Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching 1774072661, 9781774072660

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching discusses the basics of teaching a language, concept of learning and teaching

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Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching
 1774072661, 9781774072660

Table of contents :
About the Author
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
1 An Introduction to Language Teaching
2 The Concept of Learning
3 Second Language Teaching and Learning
4 Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching
5 Strategies for Language Teaching
6 Online Language Teaching
7 Trends In Linguistic Theory
8 Learning Strategies for Languages
9 Community Language Teaching And Learning
10 Future Scope of Language Teaching

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Julieta Arjona Sumague


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching Julieta Arjona Sumague

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Julieta Arjona Sumague took up Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, major in Accounting at the University of the East, Recto Manila, Philippines in 1982. She finished Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) major n English at the Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus, Laguna, Philippines in the year 2013. At present, she is an Assistant Professor II and teaching in the College of Business Management and Accountancy, Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU), San Pablo City Campus, San Pablo City, Laguna, Philippines. She handles Methods of Research, Undergraduate Thesis A and B, Business Communication and Internship Program. She is also The Research Unit Head in CBMA where her major roles are assisting the Dean in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of research programs and activities of the college, including in-house review for faculty members, evaluation and reporting of research accomplishments as well as the management of various researches being conducted by the students, among others. She attended different seminars, conferences, trainings, and workshops on researches and language communication. She became a Research Evaluator, Coordinator, and Facilitator in her campus and other campuses in Laguna, Philippines. She is a member of different organizations in the Philippines.


List of Figures ................................................................................................xi List of Tables.................................................................................................xv List of Abbreviations ...................................................................................xvii Preface.................................................................................................... ....xix Chapter 1

An Introduction to Language Teaching ..................................................... 1 1.1. Introduction ........................................................................................ 2 1.2. Language Teaching ............................................................................. 3 1.3. History of Language Teaching ............................................................. 4 1.4. Objectives of Language Teaching ...................................................... 10 1.5. Principles of Language Teaching ....................................................... 12 1.6. Characteristics of A Good Language Teacher ..................................... 16 1.7. Significance of Language Learning ................................................... 21 References ............................................................................................... 24

Chapter 2

The Concept of Learning ......................................................................... 25 2.1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 26 2.2. Evolution of Learning ........................................................................ 28 2.3. The Goal of Learning ........................................................................ 30 2.4. General Principles of Learning .......................................................... 31 2.5. Types of Learning .............................................................................. 33 2.6. Theories of Learning.......................................................................... 35 2.7. Characteristics of Learning ................................................................ 38 2.8. Factors Influencing Learning ............................................................ 40 References ............................................................................................... 48

Chapter 3

Second Language Teaching and Learning ................................................ 51 3.1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 52

3.2. Second Language Teaching .............................................................. 52 3.3. The Foreign Language Teaching Methodologies ................................. 54 3.4. Utilization of Technology In Teaching And Adapting Second Language .......................................................................... 58 3.5. Second Language Learning .............................................................. 60 3.6. Second Language Learning Strategies ............................................... 63 3.7. Studies In Student Techniques Improving Language Teaching and Learning .................................. 65 3.8. The ‘Good Language Student’ .......................................................... 67 3.9. Linguistics And Second Language Teaching ...................................... 68 3.10. The Role of Applied Linguistics ...................................................... 70 References ............................................................................................... 74 Chapter 4

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching ............................................... 75 4.1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 76 4.2. How Linguistics Guides Language Teaching or Language Pedagogy? .................................................................. 78 4.3. Language Theories And Language Teaching From Traditional Grammar To Functionalism ............................................................ 82 4.4. Psychological Grammar and the Language Teacher........................... 86 4.5. Language Teaching: Linguistic Theory In Practice .............................. 88 4.6. Linguistic Theory And Research: Implications For Second Language Teaching ............................................................ 90 4.7. Language Teaching Approaches ........................................................ 93 References ............................................................................................... 96

Chapter 5

Strategies For Language Teaching ......................................................... 103 5.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 104 5.2. Foreign Language Teaching Strategies ............................................. 105 5.3. Types of Language Teaching Methodologies .................................... 107 5.4. Strategy Assessment Types ............................................................... 125 5.5. Benefits of Teaching Foreign Languages .......................................... 126 References ............................................................................................. 128

Chapter 6

Online Language Teaching .................................................................... 131 6.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 132 6.2. Types Of Skills In Online Language Teaching .................................. 133 6.3. Principles of Effective Online Teaching ........................................... 137


6.4. Tools of Online Language Learning ................................................. 142 6.5. Call And Language Teacher Education ............................................ 146 6.6. Platforms For Online Language Teaching ........................................ 148 6.7. Future Teacher Technology Preparation ........................................... 150 6.8. Conclusion ..................................................................................... 150 References ............................................................................................. 152 Chapter 7

Trends In Linguistic Theory ................................................................... 155 7.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 156 7.2. Historical Sociolinguistics ............................................................... 158 7.3. Trends In Applied Linguistics........................................................... 159 7.4. Computational Linguistics............................................................... 162 7.5. Major Technological Innovations In The Theories of Linguistics ................................................................................ 163 7.6. Machine Translation Will Continue To Become More Sophisticated................................................................................ 171 References ............................................................................................. 175

Chapter 8

Learning Strategies For Languages......................................................... 179 8.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 180 8.2. History of Language Learning Strategies .......................................... 182 8.3. Language Learning Strategies Defined ............................................ 187 8.4. The Characteristics of Language Learning Strategy........................... 188 8.5. The Importance of Language Learning Strategies In Language Learning ....................................................................... 189 8.6. Language Learning Strategies According To Oxford ......................... 190 8.7. Taxonomy Of Language Learning Strategies .................................... 194 8.8. The Ten Most Effective Language Learning Strategies ....................... 198 References ............................................................................................. 200

Chapter 9

Community Language Teaching And Learning ..................................... 203 9.1. Introduction ................................................................................... 204 9.2. Classroom Activities In Communicative Language Teaching ........... 206 9.3. Techniques In Communicative Approach ........................................ 209 9.4. Goals Of Language Teaching .......................................................... 212 9.5. The Position Of Educators And Students In The Classroom .............. 215


9.6. Communicative Language Teaching In The Present Times ................ 216 References ............................................................................................. 222 Chapter 10 Future Scope Of Language Teaching ..................................................... 223 10.1. Introduction .................................................................................. 224 10.2. The Current Language Deficit ....................................................... 225 10.3. Identifying The Languages The World Needs ................................. 228 10.4. Provisional List of Languages of The Future ................................... 229 10.5. Future Teaching And Future Perspectives ....................................... 234 10.6. Future Language Teachers ............................................................. 237 10.7. On Computer And Foreign Language Teaching And Learning In Big Data Era............................................................... 241 References ............................................................................................. 243 Index ..................................................................................................... 249



Figure 1.1: Representation of language teaching Figure 1.2: Henry sweet facilitated the language reform movement Figure 1.3: Representation of language teacher giving lessons Figure 1.4: Bilingualism/multilingualism facilitates business relationships with global companies Figure 2.1: Three general principles of learning Figure 2.2: Walking: activity in motor learning Figure 2.3: There are mainly three theories of learning: (a) conditioning theory, (b) cognitive learning theory, and (c) social learning theory Figure 2.4: Fatigue hampers the capacity of learning Figure 2.5: A healthy diet improves mental activity and hence the learning Figure 2.6: Motivation plays a great role in the learning process Figure 2.7: Learning is affected by overcrowding Figure 3.1: An image of a training course going on Figure 3.2: The teachers use technology in providing second language training to the students Figure 3.3: The students can be taught the second language in groups by means of discussions Figure 3.4: Students reading books to learn the second language Figure 4.1: Linguistic theory and language teaching Figure 4.2: Linguistics guides language teaching or language pedagogy Figure 4.3: Teacher development workshop for novice teachers of English “fundamentals of English language teaching methodology” Figure 4.4: Definition of traditional grammar Figure 4.5: Grammar-translation method

Figure 4.6: Evaluation of grammar-translation method Figure 4.7: Psychological grammar and the language teacher Figure 4.8: Language teaching: linguistic theory in practice Figure 4.9: Linguistic theory and research: implications for second language teaching Figure 4.10: Implication for second language teaching Figure 4.11: Language teaching approaches Figure 5.1: A woman studying languages Figure 5.2: A teacher teaching students Figure 5.3: Thank you note in various languages Figure 5.4: Various idioms of English Figure 5.5: Teacher telling story to students Figure 5.6: Students playing Simon Says Game Figure 5.7: Building blocks Figure 5.8: Bilingualism in Canada by Federal Electoral Riding based on the 2003 Representation Order Figure 5.9: Teacher–student relationship Figure 6.1: Flexibility of online language teaching Figure 6.2: Ways to connect to audience in online teaching Figure 6.3: Use of digital devices in online language teaching Figure 7.1: There are various trends in the field of Linguistics that are evolving and there is a need to understand the trends for the upcoming theories Figure 7.2: There are major trends that have been developed in the modern times along with development of the technology that has already overtook the entire world Figure 7.3: Mobile learning has been a quite upcoming trend that has influenced various readers all over the world Figure 7.4: There are various online platforms that allow the students as well as the teachers to create their own quiz for their assessment and allow the sharing of these quizzes Figure 7.5: Voice search has completely revolutionized the entire field of linguistics and will change the usage of language in the upcoming future Figure 9.1: Classroom, school, education, and learning Figure 9.2: Teacher uses multiple skills xii

Figure 10.1: Spanish grammar Figure 10.2 Hindi alphabets Figure 10.3: English language alphabets Figure 10.4: Language translator applications are the needs of the millennials right now Figure 10.5: Nihongo Desu Ka Figure 10.6: Henn-Ahn’s German grammar Figure 10.7: Grammar for the French tongue



Table 5.1: Comparison of Strategy Assessment Types



computer-assisted instruction


computer-assisted language learning


community language learning


communicative language teaching


course management software


English as a lingua franca


first language


first language culture


learning management platforms


listening, speaking, reading, and writing


second language


second language acquisition


technology-enhanced language learning


target language culture


total physical response


Subject and Objective Communication takes a vital role in the exchange of ideas and thoughts between the individuals and the various generations. However, in addition to medium, they need a language in which they can communicate among themselves to share their ideas and feelings with others, so that they can also comprehend the things that are being told to them. Language acts as a comprehensive tool that enables good communication among the people and provides them a platform so that they can be on a single page. The people need language to comprehend all the communications that are being made across the globe and this is where the translation of languages presumes a high level of importance. There are various languages in which the humans converse across the globe, and most of the people are comfortable to express their views best in the language they are accustomed to speak or write. Language teaching, hence, becomes important for the people to understand different languages and make them able to speak, read and write in the languages that matter at a given point of time. The objective of this book is to explain the readers, the method of teaching the languages to the people and also focus on the various aspects that may be related to the process of language teaching. Salient Features of the Book •

The book starts off by explaining the meaning of language teaching to the readers and informing them about the history of it. It also enlists various objectives of language teaching and the principles that it follows. The book explains all the characteristics that must be possessed by a good language teacher and throws light on the significance of language learning in the current set up. The book moves further to focus on the evolution of learning along with the goal with which learning is done. The book throws light on the general principles on which learning is based and explains various types of learnings that take place in the world. The book throws light on the various theories of learning and its characteristics. It also focuses on the various factors which impact the learning process.


The book moves further to focus on the process of the second language learning and its teaching. The book explains the meaning of the second language and enlists various ways in which the second language is taught around the world. It also points out the importance of technology in the teaching and learning process and the strategies involved in the learning of a second language. The book talks about the role of applied linguistics in second language acquisition and teaching. The book brings the focus of the readers to the strategies involved in language teaching and the methodologies involved in the teaching of it. It also brings the focus to the use of online teaching systems in language teaching. It talks about the principles of effective online teaching and the tools involved with online language learning. The book talks about the various platforms available for online teaching of language and the future of teaching technologies across the globe. The book informs the readers about the history of sociolinguistics. It discusses the various trends in the applied linguistics and focuses on the computational form of linguistics. It brings the focus of the readers to the major technological innovations in the theories of linguistics and the role of machine translation of language in the changing modern world. The readers are, finally, informed about the future trends in the field of language teaching by pointing out the deficiencies in the current set up. The book also discusses some of the possible linguistic forms of the future and takes a futuristic perspective on the teaching of languages. It also discusses the primary requirements of the teachers of language in the future and throws light on the use of computer in language teaching.


An Introduction to Language Teaching

CONTENTS 1.1. Introduction ........................................................................................ 2 1.2. Language Teaching ............................................................................. 3 1.3. History of Language Teaching ............................................................. 4 1.4. Objectives of Language Teaching ...................................................... 10 1.5. Principles of Language Teaching ....................................................... 12 1.6. Characteristics of A Good Language Teacher ..................................... 16 1.7. Significance of Language Learning ................................................... 21 References ............................................................................................... 24


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Language is an important part of the society. Language skills are important in both, native language and second language. Language teaching has emerged as an important discipline all over the world. This chapter discusses what language teaching means. It then covers the history of language teaching and the earliest methods which shaped the modern approaches used in teaching. The chapter then covers the objectives and principles of language teaching. The role of a good language teacher in the learning process of the students cannot be stressed enough. The chapter discusses the traits a language teacher must possess to be effective in the class. Finally, the chapter describes the importance of learning language in the globalized world.

1.1. INTRODUCTION Teaching is a process by which intimate contact is established between a knowledgeable and mature person and a less knowledgeable on with the aim of furthering the education of the latter. Teaching is an arrangement in which knowledge gaps are sought to overcome. It is a system of actions that is aimed at producing learning. Teaching is human engineering. It refers to the various duties that the teacher performs in order to leas the students to the expected learning. Hence it is a technical job which is noble in nature. Literature has described teaching in various ways. Some literature provides highly ideational, idealistic descriptions of teaching, on the other hand some describe the tasks that teaching entails specifically. Teaching is an interactive process and involves two parties, the teacher and the student. Teaching is done under conducive environment which helps in effective construction of knowledge by students. It is also defined as a process that is designed to have an impact on the learner’s perpetual and cognitive process. In this sense, teaching is educating a person. Education is a wider concept that involves other aspects like assessment and evaluation. The aim of education is to enable the development of individual and lead to social progress. Teaching is central to education and helps in fulfilling this objective. Teaching is the tool used to educate individuals. The aim of teaching is to lead to some learning, without which teaching cannot be called as effective. Language teaching is a process by which an individual acquires some communicative competency or fluency in a language. Language teaching involves a teacher who facilitates the practice of language for the learners.

An Introduction to Language Teaching


The practice is important if the teaching has to be effective. At times, language teaching can end up as memorization of vocabulary and application of grammar rules. This method is less effective and not desirable. The practice is the key to overcome this challenge.

1.2. LANGUAGE TEACHING All teaching has two aspects, andragogy and pedagogy. Andragogy refers to teaching the adults and pedagogy refers to teaching children. The approach for teaching children varies from those used for adults. This is because adults apply their learnings to prior experience. Children, on the other hand, are formulating experiences as a part of language acquisition process. Language teaching is concerned with individual studies in a given language, which may or may not be their native language. It generally includes developing all the three skills, namely spoken, written, and reading. Language teaching is mainly dependent on the learner and not on language or other factors. For example, teaching of English could be as a Second Language or as a Foreign Language. In either case linguistics is only one aspect of the study. Sometimes, students learn language for surviving, in which case literature may not be the focus of teaching. In the modern language study, business as well as technical language. Technical language is needed in professionals like nurse, doctors, etc. Language teaching can take various forms like classroom teaching or online. The online teaching may show live videos or stream recorded ones. It could be in the form of standalone course or could involve study materials, sound files and other combinations. Teachers may deliver a predefined curriculum which is designed and developed by some experts. The teachers may develop the curriculum themselves. Even, when following a “canned curriculum” some improvisations are necessary for effective learning. Language is a separate subject and a part of school education. The curriculum aims at teaching the target language and making the learner understand the link between language and culture. The purpose of language teaching in basic education is to facilitate students to gain ownership of the diverse social practices. They students should be able to use language effectively in life. The students have to be taught to use language to organize their thought, to deliberate, to evaluate and resolve issues and so that they can access their current and past


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

cultural expressions. Besides, the students should be able to understand the contribution of language in knowledge building and cultural values. They should be able to adopt an analytical and responsible attitude towards the challenges that the world is encountering. Teaching a second language or foreign language refers to teaching a non-native language to students. Second language could be taught within the school system or privately in language schools or home tutor. People feel the need to learn a foreign language due to various reasons. Some of them may have immigrated to a different country also need to acquire a knowledge of the local language. Others may want to enhance their professional career. Moreover, there are various benefits associated with second language acquisition.

Figure 1.1: Representation of language teaching. Source:

1.3. HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING Review of history of language teaching is important for understanding the context of contemporary methods. From the historical perspective it is evident that the issues that led to the evolution of the modern methods are those that were always the center of discussion on how to impart knowledge of foreign language. Evolution of language teaching techniques over the course of time are an evidence to changes in the proficiency language learners need. For example,

An Introduction to Language Teaching


learners have to achieve oral fluency beyond just reading comprehension as the objective of their learning. They change also indicate the evolution of theories of the nature of language and language learning. There are many issues ta present in language teaching which is not new. Today’s controversies reflect contemporary responses to questions that have been asked often throughout the history of language teaching. In the eighteenth century, modern language began to be included in the curriculum of European schools. The techniques that were used were similar to the ones used in teaching Latin. The textbooks mainly comprised of statements of list of vocabulary, grammar rules and translation of sentences. Speaking a foreign language was not the main objective, rather it was limited to reading comprehension aloud. The sentences were constructed only to explain grammatical rules. It has little relevance to the language used for communication in real life. By nineteenth century, the strategy that was used to teach Latin was adopted for teaching other languages as well in school. In the mid-ninetieth century study material mainly comprised of lessons that was devised around grammar rules. The rules of grammar were explained and illustrated using sentences. Nineteenth-century textbook compilers were mainly determined to codify the foreign language into frozen rules of morphology and syntax to be explained and eventually memorized. Oral fluency was not given importance. Only a few written exercises were included randomly as an explanation to the rules. This approach came to be known as Grammartranslation method.

1.3.1. Introduction of the Grammar-Translation Method The leading exponents of these methods were Johann Seidenstiicker, Johann Meidinger, H. S. Ollendorf and Karl Plotz. It was a contribution of the German scholarship. One of the critics about this method pointed out that its object was “to know everything about something rather than the thing itself.” This method was known as Prussian Method in the U.S. The main features of this method were as follows: •

Foreign language study was introduced to understand literature of the language. Moreover, foreign language study was expected to facilitate mental disciple and intellectual development. This method focused on the grammar rules to understand a language.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Subsequently this knowledge was applied to translating sentences. The texts were translated to and from the language being studied. The drawback of this language was that it viewed language learning as mere memorization of rules and facts. This was the approach used to understand and manipulate the syntax and structure of the target language. The native language was considered as the basis and the second language was acquired by referencing the first language. •

This method concentrated mainly on reading or writing and did no focus on enhancing the speaking or listening skills. • Reading text influenced vocabulary selection. The words were introduced using bilingual word list, dictionary and rote learning. Typically, grammar-translation text would be based on grammar rules and vocabulary items mentioned in the exercise. • The sentence is the foundation of language teaching practice. The focus of this method was mainly on translating sentences to and from the language being taught. This is a distinctive feature of this method. In the earlier methods, grammar was used as the tool to study foreign language. This method was not effective for students pursuing secondary education. Emphasis was placed on language to facilitate the learning process. • Accuracy was very important. Teaching set high standards for students to achieve in translation. This is because importance was given to meticulous standards of accuracy. This was mandatory for successfully passing the written tests that was prevalent during that period. • Grammar was taught deductively. Grammar rules were presented and studied and were practiced by translating sentences. In most Grammar-Translation texts, a syllabus was followed for the sequencing of grammar points throughout a text, and there was an attempt to teach grammar in an organized and systematic way. The first language of the student was used for teaching. New items were explained using the first language. It was also used to compare the target language with the first language. The Grammar-translation method was widely used in European and foreign language education for almost a century from the 1840s to the 1940s. Even today the modified form of this method is used in some countries. Some critics like Howatt argue that this method was not as unproductive as other critics portray it. The worst exercises were developed by critics with

An Introduction to Language Teaching


the intention of demonstrating that German and French were as rigorous as classical languages. As a result, Grammar-translation courses were not considered as tedious by school learners as they had to memorize a long list of grammar rules which were challenging. They were expected to translate sentences perfectly. This method is very challenging for students, however it is not very demanding on the teacher’s part.

1.3.2. Language Teaching Innovations in the Nineteenth Century Towards the mid-nineteenth century the Grammar-Translation witnessed a decline. There were several factors responsible for this. There were opportunities for communication among the people of Europe. Hence a need for oral proficiency in foreign language was felt. There was an increase in demand for conversation books and phrase books among people who opted for private study. The language teachers started paying attention to the methodology used for teaching modern languages in school. There was a general discontent with the public education system and it was increasingly viewed as inadequate. In various parts of Europe, language teachers started developing novel methods to teach language. Each of them developed a specific approach for improving the teaching of modern languages. C. Marcel, a Frenchman, based his model for language teaching on child learning methods. He stressed on the significance of meaning in learning. He suggested that reading should precede other skills and tried to locate language teaching within a broader educational framework. T. Prendergast, an Englishman made to important observations about children. First, children interpret speech by using contextual and situational cues. Second, they rote learn phrased and routine utterances while speaking. His contribution to language teaching was that he proposed the first “structural syllabus” for language teaching. He suggested the first lesson in language should be the basic structural pattern that occurs in language.

1.3.3. The Reform Movement There were many language experts like Prendergast, Marcel and Gouin who had developed alternative approached to teaching language and had strived to make them popular. However, they were not successful in their efforts.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


The 1880’s witnessed a significant development due to the efforts of practically minded linguists like Wilhelm Vietor in Germany, Henry Sweet in England, and Paul Passy in France. They started providing the intellectual leadership to advance the reformists idea and give it more standing and acceptance. They were successful in reinforcing the discipline of linguistics. One of the primary objectives of the association was to transform the teaching of modern language. It advocated the following: • • •

Impart knowledge about the spoken language. Improve pronunciation habits by emphasizing phonetic training. Use conversation texts and dialogues to introduce conversational phrases and idioms. • Use the inductive method to make students understand grammar. • Minimize the association with mother tongue while teaching new meaning, instead establish association within the language being taught. Linguists actively participated in intense debates around the most appropriate method to teach language. Ideas were deliberated and defended in articles, books and pamphlets. Henry Sweet reasoned that scientific analysis of language and understanding psychology should be the foundation for sound methodological principles. He wrote a book called The Practical Study of Languages (1899) in which he discussed the principles based on which teaching method should be developed. Some of them were: • • •

Choose carefully what is to be taught. Set out the limitations on what is to be taught. Order what is to be taught in terms of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. • Rank what is to be taught from simple to complex. Wilhelm Vietor, a German scholar, rationalized his views on language teaching through linguistic theory. His contention was that teachers should train in phonetics would facilitate teachers to improve their pronunciation. Speech patterns were more important than grammar in language teaching. He published his insights in a powerful pamphlet which was called, Language Teaching Must Start Afresh. In this pamphlet he criticized Grammartranslation for not being effective. According to him it is important to train teachers in the new science of phonetics.

An Introduction to Language Teaching


Overall, the reformers stressed on the following: • • • •

An oral-based methodology should be used since speaking the language is the most important aspect. The insights gained about phonetics should be used in teaching and training of teachers. The learner should be exposed to the spoken form of language before the written form. Words should be taught by showing their use in sentences. Sentence should not to be taught in isolation rather in meaningful context. Inductive method should be used to teach grammar. This requires that the students must be familiarized with grammar rules only post practicing grammar points in context. To the extent possible translation should not be used. Mother tongue could be used sparingly like when introducing new words and rechecking comprehension. These principles laid down the theoretical foundation which facilitated a principled approach to language teaching.

Figure 1.2: Henry sweet facilitated the language reform movement. Source: jpg

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


1.3.4. The Emergence of Direct Method The natural language learning principles laid the basis for the Direct Method. It is the most widely recognized natural methods. The propagators of this method introduced it in Germany and France. During the end of the century it was approved in these countries. Sauveur and Maximilian Berlitz made direct method popular in US. They used it widely in commercial language schools. The Direct Method adopted the following principles: •

Instruction in the classroom were given only in the language being taught. • The vocabulary and sentences being taught pertained to everyday use. • Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. • Inductive method was used to teach grammar. • The new concepts were introduced orally. • Pictures, demonstration and objects were used to teach concrete vocabulary. Ideas were associated to teach abstract vocabulary. • Comprehension learning focused on both speech and listening. • Grammar and pronunciation were the focus points. Issues are addressed in specific ways by each method. An understanding of the basic attributes of methods in language teaching can be gained by conceiving the notion of method more systematically. These methods are discussed in detail in another chapter.

1.4. OBJECTIVES OF LANGUAGE TEACHING Language teaching objectives define the purpose of the lesson. It sets out what skills the learners will be acquiring in reading, listening, writing, speaking as well as thinking. When developing a language objective, the teacher must think what the students are going to learn that can enhance their language skills. Various language objectives can be included in the curriculum as per the goals and activities of the lesson. In some lessons the objective may to emphasize on the learner’s vocabulary. Others may be concerned with reading comprehension skills

An Introduction to Language Teaching


or writing practice. Teaching objectives also include helping the learners brainstorm, outline, draft, revise and complete a text. Language teaching often is incorporated in other subjects like math, science or history in school education. Some examples how content and language objective can be achieved together are:

1. Example 1 Content Objective: The students are to be taught to explore attributes using geometric figures and make inferences about geometric relationships. Language Objectives: The students should develop the ability to use mathematical vocabulary and explain the attributes of geometric figure.

2. Example 2 Content Objective: The students should be able to compare and contrast the physical adaptations of sharks and whales which help these mammals survive. Language Objective: The students must frame a paragraph using vocabulary generally used in the language function of compare and contrast.

1.4.1. Vocabulary Objectives Vocabulary is an important part of language. Emphasizing on vocabulary is important so that students can master the content objective. Teachers must recognize when and how vocabulary is to be introduced in the lessons. There may be some tier two-vocabulary or background vocabulary that must also be addressed for the second language learners. Vocabulary is important to comprehend any lesson. Else the learner may lose focus and get distracted from the conceptual ties. Keeping the students focused is a challenging task. Teachers must eliminate any other distractions that may arise due lack of sound vocabulary. Vocabulary objectives can be integrated with math objective as shown in the example given. Students will be able to use specific vocabulary associated with mathematics, like when explain the attributes of geometric figures. The following are the general objectives of language teaching: • •

Develop the student’s intellectual and professional abilities. Impart the basic language skills i.e. Listening, Speaking, Reading

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


• • • •

and Writing in order to become fluent in communicating in the language. Develop the linguistic abilities that is required in day-to-day life. Develop the linguistic abilities that is essential for professional career. Develop positive attitude towards language. Develop linguistic abilities that makes them aware of social, economic and cultural issues in the society and make fruitful contribution in resolving them.

1.5. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE TEACHING Teaching a language, whether first or second is more than just teaching a description of it. Teaching involves developing the ability to use the language on habit level. This is applicable for both first and second language learning. All modern language teaching is based on some well-defined principles which. These are derived from linguistic and psychological sciences.

1.5.1. Scientific Principles The scientific principles of language teaching are described below: Principle 1 – Emphasis on Sounds: Priority should be given to sounds in the scheme of teaching. It cannot be presented in isolation. Sounds have to in right expressions and include rhythm and intonation which a native speaker of the language uses. Principle 2 – Presentation of Language in Basic Sentence Patterns: The basic sentence patterns are those that are used in day-to-day conversations. Teaching should proceed from small sentences to more long and complex ones. It has been pointed out that students can remember longer sentences of mother-tongue compared to foreign language. This has implications for the teaching method. Principle 3 – Language Patterns as Habits: The actual command over language is reflected at the habit level. Only teaching about the language is not sufficient. Teaching should aim at making language patterns as habits through rigorous practice in various situations. The learner should be taught to use language patterns and construction of sentences using the right words at normal pace while communicating. In teaching, habitually used patterns of language should be given priority and just expansion of vocabulary.

An Introduction to Language Teaching


Principle 4 – Imitation: Imitation is An Important Part of Language Teaching: Good speech can be taught by imitating intelligible models which can help the learners gain command over the language. Principle 5 – Controlled Vocabulary: Vocabulary should not be overemphasized. Ideally, it should be taught and practiced only in real life context. This helps the learner understand the meaning better and the vocabulary will be reinforced. Principle 6 – Graded Patterns: Teaching a language is similar to imparting a new system of complex habits and habits are not acquired in a day. Hence language should be taught progressively at the appropriate pace. Progressive teaching means adding a new element to the existing one after the completion of each pattern. New patterns should not be mixed with new words. They should be practiced with vocabulary that has already been taught. Principle 7 – Selection and Gradation: Materials used for teaching is a crucial aspect and a requisite of good teaching. Materials should be selected based on grammatical items, vocabulary and structures. Language items should be selected on the basis of the following: • •

The frequency at which the items or words are used The range of the items i.e. the various contexts in which it can be used • The different meanings a word can have, in other words their coverage. • The convenience with which the item can be taught • The ease with which the learner can grasp the item • The teachability of the items in the social context The language material selected must be placed in an order. Grading includes: Grouping: It is concerned with the system of language and its structures. • Sequence: Sequence refers to the direction, expansion, variation and length of structure. Sequence should be maintained when arranging the sounds, words, phrases and the meaning they convey. Principle 8 – The Oral Way: Experts point out that oral method is the most effective way to learn a language. In fact, Prof Palmer stresses that •


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

speaking comes first. Learners should not be taught to read and write any material until they use its spoken form. Principle 9 – Priorities of Language Skills: The four fundamental skills of language are Listening, speaking, reading, and writing referred to as LSWR. The first to comprise the primary skills, while the last two are secondary skills. Reading and writing reinforce the language ability developed by listening and speaking. Understanding and speaking enable reading ability. Writing should come last. Principle 10 – Multiple Line of Approach: Teaching should approach a problem from multiple fronts. For any given topic many language activities can be conducted like reading, oral drill, sentence writing, grammar, composition, language exercise, translation, etc. Principle 11 – Language Habit Through Language Using: The best approach is to teach the use of language in various situations and context. The emphasis of teaching should be on the actual use of the language. Learning a language requires intensive practice. The learner has to be exposed to situations where the language is used extensively. Principle 12 – Spiral Approach: The spiral approach to teaching involves reinforcing the concepts, vocabulary and structures taught in the lessons that follow. They should be incorporated wherever logically possible. Principle 13 – Minimal Use of Mother Tongue: In case a second language or foreign language is being taught, the mother tongue should be used judiciously. In the beginning, the learners will require some instructions in the language already known. Subsequently, it is important to ensure that the learners do not use the mother tongue within the classroom.

1.5.2. Psychological Principles of Teaching Language There are some principles that have been derived from the science of psychology: Principle 1 – Motivation: Motivation is important for effective language learning, especially when it is a second language. It creates interest and curiosity to gain more knowledge about the language. The students must feel that learning language is necessary. This helps them grasp the skills easily. There are many ways in which students’ interest can be aroused by making the language more attractive. Pictures, models, charts, sketches and other visual aids can be used for the same. Tape recorders can be used for

An Introduction to Language Teaching


teaching correct pronunciation. The main objective is to give high exposure to students in the language taught in various contexts. Feedback is an essential part of teaching which helps correct mistakes. The general rule is ‘teach, test, reteach, retest.’ The content material should be used effectively and throughout the lessons. Palmer came up with the following six factors that can motivate learners to acquire language skills: • Minimize confusion amongst learners • Give them a sense of progress made by them • Encourage healthy competition amongst learners • Include interesting activities and game like exercise • Connect with the students and establish a healthy relation. • Include variety of activities. Principle 2 – Immediate Correction: Immediate correction is important; they make a huge difference. They help the learners respond better by pointing out the areas they need to improve. The methods adopted for correction should encourage learning. It should not embarrass the learner or lead to frustration; else they would be discouraged from learning. Principle 3 – Reinforcement: The general principle is that the lessons have to be reinforced immediately. Researchers indicate that reinforcement of correct responses facilitates effective learning. The learner should immediately know that his response is correct. This will give the assurance that they are progressing well. Principle 4 – Frequent Review: This is very important in teaching. Review and re-introduction of the same lessons is important so that students can retain better. While reviewing, variations should be there and the same contents should be practiced. Principle 5 – Correct Responses: This is another important psychological principle. It requires that activities should reinforce the concepts and understanding of the language. The strategies adopted by the teacher should encourage maximum rate of correct responses. This will give the learners a sense of achievement. They would feel that they have succeeded in making progress.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Principle 6 – Practice in Everyday Situations: A language is learnt with more intent when it is felt necessary for daily situations. Practicing language in the context of everyday use can help learners easily identify with it. In other words, the experiences and environment of the learner should be the starting point.

1.6. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LANGUAGE TEACHER The task of teaching language skills to the learner requires a special set of skills. Education is integral to the development of humans. Imagination and innovation are necessary in education. Without these education ends up being intellectual recycling of the same information. This knowledge is transferred to the student from the teacher and back to teacher in assessments. Education is lot more than just mechanical transmission of knowledge. Education should aim at devolving imagination power which will help in building knowledge. This is important for taking humanity forward. A teacher with creativity can do wonders in a language class. The innovative idea help break the monotony of the lessons. It makes the class lively and encourage student participation. The importance of imagination has been stressed by Albert Einstein who called it more important than knowledge. Studies have pointed out that the over expectations from the teacher has remained more or less the same over the years. However, what has changed is the way the way they are manifested in classroom. Various studies have tries identifying the ideal features, attributes of teachers which make them effective imparters of knowledge. A good language teacher must possess several qualities so that she can effectively transfer the knowledge she possesses to the learners. Moreover, a teacher should be experimental in their approach and be willing to explore various styles to pass on the knowledge more effectively. A good language teacher should display zeal when teaching her students. Last but not the least is the ability to assess the students and change the style of teaching based on them. The desirable traits of a language teacher are:

An Introduction to Language Teaching


Figure 1.3: Representation of language teacher giving lessons. Source:

1.6.1. Good Communication Skills A teacher is only as good as his knowledge as per a famous saying. However, what is more important is the ability to pass on this knowledge. Communication skills are an important attribute of a teacher. A language teacher should be a good speaker. Speaking is one of the skills that language teaching aims to develop and hence the teacher of the subject cannot lack this skill. Communication skills benefit the classroom in several ways. A teacher who speaks well can convey the lectures better and get better results. A good speaker can engage the class and the strength of the class increases automatically. Students are attracted to teachers who can speak well. In a language class a good speaker is an ideal role model and a student would strive hard to improve his own skills. It is found that highly effective teachers are good communicators themselves. This helps them teach the principles and concepts of language in a better way. The students can see the applications of concepts of language every day in the class when the teacher communicates. Real life examples help students relate to the subject better. Highly effective teachers are those who can articulate their ideas well, talk about various issues and display their values in teaching. There are

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


various roles a teacher dons in a classroom. One key skill they must possess is conflict resolution.

1.6.2. Relationship with Students An effective way to improve language is encouraging interaction. The teacher should develop a good relationship with their students. This creates trust and provides a positive and productive environment. Interaction is important in all subjects but in language teaching, it is indispensable. Good teachers always lend an ear to their student’s issues. Teachers who are genuinely concerned about the students have a positive influence on the students. It improves student’s attitudes and shapes their behavior. Such students display more determination and emerge as successful learners. They learn language faster and display stronger skills.

1.6.3. A Good Listener Besides, good communication skills, good listening skills are important. In fact, a good language teacher should be a better listener. The teacher can encourage the students to be better listeners. This will not only help them in developing their language skill, but also improve social relations.

1.6.4. Professional Knowledge Professional knowledge of language is mandatory, just knowing the language is not enough. A person may be a native speaker of a language and have great communication skills, but if he lacks professional knowledge, he cannot be effective teacher. A teacher must know the following: • •

The content of the language they are teaching The curriculum of the subject and the materials and programs that are • The values and approaches of managing the class • The educational context of language • Pedagogical content knowledge As per experts, teachers must possess both declarative and procedural knowledge so that can function effectively. Declarative knowledge means a teacher should know the content well and procedural knowledge means the ability to do the right things in the class.

An Introduction to Language Teaching


Language skills along with good professional knowledge are the key to good teaching. This means besides a degree in applied linguistics, the teacher should also have a certification in teaching. The teachers must also realize the strive for their own professional development and remain updated about the latest developments.

1.6.5. Personality/Personal Qualities Various empirical studies have pointed out that personality factors have a bearing on the effectiveness of teaching. In a study by Weinstein, 10 traits of a good teacher were identified out which seven were related to personality.

1.6.6. Instructional Effectiveness Language teachers are often hired if they are native speakers of the language and have a bachelor’s degree. However, these are not sufficient. Even years of experience are of little relevance if the teacher does not have the ability to deliver effective lessons. What really matters is knowledge of content and instructional effectiveness. Various studies have found that students who have effective teachers make significant and lasting gains.

1.6.7. Street-Smartness Teachers are considered street-smart, if they are aware of what is happening around. This includes an understanding of the students, the society and culture. They can use these knowledges effectively to resolve issues. Streetsmart teachers are also politically correct. They understand the culture if the institution they are teaching. They know which topics and materials should be covered and which to avoid.

1.6.8. Commitment to Lifelong Learning Lifelong earning refers to continuous, voluntary, and self-motivated quest for improving abilities and knowledge for professional or personal reason. This is trait is now recognized by educators, organizations and public as a one of the most desirable competencies. Great teachers remain engaged in their development which translates in how they approach teaching. The enthusiasm of the teacher reflects on the students whose commitment to learning increases. This is especially important in language, since mastering language can take a lifetime.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

1.6.9. Knowing the Learners This includes knowing the social, cognitive and emotional state of the students. The teacher has to understand how students’ progress at a given developmental level i.e. knowing what the leaning progression and trajectories will be. The teacher has to acknowledge that learners have individual needs and abilities and instruction has to be tailored as per the needs of each individual. This is especially applicable in case of language. Teaching language is a complex task and it requires a thorough understanding of the students to develop approaches that would simplify the language acquisition process in children.

1.6.10. Engaging the Students in Learning Engaging the students is very important for the teachers to make the lessons effective. Teachers should be able to motivate the students to progress. Students require three types of engagement, cognitive, behavioral and emotional. Students expect that the teachers should be able to engage and motivate the students to progress with the lessons. Students respond well to interesting content and motivation tactics. Great teachers are those who can motivate learners to succeed in and out of the school. This is especially relevant in case of language teaching. Unlike other subjects, language teaching occurs even when the teacher is not consciously teaching a new lesson or concept. The students learn from teachers even when they are simply communicating in the target language while sharing other thoughts and ideas in the class. Keeping the students engaged throughout ensures that the students are learning every minute they are present in the class.

1.6.11. Encouraging Conversations and Involvement Outside the Classroom Teachers can motivate to students to continue their learning outside the classroom as well. Students who engage in multiple activities outside the classroom develop relationships and cultivate interests. This helps in widening the language acquisition process. When students have to confidence to converse in a new language, they feel motivated to join community related activities based on what the students are interested in. They get the opportunity to come in contact with the native speakers which improves their language skills.

An Introduction to Language Teaching


The students can be guided to join groups like language clubs and service organizations which have an international focus. Being active in the target language and volunteering for service can build relevancy to learning and engagement.

1.6.12. Dedication to Teaching Teachers must be dedicated and have faith in their own ability to make a difference in the lives of the student. They can inspire and motivate the students and lead by example. This required dedication on the part of the teachers. They should have a passion for teaching and be committed to students’ success. A good language teacher displays efficiency in creating assessments for her students and use those assessments to assess the effectiveness of the teaching methods used. Teachers should be able identify the methods that are effective and those that require some modifications based on the learner’s needs. The most important quality that a dedicated teacher possesses is gentleness and benevolence. A teacher should be able to inspire respect and love of the students. The students would then idolize the teacher which would eventually display higher output and result.

1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING In the modern education, language skills play an important role. Bilingualism is on the rise and teaching language to students is an essential part of the curriculum. The importance of teaching language to students are discussed below.

1.7.1. Increasing Bilingual Population English is emerging as the lingua franca among the global population. An increasing number of people are learning a second language which is generally English in countries whose native language is not English. In case of countries speaking English, people are trying to acquire a language other than their native language. This importance of a second language is expected to continue. This will increase the demand for language learning in education. People want to learn new languages to communicate with peers, colleagues, friends and seniors.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

1.7.2. Language Learning Requirements According to the Modern Language Association, nearly 50.7% of higher education institutes have a language requirement. Hence language learning is an essential part of the school education to succeed in higher education. Linguistics point that teaching a new language to an adult is not as easy as teaching it to young learners. Even college going students face challenges when trying to acquire a new language, if the language was not a part of their school curriculum. Hence second language should be introduced at the earliest. This will help them to cope with the language requirement in higher education.

1.7.3. Globalization The globalization has shrunk the world and unified markets across all countries. Advanced communication technology has facilitated an increasingly global marketplace. There is a demand for employees who can speak more than one language. A New American Economy reported that bilingual employees are in demand, and this is expected to continue in the times to come. For example, the demand for bilingual employees had doubled when compared to 2010. This trend is noticeable across the job spectrum. All jobs, weather blue collar or white-collar are demanding bilingual employees. One of the reasons behind this trend is that businesses are going global and are conducting business internationally. People employed in sectors like bank and insurance are required to interact with people from other countries. Hence bilinguals and multilinguals are in an advantageous position in the job market. Researches point out that people with language skills get relatively high compensation. Education systems have to provide comprehensive language learning programs to address these needs. This will ensure that the students have better career opportunity and attractive packages in their jobs.

An Introduction to Language Teaching


Figure 1.4: Bilingualism/multilingualism facilitates business relationships with global companies. Source:

1.7.4. Cognitive and Health Benefits The modern researchers have revealed that there are many cognitive and health benefits of learning a second or foreign language. The biggest advantage is executive control. It refers to the set of cognitive skills based on limited cognitive resources for such functions as inhibition, switching attention, and working memory. Bilingual individuals can manage conflicts better than their monolingual peers. They also show proficiency in switching tasks and can process new information faster. It also has a positive impact on attention span and the ability to grasp only the relevant information. Bilingualism and multilingualism make the brain sharper and can even delay the onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s. Even in old age, such individuals exhibit better episodic memory. Overall, teaching a language to the students helps increase their attention span, problem solving skills and delays many illnesses related to mental health.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching








Chapter – I Introduction. (n.d.). [ebook] Available at: https://shodhganga. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Digitalsandbox. (n.d.). Language Objectives. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Hoque, M. (n.d.). A Language Teacher: Qualities That a Teacher Must Have. [online] Available at: publication/323665990_A_Language_Teacher_Qualities_That_a_ Teacher_Must_Have/link/5aa2db00a6fdccd544b756e4/download [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (n.d.). General Principles of Language Teaching. [online] Available at: http://neoenglishsystem. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Philipp, M. (2018). The Importance of Language Learning for Education | Studica Blog. [online] Studica Blog. Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Prasetyo, A. (2017). A Brief History of Language Teaching. [online] Linguistik Id. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (n.d.). General Objectives – fun zone. [online] Available at: general-objectives-of-teaching-english-in-s-a [Accessed 17 August 2019].


The Concept of Learning

CONTENTS 2.1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 26 2.2. Evolution of Learning ........................................................................ 28 2.3. The Goal of Learning ........................................................................ 30 2.4. General Principles of Learning .......................................................... 31 2.5. Types of Learning .............................................................................. 33 2.6. Theories of Learning.......................................................................... 35 2.7. Characteristics of Learning ................................................................ 38 2.8. Factors Influencing Learning ............................................................ 40 References ............................................................................................... 48


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching s

Learning is defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, behavior, attitude, etc. In the current world, learning is the major activity. Learning can take place in several forms. The process of learning affects the status of living of every single person. The chapter initially talks about the notion of learning along with its evolution. After that, certain goals and principles of learning have been briefly discussed. Different types of learning have been described in the middle part of this chapter. Further, the theories of learning and features of learning have been explained in brief. At the end of this chapter, certain factors influencing the process of learning has also been described.

2.1. INTRODUCTION Learning is a main process to achieve something in today’s world. It has been rightly said that all living is learning. If the simple and crude ways in which a person feels and behaves are compared with the complicated modes of adult behavior, skill, thought, habit, sentiment, then it will be observed that, there is huge difference brought by the process of learning in every individual. The people are continuously interacting with their current environment and this environment is influencing them on a large scale. The experiences make a person to change his behavior to deal with several situations in an efficient manner. As a result, learning is defined as a change in the behavior of an individual, that is influenced by the past experiences and previous behavior. Learning, in general results in the acquirement of knowledge, skills, attitudes, habits, interests and various other features of a personality. Learning is totally associated with a change. This change is mainly brought about by the development of a new skill, changing an attitude and understanding a scientific law. The change is not simply natural or incidental in the way appearance of people changes as they get older. Relatively, learning is a permanent change which is intentionally brought in a particular individual. When people attend a course, search via a book, read a research paper, they set out to learn. Other kinds of learning can take place without even planning, for instance, just by experiences. Usually, with all of the learning, there is an additional element in every one of trying to remember and understand the reason behind any situation or happening and

The Concept of Learning


to do a task in a better way next time. The most accepted definition of learning is “any kind of relative permanent change in the behavior brought up by the practice as well as experiences.” This specific definition consists of three key elements. These are further described below: • •

Learning is a change in behavior; it can either be good or bad. It is a change that occurs through practice as well as experience, but changes because of growth and maturation is not considered as learning. • This change in behavior must be comparatively permanent, and it must last a quite long time. All kind of learning comprises different activities; such activities further consist of physical as well as mental activities. The mental activities can be simple or complex, including different bones, muscles, etc. In addition to that, the mental activities can be very simple and involve just one or two activities of mind. Whereas, the complex activities involve higher mental activities. The activities learned by the people is known as the learning, for instance, learning can be of some skills, knowledge, behavior, attitude, facts and many more. There are several types of learning. Some of the significant and effective types of learning are explained in the further sections. Distinct institutes and organizations have their own philosophies when it is about learning as well as development. Learning possibilities have significantly evolved in the past few years. Now, people can remotely learn, online and even through social media. People of current era are very lucky to have a wealth of information within their reach. As the learning develops, the definition of learning is becoming more and more blurred these days. From How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching by Susan Ambrose, et al gave the definition of learning as “A process that leads to change, which occurs as a result of experience and increases the potential of improved performance and future learning.” It is very hard to define learning by using a few sentences, as it is quite a complex process that makes patience and time. Although, the definition given above explains it very well. Mainly, there are two kinds of learning that is formal and informal learning. Formal learning takes place in a classroom and the informal takes place via daily activities.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

The digital world allows for a major deal of both kinds of learning mainly informal learning because of the depth of information that can be accessed and can be read whenever needed. The internet allows people to be constantly interested to question about certain things and to discuss their belief and thoughts. The quote of Aristotle about human being interests yet applies at present, if not even more so than before. Learning aids people to explore their interest or curiosity and look deeper into how and why things take place. Looking into the psychology of how people used to learn is a fascinating business. When most of the people think of learning, they prefer formal study in a classroom or in a university, but learning can take via all different forms. People are continuously learning on a daily basis, even when they are doing simple tasks such as going on a walk or talking with another individual. People generally spend a lot of their time in learning through observation and being taught on the courses in schools.

2.2. EVOLUTION OF LEARNING Learning can be defined as an ongoing process, as all things have evolved, so has learning. When we look back to see the process of learning there is a huge difference between today and the past five decades. A change is brought when learning evolves for the betterment of the world. This section discusses the evolution learning in the past few years. Human beings have always been regarded as the seekers of knowledge. The basic instance of evolution is, when a person discovers something, he shares with other people also, and then move ahead for his next achievement. The construction of schools and institutions is the core example of the evolution in case of learning. The basic or fundamental objects in the maintenance of a school always remain the same. These are the students, teachers and the classrooms. To renovate schools is to improve the changes of the world which is obviously quite challenging. At present, technology is an empowerment. The utilization of advance technologies for the process of learning is the change which is taking place in today’s world. Schools and learning institutions are required to focus on teaching fundamental skills, problem solving attitude and creative routes for the students. The key aim is to learn via different types of resources that real life provides.

The Concept of Learning


The main purpose of the learning institutes today is to develop human beings and citizens, so as to inculcate moral as well as social responsibilities along with occupational growth, self-improvement, and personal growth. In past, today and tomorrow, this will be the same always. Currently, there are various advance skills that are required to be acquired in context to comprehension, computing and communication. Reading is a cognitive as well as complex process. It is a way of language acquisition, sharing ideas and information, and communication. Reading is regarded as a very creative form of art. This is the major form of learning process. The students as well as parents are highly required to join hands to develop positive attitude and habits. The skills of communication consist of writing, reading, and listening. Good skills of communication create or develop confidence in a student to speak and communicate. In the current modern world, the speaking skills of a student serve as the foundation for any programme preparing young people. Such skills must begin with the collaborative efforts of parents as well as schools to encourage or motivate the students. When it is about computing skills, presentations are the most used way of communication in today’s world. PPT’s for the students and gathering information and knowledge with the aid of computers are the highly used technique to provide effective knowledge. Adaptation of modern technologies at an initial stage will be very helpful and effective for an easy distribution of information and knowledge to the students. The project ‘Hole in The Wall’ of professor in education named as Sugata Mitra demonstrates that, in the absence of any kind of direct input from a teacher, a condition that stimulates interest in the students can cause learning by peer shared knowledge and self-instruction. For all of this, selforganized learning environments have to be motivated or encouraged and brought forward by the teachers. All these ideas, modifications for the betterment of the learning institutes, parents and students play a crucial role in the process of learning. All of these are required to be highly collaborated with the project work as well as portfolios. Alternative assessments or evaluations use to determine the potential of students, what can they do or what cannot, in contrast to their knowledge. Such assessments aid the students to signify their capability, perform a

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


significant task and then receive a feedback from a qualified person. All of this mainly concentrates on the performance of students and the quality of work done by the students. The change or an evolution in the spirit of life as well as learning is a core part of the life. To prepare the learners for dealing with modern world, the dynamics in the learning institutions need to be very reflective of the real world. Interestingly, evolution is not just about bringing technological changes into the institute of learning but also about implementing the social shift- the way people think about and connect to the other people and the world.

2.3. THE GOAL OF LEARNING According to several psychologists, the key goals of learning are classified into two broad groups. These are: • •

the acquisition of knowledge; and the acquisition of some skill.

a) The Acquisition of Knowledge: It basically implies that the strength of a person acquires more knowledge which eventually leads to the control as well as modification of the emotions. •

Perception Learning: In this kind of learning, a person observes different objects present in the world through his senses. These senses help the person to make different between two specific objects. Based on his past experiences, he tries to attach a significant meaning to that particular object. The learning is mainly restricted to the perception of the object. Conceptual Learning: This kind of learning specifically implies that the individual starts thinking in obstruct terms. The person used to understand about a particular object without its concrete form. Such obstruct notions generally multiply and become a key part of the mental makeup. Associational Learning: In this, a person has certain mental pictures of his earlier experiences. The person then tries to connect his new associations with his earlier mental images. By using his memory, he recalls his earlier observations. Hence, he comes to accept novel mental images.

The Concept of Learning


Appreciation Learning: At this level, attitude and material disposition that are related to the feelings part of the mind come into play. The person starts connecting some meaningful values to the knowledge which has been acquired. Attitudinal learning: by now, the person has a firm hold over the knowledge acquired and then develops some attitude of mind. Such attitudes are confirmed as the person holds more and more amount of knowledge.

b) The Skill Knowledge: This kind of knowledge consists of the sensory motor processes, reading, writing, drawing, musical performance and language learning.


Figure 2.1: Three general principles of learning.

2.4.1. The Value of Effective Metacognition To be capable of guiding own learning in an effective way, people must be capable of evaluating the growth and progress of their learning accurately and must choose those activities that improve learning proficiently. If a student cannot differentiate between what thing he has or has not mastered, and if additional study activities move him no closer to mastery, then the learning is of no use. Metacognition defines the skills and knowledge that people use while monitoring or assessing their own memory and learning. People can work hard to acquire best metacognition just by paying desired attention to successes as well as failures in evaluating what people do and what do not.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

2.4.2. Transfer-Appropriate Processing At times, it does not really make sense to discuss about whether a specific encoding activity is effective or not, for the process of learning. Instead of that, people can talk about whether that specific activity is good for learning as discovered by a particular test. For instance, though reading words for their meanings eventually leads to good performance on a test of recognition as compared to paying attention to the pronunciation of that word that taps the knowledge of that pronunciation, such as whether a formerly studied word rhymes with another word (Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977). The principle of transfer-appropriate processing states that the memory is “better” when the test taps similar kind of knowledge as the real or original encoding activity. While considering the process of learning, people should always think about the situations in which they are likely to require access to that learning. An emergency responder who requires access to learned methods and procedures under certain conditions of great stress should learn in a different way from a hobbyist learning so as to use a new digital camera.

2.4.3. The Value of Forgetting Sometimes, forgetting is observed as the enemy of the learning process. But, forgetting is a majorly required part of the learning process. The main issue that people face while using their skills and knowledge is being capable of accessing it. As accessing of desired knowledge is quite difficult, it is significant to get rid of the information that is of no use or that is not needed- that is, simply forget it. Without forgetting, the minds will become filled with out-of-date and irrelevant information that is of no use. The life will be very complicated if people cannot forget the names of past acquaintances, romantic partners, teachers, etc. The value of forgetting is much beyond that. There are great numbers of evidences that some kind of forgetting is a basic source of more learning. For instance, the formerly discussed advantages of distributing practice chances or opportunities may arise in part due to the greater forgetting that happens between those spaced learning events. It is for this reason that certain type of encoding activities that are tough and lead to the evolution of slow learning eventually lead to better learning in the long run (Bjork, 2011). When people chose to go for learning activities

The Concept of Learning


that improve learning quickly, they must be aware that these are not always the similar techniques that lead to durable as well as long-term learning.

2.5. TYPES OF LEARNING Mainly there are seven different types of learning. These are described below: • • • • • • •

Motor Learning Verbal Learning Concept Learning Discrimination Learning Learning of Principles Problem Solving Attitude Learning

2.5.1. Motor Learning The activities that people used to do in their day-to-day life are referred to as motor activities. Such kind of learning has to be learnt by every individual so as to maintain the regular lifestyle such as driving, walking, climbing, running, etc. All these activities consist of the muscular coordination.

Figure 2.2: Walking: activity in motor learning. Source:


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

2.5.2. Verbal Learning Verbal learning basically comprises the languages that people speak and the communication devices that people use. There are different types of tools involved in this learning, such as pictures, signs, words, symbols, sounds, figures, etc. In general, people use words to communicate their feelings and thoughts.

2.5.3. Concept Learning Concept learning is another form of learning which usually requires mental processes of higher order such as reasoning, thinking, intelligence, and many more. In this learning, people learn various concepts from the beginning of their childhood. For instance, when a child sees a dog, and signify the term ‘dog,’ then it means the child has learn the word ‘dog’ which refers to a specific animal. Concept learning actually comprises two key processes that are abstraction and generalization. This kind of learning is found to be very significant in identifying or recognizing different things.

2.5.4. Discrimination Learning This type of learning is mainly used to differentiate between stimuli and the subsequent response to those stimuli. Examples of discrimination learning include sounds and horns of several vehicles such as car, bus, ambulance, etc.

2.5.5. Learning of Principles In this learning, people learn different principles related to mathematics, science, grammar, etc. to accomplish their task in an effective manner. Such principles define the relationships between two or more than two concepts. Examples of learning of principles include laws, correlations, formulae, associations, etc.

2.5.6. Problem Solving This is regarded as a higher order process of learning. This learning needs the utilization of cognitive abilities like reasoning, thinking, imagination, observation and generalization. This kind of learning is observed to be very significant in order to overcome the issues and problems encountered by the people.

The Concept of Learning


2.5.7. Attitude Learning Attitude can be known as a tendency or predisposition which basically determines as well as directs the behavior of human beings. From the childhood, people develop different types of attitudes about different people as well as objects. The behavior of a person can either be positive or negative based upon the type of attitude. For example, the attitude of a professional doctor towards her patients, etc.

2.6. THEORIES OF LEARNING The process of learning can be defined as the enduring change in the behavior of a person brought about, because of different kinds of experiences. In a simpler term, learning is considered as the acquisition of the new behaviors. It is agreed that the process of learning basically includes changes in the behavior of a person that they used to practice in their daily lives and which becomes an enduring part of the current set of behaviors. Various experts are yet uncertain about the accurate process of how a new behavior is developed and how a person can influence the behavior of another person through teaching. This has consequence in the development of numerous theories of learning. Usually, a theory is described as a set of variables or factors that explain the reason behind the existence of a theory, i.e., for what kind of aim and objective the theory is formulated. Most of the theories are ancient and very well-established. On the other hand, several theories are in their evolutionary stage. There are mainly three theories of human learning. These are briefly discussed below: • Conditioning Theory • Cognitive Learning Theory • Social Learning Theory A great number of psychologists believe that behavioral change should be permanent because any of the temporary change in the behavior of a person is not a part of learning. In addition to that, any of the change in the behavior of a person may not be essentially advancement in the previous behavior, since a person also learns the bad habits, prejudices, work restriction, stereotypes, etc. while dealing with distinct situations as well as experiences.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Figure 2.3: There are mainly three theories of learning: (a) conditioning theory, (b) cognitive learning theory, and (c) social learning theory.

2.6.1. Conditioning Theory The conditioning theory mainly refers to the behavioral process in which a reaction or response becomes much more frequent to a particular stimulus or object as a consequence of reinforcement. This is eventually regarded as a reward for the response in a particular situation. Alternatively, conditioning is a process in which unproductive event or object becomes so much effective that it makes the unseen responses clearly visible to everyone. The condition theory is completely based on the principle that learning is establishing the relationship between the stimulus and response. Therefore, the stimulus-response theories are chief part of the principle of conditioning theory. Mainly there are two different types of conditioning theories: • •

classical conditioning; and operant conditioning.

2.6.2. Cognitive Learning Theory Edward Tolman has majorly contributed to the Cognitive Learning Theory. As per him, people not only respond to stimuli but also act on thoughts, beliefs, feelings, attitudes and strive towards aims and goals. In other words, a person usually develops a cognitive map in his mind, that is, an image of

The Concept of Learning


the external environment, organizes and preserves the gathered information, as a result of the consequences of different events occurred during the process of learning. As a result, the person learns about the event as well as object based on the assigned meaning of stimuli. Edward Tolman was the first person who challenged the conditional theory based on the belief that the theory of stimulus-response is unacceptable, as its reinforcement was not required for the learning process to take place and emphasized that the behavior was especially cognitive. He further believed that the environment provides various experiences that are utilized in the development of the mental image i.e. cognitive map. Hence, cognitive learning theory is completely based on the cognitive model of the human behavior, i.e., it underlines the free will as well as positive aspects of the human behavior. Cognition refers to the feelings, thoughts, knowledge ideas and understanding of a person about himself and the environment also. Thus, people apply such cognition in learning which ultimately results in the response to a stimulus to attain the goal. In addition, Tolman has conducted an experiment in order to describe the cognitive learning theory. In the experiment, he trained a rat to turn right in the ‘T’ maze to get food. On one specific day, he allowed a rat to run from the opposite side of the maze (as per the operant conditioning theory), the rat should have turned right because of the past conditioning, but instead of that, the rat ran towards where the food was kept. Consequently, Tolman concluded that, in the experiment the rat formed a cognitive map in his mind so as to figure out the place where food has been kept, and reinforcement was not a requirement for learning to occur in the experiment.

2.6.3. Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura was the main person behind the existence of the Social Learning Theory. He believed that a person learns behavior just be observing another person. In simpler terms, a person learns by observing the attitude, behavior and the result of that behavior, of another person. The person learns the way of behaving in a particular situation based on the outcomes observed. The social learning theory acts like a bridge between the cognitive and behavioral theory, as it accentuates the integrative nature of the behavioral, environmental and cognitive determinants. It means, social learning theory agrees with certain part of the cognitive theories and certain part of the behavioral theories.

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Though, Badura realized that these theories are not enough to explain the elements completely and hence, he believed that learning can also take place through vicarious or modeling. The Vicarious or modeling is defined as a process, which principally consists of the observational learning. It is totally based upon the concept of assumption that distinct stimulus-response consequences connections do not result in learning. Instead of that, learning takes place via copying the behavior of other individuals. Further, Bandura believed that the behaviors displayed by people are usually learned either inadvertently or deliberately by the influence of the model, a particular person who is continuously being observed. Hence, a social learning theory emphasizes that the process of learning takes place in two key steps: •

A person observes how other person is behaving and then develops a mental image in his mind together with the outcome of that specific behavior. • A person generally behaves similar to whatever he has learned and observes the outcomes of that behavior, if it is positive, and then he will continuously follow the behavior otherwise not, if the outcome is negative. The second point can be confused with the operant conditioning. But, in this case, a person performs according to his mental image learnt by observing other people, instead of a distinct response-consequences connection in the attainment of new behavior. As a result, modeling is one step forward of the operant conditioning.

2.7. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING 2.7.1. Learning is the Change in Behavior Learning in any form is always linked to the changes in the behavior of a learner. This is the main reason that learning is always aimed or directed for bringing changes in the behavior of a learner. Although, such changes in the behavior of a learner must always be necessary ones as the unnecessary changes if these are allowed to take place, prove harmful to the welfare of the learner as well as to the society.

The Concept of Learning


2.7.2. Learning is a Continuous Life Long Process Although, learning is not inherited, yet its establishment can be made right from the perception of a child. On every next day, new issues and problems arise that bring required changes in the behavior of a person.

2.7.3. Learning is a Universal Process Every single person of the world has the ability to learn irrespective of the caste, color and sex. The geographical location even does not impact the process of learning, if a person really wants to. Everyone can learn as learning is considered as a universal process.

2.7.4. Learning is Purposive and Goal Directed All types of learning are goal directed. It is the aim as well as exact understanding of the purpose that makes people to learn about the techniques to perform a specific task. It is the key goal and purpose which determines the behavior to deal with different conditions of a particular situation. Hence, the goal and purpose are pivot, around which the process of learning revolves. In case, if there is no goal and purpose, then there would be no learning.

2.7.5. Learning Involves Reconstructions of Experiences People learn from different situations and the learning is stored in the shape of that experience for the future task. The process of learning generally referred to as a continuous reconstruction of experiences. Whether good or bad, experiences always play a major role in the life of every person. They provide the required confidence to tackle certain conditions.

2.7.6. Learning is the Product of Activity and Environment The fundamental condition of the evolution of any kind of learning basically lies in the responding activity of an individual to the stimuli belonging to the environment of that particular individual. Hence, the major key of a successful learning in every process of teaching and learning lies in the active responding of the learner to the activities taking place during teaching process in the learning environment.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

2.7.7. Learning is Transferable from One Situation to Another Learning includes distinct features of being transferred from one situation of learning to another. This may have positive as well as negative effects, both. If the transfer of learning is positive, then will encourage or motivate other learning activities as a result. On the other hand, if it is negative, then eventually it will adversely affect further learning activities.

2.7.8. Learning Does Not Necessarily Imply Improvement In general, learning is regarded as a process of continuous improvement with training or practice. This means that all kinds of learning aid the person to progress more towards the desired aims and goals. However, this is not the same case every time. There are various things that people learn in their lives that do not help them to attain their goals in life.

2.7.9. Learning Does Not Necessarily Imply the Development in Right Direction In his definition, Woodworth clarifies that, as an outcome of effective learning, the development pattern is completely free to move to either positive direction or negative direction. There is no certainty that people will always acquire good thoughts, meaningful knowledge, desirable interests, habits and attitudes.

2.7.10. Learning helps in the Realization of the Goals of Life Every single person on the earth has his own style of life and own philosophy. A person generally strives to attain their goals of life. The process of learning aids them to realize their goals. Hence, learning as a whole is not only restricted to classroom activities, but also it can be acquired via huge opportunities in life. There are numerous ways of learning that cannot be categorized. How a person eats, drinks, talks, dresses, what are his interests, hobbies, beliefs and attitudes, and what ideals and values he aims at what is his concept of himself, etc., all these examples of learned and acquired behavior. The scope of learning, embraces all these aspects into its domain.

2.8. FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING The process of learning refers to somewhat a permanent change in the behavior of a person because of the past experiences, either incidentally

The Concept of Learning


produced or by institution through teaching. Learning is an effective process by which people acquires several attitudes, habits and knowledge to meet the requirements of daily life. Learning is known as a process of affecting a change in behavior which usually produces advancement in the relations of people with the environment. People agree that learning is an important aspect of their lives, but they have different perceptions on the process, cause and consequence of learning. Various factors that affect the process of learning are broadly categorized into three types as: • • •

physiological factors; psychological factors; and environmental factors.

2.8.1. Physiological Factors The physiological factor includes: • • • • • • • 1.


sense perception; physical health; fatigue; time and day of learning; food and drink; atmospheric conditions; and age. Sense Perception: Perception and sensation are the foundation of all kinds of cognitive learning. If the potential of perception is weak, then the amount of learning will be very less. For example, a blind man generally learns very less as compared to a normal man. In the process of learning, impairment of sense organs is a drawback. Physical Health: Health, in the process of learning matters a lot. If the health is poor, it greatly hampers the learning. It has been said that, sound mind exists only in a sound body. Good physical health provides vitality and strength to pursue learning activities for a better education. A person having diseases, or any other health issue is considered handicapped for any kind of mental activity.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching



Fatigue: Sensory or muscular fatigue causes mental boredom as well as indolence. Various factors at home or in the school environment may cause mental and physical fatigue, such as bad seat arrangement, lack of accommodation, inadequate ventilation, unhealthy clothing, poor light and pure nutrition. Long hours of study also cause fatigue that eventually affects the capacity of learning.

Figure 2.4: Fatigue hampers the capacity of learning. Source:



Time of Learning: It has been observed that morning and evening hours are considered as the best time to study. During the day hours, there is a reduction in the mental capacity. Various experiments done on children shows that there are huge differences in learning efficiency at different hours of a day. Food and Drink: Nutrition is highly important for efficient mental activity. Poor nutrition affects the learning in adverse manner. The kind of food consumption plays a crucial role. The consumption of caffeine, alcoholic drinks, tobacco, and various other addictive items have harmful effect on the neuro-muscular system of a person and eventually on the capacity of learning, as these items slows down the functioning of brain.

The Concept of Learning


Figure 2.5: A healthy diet improves mental activity and hence the learning. Source: a32bdc



Atmospheric Conditions: Humidity and high temperature lower the mental efficiency. Lack of proper illumination, low ventilation, noise and physical discomfort affects the capacity of learning. All kinds of distractions affect the concentration power and as a result, the efficiency of learning. Age: The capacity of learning differs with the age of person. There are certain subjects that can be better learnt at an early age and some other during adulthood. According to Thorndike, mental development does not stop at the age of 16 or 18 but increases up to 23, and then stops after the age of 40. Learning continues rapidly between the age of 18 and 20, remains stationary till the age of 25, and then drops up to 35. Age go together with mental maturation. Thus, some complex issues and problems cannot be solved till the person is suitably mature to learn school subjects much easily as compared to the uneducated adults. Perhaps, this is because the mind of children is not filled with other problems and they have more flexible nervous system as compared to adults. However, there are several instances when a 50 years old individual made remarkable growth in learning new things such as music or foreign languages.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


2.8.2. Psychological Factors The psychological factors include: • • • • 1.


(i) (ii) (iii)

mental health; motivation and interest; success, praise, and blame; rewards and punishment. Mental Health: Mental tension, mental illnesses, conflicts, complexes, and mental diseases hamper the process of learning. A maladjusted child finds it very difficult to concentrate on anything. Concentration basically requires mental poise as well as absence of mental complex or conflict. Some of the learners find it very difficult to prepare for the examination, just because of fear of the examination as well as anxiety neurosis. A serene, calm and balanced mind have the potential to concentrate and learn in a better way. Motivation and Interest: Learning cannot take place without motivation. Learning without any purpose is not considered as learning. Every person is encouraged by motivation to learn new things. When there is no motive, the person will not feel interested in learning. The behavior of people in learning is mainly energized by the motives, selected by motives and directed by motives. Motives Energize Behavior: Thirst and hunger induce procurement of food, rewards are responsible for further success and failure or punishment encourages actions for achievement. Motives Select Behavior: Only those acts of learning are selected that have some kind of motive. A boy visits a fair and he only observes toys or other things that made him interested. Motives Direct Behavior: Motives encourage the person; stimulate him to do certain desired actions. They direct the energies of people to reach their set aims or goals. For example, Sultan of Kohlar was directed by hunger to reach the bananas, and in that way, he struggled and learnt the way.

The Concept of Learning


Figure 2.6: Motivation Plays a great role in the learning process. Source:

It will be necessary to create motivation at the site of learning, whether it is school, an institution or any organization. Without motivation, people find different activities quite dull and boring. Thus, learning must be made meaningful and purposeful. According to Gates, “Learning experiences are meaningful when they are invoked in his living, when they not only contribute to the purposes at the time but enable him to more intelligent adjustments in the future, when they invoke discovery and problem solving rather than formal drill or mere memorization and when they result in satisfying social relationship.” This does not necessarily mean that teacher should always give false incentives for learning. In the long run, false incentives are observed to be very harmful. The key need is the presentation of motives in the right way at the right point of time. 1.


Success, Praise and Blame: Nothing succeeds like success. Most commonly, the Thorndike’s law of effect is applicable. Experimental evidences prove that praise and compliments encourage people to work harder and learn something new. However, it does not produce considerable amount of efforts on the superiors. Adults are much sensitive towards blame and criticism as compared to young ones. Rewards and Punishment: Every kind of rewards is proved as potential incentives to learn. These days, the rewards are more abused than properly used. A first division of distinction in the examination is considered as a false reward. Learners usually

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


forget that work is its own rewards. They become over-dependent on rewards. People now refuse to work, if there is no reward or incentive for their work. Everyone should keep in their mind that not every learning can be immediately rewarded. Punishments and arousing fear in anticipation may encourage people to learn and work, but this is not same in all cases. At times, punishment produces bad reaction, hatred, retaliation and disgust. Experimental studies indicate that punishment hinder complex learning activities, when punishments become regular. Lack of punishment becomes a base for low activity on the part of a person. In the absence of fear, people usually disobey as well as waste time.

2.8.3. Environmental Factors The environmental factors mainly include: • • 1.

working conditions; and organizational set-up. Working Conditions: Learning is mainly affected by bad conditions of working such as noise, distraction, poor illumination, overcrowding, bad ventilation, uncomfortable stay and bad seating arrangement. The location of learning institute, the internal set-up, the decoration and accommodation, sanitary and healthy conditions are known to be significant for effective learning.

Figure 2.7: Learning is affected by Overcrowding. Source:

The Concept of Learning

2. a)

b) c) d)

e) f)


Organizational Set-Up: The organizational set-up influences learning in various ways: The timetable should be based on the principles of psychology. It should always avoid boredom and fatigue. Tough or complex systems should be taught during the morning hours. After some periods, there must be intervals. The democratic organization encourages a healthy atmosphere for learning. The relation between a learner and a teacher must be healthy so that there is a kind of mental cooperation and the people are encouraged to learn. There must be some kind of competition. This inter-class or inter-house competitions will encourage people to work more in order to outperform others. However, rivalry and jealousy should be avoided. Group rivalry should be strengthened. The participation or involvement of people must always be active. The people should not behave as passive learners. Support and guidance in the selection of activities and subjects in accordance with the age, aptitude and ability of people should be provided. Unguided children may fluctuate from one subject to another, and hence gather no mass.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Benjamin, A. (n.d.). Factors Influencing Learning. [online] Noba. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 2. Business Jargons. (n.d.). What are the Theories of Learning? Definition and meaning – Business Jargons. [online] Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 3. Business Jargons. (n.d.). What is Cognitive Learning Theory? Definition and meaning – Business Jargons. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 4. Business Jargons. (n.d.). What is Conditioning Theory? Definition and meaning – Business Jargons. [online] Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 5. Dharmaraj, D. (2016). Learning and Teaching. [ebook] p.186. Available at: AND%20TEACHING.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 6. Introduction. (2019). [ebook] p.37. Available at: https://shodhganga. introduction.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 7. Kapoor, T. (2018). Evolution of Learning. [online] The Progressive Teacher. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 8. Learning and Learning Process. (n.d.). [ebook] p.37. Available at: chapter-iii.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 9. Sequeira, A. (2012). Introduction To Concepts of Teaching and Learning. [online] Research Gate. Available at: publication/272620585_INTRODUCTION_TO_CONCEPTS_OF_ TEACHING_AND_LEARNING [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 10. Sharma, A. (n.d.). Learning: Meaning, Nature, Types and Theories of Learning. [online] Psychology Discussion – Discuss Anything About Psychology. Available at: learning/learning-meaning-nature-types-and-theories-of-learning/652 [Accessed 17 August 2019].

The Concept of Learning


11. Washburne, J. (1936). The Definition of Learning. [online] American Psychological Association. Available at: record/1937–01215–001 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 12. Zave, S. (2019). Factors Influencing Learning | Education. [online] Psychology Discussion – Discuss Anything About Psychology. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019].


Second Language Teaching and Learning

CONTENTS 3.1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 52 3.2. Second Language Teaching .............................................................. 52 3.3. The Foreign Language Teaching Methodologies ................................. 54 3.4. Utilization of Technology In Teaching And Adapting Second Language .......................................................................... 58 3.5. Second Language Learning .............................................................. 60 3.6. Second Language Learning Strategies ............................................... 63 3.7. Studies In Student Techniques Improving Language Teaching and Learning .................................. 65 3.8. The ‘Good Language Student’ .......................................................... 67 3.9. Linguistics And Second Language Teaching ...................................... 68 3.10. The Role of Applied Linguistics ...................................................... 70 References ............................................................................................... 74


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Language is an important medium to communicate an idea to the people. It provides a common platform for the ease of understanding and comprehending the things that have been said and written by various individuals through the course of time. Though the people generally develop one language, which is their native one, they need to learn another language also to interact with many people around the world. Here, second Language Learning comes into the spotlight. This chapter throws light on the process of Second Language Learning and the various aspects related to it, bringing out the importance of applied linguistics in teaching and learning of the second language.

3.1. INTRODUCTION The process of second language learning is an effort that is made by the individuals in the direction of learning another language than the First Language (L1). This process is frequently talked of in place of other processes such as multilingualism or bilingualism. Though this a process that is intended to happen only after the first language has been learnt in advance. This means that second language that is being referred to in this text, can include the third, fourth or fifth or any other number of language that the learner may be learning at a given time.

3.1.1. First Language in Comparison to Second Language The language that an individual learns since the time they were born, is generally referred to as first language. The first language is generally the one that is spoken by an individual’s parents or the people by they are being cared, mainly the people with whom the individual may be spending most of their time in the first four to five years form their birth. There is a possibility that there are more than one L1 for a person. However, the second language, as stated can be the one that is acquired after L1 has been acquired. The second language can be acquired only after first language has been learnt.

3.2. SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING Language teaching made its mark as a profession in the recent century. Fundamental to this procedure was the rise of the idea of techniques for language teaching. The technique idea in language teaching – the thought of an efficient arrangement of teaching practices dependent on a specific

Second Language Teaching and Learning


hypothesis of language and language learning – is a powerful one, and the quest for better strategies engulfed educators and applied linguistics all through the twentieth century.

Figure 3.1: An image of a training course going on. Source:

Howatt (1984) archives the historical backdrop of changes in language teaching since the beginning, up through the direct method in the twentieth century. A standout amongst the most enduring inheritances of the direct method has been simply the thought of technique. System in language teaching has been described in a variety of ways. A pretty much traditional detailing recommends that procedure join hypothesis and practice. Inside procedure a refinement is frequently made among strategies and methodologies, in which strategies are held to be fixed teaching frameworks with recommended systems and practices, and methodologies are languageteaching ways of thinking that can be deciphered and connected in a wide range of ways in the classroom. This qualification is presumably best observed as a continuum extending from exceedingly recommended techniques to approximately portrayed methodologies.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

3.3. THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGIES 3.3.1. Language Interpretation Provided that a person has at any point of time thought about learning Latin, Sanskrit or Greek, they likely utilized the language interpretation system. The person read grammar standards, or they were disclosed to then; they deciphered sentences and later sections from and into Latin; they read Cicero or Caesar or Vergil, and they made an interpretation of the writings into English – which they most likely read out loud in class. A person may have additionally adapted increasingly entangled linguistic developments through these readings and interpretations. However, they never figured out how to talk, although, to be reasonable, it is difficult to work on talking when there are not any more local speakers of these dialects. For a very long time, this was also the methodology utilized for teaching present day unknown dialects. An educator in a teacher-focused classroom would clarify a linguistic standard in the local language, interpretation activities would pursue, maybe gone before by some fill-in-the-blank or verb conjugation or noun declension work. Talking, when it happened, was with regards to finishing these activities orally and might comprise of just a word or an expression. There was no effort at “genuine” correspondence. By what method may a sentence structure interpretation classroom be set up? The teacher may give their students a concise section in the target language; they may give some new vocabulary and give their students time to attempt to interpret the passage. There would be some new material incorporated into the section, maybe another case, another verb tense or an increasingly perplexing grammatical development. The teacher may explain the whole thing to their students as they work through the section with them. After, they may give their students a progression of interpretation sentences or a short passage in the local language, and they make an interpretation of it into the target language for homework.

3.3.2. Direct The direct technique, otherwise called the natural methodology, is from multiple points of view something contrary to the language structure

Second Language Teaching and Learning


interpretation strategy. In this classroom, the local language is prohibited, and punctuation (grammatical explanation) is de-underlined for acceptance, where students should make sense of principles for themselves. Students are urged to talk consistently, creating this a definitive in student-focused classrooms. In principle, students would gain proficiency with the unknown dialect normally, as they took in their local language as a kid, and automatic responses to questions would wind up instinctual. The focus would dependably be on natural language, and habit development was the way to learning. At the point when students committed errors, teachers would tenderly address them. When they utilized the language accurately, they were commended. Along these lines, students should almost certainly decide a linguistic principle for themselves. While the thoughts were fascinating, by and by this was a fleeting hypothesis because of the demonstrated absence of accomplishment of teaching L2 language through acceptance and schools not having the option to give a completely drenched condition. What may a direct technique or natural methodology movement be? It could be as basic as a teacher posing inquiries, with the students replying, either pursued by revision or commendation. It could be an educator reading an entry resoundingly, offering it to her students, and after that having them read it so anyone might hear, so that through reiteration and redress, students would comprehend similarly that youngsters learn designs through having their peers read to them. Or then again it could be asking that students compose a section in their very own words, again with adjustment or commendation to pursue.

3.3.3. Audio Lingual The hypothesis behind audio lingualism is that language learning requires learning propensities. Repetition is the mother of all learning. This procedure underscores drill work so as to make answers to questions instinctual and automatic. New structures are first heard by students, with composed structures coming simply after broad drilling. The language utilized for these drills depends on what is required for practicing the particular structure; it may or probably won’t be natural.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

A case of an audio-lingual movement is a substitution drill. The teacher may begin with an essential sentence, for example, “I see the ball,” after which she holds up a progression of pictures through which students substitute “ball” with each new picture. Another plausibility is a change drill, where the educator says, “I read a book,” which the students change into, “I don’t read a book.”

3.3.4. Immersion Full Immersion is hard to accomplish in an unknown dialect classroom, except if one is teaching that unknown dialect in the nation where the language is spoken, and their students are concentrating all points in the target language. This would mean their students are genuinely inundated in the language just as the way of life for 24 hours every day. For instance, ESL students have an immersion experience whether they are concentrating in an Anglophone nation. In addition to examining English, they either work or concentrate different subjects in English for a total experience. Endeavors at this approach can be seen in unknown dialect immersion schools, which are getting to be prominent in certain school areas in the United States, and in bilingual instruction settings. The challenge with the previous structure is that, when the student leaves the school setting, the person is indeed encompassed by the local language. An unfathomable method to help bring language immersion both to their classroom and to their students outside of school is with online inundation program. There are sites that give a curated library of genuine video content – including movie trailers, music recordings, news and inspiring talks – at levels from complete beginner to local. Each word is deliberately clarified so students have a lot of help (if that they need it). One can even tap on a word to perceive how it’s utilized in different recordings over the site. Maybe the most intriguing part of the sites is their “learn mode,” which takes recordings and transforms them into language learning exercises. The exercises are completely customized, so the student’s learning history is considered when exhibiting questions. The evaluation of the websites sets students up for progress by teaching them dependent on what they definitely know.

Second Language Teaching and Learning


3.3.5. Total Physical Response (TPR) Total physical response (TPR), stresses aural appreciation. For instance, students are prepared to react to straightforward directions: stand up, sit down, close the entryway, open their book, and so on. This initial step can later be extended to narrating, where students carry on activities portrayed in an oral account, in this manner exhibiting their appreciation of the language.

3.3.6. Communicative The communicative methodology is the most generally utilized and most broadly acknowledged way to deal with classroom based unknown dialect teaching today, and from multiple points of view, is a summit of those methodologies and philosophies that were taught up previously. It underlines the student’s function to impart different functions, for example, posing and noting inquiries, creating demands, depicting, describing and looking at. Task undertaking and critical thinking—two key parts of basic reasoning—are the methods through which the communicative methodology works. In contrast to the direct strategy, grammar isn’t taught in separation. Learning occurs in setting; nitty gritty mistake redress is de-accentuated for the hypothesis that students will normally create empirical discourse through successive use. Students create familiarity through conveying in the language as opposed to by breaking down it. A communicative classroom incorporates exercises through which students can work out an issue or circumstance through portrayal or arrangement, and in this manner set up communicative skill. Hence a few exercises may incorporate forming a discourse wherein the members arrange when and where they will have dinner, creating a story dependent on a progression of pictures or looking at likenesses and contrasts between two pictures.

3.3.7. Task-Based Learning Task based learning, a refinement of the communicative methodology, centers around the fruition of specific assignments through which language is taught and learned. Language students utilize the language that they know to finish a variety of assignments, getting new forms, structures and vocabulary as fundamental.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Little blunder correction is given. In this sort of learning condition, three-to four-week sections are committed to a particular point: ecology, security, medication, religion, youth culture, and so forth. Students learn about a particular theme, in a particular way, utilizing a variety of resources, with every unit finishing in a final project, for example, a composed report or introduction. Exercises are like those found in n communicative classroom, but they are constantly based around a solitary, specific topic.

3.4. UTILIZATION OF TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING AND ADAPTING SECOND LANGUAGE The field of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is growing. Since Burns’ (1979) doctoral paper, ostensibly perceived as the primary examination on the effect of computer-assisted instruction on student takeup (Hawisher and Selfe, 2007), CALL has “developed at a noteworthy rate” (Levy and Stockwell, 2006, p. 1). The term CALL, rather than different abbreviations, for example, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), or technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), is favored in this production for the most part “in light of its now well established presence in the discussion encompassing the topic,” and as a result of its attention on “the technology itself” (Hubbard and Levy, 2006, p. 9). Characterized as “the quest for and investigation of utilizations of the computer in language teaching and learning” (Levy, 1997, p. 1), CALL, and more absolutely innovation in CALL, has been generally used to advance learning, evaluate students’ language, and gather information for a wide range of examination. As referenced by Hernández-Ramos (2005), the impacts of innovation utilized by educators and students ought not be simply characterized as inquiries of access, however rather be additionally viewed as inquiries of: •

Accessibility as far as suitability of software and technical help is concerned, and • Reconciliation as far as an individual’s preparation is concerned. As such, the impact of innovation use should bolster teachers’ profitability and students’ achievements with respect to language learning. Students may approach innovation in instructive settings in two ways: gaining from and learning with innovation (Reeves, 1998, p. 1).

Second Language Teaching and Learning


Figure 3.2: The teacher uses technology in providing second language training to the students. Source:

While the previous infers a relative inactivity from the student, the last derives an active cooperation (Hill, Wiley, Miller Nelson, and Han, 2004). More specifically, a gaining from innovation approach by and large studies PCs as guides, and takes different structures to convey the instructional material to the student, for example, computer-assisted instruction (Ringstaff and Kelley, 2002). Then again, students, in a learning with innovation technique, are “never again exclusively taking the data, but are also adding to the information base” (Hill and others, 2004, p. 443). Computers associated with the Internet are, accordingly, viewed as instruments or “resource to help students create higher order thinking, innovativeness, research skills, etc.,” in this way, advancing social connection and learning (Ringstaff and Kelley, 2002, p. 2). Recent types of CALL inquire about where the internet is included has inferred moving into more intelligent situations where students are dynamic members (Davies, 2007). For CALL there is an incredible incentive in researching the increasing number of Internet-based innovations that are


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

in steady motion, growing further comprehension of the effect of these advances in connection to learning forms. From investigating what such innovation can do, there is also a need to explore how the Internet can bolster teaching and learning procedures and why (Hill et al., 2004). Right now, existing research much of the time features the utilization of innovation as remunerating for the two students and teachers in second language learning classrooms. However, there are issues to consider. Despite the fact that innovation has turned out to be inserted in our regular day-to-day existence, joining innovation in teaching is a difficult task.

3.5. SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING The most recent 20 years have seen an increasing of interest for how students become familiar with an L2. This interest has been produced to some extent by the significance of unknown dialect adapting (especially English) in the modem world and to some degree by the worldview conflicts first among behaviorist and nativist perspectives on language learning and more as of recent among cognitive and linguistic explanations.

Figure 3.3: The students can be taught the second language in groups by means of discussions. Source:

Second Language Teaching and Learning


There have been an increasing number of empirical examinations intended to explore how students get a learning of the L2. There have additionally been a plenty of speculations to clarify how it happens. It is difficult to give a satisfactory ‘modern’ rundown in the time accessible, so all things considered I will diagram and delineate two general models of SLA, which describe much of the flow research. The two models include altogether different perspectives on developing a L2 (Ellis, 1989a). As indicated by one view, students get a learning of the L2 steadily, methodically adding new standards to their language structure. It will be referred to as development as sequence.’ As per the other view, L2 learning isn’t so much a procedure of adding new guidelines to existing ones starting at slowly complexifying a cognitive grammar of the L2. Specific structures or sets of highlights inside a linguistic sub-framework complexify through the accumulation of new highlights. The procedure includes the steady transformation of existing learning as new information enters the framework. It will be alluded to as ‘development as growth.’

3.5.1. Development as Sequence The development as-sequence model is clear in the morpheme ponders which were prominent during the 70s. These investigations gathered cross-sectional information from groups of students, recognized mandatory settings for the utilization of specific morphemes, for example, aux-be, plural “- s” and past regular “- ed” and after that worked out how precisely every morpheme was created. Precision orders were then drawn up by positioning the morphemes. A few researchers (e.g., Dulay and Burt, 1973) proceeded to guarantee that the precision order spoke to the order of acquisition, in light of the fact that morphemes that were procured first would be performed more accurately than morphemes that were gained later. Various groups of subjects were researched along these lines. The precision order acquired was surprisingly steady it was gotten independent of the students’ LIs or whether they were kids or adults. Scientists, for example, Krashen (1977) utilized the consequences of the morpheme concentrates to guarantee that there was a ‘natural’ course of securing for a L2.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


3.5.2. Development as Growth The development as-growth model focuses on the formal properties: of language, however, if that we are to see completely how students obtain the ability to utilize the L2 we have to think about structures as well as the functions to which they are put. It is the point at which we take a gander at the between connection among structure and function in a learner’s interlanguage, that we see that development includes a natural procedure of development. The task confronting the student is to deal with the structure work relationships that understanding with target language use. However, this requires significant investment. The interval language structures that students fabricate are useful sentence structures; they comprise of systems of functions connected freely to systems of linguistic structures. As the student more fabricates their interlanguage, they redesign the current system. One method for portraying the effective language student is as somebody who can correspond a scope of structures with a scope of functions (Nicholas, 1986). It is conceivable to distinguish three noteworthy procedures being developed as growth: •

Innovation (i.e. the presentation of new structures into the interlanguage framework). • Elaboration (e.g., the augmentation of the communicative base of the new structure). • Revision (e.g., the acclimations to the whole interlanguage framework resulting because of development and elaboration). These procedures are not stages; they are overlapping and continuous. In this way while one structure is entering the learner’s interlanguage, different structures are getting to be explained and update of the framework also begins to occur. The fundamental standard of the development as-growth model is that students need to play out certain communicative functions and will utilize whatever resources are available to them to do as such. Students can make significance out of whatever linguistic methods they have similarly as any user of language has (Widdowson, 1978). Slowly, these methods will turn out to be more target-like. One of the essential inspirations for securing new resources is to broaden the scope of pragmatic meanings that can be communicated. The acquisition of new

Second Language Teaching and Learning


linguistic methods results, in tum, in a rearrangement of existing resources so as to accomplish maximal communicative adequacy.

3.6. SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES Second language acquisition (SLA) research studies teach how students are comparative, and how they are distinctive as far as getting a second language. Regardless of the normal frameworks of memory and language and cognitive processing in the brain (Cook 2001), language students differ as far as elements, for example, skills, statistic factors, full of feeling factors, learning styles, and learning techniques when they begin learning the second language. These variable components deeply affect how the students approach language learning tasks and how successful they are. Cook (2001) called attention to that having more data about how language students really learn can assist the educator with creating any teaching technique more successful and help them put their hunches on a firmer premise. Ehrman et al. (2003) also recommended that the more we learn about individual contrasts (e.g., how people get familiar with a language); the more we gain a feeling of what number of various ways we can comprehend the unpredictable arrangement of language learning and teaching.

3.6.1. Definitions The term learning procedures alludes to strategies, practices, activities, manner of thinking, critical thinking, or study skills taken by the student to make learning simpler, quicker, increasingly self-coordinated, more successful, and more transferable to another circumstance (Oxford and Crookall, 1989; Oxford, 1990), and empower increasingly free, independent, long lasting learning (Allwright, 1990; cited Ehrman et al., 2003). There are numerous different meanings of learning techniques. All infer learner’s cognizant development toward a language objective (Bialystok, 1990; Oxford, 1990, 1996; cited Ehrman et al., 2003). Macaro (2003) included that “strategies must contain not only an action but also a goal and a learning situation” (p.327). Cohen (1997) utilized the term student techniques, rather than the smaller idea of learning methodologies. As indicated by McDonough (1999), the term “learner strategies” has been utilized in connection to learning and figuring out how to become familiar with a second language, for utilizing the language, for imparting


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

in the language and for making up for absence of information or separate of correspondence, for exercise of language in full scale ability regions, for example, reading, writing, talking, and listening, and for adapting to troublesome components of language instruction, for example, classroom introduction and instruction, and stepping through examinations. In outline, student methodologies are tools to help language adapting, however they are additionally devices to fill numerous different needs both in learning and utilizing a second language. Due to the variety of learner strategies’ definitions and functions, numerous authors have characterized student methodologies utilizing various frameworks.

3.6.2. The Classifications Cohen (2003) gave four principle strategy characterization plans. The first arrangement is by objective either to gain proficiency with a language or to utilize a language. The second classification is by language ability, which incorporates the receptive skills of listening and reading and the profitable skills of talking and writing, and furthermore expertise related techniques that cut over all four expertise territories, for example, vocabulary learning.

Figure 3.4: Students reading books to learn the second language. Source:

Second Language Teaching and Learning


The third order is by function as clarified in detail by Oxford (1990) as four utilitarian groups of language learning systems: cognitive, metacognitive, full of feeling, or social. These classifications of language system have a few interrelations. Dornyei (2005) contended for the absence of an obvious characterization of individual procedures; for instance, memory methodologies and cognitive techniques unmistakably cover. Students may utilize an entire arrangement of methodologies to play out a task, or they may utilize a blend of procedures which is hard to fit into any of the current classifications. In any case, the definitions and characterizations of student procedures have caused in creating tools to evaluate student techniques, for example, the SILL or Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (Oxford, 1990). Dornyei (2005) reprimanded this for its prescriptive and quantitative structure which neglected to investigate the real natures of student procedures.

3.7. STUDIES IN STUDENT TECHNIQUES IMPROVING LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING 3.7.1. Procedures Processing and Language Teaching Customarily, language educational plans have would in general focus on teaching information and abilities and have failed to teach students how to learn. Student processing in second or unknown dialect teaching is another method for teaching students expressly the procedures of learning, and an attention to how and when to utilize methodologies to empower them to wind up self-coordinated (Williams and Burden, 1997). In rundown, student processing incorporated in second or unknown dialect teaching subsumes • Explicit or implicit procedures training, and • Language teaching. The teaching and learning objectives of student training in language teaching are both external and internal objectives (Cook 2001); the students are required to have the option to utilize language inside and outside the classroom, and they will build up their quality as independent language students.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

3.7.2. The new Roles of Language Educators, Students, and Assignments in Procedures Training Williams and Burden (1997, p.164), proposed that “people will utilize certain systems if that they have a reasonable reason for utilizing them and they feel that achieving a specific assignment has an incentive to them by and by.” This implies the role of teachers in student training, instead of teaching how to utilize specific techniques, is to assist people with discovering and build up those procedures that are most huge and by and by important to them. Williams and Burden additionally noticed a reorientation of teachers‟ roles. To start with, teachers need to wind up viable arbiters. Second, they should probably take on such roles as counsels, facilitators, researchers, cocommunicators, accomplices and joint issue solvers. Third, educators should have inspirational dispositions towards the benefit of learning techniques. The students will turn out to be more dynamic and self-coordinated. Their needs, and past learning knowledge and function to learn and to utilize language are significant elements for arranging the teaching program. The students will have a more prominent duty regarding their own learning (e.g., to set objectives for their learning, to choose and assess the systems use). “Self-coordinated students step by step increase more noteworthy certainty, association, and capability” (Oxford, 1990, p.10). Language learning tasks have a significant role in systems training as they can be utilized to urge the students to ask themselves the central inquiries, for example, what would I like to accomplish? Which systems will I use to accomplish the objectives? Do I know what I am doing and why I am doing it along these lines? Williams and Burden (1997) alluded to this scrutinizing as metacognitive reflection, or the reflection on learning, themselves as students, just as on the inclination and feelings included. They additionally recommended that educators should begin with the straightforward assignments, moving towards increasingly complex tasks which expect students to choose their own techniques and assess their very own degree of achievement.

Second Language Teaching and Learning


3.8. THE ‘GOOD LANGUAGE STUDENT’ So far there is depiction of how students’ learning styles fluctuate. However, the people additionally need to know whether a few ways to deal with the learning assignment work superior to other people. The most recent fifteen years have seen various investigations of the ‘good language learner’ (e.g., Rubin, 1973; Stem, 1975; Naiman et al., 1978; Reiss, 1985; Abraham and Vann, 1987). These give an astoundingly reliable image of the strategies utilized by effective language students. All in all, the examinations point to four key angles are discussed below.

3.8.1. A Concern for Language Structure The good language student focuses on structure. Without a doubt, as per Reiss’ (1985) examine, learning strategies mirroring this methodology ended up as the winner in a group of 98 students contemplating an unknown dialect at a basic or middle of the road level. The two techniques the students revealed utilizing most often were checking and taking care of structure. Different analysts have additionally discovered structure focusing strategies a normal element of the successful language student. Naiman et al., (1978), for example, notice that students who treat language as a framework take part in powerful cross-lingual examinations, break down the target language and utilize reference books. These students also attempted to gain from their mistakes by asking that local speakers right them.

3.8.2. A Concern for Correspondence Good students also take care of meaning. Regard for structure and to importance are not fundamentally unrelated. Students appear to profit by shifting back and forth between the two. Gerardo, the more effective of the two students examined by Abraham and Vann (1987), is a genuine model. He took an expansive perspective on language, focusing here and there to shape and sometimes to importance. Conversely, Pedro, the less successful, was pretty much solely concerned about importance and getting by in discussions. All the good language studies have discovered that successful students search for importance and attempt to take part in genuine correspondence


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

by searching out open doors for natural use. They try endeavors to get their meanings crosswise over utilizing a variety of correspondence systems.

3.8.3. An Active Task Approach Good students are dynamic in their methodology. This can teach itself in various ways. Dynamic students assume responsibility for their own adapting, as opposed to depending solely on the educator. They are steady in seeking after objectives. In discussion, the dynamic student acquaints new points and attempts with control the heading the talk follows. However, being an active student does not mean taking an interest as far as language generation. Reiss (1985) underscores that her effective students were naturally ‘quiet speakers.’ They listened intently in class and rationally addressed inquiries whether called upon to do as such or not. They listened to different students and rationally revised their blunders. They attempted to apply new material while quietly addressing themselves.

3.8.4. Awareness of the Learning Procedure Finally, good language students exhibit significant consciousness of the learning procedure and of themselves in connection to this procedure. They are attentive students who settle on cognizant decisions about what to think about and what strategies to utilize. They are probably going to have a well-created metacognitive language for discussing their learning and this causes them to screen how they are advancing. Reiss found that her good language students had the option to give unmistakable depictions of how they would approach diverse learning tasks, while the less effective were regularly dubious and loose. Metacognitive information is significant in light of the fact that it empowers students to survey their needs, assess their development and provide generally speaking instruction to their learning.

3.9. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING If one considers the connection among linguistics and the teaching of English as a second language, clearly linguistics has had an abiding impact which has traveled through various stages. The connection among linguistics and

Second Language Teaching and Learning


English Second Language teaching has moved along a continuum from a direct relationship to an increasingly aberrant one. The best case of a direct relationship is the use of Structuralism to language teaching. The Structuralist way to deal with language was combined with Behaviorist learning standards, bringing about a logical and certain utilization of linguistics to second language teaching in the audiolingual technique. This set the pace; educators anticipated that linguistics should express something to the language teacher. At the point when Chomsky assaulted Behaviorism, defaming and essentially annihilating it, language teachers anticipated that him should give elective answers; they needed Chomsky’s TGG to manage their teaching. It was in this way unavoidable that there would be endeavors to fuse the new thoughts given by generative linguistics and L1 scientists into second language teaching. Two techniques, the cognitive code strategy and the cognitive antitechnique, rose, both illustration on various parts of Chomsky’s cognitivism. Chomsky’s perspective on language as an arrangement of standards was deciphered in the cognitive code technique to imply that observation and familiarity with principles goes before the utilization of these guidelines, and that a cognizant grammatical comprehension of a language principle ought to go before the arrangement of chances for teaching in language teaching (e.g., Chastain, 1971). Chomsky’s insistence on the imaginative attributes of the language personnel prompted the dismissal of mechanical practice and an accentuation on the inventive a creative utilization of language. Advocates of the cognitive anti-technique, (e.g., Newmark, 1966; Newmark and Reibel, 1968) received an increasingly extreme strategy where it was left to the student to rely upon his inborn limit and to control the learning procedure himself. Language acquisition was not seen as an added process – a student should adapt ‘whole chunks’ at once. It was not viewed as important to take care of linguistic structure. This strategy was an extreme option to the audiolingual technique; it takes after thoughts proposed by Krashen 10 years after the fact. It is fascinating to take note of that both these techniques depended on one linguistic hypothesis but touched base at various and assorted translations. The progressions in linguistic hypothesis sick the 1970s saw a move far from the investigation of language seen absolutely as a formal framework towards the investigation of language as correspondence; a move towards


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

sociolinguistics, talk examination, linguistics, discourse act hypothesis and pragmatics. This had a major effect on language teaching, coming full circle in the well-known communicative way to deal with second language teaching, which was a response against the dominating formalistic perspective on language teaching. Its underlying effect was on schedule plan. Wilkins (1976), affected by Halliday’s useful way to deal with language and Austin’s discourse demonstrations, created a notional prospectus which overwhelmed the language teaching world. Crafted by the Council of Europe is another case of the adjustment in methodology during the 1970s. It depended on current linguistic and sociolinguistic ideas, including Wilkins’ thoughts and functions. The group built up their very own syllabuses and created inventories which indicated circumstances as far as students’ roles, settings and points, and recorded language exercises, functions and thoughts (Van Ek, 1975). Krashen’s (e.g., 1982) compelling hypothesis of the second language acquisition represents the increasing impact of psycholinguistics. It was just feebly dependent on Chomsky’s hypothesis, however it drew on second language procurement research and Krashen unquestionably upheld the central instructive guideline of the second language securing, to be specific the arrangement of understandable contribution, as the answer for second language teaching issues.

3.10. THE ROLE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS Applied linguistics gives the extension between the hypothetical orders and language teaching. It is additionally a critical thinking task; its raison d’etre is tackling reasonable issues. It along these lines plays out a fundamental function in the language teaching process. For instance, linguistics gives language portrayals of a specific language. The need for this is sometimes clouded, however, becomes clear when we approach less usually taught dialects. Both issues manifest themselves, however: from one perspective, language depictions are frequently excessively technical and too theoretical for the language educator; while on the other hand, the demands of syllabuses dependent on linguistic and down to business criteria have surpassed the accessible enlightening resources.

Second Language Teaching and Learning


Stem (1983, p.186) calls attention to that it is important to have a halfway gadget, an academic sentence structure, which is a translation and determination for language teaching reasons for the depiction of a language, put together with respect to linguistic as well as on instructive and mental criteria and utilized as a linguistic resource. This is the place the connected applied linguistic plays out a profitable function.

3.10.1. The Educator’s Way To Deal With Language Teaching The linguistic sciences will dependably be behind the teacher. They impact his way to deal with language teaching. Each teacher has a methodology (cognizant or oblivious) to language teaching. The task of language teaching prompts the teacher constantly to consider the idea of language; for instance, his hypothesis of language will decide if he displays the language systematically or non-diagnostically to the students. The method of reasoning for his choice will infer a perspective on the idea of language or a hypothesis of language. His technique, for example, a choice about drill work – will similarly be founded on a perspective on second language procurement. A hypothesis of the second language teaching is thus a significant part of teaching and learning. It is naturally concurred that what occurs in the classroom will really decide the achievement of the teaching; the significant determinant of what happens is the second language procurement hypothesis. Connected language researchers are going to cognitive hypothesis trying to discover a hypothesis of execution. One impactful model is Anderson’s (1983) ‘cognitive behaviorist’ model which considers figuring out how to be working up response qualities through a twofold division into procedural memory (methods for getting things done) and decisive memory (learning). Another model differentiates controlled and automatic training (Posner and Snyder, 1975). Controlled training is utilized at first in the learning of another complex cognitive ability; it requires consideration and broad practice; it requires some serious energy; and can occur with or with no cognizant mindfulness with respect to the student. Automatization then follows; this is vital because the student has constrained training limit and need to free ability to manage new data. The procurement of new data prompts a rebuilding of the: student’s information framework: as learning happens, the current framework is changed so as to assess the new data.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Various researchers have connected cognitive learning hypothesis to second language acquisition. One such endeavor is Bialystok’s (1988). She contends that language is handled by the human personality similarly as different sorts of data. Her model differentiates an examined and an automatic factor. The investigated factor concerns the degree to which the student knows about the structure of his linguistic learning. The automatic factor concerns the relative access which the student needs to information. Information gains in automaticity as learning happens, and automaticity is accomplished through teaching. The fundamental utilization of this hypothesis to teaching is the accentuation on teaching as the way to second language learning. Practice develops the weightings, response qualities, etc. that decide how language is handled and stored (Cook 1991, p.123). The classroom ought to consequently augment practice by students. This model advises us that language is additionally conduct and skill. As Cook (1991, p. l23) puts it: “Just as the parts of language that are unique or under cognizant control, there are abilities learnt by doing them again and again.” Cognitive hypothesis does not give a total record of language development. It is an incomplete record as it were. For instance, it can’t represent the way that there are acquisitioned arrangements which are invulnerable to instruction (Ellis 1990, p.182). Instruction can’t change the order where certain formative structures are gained. In this manner the fundamental supposition of cognitive hypothesis, to be specific that language learning isn’t diverse in kind for all different sorts of ability learning, isn’t completely defended. Obviously SLA is an intricate issue. There is no single extensive record of SLA, but just various deficient and incomplete records. It would in fact be hard for one hypothesis to represent the whole scope of second-language wonders, particularly if one considers additionally character components and natural elements. The pattern has been to move away shape a general hypothesis of SLA to speculations of more restricted extension. This makes the task of the connected applied linguistic a very troublesome one. He frequently needs to adapt to conflicting ramifications.

Second Language Teaching and Learning


UG and cognitive hypothesis, for instance, vary on the issue of teaching. The UG model sets insignificant store by teaching: on a basic level a parameter can be set by a solitary model forever. Cognitive models consider language to be the slow collection of favored methods for getting things done, making practice a basic necessity (Cook, 1991, p.123).


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching










Abhakorn, J. (2008). The Implications of Learner Strategies for Second or Foreign Language Teaching. ARECLS, [online] 5. Available at: abhakorn_vol5.pdf [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. (n.d.). Chapter 17: Second Language Learning and Teaching: Learning Styles & Strategies | Second Language Acquisition. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Djigunovic, J., & Krajnovic, M. (n.d.). Language Teaching Methodology and Second Language Acquisition. [eBook] Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Available at:–91–13–01.pdf [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Ellis, R. (1989). Second Language Learning and Second Language Learners: Growth and Diversity. TESL Canada Journal, [online] 7(1). Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Laborda, J. (2013). Thouësny, Sylvie & Bradley, Linda ed (2011) Second Language Teaching and Learning with Technology (, Dublin) isbn978–1-908416–00–1 217 pp Free of charge–1-908416–00–1. pdf. British Journal of Educational Technology, [online] 44(2), E69-E70. Available at: publication/978–1-908416–00–1.pdf. Ludwig, J. (n.d.). The Key Foreign Language Teaching Methodologies and How to Choose the Best for You. [online] General Educator Blog. Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Morrison, S. (n.d.). Second Language Teaching Methods – CAL Resource Guide Online. [online] Available at: org/twi/rgos/methods.html [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Shoebottom, P. (n.d.). Language Teaching Methods. [online] Esl. Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Van der Walt, J. (1992). Linguistics and Second Language Teaching: An Assessment. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, [online] 25(0), 169–182. Available at: viewFile/117276/106843 [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019].


Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching

CONTENTS 4.1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 76 4.2. How Linguistics Guides Language Teaching or Language Pedagogy? .................................................................. 78 4.3. Language Theories And Language Teaching From Traditional Grammar To Functionalism ............................................................ 82 4.4. Psychological Grammar and the Language Teacher........................... 86 4.5. Language Teaching: Linguistic Theory In Practice .............................. 88 4.6. Linguistic Theory And Research: Implications For Second Language Teaching ............................................................ 90 4.7. Language Teaching Approaches ........................................................ 93 References ............................................................................................... 96


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

The chapter of linguistic theory and language teaching talks about the connection between the linguistic theory and language teaching. It also talks about how linguistic guides language teaching. This provides highlights on the language theories and language teaching from traditional grammar to functionalism which is consisting of definition of traditional grammar, grammar-translation method, and evaluation of grammar-translation. This, also explains the psychological grammar and the language teacher, addresses the language teaching which is consisting of linguistic theory in practice including the form or function divide. emphasizes the linguistic theory and research which is consisting of implication for the second language teaching including the early developments of the linguistic theory and research., and also consist of several numbers of approaches language teaching.

4.1. INTRODUCTION The commencement of the relationship between the linguistic theory and language teaching can be drawn back to the period of late of nineteenth (19th) century. From then on, several numbers of research were projected with several various scholars has been debatable. Until the period of 1960s, when their association was re-evaluated, developed two points of view or perspective, according to first point of view, it was to say that linguistics is not so significant as it has been supposed, that is, its significance had been overestimated. Several numbers of linguists such as Johnson (1967) and Lamendella (1969) articulated their dissimilarity in the context of linguistics based on a strategy of learning. According to the research done by the Lamendella (1969), who stated that it was a fault to look to transformational grammar or any other theory of linguistic explanation to offer the theoretical basis for the second language pedagogy. What is required in the context of language teaching are not applied linguists but in spite of applied psychologists. The other perspective or point of view was to distinguish the general participation of linguistics but with the condition that the language teaching is not limited or restricted to abide constantly with the help of one theory.

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


Figure 4.1: Linguistic theory and language teaching. Source: learn-2001847_960_720.jpg

Several numbers of linguistic theories can provide several numbers of various point of views on language, and they can be considered as equivalent resources. According to the Levenson (1979) once said, “no one school of linguistic analysis has a monopoly of truth in the description of the phenomena of speech traditional school grammar, TG grammar, all these and more can be shown to have their own particular relevance to the language teaching situation.” Some of people agree to the second point of view. According to the point of view of several people, linguistics and language teaching are interactional with each other. In this chapter, all the language teaching, theories of language teaching as well as language pedagogy denotes to L2 teaching. The connection of linguistic theory and the language teaching is a dual one. It means, on the one hand, some of the theories of linguistics can be used for the language teaching, that is linguistics gives direction in the improvement of the language teaching theory. On the other hand, a language teaching theory explains or suggests answers to ask queries about the nature of language. These types of queries relate language-teaching theory directly to the theoretical linguistics.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

4.2. HOW LINGUISTICS GUIDES LANGUAGE TEACHING OR LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY? In the early years, through the course of Second World War, linguistics was distinguished as a very significant element in the language teaching theory. Through the course of the Second World War, America was in great requirement of soldiers who are familiar with the foreign languages. To fulfill this requirement, a bunch of bilingual people which is consisting of Bloomfield (1942) undertook to use the knowledge of bilingual person to evaluate the language which is to be taught and the outcomes proved to be acceptable. Bloomfield recommended that the only efficient or successful teacher should be the qualified or skilled in linguist working together with the students, because the language teachers every so often have an inadequate knowledge of the language, only the qualifies and skilled linguists know how to provide appropriate direction to the students who are learning from native speakers and how to teach the various types of forms of the language. According to the recommendation of the Bloomfield it looks a little difficult, but all of the teachers must admit that as a language teacher they must have a good expertise of the knowledge of linguistics, in that case can all of the teacher can teach well. For instance, in teaching pronunciation, if the tutor knows phonetics very well, only after then a tutor can tell the students the structure of the organs of articulation and how a sound is formed with the help of the involvements of the organs. The tutors can also support the students in attaining the knowledge of how to distinguish or categorize the vowel as well as consonant and how to make a sound which is precise with the accurate position of the tongue. Only have a good master of phonetics can teach the students to learn word pronunciation in a well manner. In this way, the language teachers must accept the analysis of speech sounds of phonetician and the International Phonetic Alphabet for pronunciation training.

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


Figure 4.2: Linguistics Guides Language Teaching or Language Pedagogy. Source:

By the time period of around 1960, the impact of the structural linguistics on the language teaching had reached a top in the regions of United States. Structural linguistics strained the significance of the language as a system and examines the place that linguistic units, for example, sounds, words, sentences have within this system. In connection with the behaviorism it offered the major theoretical basis of the audio-lingual theory and in this way impacts the language teaching materials, methods as well as the teacher education. Behaviorism take into the direction towards the theories of language teaching and learning which described how an external event (or a stimulus) can produced a shift or modification in the behavior of an individual (a response) without any type of mental behavior. Even though the Behaviorism abandoned the mental activity, it pressurized the significance of the practice and repetition in language learning, which in the point of view of researcher named as Bloomfield; it is a very important aspect in the learning a foreign language. Let’s take the audiolingual technique as an instance. Audiolingual method is consisting of: • • •

the teaching of speaking and listening before reading and writing; the application of dialogues and drills; the avoidance of the application of the mother tongue inside the teaching space.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Audiolingual technique in the context of speaking as well as listening as the most basic language capabilities, which is in agreement with the present situation of the English teaching. In the present interval of time, in several regions of China, more and more people have started to learn English as a foreign language in order to have the potential to interact with the foreigners. For them, speaking as well as listening is much more crucial as compared to reading as well as writing because they are not predicted to have a high mastery of English and their main objective of the study is quite simple, that is when the teachers are requiring to interact with a foreigner they can understand their words and express themselves as well. Of course, what the people are talking about is based on the simple daily conversation, because to explain themselves in a proper manner is not always an easy task, even for English major students every now and then it is difficult. In the several regions of China, the tutors have begun to teach the students English when the students are in primary school. In the previous interval of time, the tutors are paying more attention on teaching the students about the basic principles of grammar, and as an outcome, it was disappointing: a large number of students don’t have the capability to speak well in English; some of them don’t have the skills to even cannot say a complete sentence. In the recent interval of time, the teachers have noticed that the significance of speaking as well as listening in English teaching and accepted the audiolingual technique inside the teaching space. Audiolingual technique has strained the practice and repetition of what has been educated inside the teaching space; it is believed that a language is learnt with the help of the forming habits. To speak English in a fluent manner, without any regular practice, it is not possible. In this way, in the English teaching and learning, the tutor must do a lot of work to support or assist the students in order to speak as well as listen well whenever they required to apply it. On the other hand, the impact of the structuralism on the language teaching and pedagogy was universal as well as powerful, the impact of TG grammar was of a various type. In the period of late sixties, new improvement in the language pedagogy happened which can be observed as an outcome from the influence of TG theory. A common instance is the cognitive theory of language learning. This theory of language learning is developed in which TG concepts became connected with a ‘cognitive’ view of the psychology of language

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


learning. It is contrasting to the empiricist theory, that is, pedagogically audio-lingualism, psychologically behaviorism, as well as linguistically structuralism. TG theory pressurized the mental activity. TG theory projected that the human beings have the potential to learn any type of language. It is the inborn potential as an alternative of practice that made the human beings get the rules of a language and understand or produce uncountable numbers of sentences. Some of the famous linguists, such as Diller (1970), openly acknowledged that his preference for the cognitive position; on the other hand, other linguists, such as Chastain (1976) and Rivers (1981) held that the two theories were corresponding to each other and served several types of learners or teachers or represented several types of phases of the language learning process. In the interval of time of late 1970s, a bunch of scholars which is also consisting of Oller (1970) and Widdowson (1978), who were well-known linguists in their own right but at the same time closely in touch with the teaching practice, gave language teaching and language pedagogy the linguistic way they are directing as an important factor. From the time being, they were in a good position to make a connection among the linguistic theory and the language teaching practice, they placed emphasis on real language use. Let’s take interest of Oller in pragmatics as an example. Oller (1970), Oller claimed that the pragmatics has insinuations for the language teaching; it examines the main objective of teaching a language as encouragement the students not merely to operate meaningless sound sequences, but to send and receive messages in the language. With the help of his own experience in English teaching and learning, He find out that to clutch some knowledge of pragmatics can indeed help the teach or learn English well. For example, in daily conversation, people every so often speak in an indirect way, maybe some of them have noticed it, but without the knowledge of pragmatics, no one cannot give a correct definition for it. With the knowledge of pragmatics, any individual can elaborate some language phenomena clearly and with the precision, inn this way making the students have a deeper vision or understanding into the nature of language. Widdowson (1978) explained a bunch of contrasting ideas which categorizes the language as a formal system and application of the


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

language as a communicative event. Widdowson advocated everchanging the importance from the teaching a second language as a formal system to teaching a second language as communication. According to the point of view of the Widdowson, is in accordance with the L2 teaching situation. In the recent interval of time, teachers have stressed the significance of the communicative abilities of the students (that are saying, listening and talking, etc.) as an alternative of their linguistic skills. This does not mean the teachers do not require the knowledge of linguistics; on the different hand, teachers or tutors apply the linguistic theory as a navigator for the language teaching.

4.3. LANGUAGE THEORIES AND LANGUAGE TEACHING FROM TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR TO FUNCTIONALISM It is acknowledged across the universe that any type of new language teaching theory cannot come into being without the break in linguistic theory first. And any age group of the linguistic theory has carried about the fresh and new language teaching theory as well. Up until now, the several numbers of theories of linguistics have mostly experienced three different stages. First and foremost is the traditional grammar, second is structuralism and the third one is functionalism. These all are closely connected to each other and made the shift or modification of language teaching theories.

Figure 4.3: Teacher development workshop for novice teachers of English “fundamentals of English language teaching methodology”. Source:

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


4.3.1. Definition of Traditional Grammar What is traditional grammar? This can be a difficult question to answer. One point of view about the traditional or conventional grammar is that it is consisting of two concepts. One is narrow, on the other hand, another one is broad. “Narrowly speaking, traditional or conventional grammar mentions to the grammar theories which is created from the ancient Greece and Rome, which became the most common in the end of the time period of 18th century before the birth of historical comparative grammar and dominated the research of grammar as well as language teaching for a long time in the several regions of Europe. Traditional or conventional grammar values the old language model, which is consisting of written language, neglect oral language. Traditional or conventional grammar tries to cleanse the language and settle language. So, it is known as prescriptive grammar, which was accepted with the help of most of the school in their language class. In this case, it is known as school grammar as well.

Figure 4.4: Definition of Traditional Grammar. Source:

Broadly speaking, traditional or conventional grammar is consisting of the scholarly traditional or conventional grammar that was originated from the end of 19th century as well. Some of this type of grammar is consisting of the ideologies or philosophies of the historical comparative study of language; some of them is consisting of contemporary language phenomena. Commonly speaking, both take the attitude of descriptivism, trying to explain the shift or modification of language and the application of language objectively” (Yin, 1990).

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics has given an alike explanation: Traditional or conventional grammar is “a grammar which is commonly based on earlier grammars of Latin or Greek and used to some other types of language, every so often incorrectly.” And it has given an instance to demonstrate this, “Some of the grammarians quantified that the English had six CASES because Latin had six cases. These grammarians were every so often notional and inflexible in their method or tactic. Even though there has been a trend in the direction towards the application of grammars which incorporate more modern move toward to the language description and language teaching, some of the schools still uses the application of traditional grammars.”

4.3.2. Grammar-Translation Method The direct influence language teaching received from the traditional or conventional grammar theory is grammar-translation tactic of language teaching. A usual lesson which is directed under the assistance of this tactics bears the following aspects or factors: •

The ultimate purpose of foreign language teaching is to read materials written with the help of foreign language, for example reading foreign classics, so written language is consisting of than oral. The main objective of the foreign language learning is to translate that foreign language into the mother tongue of any individual. If a student can do this, he or she has become more effective or successful in the study of foreign language.

Figure 4.5: Grammar-translation method. Source: Grammar_School.jpg

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching

• •


Due to the potential of oral language is not the main objective of this kind of teaching, as an outcome in several numbers of learners who have learnt even more as compared to the time interval of 10 years buy still could not apply it to interact with the native speakers of the language he or she had learnt. Teachers are the absolute authorities in the class. Students are just absorbers, busy with writing down every detail of the knowledge teachers give them. The class is always teacher-centered. Langue form, that is grammar, is highlighted. Students are always stimulated to grasp this part. In order to make students acknowledge this part clearly, teachers always use their native languages to direct the lessons. They commonly apply the example sentences to demonstrate the grammar rules they have just taught; students are needing to follow the instances to make sentences with the help of the grammar. The contents of texts are usually abandoned. As an alternative the texts are every so often applied as the material for teachers to describe those long and comprehensive grammatical issues. Students are needing to start to read classics at an early stage. Students commonly only do one type of exercise. That is translation.

4.3.3. Evaluation of Grammar-Translation Method In the present interval of time, when it has been looked back into the time to reevaluate grammar-translation tactic again, it gets the following judgments: • •

It overstated the function in the learning of a foreign language. It highlighted too much on the knowledge of language, overlooked the training the language potentials. • The entire procedure of the foreign language teaching is mechanical, out of the touch of real language environment, no practical meaning. • It pays attention only to written language instead of spoken language. Never the less, people shall never forget that grammar-translation tactics have by now done so much for foreign language teaching. Its participation is still great.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 4.6: Evaluation of grammar-translation method. Source:

4.4. PSYCHOLOGICAL GRAMMAR AND THE LANGUAGE TEACHER Whether it was the fundamental application of grammar or the difficult task which took participation in teaching it which motivated this thesis is still uncertain. Even though, both interests are intermingled throughout in equal parts, it was only during deliberations with the superintendents that the essentially psycholinguistic background became deceptive. It has been observed to them that the examination was not so much about how to teach ‘a’ language as it was about how to teach language itself. That the presence or absence of one little word can have such a descriptive consequence or result is still a source of some astonishment to me. The purpose is to sketch some of the representations which have been presented as rough calculation of the mechanisms which administrate clear behavior. The conversation which trails, then, is one whose question is enclosed against this epistemological background: What is a ‘psychologically real’ grammar?

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


In pursuing this line of inquiry, people were not certain whether the answers to the question lay mainly in linguistic, anthropological, or pedagogical fields. The first seemed a rational choice and earlier undergraduate studies in linguistic anthropology had also offered me with glimpses into the empires of ethnography where the types of the language and the designs of culture meet.

Figure 4.7: Psychological Grammar and the Language Teacher. Source: thess300.jpg

The practical motivation of course came from the foreign as well as second language classrooms that people had been in over the interval of time of several numbers of years. This thesis is in this way wide-ranging in motivations, aims, as well as sources, fitting well in the broad realm of inquiry known as ‘Applied Linguistics.’ Even though, the theoretical motivation of the thesis is pervasive, the practical determination behind it is correspondingly germane. The inquiries of the descriptive linguists into the nature of language are paralleled with the help of the reasonable request of the practitioner for any insights that might be of application in the teaching rooms. This examination apprehensions itself with the theoretical development of the language teacher. At the outset then, it must be noticed that even though the language learning is the main goal of al1 language teaching, it is not the immediate objective.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


The conversation that trails will touch upon the former only in transitory and is not in any way planned to be a review of learning techniques or learner approaches, still less a quest for the chemistry of the ‘best’ methodology. The main intention is to concentrate on what the researcher named as McIntosh, Halliday, and Strevens (1964) mentioned to as the ‘methodic’ of language teaching, that domain ‘where linguistics and teaching space teaching fuse composed.

4.5. LANGUAGE TEACHING: LINGUISTIC THEORY IN PRACTICE How can the theories of language development be understood and functional in the language teaching space? By offering a variety of linguistic point of views from formal to functional to cognitive, this book climaxes the significance of the second language acquisition research to the language teaching space. Succeeding a short-term historical examination of the methods or approaches in which language has been viewed, according to the researcher named as Whong, who clearly explained the fundamental tenets of the Chomskyan linguistics, before exploring 10 simplifications about the second language development in relations of their suggestions for the process of language teaching. Highlighting the formal reproductive method or tactics, the chapter explores well-known methodologies or tactics of language teaching, looking at the amount to which the linguistic theory is applicable to the several numbers of methodologies or approaches. This chapter offers an explicit conversation of the language teaching from the point of view of formal linguistics. Which Key features the following: •

Deconstructs a lesson plan to show the translation of theory to classroom practice. • Provides ‘For Discussion’ sections at the end of every chapter. • Includes a Glossary of key terms and concepts in the field. Like several numbers of the most problematic enquiries, the answer to this question at first seem obvious because language is such a natural part of the lives of normal people. But what is language? If any individual finds he or she cannot answer this question in a very well manner, or if he or she find that any individual has several numbers of possible answers to this question

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


then individual is one step closer to the appreciating the difficulty of the language. As a language teacher, it is very significant to have the potential to describe what language is. Up till now language, that which the teachers or tutors are trying to teach, is not defined with easy efforts. The first and main objective of this book is to deliberate some of the various possible answers to the question of what language is the second is to explore what the humans or people know about how knowledge of language develops.

Figure 4.8: Language teaching: linguistic theory in practice. Source:

These types of ideas or concepts will offer a background for the main objective of this book: to exemplify how an understanding of ideas in theoretical linguistics can take into the direction towards a better understanding of the language teaching inside the premises of teaching space or a classroom. in this chapter, it has been taking into the consideration of briefly explore these three main objectives as a preview to the remainder of the book, beginning with the question of what language is.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

4.5.1. The Form/Function Divide Language can be categorized in terms of oppositions, an accommodating exercise for teasing apart its complication. One mutual opposition between the researchers in linguistics is to see language as type or a form versus the language as function. Language as form is well thought out with the design or pattern of the language itself, on the other hand, language as function is more involved in the work that a language does to make interaction much easier between several numbers of people. the two views do not have to be seen as incompatible in some ways they are, in fact, corresponding. Language as form is the more contemporary way of referring to a view of language that traces its roots to what was called Structuralism.

4.6. LINGUISTIC THEORY AND RESEARCH: IMPLICATIONS FOR SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING Linguistic theory as well as research have always had some impacts on second language teaching to variable amounts. This discussion first debated that how several types of linguistic theory which is structural, generative, and the last but not the least functional linguistics. These all type of theories have impacted second language teaching, and then debated some present second language acquisition research that has very significant suggestions for the second language teaching.

Figure 4.9: Linguistic theory and research: implications for second language teaching. Source: jpg

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


4.6.1. Early Developments The time when the linguistics had the strongest impact on second or foreign language teaching was in the period of 1950’s and of early 1960’s, when the audio-lingual method, which is based on the structuralist linguistics (as well as behaviorist psychology), was the most impactable teaching tactics. Based on the structural linguistic principle or ideology that was “languages can fluctuate without limit” and the behaviorist learning theory of habit formation, second language learning was well thought out to be a very important characteristic in making a new habit (which is the target language) with the help of overpowering the old habit (which is the mother tongue). Learning effort or struggle, in this way, was believed to stem mostly from the alteration or change between the first language (which is denoted with the help of Ll) and the second language (which is denoted with the help of L2). The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis was a very important or a crucial tool in this method. Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis was thought that with the help of comparing the leamer’s L1 and the target language, the field of struggle could be anticipated, which as an outcome would make the teaching of linguistic structure more productive, successful and efficient. These types of methods were highlighted in the audio-lingual tactics were structural oral drills which has the main objective at having learners obtain the structural properties of the target language. By means of oral drills, for example, substitution, conversion, as well as mimicry memorization, learners were anticipated to establish the habits of the L2 structure, and at the same time finding the solution interference from habits from the Ll (according to the Lado, in the year of 1957). Even though, the audio-lingual approach continued to be in vogue in the period of 1960’s, in the field of linguistics Chomsky’s generative transformational grammar had begun to alter or modify the scene in a considerable manner. Structural linguistics as well as behaviorist psychology had the concentration only on the evaluation of ‘observable behavior,’ which is claiming that the hypothesizing non-observable constructs was instinctive.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 4.10: Implication for second language teaching. Source:

Chomsky’s generative transformational grammar, never the less, not only planned a more adequate model of description with the help of application of non-observable constructs, for example, “deep structure,” and ‘transformation,’ but it also comes up with the deeper questions, for example why the language has the form it has, and how humans obtain it. Through the course of the time interval of 1960’s, Chomsky’s generative transformational grammar have attained the status of orthodoxy in theoretical linguistics (stated in the Newmeyer, 1986). It was also involved in the reduction of behaviorist psychology, and the increment of the cognitive psychology, which is more based on the mental strength. With the decease of structural linguistics as well as the behaviorist psychology, audio-lingualism lost its theoretical backbone. In addition, several types of empirical studies which verified the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (e.g., stated in the Whitman & Jackson, 1972) did not backing it. In addition, it was publicized that not all mistakes made with the help of learners are based on Ll interference; some of the mistakes are the outcomes of creative processes of hypothesis testing (intra-lingual errors, according to

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


the Richards, 1971). Losing both its theoretical as well as empirical validity, audio-lingualism lost its legitimacy by the time period of late 1960’s.

4.7. LANGUAGE TEACHING APPROACHES In learning languages, a difference is commonly made between mother tongues, second languages, as well as in the foreign languages. A mother tongue is the first language or languages one learns (or acquires) as a child. When migrants come to a new nation or a new place where spoken language is different as compared to the previous one and learn the language of that nation, they are learning a second language. On the other hand, when English-speaking students in the regions of United States learn French or Spanish in school, or when Brazilians study English in Brazil, they are learning a foreign language. The acronyms ESL English as a Second Language and EFL English as a foreign Language. Several numbers of theories were stated about the learning and teaching of languages have been projected. These types of theories, generally impacted with the help of the developments in the areas of linguistics and psychology, have encouraged several numbers of various methodologies to the teaching of second and foreign languages. The study of these types of theories and how they impact the language teaching methodology in the present interval of time is called applied linguistics. The grammar-translation method (in the time period of 18th, in the time period of 19th and in the time period of early of the 20th century), for instance, is an early approaches which were based on the traditions that the language is primarily graphic, that the main goal or objective of the second language study is to build the knowledge of the structure of the language either as a tool for literary research and translation or for the development of the logical powers of the learner, and that the process of the second language learning must be reasonable, it requires effort, as well as must be conducted out with continuous orientation to the native language of the learner. The audiolingual methodology, which was very common from the time period of 1940s through the time period of the 1960s, is based on the structural linguistics (which is known as the structuralism) and behavioristic psychology (which is known as the Skinner’s behaviorism), and places heavy importance on the spoken as an alternative to the written language, as well as on the grammar of particular languages, pressurizing the habit formation as a type of learning.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 4.11: Language teaching approaches. Source:!d

Rote memorization, role playing, as well as structure drilling are the main activities. Audiolingual methodologies do not rely so much on the creative potential or ability of the instructor and do not necessitate the excellent ability or skill in the language, being always criticized to sets of lessons and books. In such way, they are easy to be executed, cheap to be preserved and are still in applied with the help of the several numbers of packaged language courses (more specifically in the regions of Brazil). By the time of the middle of the 20th century cognitive psychologists such as Vygotsky and Piaget came up with the theories that aids to describe the constrained efficiency of successfulness of the traditional or conventional prescriptive and mechanistic methods to the language teaching. These types of theories serve as a basis for the new natural-communicative methods. In the beginning of the interval of time of 1950s, researcher named as Noam Chomsky and his followers throw down the gauntlet in the context to the previous assumptions made about language the structure and language learning, taking the position that language is creative (not memorized), and rule governed (not based on habit), and that universal phenomena of the human mind underlie all language. This “Chomskian revolution” at first gave increase to the eclecticism in teaching, but it has more newly takes into the direction towards to two

Linguistic Theory and Language Teaching


main branches of teaching approaches, which are the humanistic methods based on the charismatic teaching of one person, and the second one is based on the content communicative methods, which try to integrate what has been learned in recent interval of time about the necessity for the active learner participation, about the suitable language input, and about the communication as a human activity. In the most recent interval of time, there has been also an important change in the direction towards the greater attention to reading as well as writing as a complement of listening and speaking, which is based on a new awareness of important changes or alteration between the spoken and written languages, and on the notion that are coping up with the language which is consisting of an communication between the text on the one hand, and the culturally-based world knowledge and experientially-based learning of the receiver on the other. There have been developments, for example, a great importance on the individualized instruction, more humanistic tactics to the language learning, a greater concentration on the learner, and greater importance on the improvement or development of communicative, as contrasting to simply linguistic, competence.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching









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99 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Politzer, R. (1964). The Impact of Linguistics on Language Teaching: Past, Present and Future. [online] Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Randall, R., & Eastman, C. (1979). Linguistic Theory and Language Description. Language, [online] 55(2), p.478. Available at: https://www. Language_Description?_sg=RzOMQ3RK7–9vQ3GzxZrX2xwtNhep OmgGAd27FSactQd9mi6U3hLFWRpIVoZA5Cet-TvqCMoghUVD_ Eo [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Randall, R., & Eastman, C. (1979). Linguistic Theory and Language Description. Language, [online] 55(2), p.478. Available at: https://www. Language_Description?_sg=RzOMQ3RK7–9vQ3GzxZrX2xwtNhep OmgGAd27FSactQd9mi6U3hLFWRpIVoZA5Cet-TvqCMoghUVD_ Eo [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Ricardo Schütz (2019). Language Teaching Approaches Review. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. SandraJj. Savignon (2019). Communicative Language Teaching: Linguistic Theory and Classroom Practice. [eBook] Linguistic Theory and Classroom Practice 3. Available at: uploads/2015/08/Communicative-language-teaching2.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Sarah Robinson (2018). LINGUIST List 29.2275: Summer Schools: Linguistic Theory in Second and Foreign Language Teaching. [online] The LINGUIST List. Available at: issues/29/29–2275.html [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Springer (2019). Corpus Pragmatics. [online] Available at: journal/41701?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI7I7ei7Wd4wIVgjUrCh0h_ ARTEAMYASAAEgIF0PD_BwE [Accessed 17 August 2019]. TESOL Class (2019). Contrastive Analysis. [online] TESOL Class. Available at: contrastive-analysis/ [Accessed 17 August 2019].


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34. Trentman, E. (2018). What is Language? Folk Linguistic Theories. [online] Emma Trentman. Available at: https://www.emmatrentman. com/blog/2018/3/14/what-is-language-folklinguistic-theories [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 35. Van Valin, R. (1991). Functionalist Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. First Language, [online] 11(31), 7–40. Available at: Theory_and_Language_Acquisition?_sg=g70euRUrDliB3C_aM3b yv8zhpJKKCAo0254r2wBCx23I9mfp1zknugwaJM_W_TSypxlp0WiL5JoBmY [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 36. Vandana Singhal (2019). Noam Chomsky’s Language Acquisition Theories. [online] Bright Hub Education. Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 37. Vivian Cook & Li Wei (2009). Applied Linguistics in the 21st Century. [online] Available at: Writings/Papers/IntroAL08.htm [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 38. Vobs (n.d.). Communicative Language Teaching. [online] Www2. Available at: methods/communicative_language_teaching.htm [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 39. Wikipedia (2019). Theories of Second-Language Acquisition. [online] Available at: of_second-language_acquisition [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 40. Xia, Y. (2014). Language Theories and Language Teaching— from Traditional Grammar to Functionalism. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, [online] 5(3). Available at: http://www. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 41. Xing, H. (2018). Language Teaching Research Based on Applied Linguistics Theory. Open Journal of Social Sciences, [online] 6(12), 340–348. Available at: https:// Teaching_Research_Based_on_Applied_Linguistics_Theory?_ sg=XAsFoU5k1EicbzRCrl9k4pHyqTLiZ-keqHopCHfCryVogCAQU

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ouPiVm1goMrgacwtxfHFgH9FgMZFVg [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 42. Yasuhiro Shirai (2019). Linguistic Theory and Research: Implications for Second Language Teaching. [online] Springer. Available at:–94–011–4419–3_1 [Accessed 17 August 2019].


Strategies for Language Teaching

CONTENTS 5.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 104 5.2. Foreign Language Teaching Strategies ............................................. 105 5.3. Types of Language Teaching Methodologies .................................... 107 5.4. Strategy Assessment Types ............................................................... 125 5.5. Benefits of Teaching Foreign Languages .......................................... 126 References ............................................................................................. 128

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Strategies for language teaching can be described in many ways by different people and different organizations and those definitions are provided in this chapter. There are several strategies that are used for teaching language other than your native language. This chapter is all about the same thing. It describes wholly about the strategies and methodologies adopted for language teaching. There are several types of language teaching methodologies such as direct method, grammar-translation method, audio lingual method, communicative teaching method, structural approach, suggestopedia, total physical response, communicative approach, and the lexical syllabus. This chapter contains a table which compares the strategies assessment types. In the end, the chapter provides the benefits of teaching a foreign language.

5.1. INTRODUCTION Language learning strategies are considered to be the shift from focusing on teachers and teaching to learners and learning. Such shift that is the language learning strategies are described by many people or organization such as: •

As described by Cohen, the language learning strategies are “one potentially beneficial shift in teacher roles is from that of being exclusively the manager, controller and instructor to that of being a change agent – a facilitator of learning, whose role is to help their students to become more independent and more responsible for their own learning.” Language learning strategies are defined by Tarone as “the attempts that are done in order to develop the linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the target language – to incorporate these into one’s inter-language competence.” According to Weinstein and Mayer, the learning strategies are “behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning” which are “intended to influence the learner’s encoding process.” More specifically, later on, Mayer described it as “behaviors of a learner that are intended to influence how the learner processes information.”

Strategies for Language Teaching


The learning strategies as per outlined by Weinstein as “learning strategies are considered to be any behaviors or thoughts that facilitate encoding in such a way that knowledge integration and retrieval are enhanced. More specifically, these thoughts and behaviors constitute organized plans of action designed to achieve a goal. Examples of learning strategies include actively rehearsing, summarizing, paraphrasing, imaging, elaborating, and outlining.” • The language learning strategies as described by the Rubin is that “contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and affect learning directly.” • For Oxford, the language learning strategies are “specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques that students (often intentionally) use to improve their progress in developing L2 skills. These strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language. Strategies are tools for the self-directed involvement necessary for developing communicative ability.” These definitions which provided above, gives an overview of how the scholars see the language learning strategies. Specifically, in the linguistic or sociolinguistic competence aspects, the scholars began to target the product of learning strategies. Afterwards, they started paying more attention to the process opted for learning and from this, the classification of the language learning strategies was done.

5.2. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING STRATEGIES Today in this era, modern foreign languages are changing. And along with it, the way of learning as well as teaching them is also changing. It is very urgent to increase the number of students who should opt for learning language at high levels. And for that purpose, it is required to have some approaches to teach the language and some methods should be used by the teachers in order to increase the engagement among the young students so as to increase their interest and potential to study the language for longer or at high levels.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 5.1: A woman studying languages. Source:

There are several various teaching strategies and methodologies which are been used for years worldwide, to engage students with the language learning. For adding some enthusiasm in the students for modern foreign languages, it is required to make language classes more enjoyable, informative as well as motivational. The art of language learning can also dramatically improve the English skills. For the speakers having an English as a native language, they can get a chance to learn the language and hence, it will provide a wide understanding and knowledge about the structure of the English language as well the grammar patterns. This can prove to be the skill that is very important in high level careers. There are some careers in the sectors such as international politics, sustainability, military or security and anthropology which really need to employ those people having foreign language skills. The international relations that are generally required in these sectors needs to work with the linguists otherwise, they can surely become messy. So as to change the world, the people should be proficient in any foreign language. The skill which is received from the learning of foreign language is the acceptance of different cultures and, the diversity present in the world. The ability to communicate in different languages opens the chances to communicate in another language with the world to a variety of people from different nations and communities to create relationships and so get a chance to learn about the cultures that make our planet so rich with diversity.

Strategies for Language Teaching


The language classroom whether online or offline needs to be fun as well as exciting and for that there should be approach for learning the language and it should be made interactive and varied. There are some approaches and strategies that should be motivating enough for the students to make them learn languages. Every methods and strategies have contributed new elements and they have attempted to deal with the issues that are in language learning. Despite that these strategies are derived from different context in the history, they have used different social and educational needs and thus, considered different theoretical aspects. Before implementing the teaching strategies more effectively and efficiently, the teachers should consider some questions: • • • •

Who the learners are? What is their status of language proficiency? What type of needs they have regarding the communication? The circumstances where they are going to use that language in their near future?

5.3. TYPES OF LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGIES Teaching language has a long as well as fascinating but rather a dishonest history. But over the last 100 years, there has been debates going on the evolution of teaching methods. There are several methods that are popular enough such as direct method, grammar-translation method, communicative teaching methods and audio-lingual method, etc. These methods are derived from the social, political, educational circumstances or economic, partly from the experience practically, partly from the considerations of theory, intuition and inventiveness and they are a part of language teaching theories. Therefore, the strategies represent a combination of language teaching beliefs, but it can be said that characterization is done by the over-emphasis on the single aspects as the central issue of the language teaching as well as learning.

5.3.1. The Direct Method In 1890s, the emergence of the direct method took place. It is emerged as the response to the perceived inability of other method such as grammar-

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


translation method to teach the learners to communicate genuinely. The grammar-translation methods taught learners that targeted language rather than showing the way to speak the targeted language.

Figure 5.2: A teacher teaching students. Source:

This method is also known as Natural Method. It was established in Germany and France. It was now considered to be an answer to the limitations of some other methods. But in direct method there is no translation. In fact, it can be said that the mother-tongue is expressly forbidden, and all the communication is done directly in the targeted language. Visual aids and miming are used to explain the vocabulary. In this, the speaking as well as listening are given priority and also, reading and writing are also important at their part. Grammar is understood and not implanted. There are some typical features of a lesson of direct methods: • • • • •

It is required to be in the targeted language. It should be teacher or learner centered. Pictures, realia, or miming should be provided so that teachers can explain new vocab by using them. It should encourage students to speak in the targeted language and that too in real contexts. It should not teach students the grammar explicitly rather they

Strategies for Language Teaching


need to encounter examples and should be asked to work out with the rules. • Vocabulary needs to be practiced by using some new words in the context. This method includes some features such as: •

Translation is not used in any of the classroom activities. These activities are overall based on only the targeted language. • Before any activities based on reading and writing, oral teachings are given priority. • Use of chain activities accompanied by verbal comments like: I go to the door. I open the door. I close the door. I return to my place. I sit down. (called the Gouin series) • In this method, grammar is taught originally, the presentations are provided to them in an adequate linguistic form in the targeted language. • This method uses realia so as to teach the concrete vocabulary. There are associations of ideas, which are used to teach the abstract vocabulary. • This method emphasizes on the correct pronunciation and correct grammar. • Teaching in this method is done through modeling and practice. The techniques, which are used in this kind of method used for teaching, mostly rely on: • • • •

Reading the texts loudly. Exercising through the questions and answers. Students need to self-correct themselves. Practicing conversion of the targeted language into the native language. • Exercise relating to fill in the blanks. • Dictation and paragraph writing There are some advantages of direct method over other methods opted for language teaching and those are listed below: •

Direct method is considered to be a natural method which in turn teaches language in the most similar way as the mother tongue is

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


acquired. The learning is contextualized as in they only use the target language for further teaching. There are students who need to have a genuine conversation only in a targeted language and this is because of the teaching which is emphasized majorly on speech in his method. Direct method was one of the methods which firstly introduced the teaching of vocabulary through realia.

5.3.2. Grammar-translation Method Grammar-translation method is also known as classical method. This method is said to a traditional teaching technique which was used to teach Latin and Greek. During the 16th century, it was particularly in vogue. The target was majorly on the translation of the texts, grammar and practice learning of vocabulary. In this method, on emphasize was given neither on speaking and nor on listening the comprehension. The reason being that the Latin and Greek were previously taught more as the academic subject and not like a means of oral communication. This method is also used commonly in many of the countries and institutions worldwide and still there are people who are interested in languages from an intellectual or linguistic point of view. However, it does not do a lot in improving the ability to use the language for oral communication. Along with the other methods or strategies of teaching language, grammar-translation tends to be referred to be in the past tense. It seemed like it no longer existed or have been replaced worldwide because of the fun and motivation provided by the communicative classroom. If a proper analysis is done on the principal features of the grammartranslation, it can be easily said that it has not disappeared completely, rather its characteristics or principals have been used in centrally in teaching languages from its initiation and are still used today. The grammar-translation method makes use of a number of various approaches. Despite this fact, the goal of studying any foreign language can be to read any literature in its original form or as simple as to be a form of intellectual development. The basic approach in this method is to examine

Strategies for Language Teaching


or study the number of the grammatical rules of the language and then to practice it by using the grammatical structures by exploiting the means of translation both into as well as from the mother tongue. The grammar-translation method is much based on the written words as well as texts. A usual approach that can be used is to present the rules of a particular topic from the grammar, explain its use by using them many times with several texts and hence, practice them by using the item through writing down the sentences and translating it into the native language of the learner. The text most often can contain a vocabulary list which further includes new lexical items used with the text altogether with the translation into the learner’s native language. The centralization in this approach is the accurate use of language items. The instruction provided, uses the medium of the mother tongue which is further used to explain the conceptual problems and so as to discuss the use of any specific grammatical structure. Over the year, the grammatical translation method has seen a remarkable success. A large number of the learners have learnt various languages successfully and that too, to a high degree of proficiency. In many cases, even there was no contact with the native speakers of the language. There are some types of learners who tend to respond very positively to the syllabus of grammar as it can provide them both the clarity of the objectives and a clarity of the sense of achievement. But in contrast, there are some learners who tend to secure their mother tongue and want the opportunity to relate the grammatical structures to their mother tongue equivalents. This kind of approach can provide its learners with a basic foundation on which they can build their skills related to communication.

5.3.3. Audio-Lingual method The origination of the audio-lingual method for teaching took place during the World War II and at that time this method was known as army method. This method is basically based on the structural view of the language and the behaviorist theory related to language learning.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 5.3: Thank you note in various languages. Source:

There were a lot of similarities in the audio-lingual approach with the direct method used for language learning. Both the methods that were related to the language teaching were considered against the shortcomings of the grammar-translation method. Both the methods rejected the use of mother tongue and both the methods emphasizes on speaking and listening rather than reading and writing. The structural view to the language is the view behind the audiolingual method. The main focus of this approach is to examine the ways the elements of language relating each other in the present, which can be said as ‘synchronically’ and not ‘diachronically. The main topic of debate was that the linguistic signs were composed of two parts such as a signifier that is the sound pattern of a word and a signified that is the concept or meaning of the word. This study of language describes the performance as it is the only observable part of language. The major objective of the audio-lingual method is the accurate pronunciation as well as the grammar and the capability of responding quickly and precisely in speech situations and the knowledge of appropriate vocabulary in order to use with grammar patterns. It particularly emphasizes on mastering the building blocks of language and also, learning the rules for adding them. Previously, it was believed that the initiation of the student is the learning structure or the grammar.

Strategies for Language Teaching


There are several characteristics of the method which include: • •

Language learning is the habit formation. Mistakes are bad, and it needs to be avoided because they were considered as bad habits. • The learners can learn the language skills more effectively if they are taught orally first after that in written form. • In comparison to analysis, analogy is a better foundation for language learning. • Only by using the linguistic and cultural context, the meaning of words can be learned. There are several main activities in this method and that includes reading dialogues aloud, repeating model sentences and drilling. The most important structures from the dialogue serve as the foundation for the pattern drills and that of different kinds. Lessons studied in the classroom focuses on the correct repetition done by the students after the teacher. The students are expected to produce the correct output and also, the attention is paid to the correct pronunciation of the sentences. Despite the fact that no explicit grammatical instruction is given, it is expected to use the grammar correctly. And therefore, it is taught originally. In addition to this, the target language is the only language used in the classroom. There are certain advantages of using this type of language such as: •

This method focuses on developing skills related to listening and speaking which is just a step away from the method that is the grammar-translation method. There are use of visual aids in this method and this have proved it effectiveness in the vocabulary teaching.

5.3.4. Structural Approach Structural Approach is considered to be the direct result of the research which was done by the British Council in Institute of Education, University of London. This approach is basically based on the important concepts required for learning of a foreign language mastery of structures rather than acquisition of the vocabulary. The meaning of structural approach can be the arrangement of words so as to form a suitable pattern of sentence. This approach is also named as new approach or ‘Aural oral Approach.’ Tamil Nadu in India was the first state to get this approach in trend. After

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


this, the Central Institute of English in Hyderabad, played as a leading role to make this approach popular in the rest of the country. As per Brewington, ‘Structural approach is a scientific study of the fundamental structures of the English Language, their analysis and logical arrangement.’ According to Menon and Patel, the basis of the structural approach is the belief that while learning a foreign language, mastery in the structure is very important rather than acquisition of the vocabulary. There are certain selected structures in a specific order that should be taught to the learner which is the structural approach to English. There are several different arrangements or patterns which is known as structures. Structures can be complete patterns, or they can form a part of any large pattern. The structures can be said to be the tools of a language. It should not be confused with the sentences. Any grammatical background is not needed with the structures whereas sentences are the grammatical order of words. There are four kinds of structures in the structural approach such as: •

Sentence Patterns: In French, the word pattern means a model from which many things can be made and that too of same kind and shape. A model for sentence which can be of same shape and made up of different words is said to be a sentence pattern. Phrase Patterns: Phrase pattern can be defined as a word or group of words which in turn express an idea without it beginning sentenced of clause, for example, on the desk, with a knife, in the school, etc. Formulas: those words which can be used on some specific occasions are known as formulas, for example, how are you? Good Morning, etc. Idioms: Idioms are like ‘born with a silver spoon, ‘to err is human, forgive is divine, at the eleventh hour,’ etc., come in this category. These should be taught as a whole.

Strategies for Language Teaching


Figure 5.4: Various idioms of English. Source:

When making the selection of structures, the structures having some of the characteristics should be selected. Those characteristics are such as: •

The structures which occur most frequently both in written as well as spoken language are very useful. • Selection of simple structures should be selected for the beginners, for example, I am walking, you are sleeping, etc. • In the beginning, the learners should be taught the structures which are teachable, for example, it is more easily to teach I am standing rather than I am thinking. The structures selected should consider the level of the age of the learner. • Selection of structures should be done considering the level of the learner’s capacity to learn. There is the gradation of structures which can be done as follows: • • •

Identification of things and persons by the structures. Locating them in space by structures. Fixing them in time by using structures.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Along with the structures in the structural approach, content words should be taught to the learners. It is done because the teaching will become dull and uninspiring without content words. The content words which are jumped from the specific situations should be only used. There is a separate procedure for teaching in the structural approach. Generally, there are five steps, which are involved in the teaching with structural approach: Step 1: In some appropriate situation, presentation should be done by the teacher. Step 2: The situations created by step 1, oral drilling is done by the students. Step 3: Presentation should be done in some new situation. Step 4: In the situations created by the step 3, oral drilling is done by the students. Step 5: Overall drilling is done. There are three principles of the structural approach according to the F. G. French such as: • • •

There is importance of the child’s activity and not activity of the teacher. For fixing firmly, the speech is much important. So as to replace the sentence pattern of the leaner’s mother tongue, arrangement of words should be done in the sentence patterns of targeted language and for that it is important to form the language habits.

5.3.5. Suggestopedia Suggestopedia is also known as Desuggestopedia. Suggestopedia is a method which is developed by the Bulgarian psychiatrist educator namely Georgi Lozanov. It is a particular set of learning recommendations which is derived from the Suggest ology. According to Lozanov, suggest ology is a, ‘science concerned with the systematic study of the non-rational and/or nonconscious influences. To tackle these influences and redirect them to optimize learning, Suggestopedia is used. In suggestopedia, there are most noticeable characteristics such as decoration, furniture and the arrangement of the classroom, the use of music and the authoritative behavior of the teacher.

Strategies for Language Teaching


There are certain claims for suggestopedia learning. According to Lozanov, ‘There is no sector of public life where suggest ology would not be useful. Memorization in learning by the suggestopedia method seems to be accelerated 25 times over that in learning by conventional methods. Lozanov claims that whether students spend time on studying outside or not, his method works equally well. He promises success through Suggestopedia to the academically gifted and the ungifted alike.

5.3.6. Total Physical Response (TPR) Total physical response (TPR) was originally developed in 1960s, by James Asher who was an American professor of psychology. The total physical response is centered on the theory which says that the memory is enhanced through association with physical movement. This method is closely related to the theories of language acquisition of mother tongue by very young students, where they reply physically to parental commands, for example, ‘pick up’ and ‘out it down.’ Total physical response is an approach for teaching a second language. This method is firstly based on listening and this is connected to the physical actions which are designed to strengthen the comprehension of specific basic items. Any typical total physical response activity can include some instructions such as ‘walk to the door,’ ‘sit down,’ and ‘give Maria your dictionary.’ These instructions are made to be carried out by the students by physically performing the activities. A supportive classroom environment is provided, and such activities can be both motivating as well as fun. The five activities in the TPR are: • TPR Storytelling Session A total physical response contains all the elements of a great tale such as a relatable main character, an engaging plot and a proper ending which rewards the listeners. Along with this, a foreign language teacher which uses total physical response, should remember that the story should be used to teach the meaning. So, it is required that the total physical response should contain a good mixture of the native language and the targeted language. Similarly, for the beginners, there should be an ample amount of native language that must be used in the story and a little of targeted language.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 5.5: Teacher telling story to students. Source:

The story is a vehicle for teaching meaning. Similarly, the repeating key phrases and their meaning movements are the order of the day. Not only the story, but the key phrases should also be taught to the class. If the students are required to integrate into their long-term memory, firstly it is required to teach the meaningful and memorable words and phrases and secondly, it is needed to focus on the plot, twists and turns of the story. • Simon Says with a Twist Simon says is a vocabulary-oriented game. It is similar to the process that takes place when the students acquire their first language. Their parents or adults often given instructions to their children such as ‘throw the ball,’ ‘come here’ or ‘eat your food.’ For this kind of game, the teachers divide the class into two groups. The group can be divided on the basis on any kind of characteristics such as girls or boys, etc. After that, each group is required to send a representative for every round. Then the representative stand at the back of the class, near the wall and keep their eyes fixed on other students.

Strategies for Language Teaching


Figure 5.6: Students playing Simon Says game. Source:

While playing ‘Simon,’ the teacher can come up with the creative commands or actions following which the students need to perform them. For example, in French classes, the teacher can use such commands such as ‘Sautés trois foes’ that means jump three times, ‘Pleurez’ which means cry. After that, the students who correctly follows the instruction, take forward a step towards ‘finish line.’ When the students reach the finish line first, wins one point for the team. The teams who win 5 points first, they win the game. • The Amazing Race In such game, the teachers are required to send the students to do some task or to represent comprehension by performing the instructed motion. In this, the students are divided into four or five teams. Ideally, each team will contain three or four players. The tasks which the teacher choose to give to the students are only limited to the teacher’s imagination, but instead of writing down the tasks, the teachers are required to give the tasks verbally to the students. • TPR Theater This kind of game is for those who are little bit advanced in the target language since, the total physical response theater has some fiction which


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

are added to the mix. It is for all the aims and purposes, and also, it is also an unplanned play. The teachers are required to narrate and move the story forward and tell the characters to the class. The teachers are the caring narrator and the puppet master in which the students are the bit players who are needed to do every bidding. • Action Songs for the Whole Class Action songs are total physical response but the added one is music. And the students love them. The songs add melody and thus, measure that what the brain can grasp. They are proved to be the perfect aid for memory that can effectively use the language and move till the long term. Teachers are required to lead the class with the action songs. It is not needed to have the songs that rely on the nursery classics for the action songs. The classics start-off with a creative teacher and so they are needed to come up with gestures who accompany the lines. They can create many actions for several songs including pop music in the targeted language.

5.3.7. Communicative Language Teaching or CLT The communicative approach in teaching the language which in turn starts from a theory of language as communication. Hymes referred the goal of language teaching as ‘communicative competence.’ Hymes coined this term to contrast a communicative view of language and Chomsky’s theory of competence. According to Chomsky, the linguistic theory is primarily concerned with an ideal speaker as well as listener in a complete homogeneous speech community. Such community knows their native language perfectly and are not affected by some grammatical irrelevant conditions such as distractions, memory limitations, shifting of attention and interest and errors because they apply their knowledge about the language in the actual performance. The main focus of the linguistic theory for Chomsky was to characterize the conceptual abilities that the speaker possesses and to enable them to produce sentences which are grammatically correct in a language. Hymes said that such an opinion about the linguistic theory was sterile. He said that the linguistic theory is required to be seen as a part of a general theory which incorporate communication and culture. Hymes theory regarding the communicative competence was, ‘a definition of what a speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community.’ With the Hymes, point of view, any

Strategies for Language Teaching


person who gains the communicative competence gains both knowledge as well as ability to use the language with respect to the degree that something is formally possible, something which is feasible regarding the implementation, something which is appropriate as per the context in which it is going to be used and evaluated and something is done and actually performed. This theory is related to the things involved in the language and thus, provides a more comprehensive view than the view of competence as viewed by Chomsky which deals primarily with the knowledge of abstract grammar. There is one more theory related to the Communicative language teaching and it is the Halliday’s functional account of language use. It says, ‘Linguistics is concerned with the description of speech acts or texts, since only through the study of language in use are all the functions of language, and therefore all components of meaning, brought into focus.’ Halliday described in a lot number of influential books and papers about the powerful theory of the functions of language which complements the view of Hymes regarding the communicative competence. There are seven basic functions which is performed by language in learning the first language by the students: • • • • • • •

The instrumental function: the language can be used to get things; The regulatory function: the language is used so as to control the behavior of others; The interactional function: the language is used in order to create interaction with others; The personal function: the language is used to express personal feelings and meanings; The heuristic function: the language can be used to learn and to discover; The imaginative function: the language is used so as to create a world of the imagination; The representational function: The language may be in order to communicate information.

5.3.8. The Lexical Syllabus This lexical approach was introduced by Michael Lewis in 1993. He was the one who noticed that, ‘language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar.’ Since, the lexical approach is majorly based on assumption that some words will elicit a response with some specific set of

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


words, therefore it can be said that this approach is not a single or clearly defined method for teaching language. It is expected from the students that they will learn the grammar of languages which is based on recognizing the patterns in words.

Figure 5.7: Building blocks. Source:

There is some methodological implication of lexical approach, which includes: • • • • • • • • • •

The role of grammar as a receptive skill must be recognized. Early emphasis on receptive skills, especially listening, is essential. Extensive writing should be delayed as long as possible. De-contextualized vocabulary learning is a fully legitimate strategy. Reformulation should be the natural response to student error. Pedagogical chunking should be a frequent classroom activity. Teachers should employ extensive, comprehensible language for receptive purposes. Nonlinear recording formats (e.g., mind maps, word trees) are intrinsic to the lexical approach. Teachers should always react primarily to the content of student language. The importance of contrast in language awareness must be recognized.

Strategies for Language Teaching


5.3.9. The Natural Approach There is one more language learning theory named as the natural approach which was introduced by Dr. Stephen Krashen of USC and Tracy Terrell of the University of California in San Diego. This approach is generally based on the radical notion which the students learn language in the same way. And that particular way can be recognized by how the students acquire our first language. If anyone wants to know how one picks up a new language, the he or she should also, observe how a child picks up his or her first language. By the term ‘natural,’ it is generally supposed that there are unnatural methods to learn any language. According to Krashen and Terrell, these are said to be the structural approaches so as to learn the grammar method that can decode the language into its components and the drill that involve listening and repeating should be implemented in the classrooms. A spontaneous emergence of the speech happens when the students is continuously exposed to the language. The students are taught how it should be properly wielded in several various situations and by providing them inputs that are meaningful as well as memorable.

5.3.10. The Immersion Method The immersion generally means that being submerged or being surrounded by something. In this method, the language which is being learned by the students are constantly used in their everyday life along with their first language. The earlier the introduction of the second language takes place, the bilingualism develops more easily. The brain of a child is attuned to language acquisition and development. The brain is capable of registering, processing and sorting a number of sounds, structures and rhythms. The students can pick up their second language in the exact same way as they picked up their first language. They just need to use them in their daily conversations.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 5.8: Bilingualism in Canada by Federal Electoral Riding Based on the 2003 Representation Order. Source:

Therefore, there are near native competencies or some native speakers who have already spent some time or years abroad working in some day care centers. The native speaker educator better conveys the culture of the country either by using the language or alongside the language. It is only these educators who use the second language to communicate with the children. And thus, there is no mixing of languages as the students have a clear perception to identify the people for each language.

5.3.11. Community Language Learning (CLL) The method named as Community Language Learning (CLL) was developed by Charles A. Curran along with his associates. Charles A. Curran was a specialist in counseling and was a professor of psychology in Loyola University in Chicago. His application of techniques of psychological counseling for learning was named as counseling learning. Therefore, the

Strategies for Language Teaching


counseling learning theory is used in the community language learning to teach the languages. While considering the language teaching tradition, the community language learning is said to be an example of a ‘humanistic approach.’ There are some particular set of bilingual procedures which are said to be ‘language alternation’ or ‘code switching.’ The links are also established in between the procedures of community language learning and the bilingual education or the set of procedures. The community language learning derives its primary insights and certainly the organizing rational from the Rogerian Counseling. According to Rogerian Counseling, counseling consists of one individual which is the counselor who gives advice, assistance and support to another person who has some problem or in other way if needed by the client. Community language learning draws the counseling metaphor and so, it redefines the role of teacher who is the counselor and the learner who acts as the client in the language classroom. And hence, the basic procedures of the community language learning can be derived from the counselor and client relationship.

5.4. STRATEGY ASSESSMENT TYPES The Oxford compares a number of strategy assessment methods, which is provided in the table given below: Table 5.1: Comparison of Strategy Assessment Types Type of assessment

Appropriate uses

Limitations of use

Strategy questionnaires

· Identify ‘typical’ strategies used by an individual; · Can be aggregated into group results; · Wide array of strategies can be measured by questionnaires.

Not useful for identifying specific strategies on a given language task at a given time.


· Identify strategies that are Not useful for unobservable stratereadily observable for specific tasks. gies (e.g., reasoning, analyzing, mental self-talk) or for identifying ‘typical’ strategies.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


· Identify strategies used on specific tasks over a given period or more ‘typically’ used strategies; · Usually more oriented toward task-specific rather than ‘typical’ strategies of an individual; · Depends on how interview questions are asked.

Usually less useful for identifying ‘typical’ strategies because of how interviews are conducted but could be used for either task-specific or ‘typical’ strategies.

Dialogue journals, diaries · Identify strategies used Less useful for identifying ‘typical’ on specific tasks over a given period. strategies used more generally. Recollected narratives (language learning histories)

· Identify ‘typical’ strategies used in specific settings in the past.

Not intended for current strategies; depends on memory of learner.

Think-aloud protocols

· Identify in-depth the strategies used in a given, ongoing task.

Not useful for identifying ‘typical’ strategies used more generally.

Strategy checklists

· Identify strategies used on a just-completed task.

Not useful for identifying ‘typical’ strategies used more generally.


5.5. BENEFITS OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES There are many benefits for students who are willing to study a foreign language but there are benefits for teachers also who are teaching those languages to their students. It can seem a little redundant when traditionally languages departments don’t receive much funding and uptake rates for language degrees and high school qualifications are continuously declining. First and foremost, it is much rewarding for the teacher to see their students gaining confidence and improving their speaking as well the improving their skills in the language. Teaching students is seen as witnessing the students getting engaged in some other culture and learning about the world along with broadening their horizons.

Strategies for Language Teaching


Figure 5.9: Teacher–Student Relationship. Source:

Teaching any foreign language can make to teacher to introduce all kind of fun activities into the class room like some foreign music or films, food, traditional clothing, festivals, etc. Sometimes, the teacher gets the chance to take their students on a trip so that the students can visually grasp the language being used at that place. Also, the teacher gets benefited with a great student–teacher relationship with many of their students by communication. One of the main reasons can be that the teachers are proved to a fundamental part of the student’s life while learning the languages. There are many times, when the teacher gets to really know their students and help them with their individual needs.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching









Bowen, T. (n.d.). Teaching Approaches: The Grammar-Translation Method. [online] Onestopenglish. Available at: http://www. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Bowen, T. (n.d.). Teaching Approaches: Total Physical Response. [online] Onestopenglish. Available at: http://www.onestopenglish. com/methodology/methodology/teaching-approaches/teachingapproaches-total-physical-response/146503.article [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Chiranjeevi Rao, D., Yentrapati, P., & Prasad Babu, D. (2017). Methods and Approaches to English Language Teaching. [eBook] p.2. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. D., Stevie. (n.d.). 5 Total Physical Response (TPR) Activities That Every Language Teacher Should Know. [online] General Educator Blog. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Maguid Saleh, S. (2012). Language Learning Strategies for Classroom Application. [online] Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Nordquist, R. (n.d.). What Is the Lexical Approach? [online] ThoughtCo. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Owen, I. (2017). Foreign language teaching strategies | Flash Academy Blog. [online] Flash Academy. Available at: foreign-language-teaching-strategies/ [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Qing-Xue, L., & Jin-Fang, S. (2007). An Analysis of Language Teaching Approaches and Methods —Effectiveness and Weakness. [eBook] Nanchang Jiangxi, p.1. Available at: c170/b8059eb89778e683434455af8d05d2f83484.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019].

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Rhalmi, M. (2009). The Audiolingual Method. [online] Myenglishpages. com. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Rhalmi, M. (2009). The Direct Method. [online] Myenglishpages. com. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2010). Suggestopedia. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, [online] 100–107. Available at: approaches-and-methods-in-language-teaching/suggestopedia/ BB0A6AEA27E23BA6F7084ACB293989D6 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Shoebottom, P. (n.d.). Language Teaching Methods. [online] Esl. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Taylor, A. (n.d.). The Direct and Grammar-Translation Methods of Teaching English. [online] TJ Taylor Blog. Available at: https://blog. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (n.d.). Direct Method | Language Teaching Methods | TEFL. net. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (n.d.). Communicative Language Teaching. [online] Available at: communicative_language_teaching.htm [Accessed 17 August 2019].


Online Language Teaching

CONTENTS 6.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 132 6.2. Types Of Skills In Online Language Teaching .................................. 133 6.3. Principles of Effective Online Teaching ........................................... 137 6.4. Tools of Online Language Learning ................................................. 142 6.5. Call And Language Teacher Education ............................................ 146 6.6. Platforms For Online Language Teaching ........................................ 148 6.7. Future Teacher Technology Preparation ........................................... 150 6.8. Conclusion ..................................................................................... 150 References ............................................................................................. 152


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

In the chapter online learning teaching, the impact of internet and digital devices on the online teaching discussed. The chapter also explains the type of skills that online tutors should need to possess to enhance the experience of their users. It also describes the importance of flexibility in online teaching that allows users to access the course at anytime from anywhere. The chapter also discusses the principles of effective online teaching program. In addition, the chapter also discusses the tools of online language learning. The chapter also highlighted the importance of computer-assisted language learning and its impact on teachers in delivering the lecture to their audience. Furthermore, the chapter also throws some light on various platforms for online language teaching. In the end, the chapter explains the future teacher technology preparation.

6.1. INTRODUCTION Within the past few years, there has been significant increase in the trend of online language learning. There are number of factors that contributed to the rapid growth of online learning and it is attributed to the increase in the use of internet and the availability of digital devices. According to a recent survey, it was observed that there are almost 1300 distance language courses from the 55,000 distant courses registered in 130 countries. It was noticed that some of the reasons that give rise to online learning platform are flexibility in terms of timing to access the course as it can be viewed at anytime from anywhere as well as it is more cost effective as compared to traditional learning. Also, it provides flexibility to teachers as well as teachers can expand their business of teaching because countless number of students can enroll to online course without any additional cost, this result in increase in the number of teachers providing the platform of online learning in last few years. However, the concept of online learning is not a new phenomenon, but the recent advancement in the technological tools increase the demand as well as supply of online language learning course. For teachers it become easy to educate their users online with the help of tools and for students, the use of smartphones and laptops help them to access course at anytime from anywhere. It was noticed that with increase in the trend of online language learning, there is also significant change in the methods and approaches that teachers use to teach their students.

Online Language Teaching


This new way to teach students is completely different from traditional approach as it used face-to-face teaching language course. This new approach to teach online become compulsion as these are the only ways online teacher can use to teach their students because online teaching rely only on communication and online interaction between teachers and students to focus on key areas. Furthermore, online language teaching program require teachers to learn new set of skills such as technical knowledge, which are necessary to teach students online. However, it seems that very few efforts are undertaken in this area as the increase in the trend of online language learning has not be able to cope with the increase in teacher training for language teachers beyond the technical and software specific skills. Moreover, the extensive research and best methods and approaches for online teaching may not translate well for online language teaching. Despite a recent rise in the research-based publications and new set of skills and techniques to computer-assisted language learning (CALL), including online language learning, there are plethora of resources available both online as well as offline on how to make teachers competent enough to teach online language teaching and development of skills to create favorable online teaching environment. To date, there is no valuable material and literature review available that can guide and instruct teachers about the skills needed for online language teaching. This chapter help in gaining an insight into the new ways, strategies and principles that are vital for online language learning program. However, before gaining an insight into suggestions and recommendations, this chapter will first of all explain the set of skills require to develop competent language learning programs and then the principles of effective online language learning.

6.2. TYPES OF SKILLS IN ONLINE LANGUAGE TEACHING It is well known that teaching language online required different set of skills as compared to those of traditional learning such as face-to-face classrooms. It is also different from teaching other subjects matter online. It requires more and extensive knowledge rather than teach certain subject matter online by just communicating the lesson online. In this chapter, two important pieces of knowledge are identified beyond the technical level:

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


to ‘identify the key differences as well as similarity between online language learning and face to face teaching contexts,’ and • to ‘identify important method and approaches that are vital to engage in online language learning program and allow students to take the benefits of online learning opportunity. Besides that, community building skills to encourage socialization, active participation and collaboration are equally important for online teaching (Jones & Youngs, 2006; Hampel & Stickler, 2005; McLoughlin & Oliver, 1999). According to, Hampel and Stickler (2005), who is in the profession of online language teaching program and have experience in the training of online tutors since many years, there are many unique skills required, which make the online language learning program completely different from the traditional method. There are several core skills that are required in the online language learning program and these range from lower level skills (e.g., basic ICT competence, specific technical and software competence and awareness of constraints and possibilities) to higher level skills (e.g., online socialization, facilitation of communicative competence as well as creativity, choice and selection). They are of the view that the online language teaching skills needed to ‘build on one another in a kind of pyramid, from the most general skills forming a fairly broad base to an apex of individual and personal styles’ (p. 316). The first and the most important level of skill in the online language learning program is the technological skills. It refers to having possession of technological equipment that are necessary for delivering lecture online. It comprises of basic equipment such as a speaker, mic, soundcards, keyboard, mouse, electronic blackboard, and headsets, as well as having basic knowledge about the day-to-day problems such as ISP connections, internet browsers, firewall, plug-ins, etc. It was also observed that knowledge about troubleshooting in browsers is very important for online tutors as most of the information processed and access by the users through a browser interface. The online tutors can advance these skills by taking basic computer course, in which all these basic functions will be teach to teachers. The competence to use networked computers and having understanding of basic applications are skills that have become prerequisites for effective online language teaching (Hampel & Sticker, 2005) and the general twenty-

Online Language Teaching


first century language teacher (Chapelle & Hegelheimer, 2004). Online tutors should give high importance to these skills as these are vital for the success of online language learning program. The second level of skill is to identify and choose the best software applications that will suit the nature of language that the tutor is going to teach their users. Some of the prominent software application that are often used by language learning tutors are Wimba, webCT, or Elluminate and/or freeware and open source such as Skype, Yahoo Messenger, or Moodle). Additionally, online tutors are required to keep up to date about the latest software and application tools that are prevailing in the market, from course management software (CMS) to applications that specifically facilitate CALL activities and provide students with a range of communication opportunities. Chapelle and Hegelheimer (2004) specifically highlighted that how much it is important for online tutors to know the use communication tools such as bulletin boards, chat rooms, e-mail, and electronic and automated mailing lists’ to provide support to learners’ communication process through computer-mediated technologies in the area of language learning (p. 308). Additionally, the high level of competition and advancement in technologies have made it economical for tutor to acquire for teaching languages via video and audio conferencing. Yahoo and Skype Messenger, for example, offer the services of video conferencing free of cost, while on the other hand, headsets and webcams are economical to purchase, and microphones are low prices and can be easily purchased online or in stores. However, the knowledge of best use of latest software is prerequisite to provide quality education to users. The third level of skills mandate the online language tutor to aware the potential benefits and challenges of using specific software applications. For instance, it is well known that there is plethora of free software is available, but each one is not suitable for every tutor as there are pros and cons of using each software. For example, ICQ, an example of free synchronous chat software, can be able to perform in different languages such as Swedish, Arabic, Dutch, Chinese, French and Spanish (Compton, 2004). This characteristic of online tools is huge importance for tutors from different countries as they can successfully use the software without any language constraints. However, it was noticed that some of the free software give unnecessary advertisement to students in the middle of lecture, which distract them to maintain their concentration level as well they experienced


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

unsolicited messages and chat invitations from other users and advertiser companies. These unsolicited messages and invitations may interrupt the task and could possibly pose as safety threats, especially for younger learners. Teachers, however, are enabled with the tool that help them in addressing this problem by having their students switch to the ‘invisible mode’ after they have established connections with their assigned learning partners. The fourth level of skills relate to online socialization. The level of interactions between the users and teachers rely on the sense of community that has been established. It is important to note that there is need to gain trust especially in beginners’ language courses because learners in the starting often feel resistant and insecure to express themselves. It is usually believed that online learning program should put special emphasis in creating positive online socialization and community, so that learners will not hesitate in taking active participation. The fifth level of skills requires suggested the online tutor to be an effective and competent facilitator of communicative competence. This skill helps in building relations with the students and interact with them more actively to promote and encourage social cohesion It is often believed that without social cohesion, it is not possible to engage in meaningful communicative interaction on the online platform and would not be able to achieve the desired results of students. In communicative language teaching, interaction between teachers and students are vital for the success of session. According to a recent study between students of English in Germany and students of German in Australia by O’Dowd and Ritter (2006), it was observed that there is a need to develop social cohesion and importance of task design. It was concluded that the task design and lack of social cohesion take the opportunity from students to engage in meaningful interactions. One student commented in his final evaluation: The researchers concluded that the ‘task design, . . . [and] the students’ psych biographical backgrounds led to interaction failures’ (p. 637). Creativity and choice are the sixth level of skills for tutors engaging in online language learning program. It was noticed that ‘identifying, examining and repurposing of materials’ are the virtual web literacy skills that tutors of today’s era should be aware about inn order to grab the opportunity and take the competitive advantage of world wide web. For an online tutor, all these

Online Language Teaching


skills play an important role to provide best language learning material to their students. Creativity can be defined as designing of material in such a manner that students can able to learn from the content effectively and should also include advance tools so that they can able to search for the relevant content they are looking for. For example, most text and voice chat freeware applications were originally accessible as social tools, but their primary role is to only act a mediator in language communication process. The seventh and one of the most important level of risks for online language learning includes the ability of online tutor to create their own ‘personal teaching style, by using innovative tool, materials and media and working with their full potential. It can also be possible by creating personal rapport with the help of students and encourage them in actively participate in communicative language learning. In essence, this level of skills will help online teachers to able to revise and master their previous skills. It is important to note that all these skills are not inherited, it is the amalgamation of new as well as past skills. It is usually seen that less experienced may difficulty in starting with respect to body language but after they become familiar with these, their confidence will gradually increase in finding new ways of teaching. They may face certain problems in online teaching program but most of them would be similar or parallel to those in face-to-face classes, but the approach to address those will be different. Thus, the online tutors have to develop new teaching ways and approaches that will be suitable to the medium of instruction.

6.3. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE ONLINE TEACHING The “10 principles” were developed primarily for the purpose of improving the performance of online tutors so that they can able to rely on the expectation of their users. These principles aimed at guiding the tutors about how they can be most effective in teaching their online course.

6.3.1. Principle 1: Show Up and Teach Students in an online course primarily depend on the ability of online tutors to teach students in a desired way by following the curriculum prepared for


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

them and should try their best to finish the curriculum within the scheduled time frame. Also, there should be some flexibility in the hands of tutor to make certain adjustments under certain circumstances. It may seem unreasonable at some time. The online tutors are expected to conduct the class from beginning to end and to make adjustments when necessary in order to provide best services to students and ensure extensive learning experience. However, the necessity of this statement is borne of the misimpression that the online class “teaches itself.” As it is often seen that most of the course are primarily designed for online delivery, the tutor generally believed that they just only need to give online lecture and guidance to their learners and the students can easily navigate through the sections provide them online.

6.3.2. Principle 2: Practice Proactive Course Management Strategies The online tutors play an important role in creating favorable user experience for their students and it can be possible by providing them platform enabled proactive course management strategies. Some of these strategies that can be used by the online tutors are monitoring the assignment given to students, communicating with them continuously and alerting students when deadlines are approaching or in case when these are already missed.

6.3.3. Principle 3: Establish Patterns ‘Of Course’ Activities Although the online classroom environment provides tremendous flexibility of time and place of study, establishing and communicating a course pace and pattern of work can aid both instructor and student and alleviate confusion of course operation. For the student, an established pattern of- course activities allow for planning and management of other non-course activities around their e-learning activities. For the instructor, establishing and communicating a course schedule and pattern of work serves to define the boundaries between the online class activities and the rest of life.

6.3.4. Principle 4: Plan for the Unplanned Online learners look to the instructor as their main source of course

Online Language Teaching


information and progress. It is generally seen that in the case when online tutors for some reasons unable to log in into the online learning platform for more than four business days, for instance during professional travel, the tutors are required to instruct students about the same and at least one week earlier as before he or she is getting off for some time. Also, during the time, when some emergency came, the online tutors should inform them as early as possible when they are unable to deliver them lecture for a certain period of time and when they will provide additional course operation information.

6.3.5. Principle 5: Response Requested and Expected Timely One of the important things that is essential in online language learning program is that the online tutor should always give time to time feedback to their students as it is usually believed that, in online learning platform, there is no one who can keep a check on students and guide them when they are wrong or are unable to make the required progress. In online learning, as there is lack of physical interactions, it become even more important to give feedback to manage their learning experience. Online tutors are recommended to give feedback to their students within one business day. In case, if it is not possible to share feedback within one business day, then instructors are required to intimate students or send a short message to students within one business ay that a more detailed description of the performance will be provided soon. All these communications with the help of advance and new information tools play major role in making the online learning language program more competent and effective. It allows students to gain more trust on online tutors and realized that it is as effective as offline program. Also, with the fast speed internet and availability of digital devices, it become easy to count on an immediate and ready response to our inquiries and communications. It is now become a habit to annoyed easily whenever any online website is not working or when someone take too long time to respond to one’s mail. It’s as same as someone put a little note under our door mat “urgent reply requested” when we receive an email requiring a response. Nowadays, each email seems to be marked “urgent!” Whether we agree or not on the amount of time that we expect to get a response, we have developed individual “norms” for how long it should take before we send a second “gentle reminder” message or, finally in annoyance,


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

immediately call a person and get a response via the old fashion person toperson voice method!

6.3.6. Principle 6: Priority to Feedback It is important to note that online tutors should take time while writing feedback to their students as it allows students to understand the context written in the feedback form when it is written in a more concise and clear manner. Even when student questions are vague, online tutors should put some effort to understand what students are trying to ask and then give the possible answer so that encourage students to always indulge in dialogue whenever there is any problem.

6.3.7. Principle 7: Help Maintain Forward Progress It is usually seen that Students who have taken the course of online learning language program are required to return their assignments on time and indulge in weekly or alternative day test series in order to evaluate their progress and performance and examine how much time it will take more to learn a language. Online tutors are required to update students from time to time about their performance and progress they are doing and sent them their mark sheet or result of test whenever a test is taken by students. In online learning language program, this is usually done by sending the grade sheet in digital format to students within two business days of receipt. Proctored exams should be reviewed and checked by online tutors and then report is sent to students through appropriate administrative systems (whatever is appropriate) within five business days of the completion. It is mostly observed that in the face-to-face classroom, students are able to easily track their performance and progress that they are doing in the course through subtle and not-so subtle strategies. The teacher just gives the physical paper to students in which they write the exam and then teacher physically check the answer sheet and then inform students about their result. Additionally, the students are possessed with the opportunity to take about their query from teachers and get the immediate response from teacher. While on the other hand, in online learning program, it takes time for teacher

Online Language Teaching


to inform students about the result and for students to answer their queries. Thus, it can be concluded that both learning program has their own pros and cons.

6.3.8. Principle 8: Safe and Secure One of the things that should be given high importance by both the teachers as well as students is that the platform or method, they are using to communicate with each other is safe and secure, so that information could not be leaked and shared to third party. Students and teachers’ data are vulnerable to risk and their privacy would be at stake, if their data were leaked. Thus, there should be high security on the platform that teachers and students are using for communication.

6.3.9. Principle 9: Quality Counts It is worth noticing that in order to make online language learning program successful, the content used by online tutor should be of high quality so that students can understand the content easily and give the desired results. It also makes the overall learning experience more attractive and productive. Thus, for this reason, online tutors should always put more attention to their course structure and evaluate it from time to time so that if any modification is required then it should be one as early as possible such as editing errors, inaccurate course content, broken links, confusing information and instructions, and other course design issues. One of the best ways to address the problem of course quality and integrity is to develop strategies and techniques for each of the three component parts of the online learning event is instructional design, and content accuracy, and overall systems performance. This effort is always fruitful as it allows to make necessary changes in the course and is more manageable and realistic. There is no need to address all the elements of course structure at the same time, but rather phased in over several offerings. Also, in case when the resources to improve the quality of content are limited, a bit of creativity is called for to assure that the course has been reviewed by a “second set of eyes.”

Principle 10: (Double) Click a Mile on My Connection It is always recommended that both students and teachers should use the same technology for delivering and accessing the online content, so that


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

there is no vulnerability in communication. Delivery of online content requires high speed internet access (cable modem, DSL, or satellite). There is complete list of description available for technical requirements that are essential for online tutors to deliver lecture. The online instructor should also need to evaluate each functional dimension of the online teaching language program to assess systems functionality and performance.


Figure 6.1: Flexibility of online language teaching. Source:

Within the past few years, the use of internet in learning and teaching of language has been increased significantly in the education sector. Previously this trend was usually seen in the teaching of competitive exam, now it has extended to the language education. The number of online tutors teaching language online has been increased and the tutors are actively participating to model student-oriented courses using the latest web tools for courses which have been largely instructor oriented. On internet, there are various advance technological tools available in the online language teaching program. The Yale Centre for Language Study has mainly classified these tools into audio recording and editing (Vocaroo),

Online Language Teaching


multimedia projects (advance Internet applications), photo editing (Pixir), presentation (prezi), comprehensive working and writing (GoogleDocs video conferencing (Skype), dictionaries, video-production, vocabulary learning (wordreference), and editing (Amara), and e-portfolios (Weebly) and website. One of the other another researcher, Jeong-Bae Son has made comprehensive list of online tools that are presently more in trend in market and are available for free of cost. On the basis of the activities they perform on a daily basis, the online tools have been characterized into twelve categories communication; learning/content management systems; live and virtual worlds; bookmarking and social networking; presentation; blogs and wikis; resource sharing; web exercise creation; website creation; web search engines; concordances and dictionaries; and utilities.

6.4.1. Skype It is one of the easy and best way for online tutors to connect with their audience. Whenever an online tutor starts with online language teaching program, he always starts with the Skype as it is free of cost and best fir new tutors. It provides flexibility in terms of delivering lecture and also for students, it is easy to explore and navigate through Skype. However, in some scenarios, Zoom might be better, the benefits of Zoom over Skype will be discussing in later section. With Skype, it is easy to engage in voice and video lessons, share your screen with students, send files easily and do small group calls. Although the feature shares your screen and audio is a recently added feature in Skype, there is some problems in its applications as it is in the process of development. It will take some time to develop it fully. In case if a user wants to record his calls, then he will need to install third party application. Ecamm Call Recorder works best for the mac users while, on the other hand, Pamela is good for Windows users. One of the major advantages of it over Zoom and other options is that almost all are aware of Skype and now how to use it.

6.4.2. Zoom The important tool that online tutors use to deliver lecture to their users is Zoom.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

One of the major reasons that online tutors prefer to go with Zoom over Skype is that it allows them to teach in group sessions in a better way as compared to Skype. Not only this, it provides some other useful features. Just like in the Skype, Zoom also provide the feature to share screen, including connected iPhone or iPad screens; and also, one can automatically record the calls. However, it is often seen that sharing of files is not as easy with Zoom as it is with Skype and also when the lecture is of linger duration for, e.g., more than 40 minutes, then the user is required to pay monthly subscription fees with zoom.

6.4.3. Google Drive Google Drive is mostly used by those online tutors that want to share heavy files with the users as one can save the files in Google Drive and then give the authorized access to the interested users. It works by uploading the content online on Google Drive as one can upload as heavy files on Google Drive as possible. Also Google Drive is economical to use. One can by just paying $5 a month can get the space of 30GB Google Drive space and can also create their own custom email address. Woop!).

6.4.4. Google Classroom If one is not using G Suite for Business (aka, if one has a Gmail account, but not a personalized Gmail email) then it is possible to use Google Classroom. It is primarily designed for school teachers to teach their students, but it can be used to teach language. However, it is important to note that it doesn’t work for G Suite for Business users, which is a major shortcoming for those who want to keep all their thing at one place. For those who are facing these problems can try Google sites that is easy to use for both teachers as well as students.

6.4.5. TogetherTube People are now using TogetherTube only because it provides best screen with audio feature, once Skype will improve this, then Together Tube will become redundant.

Online Language Teaching


Currently, TogetherTube is the best option available in the market that allows to watch online video clips on the internet without any interruptions and buffering. This means no more “Hey, watch this video. I’m just going to sit here watching it on mute, so you don’t get feedback while I hear your version come through my speakers on a delay.” No more! Also, it is easy to play webinar on the TogetherTube, student just only need to open the application and then enter the URL of video and it will start playing. As well as watching the video in sync with one another, it also provides the option to chat side by side as one can open the chat window box on one part of the screen. This it allows the user to ask any query or question directly from the teacher and the teacher can immediately respond to the question through the chat window box.

6.4.6. Kahoot This is very useful tool especially when especially when the audience of the online tutors is mostly younger students, Kahoot has many unique features and characteristics that allows both students and online tutors to learn language with fun that help in maintaining interest in the language. It plays an important role in revising things or concepts learnt by students previously and provide new useful ways for students to do their homework and complete their assignment. It enabled with the features to create quizzes – videos having the facility of video clips, points and time limits. Very handy starter, plenary or extension activity.

6.4.7. Scratch Scratch is one of the best tools that allows students to do their homework in between the lecture is going on. it means when the online tutor is delivering lecture, side by side he asks questions from students, and they can immediately respond to the questions. In addition, it is enabled with special features that allows students to create simple games with the help of high speed internet and basic coding skills.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching



Figure 6.2: Ways to connect to audience in online teaching. Source:

As far back as 1960, researchers at the University of Illinois started working on the computer-based learning models in the hopes of individualizing the whole education process. In the year 1970, there was increase in trend personal computer and new ways to educate children online. As there was improvement in the technology continuously, it allows the companies to create more advance technological tools and software that make online learning program more successful in future. The focus of these tools is to ensure that teachers can successfully deliver their lecture online can connect to audience living in any part of the world. Within the past few years, these trends have been introduced in the online language teaching program and has shown tremendous growth. The use of computers in teaching language have been started since the 1960’s. This entire period can be primarily categorized into three main stages: behaviorist CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL. Each stage corresponds to a certain level of technology and certain pedagogical theories. The reasons for using CALL include: • •

motivation, experiential learning,

Online Language Teaching


• enhance student achievement, • greater interaction, • authentic materials for study, • individualization, • global understanding, and • independence from a single source of information. However, it is often seen that there are various challenges in the online language teaching program and it can be categorized into the following types: • availability of computer hardware and software, • financial barriers, • acceptance of the technical technology and • theoretical knowledge. According to a recent survey, it was observed that the number of online tutors using the platform CALL has been significantly increased in the past few years, and there were many articles published signifying the importance and role of technology in education in the 21st century. Although it was observed that still now the internet and technology has not been fully integrated in the education sector and it is now in progress to show its full potential in the education sector. In a student, it was found that the average school still makes limited use of computers, it is obvious that currently, we have entered an ear of new information age in which the links between technology and TEFL have already been established. In the early 90’s computers had been introduced in the education sector by the development of word processors in schools, colleges and universities. Its primary role at that time is to engage students to complete their assignment with the help of computers. The development of computer technology and internet has brought sea change the teachers’ perspective, as the teaching tools that is provided by students were gradually becoming more trusted and reliable. Nowadays, the Internet has started gaining immense popularity in foreign language teaching and more and more educators and learners are embracing it.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Figure 6.3: Use of digital devices in online language teaching. Source:

Hundreds of platforms and websites exist to nurture online teaching and learning. Some of them are listed below.

6.6.1. Verbling Verbling is a language-learning platform that allow students to learn different types of languages. There are many types of languages that Verbling offers such as English, French, Spanish, and Japanese. In addition, there are also other languages that this platform offers. There are many unique features that Verbling provides such as it gives flexibility to teachers to set their own price and timings to deliver lecture. Furthermore, teachers can also charge high for those languages that are high in demand in the markets. You build your student base by posting a one- to two-minute introductory video as part of your profile. To offers services on this platform, one need to take subscription and it is in the form of 15% commission of the total earnings of a teacher.

Online Language Teaching


6.6.2. Verbal Planet Verbal planet is presently one of the best option available in the market that allows teachers to deliver lecture in an efficient and effective manner. It provides platform where teacher can connect to larger audience living in any part of the world. Generally, it is use by those who have strong client base or those who want to increase their customer base. One of the major benefits of this online language teaching platform is that it does not charge any fees from its member, thus teachers can take home 100% of their earnings. The fees of students are given to teachers via PayPal and it just require submitting the profile and once it approved, online tutors can get an easy-touse booking and invoicing system to manage their clients.

6.6.3. Connections Academy Connection Academy is an online division of Pearson group that provides online learning platform to their users. Some of the features that make this platform apart from others are free of cost, complete virtual school experience, including licensed school counselors and college and career planning services. It not only provides the services of online language teaching but also allow job seekers to search for the relevant job in their own language. It is usually seen that most of the language teaching positions available on this platform are either adjunct or part-time, but full-time jobs are not excluded altogether. Language teachers can search for the job one the basis of city, salary, category and working hours. Those who are working in the Connections Academy receive training sessions and learn relevant skills in order to use various software for successful online classes.

6.6.4 mYngle mYngle, one of the oldest and popular language learning platforms, is widely used by multinational companies who want their employees to learn a particular language. Teachers that deliver lecture on this platform are mostly native speakers of the language. There are no fix charges on this platform. It varies from language to language. Experienced, high-quality teachers set their own price according to their experience.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

One of the major obstructions in this is that those teachers who are not in high demand need to wait until they get strong customer base.

6.7. FUTURE TEACHER TECHNOLOGY PREPARATION In the digital era, the trend of online language teaching has been continuously increasing and in future, its influence will dominate in the market. There are many unique features of online language teaching that stand it apart from the traditional learning as the flexibilities and qualities it provides make online learning more efficient, pleasurable, and tailored. In addition, teachers of today era, are well aware about the latest digital trends and have necessary skills and experience that is prerequisite for starting teaching online language. More important, the speed at which new technology is developing, it can be expected that one can experience sea change in the future and aspiring teachers will learn to integrate these technologies in their teaching: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) released a position statement in 2017 that support this belief that the tutors of today era will be successful in integrating technology into their profession. It begins, “ACTFL strongly recommends that a language educator be responsible for the planning, instruction, assessment, and facilitation of any language course, leveraging technology to support language learning” (ACTFL, 2017, n.p.). Because the language teacher is at the center of this important focus, teacher candidates—in fact, almost all tutors, can be able to take the benefits of the current and continuous evolving social communication technologies in order to provide favorable platform to their users to enhance their learning experience and provide them opportunities to participate and engage in social media activities such as fan fiction, digital storytelling, different and new types of gaming, and AR and VR that are associated with meaningful and authentic language practices (Kessler, 2013).

6.8. CONCLUSION In the end, it is concluded that online language teaching provides great platform for both the students and teachers and the need is to use it in a best manner. With the introduction of fast speed internet and digital devices,

Online Language Teaching


there has been significant growth observed in the online language teaching program. Also, the advancement in the technology and new software tools make it easier for the online tutors to deliver lecture online. There are various platforms available online which the teacher can use to provide online teaching. It requires to evaluate each platform and choose the best that fulfill the need of a particular teacher.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching










Adamsen, L. (2019). 12 Online Tools to Make Language Learning More FUN & Diverse – Teachers with Apps. [online] Teacherswithapps. com. Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Anon, (2019). Call and Future of Language Teacher Education. [online] Available at: 75?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Anon, (2019). Computer-Assisted Language Teaching. [online] Available at: COMPUTER_ASSISTED_LANGUAGE_TEACHING_ LEARNING_WITHOUT_DUST [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Compton, L. (2019). Preparing Language Teachers to Teach Language Online: A Look At Skills, Roles, and Responsibilities. [online] Available at: pdf/10.1080/09588220802613831 [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Gardner, A. (2019). 9 Surefire Sites to Find an Online Language Teaching Position You’ll Love. [online] General Educator Blog. Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. General Educator Blog. (2019). CALL Me: The Tech Savvy Teacher’s Guide to Computer-Assisted Language Learning. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Hill, C. (2019). 10 Principles of Effective Online Teaching: Best Practices in Distance Education. [online] Available at: pdf/Ten%20Principles%20of%20Effective%20Online%20Teaching. pdf [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Medium. (2019). Teach Online Like You Teach in Person with These 12 Tools. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. TutorRoom | Online teaching software. (2019). 5 Best Online Teaching Software in 2019 | Online Teaching | TutorRoom. [online] Available

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at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. 10. Udemy. (2019). Teaching Languages Online: How to Start Your Online Business. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019].


Trends in Linguistic Theory

CONTENTS 7.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 156 7.2. Historical Sociolinguistics ............................................................... 158 7.3. Trends In Applied Linguistics........................................................... 159 7.4. Computational Linguistics............................................................... 162 7.5. Major Technological Innovations In The Theories of Linguistics ................................................................................ 163 7.6. Machine Translation Will Continue To Become More Sophisticated................................................................................ 171 References ............................................................................................. 175


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

There are various linguistic theories that are being used since the beginning of the communication in the human civilization. It is very understood that these theories have been a result of the various alterations in the usages of the different types of languages. These different usages of languages and the usage of secondary languages all over the world has been one of the most important aspects in the development of the various theories of languages. Along with the usage of secondary languages, the introduction of technology in the field of technology has been one of the most revolutionizing events in the history of linguistic theories. It is very important to understand that in the development of various theories of linguistics, English as a language still hold the most important position and all the theories are still planned by keeping English in the frame. With the introduction of the various aspects and technologies, it is quite enjoying watching how things unfold for the area of computational linguistics and neurolinguistics. Linguistics that are studied from this bigger insight, is still dynamic to most of the real-world linguistic fields of analysis that are frequently understood as the aspects that fall under the umbrella field of theories of linguistics.

7.1. INTRODUCTION It regards to the linguistic difference in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its societal backgrounds as the significant sources of vision for a better recognition of the design of linguistic systems and the ecosystem and development of language. Although there are diverse assumptions regarding the nature of linguistic limits among linguists, many seems to come to an agreement that these limits are quite analogous to those that are found in physical world, for instance, restrictions in the field of mechanics. In this respect, linguistic theory can be thoughtfully selected to define a certain kind of law that exists within one of the lowest universes, through our brain. As a result, the linguistic theory is moving to the direction of a more general theory regarding the abstract linguistic objects. It is a theory of how a human being handles the information for the process of conceptualization and communication; however, there exist some who are uncertain whether the language is adequately efficient for the latter objective.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


Figure 7.1: There are various trends in the field of Linguistics that are evolving and there is a need to understand the trends for the upcoming theories. Source:

Linguistics that are observed from this larger perception, is still vital to most of the practical linguistic fields of inquiry that are usually understood as falling below the umbrella discipline of applied linguistics. At the end, applied linguists, and training agendas for the applied linguists, universally understand that the knowledge about of language of several kinds is central for the cautious explanation and examination of language, language learning, usages of language and its abuses, language valuation, and so forth. Applied linguists must use the databases of the knowledge of the field of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and inscribed discourse because they are appropriate to an applied linguistics matter, even if a specified part of applied linguistics may not draw exactly on this knowledge at all times (for instance, L2 teacher training, language plan and preparation). What has altered is the acknowledgment that linguistic foundations do not require to be barely arranged by theoretic fashion; in spite of it, they must be appropriate to the explanation of language in definite contexts and offer resources that provide assistance in addressing the issues that are based on language and concerns in real-world contexts. Several subsidiary trends are perceived which comprise of several procedural and theoretic developments.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

7.2. HISTORICAL SOCIOLINGUISTICS In the present times, the historic sociolinguistics has developed itself as a distinct autonomous area of linguistic inquiry, and the influence of its theoretic and experiential progresses are mirrored in a thriving body of publications of several kinds. This volume helps in adding more to this thriving array by offering nine original researches that was done by highly talented students who are holding a prominent status in the particular field. The main purpose of the volume is to call the emphasis to the modern trends and new advancements in the discipline and, more usually, to outline the latest investigation on the association among the sociolinguistics and historic linguistics, societal inspirations of language difference and change, and researches that are based on quantity. The complete interdisciplinary attributes of the contributions, the diversity of languages they observe and the variety of themes they address are distinctive characteristics of the book, which is also making it attractive to a broader readership. The common background that are enclosed by the volume involve how to describe the historic and societal dimensions in historical sociolinguistics investigation, ancient second-language use and multilingualism, the part and significance played by linguistic philosophies and attitudes in language selections, utilizations, policy (standardization and preservation), and extinction of language. The more definite matter is that were discussed are the linguistic approaches that were hired in order to convey and protect the spiritual philosophy or to increase the complete persuasion of the information that is offered. Debatable and/or under-investigated problems are handled, like the authorship and gender in the research of private papers, the process of regularization and calibration of English orthography, and the problem of alertness of the speaker of the disconnection between the verbal and inscribed language. In addition to it, several types of contributions are organizationally linked by employing the information from epistolary correspondence.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


7.3. TRENDS IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS Initially, in the present times under the umbrella of applied linguistics, the investigation in language teaching, language learning, and teacher education is placing substantial attention on the ideas of alertness, consideration and learning of the language, “emphasis on forms” for language learning, learning from normal conversations, patterns of educator-scholar communication, task-based learning that is based on assignments, learning that is based on content, and teacher as investigator through action investigation. The investigation in language learning has moved in the current years toward an emphasis on information processing, the significance of more general perceptive learning ideologies, the urgency of language capability from long meaningful revelations and appropriate practice, and the alertness of how language is applied and the purpose that it fulfills. Instructional investigation and curricular issues have been placed on learning that is based on the assignments, learning that is based on content, strategies-based instruction, and a return to learning that is positioned on definite language skills. The development of the language educator has also shifted in the innovative directions. Widdowson in the year 1998 has put his claim forward that certain interactive orientations, with a pervasive attention on input and validity of the natural language, may be misunderstanding the actual objective of the language classroom context and overlooking the efficient backgrounds for language teaching. In addition to it, Widdowson in the year 2000 has also convincingly claimed that applied linguists must provide assistance to the educators all over their mediation with all the features of Hymes’s notion of communicative competence, harmonizing language understanding so that it integrates grammaticality, relevance, viability, and instances from the attested. There has been an extra emphasis that has been levied for the education of the language educator. But with the progression of times, there has been the shift while involving the teachers in the assignments of action observations. The trend in order to train teachers as reflective practitioners inquiring into the effectiveness of teaching and learning in local classroom settings will increase in the coming decade. A second importance that has taken hold in debates between applied linguists themselves is the part for serious researches; this term covers the serious alertness, critical discourse examination, critical pedagogy, scholars’


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

privileges, critical assessment practices, and ethics in the assessment of the language. In the present times, the idea of the serious studies also institutes a stress that has not established strong applications in support of those who are facing the “language difficulties” of several kinds. The upcoming decade will certainly continue this discussion. A third importance is on the usages of the language in theoretical, disciplinary, and professional fields. This investigation observes the methods in which the language is utilized by the members and in texts in several theoretical, professional, and professional settings. It also put stress on how the language can act as a gatekeeping operation or can make the partial problems for those individuals who are not aware about the suitable discourse guidelines and expectations. In the academic backgrounds, the primary issue lies in recognizing how the genre and register expectations create the foundation for effectively negotiating academic work.

Figure 7.2: There are major trends that have been developed in the modern times along with development of the technology that has already overtook the entire world. Source: globe-110775_960_720.jpg

Another stress centers on descriptive (typically discourse) examination of language in real backgrounds and the probable usages of the investigation

Trends in Linguistic Theory


in corpus linguistics, register difference, and genre distinction. There were some experts who stated that a breakthrough usages of corpus linguistics continue to be the Longman Grammar of Verbal and Written English. It is grounded completely on attested incidences of the use of language in a very great corpus of English. The main part, however, remain not in the corpus data themselves but in the contemporary investigation and shows that describe the individuality of the grammar. The other significant applications of corpus linguistics comprise of a greater number of educator- and learner-directed resources. A fifth stress in applied linguistics investigation focus on multilingualism and bilingual communication in institute, society, and work and in professional backgrounds or policy matters at local and nationwide levels. Because most of the individual all over the world are to some level bilingual, and because this bilingualism is linked with the necessity to negotiate the conditions of the life with other social and language groups, this field of investigation is considered important to applied linguistics issues. Multilingualism covers the concerns in bilingual education, relocations of clusters of individuals to the innovative language background, fairness and impartiality in communal services, and language policies that are linked to the several uses of the language. The other stress pays attention on the altering conversation in language testing and assessment. During the previous period, the area of the assessment of the language has taken on several numbers of significant problems and themes that have complications for applied linguists more usually. Validity continues to be a primary theme for language testers, and also, it has been strongly reinterpreted over the past 10 years. In its innovative interpretation, validity has strong implications for all fields of applied linguistic research and data collection and is not just a concern for assessment practices. The additional major transmission in the process of language assessment is usually observed significant implications for applied linguistics more generally is the greater emphasis being given to assessment for learning (sometimes discussed as formative assessment). The objectives for the language assessment have moved from evaluating what the scholars can do at a specified moment to utilizing assessment to enhance the efficiency of the learning on a continuing basis.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

The objective is to see the ongoing evaluation of the learner for the purpose of learning. This trend is possibly to increase significantly in the upcoming period. More normally, the stress on the applications of the technology, ethics in assessment, advanced investigation methodologies, the parts of standardized valuation, standards for professionalism, and serious language testing are all redesigning the evaluation of the language and, by extension, applied linguistics. A seventh point of importance pays attention on the possessions and perceptions offered by the neurolinguistics and brain researches linked with language learning and applications of the language. The potential and the advantages of the investigation in neurolinguistics and the influence of language learning on brain processing is perhaps not a prior issue of applied linguistics. Though, the important progresses in the connections among the brain functioning and language learning (comprises of literacy expansion) recommend that the conceptions of the investigation from neurolinguistics may soon become too significant to overlook. The influence of education training, literacy learning in several diverse languages, and working out with the language disability learners on the processing of the brain has enhanced in the current years.

7.4. COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS Computational linguists enhance the computer systems that handles with the human language. They want a good recognition of both programming as well as linguistics. This is considered as a challenging and scientific field. On the other hand, proficient computational linguists are in the need and are highly paid. Computational linguists build systems that can do several kinds of assignments. These assignments comprise of the speech recognition (for instance, Siri), speech synthesis, machine conversion (e.g., Google Translate), grammar checking, text extraction and other applications of “Big Data,” and many others. There are also various professions in the field of linguistics which are linked with the software industry. And, it does not essentially need much of the programming background, for instance, speech data observers, linguistic data directors, annotators, and localization experts.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


7.4.1. How to Get Into Computational Linguistics •

Programming: There are various courses and departments of studies that help in gaining the knowledge about the Computer Engineering and Computer Science. In these departments and courses, the students are taught about various series of courses that start with course of Critical Thinking in the Digital Information Age and the course of Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving. The students are encouraged to take up these courses so that they have a proper knowledge about the linguistics of the computational fields. There are also many free online courses such as EdX’s Python course, which are very helpful in providing the information about the computational linguistics Linguistics: The most appropriate academic program for the computational linguists are those which explain the structural features of language. The main features of language are syntax, semantics, phonology, phonetics, usage trends and variation in the subsystems of sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics. These programs help in gaining knowledge about the research approaches.

7.5. MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN THE THEORIES OF LINGUISTICS The technological inventions are considered as the part of learning and English language teaching, but not all have the same enduring influence. The uniqueness of some inventions will wear out, and there are increasing issues regarding the confidentiality and safety of the data. Only the inventions that come with the solid education customs will persevere through the test of various time periods.

7.5.1. Blended Learning As the educators join the digital media with more outdated kinds of teaching, their academic curriculum materials and resources depict the trend. The Combined Pre-Sessional Course provided by the King’s English Language Centre (King’s College London) associates the face-to-face kind of learning and course curriculum that is present on internet. For the educators who want to link their day-to-day teaching with the applied online assignments, Lindsay Clandfield and Jill Hadfield’s


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Interaction Online, creative assignments for blended learning focus on the communication among the educators as well as the learners.

7.5.2. Mobile Learning The resources present on the online platform are more accessible with an application on the mobile phones or a mobile-friendly version. Wordable (Playlingo Ltd. with Cambridge University Press) changes the vocabularylearning into a fun activity, competitive game one could play with their buddies. It has built-in, spaced replication and dynamic method of recall learning which helps in making the new words stick to the memory of the learner.

Figure 7.3: Mobile learning has been a quite upcoming trend that has influenced various readers all over the world. Source:

Essential English make use of the mobile technology to offer free of cost resources for the educators as well as for the learners, comprising of flashcards, phrasebooks, lesson plans and assignments. In the meantime, Tri Pro English web pages and Mobile applications aid the students to exercise their listening with the help of free, high-quality recordings segmented into levels and joined with comprehension queries.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


7.5.3. Gamification Attractive to football-lovers, LearnMatch (VE Vision Education GmbH) make use of the training sessions, friendly contests, leagues and cup games to make the vocabulary learning entertaining for the young learners. Get Set, Go! Phonics (Oxford University Press) makes use of the chants, melodies and games to help advance the pre-school kids’ phonological alertness. On an even larger scale, Learn Languages with Ruby Rei (Wibbu) submerge the students into a communicative adventure game. These students must make use of their language skills to negotiate, work together and create friendships. They do this to escape from an elapsed planet at the edge of the world. Any kind of learning that takes place is supplementary in nature.

7.5.4. Embodied Learning Embodied learning is grounded on the concept that the learning is not only regarding remembering. It comprises of using the brain and the body, working together, conversing and discovering. The students want to be emotionally, intelligently, bodily and communally involved. The academic programs like the Doodle Town (Macmillan Education) make use of the graphic, acoustic and hands-on activities to inspire and encourage learning, getting the young students to draw, make, and be inquisitive. Orbit (Richmond) advances the socio-emotional and intellectual skills of the young students by the help of a language academic program that follows the story of a ferret and kids who go for entertainment in multiethnic surroundings.

7.5.5. Inquiry-Based Learning (Learning in a Complex World) The cases in which the educators come across various academic materials that can be simplified and idealistic, leading the teachers to ponder over if the teachers are properly imparting the knowledge to the student and preparing them for real life in the modern world. The academic programs such as Fast Track 5 (EF Education First Ltd) and Wider World (Pearson with the BBC) make use of the authentic video and auditory information to take the young students to the actual world. They inspire the young learners to practice the soft skills and interactive skills that are required to take part in the worldwide societies of the twentyfirst century. Targeting the grown-up students, Perceptions (National


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Geographic) make use of the real-life stories and TED talks to inspire the students to think in a serious and creative ways. Danny Norrington-Davies’s Teaching Grammar: From Rules to Reasons (Pavilion Publishing) is a substitute method for educating grammar to the students. The educators and the students explore how the authors and utterers make use of the grammar to express themselves in the actual life. For example, Hugh Dellar and Andrew Walkley’s Teaching Lexically (Delta Publishing) integrates the teaching of grammar and language for more efficient teaching space practice, in spite of streamlining the language into a more outdated ‘grammar + words’ view.

7.5.6. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) When the idea of English as a lingua franca (ELF) was initially debated by the educators, instructors, authors and trainers, it was contentious in nature. Many of them declined to consider how the idea of English as a universal language might fit into academic program materials and language teaching. In the present times, the learners should study resource materials such as PronPack 1–4 (Mark Hancock) taking a non-conceptual method to accent and in spite of paying attention on the improved intelligibility as the purpose. By the use of the elements of blended learning and gamification, this pronunciation academic program does not provide the assistance to the learner sound British or American, but instead it helps in preparing the student to make use of English in the worldwide field.

7.5.7. Multi-Literacies and Trans-Language In worldwide societies where English is considered as a common language of communication together with the other languages, knowledge about the other languages is considered as an asset. Rather than clearing the primary language of the learner (also it is called as subtractive bilingualism), the educators are inspiring the students or the learners to make use of their own languages.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


This needs compound communal and cognitive skills. In the contrary, the teaching spaces that were only focusing on the English are gradually becoming a thing of the historical time. Such kind of linguistic variety is celebrated in the academic programs such as the Family Skills Toolkit (Learning Unlimited Ltd.) that inspires the parents and careers of children learning English to see their bilingualism as an advantage.

7.5.8. Supporting Learners of Specific Needs As the phenomenon of globalization comes into play, the phenomenon of ‘glocalization’ which refers to the adaptation of any kind of global product in order to match what the residents require or want in their respective country or ethics, turns out to be very significant. There is a need to understand the individual learners in a better way. This will surely help the teachers or the educators in creating a customized academic curriculum that will cater them the knowledge that is required for their mental and personal growth. For example, there is a handbook titled as Learning English: English for Health and Social Care Workers which has been authored by Ros Wright. This book is very helpful in providing the students and learners the knowledge of the medical terms. Along with imparting the knowledge of medical terms, this book also helps in imparting the knowledge of skills of strategies and measures that are used in field of the medical.

7.5.9. Creating and Sharing Content While there is the huge availability of the study materials on the online platforms for the students, there are various curriculums and applications which permit or allow the students or learners to create their personalized content and then share or distribute the content, that they have created, with others. There are various famous online portals such as Quizizz and Socrative. These kinds of online portals permit both educators and the learners to create their customized games for learning and then share those games or content all over the world.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 7.4: There are various online platforms that allow the students as well as the teachers to create their own quiz for their assessment and allow the sharing of these quizzes. Source:

There are some other websites such as Canva which allow the educators and the students to display their imagination with the help of various wall posters, trolls on social media platforms and social slogans and banners. Along with these platforms, there are various other kinds of platforms which perform the functions of mind mapping, creation of the comical strips and some of the sites that help creating and editing the movies and short films. These kinds of sites also contribute to the development and distribution learning content on the online platforms. By means of various tools that support the creation of content, the learners are permitted to utilize the linguistics in a very creative manner. As a result, the learners get engaged into education practices that are fun-loving at the same time.

7.5.10. Learning and Teaching Management Platforms With the development of the technology, there are various learning management platforms (LMSs), which are become increasingly popular amongst the learners or the students of new age. These Learning management platforms provide the students a method to discover the contributions, attend regular classroom debates and successfully deposit their works or homework.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


In the modern world, there are various online platforms that are also put to use in order to connect with their parents and various other stockholders, help the educators and the administrators a better insight of the academic syllabus, and assist the students in manage lesson plans and materials. There is a book known as the Royal ABC, which is useful for the syllabus for the four-to-six years old, comes with a platform for the teachers. It permits the teachers to handle and manage the planning of the academic curriculum and syllabus, entire management, propose or schedule the homework and submit the report to the parents of the students. This gives the educators some more amount of time so that they can work with the small children in their classrooms of a particular subject. These kinds of online tools might entice students and teachers for the simple reason that they appear to be very modern and up to date. But then again, the exact worth of the inventions lies in by what means the learners or students can turn themselves to be proficient or better in the interactions of the English language. Apart from this, the students can also decide the degree to which they want their teachers or educators to help and motivate them. This can be done with the help of the adaptation of the various efficient and effective methods. Many of the experts have put forward their argument that there are various rules and principles that required to be explained. This is necessary so that the linguistic behaviors and practices are explained to get in coordination with the domain-general rules and curriculums. These rules are based on the effect that have been recorded by the specific experiences of some of the students. In addition to this, the skills and knowledge that are required to understand or comprehend to language are very sensitive to the number of times they are being used. It has been observed that when a linguistic series has been used again and again, then it becomes more frequently used. This leads to the better linking and addition of the commonly used linguistic phrases to the language. The proof offered is mostly from the field of phonology and morphology. These proofs discuss the problems of the gradience and specificity that are discovered in hypothesized elements, groups, and contrasts such as the consistent and inconsistent, but the opinions can be applied to every level of linguistic study, which comprises of the levels or stages of syntactic, semantic, and dissertation.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

There are various suitable or apt representations that can be used instead of such phenomena. Some of the representations that are considered are the various exemplar prototypes and connectionist prototype. These types of representations or prototypes are developing in order to attain a proper fit with the data that is linked to the field of linguistics. There are several experts who have heavily criticized the connectionist prototypes. It has been noted that main theme of the criticism that is offered to the connectionist prototypes is usually the arguments that are generated from inside the combinatorial model of the already existing theories of linguistics. These existing theories are not capable of holding the ‘free combination’ to the degree that rule-based arrangements are capable of. This has been considered as an asset by some of the experts as they do not want to consider it as a weakness. There are many modern-day connectionist models that display an increased efficiency and the proper arrangements than its precedents. Yet, these kinds of models or prototypes exhibit a lower range of similarity in the process of generalization as compared to the level that the combinatorial prototypes do. The residual non-similarity that the connectionist model’s demonstration is suitable, provided that this kind of non-uniformity is the kind of unformed regulation in the field of language structure and usage of the language. There are various words or terms that have seemed that were not used or were not so commonly used in titles or headings of the article and comprehensions. These kinds of words have displayed near about 700% hike in the trend of usage. More than a few of these are not astonishing when it comes to observing the trends. Some of these famous trends are “mobile device” and “eye tracking.” Both are connected judiciously to the increase of various technologies. Similar to these words, there are words of “mixed method” and “academic English.” Neither of the above-mentioned words are usually discussed or used by the authors, this trend is also noted. It is mainly astonishing that “social class” has jumped, nearly out of nowhere, in this period of time. Even though a huge quantity of this practice may have been originated from the field of sociolinguistics, rather than linguistic education study, but it is thought-provoking anyhow.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


7.5.11. Multilingualism and ELF on the Up A huge amount of rise has been observed in the discussion of the usage of English as language and usage of various other language. The term that is used for the usage of multiple language is known as multilingualism. It has been noted that the phenomenon of “multilingualism” has been increased with the 1372%. On the other hand, the phenomenon of “bilingual education” has gone up by 207%. Also, the usage of ELF has registered an increase of 270%.

7.6. MACHINE TRANSLATION WILL CONTINUE TO BECOME MORE SOPHISTICATED The phenomenon of Machine translation has progressed by hops and bounds with the passage of time. In spite of much-hyped arguments that are contrary to the previous trends, even the most innovative engines of machine translation are doubtful of being capable enough to replace the human being as linguists in the present times. There are various experts in the language industry, who have stated their arguments about the neural machines, that are designed to be used for translation, have nearly attained the level of human equivalence. According to these experts, the neural machine translations have given a very good result at the sentence level. But when it comes at the level of translating an entire document, the results are not very evident. There is huge gap in the quality of the document that is translated by the machine and the document that is translated by the human being. Yet, the process of machine translation is nearly the real-life resolution for the scenarios such as the cross-border e-Discovery and interpreting the content that has been created by the user. As soon as the size of the data, that is involved, reaches to the size of terabytes, putting the human translators to use is usually out of the context. This is because any human translator would require a huge amount of time for translating this enormous data and thus will ask for a huge amount of money to be paid as fees. Due to these financial and time limits, using any human translator for huge amount of data is not feasible in the fastpaced modern world. There are various experts who are expecting the rise in the possible corporate usages for the methodology of machine translation


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to advance even more in the upcoming times with the improvement of the technology that are big used in the modern world. Although, in the field of machine translation, there is always a significant warning. These is an ever-increasing catalogue of information penetrates the top of mind for customers and controllers with the same impact. Due to this, the businesses or trades that are trying to use machine translation must be aware of this situation. Many experts claim that the traders or the business owners must try to completely evade these kinds of circumstances. These kinds of scenarios can arise by utilizing hazardous free machine translation applications and webpages like the Google Translate or Bing.

7.6.1. Demand for Video Translation Will Increase It has been noticed that the usage of the videos in the modern world will continue to take over the webpages all over the Internet. As a result, this will alter the entire scenario of marketing all over the world. There are various examples, which can explain these kinds of scenarios in a better way. For instance, the tech-giant Cisco has approximated that the video will comprise of more than 80% of the traffic that is being generated on the internet portals by the year 2021. As there is an increase in the demand for the online video, eventually there will be an increase in the demand for the video translation. Along with the increase in the video translation, there will be an increase in the demand of the localization. This implies that there will be a requirement for more subtitles. In the future, the subtitles that would be required will the real-time subtitles., that will explain or translate the videos that are being transmitted live. Along with this, the quality of the video content will also improve. There will be a requirement of video content that is more cultured and communicative. This is so because there are various organizations and firms that will require to engage higher viewer attention, especially in a world when the entire population will be active ion the various internet portals. LSPs will require to become capable of translating not only the terms or the sentences but the complete experience in a method that must be linguistically and ethnically suitable for each target market.

Trends in Linguistic Theory


7.6.2. A Changing Global Trade and Regulatory Landscape Will Demand a Focus On Compliance General Data Protection Regulation, Trade wars, Brexit: these are some of the major stories that have been surfaced in the recent times. Most of the experts all over the world have tagged these stories as the possible compliance that might become headaches in the near future. There are various nations that are trying to recreate or rewrite the existing or established trade laws and will be attempting to enact or implement the updated rules and regulations, this will be done in order to safeguard the data or the private information of their citizens. Apart from the countries, there are various trades and businesses that hold private information of the clients. These international businesses or trades that will have to comply with the newly formed laws. It is quite natural to understand the entire industry of the translation will also follow the same trends and will follow the new and updates laws.

7.6.3. Voice Search Will Revolutionize Multilingual Search Engine Optimization The next and upcoming thing that has been hyped about is the feature of Voice search. According to the feature of voice search, this will be very helpful in promoting the aspect of Search Engine Optimization. It has been predicted that a huge number of people. There will be an increase in the numbers of people who will let go the keyboards and will adapt to the feature of voice recognition and digital assistants.

Figure 7.5: Voice search has completely revolutionized the entire field of linguistics and will change the usage of language in the upcoming future. Source:

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This trend will have some significant effects on global businesses: •

The accomplishment of the top slot on search engines such as, in the present times, Google is even more critical since the voice searchers seem to go with the initial outcome they’re given. If the individual needs the website to claim its part of voice search traffic, then it is required to seek the help from expert multilingual SEO. To ensure that the association makes the most of the chances that are available in the year 2019, the individual requires a language partner that he can have trust on, a language partner that predicts the worldwide trends and joins both human knowledge as well as the technology to provide advantages to the clients. One needs to have complete language confidence.

Trends in Linguistic Theory










Anderson, J. (2019). Recent Past and Possible Future Trends in Applied Linguistics. [online] Jason Anderson: Teacher educator and author. Available at: recent-past-and-possible-future-trends-in-applied-linguistics/ [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Burke, M., Cortes Rodriquez, F., Mairal Uson, R., Escobar Álvarez, M., Pena Cervel, M., & Samaniego Fernandez, E. (2012). Pedagogical Stylistics. London: Continuum International Pub. Burling, R. (1967). Current Trends in Linguistics. Volume III: Theoretical Foundations. Thomas A. Sebeok. American Anthropologist, [online] 69(3–4), 406–408. Available at: https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.–4.02a00470 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Bybee, J., & McClelland, J. (2005). Alternatives to the Combinatorial Paradigm of Linguistic Theory Based on Domain General Principles of Human Cognition. The Linguistic Review, [online] 22(2–4). Available at: http://10.1515/tlir.2005.22.2–4.381. Bygate, M. (2004). Some Current Trends in Applied Linguistics. AILA Review, [online] 17, 6–22. Available at: aila.17.04byg; some-current-trends-in-applied-linguistics-towards-a-genericview(423bb8ec-9677–415a-b8b8-fcf2df35478d).html [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Chomsky, N., Katz, J., & Fodor, J. (1964). Current trends in linguistic theory. [eBook] New York: Prentice Hall, Available at: https:// linguistic_theory [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Chong, C. (2019). Ten Trends and Innovations in English Language Teaching for 2018 | British Council. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (2019). Careers: Computational Linguistics – Linguistics. [online] Available at: departments/linguistics/careers-computational-linguistics/ [Accessed 17 August 2019].









16. 17.

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Collinson, W. (1949). Some Recent Trends in Linguistic Theory with Special Reference to Syntactics. Lingua, [online] 1, 306– 332. Available at: pii/0024384149900789 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (2019). Cultural Vibrancy: Literature, Translation Studies and Linguistics Current Trends and Future Visions 2019. [online] Available at: English/conferences/ET-Conference/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Gao, Y., Li, L., & Lü, J. (2001). Trends in Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: China and the West. English for Specific Purposes, [online] 20(1), 1–14. Available at: article/pii/S0889490699000150 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Gómez González, M., Mackenzie, J., & González Álvarez, E. (2008). Current Trends in Contrastive Linguistics. Studies in Functional and Structural Linguistics, [online] 60(21), p.333. Available at: https:// [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Grabe, W. (2010). Applied Linguistics: A Twenty-FirstCentury Discipline. Oxford Handbooks Online. [online] Available at: oxfordhb/9780195384253.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195384253-e-2 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Greenberg, J. (1959). Current trends in linguistics: Though not a predictive science, linguistics has developed effective descriptive and historical methods. Science, [online] 130(3383), 1165–1170. Available at:–07702–001; https://www.jstor. org/stable/1757115?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Gunji T. (1994). Trends of Theoretical Linguistics. Cognitive Studies, [online] 1(1), 31–142. Available at: jcss/1/1/1_1_1_31/_article/-char/en [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Koerner, E. (1975). The Transformational-Generative Paradigm and Modern Linguistic Theory. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Kytö, M., Smith, J., & Taavitsainen, I. (2017). Breaking Boundaries: Current Research Trends in English Linguistics and Philology. Studia Neophilologica, [online] 89(sup1), 1–4. Available at: https://www.

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24. 25.

177 de=snec20 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Lei, L., & Liu, D. (2018). Research Trends in Applied Linguistics from 2005 to 2016: A Bibliometric Analysis and Its Implications. Applied Linguistics, [online] 40(3), 540–561. Available at: https://academic. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Lyons, J. (1965). Trends in Modern Linguistics. (Edited by Ch. Mohrmann, F. Norman andA. Sommerfell for the Permanent International Committee of Linguists.) Utrecht and Antwerp: Spectrum, 1963. 118. Journal of Linguistics, [online] 1(1), 87–92. Available at: https:// trends-in-modern-linguistics-edited-by-ch-mohrmann-f-norman-anda-sommerfell-for-the-permanent-international-committee-of-linguistsutrecht-and-antwerp-spectrum-1963-pp-118/901A7CAEBCD5D3AC 0118FC3583ED002B [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Matos, F. (1965). Trends in Modern Linguistics. Christine Morhmann, F. Norman, Alf Sommerfelt. American Anthropologist, [online] 67(2), 588–589. Available at: doi/pdf/10.1525/aa.1965.67.2.02a00980 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. McCawley, J., Sebeok, T., & Chomsky, N. (1968). Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 3: Theoretical Foundations. Language, [online] 44(3), 556. Available at: scan_tab_contents. Phakiti, A., Costa, P., Plonsky, L., & Starfield, S. (2018). The Palgrave Handbook of Applied Linguistics Research Methodology. Palgrave Macmillan. [online] Available at: chapter/10.1057/978–1-137–59900–1_1 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Rouse, M. (2019). What is Computational Linguistics (CL)? – Definition from [online] SearchEnterpriseAI. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Russi, C. (2016). Current Trends in Historical Sociolinguistics. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH. Sebeok, T. (1975). Current Trends in Linguistics. [eBook] Hague: Research Center for the Language Sciences Indiana University. Available at: century.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019].


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26. Siemund, P. (2019). Current Trends in Linguistics 2019. [eBook] Hamburg. Available at: publication/328829729_Current_Trends_in_Linguistics_2019 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 27. Srivastava, S. (2017). Defining Computational Linguistics for the Modern Business. [online] Genpact. Available at: https://www.genpact. com/insight/blog/defining-computational-linguistics-for-the-modernbusiness [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 28. ULG. (2019). 4 Translation Trends to Look for in 2019. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Aug. 2019]. 29. Writers, S. (2019). The 20 Best Computational Linguistics Graduate Programs in the U.S. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 30. 2019. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019].


Learning Strategies for Languages

CONTENTS 8.1. Introduction .................................................................................... 180 8.2. History of Language Learning Strategies .......................................... 182 8.3. Language Learning Strategies Defined ............................................ 187 8.4. The Characteristics of Language Learning Strategy........................... 188 8.5. The Importance of Language Learning Strategies In Language Learning ....................................................................... 189 8.6. Language Learning Strategies According To Oxford ......................... 190 8.7. Taxonomy Of Language Learning Strategies .................................... 194 8.8. The Ten Most Effective Language Learning Strategies ....................... 198 References ............................................................................................. 200


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The learning strategies for learning any language is not a very new method. There are so many studies that have been conducted in this direction to establish various planning and strategies for the new learners of a language by linguistic experts so that they can easily speak the language. The most known strategies have been given by oxford, Rubin etc. In this chapter there has been attempt to explain t5he characteristics, importance of learning language strategies.

8.1. INTRODUCTION The concept of strategy is not as simple as it seems though it has been used by many important writers like the Rubin in the year 1975; O’Malley in the year 1985; and in Oxford in the year 1990. The consent is not supported by some writers use of conflicting vocabulary such as learning behaviors as per Wesche in 1977; Politzer and McGroarty in 1985, methods as per Seliger in 1984 and techniques as stated by Stern in 1992, though not always same with the concept of strategy. It is mainly the initial research in this area and it has the widest reputation in present times according to Ruben in 1975. The strategy is the concept that can be utilized for the task of the present work due to this reason The consciousness has been patiently increasing from the time of the researchers such as Rubin in the year 1975 and Stern in mid of 1975 of the importance of the strategies used by learners in the language learning procedure as eventually, as it is said, for example, the horse can be bought to water but it must do the drinking itself, even with the best options, the learning can be done by students. The learning starts with the learner as stated by Nyikos and Oxford in the year 1993. There is a boom of activity in the area of language learning strategy research due to increasing awareness as stated by Skehan in 1989. The describing and dividing language learning strategies is not so easy task despite of this activity. There is indefinable nature of this concept as stated by Wenden and Rubin in 1987. In the year 1994, Ellis has defined the term as unclear, whereas in 1985 O’Malley has described it as there is no agreement on what constitutes a learning strategy in language learning or the way it is different from other types of learner activities. Learning, teaching and communication strategies are generally connected in debates of language learning and are generally implemented to the same behavior.

Learning Strategies for Languages


There is no clear knowledge about definitions of strategies and about the hierarchic relationship amongst strategy though inside the group of activities it is mainly frequently known to as learning strategies. The Rubin in the year 1975, has stated that as he is the most punctual specialists in this field, and he gave an exceptionally wide meaning of learning systems as the strategies or gadgets which a student may use to secure information. In 1981, she distinguished two sorts of learning process that is which contribute straightforwardly to learning, and individuals that support contribute by to learning. The immediate learning techniques she separated into six types explanation or check, observing, remembrance, speculating or inductive inferencing, deductive thinking, practice, and the roundabout learning procedures she isolated into two types that is making open doors for training, generation traps. Under creation traps, Rubin included correspondence techniques. This is a questionable incorporation since learning procedures and correspondence methodologies are seen by some as two very discrete signs of language student conduct. The Darker in 1980 has stated that, for example, draws an unmistakable qualification between learning procedures and correspondence systems since correspondence is the produce method and learning is the information method. Dark colored recommends that, while a student by and large applies a similar central method, for example, rule transference utilized in learning a language to conveying in that language, there are other correspondence procedures, for example, evasion or message deserting which don’t bring about learning. The Ellis in 1986 is another expert that provide perspectives techniques for learning and methodologies for utilizing, including correspondence systems or “gadgets for making up for scarce belongings as very various appearances of a progressively broad wonder which he calls student procedures. He contends that it is even conceivable that fruitful utilization of correspondence systems may really counteract language learning since skillful pay for absence of etymological information may hinder the requirement for learning. In the year 1980, Tarone takes an alternate perspective. She recommends that by helping understudies to state what they need or need to state, correspondence techniques can extend language. Regardless of whether the correspondence isn’t impeccable in linguistic or lexical terms, during the time spent utilizing the language for correspondence the student will be


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presented to language input which may bring about learning and which in this way might be viewed as a learning system. The key point in this contention would appear to be that to be viewed as a learning methodology instead of a correspondence system, the necessary inspiration isn’t to impart however to learn. The problems with separating between correspondence techniques and learning methodologies on the grounds of inspiration or aim, nonetheless, as Tarone in 1981 identified, are that we have, by and by, no chance to get of figuring out what persuades a student, that students may have a double inspiration to both learn and convey, or that students may learn language notwithstanding when the essential inspiration was to impart. Again, Tarone in 1981, properly stated the association of learning methodologies to correspondence procedures is to some degree risky. Ellis in the year 1994, additionally surrenders that there is no simple method for telling whether a methodology is roused by a longing to learn or a craving to impart. This powerlessness to separate unmistakably among correspondence and learning procedures does nothing to improve the choice with respect to what ought to or ought to not be incorporated into learning technique scientific classifications, for example, Rubin’s and others, and prompts what Stern in 1992, identified is a mediation in the characterization of learning systems. Working at much a similar time as Rubin in the mid-seventies, Stern in the year 1975, build a rundown of 10 language learning methodologies which he accepted to be normal for good language students. At the highest priority on the rundown he put single learning style. Stern later characterized method as detailed considered deliberate headings, which is progressively like the meaning of the term styles as utilized by different journalists, for example, Willing in 1988 and Nunan in 1991. The social signs of the methods as stated by Stern in 1992, that he described as systems – a definition which would fit better with what Rubin calls techniques.

8.2. HISTORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES The concept of learning strategies and its origin is very tough to known due to rapid old times record in the only remaining century puts attention on moving from behaviorism to cognitive theories of learning. stated by Piaget in the year 1926; Ryle in 1949; Cronbach in 1951, 1957, 1975; Meehl in 1955.

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It likewise got from new intellectual hypotheses, for example’s, Ausubel in the year 1960, 1963, 1968; Ausubel and Fitzgerald in 1962; Ausubel and Youssef in 1963 look into on the estimation of cutting edge coordinators for understudy learning responses in enormous part behaviorism. All through this early time of learning techniques examine, various territories of premium developed and set after some time. There kept on being the individuals who concentrated on the territory of perusing cognizance systems as stated by Zhang in the year 1993 writing survey, featured quite a bit of this exploration, including that of Carroll in 1977, Anderson in 1977, while Dansereau and others trying to improve understudies perusing perception and memory. Specialists were then suggesting four classifications of perusing methodologies: psychological techniques, remuneration systems, memory procedures, and test-taking strategies as stated by Paivio in 1986; Zhang in 1993.

8.2.1. The Utilization of Innovation for Individualized and Self-Coordinated Learning Constructivism was the overwhelming learning hypothesis of the decade 1970s and drove the route for new employments of innovation in military and non-military settings. An ongoing on the web paper by Allsop in the year 2016 portrays how early work by Piaget and others started to impact those driving learning methodologies research ventures. Missing in this record, in any case, was inquire about by those of us associated with beginning military research ventures. This was claiming quite a bit of this exploration wound up in specialized reports and just a couple of scholarly diaries. It was not until the 1990s that quite a bit of this work came into the spotlight (O’Neil et al., 1972; McCombs et al., 1973a,b; Paris and Lindauer, 1976; Paris et al., 1977; Judd et al., 1979; McCombs, 1982a,b, 1986a,b,c, 1988; McCombs and Marzano, 1989, 1990; Weinstein and McCombs, 1998; Paris and Paris, 2001). The vast majority of the investigations done during the late 1970s and mid 1980s on utilizing innovation to individualize learning rotated around how procedure preparing could upgrade critical thinking and appreciation of the material while perusing in different substance regions Lefcourt, 1976; Dark colored et al., 1983a, b; Chipman et al., 1985; Bransford et al., 2000.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Significant discoveries during this time prompted the end that learning techniques could be joined inside a data preparing model that additionally took a gander at how metacognitive, subjective, and social full of feeling systems could help understudies in securing more elevated amounts of the second language adapting cf. O’Malley et al., 1985; Chamot et al., 2004). For instance, Slavin in 1980 combined helpful learning with perusing understanding systems and showed improved execution for understudies getting the two sorts of preparing. Others were additionally investigating such blends, prominently Dansereau in the year 1983 and others utilizing an emotional part as stated by Rubin in 1975, 1981; Naiman in 1978; Rubin and Thompson, 1982. In the meantime, Darker and Palincsar in 1982 thought that perfect preparing bundles would comprise of training in the utilization of assignment fitting systems, guidance concerning the hugeness of those exercises, and guidance concerning the observing and control of methodology use. These scientists isolated psychological techniques those progressively worried about individual errands and requiring the material to be controlled or changed to upgrade understanding from the metacognitive strategies (worried about the planning for the picking up, observing of comprehension, and assessment of one’s own learning) to augment understudies’ learning potential as stated by Dark colored in 1983.

8.2.2. Impacts from Formative Clinicians in the Early Years Of the numerous builds that rose during the 1970s, metacognition as depicted by Livingston in the 1997was a huge piece of the intellectual hypothesis unrest. The cause of the term is credited to Flavell (1979) and later in 1987 recognized metacognitive learning and metacognitive encounters or guideline. The metacognitive learning segment was characterized as obtained information about subjective procedures that can be utilized to control psychological procedures. Metacognitive learning was additionally partitioned by Flavell in 1976 into three classes: information of individual factors, task factors, and technique factors. Prior to Flavell in 1971 had utilized the term metamemory to allude to a person’s capacity to oversee and screen the info, stockpiling, search, and recovery of the substance of his or her very own memory. The scholastic network was welcome to participate in extra metamemory research, and this topic of metacognitive research proceeded with over 30 years after the fact. Flavell (1963, 1971) additionally suggested that

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metacognition is deliberate, cognizant, foresighted, intentional, and coordinated at achieving an objective or result. In resulting research, these suggestions have been deliberately examined; and Kentridge in the 2004 debated that metacognitive procedures required not to work in an individual’s cognizant mindfulness. The Flavell in 1976 thought that metacognition comprised of both checking and guideline perspectives. With regards to data stockpiling and recovery, Flavell in 1976) characterized three metas that kids bit by bit procure to recognize circumstances in which purposeful, cognizant capacity of certain data might be valuable sooner or later; to keep momentum any data that might be identified with dynamic critical thinking and have it prepared to recover as required; and to make conscious orderly looks for data that might be useful in taking care of an issue, notwithstanding when the requirement for it has not been predicted. Later Flavell stated that the rise of familiarity with the progression of time—attention to a future time—could bolster the capacity to frame metacognitive objectives. For the field of learning methodologies look into, he underscored the feeling of the self as a functioning operator in one’s very own encounters rose during youth improvement. He likewise started in 1987 to effectively energize the advancement of youngsters’ metacognition given that school settings give numerous chances to understudies to create metacognitive learning about people, errands, and procedures. His visionary research cleared a major way in the learning procedures examine plan.

8.2.3. Connecting Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in the 1980s and 1990s In interfacing work in the territory of psychological and metacognitive systems, Livingston in 1997 out that both are required for learning achievement. What subjective techniques incorporate is trying oneself for comprehension of a content to check whether learning objectives have been accomplished. Metacognitive methodologies become an integral factor as encounters previously or after an intellectual action when the student perceives that the person has neglected to comprehend something they have perused or tuned in to and after that redressing the circumstance by contemplating their own reasoning and learning forms and what can be changed to accomplish


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

learning objectives. Livingston expresses the accompanying as how these methodologies cooperate. Metacognitive and psychological techniques may cover in that a similar system, for example, addressing, could be viewed as either an intellectual or a metacognitive procedure relying upon what the reason for utilizing that methodology might be. For instance, you may utilize a self-doubting procedure while perusing as a method for getting information (subjective), or as a method for checking what you have perused metacognitive. Since subjective and metacognitive systems are intently entwined and subordinate upon one another, any endeavor to look at one without recognizing the other would not give an enough picture. The field progressed by then by characterizing information as metacognitive when effectively utilized in a key way to guarantee that an objective is met—by giving direct guidance in learning techniques with the goal that educators can help improve the self-assurance and accomplishment of their understudies particularly the instructively burdened as stated by Weinsteinin 1978. A metacognitive system would then think about an individual variable, an undertaking variable, and a procedure variable. The Livingston clarified, basically knowing one’s subjective qualities or shortcomings and the idea of the assignment without effectively utilizing this data to manage, screen, or regulate learning isn’t metacognitive. Further elaborations of the learning procedures that demonstrated best for an assortment of students were given by Borkowski in 1987; Darker in 1978, 1990; Entwistle and Hounsel in 1975; Pressley and Harris in 1990; and Carr in 1989. The greater part of the investigations concentrated on learning procedures while perusing, with some accentuation on inspiration and metacognitive systems for improving perception of what was perused Palincsar in 1986; Palinscar and Darker, 1986; Darker, 1992). Scott Paris, in any case, refocused consideration on contrasts between perusing understanding aptitudes and the will to peruse. Early joint efforts started among me and Barbara Lindauer who worked for/with me at McDonnell Douglas and the College of Denver and these before long prompted coordinated efforts with Scott Paris and Claire Ellen Weinstein around the requirement for learning procedures that consolidated will, ability, and vital reasoning, for example, Weinstein in the year 1978.

Learning Strategies for Languages


8.2.4. Taking a Gander At the Ability Segment Most scientists in the early years searched for general classes of learning methodologies that could upgrade learning in preparing and instructive settings. An upgrade for a significant part of the early military research on learning methodologies was Wear as stated by Norman in 1969. The Norman in 1969 started to recognize was the requirement for understudies to think about their own psychological procedures, their transient memory confinements, and how they could “piece” related ideas to improve their memory present moment. He was among the first to find that learning systems could be summed up crosswise over differing content territories for youthful kids through grown-ups. More critically, distinguished allencompassing learning techniques that understudies could be educated to improve their scholastic achievement. Some learning systems specialists were concerned more explicitly with memory and perusing perception as stated by Rothkopf in 1970; Anderson and Biddle in 1975; Paris and Lindauer in 1976; The Sprout in 1980 and in 1985 later based on a portion of these thoughts in making his very own scientific categorization of learning methodologies and methodologies for offspring of various ages and phases of advancement. Others connected subjective brain science to helping understudies learn techniques for recalling, learning, and seeing as stated by Bransford and Heldmeyer in 1983.

8.3. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES DEFINED The language learning strategies have been utilized by important experts and there are many details about it in the field in this subject. The Language Strategies is defined by Tarone in the year of 1983 as an effort to innovate linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the target language to integrate these into one’s interlanguage proficiency. The Language Strategies are strategies that provides to the development of the language system which the learner structure and shape learning openly as stated by Rubin in the year 1987. The Language Strategies are described as the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals utilize to help them understand, learn, or keep new information as stated in the significant study by O’Malley and Chamot in the year 1990. These plans can make possible the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


In the year 1993, as stated in the oxford the strategy is method for the self-directed association essential for rising communicative ability. At the same time, we should note that The Language learning Strategies are different from learning styles, that means more generally to a learner natural, habitual, and preferred methods of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills as stated by Reid in 1995, however there seems to be an clear relationship between the language learning style and his or her usual or preferred language learning strategies.




The Language Learning strategy is certainly described differently its definition; Though there are several primary features in the normally acknowledged vision of language learning strategy •

The learner constructs the language learning strategy; they are steps taken by language learners. • The language learning is increased by language learning strategy and supports in building up language ability, as shown in the learner’s skills in listening, speaking, reading, or writing the language. • The human behaviors, process, methods, or unobserved thoughts, mental processes display the language learning strategy. • The information and memory and words knowledge, grammar rules, and similar things constitutes the language learning strategy. The characteristics according to oxford of language learning strategy together with these characteristics are: • It permits learners to develop into more self-directed. • It is problem-oriented. • It contains many aspects, not only the cognitive features. • The students can learn it easily. • It is adjustable. • There are many different types of features that can affect it easily. In contrast, there are only mindful strategies are that are language learning strategies, and that there essentially be an option that is implicated on the part of the learner as stated by Cohen in the year of 1990.

Learning Strategies for Languages


8.5. THE IMPORTANCE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING The language learning strategies are good indicators of the way good learners utilizing the processed theories for communication or up to the extent they have better open ability is since language learning strategies are important for language learners. The learner that has the ability of using a large diversity of language learning strategies properly can better his language skills in a better method as per Fedderholdt in the year 1997. The language learning strategies support the growth of the communicative competence of the students as per Lessard-Clouston in the year 1997. The provinces, language learning plans are particularly essential for language learning because they are methods of active, self-directed movement, that is significant for developing talkative ability as per oxford in the year 1990. The language learning strategies are essential is because research has shown that training students that follows language learning strategies can help them become better language learners together with developing their communicative capability. According to Naiman, Froehlich, and Stern that have done study on good language learners, as per them a good language learner has: • •

The learner as per his suitability should adopt the learning style. The learner should immerse himself in the in the language learning process. • Develops an awareness of language both as system and as communication • The learner has a regular focus on the expansion of the language. • The learner needs to learn and assimilate the language as a separate system. • The strain that language learning puts up are being taken attention. The efficient language learners have the knowledge of the language learning strategies and they utilize and the reason they should use them according to research study conducted by O’Malley and Chamot in the year 1990. The learners can turn unsuccessful due to few other causes whereas there is always the likelihood that bad language learners might also utilize the same good language learning strategy. There should be strong focus on having the same good language learning strategies, but it cannot guarantee


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

that a bad learner will also become successful in language learning because other factors might also play role in success in this point.

8.6. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES ACCORDING TO OXFORD There are about 62 strategies and they are divided into direct and indirect strategies as per oxford. The direct strategies are defined as the strategies that are utilized in dealing directly with a new language. The memory, cognitive, and compensation are the three classes that are constituents of direct strategies. In the general management of learning there is implementation of indirect strategies. The metacognitive, affective, and social strategies are the three division of indirect strategies. The details of these strategies are given below.

8.6.1. The Direct Language Learning Strategies The facility of storing and recovering the information is provided by the direct strategies. These strategies support learners to construct language even if there is gap in knowledge. It also supports to understand and use the new language.

1. Memory Strategies The easy principles like putting things out in order, making relation, and reviewing are the basis of Memory strategies. The instance in when learner faces challenge of vocabulary learning these principles are invoked. The words and phrases can be related with visual images that can be stored and recovered for communication. There are many learners that greatly utilizes the visual images, though few find it simple to connect words and phrases with sound, motion or touch. In the starting process of language learning there is regular imp0lementation of memory strategies. There is very little talk about memory strategies as the learner progress to higher level of proficiency. The Knowledge of it has become less as there is less use about it. This is a following example to relate memory strategy by making association. The learner if desires to memorize the name Solange of a French person, it might be related by saying Solange’s face is so long.

Learning Strategies for Languages


2. Cognitive Strategies The language learners have these mainstream systems. The rehashing, breaking down or condensing is utilized by indicated language to control or change. The Working on, Accepting and Sending Messages, Evaluation and Thinking, and building Structure for Info and Yield are the four arrangements of this group. The redundancy, working with sounds and composing, and utilizing examples is the most basic in this group. The way toward getting and sending messages are utilized when learner attempt to look through the principle thought through skimming and examining. It is not essential to check each word. The appraisal and thinking systems are generally utilized by learners. These are utilized to comprehend the significance and articulation of the objective language. The new articulations are made by utilizing this. There are various instances of a student that practices with hints of the words that have letters ough. The words through, however, intense, and trough have ough yet stable extraordinary. To comprehend them better the student may make claim phonetic spelling: throo, thow, tuff, and troff to learn in an improved manner.

3. Compensation Strategies Students use pay procedures for perception of the objective language when they have deficient information of the objective language. These methodologies compensate for the lack in language structure and vocabulary. At the point when students don’t know new words and articulations, they surmise the significance. A student brings possess beneficial experience to decipher information by speculating. Remuneration procedures are additionally utilized underway when linguistic learning is inadequate. At the point when a student does not know the subjunctive type of action word, an alternate structure might be utilized to pass on the message. Here is a case of speculating dependent on halfway learning of the objective language. At the point when a student perceives the words scoop, grass, cutter, and yard in a discussion, it could be comprehended that it is tied in with cultivating.

8.6.2. INDIRECT LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES The direct strategies worked with the indirect language learning strategies. They help student manage the learning procedure. These systems support


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

and oversee language learning without direct commitment and in this way called indirect language learning strategies.

1. Metacognitive Strategies The Metacognitive strategies go past the subjective mechanism and give learners to organize their learning. It encourages them to design language learning in a talented manner. The words list, standards, and composing framework confuse the student, these processes has become important for better language learning at this point. The Centering Your Learning, Arranging and Planning Your Learning, and Evaluating Your Learning are the three arrangements of procedures have a place with this group. The matter of attention given to learning is to give a concentration to the student with the goal that the consideration could be coordinated toward certain language exercises or aptitudes. Masterminding and arranging learning help learners to sort out so they may get greatest profit by their vitality and exertion. Assessing learning enables students with issues to like checking mistakes and assessment of advancement. The metacognitive strategies are not used as much regular by the learners in comparison to cognitive strategies. It is a situation of categorizing and arranging learning. For a student who needs to tune in to the news in the objective language can design the undertaking by first figuring out what themes may be covered in the program. Most news projects have sections of governmental issues and financial matters. The student can look into the words identified with the themes before tuning in to the news. This would better set up the student.

2. Affective Strategies The learning is greatly affected by the reasons like emotion, attitude, motivation, and values. Three arrangements of procedures are incorporated into this gathering: Bringing down Your Uneasiness, Empowering Yourself, and Taking Your Enthusiastic Temperature are the three sets that are included into this group. The language learners control their demeanors and feelings about learning and comprehend that negative emotions delay learning. It can be both good and bad that is nervousness. It is felt that a specific measure of nervousness is useful for students since it causes them get their ideal degree of execution. An excess of uneasiness has the contrary impact where it frustrates language learning.

Learning Strategies for Languages


Tension frequently takes types of stress, dissatisfaction, weakness, dread, and self-question. The general high tension making situation for learners is to perform before the colleagues at the time they are not readied. This is a situation that is the learner tried to bring down the tension. Some tune in to their preferred music for a couple of minutes before rehearsing the objective language.

3. Social Strategies The language is utilized in communication and communication happens between people so the Social strategies are very important in learning a language. The posing of Inquiries, coordinating with others, and understanding Others are the three sets of strategies are included in this group. Among the three, posing inquiries is the most supportive and comes nearest to understanding the importance. It likewise helps in discussion by creating reaction from the accomplice and shows intrigue and contribution. The competition is finished by working together and in its place brings team spirit. Concentrates demonstrate that agreeable learning results in higher confidence, expanded certainty, and fast accomplishment. Students don’t normally apply agreeable procedures in view of solid accentuation put on challenge by instructive foundations. Now and again rivalry carries a solid wish to perform superior to other people, however it frequently results in nervousness and dread of disappointment. It is critical to enable learners to change their frames of mind from encounter and rivalry to participation. Sympathy is significant in correspondence. Sympathy intends to place oneself in somebody else situation to understand that individual’s viewpoint. Students can utilize social techniques to create social understanding and become aware of contemplations and sentiments of others. The learners can apply the technique of collaborating with others by accomplishing something together in the language they are learning. Day by day phone discussion with a companion in the objective language is a guide to work on tuning in and talking aptitudes. The best language learners utilize the following strategies as per Naiman, Frohlich, and Todesco in the year 1975: • •

select language circumstances that permit the individual learning preference to be utilized. effectively include themselves in language learning.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


• • • •

thought language to be both a standard framework and a specialized apparatus. broaden and reexamine one’s comprehension of the language figure out how to think in the language. address the full of feeling requests of language learning.

8.7. TAXONOMY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES The taxonomies of language learning strategies are created by Rubin in the year 1987, oxford in the year 1990, O’Malley’s in the year 1985, and Stern in the year 1992.

8.7.1. Rubin Language Learning Strategy There is difference between strategies assisting directly to learning and those contributing indirectly to learning according to Rubin that pioneered much of the work in the field of strategies. There are three types of strategies utilized by learners that support directly or indirectly to language learning according to Rubin and they are: • • •

learning strategies; communication strategies; and social strategies.

1. Learning Strategies They are of two main types, being the strategies contributing directly to the development of the language system constructed by the learner: i. cognitive learning strategies, and ii. metacognitive learning strategies. i. Cognitive Learning Strategies They allude to the means or tasks utilized in learning or critical thinking that require direct investigation, change, or union of learning materials. Rubin distinguished 6 principle intellectual learning systems contributing straightforwardly to language learning. •

explanation or checking.

Learning Strategies for Languages

• • • • • ii. •


speculation or inductive inferencing. deductive thinking. practice. retention. observing. Metacognitive Learning Strategies These methodologies are utilized to supervise, manage or selfdirect language learning. They include different procedures as arranging, organizing, defining objectives, and self-administration.

2. Communication Strategies They are less legitimately identified with language learning since their attention is on the way toward taking an interest in a discussion and getting importance crosswise over or explaining what the speaker expected. Correspondence systems are utilized by speakers when looked with some trouble because of the way that their correspondence closures beat their correspondence implies or when gone up against with misconception by a co-speaker.

3. Social Strategies Social systems are those exercises students take part in which manage the cost of them chances to be presented to and practice their insight. Despite the fact that these procedures give introduction to the objective language, they contribute by implication to learning since they don’t lead straightforwardly to the getting, putting away, recovering, and utilizing of language as stated by Rubin and Wenden in the year of 1987.

8.7.2. The Categorization of Language Learning Strategies O’Malley’s The O’Malley’s in the year of 1985 categorized language-learning strategies into three main parts: • • •

metacognitive strategies; cognitive strategies; and socio-affective strategies.

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


1. Metacognitive Strategies Metacognitive is a term to express official capacity, systems which require anticipating picking up, contemplating the learning procedure as it is occurring, observing of one’s creation or cognizance, and assessing learning after a movement is finished. In applying metacognitive techniques, it is conceivable to incorporate development coordinators, coordinated consideration, particular consideration, self-administration, utilitarian arranging, self-checking, postponed creation, self-assessment.

2. Cognitive Strategies Cognitive methodologies are increasingly restricted to explicit learning undertakings and they include more straightforward control of the learning material itself. The redundancy, resourcing, interpretation, gathering, note taking, reasoning, recombination, symbolism, sound-related portrayal, catchphrase, contextualization, elaboration, move, and difference are integrated in cognitive strategies.

3. Socio-Affective Strategies Socio-affective methodologies can be identified with social-intervening movement and executing with others. The primary Socio-affective procedures are cooperation and question for explanation as stated by Darker in the year of 1987.

8.7.3. The Categorization of Language Learning Strategies By Stern The five major language-learning strategies are given by stern in the year 1992. They are • • • • •

management and planning strategies; cognitive strategies; communicative–experiential strategies; interpersonal strategies; and affective strategies.

Learning Strategies for Languages


1. Management and Planning Strategies The learner target relates to organize his very own learning. The learner can suppose responsibility for the advancement of his own program if he is supported by an instructor whose job is that of a guide and asset individual. The learner can select in other words • • • •

select the accountability to make to language learning. set himself sensible objectives. settle on a fitting strategy, select proper assets, and screen advance. assess his accomplishment in the light of recently decided objectives and desires as stated by Stern in the year 1992.

2. Cognitive Strategies They are steps or activities utilized in learning or critical thinking that require direct examination, change, or blend of learning materials. The cognitive strategies are explained as • • • • • •

explanation or check. speculation or inductive inferencing. deductive thinking. practice. remembrance. Checking

3. Communicative-Experiential Strategies The aversion, motioning, reword, or requesting redundancy and clarification are methods utilized by learners so that the discussion will continue is defined as communicative-experiential strategies. In the year 1992, stern has stated that the motivation behind utilizing these procedures is to abstain from intruding on the progression of correspondence.

4. Interpersonal Strategies In the year 1992 Stern has stated in context of Interpersonal strategies that the learners should monitor their very own advancement and assess their own display. Learners should contact local speakers and collaborate with them. The learners might end up recognizable with the objective culture.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

5. Affective Strategies In the year 1992 Stern has stated in context of affective strategies that it is clear that great language learners utilize particular affective strategies. The process of language learning can be at the time puzzling. The sentiment of oddness can be evoked by the unknown dialect. In some different cases, learners might have may have negative sentiments about local speakers of language. The intelligent language speakers are pretty much aware of these obsessive problems. The good language learners try to make relationship of positive effect towards the unknown dialect and its speakers just as towards the learning exercises integrated. Learning training can help students to face up to the emotional difficulties and to overcome them by drawing attention to the potential frustrations or pointing them out as they arise as stated by Stern in 1992.

8.8. THE TEN MOST EFFECTIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES 8.8.1. Have a Clear Motivation The language learning is not an easy task. The person must be determined enough to beat all odds to learn the language.

8.8.2. Immerse Yourself The learner should learn about cultures and do deep study of their behavior and the way of clothing and, living to learn the language as it would help him greatly in speaking the language.

8.8.3. Listen Frequently The language is mainly a spoken medium language. So, the most emphasis should be on the listening the other language as much as possible.

8.8.4. Learn Vocabulary in A Smart Way They are some words that are repeated more generally than others. Not all words are equal. So, the emphasis should be on to pay attention to those words it learns it as fast as possible.

Learning Strategies for Languages


8.8.5. Think in the Foreign Language The learner should talk to the person that speaks the intended language. The speaker of that targeted language will correct his mistakes very easily and the benefit will be to the learner.

8.8.6. Use Spaced Repetition to Build Up Vocabulary It has been established scientifically and it is very important method to make sure that the person does not forget and loose again that he has learnt and memorized. It makes sure that you invest as little time as possible to get the optimum profits from your learning efforts.

8.8.7. Learn Words and Phrases The learner should try to use simple words and simple phrases as it would help him a lot in learning the language.

8.8.8. Make Many Mistakes The speaker should not be afraid to make mistake. Make many mistakes as possible as it will help him by correcting it.

8.8.9. Read and Write As Much As You Can in the Foreign Language The learner should try to write in foreign language as much as possible.

8.8.10. Do Short but Regular Sessions There is need of regular language practice class to learn the language.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching










Clouston, M. (1997). Language Learning Strategies: An Overview for L2 Teachers. [online] Research Gate. Available at: https://www. Strategies_An_Overview_for_L2_Teachers [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (n.d.). Learning a Language – The 10 Most Effective Learning Strategies. [online] Available at: http://www. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Griffiths, C. (2004). Language Learning Strategies: Theory and Research. [online] Research Gate. Available at: https://www. Strategies_Theory_and_Research [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Hardan, A. (2013). Language Learning Strategies: A General Overview. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, [online] 106, 1712–1726. Available at: pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Hardan, A. (2013). Language Learning Strategies: A General Overview. [online] Available at: pii/S1877042813048179 [Accessed 17 August 2019]. McCombs, B. (2017). Historical Review of Learning Strategies Research: Strategies for the Whole Learner—A Tribute to Claire Ellen Weinstein and Early Researchers of This Topic. Frontiers in Education, 2. Oxford, R. (2003). Language Learning Styles and Strategies: An Overview. [eBook] p.2. Available at: workshop/read2.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. Samida, D. (n.d.). Language Learning Strategies. [eBook] p.2. Available at:–18577-PAPER.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. (n.d.). Language Learning Strategies. [online] Available at: of%20Bilash/language%20learning%20strats.html [Accessed 17 August 2019].

Learning Strategies for Languages


10. Taxonomy. (n.d.). [eBook] p.2. Available at: https://shodhganga. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 11. (2016). Short History of Language Learning Strategy English Language Essay. [online] Available at: https://www.ukessays. com/essays/english-language/short-history-of-language-learningstrategy-english-language-essay.php [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 12. Uribe Enciso, O. (n.d.). Learning Strategies: Tracing the Term. [eBook] p.2. Available at: f387fe06fa252dfc973c0bdbd35d7f5fbd18.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 13. Vlčková, K., Berger, J., & Völkle, M. (2013). Classification Theories of Foreign Language Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Analysis. 18th ed. [eBook] p.2. Available at: Vlckova_Berger_Voelkle_stra_clas_SP2013.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 14. (n.d.). [online] Available at: http://vodppl.upm. [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 15. White, C. (1993). Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social and Affective Strategy use in Foreign Language Learning: A Comparative Study. [eBook] p.2. Available at: handle/10179/4580/02_whole.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2019]. 16. (n.d.). Oxford’s Strategies. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2019].


Community Language Teaching and Learning

CONTENTS 9.1. Introduction ................................................................................... 204 9.2. Classroom Activities In Communicative Language Teaching ........... 206 9.3. Techniques In Communicative Approach ........................................ 209 9.4. Goals Of Language Teaching .......................................................... 212 9.5. The Position Of Educators And Students In The Classroom .............. 215 9.6. Communicative Language Teaching In The Present Times ................ 216 References ............................................................................................. 222


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Communicative language teaching theoretically rooted in very sound foundations and was popular theory for a very long time and is still being used extensively by a large number of teachers in one form or the other but the fundamental principles and the fundamental implications of the communicative language teaching are here to stay in different forms. Many language experts have played a role in sort of developing communicative like language teaching although it did not initiate it because what communicative language teaching. The teacher focuses not only on the language but also on being supportive of learners in their learning process. In stage four because of the student’s greater security in the language and readiness who benefit from corrections. The beginnings of this approach in some sense to sociolinguistics of the communicative approach to language teaching and within social linguistics in some sense probably the best or the greatest social linguist of the times, the finest social linguistic at times.

9.1. INTRODUCTION Community language learning calls upon teachers to become skillful understand as their learners as whole persons. Communicative language teaching theoretically rooted in very sound foundations and was popular theory for a very long time and is still being used extensively by many teachers in one form or the other, but the fundamental principles and the fundamental implications of the communicative language teaching are here to stay in different forms. The role of a teacher in a communicative classroom is to facilitate language learning in meaningful ways. To achieve this end, most communicative classrooms make use of authentic materials. The use of authentic materials serves as a chief aid to creating an authentic context in which learners can develop their communicative competence. Materials that give learners a feel of using real life language are called authentic materials. According to Research, a rule of thumb for authentic material is any material which has not been specifically produced for the purposes of language teaching. The main idea of using them in the classroom is to familiarize the learners with the language needed in real life. Authentic materials can include audio, audiovisual and printed materials. Even when people say that they should have an eclectic method as well as the post method derived should be left to the teacher. It should keep the individual trajectories of children in mind and use the diversity

Community Language Teaching and Learning


among children as a classroom, in the classroom as a resource and among all those things, the communicative approach holds its own position and its implications will often be taken into consideration by teacher trainers, by language teachers and people who try to weave the networks between linguistic theory applied linguistics and language teaching. The beginnings of this approach in some sense to sociolinguistics of the communicative approach to language teaching and within social linguistics in some sense probably the best or the greatest social linguist of the times, the finest social linguistic at times. It doesn’t just have linguistics competence in our language from the universal linguistic competence and then come to the linguistic competence on our own language. If people need to learn another language what it needs to evolve and what needs to develop the work and what the child acquires is not linguistic competence but communicative competence.

9.1.1. Creative Language Teaching and Second Language Acquisition It is necessary to think about the other strand or other pedagogical proposal which the second language acquisition has research and influenced but it is not something that was initiated because of the second language acquisition research. So how people would have this communicative language teaching and communicative language is when one is not focus on the form of the language but focus on language as a system of communication and focus more on the meaning making process and people are okay with the little mistakes that the learners are making as long as they are able to communicate what they want to say. So, fluency and not accuracy is the goal, so it can be accuracy and can be a long-term goal, but the teachers somehow focus a lot on fluency because that is the main emphasis so communicative language teaching resulted from the skepticism or the doubts people started to have about the role of the grammar. So, the grammar-translation method that was used to teach Latin did not quite work for other people, when the learners were being taught a language that they have really had to use in a real world. So, there was also a disillusionment with the results of audio-lingual teaching. It is important to know what audio-lingual teaching, and, in this teaching, people should have these language labs in which the learners


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

hear the certain structures of a language and then repeat the structure of the language as they have heard it. So, this can be whole sentences or phrases, or clauses and they hear in the lab and they try to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Examples of these include TV news and programs, TV and radio commercials, music, movies, announcements at public places such as railway stations, airports, supermarkets, newspapers, magazines, photographs, paintings, drawings, stamps, currencies, restaurant menus, street signs, product labels, tourist information brochures, catalogues, telephone books, greeting cards, letters, memos, circulars, minutes of the meetings, reports, billboards, notices, forms such as applications and tax forms, podcasting on the internet and web based programs involving multimedia use. Teachers should select authentic materials keeping in view the needs and interest, language learning goals, cultural appropriateness and level of language of the specific group of learners.

9.2. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING It has been observed that there have to be and they had to be problems with that because the first problem would be when to use it a specific language structure that they have learned, what does it actually mean, how could they use the structure to actually mean what they want to say rather than just repeat or imitate the structure that they have heard so the leaners did not benefit so much in learning accuracy rubbed off how to say something because they did not know how to use that way of saying to express their meaning, So, this shift started to come in 1960s and interestingly, the antecedents for the classroom teaching practices that it was the teachers who felt that the results of their second language teaching were not somehow serving the purpose and it as not initiated by second language acquisition research.

Community Language Teaching and Learning


Figure 9.1: Classroom, school, education, and learning. Source:

On the roles of teacher and students in a communicative classroom, it has been observed that the teacher facilitates communication in the classroom. In this role, one of his major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication. During the activities he acts as an adviser, answering student’s questions and monitoring their performance. He might make note of their errors to be worked on at a later time during more accuracy-based activities. At other times he might be a ‘co-communicator’ engaging in the communicative activity along with students. Students are, above all, communicators. They are actively engaged in negotiating meaning—in trying to make themselves understood and in understanding others—even when their knowledge of the target language is incomplete. Also, since the teacher’s role is less dominant than in a teacher-centered method, students are more responsible managers of their own learning. Commenting on the nature of student-teacher interaction and the student-student interaction.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

So communicative language teaching is based on linguistic theories of communication and the focus is there on language as a system with a focus on again language in use. So, the thing is what is the language for, and it is for communication. After that, it allows the learners to use the language and give them opportunities to use the language as much as possible within the classrooms, so it can help them function in that language. Many language experts have played a role in sort of developing communicative like language teaching although it did not initiate it because what communicative language teaching. According to the studies, the earlier students learn the language, the better he or she will handle that language in his life and students can take increasing responsibility for their own learning by creating their own syllabus and their own learning materials and then students can learn how to learn from one another in the community. So, in a community language learning class, teachers will consider their learners as whole persons that means teachers will not only consider their students interact but also the relationship between students’ physical reactions, instinctive protective reactions desire to learn and students’ feelings. In the class the teacher will work as a counselor. This doesn’t mean that the teacher doesn’t teach rather it means that the teacher recognized how threatening a new learning situation could be and she or he skillfully understands and supports his students or her students in their struggle to master the target language and initially the learners are very dependent upon the teacher. However, still learners continue to study they become increasingly independent. Community language learning method have identified five stages in this movement from dependency to mutual independency with the teacher. The teacher focuses not only on the language but also on being supportive of learners in their learning process. In stage four because of the student’s greater security in the language and readiness who benefit from corrections. The teacher can focus more on accuracy, it should be noted that accuracy well it’s always a focus even in the earlier stages, but it is subordinated to fluency.

Community Language Teaching and Learning


Figure 9.2: Teacher uses multiple skills. Source:

Teacher uses the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing (LSRW) in combination A critical feature of a communicative methodology is the use of the skills of LSRW in combination. When teachers teach language skills in integration, students will learn the language holistically. The data revealed that of the 35 classes observed, in 18 (51%) classes teachers used the skills of LSRW in combination whereas in 17 (49%) classes teachers did not use the skills of LSRW in combination.

9.3. TECHNIQUES IN COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH There are some major components along with the techniques. The first technique is recording student conversation so in class students will be asked to have a conversation using as much English at the target language as they can, but they can also use their native language or a common language. In a multilingual group with no common language they can use pictures or gestures so the teacher will give the students the target language translation when needed in appropriate sized trunks. Each trunk will be recorded and that gives students.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

A final recording with only the target language on it and the teacher can use a digital device to record it and then send it to students electronically so they can listen to it in their time and after a conversation has been recorded, it can be replayed since students have a choice in what they want to say in the original conversation, it is easier for them to associate meaning with a particular target, a particular target language utterance like hope mission in the iceberg theory and then don’t forget to check their feelings. The teacher may present some part of the lesson, such as when working with linguistic accuracy. At other times, he is the facilitator of the activities, but he does not always himself interact with the students. Sometimes he is a co-communicator, Reasons for Studying English Motivation is crucial to success in language learning. The data indicated that majority of students (1140 of the 1500) wanted to learn English as ‘it will be useful in getting a good job.’ It was clear that most students wanted to learn English for a practical benefit. Apparently, increasing demand for good English communication skills in job market was a major driving force. The type of activities that take place in the classroom can indicate whether the teaching/ learning situation is teacher dominated or learner centered. Majority of students opted for the choice ‘teacher talking/lecturing,’ followed by ‘students working individually students working in pairs/groups students giving individual speeches/presentations, group presentations, role plays, group discussions and ‘all of the above. Their learning as whole persons and then transcription in another technique so the teacher will transcribe, the students recorded target language conversation and each student will be given the opportunity to translate and the teacher will read it down in their native language or draws on pictures and then the teacher will read the transcriptions maybe three times and students will just listen. This gives the students some quite time to learn and then in the human computer activities, the teacher will work as a human computer, the students choose which phrase they want to practice pronouncing the teacher following the students lead, repeats the phrase until the learner is satisfied and stop if students feel in control. They can take more responsibility for their own learning and then students will work in groups creating new sentences and then the teacher will correct them by repeating crackly the sentence in small groups so that makes the threatening level reduced and students will feel more comfortable learning

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and then the students will share in the big group in the whole class which viewed community and students can learn from each other and then students talk about their experience not only about the language but also about how they feel and what they learned and then they can do some other activities too and after that they can start a new conversation. In the beginning stages, the syllabus is generated primarily by the students. Students are more willing to learn when they have created the material by themselves. It is necessary to focus on teaching based on the communicative approach. So, the communicative approach is an approach that is used around the world based on the common European framework. It is the methodology of choice by several institutions around the world. If the students are called in for an on interview, they are likely going to ask them about the knowledge of the communicative approach. It is important to go over the fundamental points of the communicative approach and it focuses on the importance of students using English to exchange information which is integral to events and experiences relevant to their daily lives. This information is important because at the time of talking about the communicative approach, it will highlight the exchange of information, integral to events and experiences which are relevant, and this is very important to their daily lives. Many educational institutions will try not to teach people based on memory or memorizing information but so that they are able to use this new language means the English language related to the daily lives. The first thing is that the students are involved in meaningful use of language in real world context which means that students are involved in meaningful use of language and real-world context. It means that the language they are going to teach must be relevant to their daily lives and it must be real unless they are teaching very young learners as they can use activities related to mickey mouse and Minnie mouse but if they are teaching adults then things must be real-world context. Those real-world context means things like ordering at a restaurant. A real-world context may be withdrawing money from the bank account, a real-world context may be calling and asking for information. Those are real world contexts that is the way when they have to try and think when they are planning their lessons and when they are preparing an objective for their students to do real-world context and it has to be meaningful. So, it is necessary to keep in mind that it is the first point.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

The second thing is that the teacher guides or facilitates the students in the direction of spontaneous communication. Spontaneous communication is really important because that is the main objective is how the students will learn the language and be able to use the language spontaneously and well based on the lesson plan that should be used to prepare for the students on the basis of communicative approach than the certain activities that are going to take the students through a process and that process is going to be and that at the end of the process, the students are going to be able to use the language spontaneously. Teacher talk and student working individually were the dominant classroom activities. However, the activities like presentations, discussions, and role plays were also reported modestly. This pointed to the fact that some ‘beneficial’ practices were also in vogue rather than depending only on the teacher talk. As CLT demands ‘more student talk time,’ which was also stressed in the Retaining Program, the teachers should have put great emphasis on the same. It takes time and it needs to be built means that the students’ needs to build up to it so always begin with the structure activity which is an activity that provides lots of information, a semi structure activity which is an activity where they provide partial information and then at the end they are going to have an unstructured activity.

9.4. GOALS OF LANGUAGE TEACHING Communicative language teaching sets as its aim on the educating of communicative capability. So, what does the term communicative teaching means? Maybe there is a clarification for this word which can be achieved by initially contrasting it with the idea of grammatical capability.

9.4.1. Communicative Language Teaching In the present times, competence denotes to the information that the user has of a language that stands for the capability to create sentences in any known language. It denotes to skill of the building element of sentences, for example the parts of speech, tenses, phrases, clauses, sentence patterns and how sentences are created. Grammatical competence is the focal point of various grammar practice booklets, which usually present a rule of grammar on the first page of the book and render the practice exercises to apply using the rules on the other page. The part of study and application is usually the sentence.

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What students learn have much to do with what teachers focus in their teaching. The respondents indicated that majority of their teachers focused more on developing their subject knowledge (55%) as opposed to their English communication skills (25%) or both (20%). As the students were required to be ready with good English communication skills to brighten their career prospects, teachers should have emphasized skill development as opposed to mere subject knowledge. Students Share Their Knowledge and Personal Experience Language learning can be made more purposive to learners by allowing them to share their knowledge and personal experience. The data indicated that 77% of students shared their knowledge and personal experience in the classroom, 19% said they did not share and 4% did not respond to this question. Majority of students shared their knowledge and personal experience in the classroom. It was a beneficial practice and must have helped students to speak freely. In spite of the fact that grammatical competence is an imperative aspect of the process of language learning, it is obviously not all that is included in the process of learning a language in view of the fact that one can master the regulations of sentence creation in a language and still not be very flourishing at being capable to put the language to use for the creation of sentences in meaningful communication. It is the concluding capability which is comprehended by the word communicative competence.

9.4.2. Characteristics of the Language Communicative competence comprises of the following characteristics of the language knowledge: • •

Gaining the knowledge by what means the language can be use for a variety of dissimilar purposes and functions Gaining the knowledge by what means the usage of the language can be altered according to the surroundings and the participants, for instance knowing when to put the formal and informal speech to use or when to put the language to use for appropriate writing tasks in contrast with the verbal communication Knowing by what means different kinds of texts can be produced and understood. These texts may be narratives, reports, interviews, conversations

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


Knowing by what means the communication can be maintained even though having certain limitations in knowledge of the language for a person. This can be well understood by studying the usage of different types of communication strategies. Teacher Simulates Real Life Communication in the Class Communication in the classroom that simulates real-life contexts such as how to shop or book tickets offers great motivation to learners. Moreover, language learning simulations provide students with the opportunity to learn the pragmatic skills of using language appropriately. The data revealed that of the 35 classes observed, in 9 (26%) classes simulations were used and in 26 (74%) classes simulations were not used. Students learn to practice language that is close to real life communication in the classroom through simulations. but more often he establishes situations that prompt communication between and among the students. Students interact a great deal with one another. They do this in various configurations: pairs, triads, small groups, and whole group. Hence, more use of simulations was expected.

9.4.3. Learners Learn a Language The understanding of the procedures of the learning of the second language for any individual has altered or transformed by far in the time of past 30 years and CLT is, to a certain extent, an answer to these alterations that have been reflected in the process of comprehending. The primitive viewpoints of language learning were entirely focused on the mastery of grammatical competence. Language learning was seen as a procedure of mechanical habit establishment. Decent habits are created or established by having the pupils or the scholars form correct sentences and teaching them to avoid making mistakes. Mistakes were to be evaded with the help of limited chances for production of the sentence, which is either by written or spoken communication. By remembering the conversations and completing the assignments, the opportunities of committing mistakes were diminished. Learning was very much seen as under the control of the teacher. In the recent times, language learning has been observed from a very diverse viewpoint. It is seen as consequential from procedures such as: • •

Communication amid the beginner and users of the language. Two-way formation of meaning.

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• • • •


Creating significant and purposeful interaction with the help of language. Concession of meaning as the student and his or her interlocutor appears at understanding. Learning through attending to the feedback learners get when they use the language. Focusing the attention to the language that an individual hears (the input) and trying to integrate modern forms into the process of developing communicative competence in the language usage of an individual. Attempting and experimenting with new and innovative methods of saying things.

9.5. THE POSITION OF EDUCATORS AND STUDENTS IN THE CLASSROOM The kind of classroom activities and assignments that are proposed in CLT also suggested innovative and new positions in the classroom for the educators and the students or the learners. Students, in the modern times, are compiled to actively participate in classroom activities and assignments that were grounded on a mutual rather than personal concept of learning. Students had to adapt and become comfortable with hearing to their friend and classmates in group work or pair work assignments, instead of being dependent on the educator for a model. Teacher Focuses on Giving Everyday Language Expressions Language learning becomes more meaningful to students if teachers give everyday language expressions in their classroom teaching. The data indicated that of the 35 classes observed, in 16 (46%) classes teachers focused on everyday language expressions where as in 19 (54%) classes teachers did not give language examples representative of everyday use. Language samples representative of day-to-day life help students to use English for real life. Therefore, it was desirable that a greater number of teachers practiced this aspect on a wider scale. The students were anticipated to take on a higher extent of responsibility so that they can enjoy their own learning. And educators now had to presume the position of a facilitator along with the observer. Instead of being a model for the accurate speech and writing and the only individual with the main responsibility of making students create a huge number of

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


error-free sentences, the educator had to build up a special view of errors that are committed by the student and of her/his own position in assisting the process of language learning.

9.6. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING IN THE PRESENT TIMES There are various methods that are grounded on the assumptions. Some of these methodologies comprise of audiolingualism, which is prevalent in the region of North America and is also called as the Aural-Oral method, and the Structural-Situational method, which is being prominently used in the United Kingdom and is also called as the situational language teaching. Syllabuses during this classroom session comprised of lists of words and lists of grammar rules that have been gratifies across various levels. In a usual audiolingual session, the following processes would have been observed: •

Learner or pupil first listens to an example dialog. This dialog can either be read by the educator or can be played on an audiotape. This example dialog contains the main characteristics that are the focused on the classroom session. They replicate every single line of the dialog, first in person and then in chorus. The educator centers all the attention on the aspects of pronunciation, intonation, and fluency. Rectification of the errors and mistakes that are made in the aspects of pronunciation or grammar is explicit and instantaneous. The example dialog must be remembered progressively, line by line. A line may be cut down into several phrases if it is required. The dialog had to be read aloud in chorus. In the chorus activity, the chorus can be created into two halves. First half shall be saying the part of the speaker and the second half must be responding to it. The learners cannot confer with their book in the entire period when the activity is being carried out. •

The example dialog is custom-made to suit the interest of the students or link to a similar situation, with the help of altering few key words or phrases. This alteration is done by the students. There are some basic structures from the example dialog that are chosen and the use as the grounds for sample assignments of diverse types. These basic structures are to be first practiced in chorus and then in person. Some of the elementary grammatical

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clarification can be rendered at this point, but the help has to be kept to an absolute minimum level. The students or the pupils can look into their textbook, and follow-up reading, writing, or vocabulary assignments that are linked with the dialog may be introduced. Follow-up assignments can happen in the language laboratory, where additional dialog and drill work is carried out.

9.6.1. Communicative Language Teaching Today In a usual lesson that is being carried in accordance with the situational concept, a three-phase series, known as the P-P-P cycle, was frequently used. The three P’s refer to the aspects of Presentation, Practice, and Production. •

Presentation: The modern grammar framework is usually offered, usually by means of a dialog or a short text. The educator gives explanation about the modern framework and keeps a check on the students’ comprehension of it. • Practice: Learners or pupil practice by putting the new structure to use in the form of a controlled context, with the help of practices or substitution assignments. • Production: Learners or pupils’ practice by putting the modern structure to use in varied contexts, usually putting in their own content or information to use, in order to build up confidence with the new pattern. The P-P-P lesson framework has been widely used in the creation of the language teaching materials and is being maintained in the enhanced form that is being used in the modern world. Many of the lessons that are based on speaking or are based on grammar-based lessons in the modern materials, for instance, start with a preliminary stage in which there are various modern teaching points that are showed and depicted in one way and where the focus is on comprehension and recognition. Examples of the modern educating point are provided in various contexts. This is frequently trailed by a second stage in which the students apply the knowledge by putting the modern teaching point to use in a limited or restricted context by utilizing content that is often provided by the educator. The third stage is a free practice time slot. In this time slot or period, the students or pupil need to try out the teaching point in a limitless context and in which practical or replicated dialog is on the main focus.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

The P-P-P lesson layout and the presumptions on which it is grounded have been powerfully censured in the recent times, though. Skehan (1996, p.18), for instance, states: The fundamental hypothesis for a P-P-P approach is now under constant questioning. The conviction that an exact spotlight on a specific structure directs to the process of learning and automatization. The automatization focuses that the students will gain knowledge of what is being taught in the order in which it is being taught to them. This aspect is no longer capable enough to hold much credibility in the field of linguistics or psychology. Under the pressure of CLT theory, the grammar-based methods such as the P-P-P have paved a way to the functional and skills-based processes of teaching, and precision assignments such as drill and grammar application have been substituted by confidence assignment that are based on the communicative small-group work. It was understood that this type of skills would be acquired up in an informal manner. The concept of interactive competence was created inside the subject of linguistics or to be more precise, the subdiscipline of sociolinguistics, and invited many who were already involved in the language teaching profession, who claimed that interactive competence, and not merely grammatical competence, should be the aim of the process of language teaching. The subsequent query to needed to be resolved was, what would a curriculum that depicted the concept of the interactive competence should look like and what suggestions might it have for language teaching methods? The consequence or the answer to these questions was the method of communicative language teaching. The method of Communicative language teaching has formed a huge amount of interest and enthusiasm when it initially surfaced as a modern method to the language teaching in the year of 1970s and 1980s, and language educators and educating organizations all over the world almost immediately began to restructure their educational processes, curriculums, and study materials. In setting up the language courses inside a communicative methodology, grammar was not the initial point anymore. There were many modern-day approaches that were created for language teaching had been used as needed.

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9.6.2. Competence for Communicative Learner Instead of merely specifying the grammar and vocabulary students are required to excel it, it was claimed that a curriculum should recognize the below listed aspects of language usage in order to be capable enough to create the communicative competence of the learner: •

As comprehensive a deliberation as possible of the targets for which the student desires to gain the aimed language; for instance, putting the English to use for trading purposes, in the hospitality industry, or for tour and travelling. Several ideas of the background in which they will need to put the target language to use; for instance, in the office space, on an airplane, or in a convenience store. The communally distinguished role that the students will presume in the usage of the target language, as well as the position of their interlocutors; for instance, as a traveler, as a sales representative who is conversing to the customers, or as a pupil in an educational institution. The interactive phenomenon in which the students will have an active participation: on daily basis or in day-to-day conditions, occupational or professional circumstances, educational circumstances, and many more conditions; for instance, taking up telephone calls, getting engaged in informal interactions, or being a part of a meeting. The language functions that are involved in those phenomena or what the student will be capable to do with or with the help of the language; for instance, creating scenarios of introductions, providing explanations, or explaining plans. The ideas or notions that are involved, or what the student will require to be capable enough to talk about; for instance, vacation, economics, olden times, and religion. The knowledge concerned in the “combining together” of dialogue: dialogue and metaphorical skills; for instance, act of storytelling, proving or explaining an effectual business demonstration. The diversity or varieties of the aimed language that will be required, such as American, Australian, or British English, and


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

the stages in the verbal and written language which the students are required to reach • The grammatical content that will be needed. • The lexical subject matter, or vocabulary, that will be required (van Ek and Alexander 1980). This has led to two significant innovative directions in the years of 1970s and 1980s – offers for a communicative curriculum, and the ESP association. English for Specific Purposes Advocates of CLT also documented that a huge number of students required English in to put it use in a specific professional or educational framework. For them it might be more proficient to educate them the kinds of language and various communicative skills that might be required for some of the specific positions, as that of nurse, engineer, flight attendant, pilot, biologist and many more. This was done to focus on frame work of language usage instead of focusing just on to the aspect of teaching the general English. This has led to the formation of the discipline of necessities observations – the use of analysis, surveys, interviews, situation observations, and observations of language examples that have been collected from diverse frameworks – in order to resolve the types of communication students would require to excel if they were in some particular professional or educational positions and the language attributes of some specific framework. The attention of the necessity analysis is to decide about the characteristics of a language when it is used for a particular purpose instead of some general purposes. Such variations might include: • variations in choice of the vocabulary; • variations in grammar; • variations in the types of texts that are frequently occurring; • variations in functions. Variations in the need for specific skills ESP courses soon began to appear addressing the language needs of university students, nurses, engineers, restaurant staff, doctors, hotel staff, airline pilots, and so on. Preference for Pair/Group Work Pair work and group work are essential features of a learner centered classroom. The data revealed that 64% of students wanted pair work and group work to be conducted in the class, 30%

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of students were not in favor of the same and 6% of the sample population did not respond to this question. A good number of students opting for pair/ group work was a sign of healthy language learning process. Work Monitoring students during pair/group work will help students not to distract from the task and the teacher can also help if students seek any clarifications. 50% of students reported that their teachers monitored them during pair/group work, 46% of students said ‘No’ and 4% of the sample population did not respond to this question. As monitoring was crucial to task execution, a greater number of teachers should have monitored their students while they were doing pair/group work.


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Anon, (2014). Communicative Language Teaching and Its Misconceptions about the Practice in English Language Teaching. [online] Available at: publication/299601598_communicative_language_teaching_and_its_ misconceptions_about_the_practice_in_english_language_teaching_ elt [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Communicative Language Teaching. (2019). [eBook] p.2. Available at: UploadFile_6009.pdf [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Grammar in Disguise: The Hidden Agenda of Communicative Language Teaching Textbooks. (n.d.). [eBook] p.2. Available at: http://file:///C:/ Users/Admin/Downloads/Dialnet-GrammarInDisguise-1396249.pdf [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Richards, J. (n.d.). Communicative Language Teaching Today. [eBook] p.2. Available at: uploads/Richards-Communicative-Language.pdf [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Sreehari, P. (n.d.). Communicative Language Teaching: Possibilities and Problems. [eBook] p.2. Available at: fulltext/EJ1080176.pdf [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019]. Tobing, C. (2019). Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Approach. [online] Available at: Communicative_Language_Teaching_CLT_approach [Accessed 8 Jul. 2019].


Future Scope of Language Teaching

CONTENTS 10.1. Introduction .................................................................................. 224 10.2. The Current Language Deficit ....................................................... 225 10.3. Identifying The Languages The World Needs ................................. 228 10.4. Provisional List of Languages of The Future ................................... 229 10.5. Future Teaching And Future Perspectives ....................................... 234 10.6. Future Language Teachers ............................................................. 237 10.7. On Computer And Foreign Language Teaching And Learning In Big Data Era............................................................... 241 References ............................................................................................. 243


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

This chapter talks about future scope of language teaching, by discussing topics like the current language deficit, provisional list of languages of the future, future teaching and future perspectives, future language teachers, on computer and foreign language teaching and learning in big data era. This chapter also talks about different languages, which could be the driving force in the upcoming future. This chapter in the end concludes with sub-topics like Role of languages in globalization and discusses different languages and their future needs.

10.1. INTRODUCTION Languages are the core of communication and with companies emerging as global players all around the world it is the need of the hour to be well equipped with multiple languages to get employment from the multinational and international companies. It is more of requirement now to be able to break the language barrier and be able to facilitate a smooth conversation to let proper business communication flow.

Figure 10.1: Spanish grammar. Source: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS6fR9i0XA_hGX7rI6VIi4W6-TEDTi5Uf5uXI3O6Y2XYEoscG6c

Future Scope of Language Teaching


After developing knowledge of a language and have developed fluency in the same, a person can think of becoming a foreign language master, interpreter and translator. There are different sectors where one can join after attaining a language course. Such as entertainment, tourism, public relation, international organizations, publishing houses, etc. The future of learning of foreign languages is at currently at an all-time high with fresher avenues being opening up day by day. When we talk of learning languages from a career stand point then it is expected from the person to be able to learn new and important languages fluently and be able to speak the language as well as write it. The research of languages at this level comprises of learning of communication skills, grammatical framework and being able to comprehend the writing, speaking, listening and reading the language. In past years, there has been a dramatic spike in the scope of English language teaching all around the world and an increasing request for competent English language teachers, as well as for language programmes that can provide the English language skills and competencies required by present global citizens. The teaching of English consumes a great portion of available educational resources in numerous countries, and English is not necessarily a neutral product in fact it is offering equal chances for all. Language teachers, therefore, require to appreciate the special status language has in modern life, what its value and benefits are to those who thrive to learn it, there are different motivations or agendas learners may have for learning English and the various circumstances in which they learn it. This chapter observed to clarify some of these problems and to describe how language teaching is realized in various parts of the world. Languages are the bedrock of the world’s cultural heritage. Every language delivers a rich and unique insight into different ways of thinking and living as well as into the history of the myriad of cultures and citizens all across the globe.

10.2. THE CURRENT LANGUAGE DEFICIT Let’s take example of United Kingdom, in many ways the United Kingdom is rich in language sector. They have major indigenous languages namely Welsh, Gaelic, Irish, Scots, Ulster Scots, Manx and Cornish; and in total almost between 200 and 300 languages are being represented amongst its diverse population. In the year 2011, United Kingdom Census detected Polish


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as the most widely spoken ‘main language’ after the United Kingdom’s own indigenous languages (but the preparation of the census question meant that many different languages being talk back by more established immigrant communities were under-represented). Another pupil censuses carried out by the Department for Education (which is the full form used in place of DFE), the Scottish Executive, education administrations in Wales and research being conducted by the Northern Ireland Department of Education projected that the top 10 languages spoken by schoolchildren in the United Kingdom comprises of four from the Indian subcontinent namely Panjabi, Urdu, Gujarati and Bengali, three from Europe namely Polish, French and Portuguese, as well as Arabic, Tamil and Somali.

Figure 10.2: Hindi alphabets. Source:

The language skills of these students should be taken into account in any consideration of how language skills can be industrialized to improve future cultural and economic links between the United Kingdom and countries where these languages are being spoken and written. In spite this apparent productivity, the requirement for the United Kingdom to improve its capability in languages is undisputable, as projected by the following factors:

Future Scope of Language Teaching


The attainment of students in England in the European Survey on Language Capabilities was poorer than that of students from any other country taking part. In fact, 30% of 15-year old’s about to take their language-based exams, did not achieve any measurable level at all in the language they were learning. • The number of students taking A-levels in languages has been plummeting for several years – in the year 2013 alone by 5%. Languages now turn up only 3.8% of all different subject entries, meaning that fewer than one in every 26 students learns a language beyond a basic level. French and German entries fell by 10% and 11%, respectively, following on from 5% and 7% which plummets in the year 2012. In Scotland, there is concern about the continuous decline in French and German in both Standard Grade and Higher-grade examinations. •

There is concern about the day by day decreasing numbers of students taking language degree courses. As a front-page article in the observer recently projected, the almost 4,700 students who have been accepted in the year 2013 to start language degrees is almost crippled by almost 10 times that number taking business studies. • British employers on constant basis express disbelief with school and college leavers’ skills in languages. In a 2013, survey of businesses by the Association of British Industry only 36% were pleased with their employees’ language skills, as compared with 93% who were pleased or very satisfied with school and college leavers’ skills in the use of Information technology. Seven out of 10 businesses stated that they value language skills in their staff. •

In their 2012 publication, spreading is good for Britain, the British Chambers of Commerce debated that an incapability to trade in languages other than English is damaging the United Kingdom’s export performance. Their research record stated that ‘the extent of the language deficit in the United Kingdom is truly serious: up to 96% of respondents had no foreign language capability for the markets they served, and the largest language deficits are for the fastest developing marketplaces

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The British Academy has made an influential case for languages not only in relation to trade and worldwide economy, but also for higher intercultural understanding, as well as highlighting their value as both the object and vehicle of study and research. It positions that ‘Understanding the languages, cultures and societies of others, as well as the method in which languages interrelate with each other and with English, is a significant means of refining intercultural interactions and enhancing social well-being at home as well as in different countries. A recent survey conducted by ‘YouGov’ for the British Council projects that 75% of the adult United Kingdom population is unable to hold a conversation in any of the 10 languages highlighted as important in this section.

10.3. IDENTIFYING THE LANGUAGES THE WORLD NEEDS 10.3.1. Methodology Investment in language learning, whether by central administration, educational organizations or private sector organizations, needs a systematic study about how languages can bring most advantages, whether to people, society at large or our economy. This section observed to take forward this analysis by detecting several standards which can be used to assist the prioritization of languages and has considered both marketplace and nonmarket standards. Economic pointers need to be well-adjusted with cultural pointers, public interest in understanding different languages, and the requirement to develop strong relationships for diplomatic, educational or strategic drives. Economic and cultural standards have been weighted similarly and then qualified with two additional contextual standards: the extent to which people in the countries concerned are proficient in English and the representation of different languages all over the internet.

10.3.2. Role of Languages in Globalization The currently evolving world speaks a variety of languages but somehow, it is predicted that about 30 years from now, the languages of the future that will be spoken and been used to communicate will only be the major languages that are already dominant presently.

Future Scope of Language Teaching


Globalization has shrunk the world, as corporations and organizations are no longer subjected to do business within the boundaries of the countries were, they were established. Globalization has created a global village where numerous countries, cultures and nationalities link with each other. Globalization is one of the most important yet needed tools that helped business processes serve more market sites all around the world, tapping numerous resources, skills and capabilities to deliver materials, goods and services as well as jobs to numerous people. It has been observed that a very few of the world’s major languages dominate the international market for a considerable amount of time. Some of these are Russian, English and recently, Mandarin Chinese. Though, the trend is moving in direction towards several more languages coming on to the surface to be part of the list of the world’s future languages and dialects.

Figure 10.3: English language alphabets. Source:

10.4. PROVISIONAL LIST OF LANGUAGES OF THE FUTURE The points here are not absolute nor is it complete. But it’s going to be helpful to think about these languages and contemplate them when one makes their future career plans of teaching them, because of the huge possibility that


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

they will be leading them in tapping through trade and communication all across the world.

10.4.1. Mandarin China’s economy is growing at fast rate and Chinese companies are currently present in several countries across the world. Mandarin is already the most spoken language in the world, in terms of the followers. This is not surprising considering how huge the Chinese population is. Thirty-eight countries speak mandarin, with 1.296 billion total speakers. If one is considering Mandarin Chinese (Putonghua) alone, it is spoken in thirteen countries, with a total of 1.074 billion speakers. About 70% of all users of the Chinese language speak Mandarin. Chinese is a problematic language to learn for English speakers, but the language is observed to be one of the languages of the future just because of China’s massive economic turn, from being a close-door economy to increasing national and international trade and developing treaties with numerous countries and making breakthroughs in the field of technology and science. There’s even a prediction that by the year 2050 it will be the leading economy in all of the world.

10.4.2. Portuguese The Portuguese language does not observe to make waves, so it is surprising that it is mentioned in this provisional list of languages of the upcoming future. However, Brazil, which uses Portuguese, is growing quickly. It is a member of the BRICS countries that spearhead the development of business in the future. BRICS is an organization of emerging economies which comprises of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The association’s main office is in Shanghai.

10.4.3. Arabic It is going to be impossible to ignore Arabic as well. From being limited to the Emirates section, Arabic is now one of the world’s quickest growing languages. Arabic is spoken in almost fifty-eight countries. It is now the fourth most spoken language all around the world, with a total of 313.2 million speakers. The language is as important as the oil and natural gas most of the countries that speak Arabic manufacture.

Future Scope of Language Teaching


It’s a mark of approval for the language to likely be one of the languages of the coming future to be used all around the world. The United Arab Emirates is a greatest exporter of dates. While they lack agricultural lands, the Emirates embark on re-exporting industries that provided many parts of the world with a variety of products from numerous producers.

10.4.4. French Presently, French is the 14th most spoken language, with its nearly 295.0 million speakers being scattered across 53 countries. France still has its economic growth on their hand. They are ranked as the 7th largest economies in the world for the years 2018 and 2019 with a Gross domestic product of US$ 2.8 trillion. It is one of the world’s largest providers of numerous services, which revolves around in manufacturing for several industries including luxury goods, cosmetics, railways, aerospace and automotive.

10.4.5. Hindi-Urdu Like China, the overall population in India thrives to grow. It is observed that India will soon be the world’s most populated country. Pakistan on the other hand, where most of the people communicate in Urdu, is following India in terms of the size of the population. Hindi, which is an Indian language, is spoken by nearly 534.2 million speakers. Urdu which is been spoken in some parts of India but mostly in Pakistan, on the other hand, is spoken by close to 163.2 million speakers. India is well known for its numerous industries in relation to information technology. The country is also becoming a hub of business, trade and commerce, which is one of the reasons why it is going to be worthwhile to reflect including or learning Hindi or Urdu.

10.4.6. Russian Russia, like India, is also a member of BRICS. Despite the independence of several countries, the Russian Federation still remains the world’s greatest country, spreading across a major part of Eastern Europe and the entire Northern Asia.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Figure 10.4: Language translator applications are the needs of the millennials right now. Source: c1obHe4csv5tQVhkKBBgi2Gv6qU34MC6oSucufrV

Russia is one of the greatest economies in the world. It creates and exports a variety of products. The country’s main language, Russian, is the eighth most spoken language around the world. Its speakers, 265.0 million in total, are found in eighteen countries, which includes Israel and China. Russia is a great market and Russian is one of the languages of the future that should be favorably measured.

10.4.7. Spanish Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world presently after Chinese. Around 513.0 million people in thirty-one countries speak Spanish presently. The amazing thing is that there are more Spanish speakers outside of Spain. presently, 38.3 million (as stated by a survey in the year 2012) people in the United States speak Spanish and it is observed that by the year 2050, around 470 million people in the United States will be speaking Spanish. It has official language status in several countries, including Mexico and Argentina, which are two of the major economies of the G20.

Future Scope of Language Teaching


10.4.8. German One cannot simply sideline German from the equation because Germany’s economy is the greatest in all of Europe. German shares many dialects with the English language because they both fit to the West Germanic section of the Indo-European language family. Learning the language can lead to financial gains, as Germany has the world’s 5th greatest economy. For future business, it is important that one learn German, try to indulge in the German market or work for a German company. Understanding the German language and culture of the German market is going to be an astute business and finance decision. The German language ranks fiftieth most spoken language all around the world, with a total of 132.1 million speakers in 28 countries.

10.4.9. Japanese While the Japanese economy has its issues, there is still a big prediction and hope for the Japanese market and its language. The economy is well known for its many discoveries and inventions in the region of information technology and science. It is also a frontrunner in artificial intelligence and robotics. Couple that with the inherent qualities of the Japanese for being hard working and deeply industrious. If one is heading a global company, it makes sense to do business with Japan. Some might think that the Japanese language is only spoken by a very few sections of people. One might be surprised to know that Japanese is the ninth most spoken language in the world, even besting French, German and Urdu. There’s a reason for this. There are more people speaking Japanese as their first language (128.0 million) against first language speakers of French (76.8 million), and German (76.0 million). The 128.3 million Japanese speakers are observed in several countries, including Australia and Brazil.

10.4.10. English The English language cannot be removed from the list, whether it is temporary or final. English is spoken all across (118) countries. It is presently ranked as third most spoken language, with a total of 1.121 billion speakers all around the world. English is the international language of business, which makes it


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

fit to consist the language in the list of languages of the future for business, trade, commerce, negotiations and communication. Now that we have an idea of what the future languages will be, it is up to us to consider which ones are going to be very beneficial to our career or business. There are forecasts that with continuous use, these languages of the future will be less difficult, complex and perhaps less formal due to globalization. While nothing is definite, some changes in a language or languages are likely to happen as no one has seen future.

10.5. FUTURE TEACHING AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Let’s consider Kuwait In Kuwait, the English language is quickly gaining importance signifying globalization and internationalization of the local culture and linguistic scenario. In relation to the positive effects of the widespread practice of English there are negative propensities which emerge onto the scene. This section is basically concerned with the educational prospects of such influences where it explored trainee teachers’ conceptualizations of English as an international as well as global language, and inspected the implications of present views of English for teacher groundwork in light of the most recent methodological aspects such as global English delivery, widening of teacher knowledge base, the outline of linguistic rights and instructional schemes to educational stakeholders, and the integration of language and culture in English language education.

Figure 10.5: Nihongo Desu Ka. Source:

Future Scope of Language Teaching


Through interviews and in-depth discussions as well as surveys the research detected that the relationship between the local and tourists or immigrants in Kuwait is an intricate issue with social, educational and political implications. More than one functions for English and its status within the local context were voiced and consequently alternative futures for Standard Arabic as the main source and medium of local literacy and language of academia against the background of rapid Anglicization came up. The results may entice the attention of Kuwait’s educational theorists and practitioners, and the hopeful result would be to inspire teachers to engage in critical thinking and test their realities; and encourage Kuwait’s educational scheme makers to detect a balance between the source and target languages and cultures, as well as bring to the foreground local expertise and knowledge. The introduction of communicative language teaching (CLT) are to be figured out the changes in the British language teaching tradition dating from the late 1960s. Until then, situational language projected the major British method to teaching English as a foreign language. In situational language teaching, language was basically taught by practicing basic framework in meaningful situation-based tasks. British applied linguists put more effort on another fundamental dimension of language that was inadequately faced by current methods to language teaching at that time – the functional and communicative potential of language. They saw the need to focus in language teaching on communicative proficiency rather than on mere mastery of structures. Another impetus for different approaches to foreign language teaching came from changing educational realities in Europe. With the increasing interdependence of European countries came the need for greater efforts to teach adults the major languages of the European Common Market and the Council of Europe, a regional organization for cultural and educational cooperation. Education was one of the Council of Europe’s major areas of activity. It sponsored international conferences on language teaching, published monographs and books about language teaching. The need to articulate and develop alternative methods of language teaching was considered a high priority. In 1971 a group of experts began to investigate the possibility of developing language courses on a unit-credit system, a system in which

Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching


learning tasks are broken down into “portions or units, each of which corresponds to a component of a learner’s needs and is systematically related to all the other portions” (van Ek and Alexander, 1980). The group used researches of the requirements of European language learners, and in particular a preliminary document created by a British linguist, Wilkins (1972), which proposed a functional or communicative definition of language that could serve as a basis for developing communicative syllabuses for language teaching. Wilkins’s contribution was an analysis of the communicative meanings that a language learner needs to understand and express. Rather than describe the core of language through traditional concepts of grammar and vocabulary, Wilkins attempted to demonstrate the systems of meanings that lay behind the communicative uses of language. The work of the Council of Europe; the writings of Wilkins, WidDowson, Candlin, Christopher Brumfit, Keith Johnson, and other British applied linguists on the theoretical basis for a communicative or functional approach to language teaching; the rapid application of these ideas by textbook writers; and the equally rapid acceptance of these new principles by British language teaching specialists, curriculum development centers, and even governments gave prominence nationally and internationally to what came to be referred to as the communicative approach, or simply communicative language teaching. (The terms notional-functional approach and functional approach are also sometimes used.) Although the movement began as a largely British innovation, focusing on alternative conceptions of a syllabus, since the mid1970s the scope of Communicative Language Teaching has expanded. Both American and British proponents now see it as an approach (and not a method) that aims to •

make communicative competence the goal of language teaching; and • develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication. Howatt distinguishes between a “strong” and a “weak” version of Communicative Language Teaching: There is, in a sense, a ‘strong’ version of the communicative approach and a ‘weak’ version. The weak version which has become more or less

Future Scope of Language Teaching


standard practice in the last 10 years, stresses the importance of providing learners with opportunities to use their English for communicative purposes and, characteristically, attempts to integrate such activities into a wider program of language teaching.... The ‘strong’ version of communicative teaching, on the other hand, advances the claim that language is acquired through communication, so that it is not merely a question of activating an existing but inert knowledge of the language, but of stimulating the development of the language system itself. If the former could be described as ‘learning to use’ English, the latter entails ‘using English to learn it.

10.6. FUTURE LANGUAGE TEACHERS There is an ongoing debate of the value of in-service training, particularly in the teaching profession to create professional ‘judgment-ability,’ is often set in relation to research results projecting that teachers’ activities do not necessarily support their claims and that curriculum developers’ understanding has to be widely inclusive and not just superficial. However, in our setting a deep understanding of research in one’s field is said to provide the needed underpinnings leading to more effective practice. The Ministries of Education and Training, Colleges and Universities (2012) have led consultations for an Ontario Enhanced Teacher Education Program, the main concepts of which are delineated and discussed below. These interviews were prompted by the quick changes affecting almost everyone. In teacher education schemes there is a need to get the different degrees of difficulty and the different amounts of detail being involved in acquiring professional know-how. As well one requires to understand that these have to be stable accurately. This socialization process can be compared to an Acculturation Model (as said by researcher Brown in the year 1980) during which learners goes through a phase of adjustment to the new culture, here the teaching culture or Target Professional Culture. With new growths for the teaching profession, education agendas come under a great deal of scrutiny. More general and exact official recommendations are to be taken into account in creating education programs in order to support learning. There is a compulsory core program defined in subject specific curriculum guidelines including content and applications.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

For instance, for French as a second language a strong emphasis is placed equally on pedagogical principles, instruction or French didactics and ways of viewing content for teaching, learning and acquisition. The Ministry of Education supporters ‘success for all learners’ with the overall functions of education aiming at supporting individuals; society and cultures, all in a tight weave with community involved in schools. This agenda is dictated by various immigration culture and the need to be inclusive of diversity.

10.6.1. New Ministry Perspectives So, for teacher preparation there are detected emerging trends in education. The importance is given to ‘understanding the child, youth and parental mental health issues. The next concern is around preparations for transitions, meaning facilitation for students from the education scheme to the workplace and motivating them to look for job as well as ‘instilling an understanding of student pathways’ and these comprise moving from school to higher education or the workforce including apprenticeships. Following this point on the list comes technology as a ‘teaching tool for, as and of learning’ in the classroom. Next in descendant order as we already have environmental education, media literacy and financial literacy. After the topic ‘trends,’ the conversation moves to current required teaching knowledge, skills and strategies. First on the list is capability to conduct research and data analysis with self-reflection given as an example. Widening this idea for the purpose of better understanding student requires, inquiry-based research including data collection and assessment is supported, keeping in mind present learning methods. In-line with Ministry mandatory curriculum strategies, teachers have the accountability to articulate the given standards of practice. Also, in addition to the exact didactic guidelines relevant to the precise subject area, more general theories of teaching and learning have to be contained, like differentiated instruction, experiential learning, etc. Moreover, concerns over human development and learning are being shown. Future teachers have to observed to student engagement and learning through knowledge of classroom management and organization, child and especially teen-age development including an understanding of transition.

Future Scope of Language Teaching


The next item of importance is student assessment and evaluation and increasing observation to the European Common framework of reference (as stated by Conseil de Europe in the year 1996). Because of the great variety in student populations a great amount of emphasis is being put on equity, diversity, sexual orientation and the requirement for a broader sympathetic of such positioning in the greater education history and system. This involves an appreciation and respect for First Nations, the Inuit and Metis backgrounds. In addition, special programming also caters to English and French language learning starters, with programs focusing at increasing students’ language skills in one of the two official languages. Adding to the above, special mention is made of legal requirements, professional relationships and special education.

10.6.2. Insights into Personal Aspects The Conference Board of Canada, the national think-tank been looking on future directions for the country, has also moved from an emphasis on inter-personal intelligence, getting along in groups, to placing more focus on intrapersonal intelligence with the main motive of having each person develop their own independent strengths and skills. Language is defined as the linguistic appearance of human behavior and culture as structured behavior. It is observed that each culture has its own unique individual behavioral structure, linguistic or otherwise, as well as social icons, artifacts, histories, etc. Though, learning a foreign language and culture will not unavoidably mean changing the learner’s conduct and injecting new ways and values of life into the already recognized behavior pattern of the learner (as stated by researchers Lado, 1957; 1961; Stern, 1983; Rivers, 1981). For students in the classroom this is often an issue and future teacher of French do not have an easy task when having to deal with such delicate problems. In Canada they have problems just like in other countries. One must look for the difficulties entailed in this procedure of accommodation and gradual relation of similar or different concepts being shared by different cultures. Such concepts are saturated with links amid language and culture, which are also projected in the relation between the form and the content of a language as well as beliefs, values, and requirements of both the learner and teacher.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Teachers’ discourse and culture in language classes have always been an interesting topic for educational researchers because of their wide scope of use and their cultural diversity, which is often influenced by the clash of two language and cultures; first language culture (FLC) and target language culture (TLC). Cultural integration into language classes is so vital that there are those who would emphasize the idea that teachers should not only be language authorities but also culture professionals who are able to build cultural bridges amid a first language (FL) and a second language (SL).

10.6.3. The New Grammar Approach More specifically in the new Ministry curriculum guidelines for French as second language teachers, a ‘new grammar approach’ as well as a cultural emphasis is stressed. The students in the class expect to understand those pupils’ natural communication skills need to be sustained, developed and directed at continually seeking to expand to meet the challenges of constantly having to adapt to difference. It would enable them to approach interaction with the purpose of coming to an understanding and acceptance. They understood that the same thing was expected of them and they had to be modeling those very interactive aspects in a Social Action Approach (Banks & Banks, 2007; Forster, 1989).

Figure 10.6: Henn-Ahn’s German grammar. Source:

Future Scope of Language Teaching


10.6.4. Evaluating and Instructional Videos Assessing student capabilities is no longer random but carefully aligned on the Common European structure of Reference for Languages and modified to the Canadian context based on what tasks students can perform. That comprises different viewpoints on learning, not with one learner set against another, but with true assessment set against a backdrop of standards allowing autonomous development with each student measuring individual progress and learning over time. The ministry has provided a series of videos for practitioners with the right that they illustrate newly recommended plans to be implemented. A critical appraisal of these videos will project how on the one hand they sustenance the new intentions while at the other hand they cover faults in pedagogical practices comprising a lack of understanding of the new methodologies by some practitioners. Despite these flaws, it is clear that the Can-Do method is by no means synonymous of slacking off. Maybe the videos shown, samples of applications shot by the Ministry of Education, could at times have given that imprint, but only when observing at incomplete assessment activities. In addition, it was not clear to researchers that all future teachers understood what the contents of the videos involved for their teaching practice and the additional effort needed by teachers to implement such demanding methods both at the level of lesson preparation but also in terms of physical effort in the classroom for protests, organizational skills and response on language to be given to students.

10.7. ON COMPUTER AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN BIG DATA ERA Presently, cloud computing, internet of things and social network have created a data type and amount grow at high speed, which is allowing human society to come into the Big Data sector in which people are getting used to web-based tasks such as shopping online, reading, writing, reviewing and communicating online. These web-based tasks are realized by computer technology, linking technology into foreign language learning is always the trend, for learners prefer being involved in the process of learning and have a more positive attitude in direction of learning. The existing technologies such as televisions, videotapes and audiotapes have been accessible for use in foreign language teaching for at least several decades.


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Then, based on minor modification to preceding similar technologies, the new technologies (such as DVD and CD players; digital slide performance hardware or software) are applied in foreign language learning. With the popularity of modern network and information technology, the main role played by computer has become outstanding in foreign language learning. It is reasonable to acknowledge that how to utilize the computer and network technology to create online foreign language teaching and learning styles will be an important trend of Foreign language teaching reform.

Figure 10.7: Grammar for the French Tongue. Source:

Though, as for the integration of technology into Foreign language learning, one must admit that although technological advancements can increase learner attention and motivation, deliver organizing course content and interacting with numerous students, the use of new technology also can end up in inappropriate input, shallow interaction, and inaccurate response, student frustration with software and hardware and interruption from the learning task. Hence, in the Big Data era, it is worthwhile to probe into how to make effective use of computer technology in foreign language learning and avoid the deficiencies it may carry.

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A Academic work 160 Acoustic 165 Adequately efficient 156 Administrative system 140 Andragogy 3 Anglophone 56 Announcements 206 Annoyance 139 Anthropological 87 Audio-lingual approach 91 Audio-lingual teaching 205 Audiolingual technique 79, 80 Aural-Oral method 216 Authentic material 204 Authoritative behavior 116 Authorship 158 B Behavior 26, 27, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 180, 187, 188 Behavioral theory 37 Bilingualism 161, 166, 167

Business communication 224 C Circumstance 185 Communication 133, 135, 137, 141, 142, 143, 150, 156, 159, 161, 164, 166, 180, 189, 190, 193, 194 Communication devices 34 Communication skills 210, 213 Communication strategies 180, 194 Communicative approach 204, 205, 211, 212 Communicative capability 212 Communicative competence 134, 136 Communicative interaction 136 Community building skills 134 Community language 208 Community Language Learning (CLL) 124 Comparatively permanent 27 Complication 90 Comprehension 110, 117, 119


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

Computational fields 163 Computational linguists 162, 163 Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) 58 Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) 133 Computer-mediated technologies 135 Computer Science 163 Computer system 162 Computer technology 147 Confusing information 141 Construction of knowledge 2 Contemporary investigation 161 Contemporary methods 4 Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis 91, 92 Conventional grammar theory 84 Conventional grammar value 83 Counteract language learning 181 Course management software (CMS) 135 Critical discourse 159 Cross-sectional information 61 Curricular issues 159 Curriculum guidelines 237, 240 Curriculum material 163 D Daily conversation 80, 81 Data Protection Regulation 173 Desuggestopedia 116 Development as-sequence model 61 Diachronic dimensions 156 Dialect immersion 56 Dialogues aloud 113 Digital assistant 173 Digital camera 32

Digital format 140 Disillusionment 205 Dynamic critical thinking 185 Dynamic method 164 E Economic 228 Educational resources 225 Effective knowledge 29 Embodied learning 165 English as a lingua franca (ELF) 166 Extensive knowledge 133 F First language culture (FLC) 240 First language (FL) 240 Fluency 205, 208, 216 Foreign language 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 14, 23 Foreign Language 3 Functional dimension 142 Functionalism 76, 82 G Global businesses 174 Globalization 228, 229 Grammar-translation method 104, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 113 Grammatical framework 225 H Harmonizing language 159 Huge availability 167 Human computer activities 210 Human knowledge 174 Human learning 35 Human translator 171


Hypothesis 53, 55, 57, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 183, 184 I Informal learning 27, 28 Information technology 227 Innovation 58, 59, 60, 183 Inspirational dispositions 66 Instantaneous 216 Instructional investigation 159 Integrates grammaticality 159 Intellectual skills 165 Intelligent 59 Internalization 187 International business 173 International market 229 International organization 225 International politics 106 Internet-based innovation 59 Interpersonal strategies 196 Investment 228 L Language acquisition 117, 123 Language acquisition research 88, 90, 205, 206 Language assessment 161 Language capabilities 80 Language development 88 Language learning 157, 159, 162 Language learning goal 206 Language learning procedure 180 Language learning strategies 104 Language pedagogy 76, 77, 80, 81 Language skill 2, 19 Language Strategies 187 Language teaching materials 217 Language valuation 157 Learning accuracy 206


Learning comprises 27 Learning languages 93 Learning management platforms (LMSs) 168 Learning strategies 104, 105 Lexical approach 121, 122 Linguistics 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 168, 170, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178 Linguistics competence 205 Linguistic theories 156 Linguistic theory 76, 77, 81, 82, 88, 89, 90, 120 M Machine conversion 162 Machine translation 171, 172 Memorization 117 Memory strategies 190 Mental activity 79, 81 Mental behavior 79 Mental illnesses 44 Mental tension 44 Metacognitive 184, 185, 186, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 201 Methodologies 181, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187, 191, 195, 196 Methodologies comprise 216 Methodology 82, 88, 93 Modern foreign languages 105, 106 Modern language 3, 5, 8, 12 Modification 141 Momentum 185 Monographs 235 Motivation 87 Multilingualism 158, 161, 171 Multiple languages 224


Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching

N Native language 209, 210 Natural Method 108 Natural methodology 54, 55 Negotiation 234 Neural machines 171 Neural machine translation 171 Neurolinguistics 156, 162 Nonconscious 116 O Observational learning 38 Occupational growth 29 Online interaction 133 Online language learning 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 141 Online language teaching program 133, 134, 142, 143, 146, 147, 151 Online learning platform 132, 139, 149 Online learning program 136, 140, 146 Online platform 164 Online socialization 134, 136 Online teaching environment 133 Online teaching program 132, 137 Orthography 158 P Pedagogical fields 87 Pedagogy 3 Personality 26 Pervasive attention 159 Phenomenon 167, 171 Phonology 157, 163, 169 Political implication 235 Presumption 218 Prioritization 228

Private information 173 Problematic enquiries 88 Producing learning 2 Psycholinguistic 86, 163 Psychological 183, 184, 185, 186, 187 Psychological techniques 183, 184, 186 Public education system 7 Q Quickest growing languages 230 R Radio commercials 206 Rapid growth 132 Real Life Communication 214 Reconstruction 39 Refinement 53, 57 Reflect contemporary 5 Regional organization 235 Reinforcement 36, 37 Relationship 76 Research-based publication 133 S Scholastic achievement 187 Scientific field 162 Second language acquisition (SLA) 63 Second language (SL) 240 Seven Research-Based 27 Social cohesion 136 Social media 27 Social responsibilities 29 Sociolinguistics 158, 163, 170 Specific animal 34 Specific language structure 206


Strategy 180, 181, 188, 189, 190, 197, 201 Strategy Inventory 65 Structural approach 104, 113, 114, 116 Structuralism 80, 81, 82, 93 Structural linguistics 79, 92, 93 Structural-Situational method 216 Suggestopedia 116, 117, 129 Sustainability 106 Sympathy 193 Systems performance 141 T Target language culture (TLC) 240 Teacher-focused classroom 54 teaching entails 2 Teaching pronunciation 78


Technical language 3 Technology 156, 160, 162, 164, 168, 172, 174 Theoretic fashion 157 Total physical response (TPR) 57, 117 Traditional approach 133 Traditional learning 132, 133, 150 Traditional school grammar 77 Transfer-appropriate processing 32 Transformational grammar 76, 91, 92 Transitory 88 Tremendous flexibility 138 V Ventilation 42, 43, 46 Vocabulary 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 118, 122