From Delos to Delphi: A Literary Study of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo 9004076743, 9789004076747

This detailed literary and rhetorical analysis of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo treats the poem as a unified work of art in

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From Delos to Delphi: A Literary Study of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo
 9004076743, 9789004076747

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MNEMOSYNE BIBLIOTHECA

CLASSICA BATAVA

FROM DELOS TO DELPHI A Literary Study of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo

COLLEGERUNT A. D. LEEMAN · H. W. PLEKET · C. J. RUIJGH

BIBLIOTHECAE FASCICULOS EDENDOS CURAVIT C. J. RUIJGH, KLASSIEK SEMINARIUM,

SUPPLEMENTUM

OUDE TURFMARKT

NONAGESIMUM

BY

129, AMSTERDAM

TER TIUM

ANDREW M. MILLER ANDREW M. MILLER FROM DELOS TO DELPHI A Literary Study of the Homeric Hymn lo Apollo

LUGDUNI BATAVORUM E.

J.

BRILL MCMLXXXVI

LEIDEN E. J. BRILL 1986

In Memory of E. L. Bundy (1920-1975)

ISBN 90 04 07674 3 Copyright 1986 by E.

J.

Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedor translated in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, microfiche or arry other means without written pennission from the publisher PRINTED

IN THE

NETHERLANDS

BY E.

J.

BRILL

CONTENTS Preface Introduction: "Cult" Hymns, "Rhapsodic" Hymns, and the Program of Praise in the Hymn to Apollo .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . .

IX

Lines 1-18: The Proem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line 1: The Exordium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines 2-13: The First Olympian Scene .... . .... .. . .. .. .. . .... .. . .. . Lines 14-18: The Salute to Leto . .. .... .. ... .. ...... ....... ...... . .. .

11 11 12 17

Lines 19-126: Genas .... .. ........ ..... ..... .. . .... .. .... .. .. ... .. . .... .. .. .. Lines 19-29: The First Propositio Thematis . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . Lines 30-50: The First Geographical Catalogue . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . Lines 51-88: Leto and Delos .... ..... . ...... . .. .... ...... .. .. ......... Lines 89-114: Hera and Eileithyia ................................... Lines 115-126: The Birth ... .. . ...... .. .. .. .. .... .... . ......... .... ....

20 20 31 34 45 47

Lines 127-206: Anatrophe and Epitedeumata .... ........... ... ..... .. . .. . Lines 127-139: Apollo's Maturation and Claiming of Timai .. Lines 140-146: Geographical Preferences .. .. ....... .... ........... Lines 147-176: The Digression on the Delian Festival .......... Lines 177-185: Geographical Preferences and Epitedeumata (Continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines 186-206: The Second Olympian Scene .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .

51 53 56 57

1

65 67

Lines 207-544: Praxeis .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. Lines 207-215: The Second Propositio Thematis .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . Lines 216-286: Apollo's Journey to Pytho (with the Second Geographical Catalogue) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines 247-276: Apollo and Telphusa ... ...... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... Lines 287-304: Temple and Dragon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. Lines 305-355: The Digression on the Birth of Typhon .. . .. .. . Lines 356-387: The Dragon-Slaying and the Punishment of Telphusa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines 388-450: The Election of the Ministers (with the Third Geographical Catalogue) . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . Lines 451-512: Apollo and the Cretans .. .. .... ........... .... .. .. .. Lines 513-544: Pytho and the Final Exhortation .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. .

91 94 99

Appendix 1: The Question of Unity . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. Appendix 2: The Cosmological Hierarchy and Apollo's Timai .. Bibliography .. . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111 118 122 124

70 70 72 76 81 82 88

PREFACE Twice in the course of the Hymn to Apollo the poet pauses to ask the god: "How shall I sing of you, who are in all ways worthy of song?" The first half of this question (nwc;"' &p cr' uµv~crw)implies that the poet's intention in the hymn is, at least in part, to celebrate Apollo, to praise him in song. The second half (ncxnwc;euuµvovi61mx)implies that in order to realize this intention the poet must choose from among a bewildering variety of potential themes. Each of these implications invites critical inquiry. How in fact is the poet's general intent to praise carried out?-that is, how do the hymn's constituent elements contribute to the glorification of its divine subject? And why, out of the many specific forms through which that intent might have been realized, did the poet choose the particular form preserved for us in the Homeric corpus?-that is, why did he select precisely these materials and arrange them in precisely this sequence? The present study is an attempt to answer these two questions. In the two centuries since David Ruhnken declared that the Hymn to Apollo was in reality two independent poems, one honoring Delian and the other Pythian Apollo, the problem of its "unity" has so thoroughly monopolized the attention and energy of scholars that the hymn itself, as a literary text with legitimate claims to be understood and not merely fought over, has at times seemed almost to disappear from view. In saying this I do not mean to depreciate the wealth of observation and insight that is to be found on either side of the debate-my indebtedness to previous scholars, "unitarian" and "separatist" alike, is everywhere apparentbut rather to suggest that the forensic modes of attack and defense cannot do justice to the most important qualities of the Hymn to Apollo: its beauty and power as a work of poetic craftsmanship, and its ethical seriousness. My purpose, accordingly, is to explicate the hymn's rhetorical structure (i.e., how it is put together) and its thematic content (i.e., what it is "about") through a sequential analysis of its several parts. In identifying those parts and in defining the intention that they embody I rely in the first instan·ce on comparison with other "Homeric" hymns. Of all those hymns, however, the Hymn to Apollo is ( or so at least I believe) the most ambitiously innovative in its selection and arrangement of materials. As a result the hymnal model provided by the collection as a whole, though valuable as a "control" and for the light it sheds on individual elements, is in itself inadequate to the task of exegesis and must be supplemented by a recognition of the Hymn's generic affinity with such non-hymnic forms of praise as the enkomion and the epinikion. Thus many specific

X

PREFACE

rhetorical maneuvers are elucidated by parallels in Pindar' s encomiastic practice, while the poem's general principle of organization can be shown to resemble closely (in its essentials, if not in all details) the "program" laid down as canonical for the prose enkomion by later orators and rhetoricians-the program according to which one begins, after a suitable proem, with the subject's ancestry and birth ('yivo