FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADMISSIONS OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES ENTERING AN URBAN UNIVERSITY

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADMISSIONS OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES ENT HR ING AN URBAN UNIVERSITY

A Dissertation SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF AAYNE UNITERS TTY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

by Georg© L, Miller

Detroit, Michigan 1951

APPRO1 BY 4 Adviser

W jK

This study vc.f.' ■:ie.no possible through the cooperutioi' of the acteini strat ic n , Admissions Office, library staff, and j'rculty of Uayne University. Aclaioviederaent of their cooperation txa professional spirit is here made to Dr. Earl Kelley, Dr. John Sullivan, Dr. Cileries Dove, and Dr. Carl Smith, the committee which has directed tne preparation of my dissertation.

It is a pleasure to e:mress my grateful

appreciation to the members of this committee for their advice and counsel throughout the period of the study. Special a cknowledgments are due to:

Dr. Henry H. Pierley,

Divisional Director of Admissions, Deceit! 3, arid Registration; Dean Chester F. Kuhn, A.ssistant Dean of tne College of Liberal Arts; Edvard C. Cieria.k, Admiesiour. Counselor; Elisabeth pore, Senior Uni­ versity Assistant; Dr. .

e Tlisey, Professor of Educelions-.1 Psychology/

my family, Elisabeth, George, Betty, who gave sympathy and encourage­ ment over the entire period of study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWIEDGEMENT3

.....................

ii

CHAPTER I.

II.

A.

Statement of the P r o b l e m ............

1

B.

Method of Procedure .................................

4

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES IN ADMISSION TO AMERICAN COLLEGES ................

6

A.

The Shifting Basis of Educational Philosophy ........

6

B.

History of College Admission Requirements ...........

12

C.

Evaluation of Entrance Requirements and Criteria for Selection...................

23

The Development of the Administration of Admissions ..

28

D. III.

1

INTRODUCTION......

HISTORY OF ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS TO WAYNEU NIVERSITY History of the University................................

32

Admission Requirements to the Detroit JuniorCollege .....

33

Admission Requirements to theCollege D e t r o i t .........

34

ofthe

City of

Comparison of Requirements..... ..................... .

36

The Selective Character of Admissions to the Liberal Arts College .............................................

38

Community Co l le g es.......

3?

Administrative Reorganization...........................

42

New Criteria for Ad m is s i o n ............. IV.

32

°

CURRENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR ADMISSION TO WAYNE UNIVERSITY........................................

iii

43

45

CHAPTER

V.

VI.

Page 45

A.

Introduction..................

R.

Admission as a Freshman...............

C.

Requirements of the Colleges

......

45

..................

46

A STUDY OF 400 FRESHMEN AEMIITED TO WAYNE UNIVERSITY, SEPTEMBER, 1949 ........................................

49

A.

Selection of Admitted F re s h m e n ......................

49

B*

The D a t a ................ ............................

50

C.

Treatment of the Data ...........

50

D.

Statistical Results ..........

51

CONCLUSIONS, GENERALIZATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS .......

88

BIBLIOGRAPHY................

93

AUTOBIOGRAPHY . ....................

98

APPENDIX A - DISTRIBUTION T A B L E S ..............

100

APPENDIX B - SAMPLE CASES FOR THE FOUR TYPES OF ADMISSIONS ....

105

iv

TABLES Page Comparative table of college admission subjects for 1 8 0 0 .... ................................... .

15

Comparative table of college admissions for 1 8 1 0 . .

16

Comparison of total honor point average achieved in high school and in college of 400 admitted students ........ . ................ . ............... .

54

Comparison of total honor point average achieved in high school and in college of 1 0 0 students admitted by strong certificate .................... .

56

Comparison of total honor point average achieved in high school and in college of 1 0 0 students admitted by weak c e r t i f i c a t e ........ ..............

58

Comparison of total honor point average achieved in high school and in college of 1 0 0 students admitted by examination and recommended by p r i n c i p a l ............... ......... ..................

60

Comparison of total honor point average achieved in high school and in college of 1 0 0 students admitted by examination but not recommended by principal ................................

62

Comparison of honor point average achieved in English in high school and in college of 354 admitted students ..... .................. .

64

Comparison of honor point average achieved in foreign language in high school and in college of 135 admitted students ............... ...........

66

Comparison of honor point average achieved in history in high school and college of 197 admitted student s ..... .................

68

Comparison of honor point average achieved in other social sciences in high school and college of 254 admitted students ................. .

70

Comparison of honor point average achieved in mathematics in high school and in college of 1 0 2 admitted s t u d e n t s .......

-

72

Gomparison of honor point average achieved in other sciences in high school and in college of 2 9 0 admitted students

74

v

Table XXV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII. XXIV.

page Comparison of honor point averages achieved in ” other*’ courses in high school and in college of 340 admitted s t u d e n t s ............

76

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average achieved in college of 4-00 admitted students .......

78

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average achieved In college of 100 students admitted by strong certificate.................

80

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average achieved in college of 1 0 0 students admitted by ..... .......... weak certificate

82

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average achieved in college of 1 0 0 students admitted by examination and recommended by principal ............

84

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average achieved in college of 100 students admitted by examination but not recommended by principal .......

86

Distribution of total honor point average in high s c h o o l ..................

100

Distribution of total honor point average in ............. college

101

Distribution of honor point average in high school E n g l i s h ..........................

102

Distribution of honor point averages in high school courses also taken in college ............

103

Distribution of honor point averages in college courses also taken in high school ...................

104

vi

CHAPTER I IHTROIXJCTION A.

Statement of the Problem

One of the more serious administrative problems of any in at 1tut ion of higher learning is that of selecting candidates for admission.

Care­

ful selection is particularly necessary since the colleges and secondary schools are interested in having the candidates profit by a successful enjoyable experience in higher education.

All colleges use similar

criteria in judging the candidates to be admitted. Two of the reasons for going to college are: living; and (2) preparation for a career.

(l) preparation for

A college education greatly

increases the probability of success in life fen* most individuals. then, should go to college?

Who,

Will it be the applicant -who possesses the

intellectual capacity to ccaplete a high school pregram successfully, or should he also have a genuine desire for a college education?

An ambition

to be something and to do something in the world, an intellectual curiosity, and an interest in some particular field of learning are characteristics that indicate probable college success.

The student v/ho has the capacity

and the desire should plan to attend college. All applicants may or may not have recommendations from the principal of the high school from which each was graduated.

Some high school graduates

are recommended for college entrance without any further qualifying exam­ inations.

Others are recommended for college entrance if qualifying

examinations prove satisfactory.

A number of applicants are not recommended

for college under any circumstances. Recommended students are usually regarded as fine prospects for a

2 college or university*

It is assumed that these students are selected on

those traits or factors that condition academic success in college. not recommended for college entrance are permitted to apply.

3 tudents

Acceptance

depends largely upon their performance on entrance examinations.

It is

assumed that a non-recommended applicant is a poor risk or that he does not possess the traits for scholastic success in college. Each semester a number of young people seek admission to Wayne University.

It is the duty of the Admissions Office to review each applica­

tion and determine the admissibility of each applicant.

The resnonsibility

of admitting an individual to college is too vital a matter to be determined by unreliable or invalid criteria.

Certain factors, such as academic

record, recommendation, personality traits, special skills, out-of-school conditions, health, and special handicaps are all considered in a decision on admission.

Personal interviews are important in many cases.

Applicants are admitted to the University by certificate or by examina­ tion.

The admission credential and college transcript indicate how each

one has been admitted.

Th© method of admission is determined in general

by recommendation of the high school principal.

Students admitted by

certificate have been recommended by the principal to enter college without any qualifying examinations.

Wayne University interprets this to mean that

the students have a "B" academic average or better for the four years in a regionally accredited high school and that these students are selected on those traits or factors that imply good probability of academic success on a higher level.

The recommended individual is among the more able students

in high school and is regarded S 3 strong material for college.

These

applicants, in the language of the Admissions Office, are called "strong"

3 certificate applicants . 1 Among the recommended or certificate case3 many applicants are found to be lacking in certain qualifications in spite of the principal’s recom­ mendation.

Many times the special skills in music, art, etc., affect the

over-all scholastic average of the applicant. in academic subjects, particularly English.

The individual may be low A number of cases fall just

below the required "B" average but the principal recommends by certificate. All such cases are considered as weak certificate cases in the Admissions Office. 1 Students admitted by examination fall into two general classifications. Usually those who do between "C" and "B” work in high school and have other traits that indicate they might be college material are recommended by the principal to take entrance examinati ons. 1

Applicants who are not recom­

mended by the principal are permitted to apply.

Their performance on the

entrance examination is the key factor in determining admissibility.

These

cases are called “not recommended. 1,1 The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that are important in predicting success for applicants to Wayne University. What characteristics make a high school graduate admissible?

This study

proposes to find out what happened to a representative sample of applicants who were admitted to the University.

The total group are representative of

the population in the metropolitan high schools. The total sample group was divided into four different categories of high school graduates.

^See Appendix.

Statistical techniques were used to draw inferences

4 as to the currently effective admissions criteria from an analysis of v;hat happened to what type of applicant. Answers will be sought for the following Questions: 1.

Viho should go to college?

2,

What factors are important in predicting success?

3-

Will a college 3 tudent produce at about the same rate as he did in high school?

4.

Can we predict in our college terms, on the bases

of the

student's performance at high school and on entrance examinations, his probable scholastic success in the freshman year? 5.

Are the current admissions criteria of Wayne University effective?

6.

What is the degree of success in college of those students who were recommended?

7.

What is the degree of success of those students who were not recommended?

8.

What is the comparative success of the recommended and examination group?

B.

Method of Procedure The design of the study required a preliminary survey of the following

points: 1.

The historical development of policies and procedures in admission to American colleges.

2.

The history of entrance requirements to wayno University.

5 3*

Current policies and. procedures for admission to V/ayne University.

The freshman class entering Wayne University in the fall of September, 194-9, was selected for the study.

The specific procedures followed in

selecting these esses were these:

Four hundred cases were selected at

random in the following categories: 1.

One hundred cases admitted by certificate upon recom­ mendation of the principal without further question. These cases are referred to as the "strong certificate" group.

2.

One hundred cases admitted by certificate upon recom­ mendation of principal but with some question as to academic ability. certificate" group.

3.

These are referred to as the "weak o

One hundred cases admitted by examination. recommended admission by examination.

The principal

These cases are

referred to as the "recommended by examination" group.'' 4.

One hundred cases admitted by examination.

In each case

the principal did not recommend the applicant for college. These cases are referred to as the "not recommended" group. 4

■^See Appendix for sample of strong certificate. ^iSee Appendix for sample of weak certificate. ?3ee Apoendix for sample of recommended by examination. 4See Appendix for sample of not recommended.

CHAPTER II ‘ THE HISTORICAL DEVELOEMEtlT OF POLICIES AND RROCFDUKES IN ADMISSION TO AMERICAN COLLAGES

A.

Til© Shifting Basis of AcLucationaI Philosophy

Th© story of the admission of students to American colleges is "but a phase of the larger development of social, economic, and political democratIzation of American life.

Such movements as the extension of the

suffrage, abolition of slavery, increased rights of organized labor, etc., found a counterpart in the battle for a system of schools responsive to the needs of a society predicated upon democratic principles . 1

In the main,

it is largely the sensitivity to social change that enabled the American college to develop a character different from that of the European models from which it drew its initial inspiration.

Significantly, however, changes

made in the organization, administration, requirements, curricula, etc., of higher institutions of learning have followed rather than led social change. The process involving the induction of students to colleges and universities, properly termed admission, is an administrative function that refers to the staralards and procedures on the basis of which an institution of college rank selects its students. is twofold:

The purpose of selective admission

(1 ) to protect the institution, and (2 ) to protect th©

prospective student. Requirements and criteria employed for admission to any particular institution will vary in terms of the unique purpose

and

function of the

1Ellwood P. Cubbarley, The Ziistory of Education (New York: Mifflin Company, 1920), pp. "576-709, passim.

Houghton,

7 Control of th© l,8 o 8 institutions of higher education in the

school.

United States is divisible into three major categories:

(a) state or

municipal control, .594; (b) private control, 5 0 6 ; (c) denominational control, 708.

This diversity of control, coupled with the fact that

admission cannot be claimed as an absolute legal I’ight by the prospective student, means that qualifications axe imposed by institutional author­ ities, or in some cases by state law, regarding who shall attend college. 2 The exercise of this discretion is especially true as regards private and denominational schools.

Kent states that aims of the endowed college are

chiefly "determined by its own tradition, or by its relation to particular classes or to peculiar sets of conditions in the social organization as a •3

whole."^

On the other hand, institutions supported by public funds -

especially state universities - are more directly influenced by the needs of a dynamic society. The answer to the question of who shall be permitted to attend college has changed with the times and the aims of higher learning in America. Scholastic and religious discipline was the primary concern of early colleges.

Samuel Eliot Morison indicates the purposes of the first

colonial college (Harvard, founded 1 6 3 6 ) as taken frcra its Charter of 1650

icf. Higher Education Direct cry (Federal Security Agency, Office of Education, Part 3, 1949-50) » P* H * 2Edwax'd C. Elliott and M. M. Chambers, The Colleges and the Couxts

(New York: Th© Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1936), pp. 1-23, passim. Of. also M. M. Chambers, The Colleges and the Courts, 1936-40 (New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1941), pp. 1-10, passim. ^Raymond Kent, Higher Education in America (New York: Company, 1930), p. 417.

Ginn and

3 as ...'the advancement of all good literature artes and Sciences'; and making 'all other necessary provisions that may conduce to the education of th© English and Indian Youth of this Country in knowledge and godliness.' And 'New Englands First Fruits,' the pamphlet of 164? that is equivalent to an official statement of the founding fathers, strikes a nice balance between the general purposes of the College and the dynamic motive of founding it: 'to advance Learning and perpetuate it to Posterity; dreading to leave an illiterate Ministry to the Churches.’ A learned clergy was the immediate and pressing social need that Harvard was expected to supply; but the advancement of learning, both on the part of individuals and in respect to the world’s stock of knowledge, was the broad purpose of the College; and prospective parsons, up to the Bachelor's degree, were given exaetly the same Liberal Art-s course as other beys who had no such ambition. . . . 1 Not until the latter part of the last century was there much change in the aims of higher education.

Coincidentally, it v.as Harvard again that

pioneered the refona movement.

When President Charles Ti. Eliot, who had

been trained in chemistry, was inaugurated in 1 8 6 9 , he sounded the death knell of the prescriptive curriculum requirements then in vogue and instituted in their place an elective system. departure.

This was indeed a radical

"By 1386 the Bachelor's degree could be earned by passing

eighteen courses, no two of which need be related....the number of units from which these eighteen could be chosen had expanded to 1 53 full and 6 l half-courses

." 2

This elective system concept of the curricular aims of

higher education swept the country and remained in favor until four decades ago.

A return to complete prescription was impossible, but a compromise

was worked out whereby the colleges provided for a more or less common general education during the first two years of the college curriculum and

^Three Oenturios of Harvard, 1636-1936 (Cambridge, Mass.: University Press, 1942), p. 23* 2 Ibid,, p. 346.

Harvard

allowed the student, within certain limits, to elect his courses for the remaining two years.

Unanimity of purposes and aims has not been achieved,

of course, as is evident from a study of what college presidents 3 sy . 1 The concept of the university varies all the way fi’Ctn the "intellectualism" to former Chancellor Robert M. Hutchins, of the University of Chicago, and Abraham Flexner,

2

to that of the pragmatic instrumentalism of John

Dewey and William Kilpatrick. One of the most forthright statements indicating th© role that higher education in America should play wa 3 made by the President’s Commission on Higher Education, when it declared that "every college and university must become a community college....It must take the university to the people...." rather than envisage the university as an "ivory tower", remote from the responsibilities and obligations inherent in every institu­ tion that a society supports.3 Considerable attention has been given to the evolvement of the purposes of higher education in America largely because these purposes have exerted and continue to exert great influence over the content and method of our secondary schools.

It was not until the present century

was well under way that school-college relations to some degree became reciprocally balanced.

Prior to a decade or so ago, the changing purposes

and needs of secondary schools were overshadowed by the spectre of college entrance requirements.

A variety of factors in the twentieth century led

many educators to believe that secondary education was in need of a drastic lVide Edgar W. Knight, What College Presidents Say (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1940), Chapter 2, "The Purposes of Higher Education," pp* 39-55, passim. ^Cf. Th© Higher Learning in America and Universities, American—English— German. Dewey, Democracy and Education. ^President’s Commission on Higher Education, Higher E d ucation, for American D e m o c r a c y , Vol. I, "Establishing the^ Goals," (Washington, D.C U. S. Government Printing Office, 1947), P* q7.

1° revision of its curriculum.

One of the most important of these factors

was the change in the character of the high school population. For the school year 194-9-50, high school enrollment increased to a total of 6 ,535>000 following the decline of the war years . 1

The

significance of these figures may letter be gauged by noting that in 1 9 0 0 only one person in 2 0 0 attended high school, while in 1 9 4 0

person in 20 did so.

one

Moreover, it is estimated that the probable ratio

for 1950 is one person in 15 . 2

The quantitative increase of high school

enrollments was accompanied by qualitative changes that made obsolete the expectation that the majority of high school graduates would enter higher institutions of learning.

Educators began to reexamine the purposes of

secondary education with reference to the factors already referred to as well as to the implicit promises of life in a democracy.

Studies along

these lines have been conducted by individuals, commissions, and associa­ tions on national, regional, and local levels.

One of the healthy signs

in all those studies concerned with the purposes and the curriculum of the secondary school is that increasingly these self-appraising studies originated among secondary school personnel. One of the earliest of these studies was conducted by the Department {now the Association) of Secondary-School Principals of the National Education Association.^

The "functions" listed point up especially those

^William M. Schuyler, ©d. , The American Yearbook, Record of 1949 (New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1950), p. 785# Stfilliam M. Schuyler, ed. , The American Yearbook, Record of 19.48 (New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 19 4 9 ) , P# 763# ^Cf. National Association of Secondary-School Principals, The Function© of Secmdaiy Education, Bulletin No. 64 {Washington: The Association, 1 9 ^7 ), passim.

11 areas in the training of youth -which had been largely neglected by secondary schools.

Other significant reports v;ero The National Survey

of Seccndary Education, 1928-1933, conducted under the auspices of the United States Office of Education; the Progressive Education Association’s Eight-Year Experimental Study of Secondary Education, 1933-1941; the Co­ operative Study of Secondary School Standards, by a committee of six regional associations of colleges and secondary schools, I9 3 3 -I9 3 9 , 1 9 5 0 ; The American Youth Commission on Secondary School Curriculum and on Human Relations of the Progressive Education Association, 1932-1942; the Regents* Inquiry into the Character and Cost of Public Education in the State of New York, 1935-1939; the Educational Policies Commission*s report 051 Education for All American Youth, 1944;

and the Michigan Study of the

Secondary-School Curriculum, which began in 1956; and the current Michigan Secondary-School-Oollege Agreement . 1 Generalizing broadly, on© might conclude from these studies and re­ ports that the secondary school came to be envisaged not as a preparatory school for college solely, but as an agency of society charged with the education of all its youth.

As the Educati.oxial Policies Commission states

*1

Cf. especially The National Survay of Secondary Education (U. S. Office of Education Bulletin No. 17, 1932, Monographs Nos. 1-28}; "Adventure in American Education Series," (New York; Harper and Brothers), Vol. I, 1942, The Story of the Eight-Year Study with Conclusions and Re commend at ions, by W. M. Aikin; Vol. II, 1942, Exploring the Curriculum, by H. H. Giles, et al.; Vol. Ill, 1942, Appraising and Recording Student Progress, by E. R. Smith, R. W. Tyler, et al.; Vol. IV, 1942, Did They Succeed in College?, by Dean Chamberlain, et al.; and Vol. V, 1943, Thirty Schools Tell Their Story; How to Evaluate a Secondary School, 1940 edition, Cooperative Study of Secondary-School Standards, 1939; E* Spaulding, High School and Life: Report of the Regents * Inquiry (Nev; York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1 9 3 0 ); Educational Policies Commission, Education for All American Youth (Yieshingt on, N.E.A., 3944) ; L. S. -^ssin, "The Michigan Secondary-School-College Agreement," The^ Bulletin of. the. National Association of Secondary School Principals, XaXIII (January, 1949)7 49-64.

12 it: . *. , / t h . e x 'e T came a departure from the tradition of the nigh school as a college preparatory institution. Here again, in order to sense the great shift that has occurred, it is necessary for us to imagine ourselves in what almost amounts to another educational era. It is literally true that, less than a generation ago, the American high school was dominated by the supposed requirements of the colleges, even though only a very small proportion of its graduates then went on to college. Long after most of the colleges had ceased to require detailed subject-matter patterns for admission, the practice of giving only book-centered, academic instruction to the great majority of high-school students persisted. Vie have recognized since the beginning of higher education in America that the students who go on to college are an exceedingly important group whose education must be provided with great care. But we have more recently come to reeognize that the larger group which does not take college education has a claim on secondary education equivalent to that of the minority who are college-bound. 1

B.

History of College Admission Requirements Harvard College, the "Second Cambridge," was the only institution

of higher learning founded (1 6 3 6 ) in the colonies during the early seven­ teenth century.

The College of V'iilliam and Mary, chartered in 1 6 9 3 , did

not grant its first degree until the year 1700 . 2

Harvard’s curriculum

was rigidly prescribed for those wishing to graduate, consisting of •»

.Logic and Rhetoric, Greek and Hebrew, Ethics and Metaphysics

A

knowledge of Latin was taken for granted, and almost all the textbooks, 3 even the Greek and Hebrew grammars, were m that tongue." Eor such '‘"Education for All American Youth, op. cit. , p. 406. 2Donald G. Tewksbury, The Founding of American Colleges and Universities Before the Civil W:ar (Nev< York: Teachers College, Columbia University Contributions to Education, No. 343, 1932), p. 32. ■2 Morison, o d . cit. , pp. 29-30.

13 studies the earliest entrance requirements consisted of the ability to read and write Latin prose, and an elementary knowledge of Greek. According to the phraseology of the Harvard Statutes for 1642-1646, ....when any schollar is able to read Tully or such like classical Latin author extempore, and make and speak© true Latin in verse and prose, sue (ut aiuat) Marte, and decline perfectly the paradigms of names and verbes in ye Greek tongue, then may hee bee admitted into ye College, nor shall any claitne admission before such qualifications. 1 The "enlightenment" of the eighteenth century affected the colleges at first only slightly.

It is true that King’s College (Columbia),

founded in New York City in 1734, tried to implement a •wider conception of what constituted a liberal education, stating that its objectives for students are "to know God in Jesus Christ...and to train them up in all Virtuous Habits, and all such useful Knowledge, as may render them creditable to their Families and Friends, Ornaments to their Country, and useful to the public Weal in their generations."

2

The classical

tradition of a liberal education, however, was too strong for this bold step by King’s College, for by 1753 the curriculum in force there was veiy similar to those at other colleges with which it. was in competition. As a consequence, the growing demand for useful and practical studies in such subjects as English grammar, composition, geography, algebra, geometry, natural philosophy, astronomy, music, oratory, bookkeeping, etc., was met outside the colleges by a new institution, called the 1 Kent. 0 £. cit., pp. 409-410. Cf. also Charles F. Thwing, A Hl 3 tory of Higher Education in America (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1?06), Chapter I, "The First College," pp. 1-49, passim. 2 R. Freeman Butts, The College Charts Its Course (New York:

Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939), P* &7.

ivIcGraw-

14 academy.

By way of rebuttal the colleges began to lay down more de­

tailed quantitat i've requirements for admission. Gradually, however, the new studies fought their v;ay to recognition. Eight new subjects were accepted between 1800 and 1370 for college admis­ sion requirements:

geography, English composition and grammar, ancient

history, physical geography, algebra, geometry, United States history. 2 At the same time the amount of Latin and Greek required for entrance was increased.

These developments can be soan by a study of Broome's compara­

tive tables of college admission subjects for 1 8 0 0 and 1 8 7 0 , here re­ 's produced in full.-'

■^Cubberley, op. cit. , p. 775. 2 Kept., op. cit., p. 411; Edwin C. Broome, Historical and Critical

Discussion of College Admission Requirements (New York: University Press, 1902)", p. 4o." •^Frcm Broome, ibid. , pp. 39 ahd 53*

Columbia

TABLE I 1

C0MPAPATI73 TABLE OF COLLECT ADMISSION SUBJECTS FGR l800 Latin

Greek

Mathematics

Harvard 1798

Tally Virgil Grammar and Prosody Composition

New Testament Grammar and Prosody

Yale

Tully Virgil Composition

Greek Testament

Pules of Vulgar arithmetic

Sallust Caesar Virgil Composition Grammatical Analysis

Evangelists in the Greek Testament Grammatical Analysis

Probably arithmetic

Columbia 1786

Caesar Cicero’s Orations Against Cataline Aeneid (4 books) Composition Grammatical Construction

Gospels from the Greek Testament Grammatical Construction

Arithmetic, including the Rule of Three

Ercwn 1793

Cicero Virgil’s Aeneid Composition

Greek Testament

Rules of Vulgar arithmetic

Tally’s Orations Virgil's Aeneid | Composition

Greek Testament

Rules of Vulgar arithmetic

1800

Princeton 1794

i

Williams 1795 1— ----- ------ —

s

^Prca Broome, ibid., p. 39*

l !

COMPARATIVE TAELE OB' COLLEGE flKtSSKH FOR 1870

College

Latin

Greek

Motheme.tics —

Harvard

-

4

History and Geography

English

-

Virgil— entire Felton's Reader or An- (Arithmetic udth Retric histopi of Greece and |Caesar-entire eba'sis, entire, ana j System Rome. Ancient and Cicero— select (II) | Homer, 3 books [Algebra,through onsclrat- Modern Geography. Grtiwiar and Composition jGrammar and Compoic equations Elements of Pnysieal _______ ! sition _ _ _ PlfilG. Geoitet^;_ _ _ _ _ _ Geography Geography Ysle Virgil— Aeneid, 6 Buc- iReader— Felton or Arithmetic idtiiMetric olics and Georgies equivalent. An&ba-astern Cicero— 7 orations sis, 3j or, instead Algebra, to ouedratics •Sallust— Jufiurthine Ear !I of reader,? Anabasis,J Geometry, Playfair— >1 looks. or Caesar— 1 books i last or Iliac;, L Grammar and Comoosition Princeton Virgil— 6, and Ecolognes jFeader-Felton or Geography, Ancient and Arithmetic Bul.iiOii. M od e m Cicero— b orations Caesar— 5, Selluet, Cat. Anabasis, 3 books, or Jug. Grainier and Compo­ sition GrciEiar and Comoosition Columbia Virgil— Aeneid, 6 books Reader— selections jGeography, Ancient and Arithmetic i Modem Cicero— 6 orations from Lucian ir. Jacob; . Algebra to end of Caesar— entire simple equations Anabasis, 3 books Viri Eomae Iliad— 2 books Geometry (after I8 6 9 ) Grammar ana Comnosition Grower and Compo­ 4. bks of Legendre sition University Virgil— Aeneid, 6 books Anabasis, 3 books Arithmetic Roman and Greet histor: of Cicero— 6 orations Algebra, to quadratics Grammar and Compo­ U.S. History to close Michigan |Caesar— 4 books sition | of Revolution Geometiy, LegendreIGrammar and Composition 4. books IAncient and Modern (icogI raphy JPhysical Ceorraohv Cornell Virgil— Aeneic, entire (Homer— 1 boo!-: !Romai and Greek nistorr jArithmetic Cicero— 6 orations lAnabcsis— 3 book/:, or !Algebra to quadratics iGeogrsnh” 1Caesar— entire ! Felton's Greek Read- (plane geometiy, 1Grammar end Composition I er

|Reading English ! 1English

Grammar

English Grammar Ortion-aphy, Fund, tioi! S lort and Single

Coijposition_ _ _ English Grammar 1

lErflish Grammar

in/'Ush Grammar

17 Broome concludes that by 1 8 7 0 "there was a fair degree of uni­ formity in the subjects for admission, but there was nothing like uniformity in the amount required. Between 1.870 and 1 9 OO, a number of new subjects were added to the list of college admission requirements.

These were English literature,

French, German, and physical and natural science. Throughout the nineteenth, century there developed a growing lack of articulation between the secondary schools and the colleges. to close the gap took on three distinct but related phases:

Attempts

(a) attempts

to secure flexibility in admission requirements; (b) different methods of college admission, with increasing importance of the accrediting system; and (c) attempts to achieve uniformity, begun by the New England Associa­ tion of Colleges and Preparatory Schools (1 8 8 . 5 ).

The supporters of the

elective system argued that "the ideal in admission requirements is a wide range of flexibility, together with a reasonably high standard in each subject."

3

The growing number of subjects offered for admission, together

with dissimilarity of preparation in those subjects, prcmpted many colleges to extend their system of entrance examinations.

Concurrently,

movements emerged on the 3tate and regional levels towards the standardiza­ tion of the high school curriculum in the direction that the colleges

1 I M d . , p. 54. 2 Ibid., p. 6 1 .

^Ibid., p. 107.

IS wanted.

In 1 8 7 1 the University of Michigan inaugurated a system of

accreditment designed to secure closer articulation with secondary sencols, stating that — .whenever the Faculty shall be satisfied that the prepar a t o r y course in any school is conducted by a sufficient number of competent instructors, and has been brought up fully to the fore­ going requirements, the diploma of such school, certifying that the holder has completed the preparatory course and sustained the examination in the same, shall entitle the candidate to be ad­ mitted to the university without further examination. 1 Subsequently school visitations were conducted by the University of Michigan’s faculty to report on conditions. of accreditment.

This report formed the b as i s

In passing, it is worth noting that this action on the

part of the University of Michigan was done without legal authorization b y either the state legislature or the State Board of Education.

Moreover,

the system of admission by diploma is reminiscent of the Prussian Arbiterexaraea designed to achieve state control of education from the elementary school to the university.

The diploma system spread, however, especially

among the state institutions of the lest, and by 1900 became the prevailing mode of admission. *"

In fact, so popular did this procedure become than

spread to regional and national levels in the creation of voluntary a cc r e d i t ­ ing associations:

The New England College Admissions Board, The Middle

States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, The North Central Associatictn, the Northwest Association, The Southern Association, end -^ix. 0 Association of American Universities, which terminated its program of

1 Ibid., p. 1 1 6 . 2 Ibid., pp. 117-25, passim

listing approved, schools in 1948.

In addition, so large a numbex* of

professional accrediting agencies mushroomed during the first half of the twentieth century that heads of collegiate Institutions began to murmur about prescriptive requirements in much the same fashion that high school representatives had earlier c explained about college prescriptions. On the national level, the earliest attempt to promote uniformity among secondary schools -was the work of the "Committee of Ten" appointed by the National Education Association in 1892.

Their assumption was that

there could be no uniformity in college entrance requirements without corresponding uniformity in secondary school requirements for graduation. To this end the Committee recommended ....that every school program should provide for continuous instruction in the four main fields of knowledge - language (including English), mathematics, history, and science.... and that "the satisfactory completion of any one of the fouryear courses should admit to corresponding courses in college and scientific schools. "-1Tfte implementation of these recommendations was taken up by a com­ mittee of the Department of Secondary and Higher Education of the National Education Association in 1895 and the report published in 1899.

The gist

of the report can be summed up by the fourteen resolutions adopted: I. II.

2

Resolved, That the principle of election be recognized in secondary schools. Resolved, That the requirements for admission to technical schools should be as extended and thoro as the require­ ments for admission to college.

1 Ibld. , p. 1 3 2 .

2National Education Association, Report of Committee on College Entrance Requirements, A. F. Nightingale, Ch. (Cnicago: The Jniversity of Chicago Rres77T899), pp. 27-41, passim.

20 III.

•^r* V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

X.

Resolved, That the teachers in the secondary schools should be college graduates, or have the equivalent of a college education. Resolved, That we favor a unified six-year high-school course of study beginning with the seventh grade. Resolved, That in the interpretation of the recommendations of this committee concerning the subjects to be in­ cluded in the secondary-school program and the require­ ments for admission to college, for v/hich credit should be given, It is distinctly understood that all secondary schools will not offer opportunities for the pursuit of all these subjects, and that the colleges will select those only which they deem, wise and appropriate. Resolved, That, while the committee recognizes as suitable for recommendation by the colleges for admission the several studies enumerated in this report, and while it al30 recognizes the principle of large liberty to the students in secondary schools, it does not believe in unlimited election, but especially emphasizes the importance of a certain number of constants in all secondary schools and in all requirements for admission to college. Resolved, That the committee recommends that the number of constants be recognized in the following proportion, namely: four units in foreign languages (no language accepted in less than two units), two units in mathematics, two in English, one in history, and one in science. Resolved, That the colleges will aid the secondary schools by allowing credit toward a degree for work done in secondary schools, beyond the amount required for entrance, when equal in amount and thoroness/ii^ to work don© in the same subjects in college. Resolved. That for students who have met e definite require­ ment in any science, and who continue the subject in college, it seems to us desirable that there be provided a suitable sequel to the school course in continuation of the study; such students being in no case placed in the same class with beginners. Resolved, That we approve of encouraging gifted students to complete the preparatory ccurse in less time than is re­ quired by most students. Resolved, That in general we recognize in schools the admissibility of a second year in advanced work in the same subject, instead of a second year in a related subject; for example, two years in biology, instead of one year in biology and one year in chemistry, where local conditions favor such an arrangement.

21 XI.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

Resolved, That it is desirable that colleges should accept, in addition, to the year of United States history and civil government already recommended, at least onehalf year of intensive study of some period of history, ©specially of the United States. Resolved, That we recommend that any piece of work compre­ hended within the studies included in this report that has covered at least one year of four periods a week in a v/ell-equipped secondary-school, under competent Instruction, should be considered worthy to count toward admission to college. Resolved, That it is desirable that our colleges and universities should accept as a unit for admission a year's work in economics, including under this head a course in elementary political economy, supple­ mented by adequate instruction in commercial geography and industrial history. Resolved, That we recommend an increase in the school day in secondary schools , to permit a larger amount of study in school under supervision.

A study of these resolutions indicates that the so-called "disci­ plinary subjects" (Latin, Greek, French, German, English, history, civics, and economies, geography, mathematics, biology, and chemistry) were given approval as desirable studies for college entrance. were considered twice as important as English times as important as history and science.

and

Foreign languages mathematics and four

These qualitative criteria

together with quantitative prescriptions emasculated the statements of the committee regarding the desirability of providing a flexible secondary school curriculum.

Its bias in favor of a disciplinary tradition Is

obvi cars. Coincident with the report of the Committee on College Entrance Re­ quirements pointing up the conditions under which uniformity of entrance requirements was possible, there developed a movement for the creation of a common examining board.

Under the leadership of Dr. Nicholas Murray

22 Butler, of Columbia University, and Dr. Charles William Eliot, ctf Harvard, representatives of the eastern colleges organized the College Entrance Examination Board in December, 1899*

In a recent review of the effects

of the College Board, it is stated that ....if its direct influence was limited in range, it was never­ theless important. The formation of the Board opened a new epoch in the development of American secondary education. Before very long it was virtually forced to set standards, first for examination and then, by implication, for instruction. Its tests shortly were regarded as scaling instruments by which the efficiency of schools, and also of instructors, could be measured. I Member colleges of the Board agreed to honor certificates of admission presented by successful examinees. The net result of these changes in entrance requirements generated a situation in the first decades of the twentieth century generally acceptable to the colleges.

At a time, moreover, when most high school

graduates expected to go to college, the standards devised for their ad­ mission were not unreasonable.

The real problem, apparently, developed

when the products of the new-type high schools began to, demand admission without presenting the usual pattern of the so-called major and minor sequences.

In 1931, ^r. Brown, of Kansas State Teachers College, in a

study of 5 3 1 colleges and universities and 9 77 high schools, found the following existing requirements for college admission as characteristic of from 50 to 75 per cent of American colleges: ....(a) English, 3 units; (b) foreign language, 2 units; (c) mathematics, 2 units; (d) laboratory science, 1 unit; (e) social science, 1 unit; making a total of 9 p r e s c r i b e d ■^Claude M. Fuess, "CESB - The First Fifty Years,'* The College Beard Review, No. 12 {November, 1950)> P- 159®

23 and 6 elective u n i t s . . . .Attention should be called to the fact that the "elective'' is rarely a free elective, but is generally a "group" elective, a more generalized requirement which increases tine s i z e of the offering which is acceptable without allowing c o m p l e t e freedom. This elective plan tends to keep out credit f o r music, art, industrial art3 , vocational studies, and a n y t h i n g in the commercial field, unless as is rarely done, t h e s e s h o u l d be specified as one of the groups.-^ A similar survey of 4 2 3

colleges and universities v;as made by the

National Education A s s o c i a t i o n in 1938.

The most typical pattern found

was exactly that re p o r t e d b y Dr. Brown . 2

The most recent study of 4-30

colleges aid universities

on entrance units shows that

....atypical e n t e r i n g program covers these fields: English, 3 units; mathematics, 2 units; social science, 2 units; natural science, 2 units; f o r e i g n language, 2 units; electives, 4 units. Under electives, t h e studsnt would be expected to include two more academic s ub j ects, and he might get credit for two voca­ tional or technical s u b j e c t s . .. .without sufficient academic subjects, however, t o m a k e a minimum of thirteen units, the average student w o u l d f i nd it difficult if not impossible to enter a recognized c o l l e g e or university.5 Aside from the p a t t e r n of high school subjects, the colleges and universities have c o n t i n u e d t o utilize other factors to improve the means of selecting premising students.

In the main, these "other factors" cover

moral, physical, and i n t e l l e c t u a l qualifications considered important by

^■Edwin J. Brown, A_ S t u d y of the Facts and ConditIons Involved in the Problem of College Ad missions^TShnsas State Teachers College, Studies in Education, No. 4, April, 1931) » 8. 2"From High School t o College," National Education Association Research Bulletin, .TVI (March, 1938)* 79. ^Benjamin Fin©, A d m i s s i o n to American Colleges, _a Study of Current Policy and Practice' "(New York: Harper and Brothers, 1946), p. 32,

24 particular institutions.

1

The qualities most sought after are listed by Dr. Benjamin Fine in the order of their importance as: Character Health Recommendation of Principal Personality Ability Leadership Interest Intelligence Emotional maturity Purposefulness Community activities Coop©rati on Hone influence Initiative Intellectual curiosity

45?* 13% 11% 10

%

In addition to the relevant factors {that is, in reference to the American Creed) operating in the selection of students, there are, un­ fortunately, tendencies to consider criteria largely irrelevant.

A

recent study to ascertain what constitutes "gilt-edged" credentials con­ cludes that ....it appears that the major factor in admissibility is scholastic aptitude - but having a relative as an alumnus also helps 1 It helps also to be a girl, and to live in some part of the country other than the Northeast, end under certain special circumstances, but by no means all across the board, it helps to be a Protestant or Catholic instead of a Jew.5 -'Habib A* Kurani, Selecting the College Student in America: A Study of Theory and Practice, Teachers College, Columbia University Contribu­ tions to Education, No. 503 (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University Bureau of Publicatims, 1931), pp. 14-36, passim. cit., p. 6 8 . ^American Council on Education, Factors Affecting the Admission of High School Seniors to College (Washington, D. C . : American Council on Education, 1949), P« xiii; cf. also Robert Redfield, "Race and Religion in Selective Admission," Journal of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars, XXI (1945-46), 527-42, passim.

25 It is an open secret, moreover, that special skill in athletics (especially football) will secure admission to college of an everincreasing number of individuals who except for their skill in sports are more often than not inadmissible to college on the basis of the criteria ordinarily employed.

C.

Evaluation of Entrance Requirements and Criteria for Selection

Predicting success in college is apparently at best only a process of ”intellectual fortune-telling" for no one criterion used in fore­ casting success has proved particularly reliable.

Early reliance on the

extent to which an applicant mastered the conventional high school subjects has yielded negative correlation with his college success. Hence it appears that if the colleges are interested in seeking those students vho have the best chance at success in college studies, they will abandon the requirement of a specified number of traditionally-favored high school subjects. number of studies.

This generalization seems to be supported by a

In 1927, for example, a study was conducted at

Stanford University of the entering classes of 1921 and 1922 to ascertain whether those who entered with an academic pattern of high school work achieve higher standing in college subjects than those who enter with a vocatianal pattern.

The findings indicate that not enough difference

exists between the achievements of the two groups to warrant any discrimina tion against an applicant who took from fifteen to fifty per cont of his preparatory work in the so-called vocational group of high school subjects. ^Lav/rence Bolenbaugh and William Martin, ’’Relation of the Subjects

26 In a similar study at the University of Oregon involving 387 members of th© class of 1930» Harl R» Douglass reports that from the data "no conclusions can be drawn that any one type of curriculum is superior to others fox* the purpose of college preparation.”'^ He goes on to say that "compared on th© basis of predictive usefulness to psychological test scores, high-school marks, and principals* ratings on college promise, the pattern of high school credits is obviously and definitely inferior. " 2 A number of critics rose to challenge the conclusions drawn from these early studies.

It was argued that the experiments were too local

and piecemeal in nature to warrant regarding them as valid evidence in support of the program of the so-called "progressive schools."

Obviously,

what was needed vras a broad attack on the problem by a nationwide study. This need was met by a cooperative study undertaken by the Commission on the Relation of School and College of the Progressive Education Associa­ tion, beginning in 1733 and ending in 1741.

Under the direction of

Y/ilford Aikin, some thirty public and private schools reorganized their programs without especial regard for the usual pattern of collegepreparatory subjects.

Over two hundred colleges agreed to accept the

graduates of the thirty schools largely on the recommendations of the principals.

The initial graduates went to college in 1936, and a follow-up

study was conducted to see hew well the group did in the various phases Taken in High School to Success in College," Journal of Educaticnal Research, XV, No. 2 (February, 1927). lf,The Relation of Pattern of High School Credits to Scholastic Success in College," The North Central Association Quarterly, XI, No. 3 (December, 1931)»295. ^Xbid., p. 297.

27 of college adjustment:

academic, social, and personal development.

was found that by comparison with the students who entered college in the routine fashion, the graduates of the thirty schools: 1. 2.

Earned a slightly higher total grade average; Earned higher grade averages in all subject fields except foreign language;

3*

S p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e sam e a c a d e m i c f i e l d s as did t h e c o m p a r i s o n students;

4.

Did not differ from the comparison group in the number of times they were placed on probation; Received slightly more academic honors in each year; Were more often judged to possess a high degree of intellectual curiosity and drive; Were more often judged to be precise, systematic, and objective in their thinking; Were more often judged to have developed clear or well-foimulated ideas concerning the meaning of education - especially in the first two years of college; More often demonstrated a high degree of resource­ fulness in meeting new situations; Did not differ from the comparison group in ability to plan their time effectively; Had about the same problems of adjustment as the comparison group, but approached their solution with greater effectiveness; Participated somexvhat more frequently, and more often enjoyed appreciative experiences, in the arts; Participated more in all organized student groups except religious and ’service* activities; Earned in each college year a higher percentage of non-academic honors (officership in organiza­ tions, election to managerial societies, athletic insignia, leading roles in dramatic and musical presentations); Did not differ from the comparison group in the quality of adjustment to their contemporaries; Differed only slightly from the comparison group in the kinds of judgments about their schooling; Had a somewhat better orientation toward a choice of a vocation. Demonstrated a more active concern for what was going on in the world . 1

3. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

11.

12. 13. 14.

13. 16. 17. 18.

^Aikin, op. cit., pp. 111-12.

It

Without a doubt, the "Eight-Year Study" indicates that radical changes in high school curricula did not handicap these who did go on to college. The experiences of the colleges with veterans, adults, and students in. accelerated programs also point up the fallacious nature of the assumptions underlying the academic pattern of high school preparation. In addition, studies of predictive devices, such as general aptitude tests, achievement tests, personality or trait tests, and high school grade averages, lead to the conclusion that "the research results reported in the literature are such that they cannot be entirely favorable.

At the

same time it would be erroneous to conclude that the studies have no value. On the contrary....they provide important information which should prove helpful in taking some of the guesswork out of prediction...

D.

The Development of the Administration of Admissions

The evolvement of the Admissions Office as a specialized phase of student personnel work is a natural result of the increasing complexity and variability of college entrance requirements, together with the larger number of students involved.

The administration of admission to college

today is a "sieving" process that necessitates a well-trained personnel, acquainted with predictive techniques and sensitive to what may be termed "human relations."

In short, such a philosophy of admissions work does not

'-Dewey B* Stuit, ch., Gwendolyn S. Dickson, Thomas F. Jordan, and Lester Schloerb, Predioting Success in Professional Schools (Washington, D. C . : The American Council on Edu cat ion, 1949), p. 22. Of, also Glenn W. Durflinger, "The Predictions of College Success - A Summary of Recent Findings," Journal of the Aiaerican Associati cn of Collegiate Registrars, XIX, 6 8 - 7 8 and Clarence E. Dammon, "Admission Without High School

2? stop at mere recruitment of students, but aims at helping the individual to

achieve adjustment

on as broad a

basis as possible.

Thisphilosoohy

is

aptly expressed by

Leona O’Brien

Nelson, who states that

....the relationship of student personnel work to the area of admissions is one....that all cf us will recognize. If we agree....that the objective of education is the all-round development of the individual, then I think the admissions officer can see why the questions of who shall attend college, of when the student shall enter, and on what admissions shall be based are vitally connected with this point of view . 1 Cm the other hand, commitmmt to the personnel point of view in admis­ sions does not mean that administrative procedures and responsibilities are lost 3ight of; rather, it may be said that such necessary administra­ tive work is "humanized." In earlier days, the practice was for the college president to admit students personally.

At Harvard "the ora.l examination was held by the

President and tutors....If everything was in order, the candidate made a copy of the college laws, to which the President signed his admittatur. " 2 The student,

in addition, was required to pay in advance for the expenses

of the first quarter and to file a bend against evading future expenses. It was not until 1870 that Harvard appointed its first Dean, charged with the administration of college discipline and to "keep records of admission ■z and of grades, and submit recommendations of scholarships."^ G-raduation," loo, cit. , pp. 471-85. ^"The Student Personnel Point of View as Applied to the Field of Admissions," Iournal of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars, XVII (1941-42), If8-99p

Morison, op. cit. , p. 26

3 Ibid., p. 3 3 3 .

Somewhat later, the college faculty was connected with admissions procedure and administration through its standing committee on admissions.^" By 1 9 3 0 , the responsibility for admission, according to Kurani, was largely in the hands of the college registrar in sixty per cent of the institutions studied.^

As the college in America became more complicated

in structure, it was natural for the President and academic deans to divest themselves of what were considered the "trivia" of administration.

x

At the

larger institutions there has been a tendency toivard the establishment of a separate office with its own administrative head charged with the admission of students.

The increasing importance of the admissions officer is re­

flected by the change in the name of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars to that of the American. Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers.

The admissions officer, however, though practically

in full charge of admissions, is almost always subject to review of his decisions by a higher authority of the institution - usually a college dean, but sometimes the President himself.

Sometimes an institutional

committee on admissions has authority to decide upon borderline cases. As a sort of "middleman" between the academic deans, the faculties, secondary schools, and prospective students, the successful administrator of admissions needs to combine knowledge and skills.

Kurani lists three

important prerequisites for the admissions officer: 1 Ibid., p. 3 7 2 .

2 Op. cit. , p. 40.

^Catherine R. Rich, "The College Registrar in College Organiza­ tion and Administration," edited by Roy J. Deferrari (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Press, 1947), p. 80.

31 ....First, an acquaintance with the demands of the different curricula which the college offers. Second, a knowledge of methods and techniques of appraising the student's achievement and capacity, combined with the ability for doing so and for evaluating these qualifications in terms of the possibility of success in the pursuit of a college education. Third, personal traits which inspire confidence in students, and an understand­ ing spirit, and fair judgment. 1 One might add to this list of necessary qualities such items as (a) ability to inspire confidence in his judgment among the faculties; (b) skill in delegating responsibility to staff members of the office, leaving his time free for policy formulation and deciding upon "touchy" cases; (c) rapport with secondary-school administrators, particularly in the area from xvhich the institution draws the bulk of its students; and (d) adherence to a philosophy of experimentation®

^Kurani, op. .cit., p. 4-1.

CHAPTER III HISTORY OF ENTRANCE KEQTJIREMHNT3 TO Y/AYNE UNITERS 3TY1

V/ayne University is a municipal university that grew apparently not by virtue of an organized plan but by accretion.

The first unit to be

established under authority of the Detroit Board of Education was the Detroit Normal School in l8 8 l.

In 1918, the proprietary Detroit College

of Medicine and Surgery, which in itself was formed by merger In I8 8 5 of the Detroit Medical College (1 8 6 8 ) and the Michigan College of Medicine (1879), become a part of the Detroit public school system by self-request. Meanwhile, th© Detroit Junior College (1 9 1 7 ) was formally organized, and by 1923 became a four-year institution, known as the College of the City of Detroit. Increasing demand for further professional offerings resulted in th© establishment of the Detroit City Law College in 1927.

One year

later, the pharmacy division was given status as a separate college.

The

growth of the curriculum in engineering became so extensive that in reality the department was the equivalent of a college, although it was not until 1933 that the College of Engineering was established as a separate unit. In 1930 graduate courses were offered, and one year later the graduate school conferred its first degrees. Th©se five institutions of collegiate rank, all under the control

^"Most of the data given are taken from the University catalog issues, and from Sidney G-lazer, "History of the University" (as copied with additions and corrections by Betty Juergens, December, 1940), M.S., in the file of th© University registrar, pages unnumbered.

cf '

_ car c of Education and loosely t erred in toe aggregate

toe ’'Colleges o f toe City of Detroit , ' 1 merged in a unitersity fern o f organisation in 1 °??.

Doe nans "Dayne University” was decided upon by

toe Board of Education in January, 1934. established as the need arose:

Other component units were

the School of Public Affairs and Social

V (16:5 of 354)

835? (293 of 354)

the 354 admitted students who took English in 1ligh school and in college 17 per cent averaged below 2.0 in college; 83 per cent averaged below 2.0 or better in college; 29 per cent averaged 3.0 or better in college; and 9 per cent averaged 3.5 or better in college.

66 T A B L E IX H.P.A. in College Foreign Language

Totals 2

12

14

3.5-4-0

3.0-3.4

3

2.5-2.9 2.0-2.4

1

3

1

2

4

1.5-1-9

2

l .0—1*4

2

0.5-0.9

o.o-o.4

1

IS

31

36

135

3

2

4

14

23

1

5

7

8

24

2

3

6

15

5

10

3

31

3

1

7

1

1

16

1

5

2

14

6 1

3

1 2

22

3

7

2

1

1

3

1

3

0.0- 0.5- 1.0- 1.5- 2.0- 2.5- 3-0- 3-50.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3*4 4-0 H.P.A. in High School Foreign Language

Coriiparison of honor point average achieved in foreign language in high school and in college of 1 3 5 admitted students.

67 Table IX shows a comparison of the honor point average achieved in foreign languages in high school and the honor point average achieved in foreign languages in college of 135 admitted students. The total high school honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.71 with a standard deviation of .91. limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

2.71 ^ .20.

The total college honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.17 with a standard deviation of 1.14. limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

2.17 a .25.

Based on the high school honor point classifications the students performed in college as follows:

1 0• 0

Honor point averages in high school 0.4 0.5 - 0.9

Did as well as or better■ in college 1004 {2 of 2) -



Averaged 2.0 or better in college 504 (1 of 2) .

-



1*0 - 1.4

15% (9 of 12)

424 (5 of 12)

1.5 - 1*9

51% (3 of 14.)

51% (3 of 14)

2.0 - 2.4

454 (10 of 22)

454 (10 of 22)

2.5 - 2.9

504 (9 of 13)

734 (14 of 13)

3.0 - 3.4

354 (11 of 31)

11% (24 of 31)

3.5 - 4.0

39% (14 of 36)

364 (31 Of 36)

Total

4-1% (63 Of 135)

694 (93 of 135)

Of the 135 admitted student .3 who took foreign language in hig! school and in college 31 par cent average below 2.0 in college; 69 cent average 2.0 or better in college; 35 per cent averaged 3.0 or better in college; and 17 per cent averaged 3.5 or better in college.

b?

TableI showszcounrrisoroftheto: pointaverageachieved inhistoryinhighschoolandthehonorpointaverageachieverin H.P.A. in College History

8

3 -5- 4*0

1 ;

3.0-3.4

2 ! 1 ; 4 1 9 ' 18 , 9 ! ^

Totals 16

39W

30

49

55

2

4;

3 ; 9 , 19

historyincollegeof19?adaittedstudents. Thetotalhighschoolhonorpointaverageprovestohaveanean of2.31vitaastandarddeviationof .70. The99percentconfidence linitsfortheneanareasfollows: 2.31( .13. Thetotalcollegehonorpointaverageprovestohaveaneanof

2.5-2*9

1

2.0-2.4

2 ! 6

6 i 6 ; 5

5 i 23

2.23withastandarddeviationof.93. The99percentconfidence limitsforthemeanareasfollows: 2.23{ .17.

10 I 15

19

13 | 65

Based011the'nighschooltor pointclassificationsthestudents 1*5-1*9|

2

1

4 •i •

1 :26

1:5|4

7

0,5-0.9

2

1 : 1 i 1

0.0-0-< 41|

1 ! 2 j 2 : 2

I.0-1 4 '

9

5

0. 0- 0.5- 1.0- 1.5- 2. 0- 2.5- 3.0- 3.50.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 4.0 H.P.A. inHighSchoolHistory

Comparison of honor point average achieved in history in high school and in college of 197 adaitted students.

performedincollegeasfollows: Honorpointaverage Didaswellasor Averaged2,0or in'nidischool betterincollege betterincollege 1004 (3of3) M (5oFs) 1.0-1.4 1*5-1*9

504 (3of16)

50;4(3of16)

,0— ,4

734 (22of30)

734 (22of30)

2.5-2.9

394 (19of49)

694 (34of49)

3.0-3.4

334 ( a of55)

824 (45 of55)

3*5-4.9

234 (9of39)

924(36of39)

Total

449 (37of197)

764 (150of197)

Ofthe197acmittedstudentswhotookhi;storyinhighschooland in college 24per cent averaged below 2.0 in college; % per cent averaged 2.0 or better in college; 31per cent averaged 3.0 or better in college; and 10 per cent averaged 3.5 or better in college,

72

71

TableIIshowsacomparisonofthehonorpointaverageachieved

TibLE III

j.r.othersocialsciencesinhigh schoolandthehonorpointaverage achievedinothersocialsciencesincollegeof251admitted students. Thetotalhigh schoolhonorpointaverageprovestohaveamean of2.3/1>iithastandarddeviationof .77. The99percentconfidence

n.P.A. in College athematics 1..

Totals

1 10 13 19 21

102 6

1

3.H0

limitsforthemeanareasfollows: 2.84{ .12. 3.0-3.4

2

2.5-2.9

1

1

15

2

Thetotalcollegehonorpointaverageprovestohaveameanof 2.41withastandarddeviationof .77. The99percentconfidence

2

limitsforthemeanareasfollows: 2.41I .15* 2,0-2.4

3

2

1

3

1.5-1.9

2

1

0 j

9 j

Honorpointaverage Didaswellasor Averaged2.0or inhighschool betterincollege betterincollege 1.0-1.4 625)(5of8) 87? (7of8)

1.0-1.4

2

4

8

6

0.5-0.9

Basedonthehighschoolhonorpointclassificationsthe students performedincollegeasfollows:

1.5-1.9

6933(9of13)

6l;i(3of13)

2.0-2./t

73? (39of53)

73? (39of53)

2.5-2,9

M (17of45)

82? (37of45)

3.0-3.4

43? (27of62)

90?(50of62)

3.5-4.0

23? (17of73)

884 (64of73)

Total

Itt (116of254)

324(209of254)

-\V*J\L

Ofthe254admittedstudentswhotookothersocial,sciencesin highschoolaidincollege13percentaveragedbelow2.0incollege; 32percentaveraged2.0orbetterincollege; 37percentaveraged 3.0 orbetterincollege; aid12percentaveraged3.5orbetterin college.

7

1 ;28

1

I

3

1 j

4

e j

1

j> "r !•> 1.5- 2.0- 2.5- j>9- 5*30.4 5.9 1.4 1.9 'U 2.9 3.4 4.9

73 Table XII shows a comparison of the honor point average achieved in mathematics in high, school and the honor point average achieved in nethematics In college of 102 admitted students. The total high school honor point average proves to have a mean The 99 per cent confidence

of 2.63 with a standard deviation of .83. limits for the mean are as follows:

2.63 zf .21.

The total college honor point average proves to have a mean of 1.66 with a standard deviation of 1.10. limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

1.66 / .23.

Based on the high school honor point classifications the students performed in college as follows: Honor point average in high school 0.5 - 0.9

Did as well as or better in college 0 % (0 of 1)

Averaged 2.0 or better In college 0% (0 of 1)

1.0 - 1.4

703' (7 of 10)

304 (3 of 10)

1.5 - 1.9

42: • (6 of 14)

364 (5 of 14)

2.0 — 2*4

169 (3 of 19)

164 (3 of 19)

2.5 - 2.9

194 (4 of 21)

33% (7 of 21)

3.0 - 3.4

7?; (1 of 14)

434 (6 of 14)

3.5 - 4.0

214 (5 of 24)

889 (21 of 24)

Total

254 (26 ox 102)

44n (45 of 102)

Of the 102 admitted students who took mathematics In high school and In college 56 per cent averaged below 2.0 In colleg e; .44 per cent averaged 2.0 or better in college; 20 per cent averaged 3. 0 or better in college; and 6 per cent averaged 3.5 or better in college.

74 TABLE XIII H.P.A. in College Other Sciences

Totals 26

3-5-4.0

33

58

56

60

57

290

i

2

4

6

13

26

3.0-3.4

1

u

9

15

15

20

64

2.5-2.9

1

o

5

2

12

S

30

2.0—2.4

15

16

21

23

15

13

103

1.5-1.9

2

6

1

4

2

15

1.0-1.4

2

4

12

9

6

1

34

5

6

3

2

2

0.5-0.9

0.0 —0.4

IS

0.0- 0.5- 1.0- 1.5- 2.0- 2.5- 3.0- 3.50.40.9 1.41.9 2.4 2.9 3-4 4.0 Ii.P.A. in High School Other Sciences

Comparison of honor point average achieved in other sciences in high school and in college of 290 admitted students.

75 Table XIII shows a comparison of the honor point average achieved in other sciences in high school end the honor point average achieved in other sciences in college of 290 admitted students. The total high school honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.62 with a standard deviation of .81. limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

2.62 / .12.

The total college honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.25 with ,7 standard deviation of .9-1* limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

2.25 ^ .14«

Based on the high school honor point classifications the student performed in college as follows: Honor point; average in high school 1.0 - 1.4

704? (25 of 33)

707 (25 of 35)

2.0 - 2.4

644 (57 of 53)

644 (57 of 53)

2.5 - 2.9

334 (21 of 56)

794 (44 of 56)

3.4

354 (21 of 60)

804 (48 of 60)

3.5 - 4*0

/.y (13 of 57)

954 (54 of 57)

474 (136> of’ 290)

774

4 O -g-

0

1 o

Z'\

Total

TV shows r comparison of the honor point overage r.chieved ir. English in high school and the total honor point average achieved in college of 400 admitted students. The total higu school honor point average in English proves to nave a mean of 2.73 with a standard deviation of .67. confidence limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent

2.78 If .09.

The total college honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.31 with a standard deviation of .72. limit? for the near, are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

2.31 / .09.

Based on the high school honor point classifications the students performed in college as follows: Honor ooint average in high school 1.0 - 1.4

Die as veil as or better in college 1 0 0 7 (15 of 15)’

.Averaged 2.0 or better in college 401 (6 of 15)

721 (22 of 30)

531 (16

of 30)

2.0 - 2.4

511 (43

of 34)

511 (43

of 34)

2.5 - 2.9

30% (36

of 99)

651 (64

of 99)

3.0 - 3.4

271 (27 of 99)

307 (79

of 99)

3.5 - 4.0

37 (6 of 73)

1.5 -

1.9

Total

37% (149 of 400)

S51 (62 of 73) 681 (270 of 400)

Of the 400 admitted students 32 per cent averaged belov 2.0 in college; 68 per cent averaged 2.0 or better in college; 18 per cent averaged 3 . 0 or better in college; and 4 per cent averaged 3*5 or better in college.

f

8o TABLE XVI

Total H.P.A. in College

1

3.5-4.0

1

Totals 41

54

100

2

6

9

2

11

17

30

2 .5-2.9

1

15

14

30

2.0-2.4

1

6

10

17

1.5-1.9

6

7

13

1.0-1.4

1

3.0-3.4

4

1"

1

0.5-0.9

0 .0-0.4 0 .0- 0.5- 1 .0- 1.5- 2.0- 2.5- 3.0- 3.50.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 4.0 H.P.A. in High School English

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average achieved in college of 100 students admitted by strong certificate.

81 Table XVI shows a comparison of the honor point average achieved in English in high school and the total honor point average achieved in college of 100 students admitted by strong certificate. The total high school honor point average in English proves to have a: mean of 5*4& with & standard deviation of .33.

The 99 per

cent confidence limits for the mean are as follows: 3»4& "L «09 The total college honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.72 with a standard deviation of .59* limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

2.72 / .15/.

Based on the high school honor point classifications the students performed in college as follows; Honor point average in high school 2.0 - 2.\L

Die as well as or better in college 100?/(1 of 1)

Averaged 2.0 or better in college 100% (1 of 1) 100% (4 of 4)

2.5 - 2.9

75% (3 Of 4)

3.0 - 3.4

32% (13 of 41)

83% (34 of 41)

3.5 - 4*0

11% (6 of 54)

37% (4-7 of

54)

Total

23% (23 of 100)

S6% (86 of

100)

Of the 100 students admitted by strong certificate 14 per cent averaged below 2.0 in college; 86 per cent averaged 2.0 or better in college; 39 per cent averaged 3*0 or better in college; end 9 per cent averaged 3.5 or better in college.

82 TABLE XVII

Total H.P •A. In College

Totals 8

39

3.5-4-0

!

17

13

4

27

13

5

5

26

5

7

3

19

4

1

io

2. 5-2.9

2.0-2.4

1.0- 1.4

4

3

5

3.0-3-4

1.5-1-9

100

17

!

5

0 .5-0.9 0 .0 - 0 . 4 0.0- 0.5- 1.0- 1.5- 2.0- 2.5- 3.0- 3.50.4 0.9 1-4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 4-0 H.P.A. in High School English

Coroparison of* honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average achieved in college of 100 students admitted by weak certificate.

83 Te.ble XVII shows a comparison ox' the honor point average achieved in English, in high school and the total honor point average a.chicved In college of 100 students admitted by weak certificate. T h e t o t ail h i g h

school honor point

ha v e a m e a n o f 3 * 0 0 w i t h confidence

limits

average

i n E n g l i s h p r o v e s to

a standard deviation of

for t h e m ean are

as f o l l o w s :

.4-53*00 /

The

99 per

cent

.12.

The total college honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.37 with a standard deviation of .69 . limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 pen cent confidence

2.37 1f .1 8 .

Based on the high school honor point classifications the students performed ir.. college as follows: Honor point average in high school 1.3 - 1-9

ft.4.

Did as well as or better in college lOOff (1 of 1)

37%

Averagfsd 2.0 or better in college 100f (1 of 1)

(3 of 8)

37ft (3 of 3)

2.5 - 2.9

(12 of 35)

71/5 (25 of 35)

3.0 - 3.4-

31% (12 of 39)

77/5 (30 of 39)

2.0 -

3.5 Total

A.0

0% 28%

(0 of 17)

82%

(14 of 17)

(28 of 100)

73%

(73 of 100)

Of the 100 students admitted by wreak certi.ficete 27 per cent averaged below 2,0 in college; 73 per cent averaged 2.0 or better in college; 20 per cent averaged 3.0 or better In college; and 3 per cent averaged 3*5 or better in college.

84 TABLE XVIII

To tel H.P.A. in College

Totals 4

7 ____31

45

3.5-4.0

1

3 .0-3.4

i

2

.5-2.9

2

.0 — 2 .4

l

1

1.5-1*9

2

2

.0 - 1 .4

1

1

1

a

.5-0.9

o.o-o.4

6

6

9

4

19

9

12

4

27

10

3

2

1 0

100 1

5

! ! !

1

0

12_____1

1

V

30

10

1

5

1

2

.0 - 0.5- 1.0- 1.5- 2 .0 - 2.5- 3 .0 - 3.50.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 4.0 H.P.A. in High School English

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average in college of 100 students admitted by examination and recommended by principal.

85 Table XVIII shows a comparison of the honor point average achieved in English in high school and the total honor point average achieved in college of 100 students admitted by examination and recommended by the principal. The total high school honor point average in English provesto nave a. mean of 2.48 with a standard deviation of .4-7. confidence limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per

cent

2.48 "£ .12.

The total college honor' point average proves to have a mean of 2.03 with a standard deviation of .65. limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per cent confidence

2.03

.17.

Based on the high school honor point classifications the students performed in college as follows: Honor point average in highschool

Did as veil as or Averaged 2.0 or better in college better in college

1.0 - 1.4.

100?, (/+ of 4)

25?- (1 of 4)

1.5 - 1.9

57? (4 of 9)

29% (2 of 7)

2.0 - 2.4

48? (15 of 31)

43? (15 of 31)

2.5 - 2.9

31? (14 of 45)

58? (26 of 45)

3.0 - 3.4

3? (1 of 1 2 )

7 5 ? ( 9 of 1 2 )

3.5 - 4.0

0? (0 of 1)

Total

38? (33 of 100)

0? (0 of 1) 53? (53 of 100)

Of the 100 students admitted by examination and recommended by the principal 47 per cent avei-aged below 2.0 in college; 53 per cent averaged 2.0 or better in college; 7 per cent averaged 3.0 or better In college; and 1 per cent averaged. 3.5 or better In college.

86 TABLE H X Total H.P.A. in College

Totals ^ 11

2 2 4 4

15

7

1

2

2

3.5-4. 0 3-0-3-4-

100

2

3

1

6

5

19

2.5-2.9

1

4

5

4

2.0-2.4

4

7

17

2

1.5-1-9

3

4

11

3

l.0 —-L.4

3

3

7

3

0.5-0.9

1

1

o.o-o. 4

1

1

i

31 21

1

17

2

0 .0 - 0.5— 1 .0 - 1.5- 2 .0 - 2.5- 3.0- 3.50.4 4.0 1.4 1.9 2.4 3.4 0.9 2.9 H.P .A. in High School English

Comparison of honor point average achieved in high school English and total honor point average in college of 100 students admitted by examination but not recommended by principal.

87 Table XIX shows a comparison of the honor point average achieved in English in high school and the total honor point average achieved in college of 100 students admitted by examination but not recommended by the principal. The total high school honor point average in English proves to have a mean of 2.15 "with a standard deviation of .51. cent confidence limits for the mean are as follows:

The 99 per 2.15

.13.

The total college honor point average proves to have a mean of 2.07 with a standard deviation of .69. The 99 per cent confidence limits for the mean are as follows:

2.07 / .IS.

Based on the high school honor point classifications the students performed in college as follows: Honor- point average in high school 1.0 - 1.4

Did as well as or better in college 1005-(11 of 11)

Averaged 2.0 or better in college U5% (5 of 11)

1.5 - 1.9

71% (17 of 22)

59^ (13 of 22)

2.0 - 2.4

55% (24 of 44)

55% (24 of 44)

2.5 - 2.9

47y (7 of 15)

60% (9 of 15)

3.0 - 3.4

14% (1 of 7)

86% (6 of 7)

3.5 - 4.0

055 (0 of 1)

lOO?; (1 of 1)

Total

60JS (60 of 100)

53% (5S of 100)

Of the 100 students admitted by examination but not recommended by the principal 42 per cent averaged below 2.0 in college; 53 per cent averaged 2.0 or better in college; S per cent averaged 3-0 or better in college; and 2 per cent averaged 3.5 or better1 in college.

CHAPTER VI CONGLUSIOIvB, GE1'IERALIZATIQNS 5 AND IMPLICATIONS

Fr om til© data in the p r e c e din g c h a p t e r a number of conclusions and generalizations earn bs drawn.

T h e y m a y off er and suggest implications

for continued study and exploration of admissions policies a n d procedures by admissions officers a n d h i g h s chool principals* 1.

A comparison of the four groups studied shews considerable varia­

tion in the achievement of students in high school and in college.

A

summary table of statistical results is graphically presented to focus attention on the significant factors as follows:

400 Admitted Students

High School College Honor Point Honor Point Average Mean Average Mean

Per cent Whose College H.P.A. Equals or Exceeds High School H.P.A.

Per cent Whoa© College H.P.A. was 2.0 ©r Higher

Strong Certificate

3.41

2.72

31%

86%

Weak Certificate

3.00

2.37

30%

13%

Examination Recommended

2.37

2.03

46%

33%

Examination Nat Recommended

2.12

2.07

65%

3%%

Total

2.73

2.31

43%

68%

2.

Thor© is considerable variation in the achievements of students

in high school and college.

The mean honor point average for the group of

400 students studied was significantly lower for their freshman year than it was in high school.

Only 31 P©r cent of the highly recommended students

8? did as well or totter in college.

Of those admitted by weak certificate,

50 per coat did as well as or better.

Of those admitted by examination

but on the recommendation of the high school, 46 par cent did as well or better in college, while 65 per cent of those not recommended did as well or better in college.

It could be assumed that with increased maturity

and motivation the performance should be higher in college.

It is possible

that reasons lie in their lack of proper orientation to college work or in higher standards in college.

These findings might b© worth further examina­

tion and study. 5.

Of the total recommended group by strong certificate, 86 per cent

average 2.0 or better In college. in college as expected.

A large majority of pupils performed

It seems fair to conclude that the criteria on

which high school administrators base their certification for this group appear fairly sound.

On the other hand, 14 per cent of those strongly

recommended failed in college.

From the data it seems fair to assume that

the system ©f certification does not cover all individual cases. 4.

Of those admitted by weak certificate, 73 per cent averaged 2.0

or better in college. average.

This

work in college.

Conversely, 27 P©r cent fell below 2.0 honor point that one cut of every four was doing unsuccessful

This would seem to suggest that a mo 1*0 careful appraisal

of the criteria n©«r used should b© made by admissions departments and high schools ©f those students who fall in the lower fringe of the certificate group f r o m high school.

Examination of the criteria opens the

r o a d f o r o t h e r and better standards of judgment.

90 5 ■>

Of the students admitted by examination and reccsameaded by the

high school principal, 5 3 per cent averaged 2 . 0 or better in college. This means that approximately half of those so admitted could be termed successful in college.

6.

Of the group who were admitted by examination without recom­

mendation of the high school, $ 8 per cent had an honor point average of 2 . 0 or better in college.

7.

Students admitted by examination on the recommendation of th©

high school principals did not do as well in college as those students admitted by examination without recommendations of their principals. Fifty-eight per cent of th© noa-r©commended students had an honor point average in college of 2 . 0 or better, while 5 3 per cent of those admitted by examination but on recommendation of the principal had a 2 . 0 honor point average in college. 8.

Of the group admitted by recommendation and examination, only 46

per cent did as well or better in college, while 65 per cent of those who were not recommended did as well or better in college.

For example. seven

out of seven non—recommended students with honor point averages of 1 .0 - 1 .4 in high school had an honor point average in college as freshmen of 2 . 0 or better. 9.

It seems fair to assume that the factor of determined motivation

and interest may b© significant.

Th© student who seeks admission without

recommendation of the principal is apparently determined to succeed in

91 college*

On the other hand, some of th© 1 m i marks received in high

school (vjhich become the basis of no certification of the pupil) may not b© a valid evaluation of th© pupil's scholastic ability.

These marks may

in some cases b© disciplinary measures rather than an evaluation of academic ability.

10.

From these data it might b© assumed that capacity to pass high

school work and to acquire certification is not the only factor for success in college.

Th© data she?/ that a larger percentage of these who

have not performed too well in high school do better in college, with in­ creased maturity and interest, than they did in high school. 11.

The current admissions criteria of the University appear to b©

&oaawhat effeetiv©.

Of those students admitted by examination without

recommendation of th© high school, 6 5 per cent did as well, or better, in college as they did in high school, and 5 8 per c©nt had an honor point average of 2 . 0 12.

or bettor.

It appears that th© entrance examination is a reliable and

important factor in determining admissibility.

It helps to sort out

students who can succeed in. college from those w ho have a low performance record in high school.

The admissions office is interested in admitting

students who can average 2 . 0 or better in college. 15*

Th© comparison between th© honor point average of subjects taken

in high school and also taken in college reveals very littl© correlation between subjects.

In th© field of English we find less artificial data•

All students have three to four years of English in high school, and

92 fresha©n students in college are required to take a year of English c ampoaition ! ‘i r

in 'M o rtu ary

Science:

■ Nsiic-inuiith

(Non-degree

i? j' *) l r (i i

n

program )

, date

of

buirmmnu

: Public

,

a p p r e n t i m. Ni i up IP

:

List high school courses you have failed:..............Lone

List the school activities in which you participated:....

Have you ever attended any other college or university?

Rate your general health

If so, name and give dates

5£....................... ; Eyesight... gP.P.d................ Hearing.. gOOCl Fair

Good

Is your speech normal?

yes

Poor

What handicaps or disabilities do you have?

SP.fiP..............

On a n o t h e r s h e e t ( o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 V2 x 11 s i z e ) i c r i t e i n I n k n o t less t h a n 200 i c o r d s t e l l i ng s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s a&out your life, pou r in t e r e s t s , a n d p o u r plans. T h e s h e e t s h o u l d be e n c l o s e d tc i t h i n t h i s p r i n t e d f o r m i r h e n y o u h a v e f i n i s he d . ( D o not o m i t J

After you have filled out pages 2, 3 and 4 completely and page S to here, deliver this blank to your high school principal or counselor. (A Btudent who already has earned 30 or more semester hours at a college or university may return this application directly to the Admissions Office of Wayne University if the transcript from the College or University includes a summary of secondary Bchool unita)

CONFIDENTIAL I N F O R M A T I O N F R O M HIGH S C H O O L ADVISER This space should be filled out by the principal or a teacher selected by him. The information given will be valuable in consider­ ing the applicant and in giving him advice and guidance. This student ranks a b o u t . . i n

a class numbering

...

His mental teat scores are (Please give name of test, date taken, raw score, and percentile or letter rating):................

Det. M v .

llAS

c/

1.33...53...........................................

Other information helpful to his college adviser (for example, family background, weak and strong points of applicant, physical handicaps, qualities of mind and character.)

John has made an sxoellont. record, in 01^ iii^sic,.departrnent . fse. ana qoon0rative♦

.

.

John has been in t h e , , c o n c e r t . a n d _in._the.......

choir one and a half..years.

I believe...ho .will, be a ..good...teacher..............

Signature. Position,..

signed Head of --usic D e p a r t m e n t

T O B E FILLED O U T B Y A P P L I C A N T AS A R E C O R D F O R A D V I S E R

B la c k P rin t

your

tact

nam e

J ie ro

"

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APPLICATION F O R ADMISSION S e r i o u s i l i s a d r a n t a y r m a y res ul t f r o m l a t e a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s f o r m s h o u l d reach t he .1 i l mi s s i o i i s Of f ice n o t I n t e r t h a n t h r e e -weeks b e f o r e the h e y i u n l n y o f t he t e r m .

E a c h s t u d e n t s e e k i n g a d mi s s io n to W a y n e U n i v e r s i t y m u s t h a ve an a p p l i c a t i o n o n tile w i t h t h e A d m i s s i o n s Offiee b e f o r e a d e c i si on is m a d e c o n c e r n i n g hi s e n t r a n e e . T h e U n i v e r s i t y will r e c e i v e t his a p p l i c a t i o n a t a n y t i m e d u r i n g o r a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t ' s final s e m e s t e r in Ibid) school. I f t he s t u d e n t ' s p l a n s a r e u n c e r t a i n , t he b e t t e r c o u r s e is t o file a n a p p l i c a t i o n ; no o b l i g a t i o n is i n c u r r e d i f he f i nds l a t e r t h a t he c a n n o t e nr ol l . Al l i n f o r m a t i o n (riven in filling o u t t h i s b l a n k is to b e u s e d in t he g u i d a n c e of t h e s t u d e n t . I t will be h e l d c o n f i d e n t i a l . T h e a p p l i c a n t s h o u l d r e a d t he b l a n k t h r o u g h c a r e f u l l y w i t h his p a r e n t s o r g u a r ­ d i a n a n d fill it o u t c o m p l e / e l y in hi s or cm h n n d w r i l i n y in i n k b e f o r e deli veri ng it to his h i g h school pr i n ci p al or counselor . ( S t u d e n t s planning to ent er i vi t h a d v a n c e d s t a n d i n g , sec piige S.) A cat al og of t h e U n i v e r s i t y c o l l e g e o r sc hool in wh i c h t h e a p p l i c a n t is i n t e r e s t ­ ed n i av be o b t a i n e d u p o n r e q u e s t . -

A D M IS S IO N B Y C E R T I F I C A T E G r a d u a t e s of regi onal l y a cc r edi t ed h i gh school s p r e s e n t i n g fifteen a ccept able uni ts* are a d m i t t e d by cer t if i cat e if t hei r pr i nci pal s r e c o mme n d onl y t hose w h o s e sciiool r e cor ds a n d wh os e char a ct e r i s t i cs are such as t o give r e a s o na b l e a s s u r a n c e of t hei r success in college wor k. .Standing r e q ui r e d f or r e c o m m e n d a t i o n mu s t be d e ci ded l y higher t ha n f o r g r a d u a t i o n .

A D M IS S IO N

BY E X A M IN A T IO N

G r a d u a t e s of hi gh school s n ot r egionall y a c c r edi t ed a n d t h os e whos e high school or college r e cor ds do n o t j u s t i f y t hei r a dmi s s i o n b y c e r ­ tificate to the U n i ve r s i t y m a y gain a d m i s s i o n b y passi ng e n t r a n c e e xami nat i ons . A p p l i c a t i o n s f or a d mi s s i o n b y e x a m i n a t i o n s h o u l d he m a d e n o t lat er t h a n f o u r weeks b e f or e t he t e r m st arts. T h e r e is a n omi n a l fee.

RECOM M ENDED SECO N D A RY SC H O O L PROGRAM S P r o p e r l y r e c o m m e n d e d a p p l i c a n t s a r e a d m i t t e d on t h e q u a l i t y of t he i r w o r k . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n is g o o d s c h o l a r s h i p . Def i ci enci es a r e i m p o s e d o n l y in c a s e s o f i nsuf f i ci ent p r e p a r a t i o n f or a particular curriculum. B u t t h e U n i v e r s i t y r e c o g n i z e s t he v a l u e o f s uffi cient c o n c e n t r a t i o n in t h e s t a n d a r d a c a d e m i c fi el ds f o r p r e - c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e y m a y h a v e a s o u n d b a c k g r o u n d f o r qo l l e g e s t u d y . E v e r y p r o s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t is u r g e d t o c o m p l e t e f o u r y e a r s o f E n g l i s h in hi gh sch oo l . T h i s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t o f f u n c t i o n a l writing. T hre e units of E ng lis h a r e essential. T h e various r e q u i r e m e n t s of the colleges which a d m i t fres hm en a r e l i s t e d below.

C ollege of L ib e ra l A r ts T h e st a te m en ts above a d eq u a te ly de sc rib e the conditions for a d ­ m i s s i o n . O t h e r s p e c i f i c c o u r s e p r e p a r a t i o n in h i g h school is d e s i r a b l e in c e r t a i n c u r r i c u h n n s a n d . s o met i me s n e c e s s a r y i f a s t u d e n t is t o avoid tak in g p r e -r e q u i s i te courses w i t h o u t college credit. These currieulurns a nd ar eas of s t u d y a r e: Pr e - Bus i ne ss A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , E c o n o m i e s , Psychology, Social W o r k , a n d o t h e r courses or curri eulurns requi ri ng t h e use, of st at isti cs: F o r these courses a n d c u r r i e ul ur ns t he s t u d e n t will need a m i n i m u m of on e a n d o n e - h a l f y e ar s of hi gh school a l gel ua. Pre-Medical and Pre-Dental rurriru ln m s; Chemistry, M a th ­ e m a ti cs , a n d P h y s i c s m a j o r s : S t u d e n t s p l a n n i n g to t a k e these c u r r i e u l u r n s s h o u l d t a k e h i g h sc hool m a t h e m a t i c s t h r o u g h t r i g ­ o n o m e t r y a n d a t l e a s t o n e c o u r s e in h i g h sc hool p h y s i c s if p o s s i b l e . T w o y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o ol F r e n c h or G e r m a n a n d hi g h s c h o ol p h y s i c s a n d c h e m i s t ry a r e d e s i r a b l e elect i ves. * Tl ie u n i t r e p r e s e n t s n y e a r of c l a s s r o o m w o r k o t n o t l e s s t h n n 1 2 0 full t *our“ A t l e a s t t w o h o u r s of l a b o r a t o r y , s h o p , o r d r a w i n g w o r k m u s t b e o f T c r c d o s t n e e q u i v a l e n t of o n e h o u r of r e c i t n t i o n . form

2 0 5 8 —- 1 2 - 5 0 — 1 5 M — C — 194— O L

College of E d u c a tio n T h e College of E d u c a t i o n offers p r o g r a m s , one to live w a r s in length, l or t he p r e p a r a t i o n of t ea che r s f or all types of t ea ch i ng pos i ­ tions. St u d e n t s desi r ing to teach Art . H o m c n i a k i n g , i ndu s t r i a l E d u c a ­ tion. Musi c. Phys i c a l a n d He al t h E d u c a t i o n , a n d those seeking Ru r a l Certificates e n t e r t h e college as f r e s h m e n ; all o t h e r p r o s pe c t i ve teachers e n t e r t he college a f t er t wo y e a r s of wo r k in t he Col lege of Liberal Arts. (See pa g e 2.) Appl i cant s, h o w e v e r , wi t h j u n i o r o r senior s t a n di ng a p p l y f or a dmi ss i on d i r ec t l y t o t he College of E d u c a t i o n .

C ollege of N u rs in g 1 h e ^ s t a t e m e n t u n d e r ‘‘R e c o m m e n d e d S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r o ­ g r a m s ' a p p l i e s t o tlie Col l ege o f N u r s i n g a p p l i c a n t s . In a d d i t i o n , the a p p l i c a n t m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d b y t h i s Co l l e g e f a c u l t y t o p o s s e s s t h e p e r s o n a l a n d p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s ' n e c e s s a r y f or t he e v e n t u a l c o m ­ pe ten t pract ice of nursing.

College of E n g in e e rin g R e q u i r e d s e q u e n c e s : E n g l i s h , t h r e e u n i t s ( f o u r uni t s d e s i r a b l e ) ; m a t h e m a t i c s , t h r e e u n i t s ( f o u r u n i ts d e s i r a b l e ) ; l a b o r a t o r y science, t w o units (physi cs, one uni t r eq u i r e d ; c h e mi s t r y desirable l o r se c ond u ni t ) ; social s t udi es o r foreign l a ngua ge, t w o units.

College of P h a rm a c y Re q u i r e d se q ue nce s : English, t hr ee un i t s ( f o u r units d e s i r a b l e) ; m a t h e ma t i c s , t w o un i t s (algebra one un i t , pl ane ge ome t r y one u n i t ) ; l ab o r a t o r y science, t w o units (one u n i t ol phvsi cs pr e f e r r e d ) ; social sci ence, t w o u n i t s . O f t h e f i f t een u n i t s o f h i g h school w o r k r e q u i r e d f o r a d m i s s i o n a t l e a s t t en m u s t he i n t h e fi el ds o f E n g l i s h , f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s , m a t h e m a t i c s , h i l m r a t o r y s c i e n c e a n d soci al s c i en c e.

School of B u sin e ss A d m in is tra tio n S t u d e n t s w i t h e n o u g h a c c e p t a b l e c r e d i t f or j u n i o r o r s e n i o r s t a n d i n g e n t e r t he S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a f t e r t h e office o t t h e D e a n o f t h e Co l l e g e o f L i b e r a l A r t s c er t i f i e s t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n o f t he E r e - B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . O t h e r s e n t e r t h e E r e - B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e Col lege o f L i b e r a l Arts.

U n iv e rsity P r o g ra m in M o rtu a ry Science T h e Uni v e r s i t y offers a t wo y e a r p r e-pr of ess i onal p r o g r a m for M o r t u a r y Science i n t he College of L i b e r a l Ar t s with t he t h i r d ye ar s p e n t in the D e p a r t m e n t of M o r t u a r y Science. St u d e n t s w i t h s u f ­ ficient Liber al Ar t s wo r k ma y be c on s i d e r e d for admi ss i on di r ectl y to t he t hi r d year.

N o n -M a tric u la te d D ivision P e r s o n s w h o d o n o t wi sh t o w o r k f o r d e g r e e s a n d t h o s e w h o do not meet e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s m a y r e g i s t e r f or p a r t - t i m e p r o ­ g r a m s as N ' o n - M a t r i e u l a t e d s t u d e n t s . A l a r g e se l ec t i on o f t h e r e g u l a r c o u r s e s is m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s e s t u d e n t s in t he l a t e a f t e r ­ n o o n a n d e v e n i n g . W o r k t a k e n f o r p r o v i s i o n a l c r e d i t b y N’o n - M a t r i c u l a t e d s t u d e n t s m a y be c o u n t e d t o w a r d a d e g r e e a f t e r m a t r i c u ­ l at i o n w ith t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e D e a n o f t he Co l l e g e c o n c e r n e d .

D E F IC IE N C IE S S t u d e n t s wh o a r e n o t m o r e t h a n t w o u n i t s def icient in t h e t o t a l o f fi fteen r e q u i r e d f o r a d m i s s i o n — o r f o r a d mi s s i o n t o E n g i n e e r i n g o r P h a r m a c y - —a r e a d m i t t e d t o t he U n i v e r s i t y . A s t u d e n t d e f i c i e n t t w o u n i t s o r l ess m u s t m a k e u p t he d e f i c i e n c y w i t h i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f r e s i d e n c e in t h e U n i v e r s i t y . T h e A d m i s s i o n s Office will f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n w h e n n e c e s s a r y a b o u t t he r e m o v a l o f deficiencies.

P H Y S IC A L E X A M IN A T IO N E a c h a p p l i c a n t wi l l r e p o r t a t t he U n i v e r s i t y H e a l t h S e r v i c e f or a p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . T h e U n i v e r s i t y r e s e r v e s the rig-lit t o r e f u s e o r c an c el a s t u d e n t ’s a d mi s s i o n o r t o d i r e c t his a ct i vi t i es in t he school , if as a r e s u l t o f his ph ys i c al e x a m i n a t i o n s uc h act i on a p p e a r s t o he e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e go o d o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o r t he s t u d e n t h i ms e l f .

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