Five Classics of Fengshui: Chinese Spiritual Geography in Historical and Environmental Perspective 9004249869, 9789004249868

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Five Classics of Fengshui: Chinese Spiritual Geography in Historical and Environmental Perspective
 9004249869, 9789004249868

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Five Classics of Fengshui

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Sinica Leidensia Edited by

Barend J. ter Haar Maghiel van Crevel In co-operation with

P.K. Bol, D.R. Knechtges, E.S. Rawski, W.L. Idema, H.T. Zurndorfer

VOLUME 110

The titles published in this series are listed at www.brill.com/sinl

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Five Classics of Fengshui Chinese Spiritual Geography in Historical and Environmental Perspective

By

Michael John Paton

LEIDEN • BOSTON 2013

Cover illustration: Ancient map of Nanjing (Jiankang) drawn a century after the time of Guo Pu, who iv contents lived there as part of the Jin dynasty court. Nanjing was originally sited using the theories of fengshui and the map is set out in relation to the form and configurational force with Dark Warrior Lake (Xuanwu hu) to the north.

This publication has been typeset in the multilingual “Brill” typeface. With over 5,100 characters covering Latin, IPA, Greek, and Cyrillic, this typeface is especially suitable for use in the humanities. For more information, please see www.brill.com/brill-typeface. ISSN 0169-9563 ISBN 978-90-04-24986-8 (hardback) ISBN 978-90-04-25145-8 (e-book) Copyright 2013 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing, IDC Publishers and Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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This work is dedicated to the late Alfred William (Alf ) and William Stanley (Billy) Paton: My mentors in life

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Contents PREFACE ix SPIRITUAL GEOGRAPHY AND THE ENERGY OF THE LAND ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xix PART ONE 1 Discussion 1 CHAPTER ONE 3 INTRODUCTION 3 CHAPTER two 11 A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 1. Important Historical Texts 11 2. Cultural and Sociological Commentaries 17 3. Architecture 25 4. Fengshui and the History and Philosophy of Science 32 CHAPTER THREE 45 NOTES ON TRANSLATION 45 1. Definition of Terms 47 1.1. Fengshui 47 1.2. Qi 49 1.3. Yin-Yang, the Five Phases and the Five Stars 51 1.4. The Five Tonal Surnames 53 1.5. The Celestial Stems and Terrestrial Branches 54 1.6. The Nine Stars 55 1.7. The Eight Trigrams 56 1.8. The Dragon 57 1.9. Configurational Force 58 1.10. Sand 62 1.11. Classic 62 1.12. Mingtang 63 CHAPTER FOUR 65 COMPARISON OF TEXTS 65 CHAPTER FIVE 77 FENGSHUI AND GEOLOGY/GEOGRAPHY 77 CHAPTER SIX 89 THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF FENGSHUI AND SCIENCE 89 1. Ritualisation of Knowledge and the Environmental History of China 105 PART TWO 109 TRANSLATIONS 109 PRELIMINARY REMARKS 111 113 CHAPTER SEVEN 113 Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu 122 1. Qing Wu—Postscript 1.2. The Classic of Burial 123 CHAPTER EIGHT 125 125 THE INNER CHAPTER OF THE BOOK OF BURIAL ROOTED IN ANTIQUITY 135 CHAPTER NINE 135 THE YELLOW EMPEROR’S CLASSIC OF HOUSE SITING 135 1. Chapter 1 1.1. An Outline of the Secondary Method of Repairing Sites 143 2. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting—Chapter 2 147 CHAPTER TEN 161 161 TWENTY FOUR DIFFICULT PROBLEMS 161 Problem 1 The Reply 161 Problem 2 162 The Reply 162 Problem 3 164 The Reply 164 Problem 4 165 The Reply 165 Problem 5 167 The Reply 167 Problem 6 168 The Reply 169 Problem 7 170 The Reply 170 Problem 8 171 The Reply 171 Problem 9 175 The Reply 175 Problem 10 175 The Reply 175 Problem 11 177 The Reply 177 Problem 12 177 The Reply 177 Problem 13 178 The Reply 178 Problem 14 179 The Reply 179 Problem 15 179 The Reply 179 Problem 16 179 The Reply 180 Problem 17 181 The Reply 181 Problem 18 181 The Reply 181 Problem 19 183 The Reply 183 Problem 20 184 The Reply 184 Problem 21 185 The Reply 185 Problem 22 189 The Reply 189 Problem 23 190 The Reply 190 Problem 24 190 The Reply 190 CHAPTER ELEVEN 193 193 THE SECRETLY PASSED DOWN WATER DRAGON CLASSIC 193 1. Preface to the Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic 2. Foreword to the Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic 196 3. The Secretly Passed Down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 1 199 3.1. General Discussion 199 3.2. Discussion on the Subtle Movements in the Machinations of Qi 202 3.3. The Ballad of the Natural Water Method 203 3.4. Eighteen Patterns and their Maps 205 4. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 2 255 4.1. General Discussion 255 4.2. Water Pincer Prose of Guo Jingchun 256 4.3. Star Seal Section 257 5. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 3 259 5.1. General Discussion 259 5.2. Theory of the Pictographic Patterns of Water and Reeds 260 5. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 4 276 5.1. General Discussion 276 5.2. Discussion of Branches and Trunks 278 5.3. Discussion of the Five Stars 278 5.4. Discussion of the Four Beasts 289 5.5. Discussion of the Form of the Situation 299 5.6. Discussion of Strange Forms 310 5.7. Discussion of Pools, Ponds, Wells and Bridges 329 6. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 5 332 6.1. Foreword 332 6.2. General Discussion of the Original Book 333 6.3. The Ballad of Seeking the Veins of the Water Dragon 336 BIBLIOGRAPHY 401 401 1. Texts Translated 2. Other Sources 401 GLOSSARY OF CHINESE CHARACTERS 411 415 INDEX

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Contents Preface: Spiritual Geography and the Energy of the Land. . . . . . . . . . . .   ix Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  xix xx PART ONE

DISCUSSION 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3 2. A Review of the Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11 3. Notes on Translation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   45 4. Comparison of Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   65 5. Fengshui and Geology/Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   77 6. The Conceptual Basis of Fengshui and Science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   89 PART TWO

TRANSLATIONS Preliminary Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  111 7. Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  113 8. The Inner Chapter of the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity . . . .  125 9. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  135 10. Twenty Four Difficult Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  161 11. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  193 1. Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  193 2. Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  196 3. Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  199

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Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  401 Glossary of Chinese Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  411 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  415 422

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PREFACE

SPIRITUAL GEOGRAPHY AND THE ENERGY OF THE LAND Fengshui has become an almost worldwide phenomenon, exemplified by societies formed around its practice in countries and cultures as distant from China and as varied as Mexico, Poland and Australia. One factor in the rise in popularity of modern fengshui has been the negation of scientism by popular postmodern cultures. Much has been written on scientism in relation to the twentieth century Chinese culture where there has been a continuous political and social tension between historical materialism, technological determinism, and empirical positivism on the one hand and Marxist, Confucian, and Western humanism on the other.1 However, in the case of fengshui, it has been the rejection of scientism of the modern state that seems to be one of the major causes of its popularity. In the West there is a perception that much of the ‘magic’ of life and the power of the individual have been lost to the powerful corporate conglomerates, which tend to hold the reins of scientific knowledge through dry correlation-based statistical analysis. Thus, there has been a gradual increase in distrust of modern knowledge systems, whether they be economics or medicine, and a search for more meaningful humanistic knowledge systems that meld both the intellectual and the emotional. To this end, this book considers the conceptualisation of physical surroundings in relation to the human spirit as represented by the so-called Form School of fengshui with full translations of five different texts from different Chinese dynasties: the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu, the ­Burial Book Rooted in Antiquity, the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting, the Secretly Passed Down Water Dragon Classic and the Twenty Four Difficult Problems. These translations provide a corpus of work that enables an analysis of the continuum of this conceptualisation, so that there can be a more complete picture of the ideas of the Chinese spiritual geography, that is fengshui, in relation to the energy of the land. The analysis is divided into three sections: a juxtaposition of the early and later classical thought of the 1 Examples include Ou Yang Guan Wei, ‘Scientism, Technocracy, and Morality in China’, Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30, no. 2 (2003): pp. 177–93; and Hua Shiping, Scientism and Humanism: Two Cultures in Post-Mao China 1979–1989 (Albany: SUNY Press, 1995).

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Form School in terms of the change in conceptual and cosmological basis; a consideration of the possible parallels between the principles found in the texts translated and modern geological and geographical concepts of the energy of the land; and a discussion of the conceptual basis of fengshui in relation to the philosophical nature of science itself. A comparison of the conceptual basis of the different texts shows that there seems to have been both a linear and a circular evolutionary pattern. The linear pattern is evident in the shift from the use of the theory of fengshui in the siting of graves in mountains to the siting of residences in mountains to the siting of both residences and graves in both mountains and plains. The circular pattern can be seen in the development of the cosmological basis from the original use of no more than the concepts of qi and yin-yang with respect to the observed landform in the Book of ­Burial and the Burial Classic through the addition of many of the cosmological principles of traditional Chinese thought, such as Five Phases theory, the celestial stems, terrestrial branches and the trigrams in the Classic of Siting and some sections of the Water Dragon Classic back to the argument for a return to the utilisation of only qi and yin-yang contained in the Twenty Four Difficult Problems. The system proposed by Bennett2 using functional, resonance and sign forms was found to be a useful tool for analysing these evolutionary changes. In terms of this system the indications are that the original theory as outlined by the earliest texts was based on the functionality of form with some secondary consideration of sign form. The later texts including the Classic of House Siting and much of the Water Dragon Classic seemingly negate this early functional basis and become much more involved with the resonance of a form with different cosmological principles. This deviation from functionality is debunked in the Twenty Four Difficult Problems with its argument for a return to the original principles as outlined by Guo Pu although the consideration of sign forms is also argued against. The argument found in the Twenty Four Difficult Problems against the use of resonance and sign forms provides an interesting side-light in relation to the history of science. Because functional forms could be considered to have a rational, observational basis, their use would seem to be more ‘scientific’ in an empirical sense than the correlations involved with both resonance and sign forms. Thus, the author of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems in calling for a return to the use of functional form sets a rational 2 Bennett, S. J., ‘Patterns of the Sky and Earth: A Chinese Science of Applied Cosmology’, Chinese Science, vol. 3 (1978): pp. 1-26.

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tone which is on the verge of being scientific. However, rather than looking further towards a more definitive theory, there is a call to return to the original concepts of Guo Pu. This is typical of Ming dynasty scholarship which looked back to the ‘golden age’ of the past rather than looking to future possibilities. Such reflection on the glorious past may in a small way indicate a possible answer to the question as to why science in its modern conception did not occur in China at this time. If one considers the theories of the past to be perfect, any conceptualisation of the present must be based on that of the past, which negates the possibility of progression. The rationality of the use of functional forms mentioned above has some bearing on the possibility of parallels between the concepts found in the texts translated and modern geological and geographical theory. I argue that the functional ‘lair’ configuration shows a very good early understanding of basic geography and geology due to its origins in observation and this would indicate that the early texts play an important role in the history of such an understanding. However, as the concepts become more correlative than functional, any parallels become lost. Modern research into gravitational and magnetic energy in the earth has, nevertheless, come to conclusions which are strikingly similar to those of the texts, such as the idea that energy (qi) flows through the earth in lines, but it would not be valid without more proof to consider that the writers of the texts concerned had any insight into the effects of terrestrial gravitation and magnetism. The validity of taking any parallels between ancient texts and the ­development of modern scientific theories such as in the work of Needham and Capra has of itself been questioned by sociologists of science. Restivo in particular criticises those who he calls the ‘parallelists’ for taking texts piecemeal and considering them outside their cultural context. I have ­attempted to address some of these criticisms by giving, where possible, complete translations and by providing translations of a number of different texts on the same theme from different times to enable a more complete picture of the concepts involved. The picture gained has been one of attempts by the authors of the texts to understand the energy of the land and its effects on the human species by a subtle blend of observation and correlation with external phenomena. The theorisation from observation aspect leads me to place fengshui within the realms of the history of science. On the surface, however, one would tend to see the correlative aspect as detrimental to any scientific progress. Yet if one takes into account Graham’s argument on the positive contribution to human endeavour that correlative thinking can make particularly

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in terms of beauty, it could be considered that it was just such correlation in fengshui that enabled it to help shape the aesthetic beauty of the landscape in China remarked on by Needham. Moreover, if one wishes to take the basic tenets of fengshui from a continental perspective and look at them correlatively, some useful conclusions can be formed. The most important quotes in relation to this are found in the Book of Burial and the Burial Classic. The Book of Burial states that: The Classic says, ‘When qi circulates through landforms, entities are, thereby, given life.’ The configurational force of the earth is the original veins. The configurational force of mountains is the original bones. They snake either west to east or north to south, curling back on themselves as if crouching and waiting, as if with something in their grasp. (Qi) desires to proceed but it is cut off. It desires to halt and becomes deep. Where it comes and accumulates, stops and gathers, there will be a clashing of yang with a harmonising of yin, the earth will be rich and the water deep, the grasses lush and the forests luxuriant, nobility will be to the extent of 1,000 chariots and wealth will be to the extent of 10,000 pieces of gold.

Thus, the basic premise is that fertility is a function of the circulation of qi through the landform, particularly through mountains, and that the direction of this circulation is to the east and the south. Moreover, the commentary to the Burial Classic states that: Qi congealed into the Kunlun Mountains, a form with crude substance. As there is separation into north and south, the southern dragon is yang and pure while the northern dragon is yin and turbid. As there is a beginning, there must be an end. As there is movement, there must be rest. With beginning there is return to the end, rest and movement again. This is governed by the Kunlun Mountains.

It can be seen that the source of the vital qi in China is considered to be the Kunlun Mountains, which are situated at the western extremity of the Himalayan orogeny, and seem to be a metaphor for the entire mountain range. From a correlative stance, the two statements above explain the great fertility of the vast floodplains of China; a great deal of qi ‘vital energy’ is accumulated in the large mountain ranges to the west of China and this flows to the east to be bounded and held by water provided by the great rivers of China, such as the Yangzi and the Yellow river, as well as the sea. The same correlative system can be used to explain the fertility of India and its consequent ability to sustain such a large human population. Both of these insights could, however, have come from observation at the time the texts were written, but this correlative theory of the source of

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fertility can even be used today to explain phenomena which would have probably been outside the experience of Chinese writers before the Ming dynasty. For example, the theory can be used to explain the fact that over 80% of the population of Australia lives to the east of the Great Dividing Range, a mountain range that runs the length of the eastern side of the Australian mainland. According to the fengshui theory of fertility outlined above, any ‘vital energy’ that would come from this range would flow to the east and population figures confirm this. In fact, west of the Great Dividing Range sees the land gradually decline into desert, which is the state of much of the continent of Australia.3 Thus, we gain a picture of fengshui as a kind of macro-geography such that fertility and as a consequence viable human populations depend on the interaction of moisture laden wind (feng) with mountains to create water (shui) and topsoil. Traditional Chinese maps give visual evidence that this relationship between accumulation of ‘energy’ in relation the fengshui theory and human population centres does exist. It is remarkable that most traditional maps of cities show that they are sited on the principles of fengshui with a large mountain or mountain range at the back (the Dark Warrior) and smaller mountain ranges or watercourses on each side (the Azure Dragon and the White Tiger) with a watercourse meandering in the front just in front of a small mountain range (the Vermilion Sparrow).4 Similarly, the concept of a river as the source of ‘energy’ itself is referred to in Problem 6 of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems where each major bend of the Yangzi River is associated with a town or city:

3 It is interesting to note that the self-styled biophysicist, Wilhelm Reich’s ‘orgone’ energy also supposedly moved in waves from west to east. Reich called orgone energy ‘life energy’ (cf. shengqi or ‘vital energy’) and described it as a blue non-electromagnetic force that permeates all of nature. He proscribed to orgone energy ‘heat waves’ shimmering on roads as well as all phenomena that physicists usually attribute to static electricity such as lightning, electrical disturbances during sunspot activity, cloud formations and thunderstorms (see Gardiner, M., Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (New York: Dover Publications, 1957). 4 See for instance Cao Wanru et al. (eds.) Zhongguo dai ditu ji (An Atlas of Ancient Chinese Maps (3 volumes) (Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe, 1994) and Liu Zhenwei, Wang Ruo and Jiang Tonghua (eds.), A Selection of China’s Ancient Maps (Beijing, China Esperanto Press, 1995). Wang Qianjin, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a historian of geography in China and the author of the text for the latter volume, first pointed this out to me. Chinese maps are after all as much pictographic as cartographic. Interestingly, Shanghai, a city founded on modernity, does not fit into this pattern. Its tidal flows were much too strong, and it was situated much too close to the typhoon ravaged coast to be viable for large populations before the advent of steel amongst other developments of modern science.

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preface For example, for 10,000 li the southern dragon of the Yangzi rushes to the east. Each turning and winding forms a separation and a combination. If it is large then it is a provincial capital. If it is small, it is the prefectural city. This is true in every case.

Besides this use of correlative thought to envisage and theorise on the ‘energy of the land’, the aesthetic side to the basic tenets of fengshui has found a voice in the modern development of environmentalism. However, to consider this voice it is instructive to look to the history of the environmental sciences. According to Bowler, the fear of environmental degradation began in earnest in the nineteenth century due to the ravages brought about by mechanistic theories of the scientific world at that time. It was not, however, until the 1890s that ecology, the study of the interactions of organisms with their environment, became a distinct science. Such studies were done from a variety of different value systems. For example, in Germany, the development of an environmental attitude was based on the evolutionary theories of Ernst Haeckel, which imbued the physical universe with a spiritual dimension to give the quasi-mystical construct of a ‘religion of nature’, which became strongly linked to right-wing Nazi policies.5 In fact, the Nazis established nature reserves on land taken from Jewish and Polish people. Nevertheless, the environmental movement was able to shake off these fascist links and the most important thinker in this context in the twentieth century became James Lovelock. Lovelock put forward the Gaia Hypothesis which states that the world is a living entity unto itself and this entity self-regulates to preserve a life-enabling environment. The recent strength world-wide of the environmental movement in almost every arena is indicative of the large amount of thought that humanity has invested in the amenability of its surroundings, an investment which was necessary due to the continual negative effect on the environment that went hand in hand with the conception of humanity above not within nature. This reconsideration of the place of mankind in the world in relation to science has been a catalyst for a call, particularly in the West, for an abandonment of the ‘aesthetic of disinterestedness in favour of an aesthetic of engagement’6 in environmental matters due to the failure of

5 Bowler, P. J., The Norton History of the Environmental Sciences (London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992). 6 Berleant, A., The Aesthetics of Environment (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992), p. 157.

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the economic rationalist approach to nurture the human heart, which has been thrown into dismay with the creation of sterile concrete jungles. Such calls for the inclusiveness of humanity in the environment through the use of aesthetics are generally based on the argument that the environment has never had a strong aesthetic status. This, however, is a misconception due to a blinkered view of the world that only incorporates the history of Western science. Many traditional cultures have an underlying consideration of the aesthetics of the environment within their traditional ‘sciences’. An example is the Indian tradition of ecology, which Kayatha argues is part of a holistic understanding of peace: The Indian traditions of peace and ecological harmony are very comprehensive and include the cosmic concept of ‘Holistic Peace’, that not only confines itself to ‘peace among people’ but extends to peace in water, peace in vegetation, and peace in all living and non-living matter. Such holistic concept (sic.) emphasises that there can be no peace and happiness, if there is no peace and harmony in nature.7

The Chinese conception of the principles of the earth (dili) which incorporates fengshui is no exception to this idea of ecology. The texts translated generally do not overtly mention environmental matters but even the root concept of ‘holding the water and blocking the wind’ contains within it an understanding of the negative effects of erosion. There are, however, some much more overt references to environmental concerns in the texts such as in the ‘Ballad of the Natural Water Method’ in the first chapter of the Water Dragon Classic which speaks of the need for water to be pure and for drainage to be not too quick: When the water is clear, still and pure, there is even greater auspiciousness. How can there be there profit in rapid drainage and waterfalls?

The two examples from India and China mentioned above are instances of what the philosopher of science, Houng Yu-Houng, has termed ‘folk psychology’. He argues that these are intentional phenomena and that it is thus necessary to consider them to be part of the natural order such that they should be the object of scientific investigation rather than something to be eliminated.8 7 Kayatha, S. L., ‘Forests and Ecology in the Himalaya’, in Singh, A. B., Dynamics of Mountain Geosystems (New Delhi: Ashish Publishing, 1992). 8 Houng Yu-Houng, ‘Eliminative Materialism and Connectionalism’, in Lin Cheng-Hung & Fu Daiwie (eds.), Philosophy and Conceptual History of Science in Taiwan (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1993).

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Another example of such ‘folk psychology’ is found in the Australian desert aboriginal conception of time which names some eight or nine seasons, a classification that fits much more readily from observation than the four season northern hemisphere model. In fact, Weng Wenhao, a renowned Chinese geologist at the end of a 1925 treatise on the meaning of mountain veins in traditional Chinese thought quietly decried the European tendency to make everything fit to their reality rather than to the reality of the world in general. ‘Why should we cut our feet to make the shoes fit?’ he asks.9 More recently Nathan Sivin argues in the same vein: True universality would require modern technology to coexist with and serve cultural diversity rather than consistently serving as a tool to standardize it out of existence.10

In this context of cultural diversity and the need for more scientific investigation in relation to fengshui, a number of avenues of possible future research could be suggested. On the textural level, more complete translations obviously need to be done. A much fuller picture of the development of the Form School would be gained from translations of the works of the Tang dynasty fengshui writer, Yang Yunsong, such as the Shaking Dragon Classic. Moreover, translations of texts from the long history of criticism of fengshui by Chinese scholars, such as the writings of Wang Chong in the late Han dynasty, could be undertaken.11 In terms of the possible relationship between the concepts of fengshui and modern geological theory, experiments could conceivably be undertaken using a magnetometer on various positive type areas, particularly of the ‘lair’ configuration, to discern any relationship between their geomagnetic structure and the traditionally auspicious points although such experimentation would be fraught with difficulties. In the field of economics, an area of research that has been suggested by Tim and Jonas Fisher is the possible relationship between the methodology used for the choice of a site found in traditional fengshui texts 9 Huang Jiqing, Weng Wenhao xuanji (The Collected Writings of Weng Wenhao) (Beijing: Ye jin gongye chubanshe, 1989), p. 160. 10 Sivin, N., ‘Why the Scientific Revolution Did Not Take Place in China—Or Did It?’, Chinese Science, vol. 5 (1982): pp. 45-66. 11 An example of the scholarly work already done is the comparison of arguments against fengshui found in the Ming dynasty, Fengshui Bian 風水辨 (A Clarification of Fengshui), written by the Confucian Ming scholar Xiang Qiao 項喬 and the Book of Burial. See Lim, L., The Use of Fengshui for Burial Siting: the Conflicting Ideas between the Confucian Tradition and the Zang shu, unpublished honours thesis (London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 2009).

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and the property market in large northern hemisphere cities such as San Francisco. Their hypothesis is that if the original concept of fengshui is based on rationality then there would be a positive correlation between traditional choice of site and the amount of money people would be willing to pay for that site.12 Another possibility for research, suggested by Howard Choy, who is presently undertaking a study into the relationship between architecture and fengshui, would involve a sociological experiment into the consensus of opinion on type areas as outlined by fengshui, that is into what percentage of people consider that a particular area ‘has feeling’.13 There is, moreover, other information which could be garnered from the texts translated themselves but which have not been considered because of its particular purpose. The most obvious is the cultural information. The texts, the Water Dragon Classic in particular, provide a wealth of cultural data as to the positive and negative cultural considerations of their time. For example, the Water Dragon Classic seldom mentions women, and when it does, it is generally in a negative context. Another cultural clue in terms of fengshui itself comes from the calls for secrecy from the authors of the texts, a need for secrecy which is perhaps indicated by the difficulty of the translation.

12 Fisher, T. and J. Fisher, personal discussion, University of Pennsylvania, 2001. Tim Fisher is an economist at the University of Sydney, and Jonas Fisher is a macro-economist for the USA Federal Reserve. 13 Michael Mak advocates a research agenda in four phases: a conceptual framework gained from an analysis of the literature corpus from which a knowledge hierarchy can be ascertained; prototype design garnered from the conceptual framework; prototype development; and prototype evaluation. See Mak, M. ‘Scientific Research of Fengshui Applications’ in Reiter, F. (ed.), Fengshui (Kan Yu) and Architecture (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2011).

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the various people who have helped me along the journey that is a book such as this. My various supervisors for the theses that make up the core of the volume, Mabel Lee, Bi Xiyan and the late Liu Weiping, should be acknowledged most in this context because of the many hours that each put in to help me hone the translations so that they reflected as much as possible the original meaning. However, there are others that should be mentioned such as my fellow translators at the President Translation Company in Taiwan where I worked for four hours in the morning in 1988-89. When there was no immediate translation work, we would sit together contemplating the possible meaning of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems. During the same period, I worked in the afternoon as an executive secretary in the Centre for Chinese Studies in the National Library, and I am forever grateful to the director at that time for encouraging me to go on with my own research during working hours when there were no immediate tasks to be done. Moreover, the architect and fengshui xiansheng, Howard Choy, has been a friend since the early 1990s, and he has given me an understanding of the practitioner’s perspective. In addition, discussions about my ideas and translations with scholars of the history and philosophy of science in China such as Nathan Sivin, Liu Dun, Wang Qianjin and Fu Daiwie and those of Chinese studies in general such as Glen Dudbridge and Wang Yiyan have proved more than fruitful and I thank them unreservedly. Finally, I wish to thank my family and friends for their support for my endeavours in research over almost three decades what is usually considered to be the epitome of the arcane.

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philanthropy in the independent indonesian state

PART ONE

Discussion

1

2

part three

introduction

3

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION The history of science has been entwined with that of, for want of a better word, magic. Even though there was inquiry into the logical structure of knowledge as far back as Aristotle, who concluded that all true propositions could be deduced using logic from basic concepts, up until the modern era scientific endeavour has gone hand-in-hand with what would now be called pseudo-scientific metaphysical postulation. Even as valuable a figure to scientific thought as Robert Boyle, who is praised for his quantitative experimental work into the volume of gases, the laws on which are still taught in high school science, believed that wounded wild animals would emanate an effluvia that would poison pursuing dogs and would remain in the air for a year or more.1 In fact, Boyle is known to have written a now lost treatise, Strange Reports, which is supposed to have empirically substantiated many supernatural phenomena.2 One finds no exception to this in the history of scientific thought in China. One of the great Chinese sceptics, Liu Qi, of the Yuan dynasty, who is considered to have “a distinctly scientific mind”3 for attempting to understand natural phenomena only in terms of their natural causes, believed firmly in and was the author of a book on fengshui,4 a system for placement of either the dead or the living to ensure good fortune. It was maintained by Needham that the conception of fengshui has been one of a “grossly superstitious system”5 which had no great impact on the history of science. However, Needham, himself, admitted that it “embodied a markedly aesthetic component, which accounts for the great beauty of the siting of so many of the forms, houses and villages throughout China”.6 Moreover, he stated that although there has been some research into 1 Thorndike, L., A History of Magic and Experimental Science (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), p. 174. 2 Hunter, M., ‘The Royal Society and the Decline of Magic’, Notes & Records of the Royal Society, vol. 65 (2011): pp. 103-119. 3 Needham, J., Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956), p. 388. 4 風水. 5 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.1 (1962), p. 239. 6 Ibid., p. 239.

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fengshui this is “still nothing like as much as it deserves”.7 It is for this deserved consideration and for a better understanding of this aesthetic component in relation to the historical concept of the energy of the land embodied in fengshui that translations of five different texts on this subject have been undertaken. These translations have been set out in their entirety for two reasons. The first is in response to the criticisms of Needham’s work on the history of science in China by Restivo, who pointed out that the lack of representativeness in the selection process and the fragmentation of the texts affected their cultural understanding in the modern context.8 The more important purpose, however, is to form the beginnings of a comprehensive body of work on the Form School9 of fengshui. Such a work should provide a more complete picture of its concepts and hence give researchers in such areas as anthropology, comparative religion, and the history and philsophy of science who lack the requisite language skills a framework by which to judge the ideas held therein. The history of science in China is, after all, nought but part of the history of an international endeavour of humanity to conceptualise the physical surroundings, and fengshui represents an early attempt to do precisely this. Moreover, the understanding garnered from these translations should help to dispel the large amount of misinformation regarding fengshui that has been circulating around the world with the exponential increase in its popularity internationally over the last two decades. This popularity of fengshui has been fuelled by a large number of books in English, some of the most popular of which have seemingly been written from at best tertiary sources. The writers of the worst of these either mix all Asian cultural ideas on spirit and siting under the one heading of ‘fengshui’ or merely make up their theories. For example, one English author bases her ideas on Balinese exorcism techniques while an American has become very popular with his ideas on ‘intuitive’ fengshui, which are not based on any historical Chinese sources. Such cultural chauvinism (seemingly the stance is that the author’s know more about Chinese culture than the Chinese themselves, perhaps because they speak English) needs redressing and the publication of these translations is an attempt to do just 7 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 2, p. 359. 8 Restivo, S., The Social Relations of Physics, Mysticism, and Mathematics; Studies in Social Structure, Interests and Ideas (Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1983). This criticism of Needham is considered in detail in Chapter 5. 9 Otherwise known as the forms and configurations school 形 勢 (xing shi) or the mountain peaks-vital embodiment school 巒體 (luan ti). For a discussion of the Form and Compass Schools refer to the Review of the Literature in Chapter 2.

introduction

5

that. However, it is not as though the history of fengshui has been free from similar such problems within the Chinese culture. As the Twenty Four Difficult Problems, written around the fourteenth century, states: (T)he practitioners of the art.....indeed conduct the art of swindlers. Therefore, generations guard their theories and do not change, not knowing that their words are distant from the classics and betray the way. Oh, the sorrow of it! How can there be an affair not modelled on the ancients or a righteousness that does venerate the classics and yet still not be a defiance against the correct?

The Form School was chosen because its theories are seemingly based on actual observation of the land with explicit description and classification of the natural landscape. This school could, thus, be considered to have a more empirical basis although there was certainly an intuitive aspect to it. To a large extent, the Compass School,10 even though it had an important impact on the practical use of the maritime compass and on the understanding of magnetism and declination in China11 and is obviously more theoretical in nature, is much more associated with astrological considerations of the machinations of the heaven. It has, therefore, been left for future research. This is despite the fact that the Compass School has ­become much more popular internationally in recent years. After all, an estimated eighty percent of present day fengshui literature involves the astrological machinations of Eight Mansion Theory. The five texts selected for translation are Qing Wu xiansheng zang jing12 (the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu—Burial Classic), Gu ben zang jing nei pian13 (the Inner Chapter of the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity -Book of Burial),14 Huangdi zhai jing15 (Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting -Classic of Siting), Mi chuan shuilong jing16 (the Secretly Passed down Water

10 Also called the Ancestral Hall school 方位 (fang wei) and more recently known as the pattern-energy school 理氣 (li qi). 11 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.1, pp. 295-298, 307, 333-334. 12 青烏先生葬經. 13 古本葬經內篇. 14 The literal translation of this title is the ‘Inner Chapter of the Classic of Burial Rooted in Antiquity’, but I have chosen to use the word book rather than classic here so as not to confuse it with the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu. This has a precedent in that several variants of this text are called zangshu or Book of Burial rather than zangjing or Classic of Burial. For example, the Song dynasty history, Songshi yiwen zhi wuxing lei, lists the Guo Pu zangshu (Guo Pu’s Book of Burial). 15 皇帝宅經. 16 秘傳水龍經.

6

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Dragon Classic), and Nan jie ershisi pian17 (the Twenty Four Difficult Problems). These were chosen because they form a continuum of Form School texts from the early, middle and late periods and thus they reflect the early and later classical thought of the Form School from the Later Han ­dynasty to the Ming dynasty. The Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu (Burial Classic) comes with an annotation by Wu Qinze.18 It considers the relationship between burial and the energy19 of the land in terms of the surrounding landform, the basic tenet being that burial of one’s ancestors in an area of vital energy (sheng qi)20 affords good fortune to the descendants. This is supposedly a Han dynasty text. A Sui dynasty dictionary mentions Qing Wu as a fine scholar and a practitioner of the practical arts in the Han dynasty and this is reiterated by Liu Zongyuan21 (773-819) in his Epitaph to the Esteemed Ancestor Madam Li from the State of Zhao (Bo zu bi zhaozhou Li furen mu zhiming).22 However, Chang Xinchang in the Comprehensive Investigation of Forged Documents (Wei shu tong kao) suggests that this classic is of forged authorship. Moreover, the two postscripts that have been included in the translation raise doubts as to the original text being of Han origin for textural reasons. As one of the postscripts states, “The collection floats beyond the realm of recorded history”. The Inner Chapter of the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity (Book of Burial) is a Jin dynasty (265-420 AD) text written by Guo Pu.23 It is esteemed as a type of bible or the veritable ‘classic’ of fengshui. Like the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity is based on the burial of one’s ancestors in an auspicious site according to the flow of qi through the surrounding landform. In fact, the similarities between the two texts have led to suggestions that the Burial Classic is the ‘classic’ on which the Book of Burial is based; however, this idea has largely been rejected (see Chapters 2 and 3). Moreover, there is also some doubt about the authenticity of the Book of Burial and Guo Pu’s authorship of it. Neverthe17 難解二十四篇. 18 兀欽庂. 19 The translation ‘energy’ is used loosely here for qi, a discussion of the definition of which is included in the following section. 20 生氣. 21 柳宗元. 22 Zhang Qiyun (ed.), Zhongwen Da Cidian (The Great Chinese Dictionary) (Taibei: Zhongguo wenhuaxue yuan chubanbu, 1969). It should be noted that unless otherwise stated references are taken from this encyclopaedic dictionary. 23 郭璞.

introduction

7

less, brief mention should be made here of the biography of Guo Pu because of the pre-eminence of his name in the field of fengshui. He was born in Wenxi in Shanxi province and became a noted poet and renowned scholar of the antiquities.24 He also wrote famous commentaries on the Shan hai jing (Classic of Mountains and Seas) and the Er ya dictionary and was the first to apply astrology to individuals whereas previously it had solely been concerned with imperial affairs.25 It should be noted that the ‘inner chapter’ of the title comes from the fact that later versions of this classic have additional ‘outer’ and ‘miscellaneous’ chapters, purportedly written by later masters. The Inner Chapter was specifically chosen for translation because it is more likely to have been actually written by Guo Pu. The Book of Burial was not associated with Guo Pu, however, until the Song Dynasty when the Guo Pu zangshu (Guo Pu’s Burial Book) is mentioned in the Song dynasty History (Songshi yiwen zhi wuxing lei). Neither the Jin dynasty History nor the Old nor New Tang ­dynasty Histories record the book in connection with Guo Pu but the latter two histories do mention a Classic of Mountain Veins and the Book of Burial (Zangshu dimai jing). According to Song Lian (1310-1381) in the Weishu tongkao, the idea of ‘inner chapter’ came about due to the fact that the original book was supposedly altered by burial site practitioners over the centuries until it contained over twenty chapters. Twelve of the chapters were deleted by Cai Jitong (1135-1198), and Wu Boching (1247-1331) further edited the text to create the Inner Chapter, that which seemed to be the work of Guo Pu, and the Outer Chapters and Miscellanea, each having respectively less connection with Guo Pu’s writings.26 The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting (Classic of Siting) traces its authorship to the legendary Huangdi, regarded to be the first and greatest Daoist immortal, who traditionally reigned in China from 2704 to 2595 BC. However, this use of Huangdi’s name is merely to lend credence to the ideas expressed therein and the authorship is actually attributed to Wang Wei27 of the Liu Song dynasty (420-479 AD) although this attribution is also doubtful because of anachronistic references contained in the Classic of Siting itself. This text concerns the siting of residences of the living rather than the dead and relates more to the direction of different aspects of the land24 De Groot, J. J. M., The Religious System of China, vol. 3 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1892-1910; reprinted, Taibei: Literature House Ltd, 1964), p. 1001. 25 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 2, p. 350. 26 Kohut, J. M., Kuo P’u’s Burial Book, unpublished honours thesis (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), pp. 12-18. 27 王微.

8

chapter one

form rather than merely its shape. Thus, even though Bennett indicates that this is a Form School text, it can be considered to be the foundation text of the later Compass School.28 The Twenty Four Difficult Problems is an extended treatise on the theories of the Form School of burial in relation to the energy of mountains and rivers written somewhat in the form of a Socratic dialogue. It is particularly interesting because of its denigration of the Compass School and of the use of fengshui in the pursuit of good fortune. Its quasi-scientific tone is perhaps a precursor to the ecological stance that pervades many modern popular treatises on fengshui.29 The authorship of this text is stated to be ‘anonymous’ and there is no indication of the era from which it may come although it is found in the late Ming dynasty (1628-1644) collection, Jin dai bi shu (Writings Fording the Mysteries) compiled by Mao Jin, and this with other textual evidence, particularly the place names used, point towards it being written between the late Song and the early Ming dynasty. The poverty of style in the writing of this text and the consequent difficulty of translation suggest that the author is not a scholar merely commentating on the concepts of fengshui but a practitioner, i.e. a fengshui xiansheng, of the Form School, who has a monetary stake in denigrating the practices of the then comparatively much newer and perhaps more popular Compass School. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic (Water Dragon Classic) is a fengshui manual edited by Jiang Pingjie (circa 1600).30 It treats both burial and the siting of houses as being related to the flow of watercourses. The text contains five chapters with an extensive number of diagrams. These chapters could actually be considered to be five different texts, some are contemporaneous with Jiang Pingjie and some are stated to be of a considerably earlier origin. The second chapter is in fact accredited to Guo Pu mentioned above and the fourth to the famous Tang dynasty fengshui writer, Yang Yunsong31 otherwise known as Yang Yi.32 As the Introduction by Jiang Pingjie states: 28 Bennett, S. J., ‘Patterns of the Sky and Earth: A Chinese Science of Applied Cosmology’, Chinese Science, vol. 3 (1978): pp. 1-26. 29 Such as Ling Shuang, Xiandai fengshui tan (Discussions on Present Day Fengshui) (Xianggang: Ming chuang chubanshe, 1985) and Bai Yun Shan Ren, Kan fengshui. zao ji zhai (Looking at Fengshui: Creating a Lucky House) (Xianggang: Qian kun chubanshe, 1985). 30 蔣平階, a famous poet of the Ming dynasty who turned to the study of the occult arts in the later years of his life. 31 楊筠松. 32 楊益.

introduction

9

The first chapter explains the connection of the great body of the moving dragon with the node and the method of taking advantage the mutual relationship between branches and trunks. The second chapter narrates the various patterns of the correspondence of the water dragon with the stars above. The third chapter indicates the comparative similarities of the categories of objects and animals that can consign meaning to the water dragon. The fourth chapter explains the crux of good and bad fortune in terms of the five stars, a correct branch and the nodal body. The fifth chapter has the same meaning as the fourth and freely refers to it. The first, third and fourth chapters were obtained from Wu Tianzhu.33 It seems that the second chapter was obtained from the family of the former eunuch of Cha Pu.34 I obtained the fifth chapter last from my district. Some have the name of the author and some do not.

The layout of this book is as follows. Chapter 2 is a review of the literature on fengshui. This review is divided into an outline of important historical texts, major modern sociological and cultural studies, research undertaken in the field of architecture and studies whose focus has been on the history and philosophy of science. Chapter 3 initially outlines the difficulties of the translation of particular terms and how such problems have been resolved. It continues with definitions of the major terms used throughout the texts. These terms are integral to an understanding of the texts as a whole. A discussion of the texts translated and the concepts found therein is undertaken in Chapter 4. This considers the texts themselves and the relationships between them with particular reference to the classification system of the different types of correlation of landform as outlined by Bennett.35 Chapter 5 discusses the concepts found in the texts as they relate to the history of geographical and geological thought and in terms of the parallels to modern geological research into the effect of magnetic and gravitational fields and that of underground water. This focuses particularly on the idea that the texts translated are early attempts to understand and put into a theoretical framework the energy of the land. Chapter 6 is a discussion of the conceptual basis of fengshui and its relationship with the history and philosophy of science with reference to criticisms of the parallelist perspective as represented by Needham and others. Here, there is also consideration of the role that aesthetic ‘feeling’ plays in both fengshui and in general human thought processes and the validity of correlational thought in terms of these. In this discussion an attempt is made to respond 33 Unknown. 34 Unknown. 35 Bennett, S. J., op. cit., pp. 1-26.

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to the conundrum posed by Needham and explain the beauty of siting in the traditional Chinese landscape as based on fengshui theory. The actual translations of the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu, the Inner Chapter of the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity, the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting, the Twenty Four Difficult Problems, and the Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic occur in Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 respectively.

a review of the literature

11

CHAPTER two

A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A complete review of all the literature ever written on the topic of fengshui would be an insurmountable task within the context of what is mainly a book of translations. What is proposed is that a selective review be made in terms of the stated purpose. Firstly, an overview of the most important Chinese historical texts is undertaken. There is then a short discussion of the history of the general European conception of fengshui. This leads to an outline of the modern ideas on the validity of fengshui, which can be divided into cultural and sociological commentaries, architectural considerations and, most importantly in relation to my interests, writings which consider fengshui and its theoretical underpinning in terms of the history and philosophy of science. 1. Important Historical Texts One of the earliest references to the idea of fengshui is found in the Shi ji where Meng Tian the builder of the great wall of China in the Qin dynasty refers to the crime of cutting through the veins of the earth although Needham points out that this could merely have been a literary device of the writer of the Shi ji, Sima Qian.1 Another early reference to the principle underpinning fengshui is found in the thirty-ninth chapter of the Guanzi where it is stated that “water is the blood of the earth, flowing and communicating as if sinews and veins”.2 However, Needham maintains that parts of this text could be from the fourth century BC, and that it did not reach its final form until the Han dynasty, hence casting doubts on the specific date of this statement. The traditional encyclopaedic classification of fengshui has been in the shu shu3 or practical arts. In the Yi wen zhi section of the History of the Former Han, Ban Gu (32-92 AD) mentions two books, both of which are no

1 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.3 (1971), p. 53. 2 Ibid. vol. 2, p. 42. 3 術數.

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longer extant, the Kanyu jin kui4 (the Golden Kanyu Thesaurus) and the Gong zhai di xing5 (On the Landforms of Palaces and Houses). Ban Gu defines xing fa6 (literally ‘form method’) as the system of forms which, in general, deals with the physical manifestations which should be considered in the erection of a city, city wall, dwelling or building. Gao Youqian argues that this was only one of the two types of siting used at the time and that the two books mentioned above were actually examples of these two different types: the Kanyu jin kui being of the Five Phases category and the Gong zhai di xing being of the xing fa category.7 The earliest extant text is the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu, supposedly written in the Later Han dynasty although there is much evidence to indicate that this text was written much later to provide the classic to which the Burial Book Rooted in Antiquity continually refers. In the foreword to Dili zhengzong8 Mao Shuiqing argues that Qing Niao,9 which he considers to be a form of Qing Wu,10 is first mentioned in the Xuan Yuan ben ji11 (the Original Record of Huang Di) as being skilled in the principles of the earth. He also indicates that prior to the Six Dynasties period, an ‘alchemist’ of the land wrote the Xiang zhong shu12 (the Book on Appraisal of Tombs) and that later generations esteemed him as the ancestor. Both the Jing ji zhi section of the Jiu tang shu (the Old History of the Tang Dynasty of the Latter Jin dynasty) and the Yi wen zhi section of the Xin tang shu (the New History of the Tang Dynasty of the Song dynasty) record the Qing Wuzi san juan (the Three Volumes of Qing Wuzi) and it is postulated that this is possibly the Xiang zhong shu but it is not recorded after the Song dynasty. The Burial Classic itself, however, is found in various collections such as the Xiao shisan jing,13 Yi men guang du14 and Jin dai bi shu15 of the 4 堪輿金匱. 5 宮宅地形. 6 形法. 7 Gao, Yaoqian, Zhongguo fengshui (Chinese Fengshui) (Beijing: Zhongguo huaqiao chuban gongsi, 1992), pp. 53-54. 8 Zhou Wenzheng, Wang Zhenju, Zhong Lin and Li Nailong, Dili zhengzong (The Orthodox School of Earth Principles) (Nanning: Guangxi minzhu chubanshe, 1993). 9 青鳥. 10 Niao and wu are very similar characters both in depiction, there is only one stroke difference in a quite complex character, and meaning. Wu means ‘raven’ and niao the more general ‘bird’. 11 軒轅本紀 Xuan Yuan is another name for Huangdi. 12 相塚書. 13 小十三經. 14 夷門廣牘. 15 津逮柲書.

a review of the literature

13

Ming dynasty, Xue jin tao yuan16 of the Qing dynasty, and the twentieth century collections Gu jin tu shu ji cheng17 and Cong shu ji xuan.18 The next important text in the consolidation of the theory of fengshui is the Guan Shi dili zhi meng19 (Mr. Guan’s Enlightenments on the Principles of the Earth) by Guan Lu20 (209-256 AD) of the Three Dynasties period, but again there is speculation as to whether the text that now exists was written at this time.21 However, according to the Guan Lu chuan of the San guo zhi (the History of the Three Dynasties), the concepts of the Dark Warrior, Vermilion Sparrow, White Tiger and Azure Dragon were based on Guan Lu’s work.22 It should be noted in this context that the Guan Lu chuan uses cang long23 rather than qing long for the concept of the Azure Dragon. The Burial Book Rooted in Antiquity is the next major text in the refinement of the theory of fengshui. Again there is doubt as to its authenticity. There is also doubt as to its imputed authorship of Guo Pu (276-324 AD) of the Jin dynasty. In fact, there is no mention of this book in the autobiography of Guo Pu in the Jin dynasty history.24 There is also doubt as to the ‘classic’ on which the Burial Book is based. Zheng Mi25 of the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties, the chief commentator of the Burial Book, suggests that this ‘classic’ was the Qing nan jing (the Blue Bag Classic) by Chi Songzi.26 It could also be the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu, but doubts as to its authenticity have lead to general rejection of this idea. There has been a suggestion that it was the Qing nan zhong shu (the Central Book of the Blue Bag) written by Guo Pu’s father and teacher, Guo Gong,27 but the Jin shu (the History of the Jin Dynasty) states that this was accidentally burnt before Guo Pu was born.28 Nevertheless, the Burial Book Rooted in Antiquity became the major reference for later writers and Guo Pu has generally been considered the father of fengshui. 16 學津討原. 17 古今圖書集成. 18 叢書集選. 19 管氏地理指蒙. 20 管輅. 21 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 2, p. 360. 22 Miao Ma and Hui Du, Zhongguo fengshui shu (The Art of Chinese Fengshui) (Beijing: Zhongguo gu dai wenhuaxue shu congshu, 1993). 23 蒼龍 Cang has the meaning of the colour of the sky or deep green. 24 Kohut, J. M., op. cit. pp. 12-17. 25 鄭謐. 26 赤松子. 27 郭公. 28 Zhou et al., op. cit. p. 2.

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chapter two

As mentioned above, it is deemed unnecessary in the context of this book to outline all of the texts written on fengshui. In fact, Miao Ma and Hui Du list one hundred and seven important texts on the subject written up to the time of the Republic of China.29 However, one other text should be considered, the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting. It is important because it seems to be the first extant text that solely considers the siting of the living as compared to the dead. Again there is some conjecture as to its origin. It has been ascribed to Wang Wei of the Liu Song dynasty by Needham but a reference to Wang Wei at the beginning of the Classic of Siting itself suggests a different authorship. Miao Ma and Hui Du ascribe the text to Huang Di himself, the legendary emperor who separated Heaven from Earth. This is not feasible but Seidel does put forward a possible reason for the use of Huang Di’s name by pointing out that “the (Daoist) masters attached their teachings to Huang Di to make them acceptable to the princes as an art of government”.30 What should also be mentioned here is the division from the Tang dynasty onwards of the theory of fengshui into two schools, the Form School and the Compass School. The Compass School was founded by Wang Ji31 of Fujian in the Song dynasty. It used astrology and the trigrams of the Yi jing as well as the compass to determine the indications of the topography. Wang Ji is the imputed author of the Xin jing and the Wen da yu lu32 but neither of these particular texts now exist. The Form School held more to the older principles which are found in the texts outlined above. The founder was supposedly the Tang dynasty somewhat mythical personage, Yang Yunsong of Jiangxi province. His texts, such as the Shaking Dragon Classic,33 do contain an element of astrology but there is no consideration of the compass.34 Huang Yi-long describes the initial development of the Form School thus. In the early Tang dynasty circa 650, an immortal35 supposedly initiated a scholar, Qiu Yanhan,36 into the secrets of fengshui whereupon the

29 Miao Ma and Hui Du, op. cit. pp. 21-32. 30 Quoted in N. J. Gidarot, Myth and Meaning in Early Taoism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. 200. 31 王伋 According to Needham, Wang Ji was born around 990 AD. 32 心經﹐文答語錄. 33 撼龍經. 34 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.1, p. 242. 35  Shen ren 神人. 36 丘延瀚.

a review of the literature

15

emperor Xuan Zong gave Qiu an official position. Together with Yi Xing37 (a priest astronomer) Qiu wrote the Tong Han Jing38 to outline the secrets learnt from the immortal. However, apparently the information in the text was deliberately incorrect to confuse people and stop the unscrupulous from gaining the power of fengshui. Later in the late 880s when the rebel, Huang Chao, was attacking the capital, Yang Yunsong together with a Zeng Qiuji39 supposedly had Qiu’s book with material from Qing Wu cut into stone so that it would not be lost.40 Although today most practitioners seem to take an eclectic approach to matters of siting in relation to the two schools, historically there seems to have been great conflict and competition between the proponents of each. For instance, Kohut points out that the commentator for the Burial Book considers the ‘stars and trigrams’ of the Compass School to be pure heresy.41 This is reinforced strongly by the author of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems, who also denigrates proponents of the Compass School for their lack of adherence to the original principles as outlined by such texts as the Book of Burial and for their focus on money and good and bad fortune rather than proper funeral practices. Interestingly, a similar attack for exactly the same reasons occurs centuries before with the writings of Lu Cai (died 665). However, here the attack is not on the practitioners of the Compass School but on shamans (wu), who Lu Cai felt were usurping proper funeral practices in a wanton and frivolous manner.42 In terms of the names of the two schools, Bennet points to the writings of Ding Ruipu43 of the Qing dynasty who calls them the ‘form and configurational force’ school and the ‘direction and position’ school.44 This is of particular interest because these

37 一行. 38 銅函經. 39 曾求己. 40 Huang Yi-long, ‘Court Divination and Christianity in the K’ang-Hsi Era’, Chinese Science, vol. 10 (1991): pp. 1-20. 41 Kohut, op. cit. p. 8. 42 Morgan, C., op. cit. pp. 46-48. This discrepancy between textual ideas on fengshui and the ideas of shamans is very much reflected in some of the popular modern writings on the topic. The modern tendency is to see fengshui as having a long oral tradition based more on the shamanic precepts than on the written tradition. One wonders, however, whether this is more to do with a lack of ability to understand classical Chinese than any more profound knowledge base, especially considering the esteem in which the written word is held throughout Chinese culture, which is after all the culture with the longest continuous written tradition. 43 丁芮樸. 44 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. pp. 2-3.

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terms occur throughout the Twenty Four Difficult Problems, and this text very much predates Ding Ruipu. In fact, the Twenty Four Difficult Problems itself points out the major fengshui texts, particularly those on burial, in Problem 16, the reply to which is set out below in part: The classics of the original ancestors,45 Qing Wu and others, are old. It is not known from which era these books came. Since they have been passed on from generation to generation, there are many errors and discrepancies. The burial books written by Guo Pu and various other gentlemen are all based on these. However, because they are slightly more recent, the writings are whole and the meaning complete. Even if the sages came back to life, they would not be able to change these. Although the words of the three specialists Yang, Zeng,46 and Liao are coarse and superficial, they all contain the laws and can be used in practice. If they are abandoned, there is no means of beginning. Therefore, one should determine to start with Guo Jingchun’s Burial Classic, and Master Yang’s Shaking Dragon Classic, Mysterious Dragon Classic and Cherishing the King Classic47 as basic ancestral texts and refer to the manifestations of the machinations of heaven in the bone marrow of mountains in order to prepare a method of work. Beyond these are many erroneous books which misquote and adulterate rich wine with dregs such that they cannot be models for later study.  In recent times among the writings of Xie48 of Chang Le,49 those on the practice of the art are worthy of reading, and the reprinted edition of Putting Gold into Bags by Minister Li50 of Yudu51 contains the most correct methodology in my humble opinion. It is a pity indeed that they are incomplete and are impaired by excessive simplicity so that one is unable to investigate their fine details. However, books only record the principles and great crafts45 Here, hu shou is a dialect form, first mentioned in the Tangshi ji, of the four character phrase, hu si tou qiu, which literally means ‘when the fox general dies, he must face the grave’. The actual meaning is not to forget one’s origins. 46 This is possibly Zeng Wenshan of the Tang dynasty who wrote the Zeng Shi shuilong jing jiao or the Collated Water Dragon Classic of Mr. Zeng. 47 The first two classics are recorded as having been written by Yang but there does not seem to be any record of the last mentioned. 48 This is probably Xie Heqing of the Song dynasty, who wrote the Tian bao jing (The Classic of the Heavenly Treasures) and the Shen bao jing (The Classic of the Spiritual Treasures). He was known for being an opponent of the use of the compass and of divination and considered that the primary objective of fengshui was to understand the principles of the earth. 49 Modern day Minhou prefecture in Fujian province. 50 This is probably Li Sicong of Jiangxi who was a Daoist of the ‘palace of auspicious omen’ (xiang fu gong). He is said to have written the Kan yu zong suo za zhu (A Collection of Miscellaneous Notes on Kanyu) but there is some doubt to this as some of the expressions used in that text indicate a later authorship. 51 An old province name which is now the eastern part of Gan prefecture in Jiangxi province.

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men pass their rules and practices on to others but they cannot make them skilful. If one lacks intelligence even though there are many books how would one deal with them?

What should also be noted is that by the end of the Ming dynasty fengshui had become extremely popular throughout China. Huang Yi-long points out that a fengshui manual What Everyone should Know about Siting (Dili renzi xu zhi) had become a best seller.52 A perusal of Ming dynasty novels and short stories such as the Plum in the Golden Vase (Jin ping mei) reinforces such an impression because of the continual interweaving of fengshui concepts throughout the stories.53 2. Cultural and Sociological Commentaries Before Stephan Feuchtwang,54 most of the information on fengshui from Western sources came from colonial administrators and missionaries working in China in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Feuchtwang has stated that the first report is that of Yates in 186855 but twenty years earlier Fortune,56 a botanical collector for the Horticultural Society of London, was discussing the layout of tombs in terms of ‘te-le’ and ‘fung shwuy’. Eitel was the only one of these early writers to devote a complete monograph to the subject but much of this work is inaccurate containing many ideas that are now considered unacceptable57 and the writings of de Groot are generally thought of as providing a more thorough analysis.58 The research of Feuchtwang, however, is a great leap forward in the understanding of the concepts behind fengshui. Rather than be content with a superficial understanding, he undertook an anthropological analysis of these concepts by the consideration of twenty four different manuals of instruction in the art of fengshui. Eighteen of these came from the 1726 edition of the Imperial Encyclopaedia, Gu jin tu shu ji cheng59 from its sec52 Huang Yi-long, ‘Court Divination and Christianity in the K’ang-Hsi Era’, Chinese Science, vol. 10 (1991): pp. 1-20. 53 Roy, D. T. (trans.), The Plum in the Golden Vase or, Chin P’ing Mei (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993). 54 Feuchtwang, S., op. cit. 55 Ibid., p. 5. 56 Fortune, R., Three Years’ Wanderings in the Northern Provinces of China (London: John Murray, 1847), p. 323. 57 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 2, p. 359(f). 58 Feuchtwang, S., op. cit. p. 5. 59 古今圖書集成.

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tion (XVII) on Arts and Divination, held in the British Museum. The other six treatises came from the Chinese library of the School of Oriental and African Studies in the University of London. As is pointed out, none of these had been translated at the time; not that Feuchtwang attempted complete translations. His work was more concerned with the underlying concepts from this large volume of work and, thus, time would have precluded any such attempt at complete translation. The translation that does occur is, like Needham, that of specific passages relevant to his thesis, which was to gain an understanding of the art of placing oneself appropriately in relation to the disposition of the natural processes. Feuchtwang’s study is of particular interest here in that two of the twenty four manuals outlined in his bibliography, the Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu and the Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic, have now been fully translated. The Burial Classic is not actually considered in the text of Feuchtwang’s thesis. There is, however, a consideration of the Water Dragon Classic in Part Three, Hsing (Forms) in the section on yin and yang under the heading of Water. Here, Feuchtwang outlines the basic ideas contained in the text with a small amount of translation and reference to five diagrams adapted from the original.60 There is also a later mention with translation of this classic in regards to the negative effect of too much wind.61 There is no attempt, however, to come to some conclusion about the author or date of this text or the authenticity or date of the Burial Classic. Another researcher who delved into the practice of fengshui from an anthropological perspective was Freedman.62 His work, however, did not so much consider its traditional foundation as the common practice in twentieth century Hong Kong and Guangdong. He saw fengshui theory as the basis for a hierarchy of ‘nesting units’ from a single dwelling to the whole of society. With this, building whether yin or yang, graves or dwellings, could be seen as an intervention in the complex delicately balanced forces of the universe in terms of both the natural physical environment and society such that any modification would reverberate throughout the whole. This is an important observation when one considers the ecological

60 Ibid., pp. 129-134. 61 Ibid., p. 139. 62 Freedman, M., ‘Geomancy’—presidential address to the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1968, in Freedman, M., The Study of Chinese Society: Essays (California: Stanford University Press, 1979).

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aspect of fengshui. In fact, Freedman goes so far as the call it ‘mystical ecology’.63 In relation to the possible scientific basis of fengshui, Freedman pointed out that the Chinese do not regard it as being superstitious, but as a type of ‘science of observation’. As he stated, “If they are misled by the geomancer, they are dazzled by science, not bamboozled by religion”.64 However, he did argue that fengshui is merely a foundation for proto-science and so did not completely disagree with Needham’s assessment of it being pseudo-science. From this perspective he stated that “Fengshui is a form of divination in which men set out, on the basis of occult knowledge, to make or remake their lives”.65 The first to attempt a complete translation of an original text on fengshui into English was Kohut.66 He chose to examine the burial book of Guo Pu with a goal of understanding the foundations of the theory and principle of fengshui because he saw it as being is one of the most important texts. Kohut, first of all, outlines the meaning of fengshui in its historical context and proceeds to discuss the history of both the text and Guo Pu himself. With this as a basis the translation is then undertaken. What should be noted particularly is the methodological structure used in this context. Small sections of the original Chinese text are set out with their English translation written immediately underneath. The meaning is then discussed in some detail. The result is quite successful, but a fluent reading of the translation as a whole is very difficult because of the discussion in between. For this reason and because of the sheer bulk of the texts translated in the present work, I thought that such discussions of the translations should be done either as footnotes where pertinent or in a separate chapter. I realise that such a structural methodology of translation also has its pitfalls but the translation of the texts as a whole and fluency in reading these translations was a major consideration in overcoming the criticism of fragmentary translation put forward by Restivo. The size of the translations as a whole also precluded the addition of the original Chinese texts. Since the modern pioneering work of Feuchtwang, Freedman and Kohut, fengshui has become somewhat more popular throughout mainland China with the recent relaxation of the dialectical materialist cultural mindset, in Hong Kong, all over south east Asia particularly where there 63 Ibid., p. 313. 64 Ibid., p. 325. 65 Ibid., p. 326. 66 Kohut, J. M., op. cit.

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are concentrations of Chinese and even in Australia where “feng shooee” has been heard of if not understood by a large section of the population. What has been indicative of this rise in popularity is the number of texts that have been published recently on this subject. These have come in the form of magazine articles and books but most have been populist texts pandering to the desire to alter one’s fate. The interest shown by mainland Chinese in paranormal phenomena is seen in a number of publications on fengshui that came out as the restrictions on folk beliefs were being eased in China in the early 1990s. One of these is even published by a science and technology publishing company.67 According to the author, Hong Pimo, this particular study was written from two perspectives: a simple explanation of the practice and its connection with life in modern society. The book begins with an historical overview of the concept of placement in Chinese culture and lists any mention of fengshui in the historical records. It goes on to explain the basic principles of the concepts of the celestial stems, terrestrial branches, yin, yang, the Five Phases, the eight trigrams, the compass, position and arrangement. Next, the set up of the contents of a house is outlined in terms of the door, stove, altar, bed, bathroom, toilet and electrical appliances. The last mentioned in this list is said to be a new idea and interestingly the electromagnetic field created by these appliances is considered. However, there is no attempt to relate this consideration to the theory of fengshui and the worst position according to the trigrams is merely indicated. Hong then discusses the architectural concepts of design in terms of colour, building material and lighting and the relationship between internal and external form. This is followed by a discussion of what to fear in the surrounding environment in relation to watercourses, landforms and mountains. In this section diagrams and quotes are freely taken mainly without reference from the Water Dragon Classic and the Zang jing yi68 (the Wings to the Burial Classic) although Jiang Dahong, the compiler of the Water Dragon Classic, is quoted from another of his texts, the Tian yuan wu ge (the Five Ballads on the Heavenly Principal).69 Of greatest interest, however, is the outline of the history of criticism of and opposition to fengshui which occurs at the end of the treatise. In this,

67 Hong, Pimo, Zhongguo Feng shui Yanjiu (Research in Chinese Fengshui) (Hubei: Hubei kexue jishu chubanshe, 1993). 68 葬經翼. 69 Hong, op. cit. p. 299.

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the main protagonists are said to be Wang Chong70 (27-97 AD) of the Later Han dynasty as the pioneer of such criticism and Zhang Juzheng71 of the late sixteenth century, whose basic criticism was that if man leaves everything to the principles of auspicious placement, neither science nor sociology could develop. Various Qing dynasty arguments against and negative stories about fengshui are also described but Hong comes to the conclusion that it is difficult to completely reject the basic body of knowledge contained in fengshui. The last section in this book, which describes two recent incidents which would indicate a negation of the idea of fengshui, is of particular interest because its nine pages are exactly the same word for word without any acknowledgment, as are parts of the introductory chapter, as Miao Ma and Hui Du’s book, which is also published in mainland China. Miao Ma and Hui Du’s work does, however, make an important contribution of its own. It contains a chronological list of what the authors consider to be the most important texts through Chinese history under the category of kanyu with their authors and the collections in which they can be found. The list commences with the Huangdi zhai jing, which is attributed here to Huangdi rather than Wang Wei as indicated by Needham.72 The Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu is the second entry although the title given is the abridged form Zang jing (Burial Classic). The latter is said to be found in the collections Xiao shisan jing, Jin dai mi shu, Gu jin tu shu ji, Di men guang du, and Xue jin tao yuan and is attributed to Qing Wu with Wu Qinze as the annotator but there is no mention of the doubt as to its authorship although such doubts are noted with other texts. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic is attributed to authors unknown with Jiang Pingjie as the compiler and editor. This work is said to be found in the collections Jie yue shan fang hui chao,73 Zhi hai,74 and Cong shu ji cheng chu bian.75 Sadly, the Twenty Four Difficult Problems is not mentioned.76 Another aspect of Miao Ma and Hui Du’s book by which it differs from that previously mentioned and from the great majority of other texts is its 70 王充. 71 張居正. 72  Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 2, p. 360. 73 借月山房匯鈔. 74 指海. 75 叢書集成初編. 76 Miao Ma and Hui Du, op. cit. It should be noted that Miao Ma and Hui Du are both pen names and so the apparent plagiarism may be merely that of the same authors under different names.

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attempt to outline the basic concepts of fengshui beyond the relationship between yin-yang, the Five Phases, the heavenly stems, the terrestrial branches and the eight trigrams. Such ideas as the dragon, the node and its selection, the difference between mountains and plains and the relationship between sand and water are explained in detail. In this explanation, the lack of a sufficiently academic application inherent in Miao Ma and Hui Du’s work is apparent as there is little reference to the actual historical texts although the ideas are obviously based on such texts. However, perhaps the most interesting book to be published in mainland China in recent years in terms of the translation is the Dili zhengzong of Zhou Wenzheng et al.77 because it contains translations into baihua (modern Chinese) from the original classical Chinese with complete translations of the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Siting and the Book of Burial by Guo Pu. The Dili zhengzong is divided into yang sites, sites related to houses of the living, yin sites, those related to the tombs of the dead, and again contains a final section with denunciations and criticisms of fengshui over the centuries. Such criticisms of the practice of fengshui have been strident in Chinese culture and they are outlined in English by Ole Bruun in one of the four most important academic commentaries on fengshui published in the past six years. Bruun’s treatise has three important themes: “the common interest in Chinese culture in the West, the fragmentation of ideology and everyday life, and the tendency towards religious or spiritual revival in the world today”. Bruun addresses these themes by looking through an anthropological lens of fengshui at both the history and sociology of the relationship between China and the West. He importantly points to its basis in folk practices rather than institutional religions, and attempts to understand the reasons for its popularity in the West, the commercialisation of which he is caustically critical. Bruun is also somewhat critical of both Western environmental and architectural writings on fengshui, considering the former somewhat vague and the latter to be merely reflections of architectural commonsense.78 A Chinese academic paper somewhat in parallel to Bruun’s thesis is that of Ong Aihwa. Ong outlines the limits of Pierre Bourdieu’s formulation of the concept of cultural capital in a study of the use of the cultural logic of fengshui by Hong Kong immigrants to California in the 1980s. Ong shows 77 Zhou Wenzheng et al., op. cit. 78 Bruun, O., An Introduction to Fengshui (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 3.

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the uncertainty of outcomes of cultural capital in a transnational context, particularly in relation to the attempted conversion of economic capital into capital in the quest for social acceptance and status in a new country and differing culture.79 The next important recent academic book to consider the cultural and sociological aspects of fengshui is in fact not specifically on fengshui but more broadly ancient Chinese divination. Stephen Field traces the evolution of divination in China from the Neolithic to the classical periods, and then outlines the development of various strands of divination from this historical tradition. Divination is defined as the act of seeking prophetic information to avoid misfortune and Field shows how these profoundly affected all streams of life including science, medicine, and politics. However, his major focus is the effect of ancient Chinese divination practices on philosophy and religion.80 A similar focus on divination and philosophy but particularly in Late Imperial China can be seen in a 2008 book chapter by Richard Smith. This is basically a bibliography of the explosion of recent writings on divinatory practices or what he calls the ‘mantic arts’ to help place Qing dynasty divination within both a historical and a comparative perspective. What is particularly noteworthy in this paper is the debunking of overly simplistic bifurcations in trying to understand Chinese culture and history. Smith points to the blurring of the boundaries between elites and commoners, between orthodox and heterodox, between traditional and modern, between the various schools of thought, and even between Chinese and foreign.81 The other and perhaps most important recent academic work on fengshui is that of the human geographer, Hong-key Yoon. His book outlines in great detail the nature and historical background of fengshui, the practice of its principles, the relationship between fengshui and religion, and the use of fengshui in iconography, all particularly through the prism of Korean culture. Within this structure, Yoon advances various considered hypotheses as to the origin and practice of fengshui from a geographical perspective. 79 Ong Aihwa, ‘Fengshui and the Limits to Cultural Accumulation’, Sixiang Zhanxian, vol. 33, no. 1: pp. 73-83. 80 Field, S., Ancient Chinese Divination (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press, 2008). 81 Smith, R. J. ‘Divination in Late Imperial China: New Light on Old Problems’, in On-cho Ng (ed.), The Imperative of Understanding: Chinese Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy, and Onto-Hermeneutics (New York: Global Scholarly Publications, 2008), pp. 273-315.

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Hong-key Yoon posits that fengshui originated as a system for siting viable living areas in the loess plateau of northern China. He argues convincingly that even though the first existing text to use the term fengshui in relation to siting is Guo Pu’s Book of Burial (circa 300 CE), the theoretical structures were based on observation of amenable places for the living rather than the dead, and so that the original use of fengshui was for the siting of human residences. An example of the evidence he uses is the traditional term for a fengshui site, xue.82 This Yoon argues should be thought of with the original meaning of ‘cave’ to denote the common type of house dug into the loess plateau of northern China. In addition, Yoon relates the historical evolution of fengshui in China and connects this to its introduction and development in Korea. This connection with Korea is very enlightening because unlike the other major cultures imbued with fengshui theory, those of Japan and China with their Meiji restoration and communist revolution respectively, traditional Korean culture has been comparatively unchanged until recent times, the ‘hermit kingdom’ being a particularly apt description. Yoon analyses in great detail the principles and practice of fengshui. He considers the relationship with yin-yang theory, the principles for an auspicious site and the differences in the theory between siting for house and for graves. Of particular note is the discussion here of the place that fengshui maps hold in the rich history of Chinese cartography, a role that has been much overlooked by modern scholars. However, the most enlightening focus of this section is that on Yoon’s interpretation of the principles of fengshui. In this, Yoon outlines the images of Nature and the role of ethics and loyalty in fengshui. He also attempts by a consideration of the principles of balance, symmetry and beauty to address the problem posed by Needham about the beauty of siting in the traditional Chinese landscape even though in Needham’s eyes fengshui was a grossly superstitious system. Nevertheless, the most important discussion in this section is that on the difference between the Western concept of environmental determinism and the conceptual basis of fengshui. Yoon sees humanity in a dualistic relationship being largely subordinate to the environment as the shaping force in environmental determinism whereas in fengshui humanity is seen to be an integral part of the environment with both nature and humanity being merely expressions of yin-yang energetics. Interestingly, Yoon points out in this context that one of the traditional words for fengshui practitio82  穴.

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ner, dilixiansheng, is also a present day Chinese word for geography teacher. Like Bruun and Field, Hong-key Yoon also considers the relationship between the major East Asian religions and fengshui. He focuses particularly on Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism and shows that fengshui theory very much predates the Buddhist encroachment from India into East Asia and that the theory influenced the practice of Buddhism more than vice versa, particularly in relation to the siting of temples and shrines. The later development of Neo-Confucianism after the Tang dynasty is also shown to have incorporated traditional fengshui ideas. Hong-key Yoon also points to the iconographic nature of fengshui with particular reference to the iconographical warfare between the Japanese and the Koreans over Kyongbok palace, the icon of Korean sovereignty, during and immediately after the Second World War. In this, Yoon uses the cultural geography tradition of reading landscape as text to describe firstly the Japanese attempt to belittle Kyongbok Palace by building a modern colonial government edifice, known as the Government-General Building, of a size and on a site to negate the positive fengshui of the Palace, and secondly the steps taken to demolish this symbol of Japanese colonialism post war and the cultural significance of each step.83 3. Architecture Notwithstanding Bruun’s criticism of Western architectural writings on fengshui mentioned above, there have been a large number of studies undertaken over the past few decades in the field of architecture which have considered different aspects of fengshui with differing levels of success. To illustrate the types of study that have been done, I review below a number of undergraduate architectural theses submitted at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, Australia. I am quite sure that this sample would exemplify the type of work being undertaken in various universities around the world. Many of these UNSW treatises are merely superficial summaries of the history and basic concepts with some analysis of the use of these concepts in different building sites. An example of this is ‘the Significance of Ch’i in Feng Shui’84 whose title suggests a more in depth 83 Yoon, Hong-key, The Culture of Fenghsui in Korea: An Exploration of East Asian Geomancy (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006). 84 Low, P. J. G., The Significance of Ch’i in Feng Shui (Sydney: Bachelor of Architecture thesis, University of N.S.W., 1990).

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analysis but which relates merely to a description of the use of fengshui in different buildings in Hong Kong. A more thorough analysis of the modern applications was presented by Teo85 who compared the work done on buildings in Singapore, Hong Kong and Sydney’s Chinatown. Comparison was also the basis of the research done by Ong.86 Here, however, the basis for comparison was the planning of a site versus that of an interior in terms of the principles of and methods for divination using fengshui. A more in depth UNSW study of the modern conceptions of fengshui in terms of architecture was that of Goh.87 This was based on a number of case studies and surveys conducted in Penang, Malaysia, and a comparison with the impact of fengshui in Hong Kong. The case studies involved research into the procedures of a fengshui expert of the Three Principals School88 and the diagnostic methodology used on four different houses. The surveys measured the level of awareness and the opinions of the population of Georgetown, the large city situated on Penang Island, in relation to belief in the principles of fengshui. One survey involved door-to-door interviews of local Chinese people and the results showed that 58% held some belief in fengshui. The other survey was a mail survey of practising architects. It was found that 64% of these took fengshui into consideration in their work. Although the survey samples were small, 50 in the first survey and 25 in the second, this research gives valuable insights into the thoughts of overseas Chinese populations on fengshui in recent times. Like the studies outlined above, that of Stacy89 gives the origin and describes the major concepts of fengshui. There is also similarly a description of its applications to certain sites although the choice of sites, such as the Ming tombs and the new Australian Parliament House in Canberra, indicates a different perspective. What makes this work markedly different from the above, however, is the comparison of ancient and modern insights and more importantly the analysis of fengshui at various levels of influence. The visual basis for assessing influence, or the context, is seen at the comparative level. Here, it is argued that aspect, slope, drainage, vegetation, 85 Teo, A. K., Feng Shui: Principles and Applications (Sydney: Bachelor of Architecture thesis, University of N.S.W., 1987). 86 Ong, S. H., Chinese Feng Shui (Sydney: Bachelor of Architecture thesis, University of N.S.W., 1986). 87 Goh, Y. C., Feng Shui: Its Impact on Architectural Design (Sydney: Bachelor of Architecture thesis, University of N.S.W., 1990). 88 The san yuan school, a part of the Compass School. 89 Stacy, P., Mystical Perception of Landscape (Sydney: Bachelor of Landscape Archi­ tecture thesis, University of N.S.W., 1988).

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soil, and geology are taken into consideration and thus there is equivalence to the modern scientific rationale for considering natural systems. The philosophical/aesthetic level includes the ideas of spirit of place, intuition and mood which are incorporated into the Gaian model of life on earth. At the final level, the psychological level, Stacy asserts that scientific pursuits have had a destabilising effect because of the removal of myth and mystery from life with a consequent loss of coherence. It is argued that practitioners of fengshui attempt to establish a sense of coherence by comprehending, managing and eliciting meaning from landscape. This apparent negation of science and elevation of myth will be considered in the discussion in later chapters. The precursor to these comparatively recent examples of academic architectural studies and the first attempt at an architectural understanding of fengshui from a Western perspective was the work in French of the husband and wife team of Sophie and Pierre Clément with Shin Yong Hak.90 This research looked at the modern forms of Chinese, Korean and Japanese fengshui particularly in relation to siting and the layout of houses. This involved initially an analysis of the methodology outlined in various treatises, both classical and modern with the focus particularly on Korean texts, together with interviews with fengshui practitioners in South Korea and Taiwan, particularly Hakka practitioners in southern Taiwan. The study also involved observation of the layout and architecture of traditional sites of tombs, houses, villages and towns as well as a summary of how these related to their graphical representation as found in paintings and maps. As an initial work in this area, this research made great strides in enabling an understanding of the basic concepts of fengshui in relation to architecture and the definition of terms is particularly useful. However, the research was written up as a report at the end of a contract and there is much evidence of this process being too hurried. The major criticism is the poor referencing with there being an insufficient number of characters to understand the sources well. Even with the characters that are there are mistakes; the characters for Guo Pu are even written incorrectly at one stage.91 Nevertheless, the importance of this work should not be underestimated. The most comprehensive study of fengshui in English in the field of architecture has been the doctoral research undertaken at Cornell University by the Korean scholar, Lee Sang Hae. This is a study of traditional 90 Clément, S., P. Clément and Shin Yong Hak, Architecture du Paysage en Asie Orientale (Paris: Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche Architecturales, 1982). 91 Ibid., p. 103.

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Chinese domestic architectural theory, which he calls fengshui, and the relationship of this theoretical system to architectural planning as “a device for ordering the environment”.92 His thesis is that fengshui can be considered a “system of divination” as Needham93 has pointed out and that in this there is an emphasis on fortune or luck, but auspicious application actually comes from correct architectural planning which indicates an implicit logic in domestic design. This logic he sees as being particularly Chinese and he states that this must be considered from a Chinese perspective. He stresses that “Chinese science, including fengshui, must not be explained from a Western sense of science”.94 The basis of Lee’s thesis is an investigation of various fengshui manuals from different dynasties from which are outlined the nature and definition, historical development, principles and techniques, different forms, and applications of fengshui. A major contribution is that included in this study are a number of translations or reinterpretations of the translations of others by the author of relevant parts of some texts; however, these are by nature of their use in the thesis piecemeal and, thus, do not give the reader sufficient insight into the cultural and logical context in which they occur. Another quite comprehensive academic study in English is that of Lip who considers the characteristics of traditional Chinese architecture in relation to kanyu. Lip particularly studies the gugong95 or ancient palaces and temples of Beijing and the traditional layout of Chinese temples and gardens in general. She defines kanyu (another traditional term for fengshui) as “an abstract term to represent the pseudo-physical science of climatology and geophysics ... It addresses cultural and social issues of a particular society and makes reference to the natural, metaphysical and cosmological influences”.96 As stated previously, there has been a renewed interest in research into fengshui over the past twenty years in China with the relaxation of the dialectical materialist mindset of intellectual endeavours. This research has particularly come to the fore in the field of architecture. An example of the strong and interesting academic scholarship in this field can be seen in a series of papers edited into a book by Wang Qiheng, professor of architecture at Tianjin University. This compilation consists of 23 papers. 92 Lee, S. H., op. cit. p. 2. 93 Op. cit. vol. 2, p. 359. 94 Lee, S. H., op. cit. p. 11. 95 古宮. 96 Lip, E., Environments of Power: a Study of Chinese Architecture (London: Academy Editions, 1995).

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A sample of the paper titles indicates the academic and ecological thrust of such research in China: ‘China’s Pattern of Fengshui; Its Formation and Relationship to the Environment and Landscape’; ‘Psychological Factors of Fengshui’; ‘Orientation and Location: The Invention of the Compass and the Discovery of Magnetic Declination’; ‘A Comparison of Landscape Architecture, Ecological Architecture and Ancient Chinese Fengshui Theory’; and ‘Ecology, the Invention of Fengshui Environment and Architectural Design’.97 In relation to this upsurge in interest, another early thorough Chinese investigation of fengshui from an architectural perspective including landscape architecture is the book by Cheng Jianjun and Kong Shangpu. This looks at regional and city layout in relation to rivers and mountains and at burial practices in relation to fengshui. Within this, maps, such as those of wind directions for summer and winter on the Chinese mainland, mountain ranges and their resultant veins of qi, and tectonic plates, are used to great effect to argue the scientific validity of fengshui. The book also contains an interesting drawing of the close similarity between blood veins and arteries and those of the land. There are also sections on charms and building decorations and a thorough investigation of the use of the compass and the bagua in relation to building.98 A brief but thorough study in a similar vein is that of He Xiaoxin.99 This is a particularly important study in that it was the first book published in China on the topic of fengshui after the excesses of the cultural revolution in the 1960s put people in fear of their position in the community for engaging in such ‘superstitions’. Needless to say it quickly became a best seller with bookstores selling out of their copies within days of it going on sale.100 The book focuses particularly on the tradition in the south-eastern region of China and is divided into three sections. The first considers the historical development of fengshui theory in south-eastern China in relation to the two schools of thought. The second relates this development to architectural practices in this region, and this third provides an evaluation of the practical application of fengshui theory. The conclusion is that 97 Wang Qiheng (ed.), Fengshui Lilun yanjiu (Research of [sic] Fengshui Theory) (Tianjin: Tianjin daxue chubanshe, 1998). 98 Cheng Jianjun and Kong Shangpu, Fengshui yu Jianzhu (Fengshui and Architecture) (Nanchang: Jiangxi kexue zhishu chubanshe, 1992). 99 He Xiaoxin, Fengshui tanyuan (The Source of Fengshui) (Nanjing: Dongnan daxue chubanshe, 1990). 100 Bruun, O., ‘The Fengshui Resurgence in China: Conflicting Cosmologies between State and Peasantry’, The China Journal, vol. 36 (1996): pp. 47-65.

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fengshui theory is based on empirical observation and that it is the “embodiment of ancient Chinese philosophy, science and aesthetics”.101 Another early 1990s Chinese academic study was that of Yi Ding, Yu Hu and Hong Yong from Hebei province. The basic thrust of this book is to outline in detail the concept of placement in traditional Chinese culture by a close examination of the theories presented in various texts, which are quoted from extensively. The authors argue that the philosophical basis of fengshui thought is centred on the idea that one piece of land is more suitable than another to build a city, town or house and that only by examining the landform and the surface topographical features can one find auspicious land, with the people living on such land enjoying wealth and good fortune. They also put forward the basic criteria for successful siting as laid down by the Ming/Qing dynasty text, the Ultimate Knowledge of the Principles of the Earth (Dili zhi zhi).102 These are elegance, auspiciousness, transformation and feeling,103 on which the eight beautiful situations and the eight ugly situations are based. At the end of the book, Yi Ding et al. also present some very interesting statistics on the writings on fengshui in the twentieth century. According to them, there were almost eight hundred publications on fengshui last century up until 1989. Chinese publications made up one hundred and fifty of these, Korean one hundred and twenty, Japanese two hundred and twenty, and European or American two hundred and fifty.104 The more recent rise in popularity of fengshui in academic circles in China can be seen by consideration of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Since 1994, there have been over two hundred academic articles published on the topic of fengshui with the great majority of these on architectural and town planning aspects, particularly in relation to sustainability by using the traditional environmental aspects of fengshui. An example is the study of Yu et al. from the Graduate School of Landscape Architecture at Peking University, which argues against the conventional economic centred approach to urban development as unsustainable and posits an ecological infrastructure approach with its roots in landscape

101 Ibid., p. 158. 102 地理知至. 103 xiu, ji, bian, and qing; 秀吉變青. 104 Yi Ding, Yu Hu and Hong Yong, Zhongguo gudai fengshui yu jianzhu xuanzhi (Geomancy and the Selection of Architecture [sic] Placement in China) (He Bei: Hebei kexue zhishu chubanshe, 1996).

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urbanism evolving from fengshui.105 Similarly, Han et al. argue that fengshui principles should be used in site selection for landfill waste because of the systematic and holistic focus on respect for nature, adjustment to local conditions, people orientation, and harmony inherent in fengshui.106 The extent to which the architecture community, especially that with close connections with Chinese culture, has come to consider that fengshui is scientific rather than superstitious in origin can be seen in the study of So and Lu from the Department of Building and Construction at the City University of Hong Kong. They used techniques in computational fluid dynamics to decide whether or not a bed should be placed next to the bathroom in an apartment. The descriptions of airflow patterns from this simulation reinforce what the authors say is an important rule in fengshui that the bed should not be placed next to the bathroom; however, they do not explain their exact source of information for this rule.107 Moreover, the Department of Building and Construction at the City University of Hong Kong has been at the forefront of a recent series of conferences on what it calls ‘scientific fengshui’. Three conferences on this topic have been held there since 2005 with the purpose of attracting the major researchers on fengshui from around the world. A fourth conference was held in Berlin at Humboldt University late 2010. Both academic edited books and conference proceedings have been published as a result of these discussions.108 A summary of the papers published from the Berlin conference is indicative of the present research into the relationship between fengshui and architecture. Florian Reiter looks at the philosophical and practical implications of applying fengshui theory in the modern context by consideration of its use and non-use in the development of Potsdamer Platz in Berlin. Ole Bruun explores fengshui as an expression of a universal mode of 105 Yu Kongjian, Li Hailong and Li Dihua, ‘The Negative Approach and Ecological Infrastructure: The Smart Preservation of Natural Systems in the Process of Urbanisation’, Journal of Natural Resources, vol. 23, no. 6 (Nov. 2008): pp. 938-958. 106 Han Zhiyong, Liu Dan, Li Qibin and Lu Lei, ‘Comparison of Site Selection between Fenghsui and Landfill’, Sichuan Environment vol. 27 no. 1 (2008): pp. 116-119. 107 So, A. T. P. and J. W. Z. Lu, ‘Natural Ventilation Design by Computational Fluid Dynamics—A Feng-shui Approach’, Architectural Science Review, vol. 44 (March 2001): pp. 61-69. 108 E.g. Mak, M. and A. So (eds.) (2009) Research in Scientific FengShui and the Built Environment, City University of Hong Kong Press, and F. C. Reiter (ed.) (2011) International Conference on Feng Shui (Kan Yu) and Architecture in Berlin,  in:  Asien- und Afrika-Studien der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, vol. 38 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag), p. 156 ff.

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thought. Hong-key Yoon explains the cultural ecology underpinning the traditional Korean fengshui landscape known as the ‘sailing boat’. Michael Mak outlines a Knowledge-based expert systems approach for fengshui application to architectural design. Wang Yude analyses the traditional architecture of Taizhou in relation to fengshui theory, specifically as the President of China, Hi Jintao, had proposed that Taizhou fengshui should be added to the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. Howard Choy borrows the concept of yin-yang dialectics from traditional Chinese medicine to help understand the environment for analysis and design so as to achieve harmony and balance. Gyda Anders carefully delineates the relationship between fengshui and traditional Chinese architecture, specifically focussing on Chinese gardens. Eduard Kögel discusses the historical transculturation of fengshui concepts into German architecture in the 1930s and 1940s. Tsai Sueyling investigates the close relationship between fengshui and the choice of site for the earliest large-scale Buddhist stone inscriptions in China, found in Dongping in Shandong Province. Albert So and Michael Mak outline case studies of the use of the Compass School Flying Star method in both Kowloon and Canberra, arguing that the layout of the latter was strongly influenced by fengshui principles. I consider the possible empirical basis of the cosmology found in various texts attributed to the Tang dynasty fengshui author, Yang Yunsong, particularly in relation to Wang Wenhao’s 1925 paper on the development of the theory of mountain veins in the history of Chinese geological thought. Stephen Field and Ingrid Lee undertake a historical analysis of the development of Five Phase directional site orientation and the Eight Mansion (bazhai) method to show that the latter is purely numerological at its base and that its origins cannot be found in Five Phase theory. Last but not least, Ellen van Goethem presents tentative conclusions about her comparative research into the ways that the symbols of the four cardinal directions, the Azure Dragon, White Tiger, Dark Warrior and Vermilion Sparrow, are represented in the physical landscape in the practice of what she dubs, geophysical divination, in China, Korea and particularly Japan. 4. Fengshui and the History and Philosophy of Science A number of the early European commentators on fengshui thought of it as a type of scientific endeavour. De Groot called it a quasi-science. Eitel, in particular, as has been stated, considered it a natural science, and his monograph was even subtitled, ‘the Rudiments of Natural Science’. Even

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though he deplored the lack of practical and experimental investigation inherent in the “Chinese gropings after natural science”, he praised the emotional conception of a sacred reverence for nature on which the whole system of fengshui was based.109 Yet as has been pointed out, Eitel’s study is considered to be somewhat flawed. The following quote from Eitel is a good example of an understanding but equally dismissive mindset: Natural science has never been cultivated in China in that technical, dry and matter-of-fact fashion, which seems to us inseparable from true science. Chinese naturalists did not take much (sic.) pains in studying nature and ferreting out her hidden secrets by minute and practical tests and experiments. They invented no instruments to aid them in the observation of the heavenly bodies, they never took to hunting beetles and stuffing birds, they shrank from the idea of dissecting animal bodies, nor did they chemically analyse inorganic substances, but with very little actual knowledge of nature they evolved a whole system of natural science from their own inner consciousness and expounded it according to the dogmatic formulae of ancient tradition. Deplorable, however, as this absence of experimental investigation is, which opened the door to all sorts of conjectural theories, it preserved in Chinese natural science a spirit of sacred reverence for the divine powers of nature.110

Eitel of course did not realise that the basis of his modernity could be found in this culture to whose science he took such a condescending stance, nor did he realise that armies in China had been largely immunised against smallpox by the use of the technique of variolation since the Song Dynasty, a process that entailed a solid depth of scientific thought and abilities.111 The first serious consideration of fengshui in terms of the history of science was that of Needham. In the second volume of his mammoth undertaking into the history of Chinese science he positions what he calls geomancy under the heading of the pseudo-sciences, stating quite clearly that these cannot be ignored for two reasons: they illuminate early conceptions of the universe and, moreover, some of their practices resulted in important discoveries as to the material causes of natural phenomena. Here, Needham defines fengshui, outlines its basic concepts, gives a brief historical overview of the development of its system of thought and indi109 Eitel, E. J., op. cit. pp. 3-5. 110 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 2, p. 359(f). 111 Francis Bacon once said that the basis of modern civilization was gunpowder, the compass and printing not realizing that these had all be invented in China and used there for over 500 years. See Hobson, J., The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

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cates two advantages to come from this development. The definition chosen is that of Chatley who considers fengshui to be “the art of adapting the residences of the living and the dead so as to cooperate with the local currents of the cosmic breath”.112 The advantages mentioned are the practical aspects of planting trees as wind breaks and having clear meandering fresh water near a house and the development of the magnetic compass from that used in fengshui. A footnote to this discussion gives some background to the aesthetic component to fengshui mentioned in the introduction. Needham compares his positive conception of the gardens of Versailles before he went to China with the negative one which he had on his return. He indicates that this was because the geometrical arrangement of the gardens imprisoned nature rather than reflecting it as required in the meandering lines of fengshui.113 In this and a later volume114 Needham goes on to elaborate on the relationship between the development of the shi or diviner’s board the antecedent of the luopan or fengshui compass into the magnetic compass. The exposition of this argument is much too long and elaborate to summarise successfully here but suffice to say that Needham puts forward a very strong case for his premise. The proto-scientific basis of magnetic fengshui is indicated in that it was “determined by an original demarcation of a field of observation, defined by imposition of the common natural philosophy, and developed partly through working deductively through various permutations of particular facts”.115 Furthermore, it is stated that magnetic declination would possibly not have been discovered in China if not for the careful observations in terms of degrees of azimuth by the experts in fengshui.116 The relationship between fengshui and the development of other scientific disciplines is also pointed out but not as definitively as that of magnetism. The close relationship between fengshui and geography is discussed in terms of the modern Chinese word for geography, dilixue or literally study of the principles of the earth. According to Needham this term was not used in its modern sense of geography until the first and second centuries AD and up until this time the concepts of fengshui and those of geography were closely related. As has been previously stated another name 112 Chatley, H. quoted in Needham, op. cit. vol. 2, p. 359. 113 Ibid., p. 361. 114 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.1, pp. 239-245. 115 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 5.4 (1980), p. 298. 116 Ibid. vol. 3 (1959), p. 159.

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for an expert in fengshui was a dilijia or an expert in the principles of the earth. Another connection that Needham points to is a possible relationship between experts in fengshui and meteorology and astronomical navigation. He states that the famous expeditions of the eunuch Zheng He and Wang Jinghong in the early fifteenth century invariably carried with them experts in yin-yang, who are postulated to be have been geomancers, with such tasks as weather forecasting and navigation besides their usual occupation of deciding on auspicious places and times.117 In the same volume, Needham returns to the theme of architectural aesthetics and mentions the beauty of the siting of the pagodas in China, which, it is stressed, was based on the tenets of fengshui. However, such positive considerations of the effects of fengshui are not always apparent. In the section discussing the history of civil engineering in China, there is a Chinese echo of the objections of the Europeans of the nineteenth century to fengshui as a stumbling block to progress when it is noted that there were strong objections by its adherents to the felling of trees and quarrying of stone for the One Thousand Years Bridge in Jiangxi province in 1887.118 In terms of geological thrust of the present work, however, perhaps the most poignant commentary in Needham’s writings is found in his translation of the work of Zheng Sixiao,119 who died in 1332 AD.120 This shows that, theoretically at least, there was some understanding of the mineralisation of rocks from underground water a good two centuries before Agricola postulated the same idea in the West. Of course, both Agricola and Zheng were not quite correct in their assumption that heat was the motive force rather than the modern understanding of it being pressure and evaporation. However, this marked an important step in the history of geological thought. In the context of the present work what should be particularly noted though is that the quote from Zheng used by Needham, except for one line considering mineralisation, is basically a description of the circulation of qi in the earth, which would fit quite appropriately with any of the early fengshui texts translated. It could be hypothesised that the ideas of Zheng Sixiao were a natural progression from these seemingly much earlier texts. 117 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.3 (1971), p. 491. 118 Ibid., p. 173. 119 鄭思蕭. 120 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 3, p. 650.

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Another Western scholar who has considered fengshui in terms of the history of science is Bennet.121 His main discussion is the arbitrary demarcation between the two schools of fengshui, its general philosophical assumptions and its energetics in relation to different concepts of land form. This is done with particular reference to the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting. The intention to give fengshui greater validity as a component of the history of Chinese science is indicated in the initial section of his paper where the inappropriate use of the word ‘geomancy’ to describe fengshui is criticised as being non-definitive. Bennet suggests the much more positive term in a scientific sense, ‘astro-ecology’, as more appropriate than the ‘astrobiological mode of thought’ put forward by Wheatley, but settles on the use of ‘siting’ or ‘topographical siting’ as capturing the essential feature of what he calls the ‘science’ of fengshui.122 A particular distinction is made between the analytical approach of the Compass School and the intuitive approach of the Form School, where the feeling of a site in relation to its topographical features, its form (xing) and configurational force (shi), enables the determination of the flow of its cosmic energy. In this framework, a distinction is also made between the varying concepts of qi, the energetic constitution of a site. In the more analytical approaches, qi is of a more abstract nature, having both a temporal and spatial significance. From the intuitive approach, however, qi takes the form of a pneuma, the capture and coagulation of which is the basic aim. This use of the feeling of an area and the consideration of qi as a pneuma will be discussed further in later chapters. Bennet also provides a useful analysis of the different concepts of land forms in the context of fengshui. These he divides into functional forms, resonance forms and sign forms. Functional forms are those which directly influence the movement of wind and water in relation to the site, the aim being to protect it from high winds and rapidly moving water. Bennet argues that the ideal form is that which resembles an armchair whose parabolic shape sets up a concave spherical reflector to focus the energy onto the site. Resonance forms are those which resemble natural phenomena in an abstract sense and in the correlational context, therefore, have a similar function. These forms are the epitome of the ‘as above, as below’ concept that has imbued Chinese thinking in that the configuration of the land was decided in terms of the position of the celestial bodies and the relationship of this position to the Five Phases so that the site harmonised 121 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. 122 Ibid., pp. 1-2.

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with the heavens. Sign forms also resemble natural phenomena but in an actual rather than abstract sense. The phenomena here could be anything from a watercourse resembling a reclining woman to the depiction of a character from the Chinese writing system. As the major focus of my work is the consideration of form in fengshui, the analysis outlined above is of particular interest and I hypothesise that there is an historical relationship to the different types of form with functional forms being the basis of the earlier texts and resonance and sign forms being a later theoretical manifestation. My argument is that this theoretical change away from postulations based on observation to those based on correlation made considerations of the energy of the land in terms of fengshui less ‘scientific’ over time. As has been stated earlier, fengshui has recently become the topic of discussion of a large number of texts by authors in China itself. However, this is not a completely new phenomenon. A number of Chinese writers considered the relationship of fengshui to science earlier in the twentieth century. In the 1930s, a writer by the name of Qian Renzi discussed the traditional concepts of the principles of the earth, on which much of fengshui theory is based, from such perspectives as chemistry, acoustics, electrical energy, stratigraphy and mathematics. He saw an analytical side to the traditional principles of the earth and discussed the possible scientific meaning within a classical textual basis.123 Of much greater importance of these early twentieth century Chinese writers on fengshui was Weng Wenhao. He was a very well renowned geologist and one of the leading lights of the Chinese Geological Survey. He introduced the concept of space and time ore formation, i.e. the concept of a ‘metallogenic epoch’, to Chinese geology, emphasising the magmatic source of ore deposits and paying a great deal of attention to regional zoning. It should be noted that geology was one of the first natural sciences in China to become institutionally and scientifically sound in the sense of modernity, perhaps because as Ding Wenjiang argued at that time, historical sciences like geology had many parallels with the concerns and methods of traditional Chinese scholarship.124

123 Qian Renzi, Dilixue xin yi (New Significance to the Study of the Principles of the Earth) (Shanghai: Yu yao pu wen ming shu ju, 1934). 124 Yang Tsui-hua, ‘The Development of Geology in Republican China, 1912-1937’, in Fu Daiwie and Lin Cheng-hung (eds.), Philosophy and Conceptual History of Science in Taiwan (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1993).

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In 1925, Weng Wenhao published a paper outlining the history of the conception of ‘mountain veins’ in both China and Europe. The first part of the paper particularly looked at the change in theoretical basis and in actual structure that came about from the Qin to the Qing dynasties. All of the four maps used in this section and the theories behind them are taken from the fengshui concept of qi flowing in lines along the ridges of mountains even though Weng uses the term kanyu. There are even extensive quotes from famous fengshui experts such as Yang Yunsong. Weng Wenhao’s ideas will be discussed at greater length in the Chapter 5 in the discussion of fengshui in relation to geology.125 Of the more recent writings in China on fengshui, one, Gao Youqian’s Zhongguo fengshui, has particularly looked at the relationship between fengshui and the history of science in China.126 The influence on hydrology, meteorology, the discovery of oxygen, the invention of the compass, and cartography is considered. In terms of hydrology, it is pointed out that the gorging out of flood plains by rivers results in greater and greater meanders and that the physical action of this mechanism on the side of the river where the current flows gives both potable water and a harnessable power supply. The Guo Pu chuan of the Jin shu (the History of the Jin Dynasty) is quoted to indicate that Guo Pu understood this mechanism of meandering water and the resultant rich flood plains. Gao postulates from this that such an understanding of the actual causes and effects of the meandering of rivers was integrated into the basic tenets of fengshui. Guo Pu is also quoted in the discussion of the history of meteorology. The significance of the opening lines of his Book of Burial, concerning the qi of yin and yang being exhaled, ascending to become clouds and descending as rain, is held to indicate that there was an understanding of the meteorological cycle by such writers on fengshui as early as 300 AD. It should be noted, however, that to substantiate this idea Gao postulates that the qi circulating in the earth in this context equates with underground water, an idea that seems to have no textual basis in that later in the Book of Burial it is stated that if qi”is bounded by water, it is held”127 which would indicate that qi and water were considered to be two different entities.

125 Huang Jiqing, Weng Wenhao xuanji (The Collected Writings of Weng Wenhao) (Beijing: Ye jin gongye chubanshe, 1989). 126 Gao Youqian, op. cit. 127 Jin dai bi shu, Ji gu ge, vol. 5, no. 42 (Shanghai: The Library of Mao Jin of the Ming dynasty, Shanghai bogu zhai yingyin, 1923) (JDBS), p. 2.

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Gao, moreover, uses textual evidence to question the general conclusion that the compass was invented in the Southern Song dynasty. He argues that the writings of the Xue xin fu128 by Bu Yingtian129 indicate that experts in fengshui were using the compass as early as the Tang dynasty. In his consideration of the effect of fengshui on Chinese cartography, Gao describes Needham’s theory that it would have been impossible for Pei Xiu130 (223-271) of the Western Jin dynasty, who outlined the six basic rules of cartography, which had the strongest influence on cartography in China until the Qing dynasty, not to have known of and been strongly influenced by the divination plate and the compass. In addition, Gao uses Western sources in his assertion that an expert in fengshui was the first to discover oxygen. He bases this assertion on the Ping long ren131 by Ma He,132 a text written in either 583-586 or 756-757 AD, which is now lost but which was read by a German sinologist133 who presented a paper on it entitled ‘The Chemical Knowledge of the Chinese in the Eighth Century’ to the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1807. This indicated that the Ping long ren contained the idea that air has yin and yang qi and that if it was heated with saltpetre and bluestone yin qi would result. It also contained the concept that water has yin qi but here it is bound tightly to yang qi and so they are very difficult to separate. It was thus theorised by the German scholar that yin qi was another word for oxygen. Gao points out that Westerners only discovered that both water and air contain oxygen in the eighteenth century. He further argues that the Ping long ren was a text on fengshui for two reasons. Firstly, at the time that the book was supposedly written the Daoist writings were comparatively few and of these none had this name. Secondly, he considers that the name Ping long ren is a shortened form of the second part of the fengshui aphorism, ‘a mountain dragon is easy to see, a flat dragon is difficult to recognise’.134 A number of recent authors have suggested a relationship between the modern relativistic outlook of most modern scientific and intellectual endeavours which attempt to consider the dynamic equilibrium of disparate 128 雪心賦. 129 卜應天. 130 裴秀. 131 平龍認. 132 馬和. 133 The transliteration of this name is Zhulisi Kelapuluote but the actual name has not yet been discovered. 134 平龍難認.

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entities within a unified organic whole, and the basic concepts of the yinyang and Five Phases system on which fengshui is based. This will be considered more fully in a later chapter but it is appropriate to outline the ideas of one of these authors because fengshui was mentioned in this context. Li Zehou points to the possibility of ridiculing the mixing of natural and historical philosophy in classical Chinese philosophy yet questions such a stance by indicating the significance and value of treating heaven and humanity, nature and society and body and spirit as a unified organic whole. He considers that one of the major issues of science is to co-ordinate humanity and the environment in a “rational, dynamic equilibrium which transforms and adapts”.135 Traditional Chinese medicine is said to have retained its efficacy because of this theoretical basis, particularly in terms of the theory of ‘meridians’, a concept which has its parallel in the dragon paths of fengshui. However, Li looks on fengshui as a pseudo-theory which appears scientific but is absurd in actuality even though it shares a similar theoretical background. The basis for this consideration is not explicitly stated but seems to revolve around the argument that burial places of the dead being able to affect the fate of the living is an absurdity. Moreover, Li argues that while there was an indication of the scientific in the concepts and ideas contained in such traditional medical texts as the Huangdi Neijing,136 there was no consideration of any such scientific validity for fengshui. The most recent serious writing in the Chinese language that attempts to consider fengshui from a scientific perspective is that of the Taiwanese scholar Zhou Jiannan.137 His book is a very long (428 pages) but interesting and thorough attempt to explain the general principles of fengshui in terms of architectural theory, wind and sun direction, ergonomics and meteorology. Each chapter ends with a section entitled ‘Scientific Interpretation’. The book even takes a global ecological perspective in one chapter that considers such topics soil chemistry, magnetic declination and the hole in the ozone layer with detailed graphs of the recent rise in the global levels of carbon dioxide and methane. Overall, there are good arguments to be found here even though some are quite tenuous. However, Zhou does call for the need for rigorous observation before rejecting the theories of 135 Li Zehou, ‘Confucian Cosmology in the Han Dynasty’, Social Sciences in China, vol. 7, no. 1 (March, 1986): p. 107. 136 皇帝內經. 137 Zhou Jiannan, Yangzhai kexue lun (On the Scientific Siting of Houses) (Taipei: Guojia chubanshe, 2000).

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fengshui out of hand. Such caution against ‘precarious assertions’138 especially about the environmental conservation aspect of fengshui is laudable when one considers that both China and Taiwan, where one would expect some positive fallout from traditional fengshui practices, have some of world’s worst cases of water, air and land pollution. Of particular interest in Zhou’s book in relation to my choice texts to translate is his separation of the history of fengshui into four main periods. The first he sees as the time of the yin-yang theorists during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods. The second period he suggests to be that of the Han dynasty and puts forward Guo Pu as being the main writer of that time. The third era is considered to be the Tang Song dynastic periods. The main personage here is Yang Yunsong. The last period is the Ming-Qing dynastic period and Jiang Pingjie is thought to be the main writer. Thus, my choice of texts to translate has some reinforcement. It is a pity that I did not have enough time nor space to include a full translation of some of Yang Yunsong’s writings. A note should also be made of those scholars of Daoism from a religious perspective who have turned their attention to the scientific, specifically ecological, ideas found within Daoist practices. Their thrust can be summarised by the words of Lawrence E. Sullivan in the preface to the collection of papers, Daoism and Ecology: A geology of the religious spirit of humankind can well serve our need to relate fruitfully to the earth and its myriad life-forms. Changing our habits of consumption and patterns of distribution, reevaluating modes of production, and re-establishing a strong sense of solidarity with the matrix of material life—these achievements will arrive along with spiritual modulations that unveil attractive new images of well-being and prosperity, respecting the limits of life in a sustainable world while revering life at its sources….  The power to modify the world is both frightening and fascinating and has been subjected to reflection, particularly religious reflection, from time immemorial to the present day. We will understand ecology better when we understand the religions that form the rich soil of memory and practice, belief and relationships where life on earth is rooted.139

While I empathise greatly with this view especially in the sense of the integration of different forms of knowledge to create greater understanding, 138 Bruun, O., ‘Fengshui and the Chinese Perception of Nature’, in O. Bruun and A Kalland (eds.), Asian Perceptions of Nature (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1995), pp. 173-188. 139 Girardot, N. J., J. Miller and Liu Xiagan (eds.), Daoism and Ecology; Ways within a Cosmic Landscape (Harvard: Harvard University Press for the Centre for the Study of World Religions, Harvard Divinity School, 2001), p. xi.

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in the context of academic discourse such an appeal to emotion cannot be completely condoned. Moreover, I am not entirely convinced that making a ‘religion’ of ecology is ethically or pragmatically sustainable. The strong relationship between ‘mystical’ ecology and the German fascist movement in the early twentieth century is an historical precedent for caution. Furthermore, I am not entirely convinced that Daoist practices can be as closely related to ecology as suggested in terms of its scientific (rather than etymological) definition as the biological study of the relationship between organisms and their environment. Nevertheless, one paper in this collection does specifically consider fengshui and its ecological relationship as gleaned specifically from the Book of Burial.140 Three further writings should be mentioned here in the discussion of fengshui and the history and philosophy of science. They will not, however, be reviewed extensively because of their focus on the Compass School. The first, an earlier paper by Stephen Field, is an attempt to explicate the cosmology and numerology of Eight House and Nine Star Compass School theories. Interestingly the author concludes that these have an empirical agrarian origin but that the philosophical discussions of the cosmology usurped any actual environmental considerations over time.141 In the second paper, Fu Daiwie discusses the close relationship between early Compass School theory and the development of the scientific understanding of magnetic declination, arguing successfully that the standard texts by literati are not the only source for understanding the history of science in China and that there has been strong and constant interplay between Chinese culture and the development of science.142 A similar focus on the Compass School can be seen in Aylward’s translation of the Qing dynasty text, the Treatise on Harmonising Times and Distinguishing Directions.143 This text was commissioned by the emperor Qian Long in 1740 to enable a rectification of calendrical and geographical knowledge in China up until that time. It is the epitome of the late imperial period thought with all traditional Chinese cosmology entwined to provide what Aylward dubs the ‘art of scheduling and positioning’, which includes but is not confined to the theories of fengshui. The Treatise is very much 140 Ibid., Field, S., ‘In Search of Dragons: the Folk Ecology of Fengshui’, pp. 185-200. 141 Field, S., ‘The Numerology of Nine Star Fengshui: A Hetu, Luoshu Resolution of the Mystery of Directional Auspice’, Journal of Chinese Religions, vol. 27 (1999). 142 Fu Daiwie, ‘An Early Geomantic Theory and its Relationship to Compass Deviation’, NTHU, Taiwan (2001). 143 Aylward, T. F., The Imperial Guide to Feng Shui & Chinese Astrology (London: Watkins Publishing, 2007).

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an example of theory becoming more important than the observations from which the theory was originally developed. However, Aylward argues that the ideas in text indicate a “universe governed by regular and predictable fluctuations of energy”, which somewhat reflects the conception of natural law in science in that they posit the exertion of natural forces without regard to human wants or needs. Aylward uses an interesting metaphor of surfing to explain his argument. The regular and predictable fluctuations of energy are the waves breaking on the shoreline, and the art of scheduling and positioning enables the surfer to catch the wave just at the right time to allow a smooth ride through life rather than being dumped.144 The problem seems to be, however, that the observation of the fluctuations in regularity of the waves became over time less important than the model relating the schedule to the position. As a concluding remark, it should be noted that before I undertook my translations of the Book of Burial and the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting in 1986 as far as can be gleaned only one author had had attempted to fully translate traditional fengshui texts, i.e. Kohut with the Book of Burial. Since then as the popularity of fengshui increased world-wide, there have been a number of translations of the Book of Burial because of its position as the seminal text.145 Nevertheless, I have included my translation of the Book of Burial here because it allows ready comparison with the other translated texts. It is hoped that the translations undertaken in this book will broaden the understanding of those who have interest in the transformations that have occurred in this particular aspect of Chinese science.

144 Ibid., p. 52. 145 Field, Stephen L. (trans.), The Zang Shu, or Book of Burial 2009, http://www. fengshuigate.com/zangshu.html accessed 3/5/2012); Zhang Juwen, A Translation of the Ancient Chinese ‘The Book of Burial (Zang Shu)’ by Guo Pu (276-324) (Lewiston, NewYork: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004), and Ong Hean Tatt and Chan Seng Siang, Original Yin Fengshui of Zhang Shu, Book of Burial (Kuala Lumpur: Gui Management Centre, 2009).

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notes on translation

45

CHAPTER THREE

NOTES ON TRANSLATION There are a number of problems involved with translation from one language to another, and some excellent studies have been done in this area.1 Putnam in particular has argued the need to distinguish between concept as compared to conception in translation schemes with a consequence of some formalisation of the practice of translation between cultures. In relation to this, she argues that successful translation does not require the same belief system for both culture but does require intelligibility.2 Suffice it to say that the problems are particularly great when the cultural basis of the two languages are markedly different and the task becomes even more difficult when there is a gap of time in terms of centuries or even millennia between the two texts. A translation under such constraints can be at best an honest attempt at an approximation of the meaning of the original text, especially in relation to the translation of conceptual words. Those problems contained in the texts translated in this book are no exception and so the major ones encountered and the reasons for their translation are set out below with some initial general discussion followed by detailed definition of the major theoretical concepts. The first phrase that poses a problem is that of fengshui itself. It has been generally translated as geomancy but this does not accurately describe the meaning of the concept. A direct translation of ‘wind and water’ would be too vague and perhaps would suggest some problem with flatulence and incontinence. As previously stated, Bennet suggests ‘topographical siting’ or merely ‘siting’ but this is too general in the context of these translations and would negate the wind and water aspect of the original concept. Thus, the transliteration fengshui is preferred as it provides a definitive name for the subject. Moreover, this term has become assimilated into the language

1 See such works as Walter Benjamin’s ‘The Task of a Translator’, in Arendt, H. (ed.), Illuminations: Walter Benjamin, Essays and Reflections (New York: Schoken Books, 1996), pp. 69-82; and Eoyang, E., The Transparent Eye: Reflections on Translation, Chinese Literature and Comparative Politics (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993). 2 Putnam, H., Reason, Truth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

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of the popular culture at least in Australia although its correct pronunciation is beyond most.3 Another concept that has become imbued into popular consciousness is yin-yang. In translation there have been a number of renderings of these complementary concepts. However, as Granet states, “yin and yang may be defined neither as purely logical entities nor as simple cosmogonic principles. They are neither substances nor forces nor genera”.4 It is because of this vagary of meaning and again because of the common usage of the terms in for example Australian, French and German argot that their transliterations are used in the following translations so as to preclude any misunderstanding from a more definitive but not necessarily exact translation of the terms. For a similar reason the transliteration of qi is used in the following translations. The definitions given by scholars such as Needham and Porkert or the more recent ‘matter-energy-vitality’ used by Elvin5 are valid translations but would seem to be too unwieldy to be easily used in these translations, so the transliteration qi, which one would suspect that most lay people would understand as the ‘energy’ which flows along the meridians found in acupuncture, is used to preserve fluency. A term which has not been popularised in transliteration and so cannot be used in that way is shi. This has both an idea of force as well as that of the outward appearance of natural objects but it was only this latter meaning that was used by Kohut with the term, topography, in his translation of the Book of Burial.6 However, the static quality inherent in the term topography belies the dynamic component of shi which is encountered throughout texts on fengshui. For example, the Book of Burial states that “(shi) moves perpetually according to the landform”.7 Thus, for greater exactitude in translation the term ‘configurational force’ was coined in an attempt to capture the apparently simultaneous static and dynamic qualities implicit in the term.

3 A popular Australian national women’s magazine, the Women’s Weekly (a strange name as it is a monthly periodical), has included a column on fengshui in each edition for the last fifteen years. 4 Granet, M., La Pensée Chinoise (Paris: Editions Albins Michel, 1950), p. 146. 5 Elvin, M., ‘The Man Who Saw Dragons: Science and Styles of Thinking in Xie Zhaozhe’s Fivefold Miscellany,’ Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, vols. 25 and 26 (1993-4): pp. 1-41. 6 Kohut, M., op. cit. p. 16. 7 JDBS p. 1.

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The term xue8 posed a similar problem. Literally its usual meaning is ‘hole’ or ‘cave’ and by extension the hole for a grave and this is a valid translation for those texts on fengshui dealing with burial. However, when the subject matter is not burial but the placement or siting of houses for the living a rendering of hole would seem to be stilted if not meaningless. Bennet uses the term ‘lair’9 to attempt to overcome this problem but this seems inconsistent with the idea of burial even though it does relate well to the concept of the dragon. Moreover, xue is also used as the term for an acupuncture point10 and hence ‘lair’ would seem to be insufficiently all encompassing. Therefore, it was decided that a more appropriate translation to be used throughout the various texts would be ‘node’ as it suggests in a general scientific sense the end point or junction of two or more branches, which fits well with the theoretical aspect in fengshui of qi flowing in lines and meeting at the ‘node’. The conventional usage of node in botany as the place on a stem from which new growth occurs also makes node an apt translation in terms of the concept of vitalisation occurring from the correct placement of the xue. The quote below from Tambiah is indicative of the necessity of a give and take of ideas in the process of translation: Winch ... maintained that ... translation of another people’s conceptions into the categories of one’s own language be not regarded as a one-way street, for the true understanding of another should hold open the prospect that the other’s conceptions may inform our own, and thereby extend and/or modify our own conception of rationality.11

1. Definition of Terms 1.1. Fengshui The term fengshui literally means ‘wind and water’. It has been described in English by Needham among others as ‘geomancy’ which the Concise Oxford Dictionary defines as being “divination from the configuration of

8 穴. 9 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. p. 11. 10 Chinese Traditional Medical College of Shanghai, Anatomical Charts of the Acu­ puncture Points and 14 Meridians (Oxford: Permagon, 1978). 11 Tambiah, S. J., Magic, Science, Religion and the Scope of Rationality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

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a handful of earth or random dots”.12 However, on examination of the texts, such a definition is in no way valid description of the concept. Thus, rather than geomancy I prefer to use the term, spiritual geography, to describe the process of fengshui because it is a system that melds placement in relation to landform, fertility and the human spirit. The lack of understanding of fengshui by those external to the culture has a long history. In the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, the invading Europeans considered it an execrable superstition as it hampered the construction of railroads and negated the efficiency of straight lines so that it was described as “the greatest stumbling block to progress”.13 Some attempted definitions to fit the esoteric nature of the concept such as “wind is what cannot be seen, water is what cannot be grasped”.14 Others merely questioned the relationship between the term fengshui and the actual concept, e.g. “(t)he terms feng shui convey no idea of the thing meant”.15 One European writer previously mentioned was, however, able to achieve a succinct and more valid if somewhat culturally chauvinistic definition of the term. In 1873 Eitel stated that “it is a system of superstition, supposed to teach people when and where to build a tomb or erect a house so as to insure for those concerned everlasting prosperity and happiness”.16 The first recorded Chinese use of the term fengshui was in the Yu li of the Qin dynasty (221-206 BC). Here it was considered to be a shortened form of the phrase cang feng de shui or ‘calming the wind and obtaining water’ which is a simple description of the basic methodology of fengshui. The term seems, however, to be first used with its modern meaning of siting in the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity which states that: The Classic says, ‘If qi rides the wind it is scattered; if it is bounded by water it is held’. Ancient men gathered it, causing it not to be scattered and curtailed its area of circulation. Hence this is referred to as fengshui. The method

12 Allen, R. E. (ed.), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (London: Clarendon Press, 1990). 13 Stringer, H., The China Journal of Science and Arts, vol. 3 (1925): p. 307. 14 Hastings, J., Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York: Charles Scribner’s sons, 1912), p. 833. 15 Yates, M., ‘Ancestral Worship and Feng shui’, Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, vol. 1, 1868, p. 39. 16 Eitel, E. J., Feng-shui: The Science of Sacred Landscape in Feng-shui (London: Synergetic Press, 1984), p. 3.

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of fengshui is, first of all, to obtain water and secondly to store from the wind.17

The term fengshui has also been historically interchangeable with the terms kanyu,18 which de Groot19 has defined as the system that occupies itself with heaven and earth; dili20 or the principle of the earth; dixue,21 the study of the earth; and dilishu,22 the art of the principles of the earth. The term kanyujia,23 or specialist in kanyu, was first mentioned by Sima Qian in the Shi ji.24 However, it is not known whether these were the same as the later fengshuijia or were merely diviners of astronomical phenomena. Stephen Field has coined the term ‘qimancy’ to provide a closer English equivalent of the nature of fengshui.25 However, the popularity of the concept worldwide is such that a translation of the term has become unnecessary to convey its general meaning. Besides the definition of fengshui itself, a number of other basic concepts need to be considered. These are outlined below. 1.2. Qi26 Literally ‘air’ or ‘breath’, according to the Huainanzi (circa 120 BC), qi is the origin of the universe. It is a spontaneous formation that gave rise to physical shape. The heavy and stable qi coagulated to become the earth. The light and unstable qi rose to create the sky. The qi of the earth and sky met and became yin and yang. Needham defined qi as pneuma, subtle matter, matter-energy, or energy present in an organised form.27 Porkert defines it as the explicit, perceptible, concrete and structive aspect of the cosmic situation. In addition, he defines sheng qi or vital qi as the quality of energy during the yang hours of the rising sun, ie. midnight to noon. He points out that sheng qi has a quickening and invigorating influence on active 17 Jin dai bi shu (A Ford to the Mysteries) [JDBS] vol. 5 no. 42 Gu ben zang jing nei pian, p. 2). 18 堪輿. 19 De Groot, J., Religion in China (New York: G. Putman’s Sons, 1912), p. 39. 20 地理. 21 地學. 22 地理術. 23 堪輿家. 24 史記. 25 Field, S., Qimancy; The Art and Science of Fengshui, revised February 12 1998, http:// www.fengshuigate.com/qimancy.html, site accessed 30 October, 2011. 26 氣. 27 Needham, op. cit. vol. 4.1, p. 403.

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enterprises.28 The Book of Burial gives us further insight into the concept. Its relationship to life and consequently death is outlined in the following passage: When the qi of yin and yang is exhaled it ascends and becomes clouds, descending as rain. When it circulates in the earth it is vital qi. When the vital qi circulates in the earth, it ferments and gives life to the myriad things. Man receives his form from his parents. His basic frame obtains qi and the form he is given accepts it and harbours it there. Life is the gathering of qi. What coagulates and solidifies becomes bones which are the only remainder upon death. Therefore, in burial, qi is returned to reside in the bones, which is how the living are endowed.

A most lucid and succinct description of qi and its historical impact has been published recently in a biography of the Yi jing. 29 This shows that by the late Zhou period qi was considered to “comprise all objects in the world and fill all the spaces in between them” where it “not only suffuses and animates our bodies, but also becomes our spirit”.30 The Chinese concept of spirit here involves the xin31 or the heart/mind, the “interface between the sentient and insentient, or the psychological and the physical”.32 Man was expected to focus his heart/mind or spirit to gain a “cosmic resonance”, a “sympathetic vibration of qi across space” much like the resonance between stringed musical instruments when one is plucked. One strove for a harmony where”like things resonated and unlike things were in balance”.33 By the Han dynasty, a systematic philosophy had been developed around this idea of balance, resonance and correspondence, that is, correlative thought, with the concepts of qi, yin-yang and the Five Phases at its base. 28 Porkert, M., The Theoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974), p. 62. This is nought but a cursory glance at the meaning of qi. It would be prohibitive in terms of space to delve further into its definitive meaning. Its relationship to underground water within fengshui texts should, however, be noted. Other definitions are to be found in such diverse works as Smith, R. J. and D. W. Y. Kwok (eds.), Cosmology, Ontology & Human Efficacy: Essays in Chinese Thought (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993); Lü, Li-cheng, Tien, jen, shehui (Heaven, Man, and Society) (Tai-pei: Chong yang yen chiu yüan min tse hsue yen chiu so, 1990); and Lam, Kam Chuen, The Way of Energy: mastering the Art of Internal Strength with Chi Kung Exercise (East Roseville: Simon & Schuster Australia, 1991). 29 Smith, R. J., The I Ching: a Biography (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. 2012). 30 Ibid., p. 52. 31 心. 32 Roth, H. D., ‘Psychology and Self-Cultivation in Early Chinese Thought’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 51, no. 2 (December 1991): pp. 599-650. Quote pp. 645-6. 33 Smith, R. J., op. cit. p. 54.

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1.3. Yin-Yang,34 the Five Phases and the Five Stars The terms yin and yang require some explanation. They have very early origins as the character yang appears on the oracle bones and the two characters are found together on early bronzes. Here, they simply meant the sunny (yang) and shady (yin) aspects of a mountain. It was not until the Western Zhou dynasty that the terms were used in the sense of complementary forces to describe natural phenomena.35 The Laozi of the Warring States period states that “all things carry the yin and embrace the yang; the forces merge in harmony”.36 Thus, the concept of yin and yang had evolved to define the complementary aspects of the world and it is in terms of these complementary aspects that they may best be understood. There is a suggestion of polarity, a dualistic ordering of being. Porkert put forward a useful system of correspondences to describe the complementary associations between the two terms using scientific vocabulary. Yin corresponds to all that is structive, contractive, intrasuspective (absorbing into the entity), centripetal, responsive, conservative and positive. Yang corresponds to all that is active, expansive, extraversive (bringing to the surface), centrifugal, aggressive, demanding and negative.37 According to the Book of Burial where qi gathers there will be “a clashing of yang with a harmonising of yin”,38 which is indicative of their nature. Yang is transformed by interaction with yin and so the four seasons and the Five Phases (wu xing)39 are produced. The Five Phases are water, fire, wood, metal, and earth. Although these are based on actual observed phenomena they are again primarily metaphysical concepts which are associated with time, space, matter, the senses, colours and moods. As Suetoshi points out xing means “being prevalent” such that the Phases are generally principles related to the fundamental substance most analogous to each rather than actual meteorological observations.40 Thus, the phase Wood is associated with spring, green and blue, and the east. Fire is sum34 陰陽. 35 Pang, P., ‘Origins of the Yin-Yang and Five Elements Concepts’, Social Sciences in China, vol. 6, no. 1 (March, 1985): p. 118-119. 36 Chan Wingtsit (trans.), Laozi, No. 42, The Way of Lao Tzu (New York: Bob-Merril Company, 1963), p. 176. 37 Porkert, op. cit. p. 23. 38 JDBS, p. 1. 39 五行. 40 Suetoshi, Ikeda, ‘The Origin and Development of the Wu-hsing (Five Elements) Idea: a Preliminary Essay’, East and West, vol. 16, nos. 3-4 (September–December 1966), p. 299.

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mer, the south and red. Metal designates autumn, white and the west. Water is black, the north and winter. Earth, being at the centre, designates the ‘dog days’ and yellow. These are considered to be phases rather than elements as in the Aristotelian concept of matter because they denote the transition between the two polarities of yin and yang, defining “energetic qualities in the course of time”.41 There are two primary cycles, one of generation and one of destruction. The cycle of generation is Earth to Metal to Water to Wood to Fire and back to Earth. The cycle of destruction is Earth to Water to Fire to Metal to Wood and back to Earth. These two primary cycles are also affected by a number of secondary cycles, two of which are outlined by Feuchtwang. One indicates that Wood destroys Earth but Metal controls the process; Metal destroys Wood but Fire controls the process; Fire destroys Metal but Water controls the process; Water destroys Fire but Earth controls the process; and Earth destroys Water but Wood controls the process. The other states that Wood destroys Earth but Fire masks the process; Metal destroys Wood but Water masks the process; Fire destroys Metal but Earth masks the process; Water destroys Fire but Wood masks the process; and Earth destroys Water but Metal masks the process.42 This system of Five Phases in relation to the earth has as its analogue the Five Stars (or Planets) in the heavens. The Five Stars are Jupiter, the Wood star; Mars, the Fire star; Saturn, the Earth star; Venus, the Metal star; and Mercury, the Water star. With these, specific landforms would be designated to a particular planet to become its yin correlate.43 These landforms are outlined below.44

Recent discoveries in 1972 and 1973 respectively of writings by yin-yang theorists in graves in Yinqueshan cemetry in Linyi in southern Shandong 41 Porkert, M., op. cit. p. 45. 42 Feuchtwang, S., An Anthropological Analysis of Chinese Geomancy (Vientiane, Laos: Vithagna, 1974), pp. 41-42. 43 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. p. 18. 44 These diagrams come from the Qing dynasty text Dili zhizhi yuan zhen (Indicating the Original Truths of the Principles of the Earth) (see He Xiaoxin, Fengshui tanyuan (1990), p. 48).

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and in Mawangdui indicate that there has been consideration of the relationship between yin, yang and the energy of the land of the type found in the texts translated here since at least the Early Han dynasty. The Yinqueshan texts have been dated to around 134 BC in the early stages of Han Wudi’s reign. Translation of this text by Yates exemplifies this relationship: If it is watery but does not flow, its name is the “Encoffinment of the Bones”. If you stay in it alone, you will die. These are what are referred to as “those with too much yang dying and those with too much yin.........”45

In the Mawangdui text there is an “elaborate categorisation of topography according to yin and yang and ‘living’ and ‘dead’”,46 which would seem the basis for the later fengshui texts. This text, moreover, discusses the relationship between yin-yang and the terrestrial branches. “Yin, mao, si, wu, wei and xu are yang”.47 1.4. The Five Tonal Surnames The wuxing48 or Five Surnames system was perhaps the earliest system used in the siting of graves. Within this, the one hundred surnames (baixing) of traditional Chinese culture are classified according to their theoretical rhyming pattern in relation to the Chinese pentatonic scale, comprising the notes zhen, jiao, gong, shang and yu.49 Thus, according to a Tang dynasty manuscript discovered in the Dunhuang caves, categorised under the note zhi were the surnames, Jin, Li and Lu, under gong were Niu, Song and Yan, under shang were Shi, Kang and Wang, and under yu were He, Lu and Wu. This system enabled the incorporation of personal and familial fate into the machinations of the Five Phases as each of the notes of the pentatonic scale was associated with a specific phase. This system was, however, already being dismissed in the Han dynasty as having no basis by Wang Chong (ca. 27-100) in the Jie shu section of the Lun heng. A later Tang dynasty yin-yang specialist, Lu Cai (died 665), also attacked the system for its unorthodoxy and for the fact that it was generally used by shamans, whose interest was more in increasing their wealth than in correct funeral practices. Nevertheless, according to Morgan, “there 45 Yates, Robin, ‘The Yin-yang Texts from Yinqueshan’, Early China, vol. 19 (1994): pp. 85-86 (0530). 46 Ibid., p. 90. 47 Ibid., p. 92 (1173). 48 五姓. 49 徵角宮商羽.

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is little doubt that between the seventh and ninth centuries the wu-hsing (sic.) became the predominant geomantic system of its time”.50 1.5. The Celestial Stems and Terrestrial Branches The cyclical counting systems of the celestial stems and terrestrial branches are also concepts basic to the understanding of texts on fengshui, particularly the later texts. However, these have created great difficulty not only in their use in this field of study but also throughout the history of Chinese science because of a basic flaw in their theoretical construct. As Pang states, they give an “example of the difficulty metaphysics encounters when confronted with science”.51 The celestial stems are calendrical symbols which appeared much earlier in the history of Chinese cosmology than the Five Phases but later became absorbed by the more general theory such that the Five Phases were matched to the five directions and two celestial stems were matched to each direction. Thus, Wood related to the east and to the stems, jia and yi; Fire related to the south and to bing and ding; Earth related to the centre and to wu and ji; Metal related to the west and to geng and xin; and Water related to the north and ren and gui.52 The celestial stems did not pose any great problems but there was much more difficulty with the terrestrial branches. This was due to the fact that their original correspondence was to both the twelve months of the year and to the twelve directions to which the handle of the Big Dipper pointed at a particular time of the year. Thus, zi, the first of the twelve branches, corresponded to the eleventh month in which the winter solstice occurred and when the handle of the Big Dipper was pointing due north; chou, the second of the terrestrial branches, corresponded to the twelfth month when the handle of the Big Dipper was pointing east of north and so on such that each of the terrestrial branches corresponded to the twelve divisions of the compass. This in itself created no great difficulty but when this concept was incorporated into the more general one of the Five Phases, serious flaws became apparent in the system. These were addressed but never really resolved. The difficulties were twofold: there was no relationship between the patterns of direction of the celestial stems, which began 50 Morgan, C., ‘T’ang Geomancy; The Wu-hsing (“Five Names”) Theory and its Legacy’, T’ang Studies 8-9 (1990-1991). 51 Pang, Pu, op. cit. p. 101. 52 The ten celestial stems in traditional order beginning from the east: jia, yi, bing, ding, wu, ji, geng, xin, ren, gui. 甲乙丙丁戊己庚辛壬癸。

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in the east, and those of the terrestrial branches, which started in the north. In addition, the terrestrial branches had no concept of, and therefore could not incorporate, the idea of Earth as the centre. Thus, the terrestrial branches only ever corresponded to four of the Five Phases. These correspondences were as follows: Water corresponded to the north and to the branches zi and chou; Wood corresponded to the east and to yin, mao, and chen; Fire corresponded to the south and to si, wu, and wei; Metal corresponded to the west and to shen, you, and xu; and Water corresponded to the north again and to the branch hai.53 1.6. The Nine Stars A concept which was also related to the Big Dipper was that of the Nine Stars or Nine Constellations. These with the Phase that they represent are: tan lang, the greedy wolf, Wood; ju men, the great gate, Earth; lu cun, the job keeper, Earth; lian zhen, honest and steadfast, Fire; po jun, the broken army, Metal; wen qu, the civil twist, Water; wu qu, the military twist, Metal; zuo fu, the left assistant, Earth; and you bi, the right assistant, Metal.54 The meaning of the ‘greedy wolf’ is vitality and its associated trigram is gen, that of the ‘great gate’ is good fortune and its associated trigram is xun, the ‘job keeper’ is disaster and qian, ‘honest and steadfast’ is the Five Ghosts and zhen, the ‘broken army’ is death and kan, the ‘civil twist’ is the Six Curses (liu sha)55 and li, the ‘military twist’ is longevity and dui, and both the ‘left and right assistants’ have the meaning of life and their associated trigram is kun. The correspondence of these stars with the Big Dipper is shown diagrammatically below. Note that the astronomical name for each of these stars is not the same as the cosmological name. For example, the astronomical name for the greedy wolf is tian shu or Heaven’s Pivot. Note also that the gou chen56 constellation is found below the Big Dipper.57 As with the Five Stars mentioned previously, each of these constellations was allocated a particular form on earth to reinforce the correspondence between earth and heaven.58 Rather than outline the astronomical/astrological components of this concept, in keeping with the Form School thrust 53 Ibid., pp. 101-3. The twelve terrestrial branches in their traditional order are: (zi, chou, yin, mao, chen, si, wu, wei, shen, you, xu, hai). 子丑寅卯辰巳午未申酉戌亥。 54 貪狼, 巨門, 祿存, 廉貞, 破軍, 文曲, 武曲, 左夫, 右弼. 55 六殺. 56 勾陳. 57 Cheng Jianjun and A. Fernandes-Goncalves, Chinese Fengshui Compass (Nanchang, Jiangxi: Jiangxi Science and Technology Publishing House, 1998). 58 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. p. 19.

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of this work the terrestrial forms that each of these constellations designated are shown below.59

1.7. The Eight Trigrams The eight trigrams (ba gua)60 of the Yi jing (qian, kun, zhen, kan, gen, xun, li, and dui)61 also played a part in siting. As the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting states, “The eight trigrams of the Yi jing and the nine palaces of the lunar calendar match the positions of man and woman”.62 In the Yi jing each trigram was given a name, an attribute, an image and a family relationship. Thus qian is the Creative with an attribute of strength, an image of heaven and the relationship of the father; kun is the Receptive with devotion, earth and the mother; zhen is the Arousing with incitation of movement, thunder and the first son; kan is the Abysmal with danger, water and the second son; gen is Keeping Still with rest, the mountain and the third son; xun is the Gentle with penetration, wind and wood and the first daughter; li is the Clinging with the giving of light, fire and the second daughter; and dui is the Joyous with joy, the lake and the third daughter respectively.63 More importantly in terms of siting, each trigram had a directional component and was correlated to the Five Phases and four of 59 Taken from the Qing dynasty text Yin yang zhai quan shu (The Complete Book of Yinyang Siting) (see He Xiaoxin, Fengshui tanyuan (1990), p. 49). 60 八卦. 61 乾坤震坎艮巽離兌. 62 Cong shu ji xuan [CSJX] 0175 Huang di zhai jing, p. 4. 63 Wilhelm, R. (C. Baynes, trans.), The I Ching or Book of Changes (Taipei: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. L-LI.

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the trigrams were also given a temporal component in relation to the seasons. With this qian is the northwest and Metal; kun is the southwest and Earth; zhen is the east, Wood and spring; kan is the north, Water and winter; gen is the northeast and Earth; xun is the southeast and Wood; li is the south, Fire and summer; and dui is the west, Metal and autumn.64 Interestingly, those four trigrams without a specific seasonal component are selected in the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Siting as being along with the celestial stems and the terrestrial branches integral parts of the twenty four paths, a diagrammatical scheme outlined in this classic as an aid to siting.65 1.8. The Dragon Another concept that should be outlined in the context of fengshui is that of the dragon (long).66 As pointed out by Eberhard, the dragon is one of the most complex symbols in Chinese cosmology with many different connotations both mythological and cosmological; even the manifestations of the being itself are many and varied. It is a symbol of yang, and from the early Han dynasty until last century with the end of the imperial government, the dragon was also the symbol of the emperor.67 Perhaps the most perceptive and poetic description of the Chinese concept of the dragon is that by Jullien: The body of the dragon concentrates energy in its sinuous curves, and coils and uncoils to move along more quickly. It is a symbol of all the potential with which form can be charged, a potential that never ceases to be actualized. The dragon now lurks in watery depths, now streaks aloft to the highest heavens, and its very gait is a continuous undulation. It presents an image of energy constantly recharged through oscillation from one pole to another. The dragon is a constantly evolving creature with no fixed form; it can never be immobilised or penned in, never grasped. It symbolizes a dynamism never visible in concrete form and thus unfathomable. Finally, merging with the clouds and the mists, the dragon’s impetus makes the surrounding world vibrate: it is the very image of an energy that diffuses itself through space, intensifying its environment and enriching itself by that aura.68

64 Ibid., p. 310. 65 CSJX p. 20. 66 龍. 67 Eberhard, Wolfram (G. L. Campbell, trans.), A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought (London: Routledge and Kegan, 1986). 68 Jullien, Francois, The Propensity of Things: Toward a History of Efficacy in China (New York: Zone Books, 1995), p. 151.

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However, from a perusal of classical fengshui texts, the dragon has the general meaning of a topographical structure which implies force. This is typically in the form of mountain ranges in the earlier texts but it comes to include watercourses in later texts. A more specific use of the dragon found in fengshui is as a descriptive component of the basic structural layout of a typical area used for the siting of houses and tombs as indicated by the early texts, the dragon being one of the four creatures symbolising direction. Here, it is specified as the ‘blue-green’ or Azure Dragon (qing long),69 the eastern component of such an area. This is the region of sunrise, rain,70 and fertility. The other directional components are the White Tiger (bai hu),71 the western component which symbolises autumn and death; the Vermilion Sparrow (zhu que),72 the southern component which symbolises summer, warmth and honour; and the Dark Warrior (xuan wu),73 the northern component which symbolises the austerity of winter. The focus of these structural elements is the hole or node being the point at which the grave or residence should be sited. In terms of the relationship of these structural components to the Five Phases, the Bai hu tong yi indicates that the Azure Dragon is Wood, the White Tiger is Metal, The Vermilion Sparrow is Fire, the Dark74 Warrior is Water and the centre of these is Earth.75 1.9. Configurational Force The concept shi,76 for which I have coined the neologism ‘configurational force’, is a major idea in Chinese correlative thought. The original use of the word/character shi occurs in early Chinese philosophical texts. The Ci yuan77 quotes Mencius to point out the original meaning of the word, “Even though one has wisdom, it is not as good as taking advantage of shi”. Gra-

69 青龍. 70 The eastern seaboards of continental masses around the world tend to have rain coming to them from the east and very seldom from the west. This will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 6. 71 白虎. 72 朱雀. 73 玄武. Note that ‘dark’ here has the meaning of mysterious or occult. 74 ‘Dark’ here has the meaning of mysterious or occult. 75 Miao Ma and Hui Du, op. cit., p. 19. 76 勢. 77 Ci yuan (Origin of Words) (Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju xianggang fen ju, 1998), p. 382.

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ham78 translates this as ‘power-base’ i.e. “a situation of strength, or on occasion weakness, in relation to circumstances”, or in other words political and social strength. However, shi seems to have also been used in the context of texts on warfare, calligraphy and history. Jullien79 translates shi in these contexts as dispositif strategic, dispositif aesthethique, and dispositif historique, respectively, dispositif meaning ‘tool’, ‘instrument’, ‘device’, or ‘means’. Alternatively he uses disposition in the sense of arrangement or configuration. As his English translator points out, “(d)ispositif refers to the efficacy of a disposition ... its capacity to function spontaneously and inexhaustibly”. In calligraphy, shi “can be defined overall as the force that runs through the form of the written character and animates it aesthetically”.80 It is the ‘configuration’ together with its ‘potential’. As Zen master calligrapher, Keido Fukushima, head abbot of the Tofukuji sect, stated at a May 2001 calligraphy exhibition at the University of Pennsylvania, it is the “power of the brush stroke”. Moreover, in a translation of the military text, the Sunzi, shi has been defined by Sawyer81 as “the strategic configuration of power”. In fact, Sawyer points to shi being attributed originally to the fourth century BC writer Shen Dao, the supposed author of the Shenzi. The appropriation and integration of the term by Legalist writers can then be traced through Han Fei’s thought to the Huai Nanzi. It is used in the Sunzi in several, various, apparently distinct, ways, and it is often used interchangeably with the term xing or form. In relation to this, Sawyer points to the fact that the concept shi has been variously translated from the Art of War to mean circumstances, energy, latent heat, combined energy, shape, strength, momentum, tactical power, force, authority, influence, power, condition of power, force of circumstances, positional advantage and purchase. These he argues are a good glossary of the various uses of the concept in the Sunzi. In a treatise on government, Ames82 overtly discards the translations ‘power’ and ‘force’ as being too vague and suggests that shi generally does not refer to the force required to achieve a task. 78 Graham, A. C., Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (Chicago: Open Court and LaSalle Institute, 1989), p. 278. 79 Jullien, Francois, The Propensity of Things: Toward a History of Efficacy in China (New York: Zone Books, 1995), p. 9. 80 Ibid., p. 76. 81 Sawyer, R. D. (trans.), Sun Tzu: The Art of War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994), p. 9. 82 Ames, R., The Art of Rulership (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983).

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In more recent research into the use of shi in early (500-200 BC) Chinese philosophy texts, Wells, however, argues that the concept has a very strong relationship to both cognition and causation and in this context uses ‘form’s power’ or ‘form’s forces’ as a translation,83 indicating that the concept was being thought of geographically and perhaps almost geologically well into antiquity. In relation to fengshui, the term shi was translated by Kohut as ‘topography’, in line with one of its modern meanings of the outward appearance of a natural object.84 However, such a static concept as topography does not capture the idea of motive force that seems inherent in the use of the character shi in various contexts in classical fengshui texts. An attempt to translate the term more precisely is made by Jullien,85 who considers shi in dili to refer to ‘lifelines’ which can be seen in the “configuration of the terrain”. However, a consideration of fengshui texts indicates that it is more than this. It is the coupling of the static with the mutable, of the seemingly unmoving configuration with the inexhaustible transformation of its potential force that has led to the coining of the term configurational force. Configurational is an adjective used to indicate relationship to the shape of the earth, the topography.86 The force here is that which enables the flow of qi through the veins of the earth. Force was particularly chosen as part of the translation of shi over power and (potential) energy because of the relationship in the original texts, especially the Water Dragon Classic, between the concept shi and that of chong,87 to clash with or dash against.88 The Water Dragon Classic describes watercourses and their energetics for favourable siting. The concept chong is continuously used to indicate an undesirable situation where water is 83 Wells, M. St. John, Shi: Dynamics of Cognition and Causation in the Axial period of Chinese Philosophy (500-200 BC), unpublished doctoral thesis (London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 2001), pp. 131 and 167. 84 Kohut, J. M., Kuo P’u’s Burial Book, unpublished honours thesis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1977). It should be noted in this context that the modern Chinese word for topography or terrain is xingshi, the xing being the same as that mentioned in the previous paragraph meaning form in classical Chinese. 85 Jullien, op. cit. p. 93. 86 I originally translated shi as geodetic rather than configurational force. Geodetic is an adjective used in surveying that denotes the shape of the earth. This describes exactly the static quality inherent in shi, but as ‘geodetic’ is a technical term specific to a scientific field, it was thought that its use in translation bordered on scientism. 87 沖. 88 The term, dragon, is often used in fengshui texts to indicate a mountain or mountain range. In the Water Dragon Classic it is also used as a term for watercourses. Thus, it could be considered to be a general term for energetic topographical features.

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moving too fast and dashing against the shoreline or bank, thus creating instability. The motive ‘force’ for this rapid movement is the shi of the area and watercourse. Although this is far from the normal sense of scientific thinking, a conversation in a graveyard in Taiwan with the ‘national treasure’, sixty fifth generation traditional dili practitioner, He Jinzong, greatly clarified the meaning of chong for me. We were standing at a grave site on a small hill looking back up the ridge of a mountain, the line of which ran straight down the mountain and back up the slight rise directly through the grave. He Jinzong explained that the site was inauspicious because the shi (configurational force) caused the qi to rush down the ridge and up the rise much too quickly for it to nourish the grave site, and so ‘clashed’ with the site. He indicated that this was often the case when a site was chosen at the back of the head of a dragon. The concept is that qi supposedly courses down mountains ridges in lines or veins (or as part of the flow of rivers) similar to concept found in acupuncture of qi flowing in veins through the body. Interestingly, the first Chinese etymological dictionary, the Xu Shen, written circa 100 AD, shows from an analysis of antique seal script characters that the concept shi was written without the subscript li89 until the end of the late Han dynasty, i.e. shi was written as the character yi90 prior to around 200 AD.91 Karlgren92 has noted that this character yi portrays a kneeling man planting a seed, which perhaps explains the relationship if the character shi to fertility. Moreover, at the time that li was first introduced as the subscript part of the character for shi, the early Chinese scientist and sceptic, Wang Chong, was for the first time deliberately using li as a universal concept related to force to explain mechanical as well as mental and social phenomena.93 Thus, again it seems more than a coincidence that just as the development of the theories of dili in relation to the concept shi was occurring, the character was changed to depict in greater detail its correspondence with force. To reinforce this idea, the modern

89 力. 90 埶. 91 Wells, M. St. John, op. cit. p. 51. 92 Karlgran, B., ‘Gramomata Serica Recensa’, Bulletin of the Museum of far Eastern Antiquities, vol. 29 (1952). 93 Zou Dahai, The Concept Li in the Literatures before 200 AD, paper presented at the XXII International History of Science Congress, Beijing, 2005.

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Chinese term for force, power or influence (shili) 94 incorporates both shi and li mentioned above. 1.10. Sand Within this structural context, the term sha95 also occurs particularly in the later texts. Sha literally means ‘sand’ but as Feuchtwang has stated in this context it could mean any structural shape in the contours of the earth including the banks of watercourses, alluvial formations and possibly even boulders.96 Bennet, however, goes further and relates sha particularly to the structural elements the White Tiger and the Azure Dragon.97 This may be true for later texts on fengshui but in considering the texts in this book, particularly the Water Dragon Classic, it should probably be taken as having its literal meaning, or at least the slightly more general meaning of sediment. A particularly interesting insight into the use of the derivation of this word is provided by Lee Sang Hae when he states, “The peculiar use of the word ‘sha’ meaning sand is believed to derive from the fact that fengshui xiansheng transmitted ideas to their students by forming mountains and ridges of sand on the ground to model different paradigmatic configura­ tions”.98 1.11. Classic Over a decade ago, in a conversation on my work, Glen Dudbrige, then professor of Chinese at Oxford University, pointed out his dislike for the use of the English word ‘classic’ as a translation of the Chinese word jing,99 which he felt was more suitably translated by words such as ‘cannon’ or ‘scripture’. While I appreciate very much his consideration of the fineness of meaning in translation, these words he suggests as more suitable translations probably carry too much of a religious connotation for English speakers to be a more viable than the idea of ‘venerable text’ that ‘classic’ conveys, so I have decided to use the traditional translation. It should be noted that although the title of this book suggests that the five texts translated are all called classics by the Chinese, this is not completely accurate. Three of the texts as can be seen from their titles are called 94 勢力. 95 沙. 96 Feuchtwang, S., op. cit. p. 108. 97 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. pp. 1-26. 98 Lee, S. H., op. cit. p. 182. 99 經.

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classics but the other two, the Book of Burial and Twenty Four Difficult Problems are not usually referred to as such. As has been previously stated, the Book of Burial is sometimes referred to as the Classic of Burial, but the Twenty Four Difficult Problems has never been mentioned as a classic as far as I am aware. It is not even mentioned in any of the texts outlining more than a hundred of the major fengshui texts. I have referred to it in the title of this book as a classic because of the penetrating light that it throws on the relationship between the two major schools of fengshui thought. 1.12. Mingtang100 The final concept that should be mentioned is the mingtang or bright hall. Feuchtwang describes this as a development of the luo shu magic square. From this perspective, it is considered to be an ideal hall with nine squares within it, one in the centre and the other eight surrounding it towards the eight directions. The outer lines could be divided again into twelve to represent the twelve directions and the twelve months. Thus, the progression through the directions and the months, the emperor’s sacrifices and the proper course of nature were indicated by the mingtang.101 Another meaning according to the Tian wen zhi of the Jin shu is that of the name of a star. Neither of these meanings, however, seems to fit in the context of these translations. The first meaning in particular seems to be one used in the Compass School of fengshui. A more appropriate meaning in the context of Form School texts would be the general dictionary meaning given to mingtang, which is either a place where water gathers in front of a grave or a terrace in front of a grave used for worship.

100 明堂. 101 Feuchtwang, op. cit. pp. 11-12.

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CHAPTER FOUR

COMPARISON OF TEXTS The basic mechanism of the original conception of fengshui is perhaps best outlined in the Book of Burial: Qi circulates through the earth according to the configurational force of the earth. It gathers where the configurational force stops. The qi follows the trunk of a hill and branches along its ridges. The Classic says that if the qi rides the wind it is scattered, if it is bounded by water it is held.1

Thus, the consideration is that qi courses through the land in lines or veins as found in acupuncture. This similarity is also apparent in the relationship between vitality and qi. Again this is perhaps best described in the Book of Burial: The Classic says that when qi circulates through landforms, entities are thereby given life. The configurational forces of the earth are the basic veins. The configurational forces of the mountains are the basic bones. They snake either west to east or north to south, curling back on themselves as if crouching and waiting, as if with something in their grasp. Qi desires to proceed but it is cut off. It desires to halt and becomes deep. Where it approaches and accumulates, stops and gathers, there will be a clashing of yang with a harmonising of yin, the earth will be rich and the water deep, the grasses lush and the forests luxuriant.2

Therefore, in this cosmology fertility is synonymous with the accumulation of qi and the correct association of the male and female principles. The idea that the accumulation of qi is negatively affected by wind and positively affected by water is echoed in the words of Qing Wu’s Burial Classic when it states: Qi is scattered when riding the wind. Where its veins meet water, it stops and is retained coiling around enriching and ennobling the land.3

In fact, the commentary of Wu Qinze on this text states that this is the classic mentioned in the Book of Burial. However, even though there does seem to have been a certain Qing Wu in the Han dynasty, as has already 1 JDBS, p. 1. 2 Ibid., p. 1. 3 CSJX, 0175, p. 4.

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been pointed out in the Introduction there has been much evidence to suggest that this Burial Classic was written much later perhaps to validate and provide a basis for the Book of Burial. Nevertheless, the research of Gao Youqian argues that Qing Wu, rather than being a person, is actually a name for the ancestors of the later specialists in fengshui, that is the female shamans who used dance to tame the spirits, the wu in Qing Wu being a homophone with the same tone for wu meaning shaman.4 This is a very interesting argument in light of the Tang dynasty yin-yang specialist Lu Cai’s strong objections to the practices of wu shamans in his introduction to the Book of Burial.5 Whether the Burial Classic was actually written in the Han dynasty and whether Qing Wu denotes a person or a concept notwithstanding, this text does reflect the concepts outlined in the earliest texts and, in fact, goes closest to outlining the ideal armchair configuration noted by Bennett6 and the effect that it has on focussing energy when the Burial Classic states: With 3 ridges the qi is made whole and the configurational force converge from all directions. If the front is screened and the back is embracing, all the auspices will arrive in their entirety.7

There is also a similar theoretical basis to the Burial Classic and the Book of Burial. In these the accumulation of qi accords with the harmonisation of yin and yang and the Five Phases with emphasis on the form and configurational force not being in opposition. The mathematical relationship between form and configurational force is even outlined in the Book of Burial which states that the “configurational force is ten times that of form”.8 The Burial Classic does, moreover, mention the terrestrial branch, geng, on one occasion but there is certainly no emphasis on the terrestrial branches nor the celestial stems. The Classic of Siting, however, fully utilises these concepts of branches and stems to denote both time and space in addition to yin and yang, and Five Phases cosmology. There is even a formulation of the correct amount of yin and yang indicated in two different parts of the text: If there is a preponderance of either yin or yang then it is inauspicious. There is a preponderance of either yin or yang if a yang site beckons the 4 Gao, Youqian, op. cit. pp. 25-27. 5 Morgan, C., op. cit. pp. 46-48. 6 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. p. 11. 7 CSJX, 0175, p. 8. 8 JDBS, vol. 6, no. 51, Huangdi zhai jing, p. 4L.

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eastern and northern aspects to a greater degree or a yin site beckons the western and southern aspects to a greater degree.9  If there is an equal coming and going of yin and yang then it is at one with the Heavenly Way and naturally there is an expression of auspiciousness and abundance. In establishing (a site) one must go towards and necessarily follow the Way.10

There is mention of form and configurational force but these are peripheral to the temporal and directional components. In addition other aspects of Chinese cosmology are introduced such as the eight trigrams of the Yi jing, the Nine Celestial Palaces11 and the Five Surnames.12 Now one selects various mysteries and divides them into 24 paths. The 8 diagrams of the Yi jing and the 9 palaces of the lunar calendar match the positions of man and woman. Siting is at the border of yin and yang....The 24 paths accord with the size of a site. The central courtyard is divided into 4 sides and these constitute the 24 paths. The 10 Celestial Stems, the 12 Terrestrial Branches, (and) the Diagrams qian, gen, kun, and xun together make up the 24 paths.13

The most marked innovations in the Classic of Siting, however, are that a site refers to the living as well as the dead and that it may be rectified to bring good fortune: The site is the pivot of yin and yang and the standard for human relationships. Only the learned and illuminated worthy will be able to understand its Way. As for the 5 types (of siting) the most important is the siting of dwellings, which is the true mysterious art.  There is no place where Man resides which is not a site. Although they vary in size and yin-yang (configuration), even when one lodges overnight in a single room, there are both good and bad (sites). For the large site there are many points to speak of. For the small site there are few points to discuss. There is disaster for those who violate (these principles). When bad siting is stabilised, misfortune will cease just like the effect of medicine on illness.14 9 JDBS, p. 3L. 10 JDBS, p. 4L. 11 These are the nine palaces of the lunar calendar. The Zhang Heng section of the History of the Latter Han also says that the palace tai yi is the name of the spirit of the north star and the other eight palaces are those of the eight trigrams that move below it. 12 The Five Surnames are gong, shang, jiao, zheng, and yu. According to the Liu cai section of the Tang shu, the myriad entities under heaven all match with and are subordinate to these. In the Classic of Siting there is also mention of the Five Tonal Surnames, three of which are the same as the Surnames and which denote the tones of the Chinese pentatonic scale. 13 JDBS, p. 2. 14 JDBS, p. 1.

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The Classic of Siting also introduces a division in the concept of qi, that of shengqi or vital energy and that of siqi or torpid, literally dead, energy. It should be noted that no such division occurs in either the Book of Burial or the Burial Classic. Thus, the Classic of Siting could be considered to indicate a development in the theory of fengshui towards one which attempted to fit into the whole gamut of concepts related to correlative cosmology and one where position had prevalence over form. It could be postulated, therefore, that this classic was a precursor to the Compass School although there is no mention of a compass. It could also be argued that this attempt to relate the theory of fengshui to more of the various concepts of correlative cosmology was, in fact, a step away from any ‘scientific’ empirical consideration in that what previously had been a theory based on empirical observation, was now beginning to be purely theoretically based such that the observation was made to fit the theory. This trend away from empirical observation becomes even more marked with the Water Dragon Classic. As Jiang Pingjie states in the introduction to the first chapter: ... I have inspected all of the land in Wu and Chu. With the three rivers and five lakes the immersions are manifold. In seeking what agrees with these patterns, I have not met one in a hundred. This just means that one (should) thoroughly understand these theories in order to learn their meaning and that is all.15

In other words, the diagrams presented are not those from actual observation but are theoretical constructs which have nothing to do with reality. It is, of course, possible that if the maps were drawn a long time previous to that of Jiang, they could have been based on actuality because of the natural changing form of watercourses but Jiang states that the book was “probably written by someone of recent times”16 and so this is unlikely. The obvious difference between the Water Dragon Classic and those mentioned above is that the theory of fengshui is extended from the idea of the accumulation of qi by mountain ranges to include that by watercourses, water thus having the possibility of forming a dragon. With this extension comes the development of the concept of a trunk, the passage of large bodies of water, and that of a branch, small bodies of water such as canals and ditches. The basic mechanism here involves a relationship between trunks and branches: 15 CSJX, 0178, Mi chuan shuilong jing, p. 1. 16 CSJX, 0178, p. 2.

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The central governing idea of this writing is to use a dragon trunk which encloses in an embrace to obtain the qi and form a situation, and to use the correct and harmonious intersection of a branch dragon to obtain the nourishment of internal qi.17

Therefore, there is a continuation of the basic premise of the Form School that a particular form enables the accumulation of qi. This accumulation now, however, has a theoretical framework to explain its occurrence on plains and for this reason the term, pingyang or flood plains, is first seen. This describes the vast flat fertile area in the east of China, which has historically produced much of the food for the country. I postulate that this development in the theory might be due to an increase in popularity of fengshui, which with the probable increase in population saw a necessity for the use of plains as a site for burial because of the distance to suitable mountainous areas. Another development that occurs with the Water Dragon Classic in terms of the accumulation of qi is that for the first time the coagulation or solidification of such an accumulation is seen as a positive criterion. Thus, qi no longer has merely an ethereal sense and it takes on the ability to form phases as with the liquid, solid and gaseous phases of the elements and compounds in modern chemistry. The extensive use of diagrams in the Water Dragon Classic also indicates a marked shift from the earlier texts. The Classic of Siting does contain two different diagrams of the twenty four paths which could be considered to be diagrams of divination boards but the drawings in the Water Dragon Classic become its basis even though they do not seem to represent any real watercourses as discussed above. Nevertheless, there are a number of warnings in the text against trying ‘to find a horse according to a drawing’, an allusion to a famous Chinese parable in which a king was so enamoured of a painting of a horse that he employed a number of servants to scour the countryside to find such a horse, putting to death those who failed until the last person so employed pointed out to him the difference between ideational depictions and reality. Thus, by this allusion there is some tempering of the theoretical rather than empirical basis of the Water Dragon Classic. The Water Dragon Classic, however, does indicate a return to the basic premises related to form contained in the Book of Burial and the Burial Classic away from some of the cosmological considerations of the Classic 17 CSJX, 0178, p. 1.

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of Siting. Guo Pu is, in fact, mentioned on a number of occasions and one of the sections occurring in the second chapter is even considered to be the writing of Guo Pu and the author of the fourth chapter is stated to be the famous fengshui expert of the Tang dynasty, Yang Yunsong. Moreover, the terms, Azure Dragon, White Tiger, Dark Warrior and Vermilion Sparrow, first mentioned in the Book of Burial are used throughout the Water Dragon Classic as the basic structural elements to describe the diagrams. In contrast, there is little mention of the terrestrial branches and celestial stems and the use of the nine constellations and eight trigrams is questioned. For example, the Ballad of the Natural Water Method at the beginning of the first chapter states, “Why use the nine constellations and the eight trigrams?”18 Five Phases theory is, however, used extensively as one of the underlying theoretical bases particularly in the fourth and fifth chapters. The particular usage here is in terms of the Five Stars otherwise known as the Five Planets. As outlined in the introduction, these relate the planets Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury to the phases Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water respectively. Thus, there is a correlation of the different patterns of watercourses to these different planets, which Bennett would term resonance forms.19 There is, moreover, a correlation of sign forms such that the different patterns of watercourses take on the characteristics of the animals, people or structures that they represent such as the Pincers of the Centipede Pattern and the Beautiful Woman Offering Flowers Pattern in the third chapter. There is also mention of using the Five Stars in the Twenty Four Difficult Problems but its author is less convinced of their value. Hence, at the end of Problem 7 it is stated that “the empty signs of the Five Stars are used in order to record round, straight, curved, pointed and square changes in the structure”20 (italics added). However, there is a more positive attitude displayed towards the Five Stars later in Problem 20 on the two ‘great’ methods of distinguishing yin and yang sites. Both of these methods, called ‘reflection’ and ‘ridges and mounds’ involve the use of one star among the five to match the standard. In contrast, the attitude displayed towards sign forms or ‘naming the form’ as it is called in Problem 13 is more disparaging:

18 CSJX, 0178, Chapter 1, p. 3. 19 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. pp. 15-19. 20 CSJX, 0178, Nan jie ershisi pian, p. 16.

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Form is physical appearance. The shape of mountains and rivers can sometimes be categorised as an object. However, this only occurs one time in ten thousand. So how can this be used as a criterion?21

This negation of sign forms seems to signal a more rational approach to siting even though the writer of the Twenty Four Problems continually harkens back to the writings of Guo Pu and particularly gives him ancestral respect, which is enigmatic in terms of sign forms if one considers the words of the Book of Burial: If the form is like a screen and there is a hill rising at its centre and the burial is where it levels out then kings and lords will rise to prominence. If the form is like a swallow’s nest and burial is within its indentation there will be division of land and soldiers amongst the vassals. If the form is like a reclining wine jar with a ridge behind and approaching from the distance and the front responding by bending and turning, then there will be the ranks of the Nine Ministers and Three Dukes.22

The Book of Burial goes on to name another nine sign forms in this context and, thus, the Twenty Four Problems is at odds with what it considers to be its worthy ancestor, which, it should be noted, it refers to as the Burial Classic. The Twenty Four Difficult Problems does, however, consider that form is able to create auspiciousness with reference to concepts originally outlined in the Book of Burial and in doing so questions the ideas of vital qi and torpid qi though these terms themselves are not used: For qi which is auspicious the form will certainly be luxuriant and fertile, and particularly outstanding and majestic. For inauspicious qi the form is necessarily rough, unruly, sloping, broken and fragmented.23 If these are used to test for qi, how can qi elude one? How can the specialists in the art obstinately insist on the principle that qi is either auspicious or inauspicious?24

It can be seen, therefore, that the Twenty Four Difficult Problems is at one with the Form School. This text focuses particularly on the use of form, configurational force, feeling and the nature of the water in terms of the relationship between yin and yang with their transformations indicated by the Five Phases. In relation to this there is a scathing attack on the use of bearing associated with the compass and the use of the positions of the 21 CSJX, 0178, p. 26. 22 JDBS, p. 4. 23 The Book of Burial refers to a classic indicating a similar list of types of mountains which “produce new misfortunes and destroy existing good fortune”. However, the list here is “barren, broken, rocky, eroded and solitary”. 24 See Problem 8, CSJX, p. 17.

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constellations, which are considered to be the delusions of contemporary exponents of the art of fengshui. The attack on the use of bearing occurs first in Problem 4 where the contemporary practice of using direction is questioned: The whole of this work discusses the form, configurational force, feeling and nature of water. It is never ignorant of the important principles as are the practitioners of the theories of direction who absurdly match longevity, the receiving of favours, becoming an official and imperial prosperity with good and evil spirits and good and ill fortune, consequently causing the lucky not to be buried and those buried not to have good fortune. In deluding the world and misleading the people, nothing is worse than this.25

This negation of the use of direction and bearing is taken up again in Problem 8. In addition to this the use of the theories of astronomy in siting is also questioned with the author indicating that although there may be some cities which fit into the astrological scheme, this is by no means all encompassing: Moreover, many of this generation even know the theories of astronomy to be absurd. According to their theory of the stars, it must be that Jizhou, Guanzhong, the city of Yan and Xiluo begin to accord with the constellations. With Hangzhou much of it is already inadequate. So, how much worse for the other provinces and prefectures? If this is the case, unless it is a capital, mountains and graves will seldom accord with this.26

Thus, the Twenty Four Difficult Problems also marks a scepticism that is perhaps scientific in flavour. Furthermore, this scepticism seems to call for a more empirical approach. This empirical approach is evident in this quote below from Problem 5: In seeking out the dragon, observing the configurational force and isolating a node one should ascend to the highest place in an area. At first investigate the external situation. Next, observe and record what is opposite. Then scrutinise the left and the right. Finally return to the place that has feeling and examine the subtleties in detail. It is necessary that nothing is lost. In general, in investigating a node, there is value in being detailed and leisurely. One should wait for when the grass is dry and (the leaves on) the trees have fallen. Ancient men first burnt the grass and then climbed the mountain. This was an excellent method. In the rain one can investigate the subtleties of the border. On a clear day one can observe the colour of the qi and the pattern of the veins. In the snow one can examine the relative thickness of where it accumulates, to ascertain where yang qi has gathered. The saying 25 See CSJX, pp. 8-9. 26 See CSJX, p. 19.

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of the ancients that three years is spent seeking the land and ten years is spent isolating the node is prudent.

To spend thirteen years surveying an area to find the best site for habitation whether for the living or dead indicates a more than passing adherence to observation as the basis of knowledge. However, as compared to modern science this approach is not towards the creation of any new hypothesis but merely an admonishment of the newer theories for not adhering to the original principles. This is pointed out in Problem 8: Therefore generations guard their theories without change not knowing that their words are distant from the classics and go against the Way. Oh, the sorrow of it! How can there be an affair not modelled on the ancients or a righteousness that does not venerate the classics and yet still not be a defiance against the correct?27

This is perhaps a small but significant key to some possible answer to the question first posed by Needham and more recently considered by Elvin as to why the so-called scientific revolution did not occur in China as it did in Europe.28,29 In the Twenty Four Difficult Problems, the author does display the necessary scepticism going so far as to indicate an almost modern attitude when he states, “Auspiciousness, however, is induced by man himself. How can it completely relate to rotting bones?”30 Yet this scepticism is assuaged by looking backwards rather than forwards. This tendency to look to the past as the perfection of some golden age so typical of the Ming dynasty could be seen to be the crux of the matter. The author of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems is willing to question the ideas of his contemporaries and some of the more absurd ideas on the relationship between good fortune and the principles of fengshui but there is no questioning whatsoever of the basic precepts contained in the original texts. Admittedly, it could be considered that these original texts seem to be more ‘scientific’ in nature because of the more observational basis of the concepts contained within them and the scholar who wrote the Twenty Four Difficult Problems is perhaps correct in esteeming them above the more recent concepts, yet his lack of readiness to go further and question the original concepts themselves indicates a general lack of willingness on the part of 27 See CSJX, p. 20. 28 This idea is addressed throughout the various volumes of Science and Civilisation in China written by Joseph Needham and his various co-workers. 29 Elvin, M., op. cit. pp. 1-41. 30 See Problem 8, CSJX, p. 20.

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Chinese scholars to take such an observational framework further and thus enable the original principles to evolve. The correspondence of the author of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems to the empirical tradition notwithstanding, his critical stance is also reflected in earlier writings on burial practices. As mentioned previously, Lu Cai of the Tang dynasty wrote an introduction to the Book of Burial which was very critical not of in this case Compass School practitioners but of shamans (wu) practising popular cults which he felt tainted the correct traditional burial practices. The following extract, for example, is very similar in tone to that found in the Twenty Four Difficult Problems: … Where streams and stones interact, it is impossible to predict what occurs underground. (The ancients) therefore (manipulated) yarrow-stalks and (consulted) turtle plastrons to protect the people from harm. This was in keeping with traditional burial practices, but did not imply prognostication of future good and bad luck. Why have these (practices) been added to yin-yang interments? (Today there are those) who, to enhance good fortune, select the year of the month of burial, while others measure the distance to the gravesite. One slip in these matters, and misfortune will befall both the living and the dead. To increase their wealth, there are no prohibitions which shamans will not advocate. (There are now) some one hundred and twenty practitioners, who, while they claim to follow the instructions of the Book of Burial, all devise their own recipes for good and bad fortune, thus adding further restrictions to existing constraints.31

To conclude this discussion, the relationship between the ideas outlined in the texts may be best summarised with reference to the analysis by Bennett of the three different ways of relating form to the environment: functional forms, resonance forms, and sign forms.32 The original extant texts as indicated by the Book of Burial and the Burial Classic (notwithstanding the questions over its origin) are based on the idea of functional form in that the influence of landforms on the flow of wind and water and the effect of this on the accumulation of qi is their primary consideration. Sign forms are also considered but these are of secondary importance. The Classic of Siting, however, shows a marked shift in the theory of fengshui away from the siting of graves to the siting of residences and away from the function of forms towards a derivation of significance from the correlational aspect of a form in terms of its resonance with much of traditional Chinese cosmology. The Water Dragon Classic considers both graves and residences and denotes a shift in focus away from mountains towards flat fertile 31 Morgan, C., op. cit. p. 48. 32 Bennett, S. J., op. cit. pp. 10-24.

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areas. Here, the resonance of forms particularly in relation to the Five Stars and representational or sign forms are a major consideration throughout the five chapters. However, there is also a considerable discussion of the functional aspects of watercourses especially in the first chapter but these forms seem to have been theoretical creations rather than those based on actual observation. The Twenty Four Difficult Problems indicates a return to the functionality of the original texts. The use of both sign and resonance forms is argued against in the consideration of the siting of both graves and residences in mountainous areas as well as plains. Therefore, in terms of these texts there seems to have been both a linear evolution of the theory of fengshui from graves on mountains to graves and residences in mountains and plains, and a circular evolution from functional forms through resonance and sign forms back to functional forms.

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CHAPTER FIVE

FENGSHUI AND GEOLOGY/GEOGRAPHY The original concept of fengshui was obviously an attempt to understand the ‘energy’ of the land in a theoretical framework based on observation and so this could be considered to be an important step in the history of geological thought. The observational basis of the early texts is emphasised by the Book of Burial: The Classic says, “When there is excellence in powers of observation and expertise in technique, there will be a striving for perfection without defect. In adding to both the high and the low the secret lies in knowledge”. One familiarises oneself with all categories and so extends one’s knowledge of them. With a thorough knowledge of yin and yang one will have the ability to steal from the Creator.1

This idea of the necessity for careful observation of landforms is reinforced by the fact that Guo Pu himself became the most famous annotator of the Shan hai jing (Classic of Mountains and Seas), an important early geographical text, which would indicate that he had widely read such geographical/geological texts and perhaps that he himself was well travelled and had observed closely the many and varied landforms throughout China. It could be postulated that the traditional ‘lair’ configuration with mountains embracing the node at the back and to the sides on the north, east and west and with water meandering at the front to the south (in the northern hemisphere) was the theoretical outcome of such observation in that the great majority of landforms of this type would probably be covered in foliage to indicate fertility with them being sheltered from the wind to allow soil deposition and with there being sufficient sunlight and water, albeit without consideration of the effect of soil type related to the chemical geology of the area. However, the position would probably be the most fertile place in a local area of the same soil type. The relationship between qi and fertility theorised from an observational basis can also be seen in the descriptions of unsuitable landforms in the early texts. The Book of Burial states that: 1 JDBS, pp. 2-3.

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chapter five The 5 qi2 harmonise with life so a barren mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi comes according to the land form so a broken mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi circulates according to the earth so a rocky mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi is held by means of configurational force so an eroded mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi assembles by means of Dragons so a solitary mountain is unsuitable for burial.3

This relationship between observation of landform and the theoretical concept is also reflected in the later texts. In these, however, their correlational aspect hinders any possible scientific conclusion. For example, Problem 8 of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems states that: The Yi jing says to look up to observe it in the writings of heaven and look down to observe it in the principles of the earth. Principle refers to orderly arrangement. In fact, it is the principle of literary structure4 and of veins and arteries. By examining how something is put in order, it is possible to know the middle and sides, the front and the back, the refined and the rough, and the large and the small in terms of building the nation and establishing the country as a safe place for the myriad people. This is the speciality of a sage king.5

Thus, instead of considering only the landform and the resulting fertility, the new development of the correlation with literary principle which denotes unity and coherence negates to an extent the original observational basis and an aesthetic component is introduced, taking the theory of fengshui away from geological or geographical considerations to those of aesthetics. Nevertheless, the Twenty Four Difficult Problems does contain examples of basic geological/geographical knowledge obviously based on observation alone. Problem 2 states that: Water must descend from a height, combine from being separated, become large from being small, and go far from being near. If one examines the flow of its tributaries and investigates where it enters and stops, it will be seen that between two mountains there must be water and between two bodies of water there must be a mountain. Without need for pondering on it, it will all become quite clear.6

2 This is probably the 5 types of qi associated with the Five Phases. 3 JDBS, p. 3. 4 Unity and coherence. 5 CSJX, p. 16. 6 Ibid., p. 4.

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However, in the discussion immediately following this, a correlation is made between the veins of the human body and those of the qi in the land, the point of which is to argue that water severs the veins of qi in rock: An example is human arteries and veins each having their own principles of arrangement. For one body the five limbs follow the arteries but they are sections, each separated by the joints of the bones. Externally they seem to be continuous but inside they are actually unconnected. Therefore, where there is a mountain stream which is all rocks, with water flowing amongst them, the ignorant unknowingly speak of it as being continuous.7

Thus, both observation and correlation are used to prove the theory rather than observation alone, which could detract from any attempt to consider the earth and its relationship to water in a purely geological sense if the correlation were invalid, or which might help to clarify this if there were any validity in the correlation. One would suspect that it could be the former case here. The Water Dragon Classic too contains examples of basic geological concepts within its correlational framework. A perusal of the diagrams contained within this text indicates that its authors had some knowledge of the meandering effect that occurs in the flow of rivers in low lying areas even though as indicated these diagrams are not representations of actual rivers. Moreover, in particular, an implicit understanding of the siltation of rivers and the consequent formation of deltas can be seen throughout its five chapters, especially when the formation of ‘sand’ is considered. Also implicit throughout this classic is a hydrological knowledge of the meandering nature of rivers and the direction of the forces related to their flow particularly in relation to the effects of water erosion. However, because the main thrust of this text is the accumulation of qi, the actual mechanisms of the relationship between the flow of water and its effect on sand are not explicitly stated. A consideration of this accumulation of qi in the various texts translated also leads to some interesting insights into the history of geological thought in China and into the relationship between the qi of the land and the modern geological concept of the energy of the land. As has been previously noted in the review of the literature, much of an excerpt from the writing of Zheng Sixiao (died 1332 AD) on the circulation of qi through the earth, which Needham describes as indicating a basic understanding of

7 Ibid., p. 4.

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the mineralisation of rocks from underground water, seems to be based on the concepts displayed in these much earlier lines from the Book of Burial: When (qi) circulates in the earth it is vital qi. When vital qi circulates in the earth it ferments and gives rise to the myriad things ... Qi circulates through the earth according to the configurational force of the earth. It gathers where the configurational force stops. The qi follows the trunk of a hill and branches along its ridges ... When qi is abundant, even though it flows and circulates, its surplus still can be held and even though it is scattered, where it is deep, it still can be gathered.8

Compare this with the translation of Needham: In the subterranean regions there are alternate layers of earth and rock and flowing spring waters. These strata rest on thousands of vapours (qi) which are (distributed in) tens of thousands of branches, veins and thread (-like openings) ... Thousands and ten thousands of horizontal and vertical veins like warp and weft weave together in mutual embrace ... Now if the qi of the earth can get through (the veins), then the water and the earth (above) will be fragrant and flourishing ... But if the qi of the earth is stopped up, then the water and earth and natural products (above) will be bitter, cold and withered.9

The problem with Needham’s argument is that he equates qi in this situation with water. However, as is stated in the Book of Burial on the same pages as those above, “The entity qi is the mother of water. If there is qi there is water”. Therefore, qi and water are considered to be separate entities in this text. The later Twenty Four Difficult Problems, which it seems was written a comparatively short time after the time of Cheng Sixiao, does, however, make the point that “vital qi becomes water”,10 thus providing some reinforcement to Needham’s argument. The idea of qi flowing in lines or veins through the landform and particularly along the ridges of mountains is all pervasive not only in fengshui but also in general Chinese geographical thought. The early twentieth century Chinese geologist, Weng Wenhao, mentioned earlier in the review of the literature, published a paper in 1925 tracing the various historical con8 JDBS, p. 1. 9 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 3, 1959, p. 650. This is quoted from Da Wu Shanren wen yuan you guan dili shu (Reply to Mr Wu the Hermit, who had asked him about Field Expeditions to observe Geomantic Matters) in the Suonan wen ji (Collected Writings of Cheng Sixiao), p. 12a. It is interesting to note that this text is based on fengshui although Needham considers it to be the most ‘vigorous’ description of the deposition of ore from the circulation of ground water. 10 See Problem 2, CSJX, p. 3.

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ceptions of these ‘mountain veins’. His analysis begins with what he calls the Yugong11 period where three ‘lines’ (tiao)12 of mountains carried qi to the east from western China. In this context Weng Wenhao mentions that the first record of the idea of mountain veins is found in the Meng Tian section of the Shi ji where it is reported that local villagers complained about the government cutting into the mountain veins when digging up the land to build the Great Wall. The three lines of mountains mentioned in the paper were separated by watercourses but in this period there was no distinct relationship between mountains and watercourses. The next period, which Weng called the Yi Xing13 period, in contrast, saw the development of the theory of the relationship between mountains and rivers, a theory of “two extremities for the one movement”.14 This period is said to have ranged from the Tang to the Song dynasties with the origin of the mountain veins considered to be the Kunlun Mountains at the western end of the Himalayan orogeny. Weng points out that the theories of fengshui (although he uses the term kanyu) were integral to this and he even uses the opening lines of the late Tang dynasty fengshui author Yang Yunsong’s Shaking Dragon Classic to illustrate the theory at that time: The Kunlun Mountains are the bones of Heaven and Earth, and amidst everything they are the chief entity within Heaven and Earth as is the human spine. They give birth to the loftiness of the four limbs of a dragon. The four limbs separate into the four worlds. South, north, east and west are the four tributaries. In the northwest the Kongtong Mountains have several tens of thousands of entities. The east enters the Three Han and is blocked by dark obscurity. Only the southern dragon enters the Middle Kingdom. The embryo of the clan and the conception of the ancestors are singular. The nine meanders of the Yellow River are the great intestines. The meandering of rivers is the bladder. By splitting the branches and opening the veins there is departure in all directions. The qi and the blood join and meet where the water stops. The great is the capital cities in the provinces of kings and emperors. The small is the prefectures and counties of nobles and gentlemen. Next are the prescriptions for small townships. Moreover, there is the wealth and good fortune at the centre of residences.15

11 This is the oldest known geography book in China. 12  條. 13 As stated in Weng’s paper, this is the early Tang dynasty priest astronomer previously mentioned who helped found the Form School. 14 yi xing liang jie 一行兩界. 15 Weng Wenhao, ‘Zhongguo shan mai kao (An examination of Chinese Mountain Veins)’, in Huang Jiqing (ed.), op. cit., p. 135.

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This quote underscores another of the bases of the thought in relation to mountain veins of this period. Mountain veins were related above to ‘writings of heaven’ and below to human affairs. However, according to Weng there was a tendency at this time not to base mountain veins on the observed geology or landform but on the line which was taken by the watercourses, thus creating an unavoidable false analogy. It is instructive to note that the commentary to the Burial Classic mentions the relationship between the Kunlun Mountains and qi as stated below: Qi congealed into the Kunlun Mountains, a form with crude substance. As there is separation into north and south, the southern dragon is yang and pure while the northern dragon is yin and turbid. As there is a beginning, there must be an end. As there is movement, there must be rest. With beginning there is return to the end, rest and movement again. This is governed by the Kunlun Mountains.

Weng argues that the third period of the traditional Chinese concept of mountain veins is the Song to Ming dynastic period. Again it is indicated that the theories of this time originated in kanyu theory. By now the mountain veins are referred to as dragon veins, with the basic concept being that three major dragons originate in the Kunlun Mountains from where they move east. In terms of the thrust of the present book it is interesting to note that Weng Wenhao argues that the observation of dragon veins by fengshui experts came from the observation of nature and so the system can be seen to be quite intelligent. Moreover, he points out that the system is all encompassing except for a few isolated desert mountains in the north of China. The final historical period in the conception of mountain veins is according to Weng the Qing dynasty. Here he shows that there was much more research done, particularly in the north west of China, and so there was much more progress in the theory of mountain veins. The theory at this time was that qi originated in the Congling, a mountain ridge in modern day Xinjiang province known as the ‘ridge of Asia’, and that three ‘trunks’ (gan) of mountains moved east from Congling. Weng Wenhao goes on to describe various Western theories of mountain veins of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the conclusion to this paper, he states that discussion of mountain veins or ‘orography’ as he calls it in English had almost completely disappeared by 1925. He also criticises the European tendency to relate everything in terms of the European experience. About theories with such a basis he states, “Why should we cut our feet to make the shoes fit?” He goes on to say, “It is only Chinese scholars who have

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the foresight to advance our understanding by bringing the maps of the Yugong into the world of science”.16 On a different tack, if one wishes to pursue a correlative stance in relation to the concept of the qi of the land contained in the texts on fengshui translated and modern geological theory, some possible parallels can be remarked on. Anyone who has studied high school science should realise that magnetic fields can be shown to occur in lines by simply placing iron filings on a piece of paper over a magnet. The magnetic field causes the iron filings to move into position along the lines of magnetic force. The earth is itself a huge magnet and as such produces similar lines of force at both the macroscopic and local levels, which can be seen as a magnetic differentiation which produces electrical energy. This was shown by the work of the geophysicist, Chamalaun, at Flinders University in South Australia in 1989-1990 which indicated that there was a 6,000 kilometre loop of electrical current flowing beneath Australia from Broome to the Gulf of Carpentaria with a second current branching off the main one just below Birdsville, which flowed down to the Spencer Gulf. Interestingly, it was postulated that the medium for this electrical current was underground salty water.17 More recent research by Barton suggest that from preliminary results there is a ‘intercratonic conducting zone’ in the form of a loop through the continental crust of Australia. It is conceded that the distance between the array of geomagnetic stations (approximately 275 km) is too large at present to definitively indicate a continuity along the pathway and that a sufficiently detailed array analysis will not be possible for another ten to twenty years at the present rate of progress. Barton does, however, state that all of the present data indicates a conductive zone with there being no evidence for conductive zones in Pre Cambrian cratonic blocks.18 Thus, the proposition that qi courses through the ground in lines or veins has a modern parallel in terms of electrical energy caused by the Earth’s magnetic field. There is of course, nevertheless, a marked contrast between this modern concept and that outlined in fengshui texts. The modern ‘veins’ of energy are in the order of hundreds of kilometres in width whereas those of traditional fengshui are seen to be much more localised in that they are 16 Ibid., p. 161. 17 Smith, D., ‘Long Loop of Electrical Energy may Help us to Find Oil, Gas’, Sydney Morning Herald (February 22, 1991): p. 5. 18 Barton, C. E., ‘Spatial and Diurnal Variations in the Geomagnetic Field’, Yearbook of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation: Geoscientific Research and Database Development for the Year 1 July 1992 to 30 June 1993, pp. 103-104.

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thought to follow the lines of the ridges of mountains and then circulate underground. Hence, it would be premature to necessarily equate these two concepts without more geomagnetic investigation at the localised level. However, considerations about the lines of qi in the earth aside, there have been doubts raised about the accuracy of the original geomagnetic component used by former practitioners of fengshui. Grafflin suggests caution in drawing sweeping conclusions about this geomagnetic component from his study of early Ming dynasty imperial structures built using the principles of fengshui at approximately the same time. The study showed that all of this construction is aligned along a north-south major axis but there are inconsistencies in this axis for each structure, which cannot be explained by the compass declination caused by the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field in relation to either geomagnetic theory or archaeological practice.19 Therefore, even though one might postulate a geomagnetic mechanism for the underlying concepts of fengshui, there are indications that insufficient care in a geomagnetic sense was taken by the original practitioners in their siting of structures to suggest any possible previous knowledge of such a mechanism. Early fengshui theorists certainly had a good qualitative understanding of gravity with the ridge line seen as having the greatest gravitational potential in relation to the configurational force. Nevertheless, seeking parallels between the principles of fengshui and present-day gravitational theory is more problematic in that the subtle differentiations in gravitational field approximately in the order of 10-10 are only able to be measured by the most sophisticated technology. However, an experiment conducted at the Brook Haven National Laboratory in the U.S.A. is interesting to note. This experiment involved placing an evacuated sphere, weighted for stability, in an insulated container and covering it with purified water. This was then levelled and sealed, the premise being that gravity would keep the sphere in place. This was the case when the experiment was first conducted in the laboratory, but when the equipment was moved to a cliff overlooking a large, fast flowing river, the sphere displayed a marked movement towards the river. Even when the equipment was rotated 90° the effect was still the same, a movement towards the river. This effect cannot be totally explained by present gravitational theory although it was suggested that 19 Grafflin, D., ‘Geomantic Cliché and Geomagnetic Puzzle’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 105, no. 2 (1985): pp. 315-316.

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the massiveness of the cliff could have been pushing the sphere away.20 Nevertheless, these experimental results correlate with the general concept found in all of the fengshui texts considered that qi is drawn away by fast flowing water although it is not suggested nor is there any evidence that any experimentation such as that described above was ever undertaken by the exponents of fengshui. Changes in gravitational field have, moreover, been found to have an effect on biological organisms, ranging from lower plant systems through to the higher mammals. The principle receptor mechanism here has been argued to be the statocyst or its functional mechanism with the kinocilium or its basal body being the locus of primary depolarisation.21 However, much of the research in this area has focussed on the effects of the withdrawal of gravity on biological systems and those of marked changes in gravity due to rapid acceleration as found in actual or simulated space flight.22 As yet there seems to have been little study into the biological effect of the more subtle changes in gravitational field that occur in terrestrial systems due to the interplay of different structural components such as geology, topography and the movement of water. The studies that have been done, however, do point to biological effects from both topography and seasonal changes in gravity due to the interplay of the earth, moon and sun,23 which would lend some credence to if not verification of the resonance consideration of ‘as above, so below’. The concepts of shengqi and siqi and their respective positive and negative effects on human well-being can also be considered from a parallelist perspective in terms of the biological effects of both gravitational and magnetic field. Their combined effect has been suggested as the reason for all plants in space being infertile. It has also been found that the use of mag20 Theiberger, P., ‘Letters’, Physics Review, vol. 56, no. 22 (1986): p. 2437, and vol. 58, no. 11 (1987): p. 1066. The original hypothesis for this experiment was that the large mass assymetry at the edge of the cliff would cause a non-Newtonian component of the gravitational field to push the sphere away from the cliff. The possible effect of the river was not considered until two later similar experiments by Boynton and Adelberger, which were carried out near Seattle, Washington away from any large moving body of water, showed negligible results. This has led to the postulation of a possible special effect of water, some sort of gravitational magnetic effect necessarily perpendicular to the velocity vector. 21 Lowenstein, O., ‘Gravity and the Animal: A Summary’, in Gordon, A. G. and M. J. Cohen, Gravity and the Organism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), pp. 469-471. 22 Hideg, J. and O. Gazenko, Advances in Physiological Sciences Volume 19: Gravitational Physiology (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1981). 23 Creber, G. T., ‘The Effect of Gravity and the Earth’s Rotation on the Growth of Wood’, in Rosenberg G. D. and S. K. Runcorn, Growth Rhythms and the History of the Earth’s Rotation (London: John Wiley & Sons, 1975), pp. 75-87.

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netic field to mend broken bones results in them knitting at twice the normal rate. A human receptor for this electromagnetic radiation was postulated in 1984 when Rochard discovered small concretions of magnetite crystals in human brow ridges and some articulations of the vertebrae.24 Although it has been previously argued that there was no biologically significant effect on biological structures containing magnetite (Fe3O4) with 60 Hz magnetic fields of 5µT (50 mG), recent experimental results reported by Polk in 1994 indicate that significant effects occur in mammals with 50 Hz fields at the µT level.25 Moreover, engineering models for the interaction of electrical and magnetic fields with biological systems have been proposed by Barnes26 and more poignantly the work of Kirschvink et al. and Adair has shown a mechanism for the biological effects of weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields in relation to the magnetite in human tissues.27,28 This would suggest a possible mechanism for the precept of fengshui that physical entities such as mountains and rivers, both of which have associated magnetic fields, do affect living human entities. Underground water has also been shown to cause geopathic zones. In 1967 a research group studying geobiology at the Institute of Hygiene in Heidelberg University set up an experiment at a house in the Neckar Valley where three generations of people sleeping in the same bed had died of stomach cancer. Using a scintillometer it was found that beneath the bed was the intersection of a geological fault and an underground water vein. Mice were placed in wooden cages over this zone with a control placed in a different area for the same period. The mice over the intersection of the fault and the water vein were always restless, bit each other, ate their young and produced one third of the offspring of the control group.29 The parallel here, however, falls down to the extent that as stated previously, the only consideration of underground qi as water found in the texts translated is

24 Moore, M., ‘Are You Under Geopathic Stress?’, Australian Wellbeing, vol. 15, no. 15 (1986): pp. 92-95. 25 Polk, C., ‘Effects of Extremely-Low-Frequency magnetic Fields on Biological Magnetite’, Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 15 no. 3 (1994): pp. 261-270. 26 Barnes, F. S., ‘Some Engineering Models for Interactions of Electric and Magnetic Fields with Biological Systems’, Bioelectromagnetic, Supplement 1 (1992): pp. 67-85. 27 Kirschvink, J. L., A. Kobayashi-Kirschvink, J. C. Diaz-Ricci and S. J. Kirschvink, ‘Magnetite in Human Tissue: A Mechanism for the Biological Effects of Weak ELF Magnetic Fields’, Bioelectromagnetic, Supplement 1 (1992): pp. 101-113. 28 Adair, R. K., ‘Effects of ELF Magnetic Fields on Biological Magnetite’, Bioenergetics, vol. 14, no. 1 (1993): pp. 1-4. 29 McCreary, J. R., ‘Water Theory’, The American Dowser Quarterly (November, 1981).

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as shengqi or vital qi; there is no indication of siqi or torpid qi as being related to underground water. Although the parallels between the principles of fengshui and modern geological theory are interesting, they are quite tenuous in nature and should not be considered uncritically. Certainly, as Weng Wenhao points out, fengshui theorists and practitioners such as Yang Yunsong in the late Tang dynasty were part of the rational development of geological and geographical knowledge in China, but there is no evidence of them practising any scientific techniques beyond careful observation. The arguments for and against drawing parallels across time and culture are outlined in the next chapter.

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CHAPTER SIX

THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF FENGSHUI AND SCIENCE It is essential for any discussion such as the one proposed here is to consider first of all the meaning of science. Much of the recent writings on the history and sociology of science suggests that science is the achievement of a particular kind of civilisation, namely the ‘West’, and the small group of human beings within that society, that is the scientists. However, sentience and its accompanying rationality have been the bases of the survival of human kind since its inception as a species. Inductive reasoning has been a universal in our species to enhance survival and any group that has completely rejected the tenets of such logic has been doomed to oblivion; we are not physically sufficiently well equipped otherwise to survive in a hostile environment. What the West did do in the scientific revolution of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries was to formalise and systematise rationality under the constraints of consistency, coherence and non-contradiction. Nevertheless, there is the further problem as to whether this can be viewed as the one rationality based on universally valid rules of logic and inference or whether there are multiple rationalities dependent on language and culture. These two different viewpoints are succinctly outlined by Tambiah in his discussion on rationality, relativism and the translation of cultures, the terms he coins for the two groups being ‘unifiers’ (one universal rationality) and ‘relativisers’ (multiple rationalities).1 This division is very important to the present discussion because the relativistic viewpoint holds that translation of cultures is very difficult and only possible if we are willing to modify our own rationality from the cross-cultural experience. Such a modification of rationality is inherent in the discussion of the meaning of fengshui from a scientific perspective, but the modification here is of the Western conception of rationality as compared to a universal one. There are strong adherents for the concept of a universal rationality from a relativistic perspective. For instance, in a study of the history of South Asian science Goonatilake argues that the preconditions of scien1 Tambiah, S. J., op. cit. pp. 112-119.

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tific culture exist universally and that it is necessary to correct the present historiography of science by removing the Eurocentric bias. However, she emphatically states that this “should not divert us from the fact that the development of science in Europe since the Renaissance has been a liberating and meaningful process that has helped expand human consciousness and remove the barriers of bigotry and ignorance”.2 Even Tambiah concludes that ‘single unity of the world’ judgements are valid if their scope is limited to objective reality. He provides as a case in point a previous Sri Lankan Tamil belief in a supernatural cause for smallpox through the ire of the mother goddess Pattini or Mariamma due to some wrongdoing until a post Second World War successful inoculation program based on a universal rationality undermined such a belief.3 Thus, Goonatilake’s point that there is a need to overcome the barriers to the possibilities in past knowledge traditions to tap the possibly vast conceptual stores is well taken and verbalises succinctly the reason for my detailed consideration of traditional fengshui texts from a scientific perspective. Nevertheless, the greatest difficulty encountered in any discussion of the original principles underlying fengshui, particularly those found in the original existing texts, and modern scientific theory is that fengshui has been based on a belief in the nourishment of the spirits of the dead, a belief which is perhaps the antithesis of scientific thought. As Yi Yi4 has pointed out, the conception of spiritual sorcery originates in mysticism whereas that of science relies solely on natural force. It is instructive here to consider the traditional Chinese concept of spirit because it is unlike that of other traditional cultures. The Chinese concept is based on the idea of jing qi5 or ‘essential qi’. The Jing shen xun6 of the Huainanzi7 states that essential qi is like wind or breath. It is formless and soundless and floats between heaven and earth, manifesting life from its connection with material form. When the body dies, the essential qi departs the existing form and returns to float between heaven and earth.

2 Goonatilake, S., Towards a Global Science: Mining Civilisational Knowledge (Bloom­ ington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1993). 3 Tambiah, S. J., op. cit. pp. 132-133. 4 Yi Yi, Linghun guan, ‘Shiti chongbai yu ren wen de yingxiang’, Wushenlun Zongjiao (Studies in Religion) vol. 1 (1992), pp. 55-60. 5 精氣. 6 精神訓. 7 淮南子, edited by Liu An (179-122 BC), a king of Huai Nan in the Western Han dynasty, and several of his friends.

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The Nei ye8 of the Guanzi9 also indicates that there was a dichotomy in the traditional conception of spirit between humanity and the animal kingdom. The human spirit was shen10 whereas that of animals was gui11 but man held both types of spirit within his being. Gui in particular had a sense of ‘returning’ in that a word meaning to return, gui,12 was a homophone of it although of a different tone. The Er ya13 dictionary states that the spirit gui means returning. In the traditional Chinese conception, there was also a differentiation of the spirit into hun14 and po,15 which made up the soul, shenhun,16 and the spiritual form, xingpo.17 Hun was the yang essential qi and po was the yin essential qi. There were two classical theories that accounted for what happened to these upon death. One considered that both the hun and the po would change upon death to become the spirit together. The other theory was that the po would become ashes and disintegrate with the body and only the hun would transform into the spirit.18 In the first Chinese people’s original concept of spirit, there was also a duality between good and evil spirits. Thus, there was a division between spirits from people who had an inauspicious death such as those who drowned,19 died of starvation, froze to death, were hanged or died in childbirth, and those who suffered a more virtuous death. The idea of an inauspicious death and its effect on the spirit developed into the concept of the ti si gui,20 which was a wandering ghost who had suffered an inauspicious death and sought to take the life of others to achieve another chance for virtuous death.21 8 內業. 9 管子. 10 神. 11 鬼. 12 歸. 13 爾雅. This is said to have been written by the Duke of Zhou but this is disputed. It was probably completed in either the Spring and Autumn period or in the Wester Han dynasty. 14 魂. 15 魄. 16 神魂. 17 形魄. 18 Yi Yi, op. cit. pp. 55-56. 19 This is perhaps the origin of the general fear that Chinese people have for water. In fact, Hell is seen mainly in relation to water in Chinese culture; the ‘Water Office’ of early medieval Daoist texts was the place for the punishment of transgressing souls (see Strickmann, pp. 92-93) 20 替死鬼. 21 Ibid., p. 57.

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It is such traditional concepts which formed the raison d’être of fengshui and which modern scientific thought cannot accept as valid. Yi Yi argues that from the perspective of modern science there are no spirits because no matter whether it is in regard to the relationship between man and spirit, the manifestation of spirits or the strength of supermen, the types of assumptions that are characteristic of mysticism are all hypothetical concepts which can be seen to be erroneous. Thus, they reflect the characteristic limitations which existed in the considerable abilities of the first Chinese and their descendants. Yi Yi further argues that it is only necessary that humanity considers and grasps the natural world scientifically and he stresses that the illusory idea of what happens after the human self, with the lack of someone to observe the phenomena which rely on the concept of spirits, must be dispelled of its own accord and withdrawn from the historical arena.22 There are strong arguments, however, even within such a materialist frame of reference for the necessary inclusion of the mystical. A poignant example is provided by Strickmann in his unfortunately posthumously published treatise on traditional Daoist medical practices. He points to the great importance of xiao23 or filial piety in Chinese culture over the centuries and to the great emotional stress that absolute obedience to one’s father during his lifetime and for a three year mourning period after would create within the society. Strickmann argues that the priestly representative of the impersonal Dao was able to provide an outlet for familial resentments through creating a “theatre of the unspeakable” and thus a “talking cure” in what we would consider today to be a very sophisticated psychotherapy.24 A similar role could be argued for the nourishment of the spirits of the dead in fengshui theory. In fact, during the late imperial period, at a more general level prognostication or “reading fate”25 was an “obsession” of Chinese civil examination candidates seemingly to assuage the great emotional stress brought about by the “prohibitive examination market”.26 Nevertheless, the condemnation of fengshui and the principles on which it is based have a long history. As far back as the eleventh century Sima Guang was criticising fengshui because it was both impractical and unclas22 Ibid., p. 60. 23 孝. 24 Strickmann, M., Chinese Magical Medicine (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2002), pp. 21-23. 25 Kanming 看命. 26 Elman, B., A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), p. 311.

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sical. The classics, he said, “emphasised expediting human affairs” whereas blindly following yin-yang cosmology caused the postponement of internment for long periods.27 It was not until the mid to late Qing dynasty that there was popular denigration and ridicule of fengshui by prominent scholars. This is evident in such works as the eighteenth century vernacular novel Ru lin wai shi (An Unofficial History of the Scholars).28 As Ropp has said, Perhaps the most common charge against geomancy in prerevolutionary literature was that it was mere superstition, not to be taken seriously by thoughtful people. This is one additional indication of the general decline of correlative cosmology. For a tenet comes to be regarded as mere superstition only after the larger cosmological framework which informed it is no longer understood.29

This decline of correlative cosmology is particularly addressed by Henderson. One of his basic premises is that correlative thought is a stage in the development of modern scientific thought which civilisation in general must go through. Henderson postulates that because of the strong adherence to correlative cosmology in the Ming dynasty and its subsequent vehement rejection in the Qing dynasty, China was unable to go through a similar scientific revolution to that of the West. Fengshui, in particular, was adhered to because most major modes of Chinese correlative cosmology influenced its theory. As Henderson states, The geomancer’s compass, which incorporated as many as 38 circles of symbol sets, including the trigrams and hexagrams of the ‘Change’, the 10 heavenly stems and the 12 earthly branches, the 5 phases, yin and yang, the 28 lunar lodges, the 24 solar periods, and the 4 seasons and directions, is a good emblem of the cosmological comprehensiveness of geomancy in traditional China. Whatever its empirical origins may have been, geomancy later became in essence cosmology applied to the study of landforms and the art of siting buildings and burials.30

There are those, however, who have claimed that there is a parallel to be found between science and mysticism. In seventeenth century Europe both Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton wrote of the harmony between science and 27 Henderson, J., The Development and Decline of Chinese Cosmology (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984), p. 108. 28 Ibid., p. 196. 29 Ropp, P. S., Dissent in Early Modern China (Ann Arbour: University of Michigan Press, 1981), p. 173. 30 Henderson, J., op. cit. p. 39.

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religion.31 More recently, a number of physicists have emphasised the parallel between the theories of nuclear physics and mysticism. When the physicist, Neils Bohr, was knighted, he chose as his coat of arms the yinyang symbol and an inscription in Latin meaning ‘opposites are complementary’.32 Others, such as Capra, have gone further and viewed the physical world as organic rather than mechanical and reality as a set of interconnected events rather than phenomena based on linear causality. Capra argues that two essential features of nature in particular are contained within and better explained by Daoist philosophy than by scientific causality. These features are the polar relationship of all opposites and the continuance of transformation and change. Thus, according to such an idea of polarity the following passage from the Classic of Siting might be thought of as an example of traditional Chinese thinking which is reflected in the concepts of nuclear physics:33 The symbols (on which these writings are based): yin and yang, the sun and moon, heaven and earth, cold and heat, male and female, day and night, make it possible for them to be all encompassing so that from the mention of one thing a thousand follow. Through the cyclical changes of the formless, it becomes possible to transform things. Great indeed is the principle of yin and yang.

Capra’s argument is that the Daoist sages achieved profound insights that are confirmed by the modern theories of nuclear physics because of their careful observation of nature combined with a strong mystical intuition. They negated what they considered to be the artificial world of man, which included social etiquette, moral standards and logical reasoning, and according to Capra, thus, developed through their concentration on the observation of nature an attitude which was essentially scientific. Capra theorised that they would probably have constructed proper scientific theories if not for their denial of the analytical method.34 Capra even resorts to the use of Daoist terminology in his conclusion where he states:35 At present the attitude of our society is too yang, too rational, male and aggressive. Scientists, themselves, are a typical example. Although their 31 Westfall, R., Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England (Ann Arbour: University of Michigan Press, 1973). 32 Capra, F., The Tao of Physics (London: Flamingo, 1983). 33 CSJX, p. 3. 34 Capra, F., op. cit. p. 126. 35 Ibid., p. 339.

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theories are leading to a world view similar to that of the mystics, it is striking how little this has affected the attitude of most scientists.....Many of them actively support a society which is still based on the mechanistic, fragmented world view, without seeing that science points to the oneness of the universe.

Therefore, it could be considered that Capra uses this concept of the parallel between science and mysticism to defend a philosophical and perhaps political argument against those who see science as a mechanistic enterprise. Nevertheless, there are a number of pitfalls in this parallelist argument as proposed by Capra. One involves the association of fengshui with this mystical scheme because of its Daoist basis. Although it has been generally accepted that fengshui has such a Daoist basis, there is quite a convincing argument that it actually developed from Confucianism in that Daoism, with its negation of worldly affairs and with immortality as its goal, is in contradiction with fengshui because of the importance placed on worldly affairs.36 Such an importance is obvious throughout the texts translated where it can be seen that good fortune is invariably referred to in terms of material success whether it be social position, wealth or a “hundred sons and a thousand grandsons”. The lack of Daoist tradition in fengshui may also be reflected in the material value placed by modern experts in the art on their services such that a consultation may cost thousands of dollars, a price which would seem in conflict with a negation of worldly affairs. To complicate matters even further, it is also necessary to consider the Buddhist influence on fengshui thought and practice. In the early medieval context, this can be viewed in the light of Strickmann’s comparison of two descriptions of basically the same ensigillation (use of seals) ritual, one sixth century Daoist and the other fifth century Buddhist. He argues that this ritual was obviously Chinese (and therefore more Daoist) in origin but that from 450 AD Buddhism held the prestige in Chinese society and so Buddhist ideas needed to be incorporated in such practices to be accepted. Importantly, moreover, Strickmann points to a “certain mystical obfuscation” in the Buddhist text, which may shed light on both the lack of clarity in the Classic of Siting and the plaint of the author of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems against the “myriad theories” of fengshui practitioners of that time.37 36 Unokicki, M., Fusui-ron (Fengshui), Shina kenkyu, vol. 2 (Tokyo: Meiji shuppansha, 1916), pp. 467-481. 37 Strickmann, M., op. cit. pp. 123-140, quote on p. 137.

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Nevertheless, there is some evidence for a Confucian rather than Daoist or Buddhist basis for the burial aspect of fengshui. The Yang Zhu chapter of the Daoist classic the Liezi is based on the negation of the struggle for power and wealth and much more importance is placed on tending the body rather than possessions. As it says about bones: Rotten bones are all the same. Who can tell them apart?38

and about burial: There is an old saying that each of us should pity the living and abandon the dead. This saying puts it exactly.....The way to abandon the dead is not to refuse to feel sorry for them. But we should not put pearls or jade in their mouths, dress them in brocades, lay out sacrificial victims, prepare funeral vessels.39

and: Once I am dead, what concern is it of mine? It is the same to me whether you burn me or sink me in a river, bury me or leave me in the open, throw me in a ditch wrapped in grass or put me in a coffin dressed in a dragonblazed jacket and embroidered shirt. I leave it to chance.40

Another point of contention is the idea implicit in the above quote that traditional Chinese Daoist philosophical mysticism like science has a unitary view of the universe. This flies in the face of the theory put forward by Ames and Hall that the difference between the history of Chinese and Western philosophical traditions is that the Chinese has been essentially correlative and non-unitary by nature indicated by the constant consideration of correlatives such as yin/yang, heaven/human being, knowledge/ practice, practice/speech, heart-mind/body and ‘stuff’/use whereas the Western tradition has strived for a teleological unity which incorporates dualisms such as reality/appearance and true/false.41 This idea is quite contentious; however, some evidence for it can be found in the Water Pincer Prose of Guo Jingchun in the second chapter of the Water Dragon Classic where it is stated that ‘to praise singularity and abandon duality is a deviation from the art’.42 In contrast, the Daoist, Ge Hong (circa 320 AD), 38 Graham, A. C. (trans.), The Book of Lieh-tzû: A Classic of the Tao (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990), pp. 140-141. 39 Ibid., pp. 141-142. 40 Ibid., p. 143. 41 Ames, R. T. and D. L. Hall, Co-relative Thinking in China and the West & Transcendence and Immanence as Cultural Clues: China and the West, paper presented to the School of Asian Studies & the Department of General Philosophy, University of Sydney, July 1992. 42 CSJX p. 35.

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writing around the same time said that “there is nothing that such men would not know, but those ignorant of Unity can really know nothing”43 and “(u)nity can form yin and beget yang; (and) bring on the cold and the heat”.44 So there is also some evidence for Capra’s implication that traditional Chinese thought encompassed unity as its principle yet this is by no means universal. There is also the criticism that Capra’s parallelist view is a negation of science itself. Asimov stridently criticises the parallelist view by putting forward the conundrum that if knowledge is intuitional as described in the ancient texts then there is no use in studying science and if the concepts of the ancients can only be really understood by modern scientific theory, their scientific value must be questioned.45 However, the most thorough criticism of Capra and others who see parallels between science and mysticism comes from the sociological perspective. Restivo, in particular, develops an emancipatory epistemology from this perspective toward a sociology of knowledge. His general argument centres on the selection and translation of materials. He firstly questions the lack of representativeness in the selection process in that there is no indication of a rigorous sampling procedure. It is pointed out that even if there were such a procedure, it would not be easy to apply because of the fragmentation and corruption of the texts involved. Restivo also questions the comparison of statements both between historical texts and present scientific theory and between historical texts written at different times, particularly those written centuries apart. There is an expectation of adequate but imperfect translation but it is argued that a study of the relationship between culture and cognition is necessary if there is to be a comparison at the sentence level. Restivo’s third general criticism relates to the functional linguistic differences between different texts written at different times, in different languages and with subject matter as different as that of modern science and mysticism. It is stated that a valid undertaking would necessitate expertise in sociolinguistics, fluency in science and mysticism and experience in the physical and mystical realms.46 Restivo not only questions the ideas of Capra but also criticises the research of Needham on the history of Chinese science, which he sees as 43 Ware, J. R. (ed. and trans.), Alchemy, Medicine & Religion in the China of A.D. 320: The Nei P’ien of Ko Hung (New York: Dover, 1981), p. 301. 44 Ibid., p. 302. 45 Asimov, I., ‘Do Scientists Believe in God?’, Gallery, vol. 7, no. 7 (June 1979): pp. 51-52. 46 Restivo, S., op. cit. pp. 22-42.

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“perhaps the most ambitious application of this method”47 in the search for, selection and application of material from the parallelist perspective. Needham and his colleagues’ massive work is an attempt to fit the vast array of traditional Chinese thought into the history of science with the assumption that Galilean methodology indicated the beginning of modern science. This is compared to the instinctive experimentation of craftsmen and technologists, which is termed proto-science. According to Needham the Galilean method involves: selection of quantifiable phenomena; formulation of an hypothesis involving a mathematical relationship; deduction of certain consequences from this hypothesis in the range of practical verification; observation, followed by a change of conditions, followed by further observation involving numerical values as much as possible; and acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis with acceptance indicating the starting point for any new hypothesis. It is noted that this methodology is not tied to a mathematical relationship, such as in the work on physiology undertaken by William Harvey, but that such a relationship did form the basic model. In contrast, proto-science is considered to be indicated by: selection of specific aspects of phenomena; observation, followed by a change of conditions, followed by further observation; formulation of a primitive hypothesis such as yin-yang and Five Phases theory; and continued observation which was not very strongly influenced by the hypothesis.48 There is the consideration that the empirical element in such protoscience comes from the necessity for magical practices to have “positive manual operations” and that the only key missing element for the birth of a modern scientific tradition in China was the lack of mature hypotheses in mathematical terms.49 Restivo considers this a quest for an Aristotle or Galileo in Chinese history and, thus, the imposition of a specific necessity in a linear evolutionary frame that creates the denial of other possibilities. He criticises this as a view of the history of science that relies on imitation. He also questions the focus on Aristotle and Galileo citing other historians of science who consider Aristotle to be a comparative hindrance to the development of modern science and queries the place of Galileo particularly in terms of his actual methodology. There is, moreover, some scepticism displayed over the translations themselves with doubt cast over both Needham’s linguistic ability because of the difficulties inherent in translating Chinese and 47 Ibid., p. 22. 48 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 3, 1959, pp. 156-159. 49 Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 2, 1956, p. 346.

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his background as a scientist enabling a better understanding of the texts. This criticism is particularly unwarranted because there is no mention in this context of the fact that the translation under criticism was a group effort concerning scholars from different backgrounds including those with a Chinese language background, which should be considered to be going some way towards addressing the general criticism of parallelist thinking concerning functional linguistics mentioned above.50 The major criticism of Needham stressed by Restivo is, however, the lack of any sense of a cross-cultural anthropology of knowledge which would come from a comparative history of science. It is asserted that this leads to the methodological problem of taking ideas out of their cultural context such that there is a distinction made between the empirical principles of pre-, proto-, and para-scientific concepts and the systematic theory of modern science and these pre-modern theories are only able to be understood in terms of the modern conception of science. This is an understandable argument in that there is validity in the negation of any idea of a unilinear evolution of science such that the definition of science is necessarily more general than the body of knowledge that any one culture has in the explanation of physical phenomena. Nevertheless, what Restivo seems to fail to realise is that science as defined by Needham is the modern empirical conception of science based on Galilean methodology, which was slowly established in opposition to the more pervading metaphysical conception of ‘I think or feel this is true; therefore it is true’ and, thus, the work of Needham as set up in this framework is valid. Restivo, moreover, himself seems to make the mistake of unilinear evolutionary thinking when he postulates the future possibility that modern science will be considered to have ‘wrong reasoning’.51 From the anthropological perspective, Restivo also questions the “psychic unity of mankind” hypothesis on which Needham and Sivin’s work is based. This hypothesis states that since the last major evolutionary changes in the brain and nervous system, human beings have had similar propensities and abilities. The argument is that although this hypothesis is unchallengeable as a general proposition, there is a possibility that learned differences might be obscured if it is applied to cultural potentialities. As evidence, Restivo cites the work of Campbell52 which indicates that al50 Restivo, S., op. cit. pp. 43-52. 51 Ibid., p. 48. 52 Campbell, D., ‘Distinguishing Differences of Perception form Failures of Communication in Cross-cultural Studies’, in Northrop, F. and H. Livingston (eds.), Cross-

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though small, there are measurable differences due to culture in the response to optical illusions. Thus, it is hypothesised that culture creates bias in the mapping of a brain and a method of triangulation in cross-cultural studies is proposed such that people from more than one culture study more than one culture. It is also pointed out that there is a particular problem with studying ancient cultures in that there is no possibility of certainty due to impossibility of having an ethnographer from the target culture. It is admitted, however, that Needham and his colleagues do try to achieve this ethnographic structure as proposed by Campbell and, moreover, Needham refrains from any claim to certainty throughout his work which is humbly seen to be a “reconnaissance”.53 Due to what are perceived to be genuine concerns raised by Restivo in some of his criticisms of the parallelist perspective, my work has attempted to address some of these, especially in relation to the translations. These have been outlined in full where possible to enable a better cross-cultural understanding and any doubts about their authenticity have been documented for consideration of their worth by later research. Moreover, a method of triangulation as proposed by Campbell has been incorporated in that the initial four people who worked on the translations, the author and the three dissertation supervisors come from two, or perhaps more, ethnographic cultures; one was born, educated and taught in China; one was born, educated and taught in Taiwan; one is Australian born of Chinese background and one is Australian born of European-Melanesian-Polynesian background. Since the completion of my dissertation, moreover, a number of other people again from diverse cultural backgrounds have had input into improving the translations. It could also be argued that perhaps there is an objective component to this study that has not occurred in previous research due to the fact that it was undertaken in Australia, which could be seen to have a Western cultural background because of the language spoken by the majority of the people and because of its European cultural history, but which could also be perceived to have its own emergent cultural identity which is not as tied to upholding the veracity of Western concepts as those more imbued in Western culture; that is there is perhaps the chance of a ‘southern’ perspective on the relationship between the East and the West. After all, the ritualisation of knowledge by northern hemisphere cultures becomes obvious to those in the south. An example is the cultural Understanding: Epistemology in Anthropology (New York: Harper and Row, 1964), pp. 308-336. 53 Restivo, S., op. cit. p. 48.

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celebration of the New Year whether with a solar or lunar calendar. In the north, this is associated with the end of the winter solstice and the coming of spring. In the south, such celebrations mark the waning of life and the onset of winter. Thus, there might be considered to be a further method of triangulation superimposed on the one mentioned above. Other sociologists of science have also criticised the parallelist perspective. Komesaroff, for instance, considers that the mythologies of tribal societies and perhaps ancient Chinese philosophy indicate a non-objective approach to nature and although he sees some sophistication in the interpretation by Capra of the consistency of the theory of quantum mechanics with Daoism and Buddhism, he argues that: While these perspectives are of great interest, however, it seems clear that none would on its own be capable of providing a satisfactory alternative theoretical programme for the study of nature. For each departs—in one way or another—from the elementary requirements placed on Western science. (Italics are those of the original author.)54

Some scientists such as Asimov go so far as to denigrate all those who disagree with the idea of science as a rational endeavour based on deduction and induction from observations and measurements, replication and consensus including those who hold the parallelist perspective as well as by implication sociologists of science. Thus, Asimov particularly stresses the methodological basis of science. He does see that intuition plays some part but only as a precursor to the actual methodology.55 However valid Asimov’s argument is in terms of science, analytical thinking by itself is insufficient as a tool for the human thought process. Graham uses the acquisition of language to exemplify the normal use of correlative thought in learning, which he considers could be claimed to be “perfectly adequate”.56 It is shown that having learned the oppositions ‘cat/ cats’ and shoe/shoes’ one automatically correlates ‘house’ with ‘houses’. When the error is made of ‘goose/gooses’ and this is corrected, ‘foot/feet’ can also become an automatic correlation. In fact, “(i)n learning to speak grammatically it is analytical thinking which is inadequate, useful as it is as a preliminary tool; a foreign language is fully mastered only when one 54 Komersaroff, P. A., Objectivity, Science and Society: Interpreting Nature and Society in the Age of the Crisis of Science (London: Routledge and Kegan, 1986), p. 280. 55 Asimov, I., op. cit. pp. 104-106. 56 Graham, A. C., Yin-Yang and the Nature of Correlative Thinking, paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on the History of Chinese Science, Sydney University, May 17-24, 1986, p. 2.

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is no longer applying a memorised rule distinguishing singular from plural”.57 Like Needham, Graham relates correlative thinking, of which he sees fengshui as a part, to proto-scientific thought in that it involves classification as similar or different and inference from the similarities of the vast quantities of discrete information related to scientific problems; “it is the refining of a cosmos in which the thinker already finds himself before his analytical thinking begins”.58 It is, however, Graham’s discussion of the relationship between correlative thinking and creation and appreciation in the arts that is most pertinent to the concepts of fengshui as related to the texts translated. Sonnets of Baudelaire and Rimbaud, the poetry of Yeats and Conrad’s Heart of Darkness are all used by Graham to exemplify the use of correlative thought in art. He argues that: The function of correlative thinking in the arts is not however a mere matter of weaving beautiful patterns disconnected from the truth. Remote as it is from scientific thinking, it may be seen as itself a criticism of correlative system-building, a revision of fossilised chains of oppositions in the light of closer scrutiny of the object. It takes another course from the scientific by retaining the “Between” where the observer interacts with the rest, not excluding the subjective response, not abjuring the metaphor and metonym, but far from reverting to primitivism it re-patterns experience by a style of thinking more fluid, intricate and finely discriminating than any other. It tells its own kind of truth by revealing how one does spontaneously, therefore genuinely, react in the fullest awareness of a concrete situation.59

Herein, perhaps lays an answer to the marked aesthetic beauty of the traditional Chinese countryside, the structure of which was based on the principles of fengshui as noted by Needham. It is continually stated throughout four of the five texts translated that any suitable situation for the siting of either graves or houses must have a positive aesthetic feeling. Moreover, it could be considered that this idea of aesthetic feeling relates to the aesthetic beauty of art mentioned above. Thus, fengshui of the Form School may be thought of as an attempt to combine the emotive feeling of aesthetic beauty with observations of different topographical structures into a single correlative system. Whether this system can be considered to be proto or pre-scientific is debatable but as Graham points out, “Even 57 Ibid., p. 2. 58 Ibid., p. 3. 59 Ibid., pp. 37-38.

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those who identify the correlative with pre-scientific thinking still acknowledge its relevance to Beauty if not Truth.”60 My rejoinder here would, however, be that beauty is nought but part of truth. It is at this interface between aesthetics and knowledge that the work of cognitive science, a new interdisciplinary field that has emerged over the last twenty years, has much to add. In particular, the studies into the cognitive contributions that accompany art practice and art appreciation shed an interesting light on the physical processes beside the necessary understanding of the political, cultural, and religious processes involved. Ione, the American artist and art historian, discusses the problem from the perspective of history of science in this way: The beauty of quantum theory ... is that it is a domain that is mechanistic in design and also functionally organic—in a holistic sense. Traditional models, on the other hand, were developed in a way that really could only position consciousness as if “a miracle happens,” given the nature of classical mechanics. Consciousness simply has no ‘place’ in classically-designed models. They are contrived to exclude consciousness and thus, when we use them to explain consciousness we end up with models that describe? or verify? human perception and sense experience. Of course, given that our models are constructed by us and our questions will no doubt always be informed by how we think and what we feel as we ponder the world around us, our models, in my opinion, will always be incomplete. In this sense all models are incomplete, for all are continually questioned by new generations, exploring their parameters as they endeavor to learn them. Thus, it seems what we need are models that continue to further inquiry ... models that allow the mysteries to remain ... models that have enough flexibility to affirm that science, at its best, draws mystery into its investigations ... models that allow us to remember that we are reflecting upon human consciousness.61 60 Ibid., p. 37. It is interesting to note in this context that a study has been undertaken on the success rates of treatment using the related discipline of acupuncture comparing acupuncturists who were medical doctors trained in modern scientific techniques and those who had traditional training in yin-yang Five Phases cosmology. It was found that the latter group were more successful with their treatments. However, one should be cautious with these results because of the small sample space and the qualitative rather than qualitative nature of the research (interviews with the patients). See Kortarba, J. A., ‘American Acupuncturists: New Entrepreneurs of Hope’, Urban Life, vol. 4, no. 2 (July 1975): pp. 149-177. 61 Ione, A. ‘Implicit Cognition and Consciousness in Scientific Speculation and Development’, presented at the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness conference, ‘What Does Implicit Cognition Tell Us About Consciousness?’, Claremont Colleges and Claremont Graduate School, June 14-16, 1997, Claremont, CA.

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Thus, Ione turns to quantum theory, like Capra, as the starting point for the continued development of models that inform the whole, and not merely a blinkered linear, monocultural conception of science. Similarly, the Canadian philosopher of religion, Ed Slingerland, argues for what he calls vertical integration, that is, that all levels of explanation of the world should be unified into a single, hierarchical chain. Specifically, he thinks that the divide between the humanities and natural sciences divide should be bridged.62 This can be done through what he calls ‘consilience’, or the recognition that understanding can flow both up and down the chain of explanation. Thus, the humanities need to find their proper place in a grand explanatory hierarchy: human-level truth (morality, beauty); the neuroscientific level (brain structure, synapses); organic chemistry (organic molecules); physical chemistry; and physics. In fact, Slingerland argues that the mind/body split, which has been at the basis of science since the time of Descartes, is invalid. The evidence that Slingerland uses for this argument is also the relationship between emotion and rationality as garnered from research in cognitive science. Recent findings show that emotions are crucial to reasoning and rationality. Damasio, for instance, showed that emotional-somatic reactions perform a crucial biasing / filtering function in the reasoning process.63 Furthermore, there is a strong suggestion from Haidt’s research that emotions play a foundational role in ethical decision-making and practical reasoning.64 I would argue, however, that the converse is also valid, that reasoning is basic to our emotions, and so aesthetic beauty could be seen to be part of our rationality. This relationship between emotion and rationality is at the basis of fengshui theory. The earliest existing texts on fengshui indicate the need for emotional input, i.e. feeling, for otherwise rationally based site selection. Yet they also imply that such emotional input is insufficient on its own; rationality is more than necessary. For this reason, fengshui could perhaps be considered to be an early or proto post-modern science. Moreover, it is not as though the correlational thought that underpins fengshui has no similarities to scientific thought. Social science is underpinned by the statistical relationships of correlation and dependence. Cer62 Slingerland, E. and M. Collard, Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). 63 Damasio, A. R., Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain (New York: Grosset/Putnam, 1994). 64 Haidt, J., ‘The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgment’, Psychological Review, vol. 108 (2001): pp. 813–834.

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tainly, the causal relationship implied in the correlational thought in fengshui does not apply to mathematical correlations, but correlations in social science are often taken as evidence for possible causal relationships even though they cannot be used to indicate what that relationship is. Nevertheless, when statistical correlations are used as evidence for causation, chance becomes a component of any prognostication from such evidence, and an ethical dimension, the nexus between rationality and emotion, becomes apparent. Unfortunately, this ethical dimension is either not considered or if done so, not made overt. This could be why large numbers of people in Western societies have turned to esoteric traditional knowledge systems such as fengshui in that they perceive their lives to be controlled by dry statistical analysis that has no real human meaning. An example can be seen in marketing. As Paul Henry points out, marketing plays a central role in social and economic systems, but marketers are often blamed for socials problems because they are perceived to abnegate their ethical responsibilities to society. There is some validity to this perception as even though marketing places great emphasis on the development of long term trustful relationships with customers, it is typical for customers to be referred to and thought of in a depersonalised manner. Customers become a ‘target market’, which is statistically categorised into demographics such as age, gender and income, and as Henry points out, “it is hard to have a relationship with a statistic”. There is certainly great benefit in simplifying the complexity of markets through mathematical analysis, but within this there is also the danger of reductionist scientism.65 1. Ritualisation of Knowledge and the Environmental History of China A final note should be made on the relationship between fengshui and the environmental history of China. Whilst with fengshui the Chinese were focussing on the nexus between rationality and emotion to help understand the surrounding environment, human competition for resources overwhelmed such environmental understanding with catastrophic consequences.

65 Paton, M. J. and P. Henry, ‘Human Nature and Social Complexity: a Common Challenge for Chinese Philosophy and Marketing’, International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management, vol. 2, no. 3: pp. 276-290. Quote on p. 286.

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It is not widely known but China ‘hit the wall’66 environmentally in the eighteenth century. Even though China is one of the most fertile places in the world, such that it can now sustain over a billion people, and Chinese science and societal systems led the world for over a millennium, famine became so rife there two hundred and fifty years ago that the only food in whole provinces was the bark of trees and the buttocks of dead bodies. In his tome on this history, Mark Elvin argues that the motive force behind this catastrophe was the logic of short term advantage, epitomised by war. People were too busy competing against each other for short term gain to consider their surrounds. Vast areas of forests were destroyed with consequent environmental degradation. The large herds of elephants that roamed northern China disappeared as the environmental sink, on which we survive when humano-centric means fail, was destroyed. Even the development and the upkeep of the Grand Canal with all its excellent hydrological engineering had a devastating environmental effect. Elvin writes that the deep ecological understanding inherent in fengshui was completely disregarded in the humano-centric struggle for short term advantage.67 Nevertheless, the ritualisation of the empirical knowledge-base of fengshui and its growing focus on chance over time were also seeds to this catastrophe. An example is the argument in the Twenty Four Difficult Problems for the ancient practice of taking thirteen years of careful observation to decide on the best site and bemoaning the practitioners conducting the “art of swindlers” by dealing merely in good and bad luck to steal money from the people. This is indicative that the ethic at that time was becoming one of chance. By the late Ming dynasty (circa 1600) the bestselling book was a fengshui manual, Everything you Need to Know about Siting, which only dealt with good and ill fortune. The ethics of chance held sway as environmental disaster was looming.

66 This is a colloquial term, but its original usage in athletics, specifically the marathon, to describe the sudden failure of bodily systems through overexertion seems an apposite metaphor for what occurred in China. For example, the central Chinese government famine relief system, which had been in use for almost a millennium, had to be suspended for over a decade in the mid eighteenth century because famine had become so frequent and so extensive. (See Dunstan, H., ‘A Twice-Told Tale: Famine, Responsibility and Migration in Eighteenth-century China’, University of Sydney Chinese Studies Seminar Series, 16 March 2006. Published in Chinese as ‘Qian Long shisan nian zai jiantao’ (Thirteen Years of Self Criticism in the Era of Qian Long) Qing shi yanjiu (Studies in Qing History), vol. 2, pp. 1-11. 67 Elvin, M., The Retreat of the Elephants; an Environmental History of China (London: Yale University Press, 2004.)

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The environmental history of China holds a salutary lesson in the havoc that can be caused over the long term by humanity basing its relationships on the logic of short term advantage and the ethics of chance. China has become the focus of international economic commentators because of its unprecedented growth over the past decade, with many claiming that the twenty-first century will belong to China. This growth has been partially based on its development towards scientific and engineering modernity, which has enabled China to feed and house its huge population, and to become a major economic power. Nevertheless, we should be careful of thinking that modernity allows us to transcend the environment of which we are a part. The effects of the recent tsunami in Japan are a poignant example of this. China’s economic growth has also been based on its embrace of the international market system. This certainly has its positive aspects, but much of the market involves players trying to win over the short term, and the historical precedents mentioned above should give us pause to reflect on future possibilities. Fengshui went from being an environmental knowledge system based on observation to a method of site selection for good luck. The ethics of chance became the basis of property selection as China fell apart environmentally. The lesson we may learn from this is that we can all ‘play’ the market, but no matter whether our moral stance is Protestant, Buddhist or Hashemite, if we do play the market for short term gain our ethic is that of chance, and our actions could have a long term negative effect for our species, even if our luck is good.68 As a denouement to this discussion it should be noted that some proponents of the sociology of science mentioned previously as well as others such as Böhme et al.69 argue that science has reached a post-paradigmatic stage such that the theories of science are clearly formulated and comprehensive and that there is little chance of any revolution in their basic principles. An argument against this could, however, point to the large amount of documentary evidence gathered towards the end of the nineteenth cen68 See Paton M. J., ‘Environmental History of China and Australia: the Logic of Short term Advantage & the Ethics of Chance’, Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the International Sustainable Development Research Society, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 9th, 2009. 69 Böhme, G., W. van den Daele, R. Hohlfeld, W. Krohn and W. Schäfer (P. Burgess, trans.), Finalization in Science: the Social Orientation of Scientific Progress (Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1983).

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tury (see such work as that of Sargent70 and Zöllner),71 which indicates that many observations have been made by reliable sources that contradict the theories of science as they presently stand. At that time these strange physical manifestations were reasoned to be caused by spirits of the dead. If, however, as suggested by Yi Yi previously the concept of spirit is to be left out of any scientific consideration, some attempt should be made to incorporate such observable phenomena into the realm of scientific understanding, that is as Needham points out, it is necessary to end the division between things that can be studied scientifically and those that cannot. The attempt to mix structure, feeling and spirit in traditional fengshui is perhaps the reason that there was such a strong negative reaction against it by European commentators when they first came across it in the nineteenth century. Bertrand Russell72 argued that as early as the twelfth century the Scholastics in Europe negated completely any manifestations of or studies into the arcane, occult and esoteric as work of the Devil. This was perhaps the reason for the non-publication and subsequent disappearance of Robert Boyle’s treatise on supernatural phenonmena, Strange Reports. Two hundred years later, the philosophy and cognitive bias of the nineteenth century European commentators was certainly much changed from that of the Scholastics but any perception of a science relating to burial and spirit such as fengshui would have still carried with it tag of occultism and therefore a general rejection out of hand as it having anything to do with science. Unfortunately, this is still the case.

70 Sargent, E., The Scientific Basis of Spiritualism (Boston: Colby and Rich, 1881). 71 Zöllner, J. C. F. (C. C. Massey, trans.), Transcendental Physics (London: W. H. Harrison, 1880). 72 Russell, B., History of Western Philosophy (London: Allen & Unwin, 1961).

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TRANSLATIONS

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PRELIMINARY REMARKS The next five chapters are translations of the texts discussed previously. It is worthwhile reiterating at this point that these texts can be considered to be manuals for fengshui practitioners, and like modern day computer manuals pre-suppose a certain fore-knowledge of the concepts involved. I have tried to explain these concepts as best I can, but it is beyond the realm of this book to teach the art of being a fengshui xiansheng. Moreover, I again stress that I have attempted as far as possible to render accurate translations but admit that these are not perfect and welcome any suggestions for their improvement. It should be noted that Chinese like all languages is continuously in flux and has been so since its inception. Each dynasty saw changes to the written language in both vocabulary and to an extent structure. So to attempt to translate texts from various dynasties is no simple task. Moreover, the writing abilities of the original author are crucial in trying to understand a text from a markedly difference language, time, place and culture. The Book of Burial and the Water Dragon Classic were both written/edited by famous scholars noted for their literary abilities, Guo Pu and Jiang Pingjie respectively. This was reflected in their comparative ease of understanding and thus translation. Both texts took less than six months to grasp the essence of their intent with the only major issue the small size of the characters in the transcription of the Water Dragon Classic. After spending five months translating this directly from the text to a computer, I found that I could no longer read without spectacles. In complete contrast was the experience of trying to understand and translate Twenty Four Difficult Problems. Besides input from my original thesis supervisors, it took some seven years of reading, contemplation and discussion with classical Chinese translators from various backgrounds in various countries to be able to garner some understanding of the meaning of the text. The anonymous author would not seem to have been a great literary talent, particularly in the structural problems in the text. In fact, as has been pointed out previously, Nathan Sivin has suggested that the author was probably a fengshui practitioner rather than a scholar both because of the poverty of style in the writing and the attack on the, at that time, new Compass School practitioners, who “conduct the art of swin-

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dlers”. If the translation of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems is somewhat convoluted, this is because it reflects the original text. The experience of translation of the Classic of Siting and the Burial Classic fell between these two extremes. The Classic of Siting was not so much difficult to read initially, but the astrological/astronomical terminology and concepts created some issues in relation to easy understanding. Moreover, the sparseness and simplicity of Qing Wu’s words in the Burial Classic sometimes proved too sparse to grasp any fineness of meaning. Fortunately, Wu Qinze’s commentary generally allows better undertanding of the intention of the original text.

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CHAPTER SEVEN

Archetypal Burial Classic of Qing Wu Annotated by Jin dynasty prime minister Wu Qinze1 Qing Wu was a man of the Han period who was versed in geography and the art of yin and yang. But history had lost his name. This is the Classic quoted as evidence by Guo2 of the Jin period. Qing Wu’s words are simple and sparse, and indeed for later generations the work has become the basic text on yin and yang. Mr. Guo’s quotation of the Classic was incomplete because the book was incomplete. How much of it has been lost with the passage of so many years is impossible to ascertain. From the muddy chaos of Pan Gu3 qi sprouted forth the Great Way4 separating yin and yang and making the pure and the turbid. Birth, old age, sickness and death, who in fact governs these? (Qi congealed into the Kunlun5 Mountains, a form with crude substance. As there is separation into north and south, the southern dragon is yang and pure while the northern dragon is yin and turbid. As there is a beginning, there must be an end. As there is movement, there must be rest. With beginning there is return to the end, rest and movement again. This is governed by the Kunlun Mountains.)6 If there is no beginning, there will be no discussion, so it is not possible that it does not exist. Auspiciousness and inauspiciousness have formed. How can they not exist? How is it hidden in existence? It is hidden in deep 1 This name does not, as one would expect, occur in the Jin shu. Because the Jin dynasty was a foreign dynasty, this could be due to a problem of transliteration. However, a quite thorough search was undertaken in available sources into other possible names of similar sounds but this proved fruitless. This can only reinforce the idea that this text is not what it claims to be and that a fictious ‘prime minister’ was invented to lend credence to the origin of the text. 2 Guo Pu. 3 盤古. The creator Pan Gu is described in the Wuyun linian ji by Xu Zheng (3rd century AD) as a being whose ‘breath brings forth the wind and clouds’. A giant, he is said to have created yin and yang by cleaving them apart with his axe. 4 大朴 Da Pu. 5 崑崙. According to the Shuo wen, shui bu the Heshui originates from beyond the Kunlun Mountains. This is also mentioned in the Shi ji. 6  Note that the brackets indicate the commentary by Wu Qinze.

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obscurity and is in fact related to good and ill fortune. If one tries to put it into words it does not seem to be true. At its end there seems to be nothing beyond this. If it can seemingly be ignored, how can it be entrusted to the defectiveness of my words? The principle does not go beyond this. (If one claims that qi one does not derive from the mountains from which it is born, then one is not able to discuss whether or not these nodes form. There must be a means by which qi approaches, so it is not possible that these nodes do not exist. The materialisation of auspiciousness and inauspiciousness is linked to these, so they are said to exist. How these nodes are entered can only be sought in whether or not a centre exists. The existence or non-existence is hidden in deep obscurity which is subtle and vague and cannot be perceived and depends on the key to either obtaining or not obtaining nodes leading to good or bad fortune. If one can clearly instruct others of this, there is still the fear that divulging this previously established secret does not seem to be ultimately correct. It is simply that my humble investigations are difficult to put into words. If it can be spoken of to enlighten others, then as heaven favours me with this knowledge, I must use it to awaken those who follow. If I do not awaken later generations, why has it been entrusted to me? I wish to state again what has been stressed. This art cannot be easily divulged.) Mountains and rivers fuse together and merge. They soar up and flow, endlessly. The pairs of eyes seem not to exist. Alas that they are separated. (Mountains soar with heaven’s intent to be mountains. Rivers flow and naturally join to arrive at river mouths. All meld to form the eyes of the nodes. In the vicinity of the eyes are the eyebrows and the eyelashes which signify the upper manifestations, thereby distinguishing the true nodes.) Land which has substantial good fortune is unaffectedly natural and not oppressive. Looking out in all directions one can distinguish the guest and the host. (The mingtang7 is broad and the configurational force of the qi is not cramped. The mountains on all sides join together like the guest and host8 saluting each other with clasped hands. The respect and humility have a fixed order.) 7 Literally the ‘Bright Hall’, the mingtang is considered to be a flat open area in front of a grave. It can also be a place where water gathers in front of a grave or a temple for worship in front of a grave. It is probably not applicable here but it is interesting to note that this is also the name of a star first mention of which was made in the Tianwen zhi of the Jin shu. 8 These are possibly the Azure Dragon and the White Tiger but are more likely to be the Dark Warrior and the Vermilion Sparrow.

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With mountains, desire solidity. With water, desire purity. Mountains approaching and water meandering compels high rank and abundant wealth. Where mountains stop the flow of water, kings are captured and lords imprisoned. (An old annotation says that with mountains which are basically still, one desires motion and with water which is basically in motion, one desires stillness to compel the speedy arrival of nobility for the noble and abundance of wealth for the wealthy. This is the result of mountains approaching and water meandering. In position of power and influence the king is the greatest yet he will be captured and in rank of nobility the duke is the highest yet he will be imprisoned. This is the result of a mountain halting the flow of water.) If the mountain pauses and the water winds, there will be a myriad of descendants. If the mountain departs and the water is straight, one will be a servant of others or live with relatives because of straitened circumstances. If water passes from west to east, there will be endless wealth. If it moves three times sideways and four times down, government posts will be filled with honour. If it has nine bends as it meanders with interlocking layers of sand embankments, there is certain to be the highest official rank. (An old annotation says that cong ren ji shi9 refers to being a servant or slave depending on others for food and lodging. Sand embankments refer to the fact that when a prime minister goes forth, embankments of sand must be built so that there will be no rough patches that might hinder his carriage wheels. Afterwards people therefore considered sand embankments to tell the story of a prime minister.) Qi is scattered when riding the wind. Where its veins meet water, it stops and is retained coiling around, enriching and ennobling the land. (Note that if (the grave) is in a place where (qi) scatters, an official will not emerge. If one moves towards a place where (qi) is stopped, the site of a node can be fixed. It returns to the mountain and is retained like a winding snake. Thus, the land is rich and plentiful. This is the same as Guo Pu’s commentary to the Classic which says that if it is bordered by water, it stops.) A node which is not nurtured means that the bones will decay. With a node to which (qi) does not come, the master will be completely destroyed. With a node where (qi) rises out or leaks away, the coffin will be upset and

9 從人寄食.

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spoilt. With a node where (qi) is captured at the back and there is a cold spring splashing, it is to be feared. One can nought but be cautious. (An old annotation says that not being nourished refers to the mountain not holding and storing (qi). Not coming means that a mountain does not face (the node). Rising out and leaking means that it is empty. Being captured at the back means that it is dark and shady. All such nodes cannot be used for burial.) After one hundred years of metamorphosis and departure from form, there is a return to the true essence. The spirit enters the gate and the bones return to their origin. The auspicious qi has an influence on ghosts and spirits which extends to human beings.10 (When a person dies, he discards his physical form and is transformed to earth. The true qi returns to the original essence. When the spirit gathers within the grave mound and vital qi protects the withered bones, it is auspicious. There is an interaction between the qi which is favourable to man and that of the node to accumulate what is propitious and to extend it to the descendants. When Guo Pu in referring to the Classic said that ghosts and spirits affect human beings, his meaning was the same as this.) From the eastern mountains flames arise. From the western mountains clouds arise. Nodes which are auspicious and warm give continuous wealth and nobility. If they are contrary to this, one’s descendants will be orphaned and impoverished. (As yin and yang synchronise and water and fire interact, the two qi ferment and form nodes. Therefore, if it is auspicious and warm, one’s descendants will have wealth and rank over a long period. If it cannot be like this, it is unable to be called a node.) The barren, precipitous, rocky, eroded, isolated, cramped and oblique can produce new misfortunes and remove existing good fortune. (An old annotation says that what does not produce foliage is called barren (tong)11 what is caved in and pitted is spoken of as precipitous (duan).12 A barren mountain is without covering; a precipitous mountain lacks qi. To be rocky means that the earth is not nourishing. To be eroded (guo)13 means that the configurational force is unstable. An isolated mountain does not have a male and female component, a cramped mountain does not have a mingtang, and an oblique mountain will be inclined and 10 This is the principle on which all yin zhai 陰宅 or siting of graves is based. 11 童. 12 斷. 13 過.

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not upright. A violation with these seven is able to produce new misfortune and wipe out any good fortune that has been received. Guo Pu cited the Classic as evidence, particularly mentioning five which are a summary of this. Cramped and oblique are included in the five places where one does not bury.) Where there is a continuous supply of ennobling qi, the original source has not been disrupted. The back and the front area have the protection of the host and the guest. (An old annotation says that where the original source is not disrupted and there is a continuous flow of qi, there is a distinction between host and guest so that there is protection in front of and behind the node.) Where water flows away and does not circulate, the exterior is narrow and the interior is broad. The continents and oceans are vast and deep without measure. Ponds, sandbanks, pools and lakes are the resting place of a true dragon and the true situation should be sought within; one should be careful not to seek beyond. If the form and configurational force have a tendency towards winding then life will enjoy good fortune. (An old annotation says that, in general, the oceans and the continents do not have the dragon and tiger to the left and right. It is only when one encounters ponds and lakes that there can be a returning (of qi) to the node. That the true situation should be sought within refers to treating ponds and lakes as the mingtang so that the water will circulate and not flow away and thus, life will enjoy good fortune.) If the force halts, the form rises, in front there is a stream and behind there is a ridge, one’s position will become that of a marquis or king. If the form halts, the force contracts and at the frontal plateau there is a returning and winding, then there will be gold, grain and fine quality jade. (If the configurational force halts and the form rises, there is a dragon approaching to form the node and a fusion of the three and the five14 to form the future. For this reason it is considered great. If there is a stream in the front and a ridge behind then (qi) stops. It also says that the form rising refers to an abundance of natural endowments.15 Where the form halts and the force contracts, the dragon does not approach to form a correct fusion. This is particularly because the form halts and thus wraps up 14 According to the Lang Yi chuan of the Hou Han shu, these are the Three Rectitudes and the Five Phases. The Three Rectitudes are the proper paths (dao) of heaven, earth and man. 15 In the Xuan ji shu cong (Qing Wu Xiansheng zang jing, 0175 p. 6) version, this reads ‘being abundant with qi’ rather than natural endowments.

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the fusion. For this reason it is inferior. It also says, as to the restriction of the qi phenomenon, where at the frontal plateau there is a meandering such that the guest and host are shallow and deep, there is only the good fortune of gold and grain and that is all.) When a mountain manifests nodes formed from water travelling long distances gouging at it, the water must turn and look back. (The surging of water on mountains results in nodes. The flowing water has travelled far and must turn back and face its flow to create the node.) When the heavenly light shines down and the hundred rivers converge is where the true dragon rests. Who can discern the original mystery? (Heaven’s intent is at equilibrium. The true dragon and the true node are where the myriad rivers converge to one source and unite. This is where the original mystery exists.) Towns and people’s homes are like crayfish and clams. (Qi) is hidden and then manifest. How can one find its source? (Towns in piles and pieces resembling the crayfish and the clam. The veins of qi of the plains seem as though they exist then not, are manifest then hidden, are hidden then manifest. This is why it is the original source.)16 It can be broken and join again, depart and yet remain. Its strange shapes and different forms are as difficult to seek as a thousand pieces of gold; it is like cutting lotus root connected by silken threads. The true pivot does not fall into the node. The form is difficult to grasp and quantify with confidence but by blocking the spaces and filling in the gaps, it is a creation of heaven and earth preserved for humanity so that the wise and sagely find it difficult to discuss. (An old annotation says that the advantages and disadvantages, and the importance and unimportance of rich land can be recognised by human beings. Ennobling land is connected with the Great Creation, so it cannot be recognised by ordinary people. But land which the multitude does not like is greatly ennobling. If all men were able to recognise it, all families would be sages and all men would be like Gao17 and Kui.18 That this situation does not exist is the principle. That the strange forms and different 16 In the Jin dai bi shu (p. 7) version this reads ‘Male and female burial is like the crayfish, clam and towns. The deep qi of the plain seems as though it exists then does not, is manifest then hidden. Where it is damp is where the source is.’ 17 皋陶. Gao Yao was a leader of the eastern barbarians who was made the first judge by the legendary emperor Shun who supposedly ruled around 2200 BC. 18 夔一足. Kui Yizu was another official from the time of the legendary emperors, Yao and Shun.

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shapes are as difficult to seek as a thousand pieces of gold was left to challenge the discussions of the ancient sages. To break yet continue, to depart yet remain like cut lotus roots connected by silken threads is the basic source. When investigating strange shapes and different forms the true pivot is difficult to grasp. The essential outlet of the original mystery is by deduction of the place where the true node arrives. At times there is a fissure and the outside develops a peak to cover it. Thus it is arranged by heaven and earth and consequently the wise and sagely find it difficult to discuss.) Auspicious qi accompanies the luxuriant growth of grasses and trees. (This is) the interior and the exterior; the manifest and what is within. Sometimes it is so and sometimes it is made to be so. (Where vital qi is abundant, it also gathers into a singular manifestation. In some cases what was originally empty and through which the wind passed now has luxuriant grasses and trees to cover its inadequacy so that the gap is not perceived. Thus there is vital qi and the grasses and trees spontaneously fill in the gap. Moreover this can be done by man.) With three ridges the qi is made whole and the configurational forces converge from all directions. If the front is screened and the back is embracing, all the auspices will arrive in their entirety. (An old annotation says that if the qi is complete, the dragon force will not escape. If the configurational forces converge, the mountains and water will have feeling. If the front screens, it will have the feeling of a guest. If the back is embracing, it will have the feeling of a host. Thus all good fortune will arrive in its entirety.) Land that is of superior quality is level. Earth that is of superior quality has branches. For nodes choose a peaceful place. For water choose a distant appearance. (An old annotation says that a peaceful place refers to the node not having a precipitous peak. A distant appearance refers to the water flowing from the original source.) One should have absolute alignment with the yin and the yang so that there is no conflict. If there is even the smallest mistake, the error will be in the order of 1000 li.19 (An old annotation says that according to yin-yang [theory] for the larger part nodes are chosen on the basis of left and right; the right is the yin node and the left is the yang node.) 19 A unit of linear measurement equivalent to approximately one third of a mile or a half of a kilometre.

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With perfection in the art of selection, capitals may be built and provinces established. If by chance, however, it is inappropriate, the ruler thus established will be impoverished. (An old annotation says that in burial it is auspicious if one gains the benefits of the land, and poverty will follow if the benefits of the land are lost.) For the lands of dukes and marquises, the dragon rises to face the jade tablet.20 It is small and the head is sharp. It surpasses the basic direction and is arrived at without learning. (The basic direction is either the front, equidistant between the left and right positions or basically all of the useful directions. Another saying is that like the horse mountain it has to be in the southern direction.) The land of the chancellor is an embroidered coffin cover. It is near the confluence of a large body of water. The nobility is without limit. It is vast, wide and level and the vital qi is beautiful. (The embroidered coffin refers to the front-most peak being upright. Moreover if it is where a great river runs into it, the nobility will be without limit.) The land of the outer terrace has high ridges defending the gate, like welcoming rows of garrison troops, spreading out for several li. The writing brush is a great transverse rafter which is sufficient to pass judgement on life and death. (An old annotation says that banner mountains are selected for their towering height to defend the gates. Garrison troops stand on guard in regulated rows as a welcome and an escort. Nobility is shielded all around. On the right side there is a transverse mountain. Lying along low ground, it is the pen for deciding life and death. It is necessary that this node is correct, majestic and singularly venerable. If it is not thus, it is a dark knife mountain. Therefore, [such a situation] is said to be difficult to determine.) For land of wealth and nobility, writing is inserted into the ear (of the dragon). Fish bags are connected in pairs. The position of geng in Metal; south in Fire; east in Wood; and north in Water is a bad technique. (A fish bag refers to two prominent peaks, one large and one small, which are connected. Geng in Metal selects vibrant surroundings and nobility is exuded. A pointed tail in Fire governs medicine and shamanism. If it 20 Also called the tugui 土圭 or earth tablet, this was an ancient Chinese instrument used to measure shadows thrown by the sun. It was made of jade and had a square base and painted top.

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is long and lean, it is in Wood. Philandery is in Water which exudes licentiousness. These are miscellaneous techniques.) Land has splendid qi when it is halted in the earth. Mountains have auspicious qi which arrives in accordance with the direction. (Where qi is accumulated the soil is fertile and splendid. Where a mountain is beautiful, it is auspicious because the qi halts. Naturally there will be kings, dukes or high officials. For nobility, even though one selects the phenomena [wood, fire, water etc.] at the front of the mountain, it is necessary that there is the beauty and auspiciousness of qi. One can only point to a mountain and speak of it if this is so.) For the land of the scholar, the brush is pointed and fine. If the various waters do not comply, one’s fame is spread in vain. (This brush is not as good as that of the outside terrace which can judge life and death. When attendants do not follow, it is due to a person’s inferiority of rank. Thus, the beauty and auspiciousness are unlike that of the previous and one’s fame is spread in vain and that is all.) Land of great wealth has rounded peaks. The golden casket has money and riches which are numerous in their approach like the arrival of rivers. Where it is small and refined, there is purity and nobility. Where there is roundness, there is considerable wealth. (An old annotation says that being like the arrival of rivers refers to the rapid approach of an occasion for celebration.) Land of poverty is in disorder like the scattering of ants. A wise man will be fully observant as though being shown the indications. (The pattern of the veins is scattered and in disorder, without a definite node. An annotation says that the mountain sands are scattered and in disorder and the direction is unintelligible.) The palace of the dark and mysterious is ruled by spirits and ghosts. (An old annotation says that auspicious land is ruled by spirits no less than by human beings.) Burial where the grass is not cut is renowned as a robber’s burial. (When the grass is cut and the earth cleared, an offering of wine is made to the earth spirit and then the grass is cut three times. If it is not thus, it is a robber’s burial.) If burial reaches the tombs of the ancestors, calamity will come to the descendants. (This means that burial cannot intrude upon the tomb of an ancestor. Good fortune will not come and misfortune will be the first to arrive.)

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One grave is flourishing and abundant; ten graves are orphaned and impoverished. (An old annotation says that identifying a node is like the burning of artemesia [in moxibustion]. Since there is one node that is true, the various other nodes are empty.) Having an auspicious node and burying inauspiciously is the same as discarding the corpse. Where there is correspondance to yin and yang, there is accordance with heaven and earth. (This is clearly verified in Guo Pu’s reference to this in his annotated Burial Classic.) Internal qi sprouts life. External qi establishes form. Both the internal and external develop to completion by interaction with wind and water. By visual examination the nature and feeling are comprehended. If these are understood, one will be able to traverse all under heaven. (Internal qi sprouting life refers to the node being warm and hence giving birth to the myriad things. External qi establishing form refers to mountains and rivers fusing to become images. Vital qi sprouts forth from within. The image is established from without and material forms proliferate. What can be examined with the eyes are the external manifestations. To comprehend the internal nature of all that can be seen at present would require superior wisdom. The totality of what can be seen limits the extent of its internal character. There are large and small configurational forces otherwise how would it be possible for them to penetrate and traverse the states of the southern barbarians [Manmo].21) 1. Qing Wu—Postscript The prime ministerial families of recent generations necessarily acclaim Guo Pu as being great. Equally many are of the faction of Qing Wuzi. Although his origin is not detailed, his ideas on obeying the dragon have become famous. Lacking from his book, moreover, there is a chapter on the bones of prime ministerial land which is also said to be written by Qing Wuzi. I am afraid that even if this is his compilation, the words are not like those of a man from the Han period. Furthermore even the annotations of Prime Minister Jin do not accord with history. How can we rely on it to be written by Qing Wuzi? The collection floats beyond the realm of recorded history. 21 蠻貊.

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1.2. The Classic of Burial The commentary says that the first Burial Classic of Qing Wu annotated by the great Jin Prime Minister Wu Qinze verifies Qing Wu’s name. It can be seen from reading the Jin shu that Guo Pu passed on to the Tang annals the fact that there were three chapters by Qing Wuzi. Afterwards, it was not known whether this was the true ancient book. The meaning of this volume’s writing is shallow, and the annotations seem to be almost of the same hand as the recent classics. What the guiding classic of Guo Pu’s Burial Book says is like the trunk and its branches. All are seen in this volume. Thus, the words and sentences are rather similar and fairly different. Thus, those who obtain Guo’s book in order to prove themselves are in the wrong. They also call on the writings of the Yi jing in order to eliminate the traces which are plagiarised. One cannot on this basis make a corresponding verification. By Imperial Order—the si ku quan shu22 general index

22 四庫全書.

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CHAPTER EIGHT

THE INNER CHAPTER OF THE BOOK OF BURIAL ROOTED IN ANTIQUITY Written by the minister Guo Pu of the Jin Dynasty (265-420 BC) In the burial one takes advantage of vital qi.1 When the qi of yin and yang is exhaled2 it ascends and becomes clouds, descending as rain. When it circulates in the earth it is vital qi. When the vital qi circulates in the earth it ferments and gives life to the myriad things. Man receives his form from his parents. His basic frame obtains qi and the form he is given accepts it and harbours it there. Life is the gathering of qi. What coagulates and solidifies becomes bones which are the only remainder upon death. Therefore, in burial, qi is returned to within the bones in order to protect the way which gives life. The Classic says, ‘When qi is stimulated and there is a response the spirits3 will bestow good fortune on Man.’ For this reason the Supernatural Bell in the east responds to the collapse of the Bronze Mountain in the west,4 trees flower in Spring and chestnuts sprout around the house. Qi 1 生氣. 2 Literally this means ‘to belch’. 3 This is translated ‘spirits’ here rather than the more common ‘ghosts’. As Wolfram Eberhard points out, “In general, the Chinese word gui denotes a demon of whom we have every reason to feel scared. It is often the spirit of a dead person; in this case, members of the family to which it belonged are not frightened of it; that is it is not a gui but a shen”. 4 銅山西崩靈鐘東應. These words appear in both the Shi shuo xin yu and the commentary by Liu Xiaobiao to the biography of Dongfang Shuo. In the Shi shuo xin yu the words are used as a response to the statement that the Changes consider feeling as substance. The reponse is that the collapse of the mountain and the response of the bell is then (one of) the Changes. Liu Xiaobiao relates a story to explain the significance of the line. During the time of the emperor Xiao Wu there was a bell in front of the Wei Yang palace which began to ring, for no reason, for 3 days and nights. When Dongfang Shuo was called upon to explain this phenomenon he said that, as bronze was the son of the mountain and the mountain was the mother of bronze, he was afraid that there had been a landslide in the mountains. Three days later a report came from the Southern Prefecture (Sichuan) that, indeed, there had been a landslide of over twenty kilometres on the Bronze Mountain. From this time these words have been used to indicate the mutual effect of important affairs. It is also interesting to note that this is an early record of the Chinese realisation of the effects of geological phenomena. An earthquake creates land waves which diminish in intensity over distance. Whereas close to the epicentre they will be physically felt by the human body

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circulates through the earth according to the configurational force of the earth. It gathers where the configurational force stops. The qi follows the trunk of a hill and branches along its ridges. The Classic says, ‘If qi rides the wind it is scattered; if it is bounded by water it is held’. Ancient men gathered it, causing it not to be scattered and curtailed its area of circulation. Hence this is referred to as fengshui. The method of fengshui is, first of all, to obtain water and secondly to store from the wind. Why do we say this? When qi is abundant, even though it flows and circulates, its surplus can still be held and even though it is scattered, where it is deep, it can still be gathered. The Classic says, ‘External qi runs wild; internal qi holds life’. This refers to the above. The Classic says, ‘Qi, both shallow and deep, forms by taking advantage of the apertures of wind and water.5 The entity earth is the mother of qi. If there is earth, there is qi. The entity qi is the mother of water. If there is qi, there is water.’ Therefore, if it is stored in that which is dry, it should be shallow. If it stored in that which is level, it should be deep. (This says that with the standard as to whether the centre of the mingtang is shallow or deep: the mingtang of a mountain dragon is usually deep, and that for level land is usually shallow. A dry area refers to a mountain dragon. A smooth area refers to level land.)6 The Classic says, ‘When qi circulates through landforms, entities are, thereby, given life.’ The configurational force of the earth is the original veins. The configurational force of mountains is the original bones. They snake either west to east or north to south, curling back on themselves as if crouching and waiting, as if with something in their grasp. (Qi) desires to proceed but it is cut off. It desires to halt and becomes deep. Where it comes and accumulates, stops and gathers, there will be a clashing of yang with a harmonising of yin, the earth will be rich and the water deep, the grasses lush and the forests luxuriant, nobility will be to the extent of 1,000 chariots and wealth will be to the extent of 10,000 pieces of gold. The Classic says, ‘Where landform halts and qi gathers, bringing life to the myriad things, it is superior land.’ Land is valuable when it is level and even. Earth is valuable when it has branches. The qi follows to the end of the branch where it is concentrated. The method of discerning branches (if it is of sufficient intensity), as they travel further away they will only have an effect on such things as pendula, of which bells are a good example. 5 Literally this means ‘the eyes of wind and water’. The Qing dynasty Xue jintao yuan version has mu 目 written as zi 自 such that it would suggest 'the natural formation of wind and water'. 6 As previously, the brackets indicate commentary on the main text.

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is obscure and portentous. Yet, if its mysteries and subtleties are penetrated, within it is good fortune. The Classic says, ‘Where the land has auspicious qi, the earth accordingly rises (to form ridges). Where its branches halt qi, water accordingly draws up to it.’ The configurational force perpetually moves according to the landform. If methodology of burial is correct,7 there will be perpetual good fortune without ill. Where there are layered ridges, piled up mounds, and crowded hills with many branches, one should select what is particular. If they are small, particularise the large. If they are large, particularise the small. If there is a mixed form and miscellaneous configurational force and the host & guest8 sympathise then the place is unsuitable for burial. With hills, one desires they stand above the ground. With branches, one desires they descend to the ground. The point where branches and hills stop is flat like the palm of the hand. Therefore, the Classic says, ‘Bury at the top of a branch and at the foot of a hill’. Divine a branch as the head and a hill as the feet. If the form and configurational force are irregular, qi will disperse as if expelled. The burial of man is difficult. The distinguishing of branches and hills deludes the eye and confuses the mind. (A hill refers to old age. A branch refers to youth. Old will suddenly change to young and young will suddenly change to old. For this reason it deludes the eye and confuses the mind.) The difference between good and ill fortune exists in the distinction between a lord and a slave. For mountains where the configurational force is precipitous there is (qi). The method is to bury at the places this amasses. Therefore, burial is based on where it begins, takes advantage of where it stops, investigates why it is lost and chooses where it is supported. (When it is supported it follows that what is in between is protected and enclosed. A dragon fears solitude. Therefore it must be supported and enclosed). Avoid that which harms it. When it is shallow take advantage of it. When it is deep collect it. Open up (the earth) to allow it to move through and shut up (the earth) in order to consolidate it. Take advantage of Metal, support it with Water, make the burial hole in Earth and mark it with Wood. Externally, store it from the winds of the 8 directions. Internally, conceal it 7 中, literally ‘centred’. 8 According to Kohut, host here refers to the Dark Warrior and guest refers to the Vermilion Sparrow.

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from the Five Phases. The Heavenly Light will descend and the Earthly Virtue will be carried upwards. Yin and yang will clash and harmonise and the five types of earth9 will be present in their entirety. By these means, the gentleman will steal the skill of the spirits and alter the decrees of Heaven. The Classic says, ‘When there is excellence in powers of observation and expertise in technique, there will be a striving for perfection without defect’. In adding to both the high and low the secret lies in knowledge. One familiarises oneself with all categories and so extends one’s knowledge of them. With a thorough knowledge of yin and yang one will have the ability to steal from the Creator. Mountains which arise from the earth, if they are yielding and adjoined, have their source in Heaven. If the mountains are like waves of water or the galloping of horses their (qi) will be fast and its stopping will be like a corpse. (Yielding and adjoined originate from Heaven. Waves of water and the galloping of horses refer to a configurational force like a racing dragon about to arrive. Form which halts like a corpse refers to its coming to a halt at the burial hole.) Mountains seem to embrace a myriad of treasures and yet are peaceful and relaxed. They are like the setting out of a lavish banquet with cleanliness and good order. They are like the blowing of bellows of a furnace.10 (This refers to the inhalation of qi.) They are the hoarding of weapons. (This refers to the accumulation of qi so that it is not scattered.)11 If they are like a dragon or roc12 either soaring or curled up so that the birds and animals cower or if they are like the nobility of 10,000 chariots, then the Heavenly Light will emit new radiance. (The mingtang opens.) They pay court to the sea and bow to the celestial bodies.

9 These traditionally refer to the five different colours of earth which relate to the Five Phases. Da Situ in the Di guan of the Zhou Li also denotes the five earths, wu tu 五土, to be forested mountains, rivers and marshes, mounds and earthworks, ridges and plains, and high steppes and lowlands. 10 Tuo zhi gu 橐之鼓. At first glance, this would seem to be the ‘beating of a drum’ but tuo is also the character for an ancient blast furnace and gu can mean ‘to blow with bellows’. 11 In the Ming dynasty Jin dai bi shu version, the character bu ‘not’ is replaced with shi ‘rock’ to give the alternate reading ‘... so that rocks are scattered’. However, I prefer the other reading because of its greater fluidity with the rest of the passage. 12 鸞 luan, a fabulous bird similar to the phoenix.

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(This says that, even though water has a myriad tributaries, they all return to the sea, and even though the stars are everywhere in the sky, they must bow to the North Star. For example, the gathering of water is totally a function of burial holes and the various mountains all bow to this dragon.) The Dragon and Tiger will embrace and protect (the site). (The Dragon and Tiger embrace and protect both the burial holes that are lodged on the main mountain and those that face the mountain, having affinity for each other.) When the host and guest greet each other, the configurational force is at its brightest in all directions and the Five Calamities13 do not approach. It the above 11 features are not present then it is called an inferior mountain which is unsuitable for burial. The five qi’s harmonise with life, so a barren mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi comes according to the land form, so a broken mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi circulates according to the earth, so a rocky mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi is held by means of configurational force, so an eroded (guo) mountain is unsuitable for burial. Qi assembles by means of dragons so a solitary mountain is unsuitable for burial. The Classic says, ‘Barren, broken, rocky, eroded and solitary (mountains) produce new misfortunes and destroy existing good fortune’. In the method of divining mountains, the divination of configurational force is the most difficult, then form and finally direction. If the configurational force is like 10,000 horses descending from heaven, it is where one buries a king. If the configurational force is like a great wave of folded ridges and rows of mountains, it is the burial (place) of (one who commands) 1,000 chariots. If the configurational force is like a descending dragon with water surrounding and clouds in attendance, it signifies the degree of nobility of Three Dukes.14 If the configurational force is like rows of houses with lush plants and tall trees, it signifies the establishment of a government and the building up of a country. If the configurational force is like a startled snake, winding and gently sloping, the country will be destroyed and the family lost. If the configurational force is like spears, soldiers will die and be imprisoned. If the configurational force is like the flowing of water, the living will all become ghosts. If the form is like a screen, there is a hill rising at its centre and the burial is where it levels out, then kings and lords will rise to prominence. 13 五害 wu hai According to Huan Gong in the Du Di of the Guanzi these are flood, drought, the weather (wind, fog, hail, frost), plague and (plagues of) insects. 14 The highest degree of nobility under the Emperor in the Later Han dynasty.

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If the form is like a swallow’s nest and the burial is within its indentation, there will be division of land and soldiers amongst the vassals. If the form is like a reclining wine jar with a ridge behind approaching from the distance and the form responding by bending and returning, then there will be the ranks of the Nine Ministers15 and the Three Dukes.16 If the form is like an overturned cauldron, then (burial at) its peak will bring wealth. If the form is like a cap of vegetation one will always be prosperous and happy. If the form is like a tousan,17 then everything will be in chaos. If the form is one of dishevelled clothing, then the women will be jealous and wives licentious. If the form is like a sack for ash, then there will be calamity in the home and fire in the granary. If the form is like an overturned boat, then the women will fall ill and the men will be imprisoned. If the form is like a table stretching from east to west, then the sons will be destroyed and grandsons die. If the form is like a resting sword, then savage barbarians will press near and seize power. If the form is like a knife raised high, one will encounter evil and misfortune and (need to) flee and hide. The ox lies prone, the horse gallops, the roc dances and the phoenix flies. The Soaring Snake,18 the Coiling Snake, and the Water Lizard are differentiated (from these) by water. The ox denotes wealth and the phoenix noble position. The Soaring Snake denotes misfortune and danger. When form is of the category of a hundred movements then it is unsuitable for any burial. When on all four (sides) the response is repression to the front, the method is similarly to shun it. The configurational force is of 1,000 feet. The form is of 100 feet (i.e. in countenance the configurational force is ten times that of form). Where the configurational force is supported by form it is auspicious. Where the configurational force goes against the form it is inauspicious. If the configurational force is inauspicious and the form auspicious, of the 100 prosperities (even) one would be rare. If the configurational force is auspicious and the form inauspicious, misfortune will not revolve with the sun. When meandering of the configurational force stops in 10,000 feet, the external

15 九棘, literally the Nine Brambles, according to the Chao shi in the Qiu guan of the Zhou Li, these were the different ranks of the ministers of the court in ancient times. 16 These are literally the three Locust trees, which according to the Chao shi in the Qiu guan of the Zhou Li are another way of signifying the position of the Three Dukes 17 投算. This refers to a number of rods which were used for throwing into a wine jar, a game that was popular during the Han dynasty. 18 Guo Pu in this commentary to the Er Ya says that this is a type of dragon resembling a locust with a large stomach. It eats the brains of snakes.

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will not have the means to gather the internal qi and so it will be scattered into the earth. The Classic says, ‘Burial holes which do not collect (qi) are the storage place of decaying bones.’ The exhalation of qi enables the scattering of vital qi. Therefore, the Dragon and the Tiger protect the area. Burial holes repeatedly occur on knolls. If the left is vacant, the right lacking, the front is open, and the back is broken then the vital qi will be scattered by the blowing of the wind. The Classic says, ‘If there is storage in burial holes that leak (qi), the outer coffin will be spoiled.’ The Classic says, ‘The external qi, therefore, gathers the internal qi, and encountering passing water, therefore, halts the approaching dragon.’ The configurational force is of a thousand feet. The form is of one hundred feet. The configurational force approaches and the form halts. For auspicious storage, in front, it is close, and behind it rests against it. (Behind it rests against the spread out circle of qi. In front it is close to where qi converges to a point. This says that at the back a spreading out must exist and that in front a convergence must exist.) The Classic says, ‘If the land has the four configurational forces,19 qi will follow the eight directions.’ Therefore, in burial, one has on the left the Azure Dragon, on the right the White Tiger, at the front the Vermillion Sparrow, and the back the Dark Warrior. The Dark Warrior will hang his head, the Vermillion Sparrow will soar in dance, the Azure Dragon will creep along, and the White Tiger will tamely bow his head. If the form and configurational force are in opposition to this formulation, then there will be ruin and death. Therefore the Tiger squatting is called holding the corpse in its mouth. The Dragon crouching is called envying the lord. When the Dark Warrior is not hanging his head, he rejects the corpse. The Vermillion Sparrow that does not dance rises and departs. The tugui20 measures its direction and position. The jade rule measures its distance.

19 The four configurational forces are the Azure Dragon, the White Tiger, the Dark Warrior and the Vermillion Sparrow. The Azure Dragon is to the east, the White Tiger to the west, the Dark Warrior to the north to guard against the cold northerly winds (China), and the Vermillion Sparrow is to the south from whence come the water laden clouds of the tropics. 20 An ancient Chinese instrument, used to measure shadows thrown by the sun. It was made of jade with a square base and a painted top.

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Where the branches are Dragons and Tigers, their tracks are the coming and halting (of qi), and if the ridges and knolls are like elbows and arms, this is called surrounding and embracing. Where water is the Vermillion Sparrow, there is connection between decline and vigour as the form responds to evils. Rapid water is called the Vermillion Sparrow sobbing. The Vermillion Sparrow has its source in vital qi. At its tributary it is not yet abundant. At its confluence21 it is very prolific. Where it is marshy, it is about to decline. Where there is seepage, it is captured and declines. In order to terminate irreversible (disaster), at each place where water gathers, break it open so that it will drain off far into the distance. One desires to preserve its approach without source and its departure without flow. The Classic says, ‘If the mountain approaches and the water winds back, then there will be nobility, longevity, abundance and wealth. If the mountains restrict the water’s flow, then the king will be captured and the feudal lords destroyed.’ With earth, one desires it to be fine yet strong, moist yet not marshy. To cut off the fat and carve the jade, provide all the Five Colours.22 Sites which are dry like a cave for storing grain, or moist like carved meat, or if they have either a spring or gravel, are all inauspicious. The Classic says, ‘For burial nodes, there are three favourable (aspects which are) auspicious. In burial there are six unfavourable (aspects which are) inauspicious.’ To store the spirit at the conjunction of the sun and moon,23 so that the spirit is welcomed and ghouls avoided is the first auspicious aspect. Where yin and yang clash and harmonise and the Five Earths are all present in their perfection is the second auspicious aspect. When the power of observation is excellent and the expertise in technique tends towards perfection without defect, building up both the high and low, is the third auspicious aspect. When yin and yang are in conflict is the first inauspicious aspect. Contradicting the time and season is the second inauspicious aspect. Where the strength is small yet the plan is great is the third inauspicious aspect. Relying on the power of fortune endowed by heaven is the fourth inauspicious aspect. Usurping superiors and harassing 21 Here chao 潮 has the specific meaning of were a small body of water meets a larger one. 22 In this context, this term does not have the general meaning of the Five Colours (blue, red, yellow, white, black) but the five colours of Earth mentioned previously. 23 He shuo 合朔, literally, where the sun and moon meet together. It occurs approx­ imately one day before or after the beginning of each lunar month.

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inferiors is the fifth inauspicious aspeect. Abnormal responses and strange appearances are the 6th inauspicious aspect. The Classic says, ‘If the burial node is auspicious yet the burial is inauspicious, then it is the same as abandoning the corpse.’ The Classic says, ‘If the configurational force is halted and the form is lofty, then in front there will be a mountain stream and behind a ridge.’ To store in the Dragon’s head, nose or forehead is auspicious and prosperous, but the horns and the eyes (indicate) destruction, the ears, the arrival of a lord or king and the lips, the death of soldiers. (A node) is called the Dragon’s Belly if it seems to collect (qi) at its centre. If its navel is deep and winding, then the descendants will definitely enjoy good fortune. If there is a wound in its chest or ribs, then there will be no weeping when one faces the grave. Therefore, good and ill fortune do not revolve around the sun. The Classic says, ‘The method of burial in mountains is like shouting in a valley, the echoing words come quick.’

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CHAPTER NINE

THE YELLOW EMPEROR’S1 CLASSIC OF HOUSE SITING 1. Chapter 1 The site2 is the pivot of yin and yang and the standard for human relationships. Only the learned and illuminated worthy will be able to understand its Way. As for the five types (of siting) the most important is the siting of dwellings, which is the true mysterious art. There is no place where Man resides which is not a site. Although they vary in size and yin-yang (configuration), even when one lodges overnight in a single room, there are both good and bad (sites). For the large site there are many points to speak of. For the small site there are few points to discuss. There is disaster for those who violate (these principles). When bad siting is stabilised, misfortune will cease just like the effect of medicine on illness. Therefore, siting is the basis of human life. Man has a site for his family dwelling. If it is peaceful then the family will prosper and enjoy good fortune generation after generation. If it is not peaceful then the clan will decline and become insignificant. This is also true of the siting of graves in relation to rivers and mountain ridges. This theory applies foremost to armies and countries. Next are prefectures, commanderies, counties and cities and then down to villages, neighbourhoods, public offices, sections of city streets and even to (isolated) mountain dwellings. Wherever men reside is an example of (the theory of) siting. 1 The Yellow Emperor is the legendary Sage Emperor who, “separated Earth from Heaven and destroyed the primary unity”. Yellow is the colour of the centre and the Yellow Emperor has always been associated with the axis that “balances, and harmonises heaven and earth, yin and yang, and the 4 seasons”. A possible reason for this work being ascribed to the Yellow Emperor can be seen when Seidel, in discussing the daoists of the Han dynasty, stated, “the (daoist) masters attached their teachings to Huang Di in order to make them acceptable to the princes as an art of government”. 2 Zhai 宅. In accord with Bennett this has been translated as ‘site’, referring to the discrete areas of space in which houses are to be placed. This meaning may even be extended to any area occupied by human beings at any particular time. In the opening paragraphs of the Classic of Siting one finds the words, “Wherever men reside is an example of (the theory of) siting”.

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The old theories which we have seen and heard of are numerous: The two siting classics of the Yellow Emperor, The Cannon of the Land Siting Classic, the Three Principals Classic of Siting, the Wen Wang Classic of Siting, Confucian Classic of Siting, the Tapestry of Sites, the Vexation of Sites, the Control of Sites, the Mirror to Siting, the Tian Lao Classic of Siting, The Siting Classic of the Goddess Xuan Nu, the Siting Classic of the Master Sima Tian, the Huai Nanzi Classic of Siting, the Classic of Siting of Si Zui, the Liu Jinping Classic of Siting, the Zhang Zihao Classic of Siting, the Siting Classic of the Eight Diagrams, the Siting Classic of the 5 Omens, the Siting Classic of the Profound Realisation, the Siting Classic of the 64 Hexagrams, the Siting Classic of the Right Coiling Dragon, the Li Chunfeng Classic of Siting, the Classic of Siting of the 5 Surnames, the Lu Cai Classic of Siting, the Classic of Avoiding the Unexpected Chaos of Yin, the Classic Siting of the Golden Gate of Zi Xia, and the Diao Tan Classic of Siting.3 There are great similarities and little differences in the purport of the various treatises mentioned above. They all give their views on the mysteries and argue their points. If one does not seek widely, then one will be lacking in what is required. Of recent scholars, there are many who have attacked the Five Surnames4 and the eight sites of the Yellow (Emperor’s) Way, saying their pre3 The Classics of Siting on which this manuscript is based have, it seems, been lost to antiquity. In fact, many of them are not mentioned on other sources and so no information about them could be found. Di Dian was one of the seven assistants to the Yellow Emperor. Wen Wang is the name of several of the chapters of the Shi jing. The Three Principals are considered by daoists to be heaven, earth and water. Tian Lao was a minister of the Yellow Emperor who wrote the twenty chapters of the Za zi yin dao. Liu Gen was a man from Yingguan in the Later Han Dynasty who lived as a recluse at the top of a mountain (according to the section Shen Xian in the history of the Later Han). According to the Inner Chapters of the Yellow Emperor Xuan Nu is the name of a goddess, presumably one of those who taught the Yellow Emperor. The Huainanzi is a book of philosophy by Liu An, a king of Huai Nan in the Han dynasty. The You pan long is a Tang dynasty book of phenomenology in seven chapters, author unknown. Li Chunfeng was famous in the Tang dynasty for his elegance and for his understanding of the movements of the heavens and the calender from a young age. Lu Cai was a man of the Tang dynasty who edited books of the school of yin and yang. It is interesting to note that Wang Wei is mentioned as one of the contributors to the ideas of this manuscript although he has been put forward by Bennett as the author of the Classic of Siting. It is also interesting to note the mention of Confucius. Although his writings in no way display a leaning towards this subject he is possibly cited to placate the powerful Confucianists (see the note on Huang Di above). 4 According to the Lu Cai section in the History of the Tang, the myriad entities under heaven all match with and are subordinate to these. In the repair and construction of houses and sites the Five Surnames should all suitably match with the Five Phases. This was enabled by the correlation of what were sometimes called the Five Tonal Surnames with the Chinese pentatonic scale, the rhymes for each of which had listed those of the ‘hundred surnames’

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scriptions and regulations all violate the laws of the great Classic and are unable to escape disaster and defect. Hence people have transgressed in their building and moving, causing that which is built not to be occupied and destroying (the balance of) yin and yang without the evidence of good results. Is it not distressing! It is all the more true that the worthy ancestors left us their writings with perfectly clear warnings and urgings. However, men (today) remain ignorant, not discerning these warnings in the midst of their normal daily lives. The symbols (on which these writings are based): yin and yang, the sun and moon, heaven and earth, cold and heat, male and female, day and night, make it possible for them to be all encompassing so that from the mention of one thing a thousand follow. Through the cyclical changes of the formless, it becomes possible to transform things. Great indeed is the principle of yin and yang. In these classics, the entity yin is the mother which gives birth to and transforms the actuality of things, and the entity yang is the father. These are the ancestors of heaven and earth and the parents who nurtured them. If one obeys them there will be smooth passage. If one opposes them there will be adversity. How is this different from a duke, on being loyal, receiving a (greater) title of nobility, or, on disobeying orders being put to death? Now one selects various mysteries and divides them into twenty four paths. The eight trigrams of the Yi jing and the Nine Palaces5 of the lunar calender match the positions of man and woman. Siting is at the border of yin and yang. In investigating and searching out good fortune and calamity, one certainly does not have to go beyond the preceding two siting (principles). This is, truly, the divine method of nourishing the living spirit. The twenty four paths accord with the size of a site. The Central Courtyard is divided into four sides, which constitute the twenty four paths. The ten celestial stems, the twelve terrestrial branches and the trigrams qian, gen, kun and xun together make up the twenty four paths. Qian is the leader of the three men, which are the trigrams, zhen, kan and gen. These all belong to a yang position. with the same rhyme. This practice was attacked for its inconsistencies as early as the Late Han dynasty by Wang Chong in the Lun heng. Lu Cai himself attacked the practice vigorously. (see Morgan, C., ‘T’ang Geomancy: The Wu-hsing (“Five Names”) Theory and its Legacy’, T’ang Studies, vol. 8-9: pp. 45-76.) 5 Jiu gong: 九宮, the nine palaces of the calendar. In the Zhang Heng section of the History of the Later Han the commentary says that the palace is the name of the spirit of the North Star and the other 8 palaces are those of the 8 trigrams which move below it.

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(Zhen, which follows qian’s position to the northwest, is yangming).6 Kun is the leader of the three women which are the trigrams, xun, li, and dui. These all belong to a yin position. (The terrestrial branch xu, which follows in the same direction as the southeast corner of the trigram xun, is yinming.) Hence, ensuring that yang does not solely rule is achieved through yin. (One should put in order the yin aspect of a yang site.) Ensuring that yin does not solely rule is achieved through yang. (As stated above.) Furthermore, this idea is similar to the benefit of warmth to winter, the benefit of cool to summer, the benefit of women to men, and the benefit of men to women. The Yi jing formula says, ‘When yin achieves yang it is like obtaining coolness when hot. When the Five Surnames completetly harmonise then the hundred affairs will all flourish’. Therefore, if a beneficial position is high, robust, luxuriant, and dense, it is auspicious. If there is a preponderance of either yin or yang, then it is inauspicious. There is a preponderance of either yin or yang if a yang site beckons the eastern and northern aspects to a greater degree or a yin site beckons the western and southern aspects to a greater degree. (Hence, east-west (sic.—this perhaps should be southeast) should be the morning (the terrestrial branch chen); south-west should be the evening (xu) and diagonally to the north lies the division between yin and yang.) In general, a yang site has yang qi embracing yin. A yin site has yin qi embracing yang. A site which is both yin and yang constitutes a dragon. For a yang site the dragon’s head is located in the terrestrial branch hai and the tail is located in the terrestrial branch si. For a yin site the dragon’s head is in si and the tail is in hai. (The form is that of a dragon. A yin dragon is azure. A yang dragon is vermilion. Each has its seat of destiny which one should absolutely avoid violating.) In general, there is movement from xun to qian, from the terrestrial branch wu to the terrestrial branch zi, from kun to gen, from the terrestrial branch you to the terrestrial branch mao, and from xu to chen. (The above shift reaches the dwelling place of higher officials and no matter the distance, it is entering yang.) 6 陽明. The dictionary meaning of this term is either brightness, light, or the sun. However, because there is no meaning given for the term yinming, I prefer the idea of the literal meaning of the sun (taiyang), i.e. the great yang or the height of yang.

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There is (also) a shift from qian to xun, from zi to wu, from gen to kun, from mao to you, and from chen to xu. (The above shift reaches the higher officials and all have the name of entering yin.) Therefore, a fortunate and beneficial area diligently complies with the Heavenly Way (natural law). The Heavenly Benefice,7 the Lunar Benefice,8 and vital qi come to this position so, if there is construction it will be pure, clean, broad and substantial. A whole family will obtain peace, splendour, wealth, and noble position. (That which is the fortune and benefit of heaven is a site’s luck in bringing wealth. How could everything not be luxuriant if the luck of bringing wealth is robust? Therefore, one must diligently put a site in order.) Repeatedly entering yin or entering yang is called the absence of qi. If yin or yang is entered three times, the site is said to be without soul. If it is four times, it is said to be of soul without spirit.9 Since there is no spirit the family will be destroyed and scattered and sons and grandsons will be without offspring. The Classic says, ‘Continual violation without end destroys the family and cuts off the descendants’. This is what this refers to. If there is an equal coming and going of yin and yang then it is at one with the Heavenly Way and naturally there is an expression of auspiciousness and abundance. In establishing (a site) one must go towards and necessarily follow the Way. If one lives at a site for 45 to 75 days and it is without fault then it will be suitable for vital qi. A fortunate and beneficial area instigates auspicousness. Changing it violates the Five Shades,10 brings death and calamity and is particularly unprofitable. The formula says, ‘If the move cannot be measured better then if there is a return to the original position.’ It refers to this. It also says, ‘If a site is extremely poor then quickly invert it.’ 7 天德. The Heavenly Benefice means the changes in the heavens that give birth to benefits for the myriad things. 8 月德. The Lunar Benefice is the name for a constellation of stars. According to the Xie Ji Bian Fang Shu it is the beneficial spirit of the moon such that in repair & control one should look to this quarter and in feasting higher officials it is advantageous to utilise these days. It is in bing in the 1st, 5th and 9th months, in jia in the 2nd, 6th and 10th months in ren in the 3rd, 7th and 11th months, and in geng in the 4th, 8th and 12th months. 9 無魄魂 Wu po hun. It should be noted that, according to the Huainanzi, po is the yin spirit of man and hun is the yang spirit of man. 10 五鬼. The Five Shades or Ghosts is the name of a constellation. According to the Xie Ji Bian Feng Shi it is when zi is annually in chen with a retrograde motion of the twelve celestial bodies. It obtains its name because the Five Stars in the constellation supposedly accumulate the qi of a corpse.

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Therefore, the palaces should (be used) to destroy what is punishing and calamitous in an area and by discarding these (negative attributes) so add auspiciousness and beneficience to it. The formula also says, ‘In inverting a site a level wall can lock out misfortune.’ (With the passing of the years, if, for a site, there is no gain or there is bickering then one should invert what is punishing and calamitous and increase what is auspicious and beneficial. If one alters a wall then disaster is dispelled with the arrival of great auspicousness and abundance.) Those who discern sites in choosing various aspects of movement consider the northern and eastern parts of thoroughfares to be yang. (If one does not undermine this position of yang and constructs a yin dwelling, then it is auspicious.) The southern and western parts of thoroughfares are yin. (The auspicousness is not undermined by constructing a yang dwelling.) In general, the incoming influences are not affected by distance. One li, one hundred li, one thousand li, ten paces and one hundred paces are the same. Moreover, in the construction and repair of these two sites look only to the Heavenly Way, the Heavenly Benefice, the Lunar Benefice and the arrival of vital qi. Do not avoid carrying out any repairs. The generals of the army are the Great Age,11 the Leopard’s Tail12 and the Yellow Pennant.13 One should avoid these dark aspects reaching the Tonal Surnames.14 By following the two qi, yin and yang, one can rectify this and the various spirits are slain. Both the Five Surnames and the sexagenary cycle are produced from the two qi, and are arranged in the corners of the four directions. (Thereupon), throughout the whole year in public matters there will be no disaster. (In general, the various punishments and slayings occur at punishing calamitous aspects. To establish the arrival of the Heavenly Benefice and 11 太歲 Tai Sui. This is the planet Jupiter, literally the Great Age, whose cycle of approximately twelve years signifies one complete turn of heaven to the ancient Chinese, hence its relationships with the twelve Terrestrial branches. 12 豹尾 Bao wei. The Leopard’s tail is the name of an annual spirit which has the form of a leopard’s tail, hence the name. According to the Xie Ji Bian Feng Shu, it also has the form of a flag and is usually found opposite the Yellow Pennant. It is inadvisable to house the family, the servants or the 6 domestic animals in aspects which contain this spirit because of the detrimental effect on wealth. 13 黃幡 Huang fan. The Yellow Pennant is the name of an annual spirit. According to the Xie Ji Bian Feng Shu it usually resides in the celestial body of the San he mu. In the years of yin, wu and xu it is in xu. In the years of shen, zi and chen it is in chen. In the years of hai, mao and wei it is in wei. In the years of si, you and chou it is in chou. It is the tomb of Jupiter. 14 音姓. The Tonal Surnames denote the tones of the Chinese pentatonic scale. Note that yu relates to Water, shang to Metal, gong to Earth, jue to Wood, and zhi to Fire.

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the Lunar Benefice one must also avoid these. If the spirits are slain at the site in an auspicious and beneficial aspect then one awaits the Heavenly Benefice, the Lunar Benefice and the arrival of vital qi to this position and then, of necessity, puts it in order. If the functions and achievements are many then it is good and so one does not avoid it. If one does not understand the qi of yin and yang arriving at this position, then appropriately one must rectify this. If one does not understand that the centre of qi is counted as small, one is unable to control its great outline.) It is also said that, ‘In punishing and calamitous areas, deficiency creates a repetition of desolation. In auspicious and beneficial areas the auspices are continually extended.’ (It is also said that in punishing and calamitous areas walls and houses should be narrow and slight and one is warned of them being tall and strong. In auspicious and beneficial areas buildings and homes should be continuously robust and substantial.) One is also advised to repeatedly contract punishing and calamitous areas as if you feared calamity and disaster wrongly chasing after you. Repeatedly expand auspicious and beneficial areas and one’s progeny will receive glory and happiness. (One should exercise caution in proceeding with expansion in a punishing and calamitous area. There should also not be excessive reduction. If there is reduction the qi will be insufficient. If it is insufficient then there will be a loss to wealth and prosperity. In auspicious and beneficial areas one should exercise caution in proceeding with expansion. Excessiveness should also be avoided. If there is excessiveness then good fortune will become very slight and it will not allow abundant good fortune to approach. In everything caution should be exercised against excess. If the amount of encroachment upon expansion exceeds the original site, it is called excessive.) (The Classic) also says, ‘In siting, there are five empty (sites) which cause men to be impoverished and exhausted. There are (also) five substantive (sites) which cause men to be rich and noble. A big site with few people is the first empty (site). The gate being large but the inside small is the second empty (site). The courtyard and walls being incomplete is the third empty (site). There being neither a well nor a stove is the fourth empty (site). A site having much land but there being few rooms such that the gardens are spacious is the fifth empty (site). The site being small and the people many is the first substantive (site). The site being large but the gate small is the second substantive (site). The courtyard and walls being complete is the

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third substantive (site). The site being small but there being many of the six domestic animals15 is the fourth substantive (site). Having a site’s waterway flow to the south east is the fifth substantive (site).’ (The Classic) also says, ‘Do not discard a site which is gradually becoming prosperous. Do not influence the hall of a palace which is not declining’. Therefore, an extension to a dwelling because one has received misfortune does not necessitate happiness. Planning for the entrance to be half of the building16 will necessarily bring longevity. (A site should not be extended.) (The Classic) also says, ‘even though a field is fertile, through good weeding and hoeing it will become fragrant. Even though a site is virtuous, with good repair, it will prosper.’ Houses and tombs which govern sites symbolise the origins of glory and splendour. Those who obtain advantage follow their heart in what they do. Those who lose advantage live reckless lives against their wishes. If the tomb is inauspicious and the site is auspicious, then the descendants will become officials and prosper. If the tomb is auspicious and the site inauspicious, then the descendants will not have enough clothes nor food. If the tomb and the site are both auspicious the descendants will have glory and splendour. If the tomb and the site are both inauspicious then the descendants will move from their native home and be without progeny. The spirits of their ancestors will blame the land for their misfortune which will continue for all of seven generations with their lost souls grieving and suffering. The descendants will not be able to establish themselves and will scatter to other lands, roving from place to place like vagabonds, and dying on the bank of a river. Qing Wuzi17 says, ‘In siting achieve a tomb such that the two spirits18 gradually protect it. For the descendants to have a prosperous position certainly obtain suitable land and a suitable tomb. If the Dragon prances and the Tiger paces then objects and estates will increase in a continuous flow and wealth will be gathered in the warehouses. The descendants will be loyal and filial and they will be helped and protected by the heavenly spirits.’ 15 六畜. The six domestic animals are the pig, ox, horse, goat, fowl and dog. 16 I am not happy with this translation and would welcome corrections. 17 This quote does not appear in the version of the Burial Classic translated in this book. This would indicate either that there are other writings of his which are no longer extant, or that the quote is a forgery in itself. 18 Literally the two spirits, these are traditionally considered to be yin and yang but in this case seem to refer to the Azure Dragon and the White Tiger.

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Zi Xia says, ‘If a tomb has the four special features19 and in the two surnames, shang and jiao, there are the celestial stems bing, ren, yi, and xin, and in the three surnames gong, yu, and zheng there are the celestial stems jia, geng, ding and gui, one will have obtained suitable land and a suitable palace’. Thus one will have the position of censor, king or duke and wear red robes and purple tassels and for generations there will be noble ranks and heroic names. If one obtains suitable land but omits the palace then there will be a beginning without end and the ancestors will suffer hardship and descendants will encounter misfortune. If one omits the land but obtains a suitable palace then the descendants will not be impoverished. Even though there is no initiation of greatness, food and clothing will be plentiful. If one omits both the land and the palace then one’s progeny will be cut off without trace and one will roam seeking clothing and food dying in the wilderness of a foreign place. Zi Xia says, ‘Man is established because of the site, and a site will survive because of man. If man and site are mutually supportive, then there will be communication between heaven and earth. Therefore, one is not able to only trust in fate.’ 1.1. An Outline of the Secondary Method of Repairing Sites It is auspicious to first repair what is punishing and calamitous and afterwards to repair what is auspicious and beneficial. It is inauspicious to first repair what is auspicious and beneficial and afterwards to repair what is punishing and calamitous. A yin site begins from the terrestial branch si and it is effective to obey this progression. A yang site begins from the terrestial branch hai and it is effective to obey this progression. If one uses one hundred gong20 in a punishing and calamitous area and two hundred gong in an auspicious and beneficial area to control it, then it is auspicious. Much of the repair to a yang site is to the external. Much of the repair to a yin site is to the internal. If the line through the celestial stem zi or the terrestial branch wu is used to demarcate the boundary of ying and yang, the error will be great. This is the number of times the two qi secretly penetrate the revolutions (of destiny) and it is not the same as the eight trigrams and the Nine Palaces which separate form and arrange phenomena to match the position of the sons and daughters. 19 Here this refers to the Azure Dragon, the White Tiger, the Dark Warrior, and the Vermilion Sparrow. 20 工. This can be translated in the modern sense of unit of work or man-hour.

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(When the winter solstice is in the terrestial branch si and the sage arrives in the terrestial branch hai, this is the place which gives rise to an extreme abundance of yin and yang. This is different from a picture of a sage arising above the surface of the earth. The eight trigrams set out the palaces of the sons and daughters. A palace is a site. Xun is the eldest daughter and is governed by yin. Qian is Heaven. Heaven is yangming). If those who have extensive talent, profound wisdom, knowledge of things and a love of life comprehend these principles, the profit is immeasurable. Moreover, if there is great violation (of these laws), then the family will be destroyed and scattered. If there is small violation, then one will lose titles of nobility and government positions. The remaining varied violations bring fire, quarrels, lameness, paralysis to one side, decline and disease in all their myriad categories. How can one treat this lightly! If the violation of a palace is from afar it will be slow, i.e. it will begin to develop after a half, one, two, or three years. If it is close by it will be rapid, i.e. it will be begin to develop after seventy five days, forty five days or in less than one month. If one sees the diagrams (on the following pages) then one will naturally understand this regardless of whether one is foolish or wise. What is auspicious and beneficial by nature will repair disaster and distress. By non-violation (of this) one proceeds towards official position and glory with an abundance of wealth and food, the six domestic animals will be at peace and one will die at an old age. The presentation of gold and jade cannot match the value of this and the vanity of profit cannot surpass it. The family can store a copy of it to warn descendants. They should keep it secret and treasure it. It can be called the mirror to siting. The Book of Siting also says, ‘In dismantling the old and planning the new, one should comply with trigrams of divination. In moving to the south or the north, there is and intersection and separation of yin and yang which is the harmonising of the qi of yin and yang. By following this, man is able to achieve change to what is auspicious and to disperse what is inauspicious. All matters will be able to prosper. Therefore, heaven and earth revolve endlessly. So what standard is there to the transformation of man, beast, soul and spirit?’ The Sou shen ji21 says, ‘Either all demons, sprites, spirits and ghosts are transformed to become man or there exist men who themselves perceive that change and become monsters. This is also like different natures con21 搜神記. This is a book in twenty chapters supposedly written in the Jin dynasty by Gan Bao 干寶.

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tinually sprouting roots and shoots. Even though their different flavours and various forms are a hinderance, entities still accord with the changes of yin and yang. How can the void be regulated? Hence we know that a site does not derive from a shifting of the qi of the site to it.’ It also says, ‘For sites, consider the form and the configurational force as the body, and consider the water of springs as blood and veins, the earth and land as skin and flesh, the grass and trees as hair, houses and huts as clothing, gates and doorways as caps and belts. If one achieves a site like this it is majestic and refined and therefore of superior auspiciousness.’ The Three Principals Classic says, ‘If the land is good, then there will be prosperity. If the site is auspicious, then man will have glory.’ It also says, ‘The fortunes of man are comparable to a man’s handsome features. The auspicousness of a site is like an ugly child with fine clothes so that the brilliant appearance seems to increase by half what seems a poor fate. If a site is bad then it is like an ugly man whose clothes furthermore are absolutely wretched. Therefore, in the siting of men’s dwellings, it is of great necessity to choose carefully.’ It also says, ‘If the repair accords with the approach (of qi) to the site, then there is nothing which is inauspicious. If it violates and opposes the approach, then there will never be peace. For example, if the near approach comes from the east and enters from this side but after dwelling there one expands the western aspect, then this is called opposing the approach. However, expanding the eastern aspect is called according with the approach. This is the rule for the shift of the remaining aspects and the comings and goings of high officials regardless of distance.’ In general, man marries, buys a field for tilling and the 6 domestic animals, and ends up in the graveyard. If one seeks to become an official and seeks after advantage, then one should turn entirely to siting. If it is an auspicious and beneficial area that one has coming and goings with for a long time, then for a long time, there will be auspicious blessing. However, there will be disadvantage for a long time if one’s comings and foings are, for a long time, in a punishing and clamitous area. One should also be careful with the Turtle’s Head Hall.22 If it is in the terrestial branch wu and the land faces north confronting the Hall, it is said to be an inauspicious pavilion. If the building is rather high and upright, it is also disadvantageous. 22 龜頭廳, one of the terms which are no longer extant. Because of its relationships to the turtle (Dark Warrior) it would be probably to the north of the site.

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The formula says, ‘With the Turtle’s Head in wu the owner must be changed.’ It also says, ‘Various courtyards that have this (layout) are also inauspicious.’ In general, high towers or great pavilions with sites in wu or si in the east and with xun or si approaching are all disadvantageous and should be removed to bring good fortune. It also says, ‘In general, if one desires to repair, construct, move, or control (a site), then one must avoid the four Kingly spirits. These are called the Emperor’s Chariot, the Emperor’s Carriage and the Emperor’s House.23 If, in the 3rd month of spring the eastern aspect is the Azure Emperor24 and if Wood rules and the terrestrial branch ying is (the position of) the Chariot, mao is (that of) the Carriage and chen is (that of) the House, then one should not construct an eastern doorway in the first, second, and third months’. The Classic says, ‘Violating the Emperor’s Chariot slays the father. Violating the Emperor’s Carriage slays the mother. Violating the Emperor’s House slays the descendants’. These should be similarly shunned in the three months of summer, autumn and winter. It also says, ‘There are twelve months in each year, each month has its position of vital and torpid qi.25 Luck will come only to those who repair in the positions of vital qi of the month. Gathering the monthly vital qi combined with the Lunar Benefice is the Heavenly Way and conforms to an auspicious path. Violating the positions of the month’s torpid qi produces misfortune and disaster.’ The vital qi of the first month exists in the terrestrial branch zi with the celestial stem gui. The torpid qi exists in the terretrial branch wu with the celestial stem ding. The vital qi of the second month exists in the terrestrial branch chou with the trigram gen. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch wei with the trigram kun. The vital qi of the third month exists in the terrestrial branch yin with the celestial stem jia. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch shen with the celestial stem geng. The vital qi of the fourth month exists in the terrestrial stem mao with the celestial stem 23 The di che 帝車 or Emperor’s Chariot is the name of a group of stars. It is what we call the Big Dipper or the Plough. The di lu 帝輅 or Emperor's Carriage is also called the Heavenly Emperor. It is the name of the five brightest stars to the extreme north. The term di she 帝舍 or Emperor’s house is a term which seems to be no longer extant, but probably again refers to a star or constellation. 24 Literally the Azure Emperor. It is one of the five stars of the Heavenly Emperor. Its position is to the east. It is the spirit in charge of spring. 25 死氣. Literally deadly qi, this is most often translated as torpid qi. It is the quality of energy during the yin hours of the descending sun with a negative influence on enterprise.

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yi. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch you with the celestial stem xin. The vital qi of the fifth month exists in the terrestrial branch chen with the trigram xun. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch xu with the trigram qian. The vital qi of the sixth month exists in the terretrial branch si with the celestial stem bing. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch hai with the celestial stem ren. The vital qi of the seventh month exists in the terrestrial branch wu with the celestial stem ding. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch zi with the celestial stem gui. The vital qi of the eighth month exists in the terrestrial branch wei with the trigram kun. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch chou with the trigram gen. The vital qi of the nineth month exists in the terrestrial branch shen with the celestial stem geng. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch yin with the celestial stem jia. The vital qi of the tenth month exists in the terrestrial branch you with the celestial stem xin. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch mao with the celestial stem yi. The vital qi of the eleventh month exists in the terrestrial branch xu with the trigram qian. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch chen with the trigram xun. The vital qi of the twelfth month exists in the terrestrial branch hai with celestial stem ren. The torpid qi exists in the terrestrial branch si with the celestial stem bing. 2. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of House Siting—Chapter 2 In general, where the earth and qi are in conflict, in the repair and construction of walls or in the building of houses, the family will have the disaster or calamity and one should accordingly exorcise these. In the first lunar month the earth and qi clash at the aspect dingwei. In the second month it is in the trigram kun. In the third month it is in renhai. In the fourth month it is in xinxu. In the fifth month it is in the trigram qian. In the sixth month it is in yinjia. In the seventh month it is in guichou. In the eighth month it is in the trigram gen. In the nineth month it is in bingsi. In the tenth month it is in chenyi. In the eleventh month it is in the trigram xun. In the twelfth month it is in shengeng. Of the above there is nothing which is not essential detail. However, on close scrutiny, there is of necessity disaster and misfortune.

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The Heavenly Gate26 is the beginning of yang. It should be level and stable and definitely should not be lofty and robust. Violating this injures the family elders who will have disasters such as afflictions to the head and neck. (It is auspicious to make repairs on the ding and ren days of the fifth lunar month. The northern area does not make use of the days, renzi or dingsi.) 26 天門. Literally the Heavenly Gate, according to the Lang Yi section of the History of the Later Han, this is between xu and hai which is occupied by qian.

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The Vermilion Sparrow or the dragon’s head in hai is the seat of the father’s fate. Violating this harms those in that seat of destiny. (Make repairs on the ding and ren days of the third lunar month).27 Ren brings great misfortune to the fate of the mother. To violate it will damage those in the seat of this destiny and there will be rapid disaster and quarrels. (Repairing in si is the same as in hai.) The Dragon’s right hand in zi brings death and mourning. It is the seat of fate of the eldest son and his wife. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with the loss of the soul, injuries to the eyes, floods and quarrels. (Repairing in si is the same as in ren.) Gouchen28 in gui brings crime and punishment. It is the seat of fate of the second son and his wife. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with the disaster of quarrels and litigations. (Make repairs on the ding and ren days of the seventh lunar month. This is also for the Surname yu in all the palaces in the third month. If the third month is unsuitable, the auspicious days are in the seventh lunar month.) Chou brings punishment of the official. It is the seat of fate of the youngest son and his wife. Violating it causes the disasters of monsters, theft, fire & abnormalities. (Repairing in si is the same as in gui.) For a site in the Ghost Gate29 it is auspicious to obstruct qi so that the site is empty, lacking, barren, and desolate. Violating this incurs the disasters of hemiplegia, sexual disease and swelling. (It is auspicious to make repairs on the day jia and si in the eighth lunar month. For the eastern aspect, one should not utilise the days, jiazi and jisi.) 27 These days actually change for each year in the sexagenary cycle. For example, in the third lunar of the year 1999, the ding days were the 10th day (dingwei—25 April), and the 20th day (disi—5 May) whereas the ding days in the third month of the year 2000 were the 5th day (dingyou—9 April), the 15th day (diwei—19 April) and the 25th day (disi—29 April). There is a similar change for all subsequent days refered to. Thus, rather than attempting to translate these days for a particular year, which would make the translation much more easy to read but not very useful, I have left it to keen readers to obtain a Chinese almanac to enable them to work out suitable days in future years. 28 句陳. This is the name of a group of stars. According to the Classic of Stars it consists of the six stars below the Heavenly Emperor. 29 鬼門. The Ghost Gate is at the corner of the aspect relating to the ghost house, which is one of the twenty eight houses. It is between the north and the east and is occupied by the trigram gen.

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The Dark Warrior or the dragon’s back in yin brings the punishment of heaven. It is the seat of fate of all the sons of concubines and their wives and the eldest daughter. Violating it incurs the disasters of harm in pregnancy, imprisonment, and suffering from theft and loss. (Make repairs on the days of jia and si in the sixth lunar month. The Surname jiao is inauspicious in the sixth month but auspicious in the eleventh month.) Jia brings the punishment of the site. It is the seat of fate of the second daughter and the grandsons. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with disasters for the elders of the family of illness, various injuries and fractures to the head and neck. (The repair is the same as for yin.) The dragon’s right flank in mao brings punishment and imprisonment. It is the seat of fate of the youngest daughter and the grandchildren. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with fire, a sufeit of qi, punishing injury, and the loss of the soul. (The repair is the same as for yin.) The Flying Snake in yin brings litigation. It is the seat of fate of the guest. Violating it harms those in this seat destiny with demons, death and quarrels. (Repairing on the si days of the 10th month is auspicious. This is only appropriate for dwellings which are low and small. They should not be storied.) The dragon’s right foot or the White Tiger in chen presides over litigation. It is the seat of fate of the servants and the 6 domestic animals. Violating it brings the disasters of terrifying injuries, lameness and convulsion. It also presides over fear. (The repair is the same as for yi.) The Gate of Wind30 should have gaps levelled. It is also called the head of good fortune. The back faces two flourishing sites. The Five Surnames and the eight sites should not be high, robust nor obstructed. This is also the extremity of yang and the beginning of yin. (It is auspicious to make repairs on the days of bing and xin in the eleventh lunar month. The southern area does not utilise the days of bing in relation to xinsi.) Si is the dwelling of the Heavenly Benefice. It is also has the name of the extremity of the site. The Classic says, ‘In desiring to obtain a government 30 風門. The Gate of Wind is either a gate or doorway facing the direction of the wind or the trigram xun.

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administrative area, the extremity of the site should be robust and solid’. Repair and alteration are auspicious. (Only a great amount of good is the functional achievement of repairs made on [the days of] bing and xin of the ninth lunar month.) The site of the mingtang or the Gate of Good Fortune and Peace in bing is for the housing of oxen and grain. The Classic says, ‘by controlling the mingtang one adds to official position and increases salary’. There will be great auspiciousness and the whole family will enjoy incomparable happiness. (Repair is the same as for jisi.) The dragon’s left foot in wu is the land of auspiciousness and abundance. The Classic says, ‘By controlling what is auspicious and abundant, servants will be disciplined and the 6 domestic animals will be of good quality.’ It should be level and solid and should avoid the height of the Turtle’s Head Hall. (The repair is the same as for si.) For the Heavenly Granary31 in ding the Classic says, ‘If wealth is lost, control the Heavenly Granary.’ It is fitting that the granaries and warehouses be full and the six domestic animals be strong. It is auspicious to make them lofty. (There is much functional gain and great auspiciousness in making repairs on the days of bing and xin in the first lunar month.) The Heavenly Mansion32 in wei is of tall towers and large residences. There will be a great increase in oxen, sheep and servants dwelling here. Granaries and sheds33 are also advantageous. (Repair is the same as for ding.) The Gate of Man34 is the dragon’s intestines and here one should install stables for horses and oxen. If one desires expansion build up its thickness. It is also called The Sack of Good Fortune. It is greatly auspicious if it is storied and solid. (Repair on the days of yi and geng in the second lunar month.) 31 天倉. Literally the Heavenly Granary according to the Xie Ji Bian Feng Shu, this is the name of a constellation that arises in yin in the 1st month with retrograde motion of the twelve celestial bodies. 32 天府. Literally the Heavenly Mansion, according to the Classic of Stars, this is a group of four stars in the house kang, the second house in the seven houses of the Azure Dragon which are part of the twenty eight houses. 33 廁. Literally this means ‘toilet’ or ‘pigsty’. I would favour the latter translation only a word for pigsty has already been used in the manuscript. My advisors had reservations with the translation of toilet so I have merely chosen the word shed. 34 人門. The Gate of Man is between the south and west and is occupied by the trigram kun.

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The Jade Hall35 in shen is where one establishes the dwellings of oxen & horses. It is auspicious to expand it so that government affairs precious cowries, gold and jade will flourish. The Classic says, ‘By controlling the Jade Hall wealth and monies will be extended and the six domestic animals will be fat and strong.’ A site in geng is the Gate of Peace and Virtue. It is very auspicious to establish sheds for carriages and carts, chicken roosts and grind stones. It is auspicious that one should expand and connect these so that (the site) is robust, broad, & clean. (Repair is the same as for shen.) The Great Benefice or the dragon’s left flank in you is auspcious for the soujourn of guests. The Classic says, ‘By controlling the Great Benefice there will be good fortune, noble position, and riches and wealth in tens of thousands’. It is also called the Benefice of the Site. It is appropriate as the dwelling of the master. (Repair is the same as for shen.) The Golden Box36 or Heavenly Well37 in xin is for the establishment of gates tall towers and large buildings. The Classic says, ‘By controlling the Golden Box there is great wealth and noble rank. It is auspicious for wealth and general affairs.’ The Earthly Mansion38 is the Azure Dragon’s left hand. It governs the Three Principals.39 It is auspicious if the descendants continually purify and clean it. The Classic says, ‘If the Azure Dragon is robust and tall there will be good fortune, noble position, heroism, and outstanding talent.’ At the position of the outer trigram xun, one should make gardens, pools, and bamboo mats. If there are dwellings, they should be level and sparse. The position from the outer Heavenly Benefice to the Jade Hall should be expanded and worked on so that it will be robust and strong. This is greatly auspicious. The Classic says, ‘If lucky and beneficial aspects are 35 玉堂. Literally the Jade Hall, the Gue yue fu cites this as being the site of one with outstanding talent and noble position. However, this meaning does not seem to fit in this context. 36 金匱. Literally the Golden Box or casket, according to the Shi ji, this is where to carefully store books. There is no mention of the term in the context of siting. 37 天井. According to the commentary to the Wen Xuan this is the name of a star. 38 地府. This is what daoists call the fields of the underworld. 39 As already stated, these can be considered to be heaven, earth and water. However, according to Houn de Kermadec, they also have the meaning of three sexagenary cycles grouped into a longer era of one hundred and eighty years, the basic cycle in Chinese cosmology. He translates san yuan as the ‘three beginnings’ which are known respectively as the ‘higher beginning’, the ‘middle beginning’, and the ‘lower beginning’.

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continually expanded then the descendants will receive glory and happiness’. However, there should not be tall towers or closely set buildings. The position from the outer Heavenly Granary to the Heavenly Mansion is not averse to high and imposing towers and numerous houses. Establishing gates, granaries and storehouses, sheds for oxen and housing for servants and carriages are equally of great auspiciousness. (It is auspicious to gradually expand the southern aspect.) The position beyond the Dragon’s stomach is the same as the Inner Courtyard. It is for establishing yards for oxen and horses. It is also called the Sack of Good Fortune. It is auspicious that it be wide, thick, and solid. It is auspicious to establish stables for horses in the outer trigram kun. It is also greatly auspicious as a suitable place for heavy stationery objects and high towers. In the courtyard of the outer Jade Hall it is auspicious that one should create a hall of worship and courtyards for the sons, grandchildren and the young, and the guest hall will receive nobles of the first rank as guests. If it is robust, high and gradually expanded until there are great trees, many houses and buildings, then it will attract jade and precious silks. It governs the happiness of the seal and sash (i.e. official position). At the position of the site of the outer Great Benefice, it is auspicious that one should expand and constantly tend the earth to bring about a fresh cleanliness. It is auspicious for activities such as playing music and drinking parties. It is suitable for a courtyard (here) to produce sons, grandsons, wives and daughters of noble rank so that wealth will increase and reputation for good fortune, rank and virtue will spread far and wide. At the two positions of the outer Golden Box and the Azure Dragon building storehouses and granaries is auspicious. If there are tall towers and grand buildings, then there should be wealth and silks. Those of noble position and outstanding talent will be produced from the descendants who will intermarry with the Emperor’s relatives. If one constantly purifies and cleanses (this area), then there will be lush and dense grasses, forests, flowers and trees. The trigram qian is the Heavenly Gate which is the extremity of yin and the beginning of yang. It also has the name of turning the back on impoverishment and proceeding towards glory. It is auspicious for the dwellings in this position to be linked far and wide and to be robust, high, broad and solid.

chapter nine

Official’s Crime and Death and Punishment Punishment Mourning Wife’s Dragon’s Fate of Fate the second right hand Ghosts Fate of son and and the eldest his wife demons son and Gou Chen his wife

si

bing

ren

hai

Mingtang – Site’s Good Fortune

Heaven’s Blessing Dragon’s tail Site’s extremity

xin

Flying Snake lawsuits Guest’s fate

you

geng

zi Good luck and Prosperity Dragon’s left foot

xu

shen

gui Heavenly Granary

White Tiger Dragon’s right foot 6 animals slave girls

geng

Jade Hall

dui

mao

Site’s Virtue, Gate of Peace

External

li

yi

Great Benefice Dragon’s left flank, Guest’s Fate

External

shen

wu

Golden Box Heavenly Well

External

chou Heavenly Mansion

Punishment Dragon’s right flank Fate of the youngest daughter

ding

Vermillion sparrow Dragon’s Head Father’s Fate

Great Misfortune Mother’s Fate

chen

External

zhen

External

Earthly Mansion Azure Dragon’s left hand Three Principals

kan

Site’s Heaven’s Punishment Punishment Fate of the Dragon’s second back daughter Dark and Warrior grandson Concubine’s sons and their wives

wei

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(It is auspicious to make repairs on the days of ding and ren of the fifth lunar month. The northern aspect should not be utilised on the days of renzi and dingsi.) The Heavenly Good Fortune or the dragon’s tail in hai is where one should establish pig sties. It is also called the extremity of the site. The Classic says, ‘If one desires to achieve government position then the extremity of the site should be put in order.’ It is auspicious to develop and expand (this area). (If hai is in the east then it is auspicious to make repairs on the days of ding and ren of the third lunar month. If the palace is the Surname yu, then this is auspicious in the seventh lunar month.)

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The site of good fortune of the Bright Hall (mingtang) in ren is where one should establish tall towers and large buildings. Constantly purify and cleanse (the site) so that (scholars) may come together here to study the classics and histories. This is also called the palace of the seal and sash. It is appropriate for wealth and salary of an official position. (It is greatly auspicious to repair the same as for hai.) The dragon’s left foot in zi is auspicious and abundant. It is suitable to establish dwellings for oxen. The Classic says, ‘The servants are well disciplined and the six domestic animals are in good condition.’ It is auspicious to make it level and solid. The Heavenly Granary in gui is auspicious if one erects gates and doorways, guesthouses, bamboo mats and sheds. The Classic says, ‘If wealth is lost control the Heavenly Granary.’ Place the six domestic animals there and develop and expand it high and wide. (It is auspicious to make repairs on the days of ding and ren in the 7th lunar month.) If the Heavenly Mansion in chou is of tall towers and grand buildings, there will be a great increase in the oxen, sheep or servants dwelling here. It is equally auspicious for granaries and sheds. (Repair is the same as for gui.) If the dragon’s stomach or the Sack of Good Fortune40 is in the trigram gen which is the Ghost Gate, it is then doubly auspicious if it is thick and solid. If it is lacking and sparse, then there will be impoverishment. (It is auspicious to make repairs on the days of jia and si in the 8th lunar month. The eastern aspect should not be utilised the days of jia and si.) When the Jade Hall is in yin, it is appropriate to establish sheds for carriages and oxen. (Such a site) governs affairs related to precious cowries, gold and jade and should be expanded. The Classic says, ‘By controlling the Jade Hall there is great auspiciousness from the unexpected arrival of wealth and monies and the 6 domestic animals will be fat and strong.’ (It is auspicious to make repairs on the days of jia and si in the 6th lunar month.) When the site is the Gate of Peace and Virtue in jia, it is appropriate to establish grindstones. It is auspicious for (this site) to be developed, expanded and connected, with a robust appearance. To clean and purify it brings disaster and self destruction. (Repair is the same as for si and yin.) 40 福曩 fu nang. There is no dictionary meaning for this term.

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The Great Benefice or the dragon’s flank in mao is suitable for guest houses. The Classic says, ‘By controlling the Great Benefice there will be good fortune, noble position and untold riches and wealth.’ This is also called the Lord of Siting. By controlling it one may expect fame from virtue. When the Golden Box or Heavenly Well is in yi one should establish tall towers and grand buildings. It will particularly augment celebrations to constantly make it pure and clean and to diligently repair the daub. (Repair in the south on (the days of) mao and si in the tenth lunar month.) When Earthly Mansion or the dragon’s left hand is in chen, the Three Principals are fitting for the descendants. It should purified and cleansed. The Classic says, ‘If the Azure Dragon is robust and tall then there will be good fortune, noble rank, heroism and outstanding talent.’ (Repair is the same as for si.) The trigram xun is the wind. It should be even and solid. It should not be obstructed. It is also called the extremity of yang and the beginning of yin, which turns its back on glory and proceeds towards impoverishment. It is greatly auspicious if one makes it empty and deficient. (It is auspicious to make repairs on the days of bing and xin in the eleventh lunar month. It is auspicious that the south is not utilised on the day of bingzi.) When the Vermilion Sparrow or the dragon’s head is in si, it is the seat of the fate of the father. One should not establish a well. Violation harms those in this seat of destiny with quarrels, sudden calamity, the spitting of blood, madness, and snakes and beasts causing havoc. (With si in the west it is auspicious to make repairs on the days of bing and xin in nineth lunar month. One should shun land in both the branch wu and the tone zhi. (This site) is auspicious in the first, third and fourth months.) Bing is greatly calamitous to the fate of the mother. One should not establish a gate there. Violating this harms those in this seat of destiny with sudden calamity and quarrels. (Repair is the same as for si.) Wu is for death and mourning. It is the seat of fate of the eldest son and his wife. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with the loss of soul, injuries to the eyes, pain in the heart, conflagration, quarrels, and convulsion in the dragon’s right hand. (Repair is the same as for si.)

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The constellation Gouchen in ding is of punishment and imprisonment. It is the seat of fate of the second son and his wife. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with disasters such as quarrels, litigations, and ulcers. (The west is utilised on the days of wu and it is auspicious to make repairs on the days of bing and xin in the 1st lunar month. Land in the branch wei is auspicious for the Five Surnames.) Wei is for the prison of the prefecture. It is the seat of fate of the youngest son and his wife. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with monsters, fire, ulcers, thunder, robbery, warfare and the flow of blood. There will be injury and death to the six domestic animals, and the family will be destroyed and scattered. (Repair is the same as for ding.) The trigram kun is the Gate of Man. It is the seat of fate of women and one should not establish horse stables here. Violating this brings the withering of personal relations, sexual disease and swelling. It is auspicious if the land nearby is uncultivated, deficient, low and meagre. (Repair on the days of yi and geng in the second lunar month.) If the Heavenly Punishment or the dragon’s back is in shen, it is the seat of fate of the sons of concubines, their wives and the eldest daughter. If one violates it then there is loss of the soul, sickness in the ribs, punishment, injury, imprisonment, a surfeit of qi and fiery demons. (When shen is in the north it is auspicious to make repairs (on the days of) yi and geng in the twelfth month up until the trigram you. The Surname shang is inauspicious in the twelfth month and auspicious in the fourth month.) The site of punishment is geng. It is the seat of fate of the second daughter and the eldest grandson. One should not establish gates here. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with sickness to the right ribs, quarrels, injuries and disfigurement, emaciation and decline. (The repair is the same as for jia.) The dragon’s right flank in you is punishment and imprisonment. It is the seat of fate of the youngest daughter and the grandchildren. Violating it harms those in this seat of destiny with loss of the soul, punishment and imprisonment, a surfeit of qi (anger) and fiery monsters. (Repair is the same as for shen.) The Flying Snake is in xin is of litigation and imprisonment. It is the gate of the guest. Violating it brings harm to those in this seat of destiny with quarrrels, monsters, death and the beginning of disaster.

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(From you in the north to xu, repair on the days of yi and geng in the fourth month.) The White Tiger or the dragon’s right foot in xu is of imprisonment and lititgation. It is the seat of fate of the servants and the six domestic animals. If one violates it, the legs will be afflicted with lameness, personal relations will wither and there will be convulsions. (Repair the same as for xin. Follow the progression of one circumference of the twenty four paths from qian to xu.) If an outer courtyard in qian is repaired and extended to the main courtyard, it is auspicious to have it strong and solid, with high ridges, mounts and large trees. When land in qian is extensive, it will extend the longevity of the family elders, and bring boundless glory and official salary to the descendants so that the brilliance is reflected on the clan. If the Heavenly Good Fortune of the extremity of the site is in the outer branch hai one should establish grand buildings there. Moreover, it is auspicious if it is heavily fortified, deep, distant, dense and thick. If it is connected with the mingtang, the good fortune of the site is robust and solid so that the descendants will be intelligent, have success in the civil examinations, possess the seal and sash, and have great wealth and noble rank. In the outer Heavenly Granary there should be tall towers, rows of buildings, granaries and storehouses. If the buildings housing servants and the six domestic animals are large they will reproduce profusely. It is auspicious for a place that enables riches, silks and the five cereals to be high, clean, developed and expanded. It is fitting that the outer Heavenly Mansion be broad and robust, and there is great auspiciousness if the sons, grandsons, wives and daughters dwell there. This is also called the land of the myriad with the happiness of wealth, nobility, fulfilment and surplus. There will be transfers in official positions. The absolute outer extremity of the dragon’s abdomen is the position of the Sack of Good Fortune. It is auspicious if it is tamped solid like a mountain, and is consequently near to large trees and long ridges. It is auspicious not to tire of expansion. If it is lowly and deficient without a dwelling, then there will be impoverishment and lack peace and harmony. The outer Jade Hall is suitable for the sons and their wives. Accordingly there will be wealth, nobility, glory and splendour and the descendants will be prosperous and eminent. If this position is virile and robust then one

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will soar in government position to that of an Yi sheng41 and not be lacking in precious silks, jade and gold. If the site is sunken, deficient, and a desolate wasteland then one will endure poverty and wander in other lands. The outer Site’s Benefice is suitable for the study of the art of the Way. One’s achievements and skills will be established and fame will be such that people will come from one thousand li in admiration. Furthermore, there will be teachers for successive generations and the descendants living here will be trustworthy and talented and unmatched in righteousness and bravery. The three spirits of the outer Heavenly Benefice, the Golden Box and the Azure Dragon are all equal and should be dense, thick and solid with large houses and tall towers or having guest halls so that nobles and ministers may travel there for feasts when they pass through. For the whole family to have wealth, nobility, outstanding talent and prosperity it must rely on the three spirits so these should be particularly developed and expanded. If they are cold, sparse, desolate, deficient, spoilt or sunken then one will be impoverished. One should tirelessly purify the Azure Dragon. Burn incense and furnish seats to receive and welcome guests. Outstanding men of the Way will naturally come, so to install wells and water courses is highly auspicious.

41 壹省, position of a high official in the Later Han dynasty.

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CHAPTER TEN

TWENTY FOUR DIFFICULT PROBLEMS Problem 1 Whether mountains or waters face or turn their backs indicates being without feeling or having feeling. Was it the purpose of the great method of ancient nodes to prevent people from falling into error? The Reply For mountains, access to water is the front and, therefore, not having access to water is the back. Vegetation is the front and that which is coarse rock is the back. Moisture is the front and dryness the back. Brightness is the front and darkness the back. Where the configurational force approaches is the front and where it departs the back. What is even and solid is the front and that which is steep and collapsing the back. Where there is a commanding situation is the front and where there is a losing situation is the back. To sum up, in an area of mountains and rivers there must be a mountain which is the tallest and most exalted and which is dominant. This is called the ancestral mountain. In terms of the direction of this mountain, even though there are branches from each of the eight directions, more are certain to emerge at the face of the major configurational force; the mountain subsides and rises again, breaks off and reconnects, but is certain to face water at the front and follow it so that they hasten forward together. Where qi focuses, the form must swerve and there is interaction with the water; all others rush back along with the configurational force of the mountain. This is a clear sign that there is access to water. If the configurational force turns, the lines of the rocks must turn. The rocks are the bones of the mountains. Thus the Classic says, “The configurational force of a mountain is the original bones. The configurational force of the land is the original veins”.1 When one knows the origin of its begin-

1 The classic referred to here is the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity of Guo Pu although in this the earth rather than the land is mentioned before the mountain. See JDBS, p. 1L.

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ning, one is able to claim its end. Is it not that the end is where the front exists? Ancient men said that the mountains under heaven are such that they follow the flow of water. Where the mountain faces (the node), the water also faces it. This can be understood without the need to speak of it. Ancient men said that for a mountain which has the advantage of luxuriant qi one treats the luxuriance as the front. Luxuriance has been described as the spirit of a mountain. Without a keen intelligence one will not be able to understand this. Without understanding this, it would be futile to speak of facing and turning away from (the node). If there are no special indications of facing or turning away from (the node), it is difficult to speak of their subtlety. Thus, the more one faces it the larger the end must be and if one turns from it when it is close by, even though there is some gain, it must be minute. While two brothers may rule separate states of relatively equal power, abroad they will necessarily be in opposition. There must be a significant difference between the powers of the subject and the ruler so that when together in one location, the noble and the inferior are differentiated. Although they have their positions, the feeling in the end is to protect the ruler which requires the application of power. How does this come about? The distribution of the amounts of basic elements is unequal. The nature of mountains and rivers is also like this. Understand this and the true and false can be distinguished, the large and small differentiated and the auspicious and inauspicious determined. Problem 2 In the departure and approach of a dragon there are many breakings off and prostrations, which people of this world have succeeded in studying. The masters of these times have pointed out that coming and going is not fixed. In seeking to generalise, how does one begin? The Reply Passing water is what stops the approaching dragon. The Classic says that the external qi turns at an angle, the internal qi stops and thus vital qi becomes water. To turn at an angle refers to obstructed movement. If mountains, ridges and mounds pile up in an unbroken line, as there is a sustained wavering and stumbling form, there is no need for investigation to know that the approach has stopped.

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As to a mountain ridge where there is a great discontinuity and a complete decline of several tens of li or one which is nearer of two or three li, a river could have been dug across it without investigating the configurational force which thus could have caused this. In any case, the damage is substantial. Water must descend from a height, combine from being separated, become large from being small, and go far from being near. If one examines the flow of its tributaries and investigates where it enters and stops, it will be seen that between two mountains there must be water and between two bodies of water there must be a mountain.2 Without need for pondering on it, it will all become quite clear. People generally speak of rock veins crossing rivers. This theory seems to be correct but is actually wrong and must be examined. In general, when mountains enter water, even though it is said that they are rock veins, they are necessarily unable to penetrate passing water. Passing water refers to streams and rivers flowing down from the mountains. Only with lakes and seas does the configurational force descend and the form create a hollow at the confluence of a multitude of flows, which is overflowing, flat and wide. Therefore, mountain veins penetrate at a borderless location. An example is human arteries and veins each having their own principles of arrangement. For one body the five limbs follow the arteries but they have sections, each separated by the joints of the bones. Externally they seem to be continuous but inside they are actually unconnected. Therefore, where there is a mountain stream which is all rocks, with the water flowing amongst them, the ignorant unknowingly speak of it as being continuous. Now, this is to fail to understand that where there are two mountains which are all rock, the configurational forces all go into the closely packed jagged rocks3 and that there are gaps and fissures. They are not of the same category and each is not connected. By observing the mountain streams of Yan and Jian in Bamin4 this can be understood. By looking east and west at the two Liang mountains, one can know that the north and south sections of the middle flow of the Yangzi are not connected. By looking east and west at the two Dongting mountains5 one can know that the three 2 This is an indication of basic geographical knowledge garnered from observation. 3 Literally like dogs’ teeth. 4 The land of Min was another name for Fujian Province. The eight (ba) min was used in this context from the Yuan to the Qing dynasties. Yan and Jian were the names of two of the eight prefectures of Min at this time. 5 This would refer to two mountains to the east and west of a great lake in Jiangsu province.

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rivers that enter all emerge as the Wusong.6 If between two mountains there is a bordering waterway, then its flow is deep, not shallow; and it is continuous when it is near, and discontinuous when it is far. This is obvious to understand. Problem 3 In the methods of receiving qi there are several variations. The most important thing is that one should not be hasty in seeking nodes. If one is ignorant of this point, the error will be great, and it would be unreasonable not to expect to miss them. The Reply There are five variations in the major laws for receiving qi which are called: direct approach and lateral reception, lateral approach and direct reception, approach in the same direction and inverse reception, oblique approach and frontal reception, and frontal approach and oblique reception. These five are the transformations of yin and yang and are paths of the cosmos. If mountains and rivers are followed from the very source, even though they may be deceptive, there is no escaping these variations. Why is this? The direct and non-lateral are, in fact, directly approaching and directly received. The qi collides and the brain scatters vitality to the point of extinction. If it is lateral without directness, vital qi will not be disgorged from it. If there is harmonious fusion and an approach in the same direction, the water of necessity will be direct and escaping. If it is not met inversely how can it be encountered? If it comes in from the front and disappears with a fall, licentiousness hides in the node, just like deviant fruit sprouting forth from the leaves of the parasol tree.7 When there is oblique entering of the node, the situation will be corrected and the ends of the branches of the willow will produce an upright heart. If there is obliqueness which is not at the front or it is at the front but not oblique then the transformation does not occur, the tree may be strong but it is without feeling. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain this in order to use it to harmonise the qi of the hall. In examining the configurational force of the land choose the method by which the water is received, decide on the guest and the host and distinguish the true and false. These are the great principles for seeking out the node and isolating the pecu6 A river in Jiangsu Province. 7 Firmiana platanifolia.

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liarities of mountains and rivers. If one does not understand this, then one will spend many arduous years in vain without results, staring long at the lines of ridges and peaks until the mind and the eyes become confused. One can pry into the obscure, fathom the subtle and obtain the feeling of creation. One will understand demons and fully comprehend what are not laws. Indeed, on the absence of laws a proverb says, “An inferior scholar travels all around the mountains out of ignorance of (the laws) and being external to them”. There are also the rules supplementing the previous that mountains take advantage of luxuriant qi, plains take advantage of accumulated qi (when the accumulation thickens and becomes a ridge), water takes advantage of flourishing qi, and rock takes advantage of murderous qi. Those who understand these should refer to them together. Problem 4 The law of water contains various methods: the ancestral temple, the ming­ tang, the Yellow Springs8 and the Eight Murders;9 wherein does (the reality) reside? The Reply The subtleties of the law of water are discussed in the Book of Burial by Guo Jingchun.10 The people of the time did not understand its indications. Its meaning is that, in general, when mountains connect with the land, it is necessarily because of the configurational force of a mountain turning over and obtaining water at its border on one side; what is known as the mountain and the water joining. It is also called ‘obtaining water’. The configurational force must reside at the front and there is only the difference of whether it is perceived or not. Its residing at the front refers to the Vermilion Sparrow. The Classic says that the Vermilion Sparrow originates from vital qi, which means that the bordering water must begin at the well spring of the dragon. 8 This is another word for the underworld although both Mengzi and Zhuangzi both used it merely to describe underground water. It also has the meaning of what has not yet come or the next generation. 9 八殺. According to the Song shi, this is the name of a star which is also called the Eight Malignant Deities (the words for malignant deity and murder are homophones of sha 殺). This is also the name of a book, the Ba sha jing, by Yi Shenzi. 10 Another name for Guo Pu.

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Qi is the mother of water. If the qi of a mountain is abundant then the body of the water is large and long. Therefore it is said to originate from vital qi. “Branching and not yet abundant” means that the source of the water has just commenced a separate flow so that it is not long and the configurational force is not yet abundant. “Surging of the tide” is what the venerable Master Liao11 meant by water availing itself of flourishing qi. “Marshes declining” means that when (the water) is about to appear, it is necessary at first for it to converge as a marsh so that there is a nourishing gathering. “The current being imprisoned and retracting with the return unsevered” means that the outlet has become so small that the flow seems to be imprisoned and to withdraw, but still it turns back and is unsevered, thus its appearance. “At each bend the pooling is followed by a draining” means that (the water) desires to meander and form deep pools and does not desire to be straight and rapidly drain away. “Vast and flooding, looking back at me and desiring to remain” refers to its fondness for the grave/node. “Its approach without source and its departure without flow” refers to the fact that because the approach is distant, its source is unknown and because the departure is winding one does not see its flow. The whole of this work discusses the form, configurational force, feeling and nature of water. It is never ignorant of the important principles as are the practitioners of the theories of direction who absurdly match longevity, the receiving of favours, becoming an official and imperial prosperity with good and evil spirits and good and ill fortune, consequently causing the lucky not to be buried and those buried not to have good fortune. In deluding the world and misleading the people, nothing is worse than this. Now, what is appropriate or should be avoided is outlined below. In general, with water, if it embraces (the node), it is not desirable for it to wrap around it; if there is a confluence, it is not desirable that there is a collision; if (the flow) is lateral , it is not desirable that it be opposing; if it is distant, it is not desirable that it be small; if it is near, it is not desirable that it be severed; if it is large, it is not desirable that it be agitated; if it is 11 廖公. This is most probably Liao Yu 瑀, styled Bo Yu 伯瑀, of the Song dynasty who wrote texts on fengshui such as the Jiu xing xue fa 九星穴法, Liao Gong si fa xin jing 廖公 四法心經, and Shiliu zang fa 十六葬法.

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high, it is not desirable that it be stumbling; if it is low, it is not desirable for it to be sprawling; if (the watercourses) are many, it is not desirable that they separate; if (the flow) is opposite, it is not desirable that it be slanted; if it is approaching, it is not desirable that it shoot; and if it is departing, it is not desirable that it be rapid. What follows this is auspicious; what goes against it is inauspicious. If, indeed, one understands this then the profits and harms of water will be evident. However, for practitioners of the art who do not wish to use this method in the divination of graves, there are two disadvantages. One is related to the fact that the traditions of fathers and teachers have been followed for a very long time. How can those who do not have high intelligence break with these traditions and not become lost in ignorance? The other is that if one divines the land without this reality, then the ease of understanding is lost. Nothing can fake the false. What is advantageous for the burying families is not advantageous for the practitioners. When they are similarly smart and stupid there is difficulty in the strange. Therefore, they uphold their wrongful theories and do not change the disadvantages of them. Moreover, in embracing them falsely they enable their words to become merchandise. The burying families make them successful. Now, everybody has good and bad luck from time to time. Many talk of calamity and bad fortune necessarily occurring. Many speak of good fortune responding to the spirits and this also necessarily occurring. When the world sees this happen, people consequently ask how the spirits can twist the feelings of men into good and ill fortune. When this is propagated, people dare not defy it. I, therefore, say that the burying families have brought this about. Problem 5 Which are the most important methods of seeking the dragon, observing the configurational force and examining nodes? The Reply First look to an especially high place that the ancestors esteemed. Next, examine which branch amongst the multitude first breaks. Where (the qi) is cramped and clustered as it emerges is the place of the main dragon. Where the dragon comes to the end is a node. There must be much congealing of movement and branching. Even if a dragon vein is not long, it will control a luxuriant and thriving cover. The trees that cover the qi of a drag-

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on are essentially noble like kings and lords. Their offspring will not lose their peace, wealth, honour and glory. This is what is meant when practitioners of the art say that to build a family it is necessary to have a good husband and wife. In general the dragon travels afar to several hundred li, and near to several tens of li. The configurational force must follow the flow of the water. When it passes through a mountain gorge, it stumbles, breaks off, suddenly somersaults and then collects itself. The water in front is arranged either transverse to or directly opposing the configurational force. The gravel above churns downward. The gravel below churns upward. The centre certainly forms a node. One must gaze at it and use one’s mind to discern the finer points. In general, where there is a great dragon, the qi is abundant. For much of the four seasons clouds and mists cover the peak. On the top of the great mountain peak are pools and springs, pure and clear, which do not dry up even in a great drought. Commoners call these the ‘nourishing shade’.12 These are because of the abundance of qi. Qi is the mother of water. If there is qi there is water. By observing whether the water is deep or shallow one can divine whether the qi is flourishing or declining. In seeking out the dragon, observing the configurational force and isolating a node one should ascend to the highest place in an area. At first investigate the external situation. Next, observe and record what is opposite. Then scrutinise the left and the right. Finally return to the place that has feeling and examine the subtleties in detail. It is necessary that nothing is lost. In general, in investigating a node, there is value in being detailed and leisurely. One should wait for when the grass is dry and (the leaves on) the trees have fallen. Ancient men first burnt the grass and then climbed the mountain. This was an excellent method. In the rain one can investigate the subtleties of the border. On a clear day one can observe the colour of the qi and the pattern of the veins. In the snow one can examine the relative thickness of where it accumulates, to ascertain where yang qi has gathered. The saying of the ancients that three years is spent seeking the land and ten years is spent isolating the node is prudent. Problem 6 Water has the large and small. It also has the back and front, the far and near and the lateral and longitudinal. Water also passes from the left to the 12 養蔭 yang yin.

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right. Mountains and ridges are not uniform and so (the water) flows rapidly departing or suddenly approaching. How can one obtain a clear knowledge of this? If one does obtain it, how does one obtain the method and formula to awaken the deluded and erroneous, make clear the confused and superfluous and follow the Way? The Reply The method of using water takes the dragon as the criterion. In general, the main configurational force of mountains and ridges always has a separation and a joining, a gathering and a meeting. The separation is because of its being divided by water and the joining is also because of the water gathering it. Therefore, if a mountain travels for a thousand li, then the two water courses following it will also duplicate the thousand li. If there is a turning, there will be a meeting and consequently the forming of a single whole. The front border first contracts and the back accordingly meets it. When this occurs, a city of gauze unfurls to lock it in and protect it fully. The mountain returns and the water gathers, and naturally all are brought together. Yin and yang are in opposition and so everything is matched by category. This refers to the special situation of a dragon where the water from the four directions and eight sides is used. Now if the mountain travels one hundred li and then joins the water, the front and the back are bound and protected and will naturally combine, so the water which is gathered also stops at one hundred li. After this the mountain and the water again separate, sometimes far and sometimes near, and at each meeting varying amounts of water are used. The size of the configurational force is also necessarily based on this. Depending on where it goes will determine whether it is long or short. One must approximate the boundary to be where the sand at the front has already turned around and the mountain at the back again turns its back and, hence, one will be able to know clearly whether the water is used or not. Thus, a ruler will be revered when solitary and then those far and near will give their allegiance and the followers will all come under his personage. For example, for ten thousand li the southern dragon of the Yangzi rushes to the east. Each turning and winding forms a separation and a combination. If it is large then it is a provincial capital. If it is small, it is the prefectural city. This is true in every case. The reason for this is each mountain naturally receives its portion of water. The strength of the border of the Yangzi is also necessarily in accordance with the severity of the divi-

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sion of the border in its ability to protect and bind, and this lies in the size and length of the mountain force. The strength of rivers is also completely because of this. Observe Jinling13 where the southern dragon is at its greatest and the mouth of the water is completely locked. To the front of Chuan14 mountain, the sand south of Caishi15 all turns upwards but does not turn to it yet. This is not harmful to its being the southern capital because the mountains and rivers are all complete. If one understands this, and applies it for the near and small, what mysteries could obtained from it. The ignorant do not think of matching and point to mountains and ridges at random, absurdly seeking to face a river in defiance of its nature. If it is not its mate and one errs in matching it, then disaster will be imminent. The ancients saying that a branch dragon does not accept the water of a trunk dragon has truth to it. Problem 7 With the differences between the Nine Stars,16 the Nine Changes17 and the various different specialities of the Dragon method, which are the most suitable? The Reply The forms of mountains and rivers do not lie beyond the Five Phases. However, as the structures are many and the manifestations complex, the Nine Stars were established and as there are a myriad forms, the Nine Changes were set up. The Five Stars are completely adequate for broad investiga13 Present day Nanjing was called Jinling in the Warring States period and for only one year during the Tang dynasty. Jinling was also an ancient name for Zhongshan, a mountain situated just beyond the Chaoyang gate of Nanjing. 14 This is in the north east of Zhenjiang 鎮江 prefecture in Jiangsu province. It borders on the Yangzi which is quite narrow here with fast flowing rapids. 15 采石, literally ‘coloured rock’, is the name of a mountain in the north west of Dangtu 當塗 prefecture, Anhui province. It has also been called Niuzhu 牛渚. According to the Du shi fang yu ji yao 讀史方輿紀要, Nanjing is 85 li to the north east. 16 九星. According to Bennett, op. cit. p. 19, these are the seven stars of the Big Dipper plus two assistant stars. 17 九變. These could be the names of volumes by either Guanzi or Confucius, or they could be the nine positions of a lord (Hanshu, Wu di ji 武帝紀). The most probable explanation though is that this refers to the nine types of changes in the great Way. According to the Tian dao 天道 of Zhuangzi, these involve an understanding in successive steps of heaven, virtue, morality, what to be separate from and what to abide by, the names of physical forms, the reason behind responsibility, the origins, truth and falsity, and rewards and punishments.

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tions. If one speaks of the changes then even though there are multiples of nine, how can these explain all of them? It is totally in the skill of the eye of the mind, and names cannot explain it fully. I have seen those of the art discussing the points of the stars. Many consider Greedy Wolf18 to be metal, the Metal Offered to Heaven as the Greedy Wolf, and Wood Floating on Water as the Water Star. In the discussion of form, if there is one small error, then there must be a large error in determining the node. If one desires to know the truth, it is the same as distinguishing the hand from the foot. There can be nought but close examination. As for penetration, descent and transmissive change, the Jade Marrow Classic insists on mutual production as the natural order such that Metal obtains Fire and Wood obtains Metal, and there are many which do not overcome each other but which use each other. So it can be known that these words cannot be substantiated. The reason is that “penetration” refers to it emerging from the screen and that is all, “descent” refers to it finally entering the node and that is all, and “transmissive change” refers to changes in the process. At the crux of the matter is that mountains and rivers are basically of the one qi. If the qi has transformations, then the essential subtleties begin to manifest. Thus the empty signs of the Five Stars are used in order to record round, straight, curved, pointed and square changes in the structure. How can there really be what is called the theory of birth and overcoming of the Five Phases? Beyond a yielding or inflexible nature there is no other way. Only those who can understand the subtleties will be able to comprehend these changes. Problem 8 Is there efficacy in the theories of positioning with the principle of qi and positioning with the constellations or can they not be substantiated? The Reply The Yi jing says to look up to observe the writings of heaven and look down to observe the principles of the earth. Principle refers to orderly arrangement. In fact, it is the principle of literary structure19 and of veins and arteries. By examining how something is put in order, it is possible to know the middle and sides, the front and the back, the refined and the rough, and 18 Name of a constellation. 19 Unity and coherence.

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the large and the small in terms of building the nation and establishing the country as a safe place for the myriad people. This is the speciality of a sage king. Qi is the microcosm of form. Form is the manifestation of qi. Qi is hidden and difficult to know. Form is manifest and easy to see. The Classic says that for land which has auspicious qi, the earth will accordingly rise. This is the external manifestation of form. For qi which is auspicious the form will certainly be luxuriant and fertile, and particularly outstanding and majestic. For inauspicious qi the form is necessarily rough, unruly, sloping, broken and fragmented.20 If these are used to test for qi, how can qi elude one? How can the specialists in the art obstinately insist on the principle that qi is either auspicious or inauspicious (beyond this)? The Classic says that in the method of divining mountains the configurational force is the most troublesome, the form is the next difficult, and the bearing is the least difficult. This was how bearing started. The present day compass is, in fact, derived from the ‘south-pointing carriage’21 and the earth tablet.22 The sages established a means to teach men to distinguish position so that the populace would not lose their bearings and that is all. Auspiciousness and inauspiciousness have never been a part of it. Experts in burial who also use this in the divination of mountains desire to trace its origins and take advantage of it where it halts. This is just like when a range of mountains and ridges originates from kun shen, those that emerge from the left wind like a snake until reaching hai and from hai pass through to gen. Those that emerge from the right wind like a snake until reaching gen and from gen pass through to hai. Thus, in the great revolution of the mountain force all can be gathered.

20 The Book of Burial refers to a classic indicating a similar list of types of mountains which ‘produce new misfortunes and destroy existing good fortune’. However, the list here is ‘barren, broken, rocky, eroded and solitary’ (JDBS, p. 3L). 21 指南車. This was a carriage with a system of gear wheels attached to the wooden figure of a man constructed such that its raised arm would always point south no matter where the vehicle would turn (see Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.1 (1962), p. 229 and vol. 4.1 (1965), pp. 286-303). Needham also points out that according to Yu Xi 虞熹 in the Zhi Lin Xin Shu 志林新書 (New Book of Miscellaneous Records) scribes and editors generally had no knowledge of geomancy so that when they were transcribing earlier texts, they would write the character che 車 (carriage) after every reference to south-pointing whereas some texts suggest that the reference was actually to a shi 式 (diviner’s board) rather than a carriage as such (vol. 4.1, pp. 169-70). 22 土圭 tugui, is an ancient Chinese instrument used to measure shadows thrown by the sun. It was made of jade with a square base and a painted top.

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Where one side is bounded by water is where the mountain and water join together and there must be a fusion. Reference to kun shen is recorded as the south west and hai gen as the north west and north east. The divination of a mountain over a hundred li cannot be accomplished at a glance. How more difficult is it with several hundred li? To seek it thus is but one method for the divination of mountains. As this is said to be more inferior, the present day practitioners of the art have abandoned form and configurational force and speak of bearing, and they are certainly already lost. Moreover, because they are deluded by bearing and discussions of what is auspicious and inauspicious, the error has increased even more. The use of the compass to ‘separate the metal’ and to establish the direction is to ensure that there will be no error in fixing the host and the guest. There is fear that, if the placement of the coffin is slightly off, then further away the error will be great and the host and guest will not be correct. This method of facing to greet in fact takes advantage of the natural direction of qi. Therefore the separation of metal is used in order to record the direction of mountains and rivers which are faced. If it accords with one direction but does not accord with the other, then what is matched is not where it is heading and the advantage of qi, the situation of the hall and the host and guest are lost. Thus, the resulting error is not due to auspiciousness but to the separation of the metal. Moreover, many of this generation also know the theories of astronomy to be absurd. According to their theories of the stars, Jizhou,23 Guanzhong,24 the city of Yan25 and Xiluo26 necessarily begin to accord with the constellations. With Hangzhou much of such accordance is already inadequate. So, how much worse for the other provinces and prefectures? If this is the case, unless there is a capital, mountains and graves will seldom accord with the constellations. The present practitioners of the art only divine graves and residences for the people. How do they do so using these methods? It is not necessary to investigate whether or not they are right. On examination of the positions of palaces, there are cases that do not completely resemble the use of these methods. In the world there are certainly cases where there is no 23 One of the original nine ancient provinces, modern day Hebei. 24 This is the name of an area in Shaanxi province so called because it is situated in the middle of four mountain passes. 25 Beijing was called Yanjing from the Jin dynasty (265-420 AD) to the Jin dynasty (11151234 AD) when it was called Zhongdu. 26 The name of an area in the north west of Henan.

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dragon but the elders develop, and where there is a lesser tiger but the young develop. Take trees for example. If trees are planted on fertile land, afterwards they are certain to flourish. If the planting is on hard and barren land, many will not grow. This principle is necessarily so. In general, everything which obtains qi will develop. Thus one must desire to extend this principle to the idea that it is not the case that a branch obtaining auspicious qi should flourish and a branch obtaining inauspicious qi should wither. If this is the case, how can we explain the creation of things? What is meant is that on a single tree there is both flourishing and withering. I humbly say that one should discern whether the land is, in fact, auspicious or inauspicious. One should not worry in advance whether it will develop good fortune and happiness. It is rather that the heavenly way is profound and vague. If one can fully understand human affairs, be contented with this. The above four points are rejected by the present practitioners of the art, who indeed conduct the art of swindlers. Therefore, generations guard their theories and do not change, not knowing that their words are distant from the classics and betray the way. Oh, the sorrow of it! How can there be an affair not modelled on the ancients or a righteousness that does venerate the classics and yet still not be a defiance against the correct? Burial is for the purpose of creating a peaceful death. One must be sincere and loyal and carefully select auspicious earth in order to store the body and soul. Not to let wind, water or ants, the three harms, encroach upon it is righteous preparation. Master Cheng of Henan27 said that when land is beautiful, the spirit is at peace. Now when the spirit is at peace those to whom it has given life will also be at peace. One qi flows through life and death without barriers. The principle is certainly thus. Today people obsessed with good and ill fortune and misguided by the art claim that the living will not be implicated in ill fortune. They do not even bury for several generations. The exposure of the corpse inevitably leads men to sink to not being filial. This is attributable to the present practice of the art. Moreover, good and ill fortune is indeed based on the predetermined. Auspiciousness, however, is induced by man himself. How can it completely relate to rotting bones? Rather than according with the land to bring good luck, it is better to properly bury parents and listen to heaven. 27 Unknown.

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Problem 9 Mountain ridges spread into a myriad of tributaries. The veins of the land divide into branches. How does one distinguish the sand from the dragon amongst the multiple configurational forces in one area? The Reply The Classic says that in the multitude of the large, particularise the small and from the multitude of the small, particularise the large.28 It is only through particularisation that one can distinguish the lord from the followers. In general, when mountain ridges develop fully, they may either be particularly towering, particularly broad, particularly luxuriant, particularly shrunken, particularly continuous and long, particularly imposing, particularly winding and mobile, sit stolidly over the whole or have many water courses all of which particularly converge. In a word, they use man but are not used by man. There are breaks yet the ridge is magnificent and robust. It is cast aside yet the traces are deceptive. Where (the dragon) emerges, it is surrounded by a mass of followers. Even though it is long, its enclosing protection must arrive. If it is like this, it is not sand. If you investigate the situation carefully, there is bound to be that which is uniquely different from other mountains. If your gaze lingers, there will naturally be an understanding. Therefore one knows that in the method of observing dragon what is crucial is the particular. The Classic says that variegated forms, miscellaneous forces and the guest and host having the same feeling are inappropriate for burial. There is a reason for these words. Is not the differentiation between sand and the dragon thus clear? Problem 10 Are by the turning of the lines in rock29 an indication? The Reply The Classic says that the configurational force of a mountain is the basic bones. Rocks are a mountain’s bones. The joints of bones must have a front 28 This is again a paraphrase of the Book of Burial which is the classic referred to in this case. The original states, ‘Where there are layered ridges, piled up mounds, crowded hills and many branches, one should select what is particular. If they are small, particularise the large. If they are large, particularise the small’, JDBS, p. 2R. 29 This would be the striations in igneous rock or the layers occurring in sedimentary and metamorphic rock.

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and a back and qi moves in accordance with this. If one knows the front and the back, then whether it is coming or going, in conflict or in harmony will be clear. In general, where (qi) enters the node, the lines of the rock on both sides all turn. If they turn inwards, true qi has doubtlessly coagulated. This method must also be used to examine whether (the qi) has departed or remains in the mountain. It is only when true veins wrap around and turn inwards that daylight qi spreads and the lines in the rock seem to depart yet the external configurational force completely turns to wrap the qi of daylight. This, however, is great land and cannot be mistaken for the lines in the rock of the qi of sunlight. This is an important method for seeking the node. One should meticulously examine it. Moreover, if a mountain is about to turn and the lines in the rock turn to face the back and the great configurational force faces the front, then one should consider the great configurational force as the lord. Furthermore, in general, where the mountain form halts and the configurational force gathers, the intention is already focussed. The three divide and the three combine; the mingtang becomes true; a triple yang30 is perfectly matched; and sand and water are both there. Examine the lines in the rock by only investigating a space of within three metres. It may be that there is no rock on the surface and only by making a hole can one begin to see the lines. Either a cave, an opening, a fork, a divergence, a circle or the character ren31 can prove to be a node according to the form. Within the node if the nature of the earth is necessarily fresh, moist, firm and fine, it is genuine. Indeed if one does not investigate the configurational force and recklessly points to the lines in the rock as indicating a true node, then the errors will be many. This must be examined. When one pinches the earth into a pellet and it crumbles, it is wrong. If at first one can roll it into pellets and gradually afterwards one cannot, then the true earth is already exhausted and one has reached the foundation of the gold and silver furnace.32 This is called breaking the node and one should quickly fill in the hole two or three inches.

30 This refers to the phase Wood or the trigram with three full lines in the ba gua. 31 人. 32 There is no recorded reference to a gold and silver furnace. However, according to the Zhongwen da cidian (vol. 34, p. 14920) a jin lu 金爐 is a golden incense burner, but here the reference would perhaps seem to be to some conception of bedrock.

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Problem 11 What is indicated by the sand above and below being heavy or light and the water departing and wind approaching? The Reply In general, if the great dragon is correctly connected in most cases it is true that the sand above is conversely heavy. At the place where a dragon approaches the branches must be many and where they depart and turn back, they must be few. The configurational force makes it thus. So it is necessary for a large configurational force to wrap and turn with the lines in the rock for it to be a true place. If the water departs, necessarily there is no sand to wrap (the node) within and close the screen. If there is no wrapping within and closing of the screen, then the wind blowing on (the node) is inevitable. Water approaching and wind departing does not require further discussion. The ancients advised that the gentleman does not to descend to land which has departing water. Now this is a profound warning. Moreover, with land formed from branch dragons the sand above must surround the centre of the node with one arm to cover it from the main dragon. Only at the back is this true. If it is not thus, it is absolutely unconnected. With this one knows that if a branch dragon does not have sand above, then it is not a true dragon. If a trunk dragon does not have sand below, (qi) does not reside there. Problem 12 What is important in the theories of investigating what is defunct, screening gaps and covering deficiencies? The Reply To investigate what is defunct refers to what had once been whole but is now injured, and what was not innately deficient. This exists in all mountains and rivers. The ancients said that one could bury in an injured node but not on an injured dragon. Knowing that an injury could be made whole, they did so in order to return (the node) to its former state. It is just like when flesh is injured, it can be mended with medicine but if bones are severed, they cannot return to their original state. It is only possible to screen spaces and cover deficiencies in shallows and at the mouth of a watercourse. This can be done by either strengthening and building up the

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cover with earth or by planting trees. As for dragon nodes, they are naturally fixed and cannot be moved, just like a fat person cannot be made thin, and a thin person cannot be made fat, an upright person cannot be made crooked, and a cripple cannot be straightened. The configurational force causes it to be so. In the world there are many situations where there is deficiency in form yet it is ennobling and it creates high officials. There are also many cases of a beautiful appearance only making a common man. To extend this theory, one should distinguish between the true and the false and not discuss completeness or deficiency. One can recognise a prime minister in the midst of dust using this method. Problem 13 Does naming the form accord with the principles? The Reply Form is physical appearance. The shapes of mountains and rivers can sometimes be categorised as an object. However, there is only one of these in ten thousand. So how can this be used as a criterion? I have secretly observed various specialists naming the form. They all seek to make the principle and method easily comprehensible to ordinary people, oblivious to the fact that after a long time these have become corrupted, with the result that the original basis of the degenerated customs and practices has been completely forgotten. I have observed famous graves on the right side of two parts of the Zhejiang33 river in Zhili.34 On seeking what forms they resemble, they cannot be categorised. However, if one examines the method of the nodes, they are in agreement with the ancients. Thus, one knows that for burial one should value that which is in agreement with the method, and not value that which is agreement with the form. The people of today only know how to discuss the form and not the method of burial. This is wrong.

33 Here an old form of the character zhi 淛 is used. According to the Shiji, Xiang yu ji, Zhuangzi used this form, which would indicate a certain Daoist leaning of the author. 34 直隸. According to the Dushi fang yu ji yao, this is a former name for Hebei but it was not used in this sense until the beginning of the Qing dynasty. Previously when Beiping was established in the Ming dynasty (taizu period) another name for Beiping was Beizhili and that for Nanjing was Nanzhili.

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Problem 14 Is the method for taking advantage of the qi of joint tombs appropriate? The Reply Joint burial has probably not changed since the Duke of Zhou.35 However discussions of the method for taking advantage of qi insist that one coffin should directly receive vital qi, and a second may then be enshrined with it in the ancestral tomb. The circulation of yin qi within the land is only of a single thread. If two tombs are placed together about one foot apart, the vital qi energy will not enter but conversely occupy the space in between the tombs, and neither the mother nor the father will obtain the qi. This must be investigated. Problem 15 Is there really a principle of hastening the official? The Reply With this, human affairs match with the art by chance so that this theory is made spiritual. Indeed, does the Book of Songs not say that it is only lofty peaks that invite the spirits? If one is born just under shen, the bones obtain qi and what is given birth receives shelter. Then rivers and peaks send down the soul, thus producing a hero. If a man is born under si, his natural endowments are not from the qi of the soul of these mountains and rivers. How can foolishness be changed into wisdom and poverty transformed into wealth? The practitioners of burial saying that the ancestors protect their progeny is closer to reason. Problem 16 Burial is a major affair. To study it, there must be a source and for a school there must be classics. In the world the theories that are passed on are diverse and the books are numerous. Which are essential?

35 周公, brother of Wu Wang 武王, the first ruler of the Zhou dynasty (ruled 1122-1115 BC).

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The Reply The classics of the original ancestors,36 Qing Wu and others, are old. It is not known from which era these books came. Since they have been passed on from generation to generation, there are many errors and discrepancies. The burial books written by Guo Pu and various other gentlemen are all based on these. However, because they are slightly more recent, the writings are whole and the meaning complete. Even if the sages came back to life, they would not be able to change these. Although the words of the three specialists Yang, Zeng,37 and Liao are coarse and superficial, they all contain the laws and can be used in practice. If they are abandoned, there is no means of beginning. Therefore, one should determine to start with Guo Jingchun’s Burial Classic, and Master Yang’s Shaking Dragon Classic, Mysterious Dragon Classic and Cherishing the King Classic38 as basic ancestral texts and refer to the manifestations of the machinations of heaven in the bone marrow of mountains in order to prepare a method of work. Beyond these are many erroneous books which misquote and adulterate rich wine with dregs such that they cannot be models for later study. In recent times among the writings of Xie39 of Chang Le,40 those on the practice of the art are worthy of reading, and the reprinted edition of Putting Gold into Bags by Minister Li41 of Yudu42 contains the most correct methodology in my humble opinion. It is a pity indeed that they are incomplete and are impaired by excessive simplicity so that one is unable to investigate their fine details. However, books only record the principles and great craftsmen pass their rules and practices on to others but they cannot 36 Here, 狐首 hu shou is a dialect form, first mentioned in the Tangshi ji, of the four character phrase, hu si tou qiu, which literally means ‘when the fox general dies, he must face the grave’. The actual meaning is to not forget one’s origins. 37 This is possibly Zeng Wenshan曾文赸 of the Tang dynasty who wrote the Zeng Shi shuilong jing jiao or the Collated Water Dragon Classic of Mr. Zeng. 38 The first two classics are recorded as having been written by Yang but there does not seem to be any record of the last mentioned. 39 This is probably Xie Heqing 謝和卿 of the Song dynasty wrote the Tian bao jing 天 寶經 and the Shen bao jing 神寶經. He was known for being an opponent of the use of the compass and of divination and considered that the primary objective of fengshui was to understand the principles. 40 長樂, modern day Minhou prefecture in Fujian province. 41 This is probably Li Sicong 李思聰 of Jiangxi who was a Daoist of the ‘palace of auspicious omen’ (xiang fu gong). He is said to have written the Kan yu zong suo za zhu 堪 輿總索雜著 but there is some doubt to this as some of the expressions used in that text indicate a later authorship. 42 雩都, an old province name which is now the eastern part of Gan prefecture in Jiangxi province.

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make them skilful. If one lacks intelligence even though there are many books how would one deal with them? Problem 17 The land in mountains and valleys and that which emerges at the sea are dissimilar. How can it be determined and selected? The Reply Within mountains and valleys where nodes form, firstly it is essential for the basic structure to be beautiful and delicate, and for there to be layers of walls surrounding (the node) on all sides. The layer closest to the body wraps the most important beauty and wetness. The outer layers are of progressively coarser material and closer in are layers of progressively finer material. The central hall must be large and spacious. This is the method of (node) formation within mountains. Therefore, it is said that mountains take advantage of beautiful qi and that the mingtang is difficult to obtain in high mountains. Thus one knows that where beauty can be taken advantage of and the hall can be faced, true qi will without doubt coagulate. Land which emerges at the sea is not like this. Needless to say, large breaks cut through the fields and there is more wilderness than beauty and delicateness. There are only nodal situations which take advantage of qi from obtaining what is suitable. If water cities do not come up to such places, then nodes will develop. Problem 18 Does a best route exist for looking up to observe and looking down to examine? There is an endless profusion of theories in existence. If one desires to grasp the essentials, do they exist within these theories? The Reply The essentials of these indications are what people find difficult to understand. The skill is not conferred by heaven and study rarely penetrates the subtleties. If one only follows the vulgar arts, it is inevitable that he will be ignorant of the great Way. The nature of mountains and rivers has to be known.

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Men of ancient times said that one who knows the method of the ming­ tang is born only once in five hundred years and lamented that a true teacher is not easily produced. Mountains and rivers do not speak, (but) their feelings are naturally manifested. If encountered by one who knows, how can their feelings be hidden? However, to provide the study of the heavens and the lands43 to the masses and to expect them to thereby grasp the mysteries, compounds their confusion even more. If one is lucky and hits the target it is an extension of their ability. If one is unlucky and to the left, it is an indication of their mistakes. It is indeed that the worthy and unworthy are intermingled and only depend on their luck in a single investigation. Their observation of the earth’s ways is not contrary to this. I therefore wish that those who discuss burial in the world first select a master. In selecting a master the essential criteria are: open mindedness, clarity and range of vision, ability to discern the subtleties and the prominent and not overlook the unusual, a knowledge of decline and prosperity, a lack of delusion about good and bad fortune, and an understanding of the feeling of mountains and rivers. He must be one who does not follow the vulgar theories of the time, who surpasses normal standards and is outstanding in order for him to be spoken of as a master. I have seen scholarly friends frequently regard the masses as harbouring practitioners of the art. The practitioners are also naturally at ease amongst the masses. They selfishly seek food and clothing without regard to the errors of their words and their complete mistakes. Moreover, when the group of practitioners gather together, their words, which are as numerous as the Milky Way, boast without evidence. It is wearisome to listen to them. Each time I sigh. Guan,44 Guo, Zeng and Yang are of different generations but of a similar interest. The present practitioners are in the same room but have different theories, and one by one they slander each other almost to the point of litigation so that a family seeking a burial has no means of choosing and even after a year cannot decide. Indeed, it is regrettable. Hence families seeking a burial should first select a master teacher and should not select the land. If they obtain a master, they obtain the land. In human matters, achievement or non-achievement is a predestined relationship. If the destinies of the spirit of the deceased, the circulating 43 According to the Zhongwen da cidian (vol. 3, p. 1379), this means two different places but in this context it probably means mountainous land and flat land. 44 This is probably Guan Lu 管輅 of the Wei dynasty who wrote the Guan Shi dili zhi meng 管氏地理指蒙.

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qi and the mountains and the rivers all converge, then there is achievement. If not, there is no achievement. There is a way to seeking this and we can only exhaust our minds to it and that is all. Problem 19 Is the observation of old graves to define auspiciousness really compatible with the method of divining mountains? The Reply Observing old graves and divining mountains are one in the same. One should first regard the approaching dragon, then examine the node methodology, and then examine the situation of the hall. Without doubt when these three are all appropriate, there will be a foundation for sheltering good fortune. If good fortune does not arise, it is not due to this. However, this is only a general outline. When the mouth and nose are broken and gaping the subtlety is already lost. Hence, if the burial is not in a single node, and if one searches at the front and back and to the left and right within ten feet, it will be difficult to distinguish (the node). In common practice, people do not examine an area but rely on the masters to do this. Thereupon, some are compatible and some are not. This is why commoner Lai45 lost the ancestral grave of Prime Minister Cheng.46 Moreover, investigating inside tombs should not be used to determine the happiness and misfortune of the living. These are only distinguished by the true and false, qi and colour, and dryness and wetness of the formation of the node and that is all. In the case of separating the metal for the tomb and the year and the month of the burial, how can these be known? Ancient men said that those who are good at determining these are not necessarily good at burial. This indeed verifies my words. Again there are desireless sages with objective intelligence and spiritual brilliance who are able to discern good and bad fortune like a divining instrument. This is known as having a penetrating knowledge of the way and the spirits. Beyond this all studies of techniques and mathematics rely on auspiciousness and even though they are effica-

45 This is Lai Wenjun 賴文俊 styled Tai Su 太素, of the Song dynasty. He was supposedly well skilled in fengshui, yin-yang and the Five Phases. He called himself Bu Yizi 布衣子 (the commoner), so the people of the time called him Lai Buyi (commoner Lai). 46 Unknown.

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cious, they are not the method of divining mountains and graves. Only the intelligent are not deluded by this. Problem 20 How does one distinguish from the signs of yin and yang sites whether the wind and qi are the same or not? The Reply The great configurational force of an approaching dragon and a yin node are not distinct from one another. Only at the end is there a difference in form and structure. The natural principle is that yang expands and yin contracts. Therefore it is said that yang comes as a large piece and yin comes as a thread or a line. If yin is not a thread, it has not contracted. If yang is not a piece, it has not expanded. Thereupon, a yang-based entrance has a different form to that of a yin node. Most yin nodes have a tightly encircling structure. The entrance is always appropriately and especially fine and delicate. If yang is the basis, it is not thus. What is important is that where the aspect is broad, the descending qi is flourishing and thick and the water city is deep and extensive. (The configurational force) either surrounds and embraces (the node), turns back and merges, approaches and circles back, or comes slowly and meanders away. The binding protection mostly occurs on the other side of the water. The water mouth is often several tens of li away. The larger are two to three hundred li away. For examining the connections, there are roughly two great methods. One is called reflection. The second is called ridges and mounds. In the case of reflection, at the end there is one star among the five which emerges into prominence. The surface spreads out in one single piece. In between there are no small interrupting currents and (the configurational force) gradually spreads, levels, and grows distant and wide. The two watercourses pressing on either side binding the dragon move together with it. At the end, they are either horizontal to it or there are a multitude of counter currents. There is no restriction of the far or the near and all can be and are used by me. This is the gathering city method. In the case of ridges and mounds, at the end there is one star which emerges into prominence. On the surface individual strips are gradually drawn out. Slight rises wind like a snake and then take the form of ridges. Several strips gather together at one place. Even though they gradually become more level and wider, in between each strip there is naturally a

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small border of water. In the end this is unlike the spreading out in one piece as in the case of reflection. Both of these are largely the same as the water method in that they simply allow the dragon to receive and collect (qi) and that is all. However, the cases of a turning of the body against the configurational force and abandoning the dragon are mostly cases of sitting empty and facing solidity, where the back is conversely broad. The teachers of the time do not understand this and, therefore, consider it with suspicion, not knowing that the water binds the Dark Warrior. As long as it arrives at the hall, I use it. How does one separate the back from the front? Examples of the small are the auspicious water of Mr Wu from south of the stream in Xi county47 and the residence of Mr. Zhou of the mulberry farm. An example of the large is the Wu capital of Jingzhou.48 All have a mountain in front and water behind and sit empty facing the solidity. This is the structure. On observing these you will realise it. For great cities the yin qi basically converges as a single line. The qi cannot spread out. Yang flourishes in one area where the qi dashes about in harmony. Therefore, it can to some extent spread to the myriad things and envelop the transformations which give birth to a flourishing in man. How is this not the case? Thus, it may be known that when the essence of yin and yang congeals into one, the production of talent involves the wind and qi. Problem 21 When Master Yang said, “When reaching flood plains do not ask about their origin but look only to the encompassing water and know there is a true dragon”, did he mean that the origin should really not be questioned or that it could not be distinguished? The Reply These are certainly words that Master Yang had to say but they were only spoken for convenience. Now flood plains are broad and level. They are far from mountain ridges, passing through fields, crossing rivers, and breaking off in many places. At the intersection of the flow of many rivers, they are 47 In Anhui province. 48 One of the nine ancient provinces which included modern Hunan, Hubei, south eastern Sichuan, north eastern Guizhou, and small parts of Guangxi and Guangdong.

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flat and level like the palm of the hand. In the world there are seldom those with the Buddha’s eyes, so how is one able to distinguish this? Therefore it is said that one only looks at the encompassing water. The water does not restrict itself; it is restricted by the sand. Thus, one distinguishes the lord and the followers by means of the sand intermingling with the water. This is the subtle indication within the convenient explanation. If one insists on tracing it to the source, naturally there is a method. If we discuss the flat region of rivers and lakes in the south east, the method will become apparent. For flatness in San Wu49 nowhere surpasses the five prefectures of Su, Song, Jia, Hu and Chang. The dragon river of Jiaxing50 and Songjiang51 divides from the western eye at Fenghuang mountain52 in Hangzhou, follows the Yangzi and winds like a snake to the north and the east and passing by towering pavilions and steep cliffs enters Haining and Haigu.53 The central (dragon) travels through Chongde, Tongxiang, Jiaxing, Xiushui, Jiashan, Pinghu, and Songjiang54 and finishes at the nine peaks55 around Xishe,56 bordered by the great lake Mao.57 The outer one goes from Shanghai and stops at the mouth of the Wusong.58 The outside part follows the sea to the west; the inside part is the Tiao river59 to the 49 三吳. Literally ‘the Three Wu’, this has a number of possible meanings: Suzhou, Runzhou and Huzhou (according to the Ming yi kao); Shisu, Guangling, and Jianye (according to Li Bai in the Wang dong xun ge); Wuxing, Wuzhun and Huiqi (according to the Shuijing); Wuzhun, Wuxing and Danyang (according to the Tong dian); but the most likely meaning in this context is that of Suzhou, Changzhou and Huzhou. 50 嘉興, name of a prefecture established in the Song dynasty. 51 松江, name of prefecture established in the Yuan dynasty. 52 鳳皇. No mention of this mountain could be found but there is a Feng mountain in Ninghai prefecture in Zhejiang province. 53 海寧, 海盬, two counties in Zhejiang province. 54 崇德﹐桐鄉﹐秀水﹐嘉善﹐平湖. According to the Du shi fang yu ji yao, Chongde is a prefecture which is now to the north east of Hang prefecture; Tongxiang is a prefecture to the south west of Jiaxing in Zhejiang province which was established in the Ming dynasty originally being part of Chongde; Xiushui was divided from Jiaxing in 1439 AD in the Ming dynasty; Jiashan is east of Jiaxing and was also divided from it one year later in 1440 AD; and Pinghu, which was founded from Jiaxing in the same year, is to the south of it. 55 Jiufeng 九峰, mainly in the south of Tangxi prefecture in Zhejiang province. 56 西佘, a mountain in eastern Wuxing in Zhejiang province. 57 泖, a lake west of Songjiang prefecture in Jiangsu province which is separated into the upper, middle, and lower Mao. 58 吳淞, a river bordering Jiangsu with its source in Lake Taihu. It flows south east, merges with the Huangpu river and enters the sea. 59 苕水. Tiaoshui also called Tiaoxi. This river borders Zhejiang province. It has two sources in Tianmu mountain. One emerges from the south of the mountain and flows east. The other emerges from the north of the mountain and meanders north east. The two streams meet at Wuxing and flow into Lake Taihu.

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east. The various cities are formed from the separate branchings of the western eye. The dragon of Huzhou separates at the eastern eye to become Linan60 and Yuhang.61 It divides at Anji,62 touches Wukang,63 passes Gui’an64 and finishes at Wucheng.65 The Zha River66 is its border. Now, the east of the Tiao and the west of the Zha is the extremity of the eastern eye. West of the Zha River and east of Ge lake67 are Xiaofeng68 and Changxing69 which belong to the western part of the capital territory and Guangde70 and Yixing71 which belong to Zhili (capital territory).72 Yixing just extends to Limo.73 Changxing extends all the way to Bian mountain.74 These are all separate branches of the southern trunk and, thus, are the seeds of honour and nobility. Even though (this trunk) takes water from a gorge, it rises 60 臨安, an old name for Hangzhou which was the capital of China under this name in the Southern Song dynasty. 61 餘杭, the name of a prefecture on the north bank of the Tiao River. It is to the north of Fuyang County in Zhejiang province. 62 安吉, name of a modern day prefecture in Zhejiang province to the north west of Wukang. In the west it borders on Anhui province. Its city is on the west bank of the Tiao River. It was established in the Han dynasty but the site was changed to the present one in the Ming dynasty. 63 武康, a prefecture south of Wuxing in Zhejiang province. It was established in the Han dynasty as Yangkang and had been previously part of Wucheng. The name was changed to Wukang in the Jin dynasty. 64 歸安, a former prefecture in modern Wuxing, Zhejiang province, which was established in 982 AD in the Song dynasty. It was also originally part of Wucheng. 65 烏程, a prefecture south of Wuxing in Zhejiang province. 66 霅, a river in Wuxing. 67 鬲. This is in the south west of Wujin in Jiangsu province on the border with Yixing. To the east it is connected to Taihu Lake. 68 孝豐, a prefecture established in the Ming dynasty from a part of Anji. Its forests and bamboo groves are very luxuriant and its topography is very hilly. Mount Tianmu is found within its borders. Wukang is 120 li to the east, Yuhang is 100 li to the south east and Guangde is 70 li to the north west. 69 長興, a prefecture situated north west of Wuxing in Zhejiang province on the western bank of Lake Taihu. It was established under its present name in the five dynasties period but the name was changed to Chang'an at the beginning of the Ming dynasty. In 1372 this was changed back to Changxing. 70 廣德, a prefecture established in the latter Han dynasty. It was situated east of modern Guangde in Anhui province. 71 宜興, a prefecture south of Wujin in Jiangsu province on the eastern border of Lake Taihu. 72 直隸. This was the name for Hebei province from 1420 to 1929. 73 離墨. There does not seem to be any reference to this as a place, which it would seem to be in terms of the text. Otherwise, this sentence could be translated as ‘Yixing just extends to the distance blackness’. 74 弁山. This is in the north west of Wuxing in Zhejiang province on the border of Changxing.

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naturally and is remarkably strong and outstanding amongst the other mountains. The mountain tributary of the dragon of Changzhou separates at Jing­ kou75 and connects with the high Danyang76 plateau. Where mountain ridges appear and disappear in the distance is Piling.77 Both Fujiao78 and Xishan,79 which belong to Jinling,80 are its branches. It separates at Jinling and follows lake Taihu travelling approximately sixty li south east where there is Yang mountain,81 which covers forty five square li coming to Tianping mountain.82 It travels east and slightly south where it disappears and emerges again at Jin mountain.83 From Jin mountain it emerges at Shi84 mountain. From Shi mountain it emerges at Suo mountain.85 From here to the east is totally flat and after some thirty li it meets with the capital of Wu, whose city is square in shape and has the same criteria as Yang mountain. It is said that it was divined by Wu Zixu.86 So the principle is perhaps correct. At the junction of Danyang and Wujin, there is another branch up to Jiangyin87 which follows the Yangzi east. Slightly to the south is Yu mountain88 and Changshu89 is situated here. To the north is the Yangzi. To the south is Kun Lake.90 Between them is one continuous vein. To the south 75 京口, the name of an area in Zhenjiang prefecture, Jiangsu province, which has this name because of its mountainous nature. 76 丹陽, the name of an area south of Danshui in Henan province. 77 毗陵, the old name for Wujin in Jiangsu. 78 夫椒, the name of a mountain in the middle of Lake Taihu to the south west of Wu in Jiangsu province. 79 錫山, the name of a mountain to the west of Wuxi in Jiangsu province. 80 晉陵, the old name for a prefecture in present-day Wujin, Jiangsu province. It was established in the Jin dynasty but abandoned in the Ming dynasty 81 洋山, the name of an island in the sea to the south east of Jinshan in Jiangsu province. 82 天平. This is in the west of Wu prefecture in Jiangsu province from the top of which one can see Lake Taihu in the distance. 83 金山. This is to the north west of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu province. Originally it was in the middle of a large river but now it flows to one side because of the accumulation of silt. 84 獅山. This is also known as Feng mountain. It is in the south of Jinjiang in Fujian province. 85 索山. There is no note of this formation. 86 伍子胥. This is the style name for Wu Yuan, a famous general of the kingdom of Chu in the Spring and Autumn period. 87 江陰. This is a prefecture north of Wuchang in Jiangsu, the north of which borders on the Yangzi. 88 虞山, the name of a mountain in the north west of Changsu in Jiangsu. 89 常綀, a prefecture in the south of Jiangsu, the north of which overlooks the Yangzi. It is traditionally famous for having the most beautiful women in China. 90 崑湖. There seems to be no mention of this lake but one would expect that it was a lake in Kunshan

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east is the prefecture of Kunshan91 and to the east are Jiading and Taicang. (The tributary) also reaches the mouth of the Wusong River where it comes to an end. With one from the north west and one from the south east, the configurational force is like (the arms of) an incomplete ring embracing in the north east and this becomes the mouth of the Sanjiang.92 In the midst of this area, a multitude of watercourses gather to amass the nourishing qi of the eastern Yangzi River. This is the great configurational force of the whole area. If one knows where the borders of the various watercourses are, one will know where the veins of the land end. So whether the branches are large or small, the watercourses are many or few, and the configurational force is narrow or wide, can all be understood. Within this, although there are small differences, they can be sought by means of the configurational force and obtained by means of the feeling. They are not as serious as large differences.93 Problem 22 Does one also speak of storage and accumulation with flood plains? The Reply How can one not discuss storage and accumulation? In general, when one encounters nodes which form from large rivers or great lakes, one must consider (those where) the rivers and lakes are unseen as ennobling. Therefore, it is said that one seeks small bodies of water in the midst of large bodies of water because one desires storage and accumulation. Now, in the midst of large bodies of water, where there are also small bodies of water, there is layer upon layer of sand wound around (the node) for its protection. Therefore, only when there is layer upon layer of small bodies of water surrounding (the node), can a large body of water not have the perils of the wind in the face, a shaking chest94 and severed feet.95 Land that is yang is formed with a great dragon and is not the same as a yin site. Those which are generally yang are directly approached by a large 91 崑山, a prefecture established in the Liang dynasty to the east of Wu in Jiangsu. It is named after the famous mountain situated there. 92 三江. This is the name for a river and area in Wujiang in Jiangsu province where the Wusong, Lou, and Dong rivers separate. 93 This reply to Problem 21 is indicative of the strong empirical leanings of the author of this text. 94 Licentious ambition. 95 Being cut off from one’s foundations or ancestors.

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body of water. A yang foundation will desire to extend to its limits. This is because when the dragon is big, its strength is far-reaching and the configurational force will be able to match with the water. Even so, there must be small water courses bordering it closely on both sides to separate (the qi) and pass around the back to bind it. One must understand that only when there is purity and elegance will the dragon not be perverse. This is for a genuine large flood plain with a yang foundation. If it is a yin node, however, this pattern does not occur but occasionally if it is seen, it is also a dragon force. Enormously thick frontal sand is arched in the distance perhaps (because) in front of the node the surplus qi departing becomes long and pushes away from the large body of water. Gazing at it from a distance one sees only a single thread curving and winding. The land is only auspicious if this situation prevails. If it is contrary to this, there will necessarily be disaster. Problem 23 With flood plains how does one distinguish the small from the large? The Reply In general, flood plains have a spinal configurational force which can be followed and accordingly one can seek the source. Again one can use the broadness or narrowness of the two sides of the large bordering water to verify this. It can be immediately seen whether it is large or small. However, in places which are far from ridges and plateaux, which have intersecting flows of accumulated water and which are flat and thin, there is no spinal configurational force that can be followed and one can only distinguish their size by either accumulated water that comes to the hall, the water of several rivers merging or an entanglement at the back. This means that what is difficult to obtain in flat land is brought together at the mouth of the water. This is the general situation. Problem 24 How does one distinguish the true and the false with flood plains? The Reply Master Liao said that the flat takes advantage of the accumulated qi.

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(What is accumulated is the spine. It refers to qi accumulating and becoming thick.)96 This is the method of examining flood plains with ridges and mounds. Master Yang said that one only observes the water encircling. This is the method with a particular discussion of the situation of water in the examination of shallow regions of rivers and lakes. Where there are ridges and mounds, (the water) must pass through the choking bound qi to be seen. A place where veins actually settle to become a node must certainly have an open mouth. The ancients said that, with flat land where the mouth is not opened, it is difficult for the spirits and gods to lend a hand. This is because a true mingtang only exists when the mouth is opened and only then will true qi dwell there. If there are flat fields in regions of waters and rivers, the only criteria that can be used are the water and the fields being separated by mounds and the form and configurational force having a pattern which accords with being enfolded by pincers. It is necessary to have a large approach and a small departure. A large water course at the front is not beautiful. Moreover, on looking longitudinally the nodes are established in one line. It is necessary that one should mound up the earth to make a grave. It is not suitable to dig a hole in the earth for burial. If it is like this, only then is there no error.97,98

96 This is written as a commentary to the original text. It points out that the characters for ‘spine’ 脊 and ‘accumulate’ 積 are homophonic. 97 The foregoing reference to the time frame of the different prefectures, cities and personages named in this text give some indication as to the likely date of this text although this is not definitive. Of the people mentioned the latest are those such as Master Liao, Xie Heqing and Commoner Lai from the Song dynasty (960-1279 AD). The use of prefecture names such as Tongxiang, Xiushui, Jiashan and Pinghu would indicate that the text was written after 1439 AD because this is when they were established and Anji was changed to its present sight on the Tiao river in the Ming dynasty. Moreover, the fact that this text is found in the late Ming collection Jin dai bi shu (1628-44 AD) would suggest that this is either an early or middle Ming dynasty text. However, the evidence is not conclusive in that place names are used such as Yanjing, which was only used up until the Jin dynasty (1115-1234 AD). 98 There are a further two small sections of the Twenty Four Difficult Problems which have not been translated. These are entitled A Wide Ranging Discussion of Auspice and A General Discussion of the Divination of Mountains. Translations of these were not included here because it was felt that they merely contained a reiteration of the concepts outlined in the Problems.

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CHAPTER ELEVEN

THE SECRETLY PASSED DOWN WATER DRAGON CLASSIC 1. Preface to the Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic Of the writings on the principles of the earth that Dahong passed on, only the Gui hou lu (Record of Returning to Sincerity) is the most outstanding and there are many copies in the world. Yet this water dragon classic in five chapters has certainly never been seen before. I do not know when it entered the library of Xi of Yufeng. His man wanted a heavy price to set it aside. So it was not purchased until the library changed hands. While flipping through a jumble of papers, I discovered and recognised a mysterious volume. I have often placed it in my luggage to use it for divining residences. This is the only volume in the world and I am afraid that it will consequently sink into oblivion and be lost. Moreover, much of the original book was in the wrong order with sentences omitted and characters written erroneously and with the mistaken incorporation of writers of the category of Yang Yunsong1 and Liu Bowen.2 Therefore, I made corrections and wrote out another copy and returned the original to Qing He.3 I once took it out and showed it to experts on the water dragon like Wang Jinguang4 and Zhang Shizhi5 who exclaimed in wonder at this singular copy and made a copy of it and left. From this you can know the value and importance of the book. I have examined the mountain dragon and water drag1 楊筠松, styled Shumao, he was a specialist in the art of fengshui and an official in the court of Xi Zong in the Tang dynasty. When Huang Chao, the leader of a rebellion attacked the imperial palace, Yang cut off his hair and went to the Kunlun mountains. Afterwards he travelled the countryside using the art of the principles of the earth and became known as the gentleman who rescues one from penury. He wrote many texts on fengshui including the Classic of the Golden Case ( Jin han jing), Shaking Dragon Classic (Han long jing), Profound Words of the Blue Bag (Qing nang ao yu), Uncertain Dragon Classic (Yi long jing), and Heavenly Jade Classic (Tian yu jing). 2 劉伯溫, unknown. 3 清河. This is probably Qing He daoren, or Qing He the Daoist, another name for Huang Shilu 黃師魯. 4 王瑾光. The only mention of this name is that of an imperial inspector of the Ming dynasty whose name was Xuan Zongci but he could not be the one referred to here. 5 張式之, styled Baoweng, he was from Wuxi in the Qing dynasty and was famous for his skill at writing. It was said that he could write standard script the size of a fly’s head.

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on according to the opinion of antiquity and it was believed that (the idea of) a dragon had come from the Gong liu6 of the Book of Songs. ‘If one ascends, they are at the peak. Moreover, one ascends the south ridge.’ This then is the method of observing the mountain dragon. ‘Behold the flowing spring becomes meagre and comes to an end.’ This is the method of observing the water dragon. However, in deciding on the middle of the area one matches a ‘gradual rise’ to ‘look down’, which indicates that these are the shallow theories of latter men who mixed everything together and that these do not come from the ancient theories. How can these be considered to be the first observations of Da Hong? The only possibility is that the ancient method has not been passed down and that all the records of history consider this method to be the theory of the Form School, is it not? The method of measuring the land is wholly within discerning the form. Yet the form of a mountain is vexatious. When one climbs to look into the distance from a high place at layer upon layer of ridges, it is difficult to bring the distant closer (to observe it better). Even with a form of water which is clearly manifested upon the land as lakes with twistings and turnings for a hundred li, there will still be many considerations of the biased being correct and the pointed, round which will often fool the generation and damage the people. However, discussion of situations according to books is essentially useless. Only those who have spiritual understanding and who have exhausted themselves in bitter effort can ascend the hall and enter the profound. This is what Da Hong in the book often refers to as having knowledge with spirit and, thus, understanding the changes. Moreover, what is of utmost importance in the book is the Three Principals7 and the Nine Palaces.8 I had sought the method of the intention of the heavenly principal9 for several decades and still had not found a good copy until now. So I knew that there was much of the theory of Da Hong that had not been passed down. Da Hong associated mostly with the famous gentlemen of Yunjian,10 Chen and Xia.11 Among all the books there 6 公劉. 7 Heaven, earth and man. Daoists also call this the san guan or ‘three officials’. 8 Here these would be the nine ares of the mingtang as compared to the more usual meaning of the nine areas of the heavens. 9 The heavenly principal is the principal qi of heaven. 10 An old name for Songjiang county in Jiangsu province. 11 Unknown although Xia is probably Xia Chang because of the later reference.

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was nothing that was not pried into by him. The different methods of divination such as guxu, dunjia, zhanzhen, and houqi even down to qiaoguan and jici were all essentially examined. Moreover, he was also able to disappear and fly away. Therefore, the world speaks of when Yu Si12 arose at Shaoxing he desired to work together with Da Hong and securely locked him in a solid room. One evening Da Hong disappeared and cavalrymen were sent to the four directions but no trace could be found of him. The meaning here is that Da Hong was an intimate friend, a sensible person and a reclusive gentlemen. Moreover, I have seen The Farewell of Da Hong on his Travelling North, written by Ge Zhi13 of Yu Feng styled Wo Long Shan Ren who said: “Jiangzi is a man of purpose and principle. For the sake of his work he would rather be driven by hunger and cold with the fear of unexpected horrors. He will wade the Huai14 and Si15 rivers to pass through Zou and Lu,16 lingering between Shanggu17 and Yuyang.18 Now the Huai and the Si are the rivers where Marquise Han19 once fished and it is here that he received the mystery book. The kingdoms of Zou and Lu are where the bells and drums of Confucius are still sounding and small evergreen shrubs20 in Confucius’ native place are still thriving. Shanggu and Yuyang are the places where Geng Yan21 and Wu Han22 initiated their meritorious achievements. Jiangzi will drive his carriage in these areas and will be so touched that he must gain something.” Master Ge’s words being like this seem to indicate that Dahong is a person who desires to test his talent and intends to ‘throw stones’ and ‘stroke the grass’. This man was certainly unique and so writing books was 12 玉笥, the title of Zhang Guowei of the Ming dynasty. 13 葛芝, originally called Yun Zhi and styled Ruiwu, he was a man of the late Ming early Qing who came from Kunlun and was therefore known as the man from sleeping dragon mountain. 14 This begins in Henan, runs through Anhui and empties into the sea on the Jiangsu coast. 15 Shandong. 16 The birth place of Confucius and Mencius, respectively 17 The name of a prefecture in Hebei province now called Yi county. 18 The name of a prefecture in Hebei province. 19 韓候, Han Xin, a famous general who was considered with contempt as a young man because of his idleness until he received a book from a recluse which put him on the road to knowledge and fame. 20 Mallotus japonicus. 21 耿弇, the great general of the Eastern Han dynasty. 22 吳漢, an official of the Eastern Han who was sent into exile at Yuyang, where he became a horse trader. On his return to court he became a famous scholar.

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his sparetime activity, and the study of the Form School was a sparetime activity of this sparetime activity. I have recorded this and wait for the assessment of others. Cheng Muheng23 of He city in Qianting recorded this in the twenty fourth year of Qian Long24 2. Foreword to the Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic From the misty beginnings of time, water and mountains were considered to be qian and kun,25 the two great thrones which exist simultaneously between heaven and earth; one yin and one yang, one tough and one gentle, one flow and one peak as heaven covers and earth carries. The sun creates morning and the moon creates evening. Each is responsible for a single duty. The specialists in the principles of the earth of later generations do not recognise the principles and are only aware of the mountain as a dragon but are not aware of water as a dragon. Even if there is loud chatter about the water method, they only consider the mountain as the body and water as the function as with soldiers listening to their general and a wife obeying her husband. In this the fame of the mountain is the only one to esteem and the power of water is small and deficient, thereupon, causing the land and water of the flood plains26 to be completely abandoned. The true machination of the placement of the water dragon is twisted to the absurd theories of the mountain dragon. The whole world in its vastness seems to be ignorant to this. It is not true that the idea has not been elucidated since Yang Hui.27 Indeed, did the ancients not say: “Do not ask about the dragon when you travel to the flood plains. Only look to the turning of the water and then you will find the true dragon”. They also said: “If there were no dragon and tiger, then to what place would this vast area return? So from the east to the west if one merely takes the water to be a dragon, 23 程穆衡, unknown. 24 1744 AD. 25 The first and second trigrams of the Yi jing signifying heaven and earth or male and female. 26 This is considered to be the same concept, pingyang 平洋 that occurs in the Twenty Four Difficult Problems but here the yang is written 陽 as in the concept yin-yang as compared to that meaning ocean. When written in this way pingyang can also mean a flat area to the north side of a river but this meaning is much too specific in this context. 27 楊會. This is probably Yang Yunsong the famous geomancer from Douzhou who was an official in the Tang dynasty. Because of a rebellion by Huang Zhao in the 870s, Yang cut off his hair and fled to the Kunlun mountains.

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it is easy to manifest the Three Dukes. The clarity, fluency and logic of these words are both visible and audible to men. Unfortunately, men of today do not investigate (the concept). As to the form and structure, special books are truly rare and in the end not thoroughly developed causing scholars to face the wall (and see nothing) and have no way of entry. Is this due to the fact that since there are certain rules of the structure of mountains and the movement of water which are finite, and considering that if men know the principle of the water dragon, they will easily grasp the machinations of the spirits and realise the mystery of the great creation, so mother nature draws the bow but does not loose the arrow in order to begrudge this secret? However, she stands high above the populace and pities those below, thus allowing this ancient secret, which has not been passed down for thousands of years, to emerge by accident. If one knows this secret but does not consider telling anyone, this is being unbenevolent. If one tells someone the secret but it is not the truth, this is being dishonest. I am not probing into established bad habits. I desire to grasp the reins for the sake of the later erudite scholars and be a pioneer. In accordance with this limitless record, I derive the exquisiteness and completely reveal the occult art of Master Yang so that it is opened wide and becomes widely accepted. Place high mountains in the category of the mountain dragon and flat regions in the category of the water dragon. The methods are decidedly different. Do not be afraid to yell this out in a crazy loud voice to announce this to the knowledgeable scholars under heaven. Some will believe it. In such problems, there is always confusion yet one suddenly finds the light to clear up the confusion and the errors. Even though I am naturally happy that this elucidation is not coincidental, it still worries me. I fear risking the punishment of yin and yang. Moreover, how dare I covet the achievements of heaven as my own contribution? When I began to pass on the method of the water dragon, I searched through documents both ancient and modern but they were vague and lacked apparent evidence. When I obtained the Jade Mirror Classic of the Chan Buddhist master, Mu Hu, and the ‘One Thousand li Eyes’, which are writings on the principle mechanism of entering the node, I began to have some written evidence. Soon after, I obtained several chapters of the Water Dragon Classic. I then realised that it was not true that there were no documents on the dragon method of flat regions. This was only because the first worthies valued it highly and were not willing to let it spread uncontrolled throughout the world.

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Because there was no published edition and there were errors in the words and sentences, I added some annotations and commentaries and arranged it into five chapters. The first chapter explains the connection of the great body of the moving dragon with the node and the method of taking advantage the mutual relationship between branches and trunks. The second chapter narrates the various patterns of the correspondence of the water dragon with the stars above. The third chapter indicates the comparative similarities of the categories of objects and animals that can consign meaning to the water dragon. The fourth chapter explains the crux of good and bad fortune in terms of the Five Stars, a correct branch and the nodal body. The fifth chapter has the same meaning as the fourth and freely refers to it. The first, third and fourth chapters were obtained from Wu Tianzhu.28 It seems that the second chapter was obtained from the family of the former eunuch of Cha Pu.29 I obtained the fifth chapter last from my district. Some have the name of the author and some do not. The words of each excel in the essential principles. When they are observed comparatively, one obtains the omissions and agreements but when they are together it is observed that in relation to the rules of the water dragon, there is none better. Scholars consider this as being the principle and use the Three Principals, Nine Palaces, Book of Changes, trigrams and taking advantage of qi as the function. If one likens it to a great craftsman, the water dragon is wood for carving and the Three Principals and Nine Palaces are the carpenter’s circle, square and marking line. If one likens it to an apothecary,30 the water dragon is the tripods, utensils, and medicines and the Three Principals and Nine Palaces are the essence, duration and degree of heating. If there is no quality material even Gong Shu31 could not put his skill into practice. If lead and the mercury are not prepared, even Bo Yang32 could not evolve to his supremacy. Therefore, the method of the intention of the heavenly principal is in reality the best, yet how can we slight this book? One cannot irresponsibly call something a classic. Because of this, it was not changed, was actually concealed in a golden casket in a stone house33 and was handed down unspoilt to become immortal like the 28 Unknown. 29 Unknown. 30 Literally a ‘specialist in cinnabar’. 31 公輸, a craftsman of the Spring and Autumn period famous for his skill. 32 伯陽, a minister of the legendary sage king Xun. 33 This refers to the use of a golden casket placed in a stone house to store important official documents.

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Blue Bag34 and the Fox Head.35 If scholars of later generations do not have good fortune to surpass that of other men as well as innate cleverness, they will not come across this book. It is a rare treasure and of the honourable of this generation only those who are virtuous are able to face it. Do you realise that the book needs to be respected? Do you realise that the book needs to be feared? Written by Jiang Pingjie,36 Dahong,37 of Du Ling in the Shuijing temple at Danyang.38 3. The Secretly Passed Down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 1 Among the Clouds, Jiang Pingjie, Dahong, editor In the Crane City, Cheng Muheng, Yating, proof reader 3.1. General Discussion This chapter especially explains the principle of the branches and trunks of the water dragon. In fact, consider the passage of large bodies of water as the moving dragon and call this the trunk. Consider small bodies of water such as canals and ditches as the separating borders and call them branches. The method for nodes is to seek from the branches but not from the trunks. This is like there being no true connection amidst the rise and fall of high mountains and folded ridges, yet the old dragon develops tender shoots and there begins to be a structure. The central governing idea of this writing is to use a dragon trunk which encloses in an embrace to obtain the qi and form a situation, and to use the correct and harmonious intersection of a branch dragon to obtain the nourishment of internal qi. With this the particularity in discussions of the 34 There is no actual text with this names but the Blue Bag could refer to either the Blue Bag Classic (Qing nang jing) written by Chi Songzi of the Jin dynasty or the Central Book of the Blue Bag (Qing nang zhong shu) supposedly written by Guo Gong, the father of Guo Pu, both of which have been suggested as the possible classic referred to in Guo Pu’s Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity (Ben yuan zang shu). 35 According to Needham, Cheng Sixiao (died 1332) states in his Suonan wen ji (p. 16a) that only one Fox Head Classic (Hu shou jing) existed at that time and it was considered to be written by Guo Pu. However, Needham considers it to be no older than the beginning of the eleventh century because the Fox Head tradition is connected with western declination. Needham, J., op. cit. vol. 4.1 (1962), p. 308. 36 蔣平階. 37 大鴻. 38 The name of a lake in Gaochun county, Jiangsu province.

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principles of the water dragon is beauty and completeness because even though great rivers have a winding embrace, their qi is wide and boundless and is not closely related to grave sites. It is decidedly difficult to put one’s hand to it. It is necessary with this to have branching water to create the original constellation which surrounds and embraces to develop the embryo. Then the seven internal qi are produced and the veins of qi of great rivers are completely taken possession of without any remainder. This makes great land. I have observed the famous graves of ancient families. (Around them) there are branched waterways and small trunks in their flow from head to tail. Their form winds and folds in a thousand turns. However, if one obtains a node in the abdomen of the dragon which is complete even though there is no bordering water of the inner hall, great development is also possible. At the end of these small branches, either a simple turn of a single watercourse or the embrace of the border of two flows, which isolates the area, deepens the storage of the spiritual beauty and concentrates it. Wherever aristocratic and great families are buried, it is always like this and it is not necessary to have an exhaustive discussion of the external situation. The strength of their good fortune is already limitless. Therefore this book is unable to be completely relied on. However, with a small trunk which does not have any branches even though the situation is great, it is necessarily so that only after a long time can one receive a response because it is difficult to develop rapidly. With a branched dragon which does not have a trunk although the effect is rapid, the qi is exhausted, easily wanes and is unable to continue far. After all, these are not as good as land which has a branch and trunk for mutual support. One can expect the effectiveness to last from sunrise to sunset and, moreover, one can hope for the favour of prosperity over time. Thus, can the significance of this book be rejected and its theories not be investigated? What is most important in a particular confluence of water is that its meeting with beauty establishes the node. Although this is a correct view to take, necessarily desiring that this meeting with beauty enters the confluence is still a biased opinion because the subtle use of the water dragon is only in the flowing spirit which is meandering and vivid and the machinations of movement and change are naturally manifested. This flow goes to the front, back, left and right appropriately; the favourable and the contrary and the approach and departure accord with every direction. In general, according to my opinion whoever considers the position and the

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direction as the control whether they are to the right or the left, they will all be unavoidably drawn towards the correct position. As for the method of lake and marsh dragons, this book selects completely the surrounding and gathering of a multitude of watercourses. In fact it resembles the theories of the patterns of the mountain dragon sleeping in accordance with the position of the stars and constellations. If this is so the method of the patterns of these situations consolidates the subtleties. However, I have inspected all of the land in the kingdoms of Wu and Chu. With the three rivers and five lakes the mighty immersions are manifold. However, in seeking what agrees with these patterns, I have not met one in a hundred. This just means that one (should) penetrate these theories in order to learn their meaning and that is all. If one must follow pictures to find a thoroughbred horse, are they not being too foolish? The essential aspect of the tributaries of lakes and marshes is that one should also deeply understand branches and trunks because a great marsh is called a great trunk, and it is necessary to seek branching water at the side to establish a node. Then afterwards one can expect the development of good fortune. If one only seeks a yang site of a large marsh, can there be a place of return for a yin grave, which would be necessarily difficult to control? In other words, the borrowing of the external sand to wrap and protect (the site) is also, in fact, of the method of branches and trunks, it having diversity in its use. As for the effect of the water dragon, it exists completely in the eight trigrams and the Three Principals. Rivers, lakes and marshes all converge into one. If you are not familiar with this principle even if appropriate land is obtained, you cannot escape from the idea that in seeking good fortune you conversely receive misfortune. Again these are the secrets of heaven and earth. A mind with the wisdom of a sage has passed them on but those who have not written the book are unable to know them. The writer of this book has not set down his name. It was probably written by someone of recent times. The discussions established in each chapter unavoidably still contain vulgar opinions. I consider the theories of branches and trunks to be the primary significance of the water dragon. Therefore, these maps were chosen to be arranged as the first chapter. If one singularly sticks to these theories one by one, reality will be obscured as with a star in the Milky Way. I annotate this book to ennoble what the scholar is good at. Written by Dahong

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3.2. Discussion on the Subtle Movements in the Machinations of Qi In the original world there was only one qi. If one examines the origins of this qi, there is nothing earlier than water. The sediment in water entwines and becomes earth. When earth and water are agitated, the water falls and the earth emerges. Mountains and rivers are thus formed. Thereupon, mountains have their observed up thrusting blue/greenness and consequently water has the force of its ripples and waves. The Classic39 says, ‘qi is the mother of water and water is the son of qi. If qi moves then water follows. If water stops then qi nourishes’. Mother and son are of the same feeling. Water follows qi like a shadow follows its form. Qi is singular. Its brimming over beyond the land is formed as water; its moving inside of the land is without form and is qi. Water is its external manifestation. Qi is its essence. The internal and external flow together. The manifestation and the essence are of one movement. Thus fate is the subtle use of the natural. Therefore, if one desires to know whether the qi of the land tends to the east or west, one can gain a rough approximation by the comings and goings of water. So to observe the movements of the mechanisms of qi, one must look at the water courses. Does the sighing of Confucius show that he saw this principle? Yet a moving dragon must have water to help it and a stationary dragon must have water bordering it. The qi of a moving dragon is singularly in the water. Therefore, one examines from whence the water comes in order to know the origin of the issuance of qi. The qi of a stationary dragon also exists in the water. Therefore, one examines the water’s confluence in order to know the place where there is harmonious connection. The Classic says, ‘If it is bordered by water then it stops’. It also says, ‘External qi moves laterally,40 and internal qi stops producing’. Is it indicative of this? Now, the qi of heaven and earth is nought but yin together with yang. The Yi jing says, “One yin and one yang are called the Way.” It also says, “Yin and yang are mutually in each other, and stillness and movement are mutually the basis. When yin and yang change in relation to each other, the myriad things are purified.” Guo Pu has said that yang alone will not give birth and yin alone will not develop. When yin and yang harmonise their virtue, one achieves the perfection of birth and development. Therefore, the upthrust of mountain 39 It is not known which classic is referred to here. There is no reference to the relationship between mother and son in the Book of Burial, the Burial Classic or the Classic of Siting. 40 This has the meaning of moving aggressively against the normal direction.

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veins and the flow of water veins each have yin and yang. Water is yang. Mountains are yin. The two are mutually connected and are unable to be an instant apart. The movement of the veins in the land relies on water to guide it. The termination of the veins of the land relies on water to congeal it. How is it able to both direct its movement and congeal its termination? It is because the abundant external qi recombines with the internal qi, and the oscillation between the two forms entities. This is like the achievement of a man and woman coupling, thus giving birth. Yang is the male. Yin is the female. With yang nurturing yin and yin containing yang the male and the female meet. This is the nature of the male animal and the female animal being together. Therefore, it is said, “When yin meets yang, one’s luck and wealth will be enduring. When there is a clashing of yang with a harmonising of yin, the myriad things are born”. This is the natural mechanism of transformation within heaven and earth. From the overall perspective, the body of the chaotic world of prehistoric times is, in fact, at one with the body of myriad things and at one with the subtle function of the Great Extremity (tai ji).41 From a concrete perspective, the relationship of each entity is such that each one of the myriad things is at one with and obtains the original profundity of the Great Extremity. When one has knowledge of the principles of the Great Extremity, one can realise the subtlety of the mechanism of transformation. When one knows the subtleties of the mechanism of transformation, one can speak on the studies of manifestation. 3.3. The Ballad of the Natural Water Method The water methods being great in number, it is difficult to give an exhaustive account. Let us pick up the outline to explain any vagary. In the world there are a thousand experts who have passed on the precedents for divination. This one says auspicious and that inauspicious yet (the theories) cannot be put into practice. So with the natural water method you must remember this, sir; There is nothing other than the meandering that possesses feeling. With the approach do not desire lashing waters and the departure should not be straight. For the lateral do not desire opposition and the oblique should not be quick. The lateral must detour and embrace to the extent that the bend of a stream is encircling. 41 太極.

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chapter eleven The approach then reaches the beginning and the departure meanders away. When the water is clear, still and pure, there is even greater auspiciousness. How can there be there profit in rapid drainage and waterfalls? When the eight characters42 separate, man and woman become debauched. With a river flowing into three tributaries, one’s estates will be exhausted. Wealth will not accumulate where there is quick run off and quick flow. Damage will be caused to the population where there is a straight approach and a straight departure. If (the water) shoots off to the left, the eldest son will necessarily meet with disaster. If it shoots off to the right, the younger son will receive calamity and injury. If returning water shoots off from the centre, the second wife’s son will die young. This will sweep away the sons of the city and the descendants will be few. If there is clashing at the centre and shooting at the flank, one becomes solitary and widowed. If the water jumps back, the people leave and wealth withdraws; The screens are rolled up, the daughter will become a concubine and the son will live with the relatives of his wife. If the water is clear, there will be one outstanding among men with many talents and refinements. If the water is muddy, sons of much stupidity are produced. The great Yangzi is vast and rules over ten thousand hectares of farmland. It secretly aids in degree of nobility, good fortune and food for the 5 tripods. From pools and lakes high official ranks and prime ministerial posts condense. Deep and extensive water rules over unmatched nobility. Emergence which is fluttering and oblique is the luck of the peach blossom. Men and women are debauched and always break up their families; It produces coming and going and a liking for wandering about and being dissipated. The whole day is indulged in song with extravagance and excessiveness. With beautiful water of an approaching flow which is winding, There is certainly the fame of a posted scholar. If the flow of the water departs without obstruction, There will be wealth, abundance and high official position. The water method is not restricted to departure and approach. In general, there must be a winding departure yet a return. Three windings and five turnings approach and then arrive at the node. (The water) feels a meditative attachment and cannot tolerate to leave. Why use the nine constellations and the eight trigrams? The flourishing of birth and the ending of death are completely empty theories. Here, I am narrating the true occult art.

42 The eight trigrams of the Yi jing.

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Readers must surely be clear in their hearts. Do not be deluded by contemporary divinations. Having good or bad luck should be distinguished by yourself.

3.4. Eighteen Patterns and their Maps43 Trunk of Water City Wall Pattern44

A great river approaches either from the south east or south west. Even though in its midst there is a place of meandering and winding, one certainly does not see a turning of the head to surround and bind. This is like the flight of the wild goose in that if there is not a slight turning and soaring of the configurational force, it absolutely does not descend and halt. Although the configurational force of the water is smooth flowing, in the end it is not a place where the dragon veins coagulate and gather. How could it be worthy of creating a node? The Classic45 says that if it has bordering water, it stops. It also says that bordering water is what stops the approaching dragon. If one still does not see the water turning its head after twenty li, then the place in front of the meander is that of a moving dragon. The Classic says that a dragon descends to a flood plain (pingyang)46 like an unrolled mat in one vast area. (The qi) is difficult to grasp. In a pingyang area only water is considered to be the dragon. The winding around of the water is the moorage of the dragon body. Therefore, in general, in seeking the dragon one looks for a place with approaching water turning and surrounding. 43 It should be noted that as with all traditional Chinese maps, the top indicates south. 44 Though somewhat sketchy, the maps throughout the Water Dragon Classic are as they appear in the original text. I did not attempt to re-draw them out of concern for authenticity. 45 The classic here could possibly refer to that of Qing Wu which also mentions bordering water halting qi. 46 平陽.

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However, when the water’s path of approach is distant and the configurational force is broad and large even though there is a place where there is a slight turning of the head and straight dragon veins bind the qi to connect with the throat, a node is still not yet formed. Only when there is a great turning and winding does qi begin to gather. However, in the end the form and configurational force being broad and large, (the qi) is also difficult to grasp. It is necessary to seek a border of branching water to cut it. Would it not be necessarily better to have branching water inserted into the abdomen and manifesting the interior of the hall? With sand and water wrapping neither sparse nor thick, the form would be complete and solid. Only then would it be a true node. If there is no border of branching water to cut into (the area) even though it is surrounded by a great body of water, in the end the vastness can give no indications because if the configurational force is broad, the qi will drift away and if the form is large, the qi will scatter. If the interior does not have branching water it is singularly mischievous. How can it be used to establish a node? Even if there is no great harm, it is necessarily difficult to develop good fortune. Trunk of Water with a Scattered Qi Pattern

does not form

A water trunk moves obliquely seeming to have a bend yet it does not surround and embrace. Moreover there is no branching water to create the inner qi. Invariably it does not form a node.

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Branching Water Intersecting the Border Pattern

To the right at the front is a single branch of a great river (the Yangzi) which moves back from the right to the left. To the right at the back is a single branch of the Yangzi which also flows from the right to the left and combines with the flow of the watercourse which moves back to the left at the front to meander and then departs. This is called a situation where the flow of two watercourses merges into one to guide the veins. It is also said that two watercourses merging manifests a true dragon. The dragon approaches the node from the right and then moves toward the left of the situation. In the centre the dragon veins are broad and large. However, it is necessary to seek branching water inserted into the abdomen and cutting the border in order to create the interior of the situation. There must be a dragon and a tiger at the front, back, left and right facing, embracing and protecting the density of the interior. Only then can a node be established. In this situation, small watercourses are inserted into the middle of the abdomen dividing the border to the left and right layer on layer intersecting and confining it with three separations and three combinations to bind the qi and connect with the throat. The dragon veins go to the outer limit of the head with nothing but proper majesty. The form and configurational force are extremely beautiful. There is lateral approach and reception to establish the node at the front where the sand and the water wind around and embrace the area in order to greet the water which approaches from the west. With this the strength of the good fortune is very great.

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In this situation, water is only received from the back. On the right side, it approaches and surrounds the Dark Warrior. Even though the water does not turn its head, at the left side at the back of the situation it meanders and departs. Therefore, there is true qi. Moreover, it is wonderful that a single branch watercourse is inserted where the great watercourse departs. Upward to the left and to the front, (the watercourse) bends, embraces and passes to the right and then there is reception, creating an exterior which binds. Moreover from the left to the right, a single branch of water is inserted and it separates into two limbs. One limb goes to the border at the back of the situation to manifest a dragon vein. The other goes to the front of the situation gathering water to form a pool. The sand and water collectively turn their heads to the left. This is also called a node of approaching laterally but connecting at an angle. At the front there is a small marsh which gathers water. If the node is created opposite the small marsh, it will create the fame of a posted scholar. Branching Water Intersecting the Border Pattern

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Water approaching from the south west is delivered to the east; water approaching from the south emerges at the north east. However, a branch of water inserted in the north east divides at the border to the left and right to create a dragon and a tiger. Sand presses from both sides horizontally at the front and the back. In the middle a branch of water is inserted horizontally, a border is set up in front and to the left and right there are goldfish.47 Thus, the water tightly enfolds. The horizontal water correctly receives the approaching water and there is close protection. With three separations and three combinations the veins of qi are complete and solid. The Classic says that water must have separation and combination. Only where there is combination can the qi be suitable for this situation. After three divisions and combinations, the water turns its head to the west. With the bending and moving, rigidity or straightness is out of the question. Naturally there is no problem with wealth and nobility. If (the water) meanders and approaches from the south east, the dragon veins are even more refined and one’s fame in literary pursuits can be the most outstanding under heaven. Branching Water Intersecting the Water Pattern

Seated below, a branch of water is inserted either from the north east or north west. It meanders away to the south. One path goes to the left and another to the right. Severing the border to the left and right the dragon and tiger interlock and they embrace what is seated below forming the configurational force of the intersection and embrace of the dragon and tiger. At the end there is the formation of ‘the palm of the immortal’,48 which looks up to connect and protect (the node). If it greets the approach47 Jin yu 金魚.There seems to be no trace of this as a technical term. It probably refers to water which is sufficiently slow moving and clean to allow goldfish to flourish. 48 This is the name of a cactus plant.

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ing veins to establish the node and decide the direction, then it is a node which turns to receive. If it yields to the water to establish a node and decide the direction, then it is a node which yields to the branch. If there is the sand of the dragon and the tiger embracing at the front, the beauty necessarily has a rapid effect. Both these two methods are possible. You need only observe how the back and the front respond to each other (to make a choice). If at the front one is greeted by a distant confluence which establishes the direction, it is a node which turns to receive. If at the back there is meandering water with a distant confluence or a distant mountain which manifests the beauty, it is a node which yields to the branch. Even though this configurational force binds the Dark Warrior and bends and embraces like a bow, it certainly does not separate into pools. The outer walls of the city being complete and solid and the configurational force of the situation being completely dense represents one hundred sons and one thousand grandsons, and the vermilion and the purple49 for the whole family. If in the north east or north west one path of water separates into pools and then departs, the power is diminished. Meandering Water Facing the Hall Pattern

pooling

If in front of the node there is meandering water, do not ask whether there are three or five bends. It is in good order on all sides. (The water) passes from the right to the east following the body, turns and embraces and then departs. However, at the back meandering water separates into branches and establishes borders to create layer upon layer of dragons and tigers dividing into lines to the left and right, all turning their heads to face (the node) as if paying obeisance or bowing with arms folded. Behind the node 49 The colour of the clothes of high officials.

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the branching water separates and combines into three openings and four narrowings layer upon layer to connect with the throat and bind the qi into pockets of reception. This form and configurational force are extremely dense. The beautiful water is complete and solid. The meandering of the approaching water manifests the beauty. The approaching veins are honourable and majestic. The dragon and the tiger protect them layer upon layer. This represents having one hundred sons and one thousand grandsons, and in each generation there will be leading scholars, child prodigies and prime ministers. If in front of the node there is a gathering of nourishing water, there is wealth capable of matching the national treasury. If the water approaches from the left, meanders and then departs at the front of the node, the strength of the good fortune is not diminished. However, there is officialdom and nobility without wealth but it is passed on to the family unimpeachably. Meandering Water Facing the Hall Pattern

In general, when observing meandering water directly approach and laterally pass the front of the node, it must be able to follow the body, turn and embrace it and then depart. Seated below there must be branching water which cuts into the border with pockets to receive the dragon veins, or either one, two or three layers must pile up and surround the front and the back of the node. Only then does it become a structured configurational force. The horizontal border receiving the water in front of the node should not be too broad. If it is so, the qi is washed away. It should not be too narrow. If it is so, the qi is rapid in front facing the confluence, the water of which shoots like an arrow and I am afraid that there would be wounding and leakage.

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In this situation, the meandering water goes in one path and winds around one to make a pocket to receive the veins of qi where it is gathered and coagulates. It has a great ability to develop good fortune. However, seated below there is no water of the Dark Warrior or great river to protect it from a distance. Therefore, this is a key connection of a moving dragon but not a complete dragon. Its power as compared to that manifested by two watercourses combining is rather weak. If one obtains departing water at the back of the Dark Warrior which turns its head, meanders and then departs, naturally this is a different matter. Meandering Water Facing the Hall Pattern

In front of the node exquisite water directly approaches and merges with the flow of a horizontal watercourse approaching from the right. It goes back to the left, follows the body, turns, embraces and surrounds the Dark Warrior. However, it also turns its head, looks to the distant north east and flows away. When it approaches, it meanders. When it departs, it turns its head. Furthermore, it intersects with the water to the right. As compared to a single watercourse with a single bend this is really superior. When waters intersect and sand mix, the dragon will be complete and the qi will be concentrated. This is great land. It represents prosperity, wealth, nobility, glory and robustness for the clan. In general, when water on the right goes back to the left to irrigate the hall and at the front there is exquisite water passing by the hall, the development is delayed for the eldest in the family. When water on the right side irrigates the hall and meandering water goes back from the left to the right, there is development for the eldest, the next eldest and youngest. If the water on the right separates from the meandering water in front of the node, pools and then departs, there is no development for the youngest. This, moreover, represents moving, being adopted, changing surname and leaving one’s hometown.

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Meandering Water facing the Hall Pattern

This configurational force goes with the previous one, i.e. meandering water goes around the hall and on arrival at the hall goes around the Azure Dragon and binds the Dark Warrior. In the previous situation, it is dense and presses close, but in this situation, it approaches from the left following the body, presses from beneath and is rather long and broad. The dragon veins return quickly to the Dark Warrior. If the exquisite water at the front desires to move towards the meandering water to establish a node, then the qi gathers at the back and escapes. If the qi desiring to establish a node moves towards a place where qi gathers, then the meandering water is distant and cannot support it completely. With a form and configurational force like this, it is necessary to have branching water inserted into the abdomen. The pockets receive the qi causing it not to obstruct the meandering water at the front and not to escape from the dragon at the back. It is close at the front and dependant at the back. Only then is it able to develop good fortune and represent the nobility of a literary career. In the family the development occurs for the eldest son first, then for the second son and then for the youngest son. If one is able to obtain the spirit of the departing water then the influence will be long lasting. Meandering Water Facing the Hall Pattern

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(The water) either approaches from the left meandering to the hall or goes back to the body from the right to encircle and embrace the Dark Warrior and then depart. Otherwise it approaches from the right meandering to the hall and goes back to the body from the left to encircle and embrace the Dark Warrior and then depart. The bend must be shaped like the character yuan50 or the character zhi,51 be neither slack nor sparse, and be completely majestic and encircling. As for the front of the node, however, (the water) is like a bending bow which follows the body, turns and wraps around to contain it at the back of the node. It is even more auspicious if one obtains this form and configurational force. If the form and configurational force are too broad, in the centre there must be branching water cutting into the border and the purity and rarity of this system of veins makes it wonderful. If the configurational force of the situation is completely dense, even though there is no branching water cutting into the border, it is also possible to establish a node. Meandering Water Facing the Hall Pattern

In general, water which faces the hall must mutually expand and contract, be orderly and well-arranged, and be thick and thin. It should not pull to the east or escape to the west like the wind bending the willows or flattening the grass such that some cover the node and some do not cover the node to give an uneven coverage. Even though the water meanders, it is as though nothing is obtained. This configurational force severs the boundary and connects with the throat. The inner qi harmonises the situation and enables good fortune to be developed. However, it represents the sons and grandsons being licentious, idle, frivolous and wild, drifting along without fixed lodging and 50 元. 51 之.

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neglecting their business. If one gets water to enter the situation creating one or two folds facing and enveloping it, then there is feeling and it certainly represents nobility, peace and stability in the first years. The circulation becomes a swaying motion, shaking the area of the instep which is not free from the solitude of defeat. Meandering Water with a Single Wind Pattern

In general, meandering water which faces the hall must have three horizontal movements and four folds like the characters zhi52 and yuan,53 enfolding and embracing it. It is only good if the water discharges quickly where the turning and enfolding occurs. Even though the approaching water appears to meander, if it is dragged to the east or pulled to the west, one certainly cannot use it. Some forms are like a coiled rope at the front of the node, and even though they appear to meander, if there is one path in front that is not beautiful, it is inauspicious. For those places where there is no gushing and no breaks, there can only be a comfortable family. A case where there is a pounding at either the left, right, front or back and it appears to be divided into pools to a small extent, represents destruction. If the distant water seems like the character cao54 or if the form is like an uncoiled rope, meandering and embracing at the front of the node, this means that there is a passing node which cannot be seen from a distance. If it appears not to clash or spurt forth at the front, it represents thirty to forty years of good fortune. When the day arrives that the water moves, this will recede and decline. One must understand this layout. The beauty of this situation is indescribable because there is a complete external situation as well as solid internal qi. 52 之. 53 元. 54 艸.

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For a watercourse with a single bend, it is only necessary that the meandering has feeling. (The water) approaches from the south east or south west with its even folds, neither pulling nor dragging, neither sparse nor dense. It is not yet connected with the node where there are three or four bends equally thick. Only when it circles in a form similar to that of the full moon, does it become a configurational force of substance. With its departure, the water must also turn its head and look back to the family. This is what is meant by “looking back at the vast I desire to remain”. It is also said that the approach must be like the characters zhi55 and yuan,56 and the departure must be winding. Thus, in a place with a meandering departure what is feared most is a structure like a coiling rope. If the meandering does not proceed very far but conversely proceeds to leap at the back, this is also land that is not connected to the node. With this configurational force the water approaches from the south east. With three or five bends it arrives at the front of the situation, embracing it like the full moon. The front is neither dense nor sparse. There is a singular arrival at the head of one bend which is thick and whose contents are clear. This is the node of the pool in the bend of the water star. The water departing to the north east is a critical situation.

55 之. 56 元.

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Meandering Water with a Single Wind Pattern

  approach



departure

Three traverses and nine bends are face to face with the hall. They are neither sparse nor dense, neither pulling nor dragging. Every bend is completely and solemnly in the proper order. The water binds the Azure Dragon, winds around the White Tiger, turns its head and looks towards home, meandering and then departing. In between there is no branching water inserted into the border. Pockets to the left and right take advantage of the true qi in the middle. This is also called the node of the pool in the bend of the water star. In front of the node the meandering water is proper and solemn. It is proper for the meandering water to be met head-on to establish the direction. This is called the meandering water facing the hall. It winds around the Azure Dragon and encircles the Dark Warrior. It tightly embraces at the back and the front, and to the left and the right and manifests the beauty. This is great land. As a piece of rhyme-prose states, “An official behaves with unsullied nobility, the reason more likely to be the water surrounding the Azure Dragon. If the development of luck is enduring, the reason must be that the water winds around the Dark Warrior. Moreover, meandering water facing the hall with the departing water turning to look back is the most auspicious situation in the water method”. In general, any pooling in the bends should not be too broad or long in that the qi will be meagre and there will be no return. If the node of the Dark Warrior faces the front with correct reception, there will necessarily be the calamity of a stripping of the qi and a loss of the veins. If it appears

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to be broad, it must have pockets of covering water to hinder it. Only then is it beautiful. This configurational force represents the position of first assistant minister, literary undertakings in the court and three generations under one roof as well as refinement, one hundred sons, a thousand grandsons, riches, nobility and longevity. Meandering Water with a Single Wind Pattern

In general, with a watercourse with a single bend, the inside should not be too broad. If it is so, the qi does not return and gather. Moreover, it should not be too narrow. If it is so, the vital qi does not flow smoothly. Therefore, in a situation where the configurational force is wide, the back, front, left and right must have branching water to contain the qi in a pocket and prevent it from being scattered. Only then is it beautiful. If the qi is scattering to the left, it should be closed in from the left. If the qi is scattering to the right, it should be closed in from the right. Moreover, on obtaining water of the Dark Warrior which winds around and goes past the node from behind and wraps around it from above and below, the beautiful qi is complete and solid, and the configurational force of the situation is encircling and dense. This will develop great good fortune. In this situation, the meandering water should face the hall and from the left to the right surround the White Tiger and encompass the Dark Warrior. It retreats, turns its head and departs from the Dark Warrior. Inside the situation, gold is bound to the left and right sandwiched within the border. The qi is gathered. This is a true node. It is also called swimming dragons57 playing in the water. 57 According to the Shen nu fu 神女賦 of the Wen xuan 文選 by Song Yu 宋玉, this indicates beauty of form.

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Meandering Water with a Single Bend Pattern

In general, meandering water approaches from the left to face the hall. It is neither sparse nor dense. It neither drains away nor escapes. Its folds are complete and even. It is proper to establish the node at the place where the meandering water arrives. If a watercourse transversely meets the meandering water and flows at the front of the node, it is necessary to have a small water branch inserted into the border at the back. Only then can it receive the beauty of the meandering water. Two Watercourses Pressing and Binding Pattern

Two water courses pressing and binding from both sides to combine their flow and emerge. The approach is seen to be of the characters zhi58 and yuan59 and the departure is seen to be meandering. The interior of the situation is tightly embraced. It is neither broad nor marshy and does not need the branching water to cut the border to complete the form. It is only necessary to divide it from the centre, tie the waist60 and receive the qi. The configurational force is naturally complete and solid. The two water58 之. 59 元. 60 This comes from the old saying that when a woman ties her waist, she has to breathe in to make the waist small and trim.

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courses combine and emerge at the front and the three to five bends are all evenly meandering. It is necessary to face the bend in the water to establish the direction. Even though this is downstream, the water will neither arrive nor depart in a straight line, so do not be suspicious of it following from the situation. The dragon is complete and the qi concentrated. Moreover, qi can be obtained outside the hall. Thus, the meandering water has feeling and there is sand inside the mingtang like a girl weaver casting the shuttle of a loom. Therefore, (the water) will be hindered one step after the other, and even though the water departs, the qi is naturally firm. This represents the development of literary talents. However, there is only honesty and nobility but no wealth. If the situation is broad and is made up through the insertion of branching water which pools and the turning sand wraps the area of the node, wealth, nobility and plenty will naturally develop. Water Binding the Dark Warrior Pattern external pool

At the front of the situation, a large body of water gathers at the mingtang. It passes from the southeast to the right horizontally, embracing the body and detouring around the Dark Warrior with three or four bends and then departs. Sand and water are locked together directly below. The beauty is behind the node. The method is establishing the direction from the meandering water. Yet, at the front of the mingtang, there is a great body of water. The flowing spirit detours from the south. If one watercourse establishes the direction in the area of the great body of water, both wealth and nobility will be excellent. However, if the gathering water is at the front and beautiful water is at the back, this represents firstly wealth and after-

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wards nobility. If the approaching water comes from the north to the south, the good fortune will be especially strong. The highest grade of scholar will emerge from generation to generation. Primarily there is always the need for enfolding meandering water. If there is a dragging or pulling within an even situation, it will not develop. If it winds to the left, it is for the eldest son. If it winds to the right, it is for the middle or youngest son. With much gain and celebration, the clan will prosper greatly. Water Binding the Dark Warrior Pattern



approach

 departure

In front there is meandering water with three or four bends. From a distance to the confluence it approaches and then turns itself to embrace the location from behind, binding the Dark Warrior and then departing. Entering the path it makes connection with the throat where the qi is tightly bound. Thus, enduring good fortune will develop and wealth and nobility will be in double the amount. The whole clan flourishes vigorously and even after two or three hundred years there is no decline. Water Binding the Dark Warrior Pattern

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Meandering water approaches the confluence directly. Neither thick nor thin, its folds are all even. It follows the body to encircle and embrace it and bind the Dark Warrior, return and then depart. This configurational force is beautiful in the extreme. If one obtains the embrace of the outer limit and what is tightly wedged in between is neither too broad or too narrow, then the method should be to create the node at a place in front of meandering water. If it encircles and embraces itself and it is broad, great, deep and long and a memorial is presented to establish a node at the front, I am afraid that the true qi will dissipate at the back. Even though the node is very near meandering water, it still loses qi. It certainly does not develop good fortune. In contrast, at the back of the meandering water one should seek a place where there is the insertion of a pocket of branching water to fix the node. If the pocket is inserted in the middle then establish the node in the middle. The pocket inserted behind should sit in front of the Dark Warrior. The water of the Dark Warrior creates the returning to receive the node. All that is necessary is that in front of the node one can gaze into the distance and see meandering water as though what is before the eye is beautiful. If inside of the situation which one has established, there is no water branch inserted into the border, it must be done using manpower so that there is no dissipation of the true qi. However, outstandingly beautiful water must only be manifest. The Classic says that where the meandering water facing the hall is beautiful, there can be a node. The water binds and protects tightly and densely, and is close enough to be discerned. If it returns broad and large, the great good fortune developed is necessarily delayed. Water Binding the Dark Warrior Pattern

In general most nodes formed from receiving and returning are (due to) the water binding the Dark Warrior. What the customary teachings state

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that this is due to being seated empty and cutting the back is not incorrect. It is only necessary that with a heavenly source the flow of the water is from east to west and the left and right have branching water inserting into the abdomen, with layer upon layer wrapping around the interior, cutting the border and connecting with the throat. If the separation is pure and the combination unique, the strength of the good fortune is naturally great. If (the water) approaches in a detour to the right, it goes around the Dark Warrior, emerges and departs to the south east. Going around the Azure Dragon to the north slightly diminishes it with the water often flowing to the east. Reject this as being in accordance with the water. If (the water) moves from the south west to the north, turns and detours to the south, and finally flows to the east, then the direction of the node will be towards the west. If one obtains water going around the Dark Warrior, then the strength of the good fortune will be the same as that which goes around the Azure Dragon and binds the Dark Warrior. That is, it uses the configurational force to oppose (any inauspiciousness). If the situation accords with this, it will bring one hundred sons and a thousand grandsons with wealth and nobility for the greatest amount of time. Moreover, in general when water binds the Dark Warrior, it must approach with a winding embrace to enfold it and (one should) rely on the flow to depart several hundred paces away. Only then is it a true structure. If it flows forcefully at the front, and even with a lateral obstruction it departs not appearing to turn its head around, one cannot speak of it as water binding the Dark Warrior. Water binding is its going around (the node). This means turning, surrounding and embracing it. Following the Border of the Water to Embrace (the node) Pattern

This configurational force is the same as the previous situation. However, it is necessary to have an accumulation of water in a marsh at the front of

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the node. If the mingtang does not have an accumulation of water but has branching water in three or four folds in front of the hall, it is like a girl weaver casting the shuttle of a loom. From east to west it is wrapped with sand at the head accumulating which turns protect it. Even though there is no nourishing water, because the meandering is beautiful, branches are produced and it is naturally able to develop flourishing nobility, male children and prosperity. Following the Water Bend in a Hook Pattern

Meandering water in a hanging fish hook has two configurational forces. One has meandering water horizontally approaching and at the extremity it looks up finally to create a hook. The other has meandering water approaching directly and at the extremity it turns and embraces like a fish hook. Both of these configurational forces can create a node. It is only necessary that the meandering of the approaching water is neither sparse nor dense, neither pulls nor drags and is completely uniform. Either the place greeting the approach of the meandering water represents the direction, or the spreading of the meandering water creates a confluence, or one decides on the node at the extremity of the hanging hook. This represents being the foremost scholar at a young age, having nobility for a whole generation and being famous for literary work and flourishing for a time. Meandering Water Returning in a Hook Pattern

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The Azure Dragon has water meandering around itself, embracing and winding around the Dark Warrior, turning back to look towards home and departing. This is the configurational force of surrounding the Azure Dragon and binding the Dark Warrior. However at the Dark Warrior, (the water) folds into the middle of the abdomen, inserting a single branch, pulling itself into a hook and forming a node. This is certainly able to develop good fortune. Even though there is no auspicious beauty in front of the node, the confluence of the sand and water responds and thus seats veins. The situation behind the node is completely full of qi. This is ample for male children, extreme prosperity, nobility and longevity. This is a truly auspicious type. Severed Qi Welcoming the Confluence Pattern

In front, a configurational force of meandering water bending and winding approaches from a great distance. The water meets horizontally with a great river. Certainly both do not have branching water to receive (qi), and the dragon veins are washed away and scattered as though it would be difficult to establish a node. However, several hundred paces after there is another watercourse moving laterally through the middle of the border and a water branch inserted into the middle of the abdomen like a hook. It is hooked either to the left or right and is opposite the meandering water. Even when this is looked at from a distance of several hundred paces, it is as though it is right in front of your eyes. Just here you can cut the vein and establish the node to meet the beauty of the front confluence and the meandering water. This is called the node which cuts the qi and greets the confluence. This certainly represents the development of good fortune but not that of longevity because the veins of the dragon are incomplete. If it is sandwiched to the left and right, the border is layered and dense and the water of the Dark Warrior looks up and embraces it like a bow, there must

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be good fortune in the end. This good fortune can be great and it can be of long duration. Because the confluence is distant and does not move near, the development should be delayed for several hundred years. After it has developed, it must flourish because of the greatness of the configurational force of large rivers. Severed Qi Welcoming the Confluence Pattern

The meandering water approaches from afar and arrives at a connection with the situation but then simply flows horizontally and does not appear to turn its head. This, in fact, is the configurational force of entering the bosom and conversely leaping. From basic principles, it does not have the ability of reception. However, with meandering water with three lateral movements and four bends where the folds are even and there is neither dragging nor diagonal escape, the configurational force is beautiful and can be loved. If there is branching water inserted behind the beautiful water, winding and embracing it like a hook, the basic situation also has branching water inserted behind it. Looking up to enclose like a hook, even though the dragon veins have not yet come to an end, they return to the meeting point, cut the qi and establish a node. By taking advantage of the beauty of the meandering water, good fortune is definitely able to be developed. If the meandering water is just in front of your eyes, it only takes two or three years to develop. If it is more than one hundred paces away, it will take thirty to forty years to begin to develop. However, in the end this meandering water is still leaping back and is unable to return to the origin. Thus, the wealth will not exceed ten thousand pieces of gold, and the nobility will not exceed the rank of the third grade.61 After two generations, there will be a decline and a move to another province where one will also emerge as the foremost scholar. 61 三品. There were nine ranks of nobility from yipin to jiupin (1st grade to ninth grade). According to the lizhi 禮志 of the Song shu, someone with the rank of sanpin could ride in a carriage.

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A Distant Confluence Connecting with the Beauty Pattern

Meandering water faces the hall, turns from left to right and simply follows the body embracing and turning around itself. However, there is also a guest watercourse which approaches from the east to wind around the Dark Warrior and combines with the meandering water at the back of the situation. This is surely two watercourses forming a configurational force, yet inside the meandering water there is no cutting into the border to form a node. Conversely, in the guest watercourse a branch of water is inserted laterally behind the meandering water which holds and receives the beauty of the meandering water. This is called grafting the peach with the plum. It is also named forcefully inviting the lord to change residence and surname. Either the son enters the wife’s family, necessarily developing great nobility; or travels far from the native place, registers under another name and becomes successful; or achieves fame at the frontier; or as one of the literati becomes successful in military affairs or as a soldier succeeds in literary pursuits; or progresses along an unusual path. All of these are not yet able to be known. However, the configurational force of the situation is surrounded and the veins of qi are complete and solid. This surely represents the clan flourishing and gaining good fortune over a long time. A Distant Confluence Connecting with the Beauty Pattern

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In general, for a distant confluence to be connected with beauty, it is necessary to have meandering water facing the hall. It either moves back to the left or to the right. In the basic situation, there is no branching water inserted into the border to achieve the form. However, at another place there is branching water inserted into the border forming a golden plate62 or facing the palm of a hand which is supporting the meandering water from below. This situation is also called catching the beauty. If behind the node there are once again branches of water which wrap around and accept the Dark Warrior and combine with the meandering water to flow together in one path and then depart, the mouth of the watercourse should consider the meandering water as the lord. If the branching water behind does not combine and flow with the meandering water of the Dark Warrior, then the mouth of the watercourse must consider the departure point of the water branch of the original node as the lord. In the area of departing water, the water must meander and turn its head, intersect and surround it so that it does not leak. Only then is it great land. Where the meandering water departs, even though it does not wind, this does no harm because the original branching water is the primary spirit of the dragon and the meandering water is, after all, the guest watercourse whose beauty is the only necessity in order to develop good fortune. The meandering or straightness of the departing flow is not related to the basic dragon. Therefore only just in front of the primary chen63 of the departing flow of the meandering water is ennobling. This type of land represents entering the wife’s family64 or taking another path and registering in another name. A Flowing Spirit and a Gathering of Water Pattern

62 According to the Tao qian chuan 陶謙傳 of the Hou han shu 後漢書, this denotes a plate of great beauty. 63 辰. 64 The extremely negative connotation of this in cultural terms should be noted.

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In general, when two parallel watercourses approach and trace the dragon to combine at the front of the situation, much of the water departs in a straight line from the front of the mingtang. Men always point to this as land that obeys the water or a dragon that obeys the water. They do not know that water which is connected to the land is always that which departs facing the front. It is only necessary that it appears to meander, and then it is auspicious. If there is a straight departure, the configurational force is that of a large mouth. However, in front of the situation there must be nourishing water so that direct approach and departure are prevented. Then, it is valuable. This is because if it pools then flows again, accumulates then leaks out, even though it departs, it certainly does no harm and is auspicious. Now if there is a straight departure facing the front, there is certainly no pooling in front of the situation and the departing water absolutely has no confinement. This creates great fear. If there are three lateral movements and four bends, the water turns its head to me and flows away again, gently stirring a feeling of love and attachment, and departure seemingly cannot be endured, then this truly is water which turns its head and thinks of home. For that which turns its head and thinks of home at the front, the development is near and quick. For that which turns its head and thinks of home at the back the development is far and slow. This is not very distant from the passing the node, turning and embracing type of situation. How can we discard a situation when it follows this structure? A Flowing Spirit and a Gathering of Water Pattern

Of the eighteen patterns, this is the first with gathered water facing the hall because the water produces money and official pay, which are the vital aspects of wealth and nobility. Therefore, where the water spirit is scattered

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and uncontrolled, not only is there no development, but this also means decline and exhaustion. Therefore, when the ancients discussed water, they did not speak of it washing away, but said that if the water was not blocked, there must be accumulated water at the front of the situation. Only then would it be an auspicious place. With this configurational force, to the left and right are sandbars embracing inwards. Moreover, at the front you see many watercourses which converge together to form a pool. The beauty, then, is in the approach of the many and the departure of the few which only take one path to the north east, encircling the Azure Dragon and winding around the Dark Warrior. This is what is called a configurational force where there is confluence at a great gathering of water, and vigour at a pool that will decline from leakage at the back. The situation is complete and dense, a multitude of watercourses gather at the hall, and it is sincerely in all ways great land. This represents one hundred sons, one thousand grandsons, the vermilion and purple of the imperial court, and the enjoyment of good fortune and prosperity for three to four hundred years. The eldest, the second and the youngest sons will all flourish. However, the pool should not be too broad. The criteria for water of many men are not mine. Feelings are extensive yet in the development of good fortune they are not exclusive. A Flowing Spirit and a Gathering of Water Pattern

The watercourse of the original heavenly body65 separates into two paths behind the node following the dragon to the front of the node where the flows emerge and combine. However, they also come together to form a lake in the river. To the left and right, a pair of sand horns face and embrace the lake. In the middle are small sandbars which are circular, square or 65 This can mean either the first light of day break, an auspicious star or a group of stars.

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long. They (seem to) float horizontally on the surface of the water, interlocking to form a gate and a fence. Certainly, one does not see any gushing forth at the water mouth. Even though this is a watercourse of the original heavenly body, it moves to the node and appears to be flowing to gather and nourish as an extensive body of water. It is certainly different from the greatness of the configurational force of the watercourse of the original heavenly body which emerges directly. This represents great wealth, great nobility, good fortune, strength and longevity. If in front of the node in the middle of the lake there is no sand horn to stem the flow, this also does no harm. It is only necessary that there are lips of sand enfolding and embracing to the left and right; then it is good. Do not consider the indications of the flow of the watercourse of the original heavenly body to be obeying water. Old rhyming prose states that the watercourse of the original heavenly body which has the intention to emerge in the heart in a straight line is not necessarily evil. It is only necessary that a lake is formed to laterally impede the flow to cause good fortune. A Flowing Spirit and a Gathering of Water Pattern

This is of the category of several lakes and accumulated sand. In itself there is much bordering water behind the node and also a great deal of internal qi, which is sufficient. It is not the same as that which is flat or sloping. A Flowing Spirit and a Gathering of Water Pattern

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With this configurational force water accumulates at the mingtang and two watercourses enfold it to the left and right. They combine at the front to flow horizontally passing the node either to the left or right and emerge to depart in only one path. At the front of the node the accumulated water forms a lake. Inside the mingtang, the dragon and the tiger enfold and embrace (the node) layer upon layer. This certainly is great land. Even though the front of the situation faces the south and bows with arms folded, it is only necessary that the underlying sand is inserted contrary to the water and is densely gathered as though it does not tolerate the flowing away of the water spirit. Thus, the essential spirit coagulates and gathers not detracting from the many watercourses facing the hall. However, one can only expect to serve the government and to have much money. One would not expect to be a foremost scholar because there is no beautiful water in front of the node enfolding it and paying homage to it. The interior and exterior of the hall having two or three layers to confine it represents three to four hundred years of good fortune and strength with many sons and grandsons and continual glory and splendour. After twenty four years there will be nobility. Even though there is no fame, the wealth, happiness, splendour and nobility will enable longevity. The reason is that the water is still and concentrated but it is not marshy and does not leak away. A Single Horizontal Watercourse Impediment Pattern

The Classic says that good water is like string of a bow, and good sand is like a Buddhist monk meditating. The significance of these words is that we desire water to meander and embrace and sand to be proper and rigid. It is also said that the water must bend and encircle in the form of a jade belt embracing the body and turning and surrounding the seat of the particular city. It is also said that the external water being like a belt, the internal water being like a hook and the veins of qi being complete and solid create counts and marques.

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The ‘fragment of gold’ fu (rhyming prose)66 states that for sand it is necessary that the node within the sand is not broken and for water it is necessary that it winds around the body and the qi is naturally complete. If the external form is like a belt but the interior is straight and long and is unable to form a hook which looks inwards, then it seems to be correct when facing the interior but in fact it is not. What this means is that the approach does not connect with the throat and the true qi is scattered. With this configurational force, at the front of the situation the bordering water meanders and embraces in the form of a full moon. The water to the left and right also follows the body and returns and embraces. Beyond the wall of the hall the situation is densely surrounded. Seated below to the left and right the water surrounds and embraces in a hook-like fold and connects with the throat at the front. The flow of the separate watercourses combines, the sand again obtains qi and the confluence turns its head to the node with feeling. This represents one hundred sons and a thousand grandsons, good fortune happiness and long life. It is truly a situation of a great type. A Single Horizontal Watercourse Impediment Pattern

The Book says that for observing a node, it is necessary to look at the pools to the left and right; for observing water, it is necessary to look at the sands to the left and right; for observing the three yang,67 it is necessary to look at the city in which it is located; and for observing the mingtang, it is necessary to look at its four corners. 66 This seems to be the name of a former piece of fu prose on fengshui but as yet there is no trace of this. It could also refer to the general meaning of ‘fragment of gold’ fu which is a remnant of writing which is considered to be good literature because of it being simple, short and beautiful. 67 三陽. According to the Yin yang li he lun of the Su wen, the human body has three yin and three yang. The three yang are tai yang, shao yang and yang ming.

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With this configurational force, the front of the node is surrounded and embraced like a belt or a bow, either gathering on the left or nestling up against the right, tightly pressing on both sides to form a pocket to receive the qi. There is certainly no melting away or scattering. Even though in between there is no branching water inserted into the border, the qi is still complete and solid. If it is somewhat large, then there is a necessity for branching water to receive and gather (the qi). Only then can it develop good fortune and longevity. If there is meandering water extending over a vast distance at the front, no matter whether far or near the confluence bows towards the front with arms folded. Do not question whether it approaches from the left or the right; all are beautiful situations. This represents having a brilliant reputation in literary circles. If the left is beautiful, rely on the left to develop the elder. If the right is beautiful, rely on the right to develop the younger. If both the left and right are equally beautiful, the eldest, middle and youngest sons equally develop. A Single Horizontal Watercourse Impediment Pattern

The Book says that for observing a node, it is necessary to look at the pools to the left and right; and for observing water, it is necessary to look at the sands to the left and right. The interior of the present situation is close and tight and the goldfish water separates and combines. It proceeds to the front, returns and embraces. At the back there is a connection with the throat. If in front there is a wrapping to take advantage of the sand turning the water, then the configurational force is truly beautiful. It is also said that sand must turn its head around and that water must follow. Then the sand and the water skilfully encircle (the node) like a belt. At the front of the present situation, the water encircles and embraces like a belt, tightly sandwiching and binding (the qi). The dragon qi has strength and the form and the configurational force is the most beautiful. Face to face with it, it seems that there is water gathering contrarily but it does no harm. One can change the outline using manpower, by opening up the water on each side to the left

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and right within the hall and inserting it to create the interior so that one does not feel that it is contrary. This land will develop good fortune, strength and longevity equally for the eldest, middle and youngest sons and this will not decline over the whole age. Bordering Water with Frontal Embrace Pattern

With this configurational force, branching water inserts into the front of the situation wrapping and embracing it with sand to the left and right. The qi tightly encircles as though indeed there is feeling. However, if there are pools and marshes sitting below and sand horns in pairs flying and scattering, then even though the qi in front has been received, the qi behind is not nourished. The qi in front is the external qi. The qi behind is the internal qi. The external is filled; the internal is empty. With such land, even though a small amount of money is developed, in the end there is no great good fortune or nobility. There is a lack of males in the population. Bordering Water with External Embrace Pattern

With this configurational force, the dragon and the tiger face and embrace the front of the situation layer upon layer, winding and encircling it like a bow. This is beautiful in form and configurational force. However, in front of the node to the left and right are sand horns rigid and straight and without feeling. With the external form it can be observed; with the internal form, the obstruction can be felt. Rhyming prose states that with the internal straight and the external hooked, it can be cut limitlessly. If this rigid straightness can be gotten rid of using manpower to create a meandering

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configurational force, this is great land. One should not abandon it because of the insufficiency of the inner form. Configurational Force of Twin Coiled Dragons Pattern

Within this configurational force the sand and water are massed clouds and there are twin coiled dragons and a single coiled dragon. In general, for a coiled dragon to connect with the node there must be a mass of sand and water circling and completely binding it like a mass of encircling clouds. Only then does the coil connect with the form and the configurational force and the qi gather and not scatter. If there is no meandering or winding encirclement of the configurational force, then even though (the water) turns its head to face the node, it is not, after all, a coiled dragon connected with the node. To the left and right of this situation the configurational force of the guest sand is like a pair of dragons encircling and winding layer upon layer, and not merely clouds protecting the sun. Therefore, it is called the configurational force of twin coiled dragons. Moreover, in general a coiled dragon connected with the node must have nourishing water inside the mingtang and perhaps have a small amount of sand to look after it. Only then is it beautiful. If in the middle of this situation there is the long and the short with a small amount of sand, it is the greatest combination of the type. If one can obtain this form and configurational force, they will develop good fortune for the greatest amount of time. For land with a dragon coil there is no calamity of blowing wind or gushing water. Some nodes are not completely perfect. However, even if they do not develop great good fortune nor great wealth, they will not damage the household terribly. The household divides the nobility evenly yet it is not arrogantly wealthy and yet not miserly. The men and women are pure and incorruptible and their reputations are admirable. The sons and the grandsons can maintain their integrity but do not enter govern-

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ment service even though they have three calls to arms68 and nine invitations69 for employment. For this all of the veins of qi should be concealed. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

In general, for sand and water massing in clouds, most will connect nodes of a coiled dragon. One branch of water emerges. One branch of water enters and encircles the plate connecting all that is in the centre of the situation. The place that is connected with the node must have water broadening and gathering into pools and marshes. The centre is marshy, enabling the veins of qi to survive with the excess of water. Only then is it beautiful. If it is not thus, then this is the city of the turbaned head. Water of the city of the turbaned head is called water of the headdress. The nodal qi is pressed tightly so that it cannot flow through and conversely it becomes isolated. This is the significance of the Classic saying that if the mountain captures the waters flow, the king will be captured and the duke destroyed.70 In this map, deep and extensive pools and marshes spread out at the front of the node. They are close together but do not close in on the node. This naturally enables the development of good fortune. The sons and grandsons have long life. At home there is filial piety and outside there is brotherly love. By natural disposition they are intelligent and industrious. Some become famous and rich from their clever artistry. This is because the beauty of approaching water is unable to meander.

68 This can either mean to be enlisted in the army or to be given an official position, the latter meaning being preferred here. 69 There seems to be no dictionary definition of this term but this could refer to the nine different ranks of ministers in the court. 70 This is a paraphrase of a line occurring on the third page of the translation of the Burial Classic of Qing Wu (see Chapter 3). It also occurs referring to a classic in the Book of Burial Rooted in Antiquity (see JDBS, p. 5L)

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In the areas between Hu Lake and the Han River to places such as Zhejiang and Jiangsu, the land is universally the lowest. In ancient times when people cultivated the farmland, they mostly filled in the low so it was level with the high. All was done by moving the sand and sediment to create fields. Thus much small grained sediment was grouped together to become the configurational force of a node. However, much of it is uneven in size and incomplete in terms of the direction of the horizontal and diagonal. It is scattered with little massed together. Such land also has connection with a node. It is necessary to follow the sand and interpret where the head of the sand faces. If it appears to be completely even with no sparse or dense areas, then one can seek the centre in the middle of the accumulated sand to establish the place. Looking all around there is sand wrapped within, stored and gathered to contain nourishment. One does not feel the leaking of the wind. This land is extremely auspicious. It represents one hundred sons and a thousand grandsons, wealth, nobility and longevity. The node should face an area in the middle of closely related sand and water enabling the approach to be greeted and received at the front. Only then is it beautiful. If there are many small areas of sand and the embrace of the large areas of sand ends at a distance, I am afraid that near the body it will be pierced and it will leak. To obtain the node, it is necessary for sand to be to the left and right with goldfish water closely attached and tightly embracing it in order to protect it from draughts. Then the qi will flourish and be firm. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

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Accumulated water pours into the hall gathering and nourishing it to become a lake of either one or two qing71 or eighty or ninety mu.72 To the left and right of the node, sand arises strip by strip sandwiching the body in contrast to the insertion of the water and emerging to protect the small node. Four, five, six or seven layers in pairs turn their heads to face and enfold the form as though reining in a horse. The power is considerable and this is great land. Some had considered this to be an agitated dragon passing through a gorge. The approaching qi was not clear, so they decided to abandon it. This was wrong. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern (Also called Kicking the Ball topography.)

The sand forms a hook which kicks like horse hooves, like boot tips and like the edge of a leather-knife. The guest sand wraps around (the node) and is seated below it. Water approaches in front of the node nourishing and gathering to become a lake. A single watercourse binds the Dark Warrior and turns to the left. Two sandbars naturally encircle (the node) together, the wall of the situation is complete and solid and there is no water cutting into it. This is definitely great land. Water approaching the node from the right should be greeted from the right. The hall is correct and one should not feel that it is oblique. In establishing the node, it must correctly receive the lake. Only then is it beautiful. Even though there is no cover of sand correlated with it, this naturally establishes the situation. If the accumulated water is straight and long, there must be a small sandbar correlated with it because the mingtang water likes to be long and horizontal like a long table. It should not be vertical and long like bamboo. A node such as this means wealth and nobility. The sons and the grandsons accumulate honour and renown over the generations. If the water of 71 頃, 100 mu or approximately 15.13 acres. 72 畝, a land measure equal to 733.5 square yards.

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the Dark Warrior winds in a reverse direction and enters the mingtang and facing the front departs in a straight path, the node also receives it horizontally and this is auspicious. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern (Also called the Double Kicking the Ball topography or a Pair of Ducks Hanging from Hooks.)

To the left and right two sand bars turn their heads and spread out inside a lake. They pass through nodes from the centre as though the nourishing water is inside the hall. (The water) is straight and long and there must be a cover of sand to protect and conceal (the nodes). Therefore these are called a pair of hanging hooks.73 This form is like that of the leather knife and boot mouth. Therefore it is spoken of as kicking the ball in that one has to kick up from the joint. Then on establishing the node the power begins to be great. If it is obstructed from the side, it is not able to develop beauty. This land represents the double honour of the highest rank in the civil service examinations. However, one arrives at nobility through wealth. Some will contribute grain to the government in return for an official post to advance their fame. Then afterwards one becomes an official of literary leanings arriving without doubt to a waist pocket full of gold. The left node first develops the second son. The right node first develops the eldest son. This represents prosperity, longevity, filial piety, brotherly love, loyalty, and faith. If the obstruction of the nodes proceeds too far, the qi is scattered and is not received. It is difficult to develop nobility. The two nodes are similarly cut off.

73 Literally a pair of mandarin ducks hanging on hooks.

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Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

In general, when a multitude of sand bars converge into the centre, there are five different configurational forces. One is where water gathers in front of the node, surrounds the sand and they respond to each other. One is where there is water gathered at the mingtang, a nearby sand bar wedges it in between and turns, and two distant sand bars enfold it. Another is where the body itself is very long and straight, it emerges from a lake and the external sand has a distant response. A further one is where in the middle of the lake there is a multitude of sand bars enclosing (the node) and naturally converging together into the centre. The last one is where there are a multitude of sand bars gathered inside the situation, and outside of it there are large surrounding sand bars. All five of these are great land. In this situation the water gathering at the mingtang enables the nearby sand to be supplemented. In front of the node there is a lake and the distant sand enfolds it. The external sand surrounds the water and the external water is sandwiched between the sand. The configurational force of this situation is especially auspicious. If one can obtain an even greater unevenness in front of the node in terms of the distant and nearby sand, this manifests beauty and it will be of great wealth and great nobility. If there is no sand to create a response at the front even though there is a great deal of surrounding and sandwiching to the left and right, the hall is empty and wealth does not manifest. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

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There are many places with lakes that have connected nodes such as the heart of the waves swaying in the moon, the wild geese descending to the flat sand, and the floating gulls skimming the water. If one investigates (such situations) before establishing the node, he will surely develop good fortune. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

In this place, islands are anchored in a lake, and stretching for as far as the eye can see there are either dozens or hundreds of small sandbars. The large ones are six or seven mu. The small ones are two or three 3 mu. One sees an area between the reeds and grasses. Thus, one searches from the centre and finds that there is a large sandbar of ten or twelve mu inside with a branch of water inserted into the border, securing the body and wrapping around and embracing it. To the left and right are small sandbars which are either long or short. They are crowded into a clump like bees following the queen. Each of them gathers together, turns its head and salutes towards the direction (of the node). The small sandbars bind together like a linked chain, layer on layer, and they do not appear to be penetrated or to leak. Seated below near to the situation is a horizontal sandbar so that (the node) is blocked at the back. In front of the node there are small sandbars one by one like gulls floating on the water. They are arranged horizontally as though falling into line, lined up like a guard of soldiers, separated as though in the reverse of random display, and grouped like an army being stationed to surround the commander. This form and configurational force represents the power to shake the frontier by leading the army as a great general, either by exercising sovereign powers in a captured territory or by separating from the couch grass and becoming a king. If there is an upside down flag in contrary to the sand, this represents the emergence of ruffians.

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Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

Many nodes anchored in a river have a multitude of sandbars clustered together which whether far or near turn their heads to face the node. In the middle there should be a single sandbar which is upright, solemn and completely even. As far as one can see, on each side, to the left, right, back and front there is a long sandbar embracing and turning its head to the node like a great general seated in his barracks and directing his mass of troops to station themselves around him. Moreover, it is like an official seated in a government office with civil officers and servants falling into a line. The banks on all sides depart together with the lake for a half to one li, which seems to be distant yet seems to be near. At the same time, the multitude of sandbars enfold and protect (the node). They seem to be in front of the eyes as though paying obeisance, bowing with hands folded, bowing down, and prostrating themselves, completely even, proper and solemn. Seated below there is also a horizontal sandbar to block (the node) at the back to stop any leakage. If it is like this, then the form and configurational force represent blessed earth, self-government, wealth to match the national treasury, one hundred sons, a thousand grandsons, good fortune, strength and longevity. This represents even more the emergence of the model of filial piety, righteousness, loyalty and goodness in each generation. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

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A multitude of sandbars converge into the centre like the spokes of a wheel and a multitude of watercourses gather at the hall. To both the left and right there are two or three layers of long sandbars embracing and protecting (the node). The heads of the sandbars on both sides face the front and turn. They are neither rigid nor straight and are not in an opposite direction. At the back seated below there is a horizontal sandbar as a support. In the middle there is a branch of water which acts as a border to divide the dragon and the tiger and to establish the direction. Towards the front, distant sandbars to the left and right seem interested in the hall. The configurational force is like guards who congregate in a line bowing or saluting. In the middle, there is a lake and beyond there is a distant mountain or a long sandbar. Because the broad expanse of the water in the centre and the small sandbars like the moon and the stars are arranged in a line at the front, this form and configurational force is one of greatest victory. It represents wealth and nobility continuing into the distance, producing property worthy of a prime minister, bravery and great talent, a myriad sons and grandsons, the like of which seldom exists in the world. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

The area of the lakes and marshes is several tens of qing, in the middle of which abruptly arises two or three pieces of land. The large are several hundred mu. The small are fifty or sixty mu in area. They clump together enfolding (the node) and gathering from all sides to face each other. The corners of the sand gather together and turn their heads like a group of horses gathering to feed at the trough. However, one should investigate this to discover which of the sand is correctly aligned and whether there is branching water. If there is branching water which cuts in to form a border and connect with the throat, to divide and combine, then all will be very clear and there will be certain proof that you are looking at what is to the left and right of the mingtang. If the confluence embraces (the node), it has feeling. The water of the lakes

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receives it and proceeds to nourish the front of the node in order to create the interior of the mingtang. In front of the situation there are even more distant sandbars because, even though on observation the lakes are large, one does not feel that they are scattered and overflowing, but instead there is a feeling that the wall of the situation is everywhere dense. So this is great land. The extreme wealth of the node matches that of the national treasury and is equal to that of kings and princes. This is because the middle of the lakes is in exclusive possession of the essential spirit and there is nothing to spare. It comes to the point where generation upon generation both distant and near consider the multitude or singularity of sand and water meeting and bowing as decisive. Therefore, the more sand and water meeting and enfolding there is, the more auspicious it is. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

With this configurational force, at the front there is a lake which horizontally covers a thousand qing. The area behind the situation seems limitlessly empty. However, there is laterally branched water to complete it. In front of the node there is also water and sand. So it is not too broad and overflowing, and you feel that the essential spirit is complete and solid. With this type of form and configurational force, it is not necessary to ask whether the water is approaching or departing. You should only investigate how the qi is gathered and connected. The wealth and nobility of this node are both perfect and the strength of the good fortune is immeasurable. Lakes, Marshes and Gathered Sand Pattern

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At both the front and the back there are long horizontal sandbars. At both the right and the left there are vertical sandbars wrapping around (the node). However, in the middle there are small horizontal sandbars which are either three to four mu or seven to eight mu and which do not have branching water inserted into the border. Qi is stored in the centre of the accumulated sand. The corners of the vertical sandbars at the left turn, embrace, hook, enfold and bind (the node). To the left, right, back and front there is water. Even though it penetrates and surrounds everything, it can be observed that in the middle of the node there is certainly no seeping out. If it is like the spokes of a wheel and gathers densely with the accumulated sand encircling the direction, not daring to oppose it, then true qi is gathered. In general, when looking at such land, it is necessary to first look at where the left, right, front and back are facing. If the heads of the sand gather together to face the interior, then establish the node in the centre where it relies on nothing. There is no need for concern as to whether the sand is large or small. If the sand has opposing qi, whether it faces the interior, faces the exterior, or on the contrary leaps, is not land which gathers true qi and one must not seek a node there. This is completely in the power of the eye. Looking far and wide, there are many places with lakes that have small sandbars of either twenty to thirty kuai,74 two to three mu, or five to six mu, which are massed together around a centre containing a lake. This sand imprints itself bit by bit on the surface of the water like gulls floating on the water.75 Yet beyond the small sandbars, there are long sandbars encircling the interior. One can see to the left, right, front and back water penetrating and surrounding. Outside there are also large long sandbars whose corners wrap around. If you do not see any inadequacies, then an extremely beautiful situation is the result. Therefore, among the small sandbars, you recognise a single, central sandbar whose shape is complete and even. To the left, right, back and front are small sandbars. Even though they are scattered, they turn to face (the node), gathering together to protect it. They are neither far nor near, neither sparse nor dense. Since the form is not that of the head of a goose and the feet of a duck, the exterior has even more large sandbars curving, embracing and surrounding (the node). If they are dense, complete and solid, this is a great situation. 74 塊. 75 This is an indication of some knowledge of the siltation of low level rivers and delta formation.

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This node absolutely represents great nobility. If it appears that in the middle there are small sandbars but there is no lake inserted within them to nourish (the node), then refinement does not manifest. This represents literary works in the Hanlin academy, but not extreme wealth. Meandering Water with Diagonal Flight Pattern

In general, the approach and departure of water must face and embrace (the node) following the body. In particular, it must wind around and meander. The approach must be deep. The departure must turn its head, bind and encircle (the node). This configurational force approaches to the left in front of the node and embraces it to the right seeming as though it could create a node. However, if the form is like the character zhi76 even though it appears to meander, the configurational force seems like dragging a thick rope with a bend inclined to one side and it is not beautiful. This means that it is proper to call it an inclined approach and it is improper to say that it faces the hall. With the water departing on the right side even though it turns itself and goes past to complete the situation, it is not distant and turns to the left conversely leaping and obliquely flying. What is more if it does not turn its head and look towards home, the departing water seems as though it does, yet it does not. As for those branches of water attached to the body to the left and right, even if they cut in like the stroke of a brush, the node is only able to develop for a short time and is then corrupted. If there is an error in recognising the subtlety of the water as being (merely) a belt, it is the same as obtaining the singular but abandoning the hundred. This is because although the water city is secure, it certainly needs to be surrounded and embraced, and the approach and departure should also face and enfold it. The Book says that one should not arrange the node 76 之.

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in a place where there is an oblique approach with a bend as though dragging a rope. It is also said that if water turns its head, one speaks of glancing towards home. With water which does not look towards home, the family must be shattered. Observe this and you can understand the arrangement of the approach and departure of water. Meandering Water with Diagonal Flight Pattern

evil spirit

In general, approaching water must follow and attach itself to the body, surrounding and encompassing (the node) in a complete circle. If it passes by the node and flows obliquely, it is called obliquely flying. If it passes by the node and departs in the opposite direction, it is called conversely leaping.77 Both obtain their names from being unable to protect the node. Even when one side is enclosed, if one side is oblique or in the opposite direction, the qi of the node leaks. Being gathered and scattered at the same time, the qi does not coagulate. Even if it is able to develop good fortune, it is not lasting. The Classic says that for water which just passes the node then conversely leaps, disaster will occur straight after any development. If the water approaches naturally horizontally but passes by the node and departs in the opposite direction, then both the left and right do not have water in embrace. Although there is branching water to enclose and receive (the qi), it does not completely gather it and a node in this place necessitates misfortune. The Classic says that if the approach does not bow to the node and the departure does not pay obeisance to the hall, then whoever meets this form and configurational force will be ruined and destroyed as quickly as an echo. This truly means this situation. If the leap is to the left, it is for the eldest in the house. If it is to the right, the youngest are destroyed. 77 The definition of these terms are finally given after they have been used extensively.

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A Small City Contrary to the Leap Pattern

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In general, water must draw near, surround and embrace the body like a girdle or a bow. If it enfolds it from the left and right, true qi gathers and coagulates. If the node is embraced to the east, qi gathers to the east. If the node is embraced to the west, qi gathers to the west. The Classic says that the bordering water is what is used to stop the approaching dragon and the meandering embrace is what is used to gather the qi of the node. With this configurational force, the water encircles the front of the node in the opposite direction and goes upward like an upside down bow or an overturned tile. Neither the left nor right draw near the body, embracing the underneath and conversely leaping and obliquely flying. In reality the feeling is in the direction of the front but not towards the back. Even though the node has branching water protecting it to the left and right and it seems to have feeling, in fact it has no feeling; it seems to gather qi but it actually does not. Although there is some temporary development, in the end there must be defeat and loss because the water to fear most is at the back of the city. The Book says that with conversely leaping at the back of the city, the members of the family will be sent into distant exile. If one considers that this branching water turns and embraces (the body) enfolding it to the left and right to create a node, he will be leading people astray completely. A Water City in Contrary to the Leap Pattern

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In general, for land in which true qi is gathered, the sand and the water must have the ability to return and they must have an attachment. It is as though they were paying obeisance, bowing and turning their head. It is like the whipped horse lying prostrate. It is like water in the image of a sleeping bow. It is like the characters zhi78 and yuan,79 binding and winding about (the node), turning its head towards home as though it cannot bear to depart. This is the “looking out at the vastness I desire to remain” as stated in the Classic. If the right is contrary to a left approach, the left is contrary to a right approach, the back is contrary to a front approach, the front is contrary to a back approach, the front approach is like the character ren80 written upside down, the back approach is like the character ren written in the normal way, there is no pocket-like reception at the source and at the end of the water there is no intention to hook and to embrace (the node), then the configurational force is called the node of the four oppositions. This represents the disobedience of the sons and grandsons to their parents. There is no father. There is no lord. The father, sons and brothers kill each other. If it is small, then the village is seized and plundered. If it is large, there is a rebellious plot. This is the land where the residents are killed, the family ruined, the religion overturned and the entire clan destroyed. The left being contrary represents the boys absconding. The right being contrary represents the girls eloping. The front being contrary represents pestilence. The back being contrary represents fire and robbery. The front, back, left and right all being contrary represent disobedience to the parents, incurring punishment, and being without heir or posterity. By no means is one able to consider the connected flow of four watercourses as a good situation and thus make it a node. Approaching Water Colliding with the City Pattern

evil spirit 78 之. 79 元. 80 人.

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This watercourse either approaches from the left, presses on both sides of the body and descends from the right or approaches from the right, presses on both sides of the body and descends from the left. In front of the node the water is like a belt or a bow. The left and right also have branching water merging with the border to enfold and press on both sides. For a large part of this form and configurational force, it seems that a gathering of qi can indeed be observed. However, it is necessary that there is meandering water to the left and right of the mingtang to approach and face (the node). Only then is this beautiful land. In the present situation, the water approaching from the front is straight like an arrow and there is not even a slight meandering. The true qi is shot by the approaching water. This is a broken node. Even though it develops wealth and official pay, the sons and the grandsons must encounter exile. Similarly, with a left approach and right departure, a right approach and left departure, or an approach from both the left and right, if there is a separation in front of the node to create two flows and the departure is straight like an arrow and even more there are no pools or lakes to receive (qi) and nourish (the node), this is particularly unbeautiful. It will ruin the family and there will be no offspring, so scholars must be aware of it. Approaching Water Colliding with the City Pattern

evil spirit

At the front the water meanders and embraces the node like a girdle. To the left and right the dragon and the tiger tightly press on both sides to protect and guard it. The form is proper and the situation is correct as though this were connected land. However, it is necessary that the water of the mingtang has more bends as it approaches. Only then is it auspicious.

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This land which has water in three paths directly dashing against the front of the node is called the arrow of the golden goose.81 It is written that if (the water) meanders then there is a confluence; if it is straight then it dashes against (the node). The straight approach of these watercourses hitting the city creates misfortune of the most violent kind. It is also said that one arrow is the death of one boy and two arrows are the loss of two girls. An arrow to the left destroys the old. An arrow to the right destroys the young. An arrow in the centre destroys the middle son. If it appears to dash against (the node) obliquely, this represents the sons and the grandsons becoming soldiers and if they are victorious, they necessarily commit crimes, the penalty for which is a massacre to the extent of being cut off from posterity. In general, where one sees such straight water in front of the node without pools or lakes to receive it, there must be a horizontal sandbar to block it to begin to be able to escape from misfortune. The Classic says that much of what causes man to not have descendants is because of water breaking heaven’s intent. This truly is the meaning here. Bordering Water without Feeling Pattern

evil spirit

In general, when looking at land, it must have water and sand facing and embracing the hall. The dragon and tiger surround it and press on both sides. Only then is it auspicious. It is written that great land is like sheep seeing a dog; gathering in groups they turn their heads and do not deviate their gaze. It is also like a host at a banquet, surrounded and shielded on all sides by the retinue. It is also like the North Star being enfolded by the stars. If the dragon and the tiger appear to be straight without a meandering embrace, and the form seems as though it is pushing a wheel, the situ81 The only reference found to this term was as the name of a lake in Sichuan province which is so-called because yellow feathered geese gather there but this is obviously not the meaning here.

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ation is without feeling. It is written that when water seemingly has a straight departure as with the form of pushing a wheel, the sand does not turn its head and the qi of the hall scatters. In this present land, the dragon and the tiger depart directly and the sand does not turn its head. Even though there appears to be a gathering of water at the mingtang, to the left and right heads of sand have a straight departure, the water cannot nourish (the node), the qi of the hall does not gather, and the qi of the node is not solid. The Classic says that the dragon and the tiger are used to protect the node of a region. If they do not turn their heads towards the interior where is the mortice for the vital qi? With this (situation), the inner sandbars are like a hook but it is certainly not sufficient to be chosen. If contemporary teachers see a dragon and tiger emerging at the hall, they think of it positively. This always harms people. Rhyming prose states that with an internal hook and an external straightness one troubles their mind in vain. How can one not investigate this? Bordering Water without Feeling Pattern

evil spirit

The Classic says that the table and desk being open in the opposite direction and the hands and feet dragging along spoils and exhausts the storage. It also says that when the official does not contribute to his duty, the spirit does not return qi. This is land of disobedience to one’s parents and it represents the son leaving the father’s home and the brothers separating. It is also written that when sand is separated into the character ba82 and the water flows obliquely, the fields do not remain and instead become a graveyard.

82 八.

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In general, searching (for a node) in flat land is not the same as in mountain dragons. It is only necessary that the approach of the water embraces and protects (the node). The left, right, back and front should stoop and bow to the interior meandering around the body. In general, if there appears to be a direct approach inflexibly passing without a turning of the head, any such situation creates great misfortune. Even if it has branching water bending in the shape of a hook, the indications can certainly not be underestimated. The Classic says that if there is a direct departure without a barrier, how can it be a node inside a true dragon? In general, what meanders and surrounds is water with vital qi. What has straight departure and does not turn its head is water with scattered qi. The Classic says that for vital qi one gives priority to the flow of the water. This just means that the departing water should not be straight. In general, a southern approach with a northern departure and a western approach with a eastern departure is singularly straight like an arrow and does not have the slightest facing and turning as with the character jing83 or like a drawing of the layout of a chess board. Even though there is branching water inserted into the border at the centre which is seemingly correct, it is actually incorrect. If one establishes a node there, even though it is able to develop some wealth, the sons and grandsons will be disobedient to their parents and simultaneously be sent into exile. For a while they will be impoverished. Then they will be ruined and without offspring. There will be pestilence and in the end they will commit suicide by cutting their throat. This is what happens with all situations where the configurational force is unyielding and straight. 83 井.

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4. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 2 4.1. General Discussion In this chapter what is said about the water dragon refers, in fact, to the regular pattern of the heavenly stars. It was Dong Yuyuan,84 styled Hualong shan ren,85 who wrote about and narrated the words of Jingchun.86 I do not know from which era Master Dong came. In his maps there are thirty six nodes. All of them correspond to the heavenly stars. Each situation includes four word phrases, in total sixteen characters. (Amongst these) there are fu ma87 and jing tang88 which are appellations of recent times. This means that it was written by a man of recent generations. This is clear evidence. The method of delineation of the mysteries of star divination is not vulgar. If he was not a scholar who had much erudition in terms of phenomena, charms and omens and an exhaustive exploration of astrology, how could he see to their limits? Even though it is not necessarily a complete manifestation of the ideas of Jingchun, the author still obtained the meaning from the remnants. As to the sentences and phrases, they show erudition and are well constructed. As a work of scholarship, the beauty is comparable to the Da ya of the Book of Songs. It can be seen that this book is unlike the common discussions. I have examined the masters of the principle of the earth from the Master Yang until now, and few have had literary ability for a long time. There is only the wonderful talent of commoner Lai of the Yuan dynasty who had the misfortune to be under the Mongols and who would pretend to be drunk, living on poetry and wine to hide himself in the mortal world. Yet whenever he chanted in the various counties of the Kuji area, his literary talent would be brilliantly displayed.89 Until now I considered talent like that of Mr. Lai as incomparable but I also 84 董遇元. As is indicated in this section Jiang Pingjie did not know who this author was but the only record is of a Dong Yu, styled Li Zhi, a well known scholar from Hongnong in the kingdom of Wei in the Three Kingdoms period in the third century AD who had a characteristic stutter. 85 化龍山人. Literally ‘the man of the transforming dragon mountain’. 86 景純. As stated previously this is another name for Guo Pu. 87 駙馬, imperial son-in-law. 88 京堂, hall of the capital. 89 賴布衣. The only commoner Lai (Lai Buyi) that there is reference to is a Lai Wenjun, a Chuzhou man, styled Taisu, of the Song dynasty, who called himself Bu Yizi. He seems to fit the description because he was skilled in using yin-yang and the Five Phases in the art of burial. He wrote the Cui guan pian.

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give Master Dong this ranking. How can it not be that there is much talent among the experts on form? Observe that the discussion is only about the similarities between the heavenly stars and the forms of water and these are categorised in order to seek them out. In fact, it is not that there is no basis for this. Is it not said by the ancients that phenomena are established in the sky and forms are established on earth and that the phenomena of the sky and the forms of the earth have a distant correspondence? Surely, this is of this principle. Is this only something that has been casually passed down? By this we know that the regular pattern of the heavenly stars and what has been passed down to common man with the twenty four directions, each of which is divided into the movement of the stars, are as different as heaven and earth because land has a fixed position but stars do not. Even though this eliminates the old Five Phases, it does revolve around life and death. Believing the ear is not as good as believing the eye. Believing the eye is not as good as believing the heart. The world has this book and this means that the essential spirit of Jingchun now still has the possibility of existence. Written by Dahong 4.2. Water Pincer Prose of Guo Jingchun All is vast between heaven and earth. The three celestial bodies90 are manifest and hidden. The one qi moves in a cycle. The Five Phases wax and wane. Thus, rivers flow and mountains are lofty. The warmth of yang is life. The cold of yin is death. From the ancient sages, we have looked to the heavens as a criterion for objects and examined righteousness according to the earth. Qi is what carries the principle. It is powerful and boundless. The principle congregates and qi gathers. Yin valleys produce yang. The land manifests rivers and great mountains. The Big Dipper hangs in the sky. In the vastness there is indeed one qi. It has same feeling but different names. A true node is of a wondrous form. With the multitude of stars shining down, The merit of heaven is smoothly spread. The virtue of earth accepts this merit from above. Reed pipes and flying ashes conceive the cherished hundred spirits. 90 The sun, the moon and the stars.

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Mould them by using qi and the form. Separate them into good and ill fortune. Yin and yang mutually reciprocate and the five fates majestically unite. To praise singularity and abandon duality is a deviation from the art. In desiring to discuss the land, first observe the sky. In desiring to obtain the form, first investigate the fundamentals. The traces of Yu91 are vast and boundless. Who is able to carefully inspect them? By not examining the flow, how does one know its source? The prevailing heavens extend endlessly, fold upon fold and abyss upon abyss, riding the qi and moving. The mother conceives the son and the husband and wife copulate. Stripped bare, changing and meandering, The submissive benefit is auspicious. Any sudden gushing is detested. Water of Earth is wide and heavy. Water of Metal is circular and pure. Water of Wood is rigid and straight. Water of Fire is flying and leaping. At the water’s edge look towards the distance. Do not lose the form. Metal and Wood are mutually offensive. If there is a transformation to Water, then they are matched. When Water and Fire fight with each other, the flourishing of Wood is particularly prohibited. The Earth spirit produces Metal which dreads most a meeting with Wood. If the Wood star brings with it Fire, the whole family is overthrown. For each there is a turning point where animals are raised. The placenta of the foetus dies. If the living have a flourishing official salary, With a clash there will be punishment and injury. The calamity will come rapidly.

4.3. Star Seal Section Alas, the Yangzi and Yalu rivers! The heavenly sea overflows without limit. In this powerful, surging flood, the dragon sleeps at night. The infinity of the border leads to even more uncertainty. Even though there are twists and turns, do not fear the winding. On opening the lock to heaven, a man of virtue does not remark on it. Below one seeks the waters of the Huai, Si, the Three Gorges and the Han. The great veins run vertically and horizontally along the torrent touching the banks. 91 禹, the reputed founder of the Xia dynasty of the 21-16th centuries BC. He was supposedly the first to regulate large bodies of water.

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chapter eleven Provinces, cities, towns and villages are what the dragon spirit takes possession of. A revolving wall or turning screen, the veins follow the qi to gather. Raise your eyebrows and look into the distance at the wonderful view coming together. The water around islands and inside gorges is vast and narrow rivers enter lakes. Jingchun set out the patterns of thirty six nodes. At the end of the Jin dynasty the immortal voice died. Since the Tang and Song dynasties the water method has become empty and has disappeared. When was the stone case of Qing Wu written? It does not contain other mysteries but only spoke of water pincers. The water pincer dragon method emerged from Jingchun. With various confused and erroneous versions which entangled the forms, It is difficult to narrow down. One obtained the fish but forgot the bait; This must be realised with the heart. The water binds and the sand turns, spreading like a terrace. Recognise the roots and discern the trunk; Recognise the branches and discern the leaves. When the mountain is chaotic, the configurational force rushes forth. When the water is chaotic, the configurational force is connected. Spider’s silk and the duckweed of water are indistinct and imperceptible. Entering the earth (the qi) is not diminished. Entering the water it is not blocked. A superior sage discerns the qi. A lesser sage discerns the form. When the form and the qi are both obtained, Good fortune and misfortune are naturally real. Observe the depths as if they were shallow; Observe the quietude as if there were an uproar. This is the fundamental of the fundamental, Yet it is difficult to put it into words. The ancients are already gone. All that is left is the dregs. The South East is mild and warm. The North West chills you to the bone. The snow and ice has not yet dispersed. The water in lakes is easily drained. Survey the high and assess the flat. Vital qi is obtained in the node.

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The precious three-legged bronze cauldron is covered with smoke. The rain has stopped in the eaves. The drawn crossbow shoots the bolt. A wielded knife cuts to the joint.92 Like the beard of a shrimp and the eyes of a crab, The fundamental theories are numerous and disorderly. Because they stick together and rely on each other, The method is on the lip and in the breast. The spirit is not passed on by the eye. The fundamental mystery is not passed on by the heart. The mediocre teachers are confused. They do not distinguish the Five Phases. They are already enmired in their bindings. Most of them also mistake the stars, Indicating that life is death and insisting that falsity is truth. Above they show contempt for the heavenly vault. Below they destroy the form of the earth. The spiritual radiance does not shine and daylight is dark and murky. In the darkened hall there is resentment Until good fortune is diminished and life degraded. This principle is muddle-headed. Grant, receive, abide by and use the true mystery To enlighten and teach the men of later times.

5. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 3 5.1. General Discussion This chapter particularly refers to the significance of pictographs of the water dragon as they resemble entities, which is the same as the indications of the regular pattern of the celestial bodies. This is because if the sky has this star, the earth has this entity. Since water is able to symbolise a star, it is able to symbolise an entity. The main idea comes from a single precedent which is shared by the True Classic of the Jade Body. The original volume indeed says that Jingchun was the author. However, the script is not ancient. Compared to the Star Seal, the difference is like the difference between the Ya and Zheng of the Book of Songs.93 Whether it was passed on by some later subordinate is not yet able to be known. I most like the beginning of this piece of writing. ‘In the prefecture of the mountain consider the mountain as the dragon. In the prefecture of 92 The allusions here are unknown. 93 These are two famous ballads from the Book of Songs. The Ya 雅 is noted for its elegance and the Zheng 鄭 for its rustic style.

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water consider water as the dragon.’ These two phrases have been from ancient times until now the opening discussions of the experts on the principles of the earth, absolutely not circulated by the superficial scholars who could not be expected to obtain one in ten thousand. Of the remaining words much is crude and coarse and the meaning dubious and could be omitted. This writing also says that the mouth of the water meets, confines, weaves and connects. Even though the water is following, it is still within an auspicious situation. What is the use of harmful penetration with an arrow shooting contrarily vertically? This is a true and profound recognition. On observing the maps of the various situations, it can be seen that they resemble pearls of dew on tails of grass and a pair of dragons cavorting, and a feeling of the magnificent canopy enters your bosom. Of the various patterns all are profound, obtaining the subtle beauty of the water dragon. Moreover, the selection is of a gathering from amongst the chaos, which is the crux to deciding a node. The true machinations are really not an easy theory. In naming the form and deciding on a point for the node, the master’s discussion is at the extremity of criticism of the mountain dragon. How, on the contrary could it be in the water dragon alone? What he is referring to also accords with the discussions of this generation on flood plains. When he indicates the form, he especially selects the form of the land and not that of the water. Therefore, I seek the meaning far and wide in order to break down the generation’s delusions and cause there to be a single school of correct discussion. The reader only needs to understand the adaptations to select the knowledge and all will be well. Written by Dahong 5.2. Theory of the Pictographic Patterns of Water and Reeds In the prefecture of the mountain consider mountains as the dragon. In the prefecture of water consider water as the dragon. The trunk and branches of the Yangzi River connect and flow through the two provinces of Jiang and Chu94 and the San Wu95 area. The land of a single embankment

94 Hunan and Hubei. 95 This is either Wu Jun, Wu Xing and Hui Ji according to the Shui jing zhu or Wu Jun, Wu Xing and Wu Yang according to the Tong dian.

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does not exceed several square li (the size of a village). What the previous worthies meant by saying consider water as the dragon was just this place. Observe the water and recognise the configurational force. The grave obtains the true node and the wealth and nobility are long lasting. The Classic says that the great land of the Jiang and the Huai rivers is without a dragon and tiger. In the vastness, to where does one return? From west to east, if one only takes the water as the dragon, afterwards the grave will develop the Three Dukes. The reason that in 10,000 li there are no mountains (but) heroes repeatedly manifest, is that the good fortune is in the water. Even though the lands of Zhe and Min96 have many mountain veins, they also create water dragons. As for the land of Susong,97 it is near the sea and there are lakes throughout it. On the sixth hour water approaches the lakes and on the sixth hour it leaves them. An approach to the mouth is appropriately a departure from it. A departure from the mouth is appropriately an approach to it. The meeting of two heads is (like) sexual intercourse. The tide withdraws and the two separate like a woman’s breasts. The beauty is, indeed, located in this deep whirlpool. Life is fond of the mystery of a deep whirlpool. This mystery gives us a hundred times more of the essential spirit and the metamorphosis is limitless. With a meandering approach to a confluence do not discuss whether it is a large river or small stream. With a distant flow with a meandering embrace, there is no division between rivers, seas, pools or ponds. The Classic says that the way of earth is both strong and soft and is changed by spirits. A multitude of flows gather at a place leading to the principle machination. The greater the number of small watercourses gathered the more beautiful it is. Even if a straight flow is great, it is not wonderful. If the internal is straight and the external hooked, there is much skilful connection. If the internal is hooked and the external straight, in vain there is glorious intention. The water passing by laterally and embracing the body is an embracing situation. A bend on the opposite side is a situation of greeting the spirit. With proceeding to the situation on entering the bosom, there must be an embrace on two sides, there should be a flowing approach on entering the thigh, and there is value in the wrapping around of the four boundaries. With the special beauty of the magnificent canopy, the back and the front are sheltered. Attachment to the body is the goldfish. A situation where 96 Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces. 97 Probably Jiangsu.

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two approaches meet is the morning star. The flow of two tributaries meeting is the harmonious basis. The six constructions98 on four sides are complete protection. The place which faces the three yang is the place of greeting. The goldfish girdle winds around the waist. The situation of the banded bow is a heavenly rainbow in front of you. The great embrace of the above and the below facing each other is called the male and the female. Only when both feelings surround the body can it be correctly called the magnificent canopy. Within a situation of the turbaned head a small branching stream is the particularity. Follow it and see the glory and the magnificence. If the water is like a string of pearls or dribbling milk, immediately there is wealth and nobility in the water and bravery is bestowed for three generations. A situation of refinement means wealth and nobility for a thousand autumns. The pitchfork is unbound and the development is sudden. One can welcome the spirit and obtain beauty because the water is continuous and long lasting. Four dragons sport with the pearl on all sides and there will be great wealth and nobility. A surrounding embrace will enable the family to continue forever. A combined flow like crossed swords produces a military position. A meandering flow hastens the official and manifests the minister. The immortal palm to the left and right together means wealth and nobility. The lotus flower hanging down or facing up decides the yin and yang. When the configurational force is like kicking a ball, it must be interesting. The form is like the flying phoenix whose wings should be long. The immortal palm strokes the qin99 and one ascends to the top of the imperial examinations. On rolling up the screen, one is found to be dazzling and majestic at the various subjects.100 One small bend in the watercourse like a coiling snake correctly embraced by two banks is the drawing of the bow. A beautiful woman presenting flowers gives birth to excellent qi. A situation with the form of soldiers on parade manifests the official. The two sources of the Great Extremity mean true wealth and nobility. The hundred feet of the centipede produce bravery. If the shrimp head is large, there will be people of outstanding intelligence and bravery. The Metal city is one of nobility and longevity. 98 The roof, floor, and four walls of a building. 99 A Chinese zither with either five or seven strings. 100 The examination here is that held in the presence of the emperor and his court, being the last and highest stage. The screen refers to one used so that the candidates could not see the emperor.

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With the situation of the high court101 greatness is manifested once and then it ceases. Dew dripping from grass tails indicates being cut off from posterity and one’s name being expunged. Obeying the wind moves the boat and there is fame and eminence. Obeying the water rolls up the screen and your son takes the place of a son in a family without heir. The flying pennant and dancing flag is truly a noble pattern. Facing the principal and turning back to the ancestors is a true dragon. With the silk gauze belt the wind blows and the development of good fortune is slow but it is able to continue into the distance. The goldfish lies prostrate in the shade and at first there is wealth and afterwards there is the glory. With inserting flowers into the hat102 and wearing a belt, there is an abundance of food. One proceeds with their livelihood at a leisurely pace, happiness enters the middle of the bosom and the good fortune goes into the distance. The Metal hook should turn and the foot should point towards the principal. If the water of a situation where there is much binding is large and broad and not intersecting like teeth which are tightly sandwiched together, then this has feeling. The character ri103 is either auspicious or inauspicious. The shoe city has falsity and truth. With the situation of the coiled dragon, one can fetch a rainbow for food. Where rose coloured clouds gather, seek a parasol. The handle should be hanging down like a tortoise tail. With the situation of the lines on the shell of a tortoise, select the centre. A pair of frolicking dragons combines yin and yang. With one watercourse like a fishing line and hook, select (the node) inside of the hook. The water on all sides returns to the confluence to guard against dispersal and chaos. With a situation of prolific gathering at the hall, fear riding the wind. Sand and water being interrelated is truly a wonderful pattern. A turning dragon turning its head to the ancestors is an ingenious pattern. The configurational force looks to a situation wrapped around by soldiers on parade, and the veins should face (the node) and gather there. There is much feeling to a place where the spider’s web gathers, surrounds, and connects (with the node). One can be content with selecting it. Where there are layers of watercourses embracing and encircling (the node), much is even more wondrous. In the command tent, the hanging breasts have an external embrace and there is wealth and abundance. When earth has a predilec101 It is interesting to note that this is a homophone for ‘high tide’ or ‘climax’ with the characters almost the same only the water radical is missing from the character for court. This would perhaps be a more appropriate name. 102 The top candidates in the imperial examinations wore flowers to distinguish themselves. 103 日.

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tion to gather at the hall, one obtains the refinement of the court, is in the highest category at the imperial examinations and is certainly grand. On all sides the configurational force does not flow and the principal qi gathers in one winding embrace of good fortune. In a naturally horizontal palace, a dragon node is produced and there is glory and high position. If it combines with a penetrating dragon, it represents the development of wealth. The manifestation of water lilies means ingenuity and gives birth to refinement. With the situation of the flowing belt, the movement is a glorious pattern like a streamer. The flowers must be thick and dense like a hanging joint of bamboo; the more the branches the greater is the nobility. If there is glossy gandoderma,104 the more the stamens, the more there is the greatest of nobility. Amongst the chaos, select the gathering. Only when there are the many gathering together is it extraordinary. The approach is long and the departure short. For good fortune, there is no boundary to the shade. Shooting the elbow and penetrating the heart means the immediate arrival of illfortune. Roughly, the approach should meander and the departure should be profound. A fast flow will show the uncertainty of waxing and waning. For what coagulates and gathers, there is continuous good fortune and longevity. Where a water mouth is interlocked, even though the fabric is compliant, it is still auspicious. Inside the situation, there is no use to cutting, the shooting of an arrow, or any coming and going. The principles of this water method have the greatest subtlety. There are few people who know about it and those who are able to discuss it are not often met. Below are various types of form structures. Those which are round are Metal. Those which are curved are Water. Those which are rectangular are Earth. Those which are straight are Wood. All are related to types of wealth and nobility. Only Fire is acute and carries an extremely evil spirit and therefore does not receive a node. Six Pivot Pattern105 This indicates the emergence of a child prodigy who will be the top candidate in the imperial examinations and then prime minister.

104 Gandoderma lucidum, a kind of purplish fungus symbolising nobility. 105 These diagrams bear some resemblance to Daoist diagrams of sacred mountains and the like. Thus, there is perhaps a possible connection with traditional Daoist maps of ‘spiritual’ geography.

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   heaven  people wealth



    horse  official earth

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Situation of Water Welcoming the Spirit This also indicates the emergence of a child prodigy who will be the top candidate in the imperial examinations.

Goldfish Girdle Pattern All are of wealth and nobility.

With this pattern there is neither branching nor still water. Although there is wealth and nobility, it does not last.

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Internal Embrace Pattern

external embrace

Male and Female Animal Canopy Pattern This indicates the emergence of talents in both the literary and martial arts.

Chaotic Centre Receives the Multitude Pattern

Male and Female Responding to the Beauty Pattern

water dragon classic—chapter 3 Wrapped Pattern

Scarf Canopy Pattern

Hidden Beauty Pattern

Bestowing Pattern

Wearing Pearls and Hanging Breast Pattern

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chapter eleven Four Dragons Sporting with a Pearl Pattern

Crossed Swords Pattern

Hastening the Official Water Pattern

Kicking the Ball Pattern

Immortal Hand Strumming the Lute Pattern

water dragon classic—chapter 3 Left and Right Immortal Hand Pattern

Flying Phoenix Pattern

Drawn Bow Pattern

Hanging Lotus Pattern

Upraised Lotus Pattern

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Prawn Head Pattern

Soldiers Arranged in Lines in front of the Court Pattern

Pattern of the Great Extremity (tai ji)106

106 太極.

water dragon classic—chapter 3 Beautiful Woman Offering Flowers Pattern

Pincers of the Centipede Pattern

Hidden Goldfish Pattern

Forked Limb Pattern

Pair of Dragons Playing with Feeling Pattern

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Flowing Belt Pattern

Wind Blowing the Silk Girdle Pattern

Golden Hook Pattern

Double Hook Pattern

water dragon classic—chapter 3 Proceeding to the Situation and Entering the Embrace Pattern

Dew Hanging on Grass Stalks Pattern

Flying Streamers and Dancing Flags Pattern

Shoe City Pattern

Character Ri107 City Pattern

Rolled Curtain of the Civil Service Examination Pattern

107 日.

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chapter eleven Boat Following the Wind Pattern

Curved Bow Embracing the Node Pattern

Returning Dragon Turning its Head to the Ancestors Pattern This is also called the facing the principal pattern.

Prolific Situation with Gathering at the Hall Pattern

Hanging Breasts at the Centre of the Army Pattern

water dragon classic—chapter 3 Earth Lodged with a Gathering at the Hall Pattern

Hanging Sections of Bamboo Pattern

Bud of the Glossy Ganoderma Pattern

Sideways Palace Dragon Pattern

Coiled Dragon Pattern

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chapter eleven Rainbow Eclipse with Coloured Clouds Pattern

Raising the Umbrella Pattern

Flag Flower Pattern

Facing the Principal Pattern

5. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 4 5.1. General Discussion This chapter refers to the water dragon being in very close proximity to the body, and the auspices, forms and situations. Celestial bodies which enter the node occur very often within the text. In fact, the writings contain the main points of the water dragon. The author’s name is also not recorded. However, although much of the language is vulgar and unrefined, I con-

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sider that it must be a true copy of Master Yang.108 Is it the mysterious indications that have been passed on by one teacher after another? The beginning of the chapter refers to the Five Stars. Three of these, Metal, Water and Earth are selected as auspicious, and the two of sunlight, Wood and Fire, as inauspicious. There are slight differences between this and the mountain dragon. If a mountain dragon has the Fire star rising to the top, it is, in fact, connected with the node and there is also a moving dragon and the entire Wood star is connected with the body for one to see complete nobility and beauty. If it is a water dragon, once it offends Fire and Wood, the disaster will be immediately seen. What is the reason for this? It is because by nature Water likes softness. It hates the inflexible and strong. It is suitable for a turning embrace and fears rushing arousal. Metal and Water are soft and the form of Earth is a turning embrace and there is a difference in nature to the inflexibility, strength and rushing arousal of Fire and Wood. After this differentiation of the Five Stars, the chapter continues with the discernment in the greatest detail of the various types in relation to binding and embracing (the node), leaping in the opposite direction, receiving qi, leaking in the wind, nourishingly gathering, and separately flying. This is because the changing body of the Five Stars leads to a categorisation which is used to seek the details. If one first understands the meaning of branches and trunks, a large amount of the general idea of the body types of a moving dragon is already fixed. If one then understands the true changes of the Five Stars and becomes involved in seeking the method for entering the node, one obtains its domination. Once one grasps the essence, it can be used with a natural spirit. If scholars are inclined towards this, the art of Master Yang, they are able to research and investigate it in this book. More than half of the doctrine and thought of the water dragon will then be obtained. Beyond this, those who use the former Three Principals and Nine Palaces methods would have happiness in meeting the source. Written by Dahong

108 楊公.

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5.2. Discussion of Branches and Trunks A large extensive body of water is the trunk. The branched dragon veins enable the creation of a node which manifests the Three Dukes.

The branched dragon creates a node which necessitates longevity. The spirit of the qi of the dragon trunk does not necessarily seek it.



trunk

  branch

5.3. Discussion of the Five Stars Water of the Metal Star nourishes the body. There is wealth, nobility and sufficient gold and silver.

Metal Star transforms the dragon

With the left Metal, the eldest son develops. With the right Metal, the youngest son prospers.

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The Metal Star is like a jade belt. This land is truly priceless.

A correct Metal structure

Lateral water is all over the palace. The Metal city embraces the node. If one strikes here (to establish the node), the wealth and nobility are endless.

Oblique Metal is like Fire. It will subdue and harm (the node) and is not auspicious.

It is also said that oblique Metal being like Fire at the front of the node means half poverty and half wealth. One sells the fields and household. At the front Fire limits Metal and seals it. The base of the character feng109 is without claws. If one chooses such land, for a short time they will suffer loneliness.

The water is similar to the form of a plough’s head. There is a singular development with Fire burning (to create) poverty.

109 風.

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With the Metal city to the right in a reverse bow, the youngest son is definitely orphaned and impoverished. With the Metal city to the left in a reverse bow, the eldest son must separate himself from the ancestors.

With the Metal city in a reverse bow, one encounters poverty.

With water entering the Metal city, there is wealth, nobility and a flourishing male population in the family.

When Metal and water overflow, the sound of the wind can shake the residents.

Metal and water together produce wealth, nobility, outstanding talent and bravery. The Metal star approaches Wood and collides with it. The sons and the grandsons use up all the families resources.

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Metal and water obtain land where there is wealth and nobility for the sons and grandsons. Wood collides with the Metal city. The descendants are completely alone.

Wood and Fire enter the Metal city. Generation after generation is heirless.

evil spirit

Meandering water enters the Metal city. The ghosts of officials will harm the members of the family.

Murder enters the Metal city. No humans, only ghosts remain.

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With the eldest, middle and youngest, there are ill tidings for all. Fire limits the Metal city. The household is robbed and the people meet with pestilence.

The middle becomes narrow, forming a point. So, it is said to be Fire. Two Fires limit the Metal city. The star of calamity returns day after day.

The two watercourses both have a pointed form; therefore, this is also said to be Fire. Fire and Metal cut into each other. There is defeat and one is cut off from posterity. Fire



  Fire

The Water Star obtains the position. There is wealth and nobility for the sons and grandsons.

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The same as the above.

The abdomen of the Earth conceals the Metal. The wealth is profound and there is fame. Earth

Metal

The Water Star enters Earth. The Earth is washed away. At first there is a limit to the wealth, but afterwards there is prosperity and good fortune.

The Earth Star is able to embrace the node. The wealth and nobility are continuous.

The Earth Star turns to the right and approaches. The family is wealthy with sufficient money and valuables.

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The configurational force is straight like a boat and there is no peace for a whole generation followed by poverty for several years. Do not ask whether it is east, west, south or north. One flees to other towns without knowing the end of it. It is also said that for the Earth Star if there is a straight departure, the family is in ruins for a short time. The Earth city faces in the opposite direction. There is defeat, severance from posterity and death. The family is impoverished and debauched. There is military exile to the edge of heaven.

To the right of the node the water flies obliquely. How is the grave site nourished? The approaching water wipes away any help and there is sickness due to pestilence. With the Fire Star being like the movement of flames, official duties are yielded to the wife’s household. With the Earth city accompanying Fire, there is separation from one’s native place.

With straight Wood dashing against the gate, the members of the family do not survive. External Wood approaches to limit the above. The people within the family go through hardships. There is no help sought in terms of food and clothing. Yet the family is still looked down on by outsiders.

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Earth is limited by Wood at the back. There is continual travel with no peaceful days. Wood is straight like a spear. There will be unexpected misfortune. It is also said that with the Wood city directly dashing against the node, the middle son must be defeated and cut off from posterity. With Wood dashing against it from both the front and behind, army rebels commit crimes. The punishment is terrible.

With upright Wood having a straight movement, there is retreat, defeat and pestilence. Oblique Wood is irresistible; the members of the family will be separated.

When oblique water approaches, it is like Fire flying. If it pierces the inside of the node, how can it be suitable? Robbery and pestilence will be common and naturally people are separated and money is scattered both to the east and west.

The same as the above.

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Water resembles writing on Wood. There is defeat, separation, loneliness and penury. It is also said that a pointed sandbar obscuring the water manifests a military traitor in later generations.

The right side has water dashing against (the node) and meeting with another water course at the front. There will be plague and fire. If there is no sickness, there will certainly be burning in the air.

Upright Fire has one name: the point of the plough. The two limbs fly away. The separation from good fortune is not over an extended period.

It is also said that if the Wood city flows in a closed palm, there will not be a single good ox on the farm. Upside down Fire.

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The Fire city departs in the opposite direction. There is limitless debauchery, poverty, solitude, hardship and separation. The descendants leave their home village.

It is also said that with a reverse bow behind the Water city, there is disobedience to one’s parents and each goes their different ways. With Fire obliquely flying to the right, the elder brother commits adultery with the younger brother’s wife. With Fire obliquely flying to the left, the younger brother has abnormal relations with the elder brother’s wife.

The sons and grandsons are disobedient to their parents if at the front the water flows like the character ba.110

It is also said that water of knifes and spears shoots into the body. This only matches being exiled as a criminal to a distant place for military service. With Fire flying in the opposite direction to the right, the family members run away to the east and west. With Fire flying in the opposite direction to the left, an army traitor wounds the barbarian.

This even more represents being cut off from posterity. 110 八.

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Pointed Fire shoots into the body. The official is punished and cut off from his sons and grandsons.

Dry Fire blazes. The elderly die without anyone to see them off.

The Fire limb flies to the outside. The guest dies without anyone to rely on.

evil spirit

The Fire star meanders and flies. There is neither food nor a wife.

It is also said that being either contrary to or in agreement with Wood, the official is not rich. He abandons his wife and sons and completely loses his fields.

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5.4. Discussion of the Four Beasts Three watercourses are in opposition in front of the Vermilion Sparrow. The sons are thieves and the daughters licentious. There is no food or clothing.

If good fortune is to be developed for a long time, water must certainly bind the Dark Warrior.

The water of the Dark Warrior is like a ring. The household is settled and the tomb is secure. The good fortune will be continuous.

Behind the node the water flows in two or three layers. The merit and fame are long lasting and the generations prosper.

Water dashes against the head of the Dark Warrior. One casts off their fetters but departs as a prisoner.

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It is also said that the character ding111 at either the front or the back cuts one off from posterity.

The Dark Warrior spits out a tongue of water and the wind blows. There will be an end to the descendants and calamity for the official. Death will also follow.

Water of the lifted skirt has the least feeling. The two legs are opened provoking desire in the heart.

Above the Dark Warrior there is water gushing forth. The family is separated from its inheritance and the daughter-in-law is licentious with her father-in-law. On two sides, the dragon and the tiger embrace (the node) layer upon layer. Wealth and nobility are double fold until old age.

111 丁.

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If, however, the point of the node is in a proper area, one is the top candidate in the imperial examinations and simultaneously there is the spirit of an important title. Water of the Azure Dragon embraces the body. This land manifests the official.

The Azure Dragon and the White Tiger separate and spread out. There is defeat and separation. One wanders around on foot and dies away from their home.

evil spirit

The water of the White Tiger flows as fast as a fly. If one is buried here, an exiled prisoner will appear. The water of the Azure Dragon is in a straight path. The foundation of the household will not be long lasting.

The water mouth does not have a mountain to block it. First, the father’s fields and lands are sold. Then there is defeat, separation, crime and the punishment of imprisonment at a distant frontier garrison.

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At the base of the city observe the water dashing. Certainly there is a monk in the family.

Water strikes the head of the Azure Dragon. The fate of the eldest son is sorrowful. The same as for the previous.

evil spirit

To the left and the right on both sides the water departs in the opposite direction. The sons reject the father and mother and live in a distant place.

With water departing on two sides without turning its head, demons approach the normal relations amongst the family in terms of property. The White Tiger holds the corpse in its mouth. One is widowed and without natural endowments. A person of yin112 bows to the embryo. There is an unnatural death and a separation from the descendants.

112 This could either mean the corpse or a woman, especially one with her period.

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The Azure Dragon swallows the family. There is pestilence, blindness, tumours, an unnatural death, stupidity, a distant separation from one’s native place and a severance from posterity. The White Tiger dashes against the bowels. The youngest son is wounded as a punishment.

The Azure Dragon dashes against the abdomen. The eldest son has the plague of insanity. The White Tiger holds a corpse in its mouth. One is poor and blind in their old age. The Azure Dragon swallows the family. There is a sorrowful heart for various reasons. evil spirit

The water of the Azure Dragon embraces the node. Why is it necessary to speak of wealth and nobility?

Above the Azure Dragon, a single small stream approaches. This is the land of a peaceful tomb at any point. If one can obtain an even greater accumu-

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lation of water from the river behind, the sons and grandsons will have the talent to be top of the imperial examinations.

The water of the Azure Dragon is outstandingly great. One can attain the magnificence of the capital when very young.

The Azure Dragon embraces the body to the left. With wealth and nobility there is honour and fame.

The Azure Dragon winds around like the horn of an ox. For generation upon generation the sons and grandsons ascend to an honourable position.

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There is a pocket at the front of the Azure Dragon. There is no need to be concerned about both fame and profit.

At the left the configurational force of the water is like a dragon. The wealth can be compared to Shi Chong.113 In front of the gate there is meandering. The sons are attendants in the palace of a king.

The Azure Dragon winds around and approaches, embracing the body. In later generations the sons and the grandsons will enter the pavilion of the emperor.

The water of the Azure Dragon turns in the opposite direction. There is poverty and illness without official position. If one chooses such land, men are killed by mistake in their hundreds and thousands.

evil spirit 113 石崇, styled Li Lun, a famous man of immense wealth from the kingdom of Wei in the Six Dynasties period.

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The Azure Dragon departs in the opposite direction not facing the body. The eldest son is certainly the first to be impoverished. a serious manifestation

The Azure Dragon approaches in a single watercourse like a spear. The eldest son must certainly have misfortune and calamity.

The water of the Azure Dragon shoots into (the node). There is injury and death as a soldier.

The water of the Azure Dragon flies in the opposite direction. The family breaks up and each member departs.

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The water of the Azure Dragon has many breaks. A grave would afterward give birth to calamity and misfortune.

This is also called the golden goose arrow which represents madness and defeat. The water of the White Tiger embraces (the node) layer upon layer. The sons and grandsons develop inexhaustible good fortune.

The White Tiger forms a large pool. There is food and clothing forever and there are no worries.

  pool

The Tiger water is an elephant tusk knife. The sons and grandsons bow to the brocade gown.114

114 Have an audience with the emperor.

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The Tiger water winds around it like a belt. For generation upon generation there is an unbroken line of officials.

Above the position of the White Tiger the water takes the form of a point. A widow who invites a man to live with her as her husband will lose the fields and house.

The White Tiger approaches in a hook opposite the tomb. The sons and the grandsons are robbed and are doubly poor.

The Tiger water departs as though it were flying. One flees to a distant place. The White Tiger approaches the water of the pass of defeat. There is pestilence, fire and calamity for the official.

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If there is a sand bar and the water is pointed like a spear, in later generations the sons and grandsons will certainly be killed.

The river water of the Tiger’s mouth is pointed. The youngest son sells the father’s fields. Civil cases are incessant. The eldest son is unable to escape unexpected disaster. 5.5. Discussion of the Form of the Situation Water is observed to have three bends. There is good fortune, longevity, peace and tranquillity. The meandering approaches the court. There is splendour and abundance.

Water of the Greedy Wolf faces the front. The sons and grandsons for generation upon generation will be productive, brave and outstanding. Do not ask whether it approaches or departs, or is at the back or the front. The official resides in a pavilion which is five clouds high. Same as the above.

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The water meanders like the characters zhi115 and xuan116 around the front of the gate. For the sons and grandson the wealth and nobility are naturally doubly complete.

The water winds in three bends. There is wealth, nobility and purity in turn. This is land of official eminence and a courtier in the imperial court.

The water approaches from the right and the node resides on the left. The official position is high and there is wealth.

The water approaches from the left and the node resides on the right. There is wealth, nobility and longevity.

115 之. 116 玄.

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The Dragon and Tiger are in conflict. Who can you rely on to come to the rescue? The father and sons are separated. The brothers are enemies.

The two watercourses are straight without drawing together. The brothers have nothing to worry about. Even if there is a pocket of water at the back, the sons and grandsons will guard the grave (the parents will die early).

Auspicious water approaches from the left and encircles (the node). There must be plenty for the family.

Water resembles the form of a snake. This node has a natural essence.

On the right bank, there is the pocket of a small stream. The wealth and nobility are everlasting.

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For the water of the turning dragon, the node resides in the bend. Later generations are officials who are out of the ordinary.

This node has no screen. The land is naturally cold, being beaten by powerful waves and the blowing of the wind. It cannot be peaceful.

The western water returns to the west and departs. There is a son who ascends to the first rank in the civil service examinations. The eastern water returns to the east and departs. One’s fame and glory are universal.

Two watercourses embrace on the right side. In the family there is sufficient gold for wealth.

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The water forms a hook to the right tightly around the body. One joins the army and likes to kill.

The water in front is like a magnificent column. A son departs his home village.

This is also called water dashing against the base of the city. The two watercourses should not be long. Otherwise they will limit the Earth and represent departure from one’s home.

A single watercourse dashes against the gate. It is solitary and cold. With this land one dies and afterwards has no coffin.

well

Water rushes at the front. There is a well where it divides into two separate flows. In the house the debauchery is ceaseless. At the front water dashes straight into the node. The sons and grandsons of later generations will be without offspring.

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At the front, the water dashes obliquely into the node. The sons and grandsons of later generations will be without offspring. Behind, the water has a rushing approach. From sudden wealth there is a strange calamity.

This also represents being heirless. Water rushes into the dragon’s arms. It is necessary to look to the configurational force of the approach. A flat area seems possible. Land which is high is not profitable. high land

Lateral water dashes against the ribs. Men bow to suffering and madness. Water to the left kills the old. The young are killed by dashing against the right.

The water flows in a meander and shoots into the beautiful city. The sons and grandsons betray the Way and the family is also impoverished.

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The Dragon and Tiger separate and fly away. The father and son go east and west. It is also said that with the wind blowing from qian or gen,117 one flees never to return.

Water penetrates the Tiger’s feet. To the east and west are two boundaries. If it goes straight and breaks the city gate, both the people and the wealth are scattered.

The left and right are stretched apart. One is exiled. The Vermilion Sparrow embraces the beak. There is defeat and loss in official affairs.

Water of the Sparrow divides and opens out into two. Calamity and disaster approach day after day. There is debauchery and there are no sons or daughters. Why is it necessary to probe the existing principles?

117 乾艮, refer to the note on pp. 56-57 regarding the Eight Trigrams. The directional meaning here is northeast or northwest.

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There is no peaceful tomb within the bound head of the city. The two feet go east and west. There is crime, fire, and pestilence. In wrongly believing that a true dragon seeks to develop good fortune, one must know that in a short time there will be defeat for the sons and grandsons.

The bound head of the city and the feet of the character feng118 are auspicious for the middle son. The eldest and youngest are heirless. The limbs of the water have two separate flows. The family will come to an end one day.

At the front the water separates into the character ba.119 The family produces disobedient children.

At the back, there is water that is like a dragging spear. Debauched women become whores. The exiled prisoner will encounter danger. In two generations the sons and grandsons are lost.

118 風. 119 八.

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Water approaches to give birth to a wave which is like the movement of a snake. In human relations there is chaos although the family is wealthy.

With water branches flowing in qian,120 after the sons and grandsons, (the family) ceases to exist.

With water flowing towards qian, a leader of thieves is certainly created.

Sand at the front follows the water like a flying flag. Whoever obtains this will know that this is mutual punishment between Metal and Fire. One is an army rebel who wastes time, stumbles and falls. Brothers attack each other and die from their wounds.

120 Northwest.

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In front of the grave, there is water that does not seem to turn its head. This often causes a son-in-law to manage household affairs.

Behind the grave, there is water in gen121 in the form of a branch of a tree. The sons and grandsons suffer illness and disaster. A long river has a singular straight flow. One loafs about to become an army rebel.

To the right of the node, water approaches in a meander, turns its head and departs, not returning. There is misfortune and death and separation often occurs. The family’s property all becomes dust.

At the mingtang, the water turns and flies away obliquely. One sells all the fields and gardens. People do not esteem you. In the first years, carriages and horses fill the gate and the courtyard. After a burial one is in poverty without enough to buy paper money to burn. The five horses rush away in five places. The water scatters as though separating the corpse. If the mingtang is correct, one is pardoned on the brink of execution.

121 Northeast.

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To the right the water goes in the opposite direction without feeling. One flees to a distant place and joins the army.

 narrow

The Vermilion Sparrow is an upturned bow. The Dragon and Tiger spread out. The sons and grandsons are disobedient and beat their parents. One commits suicide without reason and consequently official matters arise. The sons and daughters are forced to sell the fields and the farmhouse.

The Water city dreads the upturned bow. One flees and is in poverty.

Water at the back approaches the Dragon like an upturned bow. The sons and grandsons are disobedient to their parents and each goes east and west. Water like the character ding122 represents injury and men being openly invited by the daughters.

Water that goes in an opposite direction in a gen123 area is too bad to speak of. The sons and grandsons must rely on others. 122 丁. 123 艮.

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5.6. Discussion of Strange Forms The water flows around the base of the grave in a circle. The sons and grandsons are cut off from the descendants. What is more, who could comply with this?

A spear in qian facing xun124 is equal to being exiled in Yunnan. A spear in kun facing gen125 is equal to being exiled in Liaodong. A spear in xun facing qian is equal to being exiled in Shanxi. A spear in gen facing kun is equal to being exiled in Guangxi.

The watercourse surrounds the tomb. The forest is shattered, breaking the gold and silver. Moreover, there is debauchery, the lack of a family home, sickness and little of the essential spirit.

124 Northwest facing southeast. 125 Southwest facing northeast.

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A copied estimation.

Water breaks above the waist of the Azure Dragon. There is often calamity and misfortune within the family.

Water is like a rolled tongue. One is mute or likes to show off their erudition and is dispensed of by the crowd.

With a Metal city, good fortune is attracted if it is like a dragon coiling. The sons and grandsons will have wealth and nobility and the family will be peaceful and happy.

dragon vein node

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With a Metal city, misfortune is attracted if it is like a snake moving horizontally. The brothers, the father and the sons take up arms in a quarrel.

Gen, xun, qian and kun are the four doors. The entrance of a single wind blowing gives poverty and hardship to the sons and grandsons. earth gate  man gate

fruit gate  heaven gate

The path of the water produces the character yi.126 The family property is spent.

The form is of a winding bow. The whole family is full of harmony. There is wealth, nobility, merit, fame, generations of power and vitality, and great prosperity.

126 乂.

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The Vermilion Sparrow has a broken head. There is sorrow in a hundred affairs.

Fire enters Metal, which is the city of the belt connected with the sword. Sand and water both punish each other. The sons and grandsons die without fame. In fact, they join the army to defend the frontier.

It is also said that wealth is developed at first but afterwards there is great misfortune. The corpse and the spear are shot in the node. One of the sons or grandsons is imprisoned and banished to the army. He dies whilst escaping and is cut off from posterity.

Land in the form of a bottle-gourd is in the middle of the water, which is apparently poisonous, representing harm to man.

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In front there is a pocket and behind an embrace with the node residing in between. The sons and grandsons have good fortune, longevity and the position of the Three Dukes.

Twisting, turning and circling around (the node), the wealth and nobility form a continual thread.

The water at the right looks like the character ren.127 For generation upon generation the descendants will be in poverty.

If the water at the left is like the character ren, the sons and the daughters will become widowers and widows. One side is there but the other is lacking. The food and clothing are sufficient but this will not extend for a long time.

127 人.

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There is water which resembles a duck’s knee. For all the family’s plans, in the end they will not come true.

Fire enters the Metal city and the two attack each other. After the burial the family will not be outstanding. There may be fame or merit shown among the flags and spears (but) in later generations the descendants must die on the battle field.

With water with a bound head, there is insufficient qi. If one establishes a grave in such an inappropriate area, although for a time it is able to develop, the power declines and the good fortune weakens and afterwards there are no sons.

The Water city goes in the opposite direction to the node. After flowing behind it, the knife and the spear cut into it. One is cut off from posterity and flees. The teachers of the time are ignorant of this theory. The water of the mingtang has three folds. One obtains the high office of the Three Dukes. In front of the confluence, the sand imprints a long

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table. For generation after generation there will be a continuous line of officials.

The Water city meanders like a flying dragon. For generation after generation the descendants will meet with admiration and glory.

The approaching configurational force winds like a dragon. The wealth and nobility will never be exhausted.

Meandering water is like a dragon approaching as a golden hook which is very round. If this land is chosen, in passing the imperial examinations, one necessarily contends for first place.

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If one seeks the node in the abdomen of the water of the flying dragon, his descendants become eminent and pay obeisance to the central court.

Meandering water is in the form of a dragon. The head and tail face and greet each other. Create the node in the middle of the abdomen. One will have merit and fame of a prime minister.

The same as the previous.

The configurational force of the golden snake is difficult to recognise. After burial, a famous official emerges.

Water of the flying dragon is difficult to meet. Choosing a node here manifests the Three Dukes.

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Water of the dancing phoenix is truly rare. One will return as a leader in the imperial examinations when young. The sons achieve the position of the Three Dukes. The daughters’ nobility attains that of imperial concubine.

Two dragons come together. They are either male or female. In nobility, one is made a count or a marquise. In wealth, one can plan for that of Shi Chong.

A bend in the water binds the body tightly. Later generations give birth to the wonderful and the brave. The path to the court meets with prosperous land. One makes arrangements as an assistant to the imperial court.

  path

With a vertical dragon, two watercourses overlook each other. The water and sand are clearly combined. They are caused to converge and broadly

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embrace and surround the area like a jade belt. There is a continuous line of wealth, and the nobility created is that of a duke or a prime minister.

nourishing land



  impoverished land

A single layered path embraces a single layered city. Layer upon layer of Metal and Water overlook the front. If it is like this and the centre of the node is able to be wrapped up, the descendants will develop a level of nobility which meets with the spirit of the capital.

The node faces three dragon watercourses and is enclosed from behind. The wealth and nobility of the descendants are endless.

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There is a coiled dragon watercourse enclosing (the node) from behind. Generation upon generation will be dukes and marquises.

The left turns in the form of a golden hook. Wealth and nobility flourish for the members of the family.

Two watercourses emerge on the right side. There is a lack of filial piety together with much illness.

The same as the above.

Water of the rattan and gourd successively has feeling. If one chooses this land, it will arouse the fame of the family.

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With a golden hook turning to the left, the wealth and nobility are doubly complete.

The same as the previous.

Water is in the form of a jade hook. Later generations have glory and fame.

Refined water approaches the node from the front shining on the Three Terraces.128 It accumulates the yellow and amasses the white. The fame and eminence are of the Raven Terrace.129

128 三台. According to the Ling tai xu 靈台序 and the Da ya 大雅, in ancient times the son of heaven had three terraces: the spirit terrace to observe the writings of heaven, the temporal terrace to observe the changes in the seasons, and the animal park terrace to observe the animals birds and fishes. This is also the name of a constellation. The reference here, however, seems to be to the three prime ministers of traditional China. Another translation could be the ‘three eminences’. 129 烏台. According to the Zhu bo chuan 朱博傳 of the Han shu, this is the terrace of the famous official Yu Shi 御史. His official residence had several cypress trees surrounding it and several thousand ravens or crows would perch in them, departing in the morning and returning in the evening.

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The same as the above.

The configurational force is the same as that for the Three Terraces. The character yi130 reflects the body. A great minister of the court emerges from the family.

The same as the above. The character zhi131 converges and flows. One will be in charge of a province or a county. The nobility is endless.

Water of the character shi132 borders the tomb. The descendants are artisans. Sometimes they are warm and have enough to eat but sometimes they are failures. The women are prostitutes who are inferior and debauched.

130 乙. 131 之. 132 十.

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The character shi133 makes up the form. There is neither a back nor a front. The characters nian134 and jing135 are all of the same category. This is clearly humble land of the city. There is wisdom, merit and fame but it is unable to be satisfied.

This land is clearly that where two nodes can be connected. It is improper to speak to ordinary people of auspicious and inauspicious. If one can meet an intelligent teacher who selects a true node, there will certainly be wealth, nobility and the creation of a famous minister. inauspicious

auspicious

After thirty years on the road, I have not yet been able to find a lake which looks up to heaven. However, if men select this land, the descendants will be clothed in brocade and go to the imperial capital.

The same.

133 十. 134 廿. 135 井.

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An immortal extends a foot. One will pass the imperial examination and have much good fortune.

Two watercourses are like a bent ruler. Whatever an artisan creates, there is difficulty with food and clothing.

From the left and right a pair of dragons approach and enter the node. The younger brothers have great fame and go to the imperial pavilion.

Both male and female watercourses flow together and then depart, turning their heads back. The brothers are of one category and all pass the imperial examinations. For generation after generation dukes and marquises are produced.

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The two meet together at the dragon head. The descendants pass the imperial examination in the autumn with distinction.

A grave in the dragon’s abdomen accords with one in the dragon’s bowels. The auspicious residence augments the nobility and doubles the prosperity. A grave in the dragon’s tail accords with one in the dragon’s foot. There is singing and dancing before the recital of incantations and the descendants will become shamans. tail abdomen bowels

Two dragons comply with each other and heaven and earth connect. If the correct position of yin and yang is obtained, there must be the appearance of the Three Dukes.

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The same as the above.

The sand and water wind and flow through land of the lotus leaf. They are in the form of a flower stamen. If one makes the node in the turbaned head, the wealth will be comparative to that of Yao Zhu136 and there will be high official rank.

This water is called the mandarin duck’s knee. The descendants must be disobedient to their parents. Material possessions are changed to ashes and dust and there is much illness of the hands and feet.

Land of the turbaned head with water holding the official tablet137 represents the descendants passing the imperial examinations and becoming palace historians.

136 陶朱, another name for Fan Li, one of the richest men in Chinese history. 137 Held by officials during an audience with the emperor.

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To the left the water is like the audience tablet. To the right it is like a pen. The eldest and youngest sons have peerless nobility.

At the right the water is like the audience tablet. One should occupy an outstanding position.

At the left, the water is like a pen. Money and riches enter the residence.

Two watercourses meet in front of the gate. The family is wealthy and manifests great talent.

The node faces two dragons. One has descendants and personal glory.

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Two watercourses embrace on the right hand side. Within the family there is much gold and treasure.

Two water courses enclose the back of the head. The sons are famous and talented and pass the imperial examinations.

Two dragons enclose the back of the node. The wealth and nobility are continuous.

Two dragons coming together also represents wealth and nobility.

Two watercourses enclose the configurational force of a dragon. Burial manifests dukes, noblemen and scholars.

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From a distance four watercourses enter the hall inappropriately shooting and dashing straight in. If they return to the situation, bending and turning their heads to look back (at the node), one will have nobility which ascends the golden stairs and the majesty of ten thousand warehouses.

This land is auspicious if there is one embankment for twenty to thirty mu of land. 5.7. Discussion of Pools, Ponds, Wells and Bridges If one comes across a pool or pond at the front, it always means wealth and nobility for the family. pond

With (the node) one hundred feet to the east of a small stream and a house to the west, there are ten thousand chests of grain.



pool

If there is a pool to the north west, this produces sons who are disobedient to their father and mother.

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If there is a pool behind the residence, this is also land which is an entrance to wealth.

pool

To the right, the water of the pool reflects the gate and in front it embraces the node. The farmhouses and fields will be extensive.

There is a well behind the grave. The heart aches and the eyes are blind.

well

If the grave is near a well, there is suffering in the heart and abdomen. Do not discuss whether it is to the east, west, north or south. In front of the grave there is water that resembles the eyebrows of a beautiful woman. The woman and children will follow another man and leave and not return.

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In front of the residence is a bridge which is directly in line with it. There is unexpected death and one will die young. One is widowed and ill. The descendants must adopt to have heirs.

To the right there is a bridge which clashes. There is debauchery and failure and one is cut off from their ancestors.

Directly opposite in front of the node there is a horizontal ditch. This mostly produces a disease of the foot which has no time to be cured. ditch

Land of the Vermilion Sparrow looks down to the front of the node. This is naturally peaceful. However, it is even more so if there is a pocket of water at the back. There will be wealth, nobility and, moreover, leisure. high land

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In front the water is like the medlar tree.138 The daughter-in-law embraces the feet of her father-in-law.

This is the same for mountain landforms. With the head of the male goose and the head of the male duck, the daughters and daughters-in-law enter a brothel.139

6. The Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic—Chapter 5 6.1. Foreword The books on the principles of the earth are a mixture of truth and falsity. It seems that there are virtuous volumes on the mountain dragon but a single word has not been passed down about flood plains. The volumes of this generation are of numerous disorderly categories with the writing both unknowledgeable and reckless. The commoners do not investigate this and erroneously use the same method for high mountains as for flat land, consequently causing the complete loss of the appropriate point for establishing tombs and residences. There is not one in a hundred that accords with the patterns. This is certainly the mystery of the machinations of heaven. One regrets the errors of the customary arts. It is truly a pity that men’s actions reflect this confusion. What I myself have obtained is the infinite truth which passes on the secret indications of the complete knowledge of high mountains and flat plains and of the two sites of yin and yang.

138 Lysium Chinese. 139 Literally to ascend the wooden terrace.

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Once I had the Water Dragon Classic, I hid one volume in a famous mountain and did not dare to divulge it lightly to men of this generation. In the spring of gengzi in this era140 my friend Yu Xiaozong141 and I visited Zou Zi142 who is of the same prefecture. One of his guests showed us one chapter of the Water Dragon Classic which we found to be very much the same with few differences to the one which I had hidden. On reading it, I sighed deeply that it was surprisingly able to infer the general outline of the best scholarship of three hundred years. It is not known who the author of this book is. Examining when it was written, it would be appropriate to the middle of the wanli143 era. Probably, it is written by an itinerant practitioner who experienced for himself what could be accomplished. Thus, he was not constrained by customary theories and naturally expressed what he saw to exist. Even though it seems as though he does not have the essential subtleties in store, he can still be spoken of as a capable man of peerless talent. Can he have also passed this down? He only does not recognise as essential the mysteries of the Three Principals and the Nine Palaces. What he does look at in terms of success and failure, and prosperity and loss, all accords with the situations and patterns of the original master and the sexagenary cycle. The arrangement of the direction, corners, body and configurational force still could have been derided for being biased and disorderly. I have, therefore, deleted the errors and retained those parts which are harmonious with the Way. Several of these corrected chapters were added to the end of that which had been hidden by me and arranged with reference to the maps of the third chapter. Although there is duplication between the two, when one regards the repeated arrangement, there is even greater proof that they have very much the same objective. Probably the author originally held to his bosom knowledge that may have fallen into oblivion. Scholars may extend the categories of the significance of this text beyond the central theme. Zhong Yangzi, Jiang Pingjie, Dahong of Du Ling 6.2. General Discussion of the Original Book Man is endowed with the qi of heaven and earth and is born. Moreover, what is born can do nought but die. Therefore, the living must have a res140 This would be 1600 because of the reference to the wanli era in the next paragraph. 141 余曉宗, unknown. 142 鄒子, unknown. 143 1573-1619.

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idence and the dead must have a tomb. If residences and tombs are both auspicious, then both man and spirit are at peace. If man is at peace, the path of the family is happy and prosperous. If the spirit is at peace, the descendants prosper. Thereupon, man should select land for a residence and in particular should select land for a grave. With this, for the family to have wealth, nobility and longevity, it is necessary that the graves of the ancestors are sheltered and watered. The ancestors are the roots and the sons and grandsons are the branches and buds. When the roots are harboured in fertile beautiful land, the branches and leaves flourish. When the roots reside in infertile meagre land, the branches and leaves are withered and dry. This is the common principle. However, the way to selecting appropriate land is, in fact, not easy to speak of. The four directions, the wind and the soil are not the same. The form and the configurational force are each different. Some are in mountains and valleys and some are in flood plains. There are even nodes at the bottom of water and in the gaps between rocks. The various types cannot be put into the same category. The Book of Burial says that one must have brilliance of sight to see to for the bottom of water and must obtain a wise teacher for the gaps between rocks. This idea is the true subtlety. Now in appraising land, it is necessary to investigate the approaching dragon. The point of the node must welcome true veins. Mountain ridges and the paths of water are all dragon veins. It is suitable that they approach from the distance like a winding dragon changing mortal bones into immortal ones like flowers being connected to the tree. This is what is meant by branches and trunks. The Book of Burial also says to first of all obtain water and secondly to shelter from the wind. Only then is the land connected to the node. Master Tao said that there is love between female and male and there is connection between heaven and earth. Therefore, water is not far from mountains and mountains are not far from water. In choosing a form which takes a node, follow the category to decide on it. It is necessary to obtain the Nine Stars shining down upon it. Then one should seek out the Three Auspices144 yet avoid the six inauspicious aspects.145 It is also necessary that the two flanks broadly contain (the node), 144 Wealth, nobility and longevity. 145 See the Book of Burial: “When yin and yang are in conflict is the first inauspicious aspect. Contradicting the time and season is the second inauspicious aspect. Where the strength is small yet the plan is great is the third inauspicious aspect. Relying on the power of fortune endowed by heaven is the fourth inauspicious aspect. Usurping superiors and harassing inferiors is the fifth inauspicious aspect. Abnormal responses and strange appearances are the sixth inauspicious aspect”.

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and that there be a surrounding, embracing and turning around it. The direction must be correctly established and the reception of the water must harmonise with the stars and the trigrams. A closed water mouth accords with the pattern. When there is sand at the back facing the hall, it is the proper method and has feeling. Only then is it auspicious land. The Classic says that one values flatness in land and branches in earth. Therefore, land that is flat and vast also has branching veins and is related to water and mountains. Observe the land, pools, rivers, fields and earth of the flat vastness (flood plains). In front there is no mountain dragon and behind there are no branching veins. There is no approach of dragon veins, and there is no corresponding star or peak to establish the site and make peaceful the grave. At the sides there is no Dragon or Tiger for protection. Outside there is no mark to record the direction of welcoming. What is seated facing it does not discern the Five Stars. How then can the path of the water be separated into the eight trigrams? However, as long as one obtains such land, it is often of wealth and nobility. How can forms and situations that are extremely flat and vast be conversely victorious over those which are ridged? The former worthies said that if there are mountains, rely on mountains. If there are no mountains rely on cities. If there is water, rely on the water. If there is no water, rely on the form. Because in the flood plains one considers water as the dragon, the accumulation of water is like the halting of mountain veins and the flow of water is like the movement of mountain veins. If the water flows, the veins of qi disperse and fly away. If the water accumulates, the veins of qi gather together. Great rivers are categorised as the form of trunk dragons. Small rivers are the body of branch dragons. If at the back there is a river pocket, it is a site of glory and magnificence. If at the front one meets pools or ponds, know that this is a family of wealth and nobility. If to the left and right there is a surrounding embrace which has feeling, one piles up gold and accumulates jade. If in front and behind there is a turning and winding without a break, there are the dress and adornments of the high official. Land desires water to produce feeling and likes it to turn and face the node. In fact, water guides the veins of the dragon. Fear, indeed, gushing and shooting forth and the upturned bow. Hate most rapid cutting and being tied down as they cause much sorrow and little happiness. Particularly fear oblique flying as one will meet with recalcitrance and after a short time there will be penury. Either establish the site facing the front of the path of the water or conceal it behind a mound in a field to make a peaceful tomb. All of these should not be selected.

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In summary, for the principles of the earth one must do research and it is most important to be proficient in yin and yang. If one achieves the accumulation of yin, heaven must protect him. Those who are light in good fortune find it difficult to meet intelligent teachers. Those who have good fortune which is thick will naturally come across auspicious land. Do ­everything one should do in order to await the intentions of heaven. This must be derived from the Way. Therefore, I have put together this book to show to later scholars. 6.3. The Ballad of Seeking the Veins of the Water Dragon The principles of the earth which have been truly passed on from generation to generation are seldom met. The mysteries of the art of yin and yang are difficult to completely understand. In seeking the dragon and grasping the veins, observe the mountains and the water. Ridges and peaks and flood plains are all the same. For land of the flood plains, water is the dragon. On all sides in the vastness one does not recognise the traces. If one is enlightened by the masters who understand the principles of the essential mystery, The source of the tributaries and the male and female principles will be discerned. Few men know the mysterious method of the water dragon. Be careful not to pass this down to common scholars. It is not because the emptiness and importance are easily recognised and changed. But by trying to find a horse by a drawing, one will become a fool. Water approaching the Dark Warrior is the dragon body. In deciding on the province of the node, it is necessary to look at the form of the water. Accumulation and gathering naturally form the structure. With a divided flow and scattered qi, the node is not true. A large watercourse winding around clear and deep is a trunk dragon. Small rivers happily meet with branching water. When the qi of a trunk dragon is finished, it is difficult to make a peaceful node. The point of a node on a branch dragon is auspicious and naturally exalted. If the land of the Dark Warrior has lakes and pools, The residence overlooks the front and good fortune follows. Creating the node for a peaceful grave is similarly met. This accumulates jade, piles up gold and bestows beautifully embroidered clothes. Water should not flow through lakes, pools and pockets of water. If water does penetrate, qi does not accumulate.

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With a mound in the fields which blocks the mouth of the water, The descendants will have endless wealth and nobility. The qi of the dragon veins of rivers returns to the bay. Mark, record and understand sand and be careful to add to it. If there are no breaks or defects in the situation, The clothes of the descendants will be of brocade and they will serve the court. Discern the approach of the flow and the configurational force of water resembling a knife. A spear piercing the flanks and dashing against the heart cannot be blocked. An embankment of a sharp lance is land of ruin, death or wounds and loss of the farmhouse by litigation. The water behind is an approaching dragon which resembles an up-sidedown bow, Each of the descendants will be rebels, scattered east and west. For burial which meets with such water without feeling, Your land will be lost and you will live in poverty. The flow of the water must be winding and not straight. A direct approach and sudden departure means capture. Furthermore, there is no shelter on all four sides. Waves beating and the wind blowing is what one can be most concerned about. Water in the form of the character shi146 has neither a back nor a front. The characters jing147 and nian148 are both the same; They are only auspicious where men congregate. A single dwelling cannot be peaceful. The configurational force of the water winds around and embraces the body. The true qi of a moving dragon exists within. If there is a path of many departing turns, The descendants become noble ministers.

Metal Star City Pattern The Water city transforms to manifest the name of the Five Stars. It particularly takes the Metal city as the most auspicious star. No matter whether it is the flow of a branch or the water of a trunk, there is no division between pools and ditches. If there is a garden on the left and an embrace to the right, all of these are worthy of happiness. The back reliant and the front facing can both be considered friendly. If one obtains this form for

146 十. 147 井. 148 廿.

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the node, the structure is sure to bring good fortune and prevent the intrusion of misfortune. (Dahong added to the drawing and the commentary.)

Metal Star Inauspicious Pattern The Metal star seems to look up to the external. The family regresses and the fields and gardens wither.

This is the same for graves. Pattern of the Mutual Existence of Metal and Water The Metal star seems to manifest water. Only when the watercourse is short is there nobility.

This is the same for graves. When metal is internal and water external, there is a great deal of nobility but little wealth.

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Pattern of Metal and Water Spreading Far and Wide Metal and water are unrestrained and spread laterally far and wide which gives rise to the sound of the wind. Within the node, most of the qi leaks out, which often damages the young.

Even though this is worthy of wealth and nobility, this is improperly obtained and the family naturally squander it. It is better that it is made a temple with its hidden fire filling the house. Water Colliding with the Metal City Pattern Water approaches the outside of the city wall and dashes against it. Even though the flow is beautiful, this is inauspicious.

Whether it dashes against it in the middle or to the left or right, one is heirless, disobedient, debauched and evil, dieing in prison. Fire Limiting the Metal City Pattern Oblique Fire collides with the Metal city. One will suffer fire and robbery and be enlisted in the army as a punishment.

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The Metal star meets Fire and is suppressed. The family is defeated and its members exterminated. Layered Metal Pattern A Metal star with one embrace is already fit for greatness. With two water courses layer upon layer, the good fortune and wealth are more than enough.

Only when it goes around the body and attaches to the structure is there nobility. If one looks at it from a distance, there is a surplus of qi in the veins. Layered Metal Pattern Three Metals are like the arrangement of the character pin.149 The wealth is robust and often there is an increase in the population. The external water is in the form of a reverse bow. For the eldest and youngest son, misfortune approaches stealthily. This is the same for graves.

The left is the eldest son and the right the youngest. Water Star City Pattern The origin of the Water city is the essence of the moon. When the internal and external correspond, it is an auspicious star. The wealth is copious and 149 品.

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the men enjoy fine wine. One becomes the head of the Hanlin academy and his literary fame is spread far and wide.

This is the same for residences. If the Water city also sees the Water star approach, there is good fortune and riches in a continuous line and one has a particular talent. If one again obtains the Metal star embracing the boundary, one is an official with a high degree of nobility manifesting a line of crows and sparrows.150 Literary Star Pattern Water seeming to be in the form of a wave of copper cash is called the Literary star. Clearly, this is the winding form of a dragon’s body.

This is the same for residences. Peerless literature is manifested from this. One enjoys the great reputation of the three top candidates of the Hanlin academy. Internal Water External Wood Pattern The Wood star meets with water to produce a natural abundance of money and grain. If it is, however, established at the head of Wood, one must lose must lose the youngest member of the family.

150 As mentioned in the previous chapter, this indicates wealth and nobility.

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Internal Water and external Wood bring loss within development. This is the same for residences. Confluence of Water and Wood Pattern If the Water star crashes into Wood and the two flow together, one family prospers and another comes to and end.

Pattern of Water and Fire Rushing together If Fire and Water are together, there is punishment, plague, calamity and litigation.

Earth Star City Pattern If the Earth star seems to twist and turn, nobility is developed and the production of the fields increased.

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Earth Star Embracing the Interior Pattern If the Earth star seems to embrace the interior, there is fame and much treasure.

Layered Above Pattern Two Earths being laterally in front certainly produce talented, wealthy men.

Earth Star Looking up to the External Pattern If the Earth star looks up to the external, the wealth is destroyed and the people scattered.

This is the same for graves. Same as the above.

Contrary Earth Pattern

This is the same for residences.

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Lateral and Straight Water Pattern Lateral water and straight water are both without feeling. One should stop speaking of wealth and nobility as this represents even greater solitude.

Water in the Same and Opposite Direction Pattern With water in the same and opposite directions, the official is not mediocre. One is killed away from home and their money is scattered.

Oblique Fire Pattern The Fire star is unhappy to be placed in front of the node. If one meets this when he establishes a house, I am afraid that fire will burn it down. Walking straight and flying obliquely brings litigation. Even if the fields and gardens are scattered, the evil spirits still clamour.

The Fire star moving obliquely is most unsuitable. There is theft and pestilence and one even loses their wife. Do not have water facing the approach to save people from leaving their home and having their wealth scattered to the east and west.

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Layered Fire Pattern Two Fires burn the body and the wind rolls away the ashes. If one places a residence here, there will be poverty and a lack of tranquillity.

This is the same for graves. Two Fires Limiting the City Pattern Two Fires blazing long. At the end of the day one weeps for lack of food. Two fires open out in the form of the character ba;151 calamity and disobedience approach day by day.

This is the same for graves. Blazing Fire Limiting the City Pattern Murder enters the city wall. A lawsuit meets with punishment. The brothers become robbers and the descendants are solitary.

This is the same for residences.

151 八.

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Wood City Accompanying Earth Pattern Wood and Earth approach in a bend and in a straight line. The family is wealthy with sufficient riches.

The theory is the same for left and right. Wood Limiting the Earth City Pattern The Wood star carries along the Earth star as it approaches. Only when the foundation is placed above Earth is there wealth.

If one selects the Wood star as the body, it is limited and denuded as they struggle together. This is the embryo of misfortune. Wood Limiting the Earth City Pattern Two Woods should not be long. I am afraid that one Earth would have difficulty in shouldering them.

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A Multitude of Wood Limiting Earth Pattern Three Woods limit a singular Earth. One leaves their home and dies as a guest.

Flaming Fire City Pattern A form which has the feeling of the movement of flames cannot be stopped. Even though the flow of water is small, it is necessary to be careful. If a city wall comes into contact with such water, within sixty years it will be the site of a battle.

Jiang Dahong says that this is basically a Water star but because it flies obliquely it can be considered to be Fire. Embracing Water City Pattern The dragon spirit winds and embraces (the node) as it passes the front of the gate, ensuring nobility and an extension of the fields and gardens.

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Same as the Above Pattern This is also called the water of the turning horn.

Binding Girdle Pattern Water winds around the body in a binding girdle. In the house there is an easy accumulation of gold. If the family grave is made thus, later generations can become famous.

Embracing Pocket Pattern The water surrounds (the node) at the front and behind in a pocket. The wealth and nobility are everlasting.

Water at the Front in a Layered Embrace Pattern With this pattern, the water has a layered embrace at the front. Even though there is no pocket of water at the back of the house, there is also the possibility of wealth and nobility.

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The Classic says that to develop good fortune and longevity, surely the water winds around the Dark Warrior. Embraced at the Back Pattern Two water courses embrace the front of the gate. The family accumulates money in its millions. If there is an approaching pocket behind the house, the wealth and nobility must be doubly complete.

In seeking the details of the water method, there is nothing as good as a long embrace at the back. If this turns its head in the shape of a crescent moon, there is wealth, nobility and a sufficiently long life. Double Embrace Concentrating Qi Pattern Branching waters intersect and approach. The veins of qi converge. Do not be restrictive with the placement of graves and residences. All will prosper.

Two sides, the front and back, resemble a golden hook. Later generations will become officials who know the counties and prefectures. Frontal Embrace with Back Pocket Pattern Two tiger watercourses surround the residence or grave. The family’s wealth is sufficient in gold and silver.

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Water City of a Meandering Embrace Pattern Water of the Azure Dragon embraces the body. The family is wealthy and manifests officials.

Metal and Water in a Great Embrace Pattern A single path surrounds a single city. The form is of Metal and Water layer upon layer in a great embrace.

Even more so when this is on all four sides, and there is no other offence, this is burial for magnificence and glory and the world hears the sound of your name. Pattern of a Surrounding Embrace Water surrounds the body of the Azure Dragon. The eldest son is full of the essential spirit.

This is the same for residences.

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Embracing the Body Pattern Embracing the body, the water meanders around (the node) at the front in one line. If one establishes residences and graves here, this will create court officials.

This is the same for residences. A Slight Embrace at the Side Pattern The White Tiger is a long belt-like river for inner reception. There is peace and happiness without any cares.

This is the same for graves. Surrounding Pattern Eight countries surround it so that the wind does not leak in. The descendants will have inexhaustible wealth, nobility and good fortune.

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Pincer Water Pattern Two watercourses meet to form a pincer. There is no official position but there is money.

This is also called the pattern of the confluence of two watercourses. Pincer Water and Earth Pattern The water mouth resembles a pair of pincers. The official position is high and there is even more wealth.

Dahong says that this is only discusses water and does not speak of high land. Bound Head City Pattern If one establishes a grave in a bound head city, although it develops wealth, one must eventually be cut off from posterity.

This is the same for residences. If the node is pressed too near, there is no surplus qi.

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Water of the Sheltering Cheeks Pattern A watercourse divides into two and these turn back. They are called the sheltering cheeks. There can be a grave or a house in either cheek. In the middle there is embryonic leakage.

Golden Hook Pattern Meandering water resembles a golden hook. There is wealth and nobility if one seeks (a node) in the centre.

Golden Hook Turning and Embracing Pattern A golden hook turns and embraces in its approach. The family is wealthy. If the form is broad and vast, there will be the greatest position of the Three Terraces.

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Same as the Previous Pattern A golden hook surrounds the house to the left. Enterprises have merit and fame is manifest.

Same as the Previous Pattern Water meanders to create a golden hook. Wealth and nobility make one’s life a relaxed one.

Hooked Heart Water Pattern The point of the hook shoots straight into the node. This land creates inauspicious theories.

This is the same for graves. This hook dashes straight into the mingtang. Therefore, it is not auspicious. If there is a passing pocket to the left, this represents nobility and wealth.

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Inverse Hook Pattern This water in an inverse hook is called carrying the city on the back. It manifests people who are difficult by nature and of deranged mind.

Moreover, the feet and hands are mostly crippled, the family property is scattered in the wind, and official litigation arises. Character Yi Water Pattern The character yi 152 flows into the bosom, turning its head to receive the dragon veins. If one is able to select this node, wealth and nobility do not need to be sought.

Winding Black Water Pattern Winding black water embraces the body. Extreme nobility is manifested for those of the clan.

152 乙.

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Embrace of the Winding Black Water Pattern This watercourse is a true dragon. The approach and departure produce kings and dukes. Embracing the body represents nobility for a long time. It not being embraced gives prosperity.

Meandering Water City Pattern The dragon form is a meandering approach. Day by day one advances to wealth. If the water is deep and broad, one returns in a high canopied chariot with a fine horse.

Metal brightens the water. There is a brilliant literary career. One is sure to have one’s name spread far and wide as a writer. Meandering Water Surrounding and Embracing Pattern The water bends like a melon vine. Exquisite beauty possesses literary fame.

This is the same for graves. The meandering and surrounding make this a great situation. The generations wear hairpins of jade.153 153 Only the rich and noble could afford such finery.

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Folded Water Pattern One fold is the house of a dragon. Two folds are the perches of two dragons. With three folds, the spirit of the dragon prospers and for generation after generation one ascends the ladder to the clouds.

Water of Three Folds Pattern The luan154 soars and the phoenix dances as the water faces the front. The nine bends are right in the centre and the qi of the configurational force is luxurious. Only a few sandbars block the water mouth. Certainly the glory will put one’s name on high.

Generally, when watercourses face and approach to dash against (the node), that which meanders is auspicious and that which is straight is inauspicious. Meandering Water Departing in the Opposite Direction Pattern A bend in the water embraces (the node) and another family places their tomb there. At the right time the node may possibly enable some good development, yet in no time there will be a return to greater misfortune.

This is the same for residences. 154 鸞, a fabulous bird related to the phoenix. A luan and phoenix together have the general positive meaning of a harmonious marriage or gallantry.

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Meandering and Straight Water Pattern The water is straight yet there are many bends. If one moves towards the bends, there is an accumulation of gold and jade. Good fortune and misfortune are not clearly demarcated. If one moves towards the straight, the family is toppled.

If the water dashes against the node in front of the grave, later generations are cut off from posterity. Holding the Audience Tablet155 Pattern The configurational force is like a lifted tablet. The position of marquise can be obtained.

3 Returning Dragon Pattern At the back to the right, the dragon turns its head. The veins of qi of the returning dragon are received, wrapped and stored so that they do not leak. This develops endless good fortune.

155 A tablet held by a civil official during an audience with the emperor.

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Water approaches from the south east, passes to the west embracing the family home, turns and departs to the north east. For generation upon generation, there is continuous wealth and high official rank. Same as the above Pattern Western water approaches from the east to embrace and stabilise the grave. The descendants have wealth and nobility which shines on the gates of the family.

A Pair of Dragons Joined at the Head Pattern A single watercourse has two heads connected together. For a double dragon, the node is in the abdomen. Marquises, generals and prime ministers are produced. The land and the thatch are shared (with the emperor).156

156 One has enough power to have land and houses given to them by the emperor.

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Melon Vine Water Pattern With one turn and one layer, the warehouse has countless gold and treasures. A white house157 manifests dukes and high officials to glorify the ancestors.

Abdomen of the Dragon Pattern The family resides in the centre of the bend which is called the dragon’s abdomen. The people will have wealth, nobility, food and the good fortune of heaven.

Back of the Dragon Pattern A family house outside the bend is called the dragon’s back. There is poverty, separation from posterity and perversity.

157 A house covered in thatch, a pauper’s house. The white comes from the name for the grass used for the thatch, baimao or imperata arundinacea. Here it indicates a family which does not have any ancestors who were famous or noble, i.e. an ordinary family of commoners.

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Binding Dragon Pattern A single watercourse turns, surrounds and embraces (the node). With this land there are many riches. If in the situation there is a large approach which seems to wind, one will have a meteoric rise.

Coiled Dragon Pattern This water resembles a coiled dragon. Principal qi converges to the centre. This conceives talent and many strange encounters where Yi and Lü158 illuminate the workings of heaven.

Dragon Flying to the Left Pattern Meandering water resembles a flying dragon. If one chooses this, there is wealth and glory. If the departing flow turns and embraces, there will certainly be a position of the Three Dukes.

A dragon flying to the right is the same as this. 158 伊, 呂, Shang Yiyin and Zhou Lüshang who were respective assistants to Tang and Wu the founders of the Shang and Zhou dynasties respectively.

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Flying Lightning Pattern Flying lightning is first of all emaciating. One fears the dashing of water which harms the front of the gate if it is in that direction. With this, much of the wealth and nobility accumulated disappears.

Even though this is meandering water, one fears oblique flying. If there is oblique flow opposite the gate, the descendants will be thieves. Pattern of a Pair of Flying Dragons The water resembles a pair of dragons in two paths. The father, sons and brothers are all successful in the imperial examinations at the same time.

Male and Female Dragon Pattern Two dragons connected at the head seem to be male and female. The official residence is of the highest grade. The good fortune is inexhaustible.

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Mother and Son Dragon Pattern The mother dragon curls around to create a golden soup city159 which has a son in the form of a foetus stored within the abdomen.

If the foetus initially has much nurturing, the ancestors, descendants, father and son have a seat at court. Same as the above Pattern The mother dragon embraces the water and two watercourses are connected together. The ancestors and descendants have outstanding achievements and the father and son are both at court.

Dancing Phoenix Pattern A myriad flows fly into the city wall. The phoenix dances and the luan soars as light as a feather.

159 A city made of metal with its moat full of boiling water, in other words a solid impregnable city.

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This is the same for residences. Burial has true veins of qi within the node. If it does not produce an immortal, there are certainly dukes and high officials. Dancing Phoenix Curled Dragon Pattern The meandering resembles the three eminences turning around and approaching from behind. The descendants are first in the imperial examinations and officials have the eminence of the terrace with a line of ravens.

Streets of the Capital Water Pattern The city of the streets of the capital is the most extraordinary. It is land of the prime minister and duke. If behind the dragon there is an accompanying rare star, this becomes the qi of the son of heaven.

Form of the Turbaned Head Pattern The turbaned head flowing at the front makes officials with no need to worry.

It has been considered that the Water city surrounding and embracing is a symbol which accords with the structure. The turbaned head is not that important.

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Streets of the Capital Water Pattern The approaching water also resembles a dragon. The family has wealth and the men glory.

Jade Table Water Pattern The Azure Dragon has water in the form of a jade table. The official residing in the county has a worthy reputation.

Water of the Overturned Bell Pattern Water winds like an overturned bell. The family’s affairs naturally flourish. The descendants are top of the imperial examinations and their reputation extends to the nine divisions (of the celestial sphere).

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Pattern of the Gathered Dragons Straight dragons approach on four sides, both meeting and separating. The qi is scattered making it difficult to be rich and powerful, yet this often produces peerless talent.

Sand and Water Combining with the Beauty Pattern Overflowing the seal the water meanders with the audience tablet laid out horizontally in front. There is flourishing literary creation and powerful military victories.

literature

military

Beneath Fire, the Water city is like a surrounding embrace. The descendants will certainly expect to become high officials. Mountains and Water United with the Beauty Pattern Peaks are exquisitely arranged in the clouds. Without a dragon one must look to the mountains. The mountains and water reflect on one another from a distance. The descendants flourish and are, moreover, at peace.

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Oblique Water Encroaching upon the Mountain Pattern With the veins of a mountain dragon, one should fear injury to the water. The dragon is able to develop good fortune but soon there is failure and loss.

Oblique Water Dashing against the Mountain Pattern A sword of water obliquely dashes. There is death and poverty.

Pattern of Ponds and Lakes An extensive body of water takes your eye. To establish the node, one should not be close to the front. If not, the position will be narrow and not have surplus qi. The wealth and nobility of the wives and sons will be incomplete.

pond

In general, a node is established opposite a large lake for a peaceful grave. If it is slightly farther away, it is greatly auspicious. If it is a small lake or pond, it is not of this arrangement.

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Same as the above Pattern At the back or front there is a lake or pond. This is appropriate for both graves and residences. They must be directly opposite the front of the pond. Behind a pool, offerings are not accepted obliquely.

pond

The ordinary method is to observe the straightness. If it is oblique, the veins will separate. Moreover, one examines the roundness and squareness and chooses a node such that the hundred matters are as they should be. Same as the Previous Pattern In front of the grave the accumulated water is deep. If it is round and mirror-like, it is sufficient to bring men of good reputation. The descendants will mostly be talented and superior and the sons and daughters will be doubly pure.

pond

Square Stamp Pattern The stamp in a square singularly reflects purity. This land manifests officials.

stamp

Stamp and Mirror Pattern Certainly the same as the above.

mirror

stamp

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Inauspicious Pattern for Pools and Lakes If pools or lakes sit inclined to one side, the veins of qi are incomplete. Most of the descendants are unfilial and are even sent to prison.

A pond diagonally facing the residence

A position in the four corners of a square is of the same consideration. This is the same for graves. Same as the above Pattern In general, a pool to the side, either inside or outside a residence represents dying far from home.

A node diagonally facing a pool

This is the same for residences. In general, pools and dams diagonally behind a house represent the descendants being unfilial and dying of starvation. Bridge Pattern When (the node) is directly opposite a bridge, one is solitary, impoverished and dies from plague. This is inauspicious for both houses and graves.

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A bridge is in an area of decline. Therefore, it is considered inauspicious, just as in a prosperous area is conversely able to develop good fortune and the Vermilion Sparrow is not rejected. Same as the above Pattern The Azure Dragon having a bridge laterally confining the water is naturally peaceful.

With a bridge, one must have the complete details of the position of the area and not only look at the Azure Dragon. Bridge Pattern Jiang Dahong says that this is also an area of decline. For a yang residence one considers an overflow of qi as important. Therefore, it is inauspicious not to refer to the White Tiger.

For a yin residence a bridge is unimportant. Pattern of Springs and Wells

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If there is a well near the house do not distinguish the left from right, back from front or oblique from straight. All represent suffering. If to the heart and the eye it is too near the house, there will be difficulty in having descendants. Pattern for Water with a Straight Flow With water that is straight without any bends, neither side can be peaceful.

evil spirit

Straight with a Bend in the Middle Pattern For straight water which suddenly has a bend, there are law suits but one is at peace.

Inauspicious Pattern for Horizontal Water Horizontal water flows at the back. There is failure and one is cut off from posterity through illness.

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Pattern for Horizontal Water with a Slight Embrace Water which passes by in a straight line is inauspicious. If there is a slight detour, the veins of qi converge and even though there is neither wealth nor nobility, this is a peaceful place which does not upset the ancestors.

Pattern of the Mingtang with Horizontal Water It is neither pulled, dragged, contrary nor flying. The internal is rounded and the external straight. This is a place which can be settled.

Same as the above Pattern It is neither oblique nor slanting. To choose this is also auspicious.

Pattern for Water Leaping in the Opposite Direction The source of the White Tiger resembles an inverse pocket. Even if one obtains gold and silver, demons will steal it.

This is the same for graves.

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Same as the above Pattern Water goes in the opposite direction and does not return. If one selects this, the family’s wealth is lost. If it is to the right, the young have misfortune. If it is to the left, the eldest son suffers decline.

In general, residences which are at the head of a bend in the water represent the death of the descendants. Pattern for Water Flying in the Opposite Direction Water of the Azure Dragon flies in the opposite direction. The family breaks up and the people depart.

Dragging the Feet in the Opposite Direction Water Pattern If (the water) is seated behind and above are the feet of a star which go in the opposite direction, then there is no feeling. If one chooses this, (the node) will never be developed. Intelligent teachers do not make this mistake.

This is the same for graves.

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In general, when there is water behind the house which has a direct approach and then bends and departs towards the west even though it suddenly develops wealth and nobility, it necessarily manifests the punishment of criminals. Pattern of an Initial Embrace which Afterwards Goes in the Opposite Direction At first there is an embrace and afterwards it goes off in the opposite direction. There is a singular development and then decline.

Pattern for Water Leaping in the Opposite Direction Leaping in the opposite direction makes a peaceful grave most inauspicious and the myriad affairs are all in vain. This produces sons with little loyalty or filial piety and daughters who live in brothels.

This is the same for residences. Water which winds to meet the node and then leaps off in the opposite direction is worthless. Water of the Overturned Bow Pattern The model of the water is like an overturned bow. If one chooses this, there must be misfortune which manifests as people of much stubbornness and angry disobedience to the family traditions.

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Water of the Rolled Tongue Pattern Water which seems to be in the form of a rolled tongue means failure which causes the family members to be ridiculed. One is often involved in arguments and this often produces people who are mute.

This is the same for graves. Even though the water surrounds and embraces (the node), at the left hand side it departs in the opposite direction. Therefore, there is misfortune in the middle of good fortune. Pattern for Layers in the Opposite Direction If water flows away in the opposite direction in two or three layers, the family will certainly be ruled by misfortune.

At the front there are two watercourses which flow towards the side of the house. This represents the descendants being unfilial and having physical deformities. Water Penetrating the Dragon’s Arms Pattern If water penetrates the dragon’s arms, there will be death when one is young. A flow binding the Tiger’s eyes produces misfortune.

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If this is on two sides, it is a place worthy of even greater fear. The city gates are destroyed and the sons and daughters injured. Oblique Flying Water Pattern The Water city is oblique and seems to fly. The next generation must flee their home. The family property is completely desolated and there are gradually fewer people.

Same as the above Pattern The White Tiger going in the opposite direction is without feeling. One is exiled.

Separately Flying Pattern The head is oblique, the foot goes in the opposite direction and the approach is from two sides. This is called lifting the corpse and is truly pitiable.

One dies from pestilence far away from home after being sent to the frontier as punishment. Moreover, most of the womenfolk are no good.

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Same as the above Pattern The Azure Dragon and the White Tiger are spread apart. The family’s wealth declines and is scattered. One lives as a guest in another village.

Dashing at the Left to Leak the Qi Pattern River water approaches to dash against it on the left side. The wind blows and the waves break scattering the wealth.

Dashing at the Centre to Leak the Qi Pattern This is certainly the same as the above.

This is both a Metal and Earth city. If the Wood star dashes against it on the left or right and breaks it, it is inauspicious. Branching Water Leaking the Qi Pattern If straight water has a branching pocket, in prosperous times there is no need for worry. If, however, a single embrace is added, the wealth and good fortune can be naturally left to fate.

This is the same for graves.

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One takes precautions against a leakage of qi at both the back and the front of the residence. Same as the above Pattern If at the left the water is pointed like a writing brush, stop and be suspicious of the form. If it is too straight and seems to move contrary to reason, failure comes swiftly.

Pattern for Water with the Wind Leaking in The flow intersects in the form of the character shi160 and penetrates everywhere. Even if it is like brocade, it is still in vain.

A large body of water acting as a mouth for reception is not supported. The waves break and the wind blows. There is no definite trace. Same as the above Pattern With the wind blowing and leaking into the side of the home, the next generation has a small life span. Moreover, this manifests a son who walks at night on a bridge whose railings do not give complete protection.

160 十.

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Water of an Intersecting Flow Pattern The water mouth is penetrated on two sides by the wind. Later generations are in poverty.

Pattern of the Wind Leaking in With the wind blowing into the home in qian,161 the descendants overturn the ancestors. With the wind blowing into the home in xun,162 the descendants suffer from madness.

This also refers to one’s principal fortune being in decline. Pattern of the Wind Leaking in If the wind arises from qian163 and kun,164 the descendants will flee.

161 乾. 162 巽. 163 乾. 164 坤.

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Water of an Intersecting Flow Pattern The flow of two watercourses intersect and then separate to embrace the nodes. How can one stand a departure with no turning of the head?

The water turns and there seems to be an embrace which, in fact, is related to the confluence of the flows. This is, however, completely without qi and there is no need to seek it. Water with the Wind Leaking in Pattern It seems as though it is difficult to come across an insertion into the border. If there is no pocket, the wind leaks in. When one is alive it looks like brocade, but after burial everything is in vain.

Same as the above Pattern Water flies towards the four corners. The waves crash and the wind blows. Even though it has a meandering configurational force, how can it be suitable?

the snout of a plough

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If at the back the earth presses near and the water embraces, this area has a small amount of good fortune (right). This land has no covering. The wind blows into the node and the qi is cold (left). Land of the snout of a plough represents a rough approximation. Entrapped by Water Pattern On all four sides, the water stops the flow. In a short time there is calamity and solitude. One is sick at heart. When the water ripples, medicine is difficult to make.

One’s fortune just waxes until one morning it ceases. On two sides there is a slight possibility of residence. The area in the centre is even more worthy of sadness. Same as the above Pattern The first generation develops good fortune. The second generation drifts about in solitude. If one does not walk away quickly, there is no third generation.

Water of the Character Shi165 Pattern If water in the form of the character shi flows in front, it is suitable for a short time, not for an extended period. The family’s wealth gradually disappears and there is sickness year in year out.

165 十.

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Same as the above Pattern If water takes the form of the character shi, one is only able to be an artisan or butcher. Although one can be warm and have enough to eat, there is debauchery among the women in the family.

Same as the Previous Pattern Behind the residence the Azure Dragon is a river in the form of the character shi. On all four sides the wind is strong and demons wear you down with illness.

Water of the Character Nian166 Pattern This is certainly the same as the above.

166 廿.

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Water of the Character Jing167 Pattern With water of the character shi, sir, please do not take a look. The characters nian and jing are of the same type.

If, however, this is like a city well, it is suitable for residence. Naturally a single family alone cannot be peaceful. Pattern for Four Watercourses Facing Each Other Four watercourses shoot straight into the mingtang unequally. If they meander as though they are turning their heads, there will be a thousand warehouses and ten thousand chests.

Shooting Arrow Pattern If arrowed water shoots the very centre, there is sudden great misfortune.

167 井.

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Crooked Arrow Pattern The water pierces the heart and travels obliquely. Above it should correspond to the Crooked Arrow star of astronomy.

The knife and arrow are added to the body. There is death as a military rebel. Added to this, one strangles himself or suffers official punishment. Pointed Shooting Water Pattern The Azure Dragon lance shoots the body. Later generations will certainly meet with punishment.

Halberd Water Pattern The configurational force of the water resembles a halberd. The killing of people cannot be stopped. The descendants are mostly bandits and riding a donkey they are sent to the execution ground.

Lance Form Water Pattern In front the water resembles a pointed lance. This land is seen to be inauspicious.

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Pointed and Shooting Pattern The turning river bank resembles the approach of a knife. Choosing this extremity is worthy of sorrow.

Hacking Water Pattern The two river banks seem to hack and cut. There is pestilence, fire and the death penalty. The family property immediately withers away and the people die.

A hacking form is like a halberd. Same as the above Pattern This is certainly the same as the above.

Laterally Shooting and Hacking Pattern Flowing powerfully, the water approaches directly and dashes against (the node). The form seems to meander but do not decide on it.

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Even if there is an auspicious star which matches the divination, if one meets with this, there will immediately be misfortune and calamity. Hacking Water Pattern If one places a tomb in a form of a hacking sword, it is truly cut and hacked. One hangs oneself, jumps into a river or has the solitude of the army deserter.

Crossed Swords Pattern Crossed swords enter the mingtang laterally. The young die unexpectedly.

Multitude of Shooting Water Pattern With an accumulation of arrows connected in their approach the harm is even more profound. The spirits of the dead are attacked daily by an evil deity.

Water Breaking the Mingtang Pattern With water breaking the mingtang, it is difficult to endure being head of the family. If one does not quickly walk away, there will be sickness and one will be in peril.

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The Mingtang Opening its Mouth This watercourse enters the mingtang, spreads out and departs in long straight paths. Each path shoots off at a point. There will be the punishment, imprisonment and pestilence.

Departing Water Flowing with Mud Pattern A node with flowing mud represents departure from one’s native place only because in front of the grave the departure is straight and long.

This theory is offered to the present teachers who are clever. One must not make an error in this or the worthy will be harmed. Pattern of the Earth Ox Dragging it Back At the front the water departs in a straight line. Even though it is auspicious, in the end it is not helpful.

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Departing Water Flowing with Mud Pattern Even if there is an external surrounding embrace, this also represents failure and departure from one’s native place.

This is actually the dragging movement of the earth ox pattern. Winding Black Water Pattern The water of the mingtang seems to be winding and black. The earth ox does not move. The node is a suitable choice.

After the burial, the family develops great good fortune. The wealth and nobility of the descendants are naturally manifested. In Front of a Parting in the Water Pattern The water of the Vermilion Sparrow parts into two courses. Sickness, sadness, calamity and misfortune approach day by day.

This represents injury to the head of the household. This is the same for graves.

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Wanton Desire Water Pattern Water, which dashes against the front (of the node), separates into two flows. If there is a well opposite the centre, the debauchery will be ceaseless.

A residence is even more inauspicious and it also represents heartbreak and much illness. Vermilion Sparrow Breaking the Head Pattern The members of the family are not at peace. The source of wealth is insubstantial.

This is the same for graves. Opening out at the Back into an Inverted Ding168 Water Pattern This water causes damage to the population. Dashing at the back (of the node) is not peaceful and undisturbed. If (the water) shoots to one side, it is still bearable. However, if it dashes against the centre of the residence, all will not be peaceful.

This is the same for graves. 168 丁.

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Dark Warrior Poking out his Tongue Pattern At the back the Dark Warrior has a clashing approach. The mother of the household dies which makes it fit for sorrow. If there is a small opening, there is not much luck with being an official and there is daily material loss.

Water Opening out at the Back Pattern This water also harms the mother of the house. It is greatly harmful to those who have been cut off from good fortune.

Azure Dragon Swallowing the Family Pattern Water of the Azure Dragon dashes against and then winds around (the node). There will be no official positions in later generations and continuous death from illness. There will also be many deformities.

This is the same for residences.

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Same as the above Pattern A single watercourse approaches directly to dash against a pointed sandbar which cleaves it into two branches. This was originally called the water gate. There is misfortune and calamity for graves and residences.

This also represents the descendants enlisting in the army and being killed. White Tiger Holding the Corpse in its Mouth Pattern The Tiger water splits into two. The youngest daughter will certainly have harm to her foetus. The youngest son will have his wealth scattered. This is calamitous for both residences and graves.

Same as the above Pattern This is certainly the same as the above.

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Dragon and Snake Both Swallowing Pattern Accompanying watercourses shooting off into two branches have no feeling. The family is seized and no one survives.

Obliquely Stabbing Water Pattern There is stabbing water opposite the gate to the residence. This land has much pestilence and failure. The generation is without a home and moves to another place where there is death in the wilderness without burial.

Imperial Audience Tablet Water Pattern In front the water resembles the imperial audience tablet. There is merit and fame from this manifestation.

Sword in the Hand Water Pattern A pocket resembles a sword in the hand. There is a military career and one is a military official at the frontier.

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Jiang Dahong says that if the small water is round, it is auspicious; if it is pointed, it is inauspicious. Knife and Spear Water Pattern To the right, the water resembles a knife and spear. The descendants will be alone and die from their wounds.

Broken Water Pattern In the broken imperfection, one sees the Fire star. There is grief for both residences and graves. Although the dragon veins are distant, this represents misfortune and approaching disaster.

Jiang Dahong says that for this residence the Fire star is harmful. Broken Water Pattern The banks of the river are collapsed and broken in many places. Within the family there is often disaster and misfortune. Even if the arrow of the golden goose embraces this from a distance, in the end how can it make up for it?

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Same as the above Pattern The sides of the banks of the White Tiger are deficient. Official litigation is endless.

Bronze Horn Water Pattern With this land the form is not broad. The qi is naturally crowded together in the chest. From the generations there emerge scholars, shamans and Buddhist nuns. There are minor injuries and lameness.

Seizing the Dragon Pattern The two ends are small and the middle is large. Like the snake swallowing a mouse, it cannot easily go down quickly.

The hindquarters of the horse and the forequarters of the ox are both of one type. This manifests men seizing the family and extreme privation.

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Seizing the Dragon Pattern With the forequarters of an ox and the legs of a horse, the water approaches with a clash. From looking at it, one certainly knows there is seizure.

There is no discussion about the front, back, left, or right. One must flee and is in poverty. Same as the Above Pattern This pattern is always unsuitable. One dies as a guest and there is separation in life.

Stabbing Forked Wood Pattern At the side (the watercourse) is as though it is a stabbing fork. This land is certainly inauspicious.

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Bottle Gourd Form Pattern In the middle of a river of the White Tiger, there is a ribbon of mounds of earth. Clearly, these are the poisons of the bottle gourd.169

Diagonal Corners Flying Apart Pattern Land of the diagonal corners flying apart represents being sent into exile.

Land of Wanton Desire Pattern The form is like a lifted skirt and a duck’s head. The daughters and wives will climb the wooden tower.

169 Traditionally poison was stored in gourds.

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Divided Back Water Pattern The water behind the grave separates into two flows. There is defeat, the clan is scattered and the household comes to an end.

In general, ridges and mounds in water stop the flow. For that which is not flowing, there is certainly great misfortune. Same as the Above Pattern With a form with water dispersed on all four sides, the wives will have difficulty conceiving, the property will be frittered away, and afterwards one must be cut off from posterity.

Marshy Water Pattern With water of low lying, marshy land which is alternatively wet and dry, the accumulated dirt represents moss and lichen. If it is filled with muddy, stagnant water, it resembles the back of a toad or the filth of a cow’s nose.

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Guard against there being neither water nor land as this produces suffering and the descendants bear the burden of madness. The form is not dignified enough for the spirit. The poison of the water causes boils on the legs and there is the fear of serious illness. Chaotic Water Pattern The water is like scattered waste cotton and resembles a prefecture in chaos. Disaster is established with completely unrestrained chaos and licentiousness.

Jiang Dahong wrote the Water Dragon Classic which had been secretly stored by the Form School but there were many errors in what had been passed down. My friend, Lord Zhang of Danyuan, delved into the studies of the land and obtained the true volume of revisions by Cheng Yating and copied it out by hand. However, not being concerned with this, I was, therefore, not anxious to seek to read it. At the end of autumn in bingyin170 I stayed at Yu Mountain and saw that the collection of the owner of the Zhaokuang chamber, which represented 2,000 volumes of publications, was almost complete. He reported that he had an even greater desire to seek the true volume of the Water Dragon Classic from amongst the rest at Danyuan. I am certain that this was for the benefit of later scholars. From a match of corresponding writings, clearly and happily the true remnants were judged. Naturally the benefits extended from this are extensive in clearing up the obscurity surrounding Master Jiang’s book. As to its origins the whole story is detailed in the preface of Mr. Yating and so I will not repeat it here. Postscript by Lou Dong, Cao Pu171 of the Yinxi clan

170 1806 AD. 171 婁東, 曹璞, unknown.

water dragon classic—chapter 5

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In Lou Dong’s house at Danyuan there is one volume of the Water Dragon Classic by Among the Clouds Jiang Dahong with revisions by Crane City Cheng Yating, which is very much unlike the volumes of the secret transcripts of the experts in kanyu. There is no difference between its writings on the situation of trunks and branches and those of the mountain dragon. The meaning is clear to the skilful experts of the art with ability who follow Yang Yi and pierce the subtleties and who understand well that the forged volumes that have been passed down are contemptible. The preface speaks of considering the water dragon as the body and considering the Nine Palaces, the Three Principles, the Changes, the trigrams and taking advantage of qi as the function and the body. This study reaches everywhere and does not focus on the theories of one school. With spirit and clarity it holds the form and body of the water dragon and the subtleties qi as the principle within it. It is satisfaction within itself. The disciples of this generation only know the theories such as discerning the correct in the principles of the earth and completely altering qi as the principle. All have thought that Dahong did not discuss qi as the principle. They did not pry deeply into Dahong’s scholarship. Remarks by Zhang Haipeng172 of Qinquan

172 張海鵬 (1755-1816 AD), a collector of books who studied the classics in his spare time as a self appointed authenticator.

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glossary of chinese characters

411

GLOSSARY OF CHINESE CHARACTERS Anji

安吉

Ba Ba gua Bai hu Bian Bao wei Bianshan Bing Bo Yang Buyizi Bu Yingtian

八 八卦 白虎 變 豹尾 弁山 丙 伯陽 布衣子 卜應天

Cang long Cao Cao Pu Ce Chang Le Changshu Changxing Chao Chen Cheng Muheng Chi Songzi Chong Chongde Chou Cong ren ji shi Cong shu ji xuan Cong shu ji cheng chu bian

蒼龍 艸 曹璞 廁 長樂 常綀 長興 潮 辰 程穆衡 赤松子 沖 崇德 丑 從人寄食 叢書集選 叢書集成初編

Dahong Da Pu Da ya Di fu Dangtu Danyang Di che Di dian Dili Dili zhi zhi Di lu Di she Dixue Di zhi Diao Tan

大鴻 大朴 大雅 地府 當塗 丹陽 帝車 地典 地理 «地理知至» 帝輅 帝舍 地學 地支 刁曇

Ding Dongfang Shuo Dong Yuyuan Du shi fang yu ji yao Duan Dui

丁 東方朔 董遇元 «讀史方輿紀要» 斷 兌

Er ya

«爾雅»

Feng Huang Feng men Fengshui Fu ma Fu nang

鳳皇 風門 風水 駙馬 福曩

Gan Bao Gen Geng Gong Gong Ding Ruipu Gao Yao Gan Bao Ge Ge Zhi Geng Yan Gong Gong liu Gong Shu Gong zhai di xing Gou chen Gu ben zang jing nei pian Gu gong Gu jin tu shu ji cheng Gu Yue Fu Guan Lu Guan Shi dili zhi meng Guanzi Guangde Gui Gui Gui Gui’an Gui men Gui tou ting Guo

干寶 艮 庚 工 宮 丁芮樸 皋陶 干寶 鬲 葛芝 耿弇 工 公劉 公輸 «宮宅地形» 勾陳 «古本葬經內篇» 古宮 «古今圖書集成» 古樂府 管輅 «管氏地理指蒙» 管子 廣德 癸 鬼 歸 歸安 鬼門 龜頭廳 過

412

glossary of chinese characters

Guo Gong Guo Pu

郭公 郭璞

Hai Haigu Haining Han long jing Han Xin He shuo Hou han shu Hu shou Hua long shan ren Huainanzi Huangdi zhai jing Huang fan Huang Shilu Hun

亥 海盬 海寧 «撼龍經» 韓候 合朔 «後漢書» 狐首 化龍山人 «淮南子» «皇帝宅經» 黃幡 黃師魯 魂

Ji Ji Ji Ji Jia Jiashan Jia Xing Jiang Pingjie Jiangyin Jiao Jie yue shan fang hui chao Jin Jin dai bi shu Jin kuai Jinling Jin lu Jinshan Jin yu Jing Jing Jing Chun Jingkou jing qi Jing shen xun Jing tang Jiu bian Jiufeng Jiu gong Jiu xing xue fa Ju men

吉 己 脊 積 甲 嘉善 嘉興 蔣平階 江陰 角 «借月山房匯鈔» 晉 «津逮柲書» 金匱 晉陵 金爐 金山 金魚 經 井 景純 京口 精氣 精神訓 京堂 九變 九峰 九宮 « 九星穴法» 巨門

Kan Kanming Kanyu

坎 看命 堪輿

Kanyujia Kanyu jin kui Kan yu zong suo za zhu Kuai Kui Yizu Kun Kunhu Kunlun Kunshan

堪輿家 «堪輿金匱» «堪輿總索雜著» 塊 夔一足 坤 崑湖 崑崙 崑山

Lai Buyi Lai Wenjun Lang yi Li Li Li Chunfeng Limo Li qi Li Sicong Li zhi Lian zhen Liao Gong si fa xin jing Lin An Ling tai xu Liu An Liu Bowen Liu Xiaobiao Liu Zongyuan Liu chu Liu Jinping Liu sha Long Lou Dong Lu Cai Lu cun Luan Luan ti Lü

賴布衣 賴文俊 郎顗 離 力 李淳風 離墨 理氣 李思聰 禮志 廉貞 «廖公四法心經» 臨安 靈台序 劉安 劉伯溫 劉孝標 柳宗元 六畜 劉晉平 六殺 龍 婁東 呂才 祿存 鸞 巒體 呂

Ma He Mao Manmo Mi chuan shuilong jing Mingtang Mu Mu

馬和 卯 貊 «秘傳水龍經» 明堂 畝 目

Nan jie ershisi pian Nei ye Nian Niuzhu

«難解二十四篇» 內業 廿 牛渚

glossary of chinese characters Pan Gu Pei Xiu Piling Pin Pinghu Ping long nan ren Ping long ren Pingyang Pingyang Po Po jun

盤古 裴秀 毗陵 品 平湖 平龍難認 «平龍認» 平洋 平陽 魄 破軍

Qi 氣 乾 Qian Qing 頃 Qing 青 青帝 Qing Di Qing He 清河 Qing long 青龍 Qing Niao 青鳥 Qing Wu xiansheng zang jing «青烏先生葬經» Qiu Yanhan 丘延瀚 Ren Ren Ren men Ri

壬 人 人門 日

Sanjiang San pin San tai San Wu San yang San yuan Sha Shang Shen Shen Shen bao jing Shenhun shen ren Shen nu fu Shen xian sheng qi shi shi shi Shi Chong Shiliu zang fa shili Shi ji Shi jing Shishan

三江 三品 三台 三吳 三陽 三元 沙 商 申 神 «神寶經» 神魂 神人 神女賦 神仙 生氣 勢 十 式 石崇 «十六葬法» 勢力 «史記» «試經» 獅山

413

Shi shuo xin yu Shu shu Si Si ku quan shu Sima Tian Si qi Si Zui Song Jiang Song Yu Sou shen ji Suoshan

«世說新語» 術數 巳 «四庫全書» 司馬天 死氣 司最 松江 宋玉 «搜神記» 索山

tai ji Tai Sui Tai yi Tai Su Tai yang Tan lang Tao qian chuan Ti si gui Tian bao jing Tian cang Tian dao Tian de Tian fu Tian gan Tian jing Tian Lao Tian men Tianping Tiao Tiaoshui Tong Tong Han Jing Tongxiang Tugui Tuo zhi gu

太極 太歲 太一 太素 太陽 貪狼 «陶謙傳» 替死鬼 «天寶經» 天倉 天道 天德 天府 天干 天井 天老 天門 天平 條 苕水 童 «銅函經» 桐鄉 土圭 橐之鼓

Wang Chong Wang Ji Wang Jinguang Wang Wei Wei Wei Yang Wen da yu lu Wen qu Wen Wang Wen xuan Wu Wu Wucheng Wu di ji Wu gui

王充 王伋 王瑾光 王微 未 未央 «文答語錄» 文曲 文王 文選 戊 午 烏程 «武帝紀» 五鬼

414

glossary of chinese characters

Wu hai Wu Han Wukang Wu po hun Wu qu Wu Qinze Wusong Wu tai Wu Wang Wu xing Wu xing Wu Zixu

五害 吳漢 武康 無魄魂 武曲 兀欽庂 吳淞 烏台 武王 五行 五姓 伍子胥

Xishan Xishe Xiang zhong shu Xiao Xiaofeng Xiao shisan jing Xiao Wu Xie Heqing Xie Ji Bian Fang Shu Xin Xin Xin jing Xing fa Xing jing Xingpo Xing shi Xiu Xu Xuan Xuan nu Xuan wu Xuan Yuan ben ji Xue Xue jin tao yuan Xue xin fu Xiushui Xun

錫山 西佘 «相塚書» 孝 孝豐 «小十三經» 孝武 謝和卿 «協紀辨方書» 心 辛 «心經» 形法 «星經» 形魄 形勢 秀 戌 玄 玄女 玄武 «軒轅本紀» 穴 «學津討原» 雪心賦 秀水 巽

Ya Yang Yangshan Yang Hui Yangming Yang Yi yang yin Yang Yunsong Yao Zhu Yi Yi Yi Yi jing

雅 陽 洋山 楊會 陽明 楊益 養蔭 楊筠松 陶朱 伊 乙 埶 «易經»

Yi men guang du Yi sheng Yixing yi xing liang jie Yi Xing Yin Yin Yin xing Ying chuan You You bi You Pan Long Yu Yu Yu Du Yuhang Yushan Yu Shi Yu Si Yu tang Yu Xi Yu Xiaozong Yuan Yue de

«夷門廣牘» 壹省 宜興 一行兩界 一行 陰 寅 音姓 穎川 酉 右弼 右盤龍 羽 禹 雩都 餘杭 虞山 御史 玉笥 玉堂 虞熹 余曉宗 元 月德

Za zi yin dao Zang jing yi Zeng Qiuji Zeng Wenshan Zha Zhang Haipeng Zhang Heng Zhang Juzheng Zhang Shizhi Zhang Zihao Zhen Zhen Zhenjiang Zheng Zheng Mi Zheng Sixiao Zhi hai Zhi Zhili Zhi Lin Xin Shu Zhi nan che Zhu bo chuan Zhu que Zi Zi Zi Xia Zou Zi Zuo fu

«雜子陰道» «葬經翼» 曾求己 曾文赸 霅 張海鵬 張衡 張居正 張式之 張子豪 震 徵 鎮江 鄭 鄭謐 鄭思蕭 指海 之 直隸 «志林新書» 指南車 朱博傳 朱雀 自 子 子夏 鄒子 左夫

index

415

INDEX acupuncture 46, 47, 61, 65, 103n acquisition of language 101 aesthetics xv, 30, 35, 78, 103 (see also feeling, beauty) Agricola 35 Ames, Roger 59, 96 Anders, Gyda 32 Aristotle 3, 98 art of swindlers 5, 106, 111, 174 Asimov, Isaac 97, 101 astrology 5, 7, 14, 55, 72, 112, 255 audience tablet 327, 358, 366, 392 Australian aborigines xvi Australian Parliament House 26 Aylward, T.F. 42-43 Azure Dragon xiii, 13, 32, 58, 62, 70, 114n, 131n, 142n, 143n, 151, 152, 156, 159, 213, 217, 223, 225, 230, 291-97, 311, 350, 370, 365, 373, 377, 382, 384, 390 Azure Emperor 146 ba (eight) pattern 163, 165, 287, 306, 345 Bacon, Francis 33n baihua 20 Ballad of Seeking the Veins of the Water Dragon 336-37 Ballad of the Natural Water Method 203-5 Ban Gu 11 Barton, C. E. 83 beauty xii, 3, 10, 24, 35, 102-4, 121, 181, 200, 210, 211, 215, 217, 218, 219, 220, 226, 225, 227-28, 230, 237, 240, 241, 255, 260, 261, 262, 266, 267, 277, 356, 366 (see also aesthetics) Bennett, Stephen x, 8, 9, 15, 36, 47, 52, 55, 62, 66, 70, 74, 135, 136, 170 Berleant, A. xiv Big Dipper 54-55, 146, 170, 256 Blue Bag Classic 13, 199 Bo Yang 198 Böhme, G. 107 Bohr, Neils 94 Book of Burial x, xii, xvi, 5, 6-7, 10, 15, 22, 24, 38, 42, 43, 46, 48, 50, 51, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 77, 80, 111, 125-33, 161n, 165, 172n, 175n, 199, 202n, 237, 334n

Book of Songs 179, 194, 255, 259n Book on Appraisal of Tombs 12 Bourdieu, Pierre 21 Bowler, P.J. xiv Boyle, Robert 3, 93, 108 Bronze Mountain 125 Brook Haven National Laboratory 84 Bruun, Ole 22, 25, 31, 41 Bu Yizi 183, 255 (see also Commoner Lai, Lai Buyi) Bu Yingtian 39 Buddhism 25, 95, 101 Burial Classic of Qing Wu ix, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 18, 21, 111, 113-23, 202n Cai Jitong 7 California 22 calligraphy 59 Campbell, D. 99-100 cang feng de shui 48 cang long 13 cao (pattern) 215 Capra, Fritjof xi, 94-97, 101, 104 cartography 24, 38-39 celestial stems x, 20, 54-55, 57, 66, 67, 70, 137, 143 Central Book of the Blue Bag 13, 199 Chang Xinchang 6 chemistry 37, 40, 69, 104 Cheng Jianjun 29, 55 Cheng Muheng 196, 199 Cherishing the King Classic 16, 180 Chi Songzi 13, 199n China National Knowledge Infrastructure database 30 Chinese imperial civil examination 92, 158, 240, 262, 263, 264, 265, 273, 291, 294, 302, 316, 318, 324, 325, 326, 328, 362, 364, 365 chong (clash) 60-61 Choy, Howard xvii, 32 City University of Hong Kong 31 Classic 6, 13, 62-63 Classic of Siting x, 5, 7, 14, 22, 57, 66, 67-68, 69, 74, 94, 95, 112, 135-59, 202n Clément, Sophie and Pierre 27

416

index

coagulation 36, 69 cognitive science 103-104 Collated Water Dragon Classic of Mr. Zeng 16, 180 commercialisation 22 Commoner Lai 183, 191, 255 (see also Bu Yizi, Lai Buyi) Compass School 4, 5, 8, 14, 15, 26, 32, 36, 42, 63, 68, 74, 111 ‘direction and position’ school 15 Comprehensive Investigation of Forged Documents 6 configurational force (shi) 29, 36, 45-47, 49, 115 confluence of water 120, 132, 163, 166, 200, 202, 210, 211, 221, 222, 224, 225-31, 234, 244, 252, 261, 263, 315, 342, 352, 380 Confucianism ix, xvi, 25, 40, 95-96, 136 Confucius 136, 170, 195n, 202 cong ren ji shi 115 Cong shu ji xuan 13, 56 Congling Mountains 82 consilience 104 correlation ix, xi, xii, xvii, 9, 36-37, 70, 74, 78-79, 101-5, 136 cultural capital 22 cultural chauvinism 4, 48 cultural geography 25 criticism of fengshui 20 crows 321, 341 Daoism 7, 14, 16, 39, 41-42, 91, 92-96, 101, 135, 136, 152n, 178, 180, 193, 194, 264 Dark Warrior xiii, 13, 32, 58, 70, 114n, 127n, 131n, 143n, 145, 150, 185, 208, 210, 212, 213, 214, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 223, 225, 227, 228, 230, 239, 240, 289, 290, 336, 349, 390 de Groot, J.J.M. 7, 17, 32, 49 de Kermadec, Huon 152n Declination 5, 29, 34, 40, 42, 84, 199 development of science 42, 90 Di Dian 136 Di men guang du 21 dili xv, 60, 61 dilishu 49 dixue 49 Dili zhengzong 22 ding pattern 290, 309, 389 Ding Ruipu 16 Ding Wenjiang 37

divination 16, 18, 19, 23, 26, 28, 32, 39, 47, 69, 129, 144, 167, 172, 173, 180, 191, 195, 203, 205, 255, 386 Dong Yuyuan 255 dragon 20, 32, 44-45, 60n, 80, 83 abdomen 133, 158, 200, 206, 207, 213, 223, 225, 293, 317, 325, 330, 359, 360, 363 arms 304, 375 bowels 293, 325 head 133, 138, 149, 156 back 150, 157, 360 flank 150, 152, 156, 157, 204, 334, 337 foot 150, 151, 155, 158, 171, 263, 324, 325, 376 hand 149, 152, 156, 171 lake and marsh 201 swimming 218 tail 138, 154, 325 drowning 91n duality 91, 96, 257 Duke of Zhou 91n, 179 ecology xiv, xv, 18, 29, 32, 36, 41-42 economics ix, xiv Earthly Mansion 152, 156 Eight Mansion Theory 5, 32 Eight Murders 165 Eight trigrams (bagua) 20, 21, 29, 56-57, 67, 70, 93, 137, 138, 143, 144, 176n, 196, 198, 201, 204n, 305, 335, 399 Eitel, E.J. 17, 32, 33, 48 electromagnetic field 20 Elvin, Mark 46, 73, 106 Emperor’s Carriage 146 Emperor’s Chariot 146 Emperor’s House 146 empirical approach ix, x, 3, 5, 30, 32, 42, 68, 69, 72, 74, 93, 98, 99, 106, 189 ensigillation 95 environmental determinism 24 environmental history xiv, 105-107 environmentalism xiv, 40-42 Epitaph to the Esteemed Ancestor Madam Li from the State of Zhao 6 Er ya 7, 91, 130 ethics 24, 106-7 Eurocentric 90 Everything you Need to Know about Siting 106 Fan Li 326

index feeling xvii, 9, 30, 36, 71, 72, 102, 104, 108, 119, 122, 125, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 168, 175, 182, 189, 202, 203, 215, 216, 220, 229, 233, 235, 244, 245, 249, 252, 253, 254, 256, 260, 263, 271, 309, 320, 335, 337, 344, 347, 373, 376, 392 (see also aesthetics, beauty) feng (pattern) 279, 306 fengshui definition 45-46, 47-49 fengshui maps 24, 27, 68, 201, 205, 255, 260, 264, 333 fengshui xiansheng (geomancer) 8, 19, 62, 111 Feuchtwang, Stephan 17-18, 19, 52, 62, 63 Field, Stephen 23, 25, 32, 42, 49 fish hook 224 Fisher, Tim and Jonas xvi Five Ballads on the Heavenly Principal 20 Five Calamities 129 Five Colours 132 Five Earths 128n, 132 Five empty (sites) 141 Five Ghosts (Shades) 55, 139 Five Phases x, 12, 20, 21, 36, 40, 50, 51-52, 53, 54-55, 56, 58, 66, 70, 71, 78, 98, 103, 117, 128, 136, 170, 171, 183n, 255, 256, 259 Five Stars (Planets) 9, 51-53, 55, 70, 75, 139, 146, 170, 171, 198, 277, 278-88, 335, 337 five substantive (sites) 141 Five Tonal Surnames 53-54, 67, 136, 138, 140, 150, 157 Flying Snake 150, 157 Flying Star method 32 folk practices 22 folk psychology xv Form School ix, xvi, 4n, 5-6, 8, 14, 36, 55, 63, 69, 71, 81, 102, 194, 196, 398 form x-xi, xii, 7-8, 36-37, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 66, 67, 68, 69, 74-75, 299-309 functional x, xi, 36, 37, 74, 75 naming 70, 178, 260 resonance x, 36, 37, 50, 70, 74, 75 sign x, 36, 37, 70, 71, 74, 75 strange 118, 310-329 Fortune, Robert 17 Four Beasts 289-99 Freedman, M. 18-19 fu (rhyming prose) 231, 233, 235, 253 Fu Daiwie xv, 37, 42, fu ma 255 Fujian Province 14, 16, 163n, 180n, 188, 261 Fukushima, Keido 59

417

Gaian model 27 Galileo 98-99 Gan Bao 144n Gandoderma lucidum 264 Gao Yao 84n Gao Youqian 13, 49 Gate of Good Fortune and Peace 151 Gate of Man 151, 157 Gate of Peace and Virtue 152, 155 Gate of Wind 150 Ge Hong 96 Ge Zhi 195 Geng Yan 195 geodetic force 60n (see also configurational force) geography ix, xi, xiii, 24, 25, 34, 48, 81n, 113, 264 geology xi, 26, 37-38, 41, 77, 82, 85 geomancer 19, 35, 93, 196 geomancy 33, 36, 45, 47-48, 93, 172 Ghost Gate 149, 155 Gandoderma lucidum 264 Golden Box 109, 110, 114 Golden Goose 252 goldfish 151, 209, 234, 238, 261, 262, 263, 265, 271 Golden Kanyu Thesaurus 12 golden goose 252, 297, 393 golden plate 228 golden soup city 363 Gong liu 194 Gong Shu 198 Goonatilake, S. 88-90 Gou chen 55, 149, 157 Graham, A.C. xi, 59, 96, 101-3 Granet, M. 46 graves x, 18, 24, 52, 53, 74, 75, 102, 116n, 122, 135, 167, 173, 178, 184, 334, 338, 340, 343, 345, 349, 351, 354, 356, 368, 369, 372, 373, 375, 377, 388, 389, 391, 393 ancient families 200 joint 179 old 183 gravitation xi, 9, 84-85, 85n Great Age 140 Great Benefice 152, 153, 156 Great Dividing Range xiii Great Extremity (tai ji) 203, 262, 270 Gu jin tu shu ji cheng 13, 17, 21 Guan Lu 13, 182n Guan Lu chuan 13 Guanzi 11, 91, 129, 170

418

index

Guangdong 18, 185 gui (ghost ) 91, 125 guest and host 114, 117, 118, 119, 127, 129, 150, 152, 153, 157, 159, 164, 173, 175, 227, 228, 236, 239, 288, 347, 377, 395 Guo Gong 13, 199n Gui hou lu 193 Guo Pu x, xi, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 16, 19, 22, 24, 27, 38, 41, 43, 77, 111, 113, 115, 116, 117, 122, 123, 125, 130n, 161n, 165n, 180, 199, 202, 255 Guo Pu chuan 38 Hakka 27 halberd 384, 385 Han dynasty xvi, 6, 11, 12, 20, 40, 41, 50, 53, 57, 61, 65, 66, 90n, 91, 129, 130, 135, 136, 137, 148n, 159, 187, 195 Han Fei 59 Han Wudi 53 Han Xin 195 Harvey, William 98 He Jinzong 61 He Xiaoxin 29, 52 heart/mind (xin) 50 Heavenly Benefice 139, 140, 141, 150, 152, 159 Heavenly Gate 148, 153 Heavenly Good Fortune 154, 158 Heavenly Granary 151, 153, 155, 158 Heavenly Mansion 151, 153, 155, 158 Heavenly Punishment 157 Heavenly Well 152, 156 Heidelberg University 86 Henderson, John 93 Henry, Paul 105 Himalayas xii, xv, 81 Hong Kong 18, 19, 22, 25, 26, 31 Hong Pimo 20 Horticultural Society of London 17 Houng Yu-Houng xv Huainanzi 49, 90, 139 Huang Chao 15, 193 Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) 7, 12, 21 Huangdi Neijing 40 Huang Yi-long 14-15, 17 Hui Du 14, 21-22 Humboldt University 31 hun 91 inductive reasoning 89 intercratonic conducting zone 83 Ione, A. 103-4

Jade Hall 152, 153, 155, 158 Jade Marrow Classic 122 Jade Mirror Classic 171 Japan 24, 32, 107 Japanese colonialism 25 Jiang Dahong 20, 193, 195, 199, 201, 256, 260, 277, 333, 338, 347, 352 370, 393, 398, 399 Jiang Pingjie 8, 21, 41, 68, 111, 199, 255n, 333 Jie yue shan fang hui chao 21 Jin dai bi shu 8, 38, 49, 118n, 128n, 191 Jin dynasty 6, 7, 12, 13, 38, 39, 113, 125, 144n, 173, 187, 188, 191, 199, 258 Jin shu 13, 38, 63, 113n, 114, 123 jing pattern 254, 323, 337, 383 jing tang 255 joint tombs 179 kanyu 12, 21, 28, 38, 49, 81, 82, 399 Kanyu zong suo za zhu 16n, 180 Karlgran, B. 61 Kögel, Eduard 32 Kohut, J. 7, 13, 15, 19, 43, 46, 60, 127n Komersaroff, P. A. 101 Kong Shangpu 29 Korea 23, 24-25, 27, 30, 32 Kui Yizu 118n Kunlun Mountains xii, 81, 82, 113, 195, 193, 196 Kyongbok palace 25 Lai Buyi 183, 191n, 255n (see also ­­Commoner Lai, Bu Yizi) Lai Wenjun 183n, 255 ‘lair’ configuration xi, xvi, 77 lakes 117, 163, 186, 189, 191, 194, 201, 204, 231, 237-46 Laozi 51 Lee Sang Hae 27, 62 Legalists 59 Leopard’s Tail 140 Li Chunfeng 136 Li Sicong 16n, 180n Li Zehou 40 Liezi 96 Lim, Lisa xvi lines in rock 175-76 Lip, Evelyn 28 literary structure 78, 171 Liu An 90, 136 Liu Bowen 193 Liu Gen 136

index Liu Qi 3 Liu Song dynasty 7, 14 Liu Xiaobiao 125 Liu Zongyuan 6 loess plateau of northern China 23-24 logic of short term advantage 106-7 Lou Dong 398, 399 Lu Cai 15, 53, 66, 74, 136, 137 luan 128n, 357, 363 Lun heng 53, 137 Lunar Benefice 139, 140, 141, 146 Ma He 39 magic ix, 3, 63, 98 magnetism xi, xvi, 5, 9, 20, 29, 34, 40, 42, 83-84, 85-86 Mak, Michael xviin, 31-32 Mandarin ducks 240n Manmo 122 Mao Shuiqing 12 markets xvii, 92, 105, 107 marshes 128, 166, 201, 235, 237-46 Mawangdui 53 medlar tree 332 Meng Tian 11, 81 meridians 40, 46 meteorology 35, 38, 40 Miao Ma 13, 14, 21-22, 58 Milky Way 182, 201 Ming dynasty xi, xiii, xvi, 6, 8, 12, 17, 73, 84, 93, 106, 128, 61, 68, 76 Ming tombs 26, 84 mingtang 63, 114, 116, 117, 126, 128, 151, 155, 158, 165, 176, 181, 182, 191, 194, 220, 224, 229, 232, 233, 236, 239, 240, 241, 244, 245, 251, 253, 308, 315, 354, 372, 383, 386-87, 388 Morgan, C. 15, 53-54, 66, 74, 137 Mr. Guan’s Enlightenments on the Principles of the Earth 13 Mu Hu 197 ‘mystical ecology’ 18 mysticism 90, 92-97 Mysterious Dragon Classic 16, 180 Needham, Joseph xi, xii, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 28, 33, 34-35, 39, 46, 47, 49, 73, 79-80, 97-100, 102, 108, 172, 199 Neo-Confucianism 25 Newton, Isaac 85, 93 nian pattern 323, 337, 382, 383

419

Nine Brambles 130n Nine Changes 170 Nine Ministers 71, 130 Nine Palaces 56, 67, 137, 143, 194, 198, 277, 333, 399 Nine Stars 55-56, 70, 170, 204, 334 node (xue) 9, 22, 47, 58, 72, 77 true 117-18, 176, 206, 218, 256, 261, 323 North Star 67, 127, 137, 252 nourishing shade 120 nuclear physics 94 numerology 42 occultism 108 On the Landforms of Palaces and Houses 12 One Thousand li Eyes 197 Ong Aihwa 22-23 Original Record of Huang Di 12 orgone energy xiiin orography 82 Palace of auspicious omen 16, 180 Pan Gu 113 parallelism xi, 9, 83, 85, 87, 93-100 Pei Xiu 39 Penang 26 phoenix 128n, 130, 262, 269, 318, 357, 363, 364 pin pattern 340 Ping long ren 39 pingyang (flood plain) 69, 185-86, 189, 190, 191, 196n, 205, 260, 332, 334, 335, 336 Plum in the Golden Vase 17 po 91, 139 pools, ponds, wells and bridges 329-32 Porkert, Manfred 46, 49-50, 51-52 practice of translation 45 property market xvii, 107 proto-science 19, 98 purple 143, 210, 230 Putnam, H. 45 Putting Gold into Bags 16, 180 qi x, xi, xii, 6n, 29, 35, 36, 38, 39, 46, 47, 48, 49-50, 51, 60-61, 65-66, 68-69, 71, 72, 74, 77, 78-82, 83, 85, 86-87 essential 90-91 torpid 71, 87, 146-47 vital xii, 49, 50, 71, 80, 87, 116, 119, 120, 122, 125, 131, 132, 139, 140, 141, 146-47, 162, 164-66, 179, 218, 253, 254, 258 wind 115, 126, 131

420

index

Qian Long 42, 106 Qian Renzi 37 ‘qimancy’ 49 Qin dynasty 11, 38, 48 Qing dynasty 13, 15, 21, 23, 30, 39, 42, 52, 56, 82, 93, 126, 178, 193 qing long 13, 58 Qing He 193 Qing Niao 12 Qing Wu ix, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 21, 65, 66, 111, 113-23, 180, 205, 237, 258 Qiu Yanhan 14 quantum mechanics 101 rationality xi, xvii, 47, 89-90, 104-5 Raven Terrace 321 ‘reflection’ 70, 184-85 Reich, Wilhelm xiiin Reiter, Florian 31 relativisers 89 religion xiv, 4, 19, 23, 42, 94, 104, 250 ren (pattern) 250, 314 Restivo, Sal xi, 4, 19, 97-100 ri (pattern) 263, 273 ridges and mounds 70, 162, 184, 191, 397 roc 130 Ropp, P. S. 93 Ru lin wai shi 93 Russell, Bertrand 108 Sack of Good Fortune 151, 153, 155, 158 sanpin (grade three) 226n sand 22, 62, 79, 115, 117, 121, 169, 170, 175, 176, 177, 186, 189, 190, 201, 206-9, 210, 212, 220, 224-25, 230-37, 238-46, 250, 25253, 258, 263, 286, 299, 307, 313, 315, 318, 326, 335, 337, 357, 366, 391 Sargent, E. 108 Sawyer, R. D. 59 scholars 24, 27, 36, 39, 40, 41, 46, 73, 74, 82, 93, 99, 111, 121, 136, 155, 165, 182, 195, 197-99, 201, 204, 208, 211, 221, 224, 226, 232, 251, 255, 260, 277, 328, 333, 336, 394, 398 Scholastics 108 scientism ix, 60, 105 scintillometer 86 Shaking Dragon Classic xvi, 14, 16, 81, 180, 193 Shan hai jing 7, 77 shamans 15, 53, 66, 74, 325, 394 Shang dynasty 361

Shang Yiyin 361n shen 14, 91 Shen bao jing 16, 180 Shen Dao 59 shen ren 14 shenhun 91 Shenzi 59 shi (diviner’s board) 34, 172 shi (ten) pattern 322, 323, 337, 378, 381-82 Shi Chong 295, 318 Shi ji 11, 49, 81, 113, 152 Shin Yong Hak 27 shu shu (practical arts) 11 Si ku quan shu 123 Sima Guang 92 Sima Qian 11, 49 Site’s Benefice 159 Sivin, Nathan xvi, 99, 111 Six constructions 262 Six domestic animals 142, 144, 152, 155, 157, 158 Slingerland, Ed 104 Smith, Richard 23, 50 So, Albert 31, 32 Soaring Snake 130 sociology of science 89, 97-100, 107 Song dynasty 5, 7, 12, 14, 16, 33, 39, 166, 180, 183, 186, 187, 191, 255 Song Lian 7 Sou shen ji 144 soul 91, 139, 142, 144, 149, 150, 156, 157, 174, 179 south-pointing carriage 172 spirit ix, xiv, 4, 22, 27, 33, 40, 41, 48, 50, 66, 67, 72, 90-92, 108, 116, 121, 125, 128, 132, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 159, 162, 166, 167, 174, 179, 182, 183, 191, 194, 197, 200, 232, 245, 248-54, 256-59, 261-62, 264, 265, 277, 278, 281, 288, 291-93, 295, 310, 321, 334, 350, 371, 386, 398 spiritual geography ix, 48, 264n Star Seal Section 257 Strickmann, M. 91n, 92, 95 Suetoshi, Ikeda 51 Sunzi 59 Supernatural Bell 125 Taiwan 27, 40, 41, 61, 100 Tambiah, S.J. 47, 89-90 Tang dynasty xvi, 7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 25, 32, 39, 53, 66, 70, 74, 81, 87, 136, 170, 180, 193, 196

index target market 105 tectonic plates 29 terrestrial branches x, 20, 22, 53, 54-55, 57, 66, 67, 70, 137, 140 Theiberger, Peter 85n Theory of the Pictographic Patterns of Water and Reeds 260-64 Three Auspices 334 Three Dukes 71, 129, 130, 197, 261, 278, 314, 315, 317, 318, 325, 361 Three Gorges 257 Three Locust trees 130n Three Officials 194n Three Principals 26, 136, 145, 152, 156, 194, 198, 201, 277 Three Principals Classic 145 Three Rectitudes 117 Three Terraces 321, 322, 353 Three Volumes of Qing Wuzi 12 ti si gui 91 Tian bao jing 16, 180 Tian Lao 136 toilet 151n Tong Han Jing 15 tousan 130 traditional Chinese medicine 32, 40 Treatise on Harmonising Times and Distinguishing Directions 42 triple (three) yang 176, 233n, 262 True Classic of the Jade Body 259 Tsai Sueyling 32 tugui 120n, 131, 172n Turtle’s Head Hall 145, 151 Twenty Four Difficult Problems ix, x, xiii, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 16, 21, 63, 70, 71-75, 78, 80, 95, 106, 111, 161-91 Ultimate Knowledge of the Principles of the Earth 30 ‘unifiers’ 89 University of New South Wales 25-26 underground water 9, 35, 38, 50n, 80, 8687, 165 van Goethem, Ellen 32 veins and arteries xvi, 11, 29, 32, 38, 60, 61, 65, 78, 79-83, 115, 118, 121, 126, 145, 161, 163, 168, 171, 175-76, 189, 191, 200, 203, 205, 206, 207, 209-14, 217, 225-27, 232, 237, 257-58, 261, 263, 278, 334-35, 33637, 340, 349, 355, 358, 364, 367-69, 372, 393

421

Vermilion Sparrow xiii, 13, 32, 58, 70, 114n, 127n, 131n, 143n, 149, 156, 165, 289, 305, 309, 313, 331, 370, 388, 389 vertical integration 104 vital energy xii, xiii, 6, 68 Wang Chong xvi, 21, 53, 61, 137 Wang Ji 14 Wang Jinghong 35 Wang Qiheng 28 Wang Wei 7, 14, 21, 136 Wang Yude 32 Warring States period 41, 51, 170 Water Dragon Classic ix, x, xv, xvii, 8, 10, 16, 18, 21, 60, 62, 68-70, 74, 79, 96, 111, 180, 193-399 Water Office 91n Water Pincer Prose of Guo Jingchun 96, 265-57 Weishu tongkao 7 wells 159, 329-32 Wells, M. St. John 60-61 Wen da yu lu 14 Weng Wenhao xvi, 37-38, 80-82, 87 What Everyone should Know about Siting 17 White Tiger xiii, 13, 32, 58, 62, 70, 114n, 131n, 142n, 143n, 150, 158, 217, 218, 291-93, 297-98, 351, 370, 372, 376-77, 391, 394, 396 white house 360 Wings to the Burial Classic 20 Writings Fording the Mysteries 8 Wu Boching 7 Wu Han 195 Wu Qinze 6, 21, 65, 112, 113, 123 xiao (filial piety) 67 Xiao shisan jing 12, 21 Xie Heqing 16n, 180n, 191 Xin jing 14 xing fa 12 xingpo 91 Xinjiang province 82 Xu Shen 61 xuan pattern 300 Xuan Nu 136 Xuan Zong 15 xue (node) 24, 47 Xue jin tao yuan 13, 21, 126n Xue xin fu 39 Ya (Book of Songs) 259

422

index

Yang Yi 8, 399 Yang Yunsong xvi, 8, 14, 15, 32, 38, 41, 70, 81, 87, 185, 191, 193, 196n, 277 Yang Zhu 96 yangming 138, 144 Yangzi River xii, xiii, xiv, 163, 169, 170, 186, 188-89, 204, 207, 257, 260 Yao Zhu 326 Yates, Matthew 17, 48 Yates, Robin 45 Yellow Emperor 135 Yellow Pennant 140 Yellow River xii, 81 Yellow Springs 165 yi pattern 312, 322, 355 Yi Ding 30 Yi jing 14, 50, 56, 67, 78, 123, 137, 138, 171, 196, 202, 204 Yi men guang du 12 Yi sheng 159 Yi Xing 15, 81 yin-yang x, 22, 24, 32, 35, 41, 46, 50, 51-53, 66, 67, 74, 93, 96, 98, 103, 119, 135, 183, 196, 255 Yi Yi 90-92, 108 Yoon Hong-key 23-25, 32 You pan long 136

Yu 257 Yu li 48 Yu Si 195 Yu Xiaozong 333 yuan pattern 214, 215, 216, 219, 250 Yuan dynasty 3, 13, 186, 255 Yugong 81, 83 Zeng Qiuji 15 Zeng Wenshan 16n, 180n zhai (site) 135 Zhang Haipeng 399 Zhang Juzheng 21 Zhang Shizhi 193 Zheng (Book of Songs) 259 Zheng Mi 13 Zheng Sixiao 35, 79 zhi pattern 214, 215, 216, 219, 247, 250, 300, 322 Zhi hai 21 Zhou dynasty 50, 51, 179n, 361 Zhou Jiannan 40 Zhou Lüshang 361n Zhou Wenzheng 12, 22 zither 262n Zi Xia 136, 143 Zöllner, J. 108