Farewell to an Idea: Episodes from a History of Modernism

528 65 60MB

English Pages [462]

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Farewell to an Idea: Episodes from a History of Modernism

Table of contents :
Front matter
Front cover
Front flap
Copyright
Contents
Acknowledgements
Introduction
1 Painting in the Year 2
2 We Field-Women
3 Freud's Cezanne
4 Cubism and Collectivity
5 God Is Not Cast Down
6 The Unhappy Consciousness
7 In Defense of Abstract Expressionism
Conclusion
Notes
Back matter
Photograph Credits
Index
Back flap
Back cover

Citation preview

Farewell to an Idea Episodes from a History of Modernism

T.J . C lark In this

ir1ll'nSl"

far·rl'su< r«ordfor,hi,book i, ... iI.b lr from Thr Briti'h library

NOT., Dilf'k."l1.ion of illu..""ion..., givt'n in hrigh,brfolwledgements

Imroouuion

Paint;ng;n ,he Year l

J

Freud's Gizanne

4

Cubism and Colle1 Mvei>renoonewj,houl them . Some of ,he book's Chaplers ha"t appeared prrvioll,ly in preliminary form. Cllaplen; J and) are .t'o'iKd and expanded from my -PJiming in Ihe Year Two," R."'''tt..,nrum p,ionbeing .ha( ;n the""t..,p""ssu",. andc.>.p'''i(i~,o fa

p"n io:ular mode o f repreS, with eve"Yon c acce pt ing (or r"",mins ) ~ hi gh It~d of risk; time a nd sr 3Ce fllrn< "k• ., to a!! ... on " n)' m",,·. And in pa;",i ng - i" arl in ~,n,r~ l _ d i sa~rccme", mosl often m.an s dng )'.,,,. M arn.·s ""r""'OIlS a»ass,n. lih one "I ,huso: hybrid ~".a'urn I., ",hum ,he ,'er)' .enno male and fema k ar~ nOI applicahle, mmi.cd frllm .he ja ws "I hell ,,, ,h. d.... pair 01 boI'h sexes, hd"n"" di rcell)' '" neilher, He r Imm"ry m"SI he fo.ev .. er, /Jdlll;1.1 S«r;""drl Gdrdes · Frdll(Qi.rs, pm,,/"i"""II"'dl;V" i/,'S/"'Sles d~ l.epell.,i.rrr Ma'dl, had had IC'los "f a ",''''''''al sub,."I. On u So:p~"ml"'r ,h~ Section du P" nthion p l hued 1 he3' "nc Ga~ard - h~ I'XnlS to ha"c mau., no nrher mark in his1Ur)· - d. li'·era fU"Cf'~1 ornlion to .\bral alone. And Stl tln. These n.... onl)' Ih. OIXlISII>nS Th~, left ~ wri...... rc in gone ola tmanct n«o:1l'1l')' fo, thei, p:mil>li~m 10 It"'.... c...u ld a Irlldr' mOlher ..,buff ~ ,; nUoo., child? You are the m~hcr sodeTY of all in lhe: Republic. Add tn your 6mily b)' ado~i n", m,-" The >celion·,. wish waii gr.Imw; th,,~b not. U the Jarohin new ~p'~. as."rnl iu rcalkrs I~ II\'Xt tb r. until afttT the flM'mt...nhip had unlktJ!on~ -tht mos/ riRiJuamination,~ For had 1101 the J,oobillSdtddN. Ih."" "'""h t.../orc. thaI .hey wuold 'tc~niu 35 true populu socio1in -only I ~ ...·ocn: Ihr l"C\ululiona.y oommilt«, li n t h.ning I>urged ;15 "ln ki. ' lOW formed.he,;'-'c;cty·.'col1.".a rld ...,..... rea ll ltlC'mho:rlIlur.dhad,u~ssavole .. fthis >arlkcommillt't urllh~ir crnkn nal~ - l ' ; 5"bOlul may ht rijtlu in ,;ayinJt ,hal 1M very k"cnty ul rhi ~ part )' diklat p.oduad a backla$/! from ,he 1IXictin them· ""'["0.. Certainl~' we ha\'C insrancn of som~ of them asking for allili,nion, ho:i", drdarcd nO( pu.etnuugh, alldjl."if\&lh.eir~par.Jlew.Y11furasl0,\lo\a' .hI' Termr k,.hem ), But ~ thc Mu~um KCtion: that is the point, They .... the pUIT.!.1 " I Ihe pure. It i5 my ~1In' th~l th-c- whn[~ cpi-!lwed Ihdr pictum QUI in the pbee.

M""..,

1',,,

fi,,,,

HiuorianS;ql.fff that SeptembC"r '711} w,"a tumingpoinl in 1M Jacobins' rdalioos wilh 1M 5111110d maximum p.ocn for grain and flour. Anuther fr.rTni~1 and th~ maximum WiU (xtcn&d, at "'aM in theory. 10 wlges ~nd price.'!> fOf all commudi· riC"l. tThis IS (lOe of the ro:.uc)ns why a.so.:ia ting t~ Tenor with a nul ·yel·horn .socialism is 50 tempting.) It putl~ R~volurionary nibunal on a war fOl)fing on the fourt....:nlh. p,J"cd It..- law of SU~I!C',".m the S(\'c"lITeelllh. IOId 1001 ...,.,olulimwry (ommittttS 10 dr.lw up !illS of t~ l"C"Volulion's enemies. And immed i~lrl,. i, turned its IXW wupon~ IIgainM Ihe mO$\ .bnge-fous r("prescnl~' ,i.·C'S of Ihlm' wh" Iud ,"ked for them in the !irst pla~e. The JtTUS'rootJ amy;;:t Ja,'1ues KoWl'. who had made Ir"CS by tM Jacobin. I~t henl_d in. and (v(muall,. (>\>1 an end 10, the It\.'Tions a~ an intlcpcndcnt force. This doth. COntnt in which the ",·en .. nl ~, Vendcmioirc .huuld he understood. September is the month. , think. when DJvid 10"" lhe ke)' decisions in his painting of M3f"i1l.

I rclliu l hanrubbcdmyrcadcr'5noscinthcdelailofpoli,icsinI 7Y" Art. a" n,,, only i~ "f poll.ic.!;, hu. 310.0 '0 k3\"~ .he ,.xi.xm ;;Ind "",kd _ .... 11: .0 "aMnlu.e i •• in o.her word~.IOth~.wi§r ..... cbim is harml11 woulcJ h~v~ lhoughr anyonr ;nI.,...,I .... in the IUtu • • of mock.nil)" would find i, t'3S)' 10 a.'(~I. flU! .hat would he: II' Und(rC:Slim~ I" lhc douhknn.~ tof 1.... lerm ~mod­ R rrnilm in .he p ..... po1i.ion. Moorrni!UI i, Aft. And An,or a crrt;un cult 01 An, is u~ct ly Iht fi le (fUf $Omc) on which the impos.sibilllY of tun...:cmkoce ~";ln hc: d.nitd. Pnh3pl it i~ the om si le We ru.\.• left. So defend it b)' an)' rllCans n«rcprllavid himKlf tr.ad rushed tu (he uibl,ll)(' ,houring: - I u PUt nw to dc:",". I 100 am , vil'tU()'" man ... UhelfY will "iomph.· ).> R)' Ih(' lim( of h i~ dealh ;\hr~1 w:u largely reo.:ondkd \I>; lh the cmerging powen. Mklitlel has -.I 'l;lrdoni(: sllbh~diflg for JU (lC 17'): "Rnlxspicrre and ,\1;1(;1{, I\tlanl~mtlf""kr.·

But look a(."lin OIl II.., phraow.s from I: Am; dH Ptuplt qUOled abo~. Th";r conlcnl, ~nd ~bo\,e . 1I Ikit rhclorial rc:mpcr3lu .... Irc typical of Ma,. t's journalism. And I~ an: enough 10 l U£,l;C'S1 ,hal, m;on.:i1e'. Bur ~I leaSI ~b",,'s w.ilin~ "",m. 1tin~1 Irom Ihtm -,ht im311e of poliliu he ~OOJ for exceeded Robcspitfrc', 3,>f 1193. fo"""rd planmns W3S a mug's pmc:. BUI equally, I do Ihink Ihat Da"id's pa inlin& a pictun: "I M3r.lr in Aug.m and s.:ptcmher was ,t..,pcd in - infunnw by ~ 1M b.mle oyer Malat', lcgat:y. OtherwilC I would nUl h.:ovc bnlhc,rcd 10 dcsailltre·Dame? News was romi", in of the annies rtivol"rio""~;rl'$ in the cunlrysi.k, making bonfires of "atues and riding priests out of town on a rail. B)' what righl did men who til l now had counted for nOlhing in th e course of the Revolution look round,in the midst of these events, for way • ... tO lure even good patriOIS into false measurcs, and sow confusion and dism>,a lily:.kindofs fCJ.pifa l Ml /p... ur avnir Droit [e~tn mort fomoal capila l ilia VO,,~ bienv~ilbn(r.· "II lufk." Ihal I am Ifuly Unfnnuna lr ror me 10 have ~ kiWn 10 you. btnr~o1nKr." Of l;ve dIy, ThaI wu 1l11.1ranlc..d !O do Ihe Irick. One ~ .... I\y D~vKl o~ for the allcrnative.

un>.

" I I sulli l que ie Sis b~n Malheu~uS(".· TM pictu.e ,urns on 3 "3'f· nltlH Ihal is true propo$irion~lI)' - lilt pictu,e a~ a whole is 00110 shoW;1$ trulh -bulo(cuufS("duplicilou~inintf1lI, (Onsidtltdasa~rfo.m:llil'e. h is hardlo know how close: ~ , ...~del I>.,..id Upc\1N his VM:wer (0 be. Someone ku lruSling

,hanMar~lin . 79}migh'c'·cnhawbttnputOllguardhrlhefacrolC..... r1onc CO .J...y'su.ing."Olrtl uaddres. a!ingul~rci'O)"f'''-iusl al the m'tf)" Ihing on lhe: pi«r ..f paper w~~ opc.:;lU>C lhe jUl"'"r w3i 3110wed 10 dtoop Jown a triAt l(Jwtr from lh" lip "f rhe

DAVID

orange box. In particular, the last three words, de la pMrit, are th is time d ear as day. Who can blame the poecause it i,one amollg a panop ly ofohjecrs : the pens and inkwen, the parched ,heet,lhebone· handledknife , th ebath , the orange box. The picture goes in for Marat's '"things , ~ a. we know hi, devotees did ing.neral.ltinsi,tsonth e spt..:ificformsmattertook in thi,in'tance. And yerthc single most extraordiMr)" fcarurt of the picture, [.hould sa y,i.i tswhole upper half being empty. Or rather Ih.re is whal i, unprecedented ), not being empty, exact ly,nOI being a sati.faclOty repre..,ntation of nothing or nothing much - of an absence in whinlt1hirtjt Ihal oul/,hl on Ihff3~ffiI IO btsueh an aho.r:n(C looms1argc in Ihe M"r.:r'. II lill~ h;ol( .he ea .,vu. Bu. imlud of lIuar~nt...,ing .he ;lIu~,un hy ;ts simple nt'j;:lli "il), I. IUrns OU! in)l~ad 10 bo, a pmi l;'''' of wrt$: 3nd nUl juS! ~noth". ~rticul~ •. li1rt ,he unobtrusive wall in Chardin, bll' .... mr.hing ah$.r~tl ~nJ unmCl,h'3ttd, whieh OCCllpiQ ~ different concepll.lIl space f.om ,m- b"dies 1>.,10.... u. ThiS prooucC1. Ilh ink, t kind of ,eprC1ornlalional Jc:.dJ..w:k. wh;.:h is .1Ie: 'rue: ~o,,"e of .h~ MOT"f. c.....u inuin~ !mId on us. Nu paiming ",'N bchevcd ;n illusionism mOrc fi~rcd)'. No obj«ls "'..,,.., ""~r offt,.cd rhe \~ewer as ~"il­ insl)'~' C"n1ay'~ and ~lar:lf'~ k1r,,~. HUI the ohj""fS are .... riting. And up above .m-m, ironizing or o\·eDhdo .... ing IMm. is anUlhe. kind of scriJl'l' 1M endlc:s~ munmlllessobjCCli"" y prod ....."Cdb)'p.linTnOlqui •.,lirwiinJ;;uohjn't •• )·mbulic orolhe"'·~.and,h.rcfo." makin"d(>wi'h its ......n procwu.e,. In ~ len...,. ,Mn. 1.()t.I am S3r1n~ .ha. til( up",,' h:llf " 3 di.pla)· of 'IXh",q"c. nUl di'play I~ ,"" ncutrnl a word, for 'M point I am makIng, ulr im~tdy. is Iha • •«hnique: in modernism is a kind of shame: something rha. aSSC'm: i(Sl'lf ,,$ ,hI' trllih of pic1u.ing, Du. al WAys ag:.ins, p...,uring·s btSI and mos, .ksptutt dftl ,.. :uten'ptillg -'futh 10 materials. - 1'",(wn ",nd dlUf(:h pro~"ic~, and 1~lfr from lbr 1~l1d. ~nd bdongHl8' of ~",i8r;s. hn;gtilr~ir{' dot lig.,t ;0 ~ortlli. arid in p;lr!lCular mo!1(')" m~.k thtm n(rvooeing able to ten ~wh"re the commod;ty is . ~ Thi s gels 10 be true of more things (more sigm) in David', picture the longer we look. More, bUI nO! all. T he MarM i, not a picture that ,how, us .hins and uncerra ;nries ending up swanowing the world, or making the conl'cpt ~world" rcdundanr. Ih lea ve, tha t to lat.. brands 01 modern ism.) A pen isapen ,a kn ife i,aknife. GOO'ie feather< catch the lighr likc rhis, and Iheir vanes g row separate and sticky with U'ie just so. Blood on a bone handle looks one way, on steel another, in water a third. Matter is S1ubborn, oral leasl predktab le ,a ndgoes on resisting the work 01 moden'ily, Even Ihe proud inscription ~ YF"'K TWO~ is provisional. The numl>ers '7and 93 are still therc 10 Icn and righl of it, only halferased,Sttmingly. M'Jndon Ihe '.1:,"". ind,,,J' ~H< i. going '0 Ta hi'i. hut 0" a mrs,ion from ,he SO"ern""", "blamed ,.,. K"~~n fil•. " "I ThC1 tmile Verna«t'n " "OTe btaulifull)' dMU' van Gogll on ,h" ",.-" ",on. ,ltll struggltngI" mJk . up h,s mind .boul hi m" Pis,:l ft" bOI w,nd of ,hese ,h in~' even ,n Eragn)": "' It ....-.:ms Ih"l rn BfU'St'I,"',Gaugurn and ""n Go!:h who lr< winr>e m.:ognittge.her in the ,87os, ~ nd , hal he now intended to slrike again.

I do not wanltOgivelhe impression lhat th .. gffiup nf.rtisl",. ostemib l), N'''"'''''' he h"d the (h~llCC "I se llinl.( a bi~ pai nt ing ", ,ht TheM'two ,,"cre sril l i'l BQus,(>u nd lU be a bit , ma ll'proprierorial) and to whIch as ,'iewe.. we h""e parrlygaineda,cess; hu,onl)'p., rtiy,rhJt " the poim -so that ween dupse... n): a sen .. of ng ure, an d ",b, ions, but unl)' a sen>C, We '''uld worry endlessly ,bout the peasa m, anual pose •• and ,he di"a n,e between ,hem, and where t he gro"n dpI.11lei"b"t of,Du r>cthepJ int lnsdoe.nmofferu,.ufti",.mclut.10 "nswer ,hc", kind. ofqut';I;on.,ond doe, nO! mCJ n to. !t mea". '" to be '" 1",,00. We hJ"rst:lf10 Ihc fa c'lhafcverythinsc~nnO! be infelligihlc. G;.·c upthcidc30frebuildinganew3rtbyrnean.ofreasonalone. PuI Yo"r trusl

"'Ii

II ;..

,4 C"1::;:',.::"""':,"' H'''''L!arllhalsourf3te repl)', Nigh",;"h and the r~ttl< of corbine" In '~9' these ",aTters ""ned on Ihe ~niludc oi «",i~Iiorder, kil ling Itn p"oplc. There was a smaller, Jnd "em;ngly ins ignifiean', dash dO"f to home for ParisiJns, in t he f.crofy.uburboiClichy,!>etwccn p rroi,typical,writingtohi,ni""eon5 Ma y,890di."'eter~rry

Well)'e"lhinJ;:Spa,,,doifpea~dull)' in !'ari,.Bu"hcsrr ikNarecontinu;ng, th. socia list ehief. have done everything in theifpower t put a 510p to th. dcmnnSlra,ions, bu, ,he rno\'emen' i. under w3y, "nd ynu will scc in due .:nu f.." hat Ihis "ighl-hour day, which iS3"'solul. ly u..,I"",and willnolgiv. thewofkingcias,athing,wil l i'C the.pafk that will lead to one dem and after another, The hourgcuis wil l norhave,rolen ;t Jftef all!!!"" ~Ir~ in the last senten,-e me"n, the movemenT in gene.,I, and ~Ihe hourgeoi,are Jules GueSl leadcr. ~nd the handful of w.;ialisr. in ,hc Chamber of DepUlies, An",h;"s espr.ll1rJnt Very, :>nJ arr ..,,·d un >~ /o,b'.:h. Hi, trial "1'S'ollnJ ... dunthcmagi-""'o.:}'{or n;"'ing tumecameaminori'yopinionin.n.rchistranh

"Now ,ha, we are quiet ly immersed in ,h~ eofTluCou,/IIe5l0{Brcad. Wearel~>tamongthQ", whopreachaC1s ofvi"lence,oreatrhebo" a nd,he ~apitalist

for lonch. a~ once ,he buurgei ' did ,he pri.,;l; nor do w~ in~ile individttal.lodolhisorlhalsp...:ificthing;we are persuadee exduded from a r ra",i", and they ~ugg.s' why: ill this case. ,h. y coniu r. b.ck 'he kind, of ialse knowledge and.asy idenrific:uion th"r mod.",i,m ,hough, inviration had hte" ,he dea,h OfHt. And they show us 'he way any pra.ri..:e ishaunto dby ,he que.,ions i,,,i... '" put aside. The t,S! ofa PrJ"';"":, ulrimJ,dy, is how it deals with those gh"", when fo, some r"sun ,hey crowd hack on srag •. The gho,,, of",,"cd,,tc,e,hos. inwardn,"", past and future time. I am not saying 1jllO Yotlng I'easant Womeu h.sall "f,hese demons ""derc"nr",l. hu' Ido think ,he key to Pi"arro's version of mod.",i,m i, ,h,,, at one moment lin extremis) it duh wirh ,he demon. directly.

'0

This b'ing. me back to rhe qu,""ion of Pissarro's anarchism-to the qut.,iun posed Ipainfully bad ly) hy th~ artist himself in the .entence of hi. I quoted earlier. I ~therea sense, '0 pose i, differently. in which anarchism reaily informed.nd inn"'led rissarro 's way of painting? Of course anarchism waS" fo,m of thinking that Pi"arro Cam. to relativdy late in the day, when he had alread)" huilt himself a complex ,,)"ierg, who "d"ured I',s"",,, g,eall)', w"" a, f,,, ,I' I know Ihe first f(j POlllt "'" thc ",n d, of ",k. ,nd defi.;ic11ci", ,h" f"llowed f'um Ius '''lIludcto ,ht world, He,. ,dof l''''Jrro ,ha, a 1m "fl"","",e -thewIJllin, 1 d ftt ea.y in its mo,:kery {here is the Olher. opposilC work lhe word d""'1 because it assem rhatthest" arC the qua lities tha, all ow Art to speak to the public realm. They are the quali, iestha t prepareil - ,,·enilin rca li ty the picllIre isno more than 35 by 46 inches-for theworkolpe"uasion"ndch~"cningto"ome

It wou ld not be fair to iudge thi.stratcgy h)· vande Velde ·.Project/or Ornamental Emhroidery(fig. 64) or Bonnord·, I)u,k {fig. .191. They .,eearly work,. Bonn"d, we know. was later to make of the decorati,·e - meaning the Himsy, the ga ."ly.lhc repe,ir i,·e, the cheaply consoling - somethi ng uniquely p" ssion3leandregTetful. His Cmmtryside(tig. 68) is a cruel version of pastoral - a firs' World Wnr version. And van d. Vel de was to move into three dimensions proper in the )'c~rs ~round '900 (fig. 69), and find his own showstopptngvOlc,. Nonethdess. J believe tnat in lhc form it mostly t()()k in the carl)' ' ~90S the decorative was a p .. lend So lulion to mo,kmism's prohlcms. It g"vc an alihi to weightless simplificat ion. and coquetted with ,he idea 01 lh. architecturalhcnce presumably the social - while all the whi le pre«ing the visual arts towa rd wh imsy and nosta lgia. (h would take a Mati."" to retrieve the tactic ['a n of the rea",n Mau rice Denis was so angr}' with him in '9D.5 was that h~ Saw theinJ icrmcnt Motissc'sartrcprest"ntedofmoSllhing,doneinthcnameofrhe decorativeduring,hcp rcvioustcn)·cars.)

68

Pic.,..,IInOBllrJ,

Co.tn/""id-:, oil on C:ln"U.1JOX 160. .,.6-~o IPriY.'~

(,,!!.,;tion)

This hrings U$ back to Two YOtl ..g P~as"1It Womlll. Cerrainly Ihal p,ainling wa$ meam Tn ~ seen in 'CI~Ti(ln TO me jobs Pi$$3m) had done in Ihe 1880' 015 a dew/alnr of lam. The fan~ were a nOT llIlimponanl parf of Pi5sarro'5 prodoc:-· non. Their modOf)' wa~ in ,hei, favor. PisRrro knew lhallhe Kale and (ormal hadl~ncdhi.d,,,wing.plIrfic-ularl)'()fthcbo1" hon, 10 p",blcm"h3! wersltuel our inld l'g'nc•• wh" h needs to be wh,pped' nwshap: Ihe Barne. piClu re and the one in the I'hi ladelphia Museum . Apan from anything else, the fact Ihat ,hey are hung with in ten miles of one another means they are easier to look al comparatively,

H ere, to !legin, i~ a fragment of Cerg is supposed to ha,'. suggested for the painting Pollock eventua lly called One . Ir wnuld do even better for the p,int ingwea.e iook ingJ t

Hard to imagine trees more melodramatically phallic - their hranches rigid and repetitive with the ",me usele" assertion . Or a towel more like a honeymooners' Niagara than the one on the right, fa lling endlessly from the dreaming ligure's Ilcf,-hJndS!defli, kers.,,,,b,,,o, ri l), Dct"''-'''' ligur,· and gfOj,,,,,j,anJ pft" 'cnt the f",,,,, next 1o " from sidh n): and ' hding il\[o ,he "OIJ. Th, lrI l ,,~ le was IIk.'wise in",J.....:!, b)," Jark re['eem,J rhc"'0Turf~,,~~ '" bo: tr~n!;",,'m' or I",,,ti),"", orcmngonl()o't.." rossil>lc 1X'.",on~ d«1.lrIng them .. I...-, nOt '0 bo: solids. or ~""" form, of tr.lIl,pJrm, "'~Itrt.ll. bul ""hcr w"~~u'alto", of 'I"~e_ Tr~n'r'''el''')' di,pl..~ .. re"trs, bil"l' '" Ihc Ill .,in Illt'!.Irhor. And ,lI erd"rr the pKfUrt ,n''f3'''thrm.~'·r'l'Ih",gISJmhlg"01.". Thr 'e"",t-Ir c"be- sn'ts \t'~)' 10 I.... lind. I hore ,h a, ,ho ,h,~"nc of 11m d,,,,,pllon ,!rile' .he rt.,der 3S I",,'''''r and n"RJ"H' h) lurn" Ik....WM: Ihal" huw I "n d~" ... "d 1',.-.1·'m -"",I", th" 1,·.,J,·r\h'p"lano I")ll,lh,·propJg.mJ.,booa,d. ln .,""nsc."".h .. WnOI ••·.nl:>.'g"n ,olackle lhea'p"'-t olitt hJ , ....,,,,,lnn"'Ih,' "ue",..Jtof IOJLissu,ky·s ll lnpionis"': thal l>,hlS .. n",'oflh.' posstbl.'reiarions, Lll 'p,mg ,mJ ,umnw, J9~0, be,,,,,cen Ih. two g,,'al frlll' of (">t"bli,h.. J SIgn lan)(""~" ; n Ih,' ,'"It",,· al ia,!>," - "i,ual an d ",·,hJ I. pie,,,,e .,nd text. II is "I~,,', "lllx'C"""" ,ne ,irru m,r:l nCt"' following , ,, I 7 W'r lt th. " ilt' "J"1""d Ih", lor .\lJ l'·~Iwer of the Soviets On the platfor", of tilt October Revolution!"'·' The ideo.>logy ofpcosant reoolt is ful l ofstra l1S • twists. ) l..enin, musing later on the phenomenon, exaggerated vnly a linle when he call«l.he "prisings -more dangerous th an .11 the Denikins, Yudenich,.. and Kolchaks PlOt together, ,ince wCare living in a country where the proletariat represe"". minority. and where peasant pruperty has gone to ruin.-" MyglleSs is tha t it woulJ have htt" The to and froofevems in the Ukraine .hat th e group in Vitebsk "ieolh d 1.1'" and r.flo n,luy. bmh apocaly p",.nd"tupIJ-bt...:.u>cu pn'>ent"d "",If", ,ueh. ill " Aurryol ap"lo):efl",~ "d prnph.,.;y - th 'l!l gJ\'erl ... tu ' ht mod.rn lSm "'ean:l{){)ktn);at Prulc!HI,m rule. >a)", KriTSmJ" . "exud"" n"'Ill"ic ",holen,,>, unknown to cap",h,m . gtvtngJ f""',,StC f ,he f",urc ,,,,,.I ,hce'h..""f ,ne presen,.-" It i, nO! hJrJ 10 "'c h"w Ih" lam.sy 01 dlp,,,,k,,,, ,he hl" w,liv. no"'- ,he IIJ! impera ,,"."I uropia "PIh,'reon Ih,·b,llbuJrd.i roni uJ h)' 'he cn1p'ydr",b,ion JII "round I1 - d,. , ' hrpho",· graph ref", ... 10 d,e. 0 1 " " ...~h",1 wilh Ihe flll\l'~ in il> hones

"'1'.-" II

Oll~ "'~y of p"'lin~ .,1 1 ,hi. w",,1..1 h~ ,,, >Jy IhJt W.>r C"",,,,,,,,i,,,,. ,arl'e' Ih"n hl'ing "" f.'''''''""d ,,(tI,,· TT.I!I$II,,'" /',·r',,,I. wa' .1n M!l'mp' Ie) J,'S'",yu'ShM""i'(\' ;1 Ihe!r.n,ir inn hl'I\Wen ""pi",lis'" ,,,,d Ih"",f",,,,,,,( ,,,..·i~li,ed r",Ju,'tion a"J ~~,' h,,,,!(~ Ihar ,'""IJ I'a,i"", ,h.", perh"pslho)'wn.,i>"'therei, n"" • ..d fur\l,toh;r~{ he>"ake·'lail"fLeninism yet "g.l in. From our pi,,' of '-i~\\', w h~1 m,IIIl'" is , imply Ihc exlr:lIIrdinJry ht'irlg' I'>gerher in lyl o oflhe grssesrsm'!!o' ",,1 ""lin s),mp'o'" lIfrl,(Jis.:.'se, Arli,nne"f, hesel'fr"lform, - ! sh""ld "IV df",:r;v~ l \' perm.lnen l forolS, "nl"" "'"yh" we Llk .. Il"kharin'. '"hruader view'" - 01 imagin ;"g olher",i,.,. Th.lI i. ~ d,ief ,h,ng it dnes. An)' ,,, ' cn 'pl ,HI Ihe pUt orlile slate II' 0", (0)(" on Ih, ,,,,,,,·k..\"'vhe !h,,, wa, ""I wha! ,he ' '''Ie w:""eJ, hl" i, ",~a", , h,,, for .l whii< UNOVl, ;nterpr",eJ Ihe stal~'s dream !>",'k 10 il in" w"Y Ih~ st.lle f""nd irresistihle. It "nu.1kdl., "'()n'''i~whole'''S5''nk"owIl ro"' r ilali,,,,,)(i''· ;n)!,,fnrel.''ter>f rl ll'f"lII"Jm'J

the "h",>s "f , I,. prtse n'." T h~ s',11" p.'iJ 'h~ pipn. Left anists )('" th~i , 'f"'"i.,1 ra!ions. All K,itsn",o wa, wr10 ..1 an .1 red mll""t them' WllJ, i, J 1''''1'''' "3m." g'" an .ldlt'd ("ght ly att ...-hedl to ,'ny manor o r p"":lIn ",I,,~h >I'" a",.')' ilfp un,ng Ihem '0 us~' Is th,,, ", h)' th,' name h,'"·,, hard )' legll>le; Is I! mea", to ht' un dersrood j, on Ihe poi m ofl"'in!; .-ifaced b) the m,"'e,S II iswrtltcnon-J>,fwipt'dofithe "Iuare'>hl.u;khu.,rdIJrh"r",b,' ,he p l,"l\'t\ Ii,,·! ~FOOl h,, 11 in space:' s,, ),s ~lalev",h. -,he' ~, 11 NlI1g rhc "",gled m" ssof pJ>tccn wr ic",." "

i\-1a)'beth" .. toc.lrrvlheJrgumelllw"h lhc, Which I",; ,),..mo" ,'i,u" l lm"y]...,conceptu" lj weigh t! A,,,the,,, ,he rii:h' k inds of que" io" , '0 Lx- po,i,,~", all' Wh.11 would othN qllestion, - abom de.un , "mlulion, ",e",,,,,~ li7,ing, n" min)!. an d m",, )',do ", _ b,' I,h'! Pe,haps th,' ~oll.Iche i, 3 glim pse of , he form ,he)' migh' lake. I do not want 10 Impl)' ,h" , ",xt al1 d picture in the propa!;.Inda Ix,ard ~a nnib"I'zeo'lldescrobed. T he I. ux"'nhu r~ proie':l is ,]"-' r,'a lm of .:o,,,,emion beh, nd. a nd ",(lin "'g mH"c.1i",,)', The words fo r Ih~t bttc r Sta !~ ",,' ft'. ~n J remained, I"gio, ,- So, nt" of Ihe", ,,'Ct,' appa,cml)' ,,,,hn i,~ I, ",h;,'rs lunged toward dos,~ nt re~"h.,. of m",.' p h)",i(s: ~ "ni,"n," -pr~'fmnc ing. Ahs,r"" .• (1 w.1SI ,1{ wnhln it, ""'n """ s, I, w.' S ),,,,,il>l,· fo, .- m"" '0 Ixlo""" .,nd nol Lx-h .... e in il ,n th,> '''''''' t;m,' _ ~"I('\,,,h', H' i,

of ~ndle" revolutionary discu .. i,'ene.. ~ a deferring of meaning•. even of pcrception".shunlingiJetwnsesro il bygovunmenr and Ihc pt"ople. Carrp.ys homage to Ihe period .. illusrraring"thel"'rsistenceandingenuiryofhumanbeingsind.. i,ingways and m.ans to exchange goods when Ihis be"omes ne"essa ry 10 their survi val.· ... Mosl wa ys had linle T do with socialism lIul again, our subj~"t is pe",eplion, not reality. UNOVIS k~pl g~tting its rations. And what marks off this period of finan,i~1 frte hll from most orhers - from Ihe ~"me process as it happened in Germany, for inSlan,," - was Ihe beli~f. seriously ent~rlained and propagated by at least some Bolsheviks, Ihal Ihe end of money was a nec"""ary parr of the end of capirali,m, 10 be wekomed as such. Makhno'sexaltalion was widely shared The COnStanl decline of money (Ihis is Ihe Bolshev ik economi>t Larin, wr i.ing in Ekonomic/Jc.kaya Zhi;:n in November !9~0) will increase in ac.:ordan~e wirh the growth of the organized ehal3CTer of $oviel economy ... M..,ney, as a sole measure of value. does nOl exi.t. Money as a means of "irculalion o;a n alr.ady begol rid ofro a wnsiderable exlent. Money as a means of paymenr will come to an end when Ihe Sovier O,todiscover as ui,abIeMarxist • .,bSlituleforexchange

,,8

value ahogttner. £.conomi'linS{ represenl.tion,1 'Ir{ is . 1'0 3 Slrugg.k .gainsl number ["",aning lh . whole previou,syslem olidenTily and difference. Ihe , olmre', whok i m.1giningof ' ~''K.anJpresenc.J3ndag3inSldealh

It i, not lor o. 10 see how Ihe new world will be built. It will nol be hu ;1t wilh our Ie rters.hollIJbeprintedandcin:ulated. Even if we do not g~t the d,... rlers b.ck by these means, '" le~st we shall sh~me ~nd frighten 3nyone who is leaning in that direction ... Be,id.., w~ h.v~w ;l1still th ~ awarent'Ssth.1 labor conscription Iparl of Trotsky's gel1eral dream althis 'ime of the ",ili tarizalion of tho ,""onomy] means 'tayingal one', post a, long", the circumsmnces JomanJ il ... The COUrtS should likewise hea mighlyengi".ofag;tationanJ propaganda. Their role i,,,ol i"st to mete our punish",.nt to the guiiry, hut TO agitale by meons of represlion. We Ihould organile. show trial (literally. a 10uJ tria lJ ofoneortw 0 d"'lorswhogiveoul phoneycertifi~a,e< • .. lfwepu(thctrialonin ",hea ter in on"of l he cities. and invile repre"'ntatiYesfrom all the workshops, .Old have the tri.1 reported in all the pap"rs, and bro.dcast 011 the "dio-,h.1 will re.l lydo",,,,eeducalional work. As regards workers on th~ railroad, who are systematic ab .. ntcculturerricsw;th itswil,ilScons.;iousne"and its .. nscI" go rhrough something ,ha, bs no (ullsciousn.'" 110 wil and no sen'e. However witty and brilliant it may be. il will never ge, inside ,har whi"h is ... nscl . ss. '" An athlete's slipper for that C;mkreIiJ. The crackli ng ul the movement of nun-objectivity.

"J

IJ O lIn known rh .... ~"ph forms (one 01 ,h,· "go< of c" ,J Not lleing C"" Down) So"'< t htng5i>e'''",odeHcr,fAn . Ch ,,,ch . JnJF,,r'oT}'ar~unJerstooJ'obe , h r""o("C~$,ar)'''n J ,ouad '''a bl ea ,pi,; , [I lhetcsi n'rl), ."."0 Sltong "eecauo;e lhc dislinClin"lhcy reSt on "". whalan praniceput' in douhl

M y hunch i'lhal one ollhe rea,omlhe Lefl inan 'hughl ilS time ha d come in 1910 waslhal it sensed not ju,t a general cri,i, of confidence in the 'ign, bu' also a spcc ifk crisi, in the BoI,hevik, reiation to their own sign language. It w", " h"d ycnr for any party thaI bd ie\'ed it was, or rop,cscmed , ,he dicm'nr,hip of ,he proletMiat. Isaac DClJlschn, who was not necessarily o n 'he lkoUl f or ' ign< of ,rrain, 'ing led ou' '~lOaSal i mcwh"n s upportforlh, BoI, h"'ik. among what wa. left of the working cb" Wa, at rock bottom

Menshevils and Social Revolutionar;"'s,whoin rhe course of three yea .. had bttn completely eclipsed and had hardly dared '0 rai,;,t ,heir head, (~.dip!;e{i" is a good DeUlocher verb,and "hardly" disguises a grear deal 01 daring and raising in 1918 and '9'9,usuallyagainstfierccoddsj,werenow rtgainingsom. popu lar favor, l'eopl.list.n..Je,'." more sympathetically 10 anarchistagit"tor~violenrlydenouncingthe Bolsh,,'il regime. lithe BoI.heviks had now permitted free elections to the Se,·;s.-" •• he ideolog)' of - .....·dOpn'ICIII M for thQK n~"oflJI I>o .. rgtisios tbat w~nt on .J•• Jm;ng of ' " wd-,un ro.",d C-Jpi.. li, .... ,0 ~ ",,,,",,.. Iously "abilittd """,nodi.y ....·Ollom)·. Th. "~,sions 01 .\br xi .... Ih~ d.um. "".~ rist 10 in the tnt K"~my )'r~«j wu•• to pur i. mildly. 3 bil .~",i,.. There n,ay he diffrr.,,,-'nofopinioJ n .mong uS a.",w h.tr.er. in th~ liglu nf .hi, hi ltory. ,h. old dog 01 Mar.~jsm ha l OilY lif. l.. ft in il. How .:o uld ,hor. nor lit • • f,ot hail a.:.nn"y of he.. ing I-brxism out ofUl b.icd while [wasasleepiriding on hor>thack.) Willi,m IX of Aquilain.'

Once UpOtt a Time. When J firs! came across ,he line~ by the duke of Aqui!~ i ne

some years ago, naTUra lly

r imagined

them in Jackson Poll ock's

mouth. They put me in mind of modernism; or of one moment of modernism, wh ich I realiud 1 had been rrying(and failing) loge' in focm eversincelhad read Harmoni..... or 10 own obj..,,;,·;,)'. Or m3)·h. we enolld ""Y .ha. wha. b,inS' on .he wo.d ~beTg at ,ho ",ne J e"-'"bed I'ol l,-",k', mo"emen,s whik I'""ntln~ as "oiten "e'), ,;;"eiul .1 ~d ddlbcn'~." '· H ~,hert J.Ia"", u,od 1h~ ... ord, "harmon ioo, and qUIet." ··H. would do Ihongs. ,nd,hen looked. and th en he wem 1t>1f,,, ,,,hnSld,,,nd I,."kt'd ag.l in and .11.1 , few more ,hing,;. h "'JS n,""", lanal""i."" 0>nallTl)" less fanaucal Ih.,,, ,he look ing and doing one Imagine, ~oing mro s.:,"'~tIJllIg of the /'oW. "He wJmed ro ge, a difierent edg~." G'et'nb. the shal'f' of a"'nl~ls l>it5and pl«esof 3 h,1f-hu mallwnrld.hadlle:enlhrowllupbYlhe cn~rnd. Qr only portly u,,>fCfthis", af"uh· lrnfjnl'ollo.;k·sp,"';I;.;e.~nd'f n a l"l r "O(,bllfro"' l!pce:

J~cho"

P" II "ck', prohl,'''' is never "",hontici! )·. oul th nt of IillJ ; n~ hi. mf:llU ~nJ bcndin~ il fJr as p"~~; ble t()word tht lirer" III"" of his oll,,>(ion. SCl Ileri",,,, he o\"CrpowCfS .he mean, hUI he (:,,01)' SU,,'lIlllbs 10 il. H i. mM'

a.

,,,,,,,nt , how. 31 J'3 r:1')II;". "'vcal,a turn l>utnOl ~;h" rp .;h:mg.;"fdlfe"i'",(

Ihcrc is a kind of relJx31ion. bul Ihe outCO",e is ~ newer and luflie, trlu"'ph .. . SOmc=ogniLclhkinu.&e,appur_ligulTs.h".. d .... ,ndonimol form' - and Ih" .;omlp$ilion is modubted In , morc I..~diliunal w.y. no 10llgc rSl.";ngil..,lfi ll "n" fotl hrighlpicck

N""'/",, q. '90 •

•n,,, ...1"n ~,,,,.,,.

'",~.4

" .. 6,·:. J'5,n:U
ic-nes., pa r'llnoia and resemmenl," and sec ,hem as pa n of hi, bcing '" man. HeKOI his wi.h. Ali l his is IIue and limit ing (illakfi u. 10 , ..... heart of what gon on prevem ing "Polloc:k's an " from eve. gen iogoul f,onl under ~Pollock the ma n's M' hadow ); but in m)· op i n ionj'i s notlhebc·~ lI a "d end - alioftl>e iss ue. My argument so fa r has bec n ti>at Ihc drip paiOlin gs are involved in an effurt to di$mantlc or jam meta ph or.or. 3I least. nu' lOhave mClaphor congul int otOlalita lion;andon c asp«1 of that di,mantling. it seems to me. i, a gradual qut5lioning or hracketing of ,he Mmas. H.G ..",

Lloydl

n'

".1939-4"

(wn.:reaoo""u"known )

and basically ludicrou.,acrifice, ofdign;,y and id.mi,y. I'enetra tion isalaying of horizonta l tracks , whi ch seem to f>clong ,onei,her party. The man looks up from 'he melee,oward the ,ky, and ",es (in hi,mind'seye , by the look of it) a :-'li ro·type aeroplane in flight. A kind of a "Iie backlstand up and th ink of Englandltranscendence" scenario. The whole thing reminds mt· of nothing so much a, Leonardo's famo us (inaccurate) notation of the ,arne subj«" in hi, notebooks . The reSt of lhe doodling' on Pollock's sheel, especially the cryptic malc(?),hcad -nexl-to-haunches(?) adjacent to the unhappycouplc. 0 nlyconfirm thcgcnc", l atmo,phcre. l ,hou lds.lythal thealrnosphert"isicssuneofmisogyny than of an an empt-ufcourse it isunsllCcessful - to risc abovc the horror and ludicrousness, and ma nage to f>c comic on the ,uhjecl. Curn ic or scientific The amoebas baving intercourse Icft and center are straig ht oul of Freud in Beyond the l'lea$Jtl'und Pur,h,,,)

ah""'Clion W", rooled;n" pr,,';ou. (ma)"he continu ing) dream of gender wriring ;Isc lf 10 dearh , Th" agai n is pll,nt,.}", In my view - an d profoundl)' a masculine onc. ),1 00 ,, (wa )', rhlnk Ihey can Wrile rhelrwa)" 10 Ih . worn"" Insid. Ih •• nortinghut lo,~lccringdog.A nd ,o na" o rheir,ad i'lic cake and eat ir. Th e dream i. furi l. "tid tla~ly. l\ssoofit"n,lh. mOfl'difficulrqueslion i,,,,I>'-lh,·r lh. energy (Ih. forms) rclc" "'d hy Ih e d r.aming ,imply .n for~.' Ih. dr."m ·~ontent . or pun v;e",." in mind of its limits.

that the drama ofdas, i"pd t out dir.ctly in Po llock, Ullicnessandkingline,s occur in his art only insofar as they are part of a dream of sex - a staging of sexua l powers and humiliations. Maybe I believe Iwe are hack to an as~ct of Foucault's argument) that this too- th e fact that sel fhoodcan only, or most poignantly,bestagedinle rmsof~sexuality" - ispartofa oourgeo iseconomy 01 bodie, . But that does nOt alter the first work of interpretation (which in Pollock'sca"" has hardly begnn).Allofthequal irie,G reenberg~nd I liSl are, for Pollock , firstand foremosl qualilies of bodie, on their way lor not on th "irw~y) 10 orgasm. Class mayor may nol be Kwhat Pollock has to sayH _ what he say. itwilh i,alwaysgender. HNon er d'amor ni de joven" cou ld never have btt n his

\Var. The drip painting tha t seems to me dosest in temper 10 Ihe nightmares of '943 and '944 is The Wooden Hors~. To rhat extent it i, an excep,ion,almosta holdover,in ,he drip painting period: il does not represent what Pollock normally hoped and worked for from hi, new technique. The pouringhert:hassrop~dshorttoosoon,Thepointwasforitlogofurther,to

rake over more fully from the Unhappy Consciousness and give rise, at leasl tentatively, to H"ales of order.~ Our of the"" might (vcnrually come a new kind of figuration, and even of sexual difference - one nN Hcut out,~ not negative, nol introduced by fiar, nOI un formed nor unfounded hut On~. Which hrings me to my starting point, the photograph, in Vogue. Mentioning them in the same brea th as The Woodm Horse may ""em like loadingthedice.l do nN do it to glorify one moment of Pollock's painting at tn ecxpense of another, or even ro stigmatize th e whole of abstract paint ingby associating it with haute co uture, The word ~fashionable , " as Michael Fried', use of it demonstrates, is likely to recoil on all of u, in lime. What the juxlaposition is meant to suggesl is simply rhat abstra"t art has lived for m,,,h ofils life in producrive anxiety aooUI the uses th e cu lture mighl make of it. In particular it has claimed Inotonly in 19~O) thalrncordcrs art would discover hy doing away with resemblance would be the opposile of easy or enticing: Iney would not simply be Hdecora tive." The claim was serious, and had real effects. But inrofaras theciaim is testable by looking at what sociely actually did wilh abstract works of art, tnen we could say that indeed Ihey have bttn thougnt 1o be d.corative, and put tnrollgh rheir paces in tnar spirit. Th.y have Sttmed the appropriar~ backdrop to ball gown and bo lero, 10 the black·ti. Hdo~ at the local musc"m, and the ""rious husinessof making money. Of course, someone might reasonably reply at this point that any cu lture will Use art as iI5.""n t,andlhatthe very idea of art re,isting,nch incor porationis pie in rhe sky. At a eenain level of low or high cynici,m, there is no anSwer to ,hal. At orher levels, a few unsatisfactory answers occur. Y .., this idea aoour art's relation to its hostculrurr is pie in Ihc sky; bur SO are mOSl,perhapsall, other ideas aoou! art's purpose, and responsibi1iries - art asrhc vehicle of TrUln or transcendence, for one; art as disrilling tne hard possibilities of Geisl;artas opening OIUO a terrirory of free play and pleasure ; art as pUlling an end t reference and being a ble to live off its own resourIi II) ,he age of Reagan and Deng Xiaoping, nOt of &udrillard and Bill Gar", In any case , ,h e qoestion is about th e past, not t h. prescnr - about the fOrcdone from a "'nse thatthi,wa, what the phenomena were like ,and that poiming to thcirdcficicnci.>sis poimin gloth.ir

7 In Defense of Abstract Expressionism [as>um~ you .peak of ,h. age in which grea, form. apP"ar, only",be':llK..... id to be inh ... it.' LJ J, l~ .............. r.bt ....'l".t>,GroIJC>WQlII.·l1.. £0.1""""'" J'An.· u N ..""",I. , Ftt''''''t· " t •. J. Wulff ..... Bo,d"f~ rO,u ••• b"isiII.c"ubl "l...,·Lt IN.IIU. ,oMay ,89 ', !:aD.ne"'po'" ~ ...·.... 'h."htfoooolto,y o' "",i . li,," h..·.boon d iiferciI,. 1,6-11 Jonu"y 'H911, , ;,ed m M, i'fOIl. Hiflo;" du Moo",,,,..,,, """,,·1,;,,... 10\1. ~t. i"on b••• good d,>dpoid."Oj. 9 A_J"""'. l}r-~n G....~,j.

So.

IInJ"h"m: .,."" rolitlCal T"""l~1

Cod""".

10

~ln. in ... ",,,Olin.M.rol". C.i,;wm. i/..",in;,u"c.. IP,i""Ofon, 19~1), IIJ18. My.h.nb,oChristin. K'.., lor II"lr"''''"kwhyl\ots·.di''''' •...,n lI\h i,·s.m..,I",yoI Cubiom." Andako 1».' ,II< bL>nd """"'ml" funct;"""li"" 'h.' ....... ,., dom,n ... di ...... i"" 01 ,he ... bj«' In ,ho ,... k. ol Clem"" G"'"" ...",.s....,ioreumpl •• ~'... is,.... xig..;, '''P'''''''« Ii< ",1.r'"",ol""U."dotnor inw' )"'''' r eiodo.nyonlt ,.:.h •• Jclt I......... I'ic• ...,no... '1'f'Oyy••• A!Jin Il< ~ .. ,."• • bl" In Yr·.·AI .. ,n FIo~, . "li.>irzkr. ~1.I""i,,·h

c.lc-....

.. J,

}t."

s.,p,;",~,,,_

~u.~'ioo ,

do I....p.> ... ·,n Ch.u""lin uto!os ....

II'''....

'~ nl.

't-~6'

Y""'AIo", 110,.... "M< Yiddir.h ,........ I.O",htloshtd .. C,",~H/U

IP.fis. 19\11.0",,1"«"

'~""h".u.mw"'''''''"l!''''' R'''''',"

'1>;,,· ~ liJy,

/.U", ~"J Erol''''", '" MooJ(m S.xi.li", IS .. nford. '991). fo, 1'i7 . >.8"jo, O FoundotionAJolph Go" ~ib!VAGA. New Y..,[klDACS. London 1998 'p, 'J5.L4 .h~H. '4~: () J. ,p9, e Wili'nJD. KooningiARS. NY ~nJ DACS, London [99 81 )0.'H.'4J.cII. Pa ul. IJJ Guosde,Jub.97 Guosdim, 97,417n 67 . 418 n78. 41O nl J6 Guggonh#S,6J"9:/J;>"ho/,1N. 0,.... j6•• " a",,,ft,,' Sydnlham, II, O"""'''A' P~lh ~IIIN. Hm:r.~II7

I'isoaITo.Julit"'J P;'.. ITo. LlKim. ?~. 10-3). ~6. , 01. 107. "'."4. " i. ' JO. ", 6ni" C1pi'~lanJ CJ,.r,,'l y.", 4" F,x",e wi,h a Cmum.

h. 8,.",

Poe1x··

D.p~ •.

",1.. io",llipwi,n. J I6-LO:n.ndling in." '-J".ndin,plic.,,,,,,.,,fnc w .ymbolicmd;nll" II. ,ionof Jani. Gal l.)'''T''' .... I.I'UOI/,.jOO'j60. .l6 r:T';"d.Uo. lI "T"",b/M

Q .........

)oc>; T~"'.)'8.)1O.H6.

,60. J~" ,n: U1l"""",d ftg ...~. JH: U",,,IM lu. '1)9-~1 ). )J8. 11o:U1I';'IMI'9~81.J46.10S;

U",;,IM!Rhy,bmiraIDa"a). H6. 1O?:VM', ... j n 6.J7"W"'nyParlll.HJ.)76: Whit.Cotk"'OO.l'j'4l~n7" '91' n". Wood.... H~, N"ml~. 10_. '9~8.

JJJ.

)~J .

11&

P"'''''''''''' ]'. ,.~. ' 10. ' J6. , 6J. .ll~. J'J. ) ' j . Pu~ • •

jJ6

:mil,. ,ol

Puond.Eua.40J. 40]-1

1'o",.in.No«>I••• ". 'J'. ,1\0; &J«""""I"'"R ......I",(_~T..... o{ r~n.

,0

1'"",1.1.117. 11 1" ",'41 rr.oo...hIOI'1",nd"'91""4,br'h.d~.91J­

,o"",duc,,,,,,.U7-.I"""'4):

LJ~,lw. I.... '00, 4'Jn., Rn'~. ''"~~. I... 'J) R.,,~ • ..,ryd()f'U"'U •. I... ,6, R."u< ;~";p.~.I.",,,,

I....

7~ Ri., .. eld.Gt"i'. )6~;xh",.,.j~H"">

Rimoo"d . A" h..,. ~. J? '. J?) Ri,i ....,ict. 4 .t.njl R~""'.

H•• btn.

'n

:;.,~.=~·ll~:~~~~~~ I,. "9. '2~. "'.4 1S "S)

lI.d " ,,,,y.• )8 , ·J9.'4) Rtd" ••• 'Jo ROnlb •• nd, ", n Riin . ' 78. ' 79,no.

'"

40\1114;fup"'d~t.I!;.o(ll~/_ .

"

.I,-....

' '''oq ... ''''''afp{ ~ b.K~rrJ

.....-'

rbylb...k ~"It

,oa.

''''m''', ~rtd ~,.,,,,.

lL.,b,.",..""Jlr"".n

.;gnin..'i"",inC.. l>t.m. ,8 •• ,I,; Maltvimm i" ... for tM Sr,uggf. 'g>.""Uno mpl"""""""47 Vn.hok DisoricrCommi" ... fo< ,IK Scrugltog;oi".. Deoor""",,1 )' Vi .. hokF_An Workihopo,u6 V".b,t,;UI! .119

,·"hun .. A•.

unfin;,h