Free and open source GIS software: educational manual. 9786010410343

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Free and open source GIS software: educational manual.
 9786010410343

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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

G. N. Nyussupova Sh. G. Kairova A. M. Kalimurzina

Free and open source GIS software Educational manual

Almaty «Qazaq university» 2014 Introduction

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UDC 911(075.8) LBC 26.8я73 N 97 Recommended for publication by Scientific-Methodical Council of the Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences and by Editorial publishing Council of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University

Reviewers: Vladimir Uvarov, chief project manager of Kazakhstan Agency of Applied Ecology Maulken Askarova, Doctor of Geographical Sciences, professor of Al-Farabi Kazakh National university Roza Karagulova, senior researcher of the Laboratory of Geographic Information Systems of «Institute of Geography»

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Nyussupova G.N. Free and open source GIS software: educational manual / G.N. Nyussupova, Sh.G. Kairova, A.M. Kalimurzina. – Almaty: Qazaq university, 2014. – 84 p. ISBN 978-601-04-1034-3 This educational manual had been developed in accordance with state educational standards and core curriculum of «6M060900 – Geography» and «6D060900 – Geography» specialties. This textbook considers the basic introduction of some of the available free and open source software with easy-to-follow guidance for both GIS teachers and students. Also it consists of theoretical part, assignments, questions and references for each types of source software. Учебное пособие разработано в соответствии с государственными общеобразовательными стандартами основных учебных планов специальностей «6M060900 – География» и «6D060900 – География. В учебном пособии представлены некоторые имеющиеся в свободном доступе программные обеспечения географических информационных систем. Учебное пособие представляет интерес для преподавателей и студентов в области ГИС. Пособие содержит теоретическую часть, практические задания, контрольные вопросы и ссылки для каждого программного обеспечения ГИС.

UDC 911(075.8) LBC 26.8я73 ISBN 978-601-04-1034-3

© Nyussupova G.N., Kairova Sh.G., Kalimurzina A.M., 2014 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2014

Introduction

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Introduction

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he free and open source software «movement» has significantly impacted all aspects of information technology (Tiemann, 2009). GIS educators are already using many open source software packages daily and may not be aware of them. For example, if you are browsing website contents, 52.26% of web servers on the Internet in 2009 use Apache, currently the most popular web server software (http://news. netcraft.com/archives/2009/01/) freely available for download. Firefox browsers, thunderbird email tools and Linux operation systems are examples of popular open source software. However, open source software is not well adopted in GIS education due to the lack of user-friendly guidance and the full integration of GIS learning resources. This educational manual will provide a basic introduction of some of the available free and open source software with easy-to-follow guidance for both GIS teachers and students. Hopefully, more GIS educators will adopt open source GIS software in their courses to provide a comprehensive range of instructional tools and resources. Open source software is a type of «free» software to be accessed, used or modified by their user groups Introduction

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and developers. There are many similar terms to describe this kind of software, such as «free software», «libre software», «open software», etc. One key feature to distinguish open source software from other types (such as proprietary software and shareware) is their «free software licenses», which explicitly define the legal rights to users with freedoms to run, study, change, redistribute, and access the source codes of the licensed software (http://www.fsf.org/licensing/essays/free–sw.html, Free Software Foundation). All open source software is required to be «licensed». The procedure of implementing «free software licenses» is necessary to protect their users’ legal rights and to ensure the freedoms of the software. There are several organizations that can provide free software license templates, such as General Public License and Berkeley Software Distribution. Both proprietary GIS software and open source GIS software are equally important for GIS education. Many GIS teachers select proprietary GIS software for GIS education because students can learn the mainstream software skills and have advantages in the job markets. On the other hand, some GIS teachers prefer to use open source software because it is free of cost and allows for the freedom to modify and distribute GIS applications. This educational manual will not argue which direction is better for GIS education, but rather suggest when GIS teachers should or could use open source software. In the following situations, it may be a good opportunity to consider open source software in your classes: 1. Teachers would like to explore the possibility of teaching GIS in a very short period, but do not have immediate financial support from university or software vendors to purchase GIS software. 2. Students would like to install and try GIS software on their home computers. 3. University computers are using non-Windows operating systems, such as MacOSX or Linux. 4. Teachers would like to highlight a certain aspect of GIS functions, such as database management, web mapping, remote sensing, or spatial analysis, and they may realize that commercial GIS packages do not provide these individual functions, or the cost of adding these additional functions are too expensive. 5. Teachers would like to demonstrate some unique GIS functions to students tomorrow. (Most commercial GIS software will take more than one week to finalize the licensing with vendors. You can download and use open source software immediately).

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Free and open source GIS software

1 Basic GIS concepts

G

eographic Information Systems (GIS) are an integrated collection of software and data used to visualize and organize geographic data, conduct spatial analysis, and create maps and other geospatial information. Narrow definitions of GIS focus on the software and data, while broader definitions include hardware (where the data and software is stored), metadata (data that describes the data), and the people who are part of the system and interact with it as creators, curators, and users. In a GIS, geographic features are represented as individual files or layers that can be added to a map. These features are not maps in and of themselves, but are the raw materials used for map making and analysis. For much of the 20th century cartographers drew geographic features on individual acetate sheets and then layered those sheets over a paper base map to create maps. GIS uses the same principles of layering, with individual files consisting of features that can be layered on top of each other in GIS software. GIS software acts as an interface, or window, for viewing and manipulating GIS data. The ability to add different layers is quite powerful, as combining the layers allows for analysis that would be impossible if you were viewing single layers by themselves [1]. Basic gis concepts

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Each GIS file is georeferenced, meaning that the file is actually tied and related to real locations on the earth. Just as paper maps were drawn based on map projections and coordinate systems, each GIS file has also been created based on a particular projection and coordinate system, which means that files that share the same reference systems can be laid on top of each other. Since projections and coordinate systems are highly standardized, GIS data can easily be shared. If two files do not share the same system, most GIS software can convert files from one system to another so they’ll match. This distinguishes map making in GIS versus a graphic design package. Maps created in a graphic design package are just simple lines and shapes with no connection to the earth, and the components of the map can’t be easily replicated to make other maps. GIS files used to create maps in a GIS package can readily be shared and used to create any map, because they are tied to the earth using standardized systems. GIS files are stored in several formats, and each format comes in several different file types. Major formats and file include: – Raster – represent a continuous surface that is divided into grid cells of equal size. Each cell appears as a particular color based on some value (i.e. reflected light). Files in the raster format are similar to digital photos. Common raster objects include air photos, satellite imagery, and paper maps that have been scanned. Raster files can also consist of photos or imagery that have been generalized or have had value added to them to create a new layer, like a land use and land cover layer or a grid showing temperature. There are many different file formats, some common ones include Tiffs (.tif), JPEGs (.jpg), and SID (.sid). Unlike regular .tif or .jpg files, GIS raster files are georeferenced. – Vector – consists of discrete coordinates and surfaces that are represented as individual points, lines, or polygons (areas). Vector files appear to be more «map-like», and are always abstractions rather than actual images (i.e. shapes to represent boundaries, points to represent cities). Common file formats are ESRI shapefiles (.shp) ESRI coverages (.cov), Google KML files (.kml), and GRASS vector files. – Tables – data tables that contain records for places can be converted to GIS files and mapped in several ways. If the data contains coordinates like latitude and longitude, the data can be plotted and converted to a vector file. If each data record contains unique ID codes for each place, those records can be joined to their corresponding features in a GIS file and mapped. Tables are commonly stored in text files like .txt or .csv, database files like .dbf, or in spreadsheets like Excel. – Geodatabases – containers that can hold related raster, vector, and tabular data in one place. They are good for consolidating and organizing data. Geodatabases can be desktop (Microsoft Access .mdb, ESRI file geodatabases .gdb, Spatialite files . sqlite) or server based (PostGIS, ArcSDE) [2]. Raster and vector GIS files exist spatially, in that you can see the grid or shapes and their corresponding location on the earth, but also exist in tabular form. This is particularly valuable in the case of vector files. For example, every feature in a vector file showing country boundaries has an attribute table attached to it that has a record for each country. This attribute table contains columns or fields that store values for each country, such as the country’s name, values like population or area that describe it, and ID codes that uniquely identify each one. The names can be used

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Free and open source GIS software

by the GIS to label each country, and the values like population can be thematically mapped. GIS technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, asset management, archaeology, environmental impact assessment, urban planning, cartography, criminology, geographic history, marketing, logistics, prospectivity mapping, and other purposes [3]. For example, GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times (i.e. logistics) in the event of a natural disaster, GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection from pollution, or GIS can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of a previously under-served market. Geographic information can be accessed, transferred, transformed, overlaid, processed and displayed using numerous software applications. Within industry, commercial offerings from companies such as Autodesk, Bentley Systems, ESRI, Intergraph, Manifold System, Mapinfo and Smallworld dominate, offering an entire suite of tools. Government and military departments often use custom software, open source products such as GRASS or uDig, or more specialized products that meet a well defined need. Although free tools exist to view GIS datasets, public access to geographic information is dominated by online resources such as Google Earth and interactive web mapping. Originally up to the late 1990s, when GIS data was mostly based on large computers and used to maintain internal records, software was a stand-alone product. However with increased access to the internet and networks and demand for distributed geographic data grew, GIS software gradually changed its entire outlook to the delivery of data over a network. GIS software is now usually marketed as combination of various interoperable applications and APIs. It helps to automate many complex processes without worrying about underlying algorithms and processing steps in conventional GIS software [4]. Modern GIS technologies use digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. The most common method of data creation is digitization, where a hard copy map or survey plan is transferred into a digital medium through the use of a computer-aided design (CAD) program, and georeferencing capabilities. With the wide availability of ortho-rectified imagery (both from satellite and aerial sources), heads-up digitizing is becoming the main avenue through which geographic data is extracted. Heads-up digitizing involves the tracing of geographic data directly on top of the aerial imagery instead of by the traditional method of tracing the geographic form on a separate digitizing tablet (heads-down digitizing). A standard interface for GIS software has evolved over time. Typically, GIS software has a data view that consists of a table of contents that lists files that have been added to a project, a data window that displays the GIS files, and a set of toolbars and menus for accessing various tools and launching various processes. Dragging the layers in the table of contents changes the drawing order of the layers, and right or left clicking on a layer in the table of contents will reveal individual properties for that particular feature. You can also access the attribute table of the feature and a symbol tab for changing how the features are depicted or classified. There are several tools for zooming in and out to examine different layers and to change the extent of the view. The way that coordinate systems and projections are handled is different for individual GIS software packages. In general, the options are: define the projection Basic gis concepts

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and coordinate system for the project before adding the files, or the project automatically takes the projection of the first file added. If you try to add GIS files that have different projections, some software may try to re-project the data on the fly, while others will simply fail to draw the new layers. Even if the software can correctly draw a layer without the user defining it, or even if it can re-project layers on the fly, users will run into problems later on when trying to manipulate the GIS files. You should always be sure to define the projection properly and make sure that all files share the same one – most GIS software will give you the ability to re-project data. GIS software provides users with a variety of ways for querying geographic data, either by selecting records in the attribute table or shapes in the view, or by conducting searches where you build queries to high-light features that contain specific attributes, or that have some relationship with another geographic layer. GIS software comes with a variety of editing tools that allow you to modify the geometry of GIS files. For example, you can merge features together, break them apart, or clip out or select certain areas to create new files. Collectively these processes are known as geoprocessing. You geoprocess layers in order to prepare raw data for analysis, to create new layers or data, or to simplify layers for cartographic or aesthetic purposes. GIS also provides the ability to edit files on a feature by feature basis [5]. Most GIS programs have a separate map layout or print layout, where the user can create finished maps with standard map elements like titles, legends, scale bars, north arrows, and accompanying text. Finished maps can be exported out of the GIS as static files, such as pdfs or jpgs. Users can always save their GIS projects in a GIS project file. The scale and extent of the data view, symbolization and classification assigned to layers, map layouts, and links to GIS files used in the project are stored in the file. It’s important to understand that the GIS files themselves are NOT stored inside the project file – the GIS data and the GIS project file exist independently. When adding data to a GIS, you are establishing a link from the GIS project to the GIS data – the GIS data is not stored within the project. Furthermore, changing the colors of the features or classifying them in a certain way has NO EFFECT on the actual GIS data files themselves. When you change symbols, you are only changing how the GIS program views the data – you’re not changing the data itself [6]. This is an important concept to grasp. Essentially, the GIS software acts as a window for viewing and working with GIS data, which is stored outside the window. The GIS project file essentially stores the window dressing, of scale and symbolization. You never actually change the GIS data unless you go into an edit mode or conduct an operation that creates a new GIS file. This relationship is of crucial importance when it comes time to move or share files – if you move your project file or your data, the links between them will become broken, and you’ll need to reestablish the location between the project and the data in order to repair your project file.

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Free and open source GIS software

2 Free and open source GIS software

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n Figure 1, [7] one slight change was made to the original illustration. A red box was added to represent the new boundary of public domain software. Because some public domain software may have no copyright restrictions or licenses, the public domain software has been altered to both include and exclude the open source domain. In GIS software, GRASS GIS is a famous example of public domain software. Public domain software can be re-packaged and sold as proprietary software or licensed as open source software (Valdes, 2008). The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories originally developed GRASS GIS in 1985. The GRASS software development team adopted the GNU GPL in 1999 and GRASS became open source software with its version 5.0 release (GRASS history: http://grass.osgeo.org/ devel/grasshist.html). Recently, some private companies have also re-packaged the public domain software GRASS, with nice graphic user interfaces and subsequently created commercial, proprietary versions of GRASS, such as OpenOSX GrassPro. Free and open source GIS software

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Figure 1. Categories of Free and Non-Free Software. Source: original image from http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/categories.html, by Chao-Kuei Hung

Open source software is an alternative to proprietary software: – Open source software is free; you don’t have to purchase it and you can freely distribute it to anyone else, as opposed to proprietary software which you must purchase and typically can not share with anyone (since it’s copyrighted). – The source code, or actual computer programming, that was used to create the software is transparent, as opposed to proprietary software where the code is hidden and encrypted. – Under the open source model the programming code is transparent and you are free to change and make improvements to it; this is strictly prohibited with proprietary software [8]. Open source software can be created in several ways. A programmer or developer creates software from scratch, because they have some need that isn’t being met by current software. Over time, as other programmers discover the project they may choose to contribute to building or improving this software, and they rally around the creator and begin to form a group that becomes devoted to the project. The Linux operating system and the Perl programming languages essentially began this way. Alternatively, a group of people who receive support from a business or entrepreneurs take software that was formerly proprietary but is no longer commercially viable, and they build on this product and re-release it as open source. The Mozilla Firefox browser (formerly the proprietary Netscape) and Open Office (formerly the proprietary Star Office) are examples of the latter. Why would people want to bother with creating FOSS software? – It gives programmers a chance to practice their skills – It gives programmers a way to enhance their prestige for their craft, as they can become known in different programming circles

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– Open source is an ethos for some, who believe that software and information should be free – Some see it as a superior model – since the code is open, there is a better chance that improvements can be made more quickly and that bugs can be discovered more easily than in proprietary software, as open source harnesses the power of the masses – Businesses may prefer it because it does not tie them to costly, proprietary software that may go out of date or out of business – with open source there is always someone who can take over a project and keep it going [9]. The number of FOSS GIS packages has grown over the course of the last decade. Open software tends to be modular rather than monolithic; you often have several, independent software applications to perform different functions, rather than one, large piece of software that does it all. A typical FOSS GIS workstation may include several applications like QGIS (for viewing data, basic analyses, map making, generally working with vector data), GRASS (a more advanced GIS for doing analyses and modeling and for working with raster data), GDAL / OGR (command line tools for converting files and projections and for basic queries), and a geodatabase application (PostGIS for server-based databases and Spatialite / SQLite for desktop use). ArcGIS, created by a company called ESRI, has been on the market for several decades and is the dominant, proprietary (non-FOSS) GIS software on the market. It’s used by most government agencies and universities. Since it is rather expensive to purchase for individual use, you tend to see it more often in institutional settings. If you are affiliated with a college or university, chances are you’ll be able to access it somewhere on your campus. ESRI does distribute trial versions of the software for education and home use. A rival product, MapINFO created by Pitney Bowes, has a smaller but equally dedicated following. If you find that you need to learn one of these products, making the transition from FOSS is relatively straight forward as most GIS software operate under the same properties and principles and share similar user interfaces [10].

Free and open source GIS software

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3 Types of free and open source software of GIS

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IS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories. The development of open source GIS software has – in terms of software history – a long tradition [2] with the appearance of a first system in 1978. Numerous systems are available which cover all sectors of geospatial data handling. The following open-source desktop GIS projects are reviewed in Steiniger and Bocher (2008-2009): – GRASS GIS – Originally developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: a complete GIS. – gvSIG – Written in Java. Runs on Linux, Unix, Mac OS X and Windows. – ILWIS (Integrated Land and Water Information System) – Integrates image, vector and thematic data. – JUMP GIS / OpenJUMP (Open Java Unified Mapping Platform) – The desktop GISs OpenJUMP, SkyJUMP, deeJUMP and Kosmo all emerged from JUMP. Types of free and open source software of GIS

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– MapWindow GIS – Free desktop application and programming component. – QGIS (previously known as Quantum GIS) – Runs on Linux, Unix, Mac OS X and Windows. – SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geoscientific Analysis) – A hybrid GIS software. Has a unique Application Programming Interface (API) and a fastgrowing set of geoscientific methods, bundled in exchangeable Module Libraries. – uDig – API and source code (Java) available. Besides these, there are other open source GIS tools: – Capaware – A C++ 3D GIS Framework with a multiple plugin architecture for geographic graphical analysis and visualization. – FalconView – A mapping system created by the Georgia Tech Research Institute for the Windows family of operating systems. A free, open source version is available. – Kalypso – Uses Java and GML3. Focuses mainly on numerical simulations in water management. – TerraView – Handles vector and raster data stored in a relational or georelational database, i.e. a frontend for TerraLib. – Whitebox GAT – Cross-platform, free and open-source GIS software. There are other geospatial tools. Apart from Desktop GIS exists a variety of other GIS software types. For its categorization see GIS software. A general overview of GIS software projects for each category was done in 2012. Below is a similar listing of open source GIS projects. – Web map servers; – GeoServer – Written in Java and relies on GeoTools. Allows users to share and edit geospatial data. – MapGuide Open Source – Runs on Linux or Windows, supports Apache and IIS web servers, and has APIs (PHP, .NET, Java, and JavaScript) for application development. – Mapnik – C++/Python library for rendering – used by OpenStreetMap. – MapServer – Written in C. Developed by the University of Minnesota. Spatial database management systems: – PostGIS – Spatial extensions for the open source PostgreSQL database, allowing geospatial queries. – SpatiaLite – Spatial extensions for the open source SQLite database, allowing geospatial queries. – TerraLib – Provides advanced functions for GIS analysis. Software development frameworks and libraries (for web applications): – GeoBase (Telogis GIS software) – Geospatial mapping software available as a Software development kit, which performs various functions including address lookup, mapping, routing, reverse geocoding, and navigation. Suited for high transaction enterprise environments. – Geomajas – Open source development software for web-based and cloud based GIS applications. – MapFish – Aggregates the power of OpenLayers, ExtJS and GeoExt. – OpenLayers – Open source AJAX library for accessing geographic data layers of all kinds, originally developed and sponsored by MetaCarta. – Leafletjs – Open-Source JavaScript Library for Mobile-Friendly Interactive Maps

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Software development frameworks and libraries (non-web): – GeoTools – Open source GIS toolkit written in Java, using Open Geospatial Consortium specifications. – GDAL / OGR – Orfeo toolbox Cataloging application for spatially referenced resources: – GeoNetwork opensource – A catalog application to manage spatially referenced resources – pycsw – pycsw is an OGC CSW server implementation written in Python – GeoNode – a geospatial content management system and complete SDI which utilizes several other open source packages, such as Django, PostGIS, pyCSW, GeoExplorer, etc.

3.1 Quantum GIS Quantum GIS abbreviated as QGIS is a cross-platform free and open source desktop geographic information systems (GIS) application that provides data viewing, editing, and analysis capabilities [11]. The Quantum GIS project was officially born in May of 2002 when coding began. The idea was conceived in February 2002 when Gary Sherman began looking for a GIS viewer for Linux that was fast and supported a wide range of data stores. That, coupled with an interest in coding a GIS application led to the creation of the project. In the beginning Quantum GIS was established as a project on SourceForge in June 2002. The first code was checked into CVS on SourceForge on Saturday July 6, 2002, and the first, mostly non-functioning release came on July 19, 2002. The first release supported only PostGIS layers.

Figure 2. QGIS Release Timeline Source: http://www.qgis.org/en/about-qgis.html 3.1 Quantum GIS

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Written in C++, Quantum GIS makes extensive use of the Qt library. Quantum GIS allows integration of plugins developed using either C++ or Python. In addition to Qt, required dependencies of Quantum GIS include GEOS and SQLite. GDAL, GRASS GIS,PostGIS, and PostgreSQL are also recommended, as they provide access to additional data formats. Quantum GIS is maintained by an active group of volunteer developers who regularly release updates and bug fixes. As of 2012 developers have translated Quantum GIS into 48 languages and the application is used internationally in academic and professional environments. As a free software application under the GNU GPL, Quantum GIS can be freely modified to perform different or more specialized tasks. Two examples are the QGIS Browser and QGIS Server applications, which use the same code for data access and rendering, but present different front-end interfaces. There are also numerous plugins available which expand the software’s core functionality. Quantum GIS allows use of shapefiles, coverages, and personal geodatabases. MapInfo, PostGIS, and a number of other formats are supported in Quantum GIS. Web services, including Web Map Service and Web Feature Service, are also supported to allow use of data from external sources. Quantum GIS provides integration with other open source GIS packages, including PostGIS, GRASS, and MapServer to give users extensive functionality. Plugins, written in Python, extend the capabilities of QGIS. There are plugins to geocode using the Google Geocoding API, perform geoprocessing (fTools) similar to the standard tools found in ArcGIS, interface with PostgreSQL and MySQL databases, and use Mapnik as a map renderer. The advantage of using QGIS: it’s free, you can download it yourself if you have your own computer, it runs on any operating system, it is mature enough that it supports most essential GIS tasks plus a few intermediate and advanced ones, and it’s relatively easy to use. The disadvantage is that QGIS can’t do everything that proprietary software can, is still working out some bugs, and doesn’t have the name recognition that software like ArcGIS or MapINFO do. There also isn’t as much in the way of documentation or tutorials for QGIS relative to the other options, but this is changing [12]. The QGIS Interface [13]: This section will introduce you to the QGIS interface; you will configure the interface in preparation for the rest of this tutorial. 1. Configure plugins. Go to Plugins > Manage Plugins. Make sure the following three plugins ARE checked: Add Delimited Text layer, GdalTools, and ftools. Turn off all the other plugins. 2. Configure the toolbars. Right click on a blank area of the tool bar to get the tool bar view menu. Make sure the following two features are NOT checked: Undo / Redo and Advanced Digitizing. Make sure all of the other options are checked. 3. Move toolbars. Move the toolbars around by hovering over the left edge of a toolbar until you see a crosshairs, left click and hold, then drag and drop. Configure the toolbars to your liking (suggestion: try aligning them so you have only two rows of them at the top of the screen and all buttons are visible). Commentary: 1. Menu Bar: provides access to various features and functions of the software

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Types of free and open source software of GIS

using a standard hierarchical menu. The location of the menus and menu items is fixed, although if you activate certain plugins they may add an additional menu to the bar. 2. Tool Bar: replicates many of the features and functions in the Menu Bar, providing access to common features in a single click. The location of the toolbars is not fixed; if you hover over the edge of the toolbar and hold down the left mouse button you can drag and dock the toolbar wherever you like (this means that the location of tools on your screen may not match those of other screens, or this tutorial). 3. Map Legend: a list of the map layers that are part of your current project. You can check or uncheck layers to turn them on and off, drag them to change the drawing order, select one in order to perform specific tasks on that layer, and right click on a layer to access menus and tools for working with that specific layer. 4. Map View: geographic display that shows all of your active layers. 5. Map Overview: you can add a layer to this overview to act as a frame of reference for the layers in your map view. It shows the full extent of a layer and outlines the portion of the area currently visible in the Map View in red. 6. Status Bar: shows the current scale of the map view, the coordinates of the current position of the cursor, and the coordinate system used by the project. Progress meters and other messages will appear here as you perform specific operations. – Want to turn a toolbar off? Wondering where a toolbar went? If you right click on a blank area of either the Menu Bar or the Tool Bar, you’ll get a list that shows all of the toolbars, as well as the Map Legend and Map Overview. You can check and uncheck items to turn them on and off. – Can’t figure out what a button means or does? If you hover over a button, a small window appears that displays the name of the button. If you select the What’s This button and click on any area or item in the interface, you’ll get a brief explanation of what it does. – Are there hotkeys? Most menu items and tools can also be accessed by using hotkeys or keyboard shortcuts (for example, CTRL S will save the current project). For a full list of hotkeys, view the QGIS manual. Many of the common Windows shortcuts (like CTRL C for copy and CTRL V for paste) will work in QGIS. – Where is the QGIS manual? These are available on the QGIS website at http://www. qgis.org/en/documentation/ manual s. html. Adding Vector Data: In this section you’ll learn how to add vector GIS files (shapefiles) to QGIS and to symbolize them. Shapefiles are a common GIS data format that you’ll encounter in your future work. 1. Examine your data. Take a look at the data files under the data folder for part 2. These are shapefiles that we will add to QGIS and work with for this project. There are four shapefiles; each shapefile is composed of multiple files that have the same names but different extensions. 2. Launch QGIS. (If you’re using Microsoft Windows, look under the Start Menu > Program Files > Quantum GIS > QGIS). 3. Set the projection for the project. On the Menu Bar, go to Settings > Project Properties > Coordinate Reference Systems Tab. Scroll through the list, 3.1 Quantum GIS

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choose NAD83, and hit OK (for now we’ll just do this step and move on; we’ll discuss coordinate systems and map projections later). 4. Add the four shapefiles. On the Tool Bar, hit the Add Vector Layer button. When the Add Vector Layer box appears, hit the Browse button. Browse through the folder list to the data folder for part 2. In the Files of Type dropdown at the bottom of the window make sure the first option, ESRI shapefiles, is selected. Select the first layer in the list, hold down the shift key, then select the last layer. This should select all four shapefiles. Hit Open to add them. Your layers should appear in the Map Legend and Map View.

Figure 3. The QGIS Interface example Source: qgis-sphinx-doc.

5. Do your layers look jagged? If not, skip this step. If so, on the Menu Bar, select Settings > Options > Rendering SVG, and under Rendering Quality check the box that says «Make lines appear less jagged at the expense of some drawing performance», and hit OK. 6. Experiment with changing the drawing order. Click on the first layer that’s listed in the Map Legend (ML), hold down the left mouse button, and drag it to the bottom of the list. This moves that layer from the top of the drawing order to the bottom; layers in the Map Legend (ML) are stacked on top of each other, and their order in the list determines which are visible relative to others. Move the counties layer to the top of the list to see what happens. 7. Order the layers. Drag the layers in the Map Legend (ML) so they appear in this order, from top to bottom: nyc_4yr_colleges (colleges and universities), nyc_greenspace (parks and wildlife areas), nyc_facilities (airports, ports, prisons), nyc_counties_2008 (counties / boroughs).

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8. Change the color for the colleges. Double–click on the colleges layer in the ML to open the Layer Properties menu for that layer. Click on the Style tab. Click on the box under Fill options that contains the fill color. Change the color to blue by choosing a box in the color palette. Click OK, then OK again on the Style menu. 9. Change the colors for parks andfacilities layers. Make the parks green and the facilities grey or brown. 10. Give the counties no fill. (i.e. make them hollow with no color). Double-click on the counties layer in the ML to open the Layer Properties menu for that layer. Click on the Style tab. Change the option in the Fill Options drop down box to None. Click OK. 11. Add the counties layer to the overview. Select the counties layer in the ML, right click on it and click on the Add to Overview option in the menu. After completing these steps, your QGIS window should resemble the image below. Exploring the Map View [13] In this section you’ll learn how to navigate the map view. 1. Experiment with the Zoom tools. Try each of the zoom tools in the Menu Bar. – Zoom In – click to zoom in once, draw a box to zoom in to an area, or use the mouse wheel – Zoom Out – works the same as the Zoom In tool – Zoom to Native Pixel Resolution – will zoom to the optimal scale for rasters (skip this one for now) – Zoom Full – will zoom the window to the maximum extent of all visible layers – Zoom to Selection – zooms to selected features (skip this one for now) – Zoom to Layer – zooms to the maximum extent of the feature currently selected in the ML – Zoom last – returns to your previous zoom – Zoom next – moves you forward to your next zoom (if you’ve already used zoom last) – Refresh – redraws the screen (useful if your layers didn’t draw completely or properly) – Pan – move around the map by holding the left mouse button down and drag (does not change the zoom) 2. Notice change in coordinates. Move the cursor around the map. In the Status Bar (below the Map View) notice how the coordinates change; coordinates for the map are provided based on the position of the cursor. The unit of measurement is determined by the coordinate system and map projection of the project (since the project is in NAD83, the coordinates are in degrees and represent latitude and longitude). The scale box can also be used to change the zoom (a higher number to zoom out and a lower number to zoom in). 3. Measure some distances. Use the zoom tools to center Manhattan in your map window. Select the measuring distance tool in the toolbar. You’ll notice that crosshairs will appear. Click on the northern tip of Manhattan. This will open the Measure window. Drag the crosshairs to the southern tip of Manhattan. As you do this, you’ll see a black line is drawn from the original point you clicked on and the measurement 3.1 Quantum GIS

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window will update with distances in meters and kilometers. If you click on the southern tip of Manhattan it will lock the line segment and allow you to draw a second segment from the second point. Close the menu when you’ve finished experimenting. 4. Change your measurement units. Go to Settings > Options > Map Tools tab. In the Measure Tool section under Preferred measurement units select the feet radio button. Under Ellipsoid for distance calculations dropdown change the values from WGS 84 to GRS 80 (What’s this? See below). Hit OK. Try the measuring distance tool again and your units will be in feet and miles. ASSIGHNMENTS: Exploring Features [13] In this section you’ll learn how to explore and interact with features in the Map View and Attribute table. 1. Identify features. Hit the Identify Features button in the Tool Bar. Select the counties layer in the ML. Click on Manhattan. Manhattan is hi-lited and information about that feature is displayed. Click on The Bronx to change the selection. 2. Identify features from a different layer. Make the colleges layer the active layer by selecting it in the ML. Click on any school in the map view to get information about that school. Where is this information coming from? 3. Open the attribute table. With the school layer still selected in the ML, right click on the layer and select Open attribute table (alternatively, you could click the Open Attribute Table button on the toolbar). For every school (feature) in the school layer, there is a record for the school in the attribute table of that layer. Explore the table by scrolling across it and down. 4. Select a feature from the table. Sort the table by clicking on the field (column) heading that contains the name of the school (FACILITY_N). Click on the record for Bernard M Baruch College in the table. Close the attribute table. Zoom to the area around Baruch in lower Manhattan and you’ll see it is selected. (Note – you can select multiple records from the table by holding down the CTRL key and selecting records one by one, or select a range by selecting a record, hold the SHIFT key, and select the last record). 5. Select a feature from the map. With the school layer still selected in the ML, hit the Select Feature button in the toolbar. Then select the school that is just to the east (right) of Baruch College. Hit the Open Attribute Table button. Click the checkbox that says Show Selected Records Only. This reveals the record for the School of the Visual Arts; this is the school that you’ve selected in the Map View. These two steps demonstrate that the table and map are linked, and you can select features in one and display them in the other. (Note – you can select multiple features by holding down the CTRL key and clicking on features one by one, or by hitting the dropdown beside the Select Feature button and choosing one of several options). 6. Select Features by Attribute. With the Attribute Table for the schools open, click the Advanced button in the lower right-hand corner. This opens the query builder window, which allows you to select features based on shared attributes. In the Fields box, doubleclick the BOROUGH field, which adds it to the SQL Clause box at the bottom. Click on the equals sign in the

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Operators section. Hit the All button under the Values box to display all of the unique values for the BOROUGH field. Double-click on the ‘BX’ value listed in the value field. Your statement in the SQL Clause box should read BOROUGH = ‘BX’. Click OK. You’ve just selected all of the schools that are located in the Bronx. Close the attribute table and you’ll see the schools selected in the map. 7. Clear selected features. Click the Clear Selected Features button on the tool bar to remove selected features in the active layer (the active layer is the currently selected layer in the ML hi-lited in blue – in this case, the college layer). Alternatively, you could click on an area of the map that has no schools to clear the features, or you could clear the current selection from the attribute table. 8. Labeling features. Attributes stored in the table can also be used to label features. Double click on the school layer in the ML to open the Layer Properties. Go to the Labels tab. Check the box in the upper-left hand corner that says Display Labels. In the dropdown box beside Field contains labels, choose FACILITY_L as the label field. Change the value in the Font drop down menu to font size to 8. Change the Placement radio button to Above Right. Hit OK. Explore the map a little. When you’re finished, turn the labels off by returning to the labels tab in the properties menu for the layer and unchecking the box that says Display Labels. We’ll experiment more with labeling later on. Adding Raster Data [13] In this section you’ll get a very brief introduction to raster data. 1. Add raster data. Hit the Add Raster Layer button on the toolbar. Browse to the data folder for part 2, select the drg_central_park.tif file and add hit open. Once the layer is added, drag it to the bottom of the ML. 2. Explore raster layer. Select the drg_central_park layer in the ML. Right click on the layer and select Zoom to best scale (100%). Explore the area of the map around Central Park and note how the raster layer lines up with the other layers. Select the parks layer in the Map Legend. Double click to open the Layer Properties and go to the Style tab. Drag the transparency slider to 25% and click OK. When you’re finished exploring the map, uncheck the raster layer in the ML to turn it off and turn the transparency of the parks layer back to zero. Raster layers differ from vector layers in many ways including composition (continuous surface of pixels versus discrete geometric areas), file formats (many raster formats versus relatively few vector formats), resolution (optimal scale for raster layers matters more than vector layers), size (raster files tend to be much larger), and attribute tables (raster layers do not have attribute tables; the color of individual pixels denotes feature values). Given the differences in format, the tools for working with vector and raster layers are distinct (if you double click on the raster layer to open its properties, you’ll see that most of the menu options are different from the vector layers). Many geographic objects are represented in raster formats including satellite imagery, aerial photography, paper maps that have been scanned and digitized, and imagery that has been interpreted to represent value-added data that does not conform to political boundaries, such as land use and land cover and population density. Up until recently the tools for working with rasters in QGIS have been limited, but this has changed with the addition of several plugins such as the gdal plugin, 3.1 Quantum GIS

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which allows you to perform raster analysis, and the georeferrencing plugin, which allows you to convert non-GIS image files (i.e. a scanned paper map) to a raster GIS file by assigning coordinates to it. Given the time constraints of this tutorial, we’re not going to cover rasters beyond this point. It was introduced here to give you a more complete picture of GIS capabilities and data formats. The raster used in this exercise is a DRG (digital raster graphic) which is a digitized, georeferenced version of the USGS’ topographic maps. USGS topos are useful for studying elevation and terrain (particularly in non-urban areas) and for providing a frame of reference for overlaying vector layers or creating new ones; however most of the topos are several decades old and should be used with that fact in mind. The DRG was stored in a special .tif format called a GeoTIFF; a lossless image file that has georeferencing information (coordinates and map projection) embedded in it. Saving Your Project You’ll learn how to save your project. 1. Change paths offiles from absolute to relative. Under Settings > Project Properties > General Tab, for the last option in the General Settings area labeled as Save Paths, change the drop down box item from Absolute Paths to Relative Paths. 2. Save your project. Hit the Save Project button. Navigate to the data folder for part 2, and save your project there as part 2.qgs. The project file saves the symbolization, labeling, and current zoom for your data, and links to your data files (shapefiles); the shapefiles themselves are NOT stored inside your project file and exist independently. In order to use your project in the future, the project file and the shapefiles you used must be kept together. When you add data to a project file you are not saving the data (shapefiles) inside the project; you are saving links to those files. Things like symbolization, data classification, the extent of your last zoom, and any finished maps you create are stored in the project file. When you click on the project file to open it, the software looks at the paths to your data, re-establishes the links, and then applies the settings (symbols, zoom, etc) that you have saved in your project file. This relationship is of crucial importance when it comes time to move or share files – if you move your project file or your data the links between them can become broken, and you’ll need to reestablish the location between the project and the data in order to repair your project file. If you open a project in QGIS and your project file can’t find the data, because the data has been moved or renamed, the software will give you the opportunity to restore the link by asking you to browse through your file folders and select each file that corresponds to a layer you have in the ML of your project. Once you restore the links, you can save the project and it will save the new links. Think carefully about where to save project files in relation to your data, and once you’ve created your project file keep project files and data in a consistent place. Also remember that you must keep all of the individual components of the shapefile together (.shp, .shx, .dbf, .prj, etc); otherwise the shapefile will not function. If you want to share your project file with someone, you will also have to send them your data; the project file cannot exist independently from the data. You can share views or maps you’ve created in a static format (image file or PDF) that is separate from your project and data files; we’ll explore that later in this tutorial [14]. The QGIS project file (.qgs) is actually just an XML file. If you open the project file in a text editor, you’ll be able to see the structure of the file and all of its elements and attributes.

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Questions 1. What does Q-GIS stand for? 2. Go throw briefly history of Q-GIS 3. What are the advantages , where do you see problems 4. How to you plan to integrate Q-GIS in your teaching activity? 5. Describe at least 3 possible Q-GIS projects you would be interested in to do? References 1. OSGeo (February 2008). «OSGeo Annual Report 2007». 2. Tim Sutton (January 23, 2009). «Announcing the release of QGIS 1.0 ‘Kore’». Retrieved 2009-01-26. 3. Cavallini, Paolo (August 2007). «Free GIS desktop and analyses: QuantumGIS, the easy way». The Global Geospatial Magazine. 4. «Project details for Quantum GIS – Quantum GIS 0.9.0». Freshmeat. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 5. «QGIS Change Log». Open Source Geospatial Foundation. 2004-03-09. Retrieved 200812-13. 6. README for QGIS version 0.1pre1 ‘Moroz’». Open Source Geospatial Foundation. 7. «Quantum GIS 0.1pre1 (Development)». Freshmeat News. Freshmeat. 2004-02-14. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 8. Gray, James (2008-03-26). «Getting Started With Quantum GIS». Linux Journal. External links 1. www.qgis.org/ – official web-site

3.2 Project management Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual , which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary – and more ambitious – challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives [15]. Until 1900 civil engineering projects were generally managed by creative architects, engineers, and master builders themselves, for example Vitruvius (first century BC), Christopher Wren (1632-1723), Thomas Telford (1757-1834) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859). It was in the 1950s that organizations started to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects. As a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction, engineering, and heavy defense activity. Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool (alternatively Harmonogram first proposed by Karol Adamiecki); and Henri Fayol for his creation of the five management functions that form the foundation of the body of knowledge associated with project and program 3.2 Project management

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management. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylor’s theories of scientific management. His work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model. In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad–hoc basis, using mostly Gantt charts and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed. The «Critical Path Method» (CPM) was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. And the «Program Evaluation and Review Technique» or PERT, was developed by Booz Allen Hamilton as part of the United States Navy’s (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation) Polaris missile submarine program; These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises. At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management, and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE International; the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering) was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, and cost/schedule control (project control). AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio, program and project management (Total Cost Management Framework) [16]. The International Project Management Association (IPMA) was founded in Europe in 1967, as a federation of several national project management associations. IPMA maintains its federal structure today and now includes member associations on every continent except Antarctica. IPMA offers a Four Level Certification program based on the IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB). The ICB covers technical, contextual, and behavioral competencies. In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed in the USA. PMI publishes A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), which describes project management practices that are common to «most projects, most of the time». PMI also offers multiple certifications. A traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of steps to be completed. In the «traditional approach», five developmental components of a project can be distinguished (four stages plus control): Typical development phases of a project 1. Initiation 2. Planning and design 3. Execution and construction 4. Monitoring and controlling systems 5. Completion Not all projects will have every stage, as projects can be terminated before they reach completion. Some projects do not follow a structured planning and/or monitoring process. And some projects will go through steps 2, 3 and 4 multiple times. Many industries use variations of these project stages. For example, when working on a brick-and-mortar design and construction, projects will typically

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progress through stages like pre-planning, conceptual design, schematic design, design development, construction drawings (or contract documents), and construction administration. In software development, this approach is often known as the waterfall model, i.e., one series of tasks after another in linear sequence. In software development many organizations have adapted the Rational Unified Process (RUP) to fit this methodology, although RUP does not require or explicitly recommend this practice. Waterfall development works well for small, well defined projects, but often fails in larger projects of undefined and ambiguous nature. The Cone of Uncertainty explains some of this as the planning made on the initial phase of the project suffers from a high degree of uncertainty. This becomes especially true as software development is often the realization of a new or novel product. In projects where requirements have not been finalized and can change, requirements management is used to develop an accurate and complete definition of the behavior of software that can serve as the basis for software development. While the terms may differ from industry to industry, the actual stages typically follow common steps to problem solving – «defining the problem, weighing options, choosing a path, implementation and evaluation». Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as «scope», «time,» and «cost». These are also referred to as the «project management triangle», where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others. A further refinement of the constraints separates product «quality» or «performance» from scope, and turns quality into a fourth constraint. The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project’s end result. These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope. The Figure 4. Project management triangle discipline of project management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints [17]. Any project management should begin with planning. Planning is concerned with the future impact of today’s decisions. It is the fundamental function of management from which the other four stem, mentioend earlier. The need for planning is often apparent after the fact. However, planning is easy to postpone in the short–run. Postponement of planning especially plagues labor oriented, hands on managers. The manager is ready to organize only after goals and plans to reach the goals are in place. Likewise, the leading function, influencing the behavior of people in the organization, depends on the goals to be achieved. Finally, in the controlling function, the determination of whether or not goals are being accomplished and 3.2 Project management

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standards met is based on the planning function. The planning function provides the goals and standards that drive the controlling function. Planning is important at all levels of management. However, its characteristics vary by level of management. Of course, the hiearachy of different levels defines different needs. Basically, the senior management in the longterm planning calls, while the timeframe on lower levels is becoming shorter. Strategic planning is one specific type of planning. Strategies are the outcome of strategic planning. An organization’s strategies define the business the firm is in, the criteria for entering the business, and the basic actions the organization will follow in conducting its business. Strategies are major plans that commit large amounts of the organization’s resources to proposed actions, designed to achieve its major objectives and goals. Strategic planning is the process by which the organization’s strategies are determined. In the process, three basic questions are answered: 1. Where are we now? 2. Where do we want to be? 3. How do we get there?

Figure 5. Strategic planning (Source: http://hr-ing.blogspot. com/2010/03/hr-at-homestrategic-planning.html) The «where are we now?» question is answered through the first three steps of the strategy formulation process: 1. perform internal and external environmental analyses 2. review vision, mission and objectives, and 3. determine SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

The first strategy proposed here for the introduction of GIS starts with identifying the users who have to make spatial decisions. What information do these users need to make their decision and how is this information best presented to them, so they can react quickly and without error? From these questions follows the ‘spatial information product’, which provides the users with this information. Once the spatial information product is designed, the logical and physical organisation of the data necessary to produce it, and also the required hardware and software become clear. The concept of a ‘spatial information product’ helps also with the economic assessment of a project, in particular with estimating the benefits. It provides a crucial point for the discussion with the user in his own terminology. From this the GIS professional deduces the technical and organisational detail, which are usually difficult to understand for the user. As a complementary strategy, User Centred Design is outlined. Here, the users’ problem is considered from the point of view of setting up a system for Geoinformation management. The same problem is considered by the symmetrical point of view of how to conceive the technical tools that allow setting up that

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system, and how to comply with the current European regulations. The present concern is then about organisational aspects of GIS implementation and also the related business aspects. The introduction of modern GIS technology in an organisation is a complex process. The first method proposed here consists of a series of executable steps, which are connected by a consistent theory. The method centres on the tasks the users of the GIS have to fulfil, and the required spatial information. It is possible to describe the tasks for which the GIS should be used and the information expected in detail and in a form understandable to the users. The technical details follow logically from the document the user can understand and agree to. A second, complementary, strategy is the User Centred Design (UCD) approach. Also starting from the user perspective, UCD is less focussed on information flow, and more on end-user functionality. A factory transforms raw materials into a product, which is sold on a market. This metaphor can be applied to GIS. The spatial data collected serve as raw material, the software represents the factory and the information in the form ‘output from the system’ is the product. The output from the GIS is the ‘information product’. This indicates that it is produced by the GIS, it is the result of the GIS seen as a production process, transforming raw materials (i.e. the spatial data collected) into a valuable product for a user. The metaphor is important because it stresses many important aspects linked to the GIS: – is the GIS producing information somebody uses? – is the product of value in a decision process? – is the quality of the product adequate for the user? – is the product easy to use? The product metaphor draws attention to the marketing issues, which need to be addressed for GI. But the information product also points to the applicability of economic theories that are well developed for industrial products. Concentrating on the user of the GIS – not the technology – is the first step towards the successful introduction of the GIS: – What are the tasks the users are involved in and for which they need additional information the GIS should produce? – Which information is necessary for these tasks? – Which form of information is easiest to understand for the user? From these user-oriented questions most of the answers for the technical design of a GIS follow: – Which data are necessary to produce the desired information? – What data quality is required (for the information produced, for the data collected), – Which functions are necessary to transform the data into the desired information? – Which hardware and software are necessary? What is the overall architecture? – How to perform the economic assessment of the GIS project. The GIS is introduced in an organisation to improve its functioning. It is crucial to understand the goals of the organisation and how they are achieved. Typically the GIS is set up to serve specific users in the organisation. The future users of the GIS have a certain function in the organisation and fulfil some tasks within it. The GIS must support these functions, these tasks – nothing else. 3.2 Project management

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The first step in introducing the GIS must be to analyse the tasks within the organisation, which require Geographical Information. Which information is required for which specific step of the task? How does the information influence the outcome of the task? What happens if the information is not available, not available in time, or available but not correct? For instance, to be able to respond to an emergency request, a ‘path to the emergency location‘ must be available. If it is delivered too late or contains errors, the response may be too late and people could die.

Figure 6. Information centred approach

Having identified the task of the users, which the GIS should support, we must proceed to the information needs of the users performing these tasks. The information may be compulsory – the task cannot be completed without the information, or it may be additional. The performance of the task is improved with this additional information. For example, for a building permit, the location of the proposed building in respect to the parcel boundaries must be present in order to check clearance. In many cases the user is not free to select the information he wants to use. Administrative decisions follow rules set forth in a law or additional regulations, indicating which information must be considered, often giving details on its presentation, data quality etc. These rules are part of the instructions from the legislator and regulate how a decision must be reached. They have to be observed to assure that the administrative process is equitable, not using information of different quality levels. It is highly recommended to visit the users in their offices and observe them at work. Collect a copy of the documents consulted, of forms filled in and other information included in the decision process; this collection will be very helpful for the following steps.

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The next step is to identify the form in which the information is presented to the user. Understanding the task a user needs to perform and having identified which information the GIS can contribute to it, we can decide on the channel to communicate this information to the user. A ‘path to location’ information product for instance, must contain a sequence of streets and turns to guide a driver to the desired location. In most cases, spatial information is communicated in a map. To use graphics is recommended in order to assure that all the required information is present, that it can be understood from the context and that the quality of the information communicated is sufficient for the task at hand. Considering the usage of the information, not only the graphical presentation of the information should be discussed, but also its medium. If the task requires a small amount of information quickly, a graphical screen is the optimal solution. For decision processes, which require a large amount of complex information, but progress slowly, output on paper can be more appropriate. If documentation of the decision and its justification is important, a paper copy must be printed and added to the case documentation. A building permit obviously needs to be printed on paper, to provide physical evidence, whereas in an emergency vehicle, spoken information may be more useful. From the identified information need should follow all, or at least most, of the elements necessary for the design of the GIS: – The information requirement defines the data needed and the GIS software functions to transform these data into information. – Understanding of the tasks and the decision process determines the quality of the required information. – The physical environment, in which the information is used, determines the hardware and communication channel to pass the information to the user [18]. After these steps it is possible to produce a design document, which is deduced from the ‘user understandable’ requirement document: 1. Identification of required data. From the description of the information product, not only the necessary data, but also the non-necessary data are identified. 2. Understanding Data Quality Requirements. Information products also give an indication of the data quality required. Data quality is a widely discussed issue, but operational rules are seldom provided. Elements commonly perceived as determining data quality are accuracy, completeness and maintainability. 3. Amount of Data Storage. For the technical design of a GIS installation the amount of data storage is important. From the description of the data necessary and some measuring of the amount of data per area or the number of objects and the amount of data per object quickly follows the amount of data to be stored. This figure must be increased for storage overhead. 4. Data Maintenance Procedures. The data used must be maintained; this is often the most difficult organisational problem and a very substantial part of the cost of running a GIS. The description of the information product indicates what level of update must be achieved. Observing the organisation and its present mechanism to assure that the data used for a decision are up to date gives us further insight in the requirement for data maintenance. 5. GIS Functionality. The operations necessary to translate the stored data into the desired information are immediately identified. The comparison 3.2 Project management

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of the data stored with the desired information shows what kind of spatial analysis, database retrieval, graphical presentation tools are necessary. This allows us to decide what kind of GIS software will be necessary for the application. 6. Terminals and other Output Devices. Having identified the users and the form of the communication of the spatial information leads to an estimate of the type and number of terminals necessary for the users to access the information. If the information product is a printed paper map, quality of plotters can be deduced from the examples provided. 7. Overall Architecture, Data Sharing and Communication. The user level document shows the data that are shared among the users. It describes the users and where they are located. This helps to define the requirements for the distribution of data between different sites (move the data to where they are used!) and the communication lines between these sites [19]. User Centred Design In this approach, the focus is more on the point of view of the user. In fact, the User Interface is the actual «view» that most users have of a GIS and that implies a proper GIS development process that should include a user requirement analysis and various user-oriented steps leading GIS implementation. When dealing with GIS applications it is fundamental to focus the attention on the role and the centrality of users and their involvement in the GIS application development process. No technical tool can be expected to have real use if it is not able to target the whole context of potential users. On this side things have largely improved during the last years: the general evolution of Information Technology and Software Engineering have created the conditions, and presumably the trend will be positive in the coming years. However, the difficulty of targeting final users during GIS project implementation demonstrates that the GIS process still needs to improve, with the end-users who determine in which direction the improvement should go. For example, a proper compromise must avoid either too much functionality (additional burden on the user in selecting functions) or too little functionality, causing users to search for tricks and shortcuts during task execution. The above issues are addressed by the User Centred Design approach (UCD), a mature professional practice that has emerged and supports the development process of interactive software systems. It is based on the assumption that the success of new products depends on the efficiency and effectiveness of steering product development by user and customer feedback. UCD consists of processes, techniques, methods, and procedures that help to achieve user and customer orientation The UCD approach is highly relevant for GIS applications. However, GIS development is different from other software development processes. GIS functions and their user interfaces are so complex that in order to be usable they must be tailored to specific user needs. To a large extent the UCD approach to GIS is concerned with the development of the User Interface, which is the part of the system that is visible to the end-user and which is needed for the dialogue between the user and the GIS. User-centred customisation implies then mainly user interface design which is either performed by GIS vendors and suppliers, by experts offering customisation services, or by the end-users themselves.

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The major principles of GIS user-centred design are: • Focus on end-users, because they can contribute a lot to GIS user interface design by providing their knowledge of the GI application domain, prior experiences with GIS, their work tasks and responsibilities. The community of GIS end-users is extremely diverse ranging from Geographical Information domain experts to general public users with little GI knowledge who are assumed to be using Geographical Information much more frequently in the future. The utility of a GIS application within a company or an organisation can be greatly enhanced when the GIS user interface can be tailored to groups of users with specific knowledge and experiences. To conclude, GIS interfaces tailored to user needs will be much easier for the end-users to learn and will cut down end-user training cost. Any user involvement will increase the likelihood of user satisfaction with the final GIS, of commitment and acceptance. The provision of user feedback about GIS use to GIS developers is an invaluable source for GIS evolution and for the development of new GIS. • Iterative design, whereby the GIS design, improved repeatedly, helps to shape the product onto the user needs. It allows preliminary and alternative design solutions to be tested against real world scenarios, i.e. a realistic set of tasks the prospective end-users intend to perform with the GIS application. It is commonly accepted today that the quality of technology products is mainly a function of the number of completed ‘design / test & evaluation / redesign’ cycles. The quality of GIS functionality will depend to a large extent on the effort (manpower and time) invested in the development process and the efficiency (use of experience and best practice) of development procedures. Iterative design if applied early in this process will help to avoid design errors and failures. This will speed up development so that new GIS can enter the market earlier, and the effort of customisation may be reduced. • Appropriate allocation of functions between end-user and GIS. GI tasks cannot always be fulfilled using a single GIS function. More often a procedure, i.e. a sequence of GIS functions, must be executed. It may be advantageous for end-users if GIS functions can be hidden behind macros for task execution, which better map to the end-users’ knowledge and capabilities. It must be specified which functions shall be carried out by the GIS application and which by the end-users. This task is performed taking into account limited human information processing capabilities and limited performance of technology in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, flexibility of response, cost, importance of successful or timely accomplishment of tasks etc. • Multidisciplinary design team. GIS user interface design requires a variety of skills: substantial knowledge of the Geographical Information domain, expertise of GIS technology and user interface design skills. Representatives of all stakeholders, i.e. persons with an interest in GIS use and the results produced with a GIS application, should be involved in GIS user interface development and customisation: end-users, their managers, purchasers, trainers, etc. Such a multidisciplinary design team does not have to be large. It is only required that members of the user-centred design team represent all the relevant different roles and skills. GIS developers, those who customise GIS as well as customers and end users must be enabled to use best practice for GIS development, customisation and purchase. This goal can be achieved by promoting the UCD philosophy. The most important activities 3.2 Project management

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to be taken into account are user needs and requirements analysis, benchmarking and cost/benefit assessment. These are described elsewhere in this chapter. UCD has been investigated by many projects for many different application domains. The UPI project funded by the European Commissions Telematics Applications has collected and integrated this information and is currently creating the VNET website (http://www.acit.net/vnet) which will explain user and customer orientation in the product creation process. With the UCD paradigm another EU project has been developed in the GIS field, which is aimed at coping with the analysis of Best Practice; BEST-GIS (http://gisig.ima.ge.cnr.it/). Both strategies for introducing GIS in an organisation that are mentioned here focus initially on the user. The Information Centred approach uses this focus to determine the information product the user needs and defines the required GIS characteristics from there. The User Centred Design approach remains focused on the end-users, designing the GIS interface from their perspective and defines the GIS functionality based on this. Feasibility of a GIS Project. Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost-Benefit analysis (CBA) is a method to reduce uncertainty during decision making and planning by replacing opinions, believes, and emotion by a framework for identification and determination of the benefits and cost, respectively of each alternative GIS. The objective of CBA is the assessment of the advantages of a specific GIS application over competitive solutions and traditional work procedures. The results of CBA provide a basis for comparing GIS options. Public sector decisions are thought to be more complex because both policy and financial impacts must be considered. Private enterprises need to be concerned only with the accountant’s ‘bottom line’. In fact, though, both private and public sector decisions are better when they consider all aspects of a given alternative, whether those aspects have a line in the balance sheet or not. The assessment of the economic viability of a project requires a comparison of the cost with the benefits. The total cost of a project must be less than the total benefits it produces, otherwise the project should not be realised. The cost of the solution can be estimated by combining cost of hard – and software, data collection, user training etc. To estimate the benefits, there are two approaches available, based on the Information Product Metaphor. The ‘avoided cost’ approach compares the cost of producing the information product by GIS, with the traditional method used. Assuming that the traditional method is beneficial (i.e. not running at a loss), the costs of the traditional method can be taken as a minimum estimate of the benefits it contributes to the organisation. Estimating a fair price for the information product is the appropriate method if the same information product is not currently being used. The idea is to consider how much a user would pay for the information product. A user is willing to pay at most the amount he benefits from the information; therefore we consider the task, the risk involved in the decision, how much the risk is reduced by the information received etc. Reduction of risk is comparable to buying insurance – its value to the user and thus its market price can be assessed. Cost calculation The cost estimation is a vital link in the success or failure of the GIS project/ purchase. However, the price of a GIS (hardware and software) is not the most important cost factor. Issues such as usability, learning and training cost, support,

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(future) vision of the vendor as well as data compatibility all affect the decision for a particular GIS. Roughly one can divide the costs of a GIS into the following components: – Hardware – Software (base software, base GIS and additional GIS modules) – Maintenance – Services (resources to fulfil the GIS project objectives, e.g. customisation) – Training – Data (if obtained from elsewhere). There are no fixed categories of benefits. This makes counting benefits much more difficult than counting costs. In a large, government-wide project benefits were grouped into four categories: direct, agency, government, and external. A valid equivalent for the private sector would be direct, departmental, company-wide, and external. – Higher productivity (of the end-user’s final product). For instance compared to using old methods productivity increases with a factor 4 to 6. – Resource reduction. By using a GIS, the number of people working in the department can be reduced. – Although care should be taken with the statement. Many people have thought the GIS and automated mapping would costs jobs. The opposite proves to be true. Mostly the same number of people were employed, only the production went up. – Quicker response. In some applications, such as traffic management using a GIS, the time factor is important. – Easier (cheaper) maintenance. Often the real payoff for a GIS lies in the maintenance of data. The initial data capturing is the big hurdle to overcome (technically and price-wise) GIS is not a miracle machine that solves all the customer’s problems. It should be considered as a tool that forms part of a project of which the service cost is bigger than the system itself. A few objectives could be: – Cost savings. Install a GIS in order to save cost that would be spent without a GIS. – Better response times. Install a GIS because the traditional workflow is too slow. – Higher quality. Install a GIS because the traditional work procedures produce inaccurate results The key question always to keep in mind is «what is the user’s goal». It has been demonstrated in many failed IT projects that a seemingly wonderful system does not solve the desired problem because it was poorly focused and aimed at the outset. Technical feasibility Technical feasibility is a complex issue and the measure of feasibility depends on many factors. Having criteria by which to select the most appropriate technology for each application or set of applications is of greatest significance. These criteria are the result of a detailed understanding of the business functions to be supported and to what level of sophistication. Basic support functions such as data query and display are far less complicated to implement than complex decision-making. Without adequate decision criteria directed by the strategic vision, the likelihood of becoming «technology driven» is high. That is, solutions are looking for problems to solve. In this environment technical feasibility ceases to be an issue. The right technology 3.2 Project management

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is always available, because «right» is defined by what is available. A broader more systematic view of technical feasibility is required to avoid becoming technology driven. In evaluating technical feasibility, part of the evaluation relates to the use by the end user and to the amount of training and technical support necessary to use the application. One way of dealing with technical complexity is to hide it from the end user by implementing sophisticated easy-to-use machine interfaces. The humanmachine boundary is a conceptual meeting point of the operator and the computer. The more the complexity of the computer’s work that can be hidden from the user, the easier the computer is to use. More «user friendliness» generally means more software development, but also lower training and startup costs for the end user. It has been demonstrated through various projects that significant reductions in training requirements and learning curves can be achieved by customising software for specific job functions and through effective user interfaces. However, that often translates into higher development costs per application unless the software development can be shared. Technical feasibility is further complicated by the likelihood that GIS technology will be acquired over long periods of time. Acquiring technology over a period of time involves both benefits and risks. By purchasing only what is required for each application, the organisation can benefit from the rapid advances in information technology. The risk is not being able to properly or readily combine the technology. The risk can be managed by defining a technology strategy and architecture, by adhering to as many industry standards as practical, and by closely monitoring technology trends. Institutional feasibility Institutional feasibility deals with the willingness and ability of an organisation to accommodate change and to work across traditional lines of authority. When a planned GIS implementation will serve many organisational units and require several years to be completed, institutional feasibility is important. Technical feasibility needs to be aligned with the ability and willingness of the organisation to sustain a large project over the life of the planning horizon. Budgets and management support will need to be sustained at required levels, staff education and training may need to span several years, and technology acquisition may be spread over several fiscal years. Institutional feasibility, more than technical feasibility, is tightly bound to the scope of the project. Some additional factors to be considered in evaluating institutional feasibility and establishing the project scope are discussed below. • Is the GIS to be multiple or single purpose? A system designed to support a single organisational function is simpler to specify, design, and implement, than one that must support a variety of functions. However, if the single purpose implementation depends on data from other parts of the organisation, or if other parts of the organisation also have an interest in GIS, then a single purpose project attempt may fail. Implementing a GIS in one organisational unit and not in other related units may also create imbalances in the overall functioning of the organisation. It is often advisable to make a plan for a phased introduction, thus achieving the simplicity of a single purpose system with the institutional support for a multipurpose (long-term) goal. • Will the GIS be implemented to automate line-management or support functions? Many organisations have begun by implementing computer aided drafting systems to automate map production. That technology will likely not be adequate to

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Types of free and open source software of GIS

support line-management functions that require complex information retrieval and modelling. • Who is the computer system being developed for and what type of computer system is required? If the system is being implemented to support management planning and decision making, the system will be significantly more complicated than if it is being implemented to perform routine information handling tasks. In general, projects should start with a modest, well-defined scope and expand over time as the organisation learns about GI-use and GIS technology. Organisations, People and GIS The application of GIS in different aspects of life changes the ways of collecting, storing and using spatial data. This reflects not only on organisations creating or using geodata, but on people as well (ordinary consumers or serving staff). Positive and negative sides of these influences are reflected upon in the following sections. In general, GIS projects are similar to other projects where technology changes the way an organisation works efficiently. Such change creates excitement in some of the staff and anxiety in others. Projects succeed if people can be motivated to address the changes and challenges and are insulated from the potential negative effects [20]. GIS influence on organisations Several positive effects of the introduction of GIS in organisations can be distinguished, leading to improved spatial decision-making. First of all there will be a larger commitment to using spatial data. Furthermore, new methods for analyses and management can be used and unification of data with different features is possible. On an organisational level, facilitating the communication among separate administrative groups in different organisations and departments is a positive influence. Also the opportunity for a more rational use of specialists’ knowledge, creating a potential to reduce the number of staff, and minimising administrative mistakes by automating workflow can be mentioned. The goal of GIS projects in an organisation should be mostly to improve the organisation’s efficiency and contribute to its goals of quality production for its ultimate uses. It is dangerous to describe GIS projects in terms of the reduction in staff, etc. Experience shows that demand for GI increases in an organisation more rapidly than technology reduces staffing levels; the same number of staff produces more and better Geographical Information, and finds more fulfilling jobs. But of course there are also negative effects possible. Structural changes in the organisation and changes in legislative and normative base could under certain circumstances be perceived as negative. Also the introduction of GIS often leads to increased requirements for data collection and representation, needing additional staff skills and therefore training. Methodologies for Design and Selection After explaining how to determine the organisational requirements for a GIS in the first part of this chapter, this section explains the methodology for a systematic approach how to evaluate and select a concrete GIS, leading to a rational choice of system. Also, it describes the basic steps in the development of a GIS application. The GIS Evaluation Phases There are some simple rules to pay attention to when evaluating a GIS: • If the available money is only sufficient for buying hard – and software, you 3.2 Project management

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should rethink your project scope again. Money will be needed for training, data, maintenance and technical advice as well! • Investing into larger GIS solutions will take 3 to 5 years before it yields major benefit. Phase the project and make sure there are initial benefits to be shown within the first year. • During the implementation period of GIS qualified and motivated staff are required. In certain cases the old and new system need to be run in parallel. The major phases for the selection and evaluation of a GIS are: 1. Planning 2. Decision 3. Installation 4. Operating phase Planning phase The planning phase starts with setting up an expert team, consisting of four to six members who bring in their expertise concerning the organisation and the given tasks. In most cases they are not GIS experts, but will gain expertise during the evaluation process. However, adding one or two outside experts with GIS experience may avoid many costly errors. If not already available, the expert team should conduct a needs and feasibility study. The outcome of this study forms the basis of a pre-evaluation of systems. The number of GIS products on the market is large; the pre-evaluation should reduce this number to an acceptable range. A rough pre-selection of feasible GIS products may be made based on published material. These materials can be obtained from vendors, trade magazines, independent market research organisations, university institutes or consultants. Criteria that should be considered during the pre-evaluation are hardware, operating system, choice of database, performance, vendor and functionality, as described in the GIS design document. The final part of the planning phase is the benchmark design. A benchmark is an unbiased mechanism to measure the suitability and efficiency of a supplier’s proposed solution within the context of the buyer’s application and environment. During the evaluation process the benchmark is the most important step to judge the feasibility and performance of products. The purposes of a benchmark are: • objective technical comparison of alternative solutions • check compliance to functional and performance specifications • determine resource utilisation • motivate and commit personnel • evaluate user response to GIS technology • gain experience with leading edge GIS technology In designing the benchmark, the expert team chooses criteria by which to evaluate the systems that survived the pre-evaluation phase, and selects a method of testing these criteria. Decision phase The decision phase consists of two steps: • A decision to go forward with the project based on the feasibility study and overall economic assessment. • The decision for a specific GIS from a particular vendor. For the go-ahead with the project only overall cost information is required and assurance that at least one vendor can provide the technology.

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Types of free and open source software of GIS

The decision for a specific vendor must follow the accepted rules for procurement, typically with a call for tender and a rational, impartial selection of the best offer. The cost of this selection process is quite high and it is highly recommended to get assistance from vendor independent GIS experts as consultants. Benchmarks to establish whether a system is capable of fulfilling the requirements are typically used to help assess the systems. Benchmarks are useful, but they stress properties of a system, which can be measured easily, – especially the speed of returning some function. These are often less relevant in day-to-day operations than the quality of the user interface or the ease of learning the system, which are much more difficult to assess. Installation After deciding for a GIS, the implementation may start. With the installation the GIS evaluation process stops partially, but nevertheless, the customer has to continue looking at the GIS market. Experience shows that within a year or two, further equipment is needed; additional tasks may be fulfilled and so on. The installation phase includes the training of the operators, possibly further software development, installation of the hardware and software. The system configuration is installed; a pilot project may be started under the leadership of the vendor. The production process may start after the staff has been trained. Training and education may take up to half a year. It may be necessary to customise the GIS to the user demands. Customising the GIS to the users may take a year or more. A pilot project may run several months before production starts. Operation phase, expansion and updating Within one or two years it might be necessary to expand or update hardware and software. Additional hardware may be needed; more equipment, more or better workstations. The supplier usually offers software updates and revision once or twice a year. Additional software modules may be bought to serve additional applications. Continuous education and training of the staff is necessary. Experienced staff will leave the company, additional or new personnel will need to be trained. The updating and revisions of data depends on the demand of the user. Data are the most valuable part of GIS, so keep them up-to-date. Upgrading data may become necessary with new software revisions. With a growing customer base further data exchange modules may be needed. Renewal of the GIS cycle A few years later a new GIS evaluation cycle may start. The renewal of the GIS can be required whenever major changes in the production process, the organisation and its workflow occur. It is also necessary when the technical equipment becomes out-of-date. The GIS evaluation process will follow the same steps, but with more knowledge. Alternative Evaluation Procedures There may be several reasons why the described evaluation phases may be shortened or other sequences may be necessary. Some major reasons are: • limited budget, • restricted resources and skills, • corporate computer suppliers pressure, • limited window of opportunity. Pilot projects to reduce risk This approach expands the previously described steps with one or more pilot projects. The risk is minimised, but takes more time. During the pilot project the 3.2 Project management

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organisation learns a lot about GIS. This approach is recommended for organisations that have little experience with GIS. It is closely related to a phased approach, as the pilot can be seen as a first (small) step in a larger project, which is adapted further based on the experiences gained during the pilot phase. Desktop approach The desktop approach tries to select a GIS without a benchmark. All evaluation phases are more or less based on paper studies. A GIS team is created and starts the strategic study, typically expanded by outside GIS experts and consultants. Pre-evaluation of systems is done from market surveys or literature. A request for information is sent out to a small number of vendors remaining from the preevaluation process. The user requirements analysis (operational requirements) is done based on the existing know-how on GIS. A tender follows. The GIS is selected and installed. A pilot project and benchmark are done to demonstrate the functionality. This usually takes longer because in this approach it is the company’s first experience with GIS in the company. If the pilot project runs successfully, production can start afterwards. The risk is that the selected vendor cannot fulfil the benchmark and the process has to start again. This risk is low today, as functionality differences between GIS’s are small. Project driven approach The shortest evaluation process runs under pressure from outside the organisation. For instance, if a contract would be lost, for not being fulfilled with GIS technology. This procedure may work fine when knowledge on GIS technology and the GIS market exists in the company. A small number of vendors are pre-selected. The operational requirements may only be related to the project. Still, one should do the user requirements analysis very carefully to know and analyse the demand. From the tender one selects a GIS, starts installation and immediately goes into production. The risk is that the selected GIS is only useful for a specific project. Development of a GIS application Once an organisation has chosen and installed GIS software, it can start development of additional applications. As we have seen, in some cases a (small) application or pilot project can even be part of the evaluation process. Application development does mean not rewriting the GIS software, but instead customising applications to meet specific needs. The applications may be as simple as a set of preferences that are stored for each user group or individual and are run as a macro at start-up. Or they may be a very complex query that selects a group of layers, identifies features of interest based on attribute ranges, creates variable width buffers, performs a series of overlays and produces a hard copy map. In either case, an application is required to convert the user’s ideas into a usable, stable product. There are three approaches typically used by organisations to develop GIS applications. Organisations can develop these applications in-house from scratch, interface with an existing ‘over-the-counter’ GIS application or use a GIS framework as the foundation for their customised GIS application. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach will be considered here. The details of application development depend on the selected technology, but the general recommendation is to follow the steps proposed [21].

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ASSIGNMENTS: Assignment 1: Project Plan In this module, one of your key assignments will be the establishment of a project plan with a software of your choice, with MS Project (demo – watch the timeout!!) or GanttProject (see Resources / Software) being specifically recommended. Assignment 2: Mind Mapping In this lesson you have built a solid understanding of mindmapping as a brainstorming and organisation technique, perhaps as well as framework helping with collaboration. You are now ready for some practical work: – Select a topic of your choice as theme for your mindmap. This could be a (fictitious) GIS project, a data collection effort or perhaps even a daily life ‘project’. – Sit down and collect all relevant aspects coming to your mind (you could do this initial collecting on a piece of paper as well). – Then think about a logical sequence: e.g. from problem statement to objectives to methods / techniques to risks to resources to ... – Likely you will design a hierarchical structure with top level items organising more detailed aspects. – Not everything will neatly fit into a sequence and hierarchies: cross-links, comments and floating texts complete the picture. – A key principle of mindmapping is the use of visual aids: our brain responds better to graphic cues, symbols, color coding etc. Make sure your mindmap is not just a spiderweb of keywords! Submit – Your mindmap both in mmap and in pdf format – A brief statement of your experience and «lessons learned» when building the map Assignment 3: Relationship and Leadership a) Section 3.2.4 (Lesson 9 > Managing the Team) examines the kinds of relationships that can exist between individuals in an organization. Examine the contents of Table 3.1 and prepare your list of relationships that you personally have found existing within your own organization or one that you have recently been associated with. Your association with UNIGIS would do if you are struggling to find one. b) The next task is about project leadership. Any project group will have expectations of their leader. For the purpose of this exercise, you are asked to place yourself as a GIS project team member operating within your specialist area. You may already be operating in this capacity, if so the task should be easier. With this in mind, take some time to write down your own expectations of the project manager. If you can compare these with another member of the team or better still exchange your views with other students via e-mail. c) In section 3.4.1 ‘Classification of people within projects’ (Lesson 9 > Managing the Team), you will find three types of people that are generally found in projects. Spend some time filling in the questionnaire about yourself and then compare it with the lists. Which character are you? Try the questionnaire out 3.2 Project management

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on someone else, preferably a work colleague. The questionnaire is attached to this item. Assignment 4: SWOT and Organizational Triangle SWOT Analysis Prepare a Strength – Weaknesses – Opportunities – Threats analysis of the position of GIS in your (or any other, or a fictitious) organization Questions 1. How you can integrate Project Management with geography? 2. Which one of the project management triangle is more important? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages? 4. Which steps is critical moment in history development of Project Management? 5. What is the main idea of PM? 6. How you can use PM in your daily life? 7. Which trends and effects are observed in the development of the management? 8. Why is planning important in the management? 9. Explain in details the strategic planning steps! 10. What are the main elements of a GIS implementation process? References 1. Fundamentals of Project Management 2. A Guide to the Project Management: Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – 2000 Edition. 3. Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling 4. Effective Project Management: Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme 5. Ed. Frank A. – Raubal M. – van der Vlugt M.: PANEL – GI Compendium, Geoinfo Series nr. 21, Vienna, 2000. 6. BEST-GIS: Guidelines for best practice in user interface for GIS, GISIG – EU ESPRIT project, 1998. 7. Bowman, C.: Strategiai menedzsment, Panem, Budapest, 1998. 8. Kieser, A.: Szervezetelmeletek, Aula, Budapest, 1995.

3.3 Openstreetmap OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. Two major driving forces behind the establishment and growth of OSM have been restrictions on use or availability of map information across much of the world and the advent of inexpensive portable satellite navigation devices. Founded by Steve Coast in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and preponderance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since then, it has grown to over 900,000 contributors, who collect data with GPS devices, aerial photography, and other free sources. This crowdsourced data is then made available under the Open Database License. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, a non-profit organization registered in England. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the OpenStreetMap project is considered its primary output. This data is then available for use in both traditional applications, like its usage by Craigslist and Foursquare to replace Google Maps, and more unusual roles, like replacing default data included with GPS receivers. This data has been favorably compared with proprietary datasources, though data quality varies worldwide. Steve Coast founded the project in 2004, initially focusing on mapping the United Kingdom. In the UK and elsewhere, government-run and tax-funded projects like

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the Ordinance Survey created massive datasets but failed to freely and widely distribute them. In April 2006, theOpenStreetMap Foundation was established to encourage the growth, development and distribution of free geospatial data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use and share. In December 2006, Yahoo confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production [22]. In April 2007, Automotive Navigation Data (AND) donated a complete road data set for the Netherlands and trunk road data for India and China to the project and by July 2007, when the first OSM international The State of the Map conference was held, there were 9,000 registered users. Sponsors of the event included Google, Yahoo and Multimap. In October 2007, OpenStreetMap completed the import of a US Census TIGER road dataset. In December 2007, Oxford University became the first major organisation to use OpenStreetMap data on their main website. Ways to import and export data have continued to grow – by 2008, the project developed tools to export OpenStreetMap data to power portable GPS units, replacing their existing proprietary and out-of-date maps.In February 2008, a series of workshops were held in India. In March, two founders announced that they have received venture capital funding of 2.4M euros for CloudMade, a commercial company that uses OpenStreetMap data. In 2012, the launch of pricing for Google Maps led several prominent websites to switch from their service to OpenStreetMap and other competitors. Chief amongst these were Foursquare, Craigslist who adopted OpenStreetMap, and Apple, Inc., which ended a contract with Google and launched a self-built mapping platform which uses TomTom and OpenStreetMap data. The initial map data were collected from scratch by volunteers performing systematic ground surveys using a handheld GPS unit and a notebook, digital camera, or a voice recorder. These data were then entered into the OpenStreetMap database. More recently, the availability of aerial photography and other data sources from commercial and government sources has greatly increased the speed of this work and has allowed land-use data to be collected more accurately by the process of digitization. When especially large datasets become available, a technical team manages the conversion and import of the data [23]. Ground surveys are performed by a mapper, on foot, bicycle, or in a car or boat. Map data are usually collected using a GPS unit, although this is not strictly necessary if an area has already been traced from satellite imagery. Once the data has been collected, it is entered into the database by uploading it on the project’s website. At that point, no information about the kind of uploaded track is available – it could be e.g., a motorway, a footpath, or a river. Thus, in a second step, editing takes place using one of several purpose-built map editors (e.g., JOSM). This is usually done by the same mapper, sometimes by other contributors registered at OpenStreetMap. As collecting and uploading data is separated from editing objects, contribution to the project is possible also without using a GPS unit. In particular, placing and editing objects such as schools, hospitals, taxi ranks, bus stops, pubs, etc. is done based on editors’ local knowledge. OpenStreetMap data is assisted by companies that choose to freely license either actual street data or satellite imagery sources from which OSM contributors can trace roads and features. 3.3 Openstreetmap

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OpenStreetMap data was originally published under a Creative Commons open content license with the intention of promoting free use and redistribution of the data. In September 2012, the license was changed to the Open Database License (ODbL) from Open Data Commons (ODC) in order to more specifically define its bearing on data rather than representation. As part of this relicensing process, some of the map data was removed from the public distribution. This included all data contributed by members that did not agree to the new licensing terms, as well as all subsequent edits to those affected objects. It also included any data contributed based on input data that was not compatible with the new terms. Estimates suggested that over 97% of data would be retained globally, however certain regions would be affected more than others, such as in Australia where 24 to 84% of objects would be retained (depending on the type of object). Ultimately, more than 99% of the data was retained, with Australia and Poland being the countries most severely affected by the change. All data added to the project needs to have a license compatible with the Open Database License. This can include out-of-copyright information, public domain or other licenses. Contributors agree to a set of terms which require compatibility with the current license. This may involve examining licenses for government data to establish whether they are compatible. Software used in the production and presentation of OpenStreetMap data is available from many different projects and each may have their own licencing. The application – what users access to edit maps and view changelogs, is powered by Ruby on Rails. The application also uses PostgreSQL for storage of user data and edit metadata. The default map is rendered by Mapnik, stored in PostGIS, and powered by an Apache module called mod_tile. Certain parts of the software, such as the map editor Potlatch2, have been made available as public domain. While OpenStreetMap aims to be a central data source, its map rendering and aesthetics are meant to be only one of many options, some which highlight different elements of the map or emphasize design and performance. The OpenStreetMap project keeps a list of OSM based services which serves as a complete reference. A variety of popular services incorporate some sort of geolocation or map-based component. Notable services using OSM for this include: Flickr uses OpenStreetMap data for various cities around the world, including Baghdad, Beijing, Kabul, Santiago, Sydney andTokyo. In 2012, the maps switched to use Nokia data primarily, with OSM being used in areas where the commercial provider lacked performance. MapQuest announced a service based on OpenStreetMap in 2010, which eventually became MapQuest Open. On 29 February 2012, Foursquare started using OpenStreetMap via MapBox’s rendering and infrastructure. Craigslist also switched to OpenStreetMap in 2012, rendering their own tiles based on the data. Wikipedia uses OpenStreetMap data to render custom maps used by the articles. Many languages are included in the WIWOSM project (Wikipedia Where in OSM) which aims to show OSM objects on a slippy map, directly visible on the article page. During the 2010 Haiti earthquake, OpenStreetMap and Crisis Commons volunteers used available satellite imagery to map the roads, buildings and refugee camps of Port-au-Prince in just two days, building «the most complete digital map of Haiti’s roads».

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The resulting data and maps have been used by several organisations providing relief aid, such as the World Bank, the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UNOSAT and others. OpenStreetMap maintains lists of online and offline routing engines available; since the data is open, open-source projects and companies are free to build routing applications. Since OSM is open data that’s freely available, it’s a popular datasource for researchers OpenStreetMap uses a topological data structure, with four core elements (also known as data primitives): – Nodes are points with a geographic position, stored as coordinates (pairs of a latitude and a longitude) according to WGS 84. Outside of their usage in ways, they are used to represent map features without a size, such as points of interest or mountain peaks. – Ways are ordered lists of nodes, representing a polyline, or possibly a polygon if they form a closed loop. They are used both for representing linear features such as streets and rivers, and areas, like forests, parks, parking areas and lakes. – Tags are used to store metadata about the map objects (such as their type, their name and their physical properties). A recommended ontology of map features (the meaning of tags) is maintained on a wiki. – Relations are used for representing the relationship of existing nodes and ways. Examples include turn restrictions on roads, routes that span several existing ways (for instance, a long-distance motorway), and areas with holes [22]. ASSIGNMENTS: Integrate GPS data into OSM Practical OSM project Look for in area , where you have local knowledge, and where little OSM Data are available. Make a screenshot of the area before you start data capturing. Start OSM data capture. You should try to use as many as different map feature types (if possible). At least you should capture roads, buildings, water(river, lakes), roads and landuse/landcover. Upload your data to the OSM Server Create an OSM Map with your new data (Export from OSM website) and compare to previous status. Prepare a 15 minutes power about OSM Questions 1. What is OSM? Why is it become so popular? 2. Which is the main parts of history developing do you know? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages? 4. What is the main concepts of OSM? 5. What is the main idea of OSM? 6. How to you plan to integrate OSM in your teaching activity? 7. Describe at least 3 possible OSM projects you would be interested in to do? References 1. «Translating OpenStreetMap». 2. «Stats». OpenStreetMap Wiki. 3. «FAQ». OpenStreetMap Wiki. 4. «Openstreetmap.org Site Info». Alexa Internet. 5. Anderson, Mark (18 October 2006). «Global Positioning Tech Inspires Do-It-Yourself Mapping Project». National Geographic News. 3.3 Openstreetmap

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6. Frederick Ramm,Jochen Topf, Steve Chilton (2011). OpenStreetMap: Using and Enhancing the Free Map of the World. UIT Cambridge. 7. «OSM Map on Garmin». OpenStreetMap 8. Zielstra, Dennis. «Comparing Shortest Paths Lengths of Free and Proprietary Data for Effective Pedestrian Routing in Street Networks». University of Florida, Geomatics Program. 9. Coast, Steve (4 December 2006). «Yahoo! aerial imagery in OSM».OpenGeoData.

3.4 Google Earth Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that was originally called EarthViewer 3D, and was created by Keyhole, Inc, a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) funded company acquired by Google in 2004. It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. It was available under three different licenses, two currently: Google Earth, a free version with limited function; Google Earth Plus (discontinued), which included additional features; and Google Earth Pro ($399 per year), which is intended for commercial use. The product, re-released as Google Earth in 2005, is currently available for use on personal computers running Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X 10.3.9 and above, Linux kernel: 2.6 or later (released on June 12, 2006), and FreeBSD. Google Earth is also available as a browser plugin which was released on May 28, 2008. It was also made available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28, 2008, as a free download from the App Store, and is available to Android users as a free app on the Android Market. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google also added the imagery from the Earth database to their web-based mapping software, Google Maps. The release of Google Earth in June 2005 to the public caused a more than tenfold increase in media coverage on virtual globes between 2004 and 2005, driving public interest in geospatial technologies and applications. As of October 2011 Google Earth has been downloaded more than a billion times. For other parts of the surface of the Earth 3D images of terrain and buildings are available. Google Earth uses digital elevation model (DEM) data collected by NASA’s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This means one can view the whole earth in three dimensions. Since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage. Many people use the applications to add their own data, making them available through various sources, such as the Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show all kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is also a Web Map Service client. Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language (KML) [24]. Google Earth is simply based on 3D maps, with the capability to show 3D buildings and structures (such as bridges), which consist of users’ submissions using SketchUp, a 3D modeling program software. In prior versions of Google Earth (before Version 4), 3D buildings were limited to a few cities, and had poorer rendering with no textures. Many buildings and structures from around the world now have detailed 3D structures; including (but not limited to) those in the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, India, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Pakistan

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and the cities, Amsterdam and Alexandria. In August 2007, Hamburg became the first city entirely shown in 3D, including textures such as façades. The ‘Westport3D’ model was created by 3D imaging firm AM3TD using long-distance laser scanning technology and digital photography and is the first such model of an Irish town to be created. As it was developed initially to aid Local Government in carrying out their town planning functions it includes the highest resolution photo-realistic textures to be found anywhere in Google Earth. Three-dimensional renderings are available for certain buildings and structures around the world via Google’s 3D Warehouse and other websites. In June 2012, Google announced that it will start to replace user submitted 3D buildings with auto-generated 3D mesh buildings starting with major cities. Although there are many cities on Google Earth that are fully or partially 3D, more are available in the Earth Gallery. The Earth Gallery is a library of modifications of Google Earth people have made. In the library there are more than just modifications for 3D buildings there are models of earth quakes using the Google Earth model, 3D forests, and much more. Recently, around 2009, Google added a feature that allows users to monitor traffic speeds at loops located every 200 yards in real-time. In version 4.3 released on April 15, 2008, Google Street View was fully integrated into the program allowing the program to provide an on the street level view in many locations. On January 31, 2010, the entirety of Google Earth’s ocean floor imagery was updated to new images by SIO, NOAA, US Navy, NGA, and GEBCO. The new images have caused smaller islands, such as some atolls in the Maldives, to be rendered invisible despite their shores being completely outlined. Google Earth is useful for many day-to-day and other purposes [25]. Google Earth can be used to view areas subjected to widespread disasters if Google supplies up-to-date images. For example after the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake images of Haiti were made available on January 17. With Google’s push for the inclusion of Google Earth in the Classroom, teachers are adopting Google Earth in the classroom for lesson planning, such as teaching students geographical themes (location, culture, characteristics, human interaction, and movement) to creating mashups with other web applications such as Wikipedia. One can explore and place location bookmarks on the Moon, and Mars. One can also get directions using Google Earth, using variables such as street names, cities, and establishments. Google Earth can also function as a hub of knowledge, pertaining the users location. By enabling certain options, one can see the location of gas stations, restaurants, museums, and other public establishments in their area. Google Earth can also dot the map with links to images, YouTube videos, and Wikipedia articles relevant to the area being viewed. Features of Google Earth [25] Wikipedia and Panoramio integration In December 2006, Google Earth added a new layer called «Geographic Web» that includes integration with Wikipedia and Panoramio. In Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates. There is also a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World. More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. Google announced on May 30, 2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio. In March 2010, Google removed the «Geographic Web» layer. The «Panoramio» layer became part of the main layers and the «Wikipedia» layer was placed in the «More» layer. 3.4 Google Earth

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Flight simulator Downtown Toronto, as seen from a F-16 Fighting Falcon during a simulated flight. In Google Earth v4.2 a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature. Starting with v4.3 it is no longer hidden. Initially the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Cirrus SR22 were the only aircraft available, and they could be used with only a few airports. In addition to keyboard control, the simulator can be controlled with a mouse or joystick. Google Earth v5.1 and higher crashes when starting flight simulator with Saitek and other joysticks. The user can also fly underwater.

Figure 7. Interface of flight simulator Source: https://earth.google.com

Featured planes F-16 Fighting Falcon – A much higher speed and maximum altitude than the Cirrus SR-22, it has the ability to fly at a maximum speed of Mach 2, although a maximum speed of 1678 knots (3108 km/h) can be achieved. The take-off speed is 225 knots, the landing speed is 200 knots (370 km/h). Cirrus SR-22 – Although slower and with a lower maximum altitude, the SR-22 is much easier to handle and is preferred for up-close viewing of Google Earth’s imagery. The take-off speed is 75 knots (139 km/h), the landing speed is 70 knots (139 km/h). The flight simulator can be commanded with the keyboard, mouse or plugged-in joystick. Broadband connection and a high speed computer provides a very realistic experience. The simulator also runs with animation, allowing objects (for example: planes]) to animate while on the simulator. Using Programming Language to make it look like the cockpit of a plane, or for instrument landing. Sky mode Google Sky is a feature that was introduced in Google Earth 4.2 on August 22, 2007, and allows users to view stars and other celestial bodies. It was produced by Google through a partnership with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope. Dr. Alberto Conti and his co-developer Dr. Carol Christian of STScI plan to add the public images from 2007, as well as color images of all of the archived data from Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. Newly released Hubble pictures will be added to the Google Sky program as soon as they are issued. New features such as multi-wavelength data,

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positions of major satellites and their orbits as well as educational resources will be provided to the Google Earth community and also through Christian and Conti’s website for Sky. Also visible on Sky mode are constellations, stars, galaxies and animations depicting the planets in their orbits. A real-time Google Sky mashup of recent astronomical transients, using the VOEvent protocol, is being provided by the VOEventNet collaboration. Google’s Earth maps are being updated each 5 minutes. Google Sky faces competition from Microsoft WorldWide Telescope (which runs only under the Microsoft Windows operating systems) and from Stellarium, a free open source planetarium that runs under Microsoft Windows, OS X, and Linux.

Figure 8. Google Earth in Sky Viewing Mode Source: https://earth.google.com

On March 13, 2008, Google made a web-based version of Google Sky available via the internet. Street View On April 15, 2008 with version 4.3, Google fully integrated its Street View into Google Earth. In version 6.0, the photo zooming function has been removed because it is incompatible with the new ‘seamless’ navigation. Google Street View provides 360° panoramic street-level views and allows users to view parts of selected cities and their surrounding metropolitan areas at ground level. When it was launched on May 25, 2007 for Google Maps, only five cities were included. It has since expanded to more than 40 U.S. cities, and includes the suburbs of many, and in some cases, other nearby cities. Recent updates have now implemented Street View in most of the major cities of Australia and New Zealand as well as parts of Canada, parts of South Africa, Denmark, Mexico, Japan, Norway, Finland, Spain, Sweden, France, the UK, Republic of Ireland, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Portugal, Taiwan, and Singapore. Google Street View, when operated, displays photos that were previously taken by a camera mounted on an automobile, and can be navigated by using the mouse to click on photograph icons displayed on the screen in the user’s direction of travel. 3.4 Google Earth

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Using these devices, the photos can be viewed in different sizes, from any direction, and from a variety of angles. Water and ocean Introduced in version 5.0 (February 2009), the Google Ocean feature allows users to zoom below the surface of the ocean and view the 3D bathymetry beneath the waves. Supporting over 20 content layers, it contains information from leading scientists and oceanographers. On April 14, 2009, Google added underwater terrain data for the Great Lakes. In 2010, Google added underwater terrain data for Lake Baikal. In June 2011, higher resolution of some deep ocean floor areas increased in focus from 1-kilometer grids to 100 meters thanks to a new synthesis of seafloor topography released through Google Earth. The high resolution features were developed by oceanographers at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory from scientific data collected on research cruises. The sharper focus is available for about 5 percent of the oceans (an area larger than North America). Underwater scenery can be seen of the Hudson Canyon off New York City, the Wini Seamount near Hawaii, and the sharp-edged 10,000-foot-high Mendocino Ridge off the U.S Pacific Coast. There is a Google 2011 Seafloor Tour for those interested in viewing ocean deep terrain. Historical Imagery Introduced in version 5.0, Historical Imagery allows users to traverse back in time and study earlier stages of any place. This feature allows research that require analysis of past records of various places.

Figure 9. Google Earth in Historical Imagery Mode Source: https://earth.google.com

A side-by-side comparison of The Ziggurat and Raley Field in West Sacramento, California from 1993 on the left and 2009 on the right. As shown in the 1993 side both the Ziggurat and Raley Field do not exist. Mars Google Earth 5 includes a separate globe of the planet Mars, that can be viewed and analysed for research purposes. The maps are of a much higher resolution than those on the browser version of Google Mars and it also includes 3D renderings of

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the Martian terrain. There are also some extremely high resolution images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s HiRISE camera that are of a similar resolution to those of the cities on Earth.

Figure 10. Google Earth in Moon Mode Source: https://earth.google.com

Finally, there are many high resolution panoramic images from various Mars landers, such as the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, that can be viewed in a similar way to Google Street View. Interestingly enough, layers on Google Earth (such as World Population Density) can also be applied to Mars. Layers of Mars can also be applied onto Earth. Mars also has a small application found near the face on Mars. It is called Meliza, and features a chat between the user and an automatic robot speaker. It is useful for research on Mars, but is not recommended for normal conversations [26]. ASSIGNMENTS: Google Earth is a great and easy way to get familiar with basic GIS tools, such as zooming and panning. With Google Earth you can create a virtual over-flight over any point in the world. You can also save the maps. In this assignment you will: 1. Download and install the free software «Google Earth» 2. Get familiar with the program 3. Create a virtual over-flight 4. Insert a picture into a report Preparation: – Open Windows Explorer – Navigate to your work directory – Make a new folder (righ click – Name it ‘programs’ Setting up Google Earth is easy: 1. Open internet explorer 2. Open the follow website: http://earth.google.com 3. Upper right corner of page click free version> 4. Click download google earth 5. When download begins choose 3.4 Google Earth

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6. Save it to your ‘programs’ folder when download completes, contact Instructor, we need to run the setup as computer administrator 1. When installation window pops up click 2. Uncheck 3. Install as CUSTOM installation Question: Why should you install custom installation? Ask Instructor! 4. Choose the default folder for the program and the cache 5. Uncheck: all options in the next setup window (there are 3) Get familiar with Google Earth – Open Google Earth program from the start menu or the desktop shortcut – Zoom in and out by pressing (+) or (–) on the upper right side of the map – Turn on and off some layers by unchecking the layers on the bottom of the map – Press the arrow on the left side below the panel to play the tour that comes along with the program. The tour is called ‘sightseeing’ – Check out the left side, where you can see all the places Question: Check out the tool buttons on top of the screen. What does each of them do? Check out the program. Zoom to your house, to your parents house and to other places! 1. Put a placemark over your college center and name it Imagine you would like to add a map like this to a report. Here is how you would do it: 2. On toolbar, click and save the image into your folder. 3. Open Windows Explorer 4. Navigate to your folder Question: Is the image there? 5. Open Microsoft word 6. Insert the image into this word document. 7. Print and email this worksheet. We will now create our own tour! 1. Right click on 2. Click 3. Call it ‘student’s tour 4. Click on the placemark you made of the college center and drag it into you’re the folder ‘student’s tour’ We will now save your tour 1. Right click on your tour 2. Click 3. Browse to your work directory 4. Save it there. Let’s check if your tour is really saved! 1. Close Google Earth 2. Open windows explorer (same as My computer) 3. Navigate to your work directory 4. Double click your tour Questions 1. Which one has higher resolution (shows more detail) aerial photo or satellite image? 2. Tell about the features of Google Earth. 3. What opportunities of Google Earth do we use in geography, cartography and GIS technology?

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References 1. «Official Google Blog: Google Earth downloaded more than one billion times». Googleblog. blogspot.com. 2. «Skyscraper News Google Earth». Skyscrapernews.com. 3. «New View of Ocean Floor in Google Earth | Google Earth Blog». Gearthblog.com. 4. Webwise: Google’s flight simulator The Sunday Times, January 27, 2008 5. «Google Earth interview». Web User. 2008-04-11. 6. «Google Earth: From Space to Your Face...and Beyond». Bnhsu.wordpress.com. 2007-04-30. 7. «Google Earth». Earth.google.com. 8. «System Requirements for Google Earth: Getting Started – Google Earth Help». Earth.google.com. 9. http://www.google.com/search 10. Google Earth: Weather layer, information link – accessed: 03 March 2009 v5.0.11337.1968 (beta) 11. «Protectplanetocean.org». Protectplanetocean.org. 12. EarthSky.org

3.5 Grass GIS GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is a free, open source geographical information system (GIS) capable of handling raster, topological vector, image processing, and graphic data. GRASS is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL), and it can be used on multiple platforms, including Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows and Linux. Users can interface with the software features through a graphical user interface (GUI) or by «plugging into» GRASS via other software such as Quantum GIS. They can also interface with the modules directly through a bespoke shell that the application launches or by calling individual modules directly from a standard shell [27]. The GRASS 6 release introduced a new topological 2D/3D vector engine and support for vector network analysis. Attributes are managed in .dbf files or SQLbased DBMS such as MySQL, PostgreSQL/PostGIS, and SQLite. The system is capable of visualizing 3D vector graphics data and voxel volumes. GRASS supports an extensive range of raster and vector formats through the binding to GDAL/OGR libraries, including OGC-conformal (Open Geospatial Consortium) Simple Features for interoperability with other GIS. It also supports Linear Reference System. The GRASS Development Team is a multi-national group consisting of developers at numerous locations. GRASS is one of the eight initial Software Projects of the Open Source Geospatial Foundation.

Figure 11. Interface of GRASS GIS 6.4.0 Source: http://grass.osgeo.org/ documentation/general-overview/ 3.5 Grass gis

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GRASS supports raster and vector data in two and three dimensions. The vector data model is topological, meaning that areas are defined by boundaries and centroids; boundaries cannot overlap within a single layer. This is in contrast with OpenGIS Simple Features, which define vectors more freely, much as a non-georeferenced vector illustration program does. GRASS is designed as an environment in which tools that perform specific GIS computations are executed. Unlike GUI-based application software, the GRASS user is presented with a UNIX shell containing a modified environment that supports the execution of GRASS commands (known as modules). The environment has a state that includes such parameters as the geographic region covered and the map projection in use. All GRASS modules read this state and additionally are given specific parameters (such as input and output maps, or values to use in a computation) when executed. The majority of GRASS modules and capabilities can be operated via a graphical user interface (provided by a GRASS module), as an alternative to manipulating geographic data in a shell. There are over 300 core GRASS modules included in the GRASS distribution, and over 100 add-on modules created by users and offered on the GRASS web site. The GRASS libraries and core modules are written in C; other modules are written in C, C++, Python, UNIX shell, Tcl, or other scripting languages. The GRASS modules are designed under the Unix philosophy and hence can be combined using shell scripting to create more complex or specialized modules by a user without knowledge of C programming. GRASS 6.4.0 introduced a new generation of graphical user interface called wxGUI. wxGUI is designed using Python programming language and wxPython graphical library. There is cooperation between the GRASS and Quantum GIS (QGIS) projects. Recent versions of QGIS can be executed within the GRASS environment, allowing QGIS to be used as a user-friendly graphical interface to GRASS that more closely resembles other graphical GIS software than does the shell-based GRASS interface [28]. GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) has been under continuous development since 1982 and has involved a large number of federal US agencies, universities, and private companies. The core components of GRASS and the management of integration of efforts into GRASS releases was originally directed by the U.S. Army – Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL), a branch of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, in Champaign, Illinois. USACERL completed its last release of GRASS as version 4.1 in 1992, and provided five updates and patches to this release through 1995. USA-CERL also wrote the core components of the GRASS 5.0 floating point version. The development of GRASS was started by the USA-CERL to meet the need of the United States military for software for land management and environmental planning. A key motivation was the National Environmental Policy Act. The development platform was UNIX running on VAX hardware. During 1982 through 1995, USACERL led the development of GRASS, with the involvement of numerous others, including universities and other federal agencies. USA-CERL officially ceased its involvement in GRASS after release 4.1 (1995), though development had been limited to minor patches since 1993. A group formed at Baylor University to take over the software, releasing GRASS 4.2. Around this period, a port of the software to Linux was made. In 1998, Markus Neteler, the current project leader, announced

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the release of GRASS 4.2.1, which offered major improvements including a new graphical user interface. In October 1999, the license of the originally public-domain GRASS software was changed to the GNU GPL in version 5.0. Subsequently, GRASS has evolved into a powerful software suite with a wide range of applications in many different areas of scientific research and engineering. For example, GRASS is used for estimating potential solar photovoltaic yield with r.sun. GRASS is currently used in academic and commercial settings around the world, as well as many governmental agencies including NASA, NOAA, USDA, DLR, CSIRO, the National Park Service, the U.S. Census Bureau, USGS, and many environmental consulting companies. As of 2011 GRASS development is split into a stable branch (6.4), a development branch (6.5), and an experimental branch (7.0). The stable branch is recommended for most users, while the 6.5/7.0 branch operates as a testbed for new features. An objec-based spatial database is a spatial database that stores the location as objects. The object-based spatial model treats the world as surface littered with recognizable objects (e.g. cities, rivers), which exist independent of their locations. Objects can be simple as polygons and lines, or be more complex to represent cities. While a field-based data model sees the world as a continuous surface over which features (e.g. elevation) vary, using an object-based spatial database, it is easier to store additional attributes with the objects, such as direction, speed, etc. Using these attributes can make it easier to answer queries like «find all tanks whose speed is 10 km and oriented to north». Or «find all enemy tanks in a certain region». Storing attributes with objects can provide better result presentation and improved manipulation capabilities in a more efficient way. In a field-based data model, this information is usually stored at different layers and it is harder to extract different information from various layers. This data model can be applied above the ER as in GERM model and GISER. S.Shekhar introduces direction as a spatial object and presents a solution to object-direction-based queries. Describe the architectures of various object-relational spatial data models, including spatial extensions of DBMS, proprietary object-based data models from GIS vendors, and open-source and standards-based efforts [29]. ASSIGNMENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Starting GRASS (how to run the program) Terminal or Menu? (how to enter commands via terminal or via menu) How to open a monitor (how to use a monitor) Region definition (Definition of a region) How to display a raster map (Display a raster map) Querying a raster (How to query of a raster map) Resolution Change (How to change the resolution) Zoom (How to display zoom) How to create a Report (What is a Report on a raster map and how to create it) 10. Reclassing a raster map (Reclassification of a raster map) 3.5 Grass gis

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DTM: 1. Importation (data import) 2. DTM creating (Generation of a DTM) 3. Creating maps from DTM (Production of Maps from DTM) 1. Basin analysis 2. Mining analysis (Analysis of a mining area) 3D Visualization: (NVIZ 3D-Visualization tool): 1. Introduction to NVIZ 2. Main commands 3. Surfaces attributes 4. Vector attributes 5. Sites attributes 6. Lighting Control 7. Scaled Difference 8. Background color 9. Cutting planes 10. DTM querying 11. Simple animation 12. Complex animation 13. Mdksf 14. Settings saving Database: 1. Connection of a vector map to a db table 2. Creating a shapefile with db data 3. Creating a vector map as the result of a query Questions 1. What are the features of Grass GIS? 2. How are the cooperation between the GRASS and Quantum GIS (QGIS) projects? 3. What applications of GRASS has evolved into a powerful software suite with wide range of in many different areas of scientific research and engineering? References 1. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 4(4), 457-465, 1990. 2. Neteler, M.; Mitasova, H. (2008). Open Source GIS : a GRASS GIS approach. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-35767-6. 3. Westervelt, J. (2004). «GRASS roots». FOSS/GRASS Users Conference. Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 12-14. 4. GRASS Development Team. GRASS History. Retrieved on 2008-03-29. 5. Nguyen, H.T.; Pearce, J.M.. «Estimating potential photovoltaic yield with r.sun and the open source Geographical Resources Analysis Support System». Solar Energy 84 (5): 831-843. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2010.02.009. 6. Hofierka J., Šúri M. (2002). The solar radiation model for Open source GIS: implementation and applications. Proceedings of the Open source GIS – GRASS users conference, Italy. Available: provides a detailed guide on how to run the module. 7. Neteler, Markus; Bowman, M. Hamish; Landa, Martin; Metz, Markus (2012). «GRASS GIS: A multi-purpose open source GIS». Environmental Modelling & Software 31: 124-130. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.11.014. 8. GDF Hannover bR: GRASS GIS 6.0 Tutorial, Version 1.2, 2005, Online Supplement

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3.6 Integrated land and water information system ILWIS (Integrated Land and Water Information System) is a GIS / Remote sensing software for both vector and raster processing. ILWIS features include digitizing, editing, analysis and display of data as well as production of quality maps. ILWIS was initially developed and distributed by ITC Enschede (International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation) in the Netherlands for use by its researchers and students, but since 1 July 2007 it has been distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License and is thus free software. Having been used by many students, teachers and researchers for more than two decades, ILWIS is one of the most user-friendly integrated vector and raster software programmes currently available. ILWIS has some very powerful raster analysis modules, a high-precision and flexible vector and point digitizing module, a variety of very practical tools, as well as a great variety of user guides and training modules all available for downloading. The current version is ILWIS 3.8.1. Similar to the GRASS GIS in many respects, ILWIS is currently available natively only on Microsoft Windows. However, a Linux Wine manual has been made available [30]. In late 1984, ITC was awarded a grant from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It was determined that the funds were to be spent on research benefiting land and water development in developing countries. ITC decided to concentrate these funds in a single multidisciplinary research project. This project investigated the methodology of a Geographical Information System which could be used as a tool for land use zoning and watershed management studies. By the end of 1988, the project resulted in the official release of the DOS version 1.0 of the Integrated Land and Water Information System. ILWIS was launched commercially two years later. At the same time, ITC started up a distributors network to distribute ILWIS and to support its users worldwide. ILWIS 2.0 for Windows was released at the end of 1996. It was the first windows based version (windows 3.1) and had a radically different design from the earlier (1.0) version. With ILWIS 3.0, a more evolutionary step was taken. It ported the code to Win32 and contained many enhancements. It was released by mid 2001 and is still the core of the current ILWIS (3.7). ILWIS was designed to respond to user demands of the ITC community and its network, to be low-cost, low-entry level and application oriented. Thus, entirely meeting one of ITC’s main objectives, i.e. transferring appropriate technology to developing countries. After 2000, the development of ILWIS software was reoriented and ILWIS became more integrated into the ITC research program with the aim of enhancing ITC’s research capacity and position. Active development of ILWIS was gradually reduced in 2002, because software development for a single ITC-unique project was no longer seen as sufficiently important to warrant the investment. The decision to release ILWIS as an open source product, in order to create better opportunities for the reuse and deployment of GIS functionality in a wider community, was made at the end of 2006. As of July 1, 2007 ILWIS Open 3.X is available as 52°North free and open source software (GNU GPL) [31].

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Figure 12. The ILWIS Main window Source: http://www.ilwis.org/

ILWIS uses GIS techniques that integrate image processing capabilities, a tabular database and conventional GIS characteristics. The major features include: – Integrated raster and vector design – On-screen digitizing – Comprehensive set of image processing and remote sensing tools like extensive set of filters, resampling, aggregation, classifications. etc. – Orthophoto, image georeferencing, transformation and mosaicing – Advanced modeling and spatial data analysis – 3D visualization with interactive zooming, rotation and panning. «Height» information can be added from multiple types of sources and isn’t limited to DEM information [32]. – Animations of spatial temporal data stacks with the possibility of synchronizartion between different animations. – Rich projection and coordinate system library. Optionally custom coordinate systems and on the fly modifications can be added. – Geostatistical analyses, with Kriging for improved interpolation – Import and export using the GDAL/OGR library – Advanced data management – Stereoscopy tools – To create a stereo pair from two aerial photographs – Transparencies at many levels (whole maps, selections, individual elements or properties) to combine different data sources in a comprehensive way.

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Figure 13. An ILWIS map window Source: http://ilwis-academic.software.informer.com/

– Various interfactive diagramming options: Profile, Cross section visualization, Hovmoller diagrams – Interactive value dependent presentation of maps (stretching, representation) – Hydrologic Flow Operations – Surace energy balance operations through the SEBS module – GARtrip import – Map Import allows the import of GARtrip Text files with GPS data – Spatial Multiple Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) – Space time Cube. Interactive visualization of multiple attribute spatial temporal data. – DEM operations including iso line generation – Variable Threshold Computation, to help preparing a threshold map for drainage network extraction – Horton Statistics, to calculate the number of streams, the average stream length, the average area of catchments for Strahler stream orders – Georeference editors [33]. ILWIS 3.8 has greatly changed and improved visualization functionality. A comprehensive update of the graphics system has resulted in an extensive system of options for managing visualization and tuning it for visual analysis. – Updated graphics system. Animations and 3D have similar functionality and ease of use to that of the regular 2D visualizations. 3.6 Integrated land and water information system

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Figure 14. ILWIS windows Source: http://www.ilwis.org/open_source_gis_ilwis

– New Layer tree. The former display options form has been replaced by a Layer tree in the MapWindow. – New MapWindow command line. The MapWindow now has its own command line for calculating maps and directly adding them to the MapWindow. – New Base maps. A set of base maps can be used as extra layers in a MapWindow. Each base map acts as a system object. – PixelInfo. The former PixelInfo is now a regular part of the MapWindow. – New applications. Due to the increased importance of animation, the need for certain operations for whole map lists (apart from what can be done with MaplistApplication) resulted in the development of a set of applications for map lists. – Revamped translation system. The translation system has been revised. A new Spanish translation is now available. – ILWIS as a WPS Server. A web server system has been added so that ILWIS can now function as a Web Processing Service (WPS) server. – Improved help system editability. The help system has been moved to a set of html files that can be freely adapted. Previously, the internal help files were already html files, but because they were bundled in the microsoft help format they were dificult to edit.

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– New printing process. The old layout system has been removed. Maps are now printed via WYSIWYG copy/paste into an appropriate print program. – Correct time definition. A «Time» domain (basically a date-time) has been added to enable correct time definition. – Extended operation list. The catalog operation list has been extended with a finder option to quickly filter through the long list of ILWIS applications. – Updated SEBS module [34]. ASSIGNMENTS: To start ILWIS 3.1, double-click the ILWIS icon on the desktop. After the logo, you see the ILWIS Main window (see Figure 12). From this window you can manage your data and start all operations and select all data. Before continuing with the exercises you first need to change to the subdirectory that stores the data files for this exercise. Ask your supervisor where you can find the dataset. If you have browsed to the correct directory you will see in the Main window a list of ILWIS objects. This part of the Main window, in which maps, tables and other ILWIS objects in the working directory are displayed each with its own type of icon, is called a Catalog. Position the mouse pointer on polygon map Landuse. A description of this map will appear on the Status bar. The Status bar also gives short information when you move the mouse pointer to a menu command, to a button in the Toolbar or to an operation in the Operation-Tree or Operation-List. Click in the Catalog with the right mouse button on polygon map Landuse to get a context-sensitive menu. A context-sensitive menu is a menu, which gives only those menu commands that are applicable to the moment you use the right mouse button; thus you will only get the operations, which can be applied on polygon map Landuse. Double-click polygon map Landuse in the Catalog. The Display Options – Polygon Map dialog box is opened. A dialog box allows the user to enter the information required by ILWIS to carry out an operation. Dialog boxes differ depending on the application you are performing. As you can see, the units of the Landuse map are described by classes, with names such as Forest, Grassland, Bare rock, Lake, etc. The list of all class names that can occur in a map is called in ILWIS a domain. A domain defines the possible contents of a map, a table, or a column. In other words, what do the items in a map, table or column mean? Are they classes (such as land use classes), or values or something else? All ILWIS data objects have a domain. The four most important types of domains are: – Class domains for data objects that contain classes (e.g. land use units, geomorphological units); – ID domains for data objects that contain unique identifiers (e.g. city block 102, rainfall station Laguna); – Value domains for data objects that contain measured, calculated or interpolated values (e.g. height, concentration); – The Image domain for satellite images or scanned aerial photographs containing values between 0 and 255. Double-click with the left mouse button a unit in the polygon map Landuse. Now you will see a small window appearing with the title Attributes. Inside the window you will see two lines. The first line contains the land use class name of the unit you clicked, and the second line contains the word Landvalue followed by a number, 3.6 Integrated land and water information system

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which is the average monetary value of this land use type. The line with Landvalue information is a line from an attribute table Landuse, which is linked to the map. Close the Attributes window and double-click table Landuse in the Catalog. The table Landuse is now displayed in a table window (see Figure 5). As you can see from Figure 5, a table window contains many of the features we have already seen in the Main window and in the map window.

Figure 15: An ILWIS table window Source: http://www.ilwis.org/open_source_gis_ilwis

The table contains two columns. The left column, in gray color, has no header. If you look closely to the names in this left column you will remember that those are the names that you have seen in the map Landuse. This is the domain of the table. A domain can thus define the contents of a map as well as the contents of a table. Next to the left gray column containing the domain items, the table has one more column, called Landvalue. This column is an attribute column that contains the average value of the land in fictive monetary values. This column uses a Value domain. Questions 1. How you can integrate ILWIS with geography? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages? 3. Tell about the history of ILWIS? 4. What is the main idea of ILWIS? 5. How you can use ILWIS in your daily life? References 1. «ITC’s GIS software ILWIS migrates to open source». 2007-01-30. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 2. «ILWIS 3.4 Open». 52°North. 2007-03-27. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 3. «ILWIS in Linux». World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE. Retrieved 200911-19. 4. «FOSS4G 2007 : ILWIS and 52°North: From closed source to open source and interoperable image services». Retrieved 2007-07-02. 5. Spiteri (1997). Remote Sensing 96 Integrated Applications (1 ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 380. ISBN 90-5410-855-X.

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6. Wim Koolhoven and Jelle Wind (1996). «Domains in ILWIS: system knowledge about meaning of data».Proceedings of the second joint European conference & exhibition on Geographical information, Barcelona, Spain (IOS Press) I: 77-80. ISBN 90-5199-268-8. OCLC 164762055. 7. A Partovi (2003). Suitability Study Of ASTER Data Geometry To Digitize Contour Lines In ILWIS (PDF). Master degree thesis.

3.7 Mapserver MapServer is an Open Source geographic data rendering engine written in C. Beyond browsing GIS data, MapServer allows you create «geographic image maps», that is, maps that can direct users to content. For example, the Minnesota DNR Recreation Compass provides users with more than 10,000 web pages, reports and maps via a single application. The same application serves as a «map engine» for other portions of the site, providing spatial context where needed [35]. MapServer is an open source development environment for building spatially enabled internet applications. It can run as a CGI program or via MapScript which supports several programming languages (using SWIG). MapServer was originally developed with support from NASA, which needed a way to make its satellite imagery available to the public. MapServer was originally developed by the University of Minnesota (UMN) ForNet project in cooperation with NASA, and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MNDNR). Later it was hosted by the TerraSIP project, a NASA sponsored project between the UMN and a consortium of land management interests. In November 2005, Autodesk, the MapServer Technical Steering Committee Members, the University of Minnesota, and DM Solutions Group announced the creation of the MapServer Foundation [2]. With this announcement, Autodesk announced that its internet mapping application, MapGuide, would be developed as an open source application with all new code and be named «MapServer Enterprise». The existing MapServer application would be renamed «MapServer Cheetah». This name change was overwhelmingly opposed by the MapServer community. Autodesk then backed off this name change and retained the name, «MapGuide» for its product. Also, plans to establish the MapServer Foundation were scrapped; Instead, the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo) was established to include MapServer and other open source GIS projects (which now includes MapGuide Open Source. MapServer is now a project of OSGeo, and is maintained by a growing number of developers (nearing 20) from around the world. It is supported by a diverse group of organizations that fund enhancements and maintenance, and administered within OSGeo by the MapServer Project Steering Committee made up of developers and other contributors [36]. MapServer is a popular Open Source project whose purpose is to display dynamic spatial maps over the Internet. Some of its major features include: – support for display and querying of hundreds of raster, vector, and database formats; – ability to run on various operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, etc.); – support for popular scripting languages and development environments (PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby, Java, .NET); 3.7 Mapserver

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– on-the-fly projections In its most basic form, MapServer is a CGI program that sits inactive on your Web server. When a request is sent to MapServer, it uses information passed in the request URL and the Mapfile to create an image of the requested map. The request may also return images for legends, scale bars, reference maps, and values passed as CGI variables. MapServer can be extended and customized through MapScript or templating. It can be built to support many different vector and raster input data formats, and it can generate a multitude of output formats. Most pre-compiled MapServer distributions contain most all of its features.

Figure 16. Mapserver data formats Source: www.mapserver.org/input/

A simple MapServer application consists of [37]: Map File – a structured text configuration file for your MapServer application. It defines the area of your map, tells the MapServer program where your data is and where to output images. It also defines your map layers, including their data source, projections, and symbology. It must have a .map extension or MapServer will not recognize it. Geographic Data – MapServer can utilize many geographic data source types. The default format is the ESRI Shape format. Many other data formats can be supported, this is discussed further below in Adding data to your site. HTML Pages – the interface between the user and MapServer . They normally sit in Web root. In it’s simplest form, MapServer can be called to place a static map image on a HTML page. To make the map interactive, the image is placed in an HTML form on a page. CGI programs are ‘stateless’, every request they get is new and they don’t remember anything about the last time that they were hit by your application. For this reason, every time your application sends a request to MapServer, it needs to pass context information (what layers are on, where you are on the map, application mode, etc.) in hidden form variables or URL variables.

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A simple MapServer CGI application may include two HTML pages: Initialization File – uses a form with hidden variables to send an initial query to the web server and MapServer. This form could be placed on another page or be replaced by passing the initialization information as variables in a URL. Template File – controls how the maps and legends output by MapServer will appear in the browser. By referencing MapServer CGI variables in the template HTML, you allow MapServer to populate them with values related to the current state of your application (e.g. map image name, reference image name, map extent, etc.) as it creates the HTML page for the browser to read. The template also determines how the user can interact with the MapServer application (browse, zoom, pan, query). MapServer CGI – The binary or executable file that receives requests and returns images, data, etc. It sits in the cgi-bin or scripts directory of the web server. The Web server user must have execute rights for the directory that it sits in, and for security reasons, it should not be in the web root. By default, this program is called mapserv Web/HTTP Server – serves up the HTML pages when hit by the user’s browser. You need a working Web (HTTP) server, such as Apache or Microsoft Internet Information Server, on the machine on which you are installing MapServer. ASSIGNMENTS: Pre-compiled binaries for MapServer are available from a variety of sources, refer to the Windows section of the Downloads page. OSGeo4W is a new Windows installer that downloads and/or updates MapServer, add-on applications, and also other Open Source geospatial software. The following steps illustrate how to use OSGeo4W: Download OSGeo4W http://download.osgeo.org/osgeo4w/osgeo4w-setup.exe Execute (double-click) the .exe Choose «Advanced» install type

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Express contains options for higher-level packages such as MapServer, GRASS, and uDig. Advanced gives you full access to choosing commandline tools and applications for MapServer that are not included in the Express install Select packages to install

Click on the «Default» text beside the higher-level packages (such as Web) to install all of Web’s sub-packages, or click on the «Skip» text beside the sub-package (such as MapServer) to install that package and all of its dependencies. Let the installer fetch the packages.

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Run the apache-install.bat script to install the Apache Service. You must run this script under the «OSGeo4W Shell». This is usually available as a shortcut on your desktop An apache-uninstall.bat script is also available to remove the Apache service installation.

Verify that MapServer is working MapServer runs on Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, and more. To compile or install some of the required programs, you may need administrative rights to the machine. People commonly ask questions about minimum hardware specifications for MapServer applications, but the answers are really specific to the individual application. For development and learning purposes, a very minimal machine will work fine. For deployment, you will want to investigate Optimization of everything from your data to server configuration [38]. Software Requirements You need a working and properly configured Web (HTTP) server, such as Apache or Microsoft Internet Information Server, on the machine on which you are installing MapServer. OSGeo4W contains Apache already, but you can reconfigure things to use IIS if you need to. Alternatively, MS4W can be used to install MapServer on Windows. If you are on a Windows machine, and you don’t have a web server installed, you may want to check out MS4W, which will install a pre-configured web server, MapServer, and more. The FGS Linux Installer provides similar functionality for several Linux distributions. This introduction will assume you are using pre-compiled OSGeo4W Windows binaries to follow along. Obtaining MapServer or Linux or Mac OS X should be straightforward. Visit Download for installing pre-compiled MapServer builds on Mac OS X and Linux. You will also need a Web browser, and a text editor (vi, emacs, notepad, homesite) to modify your HTML and mapfiles. Skills In addition to learning how the different components of a MapServer application work together and learning Map File syntax, building a basic application requires some conceptual understanding and proficiency in several skill areas. 3.7 Mapserver

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You need to be able to create or at least modify HTML pages and understand how HTML forms work. Since the primary purpose of a MapServer application is to create maps, you will also need to understand the basics of geographic data and likely, map projections. As your applications get more complex, skills in SQL, DHTML/Javascript, Java, databases, expressions, compiling, and scripting may be very useful [39]. Questions 1. Application of MapServer in geography? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages? 3. What is the main concepts of MapServer? 4. What is the main idea of MapServer? 5. How to you plan to integrate MapServer in your teaching activity? References 1. http://mapserver.org/ 2. Ojeda-Zapata, Julio (June 17, 2005). «Minnesota’s MapServer flourishes in hot Web-based mapping sector». Pioneer Press (St. Paul, Minnesota). 3. «MapServer Community, Autodesk Announce MapServer Foundation». directionsmag.org. 4. Grimes, Brad and Joab Jackson (May 1, 2006). «What’s in an open-source name?». Government Computer News. 5. Schuyler Erle (February 4, 2006). «Introducing… the Open Source Geospatial Foundation!». mappinghacks.com. 6. MapServer History 7. http://www.dei.isep.ipp.pt/~matos/cadeiras/pjac/sig/oss/lime_plenary.ppt 8. http://mapserver.org/development/announce/6-4.html

3.8 Other open source GIS software The following open source software packages can provide advanced GIS functions, such as web mapping services, advanced spatial analysis and spatial databases. If GIS teachers need to create specialized GIS courses in their labs or programs, these software may be a good choice. Due to the page limitation, we will only summarize these software for GIS teachers without screenshots nor detailed discussions. GvSIG (http://www.gvsig.com) (file size: 89MB) (Available OS: Windows, Linux and MacOS X) is a geographic information system (GIS), that is, a desktop application designed for capturing, storing, handling, analyzing and deploying any kind of referenced geographic information in order to solve complex management and planning problems. gvSIG is known for having a user-friendly interface, being able to access the most common formats, both vector and raster ones. It features a wide range of tools for working with geographic-like information (query tools, layout creation, geoprocessing, networks, etc.), which turns gvSIG into the ideal tool for users working in the land realm [7]. gvSIG is known for: – Integrating in the same view both local (files, databases) and remote data through OGC standards. – Being designed to be easily extendable, allowing continuous application enhancement, as well as enabling the development of tailor-made solutions. – Being open source software, under the GNU General Public License (GPL), which allows its free use, distribution, study and improvement. – Being available in several languages: Spanish, English UK, English USA, German, French, Italian, Portuguese, Portuguese-Brazilian, Russian, Chinese, Serbian, Swahili, Turkish, Czech, Polish, Romanian, Greek, Basque, Valencian, Gallego.

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Figure 17. Interface of GvSIG Source: http://adhoc.osgeo.osuosl.org/livedvd/docs/en/quickstart/gvsig_quickstart.html

– Being developed using Java, and being available for Linux, Windows and Mac OS X platforms. Kosmo (http://www.opengis.es/) (download file size: 108MB – including JRE package) (Available OS: Windows and Linux) KOSMO is one of the most popular open source desktop GIS (Java-based), providing a nice Graphic User Interface (GUI), GIS data editing tools, and spatial analysis functions (Ramsey, 2007).

Figure 18. Kosmo and its advanced cartographic design function. Source: http://gis-lab.info/docs/osgeo/ru/overview/kosmo_overview.html 3.8 Other open source gis software

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Kosmo was developed based upon OpenJUMP (http://jump-pilot.sourceforge. net/), which is a light (download size: 14MB) and simple version of open source desktop GIS, offering very limited graphic and symbol functions. KOSMO has improved cartographic and spatial analysis functions from OpenJUMP, providing a friendly and comprehensive GIS package for desktop computers. One major advantage of both OpenJUMP and KOSMO is the capability for users to edit/ modify vertices (a very detailed level of segment nodes) in vector-based layers [10]. uDig (http://udig.refractions.net/) (file size: 94 MB, Available OS: Windows, Linus, and MacOS ). uDig is also a popular Java-based desktop GIS software. The name, uDig, stands for «User-friendly Desktop Internet GIS». Therefore, uDig offers strong capabilities to integrate Web mapping technologies, such as WMS, WFS, remote ArcSDE, WCS, GeoRSS and KML. The uDig website includes great tutorials and walkthrough documents for first-time users. uDig is built upon IBM’s Eclipse platform with a «clean» user interface. uDig provides several good GIS functions, including the Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) support, Web Catalog Server support, and thematic mapping with advanced symbology. uDig is also a great choice for Desktop GIS software [7]. Open JUMP GIS is an easy to use and powerful desktop GIS that enables users to display, edit, analyse and conflate geographic data. It comes in a CORE and a PLUS edition, with the latter adding lots of useful plugins. OpenJUMP is excellent for data editing and rapid prototyping of GIS functions [40]. JUMP is a Java based vector GIS and programming framework. Current development continues under the Open JUMP name.

Figure 19. uDig user interface with supported data input format. Source: http://gis-lab.info/docs/osgeo/ru/overview/udig_overview.html

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Features (Core Features and PlugIns): – platform independent (Windows, Linux, Unix, Macintosh) – reads and writes ESRI Shapefile, GML files, DXF and PostGIS – reads raster files like TIFF, JPEG, BMP, PNG, FLT, ASC and ECW – save view to georeferenced rasters like JPEG and PNG – full geometry and attribute editing – OpenGIS SFS compliant – Geometry algorithms based on Java Topology Suite – a lot of third party plugins exists (e.g. connecting to Postgis, Oracle database or ArcSDE, print, reproject vectos, etc.) – supports standards like WMS, WFS and SLD – easy extensible GIS programming environment for own GIS-applications

Figure 20. Interface of Open JUMP GIS Source: http://gis-lab.info/docs/osgeo/ru/quickstart/openjump_quickstart.html

In 2002, as a project for the British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Vivid Solutions Inc. created a software program to do automated matching («conflation») of roads and rivers from different digital maps into an integrated single geospatial data set. The software team wisely made the program flexible enough to be used not just for roads and rivers, but almost any kind of spatial data: provincial boundaries, power-station locations, satellite images, and so on. The program was named JUMP (JAVA Unified Mapping Platform), and it has become a popular, free Geographic Information System (GIS) [41]. After the initial creation and deployment of JUMP, regular development of the program by Vivid Solutions stopped. However, the company continued offering support to the user community that had grown around JUMP, and provided 3.8 Other open source gis software

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information to developers that had begun to improve JUMP in small ways, or who had customized it to fit their needs. Martin Davis and Jon Aquino, two former employees of Vivid Solutions that worked on the original JUMP, played a key role in the growth of this community centered around JUMP. It soon became evident that both the users and developers would benefit from a «unified» JUMP platform. This central or core platform would eliminate the compatibility issues that plagued the JUMP user community, and would give developers a platform on which to focus and coordinate their efforts. A number of the lead members from each team working with JUMP formed the JPP Development Committee, whose purpose was to guide and oversee this new unified platform. A name was chosen for this open source GIS program to be based on JUMP, «OpenJUMP». One important feature of Jump and OpenJUMP is the ability to work with GIS data in GML format. GML or «Geography Markup Language» is an XML (textbased) format for GIS data. It is a way to describe spatial information in a human readable form, and is an accepted «open standard» for GIS data. OpenJUMP can currently read and write GML data, and the team hopes to develop a number of utilities that will improve OpenJUMP’s ability to work with GML. The ability to work with an open format like GML is important to implementers because it gives alternatives to proprietary formats like Autodesk DWG files or ESRI Shapefiles. OpenJUMP nevertheless also reads and writes ESRI Shapefiles and supports ESRI ASCII grid format with an OpenJump plugin from the SIGLE team. While OpenJUMP is considered primarily a vector based GIS, it also supports rasters, as TIF files or the above ESRI ASCII grid [42]. SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) is a free and open source geographic information system used for editing spatial data. It was originally developed by a small team at the Department of Physical Geography, University of Göttingen, Germany, and is now being maintained and extended by an international developer community. SAGA GIS is GIS software with the purpose to give (geo-)scientists an effective but easily learnable platform for the implementation of geoscientific methods. This is achieved by the API. SAGA has a fast-growing set of geoscientific methods, bundled in exchangeable module libraries [43]. The standard modules are: – File access: interfaces to various table, vector, image and grid file formats, including shapefiles, Esri grids (ASCII and binary), and numerous grid file formats that are supported by the GDAL library, in addition to the native SGRD format of SAGA GIS. – Filter for grids: Gaussian, Laplacian, multi-directional Lee filter. – Gridding: interpolation from vector data using triangulation, nearest neighbour, inverse distance. – Geostatistics: residual analysis, ordinary and universal kriging, single and multiple regression analysis, variance analysis. – Grid calculator: combine grids through user defined functions. – Grid discretisation: skeletonisation, segmentation. – Grid tools: merging, resampling, gap filling. – Image classification: cluster analysis, box classification, maximum likelihood, pattern recognition, region growing.

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– Projections: various coordinate transformations for vector and grid data (using Proj4 and GeoTrans libraries), georeferencing of grids. – Simulation of dynamic processes: TOPMODEL, nitrogen distributions, erosion, landscape development. – Terrain analysis: geomorphometrical calculations such as slope, aspect, curvatures, curvature classification, analytical hillshading, sink eliminition, flow path analysis, catchment delineation, solar radiation, channel lines, relative altitudes. – Vector tools: polygon intersection, contour lines from grid.

Figure 21. Interface of Open System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses Source: gis-lab.info/qa/saga-intro.html

SAGA GIS is an effective tool with user friendly GUI that requires only about 10 MB disk space. No installation needed. Available for Windows, Linux and also FreeBSD [44]. SAGA GIS can be used together with other GIS software like Kosmo to get better vector data and map producing capabilities. SAGA GIS modules can be executed from within the statistical data analysis software R in order to integrate statistical and GIS analyses.

3.8 Other open source gis software

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Conclusion

O

pen source software is an alternative to proprietary software: – Open source software is free; you don’t have to purchase it and you can freely distribute it to anyone else, as opposed to proprietary software which you must purchase and typically can not share with anyone (since it’s copyrighted). – The source code, or actual computer programming, that was used to create the software is transparent, as opposed to proprietary software where the code is hidden and encrypted. – Under the open source model the programming code is transparent and you are free to change and make improvements to it; this is strictly prohibited with proprietary software. Although many private GIS vendors and software companies such as ESRI, Microsoft, Google and Intergraph played an important role for GIS development in the past, the Open Source Software Society has become a stronger player recently in the GIS industry. With the introduction of this textbook, we hope that GIS educators can realize the potential of open source GIS software for their courses and instructional tools. Conclusion

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The road to adopt open source GIS may not necessarily be smooth and quick in comparison to commercial solutions, but it is affordable and importantly, offers customization of the software for your students’ needs. As Paul Ramsey said in his 2007 white paper (The State of Open Source GIS), «the change to open source requires a different mindset. Rather than one programme or one suite of programmes delivering everything you need, you go over to different programmes that all communicate with each other and use the same (standard) protocols and data formats». We hope that this educational manual proves to be useful for GIS educators willing to try open source GIS software. As GIS technology develops and evolves every year, numerous systems are available which cover all sector of geospatial data handling.

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Glossary Approximation – replacement of some other mathematical objects, in some sense similar to the original. Approximation allows to study the numerical characteristics and quality properties of the object, reducing the problem to the study of simpler or more convenient facilities, the characteristics of which are easily calculated or properties are already known. A special place in approximation problems belongs Chebyshev polynomials. Approximation methods in threedimensional space are part of the tools of cartographic research method used in the processing of digital elevation models, can be used in combination with other operations of spatial analysis in a GIS. Arch (arc) – sequence of the segments connected by intermediate (form-building) points, having the beginning and the end in knots; an element (primitive) vector and topological (linearly – central) representations of linear and polygonal spatial objects number. Binarization (binarization) – a selection of two-tone color image theme (binary) layer. Glossary

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Computer graphics – automation of processes of preparation, conversion, storage and playback of graphical information from a computer. Data – information presented in a look, suitable for processing by automatic means with possible participation of the person. Database – a set of data organized according to certain rules set out general principles of description, storing and manipulating data. Database management system, DBMS – a set of programs and language tools for creating, maintaining, and using databases. DBMS support, usually one of the three most common models (schemes) of data: relational, hierarchical or network. Most modern commercial database is a relational type. DBMS support different data operations, including input, storage, manipulation, query processing, search, retrieve, sort, update, maintain the integrity and security of data against unauthorized access or loss. Delaunay triangulation – triangular polygonal network formed by a set of point features through their connections with disjoint intervals, and used, in particular, in the model of TIN to create a digital elevation model. In this case, the condition Delaunay – inside a circle drawn around each constructed triangle, should not get any of the given points of triangulation. Named after the Russian mathematician Boris Delaunay. Depth of color – number of the bits used for storage of information on color of each pixel of the raster image. Digital elevation model (DEM) (digital terrain model, DTM; digital elevation model, DEM; Digital Terrain Elevation Data, DTED) – a digital representation of three– dimensional spatial objects (surfaces or reliefs) in the form of three–dimensional data in a set of elevations (grades depths ) and other values applicate (coordinates Z) at the nodes of a regular or irregular grid or set of records contours (isohypses, isobaths) or other contour lines. Digital map – a digital model of the maps created by digitizing cartographic sources, photogrammetric processing of remote sensing, digital data recording field sur-veys or other means. Digital map is the basis for the manufacture of conventional paper, computer, e-cards, it is a part of map databases, is one of the most impor-tant elements of information management and GIS can be the result of the ope-ration of GIS. Digitizer – the device for a manual digitizing of cartographical and graphic documentation in the form of a set or sequence of the points which situation is described by rectangular Cartesian coordinates of the plane. Digitizing – conversion of analog graphic and cartographic documents (originals) in the form of digital records corresponding to the vector representation of spatial objects. According to the method are distinguished: Digitizing using a digitizer with a tracing hand, digitizing c using scanning devices (scanners), followed by vectorizing raster copies of originals, manual digitizing manipulator «mouse» on raster mapping substrate and semi-automatic digitizing video screen, and hybrid methods. Ellipsoid – shaped object that is formed by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis. File – a logically related set of data (programs, texts, images, etc.) of a certain length, which has a name. Font – a standardized set of alphanumeric and special characters of an alphabet with a uniform appearance. Format – 1) a method or location of data in memory, database, document, or on an external drive, and 2) the general name of the method of machine realization of the representation (model) of the spatial data.

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Format DLG (Digital Line Graph) – Standard U.S. Geological Survey, developed by the National Ordnance Survey USA in 1980 is intended for distribution of digital maps from the national digital map database in scale 1: 24 000, 1: 62 500, 1: 63 360, 1: 100 000 and 1 200 000. Format SDTS (Spatial Data Transfer Standard (Specification)) – standard (specification) of spatial data transmission – U.S. federal standard FIPS 173, specifying the exchange of spatial data. Approved June 29, 1992. Gauss-Kruger – transverse cylindrical map projection. Earth ellipsoid is displayed on the plane zones, limited to the difference in the meridians of longitude 6o. Zones are numbered from west to east, from the Greenwich meridian. Axis X (abscissa) is the image of the mean, or center, of the meridian zone axis Y (ordinate) – the image of the equator. The origin, the point of intersection of the equator and the central meridian is m = 0, Y = 500 000 m zone number by given Y. The value of X is equal to the axial length of the meridian arc of the meridian from the equator to the ellipsoid given parallel. Surveying at the scale 1: 5 000 and larger use three degree zones for which the meridian coincide with axial and boundary meridians six degree zones. Geocoding – a method and process of positioning of spatial objects relatively some system of coordinates and their attributived by establishment of communications between not spatial databases and an item part of a GIS database. Geographical grid – a grid of meridians and parallels on terrestrial ellipsoide, a sphere or on the globe. Geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. Geodetic network – set of the geodetic points, which situation it is determined by results of measurements in uniform for them to system of coordinates Geoinformatics (GIS technology, geo-informatics) – a science, technology and a production activity for scientific justification, design, creation, operation and use of geographical information systems, for development of geoinformation technologies, for applied aspects, or GIS appendices for the practical or geoscientific purposes. GIS software – the set of software systems for information processing and GIS software documents required for the operation of these programs. Supports a particular set of features and includes specialized GIS software: a full-featured universal, or instrumental GIS, cartographic visualizers, map browsers, desktop mapping, information and referral systems, facilities serving the individual stages of GIS and functional groups to convert formats, digitizing, vectorization, creation and processing of digital elevation models, interaction with satellite positioning systems, etc. Graphic driver, the video driver (graphics driver) – the program intended for management of a graphic mode of the corresponding videocard. Graphic file – the file containing information of a graphic representation Graphic information – models of objects and their image. Graphic primitive – simple geometrical object (a point, the line, a rectangle etc.) the vector image. Glossary

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Griding – operation on recalculation of irregular these heights in knots of a regular network of heights. Hardware GIS (GIS hardware) – technical equipment data processing systems (GIS unlike software, procedures, rules and documentation), including its own computer and other mechanical, magnetic, electrical, electronic and optical peripherals or similar devices that run its control or autonomously, as well as any devices necessary for the functioning of the system (eg, GPS-equipment, electronic mapping and surveying instruments). Icon – one of the elements of the graphical user interface, the selection and activation of which cause some action. Information support of GIS – set of arrays of information (databases, databanks and other structured data sets), systems of coding, classification and the corresponding documentation, serving data processing system (along with program and GIS hardware). Information support of GIS includes search and an assessment of sources of data, accumulation of data, a choice of methods of data input on machine. Interface – set of means and the rules providing interaction of computing systems, devices entering into their structure, programs, and also the user with system. Interactive graphics – the section of computer graphics which provides for the user possibility operatively to make changes to the image directly in the course of its reproduction, i.e. possibility to work with graphics in a dialogue mode in real time is supposed and dynamically to operate image contents, its form, the size and color on the monitor screen by means of interactive control units. Interpolation – function restoration on the set interval on its known values in a final set of the points belonging to this interval. Interpolation isn’t reduced to completion of values of function for intermediate values of argument, and consists in construction according to the table of values of function of its analytical expression, more often on unit it is less than multinomial (polynom) of degree, than number of preset values (parabolic interpolation). Image compression – reducing the size of an image file using special algorithms and schemes. Image scaling – Modification of the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the image. Mapping – set of processes, methods and technologies of creation of cards, atlases and other cartographical works. On scale distinguish large-scale, mesoscale and small-scale mapping; on object – astronomical, planetary and terrestrial mapping; on a method – land, space, underwater mapping. Types (branches) of thematic mapping which constantly arise in reply to inquiries of practice (for example, tourist mapping, electoral mapping) are most various or develop on a cartography joint with other sciences (geological, historical, economic mapping, etc.). Map projections – mathematically certain way of images of the surface of the globe or ellipsoid (or other planets) in the plane. All map projections have some or other distortions in the transition from a spherical surface to a plane. By the nature of distortion map projections are divided into conformal with no distortion of angles and directions; equal size, containing no area distortion, equidistant preserving undistorted any one direction (meridians or parallels), and random projection, in which more or less are distorted angles and squares. Model Grid (GRID) – raster digital elevation model, based on the regular (matrix) representations of the field terrain elevation marks.

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Model TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) – Linear irregular network, the system scalene triangle, which corresponds to the Delaunay triangulation is used as a data model in the design of a digital elevation model, introducing a set of terrain elevations in the nodes of the network and replace it with the most multi–faceted surface. Network analysis, network analysis (network analysis) – a group of spatial analytical operations designed to study the topological and geometrical properties of linear spatial objects (lines), forming a tree or ring network (hydrographic network, watersheds, communications networks, etc.) corresponding to graphs. To implementation some operations of network analysis it requires segmentation of arcs (the ability attribution of its individual segments or sets of segments). Network analysis is based on the formalism of graph theory and algorithms, and usually involves finding the shortest path or select the optimal route between the nodes of the linear network, i.e between the vertices of the corresponding graph, the calculation of the route with minimal expense, traveling salesman problem, resource allocation in a marketing application for scheduling processes, etc. Node – the start or end point of the arc in the vector–topological representation (linenode model) spatial objects such as lines or polygons. Overlay operations – a group of analytical operations involving the operation or the service overlap of two or more layers, these include operations overlap single and heterogeneous layers and solving related problems determine whether a polygon point (point-in-polygon) and accessories line polygon (line-in-polygon), the superposition of two polygon layers (polygon-on-polygon), and so on, the destruction of the boundaries of polygon layer of similar classes with generation of a new layer (dissolving). Pixel – minimal element bitmap. The word «pixel» is derived from the English. picture and element – pixel (picture element). Projection UTM – Universal Transverse cylindrical map projection G. Mercator used for topographic maps (in the U.S. and some other countries), and the introduction of satellite images of plane rectangular coordinates. Proximity analysis (neighborhood analysis, proximity analysis) – spatial analytical procedure based on the search for the two closest points of the set of sets and used for in various algorithms of spatial analysis. Proximity analysis involves finding the nearest neighbor of one of the points of a given set or re–instituting the point (interpolation problem and automatic classification) and used to generate Thiessen polygons and building a Delaunay triangulation. Rasterization – transformation (conversion) of the vector representation of spatial objects in a bitmap representation of the elements by assigning values of the elements of vector raster object records. Resolution – of the original graphic image – specified property bitmap. Measured in pixels per inch (and is set when the image in a photo editor or a scanner. Resolution screen – the size in video pixels that can fit on the screen. Depends on the hardware (monitor, video card) and software (for example, setting Microsoft Windows). Remote sensing (remote sensing data, remotely sensed data, remote surveying data, aerospace data) – data on Earth surface, the objects located on it or in its subsoil, received in the course of shootings by any not contact, i.e. remote, methods. By the developed tradition to DDZ carry the data received by means of film-making equipment of land, air or space basing, allowing to receive the image in one or Glossary

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several sites of an electromagnetic range. The main characteristics of DDZ are defined by number and gradation of spectral ranges, geometrical features of the received image (a type of a cartographical projection, distribution of distortions), its permission. Spatial (geographic) data (spatial data, geographic (al) data, geospatial data, georeferenced data) – digital data on the spatial objects, including information about their location and properties. Usually consist of two parts: a positional and not positional, i.e description of the spatial position and the thematic content of the data (topological and geometric and attribute data). Full description of spatial data consists thus of the related descriptions of topology, geometry and attributes of objects. Spatial data with their environment are the basis of semantic information management GIS. Spatial analysis – a group of functions, providing analysis of location, connections, and other spatial relationships of spatial objects, including analysis of zones of visibility / invisibility, neighborhood analysis, network analysis, creation and processing of digital elevation models, spatial analysis facilities within the buffer zones and etc. Spatial resolution – the size of the smallest distinguishable objects in the field (in m, km) in remote sensing. Depends on the brightness of the objects, their brightness, spectral characteristics and technical parameters of the survey. Topology – connectivity information vector graphic objects and spatial relationships between them. Topology information by a set of nodes and arcs. Each line in the vector–topological model has two sets of numbers: the sets of coordinates of intermediate points and the number of nodes. Visible / invisible area analysis (viewshed analysis, visibility / unvisibility analysis) – one of the operations digital terrain models operations, provides an estimate surface in terms of visibility or invisibility of its parts by highlighting areas mapping and visible / invisible with some viewpoints or multiple points, given their position in space (source or sink of radiation). Width – the angle between the normal to the surface of the earth ellipsoid at a given point and the plane of its equator.

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References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science: Volume 773. 406 pages, 80 illus., Principles of Geographical Information Systems. 2nd Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. DeMers, M.N. (2008). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. 4th Edition. Chichester, UK:John Wiley & Sons. Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J., & D.W. Rhind (2005). Geographic Information Systems and Science. 2nd Edition. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Markus Neteler and Helena Mitasova, 2008, Heywood, D.I., Cornelius, S., & S. Carver (2006). An introduction to Geographical Information Systems. 3rd Edition. Essex, UK: Pearson Prentice Hall. Sherman, G.E. (2008). Desktop GIS: Mapping the Planet with Open Source Tools. Lewisville, TX: The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Free and Open Source Software for GIS education / Dr MingHsiang Tsou and Jennifer Smith / Department og Geography, San Diego State University / January 2011 Free and Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach. Third Edition. GIS Software – A description in 1000 words» S. Steiniger and R. Weibel Steiniger, S., & E. Bocher (2009). An overview on current free and open source desktop GIS Tim Sutton (January 23, 2009). «Announcing the release of QGIS 1.0 ‘Kore». Cavallini, Paolo (August 2007). «Free GIS desktop and analyses: QuantumGIS, the easy way». The Global Geospatial Magazine. References

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13. «Project details for Quantum GIS – Quantum GIS 0.9.0». Freshmeat. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 14. «QGIS Change Log». Open Source Geospatial Foundation. 2004-03-09. Retrieved 2008-1213. 15. A Guide to the Project Management: Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – 2000 Edition. 16. Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling 17. Effective Project Management: Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme 18. Fundamentals of Project Management. A Guide to the Project Management: Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – 2000 Edition. 19. Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling Effective Project Management: Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme. Ed. Frank A. – Raubal M. – van der Vlugt M.: PANEL – GI Compendium, Geoinfo Series nr. 21, Vienna, 2000. 20. Bowman, C.: Strategiai menedzsment, Panem, Budapest, 1998. 21. Kieser, A.: Szervezetelmeletek, Aula, Budapest, 1995. 22. Bennett, Jonathan (2010). OpenStreetMap: Be your own Cartographer. Packt Publishing. p. 252 23. Ramm, Frederik; Topf, Jochen; Chilton, Steve (2010). OpenStreetMap: Using and Enhancing the Free Map of the World. UIT Cambridge. p. 386. 24. Official Google Blog: Google Earth downloaded more than one billion times / Googleblog. blogspot.com. 25. Google Earth. Earth.google.com. 26. System Requirements for Google Earth: Getting Started – Google Earth Help. Earth.google. com. 27. Neteler, M.; Mitasova, H. (2008). Open Source GIS : a GRASS GIS approach. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-35767-6. 28. Westervelt, J. (2004). «GRASS roots». FOSS/GRASS Users Conference. Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 12–14. 29. Neteler, Markus; Bowman, M. Hamish; Landa, Martin; Metz, Markus (2012). «GRASS GIS: A multi-purpose open source GIS». Environmental Modelling & Software: 124-130. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.11.014. 30. «ITC’s GIS software ILWIS migrates to open source». 2007-01-30. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 31. «ILWIS 3.4 Open». 52°North. 2007-03-27. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 32. «ILWIS in Linux». World Institute for Conservation and Environment, WICE. Retrieved 200911-19. 33. «FOSS4G 2007 : ILWIS and 52°North: From closed source to open source and interoperable image services». Retrieved 2007–07–02. 34. Spiteri (1997). Remote Sensing 96 Integrated Applications (1 ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 380. ISBN 90-5410-855-X. 35. http://mapserver.org/ 36. Ojeda-Zapata, Julio (June 17, 2005). «Minnesota’s MapServer flourishes in hot Web-based mapping sector». Pioneer Press (St. Paul, Minnesota). 37. «MapServer Community, Autodesk Announce MapServer Foundation». directionsmag.org. 38. http://www.dei.isep.ipp.pt/~matos/cadeiras/pjac/sig/oss/lime_plenary.ppt 39. http://mapserver.org/development/announce/6-4.html 40. «JUMP Unified Mapping Platform – VividSolutions, In.». Retrieved 2013-05-27. 41. «An Overview on Current Free and Open Source Desktop GIS Developments – Steiniger and Bocher». Retrieved 2013-05-27. 42. «What is OpenJUMP – JUMP Pilot Project Wiki». Retrieved 2013-05-27. 43. Böhner, J., McCloy, K.R., Strobl, J. [eds.] (2006): SAGA – Analysis and Modelling Applications. Göttinger Geographische Abhandlungen, Vol.115, 130pp. 44. Böhner, J., Blaschke, T., Montanarella, L. [eds.] (2008): SAGA – Seconds Out. Hamburger Beiträge zur Physischen Geographie und Landschaftsökologie, Vol.19, 113pp.

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Content Introduction ..................................................... 3 1 Basic GIS concepts ......................................... 5 2 Free and open source GIS software ................ 9 3 Types of free and open source software of GIS .............................................................. 13 3.1 Quantum GIS .......................................... 15 3.2 Project management ............................... 23 3.3 Open street map ...................................... 40 3.4 Google Earth ........................................... 44 3.5 Grass GIS................................................ 51 3.6 ILWIS (Integrated Land and Water Information System) .............. 55 3.7 MapServer .............................................. 61 3.8 Other open source GIS software............. 66 Conclusion ...................................................... 73 Glossary .......................................................... 75 References ....................................................... 81 Content

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Educational issue

Nyussupova Gulnara Nurmukhamedovna Kairova Shnar Galymovna Kalimurzina Aisulu Musaevna

Free and open source GIS software Educational manual Computer page makeup: K. Umirbekova Cover designer: K. Umirbekova _www. http://gis-lab.info/docs/osgeo/ru/overview/kosmo_overview.html

IB No 8055

Signed for publishing 03.02.15. Format 70x100 1/12. Off set paper. Digital printing. Volume 7,0 printer’s sheet. Edition: 100. Order No 337. Publishing house «Qazaq university» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040 Almaty Printed in the «Kazakh University» publishing house

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