Foundation Science Physics for Class 9

Citation preview

Foundation Science

P H Y S I C S FOR CLASS 9

H C Verma, PhD

(a)

(b)

O Origin –3

–2

–1 Negative

0

1 Positive

2

3 metres

P2 –3

P1 –1

–2

A

0

1

2

B

3

metres

A –3

–2

–1

0

1

B 2

3

metres

B

A

C

10

/s

B

cm

t=

15

/s

cm

t=

A

2s

10

/s

B

cm

t=

15

/s

cm

t= A

0

0

2s

Score

Y

200 150 100 50 A O

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

X Overs

10.00

13.20

13.00

12.40

12.20

12.00

11.40

11.20

11.00

10.40

10.20

Distance (km) 500

400

300

200

100

Time (hours)

Distance

B

d2 A

d1

t1

C

t2 Time

Distance

B

A

Distance in km

Time

30 B 25 20 15 10 A

5 O 10.00 a.m.

10.20 a.m.

10.40 a.m.

11.00 a.m.

11.20 a.m.

11.40 a.m.

Time 12.00 noon

B 25 20 15

c

e a

b

10 5 O 10.00 a.m.

A

10.20 a.m.

10.40 a.m.

11.00 a.m.

d 11.20 a.m.

11.40 a.m.

Time 12.00 noon

Distance

Distance in km

30

Time

70 cm

Displacement in cm

A

70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Displacement in cm

O

0

1

3

2

5

4

6

7

Time in s

8

A

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

B 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14 Time in s

10

10

10

Speed in cm/s

Speed in cm/s

Speed in cm/s

15 10 5

5 10 O

Time in s (a)

10 O

Time in s (b)

10 Time in s

O

5

O

(c)

10

15 Time in s

(d)

Speed

Speed in cm/s

15

v

D

C

A t1

B t 2 Time

Speed (km/h)

10

10

D

C

5

10

20 (a)

30 40 Time (minutes)

0

A 10

B 30 40 Time (minutes)

20 (b)

Speed

5

0

15

C

D

A t1

Speed in m/s

Speed (km/h)

15

B t2 Time

20 15 10 5 0

5

10 15 20 25 Time in seconds

Veloccity v

A

B

C t

Time

A

6 5 4 3 2 1 O 0

Velocity (cm/s)

Velocity (m/s)

O

0.1

10

0.2

0.3

0.4

A

0.5

B 0.6

Time (s)

B

5 Time (s) F

C

O 2

4

6

8

10

12 14

–5 10

D

E

Velocity

Velocity

Time

O

Time

O (b)

Velocity (m/s)

(a)

20 15 10 5 0

1

2

3

4

5 Time (s)

E

B

Velocity

ν2

ν1 D

A

C

G t 2 Time

F t1

Velocity

O

B A

Velocity

Time

Velocity

Time

v

u

D

B

C

A

E O

t

Time

0

Time

Displacement

E

D

C

F

A

X (a)

B (b)

(c)

B

C

A

D

B N W 4m

O

3m

A

E S

C

200 150 100 50

0

Height in inches

Distance in km

Score

A

100 75 50

20

30

40 Over

Score–over graph in a one-day cricket match (a)

0

B

80 60 40 20

25

10

O

12 16 Time in hours Distance–time graph for an object 4

8

(b)

0

5

10

15

20 25 Age in years Height–age graph for a person (c)

11.45

11.35

11.25

E

11.15

30

11.05

10.55

10.45

10.35

10.25

O

10.15

10.05

Distance in km 40 G H

F

20 D

10 C

A B

Time (a.m.)

Speed in m/s

20 15 A 10 5 B 1

2

5 6 Time in seconds

3

4

2s

4s

15

10

E

5

O

A 10

20

B 30

C 40 50 Time in seconds

v 2 m/s

speed in m/s

O 0

0

6s

t

Distance

Time

Time

Distance

Speed

Time

Time

Speed

Speed

Speed

Time

Time

(i)

Speed

Speed

(ii)

Time (iii)

Time (iv)

Speed (km/h)

60

40

20

Velocity (m/s)

30 20 Time (minutes)

10

O

4 2 O -2 -4

5

10

15

Time (s)

The force exerted by the bat increases the speed of the ball from zero to some value.

The force exerted by the hand on the ball decreases the speed to zero.

(a)

(b)

The forces exerted by the fingers change the shape of the ball.

The force exerted by the player changes the direction of the ball.

(d)

(c)

Force by left hand

Force by right hand

The toy car does not move when the applied forces are equal and opposite.

Force exerted by hand

Force exerted by box

The finger pushes the book towards the right, and the table pushes it towards the left. The book does not move.

Force on A

Force on B Force on A

A

Force on B No force on any block

B (a)

A

B (b)

A

B (c)

v′ v

v

v

v′

v′ v′ > v

v′ < v

v′ = v

(b)

(a)

(d)

(c)

(e)

F

3N

5N

F1

F2 F1 = force applied by the hand on the book

(a)

F1 = F 2 F2 = force applied by the book on the hand

F2 F1

F1 = force applied by the load on the head F1 = F 2

(b)

F2 = force applied by the head on the load

F1 = force applied by the earth on the coin

F1 (c)

F1 = F 2 F2 = force applied by the coin on the earth F2 Earth

Action

Reaction (b)

(a)

Action

Reaction

N

W

N=W

F1

F2

F3

F′1

If F1′ + F2′ + F′3 > F1 + F2 + F3 , the team on the right wins.

F′2

F′3

v′1

v′2 A

v2 B

A

B

0 1 2 3 4

A

B

0 1 2 3 4

Less force

More force

u1

u2 –F

A

B

(a)

v1

v2

A

B

F B

A

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

F A A

A

F F

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(c)

B

W

B ρ ρ

L

W

A

B 1.5 kg

25 N

35 N

f

A

C

B

12 m/s

v2

200 g 100 g Before breaking

After breaking

(a)

(b)

3.0 m/s

A

A1

B1

B

B

Velocity (m/s)

A

2

1

0

1

3 4 2 Time (seconds)

Displacement

Displacement

A

C Time

Time B Time

D Time

Displacement

Displacement

Velocity (m/s)

12 8 4

0

1

2

3 Time (seconds)

0 10 20 30 40

(a)

(b)

(c)

A

m1

F

F

r

B m2

Uranus Neptune Sun Venus

Mercury

Mars Earth Jupiter

Saturn

r

O

t = 0, v = 0

A

t = 1 s, v = 9.8 m/s

B

t = 2 s, v = 19.6 m/s

C

t = 3 s, v = 29.4 m/s

B

t = 2 s, v = 0

A

t = 1 s, v = 9.8 m/s

O

t = 0, u = 19.6 m/s

B

A m′

m F1 x

2m F2 d–x

O

x

A 2.0 m B

A

C

20 m

20 m/s B

Planet

Sun

Direction of displacement

Force of gravity

Force

Displacement

Force

W = +ve

Force W=0

Displacement

Displacement

W = –ve

A

θ mg B

C

F

θ

d

5

N

30º

2.0 m

v

(a)

(b) F5-06

F

m

A

x

B

(a)

(b)

B

h

A

F

F

C

B A

UA = mgh K A= 0

A

h

x

B h–x

UB = mg(h–x) K B= 12 mv 2

A

60º mg

B 30º

C

Prong

Stem

Tuning fork

(a)

Switch

To vacuum pump

Air Membrane

Compression pulse

Rarefaction pulse

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Hump

Hump

Hump

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

(c)

R

C

R

C

R

C

R

C

R

C

R

C

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

λ

Density

Crest P

Q

Trough

R

Normal density

λ Distance

A

B

t = t1 t = t2 t = t3 t = t4 t = t5 λ

C

D

E

F

G

Density

Density

Distance

Distance Sound of higher pitch

Density

Sound of lower pitch

Amplitude Normal density Amplitude

Distance

Density

Density

Normal density

Normal density

Distance (a)

Distance (b)

i

r

Bugle

Horn

Curved celling

Stage Soundboard (a)

(b)

Horn Plate

Ultrasound waves

Metal component

Detectors

Ultrasound probe

Eye Cataract

Ship

Submarine

Sea bed

Anvil Ear canal

Eardrum

Stirrup

Auditory nerve

Cochlea

Hammer

Pinna Outer ear

Middle ear

Inner ear

d

B

C

D

E

F

Density

A

Distance

Velocity (m/s)

2 1

A

0

Time (s)

–1 –2

B

m

v

R

x (cm) 40 30 20 10 1

v

2

3

4

v

t (s)

6

v

t (a)

5

v

t (b)

t (c)

t (d)

a

a

t

t (A)

(B)

B A

v

t1

x

O

t1

t2

t

t2

t3

t4

t

Density

Density

Distance (A)

Distance (B)

Time

Distance

x (cm) 30

20

10

10

20

30

t(s)

x (m) 400

Hare

300

200

e

ois

rt To 100

Separation (km)

20

40

60

80

120 90 60 30 20

40

60

Time (min)

t (min)