems, etc. It will not only be as important for entertainment or advertising cases, but also for use cases such as security, healthcare and education. For these use cases, communication traffic is forecast to be more than 1000 times higher in the 2020s than in the 2010s, and 5G systems should increase their ability to support this demand accordingly. Additionally, an ultra high speed transmission of up to 10 Gps will be required to allow users to access ultra high capacity content.

Figure 3.4: Examples of 5G Use Cases

3.4.2 Massive Connected Devices Until now, peer-to-peer communications or communications between people and their target objects to use a variety of service content on servers have been major scenarios supported by communication systems. However, as it has been represented by emerging Internet of Things (IoT) or machine-tomachine (M2M) communications, a massive number of objects will start communicating with each other sooner or later. The number of

communication modules that establish communications between gas and electric meters is gradually increasing. In parallel, demands are also being developed for sensors to be used in agriculture, livestock or the construction industry. In the next decade, the penetration of these sensors will progress further and various things will be connected by a variety of communication modules, providing better user benefit, increased security at a reduced cost. For use cases in transportation systems like cars or trains, the expectation of rolling out of mobile communication systems seems so high. Among these use cases, there seems to be an especially high interest in supporting car driving, including autonomous driving, in-car entertainment, or security. Remote control installations or home security devices, appliances or office equipment are also expected to be widely used. A variety of portable devices will be available and help will be provided for different types of support for human activities. At the moment, portable glasses would be one of the typical examples and touch communication services will become a reality in the near future. As another example, sensors embedded in clothing are being considered for healthcare purposes. Given these various use cases, switching systems in 2020 should support a massive number of devices the number of which could be more than 100 folded compared to those of existing systems.

3.4.3 Ultra-low Latency and Ultra-High Reliability LTE or LTE Advanced shown in Figure 3.5 has achieved a short transmission latency on the order of 10 milliseconds, it is said that a more drastic reduction in latency would be required for certain use cases, for example, tactile communications. In some use cases, low latency, high reliability communications will be required. Examples of these use cases will be found in the case of communication between cards to avoid accidents or remote control of robots. As a consequence, an end-to-end latency of a few milliseconds or less than a millisecond will be required for the radio access part. For communication reliability, the target could be a 99.999 percent success rate. It should also be mentioned that implementing communication networks that provide ultra-low latency and ultra-high reliability for each use case will be technically feasible but not realistic due to its required cost. Therefore, careful consideration of choosing appropriate use cases for these sophisticated requirements is strongly recommended.

Figure 3.5: Requirements for 5G

3.4.4 Energy Saving, Cost Saving Energy saving is the top priority in all industries or societies in recent years, and the ICT industry is not an exemption. The share of energy consumption of the ICT industry in the entire industry increases as it grows and cannot be considered marginal. Saving energy would also result in cost savings. Cost savings has been a fundamental and historically established requirement as a qualitative goal in all previous generations of mobile communication systems and will also be important to 5G. Considering the contrast between the remarkable continuous increase in communications traffic and the saturated business revenues of telecommunications companies, additional cost savings are considered the key factor in 5G deployments. At the moment, the definitions, requirements and metrics for energy savings and cost savings have not yet been finalized. Still, they are considered very important requirements for 5G.

3.5 Radio Technology 3.5.1 Utilization of High Frequency Bands It will be difficult to achieve the above mentioned 5G requirements for high speed and high capacity if we only hope to improve current radio access technology. Therefore, it is essential to further apply small cell display and use a wider frequency spectrum. In this regard, frequency bandwidths of several hundred megahertz or more would be necessary if we were to attempt to achieve transmission speeds of 10 Gbps. However, it should also be the fact that finding a new additional spectrum of a few hundred MHz or more

for 5G in the bands of several hundred MHz to 3GHz is almost impossible since the band is widely used by systems or services. radio stations, including mobile communication systems, in all parts of the world. As a result, the expectation of using higher spectrum bands in the sub-millimeter or millimeter with a technical advance to use the spectrum becomes high. Specifically, several investigations with frequency spectrum up to 100 GHz are being conducted as possible candidate bands for 5G. Until now, it has been said that using the higher frequency bands for mobile communications is a great challenge due to the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in these frequency bands, i.e. the relatively large propagation loss in the air and the consequent reduced cell size of mobile devices. Communication systems due to their property of rectilinear advance with the resulting shading effect caused by buildings, vegetation or even human bodies. Therefore, there must be new technical factors to overcome these drawbacks. One of the expected technologies that the industry pays more attention to, which will be discussed in the next section, is the use of massive element antenna technology for radio transmission. To develop technologies that use the highest spectrum bands for 5G, a comprehensive understanding of the mobile transmission environment at higher frequencies is essential. In addition, the propagation models applicable in the simulation tools for evaluating system performance will be key. At the moment, experts in these areas from academia, industries, and outreach projects are working on research to develop relevant measurement tools, analyzers, and propagation models.

3.5.2 Massive Element Antenna Technologies The massive element antenna technology will allow what is called beamforming technology, which combines radio waves and forms a single sharp beam. The beam can compensate for the loss of propagation at higher frequencies and guarantee a transmission area of several hundred meters of radius. Two types of multi-antenna technologies have been applied in LTE and LTE-Advanced that could underlie 5G mass element antenna technology. These technologies use multiple propagation routes available on a radio communication link between a mobile station and a base station. One is the Single User MIMO (SU-MIMO) that forms plural antenna beams directed in different directions and achieves high-speed data transmission through data multiplexing through multiple propagation paths. The other is multi-user

MIMO, which makes the spatial multiplexing scheme in SU-MIMO a set of dedicated communication links for each of the multiple mobile stations and improves the capacity of the system. Towards 5G, the aggressive use of a large number of antennas is being planned, which allows for greater multiplexing capacity and points to a higher data rate with an improved system capacity, called Massive-MIMO. For the time being, horizontal beamforming has been applied in existing systems, however 3GPP Standardization activities are working for both horizontal and vertical beamforming schemes and Massive-MIMO, as the beamforming technology of antennas for 5G would have the same scheme. As stated, 5G is expected to use either millimeter or sub-millimeter waves, and the application of multiple antenna technologies in this higher frequency spectrum would have an advantage since the physical sizes of the antenna elements, as well as the stretches of the elements are proportional to the wavelength of the radio signals, which is inversely proportional to the frequency, and this would result in compact antenna devices in these higher frequency bands. As a consequence, even when applying a massive number of antenna elements, the size of the antenna portion would be reasonably compact, but still gives a higher antenna gain thanks to the sharp antenna beam formed by these massive elements. In addition to these technologies mentioned above, many cutting edge technologies such as dedicated use case radio signal processing methods, shortened radio frame structure with optimized network structure providing ultra low transmission delay and Technologies evolved from existing or ongoing technique Standards for 5G are proposed. For reference, Figure 3.6 shows an overview of likely 5G radio wireless component technologies.

Figure 3.6: Requirements for 5G

3.6 Applications of 5G Wireless Communication 5G technology is embellished with many different features, the applicability of which is useful to a wide range of people, regardless of their purposes. Some of the important applications are: • Will make a unified global standard for everyone. • The availability of the network will be everywhere and will make it easier for people to use their computers and this type of mobile devices anywhere at any time. • Due to IPv6 technology, the attention of visits of the mobile IP address will be assigned according to the connected network and the geographical position. • Your application will make the world a real Wi Fi zone. • Your cognitive radio technology will facilitate different versions of radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently. • Its application will also make it easier for people to take advantage of the radio signal at higher altitudes.

3.7 Advancement of 5G Wireless Communication The application of 5G is very equivalent to the realization of the dream. It is integrated with breakthrough features beyond the limit compared to previous technologies. Compared to previous radio technologies, 5G has the following

advance: • Practically possible to take advantage of super speed, that is, from 1 to 10 Gbps. • Latency will be 1 millisecond (round-trip from end to end). • 1,000x bandwidth per unit area. • Feasibility to connect from 10 to 100 device numbers. • Global coverage. • Approximately 90% reduction in grid energy use. • The battery life will be much longer. • Everyone will be in the Wi-Fi zone.

3.8 Advantages & Disadvantages of 5G Technology Fifth generation technology offers a wide range of features, which are beneficial for the whole group of people, including students, professionals (doctors, engineers, teachers, governing bodies, administrative bodies, etc.) and even for an ordinary man.

3.8.1 Advantages of 5G Technology 5G technology has several advantages, some of the advantages are described below: • High resolution and high bandwidth bidirectional conformation. • Technology to bring all networks together on a single platform. • More effective and efficient. • Technology to facilitate subscriber monitoring tools for quick action. • Most likely, it will provide a large amount of streaming data (in Gigabit), which will support over 60,000 connections. • Easily manageable with previous generations. • Technological sound to support heterogeneous services (including the private network). • Possible to provide uniform, uninterrupted and consistent connectivity worldwide. • Multiple parallel services, such as knowing the weather and location while talking to another person. • You can control your PCs with headphones.

• Education will be easier: a student sitting anywhere in the world can attend the class. • Medical treatment will be easier and cheaper: a doctor can treat the patient located in a remote part of the world. • Monitoring will be easier: a government organization and research offerings can monitor anywhere in the world. Possible to reduce the crime rate. • Visualizing the universe, galaxies and planets will be possible. • Possible to locate and search for the missing person. • Possible, a natural disaster that includes tsunami, earthquake, etc. can be detected faster.

3.8.2 Disadvantages of 5G Technology However, 5G technology is researched and conceptualized to solve all radio signal problems and difficulties of the mobile world, but due to some security reason and lack of technological advancement in most geographical regions, it has the following deficiencies: • The technology is still in process and its feasibility is being investigated. • Speed, according to this technology, seems difficult to achieve (in the future, it could be) due to incompetent technological support in most parts of the world. • Many of the older devices would not be 5G competent; therefore all of them need to be replaced with a new and expensive one. • Infrastructure development needs a high cost. • Security and privacy problem still to be solved.

Chapter -4: Architecture of 5G Wireless Communications 4.1 Introduction 5G is being deployed and activated, enabling higher bandwidth applications and machine-to-machine interactions. While it is true that the 5G launch appears to be underway, it is not an "all or nothing" proposition. Like most innovations, implementation is a gradual process. The advanced features and capabilities of 5G for IoT, Smart Edge and AI / IVR are very real and attention needs to be paid to the 5G network architecture to take advantage of it. This is the first in a series of pieces that analyze 5G from scratch, starting with the physical architecture and progressing through virtualization and network outage. Millimeter wave: Millimeter waves are transmitted at frequencies between 30 GHz and 300 GHz, compared to the less than 6 GHz bands used for 4G LTE. The new 5G networks will be able to transmit large amounts of data, but only a few blocks at a time. Although the 5G standard will offer the greatest benefits over these higher frequencies, it will also work in low frequencies, as well as in unlicensed frequencies that WiFi currently uses, without creating conflicts with existing Wi-Fi networks. For this reason, 5G networks will use small cells to complement traditional cell towers. Small cells: Small cells are low-power portable base stations that can be placed in all cities. Operators can install many small cells to form a dense and multifaceted infrastructure. Low-profile antennas on small cells make them inconspicuous, but their large numbers make them difficult to install in rural areas. As 5G technology matures, consumers should expect to see ubiquitous 5G antennas, even in their own homes. Massive MIMO: 5G technology enables base stations to support many more antennas than 4G base stations. With MIMO, both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver) have multiple antennas, thus maximizing efficiency and speed. MIMO also introduces interference potential, leading to the need to beam. Beam Forming: Beam forming is a 5G technology that finds the most efficient data delivery path for individual users. Higher frequency antennas allow narrower transmission beams to be directed. This user-specific beam

forming allows transmissions both vertically and horizontally. The beam direction can change several times per millisecond. Beam forming can help massive MIMO arrays make more efficient use of the spectrum around them. Full Duplex: Full duplex communication is a way to potentially double the speed of wireless communication. By employing a full channel 5G full duplex scheme, only one channel is needed to transmit data to and from the base station, rather than two. A potential drawback of full duplex is that it can create signal interference.

4.2 Generalized Physical Architecture of 5 G A look at a generalized 5G architecture is shown in Figure 4.1. There are three physical components: Radio Access Network (RAN): This is the part of the wireless network that connects to mobile devices. Evolved Packet Core (EPC): This forms the central part of the mobile network and serves as a bridge between the RAN and the Internet or other IP-based services. IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS): Most people think of this as the Voice over LTE (VoLTE) component, but by design it is more general than that. The purpose of the IMS is to provide IP application services within the mobile network infrastructure, be it voice over IP or another IP based communication service.

Figure 4.1: 5G Generalized Physical Architecture The organization of physical components in 5G is not really different from that of 4G / LTE. The 5G difference lies in the capabilities of 5G RAN and the organization of the EPC towards a higher level of virtualization.

4.2.1 Radio Access Network One of the key features introduced with 5G is that it defines three different spectrum bands that have a specific purpose:

Low-band (sub 1GHz): This is also the spectrum used by LTE today. It is the best option to maximize coverage, but the maximum bandwidth exceeds 100 Mbps. Mid-band (sub 6GHz): Medium band provides higher bandwidth at 1 Gbps and lower latency, which is critical for many IoT or machineto-machine applications. However, reception through buildings and objects is a problem. 5G addresses this by using multiple input and

multiple output (MIMO) macro cells to increase the number of simultaneous users. A technology called "beam forming" is also a new innovation in 5G where the antenna sends a directed signal to each connected device with monitoring capabilities to increase signal quality. High-band (>6GHz) or mmWave: This gets most of the press when it comes to 5G because it provides maximum data rates of up to 10Gbps with extremely low latency. As you might expect, the price you pay is a very limited distance (less than a square mile) and poor object / building penetration. However, it does fit in a good spot between technologies like WiFi and its low and medium band predecessors. Another key feature of the RAN is the ability to incorporate edge routing. Routing traffic between devices and smart edge components or between devices dramatically reduces routing-related latency in the EPC.

4.2.2 Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Overall, the 5G EPC is being updated to better manage and integrate voice, data and internet connectivity. The key innovations at the EPC are:

Complete separation between the control plane (connection / disassembly configuration) and the user plane (the content of the communications). Some applications have few devices but very high bandwidth requirements. Others use a large number of sensor devices, each of which requires very low bandwidth. The separation of the user and the control plane allows the network to allocate resources flexibly to one or the other as needed. Virtualization. Defining virtualized network functions (NFVs) with the ability to run VNFs and standard server platforms reduces cost and increases flexibility in contrast to previous generations of fixed-function EPC hardware components. Net slicing. This is somewhat analogous to the virtualization of

compute, memory, and storage components that only divide physical network resources into logical network functions. Each network segment consists of network resources dedicated to serving a specific customer or service. Network segments are also isolated and isolated from each other, so a misbehaving system cannot interrupt the service of others. Previous generations of mobile networks only treated pipes as bandwidth that everyone shared. 5G divides these resources into virtualized network segments that can be allocated, used, and isolated. This is especially important with the advent of IoT, where control of IoT devices and frameworks is not possible at this time. The EPC is undergoing change, but it’s more about “under-the-hood” improvements and efficiencies in order to carry the increased burden of the improvements within the RAN.

4.2.3 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) The high-level view is that this component implements specific IP-based applications and services within the mobile network. The best known use case for IMS is Voice over LTE (VoLTE). Previous generations of mobile networks (and even 4G / LTE) implemented mobile voice and short message (SMS) service as circuit switched data, not IP. As the network evolves into end-to-end IP, the first application that needs to be addressed is these two services. So the first defined IMS involves components that communicate with mobile phones using Voice over IP (VoIP) technology rather than the old circuit-switched methods. This ultimately breaks the divergent paths between the old SMS and voice switching circuitry and the new IP-based data services of previous generations of mobile networks. By switching to VoLTE, all of the switched circuit part of the network can now be removed saving hardware and maintenance costs.

4.2 Architecture of 5G Wireless Communication The 5G architecture is highly advanced; Its network elements and various terminals are characteristically updated to allow for a new situation. Similarly, service providers can implement advanced technology to easily adopt value-added services. However, the update capacity is based on cognitive radio technology that includes several important characteristics,

such as the ability of the devices to identify their geographical location, as well as the climate, temperature, etc. Cognitive radio technology acts as a transceiver (beam) that can perceptively pick up and respond to radio signals in your operating environment. Plus, it quickly distinguishes changes in its environment and therefore responds accordingly to provide uninterrupted quality service. As shown in Figure 4.2, the 5G system model is a fully IPbased model designed for wireless and mobile networks.

Figure 4.2: System Model of 5G The system consists of a main user terminal and then several independent and autonomous radio access technologies. Each of the radio technologies is considered the IP link to the outside world of the Internet. IP technology is exclusively designed to guarantee sufficient control data for the proper routing of IP packets related to certain application connections, that is, sessions between client applications and servers somewhere on the Internet. Also, for packet routing to be accessible, it must be arranged according to the policies given by the user, as shown in Figure 4.3

Figure 4.3 : Routing of IP Packet The 5G system has the ambition to respond to the widest range of services and applications in the history of mobile and wireless communications classified as (i) enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), (ii) ultra-reliable, lowlatency communications ( URLLC) and (iii) massive machine-type communications (mMTC). By responding to the requirements of these services and applications, the 5G system aims to provide a flexible platform that enables new business cases and models that integrate vertical industries, such as automotive, manufacturing, energy, eHealth and entertainment. On this basis, network outage emerges as a promising future-proof framework that adheres to the technological and business needs of different industries. To achieve this goal, the division of the network must be designed from an end-to-end perspective, encompassing different technological domains (eg, core, transport and access networks) and administrative domains (eg,

different operators). networks), including management and orchestration. Features Additionally, the security architecture will be natively integrated into the overall architecture, meeting the requirements of services and applications related to security critical use cases.

4.2.1 Overall Architecture of 5G Wireless Networks 5G networks will meet the requirements of a highly mobile and fully connected society. The proliferation of connected objects and devices will pave the way for a wide range of new services and associated business models that will enable automation in various industrial sectors and vertical markets (for example, energy, e-health, smart city, connected cars, industrial manufacturing, etc.) In addition to more human-centric applications such as augmented and virtual reality augmentation, 4k video streaming, etc., 5G networks will support the communication needs of machine-to-machine and machine-to-machine applications. person to make our life safer. And more convenient. Autonomous communication devices will create mobile traffic with significantly different characteristics than today's predominantly human traffic. The coexistence of human-centered and machine-type applications will impose very diverse performance requirements / key performance indicators (KPIs) / performance that 5G networks will have to support. Therefore, the vision of network segmentation will satisfy the demand of vertical sectors requesting dedicated telecommunication services by providing "customer-oriented" on-demand network partitioning requirements descriptions to operators as shown in Figure 4.4. The need to map such customer-centric service level agreements (SLAs) with resource-oriented network segment descriptions, which facilitate instantiation and activation of segment instances, becomes apparent. In the past, operators performed such allocation manually on a limited number of service / segment types (mainly mobile broadband - MBB, voice and SMS service). With an increased number of customer requests and matching network segments, a mobile network management and control framework will have to exhibit a significantly higher level of automation for managing the entire life cycle of network segment instances. More specifically, segment life cycle automation must be performed using an architecture that includes functions and tools that implement cognitive procedures for all phases of the life cycle: preparation phase, instantiation phase, configuration and activation phase, time-out phase. execution and dismantling phase. Two key technology enablers

include software, for example, virtualization of network functions, as well as programmable network functions defined by software and infrastructure resources. Other key elements are efficient management and orchestration procedures and protocols. Finally, scalable, service-centric data analysis algorithms that exploit multi-domain data sources, complemented by reliable security mechanisms, will pave the way for implementing custom network services with different virtualized NFs (VNFs) in a common infrastructure. A recursive structure in 5G context can be defined as a design, rule or procedure that can be applied repeatedly. In a network service context, this recursive structure can be a specific part of a network service or a repeating part of the implementation platform and is defined as the ability to build a service from existing services. A certain service could scale recursively, which means that a certain pattern could replace part of itself. As with a recursive service definition, a recursive structure in the 5G (software) architecture can be repeatedly instantiated and linked. Improves scalability, since the same instance can be deployed many times, in different places at the same time. Recursion also leads to easier handling of elasticity, scalability, and change. Recursion by delegating parts of the service to multiple instances of the same software block is a natural way to handle larger and more complex service graphics or workloads. If this recursion is taken into account from the beginning of the development of 5G, the advantages of this approach will have a minimum cost. In the context of virtual infrastructure, such a recursive structure allows a segment instance to function on the infrastructure resources provided by the segment instance below. The tenant (the owner of a sector instance) can operate its virtual infrastructure as it operates in the physical one, assigning and reselling part of the resources to other tenants. That means that each tenant can own and implement their own MANO system.

Figure 4.4: Recursive Model

4.2.2 Functional Layers of 5G To serve all aspects of network segmentation, the 5G architecture is divided into different layers as shown in Figure 4.5:

Service Layer The Service layer comprises the Business Support Systems (BSS) and the Policy and Decision functions at the commercial level, as well as the applications and services operated by the tenant. This includes the end-to-end orchestration system.

Management and Orchestration Layer The Management and Orchestration layer includes ETSI NFV MANO functions, that is, the VIM, the VNF Administrator and the NFVO. An inter-outage broker manages the allocation of resources between outages and interacts with the service management function. In addition, the MANO layer accommodates domain-specific application management functions. For example, in the case of 3GPP, this includes Element Manager (EM) and Network Management (NM) functions, including Network (Sub-) Slice Management Function (N (S) SMF).

Those functions would also implement ETSI NFV MANO interfaces for VNF Manager and NFVO. Service management is an intermediary function between the service layer and the intermediary between outages. Transform descriptions of consumer-oriented services into descriptions of resource-oriented services and vice versa. It should be noted that the domain administrator, Inter-Slice Broker and NFVO together constitute the Software Defined Mobile Network Orchestrator (SDM-O), which is responsible for the end-to-end management of network services. SDM-O can configure divisions and merge them correctly at the multiplex point described using the network partition templates.

Control Layer The Control layer accommodates the two main controllers, the Software Defined Mobile Network Coordinator (SDM-X) and the Software Defined Mobile Network Controller (SDM-C), as well as other control applications. SDM-C and SDM-X handle dedicated and shared NFs respectively, and following SDN principles, translate control application decisions into commands to VNF and PNF. SDM-X and SDM-C, as well as other control applications, can be run as VNF or PNF. Multi-domain network operating system installations that include different network adapters and abstractions above the networks and cloud heterogeneous fabrics. It is responsible for allocating (virtual) network resources and maintaining the state of the network to ensure network reliability in a multi-domain environment.

Data Layer The data layer comprises the VNFs and PNFs required to carry and process the user's data traffic. Additionally, changes to all functional layers are made through native software. All elements of the network are part of the network segments: radio networks, cable access, core, transmission and edge networks, effective integration of communication and computing.

Figure 4.5: Architecture Functional Layers Two main network outage services can be considered that allow different degrees of explicit control and are characterized by different levels of automation of the management of mobile network outages: (1) The provisioning of Virtual Infrastructures (VI) under the control and operation of different tenants, in line with an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) model, that is, the creation of a Network Slice Instance; (2) The provisioning of tenant-owned Network Services (NS) as defined by the ETSI NFV architecture, that is, the creation of a Service Instance. In the previous service, the deployment of a mobile network deals with the allocation and de-allocation of VI. A VI is defined as a logical construction made up of links and virtual nodes, which as a whole "behaves like" and "can be operated as" a physical infrastructure. Logical entities within a VI spanning a set of computing and storage resources are interconnected by a virtual and logical network. The tenant can operate the VIs through different SDN control models, allowing for different degrees of internal control. This service involves the dynamic assignment of a VI, its operation and reallocation. The actual realization of a VI combines many aspects such as

partitioning and resource accounting or creating connection instances that support virtual links. Provisioning a VI commonly requires direct support of hardware elements or their emulation through software for multiplexing over the shared infrastructure. Network Services (NS) Network services (NS) are instantiated directly on a shared infrastructure and as a set of interrelated virtual network (VNF) functions. An NS corresponds to a set of endpoints connected through one or more VNF forwarding graphics (VNF-FG). The allocation of a NS expands and complements the VI implementation concept to deliver isolated strings of virtual services made up of specific VNFs, in an automated way and exploiting the exchange of a common physical infrastructure with computing, storage and network resources. The tenant request generally specifies the type of VNF (i.e. the desired virtual application components) in the NS Descriptor, their capabilities and dimensions through one or more VNF Descriptors, and how they should be interconnected through a VNF Descriptor- FG. Such NS templates include the following attributes: network segment IDs, nodes, links, connection points, storage resources, computing resources, topologies, network services, specific service managers, network functions, virtual network functions, Specific network function managers and predefined function blocks. The templates for the unified description of these information elements are currently in the process of standardization in the ETSI NFV ISG, in the OASIS TOSCA standards and in the IETF. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) SDN and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are considered the foundation of how 5G will be implemented. Software Defined Network (SDN) is a way to manage networks that separate the control plane from the forwarding plane. It does this by using software to manage network functions through a centralized control point. SDN is a complementary approach to Network Function Virtualization (NFV) for network management. While they both manage networks, they both rely on different methods. SD-WAN is an extension of SDN.SDN offers a centralized view of the network, giving an SDN controller the ability to act as the "brains" of the network. The SDN controller transmits information to switches and routers through APIs to the south, and to applications with APIs to the north. One of the best known protocols used by SDN controllers is Open Flow; however, it is not the only

SDN standard, although some use "SDN" and "Open Flow" interchangeably. Centralized and programmable SDN environments can be easily adapted to rapidly changing business needs. It can reduce costs and limit wasteful provisioning, as well as provide flexibility and innovation for networks. Network Virtualization (NV) Network Virtualization (NV) is part of the move towards SDN and NFV. Continuing on the topic of separating the control plane from the forwarding plane, NV decouples the network from the hardware and runs a virtual network on top of the physical network. This creates a more dynamic system that can be controlled from a central plane and reduces the need for manual setup and adjustment. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is the process of decoupling network functions from hardware and executing them on a software platform. It is a complementary approach to Software Defined Networks (SDN) for network management. While they both manage networks, they depend on different methods. While SDN separates the control and forwarding planes to offer a centralized view of the network, NFV focuses primarily on optimizing network services. It is a key part of cloud computing, 5G development, the data center network, SD-WAN, and many others. NFV started when service providers attempted to accelerate the implementation of new network services to advance their revenue and growth plans. The developers discovered that proprietary hardware-based devices limited their ability to achieve these goals. They analyzed standard IT virtualization technologies and discovered that network virtualization features accelerated service and provisioning dynamics. With this, several providers came together and created the NFV ISG under the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The creation of ETSI NFV ISG resulted in the foundation of the basic requirements and architecture of NFV. ETSI continues to innovate NFV with new projects. Announced in September 2014, the Linux Foundation announced its open source reference platform, the Open Platform for the NFV Project (OPNFV). While similar, NFV should not be confused with virtualized network functions (VNFs), which refer to specific functions that are virtualized on the network, such as firewall implementation or load balancing, and are key to the concept. and the NFV process.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has published several reports on the standards for the 5G network which it refers to as the International Mobile Telecommunication Network (IMT) -2020. 3GPP is a mobile industry standards body that created its own standards for the specifications of 5G New Radio. Both mobile operators and providers participate in the 3GPP specification process. In accordance with ITU guidelines, 5G network speeds must have a maximum data rate of 20 Gb / s for the downlink and 10 Gb / s for the uplink. Latency in a 5G network could be as low as 4 milliseconds in a mobile scenario, and can be as low as 1 millisecond in ultra-reliable low-latency communication scenarios. Not only will people be connected to each other, but also machines, cars, city infrastructure, public safety, and more. This new generation of networks is also designed to have always-on capabilities, and its goal is to be energy efficient by minimizing the amount of energy a modem uses based on the amount of traffic passing through it. To enable both services that provide a different degree of control over network segments, you can define a set of APIs: 1. Network Services Assignment / Modification / Deassignment API, 2. Virtual Infrastructure Allocation / Modification / Deallocation API, 3. Virtual infrastructure control API with limited control, and 4. Virtual infrastructure control API with full control

4.3 The security Architecture of 5G The basic concepts in our security architecture are domains, strata, security realms, and security control classes. A Domain is a grouping of network entities according to physical or logical aspects that are relevant for a 5G network. A Stratum is a grouping of protocols, data, and functions related to one aspect of the services provided by one or several domains. Security Control Class (SCC) A Security Control Class (SCC) is a new concept introduced that refers to a collection of security functions (including safeguards and countermeasures) to avoid, detect, deter, counteract, or minimize security risks to 5G networks, in particular, risks to a network's physical and logical infrastructure, its services, the user equipment, signaling, and data

Security Realm (SR) A Security Realm (SR) captures security needs of one or more strata or domains. The framework of the security architecture is flexible as it can be extended with definitions of new domains, strata, etc. This makes it possible to adapt the framework to future network solutions with new functionality and services.

4.3.1 Domains The basis for the security architecture is the use of domains. The Figure 4.6 illustrates an instance of a 5G network and depicts the domains defined so far.

Figure 4.6: Security Architecture The concept of domain is a cornerstone in security architecture, since it allows the definition of different types of domains used to represent the different functionalities, services and actors of a 5G network. Defined domains can occur in multiple instances and belong to different actors who assume different roles and responsibilities in the network, which provides flexibility for modeling different 5G network configurations and describes its

inherent aspects of multi-party trust. By looking at the required interdependencies and interactions between domains, it becomes a relatively easy task to analyze and model your trust relationships and your need for different security controls. We use three different types of domains. First there are the infrastructure domains that focus on the relevant physical aspects of the network, that is, they contain the "hardware" in the network. Then there are the tenant domains which are logical domains running on infrastructure domains. Through this division into infrastructure and tenant domains, it is easy to map and manage virtualized environments in the architecture as these types of domains give a clear division between the physical platform that provides a runtime environment and the logical functions and services in the domain of tenants. To capture groupings of entities of higher order and / or functionality, we have defined a third type of domains, namely Composite Domains. These domains consist of a collection of other domains, grouped according to some relevant aspects of 5G, eg. ownership, joint administration or the like. With this concept we can map defined 3G / 4G domains in our security architecture in a simple way. Of particular importance are the Slice domains. They are composite domains used to capture network outage aspects. A segment can only cover some parts of the network, eg. parts of the Core Network domain, but are generally defined end-to-end. In this way, the cut is explicitly handled. The use of sector domains also highlights the trust problems that appear between the actors that control a domain and other actors that control sectors that operate simultaneously in that domain. The strict isolation requirement between domains and sectors belonging to different actors is also clarified. We note that hacking can be implemented without relying on a virtualized system, but on most 5G systems it is. The domain figure shown above also shows so-called trust anchors in infrastructure domains. These trust anchors are used to capture trust issues that appear in virtualized systems, eg. how to ensure the integrity of the tenant domain and that a tenant domain runs on a designated and reliable infrastructure. Trust anchors can also be used to verify the integrity of infrastructure domains and to link tenant domains to infrastructure domains. We only have three types of infrastructure domains. They are : 1. UICC domains that contain the conventional tamper-resistant module that

offers protected storage and long-term subscriber credential processing and other critical security information. 2. Mobile computer hardware domains (MEHW) that contain the hardware support for mobile equipment (ME). The MEHW domain can include trusted runtime environments (TEE) that support eg. other forms of credentials such as certificates. 3. Infrastructure provider (IP) domains that contain the hardware platforms for computing, storage and network resources required by both network / telecommunications functionality and specific access (radio) hardware. Currently, there are 10 defined tenant domains: 1. Mobile equipment (ME) domains that contain the logical functionality required to use access to network services, for the operation of access protocols by users, and for user applications. 2. USIM domains that contain the logical functionality for the USIM operation along with other hosted security services. 3. Identity Management (IM) domains that contain functionality to support alternatives to USIM-based authentication, that is, for industry automation use cases (the IM domain may contain, for example, public key certificates. The IM domain preferably gets security support from a UICC or TEE in the ME HW as discussed above). 4. Access (A) Domains that contain the logical functionality that manages the resources of the access network and provides users with mechanisms to access the core network domain. 5. Serve domains that contain logical functionality that is local to the user's access point. It also routes calls and transports user data / information from origin to destination. It has the ability to interact with the source domain to serve user-specific data / services and with the transit domain for non-userspecific data / services purposes. 6. Home domains (H) contain logical functionality performed in a permanent location, regardless of the location of the user's access point. The USIM is subscription related to the home network domain. Therefore, the home network domain contains at least permanently user-specific data and is responsible for managing subscription information. It can also handle specific household services, potentially not offered by the service network domain. 7. Transit (T) domains that contain the logical core network functionality in the communication path between the serving network domain and the

external remote parties. 8. Third Party Domains (3P) that contain functionality for use cases where a (semi) trusted third party, such as a vertical factory / industry, provides its own authentication services for, eg. your M2M devices like industrial robots and IoT devices. 9. Internet Protocol Service (IPS) domains that represent the operator's external IP networks, such as the public Internet and / or various corporate networks. Such networks may be partially or totally unreliable. 10. Management domains that contain the logical functionality required for managing specific aspects of a 5G network. Management domains can encompass security management, security management, traditional network management, SDN orchestration and virtualized environments, and management of user equipment domains, etc.

4.3.2 Security Realms The domains and slices in the security architecture provide boundaries between different network functions and services, and the strata provide information about the security needs required for domain communication and interaction. A joint analysis of domains and strata will identify the security control points required for groups of protocols. 1. The access network SR (AN) captures the security needs of the access network domain and the access stratum as part of the transport stratum, particularly aspects related to users who securely access 5G services through 3GPP (5G radio) and certain non-3GPP (eg WLAN) access technologies. 2. The SR application captures the security needs of the application layer. That is, the end user applications / services provided through the 5G network, either as services provided by the operator (from the HN or SN domain), or provided from external network domains (3P or IPS domain with IP domains). associated). Please note that when the service is hosted in an external network domain, 5G network operators may not always fully trust the services. Examples of applications / services include: VoIP, VoLTE, V2X, ProSe, HTTP based services, etc. 3. Management SR (Mgmt) captures the security needs of the management stratum and management domains, including secure management (secure updates, secure orchestration, etc.) and security management (monitoring,

key management and access, etc.). Therefore, management security is a concern related to communication between a management domain and some other (semi) trusted domain, or related to the security of the management domain itself. 4.The User Equipment (UE) SR captures the security needs of the User Equipment (UE) domain comprising the ME, ME HW, UICC, USIM and IM domains and other UE domains, e.g. Eg visibility and configurability and security aspects related to communication between these domains. 5. Network SR captures the security needs of communication in core network domains and between core network domains and external network domains, including aspects related to the secure exchange of signaling and data from user between nodes in the operator and the domain of the external network. 6. The Infrastructure and Virtualization (I&V) SR captures the security needs of IP Domains, Eg for certification, segmentation / secure isolation and trust issues between tenant domains and tenant domains and infrastructure domains.

4.4 Network Programmability Programmability is a key supporting technology for realizing dynamism in 5G service and cutting architecture. The main advantage of the division is the ability to manage the infrastructure according to the needs of the service, while hosting multiple services on the same infrastructure to allow a certain degree of multiplexing, achieving a balance between really separate infrastructures for each service and executing all services on the same uncut infrastructure that would have perfect multiplexing gains. This implies that the underlying infrastructure must be programmable. In Figure 5-1, the internal architecture of the 5G operator management system relies on the interfaces exposed by the technology-specific VIMs to the VNFM and NFVO to achieve domain-specific management and orchestration. Additionally, domain-specific orchestration itself exposes a northbound interface to the end-to-end orchestration level in order to create services and sectors that span technology and provider domains. In this section, we discuss the objectives of introducing programming capability in a particular technological domain: the Radio Access Network (RAN) to create programmable abstract network

models for use in the upper layers in the framework of orchestration. RAN coordination and scheduling capabilities are core 5G concepts that aim to improve service quality, resource usage, and management efficiency, while addressing the limitations of current LTE and WLAN systems caused For the control distributed among them. Consistent representation of the state of the network and infrastructure resources is crucial for effective RAN coordination and control of programmable infrastructure and services. In addition, programmable infrastructures require programmability constructs that provide means to observe and manipulate virtual and physical network functions (NFs) and their behavior through high-level abstractions. An example of the RAN programmability model is shown in Figure 4.7.

Figure 4.7: RAN Programmability Model In the lower layers, the state information is abstracted and fed to the higher control layers to generate network views. The abstractions cover representations and models of time frequency resources, spatial capabilities (ie number of transmit and receive antennas), as well as throughput per network segment or per allocated resource. In principle, any data structure can be used to store and access the abstract representation of the state of the network (for example, CQI defined in LTE). However, for unified large-scale coordination of infrastructure resources, structuring network information into network graphs in a systematic way provides an effective representation of physical and virtual infrastructures. In Figure 4.7, the network views are presented using network graphics. Network views can be applied to RAN

coordination and wide range infrastructure coordination and control operations. Essentially, network graphs allow the possibility of applying mathematical models and algorithms, which often leads to highly efficient solutions in terms of convergence and network performance. Graph-based abstractions can, for example, model LTE resource allocation problems that are efficiently solved using constraint satisfaction and local search algorithms. The concept of network graphics abstractions maps horizontally and vertically to different levels of the proposed architecture. Network graph elements (i.e. vertices and edges) are created from distributed data sources, such as raw metrics provided by infrastructure, or more sophisticated monitoring functions that operate in a decentralized and centralized manner. A network graph is created by collecting information accessible directly from infrastructure entities or stored in some dedicated storage (for example, storage networks and databases). At the local controller entity level in real time, a network graph can represent the state of the network in relation to a given RAT infrastructure and associated nodes (for example, WiFi or LTE). Network graphics at the centralized coordination level represent the state of a defined part of the network, such as a region or smaller domain. High-level network graphics (eg, for centralized coordination and control) can be added based on selected sets of regional network graphics in order to coordinate multiple domains. In the hierarchical architecture in Figure 4.7, the controller instances implement capabilities to create network graphics to perform control operations and to provide regionally or logically centralized views of the infrastructure through technology-specific VIMs. Domain-specific orchestration can include functionality to: 1) collect network information from distributed data sources to create a network graph; 2) adding existing network graphics; 3) processing of network graphics for the purpose of coordination and control operations; 4) disseminate network graphics and results to other controllers and network entities upon request or as part of a coordination and control operation, synchronously or asynchronously, including providing it to end-to-end orchestration.

4.5 Machine Learning in Service Planning Management in 5G will be an increasingly difficult task for operators due to

the rapid increase in network demand. It is proposed to use machine learning services to provide more efficient network administration. The work presented in the management and monitoring of SLA focuses on FCAPS (failure, configuration, accounting, performance and security). This work provides rule-based solutions for network management for the five FCAPS functionalities. 5G networks must take advantage of these functionalities and yet provide more dynamic solutions that use machine learning for effective and automated network management. There are several documents that use machine learning for problems related to various FCAPS functionalities in the literature. Zander et al. and Williams et al. Models proposed for automated classification of network traffic for machine learning. Classifying network traffic can aid accounting and performance capabilities in FCAPS. Zender et al. It grouped network traffic traces using EM to find traffic patterns that belong to the same class. Williams et al. Compared to the performance impact of feature set reduction, using feature selection based on consistency and correlation, it is demonstrated in the Naïve Bayes, Bayesian Network and Naïve Bayes Tree algorithms for the network traffic classification problem. In both studies, results were found to outperform solutions based on a static set of rules. Towards security, he proposed a machine learning model to differentiate normal network activity and anomalous network activity and used genetic algorithms and a decision tree-based learner to dynamically develop predefined abnormal activity rules over time. In their work, Sinclair et al. it used only traffic source, destination IPS, and ports. Finally, dynamic resource management related to configuration, accounting, and performance was studied. The authors used reinforcement learning for dynamic resource management in virtual networks to improve quality of service by reducing packet drop rate and virtual link delay, which showed promising results in one experiment, based on simulated events. Therefore, there is a clear advantage and therefore a need for the market for integrated services based on machine learning to take advantage of the result provided by researchers for network management. The work done in 5GPPP phase 1 offers an integrated set of services that operators can select based on an operator's individual needs. The service portfolio can also be used to complement the tools used for network management to manage the FCAPS functionalities (Failure, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security).

Figure 4.8: Machine Learning in Service Planning The services are offered in three layers, as illustrated in Figure 4.8. Data services are used to import and process the data required by machine learning modules. Multiple services from these three layers can be selected and integrated based on an operator's requirements and data availability. Machine learning services provide central predictive functionality and planning services organize predictive services for action recommendation and policy implementation. Machine learning models can also be used with other tools that collect network management data. Figure 4.9 presents the service portfolio. Data services and planning services complement basic machine learning services. The services are divided into five categories. Data services and planning services are used to complement the machine learning services offered in the portfolio. The categories are briefly explained as follows: 1. Data services: Data services provide the entry for all machine learning services in the CogNet portfolio of services. The data collection service extracts data from all third party data sources. The data preparation service eliminates noise and processes data for active machine learning modules. The data preparation service is required to process the input of some of the machine learning services. The data dimensionality reduction service reduces the dimension of the input data (that is, the number of variables considered for the analysis). 2. Quality Assurance Services: These services address the problem of anomaly detection as follows: SLO breach detection, detection of noisy neighbors, and anomaly detection. These services use various machine learning algorithms, such as classification (for example, detection of network / noisy neighbor threats) and regression (for example, for SLO violation). 3. Network demand prediction services: The network traffic classification

service classifies network traffic for various use cases, such as Collaboration Resource Management, where classification is applied only in the header of the packets of traffic, to allow classification into encrypted traffic.

Figure 4.9: Service Portfolios 4. Location-based services: The functional region detection and recurring crowd mobility service can be used to discover the different patterns of crowd mobility and functional regions in an urban area and associate them with different network demands. The Large-Scale Event Detection Service deals with the processing of external data to identify large-scale events that reflect abnormal or unexpected events (for example, a concert) that could disrupt recurring demand patterns, which need adjustments based in the situational context. Finally, the vehicle mobility pattern recognition service predicts the mobility of automobiles to adjust the adaptation of the mirror for optimal coverage within the considered area. All of these services use geo tagged data, such as social media data (for example, Foursquare records with location / place information). 5. Planning services: this category is made up of the action recommendation service. The action recommendation service recommends different actions depending on the events and data sent by Cognitive Smart Engine. For example, in the event that an anomaly is detected, corrective action should be taken to mitigate the potential harmful effects. The Distributed Security Enablement Service enforces security policies based on the warnings of the

quality assurance services. Data services are used to provide the data that machine learning services use. These services are used to create the entry for each machine learning service in the portfolio by importing raw data and processing it. In Figure 4.9, we show the summary of the data services offered. The data collection service extracts data from internal data sources (network KPI monitors) and external sources that are applicable for a given machine learning service. The service can be configured based on actively used machine learning services and caches the data it collects in a database for later use. The data collection service can import raw data in batch mode or transmission mode depending on service requirements and scheduled for periodic data import. The Data Preparation Service processes the raw data stored by the Data Collection Service based on the requirements of each machine learning service. The Data Preparation Service provides the following functionality: (1) Aggregation of data, (2) Cleaning of data through noise detection, (3) Data division for machine learning experiments. The output of the data preparation service is processed data sets that can be used by machine learning services directly or after dimensional reduction. The output can be sent in batch mode or transmission mode depending on the requirements of the machine learning service. Portfolio services can be combined to form higher level services as illustrated in Figure 4.9. For example, crowd mobility and functional region detection can be combined with classification of network traffic to increase the information content of the classification output by using functional regions and crowd mobility patterns as additional input.

Chapter- 5: Modulation and Multiple Access Techniques for 5G Wireless Communication 5.1 Introduction One of the main discussions when 5G was developed was based on the type of waveform to be used. In the end, the scheme was OFDM based, with actual link dependent modulation formats and these include QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM and for uplink when using DFT-OFDM, π / 2-BPSK can be used. For the future, other waveform shapes may be developed, but currently the waveform is based on OFDM. The 5G NR waveform format is based on OFDM - CP-OFDM and DFT-s-OFDM with adaptive modulation including QPSK and 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM. One of the defining elements of any mobile communication system is the waveform used for the radio link in the radio access network. During the 5G technology development phase, a variety of waveforms and modulation techniques were postulated, but for 5G New Radio, 5G NR, OFDM cyclic prefix, CP-OFDM was chosen as the leading candidate with DFT-s- OFDM, Discrete Fourier Transform Propagation Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is used in some areas. OFDM offers good spectral efficiency while providing resistance to selective fading and also enables multiple access capability to be implemented using OFDMA.

Figure 5.1: Waveform of 5G

5.1.1 Multiple Access Schemes for 5G A key element of any cellular communication system is the multiple access technology that is used. CP-OFDM was used for the downlink and CPOFDM or DFT-OFDM could be used for the uplink. As a result, 5G multiple access schemes are being carefully considered and investigated to ensure optimal techniques are adopted. There are several candidate 5G multiple access schemes that are running. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, and as a result, no single technique will likely meet all of the requirements. There are several candidate systems that are considered 5G multiple access schemes. They include a variety of different ideas. Access Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access, OFDMA: OFDMA has been widely used and very successful for 4G and could be used as a 5G multiple access scheme. However, it does require the use of OFDM and it requires orthogonality between carriers and the use of a cyclic prefix has some drawbacks. As a result, other multiple access schemes are being investigated. Multiple Scattered Code Multiple Access, SCMA: SCMA is another idea that is considered as a 5G multiple access scheme and is effectively a combination of OFDMA and CDMA. Typically with OFDMA, an operator or operators are assigned to a certain user. However, if each operator has an added expansion code, then it could transmit data to or from multiple users. This technique has been developed to use what is called sparse code and in this way a significant number of users can be added while maintaining spectral efficiency levels. Multiple Non-orthogonal multiple access, NOMA: NOMA is one of the techniques considered a 5G multiple access scheme. NOMA overlays multiple users in the power domain, using cancellation techniques to eliminate the strongest signal. NOMA could use orthogonal frequency division multiple access, OFDMA or the discrete Fourier transform, OFDM with DFT extension. There are several multiple access schemes that could be used with 5G. The one or the ones used will be chosen as a result of the standardization process that is currently being carried out.

5.2 Basic Concept of Orthogonal Frequency

Division Multiplexing (OFDM) OFDM, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, is a digital modulation method widely used in wireless communications such as WLAN, LTE, DVBT, and 5G. OFDM belongs to the class of multi-carrier modulation schemes. OFDM breaks the transmission frequency band into a group of contiguous narrower subbands (carriers), and each carrier is modulated individually. You can implement this type of modulation with an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). By using narrow orthogonal subcarriers, the OFDM signal gains strength over a frequency selective fading channel and eliminates adjacent subcarrier crosstalk. At the receiving end, you can demodulate the OFDM signal with a fast Fourier transform (FFT) and equalize it with a complex gain on each subcarrier. The combination of OFDM with MIMO can improve communication speed without increasing the frequency band. In Figure 5.2, the waveforms of single carrier modulation and multi-carrier modulation are represented in the frequency domain (above) and the time domain (below). Since multiple data streams can be transmitted simultaneously with multiple carriers, OFDM is not influenced by noise to the same degree as single carrier modulation. This is because the time per symbol can be lengthened by the number of operators.

Figure 5.2 : Single carrier modulation and OFDM in time and frequency


5.2.1 The Principles of OFDM An OFDM signal aggregates the information in single carrier orthogonal waveforms in the frequency domain into a time domain waveform that can be transmitted through the air. Subcarriers use QPSK or QAM as the primary modulation method. The inverse discrete Fourier transformation equation for this is:

In OFDM, when the amplitude of each subcarrier reaches the maximum, the carriers are arranged at intervals of 1 / symbol time so that the amplitude of other subcarriers is 0, thus avoiding interference between symbols. Furthermore, OFDM from a multi-carrier transmission is effective in multipath environments because the influence of the multi-path is concentrated on specific subcarriers compared to a single-carrier transmission. In the case of a single carrier transmission, the multipath affects the whole.

Figure 5.3: Frequency domain representation of orthogonal subcarriers in an OFDM waveform. The difference in arrival time between the direct wave and the reflected wave increases when the signal is transmitted over a long range. In this situation, the number of subcarriers is greater than in a smaller service range.

Figure 5.4 :Ideal OFDM waveform and OFDM waveform influenced by multipath.

5.2.2 OFDM Technology in 5G Systems During the specification of the 5G standard, various OFDM-based technologies had been considered. CP-OFDM (OFDM Cyclic Prefix) is used in LTE and was also selected for the 3GPP Release 15 standard. This technique adds a higher level signal called cyclic prefix to the beginning of the OFDM symbol. CP-OFDM suppresses Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) and Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) by inserting the data for a certain period of time from the end of the OFDM symbol as the cyclic prefix to the beginning of the OFDM symbol. OFDM Advantages Multiple users can be assigned to OFDM subcarriers. Frequency can be efficiently used by orthogonal (1 / symbol time interval). It is resistant to transmission distortion due to multipath, making it possible to demodulate by error correction without using a complicated equalizer. Disadvantages of OFDM Because the signal amplitude changes significantly, it is necessary to design an amplifier that has a higher peak to average power ratio, a smaller transmit power than the average allowed by the amplifier, or an amplifier with a wide dynamic range. Particularly when the carrier interval is narrow, the OFDM

effect becomes weaker against Doppler shift, so it is preferable to use an amplifier with a wide dynamic range.

5.2.3 5G Waveform Background Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing has been an excellent waveform option for 4G LTE. It provides excellent spectrum efficiency, can be processed and managed with the levels of processing achievable in today's mobile phones, and works well with high-speed data flow that takes up wide bandwidths. It works well in situations where there is selective fading. However, with the advancements in processing capabilities that will be available by 2020 when 5G is expected to have its first releases, other waveforms can be considered. Using new waveforms for 5G technology offers several advantages. OFDM requires the use of a cyclic prefix and this takes up space within the data streams. There are also other benefits that can be introduced by using one of a variety of new waveforms for 5G. One of the key requirements is the availability of processing power. Although Moore's Law in its basic form is reaching the limits of device feature sizes and advances in miniaturization are unlikely for a time, other techniques are being developed that mean the spirit of Moore's Law you can continue and the processing capacity will increase. As such, the new 5G waveforms that require additional processing power but are capable of providing additional benefits are still viable.

5.2.4 Requirements of 5G Waveform Potential applications for 5G mobile communications, including high-speed video downloads, gaming, car-to-car / car-to-infrastructure communications, general cellular communications, IoT / M2M communications, and the like, all meet the requirements in the form of a 5G waveform that can provide the required performance. Some of the key requirements that must be supported by the modulation scheme and the general waveform include: • Capable of handling high data rate high bandwidth signals • Capable of providing low latency transmissions for long and short data bursts, i.e. very short transmission tooth intervals, TTI, are required. • Able to quickly switch between uplink and downlink for TDD systems that are likely to be used. • Enable the possibility of energy efficient communications by minimizing

turn-on times for low data rate devices. • These are some of the requirements for 5G waveforms to support the installations that are needed.

5.2.5 Cyclic Prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM) The specific version of OFDM used in the 5G NR downlink is the OFDM cyclic prefix, CP-OFDM, and is the same waveform that LTE has adopted for the downlink signal. Within the OFDM CP, the last part of the OFDM frame data is added to the beginning of the OFDM frame and the length of the cyclic prefix is chosen to be greater than the channel delay propagation. This overcomes the interference between symbols that can result from delays and reflections. In addition to this, the length of the channel delay depends on the frequency with the length of the chosen cyclic prefix to be long enough to account for both interferences. For this reason, the length of the CP is adaptive according to the conditions of the link. The 5G NR uplink has used a different format than the 4G LTE. The CP-OFDM and DFT-S-OFDM based waveforms are used in the uplink. Additionally, 5G NR provides the use of a flexible subcarrier space. LTE subcarriers typically had 15 kHz separation, but 5G NR allows subcarriers to be separated at 15 kHz x 2s with a maximum separation of 240 kHz. Integral carrier separation is required instead of fractional carrier separation to preserve orthogonality of the carriers. Flexible carrier spacing is used to adequately support the various spectrum bands / types and deployment models that 5G NR will need to accommodate. For example, 5G NR should be able to operate on mmWave bands that have wider channel widths up to 400 MHz. The 3GPP 5G NR Release-15 specification details the scalable OFDM numerology with 2s scale of subcarrier spacing that can scale with width. of the channel, so the FFT size is scaled so that the complexity of the processing does not increase unnecessarily for wider bandwidths. The flexible carrier space also provides additional resistance to the effects of phase noise within the system. The use of OFDM waveforms offers less implementation complexity compared to what would be necessary if some of the other waveforms considered for 5G had been implemented. In addition to this, OFDM is well understood as it has been used for 4G and many other wireless systems. For 5G New Radio, 3GPP has chosen the CP-OFDM waveform from several waveform proposals. This is something that we at Ericsson Research fully endorse. Let's see why we believe CP-OFDM is an excellent choice for NR. New Radio

(NR) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) are integral parts of 5G radio access, as shown in Figure 5.5. LTE is expected to operate below 6 GHz frequencies, while NR is expected to operate from less than 1 GHz to 100 GHz. The tight integration will allow aggregation of NR and LTE traffic.

Figure 5.5: 5G Radio Access Vision Many features are unique to NR compared to LTE, such as wide carrier frequency range, various implementation options (large to small coverage area per base station) and various use cases (human and machine focused) more beyond mobile broadband services. The first step towards NR development is its physical layer design, whose waveform is a core technology component. LTE uses the Cyclic Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (CP-OFDM) waveform for downlink transmissions and DFT Extension OFDM for uplink transmissions. On the road to 5G, the mobile communications community has witnessed abundant waveform proposals for NR. Most of the proposals, being multi-carrier waveforms, are variations of CP-OFDM (eg OFDM with window, OFDM filtered, OFDM universally filtered, OFDM single word, OFDM in pulse form) or super cases of OFDM that is, OFDM becomes a special case of a more complex waveform (eg, Filter-Bank multi-carrier waveforms). The trend has been to adjust OFDM in any way possible: intelligent subcarrier or pulse shaping filtering, filtering of subcarrier groups, allowing successive symbols to overlap in time, removing the cyclic prefix, replacing the cyclic prefix with null or with Another sequence. Various waveforms became strong contenders for 5G - numerous

research publications showed that CP-OFDM was outperforming. At one point, we felt that each multi-carrier waveform was going to be part of 5G, except CP-OFDM. As 5G standardization approached, Ericsson Research conducted a comprehensive assessment of the waveforms. We realized that CP-OFDM was, in fact, the most appropriate candidate for NR. CP-OFDM is ranked best in the performance indicators that matter most: compatibility with multiple antenna technologies, high spectral efficiency and low implementation complexity. Also, CP-OFDM is well localized in the time domain, which is important for latency critical applications and TDD implementations. It is also more resistant to oscillator phase noise and Doppler than other multicarrier waveforms. Robustness to phase noise is crucial for operation at high carrier frequencies (eg mmWave band) OFDM has two drawbacks: less frequency localization and high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) like all multiple waveforms carriers. However, there are simple, well-established techniques for reducing PAPR (for example, clipping and comparing) and improving frequency localization (such as window). These techniques can be easily applied to CP-OFDM at the transmitter independently of the receiver. The cyclic prefix (CP) refers to the prefix of a symbol, with a repeat of the end on OFDM wireless systems. The receiver is generally configured to discard cyclic prefix samples. A CP can be used to counteract the effects of multipath propagation.

5.2.6 Multipath Signal Transmission The radio channel between the base station and the UE introduces an extended delay in the time domain. This delay propagation is generated by the transmitted signal reaching the receiver from multiple paths that have different distances, the environment, the terrain, and the clutter result in different delays. The propagation of the received signal pulse delay caused by the multipath is the difference between the maximum transmission latency on the largest route and the minimum transmission latency on the short route. Latency varies by environment, terrain, and clutter, and does not have an absolute mapping relationship to the cell radius. This multipath delay propagation can cause the following:

Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI), which severely affects the

transmission quality of digital signals Inter-Channel Interference (ICI), the orthogonality of the subcarriers in the OFDM system is damaged, which affects the demodulation on the receive side

Cyclic Prefix reducing ISI and ICI Guard Period: To avoid intersymbol interference, you can insert a guard period between the OFDM symbols in the form of cyclic prefix. This protection period provides a time window for the delay propagation components belonging to the previous symbol to arrive before the start of the next symbol. The protection period could be a period of discontinuous transmission or it could be a transmission of anything else. The duration (Tg) of the protection period is generally greater than the maximum delay on the radio channel.

Cyclic Prefix: CP can be inserted in the guard period to reduce ICI. Replicate a sampling point that follows each OFDM symbol in front of the OFDM symbol. This ensures that the number of waveform periods included in a latency copy of the OFDM symbol is an integer in an FFT period, ensuring orthogonality of the subcarrier. Copying the end of the payload and transmitting as a cyclic prefix ensures that there is a "circular" convolution between the transmitted signal and the channel response. This allows the receiver to apply simple multiplication to capture the energy of all the delayed components. If a "circular" convolution is not completed, then the receiver will experience ICI upon completing the frequency domain multiplication

5.2.7 Key Factors to Determining CP Length

Multiple Route Delay: the multiple length and CP is directly proportional. The longer the multipath delay, the longer a cyclic prefix is required OFDM Symbol Length: Given the same OFDM symbol length, a longer CP can be a large system overload, so to control the overload the CP length will be selected accordingly.

5.2.8 CP Design in 5G NR The basic CP design in NR is similar to LTE and the same overhead as in LTE. The CP design ensures that you align the symbols between the different SCS values and the reference numerology (15 kHz). For example, µ = 15 kHz a single slot has approximately 7 symbols residing in 0.5 milli seconds including CP for each symbol and µ = 30 kHz a single slot has approximately 14 symbols including CP for each symbol within the same 0.5 milli seconds. So here the CP length is adapted based on the subcarrier spacing (fsc).

Figure 5.6: CP Design in 5G NR Properties of CP in 5G NR

3GPP has specified two types of cCP, Normal Cyclic Prefix (NCP) and Extended Cyclic Prefix (ECP).

The NCP is specified for all subcarrier spaces ECP is currently only specified for 60 kHz subcarrier space. If the normal CP (NCP) is used, the CP of the first symbol present every 0.5 ms is longer than that of other symbols The duration of the cyclic prefixes decreases as the subcarrier space increases CP Length for Different Subcarriers The CP length for different sub-carrier can be calculated using following formula.

and CP time duration can be using following formula. u is numerology, l is the symbol index here and is a constant to relate NR basic time unit and LTE basic time unit and can be represented by following equation.

Ts is LTE basic time unit and Tc is NR basic time unit. 5G NR Physical Layer Timing Unit Below is the summary of the duration of the Cyclical Prefix based on the previous formula. Each numerology has 2 long symbols per 1 ms subframe. These longer symbols are generated by increasing the duration of the normal cyclic prefix, to ensure that each numerology has an integer number of symbols within each 0.5 ms time window, while ensuring that as many

symbol boundaries as possible, p. each symbol limit belonging to the 15 kHz subcarrier spacing coincides with each second symbol limit belonging to the 30 kHz subcarrier spacing.

Calculating CP Overhead CP overload is a percentage ratio of the CP time duration and the symbol time duration, for example 15 kHz, the NR symbol duration is 66.67 µs and the CP duration is 5.2 µs. Then the overhead can be calculated 5.2 / 66.67 = 7.8%. Here the long symbol will have more overhead as CP, while other symbols will have less overhead. The following table provides a summary of the overhead for normal CP for different subcarrier spaces. Calculation of the support of multiple routes of each CP CP duration defines how much multiple distance it can support without affecting Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) and Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI). Distance will be calculated using a simple formula for time, distance. For example, let's take 15 KHz with CP for the long symbol as 5.2 µs. The radio signal travels with the speed of light which is C = 3.0 x 108 m / s, then the distance can be calculated as speed x time = (3.0 x 108) x (5.2 x 10-6) = 1560 meters. Similarly, it was calculated for other CPs and the space between subcarriers and the summary is available in the following table.

5.2.9 DFT-s-OFDM Direct propagation of the Fourier Transform OFDM, commonly abbreviated as DFT-s-OFDM, is a single carrier or SC transmission scheme that can be combined with OFDM that provides significant flexibility for a mobile communication system such as 5G. It is more commonly known as SCFDMA. SC-FDMA transmission processing is very similar to OFDMA. For each user, the transmitted bit sequence is assigned to a complex constellation of symbols (BPSK, QPSK, or M-Quadrature amplitude modulation). Then, different transmitters (users) are assigned different Fourier coefficients. This assignment is carried out in the mapping and unmapping blocks. The receiver side includes a deallocation block, an IDFT block, and a detection block for each user signal to be received. As in OFDM, guard intervals (called cyclic prefixes) with cyclic repetition are introduced between symbol blocks in order to efficiently eliminate inter-symbol interference from time propagation (caused by multiple route propagation) between blocks . Zero-tail discrete Fourier transform propagation OFDM modulation (ZT DFT-S-OFDM) allows to cope dynamically with multipath channel delay propagation, thus avoiding the limitations of the cyclic coded prefix (CP). The ZT DFT-SOFDM is a modulation for 5th generation (5G) radio access technology, characterized by an ultra-dense deployment of small cells and the support of new paradigms like Device to Device (D2D). ZT DFT-S-OFDM in terms of coexistence between devices operating on adjacent frequency fragments, possibility of adopting unified radio numerology between different cells, reduced latency and support for agile link direction switching. FDE provides a viable solution to the equalization problem in the SC transmission. The demands of a flexible multiple access scheme and rapid adaptation of transmitted waveforms can be met by FFT based multichannel processing also on the transmitter side. The elements of the basic scheme are: Using DFT to convert a block of K QAM samples into frequency domain. The resulting K frequency ranges are assigned to selected subcarriers in the M IFFT length input.

Due to the enhanced features of PAPR, DFT-S-OFDM is particularly interesting for uplink. In fact, it has been chosen as the uplink scheme for 3GPP long-term evolution (LTE), also called E-UTRA.

Figure 5.7: DFT-s-OFDM Naturally, different uplink users select disjoint sets of subcarriers shown in Figure 5.7. The rest of each user's subcarrier symbols are zeros. The base station receiver processes different user signals by a single FFT block. Separate K-point IDFTs to reverse DFT-based precoding. Naturally, different uplink users select disjoint sets of subcarriers. • The rest of each user's subcarrier symbols are zeros. The base station receiver processes different user signals by a single FFT block. Separate K-point IDFTs to reverse DFTbased precoding

Figure 5.8: DFT-S-OFDM Techniques

DFT Block Sizes The inverse transformation size M in the DFT-S-OFDM transmitter is commonly a power of 2, and FFT can be used as an efficient implementation. In the discussion above, there was a purpose for using the term "DFT" for direct transformation: • FFT and IFFT generally refer to transformations where the block size is a power of two. • If both transformation sizes are powers of 2, only a few data rates can be supported, that is, not enough flexibility can be achieved. K is usually a product of small numbers, for example {2, 3, 5} • There are efficient FFT implementations like DFT combinations of radix 2, 3 and 5 • Certain DFT sizes (such as large prime numbers) do not have efficient implementations.

5.2.10 DFT-S-OFDM and OFDMA The bandwidth of each user can be adjusted, depending on the target data rate, by changing the number of subcarriers (different K for different users). It is even possible to combine OFDM and DFT-S-OFDM users. This results in a generalized OFDM-based multiple access scheme (OFDMA). In OFDM, the different subcarriers are orthogonal, under ideal conditions. • This leads to the orthogonality of different DFT-S-OFDM users, under ideal conditions, in such OFDMA-based systems. This applies even if there are no protection bands between users. • If the relative delays of different users are such that the effective propagation of the delay of each user is less than the CP, the orthogonality is maintained. • Naturally, especially in the uplink, carrier frequency offsets (CFO) and channel fading degrade orthogonality.

5.3 Modulation Considerations of 5G Within the general waveform format, different types of carrier modulation can be used. Within the 5G communications system, these are variants of phase shift modulation and quadrature amplitude modulation. There are several considerations when using the different modulation formats:

Peak to Average Power Ratio Ratio, PAPR: The Peak to Average Power Ratio is an aspect of performance that should be considered for any 5G communications modulation scheme. The peak to average ratio has a major impact on the efficiency of power amplifiers. For 2G GSM, the signal level was constant, and as a result, it was possible to run the final RF amplifier in compression to obtain a high level of efficiency and maximize battery life. With the advent of 3G, then HSPA and then 4G LTE enhancements, modulation schemes, and waveforms have meant that signals have progressively become 'peak' with higher levels of peak-to-average power ratio. This has meant that the final RF amplifiers cannot be run in compression and, as the PAPR has increased, the efficiency of the RF amplifiers has decreased and this is a factor that has shortened the life of the battery. The modulation order is a factor that has a major impact on PAPR: the higher the "peak" level, the lower the efficiency that RF power amplifier efficiency can achieve, although schemes such as envelope tracking and Doherty amplifiers allow for improvements. Spectral Efficiency: One of the key issues with any form of 5G modulation scheme is spectral efficiency. Since spectrum is very important, especially at frequencies below 3 GHz, it is essential that any modulation scheme adopted for 5G can provide a high level of spectral efficiency. There is often a balance between higher modulation orders, such as 64QAM compared to 16QAM, for example, and noise performance. Therefore, higher order modulation schemes tend to be used only when there is a good signal / noise ratio.

5.3.1 5G Modulation: PSK & QAM A variety of different modulation formats are used for 5G technology:

5.3.2 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) 5G technology implements quadrature phase shift modulation, QPSK as the lowest order modulation format. Although this will provide the slowest data throughput, it will also provide the most robust link, and as such can be used when signal levels are low or interference is high. Another form of PSK called π / 2BPSK is used in conjunction with DFT-s-OFDM on the uplink. Keying phase shift, PSK is a form of modulation used particularly for data

transmissions. It offers an effective way to transmit data. By altering the number of different phase states that can be adopted, the data rates that can be achieved within a given channel can be increased, but at the cost of less resistance to noise interference. Phase shift modulation (PSK) is a digital communication method in which the phase of a transmitted signal varies to transmit information. There are various methods that can be used to achieve PSK. The simplest PSK technique is called binary phase shift modulation (BPSK). It uses two opposite signal phases (0 and 180 degrees). The digital signal is divided in terms of time into individual bits (binary digits). The status of each bit is determined according to the status of the previous bit. If the phase of the wave does not change, then the signal state remains the same (0 or 1). If the phase of the wave changes 180 degrees, that is, if the phase is reversed, then the signal state changes (from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0). Because there are two possible wave phases, BPSK is sometimes called biphasic modulation. There are more sophisticated forms of PSK. In multiple or multiple phase shift modulation (MPSK), there are more than two phases, usually four (0, +90, -90, and 180 degrees) or eight (0, +45, -45, +90, -90, +135, -135 and 180 degrees). If there are four phases (m = 4), the MPSK mode is called quadrature phase shift modulation or quaternary phase shift modulation (QPSK), and each phase shift represents two signal elements. If there are eight phases (m = 8), the MPSK mode is known as octal phase shift encoding (OPSK), and each phase change represents three signal elements. In MPSK, data can be transmitted at a faster rate, relative to the number of phase changes per unit time, than in the case of BPSK. Radio amateur operators use a special form of BPSK or QPSK known as PSK31. In this mode, the data transmission rate is 31.25 baud (state changes per second) and the signal bandwidth is approximately 31 Hz. The main advantage of PSK31 is its excellent signal-to-noise ratio (S / N or SNR), which allows communication in adverse conditions such as fading, noise or severe interference where other modes of communication fail. Mobile devices have evolved from basic analog phones to digitally enabled smart phones that fit in the palm of your hand. Voice communications are still part of the mix, but voice calls are handled by converting the voice signal from analog to digital and transmitting it digitally. This means that mobile wireless systems focus on efficient transmission of digital data, generally with an emphasis on high performance.

To obtain digital information on a radio frequency (RF) carrier, we can modify the amplitude, phase or frequency of the signal. We can describe the signal mathematically as: Where, a(t) is the amplitude of the carrier, fc is the carrier frequency, θ(t) is the phase of the carrier

Figure 5.9: The basic types of digital modulation Figure 5.9 shows the different ways in which a signal modulates a carrier. Digital data is represented as a binary 0 or 1, which translates to low or high voltage on an amplitude modulated waveform. When modulated using frequency shift modulation (FSK), the carrier frequency instantly changes the frequency depending on whether the modulation is high or low. Similarly, Amplitude Displacement Modulation (ASK) causes a change in carrier amplitude. In Figure 5.9, the amplitude change is shown using two non-zero amplitudes, but the modulation technique could also be a simple carrier on / off. Phase shift modulation (PSK) can also be used, causing an instantaneous change in phase according to digital modulation. Finally, simultaneous phase

and amplitude change can be used together.

A simple two-state use of Phase Shift Keying (PSK) is called Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Figure 5.10 shows the two different states, corresponding to two phases. The two points indicate where the vector tip would land for the binary 0 or binary 1 states. This common method of showing modulation is called a constellation diagram. The actual vector is generally not shown for simplicity, but it might be useful to imagine that the vector points to state 0 or 1 and plummets from side to side as digital data changes. Note that the amplitude of both states is the same, and the carrier is only changing in phase. With only two phases in use, they are typically chosen with 180 degrees of separation for maximum separation.

Figure 5.10:Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) uses two phases for encoding the modulation.

5.3.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Quadrature amplitude modulation increases data throughput. The formats used in the 5G mobile communication system include 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM. The higher the modulation order, the higher the performance, although the penalty is noise resistance. Therefore 256AM is only used when the link quality is good, and it drops to 64QAM and then to 16QAM etc. as the link deteriorates. It is a balance between data performance and endurance. Quadrature amplitude modulation, QAM is widely in demand for data transmission, as it allows for better levels of spectral efficiency than other forms of modulation. QAM uses two carriers at the same 90 ° offset frequency that are modulated by two data streams: I or Inphase and Q:

Quadrature elements. As digital modulation techniques have advanced, it has become useful to treat the modulated carrier quadrature. That is, the RF carrier equation (Eq. 1) can be refactored to have a phase term, i (t) and a quadrature term, q (t).

The phase term controls the amplitude of a phase carrier, which uses the cosine function. The quadrature term controls the amplitude of the quadrature carrier, using the sine function, which is inherently 90 degrees out of phase with the cosine carrier. Note that i (t), a (t) and θ (t) are shown as a function of time because these variables can change according to the applied modulation. The amplitude and phase of the modulated signal are related to the i and q components using these equations:

Vector Representation This quadrature representation of the modulated signal enables a vector representation of the signal, as shown in Figure 5.11. The amplitude of the vector is the length a and the phase is θ. Changing the amplitudes of q and i will result in different values for a and θ.

Figure 5.11: The vector representation of a modulated signal, with in phase (i) and quadrature (q) components. These quadrature equations may seem to be just a math exercise, but the

quadrature approach maps nicely into a practical implementation. Figure 5.12 shows the basic block diagram of a quadrature modulator. The modulation inputs, i(t) and q(t), are multiplied by the carrier frequency, with the q(t) carrier shifted by 90 degrees.

Figure 5.12: A quadrature modulator combines two signal, 90 degrees apart, into a single modulated output We can think of i (t) as the control of the phase portion (cosine) and q (t) that controls the quadrature portion (sine). Adding these together creates the desired output signal. This block diagram can be implemented using analog or digital techniques (or a combination of both). Practical systems have been created using both approaches, but it is not surprising that the clear trend is to use digital circuits and digital signal processing. Full control over the amplitude and phase of the modulated signal is achieved through the I / Q data stream. The use of I / Q data is so widespread that it has become a de facto standard for transferring and storing modulated information. . You may hear engineers refer to sending or receiving I / Q data, storing it in files, and using digital algorithms to create or process the data. The waveform and modulation types used with 5G technology have been chosen to provide the spectral efficiency, data throughput, and resistance required for the new mobile communication system. 5G mobile communications can provide very high data throughput and therefore waveforms and modulation must be compatible with this and provide a reliable service for users. Quadrature Phase Shift Coding (QPSK) uses four different phases of the signal to represent four different logical states (Figure 5.13). Each logical state can represent two bits of information, improving our data performance. Again, the amplitude of the vector remains constant and only the phase changes.

Figure 5.13: Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) uses phase shiting to represent combinations of bits Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) uses both amplitude and phase modulation to determine the state of modulation. For example, 16-state QAM (Figure 5.14) provides 16 different logical states with unique amplitude and phase values. Now we see why the term constellation diagram is used, because logical states begin to resemble a pattern of stars in the sky. This method can encode 4 bits of data for each logical state. For simplicity, these logical values are not shown in the figure, but would be sequenced through 0000, 0001, 0010, through 1111.

Figure 5.14: 16-QAM Modulation uses 16 combinations of amplitude and phase to represent four bits (16 combinations) Higher order QAM systems are used, including 64-QAM, 256-QAM, and 1024-QAM. Increasing the number of amplitude / phase states increases the number of bits that can be encoded, which dramatically increases the

performance of the modulation system.

Chapter-6: Channels for 5G Wireless Communication 6.1 Introduction The NR Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer provides services to the Radio Link Control Layer (RLC) in the form of logical channels. A logical channel is defined by the type of information it carries and is generally differentiated as a control channel, used for the transmission of control and configuration information, or as a traffic channel used for user data.

6.1.1 Logical Channels for NR Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): It is used to transmit system information from the network to the UEs in cellular coverage. Before accessing the system, a UE needs to acquire the system information to find out the system configuration. The BCCH channel is used in NR Autonomous Operation (SA), in the case of Non Autonomous Operation (NSA), the LTE cell provides system information and there is no BCCH. Paging Control Channel (PCCH): This is used to locate UEs whose location at the cell level is not known to the network. Therefore, the paging message must be transmitted in multiple cells. Similar to BCCH, PCCH is also used in SA operation, in the case of NSA operation, paging is provided by the LTE cell and there is no PCCH. Common Control Channel (CCCH): It is used for transmission of control information to UEs regarding random access Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH): It is used for the transmission of control information to / from a UE. This channel is used for individual UE configuration, such as setting different parameters for different layers.

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH): It is used for the transmission of user data to / from a UE. This is the type of logical channel used for transmission of all unicast uplink and downlink user data.

6.1.2 Transport Channel A transport channel is defined by how and with what characteristics the information is transmitted through the radio interface. From the physical layer, the MAC layer uses services in the form of transport channels. The data in a transport channel is organized in transport blocks.

Transport Channels for NR Broadcast Channel (BCH): It is used to transmit the BCCH system information, more specifically the master information block (MIB). It has a fixed transport format, provided by the specifications. Paging Channel (PCH): This channel is used for the transmission of paging information from the PCCH logical channel. The PCH supports discontinuous reception (DRX) to allow the device to save battery power by waking up to receive the PCH only at predefined times. Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH): This is the main transport channel used to transmit downlink data in NR. It supports all the key functions of NR, such as dynamic rate adaptation and channel conscious programming, HARQ, and spatial multiplexing. DLSCH is also used to transmit some parts of the BCCH system information that is not assigned to the BCH. Each device has one DL-SCH per cell to which it is connected. In slots where system information is received, there is an additional DL-SCH from the device perspective. Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH): This is the DLSCH uplink

counterparty, i.e. the uplink transport channel used for uplink data transmission. Random-Access Channel (RACH): RACH is also a transport channel, although it does not transport transport blocks.

6.1.3 Logical, Transport and Physical Channel Mapping As part of the MAC layer multiplexing / demultiplexing function, the assignment of logical channels to the appropriate transport channels is performed. The mapping between the logical channel and the transport channel is shown in the figure 6.1. This figure clearly indicates how DL-SCH and UL-SCH are the main downlink and uplink transport channels, respectively. In the figures, the mapping between logical, transport, and physical channels is illustrated.

Figure 6.1: Logical, Transport and Physical Channel Mapping To support priority handling, multiple logical channels in the MAC layer, each logical channel has its own RLC entity, which can be multiplexed into one transport channel by the MAC layer. At the receiver, the MAC layer handles the corresponding demultiplexing and forwards the RLC PDUs to their respective RLC entity. To support demultiplexing at the receiver, a MAC header is used. The location of MAC headers in NR has been improved compared to LTE, taking into account low latency applications. Instead of putting all the MAC header information at the beginning of a MAC PDU

(which implies that the assembly of the MAC PDU cannot start until the scheduling decision is available) the subtitle corresponding to a certain MAC SDU is placed immediately before SDU.

Figure 6.2: MAC PDU This helps PDUs to be pre-processed before receiving the scheduling decision. If necessary, padding can be added to align the size of the transport block supported in NR. The subtitle contains the logical channel identity (LCID) from which the RLC PDU originated and the length of the PDU in bytes. There is also a flag indicating the size of the length indicator, as well as a bit reserved for future use as shown in the figure above. In addition to multiplexing different logical channels, the MAC layer can also insert MAC control elements into the transport blocks that will be transmitted through the transport channels. A MAC control element is used for in-band control signaling and identified with reserved values in the LCID field, where the LCID value indicates the type of control information.

6.2 Propagation Channel Model A channel model is also known as radio wave propagation model, it characterizes radio wave propagation as a function of frequency, distance, environment, and other factors. In other words, we can say that channel model provides us rough idea how much distance a signal can travel in a certain environment (morphology like urban, suburban or rural etc.) with the known transmitter and receiver height.

Figure 6.3: Propagation Channel Model Typically, a channel model is developed to predict the propagation behavior of the radio signal, for all similar channels under constraints and the like (environment, channel fading, multipath, etc.). Channel models often predict path loss along a wireless link or effective coverage area of a transmitter.

6.2.1 Channel Models for 5G At the 3GPP TSG RAN meeting, the description of the study item on "Study on channel model for frequency spectrum above 6 GHz" was approved. This study item covers the identification of the state / expectation of the existing information in high frequencies, p. spectrum mapping, scenarios of interest, measurements, etc., and channel models for frequencies above 6 GHz to 100 GHz. Next-generation 5G cellular systems will operate at frequencies ranging from around 500 MHz to 100 GHz. Up to Now, with LTE and Wi-Fi technologies, we were operating below 6 GHz and the channel models were designed and evaluated to operate at frequencies as high as 6 GHz. The new 5G systems must operate in bands above 6 GHz and existing channel models will not be valid, therefore there is a need for accurate radio propagation models for these higher frequencies, therefore require new channel models.

6.2.2 The objective for New 5G Channel Models The requirements of the new channel model that can support 5G operation in frequency bands up to 100 GHz is based on existing 3GPP channel models along with extensions to cover the additional 5G modeling requirement and some of these requirements are listed below : The new channel model must support large sets of antennas, especially at higher frequencies in millimeter wave bands, it is very

likely to be 2D and double polarized both in the access point (AP) and in the user's equipment ( EU) The new channel model must accommodate a wide frequency range of up to 100 GHz. You should include joint propagation characteristics in different frequency bands to evaluate multiband performance, for example, low band and high band carrier aggregation configurations. The new channel model must support large channel bandwidths (up to 2 GHz), where the individual channel bandwidths can be in the range of 100 MHz to 2 GHz and can support carrier aggregation The new channel model must be adapted to mobility, in particular the structure of the channel model must be suitable for mobility of up to 500 km / h. The mobility channel model must be extensible to support scenarios such as device-to-device (D2D) or vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V). The new channel model must guarantee spatial / temporal / frequency coherence, The model should also ensure that channel states, such as line of sight (LOS) / not LOS (NLOS) for exterior / interior locations The access layer for 5G mobile communications uses multiple 5G channels for data, including physical, transport, and logical channels. In order to transport the data through the 5G radio access network, the data and information are organized into various data channels. By organizing the data into various channels, the 5G communications system can manage the data transfers in an orderly manner and the system can understand what data is

coming in and can therefore process it as required. Since there are many different types of data that must be transferred, user data obviously must be transferred, but so does the control information to manage the radio communication link, as well as the data to provide synchronization, access, and the like. All of these functions are essential and require data transfer over the radio access network. The 5G mobile communications system uses an access layer similar to that used by 4G LTE.

Figure 6.4 : Different Channels in 5G Wireless Communication Although there are two protocol stacks: user plane and control plane, they still adopt the familiar OSI reference model. As a result, there are multiple protocol layers, and accordingly, there are multiple data channel layers that are defined for radio communications.

6.3 Channel Hierarchy in 5G To group the data to be sent over the 5G NR radio access network, the data is organized in a very logical way. Since there are many different functions for the date sent over the radio communication link, they must be clearly marked and have defined positions and formats. To ensure this happens, several different forms of data "channel" are used. The higher level ones are "mapped" or contained within each other until finally on the physical level, the channel contains data from higher level channels. In this way, there is a logical and manageable flow of data from the highest levels of the protocol stack to the physical layer. There are three main types of data channels that are used within mobile communication systems. This is true for 5G systems, and accordingly the hierarchy is given below.

Logical Channel:

Logical channels can be one of two groups:

control channels and traffic channels: Control Channels: The control channels are used for the transfer of data from the control plane. Traffic Channels: The traffic logical channels are used for the transfer of user plane data. Transport Channel: Is the multiplexing of the logical data to be transported by the physical layer and its channels over the radio interface. Physical Channel: Physical channels are closest to the actual transmission of data through the 5G RF signal / radio access network. They are used to transport the data through the radio interface. Physical channels often have higher level channels assigned to them to provide a specific service. In addition, physical channels carry payload data or details of specific data transmission characteristics such as modulation, multiplexing of reference signals, transmission power, RF resources, etc.

6.4 Communications System Channel Mapping in 5G The channel names for both the uplink and the downlink are practically the same as those used for 4G LTE. However, the names and descriptions of the channels used for the 5G communication system are provided below, in this case for the downlink. The uplink from the user's equipment to the base station also has a variety of channels that are assigned similarly to those of the downlink of the 5G mobile communication system.

6.4.1 NR Logical Channels in 5G There are several different logical channels that are used within the 5G NR radio access network. Some of you will be familiar names from the 4G LTE system as the names have been transferred.

Broadcast Control Channel, BCCH: The BCCH is used within the downlink, and is used to send broadcast style information to user equipment within that cell. The system information transmitted by the 5G NR BCCH is divided into different blocks. 1. Master Information Block, MIB: There is a MIB and this is assigned to the BCH transport channel and then to the physical PBCH channel. 2. System Information Block, SIB: There are several blocks of system information, SIB. These are assigned to the DL-SCH transport channel and then to the PDSCH physical channel.

Paging Control Channel, PCCH: This is a downlink channel. It is used to locate UEs whose location at the cell level is not known to the network. As a result, the paging message must be transmitted in multiple cells. The PCCH is assigned to the transport channel PCH and then to the physical channel PDSCH. Common Control Channel, CCCH: This 5G channel is used in both the downlink and the uplink to transmit control information to and from user or mobile equipment. The channel is used for initial access, that is, those mobiles that do not have a radio resource control, RRC connection. Dedicated Control Channel, DCCH: DCCH is used within the uplink and downlink to transport dedicated control information between the UE or the mobile and the network. It is used by the UE and the network after a radio resource control, the RRC connection has been established. Dedicated Traffic Channel, DTCH: This 5G channel is present on both the uplink and the downlink. It is dedicated to a UE and is used to transport user information to and from a specific UE and

the network.

6.4.2 NR Transport Channels in 5G There are five different transportation channels. Some are used on the uplink, some on the downlink, and some can be used on both.

Broadcast Channel, BCH: The BCH 5G channel is used in the downlink only to transmit the BCCH system information and specifically the information from the Master Information Block, MIB. In order for the data to be used, it has a specific format. Paging Channel, PCH: The PCH is used to carry paging information from the PCCH logical channel. The PCH supports discontinuous reception, DRX, to allow the UE to save battery power by waking up at a specific time to receive the PCH. In order for the PCH to be received by all mobiles / UEs in the cell, the PCH must be transmitted the entire cell as a single message, or where beam forming is used, this can be done using several different PCH instances. Downlink Shared Channel, DL-SCH: As the name suggests, this is a downlink only channel. It is the main transport channel used to transmit downlink data and it supports all the key functions of 5G NR. These include: dynamic speed adaptation; HARQ, channel conscious programming and spatial multiplexing. The DL-SCH is also used to transmit some parts of the BCCH system information, specifically the SIB. Each UE has a DL-SCH for each cell to which it is connected. Uplink Shared Channel, UL-SCH: This is the DLSCH uplink counterparty, i.e. the uplink transport channel used for uplink data transmission. Random-Access Channel, RACH: RACH is a transport channel,

which carries the random access preamble that is used to overcome message collisions that can occur when UEs access the system simultaneously.

6.5 NR Physical Layer Data Channels in 5G 5G physical channels are used to carry information through the real radio interface. They have the transport channels assigned to them as seen in the diagrams, but they also include various physical layer data necessary for the maintenance and optimization of the radio communication link between the UE and the base station. 5G mobile communications physical layer channels resemble 4G LTE channels, but PHICH and PCIICH have been removed. The HARQ operation has also been updated to make it more flexible. In addition, the PDCCH downlink control channel is now managed using layer 3 procedures.

6.5.1 NR Downlink Physical Channels in 5G Physical downlink shared channel, PDSCH: The 5G NR physical downlink shared channel, PDSCH carries capacitysharing data based on time and frequency. The PDSCH physical channel carries a variety of data elements: user data; UE-specific upper layer control messages mapped from higher channels; system information blocks (SIB); and pagination. PDSCH uses an adaptive modulation format that depends on the link conditions, that is, the signal-to-noise ratio. It also uses a flexible coding scheme. The combination of these means that there is flexible encoding and data rate. Physical downlink control channel, PDCCH: As the name implies, the physical downlink control channel 5G carries downlink control data. Its main function is to program the downlink transmissions in the PDSCH and also the uplink data transmissions in the PUSCH. The PDCCH uses QPSK as its modulation format and polar encoding as the encoding scheme, except for small data packets.

Physical broadcast channel, PBCH: This 5G channel is part of the sync signal block. Its function is to provide UE with the master information block, MIB. An additional function of the PBCH together with the control channel is to support time and frequency synchronization. This helps with the acquisition, selection, and reelection of cells. The PBCH uses a fixed data format and there is a block that extends over a TTI of 80 ms. The PBCH uses QPSK modulation and transmits a cell-specific demodulation reference signal, a DMRS pattern that can be used to aid in beamforming.

6.5.2 Uplink Physical Channels in 5G Physical random access channel, PRACH: This 5G channel: the physical random access channel, PRACH, is used for access to the channel. Transmits an initial random access preamble consisting of sequences that can have two different lengths: ➢

A long sequence is 839 which is applied to the subcarrier spacings of 1.25kHz and 5 kHz ➢ Short sequence lengths of 139 are applied to subcarrier spacings of 15 kHz and 30 kHz (FR1 bands) and 60 kHz and 120 kHz (FR2 bands).

Physical uplink shared channel, PUSCH: The 5G physical uplink shared channel, PUSCH, is the counterpart to the PDSCH. It is used to carry data from the UL-SCH and its highest mapped channels on a frequency and timeshare. Like PDSCH, PUSCH also has a very flexible format. Frequency resource allocation is carried out using resource blocks together with a flexible coding and modulation scheme depending on the signal to noise ratio of the link.To support estimation and demodulation of the channel link, the PUSCH contains DMRS signals.

Physical uplink control channel, PUCCH: The 5G physical uplink control channel, PUCCH, carries the uplink control data. It is also possible that dependent upon the resource allocation the uplink control information or data may also be sent on the PUSCH, even though in the downlink direction, control information is always sent on the PDCCH. The use of these 5G channels provides a method of organizing the flow of data through the radio interface of the 5G communication network. The use of channels allows the communication system to recognize the type of data being sent and to treat it accordingly. The format used is very similar to that used in 4G LTE and builds on previous mobile communication technology or generations of mobile phones.

Chapter-7: Millimeter-Wave Communications 7.1 Introduction For the past few decades, the millimeter wave frequency band (30-300 GHz) has been viewed as a serious candidate to host very high data rate communications. First used for high-capacity radio links, then for indoor broadband wireless networks, interest in this frequency band has increased, as it was proposed to accommodate future 5G mobile communication systems. The large bandwidth available will allow a number of new 5G use cases. Furthermore, due to the large propagation attenuation, this frequency band can present some additional advantages with respect to frequency reuse and communication security.

7.1.1 Challenges in Designing the Next Generation Network As the number of mobile users and their expectations increases, 5G must be able to transmit more data faster than existing mobile network base stations. To accomplish this, wireless communication engineers must design a whole new set of technologies. These technologies will allow the latency of 5G data transmission to be less than one millisecond (compared to the latency of approximately 70 milliseconds of existing 4G networks) and achieve a maximum data download speed of 20 Gbit / s (compared with 1 Gbit / s for 4G). It is not yet clear which technologies will play a crucial role in the longterm development of 5G, but there are already some of the early contenders. These technologies include millimeter waves, small base stations, massive MIMO, full duplex, and beam forming. Today's wireless networks face a critical challenge: The growing number of users and devices consume more data than ever. Still, telecommunications operators have to restrict them to the same frequency band of the radio spectrum that they have always used. This means that each user is assigned a limited amount of bandwidth, leading to slower speeds and frequent disconnections. As the number of devices connected to wireless networks increases, the scarcity of frequency band resources will become even more important. We continue to share the limited bandwidth of an extremely

narrow spectrum. This has a great impact on the user experience. However, millimeter wave technology offers a practical solution to this problem.

7. 2 Millimeter Wave Millimeter waves, also known as extremely high frequency (EHF), are a radio frequency band that is very suitable for 5G networks. Compared to frequencies below 5 GHz previously used by mobile devices, millimeter wave technology allows transmission at frequencies between 30 GHz and 300 GHz. These frequencies are called millimeter waves because they have wavelengths between 1 mm and 10 mm, while the wavelengths of radio waves currently used by smartphones are mostly several dozen centimeters. Until now, only radar systems and satellites use millimeter waves. However, now some mobile network providers have also started using millimeter waves (for example, to transmit data between two fixed points, such as base stations). However, using millimeter wave frequencies to connect mobile users to nearby base stations is a whole new approach. Millimeter-wave mobile communications was not implemented for initial deployments of the 5g mobile communication system, as the technology for cost-effective millimeter-wave communications had not been sufficiently developed. Using mmWave for 5G mobile communications will require a large number of base stations to provide the required coverage. One of the options that is most likely to be incorporated into the 5G technologies being developed for 5G cellular telecommunications systems is a millimeter wave capability. Since the spectrum is sparse below 4 GHz, frequencies ranging up to 60 GHz are being considered.

7.2.1 5G Millimeter Wave Basics One of the interfaces considered for 5G mobile communications uses millimeter wave frequencies. It is estimated that operators may require bandwidths of several GHz to provide some of the predicted extremely high data rates. Cellular communications systems are currently using frequencies below 4 GHz, and by their very nature these frequencies could only offer a maximum bandwidth of 4 GHz, even if they were all clear to use, which is obviously not possible. Having a 5G millimeter wave interface, much wider bandwidths are possible, and there are several candidate millimeter bands that

are being considered for allocation to this type of service.

7.2.2 5G Millimeter Wave Propagation The propagation characteristics of the millimeter wave bands are very different from those of less than 4 GHz. Normally, the distances that can be reached are much shorter and the signals do not pass through walls and other objects in buildings. In general, millimeter wave communication is likely to be used for the outer coverage of dense networks, typically densely used streets, and the like. Here, ranges of up to 200 or 300 meters are possible. One of the issues with using millimeter wave signals is that they can also be affected by natural changes like rain. This can cause a considerable reduction in signal levels over the duration of the precipitation. This may result in reduced coverage for some periods. Often these small 5G millimeter wave cells can use beamforming techniques to target the required user equipment and also reduce the chance of reflections etc. Extremely High Frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the radio frequency band in the Electromagnetic Spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz). It lies between the super high frequency band and the far infrared band, the bottom of which is the terahertz band. Radio waves in this band have wavelengths of ten to one millimeter, which is why it is also called the millimeter band, and the radiation in this band is called millimeter waves, sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW or mmWave. Millimeter-long electromagnetic waves were first investigated by Bengali Indian physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894-1896, when it reached up to 60 GHz in his experiments. Compared to the lower bands, radio waves in this band have high atmospheric attenuation: they are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere. Therefore, they have a short range and can only be used for terrestrial communication for approximately one kilometer. Absorption increases with frequency until at the upper end of the band the waves attenuate to zero within a few meters. Absorption by moisture in the atmosphere is significant, except in desert environments, and rain attenuation (rain fading) is a serious problem even over short distances. However, the short propagation range allows for smaller frequency reuse distances than the lower frequencies. The short wavelength allows modestly sized antennas to have a small beamwidth, further increasing the potential for frequency reuse. Millimeter waves are used for military fire control radars, airport security scanners, short-range

wireless networks, the LRAD weapon system, and scientific research. Often stylized as mmWave in 5G contexts, frequencies near the lower end of this band are designated for use in the latest generation of cell phone networks. Millimeter waves propagate only through line-of-sight paths. They do not reflect in the ionosphere nor do they travel along the Earth like terrestrial waves like low-frequency radio waves do. At typical power densities, they are blocked by building walls and undergo significant attenuation as they pass through the foliage. Absorption by atmospheric gases is a significant factor throughout the band and increases with frequency. However, it is maximum in some specific absorption lines, mainly those of oxygen at 60 GHz and water vapor at 24 GHz and 184 GHz. At the frequencies in the "windows" between these absorption peaks, the millimeter waves have much less Atmospheric attenuation and longer range, so many applications use these frequencies. Millimeter wavelengths are in the same order of size as raindrops, so precipitation causes additional attenuation due to scattering (rain fading) as well as absorption. The high loss of free space and atmospheric absorption limit the useful propagation to a few kilometers. Therefore, they are useful for densely compact communication networks, such as personal area networks that improve spectrum utilization through frequency reuse.

Figure 7.1: Millimeter Wave Propagation Millimeter waves show "optical" propagation characteristics and can be reflected and focused by small metal surfaces and dielectric lenses about 5 to

30 cm (2 inches to 1 foot) in diameter. Because their wavelengths are often much smaller than the equipment that manipulates them, geometric optics techniques can be used. Diffraction is less than at lower frequencies, although they can be diffracted by constructing edges. At millimeter wavelengths, surfaces appear rougher so diffuse reflection increases. Multipath propagation, particularly reflection from interior walls and surfaces, causes severe fading. Doppler frequency change can be significant even at pedestrian speeds. In portable devices, shading due to the human body is a problem. Since waves penetrate clothing and their small wavelength allows them to be reflected from small metal objects, they are used in millimeter wave scanners for airport security scanning

7.2.3 Millimeter Wave Coverage Simulations have shown that when millimeter-wave small cells are configured, they provide a good level of coverage. Naturally, typically being lower than macro cells, coverage will not be as good, but considering the level of data they can carry, they provide a great way to meet the needs of 5G systems. Another issue to keep in mind when analyzing 5G millimeter wave solutions is that they will incur a much greater number of handovers than a normal macrocell. Additional signaling and control must be accommodated within the system. Backhaul issues should also be considered.

7.2.4 Advantages of Millimeter Wave Technology There are two ways to increase the speed of wireless data transmission: increase spectrum utilization or increase spectrum bandwidth. Compared to the first approach, increasing spectrum bandwidth is simpler and more direct. Without changing spectrum utilization, increasing the available bandwidth multiple times can increase the data rate by a similar amount. The problem is that the frequencies in common use below 5 GHz are already extremely full, so where can we find new spectrum resources? The use of 5G millimeter waves uses the second of the two methods to increase transmission rates. According to communication principles, the maximum signal bandwidth in wireless communication is approximately 5% of the carrier frequency. Therefore, the higher the carrier frequency, the greater the signal bandwidth. Therefore, between millimeter wave frequencies, 28 GHz and 60 GHz are the most promising frequencies for 5G. The 28 GHz band can provide an available spectrum bandwidth of up to 1 GHz, while each channel in the 60

GHz band can provide an available signal bandwidth of 2 GHz (a total available spectrum of 9 GHz divided between four channels). Comparatively, the maximum carrier frequency of the 4G-LTE band, 2 GHz, provides an available spectrum bandwidth of only 100 MHz. Therefore, the use of millimeter wave frequencies can easily increase the spectrum bandwidth by a factor of 10, allowing for a massive increase in transmission speeds.

7.2.5 Disadvantages of Millimeter Wave Technology The use of millimeter waves has a major drawback. Millimeter waves are unable to penetrate structures and other obstacles. Even leaves or rain can absorb these signals. This is also the reason why 5G networks will have to adopt the small base station method to improve the traditional infrastructure of the cell tower. Because millimeter waves have high frequencies and short wavelengths, the antennas used to receive them can be smaller, allowing the construction of small base stations. We can predict that, in the future, 5G mobile communication will no longer depend on the construction of largescale base stations, but on many small base stations. This will allow 5G to cover peripheral areas that are not reached by large base stations. Silicon Talks author Li Yirei said that current 5G band plans adopted by major operators use more traditional frequencies below 6 GHz to ensure signal coverage in open spaces, and use micro base stations powered by millimeter wave to provide ultra-fast data transmission indoors. Using millimeter waves and other 5G technology, engineers hope 5G networks will not only serve smartphone users, but also play a critical role in autonomous cars, VR, IoT, and other fields. Researchers and companies already have high hopes for 5G, promising consumers that it will provide ultra-low latency and unprecedented data rates. If they can overcome the remaining challenges and find a clear way to enable cooperation across the ecosystem, we can expect to see the commercial deployment of 5G services in the next five years.

7.3 5G Massive MIMO & Beam-Forming Antenna technologies for 5G have provided significant opportunities to improve performance over 4G. Although MIMO was used with 4G LTE, the technology has been taken further. Beam steering technology has also been adopted to allow the transmitter and receiver antenna beams to focus on the phones with which they communicate. Each mobile can have its own beam,

using advanced antenna technology, and this focuses transmitted power where it is required and reduces interference between mobiles. This provides a significant performance improvement. 5G Massive MIMO is one of the keys to increase performance and resistance in the new 5G radio for FR1 and FR2 bands. MIMO is one of the leading enabling techniques for 5G wireless technology, providing increases in performance and signal-to-noise ratio. MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple output is well established for mobile communications as well as many other technologies. It is used in Wi-Fi 802.11 and is a central part of 4G LTE, as well as many other radio communication technologies. As a result of demand, base stations are being installed with massive 5G MIMO antennas, and user equipment can also accommodate MIMO operation to improve overall performance. Using MIMO antennas and beam forming techniques, 5G wireless technology can offer greater capacity and data rate. MIMO systems require a combination of antenna expansion and complex algorithms. It is multifaceted, but MIMO has been used in wireless communications for a long time. It is common for both mobile devices and networks to have multiple antennas to improve connectivity and offer better speeds and user experiences. MIMO algorithms come into play to control how data is mapped on antennas and where to focus energy in space. Both the network and mobile devices must be closely coordinated with each other for MIMO to work. Now, with the design of new 5G NR networks, MIMO becomes "massive" and crucial for 5G NR deployments. Massive MIMO, which is an extension of MIMO, expands beyond legacy systems by adding a much larger number of antennas to the base station. The "massive" number of antennas helps focus power, bringing dramatic improvements in performance and efficiency. Along with the increased number of antennas, both network and mobile devices implement more complex designs to coordinate MIMO operations. In other words, all of these advancements aim to achieve the necessary performance enhancements to support the 5G experiences that consumers expect in this new era.

7.3.1 Massive MIMO Massive MIMO is a multi-user (multiple input multiple output) MIMO technology that can provide uniformly good service to wireless terminals in high mobility environments. The key concept is to equip base stations with

multi-antenna arrays, which are used to serve many terminals simultaneously, at the same time frequency resource. The word "massive" refers to the number of antennas and not the physical size. Antenna arrays have attractive form factors: In the 2 GHz band, a rectangular half-wavelength array with 200 double-polarized elements is approximately 1.5 x 0.75 meters long. Massive MIMO works in TDD mode and downlink beam forming exploits uplink-downlink reciprocity of radio propagation. Specifically, the base station matrix uses channel estimates obtained from the uplink pilots transmitted by the terminals to learn the channel in both directions. This makes Massive MIMO fully scalable with respect to the number of base station antennas. Massive MIMO base stations operate autonomously, without sharing payload data or channel status information with other cells.

Figure 7.2: Massive MIMO The insatiable demand for high-speed mobile data is creating a series of pressing design challenges as today's cellular base stations struggle to handle an increasingly saturated RF spectrum. In many dense urban areas, our ability to continually accelerate data transmission and reception speeds is threatened. One way forward is to deploy base stations with a large number of antennas simultaneously communicating with multiple spatially separated user terminals through the same frequency resource and to exploit multipath propagation. Massive MIMO is one of the most talked about technologies when it comes to creating the next generation of network standards. But there are some questions about which implementation should be used for 5G. There are three different forms of MIMO to consider, each with its own advantages and disadvantages: Cooperative MIMO : Cooperation will be used in some way, more powerful with better infrastructure, must take into account

overhead in system design Massive MIMO: Some potential for system rates, need large sets of base stations, can be used cooperatively mmWave MIMO: Great potential for maximum rates, more hardware challenges, requires more spectrum, more radical system design potential Massive MIMO (Massive Multiple Inputs and Multiple Outputs) is a type of wireless communication technology in which base stations are equipped with a large number of antenna elements to improve spectral and energy efficiency. The demand for wireless performance, communication reliability and user density will always increase. Massive MIMO technology is being developed for 5G wireless communication systems because many users can simultaneously receive services with very high performance. Processing techniques, such as beamforming, can concentrate signal energy from massive MIMO antenna arrays to overcome the propagation losses inherent in high-frequency transmission in 5G systems. Massive MIMO is a multi-user MIMO extension or MU-MIMO, in which the base station transmitter communicates simultaneously with multiple mobile station receivers using the same time frequency resources, improving spectrum efficiency. The MIMO implementation begins with a set of 2x2 channel antennas. Massive MIMO systems typically have hundreds or even thousands of antenna channels in the array.

Figure 7.3: Example of MIMO

7.3.2 Challenges in Massive MIMO Despite its advantages, massive MIMO has some limitations. Power Consumption: To comply with 5G standards and millimeter wave range for the next generation of wireless communication systems, Massive MIMO incorporates an intelligent matrix design and uses spatial signal processing techniques, including beamforming. The need to have a dedicated transmit / receive module for each antenna element in such systems increases the power consumption and cost of the system. Hybrid beam forming alleviates the power consumption problems of massive MIMO systems by dividing beam forming between digital and RF domains, and combining multiple array elements into sub-array modules. It requires fewer transmit / receive modules, reducing power consumption and system cost.

Figure 7.3: Block Diagram of Massive MIMO Channel Reciprocity: Massive MIMO can operate in Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) transmission modes. In 5G, Massive MIMO works best in TDD mode, where the channel estimate is based on the reciprocity of the channel. Unlike FDD systems, where uplink and downlink communications occur in separate frequency bands, the estimated channel in the uplink in TDD systems is equivalent to its downlink counterpart. Therefore, it can be used to precode on the downlink. However, in practical TDD systems, the transmit and receive RF strings at the base station differ with the user terminals. This violates reciprocity and requires reciprocity calibration to overcome this problem. A key to the future of advanced networking that 5G promises is Massive

MIMO. It's a term you're likely to hear more of as the industry moves forward with 5G rollout, and it's one worth taking a closer look at. Massive MIMO (multiple input / multiple output) is all about antennas, radios, and spectrum, all working together to deliver the kind of speed, capacity, and other benefits companies expect in our next 5G world. The essential technologies for 5G (massive MIMO between them) are difficult to support with a spectrum below 1 GHz due to the size of the antennas. But when using mid and high band frequencies, the antenna elements become much smaller, allowing more elements to fit in a given space. By using a wider frequency range, the capacity can be increased by using more radios at higher frequencies with smaller antennas. If the spectrum is a highway, then MIMO doesn't just add more lanes; it adds tiers, creating multi-story roads that greatly increase the capacity of the network. Traditional MIMO systems have multiple transmit and receive branches (typically up to eight in current systems). However, each branch consists of dozens of antenna elements to create the high antenna gain necessary to increase coverage. Massive MIMO systems, on the other hand, have a much larger number of transmit and receive branches (32, 64, or even more), and each branch has two or three antenna elements. The high number of antenna branches offers a huge boost in capacity through the ability to direct the signal to a user in both horizontal and vertical domains. The capabilities of a massive MIMO system are determined by the frequencies in use, and the size of the element of an antenna is dictated by the wavelength of the signal that the antenna is built to transmit or receive. Consequently, the higher frequency bands with their shorter wavelengths combine perfectly with the large number of antenna elements required to build massive high-performance MIMO systems. However, with high frequency bands it is difficult to support a large number of multi-user MIMO layers. Frequency bands at 2 GHz or higher is best suited for the task, which is why Sprint is in such a strong position when it comes to 5G and the underlying massive MIMO implementations. We are licensed for much of the 2.5 GHz spectrum, and the fact that we have it in an adjoining block maximizes channel flexibility and enables greater data capacity. The 2.5 GHz spectrum offers the sweet spot for massive MIMO in terms of achievable form factor, capacity, and coverage.

7.3.3 Time or Frequency One consideration in 5G networks involves the use of Time Division

Duplexing (TDD) or Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD). Both approaches provide routes for uplink and downlink traffic. FDD networks use dedicated spectrum for uplinks and downlinks, and the amount of spectrum for each is generally the same. That doesn't always fit well with usage patterns; there is usually more data directed downward than upward. When equal amounts of spectrum are dedicated to each direction, it can result in inefficient use of that spectrum. TDD networks, on the other hand, can use the entire spectrum for uplink or downlink. However, they can only transmit or receive at one point in time, basically the uplink and downlink take turns, while FDD networks can simultaneously transmit and receive. But we are talking about milliseconds here, so any difference is something that is transparent to the user. Using the same channel for uplink and downlink with TDD allows for a better estimation of the channel for beamforming, making it more suitable for Massive MIMO systems, in addition to the flexibility it can offer in terms of deployments and utilization spectrum efficient. Multiple antenna technology (MIMO) is maturing for wireless communications and has been incorporated into wireless broadband standards such as LTE and Wi-Fi. Basically, the more antennas the transmitter / receiver is equipped, the greater the possible signal paths and the better the performance in terms of data rate and link reliability. The price to pay is increased complexity of hardware (number of RF amplifier interfaces) and complexity and power consumption of signal processing at both ends.

7.3.4 Enhancements of Key Performance Requirements From IMT-Advanced to IMT-2020 Massive MIMO breaks with current practice by using a large number of service antennas (eg, Hundreds or Thousands) that work in a fully consistent and adaptive way. The additional antennas help by focusing the transmission and reception of signal energy in smaller and smaller spatial regions. This brings enormous improvements in performance and energy efficiency, particularly when combined with the simultaneous programming of a large number of user terminals (for example, tens or hundreds). Massive MIMO was originally intended for time division duplex (TDD) operation, but can potentially also be applied in frequency division duplex (FDD) operation. Other benefits of massive MIMO include the extensive use of low-power, low-latency, low-cost components, simplified Media Access Control (MAC) layer, and robustness against interference and intentional jams. The expected

performance depends on the propagation environment that provides asymptotically orthogonal channels to the terminals, and experiments so far have not revealed any limitations in this regard. While mass MIMO makes many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that require urgent attention; for example, the challenge of making many low-precision, low-cost components work together effectively, the need for an efficient acquisition scheme for channel status information, the allocation of resources for newly joined terminals, the exploitation of additional degrees of freedom provided by an excess of service antennas, reducing internal energy consumption to achieve total reductions in energy efficiency and finding new implementation scenarios.

Figure 7.4: Enhancements of Key Performance Requirements from IMT-Advanced to IMT-2020 With the 5G race now underway, the wireless research community has embarked on a journey to create the technologies of tomorrow that will deliver unprecedented improvements in network performance and capacity, improvements in spectral efficiency, reduced end-to-end latency. extreme and increased reliability and more. These improvements are driven by the key performance requirements defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as summarized in Figure 1 below. As shown, the performance improvements from IMT-2020 (5G) over IMT-Advanced are significant with a 20X improvement in maximum data rate from 1 Gb / s to 20 Gb / s. Similarly, the data rate experienced by the user increases 10-fold from 10 Mb / s to 100 Mb / s and latency is reduced by a factor of 10 from 10 ms to 1 ms.

With data speeds many times higher than modern wireless communication systems, 5G will launch a host of new applications and services that will provide consumers with never-before-possible multimedia experiences, including ultra-high-speed 4K, 8K, and 3D video streaming. definition. Very low latency and ultra-high and reliable 5G networks will also enable new mission critical applications such as traffic security and control of critical infrastructure and industry processes that require much lower latency compared to communication systems modern mobiles. Improvements in spectral efficiency from 1X to 3X will also be critical in addressing the anticipated explosion not only of consumer electronics but also of the many sensors, display devices, and actuators associated with the Internet of Things (IoT). Given the limited availability of spectrum and the projected massive number of IoT devices to be connected, 5G networks will have to make much more efficient use of spectrum than wireless networks today. Identified as a key candidate technology to achieve greater spectral efficiency is massive MIMO. Massive MIMO, or sometimes called large-scale MIMO, is a form of multi-user MIMO in which the number of antennas at the base station is much greater than the number of mobile stations per signaling facility. The large number of base station antennas relative to the number of mobile stations results in a channel response that is nearly orthogonal and has the potential to produce huge gains in spectral efficiency. Such conditions would allow many more devices to be served with the same frequency and time resources within a given cell compared to modern 4G systems. 7.5 below shows a comparison of a typical 4G MIMO cell with that of a massive 5G MIMO cell that is equipped with many more base station antennas. The massive 5G MIMO base station equipped with many more antennas could serve many more devices as envisioned by the 5G IoT use case and others.

Figure 7.5: Evolution of Multi antenna Technology From 4G MIMO to 5G Massive MIMO Although promising in theory, massive MIMO has yet to be tested in largescale field trials to demonstrate its feasibility for widespread commercial deployment. However, progress has been made with recent findings from the Universities of Bristol and Lund, showing that huge gains in spectral efficiency can be achieved in real-time and airborne trials.

7.3.5 Benefits of Massive MIMO Massive MIMO is a key enabler of 5G's extremely fast data rates and promises to take 5G's potential to a new level. The main benefits of mass MIMO for the network and end users can be summarized as: Increased Network Capacity: Network capacity is defined as the total volume of data that can be served to a user and the maximum number of users that can be served with a certain expected level of service. Massive MIMO contributes to increasing capacity first by enabling the deployment of 5G NR in the highest frequency range at Sub-6 GHz (eg 3.5 GHz); and second, using MU-MIMO where multiple users are served with the same time and frequency resources. Improved Coverage: With Massive MIMO, users enjoy a more seamless experience across the network, even at the edge of the cell, so users can expect high-speed data service almost everywhere. In

addition, 3D beam forming enables the dynamic coverage required for users on the move (for example, users traveling in cars or connected cars) and adjusts coverage to suit the user's location, even in locations that have coverage of relatively weak network. User Experience: Ultimately, the above two benefits result in a better overall user experience - Users can transfer large data files or download movies, or use information-intensive apps on the go, wherever life takes them. As previously mentioned, MIMO has been used in wireless communications for many years. But now, in the context of 5G NR, massive MIMO is radically changing how and when we choose to use our mobile devices. We no longer have to guess if we are in a good area to download or transfer large files. The user experience is about to take a big leap forward.

7.4 Beamforming Beamforming is another key wireless technique that uses advanced antenna technologies in mobile devices and network base stations to focus a wireless signal in a specific direction, rather than transmitting over a wide area. Think of the difference between using a flashlight, which floods everyone in the room, versus a laser pointer, which can continually locate and track a particular user. With the large number of antenna elements in a massive MIMO system, the beam forming becomes "3D Beam forming". 3D Beamforming creates horizontal and vertical beams toward users, increasing data rates (and capacity) for all users, even those located on the top floors of high-rise buildings as shown in Figure 7.6.

Figure 7.6: 3D Beamforming Mobile network feedbacks allow the network beam to find any point in space, so a mobile user can always be served by a beam focused on their devices as

they move on the street or between different floors in a building. Also having such narrow and direct beams reduces interference between beams directed in different directions. We mentioned beamforming. That is the technique used to focus a signal to a recipient while minimizing the noise generated by signals intended for other users. Beamforming techniques range from simple analog beamforming (directing the entire coverage area of the sector to where it is needed) to sophisticated digital beamforming with device-specific beams. Newer and more advanced implementations use three-dimensional beamforming to precisely target user-specific beams. This is particularly useful when there are users both on the ground and inside buildings at different levels. The results are improved coverage for users at the edge and reduced overall interference. In radio communications there is a great drive to squeeze as much performance and capacity out of the equipment as possible. A new feature with great promise is to incorporate "beamforming" to reduce interference and improve reception while seeing huge performance gains. Simply put, beamforming is the process that allows a radio signal to focus on its target. Normally, once a signal leaves the antenna, it widens more and more, and in the process loses most of its strength. With beamforming, the focus of the signal is reduced and reaches the connected device in a straight line. This helps preserve signal strength due to lack of multipath interference. Beamforming uses MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technology, which is a fundamental part of LTE. This allows the transmission of large amounts of data. With the introduction of 5G networks, beamforming will play an important role in your success. Telecommunications companies such as Horizon Communications are using this technology to provide improved network capacity and performance to meet the growing demands for connectivity. Engineers are also looking for spatial dimension innovations under SDMA (Spatial Division Multiple Access) to accomplish this. With SDMA, beamforming antennas will allow multiple synchronized transmissions on the same frequency with little or no interference. This will result in high intensity signals and high spectrum reuse for both mobile and landline Internet users.

7.4.1 Working of Beamforming Beamforming uses the same technique as multi-antenna communications. Devices that have the beamforming function focus their frequencies towards

each receiver. This can best be explained using a flashlight analogy, where the light bulb is a transmitter. When the flashlight doesn't have something to focus on, the light shines in all directions, which isn't very effective if you're trying to see far in the dark. This is just like your home router without a beamforming feature. Once concentrated, the light becomes very focused and travels to specific locations. This is simply how beamforming works. Multiple antennas transmit multiple patterns that combine in the air to form a virtual beam directed at the destination. Frequencies that face the target will overlap and intensify the beam force, while those that face other directions collide with each other and destroy each other in the process. For effective transmission and improved signal strength, beamforming technology evaluates parameters such as terminal location, signal, noise level, distance, speed, and required quality of service (QoS) level.

7.4.2 Advantages of Beamforming High Network Efficiency: By reducing CCI, beamforming can be used even in dense areas instead of single antenna systems. This will allow its execution even in high order modulations like 64QAM. The overall capacity of 5G wireless networks will be greatly improved. Lack of multi-path interference: By exploiting spatial features in antennas, beamforming helps overcome internal and external interference. Because the interference is coming from a specific direction, the beamformer is designed to apply an override technique. This allows you to send a "null" in the direction of the interference and therefore cancel it, as 2 speakers playing the same song in front of each other, you can almost remove the sound from both if you want. Higher SNR: The directional transmission provided by the beamforming will improve the budget of the link. Increasing the range is beneficial for both indoor and outdoor use.

7.5 Spatial Diversity and Spatial Multiplexing Spatial diversity is one of the fundamental benefits of MIMO technology. In summary, diversity aims to improve system reliability by sending the same data through different propagation or spatial routes. Spatial diversity evolves towards a more complex concept, which is "spatial multiplexing". Now, not only are various air channel experiences used to improve performance, but multiple messages can be transmitted simultaneously without interfering with each other as they are separated in space. To better visualize the concept of spatial multiplexing, think of a pipeline through which data flows between the base station and the phone in a mobile network. Imagine a situation with one antenna on the base station and one on the phone that allows only a quantity of data to flow. Now, by installing more antennas on each side with proper spacing (see illustration below), multiple virtual pipes can be created in the space between the phone and the base station. This creates multiple routes for more data to travel between the base station and the mobile. By nature, this solution is very dynamic. With the continuous movement of the mobile user and changes in the environment, the mobile phone and the network require more advanced capabilities to continuously coordinate the link and manage data transmission.

Figure 7.7: Spatial Multiplexing

7.5.1 Multi-User MIMO MIMO technology also allows multiple users to share the same network resources, simultaneously. Multi-user MIMO or "MU-MIMO" allows messages from different users to travel securely along the same data pipelines, and then to be ordered to individual users when the data reaches their mobile devices. Think of it as similar to your online shopping order traveling in a delivery van along with other orders. Your order shares space in the van, but is only delivered to you, the intended recipient. Serving multiple users with the same transmission increases capacity and enables better use of resources. That adds to the ability to download or stream with an

enhanced user experience, even in crowded areas. This shared data transport means a faster and more efficient system for all users, as shown in figure 7.8. That adds to the ability to download or stream with an enhanced user experience, even in crowded areas. Additionally, networks can dynamically switch between serving one or more users. When serving a single user, the beam is generally more direct and the power is more focused. However, with multiple users, the beams tend to be wider since users can spread in multiple directions.

Figure 7.8: Multi-User MIMO

7.5.2 Multi-user Types Recently, research results have emerged on multi-user MIMO technology. While full multi-user MIMO (or network MIMO) may have greater potential, research on multi-user (partial) MIMO or multi-user, multi-antenna MIMO technology is more active. Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) In recent 3GPP and WiMAX standards, MU-MIMO is being treated as one of the candidate adoptable technologies in the specification by various companies, including Samsung, Intel, Qualcomm, Ericsson, TI, Huawei, Philips, Nokia, and free scale. For these and other companies active in the mobile hardware market, MU-MIMO is more feasible for low complexity cell phones with a small number of receiving antennas, while the higher SUMIMO performance per user for a single user is adapts best to the most complex. user devices with more antennas. Enhanced multi-user MIMO: 1) Employs advanced decoding techniques, 2) Employs advanced precoding techniques. SDMA represents spatial division multiple access or superdivision multiple access where super emphasizes that orthogonal division, such as frequency and time division, is not used, but non-orthogonal approaches are used, such as overlay encoding.

Cooperative MIMO (CO-MIMO) It uses multiple neighboring base stations to transmit / receive data together from / to users. As a result, neighboring base stations do not cause inter-cell interference as in conventional MIMO systems. Macro Diversity MIMO A form of spatial diversity scheme that uses multiple transmit or receive base stations to communicate consistently with single or multiple users who are likely to be distributed in the coverage area, at the same time and frequency resource. The transmitters are widely spaced in contrast to traditional micro diversity MIMO schemes such as single user MIMO. In a multi-user macro diversity MIMO scenario, users can also be widely separated. Therefore, each constituent link in the virtual MIMO link has a different average link SNR. This difference is mainly due to different long-term channel degradations, such as path loss and shadow fading experienced by different links. Macro diversity MIMO schemes pose unprecedented theoretical and practical challenges. Among many theoretical challenges, perhaps the most fundamental challenge is understanding how different average binding SNRs affect overall system capacity and individual user performance in fading environments. MIMO Routing Route a cluster by cluster on each hop, where the number of nodes in each cluster is greater than or equal to one. MIMO routing is different from conventional routing (SISO) in that conventional routing protocols route node by node on each hop. Massive MIMO A technology where the number of terminals is much less than the number of base station (mobile station) antennas. In a rich dispersion environment, all the advantages of the massive MIMO system can be exploited using simple beamforming strategies such as maximum ratio transmission (MRT), maximum ratio combination (MRC) or zero forcing (ZF). To achieve these massive MIMO benefits, accurate CSI must be perfectly available. However, in practice, the channel between transmitter and receiver is estimated from orthogonal pilot sequences that are limited by the coherence time of the channel. Most importantly, in a multi-cell configuration, reuse of pilot sequences from multiple co-channel cells will create pilot contamination. When there is pilot contamination, massive MIMO performance degrades dramatically. To alleviate the effect of pilot contamination, the paper

proposes a simple pilot assignment and a channel estimation method from limited training sequences.

7.5.3 Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) MIMO is an antenna technology that improves the radio link by using the multiple paths by which signals travel from the transmitter to the receiver, primarily as a result of the many reflections that the signal experiences and the many paths that it can travel. Multiple routes are correlated and this provides the opportunity to send multiple streams of data over them. MIMO is a form of antenna technology that uses multiple antennas to allow signals traveling through different routes as a result of reflections, etc., to be separated and their ability to be used to improve data performance and / or ratio signal / noise, thus improving system performance. In radio, multiple input and multiple output, or MIMO is a method of multiplying the capacity of a radio link using multiple transmit and receive antennas to exploit multipath propagation. MIMO has become an essential element of wireless communication standards, including IEEE 802.11n (WiFi), IEEE 802.11ac (Wi-Fi), HSPA + (3G), WiMAX (4G), and Long Term Evolution ( 4G LTE). More recently, MIMO has been applied to power line communication for 3-wire installations as part of the ITU standard and the Home Plug AV2 specification. At one point, in wireless, the term "MIMO" referred to the use of multiple antennas in the transmitter and receiver. In modern usage, "MIMO" specifically refers to a practical technique for sending and receiving more than one data signal simultaneously through the same radio channel by exploiting multipath propagation. MIMO is fundamentally different from smart antenna techniques developed to improve the performance of a single data signal, such as beamforming and diversity. MIMO can be subdivided into three main categories: precoding, spatial multiplexing (SM), and diversity encoding.

Precoding Precoding is multi-stream beamforming, in the narrowest definition. More generally, all spatial processing that occurs in the transmitter is considered. In beamforming (single flow), the same signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with the appropriate phase and gain weighting such that the signal power is maximized at the receiver input. The benefits of beamforming

are to increase the gain of the received signal, causing the signals emitted from different antennas to add constructively, and to reduce the multipath fading effect. In line of sight propagation, beamforming results in a welldefined directional pattern. However, conventional beams are not a good analogy in cellular networks, which are primarily characterized by multipath propagation. When the receiver has multiple antennas, transmit beamforming cannot simultaneously maximize the signal level on all receive antennas, and multi-stream precoding is often beneficial. Note that precoding requires knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and receiver. Spatial Multiplexing Spatial multiplexing requires the configuration of the MIMO antenna. In spatial multiplexing, a high-speed signal is divided into multiple slowerspeed streams, and each stream is transmitted from a different transmission antenna on the same frequency channel. If these signals reach the receiver antenna array with sufficiently different spatial signatures and the receiver has accurate CSI, you can separate these currents into (almost) parallel channels. Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique to increase channel capacity at higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The maximum number of spatial fluxes is limited by the smallest number of antennas in the transmitter or receiver. Spatial multiplexing can be used without CSI at the transmitter, but can be combined with precoding if CSI is available. Spatial multiplexing can also be used for simultaneous transmission to multiple receivers, known as spatial division multiple access or multi-user MIMO, in which case CSI is required at the transmitter. Programming receivers with different spatial signatures allows good separability. Diversity Coding Diversity coding techniques are used when there is no channel awareness in the transmitter. In diversity methods, a single sequence is transmitted (as opposed to multiple sequences in spatial multiplexing), but the signal is encoded using techniques called space-time encoding. The signal is emitted from each of the transmission antennas with full or close orthogonal coding. Diversity encoding exploits independent fading on the links of multiple antennas to improve signal diversity. Because there is no channel knowledge, there is no beamforming or matrix gain of diversity coding. Diversity coding can be combined with spatial multiplexing when some channel knowledge is

available at the receiver.

7.5.4 Multi-antenna Types Multiple antenna MIMO (or single-user MIMO) technology has been developed and implemented in some standards, for example, 802.11n products.

SISO/SIMO/MISO are special cases of MIMO ❖

Multiple-input and single-output (MISO) is a special case when the receiver has a single antenna. ❖ Single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) is a special case when the transmitter has a single antenna. ❖ Single-input single-output (SISO) is a conventional radio system where neither transmitter nor receiver has multiple antenna.

Principal Single-user MIMO Techniques ❖ ❖ ❖

Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (BLAST), Per Antenna Rate Control (PARC) Selective Per Antenna Rate Control (SPARC)

Some limitations ❖

The physical space of the antenna is selected to be large; multiple wavelengths at the base station. The separation of the antenna in the receiver has a great limitation of space in the phones, although advanced antenna design techniques and algorithms are being discussed.

7.5.5 Streaming MIMO Imagine a MIMO layer as a dedicated data stream. More MIMO layers result

in more performance. Newer updated LTE systems can support four-layer MIMO. Massive MIMO systems can support eight or 16 layers today and will support a greater number of layers, 24 or more, in the near future. MIMO comes in a couple of different flavors. There is a Single User MIMO (SUMIMO) in which multiple streams, using multiple antennas and the same spectrum and time resources, are directed to individual devices, allowing them to send and receive data simultaneously. Then there is multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO), where multiple streams using multiple antennas and the same spectrum and time resources are directed to many devices. Both techniques reduce the network transmission delay time and make the wireless network more efficient. With their large number of antenna shunts, advanced beamforming capabilities, support for higher MIMO layers, and multi-user MIMO, massive MIMO systems improve both coverage and capacity in a way that does not have the previous 4G LTE function.

7.5.6 Applications Spatial multiplexing techniques make receivers very complex and therefore are generally combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or orthogonal frequency division multiple access modulation (OFDMA), where the Problems created by a multi-route channel are handled efficiently. The IEEE 802.16e standard incorporates MIMO-OFDMA. The IEEE 802.11n standard, released in October 2009, recommends MIMOOFDM. MIMO is also intended to be used in mobile phone standards such as the recent 3GPP and 3GPP2. In 3GPP, the High-Speed Packet Access plus (HSPA +) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) standards take into account MIMO. Furthermore, to fully support cellular environments, MIMO research consortia, including IST-MASCOT, propose to develop advanced MIMO techniques, for example, multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). MIMO technology can be used in non-wireless communication systems. An example is the ITU-T G.9963 Home Networking Standard, which defines a power line communication system that uses MIMO techniques to transmit multiple signals across multiple AC cables (phase, neutral, and ground).

7.5.7 Difference between 5G MIMO & Massive MIMO The 4G LTE specification allows the use of up to eight spatial layers on the downlink and four spatial layers on the uplink. Actually, implemented 4G

LTE networks can use two or four spatial layers to improve performance. To develop from the basic MIMO used in 4G LTE to the massive 5G MIMO formats, it is possible to increase the number of antenna elements. For example, the use of 64 cross-polarized antennas means that the base station can be defined as a massive MIMO system. Surprisingly, the significant increase in the number of antenna elements does not increase the number of spatial layers. Using this large number of elements allows the 5G MIMO antenna to provide MIMO and beamforming capabilities. Actually, there is no definition of where the line is drawn between an ordinary MIMO system and a massive MIMO system. In general, it tends to apply to systems with several tens of antennas or more. Massive 5G MIMO antennas are available with 64, 96 and even 128 antenna systems.

7.5.8 Challenges and Advantages of 5G massive MIMO The use of massive MIMO within 5G wireless technology brings many advantages, and in fact overcomes many of the problems that were present with 4G LTE MIMO approaches. However, it brings many new challenges. Antenna development is a key issue. Low cost, low precision antennas need to be developed. You also need to be able to perform meaningful tests. With MIMO and, in this case, a massive MIMO with so many permutations and different conditions, it is very difficult to test it. Massive 5G MIMO antennas present many interesting challenges. Looking at the advantages of massive 5G MIMO, there are significant advantages in terms of capacity increases. Some estimates have put the improvement at 50 times, although this might be a bit of a stretch. Previous generations of mobile communication systems have not had the ability to manage resources the way 5G can, and this has caused networks to become overloaded. Using massive MIMO and beamforming technology, spectrum management is handled much more intelligently and this results in significantly faster data rates and latency levels across the network. Massive 5G MIMO is a key element of new mobile communication technology. It will allow for significant increases in performance and data capacity; This last point is an important requirement for 5G as data usage increases significantly and, as a result, network capacity must increase. Massive 5G MIMO capacity will be part of providing the required capacity.

Short Questions and Answers Q: What are the other generations of mobile networks? A: The other mobile network generations are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G. 1G delivered analog voice. 2G introduced digital voice (e.g., CDMA). 3G brought mobile data (e.g., CDMA2000). 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile Internet. Q. What are the benefits of 5G? A: 5G is a new type of network: a platform for innovations that will not only improve today's mobile broadband services, but also expand mobile networks to support a wide variety of devices and services and connect new industries with performance, improved efficiency and cost. 5G will redefine a wide range of industries with connected services from retail to education, transportation to entertainment and everything in between. We see 5G as a technology as transformative as the car and electricity. Through a landmark 5G Economy study, we discovered that the full economic impact of 5G will be realized worldwide by 2035, supporting a wide range of industries and potentially producing up to $ 12 trillion in goods and services. The study also revealed that the 5G value chain (OEMs, operators, content creators, application developers, and consumers) could only generate up to $ 3.5 billion in total aggregate revenue by 2035 and support up to 22 million jobs, or more than one I work for every person in Beijing, China. Of course, there are plenty of new and emerging apps that are not yet fully defined or even known today. That is why only time will tell what the full "5G effect" will be. Q: What services and use cases do you see for 5G? A: In general, 5G use cases can be broadly classified into three main types of connected services: • Improved Mobile Broadband: 5G will not only improve our smartphones, but will also usher in new immersive experiences, such as VR and AR, with faster, more consistent data speeds, lower latency, and cost per bit. • Mission critical communications: 5G will enable new services that can transform industries with ultra reliable / available low latency links, such as remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles and medical procedures.

• Massive Internet of Things: 5G will seamlessly connect a large number of embedded sensors into virtually everything through the ability to reduce data rates, power and mobility to provide extremely lean / low-cost solutions. • A defining capacity of 5G is also the design of forward compatibility: the ability to flexibly support future services that are unknown today. Q: How fast is 5G? A: Under IMT-2020 requirements, 5G is expected to deliver maximum data rates of up to 20 Gbps. Qualcomm Technologies' first 5G NR modem, the Qualcomm® Snapdragon X50 5G Modem, is designed to achieve up to 5 Gbps in downlink peak data rate. But 5G is more than just how "fast" it is. In addition to the higher peak data rates, 5G will provide much more network capacity by expanding to a new spectrum, such as millimeter wave (mmWave). 5G will also offer much lower latency for faster immediate response and an overall smoother user experience, so data rates remain consistently high even when users are on the go. In addition, the new 5G NR (New Radio) mobile network will be backed by the Gigabit LTE coverage base, which will provide ubiquitous Gigabit-class connectivity. Q: What are the key differentiating 5G technologies? A: 5G is bringing a wide range of technological inventions in both the 5G NR (New Radio) air interface design and the 5G NextGen core network. The new 5G NR air interface features many fundamental wireless inventions, and in our opinion the top five are: 1. Scalable OFDM Numerology with 2n Subcarrier Spacing 2. Flexible, dynamic and autonomous TDD subframe design 3. Advanced and Flexible Coding of LDPC Channels 4. Advanced technologies of massive MIMO antennas 5. Advanced techniques for spectrum sharing Q: How does 5G work? A: Like 4G LTE, 5G is also OFDM based and will operate on the same mobile networking principles. However, the new 5G NR (New Radio) air interface will further enhance OFDM to offer a much higher degree of flexibility and scalability. For more details on 5G waveform and multiple access techniques, see this 5G waveform white paper. Not only will 5G offer better and faster mobile broadband services compared to 4G LTE, but it will also expand to new service areas, such as mission-critical communications

and massive IoT connection. This is enabled by many new 5G NR air interface design techniques, such as a new autonomous TDD subframe design; For more detailed information on 5G and to understand the specific design components of 5G NR, please refer to this 5G NR white paper. Q: When is 5G coming out? A: 5G should be available in 2019. 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project, the standards body that is helping to define 5G) made the decision to accelerate the initial phase of 5G NR (New Radio), the new global 5G standard, to start in 2019. It is important to note that initial 5G NR deployments will focus on Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) use cases to increase capacity and provide a high mobile broadband experience (faster speeds, latencies lower, etc.). As with previous generations of mobile networks, it will take time to proliferate the new 5G network. 4G LTE will continue to grow and serve as the anchor of the 5G mobile experience (through multiple connectivity) for many years to come by providing Gigabit data rates outside of 5G coverage areas. Q: How much is 5G? A: 5G doesn't have a price tag yet. A key goal of 5G is to reduce the cost per bit (data cost) compared to 4G LTE, by taking advantage of a new and broader spectrum in higher bands, including the mmWave range. This could potentially allow mobile operators to continue offering unlimited data plans even with an increase in data consumption. This can also enable new use cases and make more applications economically viable for wider adoption on a 5G network. For example, 5G can help proliferate immersive virtual and augmented reality, which is possible today with 4G LTE but may be limited by network capacity and data costs. Q: Who is working on 5G? A: 5G is being powered by 3GPP, which is the standard body that also oversaw the development of 3G UMTS (including HSPA) and 4G LTE. 3GPP is a group of companies in the entire mobile ecosystem, all working in 5G. It ranges from infrastructure providers and component / device manufacturers to mobile network operators and vertical service providers. Qualcomm Technologies is at the heart of 3GPP, driving many essential inventions in all aspects of 5G design, from the air interface to the service layer. We hope that the impact of 5G will be much greater than previous

network generations. The development requirements of the new 5G network are expanding beyond traditional mobile network players to industries like the automotive industry. That is why 3GPP is seeing an increase in new members spanning a wide range of industries. Close collaboration between 3GPP members will be needed to make 5G a reality. Q: What is the difference between 4G and 5G? A: There are several differences between 4G and 5G: • 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G • 5G uses spectrum better than 4G • 5G is faster than 4G • 5G has more capacity than 4G • 5G has lower latency than 4G 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G: While 4G LTE focused on providing much faster mobile broadband services than 3G, 5G is designed to be a more capable and unified platform that will not only elevate mobile broadband experiences, but will also support new services such as communications from mission critical and massive IoT. 5G will also natively support all spectrum types (licensed, shared, unlicensed) and bands (low, medium, high), a wide range of deployment models (from traditional macro cells to hot spots), as well as new ways to interconnection (such as device-todevice and multi-hop mesh). 5G uses spectrum better than 4G: 5G will also take full advantage of each bit of spectrum through a wide range of available spectrum paradigms and regulatory bands, from low bands below 1 GHz, to mid bands from 1 GHz to 6 GHz, to high bands known as millimeter waves. 5G is faster than 4G: 5G will be significantly faster than 4G, offering peak data rates of up to 20 Gigabits per second and average data rates of over 100 Megabits per second. 5G has more capacity than 4G: 5G will support a 100-fold increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency. 5G has lower latency than 4G: 5G has significantly lower latency to deliver more instant, real-time access - a 10-fold decrease in end-to-end latency of up to 1ms. Q: What is 5G Wi-Fi? A: 5G Wi-Fi isn’t a thing.

Q.What may hinder 5G adoption? A. Enthusiasm for 5G does not necessarily translate to 5G deployment for all respondents. A slim margin of survey takers (10%) are not preparing or planning to adopt this new technology. According to those respondents, 36 percent are taking a 'wait and see' approach regarding 5G implementation, and 28 percent remain satisfied with 4G and see no reason to upgrade. Further, many respondents share concerns about 5G availability. More than half (61%) said that the simple lack of 5G service to their area may hinder adoption. Another apprehension about 5G is that 67 percent of respondents don't believe their existing infrastructure can handle the technology. This makes sense since many organizations still rely on on-premises legacy applications. Q.What is 5G really? A. If we are honest (now is a good time to start), it is incorrect to say that 5G is the fifth generation of global wireless technology. Depending on who you ask and the context of the question, there really are four or seven generations, and only three sets of global standards. There was never really an official "1G". There were several attempts at standards for digital wireless cellular transmission, none of which went global. The term "2G" is credited to Finnish engineers to characterize the technological leap that their GSM standard represents. However, much of the rest of the world used CDMA instead, which was also "2G". Thus, there was never a single indisputable 2G. The global standards community joined with 3G and its 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). It was with the arrival of 3G that the world began to count in the same digit. But even for 4G, there were competitive standards, and two main groups of practitioners, one for WiMAX, the other for the victorious LTE, vying for global supremacy. Until now, the 5G effort has been successful in keeping engineers together at the same table, contributing to a single set of goals. Q. How 5G Will Transform Business? A. 5G will be popularized through telecommunications operators and the commercialization of cable cut services, but the greatest impact and performance will come from the Internet of Things connection, state-of-theart computing and analytical infrastructure with minimal latency. "The first generation of mobile systems launched around 1991, popularly

known as 2G / GSM, was really focused on mass communication of mobile devices," said Sree Koratala, chief technology and strategy officer for 5G wireless technology in North America for communications equipment. provider Ericsson, speaking to ZDNet. Then the next generation of mobile networks, 3G, launched in 1998, enabled mobile broadband, feature phones, and navigation. When 4G networks were launched in 2008, smartphones popularized video consumption and traffic. of data on mobile networks really exploded. " "All of these networks were primarily aimed at consumers," Koratala continued. "Now when you look at this next generation of mobile networks, 5G is very different from the previous generation of networks. It's really a turning point from the consumer to the industry." Q. WHO DECIDES WHAT AND WHERE 5G CAN BE A. 5G wireless technology is an explicit set of technologies specified by 3GPP as "Version 15" and "Version 16", and a track for "Version 17" has recently begun. 3GPP is an organization consisting of essentially all the world's telecommunications standards bodies that have agreed to share the definition of 3G Wireless and move from there to next-generation networks. Today, 3GPP specifies which technologies make up 5G wireless and, by exclusion, which do not. The 5G wireless standard claims to be global, which is the tricky part, because each participating country (eg China, Russia, South Korea) or a group of amalgamated countries (eg EU, UN) will maintain its own definition of 5G Networks, their own 5G speed concepts and their own regulations on where 5G transmissions can take place. In November 2018, the US Federal Communications Commission. USA An auction of exclusive spectrum segments in the 28 GHz band began, which will soon be followed by bids in the 24 GHz band, for the exclusive use of the winning bidders. The following month, the FCC unanimously approved a plan to make more spectrum in the 37 GHz, 39 GHz, and 47 GHz bands available for the highest-speed communications tier for 5G wireless technology, called the millimeter wave (mmWave). . But a good chunk of the 5G plan involves multiple simultaneous antennas, some of which use spectrum that telecoms companies agree to share with each other (for example, the 3.5 GHz band in the US), as well as unlicensed spectrum. Regulators like the FCC keep it open to everyone at all times (areas between 5 GHz and 7 GHz, and 57 GHz at 71 GHz).

Among the technologies within the 5G umbrella are systems that allow transmitters and receivers to arbitrate access to unused channels in the unlicensed spectrum, in the same way that 802.11ac Wi-Fi devices now do. It is vitally important not to confuse gigahertz (GHz, which refers to frequency) with gigabits (Gb, which are amounts of transmitted data). Data throughput rates for 5G are measured, as with 4G, in gigabits per second (Gbps). The fact that 5G networks operate at higher frequencies does not make it faster. Those higher frequencies are chosen mainly because they have not yet been used by anything else. And this is where things will get very difficult in the future: very high frequency signals do not travel much, which is one reason why 5G cellular networks will be smaller, with more transmitters operating within more denser cells. Q: What is 5G? A: 5G is the fifth generation mobile network. It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G networks. 5G enables a new type of network that is designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together, including machines, objects, and devices. 5G wireless technology is designed to deliver higher multi-Gbps maximum data rates, ultra-low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more consistent user experience for more users. Higher performance and improved efficiency enable new user experiences and connect new industries. Q: What are the differences between the previous generations of mobile networks and 5G? A: The previous generations of mobile networks are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G. First generation - 1G 1980s: 1G delivered analog voice. Second generation - 2G Early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access). Third generation - 3G Early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000). Fourth generation - 4G LTE 2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.

1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G led to 5G, which is designed to provide more connectivity than ever before. 5G is a unified and more capable air interface. It has been designed with an extended capacity to enable next generation user experiences, empower new deployment models and offer new services. With high speeds, superior reliability, and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem to new realms. 5G will impact all industries, making safer transportation, remote healthcare, precision agriculture, digitized logistics, and more a reality. Q: Where is 5G being used? A: Generally speaking, 5G is used in three main types of connected services, including enhanced mobile broadband, mission critical communications, and mass IoT. One defining capability of 5G is that it is designed for backward compatibility: the ability to flexibly support future services that are unknown today. Enhanced mobile broadband In addition to making our smartphones better, 5G mobile technology can usher in new immersive experiences such as VR and AR with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and lower cost-per-bit. Mission-critical communications 5G can enable new services that can transform industries with ultrareliable, available, low-latency links, such as remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures. Massive IoT 5G is designed to seamlessly connect a large number of embedded sensors into virtually everything through the ability to reduce data rates, power, and mobility, providing extremely slim and low-cost connectivity solutions. Q: How fast is 5G? A: 5G is designed to deliver maximum data rates of up to 20 Gbps based on IMT-2020 requirements. Qualcomm Technologies' flagship 5G solutions, the Qualcomm® Snapdragon ™ X55 and Snapdragon X60 Modem-RF systems, are designed to achieve maximum downlink data rates of up to 7.5 Gbps. But 5G is more than just how fast it is. In addition to higher peak data rates, 5G is designed to provide much more

network capacity by expanding to a new spectrum, such as mmWave. 5G can also deliver much lower latency for more immediate response, and can provide an overall smoother user experience so data rates stay consistently high, even when users are on the go. And the new 5G NR mobile network is backed by a Gigabit LTE coverage base, which can provide ubiquitous Gigabit-class connectivity. Q: Who invented 5G? A: No company or person owns 5G, but there are multiple companies within the mobile ecosystem that are helping bring 5G to life. Qualcomm has played a major role in inventing the many core technologies that drive the industry forward and make up 5G, the next wireless standard. We are at the heart of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the industry organization that defines global specifications for 3G UMTS (including HSPA), 4G LTE and 5G technologies. 3GPP is driving many essential inventions in all aspects of 5G design, from the air interface to the service layer. Other 3GPP 5G members range from infrastructure vendors and component / device manufacturers to mobile network operators and vertical service providers. Q: What underlying technologies make up 5G? A: 5G is based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), a method of modulating a digital signal through several different channels to reduce interference. 5G uses the 5G NR air interface in conjunction with OFDM principles. 5G also uses broader bandwidth technologies, such as sub6 GHz and mmWave. Like 4G LTE, 5G OFDM operates on the same mobile network principles. However, the new 5G NR air interface can further enhance OFDM to offer a much higher degree of flexibility and scalability. This could provide more 5G access to more people and things for a variety of different use cases. 5G will bring wider bandwidths by expanding the use of spectrum resources, from sub-3 GHz used in 4G to 100 GHz and more. 5G can operate in both lower bands (eg Sub-6 GHz) and mmWave (eg 24 GHz and higher), providing extreme capacity, multi-Gbps performance and low latency. 5G is designed to not only provide better and faster mobile broadband services compared to 4G LTE, but it can also expand to new service areas, such as mission critical communications and massive IoT connection. This is enabled by many new 5G NR air interface design techniques, such as a new autonomous TDD subframe design. Q: How and when will 5G affect the global economy?

A: 5G is driving global growth. • $13.2 Trillion dollars of global economic output • 22.3 Million new jobs created • $2.1 Trillion dollars in GDP growth Through a historical study of 5G Economy, we found that the full economic impact of 5G will likely be realized worldwide by 2035, supporting a wide range of industries and possibly allowing up to $ 13.2 billion worth of goods and services. . This impact is much greater than previous network generations. The development requirements of the new 5G network are also expanding beyond traditional mobile network players to industries like the automotive industry. The study also revealed that the 5G value chain (including OEMs, operators, content creators, app developers, and consumers) could only support up to 22.3 million jobs, or more than one job for each person in Beijing, China. And there are many new and emerging applications that will still be defined in the future. Only time will tell what the "5G effect" will be on the economy. Q: How will 5G affect me? A: 5G is designed to do a variety of things that can transform our lives, including giving us faster download speeds, low latency, and more capacity and connectivity for billions of devices—especially in the areas of virtual reality (VR), the IoT, and artificial intelligence (AI). For example, with 5G, you can access new and improved experiences including near-instant access to cloud services, multiplayer cloud gaming, shopping with augmented reality, and real-time video translation and collaboration, and more. Q: How do 5G consumers use it? A: The average consumer is expected to go from being able to consume 2.3 GB of data per month today to about 11 GB of data per month on their smartphone in 2022. This is due to the explosive growth in bespoke video traffic mobile devices are increasingly becoming the source of media and entertainment, as well as massive growth in computing and always-connected cloud experiences. 4G completely changed the way we consume information. In the past decade, we have witnessed advancements in the mobile app industry around services like video streaming, carpooling, food delivery, and

more. 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem to new industries. This will contribute to cutting-edge user experiences, such as Unlimited Extreme Reality (XR), seamless IoT capabilities, new business applications, onpremises interactive content, and instant access to the cloud, to name a few. Q: How do 5G companies use it? A: With high data rates and superior network reliability, 5G will have a tremendous impact on business. The benefits of 5G will improve business efficiency while giving users faster access to more information. Depending on the industry, some companies may make full use of 5G's capabilities, especially those that need the high speed, low latency, and network capacity that 5G is designed to provide. For example, smart factories could use 5G to run industrial Ethernet to help them increase operational productivity and accuracy. Q: How do you use 5G cities? A: Smart cities could use 5G in a variety of ways to transform the lives of the people who live in them, primarily by providing greater efficiency, such as greater connectivity between people and things, higher data speeds, and lower latency. than ever in areas such as automotive security, infrastructure, virtual reality and entertainment. Q: How fast is 5G? A: 5G is designed to deliver maximum data rates of up to 20 Gbps based on IMT-2020 requirements. Qualcomm Technologies' flagship 5G solutions, the Qualcomm® Snapdragon ™ X55 and Snapdragon X60 Modem-RF systems, are designed to achieve maximum downlink data rates of up to 7.5 Gbps. But 5G is more than just how fast it is. In addition to higher peak data rates, 5G is designed to provide much more network capacity by expanding to a new spectrum, such as mmWave. 5G can also deliver much lower latency for more immediate response, and can provide an overall smoother user experience so data rates stay consistently high, even when users are on the go. And the new 5G NR mobile network is backed by a Gigabit LTE coverage base, which can provide ubiquitous Gigabit-class connectivity. Q: How does 5G work? A: Like 4G LTE, 5G is also OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) based and will operate on the same mobile network principles. However, the new 5G NR (New Radio) air interface will further enhance

OFDM to offer a much higher degree of flexibility and scalability. Not only will 5G provide better and faster mobile broadband services compared to 4G LTE, but it will also expand into new service areas, such as mission-critical communications and massive IoT connection. This is enabled by many new 5G NR air interface design techniques, such as a new autonomous TDD subframe design. Q: Does 5G change my home Internet service? A: 5G can change Internet service at home by providing a wireless modem alternative to existing cables. Internet service providers (ISPs) can now serve customers using 5G infrastructure, making 5G coverage, performance, and deployment flexibility a compelling backhaul alternative to fiber, DSL solutions or wired. Q: is 5G available now? A: Yes, 5G is here today, and global operators started rolling out new 5G networks in early 2019. 5G mobile networks are expected to be available across the country in many countries by 2020. Also, all major manufacturers Android phones are marketing 5G phones. And soon, even more people will be able to access 5G. 5G has been implemented in over 20 countries and counting. We are seeing much faster deployment and adoption compared to 4G. Consumers are very excited about high speeds and low latencies. But 5G goes beyond these benefits by also providing the capacity of services

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evaluation models, [7] GENI Key Concepts - Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) [8] A. Galis, et al., "Management and Service-aware Networking Architectures (MANA) for Future Internet" - Invited paper IEEE 2009 Fourth International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom09) 26-28 August 2009, Xi'an, China, [9] NGMN Alliance document "Description of Network Slicing Concept", January 2016; media/160113_Network_Slicing_v1_0.pdf [10] 3GPP TR 23.799, “Study on Architecture for Next Generation System,” September 2016, [11] Paul, M., Schallen, S., Betts, M., Hood, D., et al., Open Network Foundation document "Applying SDN Architecture to 5G Slicing", April 2016; [12] Technical Report Application of network softwarization to IMT-2020, ITU-T FG IMT2020, December 2016, imt-2020/Pages/default.aspx [13] Galis, A., et al. “Network Slicing Problems”; “Network Slicing Architecture” - [14] 5G Infrastructure Association – Vertical Sectors White Papers [15] Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Alliance, “5G White Paper”, Feb. 2015, [16] A. Galis, “Towards Slice Networking,” presentation at IETF98 -, March 2017; [17] 5G NORMA project Deliverable D3.2, “Network Architecture – Intermediate Report”,

[18] ETSI, Network Functions Virtualisation, Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Management and Orchestration, December 2014. [Online]. Available: gs/NFVMAN/001 099/001/01.01.01 60/gs nfv-man001v010101p.pdf [19] OASIS, Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards, TOSCA Simple Profile for Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) Version 1.0, March 2016. [Online]. Available: [20] A. Galis, S. Kuklinski, J. Dong, et al., “Network Slicing - Revised Problem Statement” - IETF, [21] L. Qiang, A. Galis, L. Geng, et al., “Technology Independent Information Model for Network Slicing,” IETF [22] Recommendation report: Application of network softwarization to IMT2020 (O-041) – 150 pages - published by ITU-T IMT2020 in January 2017 [23] Alex Galis, Chih-Lin I, “Towards 5G Network Slicing - Motivations and Challenges” IEEE 5G Tech Focus, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2017 [2-24] A. Galis, S. Kuklinski, J. Dong, et al., “Network Slicing - Revised Problem Statement (4th Version),” July 2017 - draft-galis-netslices-revisedproblem-statement-01 [25] 5G NORMA project Deliverable D4.1 “RAN architecture components – preliminary concepts,” [26] 5G NORMA project Deliverable D3.2 5G NORMA network architecture – Intermediate report,

Applications of 6G Wireless