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Fabrica San Jose and Middle Formative Society in the Valley of Oaxaca
 9780932206701, 9781949098709

Table of contents :
Contents
Introduction, by Kent V. Flannery
Tables
Illustrations
Acknowledgments
Chapter
I. Introduction
1. Fabrica San Jose and Its Setting
2. The Excavations
3. Provenience Designations
II. Chronology and Ceramics
1. Changing Sherds into Data
2. Middle Formative Ceramic Wares
3. Middle Formative Vessel Forms
4. Fidencio Coarse Olla Attributes
5. Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes
6. Atoyac Yellow-White Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes
7. Proveniences for Pilot Seriation
8. Similarity Coefficient
9. Scaling the Proveniences
10. Interpreting the Scaling
11. Synthesis of Ceramic Change
12. Descriptions of Phases
13. Fitting Other Proveniences into the Sequence
14. Conclusion
III. Introduction to the Study of the Community at Fabrica San Jose
1. Household Clusters
2. The Tierras Largas Phase Occupation
IV. The Early Guadalupe Phase Community
1. Household Cluster EG-1
2. Household Cluster EG-2
3. Household Cluster EG-3
4. Provenience Not Assigned to Household Clusters
5. Summary
V. The Late Guadalupe Phase Community
1. Household Cluster LG-1
2. Household Cluster LG-2
3. Household Cluster LG-3
4. Household Cluster LG-4
5. Household Cluster LG-5
6. Household Cluster LG-6
7. Household Cluster LG-7
8. Household Cluster LG-8
9. Household Cluster LG-9
10. Household Cluster LG-10
11. Household Cluster LG-11
12. Provenience Not Assigned to Household Clusters
13. Summary
VI. The Rosario Phase Community
1. Household Cluster R-1
2. Household Cluster R-2
3. Household Cluster R-3
4. Household Cluster R-4
5. Household Cluster R-5
6. Household Cluster R-6
7. Household Cluster R-7
8. Household Cluster R-8
9. Household Cluster R-9
10. Household Cluster R-10
11. Proveniences Not Assigned to Household Clusters
12. Summary
VII. Fabrica San Jose in Middle Formative Oaxaca
1. Specialized Activities
2. Internal Organization and External Relations
3. Conclusion
Appendix
I. Counts of Combinations of Ceramic Wares and Vessel Forms
II. Counts of Fidencio Coarse Olla Attributes
III. Counts of Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes
IV. Counts of Atoyac Yellow-White Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes
V. Index of Middle Formative Proveniences
VI. Chipped Stone Artifacts
VII. Ground and Pecked Stone Artifacts
VIII. Modified and Unmodified Bone
IX. Miscellaneous Artifacts
X. Figurines
XI. Middle Formative Burials
XII. Evidence for Salt Production at Fabrica San Jose
XIII. Carbonized Plant Remains, by Richard I. Ford
XIV. Post-Middle Formative Features and Burials
Resumen en Espanol
References

Citation preview

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY IN THE VALLEY OF OAXACA

Frontispiece. Aerial view of Fabrica San Jose from the northwest before excavation. Covering the low hill in the center of the photograph , the site extends to the east as far as the field beyond the small, white arroyo in the left background.

MEMOIRS OF THE MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN NUMBER 8

PREHISTORY AND HUMAN ECOLOGY OF THE VALLEY OF OAXACA

Kent V. Flannery, General Editor

Volume 4

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE. SOCIETY IN THE VALLEY OF OAXACA BY ROBERT D. DRENNAN

Appendix on Carbonized Plant Remains by Richard I. Ford

ANN ARBOR

1976

© 1976 by the Regents of the University of Michigan The Museum of Anthropology All rights reserved ISBN (print): 978-0-932206-70-1 ISBN (ebook): 978-1-949098-70-9 Browse all of our books at sites.lsa.umich.edu/archaeology-books. Order our books from the University of Michigan Press at www.press.umich.edu. For permissions, questions, or manuscript queries, contact Museum publications by email at [email protected] or visit the Museum website at lsa.umich.edu/ummaa.

AN INTRODUCTION TO VOLUME 4 OF THE SERIES By Kent V. Flannery

This Memoir is the fourth in our series of final volumes on the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology project, "The Prehistoric Human Ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca," and it is the first to include an actual archeological site report. Fabrica San Jose, an important Middle Formative community in the Valley of Oaxaca, was capably excavated by Robert D. Drennan during 1972. Drennan joined the Oaxaca Project in 1970, and over a period of four years he participated in a variety of settlement pattern surveys and excavations. During a pilot survey in 1970 he visited Fabrica San Jose for the first time and recognized it as a site which might potentially answer a number of questions about the Middle Formative. Since Fabrica San Jose was located on a major salt source, it might shed light on the pattern of community exploitation of this specialized resource. Further, its proximity to the large regional ceremonial center of San Jose Mogote might make it possible to clarify the relationship between a "major village" and a "hamlet" during the Middle Formative. Had Fabrica San Jose been founded as an outlying barrio or "daughter community" of San Jose Mogote through some natural budding-off process, or was its founding a planned development of salt resources by the elite of San Jose Mogote? The answers to all these questions will be found in this monograph. An unexpected bonus of Drennan's work was a clarification of the Middle Formative ceramic sequence for the Etla region of the Valley of Oaxaca. His large, carefully-provenienced sample of sherds from the Guadalupe and Rosario phases puts in perspective our collections from Barrio del Rosario Huitzo, which had permitted only tentative recognition of those phases in the 1960's. And Drennan, refusing to be shackled by the "hunt and peck" system of ceramic analysis which had bogged down three generations of Mesoamerican archeologists, subjected his pottery attributes to a multidimensional scaling program which produced a chronology of considerable refinement. Drennan and I have a colleague whose lifetime dream is to produce a Middle Formative chronology with units of only 50 years. To this end he has excavated for six years, accumulating nearly a million sherds and several hundred whole pots, which he sorts and re-sorts annually with the devotion of a nineteenth-century philatelist. And he can see the light at the end of the tunnel: about six more years should do it. I only wish I could have a tape recording of his comments when he reads this Memoir and realizes that Drennan, in less than 6 months, cut the Gordian knot with which he has been struggling for 6 years. Ann Arbor, Michigan January 1, 1976

v

CONTENTS Introduction, by Kent V. Flannery . Tables . . . . . . . Illustrations . . . . Acknow ledgm en ts

v

ix ix xi

Chapter I. Introduction .

1

4 10 14

1. Fabrica San Jose and Its Setting. 2. The Excavations . . . . . 3. Provenience Designations . U.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. III.

17

Chronology and Ceramics . . . . . . . Changing Sherds into Data Middle Formative Ceramic Wares Middle Formative Vessel Forms . Fidencio Coarse Olla Attributes . Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes . Atoyac Yellow-White Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes Proveniences for Pilot Seriation Similarity Coefficient .. Scaling the Proveniences . . . . Interpreting the Scaling . . . . Synthesis of Ceramic Change . Descriptions of Phases . . . . . Fitting Other Proveniences into the Sequence. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction to the Study of the Community at Fabrica San Jose. 1. Household Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The Tierras Largas Phase Occupation .

IV.

V.

VI.

75

Household Cluster EG-1 . Household Cluster EG-2 . . . . . Household Cluster EG-3 . . . . . Provenience Not Assigned to Household Clusters . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Late Guadalupe Phase Community. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

71 71 74

The Early Guadalupe Phase Community . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

19 21 23 33 37 41 45 45 46 52 54 56 65 67

78 81 81 82 82 85

Household Cluster LG-1 . Household Cluster LG-2 . Household Cluster LG-3 . Household Cluster LG-4 . Household Cluster LG-5 .. Household Cluster LG-6 .. Household Cluster LG-7 .. Household Cluster LG-8 .. Household Cluster LG-9 .. Household Cluster LG-10 . Household Cluster LG-11 . Provenience Not Assigned to Household Clusters. Summary . . . . . . . . .

89 95 95 97 99 103 104 106 107 108 108 108 108

111 113

The Rosario Phase Community . 1. Household Cluster R-1. 2. Household Cluster R-2.

118

vii

viii

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

VII.

Household Cluster R-3 . Household Cluster R-4. Household Cluster R-5. Household Cluster R-6. Household Cluster R-7 . Household Cluster R-8 . Household Cluster R-9. Household Cluster R-10. Proveniences Not Assigned to Household Clusters Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .

121 122 123 123 124 124 126 129 129 132

Fabrica San Jose in Middle Formative Oaxaca . . . . .

135

1. Specialized Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Internal Organization and External Relations 3. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

135 138 143

Appendix I. Counts of Combinations of Ceramic Wares and Vessel Forms . II. Counts of Fidencio Coarse Olla Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Counts of Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes IV. Counts of Atoyac Yellow-White Outleaned Wall Bowl Attributes . V. Index of Middle Formative Proveniences VI. Chipped Stone Artifacts . . . . . . . . VII. Ground and Pecked Stone Artifacts. VIII. Modified and Unmodified Bone IX. Miscellaneous Artifacts . X. Figurines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI. Middle Formative Burials . . . . XII. Evidence for Salt Production at Fabrica San Jose XIII. Carbonized Plant Remains, by Richard I. Ford XIV. Post-Middle Formative Features and Burials.

145 161 171 187 197 203 211 213 223 233 247 257 261 269

Resumen en Espaflol

287

References

289

TABLES 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

Formative Period Radiocarbon Dates for Oaxaca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proveniences for Seriation .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early Guadalupe Phase Household Clusters: Totals for Artifacts Frequently Mentioned in the Text . Late Guadalupe Phase Household Clusters: Totals for Artifacts Frequently Mentioned in the Text Rosario Phase Household Clusters: Totals for Artifacts Frequently Mentioned in the Text . . . Number of Bones of Commonly Eaten Animal Species from Fabrica San Jose and Other Sites. Charcoal and Sample Sizes from Fabrica San Jose. Zea mays Kernels and Cobs . . . . . Seeds and Reproductive Plant Parts . Avocado Seeds . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 45 75

86 112 137 262 264 266 267

ILLUSTRATIONS Frontispiece. Aerial View of Fabrica San Jose . . . . . . . . . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

The Valley of Oaxaca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View towards the Southwest across Fabrica San Jose . Immediate Environs of Fabrica San. Jose. Fabrica San Jose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View of Excavations in Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Area A Profile after Cleaning and Straightening. Formative Ceramic Phases for the Valley of Oaxaca. Formative Period Radiocarbon Dates for Oaxaca .. Outleaned Wall Bowls . . . . . . . . . . • . . Outleaned Wall Bowls with Bolstered Rims Hemispherical Bowls . . . . . Incurved Rim Bowls . . . . . Composite Silhouette Bowls Fluted Bowl . . . . . . . . . . Suchilquitongo Footed Plates .. Pot Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outleaned Wall Bowl with Ring Base. Outleaned Wall Bowls with Pattern Burnished Bases. Outleaned Wall Bowls with Palm Impressed Bases Effigy Grip Fragment . . . . . . . . . . . . Handles and Fragment of Handled Vessel Ollas . . . . . . . . . . Tecomate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wide Mouthed Ollas . . . . . . . . . . . . Fidencio Coarse Olla Rim Attributes .. Fidencio Coarse Olla Plastic Decoration Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Rim Forms Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Rim Eccentricities . Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowls with Zoned Toning. Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowls with Negative Painting . Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Incised Motifs. Atoyac Yellow-White Outleaned Wall Bowl Lip Forms Experimental Scaling of Points along a Straight Line .. . Scaling of the 22 Proveniences Listed in Table 2 . . . . . Socorro Fine Gray Ware of the Rosario Phase . . . . . . Plot of Occurrence of Fidencio Coarse Outleaned Wall Bowl Rims. Plot of Occurrence of Fidencio Coarse Olla Rims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plot of Occurrence of Fidencio Coarse Olla Body Sherds with Plastic Decoration. Plot of Occurrence of Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Rims . . . . . . Plot of Occurrence of Atoyac Yellow-White Outleaned Wall Bowl Rims . . . . . Plot of Occurren.ce of Guadalupe Burnished Brown Outleaned Wall Bowl Rims

ix

ii

2 5 6 8

11 12 17 20 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 32

33 34 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 44

49 50 58 59 59 60 60 61 61

X

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

43. Plot of Occurrence of Lupita Heavy Plain Outleaned Wall Bowl Rims . . . . . . 44. Plot of Occurrence of Fidencio Coarse Ollas with Flared Rims . . . . . . . . . . 45. Plot of Occurrence of Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowls with Rim No. 1 . 46. Plot of Occurrence of Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowls with Rim No. 3. 47. Plot of Occurrence of Socorro Fine Gray Outleaned Wall Bowl Rims with Incised Crescents .. 48. Plot of Occurrence of Atoyac Yellow-White Outleaned Wall Bowl Rims with Interior Incising 49. Early Guadalupe Phase Household Clusters . . . . . . . . . . 50. Features of Household Cluster EG-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. Details of Features in Household Clusters EG-1 and EG-2 . 52. Late Guadalupe Phase Household Clusters .•.. 53. Features of Household Cluster LG-1. . . . . . . . 54. Details of Features in Household Cluster LG-1 . 55. Details of Features in Household Cluster LG-1 56. Features of Household Cluster LG-3 57. Features of Household Cluster LG-4 . . . . . . 58. Features of Household Cluster LG-5 . . . . . . 59. Sherds from Smashed Olla Bottom on Floor of H4 . 60. Features of Household Cluster LG-6 . . . . 61. Post Mold in Corner of H1 Floor . . . . . . 62. Detail of F4 in Household Cluster LG-7 .. 63. Rosario Phase Household Clusters . . . . . . 64. Features of Household Cluster R-1 . . . . . 65. Badly Interrupted Remains of Structures in D/ZP .. 66. Features of Household Cluster R-2 . . . . . . . . . . . 67. View of Southern End of H9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. Features of Household Cluster R-7 and Detail of Fl in Household Cluster R-8 69. Features of Household Cluster R-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70. F19/Pit 2 from Household Cluster R-9 and F58 from Household Cluster R-10 71. Features of Household Cluster R-10 72. Modified Bone. . . . . . 73. Modified Bone . . . . . . 74. Miscellaneous Artifacts. •. 75. Burned Daub . . . . . . 76. Reused Sherds and Stone Balls. 77. Sherd Disks 78. Shell . . . . . 79. Figurines .. 80. Figurines .. 81. Figurines .. 82. Figurines .. 83. Figurines .. 84. Middle Formative Burials 85. Bur. 39 . . . . . . . . . . 86. Bur. 54 . . . . . . . • . . . 87. Middle Formative Burial Goods 88. Middle Formative Burial Goods . . . . . . 89. Middle Formative Burial Goods . . . . . . 90. Sherds with Calcium Carbonate Deposits. 91. Teosinte Introgressed Corn Cobs . . . . . 92. Carbonized Avocado Pits from C/ZH .. . 93. Floor with Plastered Depressions in HW Excavations 94. Plan and Section of F7 . . . . . . . . 95. Plans and Sections of F34 and F38 96. View of F34 . . . . . . . . . . . 97. Post-Middle Formative Burials 98. Post-Middle Formative Burials 99. Bur. 12 . . . . . . . . . . . 100. Bur. 55 . . • . . . . . . . . 101. Bur. 35, Individual 1 . . . . 102. Bur. 35, Individuals 2 and 3 . 103. Post-Middle Formative Burial Goods 104. Post-Middle Formative Burial Goods 105. Post-Middle Formative Burial Goods 106. Post-Middle Formative Burial Goods 107. Post-Middle Formative Burial Goods 108. Post-Middle Formative Burial Goods

62 62 63 63 64 64 76 79 80 84 90 92 93 96 98 100 101 102 103 105 110 114 115 116 119 125 127 128 130 214 215 225 226 227 228 229 235 236 237 238 239 250

251 252

253 254

255 259

265 268 270

271 272 273

274 275

277 278 279 280 281

282 283

284 285 286

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The excavations at Fabrica San Jose were conducted as part of the Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca Project under the direction of Kent V. Flannery. Without his assistance and the opportunity he provided, the work described in this report would never have been carried out. The field work was financed by Grant No. GS-32066 from the National Science Foundation to the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology. Travel funds for some of the participants were provided by an Undergraduate Research Participation grant from the National Science Foundation to the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology and by a Ford Foundation grant to the University of Michigan Department of Anthropology. The field work was conducted under Concesion Arqueologica No. 16/71 granted by the Instituto Nacional de Antropologfa e Historia of Mexico. Several individuals from that institution helped us considerably by processing the permission papers and facilitating the field work: Ignacio Bernal, Director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologfa and the archaeologist who first reported the site of Fabrica San Jose; Jose Luis Lorenzo and Lorena Mirambell S. of the Departamento de Prehistoria; and Ignacio Marquina and Eduardo Matos M. of the Departamento de Monumentos Prehispanicos. Lorenzo Garnio, representative of the I.N.A.H. in Oaxaca during the period when the excavations were carried out, assisted us there. The cooperation of Manuel Esparza, Director of the Centro Regional de Oaxaca, I.N.A.H., which was organized while we were working on the Fabrica San Jose material in the laboratory, was also most helpful. Several people spent many long, hot, dusty days and many long, chilly, wet days (together with a number of sunny and pleasant, but equally long, days) supervising the excavations at the site, and analyzing the material in the laboratory. It is upon the care with which these people worked that the accuracy of the conclusions reached in this report depends. They are Judith Nowack, Nanette Pyne, Michael Whalen, and Marcus Winter. Marc Winter's criticism and advice during the period of excavation were particularly helpful. There is not room here to mention all the people from various institutions from whom I have benefitted through friendship and discussion in Oaxaca. A large number of people brought specialized knowledge and skills to bear upon particular aspects of the analysis of material and data from Fabrica San Jose. Richard G. Wilkinson studied the human skeletal material from the site, Richard I. Ford the botanical remains, and Kent V. Flannery the faunal remains. Edward Stroh carried out the spectrochemical analysis of calcium carbonate deposits from sherds; Lawrence H. Feldman identified marine and fresh water shell; William 0. Autry identified the rocks of which ground stone implements were made. Dudley M. Varner facilitated the submission of samples for radiocarbon dating to the laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin. George Stuber provided advice and assistance in the preparation of illustrative material. Throughout the work the facilities of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology were generously made available by James B. Griffin, Director. Funds for computer work were provided by the University of Michigan Computing Center through the Museum of Anthropology. Valuable assistance and facilities were provided by Richard S. MacNeish and Theodora George of the R.S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, where the final stages of manuscript preparation were carried out. Some of the final chi square tests were computed on the PDP-11 at Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. xi

xii

F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

Richard I. Ford, Kent V. Flannery, Jeffrey R. Parsons, Marcus C. Winter, and Henry T. Wright provided good advice at various stages of the work and offered extremely useful comments on the manuscript. James C. Lingoes provided invaluable guidance and advice concerning the application of nonmetric multidimensional scaling to the chronological problems dealt with in Chapter II. Although much of the credit for the good points of this report must go to these individuals, they cannot be held responsible for any deficiencies-if for no other reason than that I have stubbornly refused to accept their suggestions in some cases. Finally, a special debt is owed to the municipal authorities of San Agustin Etla, and especially the people of the barrio of Fabrica San Jose, who live on and around the site and who worked in the excavations. Their cooperation, friendliness, and generosity made the field work a pleasure for all of us who participated in it. They are truly gente muy amable.

I

INTRODUCTION

As of 1971 four sites with occupations dating to the Middle Formative Period had been the subject of archaeological excavations in the Valley of Oaxaca. These excavations had produced different amounts of information about Middle Formative society since the quantity of Middle Formative deposits excavated varied greatly from site to site. These sites are shown on the map in Fig. 2. As of 1971 Huitzo had produced more Middle Formative material than any other excavated site. This material, excavated by Flannery in 1967, was instrumental in establishing the Middle Formative segment of the ceramic chronology in use in the valley. Excavations at San Jose Mogote by Flannery in 1966, 1967, and 1969 and at Tierras Largas by Winter in 1969 had produced further Middle Formative material. Smaller excavations at San Sebastian Abasolo by Flannery in 1968 and 1969 revealed the presence of a Middle Formative community, but produced only slight amounts of material. These excavations are described in Flannery et al. (n.d.). A fifth site, Fabrica San Jose, is the subject of this report. The chronological framework used here is that established by Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967) for the Late Formative through Postclassic periods and that established by Flannery et al. (n.d.) for the Formative. More attention will be devoted to this chronological framework, especially to the Middle Formative segment of it, in Chapter II. For the present, it will suffice to say that the Early Formative is represented by two phases: Tierras Largas and San Jose; the Middle Formative by three phases: Guadalupe, Rosario, and Monte Albin Ia; and the Late Formative by a single phase: Monte Albin Ic. Monte Albin II is a Terminal Formative, or Protoclassic, manifestation.

Archaeological survey had by 1971 revealed a certain amount of information on settlement patterns for the northern (Etla) arm of the Valley of Oaxaca during the Formative Period. These patterns have been described by Flannery, Kirkby, Kirkby, and Williams (1967), by Winter (1972), and by Varner (1974). More recent survey by Kowalewski (personal communication) suggests that settlement patterns in other sections of the valley may have differed, but these differences are not yet fully documented. By the Tierras Largas Phase, permanently occupied agricultural villages 1 to 2 ha in area had been established. Even at this early date San Jose Mogote may have been a somewhat more complex community than the others. The usual location for these villages in the Etla arm of the valley was on a low rise in the rich valley bottom farmland near the Rio Atoyac which drains the valley. Such locations continued to dominate in the Etla valley during the San Jose Phase, but by this time one of the villages (San Jose Mogote) had grown to about 20 ha in area-substantially larger than any of the others, which remained in the 1 to 2 ha range. During the Guadalupe Phase new communities were founded, but for the most part they continued to be located on low rises near the center of the valley floor, as were the earlier communities. By the Rosario Phase, San Jose Mogote covered approximately 40 ha (Flannery, personal communication). Further settlement pattern information cannot be given for the Rosario Phase, because this phase has been defined since the analysis of the Formative Period settlement pattern data. Thus, Rosario Phase sites would have been counted with those of Monte Alban Ia. The one survey which has been conducted since the definition of Rosario ceramics indicates that the changes described below did

Fig. 2. The Valley of Oaxaca, showing the archaeological sites mentioned in the text and the modern city of Oaxaca de Juarez. (After Kirkby, 1973:6 and Welte, 1965)

10 km

-N-

~ ~

(approximate only}

.r-------Limil of high alluvium

_____.,- Limit of valley drainage

tii ~

n

0

\/)

tTl


z

tTl

\/)

0

'-
> z

n

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-

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INTRODUCTION occur in Monte Alban Ia, not in the Rosario Phase (Kowalewski, personal communication). Monte Albin Ia was a time of great settlement pattern change. Almost all previous sites continued to be occupied, and large numbers of new communities were founded. The valley center location was no longer dominant within the Etla valley, as many new sites were founded on higher, less fertile ground toward the edges of the valley, especially near the tributary streams. A number of occupations also appeared on hilltops and on the ridge which forms the divide which defines the Valley of Oaxaca. The most famous of these hilltop sites is Monte Albin, the Classic Period urban center of the valley, which was first occupied during Monte Alban Ia. The settlement pattern change between the Guadalupe Phase and Monte Alban Ia is dramatic in several ways. First, the number of sites occupied increases more markedly than for any previous (or later) phase. Second, the size range of sites expands considerably. The Guadalupe Phase had sites of I to 2 ha and the substantially larger San Jose Mogote. Monte Albin Ia sites come in a wide variety of sizes from small villages to large population centers. Third, the range of localities exploited by the Monte Albin Ia population includes several others in addition to the valley center location almost universally chosen in the Etla arm of the valley previously. Fourth, what was to become the great Classic Period urban center of Monte Alban was first occupied. These settlement pattern changes indicate that the way in which society on a valleywide scale was organized and integrated was undergoing substantial changes in Monte Albin Ia times. The kind of changes which were occurring by Monte Alban Ia times in the Valley of Oaxaca have been discussed under various headings: the "evolution of civilization" (e.g. Sanders and Price, 1968); the "origin of the state" (e.g. Carneiro, 1970); the "urban revolution" (Childe, 1936); the "evolution of political society" (Fried, 1967); and others. These different terms have been used by people who wished to emphasize different aspects of a set of changes whose complex interrelationships are by no means com-

3

pletely understood. Central among these changes are the emergence of a system of social classes with vastly increased economic differentiation; the founding of urban centers with large, dense, internally differentiated populations; and the development of a nonkinship-based government with a legitimized monopoly of force, run by full-time administrative specialists. Whether each of these changes implies the others remains a question for empirical investigation. They do tend to go together, however, although not necessarily precisely simultaneously, to form a major transformation in society. A number of "causes" have been advanced to account for these changes. The coordination required by large-scale irrigation systems has been proposed as the major cause (Wittfogel, 1956). Equally important roles have been suggested for the complementary processes of "economic symbiosis" and competition (Sanders, 1968; Sanders and Price, 1968). The possible roles of population and of long distance and local exchange have been clarified and tested by Wright and Johnson (1975) and Johnson (1973). Resource access and craft specialization are factors closely related to economic symbiosis and to local and long distance exchange (see, for example, Sanders, 1968). Competition and warfare have been scrutinized as potential causes (Carneiro, 1970). Others have attempted to weave a large number of factors together into a single fabric that would account for these changes in society (e.g. Adams, 1966). Fabrica San Jose was chosen for excavation because it had the potential to contribute to our understanding of the role played by several of these "causes" in the very earliest stages of the transformation. The site was occupied during the Guadalupe and Rosario Phases (among others), and it is to these occupations that attention has been directed. That most of the northern or Etla arm of the Valley of Oaxaca, at the very least was integrated into a "chiefdom" by the San Jose Phase has been argued by Flannery (I 968: 98-1 02). The argument is based on evidence indicating a substantial range of hereditary social statuses, at least some degree of craft specialization, and "public" or "ceremonial" architecture.

4

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

Evidence from Fabrica San Jose also bears upon these points and is discussed below. The chiefdom was centered on San Jose Mogote, which was substantially larger and more diversified than other Early Formative communities. This system was well established by the time of the first permanent settlement at Fabrica San Jose. After the Rosario Phase, Fabrica San Jose was temporarily abandoned. Its evidence ends just as the major social changes referred to above are accelerating. Thus the potential contribution of Fabrica San Jose lies in elucidating the social dynamics of a complex chiefdom during the period shortly before the beginning of the changes which were to lead to the emergence of a state. Just when to place the origin of statelevel society in the Valley of Oaxaca is beyond the scope of this report since the occupations with which it deals predate this transformation. Thus it needs to be emphasized that, although the evidence from Fabrica San Jose bears upon various factors advanced as causes for state development, it bears upon these as factors in a pre-state society, not directly as factors in the emergence of a state. 1. F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND ITS SETTING The valley of Oaxaca has been divided into four main physiographic zones, which are described in detail by Kirkby (1973). Only brief summary descriptions need be included here. The low alluvium is the presently forming flood plain of the Rfo Atoyac. Its area is small, and the geological action resulting in its formation did not begin until long after the time period discussed in this report (Kirkby, 1973: 15). Therefore, this zone is of no importance here. The high alluvium is the most important agricultural land of the valley. The land is level and the soils are deep and fertile. In many places the water table is high enough for ground water to be useful for agriculture, either by being within reach of plant roots or by being close enough to the surface to make irrigation by hand with wells and buckets practical. These farming systems are described by Flannery, Kirkby, Kirkby, and Williams (1967) and in more detail by Kirkby

(1973). Wild plants which grow in the high alluvium and which were used during long periods of Oaxaca's prehistory include mesquite (Acacia and Prosopis) and hackberry (Celtis). Mud turtles (Kinosternon ), cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus), and water or marsh birds could be hunted. The piedmont has thinner, stonier, less fertile soil and steeper slopes than the high alluvium. It is therefore less valuable as farmland. It can be profitably farmed, however, when irrigated. It often is farmed today in this way since it "is the first point at which perennial streams flowing down from the mountains can be diverted to a gentle enough slope to provide irrigation" (Kirkby, 1973: 11 ). The piedmont is the habitat of hackberry and mesquite, as well as another tree legume guaje (Lucaena and Lysiloma), nopal or prickly pear (Opuntia), maguey (Agave), sus{ (Jatropha), and organ cactus (Lamaireocereus). Jackrabbits (Lepus) as well as cottontails can be hunted. The mountains are steeper, cooler, and wetter than the other zones. They are mostly covered with pine (Pinus) and oak (Quercus) forests, which are today a major source of wood for construction and fuel (primarily in the form of charcoal). Various wild fruits grow in the mountains: acorns, pine nuts, avocado (Persea), and nanche or West Indian cherry (Malpighia). It is in this zone that deer (Odocoileus) are hunted. Very little agriculture is practiced today in the mountain zone within the Valley of Oaxaca drainage. The photograph in Fig. 3 and the map in Fig. 4 show Fabrica San Jose's location with respect to these major physiographic zones. This location contrasts with that of San Jose Mogote, also shown in Fig. 4. San Jose Mogote is on what Flannery, Kirkby, Kirkby, and Williams (1967) have called a "piedmont spur." This is the low rise above the valley floor which was described above as the dominant location of Early Formative sites in the Etla valley. Such a location provides access to a maximum amount of good alluvial farmland, to the river which drains the valley, and, along the piedmont spur, to the piedmont and mountain zones. If all communi-

Fig. 3. View towards the southwest across Fabrica San Jose from the upper piedmont behind the site. The artificial mound can be seen in the center with the valley floor beyond. In the background are the mountains on the opposite side of the valley.

Vl

z

0

:j

(j

c:

c;

0

:;;r;:l

z.....,

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

6

- 1 km

l!iliimmmmJ Mountains

illllJIIl

D

Piedmont Alluvium

Fig. 4. Immediate environs of Fabrica San Jose, showing the approximate boundaries of the three major physiographic zones of the valley.

INTRODUCTION ties are in such a location, each has similar access to the resources of all the zones. As a wider range of locations comes to be utilized for villages, however, the picture changes. The balance of resources available to the inhabitants of one community is different from that available to those of another community. The two polar extremes of this situation were described by Flannery and Coe (1968) as "contagious" and "dispersed" distributions. The Early Formative settlement pattern of the Etla valley qualifies as a contagious distribution in this terminology since virtually all communities were situated in similar locations with respect to the major physiographic zones of the valley. The Late Formative settlement pattern of the Etla valley is a much more dispersed distribution, since a wide variety of settlement locations is utilized. These generalizations may not apply to the other arms of the Valley of Oaxaca, but the potential differences are not yet fully documented and are beyond the scope of this report. Fabrica San Jose is a very early example of a settlement location which becomes quite popular in the Etla valley during Monte Alban I times. This settlement location has access to a rather different balance of resources than the piedmont spur location in the center of the valley. Within a circle of 2.5 km radius around Fabrica San Jose, the high alluvium accounts for 12 percent of the area, the piedmont for 73 percent, and the mountains for 15 percent. A similar circle around San Jose Mogote, for example, would include 76 percent high alluvium, 24 percent piedmont, and no mountains. While residents were surely not limited te such immediate areas around their homes, such differences in the immediate area must have led to certain differences in activities in various communities. These differences can be related to several of the theoretical considerations discussed in the previous section. Most directly involved are considerations of local exchange and economic symbiosis. In a situation where communities have access to different balances of resources which are presumably consumed by all, the different kinds of resources or their products are apt to be exchanged among the communities. This process

7

has been heralded as requiring, or at least providing pressure for, newer and more complex forms of social organization. At Fabrica San Jose, then, we have the opportunity to study a community with a different balance of resources than the other known communities of its time period. We can attempt to see what differences there were between Fabrica San Jose and the communities in the more traditional location in terms of production and consumption. Another peculiarity of the location of Fabrica San Jose is that it lies on a small bluff overlooking the largest perennial tributary stream to the Valley of Oaxaca, with the exception of the Rio Mixtepec which enters the valley far downstream, near the Ayoquesco Gorge that delimits the southern end of the valley. It is in an excellent location to make use of the water from this stream by canal irrigation. Kirkby (1973: 141) has noted the settlement pattern evidence suggesting a shift to extensive canal irrigation in Monte Alban I times, as well as the fact that there is a precursor of this settlement pattern shift in the founding of Fabrica San Jose during the Guadalupe Phase. Thus Fabrica San Jose is potentially linked to another of the factors which have been discussed with regard to state origins. The bedrock which underlies the site of Fabrica San Jose is travertine, in places fine grained enough to qualify as "onyx," a material which is turned into a wide variety of polished stone artifacts for the modern tourist trade, and which was used during Formative times as well. Artifacts of this material have been found at other Formative Period sites in the Vl).lley of Oaxaca, and it is possible that the deposit at Fabrica San Jose was the source for the raw material or the artifacts themselves. The springs which are responsible for the travertine deposits contain, in addition to the calcium carbonate of which the travertine is formed, a very high proportion of sodium chloride. In fact, the proportion of sodium chloride is so high it makes the calcium carbonate content almost undetectable (Appendix XII). The water from these springs has been used in the production of salt in modern times, and is currently one of the best

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

8

I

0 N 1-

,ob I

o-

M

"-3

-

u c(")

z>-3 :::0 0

10

F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

sources of salt in the Valley of Oaxaca. Production of salt was abandoned around the time of the 1910 Revolution, according to local informants, because salt produced commercially in large scale operations became cheaper, and the spring flow at Fabrica San Jose was not sufficient to sustain such large scale operations. Fabrica San Jose may thus be linked to the production of two kinds of special goods which could not be produced at many (if any) other local communities because of the lack of the necessary resources, providing further involvement in local exchange. Fabrica San Jose was thus chosen for excavation because of its links to several factors which have played major roles in theories of tho evolution of complex societies, and because the date of its occupation provides the opportunity to study these factors in a complex chiefdom before the time when evidence of dramatic social change on a valley-wide scale became common. In seeking to understand the operation of these factors it will be necessary to deal with the internal organization of the Middle Formative community at Fabrica San Jose, as well as with its relations to other Middle Formative communities. San Jose Mogote seems to have been a "central place" of substantial importance in at least the northern arm of the Valley of Oaxaca, to judge from its size and apparent diversity of activities. Fabrica San Jose, at a distance of some 5 km, was clearly related to this central place. A comparative study of the structures and artifacts at the two sites should help to clarify the nature of this relationship by elucidating the central place functions San Jose Mogote performed in social, economic, political, or ideological spheres. Similarly, Tierras Largas, at a distance of 10 km, and Huitzo, at a distance of 16 km, must be related to San Jose Mogote, and to Hbrica San Jose. Discovering whether and how Fabrica San Jose's relations with the other communities were affected by any of the factors potentially involved in its location should help to clarify the organization of the society focused on San Jose Mogote: Was Fabrica San Jose more specialized in production than the communities in the valley center? If so, were its products consumed

in the other communities as well? If so, did it produce finished products or raw materials to be finished elsewhere? Were relations with the other communities direct or mediated through San Jose Mogote? Is there any evidence that Fabrica San Jose was practicing canal irrigation? If so, was there any special status related to this practice? Was Fabrica San Jose founded as a planned enterprise to engage in any of these activities, or was it simply the result of "budding off' of population from an overcrowded San Jose Mogote which later came to engage in a different set of activities? Was Fabrica San Jose's relationship to San Jose Mogote any different from the relationship between Tierras Largas and San Jose Mogote because of the special activities which may have been going on at Hbrica San Jose? If so, was it more or less dependent on San Jose Mogote? It was in the hope of providing at least partial answers to some of these questions that excavations were undertaken at Fabrica San Jose in 1972. 2. THE EXCAVATIONS The site of Fabrica San Jose, in the municipio of San Agustin Etla, was first recorded by Dr. Ignacio Bernal, who assigned it the number 23 in his survey of the Valley of Oaxaca. This number has been kept as the numerical designation of the site: B-23. The B has been prefixed to distinguish it, as Bernal's number, from numbers assigned to sites recorded more recently by participants in the Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca Project under the direction of Dr. Kent V. Flannery, as a part of which the excavations at Fabrica San Jose were carried out. The site is located at 17° 11'03" north latitude and 96° 45'20" west longitude, at an elevation of approximately 1750 m above sea level. Bernal noted the Late Classic Period occupation of Fabrica San Jose in his original survey. After the further definition of the Formative Period ceramic sequence, a Middle Formative occupation was noted as well when the site was revisited in 1970. Excavations began in January, 1972, with the cleaning and straightening of the walls of a stone

Fig. 6. View of excavations in progress. The Area A profile is at the left, and the first row of test pits (Tl-T6) runs down the center.

5 z

>-3

()

c

0

0

~

>-3

z

12

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

Fig. 7. The Area A profile after cleaning and straightening. The artificial mound is in the background.

quarry in the southwestern corner of the site. The stone quarriers had removed a considerable amount of earth (largely Middle Formative cultural deposits) to lay bare the bedrock, which they were quarrying for use in building construction. This quarry had been abandoned for an undetermined number of years prior to 1972, but had it not been for this quarrying operation the Guadalupe Phase occupation at Fabrica San Jose might not have been noticed: it was from the walls of the quarry that diagnostic Guadalupe Phase sherds were extracted. In addition, with the investment of only a few days' labor, it was possible to straighten and clean these walls with barreta (steel digging bar), spade, and trowel to prqvide a cross section of the Middle Formative cultural deposits 100 m long. This section of the site was designated Area A, and as soon as the sections of the profile had been photographed and drawn, several "horizontal" excavations were opened up, proceeding by natural stratigraphy back from the profile, where features such as house floors, burials, hearths, or bell-shaped pits of probable Middle Formative date were visible. These excavations are labeled "AI," "All,'' "Alii," and ''AIV" in Fig. 5.

A similar procedure was followed in nearby Area B (Fig. 5), where a smaller quarrying operation had been carried out. The deposits in this area were mixed with modern debris down to bedrock, and no further work was done on this profile. As excavations in Area A progressed, an attempt was made to sharply delineate the size and to investigate the nature of the Middle Formative occupation. Around the west side of the site, and extending to the northwest and southwest, the boundaries were clearly drawn by a very steep bank, in many places becoming a vertical cliff, at the bottom of which there was a complete lack of ceramics on the surface. It was therefore planned to excavate a series of test pits, beginning on the east side of the artificial mound and continuing to the east until the end of the Middle Formative deposits was reached. Accordingly, excavation was begun on Test Pits 1 through 6 (abbreviated "T1" through "T6" in Fig. 5). In contrast to the excavations in Area A, which proceeded by natural stratigraphy, the test pits were dug in horizontal 20 em levels. This was done because the time available for excavation did not permit proceeding slowly enough to

INTRODUCTION recognize natural layers while coming down on them from above. In all cases, however, when features such as burials, house floors, bell-shaped pits, or hearths were encountered in test pits, excavation was halted until time and personnel were available to proceed carefully by natural units. Test Pits 1 through 6 were laid out along a magnetic north-south line, at a spacing of 15 m. The pits themselves were 1 by 2 m, oriented in a north-south direction. The plan was to continue excavating test pits, proceeding with another series on a north-south line 15m to the east of the first line- The pits on this second line were to be spaced 15 m apart, but in such a way that their east-west alignment was not with the pits on the first line, but rather with the midpoints between the pits on the first line. (See the relationship between T4, T5, and Tll in Fig. 5). This plan was not followed, however, because of two unforeseen circumstances. First, unlike the deposits in Area A, which had been assumed to be typical of the site in their 1.5 to 2 m depth, the deposits at T2 turned out to be approximately 4 m deep. And second, instead of ending after two or three lines of test pits, as had been expected, the Middle Formative deposits continued some three or four times that far to the east. Our first inkling of this situation came when a workman returned from the arroyo to the east of the excavations (which was serving as the local latrine) to report that fresh erosion had revealed some bones sticking out of the bank. Closer inspection revealed not only human bone but also diagnostic Guadalupe Phase sherds, which had not been visible during surface collection because of the heavy undergrowth on the banks at the time the surface collection was made. Because of the unexpected depth and extent of the Middle Formative deposits, the planned grid of test pits was modified by the omission of two-thirds of the pits. It is for this reason that the numbering of the grid of pits as it was finally excavated seems erratic. The grid was expanded as modified to the north, east, and south until no further Middle Formative deposits were encountered. As the excavation of the modified grid of test pits proceeded, the near vertical banks of the

13

arroyo which became Area E were straightened and cleaned, following the same procedure as in Area A. Five horizontal excavations were opened up proceeding back from the profile by natural stratigraphy (labeled "EI," "Ell," "EIII," "EIV ," and "EV" in Fig. 5). In an effort to investigate the earliest construction phases of the artificial mound, two excavations were opened up in what became Area H: one on the east side and one on the west side of the mound (abbreviated "HE" and "HW" in Fig. 5). Since most of the construction above the present ground level seemed to date to the Classic Period, it seemed desirable to arrive at the lower layers while removing as little as possible of the later material. With this in mind the locations of the two 2 by 4 m pits were chosen to take advantage of holes left by looters. On each side of the mound was a large hollow where large quantities of Late Classic construction had been removed. Our two excavations were located in these hollows since they provided the opportunity to begin excavations at the lowest possible level, yet close in to the base of the mound. These excavations proceeded by natural layers. Finally three test pits (T2, T33, and T60) were expanded in an effort to provide some horizontal exposure of the features which had been encountered in them. These excavations became Areas C, D, and F, respectively. Excavation of test pits was with barreta (steel digging bar) and occasionally pick. All dirt was screened through 6 mm mesh for recovery of all rim, base, and decorated body sherds, bone, carbonized plant remains, chipped stone, and other artifacts. When carbonized plant remains were common, particular care was taken to pick them from the deposits by hand rather than risk loss or damage in the screen. Excavation of zones in Areas A, C, D, E, F, and H was by separate 1 by 1 m squares with trowel, ice pick, and, occasionally, barreta. Recovery techniques were similar to those for test pits. Features, house floors, and burials were excavated with trowel, ice pick, and dental pick. Most artifacts and plant and animal remains were picked from the deposits by hand, but all dirt was screened through 6 mm

14

FABRIC·. SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

mesh. Horizontal control on house floors was by 50 by 50 em square, with most artifacts other than sherds plotted three-dimensionally. All sherds were saved from house floors and from many features, as well as from test pit layers and natural zones where the sherd sample was small. Samples of earth from ash deposits and other proveniences abundant in (arbonized plant remains were saved for flotation in the laboratory. The excavation of test pits proceeded to bedrock, to sterile soil, or to a depth of 3m, which with a few exceptions was adopted as the limit of safety for a 1 by 2 m test pit. The excavations in Area H proceeded to bedrock; those in Areas A, C, D, E, and F to bedrock or to the lowest feature of interest discovered in the profile from which the excavation was proceeding. Excavations concluded in July, 1972, with the backfilling of all excavated areas. 3. PROVENIENCE DESIGNATIONS As several different kinds of provenience designation will be used in this report, it seems advisable to give a complete explanation of the provenience system at the outset so that simple abbreviations can be used in the text, illustrations, and data tables. "Test Pit" has been abbreviated "T ." The numbers assigned to test pits are given on the site map in Fig. 5. The horizontal 20 em levels by which the test pits were excavated were measured below the level of the surface at the northwest corner of the pit. The level designations are abbreviated with the digits from the tens and hundreds column of the depth measurement (in em) below surface of the top of that level. Thus the level from 120 to 140 em below the surface in Test Pit 5 becomes "T5/12." The layers of Test Pit 9 would be as follows: "T9/0" (0-20 em), "T9/2" (20-40 em), . . . "T9/16" (160-180 em), . . . "T9/28" (280-300 em), etc. In cases where error or the discovery of features prevented the actual level excavated from conforming to the icj.eal 20 em level, the actual depth of the top and bottom of the level are given, in centimeters, e.g. "T9/76-89" (a level from 76 to 89 em below the surface in Test Pit 9).

The natural layers by which the excavations in Areas A, C, D, E, F, and H were carried out were given letter designations. In general an attempt was made to have the order of the letters follow the order of the layers from top to bottom. These layers have been called "zones." Thus usually Zone A overlies Zone B, etc. It was not always possible to follow this rule, however. These zones are not general distinctions of soil horizons extending over the entire site, but rather very local designations for particular deposits. Thus Zone H in Area C, for example, is not equivalent to Zone H in Area H. Even between subareas such as AI and All, or HE and HW, zones with the same name are not necessarily equivalent. "Zone" has been abbreviated "Z." Thus the abbreviation for Area C, Zone H, for example, would be "C/ZH," and for Area All, Zone C, "AII/ZC." When, in the course of excavation, a new zone which had not been named was discovered, it was given a new name, often by adding a number to a previously named zone. Thus when distinct deposits appeared within Zone F, they might be called Zones F1 and F2 to distinguish them. Sometimes zones were subdivided into thinner layers. In this case the abbreviation takes the form of a letter appended to the zone letter. Thus when Area C, Zone J was divided into three parts, the upper one became "C/ZJA," the middle one "C/ZJB," and the lower one "C/ZJC." In addition to this system of test pits with layers and areas with zones, by which most of the site was dug, special proveniences were designated as "Burials," "Houses," or "Features." All these were simply numbered in sequence. Thus there are "Bur. 1 ," "Bur. 2," etc.; "H 1," "H2," "H3," etc.; and "F1 ," "F2," "F3," etc. Burial numbers were assigned to human burial events, not to buried individuals. Thus two individuals buried at the same time or in the same grave are "Bur. 4/Individual 1" and "Bur. 4/Individual 2," rather than "Bur. 4" and "Bur. 5." The major evidences of houses were packed dirt or sand floors. These were numbered as soon as they were discovered. Since a few features which were thought at first to be floors turned out not to be, there are several house numbers missing from

INTRODUCTION the sequence. Feature numbers were assigned to a variety of cultural manifestations which required more description and distinction than simply as an area and a zone. Common types of features are bell-shaped pits, hearths, and walls. Within each of the lettered areas of the site a grid of 1 by 1 m squares, numbered from north to south and lettered from west to east was used

15

for horizontal control. These square numbers are given on the plans of excavated areas, but only occasional reference is made to them in the text. The information given in the preceding paragraphs should be sufficient to enable the reader to understand the provenience references made in the text as well as the tables of data given in the appendixes.

II

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

chronological placement of the Formative Period phases which will be used here. These phases are described briefly in Flannery (1968) and in Flannery et al. (n.d.). More detailed descriptions will be included in Flannery et al. (in prep.).

The chronology used in this report, as indicated in the previous chapter, is that established by Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967) for the Late Formative through the Postclassic and that established by Flannery et al. (n.d. and in prep.) for the Early and Middle Formative. This sequence includes the Early Formative Tierras l..argas and San Jose Phases, the Middle Formative Guadalupe and Monte Alban Ia Phases, and the Late Formative Monte Albin Ic Phase. The Monte Alban sequence continues with II, III, IV, and V for Terminal Formative, Classic, and Postclassic periods, but it is the Formative part of the sequence which concerns this report. As a result of the excavations at Fabrica San Jose it became apparent that there was a period of time left unaccounted for by this sequence. The presence of a ceramic complex closely related to Monte Alb{m Ia yet distinguishable from it became clear. This complex is clearly transitional between Guadalupe and Monte Alban Ia. The material is similar to a smaller amount of material recovered in Flannery's excavations at Huitzo in 1967. In analyzing the ceramics from Huitzo, Flannery and his associates had begun to define a "Rosario Phase," named after the Barrio del Rosario of Huitzo, where the site is located. At a later stage of their analysis, however, they decided that there was not enough of this material to distinguish it clearly from Monte Alban Ia. The Fabrica San Jose excavations produced enough material to define this phase. Therefore a more detailed study of Middle Formative ceramics was undertaken with the goal of further refining this part of the sequence. It is beyond the scope of this report to describe the entire Formative Period sequence for the Valley of Oaxaca. Fig. 8 illustrates the

100MONTE ALBAN

lc

MONTE ALBAN

Ia

300-

450ROSARIO PHASE

550LATE GUADALUPE

700EARLY

PHASE

850SAN JOSE PHASE

1150TIERRAS LARGAS PHASE

1400B.C. Fig. 8. Formative ceramic phases for the Valley of Oaxaca.

17

18

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

Close affiliates of the Oaxaca phases which have been described for other regions are as follows: Tierras Largas Phase-Early Ajalpan Phase (MacNeish, Peterson, and Flannery, 1970); San Jose Phase-San Lorenzo Phase (Coe, 1970); Guadalupe Phase-Middle Santa Marfa Phase (MacNeish, Peterson, and Flannery, 1970); Rosario Phase-Late Santa Marfa Phase (MacNeish, Peterson, and Flannery, 1970). Monte Alban I is described by Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967) and is also related to the Late Santa

Mada Phase (MacNeish, Peterson, and Flannery, 1970). Monte Alban I was divided by Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967) into three subphases: Ia, Ib, and lc. Although work by Winter (personal communication) at Monte Alban supports this tripartite division, Ib has been difficult to distinguish in practice. Therefore, in this report only subdivisions Ia and Ic will be used. Table 1 lists the radiocarbon dates available for the Formative Period in Oaxaca. These dates, together with their 1-sigma error ranges, are

TABLE 1 FORMATIVE PERIOD RADIOCARBON DATES FOR OAXACA Number C-424 Gx-785 Gx-875 Gx-1126 Gx-1310 Gx-1311 Gx-1312 Gx-1313 Gx-1314 Gx-1315 Gx-1316 M-2102

Date

Phase

649 BC ± 170 975 BC ± 85 930 BC ± 95 1400 BC ± 140 65AD± 105 380AD ± 85 425 BC ± 85 355 BC ± 105 470 BC ± 80 560 BC ± 110 650 BC ± 110 850 BC ± 150

MAl San Jose San Jose San Jose/Guad. MA Ia MA Ia Guadalupe MA Ia Guadalupe Guadalupe Guadalupe San Jose/Guad.

M-2104

720 BC

M-2108

310 BC ± 150

MA I

M-2109

420 BC

MAl

±

±

200

140

San Jose

M-2330

1330 BC ± 180

Tierras Largas

M-2331

1170 BC ± 150

Tierras Largas

M-2351

1010 BC ± 150

Tierras Largas

M-2352

1070 BC ± 150

Tierras Largas

M-2353

1080 BC ± 150

Tierras Largas

M-2354

890 BC ± 150

San Jose

M-2355

660 BC ± 150

San Jose

M-2357 M-2358 M-2360 M-2371 M-2372 M-2386 M-2387 0-1210

730 BC 650 BC 380 BC 780 BC 1320 BC 490 BC 1010 BC 390 BC

200 ± 150 ± 180 ± 150 ± 160 ± 140 ± 150 ± 275 ±

San Jose San Jose MA Ic (?) San Jose Tierras Largas Guadalupe Guadalupe MA Ic

Reference Libby, 1955: 130; Caso, Bernal, and Acosta, 1967: 267 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43 Flannery et al., n.d.: 33 Flannery et al., n.d.: 35 Flannery et al., n.d.: 35 Flannery et al., n.d.: 35 Flannery et al., n.d.: 35 Flannery et al., n.d.: 33 Flannery et al., n.d.: 33 Flannery et al., n.d.: 33 Flannery et al., n.d.: 33; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 186 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 185 Flannery et al., n.d.: 87; Crane and Griffin, 197 0: 176 Flannery et al., n.d.: 87; Crane and Griffin, 1970:176 Flannery et al., n.d.: 52; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 185 Flannery et al., n.d.: 52; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 185 Flannery et al., n.d.: 66; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 186 Flannery et al., n.d.: 66; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 186 Flannery et al., n.d.: 66; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 186 Flannery et al., n.d.: 52; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 185 Flannery et al., n,d.: 52; Crane and Griffin, 1972: 185 Crane and Griffin, 1972: 186 Crane and Griffm, 1972: 186 Crane and Griffin, 1972: 186 Crane and Griffin, 1972: 186 Crane and Griffin, 1972: 185 Crane and Griffin, 1972: 187 Crane and Griffin, 1972: 187 Paddock,1966: 120,247

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

19

TABLE 1 (Continued) Number

Date

Phase

Reference

Si-462

690 BC

±

120

San Jose

Si-463

780 BC

±

120

San Jose

Si-464

1170 BC

±

120

San Jose

Si-465

980 BC

±

120

San Jose

Si-466

1050 BC

±

120

San Jose

Si-467

860 BC

±

120

San Jose

510 BC 720 BC 1160 BC 400 BC 520 BC 580 BC

± ± ± ± ± ±

80 60 80 120 50 50

Rosario Rosario Guadalupe Rosario MA Ia or lb MA Ia or lb

Tx-1699 Tx-1700 Tx-1701 Tx-1702 Tx-1919 Tx-1921

illustrated in Fig. 9. It is upon this sequence of radiocarbon dates and upon cross ties to well dated ceramic sequences in other regions that the chronological placement summarized in Fig. 8 is based. This summary is presented only for the convenience of the user of this report. No further attempt than simply the presentation of the radiocarbon dates will be made to justify the chronological placements, as that would involve lengthy discussion of ceramics in Oaxaca and other regions for periods only tangentially related to the present study. To attempt to justify only the placement of the Rosario Phase, which is defined here, is impossible without reference to these broader considerations. Thus, for the moment, the presentation of radiocarbon dates and the description of ceramics must suffice. A complete discussion of the rationale for the assignment of dates will be forthcoming in Flannery et al. (in prep.). In this report the designations Early, Middle, and Late Formative will be applied to successive sets of ceramic phases for convenience. Early Formative will include the Tierras Largas and San Jose Phases; Middle Formative the Guadalupe, Rosario, and Monte Albin Ia Phases; Late Formative, Monte Alban lc. This terminology is intended to imply absolutely nothing about the development of civilization in Mesoamerica.

Flannery et al., n.d.: 43; Mielke andLong,1969: 172 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43; Mielke andLong,19()9: 172 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43; Mielke and Long, 1969: 172 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43; Mielke and Long, 1969: 172 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43; Mielke and Long, 1969: 172 Flannery et al., n.d.: 43; Mielke andLong,1969: 173 Valastro et al., 1975: 92 Valastro et al., 1975: 92 Valastro et al., 1975: 92 Valastro et al., 1975: 93 Winter, personal communication Winter, personal communication

It is simply a convenient way to refer to blocks of time, which roughly corresponds to the way in which these same terms have been used by at least some archaeologists in at least a few other regions of Mesoamerica. It should be noted that, when the Middle Formative occupation at Fabrica San Jose is discussed, only the Guadalupe and Rosario Phases are included since the site was abandoned at the very beginning of Monte Alban Ia. As a consequence, the term "Middle Formative" is often used in a loose way in this report to refer to the Guadalupe and Rosario Phases only. This is only done where the context makes the usage clear. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to the seriation study which was conducted on the Middle Formative ceramics from Fabrica San Jose in order to define the Rosario Phase and enable more precise dating of proveniences within it and the Guadalupe Phase.

1. CHANGING SHERDS INTO DATA As much ink has probably been spilled over the question of how to cope with the variability in ceramics as over any other question which has attracted the attention of archaeologists. The dual objective of this section is to contribute as little as possible to this spillage while making

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

20

clear the procedure by which data on ceramic variability were gathered for this study. At the most general level, the ceramics studied here have been divided into a series of mutually exclusive classes. These classes are based on the Gx1311 Gx1310 M2108 Gx1313 M2360 01210 M2109 Tx1919 Tx1921 C424

"types" and "varieties" which Flannery et al. (in prep.) have defined. They are not, however, identical to those types and varieties, since only certain kinds of attributes were used in their definition. While Flannery et al. used attributes

-

z -c ID _,

-

Tx 1702 Tx1699 Tx1700

"'c -c "'

----

:IE

2 "' "' oC

•oC "' •0

---

L

600

400

IC

"'

c)

z .... •c I

"'

1-

"'

"' :z: L 41(

Ill

"'...0 z

c

"' "' c ~

•c_,

"' "' c :z: "' c L

•• "'j:

0

200

L

:::»

~

M2351 M2352 M2353 M2331 M2372 M2330 100

"'"':z:c

oC 0 oC

M2351 M2355 51462 M2104 M2357 5i463 M2371 5i467 M2354 Gxl75 Gx785. 51465 5i466 51464

1000

:z: L

"':::»_,

M2102 Gx1126

1200

L

0

Gx1312 Gx1314 M2316 Gx1315 Gx1316 M2317 Tx1701

1400

:z:

1"'

z

200

400

AD

Fig. 9. Formative Period radiocarbon dates for Oaxaca. Means and 1-sigma error ranges are illustrated.

DATE

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS of paste, surface finish, decorative technique, and vessel form in the definition of their types, only attributes of paste and surface finish are used in the definition of the general classes used in this study. For this reason, these general classes are hereafter referred to as "wares." This use of the term "ware" is consonant with a long history of use in United States archaeology (Guthe, 1934:6; Colton and Hargrave, 1937:2-3; Wheat, Gifford, and Wasley, 1958:34-35). The term has been used in the same sense on Mesoamerican materials: Sabloff and Smith (1969: 278), dealing with Maya ceramics, use precisely the same definition that Guthe (1934: 6) had given 35 years earlier. Thus, in this report, a ware is a ceramic class defined solely on the basis of attributes of paste and surface finish. The definitions of the specific wares used in this study are given in Section 2 of this chapter. The first step in the process of recording ceramic data from a provenience for this study was to sort the sherds out into the mutually exclusive wares. The number of sherds of each ware in each of the vessel forms described in Section 3 of this chapter was then recorded. Only rim sherds and decorated body sherds were counted. These counts of combinations of ware and vessel form comprise the first of four subsets of ceramic data which were recorded. Three of the combinations of ware and vessel form include a very large proportion of the total number of sherds from each provenience. This proportion is seldom less than 60 percent and usually 90 percent or more. These three combinations are Fidencio Coarse ollas, Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls, and Atoyac YellowWhite outleaned wall bowls. Within each of these combinations, data were recorded on a number of specific characteristics. In this report these characteristics will be called "attributes." The attributes used in this study reflect decoration and details of vessel form. They are described in Sections 4, 5, and 6 of this chapter. The data recorded on these attributes of rim sherds for the three most common combinations of ware and vessel form comprise the second, third, and fourth of the four subsets of ceramic data which were recorded. These data were re-

21

corded in the form of counts of each state of each attribute in each provenience. No attempt was made to group these attributes into classes of any kind: their variability was studied independently. Thus the basic unit of analysis is the provenience, not the single sherd. That is, the data recorded are the number of times the given states of the attributes occur in a particular provenience, not which states occur together on particular sherds. Therefore most information concerning the ways in which these attributes combine on individual vessels was sacrificed. The processes of data recording and analysis were thus streamlined (by dealing with data on some 300 proveniences rather than on more than 20,000 sherds) without, as will be seen below, the loss of information essential to the recovery of a more detailed ceramic chronology for the Middle Formative Period. 2. MIDDLE FORMATIVE CERAMIC WARES The following descriptions of the Middle Formative ceramic wares used in this study are abstracted from those which are to appear in Flannery et al. (in prep.). They are presented, not as complete descriptions, but simply for the convenience and understanding of the user of this report, and to indicate the ways in which the definitions of wares used here differ from the definitions of types used by Flannery et al. Fidencio Coarse ware is made of clay found in the piedmont zone of the valley. Temper particles, primarily of biotite mica, quartz, feldspar, and honblende, range from 0.25 mm to 5.0 mm. Surface color ranges from a buff or tan color to dark reddish brown. Used cooking vessels can be dark gray or black. A sloppy thin red wash is almost invariably applied to parts of the vessel (especially the rim) as decoration. The surface is usually smoothed and left unburnished, but light burnishing occurs occasionally. TI1e color of the paste ranges from tan to red to dark brown. A black core sandwiched between outer layers is common. This ware includes not only the type Fidencio Coarse of Flannery et al. (in prep.), but also their type Monte Alban I Red-on-Buff, since these two types are difficult, if not impossible,

22

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

to distinguish on the basis of attributes of paste and surface finish. The one grades gradually off into the other during the Rosario Phase, and since attributes other than those of paste and surface finish show the most change, this transition was studied as an attribute shift within a single ware. The Middle Formative Fidencio Coarse ware is ancestral to the types C.2, C.4, and K.3 of Caso, Bernal, and Acosta ( 1967). Socorro Fine Gray ware is made from a finer clay than is Fidencio Coarse ware, although the composition is almost the same. Most temper particles tend to be in the 0.2 to 0.3 mm range, with rare particles 1.0 mm or larger. The ware is well fired and harder than Fidencio Coarse. It is always burnished, sometimes to an extremely high and even gloss, sometimes more unevenly, resulting in a streaky finish. Surface and paste color ranges from light to dark gray. Like Fidencio Coarse ware, Socorro Fine Gray ware includes two of the types defined in Flannery et al. (in prep.): Socorro Fine Gray and Monte Alban Burnished Gray. The only attribute which distinguishes these two, apart from those of decoration and vessel form, is the streaky finish of the former versus the even finish of the latter. This attribute did not turn out to be a consistently reliable time marker in the Fabrica San Jose material, so the two were included as a single ware in order to facilitate the study of the evolution of vessel forms and decoration. As noted by Flannery et al. (in prep.) Socorro Fine Gray ware is ancestral to the wide range of unslipped, burnished gray ware of the Monte Alban sequence described by Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (I 967). Atoyac Yellow-White ware is made of clay identical to that of Fidencio Coarse ware except that the temper particles are smaller, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mm. This ware is also fired to a harder consistency than Fidencio Coarse ware. The surface is covered with a thick slip of kaolin clay, which is always burnished. The resulting surface color ranges from cream to light tan. This ware includes only the type Atoyac Yellow-White of Flannery et al. (in prep.), and is ancestral to the type C.S of Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967). Guadalupe Burnished Brown ware is also made of clay identical to that of Fidencio Coarse ware.

The temper particles, however, are seldom as large as 5.0 mm. For some smaller vessel forms, particles as large as 1 .0 mm or even less seem to have been consistently winnowed out. Like Fidencio Coarse ware, Guadalupe Burnished Brown ware is fired at a lower temperature than Socorro Fine Gray or Atoyac Yellow-White wares, producing a softer, more crumbly ware. The surface is burnished, usually fairly unevenly, and its color is reddish brown, ranging from dark to light. This ware includes only the type of the same name in Flannery et al. (in prep.) and is ancestral to the type K.3 of Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967) except that Guadalupe Burnished Brown ware does not have the red slip described for K.3. (When it occurs as small footed plates it sometimes has the red slip around the rim.) It is important to note that, although this ware is named "Guadalupe," it occurs in both the Guadalupe and Rosario Phases. Lupita Heavy Plain is another ware whose clay is identical in composition to that of Fidencio Coarse ware. It is fired at the same low temperature as Fidencio Coarse and Guadalupe Burnished Brown wares. The surface is smoothed, never burnished. No slip or wash is ever applied. The surface color ranges from reddish gray to dark brown to dark gray. Only the type Lupita Heavy Plain of Flannery et al (in prep.) is included. Josefina Fine Gray ware is made from a bentonitic clay, rather than the kaolinite clay used for the other wares described here. The color of the paste is almost white, and the temper particles are almost invisible since they are the same color as the paste. Most temper particles are about 0.3 mm in size. The surface is slipped and very highly burnished, giving the resulting vessel a waxy feel. The slip, whose fired color is light to dark gray, tends to flake off, and the paste tends to break linearly, giving many sherds a laminated appearance. This ware includes only the type of the same name in Flannery et al. (in prep.). Leandro Gray ware is identical to Atoyac Yellow-White in its paste and temper composition and the size of temper particles. Both paste and surface are dark gray in color, and the surface is very highly burnished. It can be distinguished from Socorro Fine Gray ware by three

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS principal attributes: 1) its color is darker; 2) the temper particles are larger; and 3) it is fired at a lower temperature, resulting in a softer, crumblier ware in sharp contrast to the hardness of Socorro Fine Gray ware. This ware includes only the type Leandro Gray of Flannery et al. (in prep.). It is most common in the San Jose Phase, but a few examples occur in Guadalupe Phase deposits at Fabrica San Jose. Three types described by Flannery et al. (in prep.) for the Middle Formative occurred so rarely at Fabrica San Jose that statistical treatment of their occurrence was impossible. They are Delia White, Coatepec White, and Coatepec White-Rim Black. 3. MIDDLE FORMATIVE VESSEL FORMS Many of the following terms for vessel forms are in fairly standard usage; others are somewhat unusual; a few are common, but have received varying usage by different authors. An attempt has been made to anticipate the usage of terms

23

in Flannery et al. (in prep.) so that terminology for the Valley of Oaxaca Formative sequence will be consistent. The size range which is given for each vessel form is simply an attempt to indicate the size range found at Fa brica San Jose. It is in no way a criterion in defining the form. Outleaned wall bowls are flat bottomed bowls with a sharp break between the bottom and the sides, which may be either straight or curved (convex inwards). They range in size from miniatures, only about 5 em in diameter, to very large basins, over I 00 em in diameter. Outleaned wall bowls, as the term is used here, can have vertical walls, thus including vessels which some have classed separately as "cylinders." Most vessels with vertical walls have heights which exceed their diameters, while the reverse is generally true of vessels with more slanted walls. This is not always the case, however, and in any event is a piece of information which cannot be determined from sherds. Several examples of outleaned wall bowls are illustrated in Fig. 10.

'-------------

Fig. 10. Outleaned wall bowls. a. Bur. 4/V.2; b. Bur. 39/V.l; c. Bur. 22; d. Bur. 52/V.3; e. Surface; f. HW/ZG. a, d, and fare of Socorro Fine Gray ware; band care of Atoyac Yellow-White; e is of Josefina Fine Gray. (Scale 1:3)

24

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

slight break between "bottom" and sides. Such a break never occurs on the interior, however. Their size range is more limited than that of outleaned wall bowls, most being between 10 and 25 em in diameter. Examples are illustrated in Fig. 12. Incurved rim bowls, like hemispherical bowls, have no break between bottom and sides. Their rims continue the curvature of the sides farther around than do the rims of hemispherical bowls.

Outleaned wall bowls with bolstered rims differ from ordinary outleaned wall bowls only in that their rims are extremely thickened. They are usually over 30 em in diameter. Two examples are illustrated in Fig. 11 . Hemispherical bowls are bowls which have no break between the bottom and the sides. They are not always perfectly hemispherical. Some have an exterior flattened area on the bottom to prevent rocking, which occasionally results in a

Fig. 11. Outleaned wall bowls with bolstered rims. a. Surface; b. Surface. Both are of Atoyac Yellow-White. (Scale 1:3)

b

a

c Fig. 12. Hemispherical bowls. a. Bur. 12/V.2; b. Bur. 51/V.l; c. Bur. 12/V.3. All are of Guadalupe Burnished Brown. (Scale 1:2)

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

A tangent drawn to the curvature of a hemispherical bowl at the point of the rim would be vertical or lean outwards slightly. A tangent drawn to the curvature of an incurved rim bowl at the point of the rim would lean inwards toward the center of the bowl. Their rim diameters are usually 20 em or less. Several examples are illustrated in Fig. 13.

25

Composite silhouette bowls have a curved upper wall segment which is convex inwards, separated from a lower wall segment which is either straight or convex outwards, not unlike an old-fashioned cuspidor. They range in size from about 15 to 30 em in diameter (measured at the rim). Fig. 14 illustrates composite silhouette bowls.

b

a

c

----

Fig. 13. Incurved rim bowls. a. T80/28; b. Surface; c. T60/10. All are of Guadalupe Burnished Brown. (Scale 1 :2)

a

b Fig. 14. Composite silhouette bowls. a. H9; b. HW/ZG. Both are of Socorro Fine Gray. (Scale 1:2)

26

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

Fluted bowls resemble either hemispherical or composite silhouette bowls in general profile. In addition, the walls have either vertical or horizontal flutes. Flannery (personal communication) has noted their similarity to members of the squash family and suggests that these vessels may be imitations of this appearance. He also notes the further similarity that these vessels, instead of being circular, are sometimes pinched inwards in two places around the rim, perhaps to simulate the irregular rims of the vessels made from gourds sliced vertically which are still used in the Valley of Oaxaca. The size range for these vessels is approximately 15 to 30 em in diameter. A fluted bowl is illustrated in Fig. 15. Suchilquitongo footed plates are small vessels with three, or sometimes four, feet. Their size ranges from slightly over 5 em to less than 20 em in diameter. Their shape is basically flat, but their low walls curve up rather sharply to flattened rims. The rims are sometimes plain, sometimes have a red slip applied to the flat part, and sometimes have plastic decoration on the exterior

.....,., ,... /

...........

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//

A ........ ........

''

c

,, \\

//

\\ l I

It

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in addition to the red slip. They are described by Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967:50 and Fig. 21, bottom three rows). They are referred to as Suchilquitongo footed plates because examples of entire vessels, in the collections of the Museo Frissell de Arte Zapoteca in Mitla, Oaxaca, are said to have come from the site of Suchilquitongo. Fig. 16 illustrates several examples of rims from Suchilquitongo footed plates. Pot rests are vessels of somewhat uncertain function. They may have been used as stands for large round bottomed storage jars which tip over if not rested on some steadying device. Evidence of burning on some specimens indicates that they may have been used as braziers. Not all examples, however, show such evidence. A variety of specific forms is illustrated in Fig. 17. The size range illustrated there is typical, but specimens from Fabrica San Jose are uncommon enough to make a listing of upper and lower limits potentially misleading. Outleaned wall bowls with ring bases are a special category of outleaned wall bowls which,

II

A A

c Fig. 15. Fluted bowl-top view (left) and sections. AII/ZGB. Made of Socorro Fine Gray. (Scale 1:3)

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

---

27

a

b

Fig. 16. Suchilquitongo footed plates. Arrows indicate areas of red slip. a. T36/30; b. F42/Pit 1; c. C/ZH; d. C/ZD; e. C/ZD. All are of Guadalupe Burnished Brown. (Scale 1 :2)

28

F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

d

0 Fig. 17. Pot rests. a. F42/Pit 2; b. Bur. 44/V .2; c. Alii/ZI; d. F42/Pit 2. a and d are of Guadalupe Burnished Brown; b is of Lupita Heavy Plain; cis of Socorro Fine Gray. (Scale 1:3),

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS instead of resting directly on their bottoms, are supported by a solid ring attached to the bottom. An example is illustrated in Fig. 18.

Outleaned wall bowls with pattern burnished bases are another special category of outleaned wall bowls. This is not actually a separate category of vessel form, but its description is included here, since in the ceramic data recording from Fabrica San Jose, this category enters in a fashion parallel to vessel form categories. In the counts it does not overlap with the other outleaned wall bowl categories, since the other combinations are counts of rim sherds, and this category is a count of base sherds. The attribute which distinguishes this from other kinds of

29

outleaned wall bowl bases is decoration by means of fashioning a design with the burnishing pebble, which shows after firing as contrasting areas of glossy and matte finish. This decoration occurs on the interior of Socorro Fine Gray ware. It is classified as G.24 in Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967: 35). Fig. 19 illustrates pattern burnished outleaned wall bowl bases.

Outleaned wall bowls with palm impressed bases, like those with pattern burnished bases, are not really separate vessel forms, but enter into the data set in parallel fashion. These bases were decorated on the interior by patting with the palm of the hand while the clay was still quite wet. They are classified as G.33 by Caso,

Fig. 18. Outleaned wall bowl with ring base. F39. Made of Socorro Fine Gray. (Scale 1:2)

a

b

Fig. 19. Outleaned wall bowls with pattern burnished bases. a. T43/22; b. HE/ZD. Both are of Socorro Fine Gray. (Scale 1:2)

30

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

I I I I

a

I I I 1

b

Fig. 20. Outleaned wall bowls with palm impressed bases. a. C/ZD; b. Al/ZE. Both are of Socorro Fine Gray. (Scale 1:2)

I I

'' /

/

/ /

Fig. 21. Effigy grip fragment. AI/ZE. Made of Fidencio Coarse. (Scale 1:2)

Bernal, and Acosta (1967:41 and Fig. 15b). Examples of palm impressed bases are illustrated in Fig. 20. Effigy grips seem to have been handles for extremely large outleaned wall bowls, which may have been used as braziers. They took the form of effigy heads of animals sitting around the rim of a large bowl. A handhold was left in the hollow animal effigy. This assessment of the function of these peculiar effigies was made by

Winter (personal communication) based on examples from his excavations at Monte Alban and on examples from the unexcavated site of Hacienda Blanca. Examples recovered at Fabrica San Jose were extremely fragmentary. Fig. 21 illustrates an effigy grip fragment. Handles from Fabrica San Jose are very fragmentary as well. Complete vessels with round or strap handles were not found in Middle Formative deposits. Some handle fragments, however,

31

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

are broken in such a way as to suggest that they were attached to the rim of a vessel. Winter (personal communication) has suggested that some of these fragments may be parts of ceramic rings which were used as pot rests, much like the wicker rings which are used for this purpose today. In this case the ring would have rested on the ground, providing a base to keep a round bottomed storage jar from tipping. There are two arguments in favor of this view: 1) some examples from Fabrica San Jose are abraded along the edges where a storage jar would have rested, and 2) there are too few vessel rims showing handle attachments to account for even the small number of handle fragments recovered at Fabrica San Jose. Perhaps fragments classed as handles in this study originated as both kinds of artifacts. More certain knowledge of the function or functions of these forms must await recovery of a larger number of more complete specimens. Most of the examples recovered would be in the range

of 10 to 20 em in diameter if they were complete circles, although their irregular curvature makes measurement from small fragments uncertain. Fig. 22 illustrates two handles and a fragment of the kind of vessel they may have been attached to. Ollas are jars with necks. Their rim diameters range from less than 10 em to greater than 50 em. This corresponds to a truly enormous range in volume, although volumes are impossible to calculate reliably from rim diameters because of variations in profile. Thus they were likely used for a wide variety of substances and/or functions. The shape is basically globular with a curving neck added to the top. They are almost never flattened on the bottom to prevent tipping. Fig. 23 illustrates several ollas. Tecomates are jars without necks. They are like ollas in nearly every detail except that the opening is simply a hole in the globular shape. The largest examples from Fibrica San Jose have

\

' ~'a /

/ /

/

"' '

b

/

'

/ /

....

'

I I

c

Fig. 22. Handles and fragment of handled vessel. Arrows indicate areas of yellow-white slip. a. T8/24; b. AI/ZF; c. T13/100A. a and bare of Atoyac Yellow-White; cis of Guadalupe Burnished Brown. (Scale 1:2)

32

F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

a .......................... .......................... ·························· .......................... .......................... .......................... ··························

I I \

\

'

II II

/;

\.

\.

//

''

-- --

b

-

_--;:... ~

//

Fig. 23. Ollas. Arrows and shading indicate areas of red wash. a. Bur. 27/V.l; b. AI/ZHC; c. AIII/ZI. All are of Fidencio Coarse. (Scale 1: 3)

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

33

,,

/

I

~

\\

I

\\

I I

\\ II /J

'

,,

\ \

If

\

// //

-

.;..-

..-;... '/

Fig. 24. Tecomate. Arrows indicate area of red wash. EI/ZF 1. Made of Fidencio Coarse. (Scale 1: 3)

rim diameters of about 25 em. They often have holes pierced through the walls just below the rim, presumably for suspension. Occasionally the bottom is slightly flattened for stability as with hemispherical bowls. A tecomate is illustrated in Fig. 24. Wide mouthed ollas are shaped roughly like ollas, except that they are not nearly as constricted at the neck. The bottom is usually flattened to provide a level base, but a break between the bottom and the sides is never visible on the interior. The form is related to the composite silhouette bowl, but is usually taller and narrower and lacks the break between upper and lower wall segments which characterizes that form. Wide mouthed ollas range in size from approximately 10 to 30 em in diameter. Fig. 25 illustrates two examples. 4. FIDENCIO COARSE OLLA ATTRIBUTES The list of attributes recorded for Fidencio Coarse ollas was selected from a larger list originally recorded for 24 proveniences. The purpose of this original list was to determine which

attributes showed useful change through time and which did not. Thus 24 proveniences which independent evidence indicated were unmixed and which contained large samples of sherds were selected for a trial study. Data were recorded for extensive attribute lists for these 24 proveniences. They were then seriated by the method described below for the final seriation. Percentages of each state of each attribute were then plotted in the time order obtained from the seriation. Attributes whose states did not show meaningful variation through time were then discarded from the attribute list before the final data recording began. The following attributes were discarded from the list for Fidencio Coarse ollas by this process: color of the red wash (4 categories); surface colo.,r in area free of red wash (4 categories); paste color (6 categories); and size of temper particles ( 4 categories). None of these attributes showed any consistent temporal pattern. The attributes which did show consistent changes through time, and which were therefore retained, follow. Attribute 1, Burnishing, has three states: un-

34

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

b

Fig. 25. Wide mouthed ollas. a. Bur. 54/V.l; b. Bur. 52/V.l. Both are of Socorro Fine Gray. (Scale 1:2)

burnished, poorly burnished, and evenly burnished. Attribute 2, Rim Thickening has three states: Unthickened rims are no thicker than the vessel walls; thickened rims are thicker than the vessel walls; and very thickened rims are more than twice as thick as the vessel walls. This attribute is not a measure of the absolute thickness of the rims as such, but rather of the difference in thickness between the walls and the rims. Each of the three states of this attribute is illustrated in Fig. 26. Attribute 3, Rim Curvature has two states: Curved rims continue the curvature of the neck smoothly with no break; straight rims have an uncurved segment which shows a clear break from the curvature of the neck on the interior,

and sometimes on the exterior. Both of these states are illustrated in Fig. 26. Attribute 4, Rim Flare has two states: A rim is unflared if a tangent drawn to its curvature at the point of the lip (or the line of the straight segment, if the rim is straight) forms an angle of greater than 30° with the horizontal; a rim is flared if this angle is less than 30°. Both flared and unflared rims are illustrated in Fig. 26. Attribute 5, Plastic Decoration has seven states: 1) "rosettes" or small blobs of clay applied to the exterior of the vessel and molded with a pinch by three fingers; 2) incising in "herringbone" or chevron patterns; 3) incising in "dashes" or short straight lines; 4) round or oblong "punctations"; 5) incising in "hachure" or cross-hatching; 6) punctations in the form of

CHRO NOLO GY AND CERAM ICS

35

Curve d, Unfla red

Curve d, Flare d

Strai ght, Unfla red

Strai ght, Flare d

Unthi ckene d

Thick ened

Fig. 26. Fidencio Coarse olla rim attribut es.

Very Thick ened

36

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

a. Rosett b . Herringbone

d.

Punctations

c. Dashes

e . Hachure

f.

Semi- circles

Fig. 27. Fidencio Coarse olla plastic decoration. a. AI/ZD; b. AI/ZK; c. EIV/ZK; d. AIV /ZFl; e. HE/ZG; f. F/ZK. (Scale 1 :2)

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS "semi-circles" or horseshoes; and 7) other kinds of incising. In each case the word in quotation marks is the key-word by which the state will be referenced. This incised or punctate decoration occurs especially on the shoulder of the olla in zones left uncovered by the red wash and defined by incised lines. It should be noted that this kind of decoration is not limited to ollas. Since olla and tecomate body sherds are indistinguishable, both were included here. Examples of each kind of decoration are illustrated in Fig. 27. Attributes 2, 3, and 4 were included in the original trial study in a somewhat different form. They, together with an attribute of rim height (high, medium, and low), were recorded in combination rather than separately. That is, since any rim is a combination of one state from each of these four attributes, the rims were recorded as belonging to one of 36 kinds (all possible combinations under these constraints). Upon plotting the percentages of occurrence of each of the 36 kinds of rims against the time order obtained from the seriation, it was discovered that the attribute of rim height does not vary consistently through time. It was therefore discarded. It was further discovered that the frequencies of combinations of states of the various attributes contained no information not contained in the frequencies of the states themselves. That is, it is no more informative to know how many straight flared, straight unflared, curved flared, and curved unflared rims there were than it is to know how many straight, curved, flared, and unflared rims there were. The data on how the various states of these attributes combine on particular vessels are no more revealing of the time sequence than are the data on their occurrence independent of one another. Thus the idea of recording all the combinations was discarded, and in the final data recording the three remaining attributes concerning rims were treated independently. 5. SOCORRO FINE GRAY OUTLEANED WALL BOWL ATTRIBUTES The attributes for Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls were subjected to the same

37

initial screening process described above for Fidencio Coarse ollas. The following attributes were discarded as a result of this process: surface color (5 categories, including pink, the result of oxidation of the ware rather than reduction); burnishing (3 categories: medium even, high even, and streaky); rim diameter (7 categories); width of everted rims (4 categories); and angle between wall and base (7 categories). Two other attributes were discarded because they occurred so infrequently as to make statistical treatment meaningless: presence of red pigment rubbed on after firing and presence of plastic decoration in the form of appliques on the rim. The attributes which did show meaningful change through time, and therefore remained for the final coding, follow. Attribute 1, Rim Form has 13 states: No. I is a simple, direct, uncurved rim. No. 2 is curved outwards to a moderate degree. No. 3 is curved outwards so far that a tangent drawn to its curvature at the point of the lip is horizontal. No. 4 is everted (shows a break between wall and rim) but not horizontal. No. 5 is everted and horizontal. No. 6 is also everted and horizontal, but in contrast to No.5, is only a small tab. No. 7 is between everted and outcurved-it shows a break on the interior but not on the exteriorand it is not horizontal. No. 8 is a rolled rim-rounded and thickened. No. 9, like No. 7, shows a break on the interior but not on the exterior; it is horizontal. No. I 0 is an everted and thickened rim which hangs downward from the break. No. 11, like No. 10, hangs downward from the break, but it is not thickened. No. 12 is curled but not thickened. The thirteenth state includes rims unclassifiable in any of the other categories. Examples of each of these rim forms are illustrated in Fig. 28. Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity has 9 states dealing with irregularities in the rims when the vessel is viewed from above: The first state is no eccentricity. No. I is scalloped with sharp points between the concave portions. No. 2 has slight bulges from the round plan of the vessel making it tend towards a square or triangle, depending on how many such bulges there are. No. 3 has small tabs extending outwards from the rim at three or four places around the vessel. No. 4 has

38

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

/

I I

/

/

/

//

a. No.1

/

d. No.4

b. No.2

c. No.3

//

I

I 1 e. No.5

1 f. No. 6

/

/

/

g. No. 7

j. No. 10

I

I

h. No.8

k.No.ll

/

i. No. 9

I 1

Fig. 28. Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowl rim forms.

I. No. 12

39

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

a. No. 1

b. No. 2

c. No.3

II

d. No.4

/~ I

e. No.5

f. No.6

g. No.7

Fig. 29. Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowl rim eccentricities. Top views of rims.

40

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

similar tabs extending upwards from an everted rim. No. 5 has been nicknamed a "piecrust" rim since its indentation s resemble those around the edge of a pie. No. 6 has a series of very small regularly spaced tabs extending out from the rim. No. 7 is scalloped but, unlike No. 1, has no sharp points. The ninth state includes eccentric rims unclassifiable in any of the other categories. Examples of these eccentric rims are illustrated in Fig. 29. Attribute 3, Zoned Toning has two states: present and absent. This decorative technique consists of leaving certain zones (usually defined by incised lines) unburnished , in contrast to the rest of the vessel which is highly burnished. The term "zoned toning" is borrowed from MacNeish, Peterson, and Flannery (1970). It is illustrated in Fig. 30. Attribute 4, Negative Painting has two states: present and absent. This decorative technique appears as white or light gray designs against the darker gray surface of the vessel. What is called "negative painting" in this report may be either true negative painting or "resist painting," a technique which produces an almost identical result. In the case of negative painting a wet brush is used to paint a design on the vessel just

before firing. This destroys the burnish, and the painted areas fire lighter than the unpainted areas. In the case of resist painting, some unknown substance is applied just before firing which protects the covered area from the reducing atmosphere of the kiln. This substance is then removed, leaving the design in a lighter color than the uncovered areas. These two techniques are described in Flannery et al. (in prep.). Sherds with negative painted designs are illustrated in Fig. 31. Attribute 5, Incising has three states: The first is unincised. The second, fine incising, consists of very thin lines scratched into the surface of the vessel; it is sometimes called "sgraffito" (Flannery et al., in prep.). The third state, wide incising, consists of broad, shallow, wellsmoothed grooves. Attribute 6, Incised Motif has eight states: The "pennant" motif resembles triangular flags or pennants. The "crescent" motif consists of two curved lines forming a rough crescent, but often not meeting at the points of the crescent. The "single line" motif is one incised line running around the interior of the vessel just below the rim. The "double line" motif is like the single line, except that there are two lines. The

a

b Fig. 30. Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls with zoned toning. a. HE/ZG; b. HW/ZG. (Scale 1:2)

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

"line break" motif is a variant on the double line motif, in which one or both lines are broken and other elements sometimes intervene. The "hachure" motif contains panels of cross-hatching surrounded by incised lines. The "scallop" motif is one of several combinations of a scalloped line and a straight line incised around the vessel. The last state includes motifs not classifiable in any of the other categories. All of these motifs occur on the interior of the vessel, just below the rim, or on the upper surface of everted rims. The pennant, crescent, and line break motifs occur in three or four places around the perimeter of the vessel. The other motifs run all the way around. (The three or four instances of the line break motif are connected by parallel lines, making it possible for a vessel with a line break motif to result in sherds which would be classified as having the double line motif.) These motifs are illustrated in Fig. 32.

41

6. ATOYAC YELLOW-WlllTE OUTLEANED WALL BOWL ATTRIBUTES

The following attributes of Atoyac YellowWhite outleaned wall bowls were discarded as the result of the same trial study as in the cases of the other two ware and vessel form combinations described in Section 4: wall curvature (2 categories: curved and straight); wall thickening (3 categories: none, thickened at rim, and thickened below rim); and rim diameter (8 categories). The attributes which were used in the final recording of data follow. Attribute 1, Incising has three states: none, interior, and exterior. Attribute 2, Wall Angle has seven states: 90°, 80°, 70°, 60°, 50°, 40°, and 30°. This is the angle between the wall and the base. In actual practice it was measured between the wall at the rim and horizontal, as determined by aligning the

a

b Fig. 31. Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls with negative painting. a. HW/ZG; b. Huitzo/Platform 1. (Scale 1: 1)

42

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

a. Scallop

/

/,..

/

/

b. Scallop

/I /I

c. Crescent

d. Pennant

e. Pennant

--, _/

Fig. 32. Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowl incised motifs. a. C/ZD; b. T13/100B; c. Surface; d. F51; e. F16.

CHRONOLO GY AND CERAMICS

/

43

/,..

/

/

f. Hachure

g. Line Break

h. Line

Break

i. Line Break Fig. 32 (cont'd). f. C/ZD; g. Surface; h. Al/ZHB; i. HW/ZG. (Scale 1 :2)

44

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

/

/

/

I I

/

/

/

/

I

/

I

f. No.5

/

/

/

No 8

/

I

/

Fig. 33. Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowl lip forms.

rim curvature with a table top. Thus vessels with a wall angle of 90° have vertical walls and have been called cylinders in some systems of vessel form classification. Those with wall angles of 30° approach what some have called plates. Attribute 3, Lip Form has 8 states: No. 1 is simply rounded. No. 2 is beveled on the exterior.

No. 3 has a small groove on the exterior. No. 4 is beveled on the interior. No. 5 is either squared or slightly grooved right on the center of the lip. (These two were put together since a number of vessels showed a squared lip in one part of their perimeters and a central groove in another.) No. 6 is everted; it shows a straight segment with a

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS break from the wall, usually showing only on the interior. No. 7 is slightly thickened and rough on the exterior just below the lip. No. 8 is tapered to a sharper point than the others. These lip forms are illustrated in Fig. 33. Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls are frequently decorated with line break motifs similar to those which occur more rarely on Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls. The number of different designs is so great, however, that no attempt was made to use them in this chronological study. Nearly 300 different designs have been recorded for the Valley of Oaxaca. Many of these designs have only one known occurrence, however, and none occur frequently enough to make statistical treatment meaningfuL For this reason there is no incised motif attribute similar to that used for Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls.

7. PROVENIENCES FOR PILOT SERIATION Once a set of meaningful attributes had been chosen it was possible to proceed with the establishment of the final chronological framework to be used in the analysis. This began with the selection of a small sample of proveniences to be used in a pilot seriation. These proveniences were selected on the basis of three criteria. First, the proveniences selected had to be as pure as possible. That is, the sherds in the samples needed to be from as short a period of time as possible, and they needed to be unmixed with sherds of a different date. Second, the samples of sherds needed to be as large as possible. And third, the proveniences needed to be interrelated stratigraphically so that some independent source of information concerning their relative placement in time would be available. These criteria were best satisfied by four sets of proveniences. Each of these sets provided a stratigraphic sequence, so that the chronological placement of each provenience was known, relative to the other members of its set. Most of the proveniences were primary middens which contained many large sherds together with large quantities of decomposed organic refuse. Furthermore, on the basis of what was previously known

45 TABLE 2

PROVENIENCES FOR SERIATION Code No.

Provenience

Code No.

Provenience

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

AI/ZE AI/ZF AI/ZF1 AI/ZG AI/ZH AI/ZK C/ZF C/ZH C/ZJA C/ZJB C/ZJC

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

C/ZL F/ZFA F/ZFB F/ZFC F/ZFD F/ZK F/ZL HE/ZD HE/ZE HE/ZF HE/ZG

about the ceramic sequence, these proveniences were unmixed. The proveniences themselves are listed in Table 2, together with the numbers by which they are referenced in the seriation which follows. All 22 proveniences are zones dug by natural layers in the expanded excavations of Areas AI, C, F, and HE. The only exceptions to this are the C/ZJ and F/ZF proveniences which are very thick midden deposits arbitrarily divided into the subdivisions C/ZJA, C/ZJB, C/ZJC, F/ZFA, F/ZFB, F/ZFC, and F/ZFD. The stratigraphic relation of the proveniences within each area is completely unambiguous. Thus there are four sets of proveniences, each correctly ordered in time: 1-6 for Area AI, 7-12 for Area C, 13-18 for Area F, and 19-22 for Area HE. The numbering runs from top to bottom of the stratigraphic sequence. Thus in Area AI, for example, provenience 6 is the oldest, 1 the youngest. There was, however, no independent way to relate the proveniences from one area to those from another, although what was already known of the ceramic sequence made it clear that there was considerable temporal overlap among the four subsets, and that the proveniences needed to be interdigitated in order to make the entire sequence of 22 read in the proper order. Clearly some kind of seriation technique was called for. 8. SIMILARITY COEFFICIENT The first step in approaching the seriation was to select a coefficient to measure the similarities

46

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

between and among the 22 proveniences. Preliminary inspection of the data matrix argues strongly for a coefficient which takes into account the relative frequencies of the various states of the attributes, rather than one based simply on their presence or absence. It is clear from the counts that some of the most important changes through time are not the appearance or disappearance of certain states of certain attributes, but their gradual increase or decrease. Many states of many attributes are present throughout the period under consideration, but with sizable and consistent frequency changes. The reader can verify this by looking up the ceramic data for the appropriate proveniences in Appendixes I-IV. The structure of the data, however, prohibits the calculation of a frequency based coefficient across the entire abundance matrix. Such a calculation would result in undue weighting of the relative abundance of the three major combinations of ware and vessel form for which form and decoration attributes were recorded separately. The overall pattern of similarity between two proveniences which, for example, had many Fidencio Coarse ollas, few Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls, and a moderate number of Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls, would swamp the potentially much more significant variability of form and decoration attributes within these combinations. This was avoided by calculating the similarity coefficient independently for each attribute and averaging the results. Thus the coefficient between any two proveniences was obtained by the following process: First, the coefficient was calculated only on the combinations of ware and vessel form listed in Appendix I, treated as a single attribute with frequencies for 36 states. Second, the coefficient was calculated independently on each of the five attributes of Fidencio Coarse ollas listed in Section 4 of this chapter and in Appendix II. Third, the coefficient was calculated independently on each of the six attributes of Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls listed in Section 5 of this chapter and in Appendix III. Fourth, the coefficient was calculated independently on each of the three attributes of Atoyac Yellow-White out-

leaned wall bowls listed in Section 6 of this chapter and in Appendix IV. Finally, the mean of these 15 independently calculated coefficients became the coefficient of similarity between the two proveniences. The coefficient chosen is a modification of Brainerd and Robinson's Coefficient (Brainerd 1951; Robinson 1951). It is calculated in the following manner: D .. 11

~!Pia- Pja

I

= ---=a=--------:---:-::--200

where Dij is the coefficient between the ith and jth proveniences, and Pia is the percentage of occurrence of the ath category of an attribute in provenience i. Most of the attributes have nominal categories. That is, their order is irrelevant. Some, however, have categories of an ordinal nature-for example, the attribute of wall angle used for Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls. In applicable cases this ordinal information is preserved by calculating cumulative percentages instead of the normal percentages used for attributes with nominal categories. In this case the divisor is 100 times one less than the number of states of the attribute, instead of 200. This coefficient is actually one of dissimilarity, rather than similarity, ranging from zero for two identical proveniences to one for two maximally dissimilar proveniences. DISSIM, a generalized computer program in FORTRAN-IV, was written to calculate these coefficients. 9. SCALING THE PROVENIENCES Having thus determined the dissimilarities between and among the 22 proveniences of the pilot study, it remained to uncover the underlying set of values responsible for these dissimilarities. For archaeologists, this is familiar as the seriation problem, although it is better known to other social scientists under the term "scaling." The two most popular solutions to this problem in the archaeological literature are the subjective ordering of "battleship curves" (Phillips, Ford, and Griffin 1951:219-236) and the ordering of matrices of similarity scores so that the highest values fall near the diagonal (Brainerd 1951;

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS Robinson 1951). The latter technique has increased in popularity with the advent of several computer programs for producing the "best" ordering of a matrix (e.g. Kuzara, Mead, and Dixon 1966; Hole and Shaw 1967; and Craytor and Johnson 1968). The method chosen for this study is nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Archaeologists have traditionally considered the scaling problem as one of placing units in their proper positions along a straight line, a "time dimension," given some information about how far each unit should fall from each other unit. The dissimilarity coefficients calculated between and among the 22 proveniences of our pilot study, for example, provide such information. There is no guarantee, however, that the coefficients of dissimilarity reflect only variation through time. As pointed out by Kruskal (1971:120), among others, "the dissimilarities may reflect other variables in addition to time-for example, social class, wealth, climate, and so forth." If this is the case, "there may be no way of arranging points on a line so that the interpoint distances satisfactorily match the dissimilarities" (Kruskal 1971:120). One solution to this problem is to eliminate the restriction that all points be structured in one dimension. As many dimensions may be allowed as are necessary to locate the points in such a way that the distances between them correspond to the calculated dissimilarities. This is clearly visualizable in two or even three dimensions. Although less imaginable in four or more dimensions, it is equally calculable. Thus scaling can be multidimensional. That scaling can also be nonmetric is a somewhat more recent innovation. It derives from concern over the exact nature of the relation between the calculated dissimilarities and the actual distances in terms of the underlying variable or variables responsible for the. dissimilarities. "Metric" scaling assumes that the dissimilarities provide a measure which is directly proportional to these distances. "Nonmetric" scaling, however, requires no such assumption. Instead of concentrating on the dissimilarity values, it considers only their rank order. The difference be-

47

tween the two methods may be clear in an example: Consider three entities A, B, and C. The dissimilarity between A and B is 0.25; between A and C, 0.50. Metric scaling would therefore strive to place the point representing C exactly twice as far from A as B is from A. Nonmetric scaling, on the other hand, considering only the rank order of the dissimilarities, will strive only to place C farther from A than B is from A. It thus does not assume any particular "metric" for the dissimilarities in terms of the underlying variable or variables, simply that the dissimilarities reflect the correct rank order of distances. When multidimensional scaling and nonmetric scaling are combined into nonmetric multidimensional scaling, two of the most questionable assumptions traditional in archaeological sedations are thus eliminated. First, it is no longer necessary to assume that a one-dimensional time structure characterizes the matrix of dissimilarity coefficients. As many dimensions can be used as are deemed necessary, and those aspects of the configuration which seem relevant to change through time (or any other factor of interest) can be isolated. Of perhaps greatest importance, in relation to being relieved of the burden of this assumption, is that it is possible for a multidirnensional solution to "fail," as Kendall (1971:223) has noted. That is, it may not be possible to develop a temporal seriation from a given set of ceramic data. This is a logical possibility which is completely ignored in most archaeological seriations. They will produce a one-dimensional ordering, generally assumed to reflect development through time, even if the variability represented in the matrix of coefficients has nothing whatever to do with time. Second, it is no longer necessary to assume that the coefficient of ceramic dissimilarity which is chosen is directly proportional to the metric of the structure underlying this dissimilarity. This assumption is somewhat more insidious than it appears at first. Some might argue that, since only a rank ordering of units in time is produced by most seriations, they do not depend upon this assumption. By maximizing measures based on the actual values of the

48

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

dissimilarity coefficients, however, such methods may (and often do) produce different final orderings than produced by nonmetric scaling, which maximizes measures based only on rank order. Thus, by being both nonmetric and multidimensional, the method of scaling used in this report offers substantial theoretical advantages over more traditional means of seriation. These theoretical advantages, however, are worth nothing if they do not produce a time ordering of greater precision, accuracy, and utility. All three of these qualities characterize the results of the study of Middle Formative ceramics carried out on materials from Fabrica San Jose: the units have been placed into a more specific time sequence with greater precision than possible with conventional methods; the sequence checks well with independent chronological information; and the sequence is more useful than other kinds in facilitating the chronological placement of all the Middle Formative proveniences from this site, not just the 22 proveniences in the pilot study. More complete discussions of the theoretical underpinnings of nonmetric multidimensional scaling are available in Shepard (1962), Kruskal (1964a and 1964b), Guttman (1968), and Shepard, Romney, and Nerlove ( 1972). Two further discussions have been directed specifically at archaeologists (Lingoes 1970 and Kruskal 1971). Johnson (1972) deals with multidimensional scaling in his historical and theoretical summary of seriation and clustering. Kendall (1971) has applied nonmetric multidimensional scaling to archaeological seriation, and Cowgill (1972) has used it to seriate pottery types (as opposed to proveniences). Work by Shepard (1962) and Kruskal (I964a and 1964b) pointed the way towards algorithms for an iterative procedure to perform nonmetric multidimensional scaling by minimizing a measure of departure from the monotonic (or order preserving) relation between the dissimilarity coefficients and the distances between the points which represent the units of analysis. Following this work several computer programs became available to perform this procedure. In this study the Guttman-Lingoes Nonmetric Program Series has been used (Lingoes 1972 and 1973). Spe-

cifically, the matrix of modified Brainerd and Robinson coefficients (calculated as described above) for the 22 proveniences in the pilot study was input to MINISSA-I (Lingoes 1973:39-79) for scaling. Configurations of points representing these 22 proveniences were produced in one, two, three, and four dimensions. At this point, one is faced with the choice, familiar in the literature of multidimensional scaling, of which dimensionality is appropriate to the ends in mind. Kruskal (1971) suggests that if random error in the data is slight, the measure of departure from monotonicity (in our case the Guttman-Lingoes coefficient of alienation) should drop markedly as dimensionality increases up to the appropriate dimensionality, beyond which this measure should improve only slightly as the number of dimensions is increased. As the number of dimensions in the present study increases from one to four, the coefficient of alienation drops from .28625 to .14286 to .10049 to .08161. (Kruskal's stress, calculated by MINISSA-1, even though the Guttman-Lingoes coefficient of alienation is being minimized, drops from .25210 to .12487 to .08789 to .07055.) When these coefficients are plotted against the number of dimensions, the "elbow" which characterizes the point at which increasing the number of dimensions no longer produces drama tic improvement in the alienation or stress does not appear. This is likely due to the size of the component of random error in the data. That this component is large is not difficult to imagine. The proveniences used in the scaling are by no means random samples of the ceramics of the time periods they represent. The device of using sherd counts is, as McNutt (1973:45) has phrased it, adequate for measuring "how many pieces of pottery," but not necessarily adequate for measuring "how much pottery," even if only percentages within proveniences are used, since different kinds of pottery may break up differentially under different conditions. Potters themselves have the disturbing habit of failing to obey absolutely the rules of ceramic change set up for them ex post facto by the archaeologist. Users of ceramic vessels seldom break their vessels when

49

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

they reach a particular age, and not before or after, so that their garbage heaps include vessels broken at about the same time, but which may have been manufactured over a restricted, but certainly longer than instantaneous, period of time. Anyone who has contemplated the problems of doing statistical work with ceramics will be able to extend this list of sources of random error considerably. Even though the theoretically satisfying methods of choosing the appropriate dimensionality are of little help in this study, there are practical

••

2

3

4

5

methods which, as Shepard (1972:9-10) points out, have most often been the decisive ones. The first, and most blatantly non-theoretical, of these is simply to reject solutions of many dimensions because they are difficult to work with. One of the major advantages of nonmetric multidimensional scaling is that it may produce a geometric configuration which is immediately and intuitively interpretable in terms of some underlying structure of the data. Since spaces of more than two or three dimensions are difficult to deal with in this manner, there is a strong tendency to

6

••

8

7

9

10

a.

6

7

5 8

4

3 2

9 1

10

b. Fig. 34. Experimental scaling of points along a straight line. a. Spacing of points along line for scaling; b. Two-dimensional scaling of the points in a.

50

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

work with two- or three-dimensional spaces, even at the loss of some information which might be revealed if further dimensions were added. In the absence of more formalized methods for working with the configurations produced in four or more dimensions, however, the extent to which further information would, in fact, be "revealed" by adding dimensions is questionable. Thus two- or three-dimensional solutions are preferred for this purely practical reason. A second practical consideration involves the interpretability of added dimensions. This is, of

course, closely related to the first consideration, in that added dimensions beyond the third are not as likely to be interpretable. Nevertheless this criterion provides some further basis for determining appropriate dimensionality. Thus if a two-dimensional solution is more interpretable than a one-dimensional solution, but no less interpretable than a three-dimensional solution, then the two-dimensional solution seems appropriate. A third purely practical consideration is a rule of thumb informally used by Lingoes (personal

a.

ill

0 0 ®

@

® @

@ @ b. Fig. 35. Scaling of the 22 proveniences listed in Table 2. a. One-dimensional MINISSA-I configuration; b. Two-dimensional MINISSA-I configuration.

51

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS

@) (j)

r,.J

''e;

~-

~

1m

"/

[email protected]

&

~

@

~

@

,q·

~~

,'J., @

c.

&

@ d. Fig. 35 (cont'd). c. Two-dimensional configuration with best-fit vectors for subsets of points as indicated; d. Two-dimensional configuration with fitted time curve.

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

52

communication) that alienation values less than .15 are often associated with configurations of appropriate dimensionality. On the basis of these three practical considerations, the two-dimensional configuration has been chosen in this study. The two-dimensional solution is, of course, easy to visualize and work with. As will be seen below, it is more interpretable than the one-dimensional solution, and no less interpretable than the three-dimensional solution. The alienation value of .14286 is just under the .15 rule of thumb for reasonable alienation values. In addition, the internal criteria employed by MINISSA-1 for determining appropriate dimensionality (Lingoes 1973:39-79) suggested two dimensions as appropriate for this data set. 10. INTERPRETING THE SCALING Fig. 35b illustrates the two-dimensional solution obtained for the 22 ceramics samples from the proveniences listed in Table 2. Examination of this configuration reveals a tendency for the older proveniences in each subset to be towards the left side of the figure, with the younger ones farther and farther towards the right. Closer examination reveals that an even more accurate

way to read the chronological ordering of the four subsets is in terms of a curve starting in the vicinity of Point 18, continuing towards the lower right corner of the figure, then bending up and back towards the left. If the projections of the 22 points on such a curve are imagined, they fall in the correct stratigraphic order-18 through 13 being the oldest, followed by 12 through 7. Points 22 through 19 overlap with the latter part of the 12 through 7 group, and Points 6 through 2 overlap with the latter part of the 18 through 13 group, with Point 1 falling at the most recent end of the curve. The proveniences from the four different excavated areas are thus integrated into a single time ordering by the discovery of a linear structure based on the known stratigraphic relationships among the proveniences within each subset. That this structure, although linear, is not a straight line is not surprising. Kendall (1971) constructed an artificial set of data consisting of distances between 51 evenly spaced points along a straight line. He then obscured the information in this data set by coding the distances in eight categories of decreasing distances. This obscured data set was then scaled with a version of the Shepard-Kruskal MDSCAL algorithm (Kruskal

2

/

28 27

20 19

8

e. Fig. 35 (cont'd). e. Final fitted time curve showing division into phases.

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS 1964a and 1964b ). A two-dimensional solution was produced in which the 51 points fell in perfect order along, not a straight line, but a broken circle or horseshoe. Kendall (1971 :227) cites indications that this is to be expected on theoretical grounds. That these expectations apply to metrically perfect data, as well as to data including a certain amount of noise, or random error, is illustrated by another hypothetical example. Ten points were spaced irregularly along a straight line, as illustrated in Fig. 34a. The matrix of distances among these points was subjected to a scaling analysis identical to the one described above, resulting in the configuration shown in Fig. 34b. Clearly in this case, too, the points along a straight line are represented as a curve in two dimensions. The spacing of the points along this curve is directly proportional to the spacing of the original points along the straight line. Thus the actual structure of this two-dimensional configuration is not really two-dimensional, but rather what Kendall (1971:231) calls a "twisted one-dimensional object" which requires a Euclidean space of two dimensions for its accurate representation. Precisely the same is the case with the two-dimensional scaling of 22 proveniences from Fabrica San Jose-the points form a twisted one-dimensional object. Since this is the case, it might be asked, why not work with the one-dimensional solution? When the two-dimensional configuration is compared with the one-dimensional solution illustrated in Fig. 35a, however, the necessity of working in two dimensions is obvious. Several serious errors in sequencing (based on known stratigraphy) result from the one-dimensional solution. When the three-dimensional configuration was compared with that in two dimensions, the same curve was observed with a slight tendency to bend into the third dimension. That is, our one-dimensional object which twisted into a curve in two dimensions, warped into something like a small piece of a corkscrew in three dimensions. Since this tendency was slight and made negligible changes in the spacing of the points and none in their order, there was no advantage in attempting to work in more than two dimen-

53

sions. It should be noted that no further nonchronological structure was observed in the threeor four-dimensional solutions either. Returning to the interpretation of the twodimensional configuration, the problem clearly is to devise a method for reading the chronological order from the twisted one-dimensional object which has been perceived. Kendall's ( 1971) solution to this problem is to straighten out the curve so that the points can be projected onto a straight line. The approach fo11owed in this study is to work directly with the curve. The first step in arriving at the curve which best describes the twisted one-dimensional object was to attempt to describe it with vectors, section by section. This has been accomplished by a "conjoint nonmetric linear multiple regression" carried out by means of the GuttmanLingoes program CM-V (Lingoes 1973:325-338). As the name implies, this process is a nonmetric analogue of the familiar linear multiple regression. For the purposes of this analysis, the 22 proveniences of the pilot seriation have been split into the subsets 1-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-22, based on the four separate excavated areas from which they came. Thus there are four subsets, within each of which the chronological relationships are known from stratigraphy. Beginning with the first subset (1-6), the coordinates of the corresponding points in the two-dimensional configuration produced by MINISSA-1 became the two independent variables in the regression. Another variable was created which expresses the stratigraphic ordering of these proveniences, from youngest to oldest. The values of this variable are simply 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. This variable became the dependent variable in the regression. The analysis performed by CM-V combines linear multiple regression with monotonic transformation of the dependent variable designed to minimize the Guttman-Lingoes coefficient of alienation. In this way the values of the dependent variable are rescaled and lie along a straight line which represents a best fit, in our case, between the time ordering and the points in the two-dimensional space. Since CM-V normalizes the variables before calculations are carried out, it is necessary to

54

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

denormalize the rescaled values for the dependent variable so that the vector can be plotted in the original configuration space. This was accomplished by the following formula: C

=M

± (R) (S)

where C is the coordinate of the new point on one of the original MINISSA-1 axes, M is the mean of the coordinates on that axis of the original MINISSA-1 Points 1-6, R is the rescaled value of the dependent variable from CM-V corresponding to that point, and S is the standard deviation of the coordinates on the same axis of the original MINISSA-1 Points 1-6. The sign of the term (R)(S) corresponds to the sign of the final correlation between the rescaled dependent variable and the axis of the original MINISSA-1 space under consideration. These correlations are given in the CM-V output. This same procedure was followed for each of the four subsets of points in turn, producing four vectors in the original MINISSA-1 space, each of which described the· general direction of the twisted one-dimensional object in one particular region. Some of these vectors, however, were unsatisfactory descriptions, since the regions they spanned were long ones in which the direction of the twisted one-dimensional object changed substantially. Thus the subsets were divided still further, so that several vectors could be obtained which involved only points in regions small enough that the direction of the curve did not change too drama tic ally. These final vectors and the subsets of points which they represent are illustrated in Fig. 35c. With these vectors as a guide to the general shape of the twisted one-dimensional object whose description was the goal of the analysis, a curve was subjectively sketched onto the plot of MINISSA-1 points and CM-V vectors. The points were then geometrically projected onto this curve. One exception was made in determining these projections. The projections of Points 21 and 22, which fell very close together, came in the wrong chronological order. These two projections were moved along the curve in such a way that each was as close as possible to the original projection but so that they fell in the correct

order. In effect, this procedure of sketching a curve and projecting the points onto it was the generation of a time curve hypothesis to be fitted mathematically to the MINISSA-I configuration of points. This fitting was accomplished with the Guttman-Lingoes program SCL (Lingoes 1973:35-38 and n.d.). In our case, the matrix to be fitted consisted of the coordinates in the two-dimensional MINISSA-1 space of the projections of the 22 points onto the hypothesis time curve. The target matrix consisted of the original MINISSA-1 coordinates of the 22 points. The program permits monotone transformation, rotation, translation, and expansion or contraction of the matrix to be fitted. When the coordinates of the best fit matrix were plotted back into the MINISSA-1 space, only minor changes had been made in the time curve hypothesis, most notably a slight contraction. The two measures of fit provided by the program SCL were L = .0608 and SY2 = .2837 (Lingoes and Schonemann 1973). The final fitted time curve, as described by the coordinates which comprise the fitted matrix, is plotted in Fig. 35d. 11. SYNTHESIS OF CERAMIC CHANGE Once the time curve had been determined and the 22 pilot proveniences ordered along it, the percentages of occurrence of all the states of all the attributes could be plotted for the ordered sequence of 22 proveniences. This not only provided specific information about the changes in frequency of each state through time, but also laid the foundation for splitting the Middle Formative into three time periods of roughly equal duration. This splitting was desired to facilitate comparison of Fabrica San Jose with other sites as well as to facilitate internal comparison within the site of Fabrica San Jose itself. The usual basis for the division of a ceramic sequence into phases is the assumption, almost always implicit, that ceramic change proceeds through periods of relative stability alternating with short periods of rapid change. The idea is that an overall pattern of style characterizes the ceramics of a given phase. This pattern changes relatively little during the phase compared to the

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS more dramatic changes which occur fairly rapidly at the end of the phase and the beginning of the next, resulting in a different stylistic pattern which characterizes the ceramics of the next phase. An indication of whether this is the nature of the Middle Formative ceramic change studied at Fabrica San Jose lies in the ordered plots of percentages of occurrence of states of attributes. Some of these plots fluctuate wildly, and show no consistent pattern through time, although at least one state of each attribute shows a consistent and useful pattern. It was precisely for this characteristic that the final set of attributes was selected from the initial trial study described in Section 4 of this chapter. If the percentage of occurrence of a state does not fluctuate wildly, there are basically three kinds of pattern through time which it can show. It can increase, it can decrease, or it can hold roughly constant. These three trends can be combined in a variety of ways. The percentage can increase for a time, then decrease; it can hold constant for a time, then increase; it can hold constant at one level for a time, then jump to another level and hold constant; and so forth. If the nature of ceramic change were periods of relative stability alternating with periods of relatively rapid change, it is easy to predict what pattern should be the dominant one among percentages of occurrence of states of attributes. Most of them should hold relatively constant through a phase, then rather suddenly shift to a new value and hold relatively constant through the next phase. This pattern is extremely rare in the ordered plots of percentages produced from this study. Instead, the patterns almost always include quite significant increasing or decreasing segments. It is this characteristic of the plots which provides the basis for dividing the sequence into phases. When a plot changes from an increasing trend to a decreasing trend, it shows a sharp bend at the point of change. Similarly, a bend is evident when a decreasing or increasing trend changes to a trend of holding constant. There were two places in the ordering produced by the scaling where quite a large number of states showed such bends. These two places in

55

the ordering became the points of division between the three phases to be used in this study: Early Guadalupe, Late Guadalupe, and Rosario. Thus, although this study makes use of ceramic phases as units of time, it does not assume an alternation of periods of relative stability with short periods of rapid change. In fact, this seems a decidedly inaccurate way to characterize the nature of Middle Formative ceramic change at Fabrica San Jose, as measured by the set of attributes used here. This qualifier is essential-it would undoubtedly have been possible to devise a set of attributes and a way of recording them which would show the nature of ceramic change to be different. Neither conclusion would be wrong. Each would be correct within its own constraints. Other attribute sets would likely be more adequate for other purposes. The set used here, however, satisfies the dual (and often opposed) criteria of efficiency of data recording and adequacy for the purpose of the study. Thus it has been possible to place the 22 proveniences of the pilot study in a sequence which checks with the stratigraphy and to divide this sequence into three phases. These phases, as defined in this study, do not represent periods of relatively little ceramic change separated by rapid shifts in ceramic style. The stability they represent is of a different nature: rather than lacking internal change, each phase is characterized by a consistent kind of internal change. That is, certain attributes are increasing in frequency, others decreasing, and others holding roughly constant. The divisions between the phases are marked not by rapid shifts of style, but rather by shifts in the direction of change of a number of states of a number of attributes. This way of defining phases derives, not from any revealed truth about the nature of ceramic change in general, but rather from empirical observations about the nature of ceramic change in the materials which are the subject of this study. Once again it is necessary to emphasize that when ceramic change is spoken of in these pages with reference to the Middle Formative material from Fabrica San Jose, it is qualified: it means ceramic change as measured by the attribute set used in this study.

56

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

12. DESCRIPTIONS OF PHASES Since the kind of study carried out on the Middle Formative ceramics from Fabrica San Jose is rather different from the studies that have been made on the ceramics of the periods immediately preceding and following, the differences between these periods cannot be described in the same way as the differences between the phases within the Middle Formative. Thus a brief summary of the characteristics which distinguish Middle Formative ceramics from those immediately before and after will be presented, followed by a characterization of each of the Middle Formative phases used in this study. Distinguishing Guadalupe from San Jose. The Guadalupe Phase is easily distinguished from the San Jose Phase which precedes it, which is described by Flannery et al. (in prep.). Socorro Fine Gray, Josefina Fine Gray, and Guadalupe Burnished Brown wares appear for the first time in the Guadalupe Phase. Red-on-white, specular red, and several gray wares common in the San Jose Phase disappear or become quite rare. Rocker stamping and raspada decoration of the San Jose Phase become extremely rare. Plastic decoration on Fidencio Coarse ollas becomes more common. Use of "Olmec" motifs, such as the Flame Eyebrows, Paw-Wing, and St. Andrew's Cross (Joralemon, 1971), ends. Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls become much more common. Distinguishing Rosario from Monte Alblm fa. The Rosario Phase of the latter part of the Middle Formative is not quite so easily distinguished from Monte Alban Ia, but there remain a number of differences between the two phases. Most notably, by Monte Alban Ia, Atoyac Yellow-White ware has disappeared, and the descendants of Socorro Fine Gray ware have become much more common. Wide mouthed ollas no longer occur, presumably having been replaced by the forms illustrated by Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967: Fig. 156). Although the Suchilquitongo footed plate is common in Monte Alban Ia, it is always characterized by red paint, and almost always by plastic decoration, both around the rim. The unpainted variety, without plastic

decoration, no longer occurs. Guadalupe Burnished Brown incurved rim bowls are also absent from Monte Alban Ia. Although Fidencio Coarse outleaned wall and hemispherical bowls have become quite common by the Rosario Phase, the highly burnished C.4 bowls of Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (I 967), which sometimes have incised and painted decoration other than a simple band around the rim do not appear until Monte Alban Ia. Bolstered rims on Guadalupe Burnished Brown outleaned wall bowls are rare in the Rosario Phase, common in Monte Alban Ia. Likewise, Socorro Fine Gray ollas are much more common in Monte Alban Ia than in Rosario. The plastic decoration of Fidencio Coarse ollas, which becomes rarer and rarer through the Rosario Phase, has disappeared entirely by Monte Alban Ia. The decoration of Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls also provides a means of distinguishing between Monte Alban Ia and Rosario Phases. Rim forms No. 6, 7, 8, and 12 do not appear among the illustrations of Monte Alban Ia grayware in Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (I 967). A number of more elaborate forms do appear. The eccentric rims described in the present ceramic study do not appear in Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (1967) except for No. I, which appears there only with a particular kind of incising of which no example of Rosario Phase date is known, and No. 5, which appears only on rims with a large thickened flange. The pennant and crescent motifs are no longer used in Monte Alban Ia times, and only the most elaborate versions of the line break and scallop motifs appear. In addition, quite a variety of more elaborate incised designs grace Monte Alban Ia vessels. Zones of hachure, relatively rare in Rosario, become common. Negative painting and zoned toning do not occur during Monte Alban Ia. Several kinds of decoration occur on Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls during the Rosario Phase in insufficient frequency for statis· tical treatment. These kinds of decoration are useful in dating, however, since they seem to be completely absent from Monte Albin Ia ceramics. These include zones of punctations and

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS dashes reminiscent of the plastic decoration on Fidencio Coarse ollas, incised wavy lines on outleaned wall bowl rims, and outleaned wall bowl rims molded into shapes resembling faces of frogs. These kinds of decoration are illustrated in Fig. 36. The frogs, which are sometimes quite realistic and sometimes highly stylized, are clearly related to type G.l7 of Caso, Bernal, and Acosta (I 967: 32-35), but equally clearly distinguishable from it. The variety of effigy forms which characterizes Monte Albin Ia ceramics is anticipated in the Rosario Phase in much simpler form by rim decorations such as these frogs and by an occasional simple effigy vessel such as the one illustrated in Fig. 36. Change within the Middle Formative. The three phases of the Middle Formative occupation at Fabrica San Jose are more difficult to characterize verbally because of the way in which they were defined. They are best described by plotting the percentages of occurrence through time of the states of the attributes used in the scaling. The presentation of over 100 plots is, however, not feasible. Plots of some of the more useful and less describable states are included in Figs. 37-48. The data included in the appendices enable the reconstruction of similar plots for any particular state which may be of interest. The following descriptions concentrate on distinguishing Guadalupe from Rosario and Early from Late Guadalupe. Since similar ceramic studies have not been carried out on San Jose Phase or Monte Alban Ia ceramics, some of the statements made about Early Guadalupe may apply to San Jose as well, and some statements made about Rosario may also apply to Monte Alban Ia. The distinctions between these phases must be made on the basis of the information given above. The most noticeable change in ceramics from Early Guadalupe through Rosario is the gradual replacement of Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls by Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls. This shift is illustrated in the plots of these two combinations of ware and vessel form (Figs. 40-41). In addition, three combinations of ware and vessel form occur only in the Guadalupe Phase: Socorro Fine Gray fluted bowls, Atoyac Yellow-White handles, and Atoyac Yel-

57

low-White tecomates. Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls with exterior incising, with wall angles of 30°, 70°, 80°, or 90°, or with lip forms No. 3 or 5 almost never occur in the Rosario Phase. Fidencio Coarse olla rims increase in frequency through the Guadalupe Phase, then decrease during the Rosario Phase (Fig. 38), although this is likely influenced as much by functional variability in the proveniences used in the plots as by temporal change. Plastic decoration of Fidencio Coarse ollas generally tends to decrease during the Guadalupe Phase, although it fluctuates considerably (Fig. 39); the proportion of decorated Fidencio Coarse olla body sherds, however, is consistently low during the Rosario Phase. Fidencio Coarse ollas with unthickened rims are more common during the Guadalupe Phase. Fidencio Coarse ollas with flared rims increase to a peak during the Late Guadalupe Phase, and then decrease (Fig. 44). Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls with rim form No. 1 are most common early in the Guadalupe Phase and less common during the Rosario Phase (Fig. 45). The crescent motif incised on Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls first appears late in the Guadalupe Phase and continues into the Rosario Phase (Fig. 4 7). Interior incising on Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls decreases through the Guadalupe and Rosario Phases (Fig. 48). In addition to the frequency changes described above, several things distinguish Early Guadalupe from Late Guadalupe. Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls tend to be fewer than 7 percent, and Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls more than 30 percent of the sherds from an Early Guadalupe Phase provenience. Atoyac Yellow-White handles occur only during the Early Guadalupe Phase. Several attributes of Fidencio Coarse olla rims are useful in identifying deposits from the Early Guadalupe Phase: over 80 percent of the rims are unthickened; none are very thickened; more than 60 percent are unflared. Plastic decoration on Fidencio Coarse ollas in the forrri of semi-circles seems confined to the Early Guadalupe. Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls of the Early Guada-

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

58

1 II ).J,/1> . . . I t

J '

IJ-· . •

,,

I I

/

a d

c ~

a

e

f Fig. 36. Socorro Fine Gray ware of the Rosario Phase. a. Decoration like Fidencio Coarse ollas (Tl/20); b. Applique limb on outleaned wall bowl rim (T4/22); c. Wavy line incising on outleaned wall bowl rim (C/ZF); d. Frog on outleaned wall bowl rim (C/ZF); e. Highly stylized frog on outleaned wall bowl rim (C/ZF); f. Effigy vessel (Bur. 52/V.2). (Scale 1:2)

59

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS Provenience Clm c Q 18

+*= + + +*

Q ... a..- 17

!:!."'(

c:

"C

2

ID

C)r-

c:

16 6

Q

0a..ID

0

c:

"C

ID

;Ia

0

"'.,0

c;·

-~ a· '!>'

*

*

+

15

+* +*

4

3 2 14 13 12 11

+* + +* +* +*

*

+ + +

10

9

.

21 20 8 19 7 1

+ +

22

*

*

*

*

*

+

*

+ + +

* *

*

*

+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-10.000 20.000

o.

15.000

5.0000

25.000

%

Fig. 37. Plot of occurrence of Fidencio Coarse outleaned wall bowl rims expressed as a percentage of the total number of rim and decorated body sherds. Provenience code numbers are the same as those used in the scaling (Table 2). Provenience Clm 18 c: 0

.

... a..- 17

0

o"


0

.

-~ 0~

*

*

*

*

•* +*

.+*

10 9 22 21 20 8 19 7 1

*

*

*

*

+

]]

"' 0 c;·

*

. ..+ •* + .. +

16 6

+ + •* +* + * +* + + +----+----+----+----·----+----+----+----+----+----+--

*

*

*

5.0000

J.

10.000 7.5000

2.5030

12.500

%

Fig. 39. Plot of occurrence of Fidencio Coarse olla body sherds with plastic decoration expressed as a percentage of the total number of rim and decorated body sherds. Provenience code numbers are the same as those used in the scaling (Table 2). Provenience

am c Q 18

+* + + + + + + + + + +

o.- 17

Q ..

o-


*

* *

* *

* *

*

* *

*

·----·----+----+----·----+----+----+----+----+----+--

20.000

J.

l

o. 000

40.000 30.000

50.000

%

Fig. 40. Plot of occurrence of Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowl rims expressed as a percentage of the total number of rim and decorated body sherds. Provenience code numbers are the same as those used in the scaling (Table 2).

61

CHRONOLOGY AND CERAMICS Provenience Clm 18 c Q

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + * + + + * +* +* + +* + +

Q ... o..- 17 o'< 16

c

6

"tt ID

C)r-

c Q Q-

o..ID

Q

5

15 4

3 2 14

c "tt ID

13 12

]1 ;IIIli

0

..."' Q

0

-:r: Q~

10 9

*

22 21 20 8 19 7 1

*

*

* *

* *

*

*

* *

*

*

* * *

+----~----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+---

o.

60.000

40.000 60.000

20.000

100.00

%

Fig. 41. Plot of occurrence of Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowl rims expressed as a percentage of the total number of rim and decorated body sherds. Provenience code numbers are the same as those used in the scaling (fable 2). Provenience Clm c Q 18

... +*

Q ... o..- 17 g_'< 16

c

C)r-

c

Q

+*

6

"tt ID Q ..

o..ID

Q

c

"tt ID

+ +

5

15

+* +* +*

4

3 2

+

14

+

13 12

+

;IIIli

"'...0 0

-:r: Q~

*

* * *

+ +

]] 0

*

+

10 9 22 21 20 8 19 7

+ + + +

*

*

*

*

*

*

+

*

+ + +

1

o.

*

* *

*

+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+ ----+----+--

10.000

5.0000

2.5000

7.5000

12.500

%

Fig. 42. Plot of occurrence of Guadalupe Burnished Brown outleaned wall bowl rims expressed as a percentage of the total number of rim and decorated body sherds. Provenience code numbers are the same as those used in the scaling (Table 2).

62

F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY Provenience G')m

c a a ... a..a-
\

1\


\/t'V7

>" /\"-,'-".....,

7

"'

f62

a.

-N-

~ ~

I

Plan

Rocks

'lr

Fig. 58. Features of Household Cluster LG-5 in the expanded excavations of Area C. a. Locations of features. T2 was squares 36K and 37K (narrowed to leave stone wall in higher layer). T2B was squares 381 and 38J. b. Plan and section of F65. (Scale 1:20-b only).

b.

Red Burned Earth

tJ

Section

I

eN---- > z

(j

ttJ ?;J

>

,.,

0 0

-

THE LATE GUADALUPE PHASE COMMUNITY

101

Fig. 59. Sherds from smashed olla bottom on floor of H4.

T2/ 26 was the test pit level which corresponded to C/ZJC. T2/28 was the test pit level which corresponded to C/ZL. T2A/32 was the lowest level excavated in the original squares of T2. It consisted of dark brown, slightly sandy soil with dense sherds, underlying H4. No T2 level was excavated from 300 to 320 em below the surface, since this depth was excavated as H4. T2B/310- was a level excavated from 310 to 320 em below the surface to investigate the layers below H4. It was considered an extension of T2, although it was excavated in squares 381 and 38J (to the west of the original T2 in

squares 36K and 37K). The layer between 310 and 320 em below the surface contained brown sandy soil with large quantities of sherds. T2B/32 and T2B/34 produced sim'ilar deposits, although the soil became more and more clayey as the excavations continued downward. T2B/36 was primarily black clay, which was nearly sterile. (The entire level yielded three sherds.) In most areas of the site this black clay directly overlay bedrock. Since this level extended below the water table, however, excavation ceased before bedrock was reached. Artifacts may indicate that Household Cluster LG-5 was of slightly lower than average social status. Incised decoration was unusually rare on

6

Ee

• H 1 Floor

Post Mold

Rocks

Disturbance

~

-N-

! I

'\t

J

"Kl

:>L

~

I

I A

I 3 ·

b.

· · Packed Clay Floor

section

plan

Fig. 60. Features of Household Cluster LG-6 in excavations AI along the Area A profile. a. Locations of features. b. Plan and section of post mold on Hl floor. (Scale 1:20-b only).

a.

1m

·:::::::::··

2

1

99

~

>-l

tTl

(j

0

Vl

tT:I


>-l

~

0

'Tj

tT:I

t""'

a0

~

0

> z

tTl

V1

0

'-


(j

:;z::l

-

'Tj

> t:1;i

t0

0

-

THE LATE GUADALUPE PHASE COMMUNITY

103

Fig. 61. Post mold in corner of Hl floor.

Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls. The frequency of bowls themselves was slightly below the expected frequency. Normal domestic activities were represented by a bone awl. Chipped stone was more common than expected, and the residents of this cluster shared with those of LG-3 whatever characteristic led to the accumulation of an abnormal quantity of figurines. 6. HOUSEHOLD CLUSTER LG-6 This household cluster included a floor, a hearth, a large amount of midden deposit, and

two burials. Two of the proveniences (AI/ZF and AI/ZP) yielded 240 pieces of burned daub weighing nearly 6.5 kg. The features of this cluster are illustrated in Fig. 60. HI consisted of slightly over 2m 2 of hard packed clay floor. In contrast to most of the other floors described here, HI had not been covered with sand. The floors were seen in the profile of Area A. Two, or possibly three, separate flooring episodes were represented. Unfortunately only a small section of the corner of the house remained. The quarrying operations which helped expose the Area A profile had carried

I04

F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

away the southwest section of the floor. Another interruption had removed the northwest section. The small area that remained was the northeast corner, showing a post mold from the large corner post of the structure (Fig. 61). An alignment of rocks along the east edge of the floor presumably represented the base of the structure's wall. F2 was an irregular area of burned earth and ash approximately 90 em in diameter. It was probably used as a hearth, although it was not the well-defined saucer shape that most hearths from Fabrica San Jose were. It occurred within AI/ZF. AI/ZF was a thick midden deposit of dark brown soil with dense sherds and rock rubble and occasional concentrations of carbonized material and ash. Towards the east it directly overlay bedrock, but several other zones intruded between ZF and bedrock on the west side. This zone occurred at approximately the same level as Hl, extending above and below it. It did not relate to HI stratigraphically, however, since a disturbed area intervened. AI/ZFJ and AI/ZF2 were lenses of ash included within AI/ZF. AI/ZG was a layer of gray ashy soil directly underlying ZF at its western end. AI/ZIB was a layer of highly compacted light brown soil. It lay to the east of HI at approximately the same level. This subdivision extended from 75 to 105 em below the surface. In addition to the artifacts listed in the data tables, this zone yielded a small fragment of greenstone which appears to be from an earspool (Appendix IX). AI/ZIC was the subdivision of ZI below 105 em below the surface. AI/ZID was a subdivision of ZI which extended from I 00 to I20 em below the surface. This subdivision thus overlapped ZIB and ZIC in the squares where the dividing point was I 05 em below the surface. AI/ZP was a lens of lighter colored soil included within AI/ZF. In addition to the artifacts listed in the data tables, this zone yielded an earspool fragment of polished travertine (Appen-

dix IX). It was of a hollow cylindrical form, I.6 em in diameter, with one end flared. Bur. 1, an adult, possibly female, was badly interrupted. Only the right arm and leg remained. The burial occurred in ZF. Bur. 3 consisted of the very fragmentary remains of two males over 60 years of age. It also occurred in ZF. Artifacts of Household Cluster LG-6 show contradictory indications of social status. Bowls were more common than expected, while incised decoration on Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls was less common than expected. The indication of higher status is bolstered by Il fragments of mica, two pieces of shell (one a tiny ornament fragment), and two earspool fragments. A higher frequency of obsidian than expected could indicate that households of higher status (if indeed this one is) had easier access to this high quality imported material. A similar conclusion could be drawn from the high frequency of deer bone. A single polishing pebble might be related to some craft activity, but this is a tenuous connection. Two sherds with calcium carbonate deposits represent salt production, while two sherd disks may be spindle whorls for spinning. 7. HOUSEHOLD CLUSTER LG-7 A bell-shaped pit, two burials, and several midden deposits comprise Household Cluster LG-7. The midden deposits yielded 18 pieces of burned daub. F4 was a bell-shaped pit whose bottom was on the bedrock. The artifacts from this feature were not included in the totals for the household cluster because of the possibility that it is of a slightly later date. The pit underlay AIV/ZF, but neither the ceramics of that zone nor the ceramics from the pit conclusively rule out the possibility of a mixture of Guadalupe and Rosario Phase materials. The bottom of the pit was lined with rocks, some of which were piled in such a way as to make a stand for a Fidencio Coarse olla. The olla had apparently been left on this stand intact but was crushed by the collapse of

THE LATE GUADALUPE PHASE COMMUNITY

plan

E-W section

bedrock section along

profile

Rocks Fig. 62. Detail of F4 in Household Cluster LG-7. (Scale 1:20)

105

106

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

the nearest edge of the pit. The olla had a lining of calcium carbonate on the interior and had thus presumably been used to collect or process water from the springs on the site (Appendix XII). F4 is illustrated in Fig. 62. AIII/ZI was a layer of compacted dark brown sandy soil with moderate amounts of carbonized material. It directly overlay bedrock. Quite a concentration of unusual artifacts occurred in this layer. An entire small Guadalupe Burnished Brown incurved rim bowl was recovered, as well as several artifacts not included in the data tables. These included a polished limestone pendant 4.0 em long, a small round greenstone bead, and three lumps of red ochre. AIV/ZF was a layer of gray sandy soil with dense sherds and rock rubble. It contained mixed material from several phases, except for a few squares, where unmixed Late Guadalupe Phase material was encountered. These parts may be midden deposits from Household Cluster LG-7, but the artifacts from this provenience were not included in the totals for this cluster because of the doubt concerning the nature and purity of the deposits. AIV/ZFI and AIV/ZF2 were deposits of highly compacted dark brown soil stratigraphically below ZF and above ZM. AIV/ZM was a deposit of black clay directly overlying bedrock. In some areas this zone was sterile, and in others it contained a very few sherds. It seems likely that these sherds were the result of a slight mixture from the overlying ZF 1 and ZF2. The artifacts from this provenience were not included in the totals for this cluster because of this doubt concerning the primary nature of the deposit. Bur. 6 was the badly disturbed remains of an adult buried intrusively into AIV/ZF. Only the legs remained. Bur. 8 included the very well preserved but also very incomplete remains of an adult of undetermined sex. The grave was dug from AIV/ZF into AIV/ZM, and most of the remains were subsequently removed by the quarrying operations which produced the Area A profile. Artifacts from Household Cluster LG-7 included a bone gouge and two sherd disks as

representatives of ordinary domestic activity. A lower than expected frequency of bowls and of incised decoration on Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls would indicate lower status. F4 and its calcium carbonate-lined olla are evidence of salt making. The most unusual aspect of this household cluster, however, was the concentration of artifacts which might be involved in the manufacture of a variety of ornaments, especially in AIII/ZI. These included four finely cut and incised shell ornament fragments (three of which were painted red), seven pieces of unmodified shell, a dog canine tooth drilled for suspension, a cut and polished deer tooth, a piece of shell of the large lowland river turtle Dermatemys mawii, a stone pendant, a greenstone bead, a polishing pebble, and three lumps of red ochre. Flannery (1975) notes that Dermatemys mawii provided the shell for turtle shell drums. Polishing pebbles and the red ochre are indications of the manufacture of these ornaments, since both polishing and red paint were involved. An unusually high frequency of obsidian may relate to the fine cutting involved in this manufacturing process. The almost overwhelming abundance of such artifacts in a household cluster where the ceramics seem to indicate lower social status strongly suggests a connection between this household cluster and LG-6, where some indications of higher status occur. Whether the two are considered a single household or not, the most reasonable interpretation would be to view LG-7 as a locus of at least part-time specialized craft activity-the production of status symbols for the residents of LG-6. This connection with the higher status household may have been important in obtaining the large amount of obsidian recovered here. The high frequency of dog bones in this cluster suggests that lower status craftsmen were eating more dog while the higher status residents ate more deer, although the association of deer bones with higher status residences is ambiguous. 8. HOUSEHOLD CLUSTER LG-8 This cluster included a series of midden deposits excavated as levels in T5. These levels

THE LATE GUADALUPE PHASE COMMUNITY yielded three pieces of burned daub, but no floors were encountered either during excavation or upon subsequent examination of the walls of the pit. F23 was a peculiar area of small deposits of various kinds of soil. It occurred in T5 and extended through several levels, roughly from 170 to 225 em below the surface. The lowest part of the feature was a thin sloping layer of yellow-white clay. This was overlain by the same deposit which made up T5/18. Within this was a small patch of hard sterile sand. At the top was another sloping layer of white clay. These layers were visible in the north wall of T5 and were followed into the next square northward. They appeared to comprise a very local phenomenon, the cultural origin of which was never determined. The artifacts from this feature were not included in the totals from this household cluster because of this doubt concerning the origin of the deposits. TS/150- was the level of T5 between 150 and 160 em below the surface. It included brown clayey soil with moderate amounts of carbonized material. A concentration of sherds and rock rubble in sandier soil which overlay this deposit in one corner of the test pit was also included in this layer. T5/ 16 included parts of the same two natural layers as did T5/150-. The pieces of a nearly complete Fidencio Coarse olla were found in the northwest comer of the test pit at this level in the brown clayey layer. T5/ 18 included only the same brown clayey layer which made up part of the levels described above. TS/200- extended from 200 to 230 em below the surface in some places. It included the same brown clayey layer as well as another concentration of sherds and rock rubble in sandier soil which underlay that layer in one corner of the test pit. The pieces of a Fidencio Coarse olla bottom were lying in place together in this layer. TS/220- extended from 220 to as much as 250 em below the surface in some places. It thus overlapped with both T5/200- and T5/24. It was composed primarily of a gray-black clay that underlay the brown clayey layer and the concen-

107

tration of sherds and rock rubble which were included in higher levels. TS/24 was the same gray-black clay as T5/220-. This clay directly overlay bedrock, which occurred at approximately 260 em below the surface. Artifacts from Household Cluster LG-8 did not show marked deviation from expected frequencies. There was a low frequency of incised decoration on Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls, similar to LG-6 and LG-7. It is possible that this cluster should be grouped together with those into a large grouping of higher status and more internal diversity than occurred in the usual Late Guadalupe Phase cluster. 9. HOUSEHOLD CLUSTER LG-9 Midden deposits excavated as levels in T8 were the only proveniences included in this household cluster. One of these levels yielded ten pieces of burned daub. Below this, several small patches of sand floor were observed in cross section in the wall of the pit. These patches were not observed, however, during the excavation of the levels in which they would have occurred, and time did not permit the expansion of T8 to expose a larger area. Thus, although a structure was certainly present in this area, little more can be said of it than simply to note its presence. T8/16 and T8/18 were composed of a light brown sandy soil with occasional concentrations of carbonized material. The ten pieces of burned daub were recovered froni T8/16. T8/20, T8/22, T8/24, and T8/26 were all in a layer of soil similar to that which comprised the two levels described above except for the darker color of the lower deposit. The patches of sandy floor noted in the wall of the pit occurred in the lower 25 em of this natural layer. T8/28 was in a layer of black clay with sparse cultural material (eight sherds). Excavation stopped at 300 em below the surface, but the black clay which occurred at that depth directly overlay bedrock in other nearby excavations. Artifacts representing ordinary domestic activities in Household Cluster LG-9 included a bone awl, two bone gouges, and a sherd disk. A lower

108

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

than expected frequency of incised decoration on Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls may indicate slightly lower status than average. Two pieces of unmodified shell were recovered, however. Salt production is evidenced by one sherd with a deposit of calcium carbonate. 10. HOUSEHOLD CLUSTER LG-10 The lowest level in Tl 7 made up this household cluster. Although no floors were discovered while this layer was being excavated, several probable sandy floors were observed in the wall of the test pit after excavation. Tl7/28 was a layer of brown sandy soil which included the floors described above. The same soil extended downwards from this level, but excavation was halted at 300 em below the surface for the sake of safety. Time and funds did not permit the expansion of the excavations to expose more area or allow the deepening of the pit. Artifacts from this household cluster provide us with little additional information, since they consisted of a total of 28 sherds and nothing from any non-ceramic category. 11. HOUSEHOLD CLUSTER LG-11 The only features of this household cluster were patches of sand floors observed in the walls of T20. These floors were not discerned as the levels of T20 were excavated, and it was not possible to expand T20 to investigate them further. Thus the only proveniences included here were the Late Guadalupe Phase levels of T20. T20/16 and T20/176- were in a deposit of light brown sandy soil with occasional concentrations of carbonized material. T20/176- was the level between 176 and 200 em below the surface. This latter level also included a lens of yellow clay, which barely extended into the pit from the north wall. Just above this lens of clay were several possible sand floors, which also just extended into the pit from the north wall. A nearly complete Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowl was recovered from T20/16. T20/20, T20/22, and T20/24 included the same light brown sandy layer described above, which extended fairly deeply at the north end of the pit, as well as a layer of gray clay, which in

turn contained a lens of softer, sandier gray soil with dense sherd material. T20/22 yielded another complete Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowl. No data on the ceramics from T20/24 appear in the appendixes because the sherds disappeared before they were analyzed. T20/26 and T20/28 were a layer of hard yellow clay. No ceramic data from T20/28 appear in the appendixes because only plain body sherds were recovered from that level, and these did not enter into the counts in the table. By 300 em below the surface, where excavations stopped for safety reasons, cultural material had become very scarce, and the deposit appeared quite similar to the sterile yellow clay which directly overlay bedrock in other nearby excavations. Artifacts from this cluster tend to occur in frequencies near those expected. It was necessary to omit LG-11 from several chi square tests because of the relatively small sample it provided. A lower frequency of bowls than expected may indicate lower social status for the residents here. 12. PROVENIENCE NOT ASSIGNED TO HOUSEHOLD CLUSTERS

T52/2 was the only level of T52. It only occurred in a part of the pit where bedrock was deep enough to leave anything under the top 20 em, which were discarded as plow zone. The level from 20 em to bedrock was the same soil as the plow zone, but the few sherds which it yielded indicate a Late Guadalupe Phase date. Its spatial isolation from other Late Guadalupe Phase deposits precluded its inclusion in a household cluster, and in the absence of any features, creating an additional household cluster for a deposit this poor in cultural material was pointless. It may, however, serve to delimit the extreme edge of the Late Guadalupe Phase occupation in this direction. 13. SUMMARY Marked growth of the community at Fabrica San Jose occurred right at the beginning of the Late Guadalupe Phase. Occupation continued in all the areas occupied during the Early Guadalupe Phase. These areas became Household Clus-

THE LATE GUADALUPE PHASE COMMUNITY ters LG-1, LG-2, and LG-6. By the time of point 9 on the curve of Fig. 35e (the first point in the Late Guadalupe Phase segment of the curve), the large unit comprising LG-6, LG-7, and perhaps LG-8 was in operation, and LG-4, LG-5, and LG-9 were occupied. During these very early years of the Late Guadalupe Phase an interesting spatial division of the community was apparent. Two separate halves can be seen in Fig. 52, consisting of Household Clusters LG-1 and LG-2 to the east and Household Clusters LG-4, LG-5, LG-6, LG-7, LG-8, and LG-9 to the west. Between was an open area which was not occupied until slightly later in the Guadalupe Phase, based on the assignations of proveniences to particular points along the time curve within the Late Guadalupe Phase. One of the two higher status households identified (LG-1 and LG-6) was in each half. The possibly larger household unit including LG-6, LG- 7, and perhaps LG-8 was in the half with the larger population. The concentrations of burials of higher status individuals Qudged primarily by the quantity of grave goods included) in Household Cluster LG-1, where other indicators of higher status were present, argues for the attachment of this higher status to entire households, rather than to specific individuals. This, together with the fact that several of the burials of LG-1 which included ceramic offerings were children, indicates that this higher status was ascribed to a member of that household at birth. It was not an achieved status. This is consistent with Flannery's (1968) argument that ascribed status can be seen in the preceding San Jose Phase. The same must certainly have been true of the unit involving Household Clusters LG-6, LG-7, and perhaps LG-8. It is interesting to note that both of these higher status households were the continued occupations of the first areas settled at the site. This may imply that the descendants of the founders of the site were the ones whb, after several generations, came to occupy positions of higher status. By the time of point 12 on the curve of Fig. 35e, Household Clusters LG-3, LG-10, and LG-11 had been occupied. T43 and T46 both contained deposits of the Guadalupe Phase which were not unequivocally assignable to either the early or

109

late part of the phase. It seems likely, however, that these deposits date to the Late Guadalupe Phase. If so, they probably represent another household cluster or two, even though no features were encountered in these excavations. Thus the spatial division in the community was somewhat lessened as the Late Guadalupe Phase progressed. This would give a total of 11 households (counting LG-6, LG-7, and LG-8 as one). The previous estimate of five persons per household yields a population estimate of 55 people. The unit comprising LG-6, LG-7, and LG-8, however, would probably have included more people than the others since it was spatially larger and more diversified. Thus a final population estimate can be made of approximately 50 to 65 people. Calculating the occupied area for the Late Guadalupe Phase by measuring the area included in a boundary enclosing all the primary deposits of the phase gives a figure of about 2.0 ha. Omitting the area not included in the two major groups of household clusters, however, reduces this to approximately 1.2 ha. The Late Guadalupe Phase community, then, was still composed of households engaging in the preparation and consumption of plant and animal foods and a relatively uniform range of domestic tasks, possibly including spinning. The distribution of sherds with calcium carbonate linings indicates that the production of salt was a relatively minor activity carried on by most, if not all, of the households in the community. A concentration of debris and artifacts from the manufacture of ornaments attests the presence of this as a specialized (at least part-time) activity associated with one of the higher statns households in the community. A fragment of a travertine earspool in Cluster LG-6 demonstrates the use of this material, although no direct evidence of its quarrying or working was found. The range of social statuses occupied by members of the community had increased, and the positions of higher status were occupied by people living on the areas of earliest occupation at the site. These and other implications of the Late Guadalupe Phase community will be further pursued in Chapter VII.

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

110

I

.~

..

.'

B-23 ..

FABRICA SAN JOSE

Excavated Area

I

(Mag) -o;;;;;;;iOiiiiiiU[l:-

Cleaned Profile

: =J ===x ~

Test Pit

N I

OAXACA, MEXICO

Magnetic Declination: 8"45' E.

Artificial

Mound

Vertical Bank

c::=J

·------·

0

25

&.

Salt Spring

Modern Structure

50

Meters

Fig. 63. Rosario Phase Household Clusters.

Contour Interval:

2

Meters

VI THKROSARIO PHASE COMMUNITY

During the Rosario Phase the area covered by the community at Fabrica San Jose continued to grow. Most of the growth occurred towards the north and west. The area closest to the cliff along the west edge of the site, where the artificial mound visible today is located, was first occupied at this time. The locations of the household clusters defined for the Rosario Phase are shown in Fig. 63. For the first time in the Fabrica San Jose sequence the distributions of artifacts which have been taken as indicators of normal domestic activities indicate that food preparation was not an activity common to all household clusters. No animal bone was recovered from Household Clusters R-9 or R-1 0. While it is true that only small quantities of cultural material were included in the totals for these household clusters, it seems likely that these two areas were not the sites of ordinary domestic activities. This idea will be elaborated in the individual discussion of those clusters. Among the clusters which did produce animal bone, the distribution was quite different from the expected random distribution (chi square = 306.2360 for 8 degrees of freedom; associated probability less than .001). The figures for this tabulation of total unmodified animal bone and total sherds (as a control) against all household clusters except R-1 0 are given in Table 5. As noted in Chapter V, however, it is difficult to draw any conclusion from such a distribution. In contrast to the situation during the Late Guadalupe Phase, the distribution of deer and dog bone was random (chi square = 2.3297 for 3 degrees of freedom; associated probability less than .7). Only Household Clusters R-1, R-2, R-3, and R-8 yielded enough bones of these animals to be

included in the tabulation, however. The figures are given in Table 5. Grinding stones were also absent from several household clusters. Although the frequencies, as usual, were too low to test the distributions statistically (except by omitting so many household clusters as to rob the test of its meaning), the absence is striking in only one case. Household Cluster R-3 produced such a large quantity of sherds that the complete absence of grinding stones deserves further comment. This particular instance will be discussed below in connection with the description of R-3. Bone needles, awls, and gouges and sherd disks continued to be scattered through most of the households in frequencies too low to allow statistical tests of the distributions. As in other phases, they appear to represent a common domestic tool kit. The distribution of bowls and jars seems nonrandom, as in all other phases (chi square = 22.7146 for 9 degress of freedom; associated probability less than .01). The figures for this tabulation, which included all household clusters, are also given in Table 5. Since Atoyac YellowWhite outleaned wall bowls with incised decoration were extremely rare during the Rosario Phase their distribution could no longer be used as an indicator of higher status. These serving vessels, however, were replaced in the household inventory by Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls, which also have incised and unincised varieties. Thus the distribution of Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls with incised decoration was studied in the hope that it would provide a similar indication of higher status during the Rosario Phase. The distribution did tum out to be non-random (chi square= 18.9009 for 111

9

15.2

0

21

4.4

55.0

2

46

15.8

13.5

3.9

21

17

20.5

5.9

4

29

7

33 41.8

8 12.0

114.3

23.5

178.2

122

36.6

13

171

37

155.5

31.9

391.1

155

42

109.8

68.5

454

93

10.3

31.5

72

4.7

9

28

279.4

77.4

6

15 377

52.2

15.2

3 59

67

336.6

80.7

12

358

76

76 97.4

28

1778.5

23.3

1741

520.5

852.5

2843 890

R-2

546

249.5

833 224

R-1

1

6.4

5

23.3

20

5.7

4

8.7

11

17.8

22

70.1

83

109.4

129

95.5

63

358.5

275

24.0

21

11.0

14

252.0

0 158

49.9

33

291.6

270

84.4

106

1775.1

1797

850.9

2747 829

R-3

0

2

4

1

0

3

3.8

4

6.0

1

5.2

10

54.9

15

1

0

39.8

0 11

8.2

7

41.1

40

11.9

13

290.0

308

139.0

448 121

R4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

32.6

2

0

1

23.9

0 3

4.9

0

30.0

30

8.8

9

179.1

164

85.9

273 101

R-5

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

34.6

1

0

3

25.9

0 7

5.2

1

24.8

26

7.2

6

183.2

196

87.8

291 75

R-6

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

2

2

18.0

6

4

1

14.9

0 26

2.6

1

17.1

21

4.9

1

96.7

90

46.3

146 53

R-7

1

11.0

9

39.9

47

9.8

8

14.9

3

30.4

39

65.3

55

101.8

94

88.9

107

88.1

257

21.2

22

9.8

9

54.2

5 139

9.2

29

62.0

63

18.0

17

298.1

280

142.9

486 161

R-8

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

2

17.2

2

0

0

12.4

1 0

2.6

0

7.0

7

2.0

2

93.3

94

44.7

143 44

R-9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0

0

1

0

11.5

10

5.5

21 7

R-10

NOTE: Numbers in smaller type are the expected frequencies from the chi square tests described in the text. If no number is given, that artifact category or household cluster was omitted from the relevant test. The expected frequencies· given here for those artifacts tabulated with total sherds as a control give only half the picture, since the differences between expected and observed total sherds also contributed to the chi square scores of those tables.

Black Chert

Brown Chert

Speckled Chert

Gray Chert

Very Fine White Chert

White Chert

Total Obsidian

Total Quartz

Total Chert

Total Chipped Stone

Dog Bone

Deer Bone

Grinding Stones Unmodified Animal Bone

Figurine Fragments

Unincised Socorro Bowls

Incised Socorro Bowls

Jars

Total Sherds Bowls

Artifacts

Household Clusters

ROSARIO PHASE HOUSEHOLD CLUSTERS: TOTALS FOR ARTIFACTS MENTIONED FREQUENTLY IN THE TEXT

TABLE 5

......

\.l tr:l >-3

--
>-3 < tr:l

is:

:;t:l

0

"'T'j

I:""' tr:l

u u

is:

-

u

> z

tr:l

'-
z

en

:;t:l \.l

->

"'T'j

> eo

N

......

THE ROSARIO PHASE COMMUNITY 8 degrees of freedom; associated probability less than .02). Household Cluster R-1 0 had to be omitted from the tabulation because of its small sample of cultural material. The figures are given in Table 5. As was the case with the Atoyac Yellow-White outleaned wall bowls, the cause of this distribution was something other than a temporal shift during the Rosario Phase. Thus higher frequencies of bowls (vs. jars) and of Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowls with incised decoration (vs. those without incised decoration) will be used as indicators of higher status in this chapter, following the reasoning in Chapter IV. Ornaments of stone, bone, shell, mica, and ceramics will again be considered related to higher status as well. Several other categories of artifacts also continue the patterns of non-random distribution seen during earlier phases. The implications of these distributions are not discussed here. The reader is instead referred to the discussions which appear in Chapters IV .and V. The results of the chi square tests of the distributions of these artifacts during the Rosario Phase follow. Continuing the pattern established during the Late Guadalupe Phase, the distribution of figurine fragments was not random (chi square = 66.0756 for 8 degrees of freedom; associated probability less than .001). The total number of figurine fragments was tabulated together with the total number of sherds (as a control) against all household clusters except R-10. These figures appear in Table 5. The total amount of chipped stone continued to be unevenly distributed among the household clusters (chi square = 530.4740 for 8 degrees of freedom; associated probability less than .001). Household Cluster R-1 0 was omitted from this tabulation. Sufficient quantities of chipped stone were available only from Clusters R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, and R-8 to tabulate the three major materials: chert, obsidian, and quartz. Once again, these materials showed a non-random distribution among household clusters (chi square = 40.0501 for 8 degrees of freedom; associated probability less than .001). The different kinds of chert also were non-randomly distributed among Clusters R-1, R-2, R-3, and R-8, which were the only

113

ones which produced enough chert to enter into the tabulations (chi square = 31.3753 for 12 degrees of freedom; associated probability less than .01). The figures for all these tabulations are given in Table 5. 1. HOUSEHOLD CLUSTER R-1 A floor, a bell-shaped pit, a hearth, two human burials, and several midden deposits made up Household Cluster R-1. One of the midden deposits yielded a single piece of burned daub. These features, located in the expanded excavations of Area D, are illustrated in Fig. 64. H6A covered approximately 7m 2 of uninterrupted floor area. It was a single sand floor surface with no evidence of the sequence of resurfacings seen in most other floors. It was built on the remains of the Late Guadalupe H6B and H6C. The relations between these Late Guadalupe structures and H6A is described in more detail under Household Cluster LG-3. Although more interrupted than H6B and H6C, H6A showed the same northern edge. On the west, south, and east the floors extended beyond the excavated area. A large area in the center, however, was disturbed by a hearth and a burial, both of slightly later Rosario Phase date. Those sections of the floor which were free of interruptions contained no additional features. H6A directly underlay D/ZPC. F16 was a bell-shaped pit with very well defined red burned walls. The bottom contained a substantial layer of ash and fire-cracked rocks, probably indicating use as an oven. The mouth of this pit occurred in the upper part of D/ZL, and its bottom extended down into ZP. It did not, however, extend low enough to interrupt H6A. Fig. 64 illustrates this bell-shaped pit. F67 was a very irregular and poorly defined hearth. It was a more or less level patch of red bumed earth, approximately 150 em across, overlain by charcoal, ash, and fire-cracked r-ocks. It occurred in the lower part of D/ZP and extended downward, interrupting the floor of H6A. D/ZG6 was a small lens of sherds and rock rubble in a matrix of gray sandy soil. It directly overlay ZL, and most of the sherds it yielded

114

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

H6A Floor

Disturbance

Rocks

1m

a.

section Rocks plan

b.

Ash

Red Burned Earth

Fig. 64. Features of Household Cluster R-1. a. Locations of features in the expanded excavations of Area D. T33 was squares 29F and 30F. b. Plan and section of F16. (Scale 1:20-b only)

THE ROSARIO PHASE COMMUNITY indicated a Rosario Phase date. There was enough mixture of later material, however, that this provenience was omitted from the artifact totals for this household cluster. D/ZL was a layer of dark gray soil with several lenses of dense sherds and rock rubble. D/ZPA, D/ZPB, and D/ZPC were the three subdivisions of a layer of brown sandy soil which directly underlay D/ZL. D/ZPA was the upper half of this zone only; D/ZPC, the lower half; and D/ZPB, both halves (not dug separately). This zone contained the remains of an undetermined number of structures. The floors were poorly preserved, however, and so badly interrupted that after an initial attempt to separate them, it was decided that the results of such an operation did not justify the expenditure of time which would have been required. Some of the small patches of floor had stone alignments as-

115

sociated with them. The small excavations made to set these wall bases, and the robbing of stones from earlier bases to construct later ones added to the confusion (Fig. 65). Thus this zone contained partly midden debris and partly floor debris, although it was not excavated as were the other floors. It directly overlay H6A. D/ZL&P resulted from the initial attempt to sort out the floors of D/ZP. The material from these excavations came partly from ZL and partly from ZP and was thus kept separate from both under this title. T33/8, T33/10, and T33/12 were the levels of T33 which corresponded to D/ZL. T33/14 was the level of T33 which corresponded approximately to D/ZL&P, since it overlapped the two zones. T 3 3/16 corresponded approximately to D/ZPA. It does not appear in the appendixes

Fig. 65. Badly interrupted remains of structures in D/ZP.

116

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIV E SOCIETY

6)

lm N

I•

Ash

................ ................ ............... ........... ....

Rocks

...............

I

i[

H9 Floor

Disturbance

-4!!!~~

I

Red

Burned Earth

Fig. 66. Features of Household Cluster R-2 in the expanded excavations of Area C. a. Locations of features. T2 was squares 36K and 37K. T2B was squares 381 and 38J. b. Section showing stratigraphic positions of hearths below H9 floor. (Scale 1 :20-b only)

THE ROSARI O PHASE COMMUNITY

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306

0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

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& VESSEL FORM

3

3

3

4 8 0

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327 67 12 5 101 0 2 84 1 2 2 0 0

C/ ZD

COUNTS OF COMBINATIONS OF WARE

0

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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297 4 1 2 194 2 1 52 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 8

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4

0

1

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0

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0

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0

0

0

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0

0

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0

4 1 0

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35 0

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T6/ 18

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0

0

0 1

0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

4 0

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6 1

T6/ 20 22

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0

0

0 0

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3 0

TO/

APPEND! X 1.

0

0 0

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149

TS/ 20

22

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COUNTS OF COMB! NAT IONS OF WARE & VESSEL FORM

0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

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0

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0

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69 7

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Tl7/ 20

Tl4/ 20

Tl4/ 18

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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117

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0 0 58 0 0

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35 1

122 0 1 0 98 0 0 14 0 0

152 1

79

1

0

l3 0

T 14/ 14

Tl't/ 12

8

Tl4/ 10

T14/ 16

0

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0

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0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

8

63 5 1 0 44 0 0 9

T 17/ 24

60 5 0 0 38 0 0

Tl7/ 22

COUNTS OF COMBINATIONS OF WARE & VESSEL FORM

Tl4/

Tl3/ 22

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0

Tl3/ 18

Tl3/ 16

Tl3/ 14

APPENDIX I.

0 0 0 b 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 0

0

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11

81 9 3 0 46 0 1

Tl7/ 26

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0 0

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2

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TOTAL SHERD FlO OWB RM Fl') HEMS ~M FlO EFGY GR FD OLLA RM FID JLLA DB F I D T EC RM SO: OWB RM S DC HEMB RM SOC !NCB RM SOC CPSL RM SOC FLTB RM OWB RR SOC 011 B PB SOC OWB PI SJC OLLA R'l SOC T EC R"' SOC WMOL RM SOC WMOL DB Y-W OWB RM Y-W HA~OLES v-w TfC R'l G3 B OWB RM GBB JWB BR M GBB HEMB RM GBB I N.CB RM GBB FT PL RM :;aa FTPL PR GBB FTPL DR GBB FT PL LG G3B POTR RM GBB HANDLES LUP OWB RM LUP HEMB R)l J OS OWB RM LEA OWB RM OTHER DB&RM

0 0 0 0 3

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0 :J

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0

a

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0 1 0 0

4 0 0 4 0 0

11

0 0 0

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0

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0

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0

0

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0

0 l 0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0 0 0 0

6

0 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2

0 0 l 0 2 0

0

0 0

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0

0

9

0

0 0 93 3

11

143

F19/ PlT2

0 0

0

0 0 0

1

10 0 0 0 8

F 17

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 25 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 73 0 l

0

0

2

11

42 2

F 16/ L4

120 7

F 16

0

0 0 0

0 0

t)

l

F13

I•

0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 15 0 0 1

1

l

0 0 0

0

0

0

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5 1 5

0 0 43

0

72

F23

APPENDIX

1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

0

0

3

0 0 0 l 0 0

0

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0 0

0 4

30 1

0

0

0

52

F26

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

0 3

0 10 0

0

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1 0

0 10 0 0 0

1

0 55

0

86 6

F33

0 2

0

0

4

0

4

l

2

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0

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1

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0 67 0

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95

F39

0 0 0 l 0 0 0 1

0

0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0

3

l

1

0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0

0

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0 54 16 l

0

1

85

F40

WARE

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5

0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0

0

0

0

0

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1

c

6 0 0

F41

COUNTS OF COMBINATIONS OF

2

0 0

5

7

0

4

1 0 10 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

226

0

9

0 0 0 2

0

0

2

0

0

32

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542 6 2 0 234

0 0 0

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9

0

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l

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0

30

0 155 l 4

0

237 8

F42/ PITZ

0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 l

0

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0

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0

1 0

0 l

10

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23 0

F42/ PI T3

VESSEL FORM

F42/ PI Tl

&

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

l 0

0

0 0 0

0 0

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29 0 0 0 5 20

F45

0 0

0

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F46

3

0 0 1 0 0 0

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0 l 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

0

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3 0 0

28

F47

0 0 0 2

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86

0 0 0

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58

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148

F48

0 0 0 0

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TOTAL SHERO RM FlJ OWB F 10 HEMB RM FlO EFGY GR FlO OLLA RM FlO OLLA DB RM F D TEC RM SOC OwB SOC HEMS RM SOC !NCB RM SOC CPSL RM SOC F LTB RM ~B SOC J WB PB SOC OWB PI SOC OWB SOC Ol LA RM RM SOC TEC SOC WMOL RM SOC WMOL DB Y-W OWB RM Y-W HANDLES RM Y-W TEC ~M GBB ::JWB GBB OWB BRM GB3 HEMB RM GBB !NCB RM :>BB FTPL RM :;sa FTPL ?~ GBB FTPL DR :;33 FTPL LG GBB POTR RM GBB HANDLES RM LUP OWB LU P HEMB RM RM J OS 0\oiB RM lEA JWB OTHER DB&RM 0

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14

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J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

2

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2

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1

0

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21

F 58

0

0

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0

4 1

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29 2 0 0

F57

F55

0 6 0

2

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20

F53

0 0 38 0

0 0

0

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0

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F61

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APPENDIX

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F62

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F65

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F64

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COUNTS OF COHBINAT IONS OF ~ARE

2

0 0 0

1

0

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COUNTS OF FIDENCIO COARSE OlLA ATTRIBUTES

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4 0 0 1 3 0 0 4 3

F57

0 0 0

11 3 4 10

0

14 0 0 2 12

F55

0 0 2

1

9 0 0 3 6 0 6 3 2

F53

APPENDIX II.

0 0 0

0

1

0

8 11 1.2 2 21 0

13

23 0 0 2

F64

0 0 0

0 0 0 0

l3 0 0 6 1 0 10 3 3 10

F 65

1 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

F66

0 0 0

0 0

0

0

2 6

1 1

5 1 2 3 5 0

F67

0 0

0

0

0

9 0 0 5 4 0 8 1 1 8 0 0 0

F69

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

F68

20 0 0 2 1 0 0 0

11

4

29 2 0 8 23 0 27

(0)

H6C

0

0 21 39 55 5 25 35 0 1 4 9 3 0 0

0

()

D 0 0 0 0 1

3 0

0 10 0 7

1 3

10

3

HB I AI

57

H6 IX I

0

0 0 0 l 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0

4

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

H8 IX I

2

0

6 0 0 3 3 0 6

HB 101

196 0 1 2 6 1 0 0

110

309 49 B 141 225 0 341 25

H9 I AI

219 31 4 86 114 0 245 15 110 150 0 1 5 3 5 0 0

H9 IDI

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

1 0 0 1 0 0 1

H10 I AI

0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 12 0 2 1 2 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0

4

0 0 0

14 2 0 12 0 16

H10 I XI

2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

2

l 3 0 4 0

0

4 0

Hl I XI

H10 (01

0

2

0

0 1

0

1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

101

H1

5 4 0 0

1

10 2 0 6 6 0 10 2 4 8 0

Hl I AI

COUNTS OF FIOENCIO COARSE OLLA ATTRIBUTES

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

F62

COUNTS OF FIOENCIO COARSE OLLA ATTRIBUTES

1 6 12 0 0 2 1 1 0 1

17

1

11

l8 0 0 6

H14 IAI

0 0 0

3

6 4

0

13 0 0 26 46 1 12 1 2ft 49

(A)

H4

6 0 l

17

15

1

66 1 0

88 9 0 34 63 0 89 8 21 76 1

27 40 0 10 8 16 3 0 0

5

39 0 62

28

H14 I XI

0

0

5 0 0

6 0 2 4

5

0 9 2 0 10 1

11 0

Hl8 IAI

0

0 0

5 1

13 1 1

11

13 0 23 1

11

11 20 0 30 l 1.2 19 0 1 3 3 0 0

24 0 0

H5 IAI

29 2 0

H4 IX I

Hllt I 01

0

0

0 1 1 0

0

7 0 0 3 4 0 1 0 1 6

H4 (0)

......

--< m .....,

('"')

0

Cll

> ....., < m

-

s;::

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m

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0\ 00

UNBURNISHED POORLY BURN EVE t-ll Y BURN RM: JNT"il CK RM: THICK R~: V THICK RM: CURVED RM: STRAIT RM: UNFLAR.E RM: FLARED o:: ROSETTE DC: HERNGBN DC: DASHES oc: PUNCTAT DC: HACHUR E oc: SEMICRC DC: OTHE~

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 0

27

0 18 9 0 0 8 14 1 0 l

27

0 0 16 11 0

0

J

H 18 (X l

(OJ

Hl8

APPENDIX II.

COUNTS OF FIDENCIO COARSE OLLA ATTRIBUTES

\0

0\

......

~

t:1

--

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;J>

APPENDIX III COUNTS OF SOCORRO FINE GRAY OUTLEANED WALL BOWL ATTRIBUTES

The tables which follow give the counts of occurrence of the Socorro Fine Gray outleaned wall bowl attributes which comprise the third subset of ceramic data discussed in Chapter II. The attributes are described in Section 5 of that chapter. The abbreviations for provenience designations are those which have been used throughout the text. They are explained in Chapter I, Section 3. The abbreviations used for the attributes are as follows: RIM: 1: The first state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.1. RIM: 2: The second state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.

2. RIM: 3: The third state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.3. RIM: 4: The fourth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.

4. RIM: RIM: RIM: 7. RIM:

5: The fifth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.5. 6: The sixth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.6. 7: The seventh state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No. 8: The eighth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.

8. RIM: 9: The ninth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No.9. RIM: 10: The tenth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form, No. 10. RIM: 11: The eleventh state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No. 11. RIM: 12: The twelfth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: No. 12. RIM: OTHER: The thirteenth state of Attribute 1, Rim Form: rims not classifiable in any of the other 12 categories. RM ECCN: NO: The first state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: none. RM ECCN: 1: The second state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: No. 1. RM ECCN: 2: The third state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: No. 2. RM ECCN: 3: The fourth state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: No. 3. RM ECCN: 4: The fifth state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: No. 4.

171

RM ECCN: 5: The sixth state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: No.5. RM ECCN: 6: The seventh state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: No. 6. RM ECCN: 7: The eighth state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: No.7. RM ECCN:OTH: The ninth state of Attribute 2, Rim Eccentricity: other rim eccentricities not classifiable in the above categories. ZONEDTONING: The first state of Attribute 3, Zoned Toning: present. NO ZONETONE: The second state of Attribute 3, Zoned Toning: absent. NEG. PAINT: The first state of Attribute 4, Negative Painting: present. NO NEGPAINT: The second state of Attribute 4, Negative Painting: absent. NO INCISING: The first state of Atrribute 5, Incising: unincised. FINE INCIS: The second state of Attribute 5, Incising: fine incising. WIDE INCIS: The third state of Attribute 5, Incising: wide incising. MTF:PENNANT: The first state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: pennant. MTF:CRESCNT: The second state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: crescent. MTF:1 LINE: The third state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: .single line. MTF:2. LINE: The fourth state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: double line. MTF:LINEBRK: The fifth state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: line break. MTF:HACHURE: The sixth state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: hachure. MTF:SCALLOP: The seventh state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: scallop. MTF:OTHER: The eighth state of Attribute 6, Incised Motif: other motifs not classifiable in the above categories.

l

I~CIS

WIDE INC IS "'TF :PENNANT ~T F: C RESCNT "'TF: 1 LJ NE HTF:2 LI\IES MTF:LINEBRK 'HF:HACHURE HTF:SCALLJP HTF: OTHER

FI~E

2 3 4 5 ~1M: b RIM: 7 :tIM: 8 Rl M: 9 R I": 10 RIM: 11 RPI: 12 RIM: OTHE'I. RM ECC N: NO R~ ECCN: 1 RM ECCN: 2 RM EC::N: 3 ~M ECCN: 4 RM ECCN: 5 ~M ECC:N: 6 RM ECCN: 7 RM ECCN:QTH ZJ\jEOTO~ 1\IG t-40 ZONETONE NE:;. PAINT ,ljO NEGPAINT WJ INCISING

RIM: fUM: il. I M: RIM: R I '1:

0 1 0 32 0 0 0

0

5

5 0 0 2

0

1

8 5 0

0 0 0

0 0 l

0 32 0 32 30 0 2 0 1

0

0 1 23 0 29 15

')

0 0 0 0

0

3 0

0

1 1 25 0 1

0 0

12 13 1 0 1 0 3 1

All ZF

0 0

0

0

')

2

5

9 10 1

Ail ZE

0 0 0 0 12 0 12 11 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 12 0 0 0

0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0 0

4

6 6 0 0 0 0

2 2 0 0

0 0 0

0

0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

3

0 0 0 4

0 0 0 0

2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0

l

AI/ ZH

0 0 0 0 6

0 0 0

0 0 0 6 0 0

0 0

0 0

0

0

0

4 2 0

AI/ ZG

0 l 0 1 0

0 0

11 2 0 0

0 13

0 0 0 0 0 0 13

0

1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0

3 7

AI/ ZHA

1

0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0

0

0

21 0 21 14 3 4 3 0 1

0

0 0 0

3

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 15 0 15 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0

0

0

I)

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 0 0

AI/

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

1

0 0

27 0 1

0

0

0 0 0 0

0 0

27 0 0

l.1

0 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 0

0

20 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0 0 0 0 27 0 0 0

AI/ ZK

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0

0 0 0

0

1 0 0

liD

0 3 3 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 3

0 0

0 0 0 3 0 0

0

0 3 0 0 0 0 0

All ZIC

10 5 0

AI/ liB

5 14 1

AI/ ZIA

0

0

2 2 1 1 3 0

)

0 b 0 b 6

0

0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 J 6 0

0

0 0 1

0

2 3 0 0 0

AI/ ZHC

I)

33 l.5

0

31 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33

0

2 0 0 0 0 0

0 3

1

l

15 11

AI/ ZHB

0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

8 8 0

0 8 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0

0

3 5

All ZP

COUNTS OF SOCORRO FINE GRAY OUTLEANEO WAll BOWL ATTRIBUTES

0 0 0 0 0 2

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

c

0

0 0 0 0 1 0

0

2

AI/ ZF2

5 6

AI/ ZF1

AP PE NO I X II I •

ZB l 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

AI II

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0

0 0

0 1 0 0

0

0 0 14 0 14 12 1 1 1

0

0 0

0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0

0

0

0

0

1 2

All/ ZGA

0

0

1

7

All/

zc

0 0 0

0

0 0

0

0 0

3 3 0 0 0 0

0 3 0

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0

0 0

l.

3 0

0

ZJ

All/

6 3 l 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 ll. 10 0 2 0 0 0

A 11/ ZGB

~

tTJ >-3

\.l

0

C/)

--
>-3 < tTJ

0 10

'"Ij

tTJ

t:1 t:1 t'""'

~

-

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> z

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N

- .)

-

RIM: 1 RIM: 2 Rl M: 3 RIM: 4 RIM: 5 RIM: b ft.l 'I: 7 ~I M: 8 9 'IM: RIM: 10 'UM: 11 R IH: 12 It I M: OTfiER RM ECCN: NO RM ECCN: l RM ECCN: 2 RM ECCN: 3 RM ECCN: 't RM ECCN: 5 RM ECCN: 6 RM ECCN: 7 ii.M ECCN:JTH ZONEDTON lNG NO ZONETONE NEG. PAI'H NO NEGPAINT NO INCISI'l:; FINE INCIS i ::g m z

6

'l. P.l: 1 RIM: 8 R l M: 9 RIM: 10 II. I 'I: 11 RIM: 12 RIM: OTHER RM ECCN: ~:J 'l.M ECCN: 1 R'l ECCN: 2 RM ECCN: 3 RM ECCN: 4 R'l ECCN: 5 RM ECCN: b RM ECCN: 7 RM ECCN:OTH ZONEDTONING NG ZONETJ~E NEG. PAINT N1 N::::;PAINT NO INC IS lNG FINE INC IS WIOE INC 1 S MTF:PENNANT 'ITF:CRESCNT MTF: 1 LINE 'HF:z LINES MTF:LINEBRK l-IT F: HACHUR E MTF: SCALLOP MTF:OTHER

5

R 1'1:

1 2 3 4

RIM: RIM: RIM: fUM:

ll. IM:

0

0 0 1

0 0

0 I

0

0 0

0

D 0

0

0

2

2 4 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 13 ll 0

0/ ll

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

lG6

0/

0/

0

Q

1 1 0 0

0

2 0 0

1 5

0

1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 6

Zl &P

2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 21 0 21 16 2 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1

1 4 0

7

D/ ZPA

APPEND IX

0 0 0 1

2

0 0

4 1 2 0

1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0

1 0

4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

D/ Zf>B

I I I •

3 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 10 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

ZPC

Dl

1 0

0

0 2 1

2 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 9 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 10 5 0 5 0 1

Ell ZF

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

1 1 0 0 0

Ell ZFl

0

0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 5 0

J

1 0 0 0

4

ZB6

Ell/

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

l

5

EIll lB 7

0 11 56 11 4 0 0 0 3 4 0 0 8

11

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

8

14 3

29

16

Ell/ ZF

1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ell/ ZG

0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 8 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

E II/ ZF2

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O· 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0

0

5 1 0

b

4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2

0 0 0 2 0

0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

2

Ell/ Ell!/ EIII/ Zll4 ZF lH

COUNTS DF SOCORRO FINE GRAY OUTLEANED WALL BOWL ATTRIBUTES

0 0 0 0 1

0

0 0 0

1

16

17

0

11

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

8

6

E I \1/ ZF

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

EIV/ ZK

0 0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 9 0 9 7 2 0 0 0

0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0

1

2 0

4

2

EV/ ZF

ZE

F/

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2

0 2

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

1 0

1

~

>-
z

tTJ

[./)

0

'-
> z

(j

:::0 .......

'Tj

> ttl

-..! ~

.....

2

"'TF:1 lINE H TF: 2 l l NE S MTF: l!NEBRK '1TF:HACHJRE HTF: SCALLOP "'T F: OTHER

MTF:CHSC~T

NO WNETO'lE 'lEG. PAINT N1 N E GP A I \IT NO INCISING FINo IN: IS WIDE INC IS MTF:PfNNANT

lDNEJTONIN~

11 10 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 10 10 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 3

1 0

0

15 l't 0 1

0

0 15

J 0 J

0 0 0

0

15 0

0

0

0 0

0 ll 0

11 0 0 D 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0

8 0 0 0

3

F/ ZFC

0 J 0 0 J 0 0

J

3 4 5 I> 7 8

3 7

3

10

1

2

RIM: IUM: 'I.IM: q RIM: RIM: 10 ~I M: 11 R I "1: 12 RIM: OTHH RM ECCN: NO RM EC.CN: 1 ~M ECCN: 2 RM ECCN: 3 R"' ECCN: 4 RM ECCN: 5 RM EC.:N: 6 RM ECCN: 7 RM ECCN:OTH

IU"':

RIM: RIM: R I"!: RIM:

F/ ZFB

F/ ZFA

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

6 6 0

0

6

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

6

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

4 0 0 0

2

F/ ZFD

0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0

F/ ZFE

APPENDIX I l l .

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

0

F/ ZK F/ Zl

0

0 0 0 0 ll

5 0 1

5

71 49 10 14 1 0 1

2

0 73

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 5 0 0 0 2

0 65

1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0

4

7

0 0

0

6 0

1 3

21 13

12

0

0 0 0 0

ZD

HE/

3 9

0

4

13

2 0 5

2l

2 0 125 6 119 89 15

0

0

2

1 6 0 0

2 114

4 1 5 4

4

31 5 11> 4 1

32

11>

HE/ ZE

2

8 5 1 0 0 4 6 0 0

44

53 0 57

4

0 53 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0

2

1 0

0 0

1 1

3 18

12

4 15

HE/ ZF

0 0 0

2 4

1 0 1 0

13 6

1 19 0 20

0 0

0 0 0 0

2

0 0 0 0 15 3

1 1

0

0 7 0

0 8 3

HE/ ZG

0 5

3 1 0

0 3

2

6 8

32

1 5 41 4 42

0 0

0 0 0

3

1

41

0 1 0 1

2

1

0

19 2 5 0

4 11

ZG

HW/

0 1 1

2

43 6 6 1 2 1 4

55

0 7 48 0

0 0

0 0 0

2 3

50

0 0

0 1 0

2 2 0

14

5 20 7 4

HW/ ZH

ZM

0 0 0

0 0

0

0 2 2 0 0 0 0

2

0 0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0

0 0 2

0 0

0 0

1

0 0 0

p

0 1

HW/

OF SOCORRO FINE GRAY OUTLEANED WAll BOWL ATTRIBUTES

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0

0

F/ ZF1

CUJNTS

10

1

0 0

1 0 0 0 1 0

1

0 2 0 2 0

0 0 0 0

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 2 0

0

0 0 0 0 0

1

0 1

TZ/

12

0 0 1 1

0 I> 0 6 2 2 2 0 0 0 2

0

0 0 0

0 0

6 0 0

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0

0 0

0 2

2

T21

0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 1 0 l 1 0 0

0

0

0

0 0

0 0

1

0

0

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0

0

0

T21 14

0 0 0 0 0

0 6 6 0 0 0 0 0

6

0 0

0 0 0

0 0

6 0 0

0

0 0

0

0 0 0 0

1

1

1 0

3

T2/ 16

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

2 0 1

8 6

0

7

0 1

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 1 1

5 0

0

T2/ 18

Vl

- .)

-

X

,....., ,....., ,.....,

-

ztTl t)

>:g

Rl M:

1 2

RIM: 3 RIM: 4 5 Rl"': RIM: 6 RIM: 7 RIM: 8 RIM: 9 RIM: 10 RIM: 11 RIM: 12 RIM: OTHER RM F.CCN: NO R"1 ECC'l: 1 RM ECCN: 2 RM E:CN: 3 R"' ECCN: 4 RM ECCN: 5 RM ECC'l: 6 RM ECCN: 7 RM ECCN:OTH ZJNEDTOI\j lNG NO ZONETONE 'lE:>. PAINT NO NEGPAINT NO INCISING FliiiE INCIS WIDE INCIS MTF: PENNANT ,'!TF:CRESCNT '-HF: l l l NE MTF:2 LINES MTF: L INEBRK MT~' :HACHURE MT F: SCALLOP MTF:OTHER

RI~:

0 0 0 0 b 0 6 b 0 0 0 0 0 0 J 0 0 0

::>

2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0

T2/ 20

0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 9 9

2 0

a

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0

b

7 0 7

0

::>

0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0

0

2 4

24

22

0 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 7 0

TZI

TZI 26

0 0

0 0 0

0 0

1 0 1 l 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 1 0

T21 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Tl/

APPENDIX I I I ,

I 1 0

9

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0 I 0 0

T28/ 310-

0 9

0

4 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

32

T ZA/

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

4

0

0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0

2 0 0

2

T 28/ 32

0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

0 0

0

0

0 0 0 3 0

:>

0 0 0 0

:>

0

2 I 0

T2B I H

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Tlill 36

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 A 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0

1 0 0

T4/ 180-

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 2 0 1

T4/ 20

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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APPENDIX VII GROUND AND PECKED STONE ARTIFACTS

The tables which follow give the frequencies of a variety of artifacts of ground and pecked stone. The comments below concerning the materials of which these artifacts were manufactured are based on cursory examination kindly done by William 0. Autry. Complete mineralogical study of these artifacts has not been carried out. The abbreviations for provenience designations used in the tables are those which have been used throughout the text. They are explained in Chapter I, Section 3. Proveniences which yielded none of the artifacts listed have been omitted from the tables. The abbreviations for the artifact categories are as follows:

MANOS: Manos include a wide variety of grinding stones. Some were held in one hand, some in two hands. They were worked against milling stones with either reciprocal or rotary motions. Some were simply ovoid river cobbles selected for their natural shape. Others were carefully worked into long thin shapes with ovoid, lenticular, or triangular cross sections. Many had been used so heavily that the abrasion from use had come to affect the overall shape. Volcanic tuff was the most common material for manos with limestone and occasionally granite also used. Manos and metates were both included as grinding stones in the studies of artifact distributions among household clusters. METATES: Metates include a similar wide variety of artifacts used in grinding. Stones against which a mano was used with either rotary or reciprocal motion are included. Like manos, some were used with very little modification from their natural shape, while others were carefully worked to particular forms. Many seem to have begun their careers with relatively flat grinding surfaces which became deeply concave through use. Materials were essentially the same as for manos. MANO/METATE: This category includes fragments of stone showing clear evidence of use for grinding but which were too small to classify with confidence as either mano or metate. These pieces were included with manos and metates as grinding stones in the

211

studies of artifact distributions among the household clusters. PESTLES: Pestles differ from manos in that the surface used for grinding is on the end rather than the side. The single example from the Middle Formative deposits was conical, with a roughly square grinding surface. POLISH PEBL: Polishing pebbles are rounded stream pebbles which have one or more surfaces highly smoothed from abrasion. The two which occurred in Middle Formative deposits were approximately 7 em in their longest dimension, and each had two major surfaces of use which were not only highly smoothed but slightly flattened as well. PAINT DISH: The single paint dish from Middle Formative deposits was made of rhyolite. It was a small flat stone with its longest dimension 6 em. One surface had a small depression pecked in it which was covered with red pigment. It may have been used for grinding the substance of which the pigment was made. CELTS: Celts are very highly polished tools. The polls are often battered, indicating that they were hammered to drive the sharp end against something. Often the cutting edges are battered as well. OTHER: The only artifact from Middle Formative deposits included in this category was a piece of schist from T2/28. Its original size was approximately 13 by 9 by 7 em. One side was broken off, the others were stream worn. A conical hole 1.6 em deep was ground in one side. HAMMER STN: Hammerstones from Middle Formative proveniences were ovoid or spherical with maximum dimensions between 6 and 11 em. They are included here even though they are not technically ground or pecked stone artifacts. ANVILS: The two Middle Formative anvil stones were flat stream worn stones with concave battered areas on one side. One was approximately 24 em long when complete, the other about 10 em long. They are included here even though, like hammerstones, they are not strictly ground or pecked stone artifacts.

MANOS MfTATE'S MANO/MET ATE PESTLES PCJL ISH PEBL PAINT DISH CELTS OTHER HAMMER STN ANVILS

0 0 0 :l 0 0 0 0

'lET AT ES MANO/METATE PESTLES POL ISH PEBL PAINT 01 SH CELTS OTHER HAMIIER STN ANVILS

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

EIV/ ZF

0

0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0

0 l 0

1 0 2 0 0

(01

H9

0 0

0 1 0 0 0

H9 (A l

0 1

0 0 0 0

I AI

(01

0 0

0 0

H8

2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 J 0 0

a

J 0 1

0

3

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

A IV/ ZF

Cl lD 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0



0

0 1 0

Cl ZDl

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

0

C/ W2

Cl ZF

0 0

0 0 0

l 0 0 0

0

C/ ZH

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 2 2 0

0 0

0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0

F/ ZFE

0

0

l

0 0

l 0 0 0 0

T 2/ 28

l 0

0

0

0

1 0 0 J 0

T2A/ 32

0

0

1 0 l 0 0 0 0 0

Tl4/ 8

F4

0 0

0

l 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 l

0 0 0

0 0

0

l l

Flb

0 0

0 0

0 0 0

0 0

l

F 19/ PIT2

0 l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

F 33

0 0

0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0

F 39

2 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

5

fttO

0 0

0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 l 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Hl (X l

C/ Zl

f61

0 0

0 0

f48

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0

2 l 0 0 0 0 0 0

C/ ZJC

C/ ZJB

C/ ZJA

GROUND£. OTHER MODIFIED STONE FROM MIDDLE FORMATIVE PROVENIENCES

0 G

0 0

l 0 0 0 0 0 0

F/ ZFD

0

Hl4 (0)

0 0 0 0

2 0 0 0 0 0

All/ Alii/ ZGB ZI

GROUND & OTHER MODIFIED STONE FROM MIDDLE FORMATIVE PROVENIENCES

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0

AI/ ZIB

OTHER MOD IF !ED STONE FROM MIDDLE FORMATIVE PROVENIENCES

0

~

0 0 0 D 0 0 0 1

0

AI/ ZIA

GROUND

0 0

0

0 0

3 2 1

F/ ZFA

APPENDIX VII.

0

0

l

l D 0 0 0 0

0

2 0 0 0 0

1

AI/ ZHB

AI/ ZHA

APPENDIX VII.

0

0 0

Ell/ EIII/ ZF lF

0 0

0

0

1 0 0 0 0

l 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

AI/ ZFl

AI/ ZF

H6B

0

1

D/ ZL

l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

'4~NOS

PESTLES POLl SH PE BL PAINT DISH CFLTS OTHEI\ HAMMER STN ANVILS

MA~O/"lETATE

MANOS METATES

AI/ ZE

APPENDIX VII.

l

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(A l

H4

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

ZG6

Dl

-
'""'3 < tTJ

s:;::

::0

0

t""' tTJ "TJ

-

0 s:;:: 0 0

> z

tTJ

(/)

0

'-

(/)

> z

n

::0

->

"TJ

> tl:1

N

N

-

APPENDIX VIII MODIFIED AND UNMODIFIED BONE

The tables which follow give data concerning both modified and unmodified bone. First are counts of pieces of unmodified bone by species, identified by Kent V. Flannery. Second are counts of various kinds of modified bone. The totals of unmodified bone used in Chapters IV-VI include everything in the first category except MOUSE/GOPH. and HUMAN. The abbreviations used for provenience designations are those which have been used throughout the text. They are explained in Chapter I, Section 3. Proveniences with no bone have been omitted from the tables. The abbreviations used for animal species are as follows: ODOCOILEUS: Odocoileus virginianus, white tailed deer. CANIS F.: Canis familiaris, domestic dog. SYL VIL. FL.: Sylvilagus floridanus, cottontail rabbit. SYL VIL. CU.: Sylvilagus cunicularius, cottontail rabbit. SYLVIL. SP.: Sylvilagus sp., cottontail rabbit unidentifiable to species. LEPUS M.: Lepus mexicanus, jackrabbit. BIRD: Any species of bird. MOUSE/GOPH.: Several genera of rodents, mostly burrowing, which are likely to be intrusive, including Orthogeomys, Liomys, and others. UNIDENTIF.: Unidentified bone fragments. HUMAN: Human bone fragments. OTHER: Identified animal bone which does not fall into any of the other categories. The abbreviations used for modified bone categories are as follows: BURNED: Bones which show evidence ofburning. These pieces are also included in the species counts of the first part.

213

CUT MARKS: Bones which show scars from the butchering process. These pieces are also included in the species counts of the lrrst part. (See Fig. 72a.) AWL/PUNCH: Awls or punches are pointed tools with wear patterns indicating use with a twisting motion. The range of activities in which they might have been used is quite wide (Fig. 72b-d). GOUGE: Gouges are tools with duller tapered points or flat chisel-like points. Their wear patterns indicate use with a straight longitudinal motion rather than a twisting motion. Their uses are also many. Among them Flannery (personal communication) suggests husking corn and Ford (personal communication) suggests weaving reed mats (Fig. 72e-f). NEEDLE: The only nearly complete needle encountered was approximately 6.5 em long before it was broken (Fig. 72g-h). ORNAMENT: Ornaments come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Most were drilled for suspension. Two are illustrated in Fig. 7 3a-b. WORKED: These pieces have cut edges or have otherwise been worked to some unnatural shape, but they are so small that further identification is impossible. USED: These fragments show tiny scratches or polish from abrasion, but they are so small that further identification is impossible. OTHER ART.: Other artifacts which were not classifiable in any of the above categories. l=SEE NOTES: A 1 in this row indicates that there is further description of items from the provenience in the "Notes on the Tables of Bone and Modified Bone" which follows the tables. Generally these notes refer to one of the following categories: BIRD, OTHER, or ·""' OTHER ART.

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

214

b

a

d

c

g

e

f

h

Fig. 72. Modified bone. a. deer calcaneum with cut marks (T17/18); b. deer metatarsal awl (AI/ZHB); c. awl (T14/6); d. wear patterns on awl tip; e. gouge (C/ZH); f. wear patterns on gouge tip; g. needles (C/ZJB); h. needle (F/ZFB). (Scale 1:1, except d and f 2:1)

215

APPENDIX VIII

b

a

c

d Fig. 73. Modified bone. a. dog canine drilled for suspension (AIII/ZI); b. pendant (AI/ZF); c. skull disk (EI/ZF); d. deer scapula musical instrument (C/ZJA); e. deer antler hammer (F9). (Scale 1: 1)

ODOCOILEUS CANIS F. 5YLV!lo Fl. SYLVIL. CU. S YL Vll • S P. LEPUS M. BIRD MOUSE/GOPH. LJNI OENTIF. HUll A~ OTHER BUR NED CUT MARKS AWL/PUNCH cou:;E NEEDLE OR NAME NT WORKED USED clT-iER ART. l=SEE NOTES

ODOCOILEUS CANIS F. SYLVIL. FL. SYLVJL. CU. SYLVIL. SP. LEPUS M. BIRD MOUSE/GOPH. UN !DEN TI r. HUMAN OTHER BURNED CUT MARKS AWL/PUNCH GOUGE NEEDLE ORNA'1ENT WORKFD USEJ OTHER ART. 1 =SEE NOTES

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4

AIV I ZM

0

0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 6 0 0

AI/ ZE

23 0 ::l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0 62

17 1 3 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1

0 50

5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 16 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0

13 0 0 0 0

1

0

0 0

0

1 10 2

ZH

C/

1

0

1

1 0

1 0 l

0

6 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 5 1 2

All ZHB

0 0 0

0

1 0 0 0

0 15 0 0 0 0

1 4 0 0 0 0 0

AI/ ZHC

& MODIFIED

J 1

()

l 0 0 0 0

0 ::l 0

0 0 1 0 13 2

1 J


>-3 < m

~

0 :::0

'"I'1

m

l'

0

t:J

~

-

t:J

> z

m

0 en

'-

> z

en

(j

>

'"I'1

> ttl

0

APPENDIX VIII Notes on the tables of bone and modified bone: AI/ZF: The "other artifact" is a piece of deer antler which was ripped from the frontal bone. AI/ZHB: The "other species" bone is possibly of Tayassu tajacu (peccary). AI/ZIA: The "bird" bone is of Bubo virginianus (owl). AII/ZC: The complete remains of a puppy (Canis [amiliaris) appeared in this layer but were not included in the species counts. AIII/ZI: The "bird" bone is of Buteo jamaicensis (hawk). The two "other species" bones are of Kinosternon integnon (mud turtle). The "other artifact" is a fragment of shell from Dermatemys mawii (large lowland river turtle). Although unmodified it is included among the artifacts because these shells were often used to make turtle shell drums of ritual use (Flannery, 1975 ). C/ZH: The "other species" bone is of Bassariscus astutus (ringtail). C/ZJ A: The "other artifact" is a deer scapula with several notches cut in one side (Fig. 7 3d). It is similar to ones from El Arbolillo illustrated by Vaillant (1935:247248) and identified by him as musical instruments played by rubbing a stick along the row of notches. C/ZJB: The "other species" bone is of Mustela frenata (weasel). The "other artifact" is a fish spine of Lutjanus sp. (snapper). Although not really modified, it is included among the artifacts because of the frequent ritual use of fish spines in Precolumbian Mesoamerica (Drennan, 1975; Flannery, 1975). C/ZJC: The "other species" bone is of Mephitis (skunk). C/ZL: The two "bird" bones are of Falco sparverius (falcon). D/ZPA: The "other species" bone is of Mephitis (skunk). D/ZPC: The "other species" bone is of the family Mustelidae (weasels). EI/ZF: The "other artifact" is a disk 4.5 em in diameter with a hole drilled in the center (Fig. 73c). It is of the skull of an unidentified specie~.

221

HE/ZD: The two "other species" bones are of Mephitis (skunk) and Sciurus poliopus (squirrel). The "other artifact" is a half mandible of Crocodylus sp. (crocodile). Although unmodified it is included among the artifacts because of the likelihood that its use was artifactual rather than incidental to food procurement. See Flannery (1975) for the ritual use of such objects. HE/ZF: The three "other artifacts" are armadillo plates. Although unmodified they are included among the artifacts for the same reason as the crocodile mandible from HE/ZD. HW/ZH: The two "other species" bones are of Tayassu tajacu (peccary) and Urocyon (fox). The layer also yielded the complete remains of a pupPY (Canisfamiliaris) not included in the species counts. T2/22: The "bird" bone is of Cyrtonyx montezumae (quail). T2/24: The "bird" bone is of Corvus corax (raven). T5/200-: The "other species" bone is of Bufo (toad). T14/12: The "other species" bone is possibly of Procyon lotor (raccoon). T33/12: The "other species" bone is of Mephitis (skunk). T60/6: The "other species" bone is of Kinosternon integrum (mud turtle). Fl: The "other species" bone is of Sciurus poliopus (squirrel). F9: The "other artifact" is a piece of deer antler used as a hammer (Fig. 73e). F16: The "other species" bone is of Bufo (toad). F19/PIT2: The "other artifact" is a deer antler pedicel battered in the removal of the antler. H6B(O): The "other species" bone is of Bufo (toad). H9(A): The "other species" bone is of Kinosternon integrum (mud turtle). H14(0): The "other species" bone is of Nasua narica (coatimundi). H18(0): This provenience also yielded the nearly complete remains of a puppy (Canis familiaris) not included in the species counts.

APPENDIX IX MISCELLANEOUS ARTIFACTS

The tables which follow give the frequencies of various kinds of artifacts which do not fit into any of the major groupings of artifacts, but which nonetheless occur in sufficient quantities to make tabular presentation the most practical method. In addition to the artifacts included in the tables, some of the other miscellaneous artifacts mentioned in the text along with the descriptions of the proveniences in which they were found are illustrated in Fig. 74. The abbreviations for provenience designations used in the tables are those which have been used throughout the text. They are explained in Chapter I, Section 3. Proveniences which yielded none of the artifacts listed have been omitted from the tables. The abbreviations for the various kinds of artifacts are as follows: DAUB (NO.): The number of pieces of burned daub. These pieces of burned clay showed impressions of posts, canes, string, and other features of wattle and daub construction. In many cases the daub is so fire hardened that it must be the result of the destruction of structures by fire. In other cases it may be simply baked by the sun. Several pieces of daub are illustrated in Fig. 75. DAUB (WT.): The total weight of the pieces of daub, given in grams. Since the daub in some proveniences was consistently in much smaller pieces than in other proveniences, the weight is given as a potentially much more accurate indication of the true quantity. DAUB(PLAST): Daub with plaster. Many structures were covered on the outside and/or inside with a white lime plaster. The numbers in this row are not frequencies but rather a code according to the following system: 0 if no daub was recovered or if the daub recovered had no flat wall surfaces which might have been plastered; 1 if there were flat wall surfaces among the daub recovered but none were plastered; and 2 if there were flat surfaces among the daub recovered and one or more had been plastered. TRVTN SHERD: Sherds with travertine or calcium carbonate linings. These artifacts are discussed in greater detail in Appendix XII. TRVTN LNING: Curved pieces of travertine, or calcium carbonate, which probably were originally sherd linings which have separated from the sherds. REUSED SHRD: Reused sherds have been used after breaking, likely as scrapers. Some have long, nearly straight edges which show heavy abrasion. Others show abrasion around corners or on protrusions. Representative examples are illustrated in Fig. 76.

SHERD DISKS: Sherd disks have occurred at a number of sites in Mesoamerica. The ones from Fabrica San Jose are very · similar to those described by Lee (1969:99-103) for Chiapa de Corzo. Some are pierced through the center, some are not, and some have incompletely drilled holes in the center. Some are very roughly broken to circular shape, some have edges which have been quite well smoothed to circular shapes, and some are between these two extremes. The Middle Formative examples range in diameter from 2.8 to 11.5 em. They have been tentatively taken to be spindle whorls or spindle whorl blanks in the text, although a variety of other uses has been suggested for them. "They have been labeled as pot covers in the case of the larger ones, spindle whorl blanks, dice, counters for gaming or accounting, parts of mosaics, votive offerings, and many other things. Rarely are these suggestions more than guesses" (Lee, 1969:99). Lee also gives a comprehensive list of published references to sherd disks. Examples from Fabrica San Jose are illustrated in Fig. 77. A similar bone disk is shown in Fig. 73c. MICA (NO.): Number of pieces of mica. Some of these pieces of mica had cut edges. None were large enough to show what sort of artifact they were part of. It seems likely that they were parts of ornaments. MICA (WT.): The weight of the pieces of mica, given in tenths of a gram (no decimal included). This is a more accurate indicator of the quantity of mica present than the number of pieces since the size of the pieces varied substantially. In cases where one or more pieces of mica are listed for a provenience, but a weight of 0 is given, the total weight was less than 0.1 g. LGE. STNBL: Large stone balls. These stone balls range from those pecked to a roughly spherical shape to accurately spherical and well smoothed ones. They are made from travertine, rhyolite, diorite, calcite, and granite. Lee (1969:147) cites very similar "stone spheres" from Chiapa de Corzo together with a list of other published references to such artifacts. The tripartite division here is based on a very roughly trimodal distribution of weights. Those classified as large ranged from 26.5 to 85.5 g and from 2.5 to 4.4 em in diameter. Fig. 76 illustrates some stone balls. MED. STNBL: Medium stone balls. Similar in every respect except size to large stone balls, these ranged in weight from 12.1 to 21.0 g and in diameter from 2.0 to 3.1 em. SM. STNBL: Small stone balls. Similar in every respect

223

224

F ABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

except size to large stone balls, these ranged in weight from 3.0 to 5.9 g and in diameter from 1.2 to 1.7 em. MOD. SHELL: Modified shell consists almost entirely of ornaments of various sorts. Some are entire small shells drilled for suspension. Some are pieces of larger shells with delicate incised decoration. Some tiny pieces which are only large enough to show a cut edge are included in this category on the assumption that they were similar to the larger artifacts. Some examples are illustrated in Fig. 78. Of the modified shell from Middle Formative proveniences only the following were identifiable: AI/ZHB: Pinctada mazatlanica (Pacific pearl oyster) AIII/ZI: probably Pinctada mazatlanica F48: probably Pinctada mazatlanica UNMD. SHELL: Unmodified shell may have been used

ornamentally, may not yet have been worked, or may be pieces of worked shells broken in such a way that the fragments recovered do not include modification. The identifications below were provided by Lawrence H. Feldman. Shell from proveniences not included in this list was unidentifiable. AI/ZE: Pinctada mazatlanica AI/ZF: Pinctada mazatlanica AI/ZHB: Mercenaria campechiensis (from the Caribbean-one piece only) AI/ZIA: Pinctada mazatlanica AIV /ZF 1: unidentified fresh water clam F/ZFB: Thais cf. deltoidea (from the Caribbean) HW/ZH: cf.Donax sp. TS/22: probably Pinctada mazatlanica

225

APPENDIX IX

a

b

d

e

Fig. 74. Miscellaneous artifacts. a. sherd pendant? (H14[0]); b. ceramic earspool (AI/ZH); c. greenstone earspool fragment (AI/ZIB); d. travertine earspool (AI/ZP); e. unusual greenstone artifact (HW/ZH). (Scale 1:1) .

226

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

a

b

c

d

Fig. 75. Burned daub. a. impression of small stick tied perpendicularly across two larger ones (F4 7); b. impression of twisted rope running around cane (F/ZE); c. impression of canes on interior and plaster on exterior (F/ZE); d. impressions of large and small structural members running in various directions (C/ZH). (Scale 1:2)

APPENDI X IX

227

a

d

b

e

c

f

g

h

Fig. 76. Reused sherds and stone balls. a-d. reused sherds from non-Middle Formative provenience s, but typical of the variety of shapes from all phases; e. stone ball (F/ZFC); f. stone ball (C/ZJC); g. stone ball (AI/ZH); h. stone ball (AIII/ZI). (Scale a-d 1:2, e-h 1:1)

228

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

b

a

c

d

e

Fig. 77. Sherd disks. a. H14(X); b. TS0/24; c. AI/Zffi; d. C/ZD; e. HE/ZD. (Scale 1: 1)

APPENDIX IX

229

c

a

d

b

e Fig. 78. Shell. a. entire unmodified valve of unidentified fresh water clam I(AIV/ZF1); b. engraved ornament fragment probably of Pinctada mazatlanica (AI/ZHB); c. engraved ornament fragment of unidentified shell (AIV/ZFl); d. engraved ornament fragment probably of Pinctada mazatlanica (AIII/ZI); e. perforated rings probably of Pinctada mazatlanica (F48). (Scale a-d 1:1, e 1:2)

0 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

38

0 0 0 0 0

C/ ZJ8 2 57

ZJA

0 0 l 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 1 6

ZL

Cl

0

0

0 0 0 0 2 0 l l 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0

176 129 12732 1 0

5

C/ ZJC

APPENDIX IX.

0 0

1

0 I 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 0

13

1

ZHB

18 886

AI/

ZH

IX.

All

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

D 0 0

AI/ ZF 1

1

Cl

Z-i

4 l 0 0 1 0 l

:>

237 5874 2 0 l 0

AI/ ZF

Cl

6

0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

:>

l 191 1

OAUB I NO. l 229 O~U8 IWT.l 10048 DAUB I PLAST I 2 TRVTN SHERD 1 nVTN LNING 0 REUSED SHRO 0 SHERD 01 SKS 2 MICA IND. I 0 MICA IWT.J 0 LGE. STNBL 0 '1ED. STN8L 0 SM. STNBL 0 MOD. SHELL 0 UNMO. SHELL :l

DAUB I NO. I DAUB I WT. I DAUBIPLASTl TRVTN SHERD HVTN LNI N:> R.EUS ED S HRD SHERO DISKS MICA (1'-lD. I MICA IWT.) L:>E. STNBL MED. STNBL SM. STNtll MJD. SHELL UNMD. SHELL

All ZE

APPENDIX

0 0

1

0 0 0 0 l 0 l 0 0 0 0

li A 0 0 0 1 l 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 l

Ail ZIB

AI/

12

J 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

AI/ ZK

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 l 0 0 0 0 0

ZPB

01

0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0

0

196

l

E I II Z87

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

Ell/ ZF

0 0

l

0 0

0

0

0 0 0

0

l 0 0 0 0

33 1128

0 0

0 2 0 0

0

1

3 91

0 0 0 0 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

AI II ZB

0 0 l 0 0 0 l 0 0 0

l 203 0 0

AI 1/

zc 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 12 5 0 0 0 0 0

AlII ZGB

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2

0 0 0 0 0

A I II ZJ 17 496 1 0 0 0 0 1 l 3 0 0 3 6

ll

AI I II

F/ ZE

0 0

1 0 0 0

2

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1>77 0 33972 0 2

EV/ ZF

0

ll 1067 l 0 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 0

F/ ZFA

0 l

0

0

1 0

0 0 0 2

0

2

b8 2726

F/ ZFB

0 l 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

2 0 0

1958

33

F/ ZFC

FROM MIDDLE FORMATIVE PROVENIENCES

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

3 555 0 0 0 0

AI/ ZP

Ell/ Ell!/ ZF2 ZF

MISCELLANEOUS ARTIFACTS

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 l 2 0 1 0 0 l

AI/ ZHC

MISCELLANEOUS ARTIFACTS FROM MIDDLE FORMATIVE PROVENIENCES

5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

156 1

F/ ZK

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

AIV/ ZF

l 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

155

2

HE/ lD

0 1 1

0 0 0

l 0

l 14 0 0 0 0

AIV/ ZFl

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

187 1 0 0

5

HE/ ZE

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

A IV/ lF2

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 123 0

HE I ZF

0 0

1 0 0 0

l

0 0 3

4 201 2 0

lO

C/

0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

3 lOft 0 0

HE/ ZG

45 2085 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C/ ZF

N

w

-


n

?" ........

"'j

> 1:0

0

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APPENDIX X FIGURINES

The figurines of Middle Formative Fabrica San Jose do not fall readily into any of the familiar typologies used for Formative Mesoamerican figurines. The sample is somewhat small and from too restricted a period of time to make an exhaustive typological or attribute study very rewarding except in conjunction with other collections. Since a much larger corpus of figurines has been excavated from other Formative sites in the Valley of Oaxaca, it is hoped that all can be exhaustively studied together. Placed in such a context, those from Fabrica San Jose would take on more meaning. In the meantime, the figurines from Fabrica San Jose have been sorted for descriptive purposes into rough types based on general appearance. This was done with little regard for existing typologies because of the interim nature of the sorting. The typology deals separately with heads, bodies, legs, feet, and hands because examples with the several parts still connected were rare. Illustrations of as many of the more complete figurine fragments as possible have been included in place of exhaustive definitions of the interim types. The figurines illustrated are not always from pure Middle Formative proveniences, but they are the best, most complete examples of the various kinds. The figurines are of clay similar to that used in the paste of Atoyac Yellow-White ware and are unburnished except as noted in the descriptions below. It should be emphasized that this typology is only for descriptive purposes until such time as a comprehensive study of all the Valley of Oaxaca Formative figurines can be carried out. The distinguishing features of these interim types are not mutually exclusive. For this reason it would probably be difficult to add figurines with more variability to the typology. The descriptions below are far from rigorous type definitions. It is hoped that, for the present, however, these descriptions, frequencies, and illustrations will provide some useful information. The abbreviations for provenience designations used in the tables are those which have been used throughout the text. They are explained in Chapter I, Section 3. Proveniences which yielded no figurines have been omitted from the tables. The abbreviations for the types are as follows: MASKS: Pottery masks are faces with concave backs and often holes at each side for suspension. They are much too small to have covered human faces, but might have been used in conjunction with figurines or as miniatures of masks worn by people for some ritual (Fig. 79a-c). HEADS (2): The second category is of hollow f'~gurines which are somewhat larger than the others. They have

chubby or puffy faces; a pupil is indicated in the eye; they wear ear spools; and they have indications of combed hair or turban-like headdresses (Fig. 79d-e). HEADS (3): The third category of heads, like all categories except 2 and 14, is solid. These heads also have puffy faces and eyes with pupils and wear earspools. The heads are attached to fat seated bodies with virtually no neck in between. These figurines are somewhat smaller than most (Fig. 79/). HEADS (4): The fourth category consists of heads which usually, but not always, have puffy faces similar to those described above. One distinguishing characteristic is that they are much flatter than the other kinds. Instead of being modeled fully in the round, they tend toward the flatness of gingerbread men with little or no attention devoted to the back. The features are also not as finely modeled as in the other types (Fig. 79g). HEADS (5): This category is similar to the fourth, except that the features are even more crudely modeled (Fig. 79h-l}. HEADS (6): This category has the kind of face most common among the Fabrica San Jose figurines. It is similar to the second category, with a puffy face, an open mouth, earspools, and eyes with pupils (usually). The faces frequently have. traces of red pigment. When part of the torso is present, there is usually a necklace or pendant. Since this kind of face was so common, they were divided according to the kind of headdress, which provided the most noticeable difference in appearance. In this category are those wearing turbans (Fig. 79j-l). HEADS (7): The same kind of face as the sixth category is included here, but these heads have indications of combed hair instead of turbans (Fig. 79m). HEADS (8): Headdresses composed of modeled rosettes distinguished this category from the sixth (Fig. 79n-o). HEADS (9): These figurines have the same kind of faces as the previous three categories, but their headdresses do not fall into any of those categories (Fig. 80a). HEADS (1 0): These figurines have the same kind of faces as the previous four categories, but their headdresses are broken off (Fig. BOb). HEADS (11): The figurines of this category are similar to those of the fourth category except that their features, instead of being modeled, are done in crude appliques (Fig. SOc). HEADS (12): The heads of the twelfth category are of a quite different shape. They are tall and tapered, sometimes almost to a point, with receding foreheads. The modeling of features is often shallower than on the other types. Headdresses are often composed of

233

234

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

rosettes. There are occasionally traces of red pigment on the faces (Fig. 80d-e). HEADS (13): These heads are flat, like those of the fourth category, although the modeling of the features is different. They frequently wear headdresses composed of three rosettes (Fig. 80f-g). HEADS (14): These heads are hollow and of burnished gray ware, similar to Socorro Fine Gray. Their features are usually very clearly modeled but include quite a bit of variability (Fig. 80h). HEADS (15): These heads are small and very spherical in shape. The crudely appliqued features, unlike those of most other types, have very little modifying effect on this basic shape (Fig. 80i). MAN-ANIMAL: These combined human-animal figurines have quadruped bodies and human heads which are very like the heads of categories 6-10 (Fig. 80j). HEADS (17): This category is comprised of fragments of the turban-like headdresses worn by heads in several of the other categories. HEADS (18): These heads do not fit into any of the other categories (Fig. 80k-o ). HEADS-BIRD: Various kinds of bird heads (Fig. Sla-b). ANIMALS (20): These animals are unidentifiable quadrupeds with striped backs (Fig. Sle-d). DOGS (21): Various kinds of dogs (Fig. 8le). DOGS (22): Dogs carrying something in their mouths (Fig. 81/-g). ANIMALS (23): Like the twentieth category, these animals are unidentifiable quadrupeds, but they do not have striped backs (Fig. 81 h). ANIMALS (24): This category includes animal heads which could not be identified with certainty. Many may be dogs (Fig. 8li-j). WHISTLES: A variety of zoomorphic, anthropomorphic, and other whistles (Fig. 81k-n). BODIES (26): This category includes the most common kind of body. They are fat, usually wear small triangular loin cloths, and usually have necklaces and/or pendants. Most have female breasts; a few could be pregnant, but most clearly are not. They go with legs like those in categories 34, 35, and 41 (Fig. 81o-r and 82a). BODIES (27): These bodies are similar to those of the preceding category except that they are smaller and rounder. Some have the same triangular loincloths. About half have breasts (Fig. 82b-c). BODIES (28): These small, fat, seated bodies are the ones which go with the heads of the third category (Fig. 82d). BODIES (29): All other seated bodies are included in this category. Except for these and category 28, all other human bodies are in standing position (Fig. 82e).

BODIES (30): The bodies of this category are very like gingerbread men. They are flat; their limbs stick out unnaturally; their backs are completely without modeling or detail; and most wear a fairly elaborate girdle. Most of them seem to be males. They may go with heads of categories 4, 5, and/or 13 (Fig. 82/-g). BODIES (31): Bodies which do not fit in any of the above categories or in category 32 are included here (Fig. 82h-i). BODIES (32): Bodies which do not fit in any of the above categories and are, in addition, of Socorro Fine Gray ware fill this category. OTHER FRAGS: This category includes all miscellaneous fragments too small to be classified in any of the other categories. LEGS (34): These legs have very fat thighs and sandaled feet. The thighs are so fat that sometimes they resemble knickers (Fig. 83a-b). LEGS (35): These legs are like those of category 34, but their feet are bare (Fig. 83c-d). FEET (36): Sandaled feet like those on legs of category 34, but which are broken from their legs are classified in this category. FEET (37): Bare feet like those on legs of category 35, but which are broken from their legs are classified in this category (Fig. 83e). FEET (38): The feet in this category have no modeled features. They are simply flat, turned over tabs at the ends of the legs. Both examples have a slip like that on Atoyac Yellow-White ware (Fig. 831). FEET (39): These feet are sandaled like those in category 36 but are wider and flatter instead of stubby (Fig. 83g). HANDS (40): Small cupped hands with no indication of separate fingers form this category (Fig. 83h-j). LEGS (41): The same kind of legs with fat thighs as in categories 34 and 35, but with the feet broken off, are included here. LEGS (42): These legs are a variant of those in categories 34, 35, and 41. They have the same fat thighs, but they are bent at the knee (Fig. 83k). LEGS (43): These legs are also quite fat at the hips, but taper down differently towards the ankles. They are usually bent at the knee (Fig. 831-m). LEGS (44): All legs which do not fit in any other category are included here. HANDS (45): These flat hands often have separate fingers indicated (Fig. 83n). LIMB FRAGS: All limb fragments which were too small to even identify certainly as arms or legs are counted here.

APPENDIX X

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FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY

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Fig. 80. Figurines. a. head(9) (H9 [OJ); b. head(lO) (C/ZL); c. head(ll) (H9[A]); d. head(12) (D/ZL); e. head(12) (AIII/ZF); f. head(13) (Al/ZE); g. head(13) (HE/ZE); h. head(14) (HE/ZD); i. head(15) (surface); j. man-animal (AIII/ZF); k. head(18) (T2/26); 1. head(18) (H9[A]); m. head(18) (C/ZJC); n. head(18) (C/ZF); o. head(18) (T2/28). (Scale 1:2)

APPENDIX X

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FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIV E SOCIETY

238

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e. Fig. 82. Figurines. a. body(26) (AI/ZF); b. body(27) (C/ZL); c. body(27) (AIV/ZFl); d. body(28) (H6C[A]); body(29) (F/ZFA); f. body(30) (f36/30); g. body(30) (HE/ZF); h. body(31) (HE/ZD); i. body(31) (AIV/ZF). (Scale 1:2)

APPENDIX X

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Fig. 83. Figurines. a. leg(34) (H6B[A] ); b. leg(34) (AI/ZHA); c. leg(35) (T1/18); d. leg(35) (AI/ZF); e. foot(37) (AI/ZP); f. foot(38) (T8/24); g. foot(39) (Tl3/100A); h. hand(40) (C/ZJB); i. hand(40) (AI/ZHB); j. hand(40) (fS/16); k. leg(42) (H14[0]); l. leg(43) (Hl4[X]); m. leg(43) (Tll/18); n. hand(45) (H1[A]). (Scale 1:2)

MASKS HEADS 121 HE ADS I 31 HEADS I~~ H~ADS 151 HEADS 161 HEADS 171 HEADS (ill HEADS 19 I HEADS 1101 HEADS I l l ) HEADS I 121 HHDS I 131 HEADS I 14) HEADS 1151 141\N-AN I MAL HEADS I L 11 HEADS 1181 HEllOS-BIRO ANI MilLS I 20) DOGS I 211 DOGS 1221 ANIMALS 1231 o\NI Mo\LSI 2+1 WHISTLES BODIES ( 2!>1 BO 0 I ES I 27) BODIES 1231 BODIES 129) BODIES 1301 BODIES 1311 BODIES 132) OTHER FRAGS LE:; S I 31tl LEGS l 351 F!:ET 13SI FEET ( 371 FEET (381 FEET (39) HANDS lltOI LEGS l+ll LEGS I '+2) LEGS I ~31 L!:GS I HI liANDS l z

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I Zl 131 141 151 HE~OS I &I HEADS 171 HEADS l!ll H:~os 191 HEADS 1101 HEADS 1111 HEADS 1121 HEADS 1131 HEADS 1141 HEADS 1151 MAN-ANIMAL HEADS 1171 HEADS 1181 HEADS-BIRO ANI MAL 51 201 OOGS 1211 :JOGS 1221

M~SKS

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H9 I AI

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H6C (01

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H9 101 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

H10 I AI

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H14 I AI 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1

Hl4 10)

FIGURIN~S

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FROM MI~JLE FORMATIVE PROVENIENCES

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Charcoal wt. (gr)

3.9 3.4 3.5 0.9 6.4 64.1 17.6 1.5 4.9 0.3

-

-

4.0 3.5 3.5 0.9 6.4 64.1 17.6 1.5 4.9 0.3

7.5 0.9 0.5 2.9 0.6 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.2 42.1 17.8

7.5 1.3 0.5 2.9 0.6 0.1

42.1 17.8

ROSARIO PHASE -

* =number of pieces all others%

MIXED ROSARIO AND LATER PHASES T48/16 3.2 3.2 T80/28

AI/ZHB AI/ZIA C/ZF C/ZF (Sq. 32J) C/ZH HW/ZH T2/20 T33/14 T33/16 T33/18 T43/22 T43/28 T48/16 F1 F16 F19/Pit 2 F19/Pit 2/inside olla F26 F51 F53 H9(A) H9(0) Bur. 27 /Vessell 2* 1*

3* 2* 1* 1* 1* 2* 80.0 75.0 41.0 63.0 30.0 58.8 30.0 3* 18.5

3* 1* 1* 100.0 60.2 1*

1* 83.3 20.0

Pinus spp. (pine)

MIXED GUADALUPE AND ROSARIO PHASES 0.3 T33/20 03 2.3 F42/Pit 1 2.1 1.4 F42/Pit 2 1.3 23_7 F57 23.7

Phase and Provenience

Sample wt. (gr)

67.0

3*

Pinus bark

2* 1*

15.0 41.2 3.0 2* 56.0 2*

2* 5.0 10.0

2*

22.9

8.3 60.0 2*

Quercus spp. (oak)

6.3

37.0

Quercus bark

TABLE 7 (Continued)

1*

5.0

1.2

Prosopis sp. (mesquite)

8.3

Arctostaphylus sp. (manzanita)

Unknowndiffuse porous Mono cot

12.5 4*

35.0

5.0 5.0

1*

53.0

2*

6.3

20.0

2* 10.0 5.0 6.0

1*

15.7

(monocot fragments include 2 leaves) 3*

20.0

Tree legume

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MIXED MONTE ALBAN I-V

MONTE ALBAN II

ROSARIO PHASE HW/ZG T13/100A Fl F16 F19/Pit 2 F 19 /Pit 2/inside olla F26 H9(0) 1

1

11

F59

MIXED GUADALUPE AND ROSARIO PHASES F42/Pit 1 F42/Pit 2

3 51

LATE GUADALUPE PHASE

EARLY GUADALUPE PHASE

TIERRAS LARGAS PHASE

Al/ZFI C/ZJC F4/inside olla F23 F48

AI/ZF

AI/ZH F46

FlO

Phase and Provenience

Kernels no.

1 3

6

5

2 1

4 54 2 8 12 1

3 2

no.

2.8

3.2 3.5

3.2

2.1

Mean width mm

Cupules

1

1

2

4

1

1 1

8

3

1

Cob fragments no.

ZE"'A MAYS KERNELS AND COBS

TABLE 8

14

16

12

8 12

12 12

6 14 12

14

Row no.

3.7

4.0

4.4

2.9 4.9

3.3 4.0

3.6 3.0 3.2

3.4

Cupule width mm

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.6 3.3

3.6 3.0

2.5 2.2 4.0

4.0

Cupule height mm

-

-

-

yes

yes yes

yes

-

yes

yes

Teosinte introgression

Cob Attributes

Nal Tel-like

tip

Nal Tel-like

nubbin paired rows

thick margin cupules spaced

cupules spaced weak pairing no pairing

no pairing

Remarks

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APPENDIX Xlll

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265

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Fig. 91. Teosinte introgressed corn cobs. From left to right: F26, HW/ZG, FlO, Al/ZF, Al/ZF, and H9(0). show introgression with teosinte (Zea mexicana), the putative ancestor of corn, to such an extent that one must conclude that this annual wild grass was growing in the corn fields themselves. While teosinte does give com hardiness against drought and perhaps resistance to plant diseases, it also reduces the productivity of many of the cobs with which it hybridizes. Consequently, as long as teosinte was permitted to grow in or near the corn fields, the yield of corn would be lessened. Other domesticates are more problematical. One small cotyledon of a bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was recovered from a Guadalupe-Rosario Phase pit, and several broken cotyledons, too fragmentary to permit a specific identification, were also found (Table 9). No remains of cucurbits- squash or gourd-were recognized. Another possible domesticate is the avocado (Persea americana), which will be discussed later. If the prehistoric farmer permitted teosinte to grow in his fields, we should expect to find other field plants as well. Many volunteer plants in milpas are consumed as spinach when they are in an early stage of growth. Evidence of these plants is thus usually difficult to find. Others can be either "double harvested," that is, the leaves gathered when the plant is young and its seeds collected at the end of the plant's life cycle, or consumed only at maturity . Few kinds of seeds were recovered from the village debris, even with flotation (Table 9). Two types remain unidentified. One is subspherical, with a distinctive scar nearly bisecting it. This single seed is 0.9 mm in diameter. The second occurred in three samples, but all are too fragmentary to permit identification. The remaining types are teosinte, as we would predict from the condition of the corn, and Crotalaria. Two fruit cases of relatively small teosinte seeds were found in a Late Guadalupe Phase layer. They are associated with fragments of corn cobs and one kernel of corn. It is highly probable that they were collected for food. Although the teosinte fruit case is extremely hard, the grain can be prepared for consumption by popping it

in the hot coals of a fire or by grinding it into a masa-like meal for cooking as an atole or even a tortilla. It tastes like corn, and at times of crop loss due to drought or other reasons, it would have been a welcome starvation insurance substitute for corn. Recognized locally as "chipil," Crotalaria (probably pumila) is a leguminous plant that is used at maturity. Ethnobotanical evidence indicates that the mature leaves and stems are eaten as a spinach (Messer, 1972); the seeds may be accidental introductions to the hearth during the preparation of the plant or they may have been deliberately collected and consumed. In any case, it is a volunteer field plant whose presence with the other seeds suggests that the prehistoric field contained many plants interspersed with the corn which we might call weeds, but which had dietary significance for the inhabitants of Fabrica San Jose. Several fragmentary portions of a monocot resembling maguey (Agave) were found (Table 9). Today these edible plants are planted as field borders or even in fields. This may have been done prehistorically as well, or it may have been a wild plant whose inflorescence, or "heart," was gathered or dug in the piedmont forests. Another problem is presented by the avocado. The carbonized pits of these fruits were the most ubiquitous food plant remain found in the village (Table 10). We cannot tell if they were domesticated. In the wild state they would have grown in the mountains and higher slopes of the piedmont, but if they were actively cultivated, they might have formed field borders or even been planted in orchards. In an effort to answer the question of domestication, William Merrill studied avocado production and classification in Oaxaca in August, 1974. He was not able to locate any truly wild trees (several feral trees were found in abandoned house sites and gardens), but he did fmd that the terms "criollo" and "mixe" referred to the traditional small avocado fruits in contrast to the recently introduced large fruits which American shoppers are accustomed to

266

FABRICA SAN JOSE AND MIDDLE FORMATIVE SOCIETY TABLE 9 NUMBERS OF SEEDS AND REPRODUCTIVE PLANT PARTS

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