French in Medieval Ireland, Ireland in Medieval French: The Paradox of Two Worlds 9782503570211

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French in Medieval Ireland, Ireland in Medieval French: The Paradox of Two Worlds

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Citation preview






sPlroa o/&IJo




3rirish Librarv Cataloguing in Publication Data




cord for this book is available from the Brirish Library

List of Illustrations Acknowledgements Abbreviations

Introduction Chapter 1.In confusionem Chapter 2. Wrba aolant, Chapter @

2017, Brepols Publishers n.y., Turnhout, Belgium

All rights

reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

Chapter 4. Historia etfabula: Chapter





8 -2-503 -57

02t - t

Index of Manuscripts

DOI: 10.|484|M.TCNE-EB.5. I I 1910 Printed in the EU on acid-free paper


Familia Hibernica:'

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, wirhout rhe prior permission of the publisher.

ISBN : 97


Mirabilia Hiberti;;.;


stored in a retrieval system, or transmitte d, in anv form or by any means,

e-ISBN : 97 8 -2-503 -57 022-8


General Index





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iluauaut aldtns 'lua1oa aqorl'7 .raldeq3

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suonertsnlllJo rsrJ



rNof d.rr:QIT LIS.:.jE : -'T::r-



i:qure -a, p. 161. Se:-...: London, TNA, E 1, - -:Frgure 7b,p.163. Ser,,'"-:



Figure 8,p.






:. .'


,:.: :


Figure 9, p. 214. The :r - r.:.

GiraldusCambrens:, (s. 13'"'). Figure 10,p.225. Sailorj

MS Harley 4751. tb^.

Fronrispiece, p. x. Map of Ireland in the Middle Ages.






Figure 11,p.240. Fer.*u' -.-..

Figure 1,p. 12. Mellifont Abbey, 1142.

Il-,; i. Los Angeles, J. Paul G;::


Figure 12,p.242. Sr Pac:::-.:


jaws of Hell: the Figure

2,p.57. Centre: Richard and David le Latimer, 1207: TNA, C


§Titnesse s to the charter include Meiler Fitz Henry, John Marshal, Philip de Prende rgast, and Ranulph of Cheste r. Aboue: Confirmation of grant of lands in Cork ro .ü/illiam de Barry. ßelow: Grant of lands in Rosslare to David de


sairut Patrice inprose . P.- .,


Figure 13,p. 298. King-Toi-... Figure 3, p. 79 . La geste des Engleis en Yrlande: London, Lambeth Palace Library, MS Carew 596, p. 1 (r. 13*).

Figure 4,p. 110. The Walling of IVew (c. 1338-42).


Figure 74, p. 345. Tristan ;:.: Munich, Bayerische Sr:..:, -

London, BL, MS Harley 913, fol.64'

Figure 5a, p, I44. French gravestone inscriptions: Helen de Armayl, St lv{ary's,

Kilkenny (s. 13'. -s



Figure 5b,p. l44.French gravestone inscriptions: Matheu le Mercer, St Mary's, Youghal (s. 13'. -s . 14'"').

Figure 6^, p. 152. Jofroi de \Taterford and Servais Copale, BnF, MS fr. 1822, fol. 143"^ (c. 1300). Figure 6b, p. 153. Le secret des secrets: 'Les livres de Parisi Paris, BnF, MS fr. 1822, fol. 142'*b.

Figure 15, p. 359. Excavariir : Figure 16, p. 367 . The sron.: BL, MS Egerton 3028, f--.


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'(sttzt 't) ,L|loJ '09 'SN


drrag InEd '['sala8uy so1

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)qt '))ueg ,stutr3

eqr Jo sruots

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sNo rIYU

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' (tz-ozgt) yt / L{.2 /I 0I E'YNr'uoPuo'I

:slentf,r^yo s.rerlddns 'lotsrrg ep utprofpw apdo3 sre^rf,S .Z9I .d,e1 SNOiIVUISN'I'II





writing of this book took me down some unfamiliar paths, I turned frequendy for advice to colleagues in disciplines nor my own. Th.y have without exception responded promptly, courreously, and encouragingly. David Crouch once told me that one of his scholarly aims in life was to 'bring historical rigour to the literary mind'. I am nor sure wherher he has entirely succeeded in my case, but I have profited enormously from his comments and advice. In addition, I thank, in alphabetical order: Rosie Bont6, Matthieu Boyd, Elizabeth Boyle, Robin Brooke-Smith, Abigail Burnyeat, Aisling Byrne, Martha Carlin, Guy Carney, Neil Cartlidge, Michael Clarke, Elina Cotterill, Seän D"ffy, Catherine Emerson, Steve Flanders, Äi.r. Foley, Robin Frame, Evelyn Graham, Beth Hartland, Scort Lloyd, Eamonn McEneaney, Deborah Moore, Grace Neville, Mäirin Ni Dhonnchadha, Jenny and Brian Nuttall, Feargal Ö Bdrr.*, colmän Ö clrb"igh osB, cöilin ö Drisceoil, Gainbi Park, Ben Pohl, Yolande de Pontfarcy, Sif Rikharösdomir, Colin Rynne, Ian Short, Linzi Simpson, Patrick Sims-Williams, Brendan Smith, Jane Taylor, Colin Veach, Freya Verstraeren-Veach, Logan Whalen. In March,2072, I held a Visiting Fellowship at the Moore Institute, NUI Galway, whose staff and director I thank for their hospirality. My principal resource has been the Memorial Library of the Unive rsiry of WisconsinMadison, and I am especially grateful to its Inter-Library Loan department for heroics above and beyond che call. I further thank: the Library of Nashotah House, Nashotah, §Tisconsin; the National Archives of Ireland, Dublin; the National Library of Ireland, Dublin; the Library o{ the Representarive Church Body, Dublin; the British Library, London; the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, London; Lambeth Palace Library, London; the National Archives, London; the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; che Bibliothöque Nationale, Paris; the Universiteitsbibliotheek, Antwerpen. As usual, my greare sr ecause the

debt is toJos6, lover of all things Irish.







Bodl. Lib.

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of the









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The Naric:---







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lsafe::S,^-- -,.-.: .--- -, :-, Y.

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qS.rnqurpg,pu"porS Jo drerQIT IEUonEN


':) : .' \Iaghreb, Qdbec, and --rr.:. cion by speakers of Frc:.:: : cional map of medieva. F:.... of French culture and :i-.: ... ro the Crusader state s r: :- : rhe modern and medic',:- : Francophonia was ä tc: *.1 brought about at the i:-..:.. inhabitants. Neverthele ,,. .:.

-10 60


100 Kilonretres

the compatibiliry or oEh.:', , legal systems, the inte ra.:- - : sion of territory, and the . -' .

Much of the


flt :rr:.

France' has dealt u'ith tl^.c : production in ltaly, and : - .


Map of Ireland in che Middle Ages. (Note : This map is noc intended to be an accurare represencacion of Ireland at any given moment. Racher, ir indicares che broad regional and provincial divisions of the medieval country, rvith some locarions mentioned in the text.) Map: Gainbi Park.


Th. bibliography on nroc;:

but good introductory guide , .. Introduoion; Mou,ra, Littei,z;:,,


a u ol u 1s0 d a u oa ql Q sa u o q do t uu{ sa mlutVlllT' eJnow : u o 4) n? 0't1u J :sa,t?11ü,ta1r7 auoqdoruL,/'1:tf a.rr saprn8 ,(.Ior:npo;rur poo8 rnq srrpnrs IEruololrsod pue rrnre.rerrl euoqdo:ue5 urrpotu uo dqderSollglg artl r '

afly\tqtuas aqI 'ueto)ro) ,snoruroue



elpplw srlt pur 'sn.rdd3 '.srspuBl{ 'ee.r83P resssl e ol PUe d1el1 uI uollfnPord sndJol rllrr dllJ"ulpJoertxr el{t grlrn rl"eP s?tl ,sruerg ldr.rrsnueru pue txat Jo tllusrc i?^)IPetu, oJ uolluelle luef,al eqr Jo qlnw

JO ePISlno eJnlErslll

JfuEurJ^oB agr pu? 'dJotIJJJtJo uols r.EJodserp tuetsrp saurneruos eJo

-l^lp rqt (sreurof,^\)u pue stuetllegur r^neu Jo suolt)?.Irtul f,qt 'stuJlsds p8al pue d.rt.r)rllJo esL{A.rel{to ro dtIIIgIteduot egr pu? (suor8rle.r 'suonrpert l?rntlnl .seuo snoua8rpur eprs8uop a8en8u?l ,l.rru e Jo uolt)npoJtuI rqr )Pnl)ul esrLII .eruogdoluer{ uraporu ru.roJur Ll)lq,la. asoqt or rtllruls deld le rr),^d. srnssl 'sa8y elPplw eqi ur p)sn se.,\\ rlrurtJ lrlll,tl ssäre dueu uI 'ss)lslllr)^aNl'sluEllqequl rreqt yo a8euo.rred pue suor8e.r tsoq )rp Jo uoltetl^ul *lt tE tnoqe lq8no.rq 'uonezruolot l"rntlnl, petuJ]t ag Plnol leq,tl. Jo llnsrr E s?rt\ eruogdoruery rr{l Ie^rrpau Jo eruos asnerag 'suontntls I?^JIpatu pue ur)Poru ueo,,rnteq eru)l?^rnbe aldurrs ou sr rrarll 'tuE^r'I er{r Jo set?ts rePESnrJ rrll o1 edo.rnE yo sr.led tsotuurstso.^A, )r{t ruo5 /.r.o,p anSua/ )qr PuE srnllnl Llluar{ Jo qle)r rrpl^t or{t s,^(toqs qllq,t\ auo Sutlntltsgns 'elue.rg 3o deu Ieuoll Ie^eIP3u (q)urrl -ue^uof, ? prpre)slp ,rlou J^eq srsrle^)rprru Luetu Jo srr>le)ds dq uorr -Ezruolof, 3o rta(qo eqt ureq peq qtlrl.r,r. suot8ar rrqto pue 'lageih 'ga.rt18eyg aqt ,EtrUVJo )rnteJrrrl aBenBuEI-r{)ueJJ er{l Julruexa sisluropotu se rsnf 'selPnls Ieruolol-rsod put euogdotu?ü urepouJo rslr eql iq r:ed ur PalEInLUIls T tgnop ou 'dlnluar rs.rg-l.rua.,rnt )r{t Jo s)PtleP o^\t tsry )ql SuunP uoll I -)ert rlgerrprsuo) paurc8 seq ,eruoqdoruerg Ie^rlprtu , e Jo uoltou rtltJ-{ -'a, /..,

a2)]IUltA\ \\OC





*-z ''J" --




East.2 Anglo-Norman studies have always occupied an ambiguous relationship

of England' is too

to the fields of both continental Old French and Middle English, and while the re is a still a residual nocion of insular French as a degrade d and corrupt form of the continental idiom, anglicists have generally always unde rstood the importance played by francophone culture in medieval England and the influence of French on the English language. The lack of current training of scholars in Anglo-Norman philology is all the more regrettable. It is in the insular domains of medieval Francophonia that the comparisons with the modern colonial enterprises bear the most fruit, for the Norman conquesr of the British

nological issues relacrn: : -

Isles was aIso, mutatis rnutandis, a true colonization.

This book deals with the most neglecte d area of medieval Francophonia, namely Ireland, its western edge . I look in turn at che linguisric situarion and the role of French in Ireland both before and after the arrival of the 6rst colonists in 11 69; rhe literary texts known to have been composed in French in medieval Ireland; the evolution of the notion of Ireland as aland of marvels; its role as a generator of narrative material and its image in the re sulting rexrs and traditions; I conclude with a discussion of the persistence of the marvellous Ireland alongside the country which had become increasingly well-known in the two centuries following the invasion. The book, then, essentially has rwo parrs, the themes of which intersect on numerous occasions: French language and literature in medieval Ireland, and the represenration of Ireland in medieval French literature. This double focus is made possible in parc by the culture of medieval Francophonia, much of which was shared by all regions. Chronologically, rhe examination of French language and literature in medieval Ireland takes us jusr past the middle of the fourteenth century, and the principal corpus of lirerature in French written in England, France, and Italy, in which Ireland plays a significant Part, extends to approximatelv the same period. The last text considered is Froissart's Melyador (c. 1365). A word is in order about terminology, linguistic and historical. The French of Ireland is most accuracely referred to as 'Hiberno-Norman' or 'Hiberno-

French', and I have used the former term sometimes as a designator of geographical Provenance, even though as a regional idiom it appears ro have few distinct linguistic markers. I use either Anglo-Norman' for the language and literature of the big lsland, or 'insular Frenchi which has rhe advantage of referring to both Britain and Ireland, and'Old French'or'rhe langue d'ott ro mean the medieval language generally in all its regional manifestations; rhe 'French 2

S.., for example, the rationale of rhe excellent project, Medieual French Literar1 Culture

outside France.


Stn-r.' :

nou,adays do not usua*^'.



in 1l 69 as'Normans'. \i-': : bers of what had be con: r ou'n mixed originsr sr:..-:l the Continent, smalle : :. --:r-


\Y'elsh settlements, alrh,-- --i. rural trace s. I have ecllcr:..


Ireland as 'colonists. 'se ::-.:, rhe latter in deferenCc t . i.-. Engleis.a Later arrir-als rr. r- : both francophone and ::.iChapter l presents cj--; ::- -


after 1769.Because dire


I have brought to bear c.,.r-rpossible from the milic'.-, : Parr of this discussion is :': -. I believe to be colnlrloll ::r.: things are equal, perceF:. . :.. may bear comparison u'1;;. ; -

Cistercian monks in Irisl :: ken French to one anorhc: ., .

by Stephen of Lexington ... of Giraldus Cambre nsis ,::- :

and spiritual world of rh; :-:, heart of the colonists'Irr-.:: continuing awarene ss oi :. :. as a vernacular which \\-o,r-: both sides of the Irish Sc; :: foundation of religious i: - -., numerous types of mulr..-. : 3 Reflections on rhe top., ,, of England'(p.5I n.7 for a c..: Name?', who does not offer

tl-.. ::

a See Marrin, 'Introducrr.-'.. pp. 1-9,and Frame,'Ireland .::.. ship on medieval Ireland fron: :.. = 'Normanizing the English Inva;..,




'PuEIarI Jo srrPE^uI qsIISul rql SuIzIUEruroN, pa:en Lgn3 sl spre.üuo.(.rnrua: gruearq8ra atel rqt tuoü PUelrrl Ie^rIPau uo drqs

-reloqrs ur (ueruroN, rur3l el{rJo rsn

aql'8I-§I t'dd',69II

ur s,reql1,'3u,no:g-utSo2Xpue'(pue1a48urpn1:xr

uoIlIUgeP E roJZ 'u I§'d) ,pue18uE3o :rdor aqr uo suollf,sUr1 e

ag1, ,au.uorg-ue3or1X pue uostel1 uI punoJ ag

oq,4t srru8ra.ro3 rLIl or




rag? PUelrrL'TLUEU pue'6-1 'dd

,uonf,npo.Itu1,'$anbuo) u0t1ysxu0l0)'t{lltus 'llll-l'dd'uotlrnPoJrul 'uluetrAJ JrS i pua 'rlluerJ Jelnsul,Jo uotldo Jr{r Jüo rou ssoP oq,\\ :i Jtu?N



,(lqerr.taul pfnom qrurrJ rlllq^e ur uolt?ntls IenSulflrfnuJo s)ddr snoraurnu ot turod Ip )BerJJ?ruJJtur pu? 'l -ods a,r,rq plno.^d. s07I I ur Buruur8ag srlrrtseuoru qsl{ uI s1uotu utlf,r)lslJ e^n?u-uou reqt uosEeJ ot spuBts tI 'Jär{louE uI esoql Yrl,Lr uoslJeduol J?)q ,(elu eruoqdoruery r?insurJo lr?d ruo ur eBenBuEIJo suolrdauad '1enbe ar? s8ulql

II" ereq.^A,'teqt uondunsst )lqeuoseor ar{t pue rsues uotuurof, rq ot 3^oIIJq I ter{^\ uo pas?q uoneln)eds sr lr rnq 'e^Ir?prads ,(1uedo sI uolssnrslP slqtJo lr?d .seleA pu" puEIrrI qtr,{A, peterf,osse dlasolr rsoqt Jo sn)Iiltu ar{t ruory alqrssod se rgosur 'pue18uE r.uo5 dlpdroui.rd'ler.raltu leuretxr reeq ot lg8no.rq )^eq I (grrals sI puelsl rrlt uo tlluarlJo rsn lltJo )fuePl^r llerlP esnefeg'69II rr5e pue r.roJrq puEIr.rI I?^)rprru ur uon?nrrs len8urfirfntu l{t stu)srrd 1 .rardeg3 euogdorueü Wog

'erorl,\A.eslr pue puelSuE euoqdolSue Pu?

ruou 3(uE) serJnluJf, r{luaJlJnoJ Pu€ rlluJJlJIrll 3r{l uI SI?^IJJ? JslE'J n'Sta13U7 rc ry&uy 1o uorldar-red-31as pu? rsn )rll ot ef,uerryrP ul retlel 3rl1 'gsr18ug, 'eler.rdo:ddr a:eq,r,r. pue dgeuorsef,fo -ro 's.re1ttas, 'ststuo1of,, sE PueleJI Ie^)rpeu ur po^rrre

Ä1p.raua8 a^Eq

I 'sortrt ltrnl

-ln) ro lnsrn8url.^.T Tel seg Lrrunruruo) rrnel agl q8noqtl? 'sturlu)lltas qsln§. uro5 s8urualg ruros grl,t'pueltots ruo5 IIIts stequnu rrlletus 'lueulluoJ 3r{1 pu" puelsuE ruo.r3 sauoqdorue{ rJäÄ\ srrqunu r)lletus Prxlru u^\o stlJo arE^\E'se1e2X qtnos ur dno.r8 t)uItsIP e alrnb eruolrq Peq leq.^^.Jo sraq -ru)ru'sueru.rolq- oJqrurS )Jr.t\ )s)tll Jo'lle lou lng'lsoI{' suEluJoNtr, se 69 I I ul puelerl ur 8ur.r.r:.r? p,trets orl,^r slsruolo) 3tp ot raJJr ilensn tou oP sdepe,nlou suerrotsrH 's8urgrgo epls Ielrrorsrg dprr.ns rroru rtlt ot Burreia.r slnssl 1err8o1ou eJf,qI r'txf,tuof, srr{t ur urJJr E J^I]f,I.Ils)J ool sr ,pur18ug 3o -rruJrt rsr.{\t{ll



rllurlJ. r_[ UEJllI Ol






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Ie^arPeu ur LIf 'r:--: _ .: _ slsruolol tsJrJ ru: j: ; .-_-: : Jrll Pue uoEEntrs r.:. : -- _ 'eruoqdoruerl IE .,:. i. * : _

rlsnrrg rrpJo rs:nb* : : _ : -_uJePou Jqr qrr.\\ :*:. - : :_ Jrll ur sl rl : : : ::: _::.


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rdnuor pue prpr::-: : , -. slltlt!\ PUE'qsrl;-u1:.:: ... : snonSi.*: r: -:





have been re quired. \ü/hen discourse in French did not occur on a person-rope rson basis, it would have require d the presence of inrerpreters. Evidence of highly-place d interpreters is reasonably plentiful in early medieval Ireland but I have also considered contemporary examples from England and \7ales to com-

-\rchival evidence pro',:: ::, and not, as has usua]l',' r-:l :e r, I turn to some e ail', :. .:. rhough they are Dot rtr.--r.' Horn by Thoma s. L.i | .: .'.: in Shrewsbury School. )'lS colonists in vernacula: -.:. -

plement Irish material. The activities of interprerers in literary rexrs from continental Francophonia, England, and Ireland are se en ro represenr - with all due account taken of the mimetic nature ofnarrative ficrion rheir historical duties. Chapter 2 examines French texts produced in medieval Ireland, broadly defined, and some of the traces they have left behind. Far from being produced in cultural isolation, the La geste des Engleis en Yrlande was composed for an audience of colonists sharing some of the same Fre nch-language literary culture as that enjoyed by communities of francophones in England and on rhe Continent. It appears to have been written by a cleric, probably a household amanuensis, equally familiar with vernacular literature and charter Latin, both ofwhich inform the Geste at many levels. The text functions as an affirmation of the English colonists'claims to lands in Leinster and Meath as well as providing a reasonably reliable narrative guide to rhe conquesr. TVte Walling of IVew Ross may have urban, rather than aristocratic origins, but irs author draws on the same vernacular French literary traditions as rhat of the Geste. The hisrorical context which produced it is quite specific and localized,linking it with the rivalry betwe en New Ross and §Taterford as trading porus in the second half of the thirteenth century. Its manuscripr contexr (London, BL, MS Harl ey 913) ties it to §Taterford and a trilingual, possibly Franciscan, culture where Larin, Middle Hiberno-English, and Hiberno-Norman were all currenr. Two short French Poems in the same manuscripr by Maurice Firz Thomas Fitz Gerald, first earl of Desmond, lead to a consideration of the place of French in the fractious relations between some of the principal figures of early fourte enth-century Irish history such as Arnold le Poer and Bishop Richard Ledred, includingits use in the notorious witchcraft trial of Alice Kyteler. Examination of a number of manuscripts produced in Ireland confirms the mukilingualism of Irish culture of the time and the wide geographical reach of French. De rails of glossing and styles of scribal hands provide evidence. The tenaciry of French as a ve rnacular at the end of che thirceenth and beginning of the fourteenth centuries is shown by a new examination of its use as a memorial language on graYestones. §Taterford appears to have been che cenrre of francophone culture in medieval Ireland. It is not only a conrexc for BL, MS Harle y 9f3,but also for Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 405. The international community of tüTaterford is the context for the Dominican, Jofroi de §Taterford, who worted in the city with the \X/alloon, Servais Copale, his scribe and collaborator.


narrative material and ic:Both before and att.::.-.= a land of marvels and i:.'t:.:: u'as being explored ani. :.,.:.

nation of both monas:.-



channels through u-hicj-. literature came to prci.





through lists in Nenniu' J rooted very specificall. :.. .. ogy. Irish marvels are cc:r.:.into French: the IVat'i-q.;:: : Purgatorio sancti Pan'ic... -: sions consolidate the nou,::. tic marvel extra muro-i a:.: played an important role ::. Tractatus are all preciseh ^ - :. links with the various se;:) and geographical disrrib'::. that they soon be came ca:- - . translation in che vernacu.:: contexts and languäge S oft;.. wider audience outside oi:-. in the process of translingtr;Such textual repositioning -, precociously into French a::: in summary form in other '.'" is strongest in Gerrlärr, th; ' provide ample support for :: imagination. Despite the ve ::

generally exaggerated the dis The chapter concludes u.ith : sions of the neglected life of :


.?uus.^epol^I ro euueuow ,lurBs rlslrl 3rp Jo TII p31ta13eu aqr Jo suors -re^ u?urro51-o13uy pue une-I rr.ltJo uolrereplsuo) ritl/K srpnltuol .lerdeqt aq1 .sruorpr s? relnf,Eure^ pue une-JJo uonrun[slp aql pare.laSSexa dllt.raueB ä^eq sJEIogcs'uonrpeJt une-J aWJo uoltezllslnf?uJe^ egr arrdseC'uoll?urSeurr .rog r.roddns aldue epr.r'o.ld Ie^rrperu lp ur lr^reru qslrl rr{r Jo rf,urlslsrf,d agr d.roreS;n4 s,>l)rJted Jo ?.10,12 an7ury Jr1t uI suolsJe^ aql 'uttuJJC uI lsa8uo.rls sr uonrpe.n elepunJ relnf,Eura^ orlt q8noply 's>lro,^^. r)tlto uI ruroJ d.rerutuns ut pepnllur Burag )roJrg 'une1 orur >lreq rrl.^rt urr{t pue qluaq otur dlsnotrora.rd perdepe ,oquStaalJ rrltJo )se) )r{t ur tsere}p stl tt st Suluotlrsoda.l I?nlxel q)ns ;sa8y e1pplry oqr ur uonerdEpE aqr ul Ie.rnrlnlsuen pue len8ullsuertJo ssef,ord d1p-raue8 elqlsl^ e 'sf,nrunruurof, )Itseuour Jo rPlstno )luelPne r)PI/\\ ? pue erurruor spre.^d.or UIqs )rr)ue8 e rnoqe 8ur.rq urlo sa8en8uel PuE stx)luo) ,^Nru ol aqr Sur.rnp rpeur suollelylPory 'r?ln)eurr^ aql uI uollelsu?rl pue uon?rdrpe ot sr^lesuJr{t tual dgsea pue le)Iuouer elrr?))g uoos dagr regr rseSSns stx)t un?J )qr Jo sldr:rsnuetu )qr Jo uoltnqlrtslp letrqde.rSoe8 pue srrqunu .l8lU 'trqrtuesg1 rqr Jo seqru?rq PU? srdas snolre^ rrll qll.^,\ s{ull .,rtoqs IIE pue 'puelsr rrltJo d.rorsrg d1.rte rr{t uI Pal?lol dlasrle:d il? )rE snryP?.tJ ar.p pue ,0!sL7 at4t'ouuSTna1d )q1-'uorssrrusuert eqt uI rlor luet;odur ue padeld e^eq ,{eu ,talsoyluafilps agr :puelerl Jo eplstno pue sltntu a'tlxa Ie^relu rll -s?uoru agr Surlauueql egq.^e rlsr snorpuo.\\ rLItJo uoltou rrp )tePllosuor suols -Ja^ relnf,euJr^ pue unE-J Jreqt qroq ur stxat )s)ql 'ltix,tlz1 4)uas ouolaS"tnrJ a? srul?tiy,tJ llt pue 'Uuy7nul 0xsr7 )qt'tuu?ualg o4aStrtalg )rll :r{lurq olul d1:ee perdrpe f,rr.^A. qllrl,ln s1ro,\& unE'J Jo olrt e ot I?rtu)r are sla^.Ieru gsrrl 'd3o -logrdur pue 'd.rorsrq d.rrpua8al 'd.rorsrq rlslrl d1.rea ur dllerglrads Petoor eq ot tueqt 8ur.r,r.ogs '.snplerl3 pue '1rr.rrt4 dogsrg 'sntuuaN ul srsrl g8no.rgr peleJt sr sle^Jtru rlspl Jo uouEtueso:d rql 'er?uruopa:d ot etue) JJnteJelII reln)?urr^ I{llq.^,l uI snollltu Peratu) r^?q ,(eu daqt ri)lq^e q8no.rgr s]ruu?ql srse8Sns pue stxrt une-J ur slr^reur qslrl Jelntas pue f,Its?uour qrog Jo uolleu -nu3ssrp pur sur8iro arlt sda,t.rns g .rerdeg3 'parroldxl pue pa;oldxa Sureg se.vt d;lunor eqt JrUe ua,r.a SuoJts Paulttue.I qllr{,4d. 's:apuo,rrl PUE sle^Jeur Jo PUEI E se uolletnda: t petl putlr.rl'ststuolol eqtJo Ie^irr? er{l reue Pue 3.IoJ)q qrog 'sasod.rnd lerrrrlod u,ltro rrrr{t roJ tl ,(o1dap pu? IEIrJie(u f,^Ite.rreu qslJl snouo8rpur qJosg? ol aJrsep Jrrrlt pu? sJnt?J)tII J?lnf,euJJ^ uI slsluolof, or.ltJo tsf,rrtul eqt qroq etertsnlll )srrlt '.ragra8o1 '/ SW 'looqls d.rnqs.ra.erqs ul ssllrl Jo tsrl snorrnf, rrp pu? '/aqr?,tvry al au/na///ng a? am Y7'setuotll fg u"to11 ap u?t/10ü agr dlaruru 'utruro51-ou.raQlpl Suqeeds dprr.rrs lou ere deql q8nogl ue^a '6pueläJl yrlr,r suonff,uuor JSol) )^?q qllq,t\ stxet d1-rea Jtuos ot u.Int I 'Jel -deqr )qtJo pue rqt sp.It,^ao1'slred ur'parunsse u))gd11tnsn seq se'lou pue aruapl^r IE^Ir{lrY

proJrrte71, ur ueurr,^A rJrÄ{. stxer


s,ro.ryof ter{r sr^o-rd


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P3>lJO/r\ Oq-\\



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(Ue .ie1:rp; l uourruol rq Leu rtqr uolteurtoJul Jlseq atuos ePnl)ul ol d.ressareu tr tleJ r^er.{ I ')rnt?rurl pu? a8en8uel r{turrJ IE^eIPrtu PuE ernllnl >looq slqr adog I rsneleg r{slrl Jo stsllellads or qrog tsrrrlul Jo sI le^elparu ' (gg - Sg{.I ) duuolll) Jo suntets rqt qtl^l. Ie^ror sI qrlrl.^d Jo uotltsod -uror )qi '.,4lp?t/rru s,tresslorJ Jo sernlua^Pe qsul rqr Jo suollerrldur PuB lxal -uol Ie)Itllod eql30 uollerePlsuo)Jelrq E rlllt\;ardtql Ituy slqr )Pnl)uol I 'oPII -lo) ueqr Jrqr?.r rsrxeor splJo,\A. o,u.1 'd;runo) Jrlt uI pstooJ dlarerulrln Suraq se pa,trer.rad )Jf,^\ se-rn8g tu)ururoJd pue sl)^Jeru stlJo dueru t?t{t Je)ll st lI 'lou ;o rruetuor u?IrnqtrY reqroq/N

dSoloql(u rlsrrl ur sur8uo e^ntrreu strJo iue


.ssouqsrrl srrJo )rueruor uerrnr{rry Surlrodsap3o drrlrgtssodrut er{t



sJtueuroJ aso.rd eq1 daqr rng '51x)1 esJJ^ JerlJ?r u?qt serq prrrrlod EJo ssrl ^\oqs ..rarg8nep s,3ur1r{slJl ue srrrJ?ur )uri aqt 3uo1t JJ}L{Ä{.)(uos ollr\t rotserue )leru E

,(le,tnradsorle: ere 'lolrrue-J Jo sueeru dq dlpnsn '^.nsarue qslrl r{tl^\ petnqllte pue ure^nt3 a{lf 'rrueluor 3o sa.rn8y ;o[tu PuV 'lIErD aqr pue a8uaqruo]S Jo s)uots rrlt s? qrns 'pua8al urr.rngtrv rrlt Jo sruf,tualt I?rtual uro5 rlgelrosslPul surers puelrrl 's1xe1 xalduror pue 3uo1 )srqtSo lueu q '(s07€ l) ratolatfid )ql uzlsttl tsotd Htl,v, Surpnlou o) 'uryfiW ay sanaqdotd )q1'sä)u?tuor P3l?lar P:ue nlt u?t(/oy ere81n1-rsod )qt './v?'tg-1l/a)uvT ale81n 1 agr g8no;qr )q) ' 1 't) snansallad )qi tuo5 'qruarg I?^arprru uI s))ueurot aso.ld rte.r8 rql rre

'.qlueJl ur plttr;: -.:_: ' _ : 'J)ueuroJ ;o s:S:.::: -"- : - - : Jo PUH srqt lo rs_: _ I : _'_ ;o s:::*-::-r: , _- -' _

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SII PUE ,SS)UL{:l-' .-

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rq8no:q lsj'-..-i: :. :-- -stil PUE 'Pur': : -- ( , .- . -. _,

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:-:: ;-:

ou s^{oqs uorssrLui -:-: :: ay safflauaru saT'S_,: :_


pä.reprsuor stx)t .rofrru ]sEI

atll 'ullqng ie^)Iprur uI s)rueu ateld ulelrrf,


alqrsuodser urrq a.r.eq irru srsruolo) aqr Suoue i:ols lp Jo drr.repdod 'rrntlnl rlslrl Jo ss)ursrlto rrlt Jo sseuJrEÄ .r uE PU? Puel)JI Jo uollezluolo) rqr Jo s.lead d1.lte rLItJo a8pal.,rnou{.troqs srfueruor u?tsl{ eq1 'dle,ttlladsa.r '{lnorrg PUe s?ruoql Jo sr^nerreu eqr araldruor qllq^e 'a8.laqg uo^ rrttlllT pu? Srnqye;r5 uo^ prr5uo3 Jo suorsre^ uerurrC qBlH )lpplry r)llnJ rqt ot p?q sl rs.rnof,er NOIJf,NCOUJNI

la J?/,r Ur

Puellll P-i, ::',


.tl.oqs ot sr.uJos se-io1 :r _:'::. srrrrlodoa8 uaa ru:c - - ,: -: - : Jo IE^rJJe Jqt rrI? s: .:: : _ : : egr q8norqr r{ITr.\,,: :--: * -uI sle^Jelu str PUr p *:-:-- :



is no accompanying translation where I consider the sense of the original to be clear from the context. As regards place names, I have generally used the forms

current in modern scholarship, although this has led to some inconsistency. For example, eyen though there is an anglicized form of Brdifne (Breffni or Brefni), it is rarely used by historians; likewise, the Irish Connacht is usually preferred

to the anglicized form, Connaught. I have, however, put the anglicized forms first on the frontispiece map, with the Irish forms below. Generally speaking, in the text, I use the anglicized forms, occasionally giving the Irish in parentheses.

urYeys begin

of French ,. :



of 1 1 69 and 1 1-0. r,.':.. South \7ales and elser.-hc:; ber included French spe ;'i.some from Scotland, as \\'. , cantref (administratir-e rci. documentary evidence . ho',','= spoken on the island in r::.

who had visited France m:::. the arrival of the colonisr, -. uscript probably from Glc:.Auct. F. III. 15, who nore : .: francos' and'ma fan apuc :lects (or probably French .: the middle of the twelfch ;mentary, Bernard of Char::.

1 Fo. .r"-ple, Bliss and L Mullally,'Hiberno-Norman L i :. : = 'French Language and Litera:--.. .

Medieval Irelandl




ul a8en8ue-I qluär{ ar1f,'prerrd:,puEIerI Ie^arpetr{ ur ernrerJll-I put a8en8utl tltuJrC, 'l)el eqt etrdsrq qsla/A. )r{t ur sturtu)lltes ruo:3 s8urualg rruos se IIr.^,r, se '{pueito)S ruo5 eruos 'elue.rg ur stsJJJlur r{tl.^,L dutru 'pue18uE uroü sJa>l?Jds qlurJJ POPnlluI JJg

srlta qlnos -runu rrrrll sueuroNl-orquE] ere.t\ roN r'er3r{.^A.aslr Pue IIE PUe ruo5 srr>le)ds r{ruar{Jo srrqrunu a3.rt1 rq8no.rq r{llr{,rn. 'OLII pue 69I I Jo ur8aq suorse^ur )r{r Jo qrerurrle aqr qrr{l q8noue dlqepuetsrapun

dllensn puelrrl le^rrprru

o)Itz oNnouD


uI arnrererll pue





e8en8uel rirurrg yo s.(e.t:n

) NI 'sJsJrltuarrd ur LISirl : --: -i ur '3ur1eeds .(11e:rur -r ., ': l sr.uroJ pezrrrl8up :*': ::': _: pa.r.lege.rd iliensn si : -'r: - - '(lu3e-rg ro rugrrE : -- :- *- .log druetsrsuolur l'.^- :i _ : : :-




rqt pesn.i11::.*:-i :

Jq ot leur8r:o

){r JCr r: -.::


= _







Duns Scotus. He also glosses in Irish, and cites excerpts from Isidore, Bede, Augustine, Gregory, Boethius, and Lucan in a manner which suggesrs that he had le arne d the techniques and acquired the texts on the Continent, most likely in Paris or Chartres, where he would have encountered speakers of a varie ty of romance idioms. Although this surviving piece of evidence is unique in nature, it seems reasonable to assume that the scribe was not alone in his foreign travel and linguistic experience.2 In her study of 'hypothetically constructed language-contact', whose conclusions are largely in agreement with mine, Julia Crick speculares on rhe kinds of linguistic communication between England, \7ales, Ireland, and other regions, which have left little trace in the records.3 This exhaustively documented article cites some of the same cases of multilingualism that I do below and its speculations are essentially the same ones I have tried to ofrer under what could be called the 'common sense' and'mutatis rn.utandis' categories. In other words, contact between individuals and groups from different language communities must have been articulated somehow, even though much of the evidence is lacking, and despite variations in circumstances, situations, and cultures, some elements of the proce ss must have remained constant. Crick's study does not concentrate exclusively on the use of French, but the language can and doe s feature in some of the specific and hypothetical paradigms she sketches. The documented activities of Irish ecclesiastics in the affairs of the English church and foreign merchants in medieval Dublin, for example, argue strongly in favour of multilingual intercourse of various kinds which would have involved the speaking and writing of Irish, French, Latin, English, and probably Norse, both before and after 1169,It should be noted that personal and linguistic traffic took place in both directions across the Irish Sea. A prime example of early Irish Sea multiculturalism and multilingualism is to be found in rhe life of Gruffydd ap Cynan (1081-1137), son of a Velsh prince and a Hiberno-Norse princess, born in Swords (Co. Dublin), whose various artemprs to regain and retain the throne of Gwynedd brought him into conracr wich speakers of Irish,


:.. - \D


:::.=.r and indirtrcr.'.':: Tle




Tongtr.-, ,,- --.i,..

1139, St \lalach'. l-.: :rom Rome, and h:i i:::


rhat he adopted rhe :* ; -- I he returned to Irelani .r.l :

.' ^\i,..Cistercian abber- nea: ll:. :. The Fount .or Sprir:.:' :'I :nd adopt the


Clairvaux had retur:..i : French monks, one oi',,':- - . ing of the abbe r ,ng : l.. daughter houses u-irhln .-.' . ,I 148), Monasterencnii:. ill-informed about the ',.:.=: centuries, but it is unlli.-' : communicate in a \-crr.:- ,:.:. the French monks u-ou.i:... the Irish who had bee n .:. - French brothers mar-h.' - -

they did not \Mant the I:.,:, Irish speakers wishine !{r, -- . : new influx of French-rp..--,-. Irish


yet another mar.:


sition of coloniai culcur. =:.: a


rhe Vita Grifiii;:.-..:.

trans. by Russell.



Flanagan.'Sainr \[..=-


2 On this manuscript, ,.. Ö Neill, hn Irishman at Chartre s'. For other early Irish visitors to France, t.. Ö Neill,'The Impact of the Norman Invasion on Irish Literaturel p.175. Crick, "'The English" and "The Irish"', pp.233-35, quotes examples, and reflecrs on rhe possible languages of choice during encounters betrveen Irish, French, and English ecclesiascics, including Gilbert of Lime rick at Rouen, '§?'esrminster, and St Albans, Malachy and Bernard in Clairvaux,

Church'. 6

O., lvf.llifont general.'. ,.. of the Irish Cisterciansl 7 See Watt, Tbe Churti; .;,.- :

and Bishop Lorcän Ua Tuarhail. 3 C.i.k, "'The English" and "The Irish"l

Cburch. 8

chap.4; Stalley, Tbe Cistei'c:.i,. -' . §(/"rr, The Churcb in ^\[...:,.



'd '.?uapq fnat?aw ux Wffiq)



qsttJ aqt{o uoxl?atillsav.[ aqI',ESEUEIJ :puap't1lo saxralsauoJ,[ uvti'tatsx) aq1'Ät11et3 tT';:it aql'rte \))S , aql:SZ-tzZ'dd'suo4ap omJ aqt Pu? Wßq) 'suBrlralsrJ rlsrJl 3qr Jo

'yuv/aq /anaxyary ux



pue dq:ep1,1 tuleS,'ue8euelg

ug ,

d.rorsrg eqr roJ srrrnos, pue'ru0!11aht!0 hory aq1'de.,r,r.uo3 aas 'd1p:aua8 ruo1r11e14 rlsrJl aqt ol rusrr's,uotr{ uelf,rrlslJJo uollf,nPoJtul


'xne^JTEIJ ur pJEUI:g



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pue 'pa 'uau,{2 du pyn[n.rg

lt ,!l

uxtv7 lvnaq)atrf

aql :ruvuo)

t!/{lufit9 vlrl )yt »S ,

8'srnle^ Pu? 3rnllnl leluolo)Jo uollls -odur Jr{tJo 'plJo/K f,rtseuoru rrlt ur erun siqt 'uonetseslueru Jeqtou? rad se qslJl a^neu agl dg prtu)sar sr.^^. Ir^rrre rsoi{.^d. 'sluoru Surleads-q)urq Jo xngul .^deu E )rue) 6gll rsTV'q)u)rJ rql ruory srett?ru I?)f,uof, orSurqsr,tn sre>le3ds qslll due .roy 'es.rno) yo 'sao8 )ures )qI 'puetsr)pun ot qslrl or{t tuer$. rou plp dagl urrl,^a 'se,tlasuer{t Suorut rlluar{ prsn r^Etl deu s.reqtorq r{lurrJ urrq Peq oq^\ qslrl erp ar{t pue 'qrue.rg suros dn peryrd e.rcq deru xne^TIEIJ uI

se unel )rseg pesn )^Eri rroJerer{t plno^\ s1uoru t{lueq rl{l atll 'seuogdolSue ro sauoqdoluery gtl,Lr relnleura^ E uI rte)IUnruuro)

tnq'atuu{an7ru1E pue rlsrrl

ot rlge uraq e^eq ppo,ta. s.raleeds rlsrrl r^neu ltql dlaylun sI lI tnq 'satrnruo) qtue)lrrrlt pue qulr,r,\r rqt ur un?'I ualods Jo srllslrE^ 3I{l lnoqB PrturoJul-ilI

rre )A ;GS1 1) d.r.,ra.a51 pue'(0§I I) ep:qs'(87t I) q8tuaurrerseuory'(SFt t) eldog '(Bttt1) sselSurleg'(L+zII) a,rnreg :s:ead u)^ele uILItr.t\ s)snor{.rarq8nep

xrs peq 1r terlt dilerrrur InJSsr))ns os ser\\ ruoJIII)w'(r '3g) ,(aqqe aqr3o 3ur -pllng pue u8rsep eW asr.L.radns ot se,{ö. 'trrgo1 'uroq,t Jo luo 'sluour q)uo.I{ oruos yo duedruo) rr{t ut .read )rues r?rir puelerl ot peurntrr peq xnt^rlel3 uroU ueurqslrl )qL e'ZrlI uI prpunoJ se.t\ (,{auop13o [8ur.rdS ro] tunoJ )r{L :slllrry suog,) ruoJIIIaW rrctl.ll'(qlno1 'o3) epeqSo.rq .reau degge u?I)rslsl3 rsrg s,puelerl roJ uoire)ol elq?llns E pr5lruapl iqrtle1,{ (')lnr aql rdope pue dpnrs ot rruerJ ot uatuqslrl Jo dno.r8 raqtoue lu)s pue puEIerJ ot prurntrr ll 'xner.nr13 te suorueduor rnoJ Uel 8ur.r.ep1 JI)stuIq )lnr aqr pardope rq t?ql oJII uel)r)tsIJ Jo rrnt?u rqr qrl.^,L passa.ldul os urrq p?q pu? 'rtuoU tuory pur ot de.r.r, srq uo xnt^rlelf ul preurrg rS p)llsl^ peq dqrel?W rS'6EII uI

ru o{t1 1 ay,y {o


nSu oJ .rail?

g a qI

o' qr.rnoJ sdeq,rad pue prlqt eI^ 'lrarrpur PUE tf,eJrP qroq ssrltqnoP ).r3,^^. uollErlunruulo) Jo slruuEtlJ 'esloN pue'qruerJ 'rqsla/§ OUEZ CNNOU)


'lloqs erntlnf, dlrea ur 3o surnf,r^, tuoJrllrl{ prg


s>luoru qlua.IJ 3qr



3r{r psqsrulrulp 'ln3ssarrns srotu sE,{A. ueqdels ,r'§z 'I^'o sw '^rua elEuorzEN 'lqrg 'ul.lna ur pr^lrssrd sr)r]e13o dpog e ur P3Prof,3r 3rE uorssrru Suneur)seJ )r{I Er'uolrtl rlslrl s,ueqdetsJo slret)p Surryorls srruneruos pue -rsr^ .^aeu e peaq o1 puEI)rI o1 '('srl26) daluers Jo toqqe 'uot8urxa13o ueqdar5 par{rrBds\pt\ |ZZI ur Inun ss)rddns ot pall€J rapro rqt qrrq.^a iruo311ery3o dre.rrdsuoJ, prller-os )qt s?,{\ uorlleqrr srql 'Suqred turs dlsnoluourerrf,un

pur dlldruo.rd a:o.rn srotrsr^ eqr pue 'sÄaqqe rrqto pue tuoJIIIrN tE pensue stolr 's.rote8nse^ur eqt Jo IE^rrrE rip uodn -r'sruretuol-sro{ pue luotuplor{ Jo slogq" ep dg prl (srsnoq qslrl Jo uonetrsr^ Iereue8 r .reed 8ur,lno1iog ur przr tr ter1t puelerJ ruo5 Surruo: srnor.unr agl dq prqrntsrp os se,^A. xneatr3 ur Surlaeur .rardeg3 lerrur3 rrlt '9 IZI u\ pue 'leuorrrunysdp dlltrruasse euof,eq peq dagge aqt 'd.rnluar rqr Jo pu) eLIr r.roJ)q IIaA 's.reqtorg-dr1 'rsa; äqt pue

s*r €*:


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d ;a

r$ ,.7


'sluoru rJ3,^A. PrrPUnq e luorl,^d. Jo '.PsrPunq rnoJ Punore Jo uorlelndod e Peq ruole tuoJrllrry 'OLII u1 'Suruur8eq rql uro5 aa;8ep )ruos ol luasa.rd u))q tou peq r.uJlqo-rd agr ltrlt ärunsse ot uoseal ou sr JJ)rlt tng 'dJntua) rlturrtJrrlt rqr eqt ur rnssr snorres e erue))g uolterlunruurof, Jo sepotu t)oJJedtul



,,'pedlag )^eq touue) tr tnq 'des or elqrssodur sr d:a:seuour rtp Jo ssrursnq dlep rqt parrpurll srqt turtx) teq,r oI'relnreu;e.t (s, s..iau.reel erpJo sf,rnre3J lecrSolouoqd prrunsse )^Er{ plno.^. un?'J risrlSuE pu? '6qluerJ 'rlslrl ter{t uoseer ot spuets .reqlrnJ r1 o, dlrpqrsuetla.rdtuor Itnrnru ssal,neg 8ur -rrrueren8 rou 'pe.nnbrr ur)g )^?q ppo,la. aBrnBuEI )r{r Jo stuerrt,r puor8a.r 11e pue 'en8uot rrrltoru s,dpogou unE-J 000I .lead agr [dg], teqt p]^resgo ser{ dgruel3 IrEqrrW'r{)u3ry )uolt tal'uneJ3o a8pal.ra.oul Ieuon)unJ ? uerlt rroru

q)nru perl a^€r{ uJ^) rou deru JJpJo Jrp ol sJatuor.^lJu rlsrJl .roy 'rnsrn8url r-red ur se,{A. ssJntlnlJo qsell E urrq 3^Erl ot s>lool rBqa 6'XnE^JTEIJ ol PruJntrJ uoos dueru pur dlqeareed.ragreSor or s>luoru rlslrl pue r{ruery eqr

rllu)U rrpJo 3o ,(rrpqtul

rrlt dq



s?.r\ tuoJIIIeW Jo ssef,f,ns Ieurur








inf uence of Mellifont over

othe r house s, expelled croublemakers, appointed new French-speaking abbots,15 and placed Anglo-Norman monks in various strategic monastic locations. Some of the conspirators repente d and were allowe d back, but others were sent to France or England. A Frenchman,Jocelyn, prior of Beaube c, was swiftly elected abbot of Mellifont as part of the general


On the surface of it, Stephen seems in gene ral to adhere ro his brief, bur there are occasional indications of ethnic prejudice which appear to contradict other assertions of impartialicy. In a letter to the abbot of Furness, he writes: Nec mirari debetis, quod, sicut quidam nos facturos credebant, ad exterminationem gentis non intendimus, quia omnino non expediret uobis aut ordini. Nam oportet eos paulatim et per partes delere, ne forte multiplicentur contra nos bestie agri, hoc est bestiales homines, qui in campestris et montanis super harenam multiplicati omnia indifferenter in ultionum gentis sue exterminarent et delerent. Qe autem breuitate litterarum comprehendere non potuimus, in ore latoris presencium, fratris A. monachi de Fontanis, posuimus uobis uiua uoce intimanda, cui ranquam nobis fidem per omnia adhibeatis indubitatem. Valete. (xxv) (You should not be surprised thac rve did not apply ourselves to expel the Irish, as some considered we would do, because this would be completely againsr your interests and that of the Order. For it is necessary that we eradicate them little by little and by stages lest perchance the beasts of the field increase in number against us; by be asts of the field I mean these bestial men who, having increased in number in the open in the fields and mountains, rvould drive away and destroy everything without distinction in revenge for their people. But we have passed on that which we cannot include in che brevity of a letter to the bearer of rhis lerrer, Brother A., monk of Fountains, to report to you in person; give complete trust to him in everything, as if to us. Farewell.) (15)

If this verges on rustic and culturai cleansing of the monasterie s, it is not consonant with the claim of impartiality contained in a letter concerning visitations to Ireland, written on behalf of the General Chapter and addresse d to Pope Gregory


" Cf. Registrum epistolarum Stephani de Lexinton, ed. bv Griesser, letter Lxxv (rrans. by O'Dwyer,75), u,here he requests of Roger de Hvda, seneschal of Leinsrer (1228-31?), protections for the nervly appointed abbots alterius lingue. Mv thanks ro David Crouch for information on Roger. l6n d '" Uonrvay, the Story of Llellfont, pp, 67-68; §7att, Tbe Cburcb and Two lVations, p.96; Smirh, Colonisatio, ord öorqrrr, in üedieual Ireland, pp. 66-73, rvho rraces rhe tensions


Mellifont and Clairvaux back ro rhe




:. .:. inp.::.. : AnEli.. i.. :-

\hde, ne in!inrprouidcnrie nia. \\ällia.


ribus diuersis

in:,:,::.:.:- .'



eis ordinis

liones et morti: n-,:.: :.: mes in aliis lirrer:: ::.:. :-: suis domibus ad dc-,:: - : .- .. punierunt pro poss; :--::.:: (Consequentlr-. ics: r-..-,


through inconsidsr.:: .-.-.::

of differenr lanqu:.=.


Lombardv, and nran'. :. power, and in Sllcc;::-,

: r.

l squandered, repearcJ, - . .-extremely serious ani '.'.'.,-... of the abbots accordii-.;: :. their houses to orhe: '.,.':--according to rhe rule s ,-: :-.

without success.) ,86

Notable here is the srr;s, -. nance, no doubt in an lrr:rr. dice levelled againSr rhc



in rhis lerter implies rha: :: their countries of origi:r ::



An understanding oi ::.: letters depends to sorrrc c..Abbot of Furness thar ri:. -.

appears more indulgenc .,'. -.\ü7elsh-speaking comm u r. : :'

of \Mhidand (Carmarche:. : for the consistent imple r.;:.: Prohibemus insuper au.:. : rionis, ne unquam reci^:..:

: .

confiteri gallice uel lai:-.

nariones, Anglicas, Scoi:-: . , nas ordini inutiles ec o:r:-..aut silencii seruabit gra'i.:.: scriptura nouit inuenire s,- -.: dam die aur nocre



arrpnlrxa srnbrp otntrts nuesa:d snur8rlarul laN 'aun?l 1an arrlle8 rretguof ru?ns urdlnc trrcs rnb rsru 'tuanbllt runr{J?uoru ur snrrdna; turnbun Ju 'sluoll -f,Jro Ian sruonrsodap euad qns Et?rorueru e:dns et?trJotJnr .radnsur snruaqrqoJd

t96'd'suor1t,y o,i;f :":':'

i sllou lne 3IP ru?P -ptnb unfrporu runles rJ?trp)ru roq a3al ur uou 'runnelos aJruenur trnou r.rnldl:cs ur runllnu oururuo rnb 'ueurldnsrp rJtsn?lr Ian ruat?trne.r8 lqenras rrfualrs tn? ra8rpp uourpro anbruru opotuoi| 'sesonrrnüur oururuo rr selnnul rurpro s?u -os;ad oporutunru?r p)s 's?fruJaqlH rnr sasualeA 's?fnrofs 'secr18uy 'seuon?u

:3lnr )qrJo uonetulrualdun turlsrsuol ar{] JoJ Ä1uo Surpeald '.rre3 tng '.pr?rl, erll sr uagdar5 '(a;rqsurrltrerur?3) pueprqAJo daqqe )qt tuo5 rrr?g rp opo Aq SZZI uI prpunoy dtrunruruo) Surltads-gslaztr\ e '(1.ro3 'o3) uorre{,Jo roqgv aqr Surssarppt ruaSlnpul aroru sreaddt eq 'd.rerseuoru eqt tuory prtelrpere eg plnoLls rlsrrl ar.{t t€qt ssrurnJ Jo toggv eqt ot etor.t' rrl JI 'luerdrre.r pepuarur eqt uo tuarxr rruos or spuedrp sJerral uv uegderg ur passe.rdxr s.^&rr^ s

eqr Jo ernteu asrra.rd rqt Jo Surpuers.rrpun

'urleT Pue q)uär1 ,(1a>1i1eJoru '.ro urSr:oJo serrtunof, Jreql IIeJo sa8en8uel uorssnu rrrrlt Sur.rnp alods srotrsr^ rrlt ieqr sarlduri rauel sn{t uI .rardeq3 eqt rrr{teq,\d. rrellun sr tI 'rlslrl ap .(q srollsr^ eqt lsuIEBe pelle^el erlp -n[e-rd suonesnf,f,e Jar{tJnJ rduo-a.rd or lduarre ue ur rqnop ou '))ueu Itr]erJo pur sdno.rS-e8en8uel3o drrs.ra^rp eqr uo plel sserts er{r sr a.req )lg"toN -e.Lo.rd

suorsuJt eqt







-PrujoJur JoJ rlrnor-) i. , _ -raro:d'(itE-s;;l -:-.- : lrrrr' -::-: -



ot prssrrpp::-: -::. -, r : ::- : tLs:.::::: _ _

suon?lrsr,r. Suru::-'

-osuof tou


a'-:!:-: :-: ':::::- .

-^Je^) ur turu

'.'v .rar{torB

qrlrlr\ t?qt u. :1-. 8utql,(::-r: -itr::. : : JSqUnU ur f :!::-: tsure8r Jec ii:-.







:no^( rsurrS:..-.:: (99

) ('ssoccns





rnq '.repro aqr ruroJrr or plnor iaqr se .rg os ur rä oqrJo selnr rqr or Surp.rorce sde,r ruaraglp ul srarlto pagsrund,(agt :sasnor{ prrepro-lla,r\ .räqto ot sasnor.l rraql tuo:j,(e,tre s>luoru rayto ruas .(agr :repro ri{rJo srlnr aqt or Surp:o»? stoqqe aqrJo aruos pasodap daqr :.rarral Jar{to Jrlt ur petou sossafxa pJ>lJr.^a pue snorJas ilatua.rrxa eqt ot uonrppe ur 'sro1d JepJnu pur suorllagor 'sJr)urdsuo: patrada.r 'pa.rapurnbs sanrluodtuJt Jr{t 'parrrsz.r.ap rJpro Jrp punoJ iaqr uorss3Jfns ur pu? ':a,ro.od .ralra;8 qlr.^d. suun 1ua:aglp te rues aq plnor{s'xn?^rlelJ uo.r3 iueu pue tp.requol 'a)ut.r{ 'srepuelJ 'pur18ug '.srle/§ Jlrstr pu?lrri uio-r3 'sa8rn8url rurrrgrp Jo srotrsr^ ter{r pJraprsuor a,r. 'rq8rsa:oJ Jo ru?.tr JoJ Jo ers?ri er?raprsuo:ur q8no.rqr

rrqreq^\ '8ur1er.rapun rno or perndrur Jq rno^g ro errltru rsal .tpuanbasuo3)

(r) 'arrru:o;JJ tuaulpJo 'lunsselul pes 'sJtuJlru assod ord lun:arund srrl? srPoru srurPJo ru?ruJoJ unPunlas sorle 's?l?ulPro s?rl? soruoP PE snqruoP srns ? tunrasnua unpunles snqnegqr srsdr ep rurpsonb solrlouu? srJattrl srrl? ur satu -Joua te sorurssrnr:8 snssarxa .radnsur 'saluanba:y seuon?urqrrru snroru ta sauorl -laqJ.r 'sauortr.rrdsuo) 'runrle:odu:r ur3uon?pldepp 'ruauorredrssrp srurpJo srJ ur s)tuaruanur anrssJffns rnb 'sopurunsep snrurxnp rJor?ru alelsalod ur srsJanrp sngrJ -odruar 'rllEn?rEIJ ep s::n1d ta ?rpr?qunJ ta erlu?rJ '.?rrpu?lJ 'er18uy'?rll?1)§ '.?ru -:acllH rsdr ap tJ)rl3prn'tun.rrn8url unJ?slJnlp saJorttrsr,L'r.rrtndul alluaprno:dur tn? ruonetrdroa:d nas ane:8 Iä^ orpo plnblp lassod oJtsou nssaro:d ur Ju 'äpu ouEZ oNnou)




-- :. : :


tlrpeJtuor or .rraddr --: -- :: lng SerJg srr{ ot :l--l:: _ - ' : -

":' le.raua8 rrp Jo r:rd s: : * . 'u,Lprof 'uerutilu:lj i' I t= -j JJJ.I\ pue paturdr: .: -:, - : -IJe^ Ur S>lUOrU Ur --: . -\'- : paruroddt 's;a1rru:-.:- - -: : : I





Ceterum districte precipimus sub eadem pena, ne regula, que uniformiter exponi et ab omnibus debet seruari, de cecero exponatur nisi gallice, ne locum inueniant latendi minus ordinati, cum uenerint visitatores auctoritate capituli generalis aut uenerande matris nosrre domus Clarevallensis, sed omnes intelligant et ab omnibus intelligantur sicque culpis debita correptio et genti ignare salubris instructio possit adhiberi, ne frustra conenrur dicti visitatores erigere turrem babilonicam in confusionem linguarum, si uidelicet suo sermone alter petit panem aliusque idiomate suo sibi pro pane porrigir scorpionem. Qanta enim mala inde exorta fuerim, quante exordinationes sub rali regimine inpune pertransierint, nemo qui nesciat. (LII)

(40. .,.:.. :. - So that there future the Rule shall bc : .: do nor conceal thenr..^'. ., understood by the mor::,: the penalty allotted fbr 3:.=,

(In addition, on the above -mentioned authority under penaltv of deposition or expulsion, we prohibir you from ever receiving anyone as a monk unless he knows how to confess his fauhs in French or Latin. \We do not intend with this decree to exclude any people , rvhether English, Scots, Welsh, or Irish, but only persons who are unsuirable for and completely unproductive to the Order. For how can anyone love the Order or observe rhe seriousness of the silence or the discipline of the cloister who does not know how to 6nd any consolation at all in the Scriptures, or to me ditate eyen a iittle on the law of God either by day or by night

Nullus admittatur in n-,,--:.=: culpam suam sciuerir . : j: ordinis correctores, er ::.::..

Item regula de cerero



teneatur nisi gallice uc^ -.:.. insistant, ubi mores rrrf,r.>--:l



ninety-seYen clauses: Item ut uniformitas sir in ordine, districte precipitur, ne regula exponatur intelligant et intelliganrur a monachis. Qi alicer exposuerit, quotiens fecerit, penam 40.


de cerero nisi gallice, ne lateant minus ordinari, sed visitatores, cum uenerint,


Icem in penam conspir.:.'



miter prohibe atur, ne a. : tem, ut plene proberur . - :.. discipuli, ut sine pericu^ .. fiant magistri.


(No one shall be receivci ., . to confess his fauks in F:;. :

The expression confusiolinguarunt andthemythofthe Tor',.erofBabelhavetheirorigins in Genesis 11.4-9 and are r.videspread in rhe Middle Ages. See Borst, Der Turmbau uzn Babel, and Lusignan, Parler uulgairement, Nledieval philosophers attempt to alleviate rhe confusion by caregorizing language s into a diuisio linguarum. On Welsh and Irish in Tiacton,

The Rule shall onlv be e .,.: ducted in French or L.:.:.

Irisb Infuente on Medieual trVelsh Literature, pp. 18-19, and on Tiacton, Gwynn and Hadco ck, Medieual Religious Houses: Ireland, pp. 123 and 143-44.

gentle manners.

see Sims-Williams,



for otherwise the aforesaid visitors u,ill u,aste cheir time building a tower of Babel in the confusion of languages where one seeks in his or,vn language for bread and the other in his orvn idiom offers him a scorpion in place of bread. No-one could esrimare horv many evils have arisen from this, and how many disorders remain

1228, as the fortiech


Latin in the confessional. therefore the solutiofl ro ri.: to address. Given thar or:^'. monastic communitY) e\'-:and difficult to impleme n: :: thre e ye ars of probation b.: - :

for faults to be dealt with properiy and ignorant persons beneficially instructed,



intercourse and confessio: -is the practical linguaf'.i,.-.;

Further, we strictly decree under the same penalty that the Rule, which ought to be uniformly expounde d and observed by everyone, is to be expounded only in French in future so that the disorderly cannot hide themselves when visitors come with the authority of the General Chapter or of our venerable mothe rhouse at Clairvaux, but all will understand and will be understood by all; this rvill make it possible

This is repeare d in rhe conclusions to the visitation

ever be received äs ä nirrr-.:-

Latin, regardless ofu-h::.-..

It is also essentially repe a:; j implication that Latin a:c


unpunished under such circumsrances.)


the Order come rher- ma'. --.


in future




Jruos u.r?JI d?.., dagr a.raq,r,r. artld Jr.uos ur Ioor{rs pue,? fr* ,rffiffir"'# eq ot tu?-^d. oq,ln Jsoqt dt.,rn srtp uI rtr{r os 'JJnrnJ uI uIr?'I Jo qlu)Jg uI pJl)np -uor s>luoru rqt Jo ;atdegc eqr pue rpuaq ur papunodxa aq dluo lpgs älng aql

["'] 'ruorp dq poors.rapun aq pue (sluotu agr) puers.rapun Lrtu,(atp auoc rrprg *p Jrlt u3q.{{ lBril os 'url?-J Jo i{Ju3rJ ur sllng srq sssJuol ol

JO SJOtf,oJJol PUE sJolrsr^ .tA.oq s.taou>l

eq ssslun 'uon?u sn{


J3t13ru ou


E s?

PJ^raJJJ 3q (,n


.+_a_. : __ 1-.' :-

'uotf,e.t1 uo pur



'uol:rt1 uI qsr{ p jf l:-:..,-- , Jtlt JlEr^JIIe o: :Jru:::r .-. - ' 'Pqüg uon nt'qtu.t ,:-f ., .' '- : I:c.:; - i: Jror{t

a \EL{

ouo o51)

xxxxr)'r:rsr8eu tueg

snnuataduor arodruat tä olol o;d srurp:o tJ runre(urur olncuad eurs rn'lJndnsrp tu?)srppe ouud ta uaurpro enuarpeqo unroa .rnreqo.rd auald tn 'ruel

ueuad 'lIJJr:-l s'j:.- . -lelur 'tuuJu:r-r :tr:-: :: .rnteuodxa r1nS.:




-?qq? ur rnterf,gaerd unruuarn ?Uur r11r rn8u11 ap srnbrp au 'rnt?egl{o:d ratlur -Jg unJ?tJoxe Jatrl?Jaua8 sesuaruJeqlH soruop:ed unuortr.lldsuo: uruad ur ruerl

Jo qlenroJ 3rP

silt _:.

'lu?lsrppE seJoI]Jnsu?ru srroru ]gn'tu?tsrsur

elols rl?t o)ol 'tuanlon rdrra.r rnb o.lalar ep lrs tn ()un?l 1an arrlle8 rsru Jnt?aual unJor{f?uoru runlntldr: rau :nteuodxa errle8 rsru uou oJata) op r1n8e.r ruorl

["'] 'srsdr qr :ntur8rllrtur tr rue8rllatur tf, 's)rotrarror srurpro lo saJol?lrsrn turJJuan runf 't,r 'aunr1 1an arrgr8 rJatguof trJanrfs turns uedlnr rnb rsru 'sruoE?u trJJnJ tetrrleprn anbtunrsnrnf 'runqf?uoru ur Jntettnup? snllnN :togqE sE lusruturodde roJ p)rsplsuol )q,,(eu dagr rroJeq uorrrgo.rdj0 s.lead eerql oS.rapun tsnru sr)>le)ds qsr.q (lpuolrlppy ( luaualdurr ot rinrgrp put tlaJrrdur urrq e^eq ppo,^d. uonnios pesodo:d atll ua,ta 'dlrunururo) ruseuoru aqr Jo uon))s E ot Jeln)?uJe^ e^neu e se,rl. rpuorJ dluo reqr uJ^rO 'sseJppe ol tuas se,^.r. uaqdar5 srsnoq r{srrl *p Jo uonf,unysdp eqt ot uorlnlos aqr eroJ).rrlll sr urlB-J Jo rllusJJ ur uorlE)runruuror snonSrquEun 'leuorsseJuof, eql ur urleJ tnq 'wuq ?n&ury lr.or»erd egr sr s? snleis rur?s arp .(o(ua or r{8noua snor8nsa.rd


algrsl^ sr Äqr.rt.ralq rlrsrn8ql v'uorssrJuor put esrnof,rrrur r{luar{ rlllq e ur errlod 3o sa8en8uel eqt o;r (qsr.q rou pue) r{luer{ put urt€'J trrlt uonerrldrur rerlf, rrlt qtr.^,'6ZZUo srpnrt rrll ur rtun puorrse prteeda.rdlprrursse osle sr tI (OS)

('ol s8uolaq

ag aldoad rr^ar{rlr{^\3o ssolp.rt8ar 'uIt?'J

Jo rlluau ur stlng srrl ssaJuof 01 Ä\o{ s,\\ou>l aq sselun >luoru ? s? Pe^refal ag Je^a 'os seop rq se ur5o s? roJ elurlrs aqt Burlearq ro3 pruoll?,(rleuad aqr IIBr{s ruo-oN or patra(qns rq esr.{\räqto tI spunodxa rr^roql§ 's>luoru agl .tq pootsrrpun aq pu? pu?tsrapun deru auor iagr uaq,n S.rotrsr,\ pu? sJ^lasruaqt IEJJUoI tou op perepro-lla,r ssrl rrlt t?rlt os r.{ruarJ ur iluo papunodxr eq II?qs rln5 )rlt rrntnJ '07) ur t?qt prarlap dprr.rrs sr tr 'reprO llt ur irru:oyun rq III,I ararlt ter{t oS


(,,uc) 'sluolt?u


-anJ talllaprn anbrun:snrnl'JUn?l1an acrlp8 rJotyuol trJerfs urns urdlnr rnb rsru 'tunl{f?uou ur srnbrlt rnterdrro: uenbun laN 'rnualrs nle:3 ord uerdl:rs t?aunsns

ouEZ qNnou9



Plnor auo-o-\


Pu? P?arq ror :

IrqEg.Jor:.\...:::-: -: -, -

n:lsu: '.": : 'Dalf I elqrssod r: :r;: -'xnr.l:rr13

:: :i::-

3ql r{rr \\ :"*,: r


r{luau ur '."-: ::: aq or rgSno

;:,-i- --


:o 'sa:nldr::( :.--: r '- -oqr Jo aurldi:s;: : *': - . :: -: ouodue uEr -\\o i : ,- -- :: l - : or{,tsuosJad-i1uc'::-- -'. --

ol salfeP sIL{l L{lr'i. : _:: - _ s,4&oU)I ar.{ ssalun r-.- -* : .- : _ .to uoErsodJp -Io .:-: -: - -: l alutnb'tuuf,n+



ons et?ruorpJ rnbs:.



'.'.: - -


-nJUOf Ur ru?lruo':J.:: -_:_-- rrssodonfnlrsur..-J. - . --- :

sngruuo qe ra ru:S..-.: .'' . - - tne srlEJJUaB r1n:r j,: -- : luEIUenuI Unlo] :- :: " -.:i - : : -

ruodxe JJlrr.ulo::'i:

I "tadvq)



In punishment for che conspiracies having arisen throughout the Irish




f,stery, thereby deprir-in: :: is hard to gauge rhe suc:;.,

generally, it is strictly forbidden for anyone of that language to be appointed abbot for a period of three years, so that their obedience to the Order may be fully tested and they may first learn to be students that in time and place they may become more capable masrers wirhout danger to their souls and to the Order.) (99)

no evidence in suppor: -: becoming the most Fre :;.

Summarizing his acrions in a letter to the abbot of Clairvaux, Stephen questions rhe usefulness to the order of monolingual Irish speakers, the potential for confusion, and oft-ers the possibility of study abroad as a solution:

Giraldus and Rogei'8.i.


aurem diliget clausrrum aut librum, qui nichil nouit nisi Hibernicum?

Nec aliud nisi rurris Babel construi poterit, ubi nec discipulus magistrum intelligit nec e conrra nec congrue dinoscitur, ut dum unus petit panem, alius pro pane porrigat lapidem seu pro pisce tribuat scorpionem. Qapropter Hiberniensibus iniunximus, quod si quem de suis in ordine de cetero recipi desiderent, Parisius uel Oxonium uel ad alias ciuitates famosas mittere studeant, ubi litteras et loquele peritiam addiscant morumque compositionem, manifestiusque ipsis ostendimus, quod nullam intendir ordo excludere nationem, sed solummodo ineptos et inutiles et moribus humanis dissidentes; vnde, benedictus Deus, ipsis satis rationabiliter et sufficienter est satisfactum.


(How can anyone love cloister or \ffrit who knows nothing but Irish? It is impossible to consrruct anything but a tower of Babel when the disciple does not understand the master, or vice-versa, and cannot distinguish properly so that when one asks for bread, the other proffers a stone in place ofbre ad and for fish gives a serpent. For this reason, we have enjoined upon the Irish that, if theywant to receive any of their people inro the Order in future, they should send them to Paris or Oxford or other famous cities where they will learn le tte rs and skil1 in speech and ordere d habits, and we pointe d our to them very clearly that the Order does not intend to exclude any race but only the inadequate , useless and uncivilized; whereupon, God be blessed, they complied with this quite reasonably and sufici enrIy.) (27)

Language, rhen, is at the heart of the matter for Stephen. The order welcomes monks of Irish (and other) origin, but use of the Irish language serves as a means

of conce almenr, le ads to poor communication, and undermines the discipline of the rule . While this appears to be the official stance, the phrasing of le tter xxv quored above is more sinister. Not only does it argue for the exclusion of Irish from the monastery, but ic also seemingly links their destructive and disruprive vengeful tendencies within to actions of the colonists without ('in ultionum genris sue').18 If Stephen intends to eradicate the Irish from the ranks, ir is by preventing them from speaking their native language within the mon18

S.. Mac Cana, 'The fuse of the Larer Scho


of f.lidheacht', p. 144.


side of France'.20



Stephen had an ulre :r - : Giraldus Cambrensis G;:= hardly ever wrote u'icht *: . of his family, irs achie'e rr.:l rhe Expugnatio Hibei',i:-.: . his Irishworks, the 6rsr b.... a year earlier. Giraldus h:: '

and worked into the 2,,: -.' of the island and irs inh.:.: fantasy and folklore. A n... praises the French langu:.:. rhe Expugnatio nor the I . appears to have knor,'n ..::in French. It is, of cours.. : \Melsh and that his failur. :a cultivated personä, äcCc-r iI To him, ic went wirhour s.' would speak French and .,. Henry II to rhe counrr'.. .: would also make of Fren;l-. Ivluch has been u'rirr;:. guage in general, and ne :::.: general, he has a fairlv dir. '



Successful or not. as -\1..:. monasrery displays'a blirhe rs.- :-

bution to sacred and profän. -::.:. 20

O'D*y. r, 7be Cortsp;,.;;.

-'2l.nThe lbest ge neral inrr..',c. - - : 22 Topogrophia Hibeniri.;. :: and Tbpography of lreland.



?uaprl to [qdatSo doa y ut,




atll'vfi)W,O Äq'suert :llorurg dq'p, :ErErW,O dq'p, 'atrufiQlH wqdu.tSodol ,, 'sa/vrtrlto

plruag'rlapreg sureru)r snpf.rr3 or uonf,npo:rur praua8 '8E'd'ruot111a7,yto handsuoS






-uo[u 3tl] ulqrl-rt' lr'::.


'SsI 'd'puEIerIJo p.ro1 'ugof 'urlretr{ aas 'arnlerurl auegord put prrles ol uonng -rJluol J^rsstru str puE rusrrus€uoru qsrrlJo i:orsrg JqtJo a:ue.lou8r Jqlllq r, s,(eldsrp drelsruoru arp ur qsrJl Jo asn )qr tnoqe uollsanb s,uagdarg 'lno slurod urlrery sE 'tou ro InJSSellnS 6r rurP dlrrg e s€q 3r.{'lEr3u33 u)^rrp eg pFor{s orl/K'suEr.rEqreg se qsr-rl eqrJo ^5.rr^ uI 'ereq dll"J pe,tn.rr^rr ro pesrEf,r,le.r eq uEf, trrdot rer{treu pue '{l?.rrue8 ur e8rn8 -uEI uo rlsul )qt uo qrog 's,{^ s,snPIErrD uo ur]]rr.^a useq s?q qrnw PUE ,r'se8en8uel Iernteu strJo ruo tlf,urrJJo a>leur osle plno,\\ 'atqda,t7odo1 »,qt Jo olputtstp pr\q1 )qr ur tno plel 'd.nunor )qt ot 11 d.ruapl Jo srurelr or)"J rp eql'rr ureel ot se^n?u agr rredxa pue rl)urq leads plno,\\ puelärl ur stsruolof, ueruroN-orqure3 Jilt regr Surdes lnoqtr^r. rur,^d. rl 'rulrl of 'pe^oru eq r{lrrl.^^. ur s)irrrr euoqdoru?ü rrlt or o1qndef,f,e 'ruos.rad pere^,r.nlnr E ;o r.rtd sr aSen8u?l rrp ur arualeduror otertsuor.urp ot )rnllg srq ter{t pue qsl)A ur uos r)q ot a>1ods pe.reg8uy r?rp rlq?go.rdrur tou 'rs.rnor Jo 'sr tJ 'qlurry ur dn rq8no.rq dpua.redde se.u pue 'a8en8uel .raq Jo eltrrl u.{\ou>l r^eq or s.reeddr snplerrD teqrour r{sl)A e Sur,trg arrdsog 'a7qdu.r&odo1 eqt tou oquuSndxT eqt

uI JJr1treu treqle ' slq ul suorserro IEJr^rs uo a8en8uel q)uJJJ eqr sasre:d tnq'un?-J ur l.1e;rrur snplerr3 '.ql.rnql rqrJo ueru V'rroplloJ pue dserur-; 'as1a grnu pue 'pr,la.oJJoq sr '.rf,^),{ö.orl 'qlnJ,{ 'stuetrqequr str pu? puelsr arlt Jo eruar.radxa leuos:ad svq ouauSndxE x1t pue wqda.tSodol otur po>lro^\ pu?

's8I I Pue €8I I ul suors?f,lo o.r\t uo PUEIsrJ Pstrsr^ peq snplerr3 'r)rlret .reed t re^o 3lurl e paraldu o)'?)xt/.,ta%H uTqda,tSodol eqr Suraq tsrg )r{t ',u. rlsrrl srLI Jo puores eqt se.r\ '6gI I Jo rlr.uruns rqt ur prrlsiu5 ',wtuaqlH oryauSndxg »qt 'uoIS?^uI eqtJo tuno))E srg,.'dltrluqtJ str pue'stuerue,r.e]rpe str',(guey slr{Jo uoltoruoJd egl ot potelrr dlensn 'J^noru rorrrtln u? tnoqtr,tr Jtor,ll -reaa d1p-rrg snplerrD 'lrey u1 'reriree srperap .rnog '(se1e.,4§.Jo pp;eg) srsuerqut3 snplerr) plp os 'q)uarJ Jo rsn eqr Surroruo:d ur r^no(u ror.rorln u? peq uaqdalg y1

saSynSuyflo rüoaql puy ilq)atd aql :uuyg n30y pua


o_.))uer{ Jo

j -,'


eqt ruo4 r{s:r' : -'- r-: l

ur,) rnogtl.{\ srsIUC,'- r : -'- ' Pue e^IlfnJlSJP lI:*: :1" uorsnlf,xJ Jr{t J ol :: : -: : : rorral go Surse:qd :;: :: r : : aurldrrsrp rrir sru.i.--:: -.- : sutaru E sE se.\Jf,s :S:: -i - , -. -:,:. seuoflJ,t\ JlPro


. 7 .'.':-::_ po3'uodn:r:r'.1-',- r : -

auo uJrl-\\ lf .l: -JePUn


lou s:,:: Sr

1l ;'--':

elanbol rr sEJ:r:.' .:: : snrsrJEd'tual:P:.r: j

sngrsuaruraqlll :.:



j '.

snrp "--. -, :

-lJlur run:tsrb'r:*,:






:UOIlnlOS l:i l:.-lIeltueiod aqt 'srJIr=-j, --', --senb ueqdal5 'xnr..^-::-l j


-lno ',ra.8ur1eads-qrua.r1 rql ur due yo arur.r.o.rd qlurrJ rsoru eqr Suruoleq Jo ssrf,ord eql ur ser$. [.rersuntrltr], regr uoniess? slrlJo r.roddns ur o)urpl^r ou sepr,no.rd;ad,u.g,g rrrsrn8url s,uaqdar5Jo ssr))ns eqt a8ne8 ot prer{ sr n,',(rr1od snonrrdsuor lsolu rr)qt Jo urrp 8ur,u-rdap dqe:aql 'd.rarsr

tI 'otnglrut lerntlnr

oulz oNnou3



,"P'Lr:-: :r--

JuorJq nrru i:u': :.-:-- r .- : patsrt :.:-

roqqe paruroddr




rr ::-i=-: -

I nlfuq)




our if they cannot be civilized by the colonists; he is somewhat harsher on the Irish than on the §7elsh, presumably because of his Welsh marcher de scent on his mother's side.23 While he sometimes appears conflicted and frustrated as to his own position and loyalties (although never to the Fitz Geralds), Giraldus is careful to distinguish in the Expugnatio (u,37,pp.244-45) between the various social and ethnic groups which formed the corps of colonizers in Ireland: 'Denique tripertita nobis in primis familia fuerat; Normanni, Angli, nostri in Hibernia reperri' (One final point. Men of thre e races formed the greater part of our garrison, for Normans, English, and men of our race were all to be found in Ireland).2a Here, Giraldus makes a distinction be tween continental Normans from Normandy, Anglo-Normans from England, and Cambro-Normans ('nostri'). Part of his frustration may be due to an awareness that the Marchers were what Bartlert calls a'gens in the process of formation'.25 The translation of the Marchers to Ireland exacerbated the identity problem, as expressed in Maurice Fitz Gerald's speech in the Expugnatio:'Ea iam lege tenemur, ut sicut Hibernicis Angli, sic er Anglis Hibernici simus. Nec enim minore nos odio illa quam ista persequitur insula' (tVe are now constrained in our actions by this circumsrance, that just as we are English as far as the Irish are concerned, likewise ro the English are we Irish, and the inhabitants of this island and the other assail us with an equal degree of hatred) i,23, pp.80-81). Language is a marker of ethnicity, of gens, for Giraldus and generally speaking in this period. So although he does not spe cifically raise the issue of speaking French in Ireland, it seems reasonable to consider his views on the matter found elsewhere in his euure and consider them applicable, taking due account of specific circumstances, to the Irish situation. Beginning in 1 16g,keland was, if anything, more multilingual than §7ales had been when the Normans began their progress we stward. Bartle tt describes §7ales between the end of the elevenrh and the end of the thirteenth centuries as 'a patchwork of Norman lordships and \7elsh principalitiesi adding that


Bartletr, Gerald of Wales, chap.6, 'The Face of the Barbarianl pp. 130-46; Giraldus, Expugnatio Hibernica, ed. and trans. by Scotr and Marrin, p. xxxi. See also Boivin, L'Irlande au MoTen Äge, and Frame , 'Ireland after 1 169', p. l24.The passage from Stephen of Lexington's letter xxv (Registrum epistolarum Stephani de Lexinton, ed. by Griesser; trans. by O'Dwyer, 15) appears ro echo Giraldus's viex, of the Irish as beasts of the fie ld in the Topographia, ed. by O'Meara, p.63; ed. by Dimock, III, x, p. 151; trans. by O'NIeara, p. 101


The invasion of Irel.i::: .. chequered societv of S -:-


framework. A char:r: --: --., uncle, rvas charactcr::: :=.. Flemish, W-elsh, and .:....

Giraldust views on lar.i*.:, and on occasions dras::;=--' comparative philolog', .-:.. fäntasy as scholarh- acu::..:. similarities betu'een \\ : -,. stay

of Brutus and ch. ^:,

Monmouth's Histoi'i,i R., _;:,' cism regarding Geotlre', , .: Eorum autem qui




Graco, propter lingu":-: . tracta est, dictam assc:*:.: : relatio. (1, vii, p. l-8 (Some say that their 1a:.: *::, Crooked Gre ek be caus. : : stay in Greece. This is a:a...: correct derivation.) .rr.:.:-. :

He knows


few words o;1i.',

or place name elemenrs, ,.-. ('caer'); I, vi, p.62 (Rhvd ?-. (Llandewi Brefi ; Llanba..i.:. (Ynys Mön; Ynys Lannog l and Irish (ItinerariuT?l. r;, "


Brrtlett, Gerald of


Mort recenrly,

Ilh,i. :

see Sre



'Giraldus Cambrensis und dr. ---, Ad Putter,'Multilingualism i:- i. . present discussion. 28

The first recension oiD, Cambria from r. 1l9l; boch'...::- bvThorpe, TbeJournel throu.i,i , Grecum'in § 21 of the Histoi:.i : , . Version, tt, p. 17), for which se : r.: :




also Giraldus, Expugnatio, ed. and trans. by Scotr and Martin , p.356

Gerald ofWhles,



'rr-e+z€ 'dd ',rsrn8ur-J Ie^rIprN


':aruurtT osle ars qrlq/e rcJ'(LI'd 'II 'uors.rerl

ruerre^ tsrrJ ar.ll ur rou) VI 'd't 'rg8p2X Iq 'p, 'atuuurx,tg unSay w,tolsxH rtltJo I Z § ul ,runlr.IO runnrnr, asrrgd aqt sasn dalgoag 'say14to uo4drosag aql/sarutr4 qSno"tql ,{autnof aq1'ed:oq1dq 'suerl tuoü rqqruv) dq palrpa ara.,rr qlog :I6I uI sxsuatqu?) pue 'rÄ 'vtado I tpp.tTg IlouIC " 'r tuo{ srlep vltqrua) otldrttsae uolsuaf,)r rsr5 unuafiuqJ rr.ll reqr pue Jo Jo sz 'uoIssnf,sIp tuasa.rd



eqr sE punor8 rrues Jo aruos sr3^ol :002I ', 'salql1 pue puelSug uI tuslpn8urprlnlaq, 'rrtlnd PY 'r)rlelerlrry rur Ueqlsuassr.r,r.q:rrd5 uag:sr13ua rap rtrplqlseC alp pun sISUargtuEJ snPIErIC, 'ssneu9 sapas.radns qllq,!\',rsrn8url IE^aIpJW V 'JtLuuIZ ueJars aas 'd1lua:al lsory ,z '


ÄBolourdra slr sr^r8 pue

OZ' d'salary

lo p/?.tag'rrrpreg


.,?) E '*rrrrq*ry *rn8.rf,'lr,rg.,e)


'96' ',u 9l rH 'd

,r(Z€.2 ''sut-rr) ('uotrt'rtroP lf,erlor eqr sr rr rtqr 1qqt rou op I rnq 'rlqlssod arrnb pue alqtnSr? sI sIqI 'araar) ut dtls Suol.rraqr dq pasntr 'san8uot o,trt l{t;o irr:elruls rrltJo rsn?räq >lear) Pr>loor3 sureru r{Jlrl^\'elrrgru?J rn8utl, agr',(3 pJII?l st a8tn8uel rlaqr reqr.a.ts aruo5)

(szt'a'll^'I)'oIlEIer ?J3^ u)tuEt snullu ']sa srlrursrJJ^ ]J uaprnb srpqeqo.rd 'lunJJSS? UETJIP ']se ?lf,EJl rueJoru ?rJ)JD ur r.ueunnrp qo znb 'tuar?rruge run;rn8u11 :ardo.rd 'oJaJD


orrorsrp',rr ro.1'oferD

-rrn, .,nroa

: lrr qrue J 7 rr.nui3 g o dB o1o tu.,u a s,da.rg o a g Sulp;e8a.r (usll -nders sessa.rdxe snpl?rr3 tnq'(9€I I 'r) utn&ay auolslH s,qtnoruuotr{ yo da.rgorD LUoU rg8re.rrs paUII sI ef,a)rO ur sue[o.r1 )q] put sntnrg yo ders pa8uolo.rd aql .(q paureldxa eg ot are TärrO pue r{sleA ure,^d.toq srltlrellruls er{] reql rytqrua) ory{utsaq er{] ur luaunS:e )qI 'ueunre .,i1.re1oq)s sE dseruel )usrur^neq) qlnul se lea^er sarSolorudre srq g8noglle d8o1o1rqd asues poo8 e alrnb seq )H _z'>l.rer.u rqr Jo rpp,\ dllerrrse;p suols€)lo uo put (peuJoJul-f1e,u srurn)ruos 'epqns diqel-rru)r ere o8en8uel uo s^\JI^ s,snplerlS


ri,r{slrl Pu€ '.qsl31)N 'rlsllualJ 'qsr18ug'rlfuar{ 'aruor ot pur tuasa;d II?, ot pJSSrrpp? illernsr:arler?rlf st,u'rl)un spl?re3 pu? alqersuor s,nog8uons 'sor5 a1 puotule1 Jo rrtrelll V '{ro,^d.atu?U rnsrn8url pue IEn?r tuarrylp ilerelduor ? otur salels qrnos 3o iranos pa:anbagr oloq.^d. ogr

par:odx) rurruapros luonbasqns aqr pue GSII uI pu?lrriJo uolS?^ul rr[L ougz cNnou)


-Prol\ Jo Ij - .,. - - , : -^313 JrpJO PUr ='-i: -:: ,-: ue8eq suer.uJo\ f, -': -: ,. - : 'se,^Apuelsrl'6rl l *" :- - - : lunof,f,e anp Sur>'r: :'- . -: Jelleur stlt uo s-\\r. '. . ._ - :: -1tadsJo enssl lL': :: : - .'-' r '.i :.: = - . --

-1eads d11e.r:u:S

Jeqlo eqr PUE P'-r:-: : -e{ll 'Peujsluor :-: -. i- . -: '_--

srgl dq suonrr i:-.: *. :: - . eru olPo sou f,ro i: -_ ': _: : : lnf,Is Jn 'Jntuf,uar :S.- *, ur pessa.rdxe sE '1..r:-:.- - :

uon?lsueJt Jr{I __'.'-:,: .:: :Jql lelIr s):-:-: : -:



-sou,) sueruJo\'-o.rc.-*:]'

sueuJoN I?tuauuuc PunoJ eq o1 IIE rrr.\.'

r _:: :: :::: ::-


ued JetPe-rB aqr prLL: rj ,.: ,: uI IJtsou'lf8uy'IUu:*-- r-

r.-. .:-


-IJe^ JL{l U)}.\\l rq ( r- -:-:- -


sr snplerr3'(sp1e::3 r: -- : -._'_ ol se i::--

Pstertsn4 PUr

uo lue)SJP

)q] uo


JaqJJELT -1, .-..r-


: .' l

J)r{sJeq rEq.\,.r -,'_






169). Using the Trojan theory again (Geoffrey, Historia, §§ 21-23, r, pp. 13-14; II,pp. 16-18), he famously applies some comparative historical phonetics to explain the forms of the word for salt in seven languages (Itinerarium, l, viii, pp.77-78).2e One of the most extraordinary linguistic passages is found in the Descriptia, where Giraldus discusses the dialects of \Melsh and English,


Giraldus has a gooi. qualiries of both \\ eisi Sicut

and the mutual comprehensibility of the former with Breton and Cornish: Notandum etiam, quia in Nortwallia lingua Britannica delicatior, ornatior, er laudabilior, quanto alienigenis terra, illa inpermixtior, esse perhibetur. Kereticam tamen in Sudwallia regionem, tanquam in medio Kambria ac meditullio siram, lingua pracipua uti et laudatissima plerique testantur. Cornubia vero, et Armorica Britannia, lingua utuntur fere persimili; Kambris ramen, proprer originalem convenientiam, in multis adhuc et fere cuncris intelligibili. Qe, quanro delicata minus et incomposita magis, tanto antiquo lingue Britannie idiomati magis, ur arbitror, appropriata. Sicut in australibus Anglia finibus, et precipue circa Devoniam, Anglica lingua hodie magis videtur incomposita: e a ramen, vetusrarem longe plus redolens, borealibus insula partibus per crebras Dacorum et Norwagiensium irruptiones valde corruptis, originalis lingur proprietatem, er antiquum loquendi modum magis observat. (t, vi, p. 177)

(lt is thought that the \Melsh language is richer, more carefully pronounced and preferable in all respects in North §7ales, for that area has far fewer fore igners. Oth-ffales ers maintain that the speech of Cardiganshire in South

is better articuiated

and more to be admire d. In both Cornwall and Brittany they spe ak almost the same language as in \ü7ales. It comes from the same roor and is intelligible to the \Melsh in many instances, and almost in all. It is rougher and less clearly pronounced but

probably closer to the original British speech, or so I think myself. In the same way, in the southern parts of England, and espe cially in Devon, the speech is nowadays purer than elsewhere . It may well be that it retains more fe ature s and the old ways of speaking English, whereas the northern regions have been greatly corrupte d by the Danish and Norwe gian invasions.) (trans., p.231)

In the case of the Brythonic languages, Breton and Cornish seem to Giraldus closer to the old British tongue . English has been sullied as a result of the Danish and Norwegian invasions, but remains purer in the sourh of England, where foreign influence is absent.3o His awareness of foreign influence and linguistic change is acute, the latter also being visible in his observations on pure Parisian and corrupt English French discussed below. 'e On the salt, see Zimmer, A Medieval Linguisc', pp.340-42.There is more compararive etymology (Greek-Latin-\Melsh) in Giraldus, Descriptio, ed. by Dimock, r, xv. 3o

Cf. Zimmer,h Medieval Linguistlpp. 338-39.

The device is frequen:^'. chat



is absent in Fre r.... I'

hunc verborum


I, xii, p. 189) (It is rtr::.::..-: adorned with othe r i:S,^--, rvhereas other languase . ... rhe point is well take n.: Despite his knon-Ic;:. tering of poetry, Giraii:' ', that he needed the ser',::;, Merlin Sylvester, buc pr...:.: is sometimes word-for-.,',' -- :interpretis officio, pe r:r:, - .quantum idiomaturx pe ir-. : autem in singulis 6de lire : .,: enlisting the help of rhcs. ', As far as the difference -:. translation of most of ci:. :. faithful rendering of ch; '. He managed, with diificu-:' \ü7elsh in Ll!'n (Gwr,'ne cic guistic obscurity: 'Barba:. Usk Castle, Alexander. .::. Baldwin of Forde, archbi,. e cclesie archidiacono ub:: I, v, p. 55). Giraldus rr-a. :: .




O, the alliterative poe::'


.gr.-r.rt 'dd lrsrn8ur-I IE^arp3I{ y ':atuurT aas 'dnaod

a^ItEretIIIE al{t



ty'ls"t srqt SurruroJrrdJo rlqedef, tou dpua.rtdde se^\ snPIETID'(S§'d',t'r 'ounxta,4aLtll[) ,>wa]srxe )taJdJrtur sasual?n3 p? anbrqn ouol?IPlqf,Je els)1f,f,3 srsu)ro8ueg anbonb .lapuexaly :d.lngrrtueJ 3o dogsrqque 'ap.lo{ Jo uI.^A.PIeg roJ Jote.rd.r)tul Llsle/§. sE pat)E ';o8ueg Jo uoleaPqlJe ';apuexelv '.ellseJ {sn ]v ,l^Eltsnlll sluorures )fnl runeT s?.rq)ue] an8ur1 sreqreg, :drr:nlsgo fIlsInS ur -uII stl ruo5 eterrqll ot plPerro.rd uaqr )q qrlq-tl.'(ppeufurC) "{tf qsl%\ ur sarraqdo.rd egr Jo txät € u/Kop >l)Ert ol 'sdts eg .&p:glp qrr,tr 'pa8eueur ag '(tS-gSz 'dd'rrr 'oryau7ndx7) ( )qrJo esurs eqrJo Sur.rapua-I InJWIeJ e ue,rr8 J^er{ I so)uetsur -relnrrr-red aruos uI tnq 'txat )qt Jo lsotu Jo uoIlEISu?Jl pro.^& roJ pro.^^, e ua.tr8 e^eq I '{pr^A.olle ser{ ruolPl uI e)uarrylp aql s? -rg sY 'a8en8ue1 qsltlrg eqt Jo e8pal,nou>l epl^\ E Peq oq.^a lsoql3o dlag eqr Surrsrlua '.rate.rd.ralurJo rlor eqr pallg rroJrrrr1t a,r.eq 1) ,tssa.rdse rrrll)py srln8urs uI tuetne serf,uetuas 'eur-rn1d urnqJJ^ pe ogJ)^'srtrs;e.trp runtetuolpl unruenb ur 'snrqrqpe run)eru srJr^ JlruuetrJg an8url anbonb 'ottgo slta.rd.ralur ;nll8l snt)unJ, :Sur.rapueJ InJrpleJ e sf,urltetuos ',r,t-JoJ-PJo.&\ sJrulloruos sI qllqa'uorsf,r^ IEug rqr roJ elqrsuodsa; seJIestulr{ sluasa;d tnq 'lelse.r.1d5 ul1.rary

errrle.redruol :Joru

a-rnd uo suonr \J:s

-url Pue r)urnHU. 'pue13u1 +o Llrni. aql Jo tlnsrr E s:

snPlerr3 or LUf:!

SAE,\\ DIO tl

:U:- :-: -

S^ED€-\\OU \: ---: : t

' e,\\ arurs ]-': -lnq Prlun., - -- - :-


rlslr,I\ :u: ,- :

Jo slr))qdo:d )r{t rtelsu?rl ot s.raleads r^nEU Jo se)I^res rqt pepäou er{ trqr sn sllet ap1 'a8en8uel otir uI tuang rou Ä1.leall se.^,L snPIerI3'd.rreodSoBur.lar -tetus eqt put sruduodot pue suoudla qslr,4§.3o a8pa1.,ra.ou{ slq arrdsag

ri'ur>ler IIe,!\ sI rurod aqr

tnq'eraq serr.raSSexr )H ' jtzZ 'd ''sue:r) (ltJo IInJ rrt sa8en8uel r)r{to serrll,\\

'auo slqt Jo osn e>IELU rr^eu plnoqs 'se.rn8lj r)I{to Yll,t P3u.roPE dlqrr.r os sr qrrq,tr'qrue.iJ reqr'r)uetsur roJ 'lrerurr sl rI) (OSt 'd'llx'I 'oqdutsaq) ,re;ou8r sns;o.rd 'runr?rrsn r.utr sIIIE ge 'tunteuJo LUn.IoqJJ^ )unr{ 'et?uJo tu?l serle 'en8url ElrlleD ponb ur)tne uInJII^{, :LIf,uo.I{ uI tu)sge sI tI IELII Surppe rroJeg 'lISrlA Sunonb 'sdes aq 'uneJ uI prsn ipuanba.ry sI rll^ap )qI (SS

t 'd 'ilx'r'oqdlnsaq)

,'ogt8uta;ls raL{iII ruarlt JtsII pue 'ade; auagt PJJ sI eJJteg, ,'atr,r\rl? aq8:os IE au '.pl?sl rosl? tr{lou tl?t{ aN, ('uropsr^\ put uatur8 a.rapa8or slpo), : Jrs o.ra^



qlnd rlltnqlp uig:1,

.')run ip rp nip unrqriq, :runporu lunr{ uI JJIUU?]IJg InJIS

:rsrr^ qsrlSug pue rlsla26 qroqJo sarrrlenb r^It?retllle ar{t artrra;dde pue aztuSore.r ot r?r q8noue poo8 B ser{ SnPIETID OUTZ CNNOUS






Haverfordwest in 1188, he was himself preaching the Crusade in the company of Baldwin. He spoke only in Latin and French, although those who knew neither language are said to have been moved ro tears:

Ubi et pro mirando, et quasi pro miraculo ducebatur

a multis, quod ad verbum Domini ab archidiacono prolatum, cum tamen lingua Latina et Gallica loquererur, non minus illi qui neutram linguam noverunt, quam a1ii, tam ad lacrimarum affiu-

entiam moti fuerunt, quam etiam ad crucis signaculum carervarim accurrerunt. (Itinerariuru, r, xi, p. 83) (Many found it odd and some, indeed, thought it little short of miraculous that when I, the archdeacon, preached the word of God, first in Latin and then in French, those who could not understand a word of either language were just as much moved to tears as the others, rushing forward in equal numbers to receive rhe sign of the Cross.) (trans.,


This second instance is particularly remarkable as it endows Latin and French with the miraculous ability to communicate paraverballv with those disposed to accept the message. God's word is expressed through the eloquence of Giraldus: Ab archidiacono Menevensi, cujus nomen pr€senris opusculi tirulus tenet, verbo Domini gratiose prolato' (ItinerariL{.7n, r, xi). \7hen the incident is repeated in Giraldus's autobiography, De rebus a se gestis (after 1208), he adds that St Bernard also preached in French to an audience of Germans with a similar result. However, when che sermon was delivered in German by an interPreter, no-one was moved: 'Cum tamen ad interpretis sermonem eis lingua sua singula fideliter exponenris nihil omnino mori fuissenr' (rr, xviii, p.76).32 -Ihe implication here is not so much that German is an inferior, heathen, language, rather that mere words are largely ineffectual without the passion of commitment, even when their literal meaning is understood.33 In a story first found in the Expugnatio, Giraldus tells how Henry II is addressed in English by a peasanc ('God holde pe , cuning') and uses a knight by the name of Philippe de Mercros as interpreter when asking the man a quesrion: Rex autem militi, cui nomen Philippus de Mercros, qui er frenum equi regis tenebat, de finibus illus oriundus, qui et hec nobis vera relacione propalavit, dixit lingua Gallica:


D, rebus


'Qere a rustico illo utrum hoc somniaverit'. Et cum hoc Anglice



exponeret, subiec:c :..; . -. quis hodie dies sir. lcc- *.,..

,The king for his p:.:: ): u'ho rvas holdinq rr.c :. u'as rvho gave nrc ;^.:. :: Ask chat pe asant rf i.- . in English, he r.p^:.:

interpreter:'\\'herh;: (Expugnatia, l. +0. ;^:



Henry seems to unde rs:...:



pret the peasant's u-o:d, repeat it twice, firsc in :l:


of prophecy in Enslish



(il, xii. p. 1. -

upbringing, but Girald,:, -:. English,



view suppor:cJ.

and French.35

Giraldus's nepheii-. G -, uncle had put his ou-n re : *:


succession to the archde


of withholding from h:::. : of which che se accusatirr:. : Giraldus's vituperarive..j.:.:: ruror, tVilliam de Cape ^^.

Giraldus constantlv and ::


De principis instructit)i.:

production of Giraldust lare:'


.. : ..:


§(/"k.. Map, De nu-qi: -:. :. 'Linguarum omnium que sun: . :.. -h. tum utens et Gallica (And , -l

Jordan, but spoke only Latin a:.: --: Folior, bishop of London (1 1i:-: - : English, in each ofwhich he spc.... On Giraldus's story of He nr-.' ..

gestis,ed. by Brer.ver.


On these episodes, see also Edbury, 'Preaching rhe Crusade in Walesl and Machan, 'Language and Society in Twelfth-Century Englandl u,ho srresses the associarion of multilingualism and prophecy, considering the paraverbalism



form of glossolalia (p. 55).


S.. the introduction rc, t.. by Dawson. Much of the mar-:... itself seems ro have been s'rirr.:. ,

'JerEI sJEJd rg8ra auos uattll,{\ uJag a^ELI ol suJasJlsslI >lro.^A.parlsrugun rqr lnq'g0ZI ruory srrep runysadg rl{r roJ IEITaTEIU ai{rJo qrnry'uos.tteq dq 'suert 'sua8.(ng pu" ar^JJa-I dq 'p, 'lanto?tp utnlntadS'snPIEJID o1 uolllnPoJlul eql ,rS ,,

.rct'd',rsrn8ull uO Ie^rlpatr{ y,'nusturT )as 'tuesead aql pue .{ruag;o d:ols s,snP]erl) .(rc-W'dd'Zl 'r) (a:uanbole put ssauref,p tsarear8 rql qil.t\ sleads eq qrlq,{\Jo r{lea uI 'qsr13uE pu" qruaJJ'unE-I'san8uol arrr.ll ur )tuoq re dlg8noroqt uetu y) ,s11n8urs uI sntJaslP JuIISSIPIInI ra 'a:r13ue arrlle8 runel un:en8url snrurssrluad runln ;r1, :(/8-€9I I ) uopuol jo dorisrq 'loIIoJ

l.rsgllDJo uorluaru s,rrlle/N osle JJ '(tt-gt7 dd'9 n) (g:ua.rl PuE ulle-I.(1uo alods lnq'uep:of ol Eas riluarC )qt tuo5 pasn sen8uol ar{r lego aBpa1.^AoDI e ptg [aq] puy) ,e:r11eD le sueln runl -utt EUnE-J'rutrf,uarf,s suaqtr1 ruJuEpJoI pr anbsn oIIIIEO eJeLU E tuns anb ulnlutuo runren8utl, :s:oudtr4 pue


.(q '.r,ar

'sautf dq 'sur.rr PuE 'P3 'lanqvx.uti uSnu aq'dttr4 '(gzzt

e.{1rea1: sI

tnq'JtEp ot llnr$lp

sI >lJo./t\



'p) srea.( reltl s,snPlerl3»Jo uonrnpo'rd l)EI pur ssaurzel .ro3 m.eqd)u srr{ sprr.rgdn dlssalrr.raru pue dpuelsuor snPIerIC 3P LUeIIIIA 'rolnl ee'Lunfiny tiln/ruads rLIt Jo slseg rql sLUroJ t{rlrl^a 'e11ede3 s(Jett?l Jrlt pue e>lesrr.utu .ra8unod srq rsuleS? rglJtelp a^IleJedntl^ s,snplerl3 JoJ osne) IertJed? f,lntnsuo) dluo trJfgns 3q] )J),^d. suolttsnr)E ]seqt qllq^\Jo III turrouul ot sleodde xll'srryourq pue deuour tulq ruoU Surploqqll^\Jo suonesn)le dq pepr?.lnar eg ot dluo 'uorrrg Jo d;uoreapqlre eqt ot uolssr))ns d.rerrpe.reg q8no.rql tulq Surrurodde dq 1sr.r tE uolletnda.r u,no slq tnd peq rl)un srH 'rter8ut ue PuE lol P?q B s?,^d. 'd-I.Ieg eP snPIerIC ',^{deu s,snPI?rI3

urEJJo rsn s,dru)H s)ssr.Irs osre oqa'drw rrtle/N dq pel.rodd", ^tj;:'r1iX1r§J; Jo )Bpelz'tou>l r^rssed rueredruol E ptq rrl t?qr sarldur snpl?rlD rng 'Sur8ur.rgdn pue qtrlg urory q)uory s,8ury aqr sleads ,(:uap1 ,r'(I8I 'd'l1x ':n) auoutna§ul aO rr{t ur retel pue '(s9 'd'l^ 't) ranttulau!{ eqt uI lsrg (e)L'Kt tI teedrr or q8noue tu?)Uru8rs aropraue srr{t lg8nogr snplerl3 'spro,^l. s,tu?se)d atp ra.rd -rerur or addrpq4 Surpeeu slr{Jo uonu)ur ou sr errrp se gsrlSuE ur dregdo.rdyo p3purlxr ue pue Surraa.r8 aldrurs )r{r qroq puBrsr)pun ot sruees d.luepl

saIU orr13u1- r. -uII




: -_

tlxlp'lI\r':j -:,-


e srsrl






j j


otl'(802I raqE :::

PUE urrE-I S,':'.--tt:




:S::.S-:- -: -'-



t-oi I'dd'07'r'o4au7ndx7) 'lun.I3JJnJfE LUr::.'.- : :, l

u?rrr Jrp or srqr


-ual sr8e: rnb: :-':- -:--

:uonsJnb E uErlr =;: :r'.. -. r *: -; j -*


sr 11 d.ruaH -\\oq s--:-

-llruulo) 3o uorss: 'a8en8uel 'uJL{rE:

)yL re'(9L 'rrr..:i ens en8ur] srr LL: * -Jelul uE ,\q UELU::: qllt\ 5uBru.r:) -


-nln Ilnlsndtr .::-.'z-- -: Jo J)urnbol::-.: -.-;' --,. .--: : -: pesodsrp JSor{t u::


eql o^ralar ot s::a. _*:''se rsnf a.ta-t

uI uJtll PUP u::r- lEr.{] snolnfPrrru - :-



('depor sr rr .(ep rtl{,.lr IIO,\\ IrrIU 'stqt ttura:P J^?tl I tou ro JrrlteLI/N, :;a1a.rd.ralul aqt u?ql rarp?r 8uq ogr Surssa:ppt 'an8uot eru?s tt{t ur porlda.r aq 'qsr18uE ur prlr?rrr rq8rul er{r ueq/N'slqt truterP s?q arlJI tuts?ad rtqr >1sy,

-nuE r.unJ?LUu:r' :r ..-=_ 'tnla;anbof ?rry':n :: : --

:rlluarg ul rulr{ or prrS aH'srue^J Jsar.{rJo runofJ? InJqrnl slq atu a.nrB oq,tr st.r,t tr eq pu?' esor{rJo a^Iteu e sE,\\ rH'rsrorl slqJo rlPlrq aqr Surploq s?,\\ orl,^A pu? 'sorJrJW rp addrpq4 se,\\ eru?u esoq,!\'rq8rul e or alods srq:o3 8uq aq1) 'na.rd.ratur uou'r8a.r suanbol:tIs selp arpoq srnb


'trnbul ',rur:a.r.eruruos for{ J^rS, :rlorJd en8url alll rllelqns 'terouodxa ouEz oNnou)


Iungr)^ pe poni . :'


JSo J: ---i:- -: )ql ur rp:i:-1 .'-:

-r3u .t\au>l or{.\\

duedruor I @daq)




of industry, the consequences ofwhich include his reluctance to devote himself to literature, his failure to learn Latin or French, and to rid himself of his lisp: 'Qia vere puer indisciplinatus et pullus indomitus, qui nec lirteris indulsistis, nec linguam latinam, aut etiam gallicam, addidicisris, nec linguam puerilem ac blesam exuistis, nec maturitatem ullam aut moralitatem induistis' (For, indeed you were an undisciplined brat and an unbroken colt, who neither devoted yourself to literature, nor learned either Latin or even French, nor rid yourself of your childish lisping, nor assumed any marure or decent outlook) (r, pp.32-33). These accusations are repeated in the second part of the Speculum (rr,pp. L3Z-33).In contrast, the very model of an eloquent and learned young man is provided by one John Blund, whose excellent French had been learned by paying diligent attention to the lessons of his uncles, Robert and tWaker. Noteworthy here is Giraldus's obse rvation that John had never visited France, but had profited from the travel experience of his rurors: Non hic autem magister Iohannes Biundus, iuvenis eloquens et eruditus, ignoravit maiorum suorum et seniorum scienciam atque doctrinam, non aspernans, set

viribus totis amplectens. A quo cum aliquociens quereremus quanram in Francia moram fecisset, qui Francorum lingua tam recte, tam delicate et delectabiliter, tanquam materna sibique nativa loquebatur, respondit se nunquam mare Gallicum transfretasse, set ab avunculis suis, duobus viris lirteratis et eloquentibus, magistro Roberto Blundo et magistro §7altero, Lincolniensi canonico, qui diu in Francia studiis indulserant, se tam literaturam in Anglia quam etiam ydioma Gallicum addidicisse nec se minorem operam ad hoc quam ad illam adhibuisse. Qinimmo, quociens ab illis verbum aliquod Gallicum, elegans et defecatum rudique Anglorum a Gallico et feculento longe alienum, prolatum audivit, statim illud vel stilo vel calamo memorie tenaci commendavit nec animo placatus esse potuit donec idem verbum loco postmodum et tempore coram avunculis suis et in audiencia suavi et vernanti eloquio suo in casu pronunciasset. Unde, quod illi, remotis in partibus, laboribus et lucubracionibus mulcis adquisierant, hic nepos eorum in patria sua, ad pedes eorum sedens et audiens eisque iugicer assisrens, id sibi quidem ingenio docili studioque laudabili et diligencia perutili bonus emulator et imitator comparavir.

(However, this young man, MasterJohn Blund, an eloquent and learne d youth, did not ignore the wisdom of his elders and betters, and did not look dorvn on learning, but embraced it rvholehearte dly. §fhen, on occasions, we asked him how long his sojourn in France had been - for he spoke French so correctlx so pleasantly, and so delightfull,v, as if it were his mother tongue - he replied that he had never crossed the Channel, but had learnt both the lirerarure and rhe language from his uncles, Maste r Robert Blund, and Master §7alter, canon of Lincoln both edu-


cated and eloquent men, who had long studied in France - and he had devored Iin England] as much time to the literature as to the language. Moreover, whenever he


heard chem utter Soir-.: ; -:


from the corrupt Frc::.-:- : :

ber it more easilr-, nrai: . ,-. own mind, uncil he h-:; .-::. hearing of his unclcs. .r. r : had acquired in fbre:i:.:.:: nephew of theirs - . :.:. sitting at their feet. lr':.:.. : because of his docile n::--.: /(I,pp. >6-> / )

A century and a half of i c... to the extent that Äng^,'-\ §7e noted above thac G::.-

remained free of Danish --: ). And it is also worrh unic:--. much time to literarure a, :. Although he does nor .: Giraldus, Latin and Frenc: : kinds of communication. ; Cambro-Norman eccles i a :-. tradition of the church. H:s but the language prospere d .: four centuries after 1066. .have approved.3s For Gira.; s


This may be the Aristore


rurn, ed. by Lefevre and Hur-g.:, England' for'in Anglia] rror rrär :.. 'Marlborough French'in the sar-.. Brooke and Mynors, v, 6, pp. +9638

It ir difficulr ro arrribute r-,there are few obvious linguistic :.freely between England, the \\i.,. from Old French inro Middle \\ e .,. by \Welshmen in England. Simor. !. French on Middle Welsh orrhos:. examined rhe use of French in \\... garrison town, from r. 1295 thoL::. tions, and deeds were commonl',' ', in both languages, from French ::. 'Il y a peut-ötre trös peu de litrt,.;:

§l sed tsru al sretu '.srlle5 ep sded nE aputrulou-ol8ue atfiryt?ltxl Jp nrd sart 3rla-tnad e d 1, reqr s)pnpuol rH 'qluarJ orur rlsla/§ ruo5 pue rlsla,46. orul tlruf,r{ tuo.r3'sa8en8uel qroq ur .leadde spro.4d.ueo-I 'por:ad erues Jr{t Bulrnp qluaJ{ ur urtlrr.r{ dyuotutuo: aJe.& spaop pue 'suoll -rlad 's.raual rtqr pu? 'd.rntua: qturrtrnoJ erpJo elpppu agr q8nogl S6ZI ') tuo5 'u,lrot uost.ue8 e '(pd,r,r13) d.,ruo3 w arua,{an7uq rqt s",rA. tr Bumoqs 's3lql6 uI qlurrJJo asn eqt peulrutxä sEq p$eq'8aeru.{3 's.rBae:ud;,1,'.(e.t'po5 aas :dqde.rSol{rro tlsle,4A. TIPPIW uo qru3rJ 'pue18uE ur uaruqsla2X dq Jo rrurngul alqrssod aql prrrprsuo: Äpua:er osle ser{ de.,npog uoruls ruop ara^\ suorreldepe rqr Iie sselun 'srqtJo q8noua3oo:d sr gs1a2g alppltrA[ o]ul rpurr{ PIO tuory suonetdtpt Jo rlurlslxa aql '.radord srltlN pue 'saq:rtI{ tlsla,4§ :qr 'pue18uE uee.^,Llrg d1aa.r; parelnlJrl f,^eq lsnru stdl::snueu ssnEf,aq ,tpred pue 'lods Suraq Jo JI"q e pue d.rnruar


(ts-gs 'dd'r) ('arua8rlrp .rado.rd.(puaurua srr{ pue 'l?rz elq?pntl pu? rrnt?u allrop slqJo rsnr)aq 'rueqt grr,u duedruof tuetsuo: Surdaal pue tuar{t ol Suruarsrl 'rJaJ JII{I r? Sunlts 'luoq rE Jl3sr.urq .ro; pa:rnbfe - Jorerlrul snoltaz pu? rug ? - sJIJqr;o ,trogdau srr{r 'uont.rqnrnl alq?raprsuor pu€ rro5a rea.r8 grr.u sued u8raroJ uI parrnbrt perl daqr rrq,tn 'os :.rruueru ruanbola pue i1a,tr1 'rutstayd slq ul 'sal)un slq Jo 8ur.lear1 pu? oluJsa:d aqr ur 'txJtuoJ ur,(pra::ol pro^\ Jrp pa.rerrn ptr{ rq 1tun 'pulru u,&\o slLI ul p)gsn?s tou st,r\ pue 'pruad e ;o uad E qtr,!\ Jtou € Jp?ru 'ipsea Jroru tI roq -rraluer ot rrpro ur'.{larrrparuur rq'aldoad qsrpuE rr{rJo qlurrl tdn.uor eqt tuo5 tuaraglp d.ra,t se,tr'asr.rqd rlluar{ a.rnd put rutSola rruos reun u)ql pr?*{

3q le^3uarl-r'J:,i.':: - -.,- ::: ut] paror:p p?'q : j : -: -nP) qroq u..'_'- .:


slq ruoU a8rnFu:- r --: :




JsAJu PEr{ aL{ 1r--: :: ::- '(puesrald os ",':::-- r . rr:i: : : _: I

3uo1.t.t.oq turq

-UJEJI uo u-\\of \' plp'qrno-i Pru:::-

: -= : -'

'tr.r,r:rdruo: i - :=: .-


otua8u::-:: -: --:--


pe 'ens rr.t:rJ


'sngrt:rd ur (:: --:lJ IAEnS ?rf Ut:::' : _ .: luJPI )euoP l.:.: - :- .-., Ir^olrls


F:.": .* _-_.

-opuy anbrp:.: --'::'otut-ututfr§':.-'r r.unlrTIES

?:'i. :


r -.




EIJU?JI ur :.:: ': : o.nsr8rru 'snc.: ....- -- -.

LUnIIJIP) :-:,r .-=-. -uEt'Jttrl:c.::::-:: :: :--

rIJUErl Ur -*r: -: l-


les'su?ul).i.: - - .-


-ou8r 'snlrp:.:: r: :.-: l

'arue-rg patrsr.\ r:..,=1- : : '):-: _: 'rr]lE1trN PUE trrqoti 'Psureel uärq PELI J: -i: _: _: Sunod prurtrl pu? : *.:-- , tunlntadg rqr +o r:ri : -- :: 'I) (1oo1lno rurrrp : - :,:-:: -Jnod p!: rou 'qru::i -: .: PelO^3P J)rltrsu oL'.:. -": _ prrpur'JoJ) ,snsrnp-: f,E ruallJend uenSuj' r:r :. .- : : r:: -: : .

'sIlSISInPUr SrJJttrl :dsr1


Jlrsrurq elo^rP

ouEZ oNnou)


o1 :

I ..:: ::- - :

y .ratdaqS




be restricted to insular French and Parisian French, and it will be recalled that Stephen of Lexington suggested sending the Irish monks to Paris and Oxford co learn proper French and Latin (it is not clear whether he thought they would learn decent French in Oxford).

The linguistic thinking of Roger Bacon, the so-called 'Doctor Mirabilisi writing several de cades after Giraldus, was of a different order, formed within another tradition, but it nevertheless offers insight into how languages and language variation were seen in the thirteenth century, and perhaps earlier.3e He divides languages into three groups: 'wisdom languages' (Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, and Chaldaean [Aramaic]), Latin, and the vernaculars. The vernaculars are the preferre d languages for preaching. In rhe Opus maius (1267 -68) and the Cornperudiurn studii pbilosophid (1272),40 Bacon, who had studied and taught at both Paris and Oxford (with both of which Giraldus had been associated), stresses rather the variety of continental forms of the language and its fundamental unity, failing to mention the insular idiom: Sed sermo est Chaldaus, Chaldaus enim sermo et Hebreus

differunt sicut idiomata unius lingua; ut Picardicum et Normanicum, Burgundicum, Parisiense, et Gallicum; una enim lingua est omnium, scilicet Gallicana, sed tamen in diversis partibus diversificatur accidentaliter; qua diversitas facir idiomata non linguas diversas. Nam t\rcv Grcce est propriunt Latine, a quo idioma, id esr, proprietas loquendi in aliqua lingua; sicut inlingua Gallicana, qu€ est una, ,rr.,, rnol,* diversitates seu idiomata; ut Picardicum, Normanicum, Burgundicum, et Parisiense, et hujusmodi; secundum quod est varietas regionum. (Cornpendium,yr, pp.438-39) (But the word is Chaldaean, for the Chaldaean and Hebrew u'ords difttr as varianrs of a single language; as Picard and Norman, Burgundian, Parisian, and the speech of the ile-de-France; for it is the same language for everyone, that is to say, French, but nevertheless it happens to vary in differenc parts, which variation creates dialects, not different languages. For i\rcv in Greek is propriurn in Latin, whence idiom, that is to say, the property of speaking in a certain language; just as in the one French language there are many differences or dialects; such as Picard, Norman, Burgundian, and Parisian, and so on; this is caused by the diversiry of the regions.)*] une raison pour exclure le Pays de Galles des ötudes dela langur anglo-normande'. See 'L'anglo-frangais au Pays de Gallesi p.477.



Fo. an excellent analysis of Bacon's views on language, see Lusignan, Parler uulgairement, sens de la langue et des langues chez Roger Bacon'; Rosier-Carach, 'Roger Bacon and Grammarl

pp.63-77; Bourgain,'Le 4o

B".o.r, Compendiurn studii ?bilosophie,ed. by Brewer; Opus majus, ed. bv Bridges. " Cf. also Bacon, Opus majus, ed. by Bridges, rrr, pp. 66-67,where he adds that'Er quod proprie dicitur in idiomate Picardorum horrescit apud Burgundos, immo apud Gailicos vicin-


Later in the Compenri:t;ii.. r. of English (echoing Gir.^:: and its speakers: Nos eciam videmu:. c--' et proprietates



loque:..: -:

occidentales; in Fran;:. gundos, et alios. ,\-I--.





(For we see rhat a> i:. ::.: . manners and characlc:.::.- -

North, the South, rhe E.-: . the pure French, the B,:::,-.

The idea of the suppose d




il.-d.-F.rnce has a lons 1^.:,: I have brought to b;.: related to the Irish conre..,: reflect atticudes to langu:.:. have informed , rnutAti-; i,;:.: Principal among these is :l- = tigious languages, onlr- 1ir -,. arrenrion paid to English :.. Giraldus the language of ::.. §Talter Mrp suggests char :: . -

iores' (And what is said in rhe c..., their closer neighbours, rhe Fre :-:. Lusignan, Parler uulgairent.erit. :. -' a2

Lusignan, Parler uulgaii.,,,.. philosophia, ed. by Brewer, \-r. : =see also Lusignan, Essai d'bi-rro:,,

douter les habitants de la rdgion : = Roger Bacon', p.325, undersra:.:, erscheinrl hier plausibel, die Be z-.: hen, Gallicana schernt sich als a':,:. zu beziehen' ([it seems] plausib^. .

ile -de -Fr"r, ce

; Gallican/tr

se en1'



French). See'sprechen über Sp:=: sociolinguistique, p. 104, points c, *: can sound ridiculous ro rhe spe ;:-: examples given are'Picardicum' .:.:- -

'r.unf,rllED, PUE ,unfrPJef,rd,


u3^I3 sslduExs

aql '06 'd 'ra.trarg dq 'p, 'runxLtat sndg 'p :rar.{loue yo s:aleeds arp or snolnllplr punos uef, lJälerp auo reql lanqat sndg atp ur slre{uer osle raSog ttqr rno slutod 'r1l 'd'anbusmSuryottos anolsxq,p russ7'ueu?§n-I'L6-96I 'dd'arqllqlsrD pun aqre.rd5.raQI uaqta:d5, aeg'(grua:g Jo EOJE rrrsrn8url aJnua Jr{r ot uonou tlrJtsge uE sE pJtrlJJ sruJas vunxryut:aluEU-JP-alI eqrJo lralerp aqr ol tumql?g uoneu8rsep aqt etelar ot'a.rat1 alqrsneld [suaas l]) ,uagarzaq nz uar{)srsozu"rJ sJp rarqa8qrerdg aturesaB sep jnegr.r8eg retltrtsqE slt r{rIS tulrllts vuwql?g'u)q -evegnz rruer{-rp-ell rrp r{elerC uäpJnE Lutnryyg Sunuq:tazaB elp'laqlsneld rerq sal, :ae;8e uJlzusny pue '.JJUJeH'lJSnEC pue'uellue5 al, spu€tsJaPun'SZ€. 'd'uo:eg raSog zaq: sanBuEI sap ra an8url EI Jp suos a1, 'ureS.lnog 'auuarsrJed uor8a: EI ap stuellqtrl sal JJlnoP sed ua,u E, :,sorrlle3 so:nd, JoJ'gr-Lr1 'dd'anbtlvn&uryonos afiolflq,? russE'ueußISn-I oslt rJS :(euerrlpg,Jo turle^rnba atp'a'r) ,srr5ur.l3 ay .rnod, sE (8€7'd'I^'re.ttrrg dq'p, 'rTqdosoyqd llyUs tunryuadruoS'uo:eg) 1eads

ot q)rq,^A ur a8en8uel uorutuol E p)peau J^eq plno,\\ daql 'san8uor Jer{tour Jo .requnu t p"q dno;8 retttl eqt JI pue 'une-J r{)nru ualods r^Er{ or (1ary1 a.rr stsruolo) rrlt rou dlarros rlslrl Jo suollrlra .raddn *{l rrrprrN 'deg .^Aouu?g ur rstS.rapuard ap )rrrn?trA[ pue'Ä;uaH zrlJ.rrllrl^['ueqdar5 z]rg rrrqogJo Ie^rrre oLIt rJoJeq sJSe) Jruos ur 'spuno-r8ryeq Jelnrrs pue f,rtseuoru qtoq uroü 'elue.rg

I"tu)urtuol pue 'pue13u3'se1e2X tuo5 'grua.rgJo srnerre^Jo

s-ra>pads qtr,lA.leep

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I ßdvq)




end to Muirchertach's short-lived arrogance towards the Enghsh by imposing travel and trade embargo:


about the saint 's inte r','.:-: traders en route: for Ire ^.: :


nescio qua de causa paucis diebus inflatius in Anglos pro interdicto nauigio et mercimonio nauigantium tumorem pectoris se dasse . Qrnti enim ualeret Hibernia si non annauigarent merces ex Anglia? Ita pro penuria, immo pro inscientia cultorum ieiunum omnium bonorum solum agrestem et squalidam multitudinem Hibernensium extra urbes producit; Angli uero et Franci, cultiori genere uitae urbes nundinarum commertio inhabitant.

Vicus est maririn-ius 3:-,: ideoque illius rerrae 5.::.. causa mercimonii ur :::-portui allapsi. nec ::...: ubique miraculunr.

Qanuis feratur Murcardus

egisse, sed mox

(There is a rorvn on:;-.: .:. Ireland; hence ia is rc:'. :

(Although it is said that Muirchertach for some unknown reason once for a short rime took a high line with rhe English; bur finding communicarions by sea cut off and all sea-borne trade, he soon piped down. \ü/hat would Ireland be worth without the goods that come in by sea from England? The soil lacks all advantages, and so poor, or rather unskilful, are its cultivators that it can produce only a ragged mob of rustic Irishmen outside the towns; the English and the French, with their more civilized way of life, live in the towns, and carry on trade and commerce.) (v,

world. Some Brisroli:... .voyage to Ireland


not much later retur..a-, miracle abroad.) ,pF.-,r-


Not all early commer.c r;l the same secrion of che I;.--

409, pp.738-41)

Once more we se e the supposed cultural urban superiority of England and France over the majority rural population of Ireland. As poor and ignorant as §Tilliam thought them to be, their appecite for English and French goods was sufficiently strong for Henry to use it as a means of coercion against Muirchertach. The latter's control of Irish ports was significant in other ways, as will be seen below. A charter of Henry II dated c. 1175-76 confers trading privileges with Dublin on the citizens of Chester, referring to earlier practices: 'Habendo et faciendo easdem consuetudines quas faciebanc tempore Regis Henrici avi mei et easdem ibi habeant rectitudines et libertates et liberas consuetudines quas tempore illo habere solebant' (Having and acting upon rhe same customs which they enjoyed in the time of my grandfather, King Henry, and having the same rights and liberties and free customs which rhey used to have at that time).66 \Tilliam of Malmesbury further attests to the importance of Bristol as an early trading port in his Wta Wulfstani (after 1126),67 where prayers bring

this miracle \Tulfstan F,-:: .. which neither rhe love c,: rable to accomplish. His r.' Homines enim ex on::.- ---. trahebant, ancillasque ::. --, ponebant. Videres er E.:- :. : sexus adolesce nre s. qr:. .: -- cotidie prostitui, corid:: _. beluini affecrus nrenlo:.. suum, seruituti addice r.: .

(For they would bur' :r :-. =. hope of a profit, *., j pr, ..- .

making rhem pregnan:, ':. _ roped together, yourl{ r,r: ance would have arouse c r : sale every day.


that even beasts




el sh,:

flesh and blood!) (pp. ; 66

Qot.d by Round, 'Earlv Irish Trade u,ith Chester and Rouen', pp.465-67. The rrade in que stion rvith Rouen is that of marcen skins in I 130-3 1, also me ntioned in rhe Dome sday customs of Che ster. Giraldus (Tbpograpbia, ed. by O'Meara, p. 129; ed. by Dimock, p. 58; rrans. by O'Meara, p.48) mentions rhe abundance of martens in Ireland. 67

I., §filliam of


§Tinterbottom and Thomson.

ry, Wta Wulfstani, in Saints' Liues, ed. and trans.


In the Gesta (ut,269,p1, =-slave trade to the joinr e ri,::: 68

S.. Peherer, Slat'ei'., :,.

that the slave rrade beru.ecn F-


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J.rJlrpp? nntrn.rf, s'r.unns

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.(ap qrrq.\'.

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Archaeological excavations show that trade between Dublin and the Normans in §7ales, England, and France was established shordy after Hastings, and rhe same is true of other cities. The various \7ood Q"y excavations (L974-93) have nor only provided rich material from Dublin's Viking period, but also twelfth-century earthenware, pewter, and bronze with distinct northern French fearures, predating the invasion of 1169. All evidence points to the conclusion thac Ireland had become part of the mercantile community of England and Northern France long before the arrival of the colonists, and that the 'normannisation' of Dublin had begun a century before the popular view would have it.6e Benjamin Hudson has shown that §Tilliam the Conqueror showed an early interesr in Ireland and had concacts with Toirdelbach Ua Briain at the same time that ecclesiastical and trade relations were French and English pottery from the lare elevench-century through the mid-thirteenth has been found at §Taterford and Trade and migration of tradesmen and artisans took place in borh direcrions. Richard Gem has argued that an Anglo-Norman archirecr was involved in rhe building (c. 1100) of St Flannän's oratory in Killaloe (Co. Clare), under the patronage of Muirchertach Ua Briain, and reminds us that Muirchertach had permitted \X/illiam Rufus to obtain wood from Oxmantown Green, near Dublin, for the roofing of \X/esrminsrer Hall in 1098.72 The moneyer of Pembroke who minted coins from ll25 onrnards in the reigns of both Henry I and Stephen was called Gillapatric (Giolla Phädraig, 'devotee of Patrick').73


S.. Martin, 'Diarmait N{ac Nlurchadai pp. 5?-53; fuchter, Mr dieual lreland, pp.lZ4-25; pp.5-6. On Wood Qa1,, the site of a Viking se ttlement in Dublin, see especially \7allace, '\7ood Qry, Dublinl Anglo-Norman Dublin: Continuity and Changel 'The Archaeology of Anglo-Norman Dublinl and most recently, Yiking Dublin: Tlte Wood QuaT Excauations. Plans ro develop Wood Q"y proved controversial and culminated in a massive Frame, Colonial lreland,


Diarmait Mac Nlurchai. : hclp u'ith his campaig:. : French, English. \\ c^,:. needed a means of un-:::.: nication.T5 It is reason:'r--

did not learn Irish. rar:c: : Latin. Commercial do; *.: Latin texts concerninl ::. -

actual transactions be rii';::. century, albeit someu'i:.: :, Norse Konungs skugg:_'.; j.the methods of condu.:::.: The son should fi.r, n-.=.,.

rvillt weröa fullkomenr: . :: inu oc walsku . Dri-iar r=: : pe rfect in your k.,o.tle d:. and French, for these la::*. a widely accepted and u..; of the Konungs skug-,./.i, Maryanne Kou'ale'k: ::: of Oldron may have be e :: ... first quarte r of the thirre -.. neede d long before the r : requires the attenuarior. :' compromise idiom corlr r; regular contact b.r,t.... ;, seas merchants and nau... : co those who argue rha: -^

proresr march rn 1978; the developers eventuallv prevailed. See also Bradley, Ltiking Dublin Exposed: Tlte Wood Qualt Saga, and Heffernan, Wood Quay: Tlte Clash ouer Dublin\ Yiking Past. t0 H,rdron, '§Tilliam the Conqueror and Irelandl and fuchter, 'The First Century of Anglo-

Martin, 'Diarmait ^\la: -.: Brut y Tywysogyon, ed. bv _Tc-:..,

Irish Relationsl


7' S.. Hurley,'Garervays to Southern Irelandl pp.37-38, and O'Brien,'Commercial Relarions berrve en Aquitaine and Irelandl pp. 3l-43 on Normandv and northern France. t' G.-,'Sr. Flannän's Oratory at Killaloeipp. 86-88. 73

S.. Hancock, 'The Pembroke Minci and Boon, Coins of the Änarch1t, pp. 11, 20 (irem 5); eleven coins minted bv him are known. The N[ac Giolla Phädraig clan rvere the hereditary rulers of Ossory (Osraige), although given its meaning, the name is extremelv common in Ireland, and is nowadays anglicized as Fitz Parrick.


Tywysogyon, Red Book o_f H,._;, where ships from Dublin ani :.Gwynedd. Despite failure , He :.: 75 See

Th"r much of a seconc ..-. Nlurray,'Henry rhe Intcr:::::

76rrt " Konungs skuggsiä, e d, 'n base d on an earlier edirion of :: .



Ko*aleski,'The Frencl-- - : I

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J^eq Plno.^A. ^\\f,r.\ rr':-l -ueurJou, eqt tEqr PU:



d1.rea uE p),^A,oqs

pue puelSuE jo .ir:u: '--' --. uorsnl)uo) Jr{r or ir-:. j -.

qlulJ{ uJaqlJou lru:::.: -osle lnq 'por.lad Su:-".-'- ; ' Ge-Yrct) suonr'rrrri' :put 's8urtseH .raqr i-:: - -' : -rol{ )qt Pu? ullqnc -:r :.I @d?q)




French'(p. 116). The use of French on che Atlantic litcoral, including che littorals of Ireland and the North Sea, may in some contexts have been restricted ro a common argot, a limited pan-oitanic lexis, as the documentary survival of cerrain naurical and trading terms attests. It would seem clear that three modes of discourse and communication can be discerned here: lexical, mercantile, and legal. There is after all, even during relatively basic negotiations, a limit to what can be achieved by gesture and increasing the decibel level.

The turbulenr evenrs of Diarmait Mac Murchadas reign as King of Leinster (1L26-71) are among the best-known of Irish history.Ts Dispossessed by Tigernän Ua Ruairc, king of Brdifne, Diarmait soon managed to regain his thio.r., and in 1152 is said to have abducted the latter's wife, Derbforgaill ('the Helen of Ireland'), akhough the consensus appears to be that she we nt willingly, possibly encourage d by her brother, Mäel Sechlainn.Te In 1166, Tigernän invaded Leinster again and deposed Diarmait once more, whereupon the latter fle d to \7ales, England, and finally to France in search of military aid from Henry II. \ü/hen he eventually found Henry in Aquitaine,sc Diarmait received little more than moral support, although the king's permission for Diarmait to approach his Anglo- and Cambro-Norman vassals in England and \7ales was ro prove one of the most significant decisions in the history of Ireland. One of those who agreed to help Diarmait was Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, better known as Srrongbow, to whom Diarmait oft-ered his daughter, Aoife, and eventually, the throne of Leinster.8l Diarmait regained his throne a second time, 78 Excellerrr accounrs of Diarmair are to be found in Martin,'Diarmait Mac Murchadal and Flanagan, Irish SocietT, Änglo-IVorman Settlers, Angeuin Kingship, pp.79-11L. 79

Giraldus, Expugnatia, ed. and trans. by Scott and Martin, l, 1,pp. 24-25, cannot avoid indulging in an anti-feminist aside here, quoring'Varium et mutabile semper femina (Virgil, -Eneid, w,569), while at the same time having Diarmait burn with love for her ('igne dudum accenso'). See also Expugnatio, p.286 n. 6, and more recently, Preston-Matto, 'Derbforgail's Literary Heritage' and'Qeens as Political Hostagesl Giraldus , Expugnatia, ed. and trans. by Scott and Martin, r, 1, pp. 26-27, simply says 'in remotis er rransmarinis Aquitannice Gallie parribusl 'rvhile La geste des Engleis en Yrlande, ed. by Mullally, 11.258-i9, is even vaguer: A une cird l'ad trovd I Qe seignur esteit clamdl Mullally emends to'saumur'; see her note on p. 155 for the justification. 80



and Anglo-Norman Intervention in lreland'. Flanagan suggesrs (pp.65-66) that it may have been the Bristol merchant, Robert Fitz Harding, who put Diarmait in rouch with Richard. See also her lrish Society, Änglo-it[orrnan Settlers, Angeuin Kingship, pp. i16-17 and on Diarmait and Fitz Harding, Bradlev, A Tale of Three Ciriesi pp.57 -60. Crick, "'The English" and "The Irish"', pp.228 and233, refers to the relations between Diarmait and Fitz Harding in the context of language contact.


also Flanagan, 'srrongborv, Henry


R.ichard and Aoife \\-e r. :--.: ;iaimed the succession '.'.:.. iar-after the first ships -..:.;

When Diarmaic se : ::. Aoife and his r,r,ife, \lc: :ing to an early thirre e r:-.Abbey, Dublin:'una .--: rhe toxic situation in L;-.., anvwhere in Ireland. H.'..: Robert Fitz Stephen. \1.--: in Augus t LI67 ri-ith ci . '.'' of Rhys ap Gruft-r'dd. i: :.: Ua Conchobair and T::.. hostages and a


- '-

Derbforgaill, he retire i : arrival of his neu-fbund .-. on the period ll6- -69 .': -' ring to mention eve ncs :: - of the where abouts oi \ I : : rhat Diarmait did nor r;..;. thar rhey remained in S -- *: be resolved. I[ then, ]l,r: . they would have been s*:: France, and would har-e :.::had not learned eleme nts ,-: the pillow-talk betu'een i^..: years in Chesterford E's1188; the milieu would l.'. The marriage of Ricl-... union between a Cambr,:'-) of Robert Curthose agair.,: joined his brother, Robe r: : -


Register of tbe Äbbe-r :;-


out that there is disagreen-ren: - .. Kingship, p.97 and n. 53) re r.:--. 83



Giraldus, Expugnarir,. =.r l

tn My thanks to David

C r,:




.rzL-OL'dd,,pue1a:1 ur uonua^rrtul ueruro5l-o13uy pue II i:uap1 ',u.og8uo:r5, 'ue8euelg eJIoyJo s:ead agr uo rroru roJ 'uone^resgo sltil



'92'u t6-Z6Z'dd'unrtry



JoJ qrnor3 PI^ECI ol s>lueqr trtrntr ,,

tlors dq'sue:r PUE'Pr 'oqauSndxT 'rsnPIerIC


s>lrtrurr (gS '" pue L6'd'd7qs3u2y utnafluy sfilgaS uaru.ro1tr-o13uy'fuanog qs1,tJ) ueßeuel{ sE 'lo.rgturdJo IrEr'd.rauo8ruory aPJInu.IV'I d.ruag lsule8e ssor{lrnJ uegogJo uorllogar eqr Sur.lncl 'ssaf,ul.rd qsl.r1 u? PUE u?turoN-orquleJ e uer,^ll)q uolun perrdsur dllerrrrlod rs.rg rqr rou st.^.r TIoV pue prtr{tlu Jo a8rrueu eq1 or'auoqdoluE.IJ ueeq r^eq PIno,^A. noliltu eqr :88I I ur u^\o rrtl Iltun gLII uI qteeP s.PreqrlU.IsUE (xassg) ProJ.Irlsrrlf ul s;eed e^lr.^^.1 roJ p3^rl eJlov 'are1d >lool pr?qlru PuE Jlesrrq ure.^(\l)q {le]-/!\olld eql nrolpl q)lq^a ur aur8rrur ol preq sr tr 'a8en8uel aqr Jo stueturil peu.Ieel tou Peq aJlovJI 'r{lueu uelods 3o aSpel,notr)i )rseg E Pr.Ilnble r^eq PFo-^a PUe 'ef,uerJ pu? '.sole/§ 'pue18ug uI dq papunor.Ins u)eg ,^eq p1noa. dagl ' rrrql roJ puEIrrI ruo5 tursge rre,^d. 3JIov pue rgry 'urtlt JI 'P)^losrr 3q ot Jrrsure-J ur sJr?ge JoJ 8unre,lo. IotsrJg ro s)leA qrnos uI pauIELUet dagr regr trlr{ll eror,u sI tI E8'puelarl ot >l)"q urlq qtr,l.r turqt r>l?t lou plp r}eur-relq ler{l etEtlrp ppo.^d. esuf,s uourruof, g8noqlle 'TIoY .Io row Jo slnoge)req.{{ eql Jo uonueru ou r>ltur sleuue qsrJl Jrlt :s-read o,^at esor{l tuoü sluJ^3 uoltuJul ol Surr -truro uf,^o .ro Surdor §pi alsag eqr pu? snplerl3 qroq '69- L91 1 por.rad eqt uo lualls 3re sr)rnos Iensn rqlJo lsotr{ 's3lEA tuou S3IIIE PunoJ-.tlu slgJo Ie^Irre eqt tl?,lne ot 'daqqy sur)J Jo uoltepunoJ u.^Ao slq ot Prrllrr eq '11re8:oJqrrg sa8ersorl Jo uon)npqr eqt roJ uonesuaduor ur plo8 Jo sef,uno perpunrl e pue ue^es ugu.re8rl uaalS Sui,teq pu? 'f,rIEnU en uyu.ra8rl PUE rlegor{luo3 ef-} rrplenu yll,w ssrlsllurDls Jsrrq rauv 'q]rrqnäqrc Jo 3u11 'ppdgnJD de sdqg 3o uos lp pue (rrrgopo5 zrll prer{rtg 'SutturlJ L{slrA tqt qtr\tr Lgll rsn8ny ur puelrrl ot p)urnt)r rLI 's;aqlo pue '.pltra3 ztll ))IrnEJ{ 'uaqdarg zlIJ lr)qog '.ttoq8uo.ns ruory r.loddns Jo s3sIIUo:d paurerqo 8ur, 'Pu€lrrl ur e;et1.ta.due pulqeg tu3r{t Url )^eq ol ,{1a1r1un sr trEr.urEIC'.ratsutol uI uoItEntIS llxol eql ue^ID zs'EurlJJ)gr1nd ruenb EIIIJ Ellun tr )toxn tunJ eun,:ullgng'{rgqY s,seuoql rS Jo d.relnr:er or uonrppe i.rnruar-qrurarrlqt d1.rea ue ol 8ut -pro))e srqr 'IeqrEnJ En qrerrrl{)rlnry go .ralg8nep 'r9W 'ey1,t slq Pue TIoY rurq >loor dlqeqo-rd )q'99I I ul Iotslrg .IoJ IIts trs lIeur.IEIC uaq/N qtr.^& '(drg.^aouueg uI prpuel sdrgs tsry rtit .rage dep rr.{r or s.reed o.,lu) ILII drry I uo PIIP tIeLUr?IC urtl.,r.r uolsssf,lns rql PeruIEIl 'OLII rsn8ny 6ZUo pro3ral?A ur prrrrer.u e.rr.{\ eJlov pu? prerlrlg Preq)ru


ouaz oNnouD


'P) 'aPurl"tÄ Y2 ;1',:):'1 ur,





. .]



s,lre8ro3q::C. 'orrrl\-- - :runpnpauSr,) rlr{ rc::.'-'1r8r1r1) (€ultuaJ::di-., : :-rouue:'lJo/N 'sa8y

applry *p ur s.rara.rd.rerul

yo .(pnls qr8ual-11n3 ou sI



itu io tsrq al{r of


'deg: '9,-gz'dd'(,231asr1 alyytlq aW ul puryarJ (JrC ruop8ury y,) anbrull 'sa7y or 7 -L-S 'dd 'Puryatl 1v/uo/o) 'f,r.uerJ 88

put 'I E-gEI 'dd

'tztzg'ou' pua1a.rJ


' '.:'_,--

lo'..t :' :.-

rlsrrl Jr1L '.IlolqPB :.:L'r-:'-::-


:gg- L9 'dd 'funo5 tli: t,r '-:r = . 'uosew :,u3ug,O rJl?::: -'r-:'-

'yuap.rJ paaq?ary'retI{rIU osle ars

xaldruor aJoiu 'paternsrqdos

'puEIerJ tuory saldruexa uo sntroJ urrlt I 'qtuer{ p1g dlureu 'stxer ur s)lor rreqr rr Surlool )roJrq pa^lo^ul urrq )^eq ol ples are dagr qllq^a ur stue^r or s)rurreJrJ pue s.rele:d.ralul Jo seser u.^d.ou>l .l.rol)q rultuex) rsJy I 68'rraur serntln) pue sa8en8uel ueq.ra.lesJe^Iun sr s.rela.rdJrtul roJ peau )ql 'lle Jeuv'uonEntrs qsl{ srlt ot 'tunof,r? otur ue>lEl s))uJJülp a,rrrredsrl ')lgef, -l1dde dlerns sI tI Jo qlnu g8noqlle 'puEIrrI u?qt rrrr{,l.rtsle iuoU s)tuof, ,l.rol)q p),^A.rr^rr ef,uapr^e arp Jo eruos 'srleprporne rlrsln8url eruo)rq pue sr^lrsiueql roJ puoJ or parradx) ur)q a.r.eq deru stuerl)r)ru 'r^oge paronb yß33nz1s sSunuoy aqt tuo5 r)r^pe rtpJo rq8ll uI 'suortenrrsJo dlat:e.t e ut Sunelsuert se IIe^l. st 8ur -la.rd;alutyo elqedel uaJq e^Eq plno,\\ sJottrtslulrupe put 'srnsels)1rf,f, 'sluotu petelnpo JrlJg oruos reqr )runsse or elqeuose)r sluf,os rr q8nogrle 'dte.rrotstre pue &1edor ot prtrrurl dlSursr.rd.rns tou sr aruopl^e 'srlrntuel qtutrtrlrlt pue qule^d.r )qt roJ pue 'pred aq ot perl srrt):d.ralut t1-ree13 'srltl^Itf,e PuE sessell Itr)os yo a8ue.r .^A.oJJeu d1.r1e3 E ot petlrJtse.r ureq J^er,{ or srueas tI 'p)tsette-ll),^.r sr su?ruo8e;p pue ntyullry ro satdtalut yo ruau.,(o1dua PUe tuatudoldap egl ellq6'a8en8url uour(uor E rrerls tou plp oq,^d. s)nred uaa.tnr)g srl.IelpJurrrtul se s.rala.rdrrrur Jo rsn )r{r Jo '.pu?lrrl ruo5 rI Jo rruos 'se311 elpplry aLIt ruory Jf,uepr^J eldtue sr JJeqI 'uone)runururof pue uollf?Jetul tnsrn8url -rog ulSrp -ercd )rseq eqr sde.u,1? tou eJr,!r.'e8en8uel f,ures Jr{t ui J}rltou? JUo ot Surleads slenpl^lpur JJour Jo o.rd.t 'des or sr rerp 'suonenrts rra-rrq

ualil 03a.t O $fi u/ /1 a T il a p "t d"t a 7 uJ (


,r'dr:8 e rTEr plnor iaqr uo su.ror-l:od Sururetuor 'urtrlodotusor :::8ap eruos uI ipea.rlt s?Ä\ t?{1 plJo.t\ E Jrarll punoJ daql 'uon?rrunruruor i.rrllru pur I?rnrlnl '1etr:JturuorJo sJUII paqsllq?tsJ -11a,u 3uo1e pu?lrrl tsea-r{rnos pererua iaql 'alttrl .llau>l iagl q:rq,tr.Jo rrt?.!r>l)?q rrloxr ue ur a^rrr? rou plp su?rurof{-opuy aq1 ["'] 'slsa88ns tunolr? s,Pl?trD u?r{l

oulz cNoou)


e^neu eql qll-\\ uon:r. -: _ parroldxe tseä rtp uj.--- :-: ur stsruolor :!: -- : - '.puelaJl ueet\1JQ u(:1-: I:- :


sl qrF{ r Pu? 'PrPri,_. \..

- : _-. : --


Jo iluos PaurEal r{ror:-:: -Jelu 3rl1 eJoJJq uf-'.r --: -' tr pu? 'ere1d Ioor uC .rr r '-

ut des ot olqlssodu: .. -pue sueeru reql ^i1:r.' :. - l -.


Yrllr reIIIueJ u:rq



ltrruerod agr 8ur-uc,ii : : Jo r€qt Jo srlurnb:s - : -- a8erueu eql '^i1:r:1J _ . i S]JOJJ




Urrq : '.: -' ::




s,rules eqr 8ur1o.\u: .J -sso.rf, sno.ra8uep E ru,-

'.tulssuvJo aJIf slq ul , j-,-' )loJ^r LIJErJrtirrInJ\ -: -' or rq8no;q st,\\ r{ro:r::: prlp )q )r)rl,!\ '-ipur;:: -r.

Jo r.uoPlrer rr.{l Pr:::-- : uo slJoJJ srq 3lEtl -r:-- * .


s>lf,Ette luou ]seol i!..-.,.,tooJJJeg,) uosslrle ::' -r, yo sr.rod eqr prllor: - - r -' en qletrrr{lrrnJl rc' :-: --;,





Bede does not mention interpreters as such but his well-known observations about the languages of Britain in the Historia Ecclesiasticaeo imply the need for interlingual communication : Haec in praesenti iuxta numerum librorum quibus lex diuina scripta est, quinque gentium linguis unam eandemque summae ueritatis er uerae sublimitatis scientiam

scrutatur et confitetur, Anglorum uidelicet Brettonum Scortorum Pictorum et Latinorum, quae meditatione scripturarum cereris omnibus est facta communis.

(At the present time, there are five languages in Britain, just as the divine law is written in five books, all devoted to se eking out and seccing forrh one and the same kind of wisdom, namely the knowledge of sublime rruth and of true sublimity. These are the English, British, Irish, Pictish, as rvell as the Latin languages; through the study of rhe scripture s, Latin is in general use among the m all.) (r, 1, pp. 16-17) The same four vernaculars are menrioned again (rrr, 6, pp.230-31) as marking geographical divisions of the kingdom of Oswald. If interprerers were necessary to mediate be tween speakers of the three Celtic languages, and berween them and Old English, they may not have been able to suppress the irritation factor generated by the perceived uncouthne ss of a relare d - but scill apparendy intelligible language. This difference becween rwo Germanic idioms was sufficient for Cenwealh of §Tessex co dismiss Bishop Agilbert, a Frankishspeaking Gaul who had been resident for some time in Ireland ('in Hibernia non Paruo temPore demoratus'), and replace him with anorher Gaul, §7ine : 'Tandem rex, qui Saxonum tantum linguam nouerat, pertaesus barbarae loquellae, subintroduxit in prouinciam alium suae linguae episcopum, uocabulo Uini, er ipsum in Gallia ordinarum' (But at last rhe king, who knew only the Saxon language, grew tired of his barbarous speech and foisted upon the kingdom a bishop named §7ine who had also been consecrared in Gaul but who spoke the king's own rongue) (rrr, 7,pp.234-35).Is Bede perhaps also insinuating that Agilbert spoke Frankish with an Irish accenr ? The teams of commissioners dispatched by William Rufus for the purpose of collecting daca for what is now known as che Domesday Book, completed in 1086, would have faced an impossible task withour rhe aid of interpreters. Information presented to the Domesday courrs which made its way into the book in Latin would have been mediated in English and French through the offices of persons referred to as interpres and, more frequently, latinarii or Tsurushima identifies four interpres and seven latinarii/latirrteri in


the Domesday Book. ,::.: considers another



The interpreters of the Domesday Book and subsequent decades have been studied by

Ecclesiastical Historl, of the English People,ed. and rrans. bv Colgrave and Mynors.






cophone origin, bur c.c.:. attached ro dift'erenr so-:.-

ofPoorton, Dorse !. Hugolinu s, interprcj. n- :: likely in the service of H-Leominster (Hereford:. . , lance inrerpreter; the ir :.: Tsurishima fulfil simila: :latinariu.i, of Farnham E,, pres,


Garsingron (Oxon.) ; Ro r.,

(Kent); and Godricus.


latinarii, worked for


Eadric, latinariu.i, for B-::

in 1122; Ricardvs, l,tteii,;,, in 1114; Godricus, /,trii:.;.

earl of \üZarwick, sorrrcri:-.; Scandinav ian), iruterprr :. -;,York records as a \l,irne alrnb sr IenPI^lPur ruo'rlsls2x osle tnq '.q)urrJ pue gsriSug dluo rou aSeueru plno) or{,\A, prplru eJr^\ s;ale.rd;elur put 'xaidruor eroru u)^e euelaq uortentrs rrrsrn8url orp 'sal?A orur spJe^\tse,ll pe^ou stsruolol Jrlt sy 86'uonnlos turrua^uol E punoJ dpua:eddr uEtsJInA r{llq,lr ot rurlqo;d e 'qsr18ug ul rrs srqJo stuetrqrqur auogdolSue rrlt qtr.^A. rtel -Iunruruol ot JIge '.readde ppo.4,L lr 'xnadeg rp seruoql se.t. roN _u'suorre8ilqo dueur srq pue e8e Surrue^ptJo rsnerrq os op ol rlq€un se,r rnq'ere-rd.rerur Jurs, srrefqns sp{Jo seald eq] pu?lsrrpun ot se os qsilSug urerl ot prrrt 8uq agr .,r,rog seteler srlelr1 snrrrepro 'SZII ': Surrr.rrlg 'aldnor pdor eqt Jo arueso;d ar{r Jo rsnel)g uneJ ur prtlnpuor tou se,l.r. ssJursng Jo arard srqt teqt rTul ousz oNnou)


Jrel{r Jo sdno;8 pu? i:: . - r - - -. l sdeq:ad papurrslp : -: -* :-- . -rlulJ^u- BJo : - --'

dlqeuosee; ieru r^1, ,.:- r . Surleads-gsr13u1 -1--: -: : ..:

dtuaua orpJo rr:: --, -.: -: -slqJo uonElrsr-\ : *': :r. : ::-: '-

-oP slq alnr or

ru -.:.

put'dn-Sultutur.s ,: --.raltads prlllls t




l:-: -

'eJtJlsnl.lnla:tuS:: :rr- i --rnreqrrnd snuStr.. ,: -url a?f,ruurluJo^\ ::. snqt S'- .:: :'* se'jljl uI )uE{uE--r .-::r.:

-Jns E

se.^ .

JJtsJrJo-\\ ::



doqsrc. . -_ -i.:-:


PUE Ja]S))JO11N rEL{r


dogsrqgut eqr rnq 'ri-:.:. 'urSrjr-- r1*ledrrur.rd aq1 se^netuesa:de-r pur '::- :: -

'zLjl Jo IIlunoJ .f i'.-': salullJuros'uourt D-: .: -t)Jd.ratur tnor{ti-\', S- :--' pu? -qruer1 rqr Su,::. - Jtlt Jo s.rela:d:elu r :-: r : ur tuarrgo.rd atur-.:.. - pacnpo.rd ,(pra:1r p: -'



y "ratdaq2




nificant, especially since Bleddri is unlikely to have been alone of his kind and profession. Terrence James has also pointed out thac many places mentioned in the Four Branche s of the Mabinogi are cenrrally located in Bleddrit land, making it quice likely that he would have known the tales and rraditions associared with them.t01 To the'hinge-man' tasks of interpreters can be added, in one case at least, the mediation of tales from one culture and language ro another. Common sense also dictates that not all interpreters were necessarily fully fuent in languages other than their motheruo.,g,r.. The more languages qpoken in a parcicular region, the more likely it is that a third language, and possibly a third party, would have be en involve d.r02 In many of the situations re ferred ro or envisaged above, this may already have been the case, with Larin and two vernaculars. In \7ales, and particularly in the March, three vernaculars, and Latin in certain circumstances, surely constiruted the norm rather than the exception; Flemish joins the admixture in parts of the South. Anricipating rhe work of Richard Sharpe , Constance Bullock Davies pointed in 1966 ro the formula of address used in the charters of tVilliam de Londres, lord of Ogmore (South Glamorgan), who also held lands in Kidwelly (Carmarthenshire): 'Omnibus hominibus suis et amicis Anglicis et Francis et §Talensibus'.103 One of \X/illiam's fellow-witnesses to a charter of 19 July I7L4, was a Ricardus latemerus, mentioned again in a charter of Nicholas, bishop of Llandafl confirming the granr to Ewenny Priory (South Glamorgan) of lands previously held by Richard of tVilliam and his son, Maurice: 'decimas terrae quam Ricardus Latimarius de \üTillelmo de Londoniis et Mauricio ejus filius tenuit'.to+ J|rir charter is difficult to date more precisely chan lI49-83, but Richard appears be deceased at the time. Bullock-Davies concludes that: 'fRichard] had held land under them lWilliam and Maurice], no doubt for his service as their latimer. He was rherefore, like the royal latimers in the Domesday Book, feudal landowner by virtue of his profession'.10t It has also been argued that there were families of inte rprerers in the tffelsh Marches in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Although chere is no specific


evidence of inrerpre rin. =. (d. 1070) and his;..,. ers for five generarions. i; an interpreter or ince:r-.,; rule nearly all of \\äle s :.: The se cond language rh. 'i. Rhys's grandson, Goro:..',-, and 1135. Suppe cla:r:, : Goronwy was made ar .c=:: with the now-francopi,- :. encouraged by an Ans. - -l from rhe Englirh ..o.',1. .. into rhe rhirteenrh ce i:*.i.g.'o' Roger and Jonas -.,. grandson, §Trenoc ap \l;_: Sais


hold lands in rerurn fbr ::.:tas te rre de bailliva don-i::.. quod Fulco filius \X'arir:r :- _


t §Talliam' 108 The phrar. -: English and the \{'elsh. .... §7elsh, and possiblv Er..., e

tions of latimer \\,ere ini:::. of this Powys familv rrlä. i.-There is also er-iden;. .. ers of the family of Ior,,,.-._ :

Henry II appears ro ha',. : firmation from c. l2l I :' : that he holds rhem in rc:.:: and \ff/ales: 'Idem Grifr::--, dono Henrici Regis, pa.::) :


J"-es, 'Bleddri


M.rrr"y, 'Henry rhe Interpreterip. 128.


Bullock-Davies, 'Profe ssional Inrerpretersl p. 14.




Cadifor ap Collu.lrn', pp.36-37



Cartae et alia rnunimenta, ed. by Clark, t, p. 41. For the 11 14 charte r, see Regesta regurn Anglo-IVormannoruru, ed. byJohnson and Cronne, rr, p. ll4, no. 1042. Given rhe minimum of thirty-five years which separate these tr.vo charrers, it is possible we may be dealingrvirh two

Ricardi Latemeri. 105

Bullo.k-Davies, 'Professional Interpreters', p. 13.

'06 Srrpp.,'Interprecer

F.: .. -

S.,ppa,'Inrerpreter F.:-.. .

Libry Feodorunt. r. r - Anglo-Norman roman... F ,,. ,


and rhe Firz

\\är : :'

'09 Cf-. aversion of rhe


which reads'ur sit nuntius ir.:_.


.-- -

'I I § 'd 'rr '1eg dq 'p, 'nnbaqtxT aq{o

'sJsuelql§ Toog pay


sol8uv JJIUI snllunu lls ln, sPEsl rlllq^\

aql uI ralrel{t rlues

arll Jo




o,^al qrr,4t

aqr ur dla8rel a,n8g sarndsrp rsol{,no salturus I,trotu {1lut3 ud:e,,1X zlIJ Jql 0", ,iJJ:ffi 'sreqto pue (e,teqreH ,(q 'pa 'u,(trr14 ztg al a2/n0l'e)uetuor ueu.ro51-o18uy Jo sluepurlsrp er.ll 'd 'r'untopoag nQ/7 Jo o.rag 'ud:e2tr ztg al III rlno{ sI ,Iulrpä! snlly orlnJ ,'Lil sor 'LO-ZOZ 'dd'serltueg :arardratul, 'addng -0,

Surpap rq

tunSat wsaZay aas

.'.: -:-

: :


'r::::l: - .



'L6-96I 'dd 'sarlturg :ara:dralu1, 'addng


-Jeuurl esse )p urnrrr^'sr8aX sruueqof Iulurop slJted'sr8ag I)IJurH ouoP ep ,uot)org (uotlns 'urrltrnnd.usllf 'uol1enu leu3r snusllr3 *rPI, :selE/N Pu? puelSuE urr.r\teq r)tf,rdrrtur uE sE serr^r)s roJ urnt)r uI LU)qt sploq )q teql saSrrads'(tzzl 'p) ppdJnrD'uos srg ot tuErS sqlJo zlu ', Iuo.IJ uoll?Iurg -uo) v'S§II ', r.Ilrlsdorqs ul srouEur rnoJ Palue.r8 a.teq ol srEsdde 11 d.ruapl trrorl/K ot'(LLII 'r-0I I I 'r) PPnPrreW de groS rllrr.^d.rol Jo dlltueJ or{l Jo sra -leJdJalur se dlr,rnle eqt JoJ tueurnJop eures Jqt uI ef,uJpl^J osle sI JJJTII 'ruäql peslf,rrxr pue plrLl )^ELI IIE deu dptue3 sdlro4 slrpJo suon?Jeua8 a.r.g eqrJo sJaqtu)ru 'por:ad srqt uI pellJJrlul aJe,AA..IJLUIIEIJo suoll -runJ pue arlgo eqr retp dlrlll s(uf,rs tI eluls no,'gsr18uE dlgrssod pue 'qsl?)§. 'q)uer{ ureg e^Eq plnoÄ\ prÄfoÄur se8en8uel rqt pue '.qslrA rqr pue gsrlSuE erlt,Jo rsurs eqr ur pesn sI ,uEIIIe,1x ra utrlSuv ruul, ase.rgd arll soi,ueIIIqlN tr uerlSuy J)tur snrJeurnel or)r^Jrs ep rss) iJqep ra rJuet IuIJEA snll5 ollnJ ponb ,uoturttr6 )p uinrqru?rxr ur '1'x o,rd sruurqof sr8ag Iultuop e^IIIIeq rp r]rat sel -e.rQlf '[rr,t rauel ,rrrnrtr^{ snlig snroua:i26, :Suna.rdrrtul roJ urntrr uI spuel plot{ 01 ZIZI '.l dletyireds ples sl 'ra.r.a.tog '.la8og de 8l.lnatraq de loua.l2l 'uospue.r8 s.raSog 'rrun srqr ,(q qruer{ prurerl e.r.tq d1e1ll plno^e seuof pue .ra8og .0,'3rl -la.rd.lalur uaaq a^?rl plno,r\ poJrpurJ s)f,r^Jas Jqt :d.rnluer rlluJ)tJltlt rtlt oJuI p)nunuor sdqg Jo stuepualsep aql ,(q sIESSE^ srl pue u,^&o.Ir qsrlSug rt{t ruo5 pe^rafa.r s3ly3u3q pu? sple,\A.3.r 3rll 'ul,tr u€ruroN-o18uy ue dq paSe:nolua ue)q a.teq deru ar{ teqr pue 'sdqg dq un8aq qsrlSuE auogdocu?U-.^A,ou eqt qtl.^^. s{ull onunuor or rJrsrp slqJo rurrurrels E se ued ur lserl re )petu sr,ra. d,ra.uo.to3 .(q saueu'ueru.ro51 '{qsle/§-uouJo r)rorlr aqr reqr sIUIEIT addng'SEII put OUI u))i\A.teq uJoq'seuof pue -ra8og'suos o.,r\t per{ iLra.uoro3'uospue;8 s,sdqg 'gsr18ug se,w prurerl r^er{ pino,^l riTU 3u»1eeds-qsleA aqr a8en8uel puo))s )qI e.r'er)retr { y rcßyE,lrET pue '€9Ol uI qre)p slq eroJrg sale2xJo gt dlreau ep.r ot etue) og.r,r. 'ud1a^dl'I de ppdgnr3 uao,^alaq .{.rerp)(uratur .ro .raleJdrf,rul uE ueeq a,teg deu sd.,r,ro4 3o (,ueulqsr18ug eqt,) s1ag td.lg 'suoit?reua8 e,tg roJ sra -1n.1 gsrlSug put rlslr2x ua3,^(113q prterprru stu?pue)sep slq pue (o/oI 'p) slES rd.l1 terll p)tsr88ns seq addns 'f {rlrsprry 'drr,urre Surra;d.relul Jo f,)urpl^r

oulz cNnou)


ryrrads ou sr a:rq: -':.- -: rrlt uI srtr)- j-.: - rlsla/6.

JntJr^ Lq .rau.topur' -::: :-JJstll sBl!\ eH 'JJLLII-:- - :'--

turrll rePun PUEI Ptr *' : : te päs€))op rq s:e:i j, :-, -uIP sI r)lreqr slr{I _ :' snPl:r.';'--' _

eP snIJeuIlE-J



nq p1:q '.'.

rue.r8 egr Suru.rl]Uor _:: : -u)ru 'sn,tauta1z7 snp:: r --s,Iu?rllr/NJo ruo . '..: :'.'snqruuO, : (a:rqsur --:-:' 'glnog) o;oru8g lo ri - ' .: elnurroJ )r{t ot 996\ * ::: Sunrdrrni\-- --:>lJo,l\ etp

-darxe äqt urqr rf,L'::- '-uIl?J PUe 'SJe]nlEU::'. :r- -JJ^



UIIEI Ur.-',. ., I

o1 PeJJeJeJ SUOII?n:l! -'- e dlgrssod pue 'r8rnS -,- :ue>1ods sa8enSuel ric - : --. dllrJ dluessarau rrr.'i^ : -: -:

'Jorltoue or -.S::'-i - , JsE) Juo uI '{pepp€ r.. .': r . i Pslerf,Osse SuOnrP:r: : _: -{el.u 'PUEI s,lrPP=]g

- ::-

uI pauonuelu sf,-1r- j .-: --ro': *: : :

PUE PUDI slrl Jo :

l ntdaq2




ius inter Angliam et Walliam' 110 The phrasing of this is rather ambiguous, and appears to suggest that Gruffydd was the interpreter between the \Melsh and

the English in the time ofJohn, although the fact that this is a confirmation of a grant that must have been made to Iorwerth makes it equally likely rhat the latter had provided the interpreting service.111 If interpreting was a family occupation, as it seems, then the question may be moot. What links Bleddri, Richard, and the families of Rhvs Sais and Iorwerth Goch are their Norman leanings and close relationship with the English crown. The need for, and existence of, incerpreters in tü7ales shortly after the Norman Conquest, is thus amply attested. In addition ro assisting in diplomatic, legal, ecclesiastical, and other formal matters, they must also have had to intervene and extemporize daily to facilitate basic social intercourse . Moving in contexts with speakers of four or 6ve ve rnaculars, they would have been in great demand. By definition almosc, this kind of activiry is rarely recorded. The closest we come to witnessing it is the episode discusse d above of He nry II, the peasant, and Philippe de Mercros, told three rimes by Giraldus in the Expugnatio HibernicA, the Descriptio Carubria, and the De principis instructione. Not all those who mediated in this way, of course, were professionals. Some fortunate enough to have the advantage of another language were simply in the right place at the right time. Julia Crick has pointed ro the imporrance of \X/ales as a'linguistic clearing-house with French-, Norse-, and Irish-speakers presenr alongside Welsh and Englishl112 The historical material on interpreters and interpreting considered thus far has only given brief glimpses of them in action, and much else has to be conjectured. More can be gleaned from the examination of their appearance s in Old

French literary texts of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, to which I now turn briefy and selectively, before looking at specifically Irish evidence. I have cast my net relatively widely here in the belief that interpre rers fulfilled more or less the same functions in the different regions of the francophone world. Not surprisingly, a good number of the texts in which latiniers and drugenaans appear are cbansons de geste, many of which deal with events in the Latin East


ity formulared in orde r :.- . in French as a languagc ': English was now anorh;: : French. What is parri.r-.that the obligation ro a,:--: the Irish is indissociab^. :: can therefore be said :: . . territory. Robert mosr l:-luerj stll 'urnl uI Pue '(tt'lx-Irx sessrel) :a8uassau E sE s>luerJ rqt ot jee '1) ,sueuaS.rnp s)s rp un, spurs srx)ly ;o.radua eqr ,elduexr .roJ '(d.rnruar qulr.,\{.r rqtJo pua) aqtoguf,? ulsu?q) rrp q.,,.Äreruoldrp pur uorte) -Iunruluol PJleIParuJo strueudp Jqt uI )tBdrf,ruEd,Lagl JJJrl,td.'st;nof, uf,)?Jes Pue uellslrqS r{roq ur e.rn35 (s.tatuUry to sluautaSntp) s:;rtetd,rarur puorssayo;d, 'seuof 'W rurrrrlte3 ot Surp:orre 'aisa7 ap uzsuap )qi uI 'sploq)snor{ f,nerr -olslrE pue ltio: o1 Prtll?tre ilensn a-re daqr :s:a8uessatu se pruoitlunJ urgo pue sa8ueqrxr rlreuoldlp prple s:ela.rd.retur 'uonry pue d;orsrg qroq uI rrr'sJ^lasru)qt otun ssEI) E dlprrrrr;d'spuors -sayo;d yo drrunurtuor rlg?zruSoca.i E rre sueruo8e:p rEW Surdldur ,1e;n1d agr ur s-readde dpuenba.r3 suutuaSnty t?qt sr uon)unsrp elq?Jlnou euo ärll €rr'unEJ ut satd"talru Pue snßull"f /snllau1v/ uJa,r\tag lou sr ,JJrlt sE tsn['sr.uJJ] o,tat Jr{l u))^rt)q alurraJlp )Itutrurs eltrll rq ot sur)es rrrril 'sruop8ur>l -r)p?snrJ pu€ ouaz GNnou)






: :Jo tsanbeJ 3ql re r\:: -': uosEeJ lnorill.\\ - i:-': -- - : og.,r,r. ('srung) ,(a:tl. S j uorl)ePeJ lls?q sli u. :::rxel IEuoIlBPunol ru] ::: q8nol uI puEISI uo.:::S -ruou sJIJols u^\\ou:-:::: I spu-rrir: : d-rore8-rn4 orul

-Jalul Jo suolllP :L{: -':. : osle sr d.reruo:g: s.S'-: -- - -" ot prr)^IIrP tou sJ ..-: j'.':; Pr!- ol r.,'. or{.^a 'leeJD,!\au>l

oq,,t\:aro:dJ3]ul u?Jo


se 'se8etrunf ul ollol --dogsrggue'uorut:g -- -:




j !:

'IUJr{r preaq 3u tv . ttr1,4a







s? 'rurr{ pat:::s .,: -': : uo P)lJnrlsuol 'lf ' .

1rdt..ut: :, or'saBtnBuEI ]?r:.',:. '8ur11e.trp

ll?I^ rsutti}1




stlnsur'oturJEf -lo asnayyranS"r,O,/ la ulpunuv/s uI 'lenulpyuo) pue )tetultur sr 'unouo.ld uos;ad puo)rs rerlrrueJ rqt Jo esn dq ued ur p)l?rrr 'urge.relrsg pue )puorurpuerg uer^\]eq uonesre^uo) )ql Jo )uo] eyl or,'(0s-z€6r7'11) ePseg 3p uoureu o1 e8esseru e pues ot uea.^at)q-oB e se'urqeJEI)sE'Jrrunel, JJrl srsn (apuourue.rg -) apuourlpuerg 'uaanb uef,ereS agl '(0§- O€.ZI) a7atwS a? qlasuf ur rlrr{.l.r '(OZ{.2'1) .rrorsa Surtdruol uog lnb s.rarult?l to, 'toueg '8ull ur)tres stll

'drnluar qturrtrrrp

('rya.rqdrp prun rq8rurr^o prlr?.r\ daql 'qsr.r,t no.( sy :pres i.-r:a1q1puy'p?arg etrq.^A. aruos 8ur:q oslt pu? 'urrunr pu? -raddad 'st.rroddtq put urlSaqtau '8unoi pue plo aur.r\'rsuarur pu? xt,r\ au 8ur.rq pue lu?rquory Jo drn aqr or oB ill-{\ noÄ ':ata;d.ratur JrEInrnrE .(;a,r. e pur a;rnbs Surtu.rrqr pue snoatrnol ? aJE noÄ ',trs or a^Erl I t?r{,\\ ot uJtsrl, 'pps atf i.r.rarq1,)


' nj s;oI tuof tuet ']uapual? lrnu e'J 'tuErurrrof JJlso^? tnoJ. :srlsrl lsrp ]E 'lu?lq urcd 1ap at:ode,s 'urr^unoJ tJ JJ^rod 'tueturd ta a:lsr:a8noq 'JJ?IJ ta ur1 sue5uo tJ JJrrll EI ap sJtJode,tu rg ru?rquotr{ aP lrrll ?l ? srrr u3 sno^ 'sur[1]:ed uJrq tloru satse srJrun?l rT

'luelgurs uoru sJpuJlua,

: suorsr^oJd .ragre8 ot luEJguoJ^ü orur dpe.rras'tneqos'uerp.r?n8:au,roy slrlJo uos put e.rrnbs srg'l.uarq1 spurs f,uotueH )p )^ang 'auetsof yrl,tr tsrroJ rrlt ur alrxr sjrl Sur.rng 'e^rrs dagr uroqrw rsoqt ylPr sdrgsuorr?lrr esoll e^eq ot rures dlleuorsrrro s.rala.rdrrtur pioqlsnoH

('tequor aqr JoJ suolllPuof slr{ ele^\aseql lEtll u?lule3

sueäru,(q s:o.radua o,\\t ar{t ot u,r\ou>l tr ap?LU pue JJtt?ru srrlt pansrnd alnp eq1)

,r,(0r-9€.6€ '1) ':ro'te rlll?req


r,'(I9-I sgI

Jro^es s:oa:odtua 'll' sy 'rueurale rJ rro^?s na-r8 ri?-l

oufz oNnou)


y .ratdaq3




d)lrnour (early thirteenth century),12t the hero's facher employs one his 'latiniers' as a private tutor for his son' Aprds Ie fist bien ensaignier Le pere a un sien latinier.


Keredic explains rhc '.,.-: prompdy falls r-icrin : : Rou'ena, whom he n:::,= does not name che

Li latiniers par fu tant saiges D'eschds, de tables, de deduiz,

for any party ri-hich 1., .

De chiens et d'oiseax bien fu duiz.

othe nn ise deceir-e rh c ;:. alu,ays behaving abo. .

ä: li ;:::il: ä:1T,ä: u



(Then his father had him well instructed by one of his larimers. The latimer was so wise that he taught him all languages. He was well instructed in chess, boardgames, and dice, dogs and birds. But the king did nor want him to be told abour chivalrv.)

Clearly, the tasks of the 'latinier' here go well beyond the teaching of languages. One household interpre ter plays a role in a celebrated episode of British legendary history, namely the first encounter of Vortigern and Rowena. As described in Geoffrey's Historia and§7ace's ßrut (c. I I 55),"n Vortigern is invited by Hengist to his newly constructed castle at 'Thancastre' or 'Thwangcasrre'

a Saracen interprere

estd, passd.ja un


Adonc orent li Sarre z::. : monteir as creniaus ,.. !., niere deleiz lui qui li e:,. : et

li dist:

'Sire, veez 1a.;


rreifle conte Hen:. :. regarda li Sarrezins e r ,, :: : engin sont?'Adonc re!: France'. Lors disr li Sar:-: r le

12- r

des Saissuns.

(ll. 6951-60)

('Lord King, 'Wassail!' rhus she said; rhe king, who did not knorv the language, asked and inquired what the girl had said. Keredic rvas the firsr co replv, a Briton and a good interpre ter, the first Briton to learn the language of the Saxons.)

lhe episode is firsr r:."::. Cereric ('inrerpreti suo nonr::.: nimisque inebriarentur'). Se . ,



ßlonrondin et l'Orgueilleuse dAnrour,ed. by


Geoffrey of Monm otrh, Historia Regum Britannie,ed. by §7right, r, § 100, p.67,and rr,



artlturiennc, rrr. § -rp. 176, r.vith minor variants. ^\:. . ldgende

ica: Auctores antiquissimi, I 3. sode. See also Gaimar, Estoi,.,

.-.. .-.,.





i,.,, .:


Keredic respundi premiers, Brez ert, si ert bons latimiers, Qo fu li premiers des Bretuns

ed. by


de Reirns (c.1260)r-':

Li reis demanda e enquist, Ki le language ne saveit,

Ki sout le language


an entire year: "'Son e !::=



r ::.-..:

has followed rhe latrer ,

'Laverd King, \X/esheil!'tant li dist;

la meschine


man for the Genocrtr :. : duke from Media (i.e...... of the twelfth cencur\ r.::

and proposes the wassail toast:



: :

(unidentified 'Thong Cascle', perhaps Caister, near Grimrby). During the festivities, Hengist's daughter, Rowena, approaches Vortigern with a cup of wine



\brrigern's man: rhii :. .The abilit\- ro Sf c..: .*

Wil li aprist de- toz langaiges;

§ 100, p.92;


11. Vatican manuscr:r: d as pe r Gasron paris. ro L.

accepred by Barber and Aile s. absolutely clear who is greerrr-:



I )O



Ihomas of Kenr, T/tt



Rdrit, d'un my'nestre/ 0.,

_: ,




'GZ'd (yllert\ rC trq 'p)'sa/nü ap pusauaLu un,p slli?ü ou r)tso{ dq'p, lta7uyxalf uaut,to1tr-o1Zuf aqf ,tuayJo seruogl

roudlparrrrup, sr rl '(stt'u1E9,d,u,w4,Qog lou sI uolluä^Jatul 3LII 'alJnos urleJ aqrJo srseq


'II put'L9'd '00I :\'I

I j--:

rrr;'i:;:;:;:ifilt T:ffi1i8]i}::::

uo (srJ^Ju)C, ot ,sutd uotse3 .rad

-ror aq dyqeqord plnoqs txet aqt fiq'Z6lZ 'I )e,sra13uE, seg rdrr:snutru urlue1

'(zt-eoag 'y1ol arou) LoTd 'r:og5 dq'suerr pue'p3



rgl s,

's7a13u7 sap atlots7 '.rerure3 osle res'3pos

-rda ltesse,rr JLII uIEtJJ ilpnsn rtlg )yt Jo suorsJa^ ruanbasqn5 'III 'EI 'ruttsvnbryuy sztopnf :?il -filslq zwuau.ta9 aluarunuow uI 'uasunuo1t iq st uonrpa 1-rea uy'stuerJe^ Jourru,911 'd '/g § 'ro'I iq 'p, 'runuzllx,tg yl.totslH./ p snluuaN :62- LZ .dd ,Lt § ,ru ,auuattnqlfi apua7Vl a7 'lertg :gg-l,g 'dd'rrz § 'a1r,tung [q 'p, ,,u,/nu011/.tg u!,t01s1H, aqL »5.(,.rnrua:rr.rqaur anbsruru

('suoxrs r'-': - ,

uotrrg e '.i1d:: o: :-- 'a8en8uel f,L{t .\\L'.-tj :

JntuerrJntes,) 1un:p u3ru slq pue u;a8rr:or1 ra8 sdlag (,:rraJr3 rurr.uou ons lla.rd:arul,) f,nerJJ ' üx.totslH'snIUUaN dq (Sulrseot eqt tnoqtr,t) parrla.r tsrg sr aposrda JqI rral{,&\


(SS S) '3-IrV snou suorap.rad tnrsar.rtd lruoqell[.red, :surzrrres If rsrp sro-J'e]uer{ ap adrl:q4 ro.r nE ur8uo Il tuos aJ, :rslp r) sranuqel ll Ipuodsor )uopy,iluos ur8ua IIr Inr P IIr rsa rQ1, 'lsrp ro 'adr1at14 Ior n? sut8ua srl znot tr^ tr surzerr?S rl ep.re8a.l luoPy'suoJ?q saJtnt sn? sle.n sJI znor ra'au8uredru?Ll3 ap rJuaH 3ruoJ alJrJJt al tr atuof elJrart al EI ra iueqlry rol alJrrlt al ?l zJa^ ,arr5, :rsrp 1113 :suor?q zner{ sap suou sel la 'suolyt,trd sa1 la srJJt sal trou8rasua r1 rnb rn1 zralJp JJaru '.setPu?lJ ep adrlaq4

-rrel ardsa

f,un to tg 'tIo^ES tnoru rnb a8ee rue:8 Jp urzrJJES un sn?ruJJJ sr Jratuotu :ed ap trotsa lnb 'a:ryp sneQ Il ts5 tr ::noed urzs.rr?s If tua:o luopv





'se8en8utigo Surq:::- : ---


e 'rueoqo nf ,rr'(€6-16IZ 'lD er.rd5 ;og Surperq preoq uo )srourg rqr roJ ueru -salods )qt sI )q teqr Sur,tarleq olur u)ru s,3ur1 rqt s>ltrrt ;ala:d:alur ur)Eres E JJeq^\ 'a1?.tt?s a,t,tan7 ry ap a.uztsf Jrlt ur terlt se qlns .p-reoq r^oqe Sur,r.egaq sde,la.1e lou sJslsJd;alurJo seluetsul snoJf,urnu eJe JJJI{I dueue Jrlt J^rJtr)p Jsr,rlJ)r{to o1 .Io dds e se luaudoldap roJ rlqellr,r.e .rele;druur uE ser.l qrlll^\ due .roy e srpr^ord aBrnBuEI ruo uerp rroru leeds oi drrlrqe eq1 Ie)nf,er _-r'el?/§ ur rrrrldurr sr srqt :ueur s,u:a8n-ro1

lnoqt PIor eq L): -.. '-' - --PJtoq'ssaq:'J. ::r:-^: -:. -

puE lrnof, s,rrpuexrlv q Surdds sueuoSe;p slq pEq seq (d.rnruat qule^lr eqr Jo pua) aualv(taq) atnq a? uuutzt aT u\ '(sepay,rtr rqrJo puel 'e'r) elprry ruoü e1np

sI rellel arf leql sslels illeryrrads aq gSnoqtle '.trterd;elur rqt rr.ueu tou srop (Ze-I6 'dd'00I s 'rr:g9-L9 'dd'00I § ,r) de-rgoa3 .s)rr.reur l{ uor.l^tr ,eua,troX YlPr r^ol uI dlpeu Pue ii^r6l )r{r Jo suorleldurl eqt ot runf,r^ s1e3 dllduo-rd ol duotuar)l ,lreqtulJc[, puE ,ll)r{sr/§, aqr sureldxr ]rprrJx oq,lrr. 'u.ra8rrJo1

ousz oNnouc


laurllsl lLll .j: -"-:-'

-IIEL slq auo s.ioldu:

:: -:

y "ratdaqS





(Then the Saracens were afraid, and the bailiffof Acre, who was Saladin's man,led a wise old Saracen up onto the walls. And he had an interpreter-spy with him who pointed our the renrs and pavilions and the names of the important barons. And he said to him: 'Sire, see rhere rhe tent of King fuchard; and there, the tent of Count Philip of Flanders, and the tent of Count Henry of Champagne, and all the tents of the other barons.' Then the Saracen looked and saw all of King Philip's heavy we apons, and said: 'To whom do rhese machines belong?' So the interpreter replied and said: 'These are the machines of King Philip of France'. Then the Saracen said: 'By Mahomet! this man will cause us to lose Acrei)


The activity of inrerprere rs in literary texts of the twelfth and chirteenth cenruries, from legendary histories to chansons de geste and romances, show them caught in che act, sometimes with their guard down. It goes without saying that these texrs are nor historical documents, but they show interpreters doing the kind of thing interprerers did. Th.y put some f esh on the bones of the f e e ting figures known to us by name and sometimes little else. Inrerprecers in Ireland will have carried out similar tasks in similar circumsrances. A number are known to us from charters and works of literature. It was se en in \ü7ale s thar the function of incerpre ter was passed down through several generarions of the same family, and an Irish example supports this. A charter of Meiler Firz Henry, justiciar of Ireland (1199-1208), dated 10 May 1201, acknowle dges payment to che Exchequer at \trestminster of fifteen silver marks so rhar 'Latimerus' may take possession of his land previously held by the crown: 'sciacis quod Latimerus satisfecit nobis in Anglia ad scaccarium §Testminsrerensis de .xv. marcis argenti unde nobiscum finem fecit pro habenda rerra sua quae fuit in manu nostra'.'31 Although no firsc name is given ro 'Latimerus' here, he is most likely the David, father of Richard, from the family of latimers mentioned in a charter of KingJohn from 1207 (frg.2): a -.

Sciatis nos dedisse concesisse et presenti carta nostra confirmasse Ricardo Le Latimer pro homagio et servitio suo totam terram de Tircahin et de Killinglas cum omnibus pertinentibus suis sicut David pater suus eam melius cenuit habendam et

ti a

ls? tulrl pttl pue.rara.rd.rrtul slq peuoruruns tr{ uer{I 'rnouearuep dpuar-r; E qrr.&\ tulr{ a)tJqrur pu? raar8 or rua,^& pu? patunotuslp ag '8ur

-iuo) rurq,,nes uqo[8ur) urrl/N 'a8t:nolua slqJo glr,tr looJ uo tulq Paq]?o-ldde aq 'Sutuor putlSug yo 3ur1 r{1 Ä\?S ureq393u I?uaJ er{r Jo 8uq aqr uerl,4§)

(n-el I 'dd) ,'?rualo^ rlso^ srenurlo^ rlnolu EraJ rr 'e:opuodsar ur sno^ ' rJnE ua 1l rurnb 'uretuap ta :JruJ^ zot lrnu? aJofuJ rrop rnb 'snuJ^ snol std eJo)ue tsa,u sn?suof sJS :er itrdse.r seuuop ue(l slrru rlnut sno^ au anb ;ou8as uos t J(ur.uof, arrd sno,L ll spru :tnot nop ?luJlo^ arrso^ JJrg ap rJ ruor{ oJtso^ a.Itsap tsa sueJrsap rlnotu ra 'srnbe.r s?^? II sno^ Jnb nor{l rlnotu rsreld r1 p anb luodsa: sJrIS Jru 'eJrS,:uerlef ro.r ne tsrp te sueuaq8n.rp sas aJarJJE tur^J.r srnd:arlpasuof, rsol tnolu to ta 'tua8 e1 o r:ed eun,p tsren )s 1l :rro.ra1:rd ua p anb rsrp uoilaut) rp slor I-J 'oJran ?s ep nr{Jl rsrpual Ii u? unls?r anb ra rsruJ^Jp ruorl sJs II anb a:.ranbe: rsy r1 ta 'tu?ruaq8n:p uos rruJ^ tsy srnd 'ruelqtues Iarq rs5 I[ tnou ]J 'rrrsr?g ra JanlES ?lt,l ':lua,t tr^ al su?qef sro.r 11 ruri] 'rua8 es ap an:td aun arnor o ard ra prd s lpua:sap


E rnot rnl äJruofua efe ll


Io: )l Jruä^ rr,r p rutnb 'uoilaua;1 ap sIoJ I^J

:,urrueq8nJp, pellel eJsr{'s.rete:d.relur Jo rsn )>l?tu wl?hl P3v pu? uqofr{rog 'ernlleJ ur sPus qrl?w P3v trrou e]nqlrl uIeS o1 rdruarre s,ur{of qrrq,$.Jo rlnser e se (urerl8g1., I?urf *p Jo 8rH 'lll?N }n qrl?W pev pue uqof ure^r]eq Sunaatu arlt surr)uor uonsanb ut aposrde r{I zurJIäs -tuTr{ turserd uerq r^er{ osle dlenrre ppol ro urnopneg ruo5 tunorf,e ue u,{A,op )l)ruo.rql aql Jo JoqlnE arLL 'stuJ^r ot ssJutr,r\Jd3 ur sB.^d. Pue ue>le] a, Leru

OrcIJo rr(UlUns srll uI PUelrrI ol lIsI^ urnlar s,lellel agr Sui.rnp ugof8ul) Prlu -edurorrr urnopneg ')unqt?g rp urnopn?g Jo rllrrl rlerp)rurul eqt uI roqtne ue dq pesodtuor d1a1l1 tsour 'OZZI'rJo rpruolll r{ru}rl E uI ))I^.Irs llietuoldlp ur p)^.r)sqo eq u?f, 'r)r.unEl s,8uDI e sdeg.rad ro (pu?l3rJ ur rrrunel s.8uq aq1 1,,'(ssautsnq ruop peq;a8unod aql raullte-J -epv ruoq.^d. qrl^e) ru.rnogqsy sEIIE pare;8srp rrp Jo spods rqr Jo rruos prte -r.rdo.rdde er{ uor{.,'r ruttrvJo roueru l{t otur auref, r(lrlll isour trJqog'd;olr.usl rql qlr/!\ rruof uäqt pue dpueJ 3rl1 ur unr lsry )^Er.l ot Pres )q eroJerer,lt uBl rrrunel r Sureg 'f,uerrv Jo rouetu agl Surploq tuo5 algtrrossrpul sl qsrrl rql pue gsrlSug rrp uer,\A.rJg.rrtunelJo suonrunJ rrp r.rnsse ol uone8llqo eqr reql reqr sr ese) srr{t ur Sunsa.ralur d1;elnrrued sr reqA 'r{lurry


u,^^.orf, erp

se,n gsrlSuE pue qslrl aprs8uop asn dpep ur reln)eu;e,r, ledrrur.rd:aqroue ^\ou reql d1a1ll sl rl lng 'uonensrurupe pue .^,\EI qsriSug yo a8en8uel E se qluary ur Ieltnqrr pu? sa8:tgr rql 'rraqo5 t)r^uo) ot r)pro ur petelnru-roy drr

ueulr.l.r. ere

ousz (Nnouc


ur uJaq







- -=

'rr),sasuaprl, ra so1Sug -:--' . - ']]EH {q 'pa'tanbar1.'.t'1. , .- -

]Se1 UIIE-I 3q1 uI Slu:'.: --su?laaSnty puB s.t)itt:::'. -.^ 'PIJo./\^. euoqdoruErt : --: eroru PellylnJ s:al:: j::: )^Erl I 'rfurPr.\r r{sul ." :: .^\ou J r{)lq.4(1' ot 's-.r-:': -:l plo ul serue:eaddr::.-: -, -refuor )g ot sEr,{ ]s': --::PrrrPls:rt: : - : seq rEJ snqt

s.releads-qsrrl pue '-!!-


erueuodrur Jrp 01 p:-;



dldrurs ere,la. e8en8ur'-: --. 'sleuolssaJo.rd a::-rr, ':)-:- . :

-inusut stdnurtd !C . -': : rqt ur snplerr) .iq s:'-* d:uegJo e.\oq? r-.!:rr:



rql'peprore-r .i1e:r:

. .:'


uI ureq 3^Er.{ Plno.rr '.. -: Sur,r.oyrq'esJnofJf,lur -i.-- - :


PErl r^eq oslE tsnlu .: -': -oldlp ur Sunsrss? c): - - :' JrUE d1l:oqs sr-:-.,'^.'-


u?u.roN JrJrll f,tE ,r,',-: _''lrPPelg SIUII rEY \\ : -' . e s?,r\ Sur:::i::,, . -


regl d1a1l1 .(11enb: r: ::,'.':-UOIleLUJguOf, E SI )lL': :: L{slea rrll uaf, \\::-PUE

pue 'snon8rque J)qlr-


l adaq2




and each year pay tribute for his land. The king of the Cendl nEöghain said he would discuss it and withdrew to one side with his people, and quickly took counsel; then his interpreter returned and said to KingJohn:'Sire, my lord responds that what you have asked pleases him gready, and that he is very ke en to be your man and to do your will in all things; but he begs you as he would his lord to give him willingly a delay; for his counsellors, who should all be here by nightfall, have not yet all arrived; and tomorrow, when he has spoken to them, he will reply to you, and will gladly do your will.')

This is clearly a scalling tactic of Äed Mdith, who the next morning attacks the king's foragers, seizes cattle, horses, and hostages, before retreating to the mountains, whence he sends a message to John, telling him to come and fetch his tribute if he wants one. The proce dure involving the interpreters seems to be thatJohn uses his as a means of making demands known to Äed Mdith, who responds via his own man. It is noteworthy that the response is not delivered to John by his interpreter. \7e must assume that next morningt eft-rontery is also transmitte d via interpreter. This is largely in keeping with the actions of interpreters noted in the literary texts surveyed above. The legend of St Patrick's Purgatory, in which the saint descends into Purgarory through a cave revealed to him by God is one of the best-known stories from medieval Ireland. The Purgatory was identified with Station Island in Lough Derg (Co. Donegal) and became a site of pilgrimage. The foundational text

is the Tractatus de Purgatorio sancti Patricii, composed in its basic redaction in 1179-81 by a monk from the Cistercian abbey of Saltrey (Hunts.) who refers to himself simply as '.H.1 although he is often called without reason Henry.t+3 '.11.' claims to have undertaken to write the text at the request of - abbatis '.H. de Sartis', who may be identified as Hugo, abbot of Sarris (tff/arden Abbey [Beds.]) from ll73 until c. 1185; Saltrey was a daughter house of \7arden. The knight, Owein, relates his adventure s to Gilbert of Louth Park Abbey (Lincs., founded from Fountains in I 137), who had been senr ro Ireland to establish a new house by Gervais, the first abbot of Lourh. Gilbert in turn relates the ad,ventures of Owein to'.H.'Gilbert of Louth became abbot of Basingwerk (Flints.) in t155, so his sojourn in Ireland musr have taken place before then. In collaboration with Owein, Gilbert is indee d said to have estabt43 S.. Easting, 'The Date and Dedicacion of the Tractatus de Purgatorio sancti Patricii', and De Pontfarcy, 'Le Tractatus de Purgatorio sancti Patricii de H. de Saltreyl De \Wilde re dates rhe Tractatu.s to I 170-75 by idenrifying rhe Florentianus of the cexc wirh Florence O'Broclan, abbot and bishop of Derry (d. 1175) rather than the usual Fogartach (Florentius) Ua Cerballäin,

bishop of Tyrone (1185- 1230); see 'Le Purgatoire de saint Parrice ', t, pp. 16l-63.


and Crusader kingdor:, ^ the two terms, just as rl.^-

Latin.ll3 The one no[ic;.:., the plural, implying rh=, sionals, pracricalh-a cia.; *

In borh histon'ani ..-often functioned as m.,,.. cratic households. In ri.; ,

'professional interpre r.:! Saracen courts, u,here :;:-cation and diplomacr- .r ' --. for example, the empe :--: Franks as a messengcr ."., called both 'latinier' I i j .


nication between the :..-. (c.1210), the emir senis . " city of Narbonne (laiss., of the ciry wall.11- Eran:-. of Horn by Thomas I 1: send interpreters ro FIii:... and espouse rhe cause oi l,: _





Qr dc -:-.-' Dreit a. :.. ,. Li porc:c:, : Sus al h.:.,::


Iloc i on: :.

1:..: . dier:::.: Cum l'o:-:.: . Primes


My examples har-e e ...:-:'larinier' and 'drugeman,

't: s.r,r,.


Thi, confirms in par:




1ores, 'Polyglots in rl^.c , tion, andVallecalle, Message_,,: .; 116

La chanson d.Antiocl.t,.








d. b-, S - -



l op





;rHr ;;

'urq:r1dq'suert pue 'p)'zxz/,tl"(J

I iiäf ;3 il ä:ä ll ]l u?s ty ouolaStnrJ


:tä'ffi äT.ä :il ",;: " "

sr ,sey8urllr), 'SZ

'd ',,.r.',


'EIf,ueJJ Ip er:e1q uI punoJ ague) ailotaSmdsT

rqr pue sttlupu.tJ rr.pJo suonelsuen ":'f*: uEr]EU pue srx{'arer{ paronb'[toryi"rnd s.T?uad ru!?S

'd::e3ruo4 eC dg uonf,nporur uE rltr^§'pr€lrd (q parelsuen urrq serl xrr eql'rz-rz'dd'ax4arJ ru!?s ap a"uouaitn4 q tns a?a7'uepuezrep uE^ oslt rrs :a>lurq)N [q'p, 'alpö auDS yu?t ilu?q ay aLruW np »!.tlv(J 'g anolaSmdsT u,tort Wng sue pue 'suDIUa[iq 'p, 'atuutg ap atwlqlo ,zluad turus ano1a7,tnds7, aq1 :a"uo1u7mdsT s.aluerJ Jp JrrEI{ Jo suourps o.r\r uI Itlrrreru r:oddns sr papnlrur rerlrer sE,^A txrt aq1 'SulrseE {q 'p, '[tolaStnrJ s,2f /llvd '.zS' rsn 1'sn1a1ru"ta ay] ro{ sr r




JoJ r1Jnor3 Pr.\EC

o: *::j-



-J33 S3P?f3P xls ..:'_:: . >I]Eq se.r,r'(§ ullqnc : -: -'*::- -:. :

-uepl eq uel qrlq-\\

regr Surdld*l

err'puelerl dl.rea ur urs e sB przruSora: rou s?,^.r' apllluror{ teqr rnrlun dpuered sr rr qSnoglp 'rlslrl rqrJo drr.req.req eqt )tertsnllr or pesn sr .(13ursr.rdrns tou'atopreue rr1l 'uonnlosq? sr^rr)är eq !urs e se.^d, S.rllll1 ier{t ,^aou{ tou plp *l teqt pue tou ro prrp peq prpunor$. er{ osoqt yo dur rrritrrl.^a .{\oDI ot tou stuIEIl ueru plo )qI

le s;ala.rdJJtur Surl::.- ::. -dns or uosEJJ ou s-*:r. :

SurrseE dq'sue:r pue 'pa 'suouapaayto 2loog ü paqsrlqnd sr rxar ogr :(OOZI ':) 1e,nu:o3Jo ratad dg runo:rr unE'J puoras E osle sr arrr.Il 'apuoru a1 ,taZuuq3 äoD )'I-rU!/§ aas 'i1tua:a.r tsotr1 'srunorry qluer{ l{L 'splarqs pue'8rag g8nol or a8erur:8lld l{l ot puno:31leg IElIrorsIH aq1,'dr:eSruod aC'dsa .(r.reyruod rC pue uereH dq'p,',{n1aZ.rnrJ sfl)lttvd'lg o1 aSaulttfitcl lynaryary ac/I ul suonngrJluor eql aas '1e:eua8 ur .(.lote8.lnd rl{r Jo uoltlp?Jt Jyt roJ llr


'a) ('ueu



p?q aqgr ;ara;dretul rqr q8no.rgr

turq Pa>ls? 1 'uorssa;uo) srq Prqsruu PEq eq uegrtuuorssuuol s,uEtu sLIr Pe^I3l)r

I pu? ;ata;d.ralur .(ru ro;


I '^:tuno:

slqr Jo a8en8uel aqr Jo lue;ou8t st,u. 1 sy)

Ylla,r sPJof JJ JLIr LU.:-

dlarueu 'orulv7au -r',: >: -: -punore perp .(11enr:: : .: Jo u?rpren8 st LU)u: ! -- :' : Jo lurod uI srr'0gf l ::'. : sE

s:r'^: --...

)q ol PIes lou sI 'Pi:-:-- uePV 'l)s.I)rLros l-:, 'dauneq .ro .iau-rrrg :: t: Jtll rer'uISIJSSIP rr::' 'orlv aP tuEPY or r.: -' .-

(tZt'd) 'tJSSIf TJrtut urenbrun ruJUItuor{ IS 'InESoJJatuI uala:d:atur :ed runsdr 'tJJJfeJ ens sruorssaJuol ruaug un: ri'h 'rdaca.l uauoISSaJ I{lru uara:d:alur 'rne;ou8r uen8url ar:ted snllr rutluonb rg -uol snr)



::elo:d.ralur s,rrrqilS g8no.rqr ut^I8 sI uols -ssJuol srll'lurr.uE.rres 3qt J>let ot JIq? )q o1 se os ssTuof ot rurrl or sJrtrol u?ru plo 'rrdrrrap 'pe.rreq-rrrr{.\\ ? ,rtorl sertlrr (SS 't '€U'd) (srue.r.e rsrrpJo rorerreu eqr) ,urnror1 rolelr:, 'ueQflg ')ratp rl)rnr{) eqr Jo Surpunoy rrp pu" d-rore8.rn4 )rlt Jo >llrrted or uonelo^er s(tsrrq3 Surpara.rd dlarerp)uurl 'r^n?rf,eu rqr Jo Sursolc pue Suruado oqr rE spur>looq se uonrunJ sa8essed aseqr (llurrglu8ls (ir'suorsJe^Jelnf,EuJ)^ str pue txel un?-I er{t ur s;ala:d.ralur JJnreJJ qllq/rt sa8es -sed ornr rqt Jeprsuof, A4.ou III,!\ I pue s)rrntue) qlueetJrrp put rlul),\lr rrlt ur 1,lo,y anSua/ )yJ ur apelu rra,{ö. snlry)v.rJ rr{r Jo suoneldep? )srf,^ IEre^rS ,.1'ÄlIUntUlUOf JiISEUOLU eql UItllIA uolrenrls crlsrn8url rr.ll pue puelerl ur suer)r)rsr3 rrp yo sdep rseIIJEr *p ol

{req sE

sn s)>ler aroJrrrqt snlalr?"lJ



ur prpunog

*lI'tuoJIIIeWJo esnoq:arq8nep puorrs rr{l uE p*lsrl


(eqqe ) sselSurrpg eq or rq8nogr

ot{EZ oNnouD


3^5 UJnl U,




'spunod dlua^tr JCL ::: rP III Plrqosql 'r': : .-::' 'Jr)q str Jo uorsslssc j : .- , -apa.rd E PIoq


prer{lr5 '::S *:- -.:.



oq.\\' :j-,:


SUIeU JLII UI Sr Jätir-':

.,' ,uIOq)JIqI UI 'JJLUn:l .' Jqr Jo uolluJru rLl: .: . , III uI ralllg slq P:i::--r:rrr')Jnual s,u.(tuoJ -- :-:l

rrtr?q) eqr ua.r.rS : :l : . .ufrj: r * :


Pel?Pun ue ur

yo drunor arlt ur

l adaq2




As regards the interpreter, it is impossible to say which language, other than the old man's Irish, is involved here. If Latin is the mosr likely idiom for communication between Gilbert and the interpreter, French cannor be excluded as the former would most likely have been French-speaking. In any case, rhe situation must reflect the kind of simadon English and French Cistercians encountered when they first arrived in Ireland. For'.H.', it appears quite normal. The best-known vernacular adaptation of the Tractatus is the Espurgatoire seint Patriz of Marie de France, datable to just a few years after the composition of its Latin original.laT The anecdote is retained by Marie, but with a major change, namely that the old man's confession is made to Patrick, nor Gilbert:

clear why Marie made rh:,

rvhich served as her sour--; other one to preserve ir b.

ble on linguistic grounds : author of this texr, s-ho .^,

theword'interpreteour Par l'inre


Qe s..










il fist un latimer venir,


pur lui mustrer et aovrir


i?:11i.""..?:[.,:i::" n'i parlad rien d'occisiun; n'ert pas pechid, qo lui e rt vis,

il aveit homö occis. Seinz Pauiz lui ad mult enquis se il en aveit nul occis. (11.229-40) si

(Because he could not understand or comprehend his language, Patrick sent for an interpre te r, to translate and reveal co him what rhe man was saying to him and what he was repenting. He finished his confession but said nothing about killing; if he

had killed a man, this u,as not a sin in his opinion. Saint Patrick asked him insistently whe the r he had kille d anyone.)

This makes less sense than the Tractatus as Pacrick, who had previously spenr six years in Ireland, almost certainly knew Irish and would noc have needed an interpreter.las Yolande de Pontfarcy cranslates 'pur lui musrrer' (1. 332) by 'pour qu'il lui traduisit en latini which would have been appropriare for Patrick's day, if not the linguistic situation which can be de duced from Marie's rexr. k is not 147

Marie de France, L'Espurgatoire seint Patriz, ed. and rrans. by De Pontfarcy. Previous editions are rhose byJenkins and §Tarnke (above, n.I45). See Picard, 'The Latin Language in Earlv Medieval Irelandl pp. 46-47, although Patrick's remarks abour native and acquired languages in §§ 9- 12 of rhe Confessio are nor as clear as Picard se ems to think. The text is in St Patrick, 'Confession'et 'Lettre ä Coroticusl ed. and rrans. by Hanson and Blanc.



ne saveit comprendre sun language, ne rien entendre, Pur qo



P:::.: l'inc.::

(Through the interpre!.: :, - that he was a terribl. ,began to tell him rhrous:.

Mörner believes the


rather than an indicarion ::

tor horum' of the Tritcr.i::, overlooked, the narraro: i the very end of the narrar:'. The 6nal secrion of rh. of the priest and the devi^s others ro the king in Ire lan. astery there, but that he .,,'.


cum veniens ad r.g.:-

guam ignoraret.


Et accito prefato milirc.


domus illius erat cellara::,-, minister deuocus ac ini,:: idem tesrarur Gile berru. ;

(§7hen he arrived ro

see ::.--

know the language of rl: : you with rhe best incerp:::; ta9


Purgatoire de

stii;: |.::

'rrurotr{ dq'p,

'a)t"tlucJ luxas ay atrouS,tnrl



'SUeJIPUE'PJ',S|t.t!1,.'._. JEalf,

papu?ruruoc aq'rg8rurl ptrt er{r roJ ruas 8ur,r.eq puv'rrrrrd.ratut rsoq rLIt nod apr,,ro.rd flla I, :prcs 3u11 aq] 'srqr Bur.reag uodq 'd.rrunor arpJo a8en8url erp,^.ou>I

lou plp aq t?qr paurrlduor tnq

'lel ura,!\O | 'rnu8las uos ap Tr8uo: rl red, putl dlog eqt tuo.r3 Suru.rnra-r rrUE rrqtr.{ JJJq,r\ 'tuaod ar{t Jo pua Jqt osle JJ '8urslr1 iq 'p, 'e)t.tlt1d tulus af, attoryZtn4





aur^rtsg ia: ob suar 1y pnue^t lsa z:n[ zou uJ .rO


:s,^dolloJ se dle,r.rsnlf,uolur spEJJ s.,'d.Inlual qturetJnoJ rrltyo Suiu qtu)ot.rrqt ar{tJo pur )r{t tuo5 'uorsrr^ u?r.uroN-o13uy rrrltouv

'(gaz'i .sr.ed

nop sJeIIe^Jq) sun,

sE,\\ uraÄ4.e



dldurs uorsJJ^ srouadrueqf Jql

ellqm ,rr'(L6 '1 'utaro;d rua;ed de: p,) e^rtelrr esop srg 'ura,rrr.O pue (96'I'.,rfi -lne ri tuerp ar,) senr.rorltne rrlt ol Surp.rorre 'puEIerIJo 3uq agl uagdets sr>letu dlgrssodul fo.rag dg uorrerdepe u?uroN-o13uy d:nruar-qru)är.rrqr-p1u rrll

aql ol ssaJuol or :


uleuef E l?qr !r-: .)- j /w

-srda snrnr


urJtrlrtu 'rurq ('puno3 oq ot sE,\\ asso3 rqt aräq.^A uor8a: rqt ur prprsar og,n dogsrq aqr prretunorur rq rluer1) ig [...] -unof a^n?u slq ul urJ.{\O pellel s?^\ oq^\ rq8rul pno.rd pur r^EJq E S?r\ arerlt trr{l pauaddeq rr 'pur18ug plarl pu" pau8rar oq^\ ,uaqdar5 8ur;3o eun aqr ry)




ru:- i .' . - : r j.:i .':: - :




'11) 'rrarsa sssoJ



rl n sied


-uJlul slr{ ssltls f,q ::: -'


dlpur8r:o tnq 'ueiul!.:- : aqt dltrexe tE rr s:l::: - .'>loot d.rort8.rn4 :iJr :: - .' PUE unE-I er{t ur r]c.::i .-:: 3qI 'P)ref,runruLlror :-: : .'rl)uJJl u-\\oir§ :'.: lou lJ::.'-* : -'



nu3^t lsa alnlue^? JEd


aladr ura,to tratse unu JEd eu lrelsJ II n errJt JIe) uE 'rag ta lp:rq trr tlntu e) Jal?^eql un tralsa lunP 3) 'rulr tJ a:arala8uE rrp.rrn8 r;q 'turÄe euJlJtsg ia-r a1 suot IE


Peu.Ieel e^eri

3r.{ rnq 'etuSru: u: - - -i .- (lpcrrsrn8url rur:r-: --i , .:

.rala.rdrelul 3qr

:stxlue?lJ rrll SurssolS ,q deur ,.,d.rnrurr r{tuaetrrrlt )qt Jo elpplru rrlt ruo5 tx)t u?ru:o51-o13uv puores v osr.(pue1e-r1 ot tulel) pl?l osle orl,^d. puelSuggo 3"U) (fS-SS .f{) ,lro.rp EruEIr )puel.rÄ ur tE I rlorse slor rrrrralSug,p lfu, se dllerylreds uegdels seqrr)sap .(.rnrua) qrurel r{ulr^lr rqrJo pur rrll ruoü uorsrr^ ueturoN-o13uy uy srltJo SuruurS)q ro



rrri *. ::

puEI eqt 3o :apr.r.o: j rsnur ot pJ.IJqJ: S -r= :





-. : --

InJrplg rsolu tru: :r: .-: oi{t pu?'asnoq:i: -- -:---

1 "ratdaqS







chevalier de Hirlande esteir,







Oen par nun, e cil veneit A l'eveske en qui paroisse


Est li liu de cele fosse E lui dist sa confessium.

Sii 1o:-:: :

Dun: .: .-. E-:l'=^.-L Ltl e-_--


Si renr:.:

Od G:^.:.: E den::


E en p,*.

Returning now to the final interpreter passage in the adaprarions of the Tractatus, Marie seems quite faithful to her source:


De 1'o.'.:.' NIeis c:.: ,


Conr'.:, :..

Li moine s dist k'il ne saveir J



(In our day it happene d,'nvhen Stephen was king, that there \ ,,as a knight from Ireland, Owein by name, and he came to the bishop in rvhose parish the place of the fosse was to be found, and made confession to him.)

;T :I:l



Ilulc.-:'. i

(London, BL, MS Cotton Domitian A.iv, fol. 258'6)

A la r:re:' -.


:'.':T ;:' :0,,,

le language de cel pais. Li reis 1ui dist: 'N'en dourez mie, jo vus metrai en compaignie

(Bur he did nor kno.',' ::.. was no-one to reach h-:. to take an interprercr. :

un prodom e bon lacimer'. Don apela le chevale r



he undertook this rr-:^.:. :. remained wirh Gilbe :: :: : in several\\':-,'j join rhe religious liti o::.. to the house.)

Owein, si iui pre ia e dist k'od lui alast, si l'apre sisr.

was useful


Gileberz en fu celercrs

Noteworthy here is che s:.


273-fr. 2198 text has O',

(il 1e51-60,,e7e-sz)

where he dies

(The monk said he did not knou, hou, he rvould be able ro remain, for he did noc know, nor had he learned, the language of the counrry. The King said ro him: 'Do not be concerned, for I will give you the company of a rvorthy man and good inte rpreter'. Then he called che knight, Orvein, asking and commanding him to go wich Gilbert and teach him the language [...] Gilberr rvas the cellarer and Owein rvas his interpreter. He r.vas a most loyal servant to Gilbert and obliging in all his needs.)

Only the late Anglo-Norman version preserves this decail of Owein latimer and the residence of the rwo at the new foundarion: Meis ne sout pas le language De cel pais, dunt il se pleynr, Qli n'ad hunme qe irreis l'enseint.




(ll. -99-:

Cambridge, UL, IVIS Ee . .cross (11.862-64); rn che C

in the monasrery

(11. 101


Generally speakin,e. :: emphasis on rhe inrerprc: : after rhe English incursic:., familiar with the kind oi ^: eties. Owein's descenr i:.:, his role as interprere r cc:: English monks visirins I;.-'.H.' and Marie in partic::^.: ing participant in the prr,.:

o.^\i uor^\leq de8 egl Sur8pr.rg 'uortezruolor Jo ssorord egl ur luedrrrrrcd 8ur -[ln e se rq8rul qslrl aqr Surde.rr.rod uo ]uetur err.^ ur arrery pue .'H', reqr rsaSSns deru uaQ[D dlag ol ssrurpeJr srH 'puela;18unrsr^ s>luoru qsrlSug Jo uonenlrs lsenbuor-lsod )qi ot ,(11enba spuodser.ror .role.rd.rrtur sE rlor srrl tnq'Lr-9rll q eteld u)>let )^erl deru d.rore8.lnd otul tuef,seP s(ula,!\O 'srlt3 -rros len8urprlnur ur esrre r{rrq^l. sru)lqo:d rrrsrn8ull Jo puq er{t qtr-^& r?rirrug 3.roru eJe/!\ sroqtn? Jrsrll rsne))q Pu" puEIerI otur suorsrn)ul qsr13u1 3r{1 Jsue dp.rogs uattrJ.^a Jr)^\ degr asneraq sdeq.rad 'enssr Surra.rd.rarur Jr{t uo sisegdua rrour ,lel auoluS,r,ndsg s(erreI^ü pue sruatrvlJ urTef 3qr '8ur1eeds d11t:aua3 '(ß-aIor 'il) d'ralstuoru 3ql uI sdep srg spue pu? tlqer{ rrll s)>let eg 'lxal srouadtueqf aqr q:(19-298 'll) ssor) agr dn a>lel rurq seg dldrurs Iorrg :(ze-e ttl 'il) I I '9 'eE SW ''In 'a8pr.rque3 uI txrt d.rnluer-qturetrrr{r-plru erit seop se '(808- 66L 'Ii s)rp rrl rrrrl,/y\ 'd.ralseuour )ql ot u.rnt)J pue ssoJr etp dn r>let urJ,&\O seq txrt 86IZ 'JJ-€LZ aq1 'e8rn8uel prol arlt se rlslrl Jo uone)gpods eqt sr a;aq .(^ .)toN




('spaeu slrl ll? u:




: srq se,^d. ura.\\o PU: -:- : grr,lr oB or tulq Fu:: -, -- -rarur pooB pur -:." -':oC[, :rulq o] pr?s S - ..- . - -

tou plp )t{ roj

'u::.'-:- - : .




('asnoq arit ol pdol d.ra,t se,tr rH 'r?lnras ? prureruar tng '{uoru ? aJIf snor8rla: aqr uroI or qsll.r rou plp tng '.uon?punoJ rqrJo aS.rrqr ur s?Ä\ ag 'sie,r f?.raÄas ur InJasn s?.t\ pue 'qfnu urq padlaq pur Slerl r pu? s.rrai a1oq,t o,rt roJ r.raQflD r{tr,u peur?uer rq8rul rr{r oS ["'] sie,r dueru ur InJesn i:o.t se,n pue 'i13ur1l,!\ slqt >lootrapun rr.l PuV'1r3qll5 dlrq ot rulq pr>lsE pue rq8rul eqt pall?r ar{ oS':ala.rd.ralur uE a>lEr ol rq noÄ, :rulq ot 3ur1 aq1 'qsrrl rurr{ qleat ot auo-ou sE^\ prsl^pt pr?s IIa,^d. erarlt roJ 'palla.r8a: eq rllrq,\\ srr{r Jo o8en8uel eqt .r\ou>l lou plp aq lng)



'loJ '.^l'V uennuo6l




'l?rl rlntu llalss unslel-u 'leq





zurä 'au,toru äu sJJ-A'uoJ

aJlsl 1lo,\ )u äJofuJ srJI{

tnt trJtsJ




'tnl?^,rn1 suar: s-rnsnld uo g



srrnuf, zune snaoP


erlt Jo suoutrdrpr : *--

'ue ltuep E

PrsqrllS Po

srsrl?^3rrlJ Il runp lsnüJJ rs


'sJrnsJru ztlrntu uJ tnp,\ in1 l1n1rg 'slJnuerlo^ rlnu tst:duJ,l III E 'rerpra a.ta,r[ao] IJr E penol IIS '.rerle^rrqf e1 elade tunC '.rJrlrrsuo) uerq tlnru rI rsg sn1

rqrJo areld :q: *'- :: -erl tuo5 rgBru:": (q,8§Z 'lo3




,. :

'\:'':- r:

rJrruE?l un ec, :lsrP rnl s^JJ r-J

ouaz cNno'u9


r @tuq)




languages and cultures.l5a Elsewhere, particularly in the Lais, Marie appears quite sensitive to such matters, giving titles in French, English, and Breton.155 Indeed, by her own admission, her entire euure is a transposition from Breton (in the case of the Lais), English (in the case of the Ysopet),"u or Larin (in the case of the Espurgatoire) into French, and her re cention of both interpreter se ctions of the Tractatus therefore comes as no surprise. The best-known Irish interpreter is no doubc Morice Regan, the 'demeine

latimer' of Diarmait Mac Murchada, who supposedly provided the author of La geste des Engleis en Yrlande (formerly known as Tbe Song of Derrnot and the Earl) with material for his I will discuss the Geste, compose d be fore 7200, in more detail in the followingchapter, but for the time beingexamine the implications of the transmission of subject matter to the poet through Morice. The opening lines of che Geste, w'hich include the first reference to Morice Regan, have been the subject of what seems ro me an enrirelv superfluous schoiarly debace, although it is worch remembering that the beginning of the poem is defective:1t8 Par soen demeine latimer

ffi ;:; ;:i:',i:i:.l



Morice Regan iert celui. Buche a buche parla a lui Ki cest jesc' endita;



de France,


Fabeln der Lfarie de France, ed. bv \farnke, Epilogue, ll. 1-19. I do nor accepr the attribution of La uie de seinte Audree to Nlarie as does McCash, 'La uie seinte Audree'; see also the introduction to Tbe Lfe of Saint Äudrey, ed. and rrans. by McCash and Barban. The author, Marie, does claim to have 'dit er translatd' from Latin . See La uie de Seinte Äudree, ed. bv Södergärd, ll. 4606-20. )'57


in lreland, ed. and trans. by Mullallv, u,hose more appropriLa geste des Engleis en Yrlande; I refer to the publicarion b,v the forme r and to the text by the latter. The edition of Conlon, Tlte Song of Dermot and Earl Richard, is of litcle ate French

Deeds of the Norrnans



Mrrllally Qhe Deeds of the Norrnans in lreland, p.ZZ) suggesrs that roughly 148 lines

missing at the beginning of che manuscripr.

was interpreter to



ing about rhis voung :-.-.:.

Än earlier editor of rhe :



deduced that Morice l.: account of the sror\- of D -, and the use elsewhere i: : and 'escrit'.1te It mar- be ::

first properly revealed

rh -

indispensable for a hunc:-

lologist and was rror e Spc--the rhe torical devices oi:.texts had not even been .: and used what can onh' b. Re



were forcibly and sensib-' practically obvious concl -- s :

by Morice, and rhat hs :;: 10) and in the third ll i-


7h, Song of De?'7itLi: .;.;.'. four-volume lreland urtdt, ., , -' Francisque Michel, u,ith an



Conquest of Ireland.


scholarly value. 158

(By his personal inrer::::

record. This man u-as -\1.-wirh him face ro face. H. :

He further finds the repc.:, erable reperirion'.160 The ',:,

ed. by Ervert.


: D,.:


the Song, but the unn::-.: 'latimer' who is rhe subi.:: are a parenthesis indic-r: : . his information.

lcil Morice iert latin-rer A1 rei Dermot ke mult l'our cher. S.. §7hite-Le Goff, 'Pour une lecture poliriquei pp.443-44. Cf.'Bisclavrerlll. 1-16,'Chevrefoillll. 115-16, and'Laüsricill. 1-6, in Marie


Ici lerra:


It was not Morice

L'estorie de lui me mosrra.




(n L6l LOng, r



ar.c. :.-.:

unnecessarily devious' (p. 1...

alrnb sr (i:aqog,g Äq pa.rego uoneta.rd.ralur orll,


' (egZ' d) (snor^rp .(I:essarauun ,lJ"E eqr pu? lorurrq, '3uo1 ,r,

'9 'd'usl:rrr.r3 Ielrrolslg, 'dr:agoCI,O


'yualatlto TsanbuoS aql uo u/aoJ u?u,t,to1g-q7uy 'rq31.r26 seruoql dq,(essg d.ror:npo;rul uE qrr.r\'l3r.lllry anbsrruerg dq parrpa uäaq tsrg pey a$a:) )qL'Ze 6I ul palp )H'suvtutoN aql npun puryalJ eurnlo^-rnoJ lednuud s,uad:g 'xrx 'd 'uad:g dq 'p, 'yv7 aql pua ptun7lo Suog ,tll esr ar.ll se.r\

rre seurl 971 (lq8nor rrL{:

sllrllJo s 'PtYqitU i ot pue



.:-::: '':


:qr iq uo:::: :-

-r:do.rdde JJor.u esoq.rr dq

I ouo rrlt pu"',l.rer^ p)^raf,rr rrlt.r\ou sl slql ,ri(9-S 'il) p.llrll atp uI pue (Ot 'L'€.-Z'11) uosrad rs.ry )ql uI qroq JIasuIq ol sreJer rq leql pue 'err.roW dq dpre.rrp parlddns lerr)tetu Sursn sr.roqtne eql teqt uorsnl)uo) snor^qo diprure.rd 3qt sr t?rl./y\ s,{(\prp '3uo1 qdasof dq paSuefieq] ,t1g1suas pue dlqlcroJ ere.{. dr:eqoq.O Jo )soqt ur pue uedr6 Jo s.^Arr^ rgl osr,uouuada.r rlqero se ))rroryJo uonurur parrada-r eqr spug JrrpJnJ rH

'p, 'eatpnl/ alutas

'.", '

2,i; :- -






3r.ll'uEq.rtg PU€ qsrJrJ\\ : :3atynl/ alutas al 1 !'a - i: - r aas


rd:::r rou op I'61-l 'aruEJJ aP rrJeN ul

'9- I -'



_ --l

-lorur u?, Jrurnel Err?ruJ?rC

'uorl?ruroJUI slri

pe^rJJp,JuotsJL ltur8r:o JrpJo:asodruor )rp afuar{^\Sunrrrpur e a;r

9-, seurl eqr :(t'l) (E.nsorlr, Jo pu? (Z 'l) ,rr,ror, yo rre(qns rqr sr oq^\ ,rarun?1, u,ln.ou{un Jqt sr rI ,ralaqreg, perueuun erpJo i:era:ras peru?uun Jrp rnq'8uog agt yo -rasoduol qtr.&\ tf?tuor,r:r:arrl asoll ur poots otl,n ueSag JlrJoW 1ou sEÄ{ 1[

teqr )pnl)uof, ot snonl.rot s? prqrr)srp eg,a.1uo uel terl^\ p)sn pu? uad.rg yrp,r änssr >loot dr.ragog,O 'J 'f '268I ur potrp) urrq ue^o tou perl stxrl rlluJq plo rsou 'ese: due ur pue 'eJnrtf,etrl e^neJJeu Jo s)rr^Jp IElrJot)qJ ärll pue a8en8uel agrJo slltuerurs eqt grl,u.rtrlrrueJ dllerradsa tou se,{A. pur rsr3o1o1 -l{d arueruor ? tou se.rA. uad.rg 's.rrol. ituo.u,l pue prrpunq ? roJ elqesuadsrpur peureur.r uonrpr rsorl,^d. pue lx)t arp Jo rruef,yru8rs agr peltr^rr d1-redo;d lsry orl.^d r?loqls rrllJo s.{lrr^ rrlt le dtpor IJ^E) ot r{srlrnr1) eq deu rI 6(r'trJf,se, pur ')uotsJ,'alse8,'uosueqr, se sruJf,t qlns3o ruaod Jrlt ur aJJLI,4I.JSI) Jsn )qt pu? a8essed slqr qtoq uo prseq sI uolsnl)uor srql 'rr?tu.rerc3o d.rors )r{rJo lunorf,? u3ttr.r,,!\ e qlr.r\ 41s29 )qr Jo roqtne )il] PsrlsrurnJ peq )lirotr^[ ]Er{] pr)np3p 'ued;g d.ruag preppo3 'ueuotsrr{ qslrl trr.r8 agr 'tuaod eqtJo rotrp) r)rlrea uV

('reu:erq 3ur;1 rnoqe noi IIat or qsl.\\ I :uru Sunoi srqr rnoqe 8ur -llrrJo r^?al III^\ I r.reH '.reap i:a.r rulq pirq oq,r'rr?Lurerq Sury or .rera:d:arur se,{\ of,rrnery srql ,t.rorsl{ [s.rrrtu:elq] slq aru ot u^\ou>l eprr-u eH 'rrg ot alEJ turq qtr.r\ pJsJe^uol allruoJrlf srqr pasoduol oq,\\:g 'ur8ag alrJnetr{ s?,!\ ueru srr{I 'prof J.r orerl I r{r1l^\ d:orsrq [s,rrtru.rerq] srq au plor or{,!\ .rata:d:alul leuos:ad slq dg) (t t -


3o Suruur8eq aqr rru': i -- -. -ng.radns d1a.rr:ua ur :'-- -: o1 Jf UJJU)J ISIIJ rL': :: . 'l q8no.rql reod rrll ol::-::'.--ruexo Sureg eruu ri: : -- : 'r,'.-:; 1 -, JJoJeg pasodruol

aqt ?uu louuaq.Jit i', , '_ j : Jo roqlne rql P:Pr.\.: Juletuop, eql 'ue8:X :: - - -. :

-f,)s r)reJd;erur r{roq:: .- : agr ur) unEJ Jo.,,.' -':*'- '- : uotaJg ruo{ uonrsoJs-:. -- .

(lse or '6r l

'se8tnSuel -rJrpo u-\\olr--.-

ueaq )^eq plno.\\ rrr.- j-.: lsnu raoJ : --: :

uJ>let e^eq





sense suggests he would have been somewhat older, especially if he had already learned Latin as well as French by then. If we push the date of Morice's birth back to, say 7743, he would have been in his forties by the cime his meeting with the poet of rhe Geste took place, fomy-six in 1189, which Mullally believes to be the terrn.inus a quo for the composition of the poem.r66 Morice would have had ample time to learn French in a francophone region of the big island or France itself, and his Latin could well have come from a clerical education somewhere, perhaps also in France.16- Another possibility not considered by scholars is that Morice may have been the child of a French-spe aking morher and an Irish father. Unless 'Morice' has been taken by the poet as the French form of the Irish 'Muirgheasl Diarmait's latimer has a French first name and an Irish family name (Ö Riagäin or Ua Riacäi.).tut If this is the case, then he may have been raised bilingually. The likelihood is thar his father would have cravelled to France or England and returned with a French-speaking woman.16e In any event, Morice would have been enormously useful to Diarmait in his negotiations with his new-found francophone allies, not to mention his dealings with monastic authorities, some of which could have been conducred in Latin. lVhat is to be deduce d about Morice Regan and the Latimer family of Co. Dublin is in conformity with what has been shown earlier in this chaprer abour the roles of interpreters and their place in society in England, \7ales, and elsewhere. The absence of commentary on the tasks of interpreters and rheir generally unheralded appearance point to the routine nature of their presence and the institution of their profession. Their actions in literary rexrs confirm and elaborate on what can be se en from a reading of charters and orher formal documents. Used both as interpreters and envoys, they were usually in the employ of kings and nobles, and were often trilingual, skille d in Larin and two ver-


naculars, one natir-e a:a

rhan one language \\-f,j.




personal, culturai, and



in this mulrilir:.::, Ireland was corrlp rr'>; less isolated

1 169, rhe establishme:. : England, and the Coi:::. a large corpus of r-ern;;*. the remaining sun'ival. -:

as some

other traces o:

'66 Trc Drrds of tbe l{orrnans in lreland,ed. and rrans. b,v Mullally, pp. 28-32. '67 It i, just possible that 'bacheler' here mav nor mean 'young man' at all. The ,4ND, s.u. 'bacheler' 4 gives 'representative, officer in a noble householdl although the citarion is late rhirteenth century. The meaningof 'servant' is also attested in che thirre enth cenrury,


'bachele r' 6.


C.i.k, "'The English" and "The Irish"l p.233, rvrires that "'Mauricius" is used elsewhere to Latinize the Irish Anglicized as N{alchusl This appears to be based on Neininger's identification of 'Mauricius episcopus Hibernie]rvicness to an acr of fuchard de Belmeis dated 1119x ll27,asMäelisuUahAinmire of§Taterford,appointedarchbishopof Cashelin 1111 (d. 1135). Flanagan (The Transformation of tbe lrisb Churcb, p.5Z) considers rhe identificarion unlikely, and it is diificult to see rvhy Mäel, larinized-anglicized as Malchus rvould be re -larinized as 'Mauriciusl The act is published rvith commenrary bv Neininger, English Episcopal Äctl, x.v, no.26, pp. 19-20. Crick does not consider the possibility of a mixed pare ntal marriage .

'rq My thanks ro Feargal Ö Bdrr." for help on rhis point.


than is us--.-


S.. Crick, "'The



'gI- LIZ 'dd ',,qsrq arll, pue ,,gsr18ug rr.IL,, '>lf,u3 ,rS

oir 'a8err.reu '

Lx' upy




1r:u::: dg, r,'.'.'.''.

j l

PrzrurlEI-aJ 3q PIno-\\ !:. _':-

uonE)5rluJpl aql sr:p:! _ - : I I I I ul I3rlsEJ go dou.:: P3]EP srel.Uleg rP

Prru:r, -

s,ra8ulula5l uo pasrc


-asle Pesn sr,,snrlun:j.i_ '9 .Jaleqleq, ?'-c '-i:nru:: --:u': -'::-Jrqr Jlel sr uonEtrr

'n's'oNtr 3qI 'llE tr ":.-.

'Z€-8. j j -Je^


unEl *. :: .-.


,roldtua aqt uI .i11rr..:

-loP rrr{ro :::-IEruroJ P*: '.::-:: PUe r.uJyuof st\f,]

puE eluose:d ,rreq: jr-- r-r -: --raua8 Jrrqt puE sr::.- j-.: -)sl) Pue'srle-§'p-:-:-. -

lnoq? Jelder{l sILIr L.


--: l

'o3 Jo dlliueS rf,tuIt:-- : - 'ulre-I uI PrlJnPUo-' *r:: l

s8urleap srq uonur'* - - : -o8eu slq ul tretuir:C - : uI 6er'uEruo,n Surlr: js - -': -


i. ."-

-^eJl e^eq PIno-\\ JrL-::_

deu eq uaqt 'eser ru: 'puEIrrJ ur eSenSuEI qru)rJ 3qlJo srf?rt rer{]o suros se IIe^\ sE )Jnt?r)rII Jerllrr r{rntu e ueJq r^?q tsnur r?q^^aJo sle^r^Jns Surureuer )ql te IrelsP 3Jor.u ur lool 1 -rardeqt 1x3u 3rl1 uJ 's>lJo,r\ relnleur).r.3o snd;or a3:e1 e Ylyn tfetuo) rsrsee puE resolf, olur I Suuq plp o-,'rururluo] erp puE 'pur18ug 'se1e26 ot ssrt esol) yrl,Lr euoqdolueu eJo turr.ur{srlqEtsr rql'6gII uI stsluolol tsrg ar{r Jo sle^rrre rqt eroJrq prr.unsst dlensn sr ueqt prtelosr ssrl se.^(\ Pu?le;1 qSnoqllv'peet )q ot seq 1r q)lq,!\ ur puB pasoduof, sE.ld. pu"lsrl Ie^3 -lPrurJo rrnterrrll a8en8uel-r{rulrj rtp rtrp rxaruor pn8urpllnu srql ur sr rJ 'tasse lerrrrlod pue '.leJntlnt ' e 'e:ag,u.asl) s? puelslJ ur se saSy rlpplw )q] ur 'se,ra. a3en3ur1 auo u?ql "t\ouarrnb sr tI 'pJJrnbre auo pue J^rteu Juo 'sJelnfeu letlt JErl) eJour ut arueladruot


oulz oNnou)

u€ Pue oruEu tsrr] u:*:--- l q)uerJ rr1t sr r:od : --: .: .Irr{toru 3ur1e:ds-qr * -'- j nq pe.Ieplsuof, rou .: .-' : uorlEfnPe IEIIJ)I,-\ r *_-- : puelsl Srg agl-1o uo:i.: . -:



dpgnJl ririi , --. .: .: srr,l

Jrun rL-:

qulq s(JfrJoN +o ]lr: : _-dpea:1e peq rq JI .i1p:: : j. . I @d?q)

rq8no o4auSndxg rqr Jo aso;d une'J oql alrq.,lr (xna//lan.taru )qi Jo srul?ar rrll otul rEJ de:rs pue stleJ rtlt uo .replo.rqur ot petredxa aq lg8rtu 'sreldnor 8ur -urdg: ur pue J?lnr€uJo^ eql ur urttrJ,^.r. 'a1sag oql 'suorrelradxa ot u.roJuof, ol stxet o,lrr rsaqrJo IesnJrr eql dg pepunodurof, sr uonezruolol rrltgo srear(d1.lra eqr Jo sreloq)s 1p Suroeg eruuoflp lll 'snpltrl3 Jo wxunqlH zxtyusndxE x1t Sureg .reqto eqt '.puelrrl Jo lsanbuo: ueruroN rqr Jo sr^rlerreu d;euud o.r,r.r dluo yo )uo (apury,tÄ ua vayfluE say alsa7 yT Jo esef, rrlt sl slrll 'por.rad ro tur^r u?Jo sof,.rnos ledrtur.rd agr Suoue )rE stxel qrns u)rl^§ 'stxat d;e.rarr1 Surqrto.rdde Ief,Irorslq




tuerlsrq pue pexeld-rad u))q ue5o r^€q sutrrorsrq


Surleep urrl,^e xr1 dlsnorrotou uraq r^Eq sreloqls

aql puv




a?uu/"tÄ ua sxal&ur sap a$a8


'puo,(aq ua^e pue rlturrtrnoJ eqrJo elppltu aqr g8nortp d.rnrue) qTIr,rA.r rqrJo pur *lt tuoü uondara; str pue auogdoru?ü t{slrlJo of,uJpr^a eldrue sr rJerlt 'letuaurnuor.u ro'p8a1 ' -ralll Jerperl/N'turuerurad a.roru'rJnf,)s erour paapur sr f,ruepr^e Ienrxrl'punoJ -o.rd dllerlrotslq uarq a,r.rg deru seruanbesuo) rrer.ll q8noqlle u.^d.og r^erl splo.r\ eql '^o))run IIe rrB 'eJIov pue .,!rog8uoJ]s Jo >ller-.^.\olld eql puE 's.rata.rd -r)turJo uonerplu f,ntruoldipun ro rneuroldrp eql'leroltrl ErS rltroN -f rqt uo srapert So 3uri33er{ rr{t '.srurpler)) rqr go Surrunt^ pue rrrrerp I 'luoJIIIeW Jo s>luotu rruoslarrenb eqr Jo rlqqeg snouuf,ruor aq[-1



iJNINtrW TJCIIYJS ,JNYTOI Tfi{ful 7 .reldeg3


Chapter 2


to provide a more accurate and sober version of the arrival of the English in Ireland. Norhing could be further from the truth, as the French text is a generof eve nts, while Giraldus some might say duil ally an unadorned - ve rsion indulges in f ighrs of fancy, personal commentary, and allusions to the classical Latin lirerary tradition. His prose is ornate and florid when compared with the plain verse of the Geste.T.lne Expugnatio and the Geste are more or less contemporaneous (c. 1189 and before 1190, respectively). Giraldus's text is preserved in sixteen complete manuscripts copied between c. 1200 and the fifteenth century,t while the Geste survives in a single, incomplete, coPy, London, Lambeth Palace Library, MS Carew 596, from the late thirteenth century, possibly copied at St Saviour's, §7aterford.2 Carew 596 (frg.3) is a modest but carefully produced manuscript copie d by a single scribe, with the exception of p.27, col. a, in a second hand. Little is known of its early history, but it was acquired by Sir George Carew, earl of Totnes (d. 1629), mosr likely in §Taterford in 1617, as part of his arrempts to document his family history in Ireland. \Mhile the Geste and the Expugnatio tell essentially rhe same story of the invasion and its immediate aftermath, Carew 596 is both acephalous and acaudal,3 probably wanting 148 lines in a missing firsr folio and a larger number of line s at the end. It opens with what appears to be rhe end of the prologue and breaks off at the description of Strongbow's attack on Limerick in 1175. Scholarship on rhe Geste began with rhe editio princeps, published in 1837,a where rhe poet is the object of criticism by his editor, Francisque Michel: 'Though rhis poem is faulty in its style, and very corrupt in its language, yet it affords extremely valuable information on one of the most important events of the reign of Henry the Secondi'Already \Ä.e see the apologetic attitude to a mediocre rext in a language deviating from a koini, tolerated because of the hisrorical informacion it contains. IV{ichel's edition did noc stimulate much commenrary, but it at leasc provided historians with a working text, albeit imper-








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: '§#ftr ,tffil =

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' "l fü.Isürlfl' tl#W &rmoü t' sorl

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'ä W



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s@WffiureLdE *ffiwrffiorm&&tsfc n ry**@*ry.$fin'Gür



Giraldus, Expugnatio, ed. and trans. bv Scott and Marrin, pp. xxxiv-xl.

Ä Descriptiue Catalogue of the Llanuscripts in tbe Library of Lambeth Palace, r, p.778;Tbe Deeds of the l{orntans in lreland, ed. and rrans. bv Mullally, pp.19-20,37. 3

In the apparenr

absence of an existing codicological rerm me aning 'de fective at rhe end] st borrowing 'acaudal' (or 'acaudate') from the language of zoology, although 'anurous' would maintain the Greek derivation alongside 'acephalous'. I can find no r.vord in Denis Muzerelle's Yocabulaire codicologique.



wm fdgttd tcotttn t§x,-:--\.

See James,









Anglo-IVorrnan Poem on the Conquest of Irelancl, ed. by Michel.


Anglo-IVorrnan Poent. on the Conquest of lreland, ed. by N1ichel, p. vi.

Londo:. - ,. Reprcc ..:.



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Cbapter 2


fect, until Orpen's edition and. translation of 7892.6 Orpen has a more forgiving view of the poe t's purpose and talent and is the first to raise the issue of genre as a problem: 'of course, poetry in the sense of imaginative art is not ro be looked

J. F. O'Dohertr-roc-.' Regan, as mentioned :::. :. cal value of the Ge-tte:.\, : fbr the history of the A: :.

for. Still this fragment seems to stand somewhere between rhe chanson de geste proper and the mere rhymed chronicle'.7 Between these two publications,

conclusions on thac po:..: submit my conclusions :-:: to parse, but O'Doherr', -.

the most significant observations on the Geste were probably made byJames Dimock in the introduction to his edition of the Expugnatio: It must have been written somewhere about the end of the twelfth cenrury, and a Chanson de geste, a pie ce

O'Doherty also se em! :: ciuding that it was a cl;-i,.-'


of rhymed but veritable history, that no doubt was often

a pre-exis ting chansoii . !,. source, its veracitv not a,- :

wintert evening in the castle halls of the English invaders, in the presence of many a grey-headed warrior who had taken part in the exploits which ir describes. There is every reason to accept it as simple prosaic truth, according to the chante d on a long

the same time, O'Dohe::'

writer's best belief and information, put into simple rhyme; and in rhyme though ir be, its history, I have not a doubt, is far more accurately true than Giraldus's poeti-


cal prose.8


least questionable reliab

me asure useless; ic

:- : :

This parricular asp.;: implicir conresr beru-ee r. .: mosr reliable by historie:,

Despite the romantic vision of fireside entertainment conjured up by Dimock and categorical designation of the text as a chanson de geste, his assessment of the relationship of the Geste and the Expugnatio and its inrended audience of the English colonizers of Ireland is not far off the mark. Dimock also pointe d out the major failings of Michel's text and the desirability of a new edirion: In fact, at present, it is in great


with suspicio:. :

be treated

infuenced by

a schoiar's


X. Martin, for example. .,'.': plement to Giraldus. Th. tion abour rhe coming o j'

most sadly rvants a new edition,

with literal translation and notes, by some Irish scholar rvell-versed in Irish topog-

Geste makes rhe abducr:o:.

raphy and family nomenclature of the time, and rvell-versed also in the Anglo-Norman of the time. No more valuable contribution, perhaps, ro the hisrory of the first

fall, adding rhar this is ".:: raising again the specrre

few years of the English invasion of Ireland could be made than such an e dirion



poem's most recent ediro:. received view :'Parado-ric-.

this treatise.e

Twenty-five years would pass before his wishes were met by Orpen, who nored in his introduccion that G. T. Stokes had earlier observed rhat'The more carefully you study this Anglo-Norman poem, the more thoroughly you will trust it. It is evidendy based on original documentsll0

Vright and Dimock, is a salu:.: were ar the time (1889), so so-: : tion of the poem to §Trighr


small political foorball for a ,i-


6 Tbt Sorg of Dermot and the Earl, Orpen. 7 7b, Song of Dermot and the Earl,ed. by Orpen, p. xxxvii. 8 Topogrophia Hibernica, Dimock, pp. lxxxiv-lrrxr.. e Topogrophia Hibernica, ed. by Dimock, p. lxrwi.



O'Doh.rty,'Historica. C:


Cf. 'Obituary of Dr. Gr,,i-



Ia O'Doh.rty,'HisroricaC: 15 n.

r0 7h, Song of Dermot and tlte Earl, ed. by Orpen, p. xxxiii. The quotarion is from Stokes, Ireland and the Anglo-IVorman Churcb,p.72. Stokes' diatribe against the Englishmen, Thomas



\-rlralous, Lxpugnd 16n. rr



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E,uo r rs

a1 s a

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tsnrt film nod -i1qSn.-: -'-äJef eJoru sql r?u:

Pelou og,tt -uol-JIJs )qt sr orl,^d. JalrJ,r,r aso;d aqi pler)D sr tr 'dllE)rxopeJ?d, :,{A.)r^ pa^raf,aJ eqt.^.ou dlqeqo.rd sr teq,^d. s)sserdxa ,(1e1py,ag u,{1e,Lg torrpa turrrr tsotu s,rueod

eql 'ru.roJ rnaod Jelnf,euJe,r. eqr Jo Jrt)eds )r{t ure8e Sursrer ,r',atann0"t/ Ie^erprru € Jo rsel rqt ur falqrpuels.rapun], sr srqt teqr Surppe 'llg -u.^Aop s,trrrurerg roJ uoserr rlos eqt llregroJqrrCJo uonlnpge rr{t se>leru a$ag eqt teqt s>lreru).r osle aH (r'puEI)rI ot sueruroN eqt3oBurruol )rlt tnoge uorl -eruroJurJo r)rnos d.reui.rd )qt sureuet o?au7ndxT »q1'snplerr3 or rueuaid -dns e se rnle^ elqeJrprsuolJo t Fuog rrl1. rer{t setrr.rd. 'alduexa ;o3 'un;ery 'X 'C 'txrt rorllre qtl,lr drr:erlrrury3o aa.r8ap pue aurldllslp s,.rBlorlf,s e ,(q pacurnHur rq ot 'uruo os sE teadde suorsnl)uor turf,eJ eJoW 'suerrotsrq dq alqrJlal tsoru prr)plsuor oq ot sI qllq,tt of se ltlau7ndxT rrlt pue tr uea,l.r.t)q ts)tuor tr)rldtur ue uo urnt ot sur)rs atsag eqt uo drgs:elogls Jo lredse reln)nred rl.lJ.


t?Jo, paJrprsuo) rq Isn.., sa,L.rasa.rd auole rr rrrrrrf alsag eW p1nor{s dluo toN rr'rpeo;da.r r^oge eg tou deru ,s8unrr.^.l rrtsersnqtue eJoru pue rcllnJ, s(r)ttel eqt ter{t stnupe illerrrre.rd dl.raqog,O 'arun er.ues ar.ll tV'snplerl3 ro sleuue tlslrl aqrJo terlt qtr,!\ alqe.reduof, tou dlrre.ra,t str ')rrnos e st^\tsnrtun uonrugrp dg se.,ra. alsag rql 'qlns sy 'uzsuyqtBunswa-a-rd e uo pue uoltlp?rt IEro uo prseg alsaS ap u0su?q) e se,.lr tr trqt Surpnp -uo)'f,rua8yo uonsanb aql dq p)t)Erlsrp ureq )^eq ot sruaas osledr.ragog,O , ol ziZ€,6I ul pelp peq oq.{\'uad;g tuo5 reg ot rprll peg dl.raqocl,O lnq Preq il at?xt?u/, ua a?uua )rrezrg slrll rr'uoneurr.uexr JoJ suorsnlruor dru truqns o1 qsl.^(t 1 '.rorrpe rLIl Jo 3sor{l tuoü ruslülP dlsnouas rurod ]eq] uo suoisnlf,uor Perller.r t^eq I se pue '.puelrrJJo uorsE^ur ueIUroN-o13uy tr{rJo,(.rorsrq )qt roJ arrnos luel.rodrur ue se d1p-reua8 pap.re8eJ sr 3uo5 rqr sV iilsag )r{tJo enlB^ Ie) -IJOlSrq eqr Suru;Jf,uot osp lnq ';aldeqr snor,ta.rd Jr1t ur pJuonueu se 'ur3a5 .{ .[ Jo reue{u ar{t uo dluo tou 'uad;O qtl,r\ rnssr >ioot duaqog,O




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st a:ua83o anssl eql

8ur,Lr8.roy )Jour e sPLI * =




Chapter 2

scious literary artist and our anonymous versifier who remains almosr painfully prosaic and factual'. 17 More recent commentary on the poem by Laura Ashe has concentrated on the way in which it refects ethnicity and ethnic confict between the English and the native Irish in the decades following the The comparison with Giraldus is once more de rigueur. Ashe's discussion is importanr as ir makes fine and significant distinctions between the Geste and the Expugnatio, often said to share identical views. It is indeed difficult to understand why some early historians underestimated the potential bias creared by Giraldus's role as cheerleader for the Geraldines, which effectively results in a whitewash of many English shortcomings.le Even though the Geste is cle arly pro-English, ir does not entirely gloss over the failures and faults of some of the colonists, and does not explicitly insist on race and ethnic origins as a tool for moral ranking. ks presentation of the state of affairs in Ireland and the participants in the struggle, according to Ashe, reflects the shifting alliances inevitable in the early days of such a colonial enterprise . It is in essence a practical and se cular assessmenr of a clerical ide ology of conquest.'O This particular topic of Geste-scholarship should be seen in the wider context of discussions of ethnicity, the Irish other, and the consequences of post-conquest assimilation which culminate, for the Middle Ages at leasc, in the notorious Statutes of Kilkenny (1366). The genre issue has proven to be some thing of a red herring, and fruitful only insofar as the inconclusiveness of discussions consrirure a conclusion in themselves. Simon Meecham-Jones has recently reviewed the diversity of opinions, which variously hold that the Geste is a chanson de geste (Conlon, Martin lhe might have added Dimock]) ot that it is a vernacular verse chronicle (Bliss and Long, Mullally), and has argued that it does indeed exhibir romance motifs.21 17

Tlr, Deeds of tbe Normans in Ireland, ed. and rrans. by Mullallv,p.32. Cf. also Mullally, 'La colonisation de l'Irlande au XII' siöclel p.368. 18

Using Sarah Kay's stud. - j French, Meecham--Jone s :: sion of generic possibiir::. if we persist in seekinq i^. u'hat it is and appe arr i - the ideological and st. ^:,:couplet, is that of borh : - : Rou, Benoit de Sainre -^\'1" Estoire des Engleis. Ui:r:.have already seen, class::.


de geste proper and

rh. :..

Another recurring :;::: the poet's supposedlr' :.-. beginning with thar of F:. neutral on the matte r. h.' ing some appreciatio:. . : considered the freque n:teristic sign of lack of ss-. calls 'an execrable rhr-n:c,:: -

\Milham Sayers's'mere : :: judgement on the pocr: 'me diocre rhymesrer. 3. - : is still to be found in ri.. .

with the exigencies of ::.. and line-fillers'.2- Ian Sl^.. . Poetl rru'hile Peter Dar.-.:. author's lite rary ambi:: - .. talent, and he shou'cor-.:.*: Fantosme or Ambroisc:


Arh., Fiction and History in England, pp.159-94.

le A bias appreciated by Mullally, The Deeds of the l{orrnans in lreland, ed. and trans. by Mullally, P.32, and Scott, Expugnatio Hibernica, e d. and rrans. by Scort and lVIartin, p. xxxi. 20


Ash., Fiction and Historl, in England, pp.164,185, 193.


Meecham-Jones, 'Romance Sociery and ics Disconrentsi pp. 73-74. Marrin's mosr unequivocal statement is found in 'Diarmair NIac Murchada and the Coming of the AngloNormansl p.46. Borh text and apparaatsin Ty'te Song ofDerrnot and Earl Richard,ed. by Conlon are largely inadequate and bring nothing new ro the discussion of rhe poem; Conlon refers to the poem as'an epic cale' (p. vii) and'an epic accounr' (p.r). See also Bliss and Long,'Licerarure in Norman French and English', pp.717-18, and Tbe Deeds of the l{ormans in lreland, ed. and trans. by Mullally,

'Introductio.,lpp. 9-37.


Meecham-Jones. B.--:. .

Geste'in the Age of R0rut,... 23 Tb, Song of Det'i,ii,,: .;..'


Historyi p.127. 2a

Ttt SongofDei.i,,t,t: .;,.-.

2i Long,'Dermot



: .-

'6 Sry..r,'The Parron:.. 2- Blirr and Long. 'Lr:.. -: Britain 1170-1450, p. _ir I, -


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uoluoJ dq'p,',qt:A .' -o13uy rqr Jo 8uruo3 lsoru s,unJEtr,{ 'l_-t_


'rr^xxx'd'uad.rg dq'p, 'l.:v7 aql pua rututaglo Suog aq1


aJnltJolrl,'3uo1 pu? ss: ol sJUJJ uoluol :ru:t, j


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pue uorrrr{,'rp?pur{ osl, JO'Il^xxx'd'uad:g dg'p, ay suosuvq), aq1

'f,ey1:rL'd',stuatuo:stg sll



aql yua


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plo ul rrueruor



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sJop pue 'stsruolo: : j- - : s3op rr 'qsr13u1-o:i ^-::. dueruSo tlse.e\arrq-\\ r - ) --, se elor s,snpltrr) -iq ::-,.: JLUos dq,,lr putlsJrpu:. - : :' 'ouvu7ndxl r{1 pur :-' ': se ruElJodtur Sr r- t- . i i:- :




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dln3ured lsoule surPi-r-::



Cbapter 2


unadorne d than that of the Royal ßrut, and its literary standard low'.28 Most recently, Laura Ashe has felt unable to give the Geste much more than a passing grade, even attributing its single surviving manuscript to its mediocrity: h single and fragmentary manuscript witness hardly makes the text unique, but in this case it is perhaps partially explicable in the light of its literary quality: the poem .".r.roi b. t.i-.d ae sthetically accomplishedi2e One could, of coorse, turn this argument on its head and ask why such canonical medieval works asAucassin et lt[icolette and Sir Gawain and tbe Green Kruight were nor more

widely copied. \üZhile not formulated as a reproach as such, Evelyn Mullally has also expressed surprise at what she calls the'cultural isolation'of the author of the Geste, manifest, for example, in the complete lack of reference and allusion to, or comparison with, any other literary or biblical tradirion; he shows no erudition and'betrays no knowledge of Latin'. Consequently, Mullally concludes that he cannot be a cleric.3o \While I do not wish to act as an apologist on behalf of apoet whose reach may have exceeded his grasp, I do believe he has been to a degree misunderstood, and join Simon Mee cham-Jones in questioning some of the memes of

scholarship on the Geste. To begin with, the challenges of undertaking to wrire a chronicle re cord of the English invasion of Ireland in French verse approximately two decades after the arrival of the first colonists should not be underestimated, particularly when close relatives and immediate descendants of those involved might be paying close attention to the slightesr detail. The poet's achievement (and we cannot tell how long the comple te poem was) is considerable, irrespe ctive of the literary qualiry of his work, and unique insofar as it is the only substantial French-language work from Ireland to survive from this early period. It is certainly the only creatment of the subject in the vernacular, but whether it runs counter to the linguistic usage of the colonizers is another question altogether.3l As Meecham-Jones argues, the very choice of French as the medium at this place and time 'is to make a very pointed ideological starement'. Amongst other things, it is surely an attempt to legitimize francophone culture in Ireland in the majoricy language of rhe colonists.


What we find in ch. i, rcr rvhen we read ic ani ', and its primary inre nd.i . romance from a readi:: ttarures in Bdroul's 'ro:r.:. reading the Geste in rhe ^.: prove to be disorie nc:i: .

mention KingArthur ,:,: :ri'hich might have be e:. ...: ing more than he did r. :,: There is no questioi.

:. .

been persistentlv leve 1.;;.

out that 'they all do',r: I: that would have ro rr;r-:l possible here. In anr' .'..:.: other rhetorical and sr',..:: of the late twelfth cenr ':'. , rvhich the poet has be c: : \Iullallyt view, thar hc ., -rhe kind of Latin schol::, i unlikely that any lice ra:. :. The poet's familiar,rl. 'any doubt thac he s'ar ::.:


epic, and : - : large body of re.rr. ..

chronicle, -fairly

own work. Perhaps the :: geste and these have as


an example or QUä:i-c.'..: Ne


Sußr.z .-(Do not think rhis :::'. :.. 'Se


Short, 'Patrons and Polyglo s', p. 240; Damian-G rint, [he ]{ew Historians of tbe TwetfihCentury Renaissanc€,p. 81. Cf. also Dolan, 'V'riring in Irelandi p.215. 2e

Arh., Fiction and History in England, p.163. 3o Tlrc Deeds of the l{orrnans in lreland, ed. and trans. by Mullally, pp.33-34. Mullally's conclusions are accepted and developed by Ashe, Fiction and History in England, pp. L64-66. 31

Meecham-Jones, 'Romance Sociecy and ics Discontent




ind. c:




('Lordsi said the


S.rch fillers, of

cour.. .. -


'sa8en8uel rsouJo

uonirp:rtaod eqr uI uotuuror

aJE 'asJnof

Jo '.sJällg ytrnS


'g9-r9l'dd'1tttt,7i:tr :,: s,d1ye11n14

('sn rcaro;d uaa.re11

(oz-et8I ('nod gat I rllq,u

q po3

? eru






dttu, '1.rta ru?IIE^ rql pl?s 'sp.ro1,)


'll) ,1sut::en8 llas snu Irr IeP neC, 'su?[r?^ suanb If lsrp o5 's;nu8ra5,


(t S-oSS

-rllrtr*l aqllo sun.t,.:::'-,' .:


qtr d reaq :sProl'lEl^ut slrlt >lulrlt rou oq)

'[) ''P


sn'r oI anb rod un zäUnS

tarloJ ? 's.rnu8ras

auogdorue5 JZTLL.r:,-i

'z)ue) al )N

:sr)uetsul per)rlrs eruos )JB eJaH 'a.rua8 er{rJo olduexJ ue sE p)zrr3tf,E;egr Sure q a$ag eqt o1 'ueas e^Eq )^\ sE '.Pal PrePuI 3^?tl rs)r{l Pu? alsaS a? uzsuvqi JqtJo luof,srunue.r esoqt s8er ru)rles tsoru arp sdegrrd '>lJo,^l, u.^ao slq ul rsn roJ sernr?T uoturuof, )ruos palllrslp r^rr{ pue stxetJo dpog a3.re1 \4e1 e perelrurss? pue p?er a^Erl ppol ,rl '06I I dg 'rf,uer.uor pue 'rrde '{rl)ruorr1f, spuH rulrrylp Jo rrnterrrrl r^ne.r.leu d1.rea ur pasrrr.urur sE^\ )q terp rqnop dut tnoqtr,&1s.^d.oqs qluaq relnsurJo ruolpl rrraod rqt qtl.^.r. drr;erlruey s,teod rql 'urteJJo ruroJ euros lou plp ,tun )qryo uos;ed oterotll due reqr d1a11un ^roDI dtq8lq sr tI 'ru)od sly ur prtregar r)s ol lredxe plno.^a sreloqf,s uue-JJo puDl arp )q tou deu rr t18nogl1e 'uuE-J ur eteretrl dlqgst,r arinb sr )q teqt 'ruar,t s,d11egny,g ol ' osp il"r{s 1 'd1e11nyg dg peu8rsuof, uerg seg raod eql q)Iq.^d, ot uorielosr l?.rntlnl erpJo arrsoddo d"ra,r, aqr srseSSns d.rnluer qul),/y\r etel erpJo f,JnreJrrrlJo f,rtsu)tf,EJeqr se elgezruSora.r sJf,r^ep rrrsrl,&s pu? IerrJororlJ rer{to pue 'eelnturoJ e^nerreu '.srrlly,go ruarudoldep eql 'luale due u1 'rroq alqrssod sr u?rlt uorle8rlsa.Lur Sur8ueJ-apr,^^. JJoru e ruo5 e.rrdsue.n or J^?q plno^\ teql g8noglle'.raq8rq sr esnyo druanbe-ry srg teqt og drru r1 ze .op 11e daqr, ter{l rno Surrurod dq puodsa.r rq8rur auo r{f,rr{,^d. ol 'urq rsure8e pellr^rl dpuarsrs.rad uaaq seq t"ql greo.rda.r E srrll5, §sn usag rr{r Jo raod rqt teqt uonsenb ou sr ä 'tou plp rrl ueqr a.roru 8ut -qtou sarr.o.rd r^rt?J.rEu JrltJo srurod uretJel re perradxe ue)q a,reg rtlSrru q)rq.ry\ slxel ro aldrs .relnrn;rd e 3sn ot slleJ :o do.raJo uel)H ro rnr1trv 8ul) uortu)ur rou s3op atsag eqr Jo raod rr,lt leql '8urlr;lsnry pue Sunuar.roslp rq ol a,ro.rd deur ;eute3 ro 'ernetr^{-etures ap tlourg 'arer1tryo lq8ll rrlt ur atsag aqr Surpee.r se lsn[']uoruturoddrsrp ealue-ren8 ot sr uelsr{Jo (f,)ueruoJ, s,lnoJJg ur s)JnteeJ rLU?s rsoqt roJ >lool urr{l pue saÄ rp urn?nlf Jo Surpre.r E ruoU orueuror esre^ uerrnr{lrvJo sernteeJ aqr qsrlqets) oI 'af,uf,rpne prpuorur d.rrtur:d srr pue 'Jorltne srr 'e.rua8 srr rnoqe a:e suondrunsse .rno terl.^d. pue tr pelJ J,4ö. u)rl.lA JoJ ot spur dap arag eqt ur pug a.^. reqA '{

8uqoo1 ere r^r teq,l.r uo

aa.r8ap a3.re1e




-rtets lerrSoloapl i.:'* : se qf,uJJJJo Jrroqr ..-. . . roqlouB sr sJszruolo-- : _'- '^ )qr ur t--:.:.:. : slql ruou 3^r-\Jns L_-,: : .- : ': tI se JeJosur anL,: -:. : - , sI

-JJplsuof, sr (se.rr ut: - : :::' s,laod )r1f 'lrErrp :i:: -: Jo StuePuarsrl ::: :


-seJaPun Jq tou PInc _-! :-:

-rxo.rdde esJJ.\ r{ru:ji - : -: . , -'

)tIJ^\ or 3ur1er:)pu:. JO SJr.U3r.U Jr{l

lo :r..:. :


-Jepunsru aa:Sap r,:: -rl qrea.r esoq,&\ reod r :,,- :': * -uor


s.,\roqs eg

'.i1lu::.i.. -


':: .' :

-n[" PUe sfue]qf,J lc t.-r:Joqlne JqIJO ,uOn?lCr!. -:-: d11e1py,q ud1a,r.1




JJotu tou eJJ,\\ l1i)::t-: ', =, s>lJo.^d.

IE^erPJr.u IErt * : _: :

'es.rnor3o '.plnol rug : :: :,r.rr1enb ,(;e,rarr1 srr Jr : -: ' lnq 'anbrun txat ar{t s:r.-::

y :irurolpetu srr ol : j.-:. -ssed e ueqr eJor.u r{rr'. * :j lsotr^ü



sz,aol PJEPurl.



Chapter 2

Oiez, seignurs, baruns vaillant Qe Deus del cel vus seit guarant! (11.2982-83) (Listen lords, valiant barons


may God in Heaven prorecr you!)

Other lines frequently cited by scholars

as evidence of the Geste's proximity ro the chansoru de geste are those where the poet acknowledges his sources, usually oral, or refers to the performance of his own work. Examples are:


be dated to



Oxford Chanson rle





j :.



written in

chansun. (11.456,1910)

(As the song tells us.)



(According to the chronicle you are hearing.)


(According to the chronicle which relares it thus.) Si la gesre ne nus menre.

:.*: :

(As the ancient recori.:.:-

Solum la geste quil cunte ici. (1. 1777)

(According to the

oli :. . :

(1.3175) Si com


not deceive us.)

Still other cases frequently cited as 'epic' are nor necessarily so, and some are quite reminiscent of the articulation of memory in rhe Breton lais, although the precise formularion is not identical: Solum la gent de antiquird. (1. 251)

Solum le dit as anscienz. (1. 1500; also ll. 2592,2676,2953) (According to what rhe old



(As the old people sa..


Many other instances o::..

erations as a source (11. ^ ^ .

to the poem itself in p.::-

l. 1309). Previous


to sources, oral and

(As old people say.)


their analyses here.'"' Thc , face value, the author f,', ;--

ople say.)

Solum le anciene gent. (1. ZBZ0) (According to the old people.)

At the beginning of the Geste, the poe t had staced that his purpose was ro preserve the memory of Diarmait ('Dunt faz icila memoriei l. 3).33 If the Geste can 33


(As the ancient docui:r.:.:-

Solum la geste que oiez ici. (1. 1309)

(If the chronicle


Il est.'-:-:,

(As the chronicle says.) 1e


and the Vie de sainrt -7:..-. 'ancien' generally seern: : -

Ceo dist la geste. (1.327)

Cum nus recunre

1 19r-

nists, one might be re n:^::, che main figures of the :,.:: still alive. Ian Shorr has :

Cf. the Prologue, l. 9;'Equitanl ll. l-12;'Bisclavretl ll. 315-lg; .Milunl 11.533-34;

'Chairivell ll. 1-2; 'Eliduc. ... . - : Marie de France and the Pii,::.. 3a



Cf. alsol. 2435:'\e:r.

chanson d,e Ro/.i,.,.

=: andp.377 (note tol. 1681 , - :

:. : S.e , for exampl e. 7, . pp.33-35.I might conre sr \1- . 36

re fe

rence to


in an abstract

written sour... .- : sens€.

,srur^r aqlJo l.rors eqr, sp poorsrrpun dlerr.rn:r, rroru aq rq'rtu rI'af,rnos sarldur qllqna'a1:ruorg:, se l{tJo uorlelsuert s,,(1p11ntr1tsrtuol rq8rur I'SE-EE'dd ,a1sa3, dq 'sue.rr pue 'pe 'puryatJ ux suvlu"tllv at7 lo s?aa7 aq1 'elduexr roJ 'eeS er


,suenbse rl tuar.p




:s I_





'(des aldoad


o5';ra1, $€rZ 'l osp



ue) a1§2t rr{]JI :i' t ': . -e-rd or selr osod:nd


s:; :,

'preSrapgS (q 'p, 'aalpnf arulas ap ata aT :(ZSgt'1 or arou) 11E'dpue afiols7 'rEruI?O :uoyS dq'p, '.Fuvloü ap uosuoq) rT vt

dq'suerr puE'pr'va13u7



pur s9-I E'dd',Ctou,trrytl eltaocl

'.ueleqls osp aas'lre,&\A dq'p,'st?7'))uet{ ep elretr{

aqt ?ua




ul'78-I8I I 'il:rnplg,:Z-I'l1'.le^Itleq3, (gsez

lu3r3JIP Jo saf,rnos uettrr,^ . PUE Jo Jlssrurq Prlle^E roqrne )qr '{enle^ rlg le u)>lel JI 'leqr aq ol sruess snsussuof rlqrsuss dluo eq1 eg')req sesdleue rrsrll

'g-;rr - ->t

II?^\er^eJ tou ileqs I put'ureodrqtJodpoq ur'u)tlrJrnpue IEJo'serJnos ol sarurrryr.r dueru erlt potr.rdretur )^eq alsag )r{tJo sreloqrs snol^erd '(OOgt 'i

'rrr zrro enb arsaS EI tunloS, 'aldruexe .roy) r)utr.uroJ;ed ur Jlestl uraod eqt ol reJr.r srer{to e[rl^\.g'('rla'g6e€ 'Is0€'Z8SZ'SIt'III 'il) rr.rnos e se suor]?ro -ue8 .rap1o d3nads tou op ?lnruroJ .tua8 ?l runlos, rql Jo s))uetsur reqto duey,q

g8nopp 'na1 uot:rE .'--: pue'os .i'r-:..,:,

eJE Juros

,.(des aldoad p1o agr sY)