Forensic DNA Transfer 9780367742065, 9780367746384, 9781003158844

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Forensic DNA Transfer
 9780367742065, 9780367746384, 9781003158844

Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
About the Author
Chapter 1 Transfer of Matter
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Principles of Transfer
1.2 Transfer of Visible Trace Material
1.2.1 Early Experimental Data and Application to Crimes
1.2.2 Transfer of Debris
1.3 Transfer of Non-visible Trace Material
1.4 Transfer of Visible and Non-visible Biological Deposits
1.5 Technology Enhancements and Limitations
1.5.1 Increasing Technology
1.5.2 Context
1.6 Changing Forensic Science Landscape
1.6.1 Forensic Science Practice
1.6.2 Forensic Science Literature
References
Chapter 2 DNA
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Meaning of DNA
2.2 Where DNA Is Found
2.3 Association of Biological Matter to a DNA Profile
2.3.1 Body or Somatic Origin
2.3.2 Source Attribution
2.3.3 Association Error
2.3.4 Transfer Association Error
2.4 The Scientific Method
2.5 The Likelihood Ratio
2.5.1 Origin
2.5.2 Formulation
2.5.3 Transposition of the Conditional
2.6 Hierarchy of Propositions
2.6.1 Definitions
2.6.2 Investigative and Evaluative Opinions and Reporting
2.7 Relevance of DNA to Criminal Investigation
2.7.1 Ignoring Context
2.7.2 Undermining DNA Evidence
2.8 Relevance of DNA Transfer to Criminal Investigation
References
Chapter 3 TRACE DNA
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Definition of ‘Trace DNA’ versus ‘Touch DNA’
3.2 Trace DNA Transfer
3.2.1 History
3.2.2 Terminology of DNA Transfer
3.3 Speculative Recovery of Trace DNA
3.3.1 Recognition and Preservation
3.3.2 Relocation of DNA
3.3.3 Collecting Trace DNA Deposits – Sampling and Testing Rationale
3.4 Trace DNA Quantities
3.5 No Relevant Deposit Detected
3.6 Context of Trace DNA
References
Chapter 4 Trace DNA Sources
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Skin Contact
4.1.1 Human Skin
4.1.2 Self-DNA from the Hands
4.1.3 ‘Self-DNA’ from Skin from the Body
4.2 Non-self DNA on Skin from the Body
4.2.1 Non-self DNA on Hands
4.2.2 Non-self DNA from Areas of the Body
4.3 Shedder Status
4.4 ‘Wearer’ or ‘User’ DNA on Clothing or Other Personal Items
4.4.1 ‘Wearer’ DNA on Clothing
4.5 Background DNA
4.5.1 Definitions
4.5.2 Analysis of Background DNA
4.5.3 Homes and Offices
4.5.4 Motor Vehicles
4.5.5 Controls
4.6 Persistence of DNA
4.6.1 Introduction
4.6.2 Persistence and Time of Deposit for DNA from Different Body Sources
4.6.3 Persistence of DNA After Use
4.6.4 Persistence of DNA after Cleaning/Washing
4.7 Priority-based Recovery, Detection and Analysis
4.7.1 Principles
References
Chapter 5 Medical Exhibits
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Sexual Assault Investigation Kits
5.1.0 Introduction
5.1.1 Female Genital Medical Samples: Vaginal and Vulval Swabs
5.1.2 Spermatozoa Presence and Persistence in the Vagina
5.1.3 Post-mortem Medical Samples
5.1.4 Y-STR Profiling
5.1.5 Persistence of Male DNA in the Vaginal Cavity
5.1.6 Background Levels of Male DNA in the Vagina
5.1.7 Vulval Swabs
5.2 Rectal and Oral Cavities
5.3 Male Intimate Swabs – Penile Swabs
5.3.1 Sampling Rationale
5.3.2 Activity-level Propositions
5.4 Fingernails
5.4.1 Collection, Transfer and Persistence
5.4.2 Association Fallacies
5.5 Areas of Skin
5.6 Abandoned Material
References
Chapter 6 Clothing and Implements
6.0 Introduction
6.1 Clothing
6.1.1 ‘Wearer’ and ‘Toucher’ DNA
6.1.2 Location of DNA on Clothing
6.1.3 ‘Touching’ a Garment by a Person of Interest
6.1.4 Clothing on Flooring
6.1.5 Washing of Clothing
6.1.6 Fabric Gloves
6.2 Knives
6.2.1 Direct Transfer of DNA to Knives
6.2.2 Indirect Transfer of DNA to Knives
6.3 Firearms
6.3.1 DNA on Firearms
6.3.2 Levels of DNA Transfer
6.4 Equipment and Implements
6.4.1 Persistence of DNA on Equipment and Implements
6.5 Communal Items and Spaces
6.5.1 Direct and Indirect Transfer of DNA
6.5.2 Public Spaces
6.5.3 Office and Work Spaces
References
Chapter 7 Inadvertent DNA Transfer
7.0 Introduction
7.1 Importance of Quality Procedures, Documentation and Contamination Mitigation
7.2 Personal Protection Equipment
7.3 Crime Scene
7.3.1 Collection of Exhibits
7.3.2 Photographs and Video Recordings
7.4 The Mortuary
7.5 Medical Examination
7.6 Packaging, Handling and Storage
7.6.1 Handling
7.6.2 Packages or Exhibit Bags
7.6.3 Storage Facilities
7.7 Police and Other Laboratories
7.7.1 Police and Other Laboratories Prior to Submission to Forensic Biology Laboratory
7.7.2 Fingerprint Laboratories
7.8 The Forensic Biology Laboratory
7.8.1 Surfaces, Tools and Equipment
7.8.2 Cold Cases
7.8.3 Control Samples
7.9 Staff DNA Elimination Databases
7.9.1 Forensic Laboratories
7.9.2 Police Staff Contamination
References
Appendix A: Principles of Forensic DNA Transfer
Appendix B: Flawed Logic and Forensic DNA Transfer
Glossary of Terminology
Index

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