Exploring the World Around Us

Citation preview

II

|i"''%^ ^.7

*^

.•^aM*

Animals

oi-

falls, it is

up hunting

The opossum seems to alive.

like

for food.

not a fussy eater. It almost anything, dead or

Worms,

is

young

insects,

mice, and dead animals are

all

birds,

gulped

down. Corn, cherries, blackberries, persimmons, and eggs all go to fill up the hollow space under its ribs. If a dog or some other animal chases the opossum, it tries to get to the nearest tree at a fast walk. If

nearest tree in time,

it

it is

docs reach the safe, for

it

Woods

Fields and

sleeps soundly. But, as soon as darkness

is

an excellent climber. When trapped on the ground, it falls down as if it were dead. Tlie opossum's body becomes so limp that it may be draped over a tree limb like a wet rag. There is hardly any sign of breathing, and even its eyes look glazed. It may be picked up by the tail

45

and swung about

in a circle, yet its feet

continue to stick out stifBy. I'inally, the enemy may decide that the opossum is really dead and go his own way. Then the

opossum begins

to

move

slowly, as

if

itself together. It ambles slowthough nothing had happened. you know what is meant by "play-

gathering ly off as

Now

ing 'possum."

In

captivity,

very friendlv. a

It

wide-mouthed

fifty

opossum

hiss that

is

shows

never all its

sharp, pointed teeth.

Ring 'lire tail,

the

greets every visitor with

Tail,

the Raccoon

raccoon, or coon, has a ringed

and looks as though it wears a black mask across its eyes. It has a

robber's

Few hunters have ever seen a wild coon in the daytime because short, fat body.

Mother love is common among animals. This mother opossum is taking her babies for an outing. For the first five weeks the babies remain in their mother's pouch. lewall Pettipgill. Jr.. fn

^

;-

^

Raccoons are relatives of the bear. Raccoons are mischievous and cunning. Their claws can grasp like human hands.

liunting for food, the raccoons cannot

reach

home by dawn.

their nearest

Tlien they go to hunting lodge to spend the

day.

these animals rarely leave their tree houses except at night. Mice are a fa\orite food for raccoons.

But raccoons like best to hunt and fish by a pond, stream, or shallow lake. There they wade about in the dark, and feel along the bottom with their sensitive paws for crayfish, frogs, fish, and turtles. When raccoons cannot find food in the frog pond, or mice, they will eat almost anything and ever}'thing, including nuts, berries, apples, or grain. Tlic

coon

is

soaks

its

its paws. It carefully food in water before it is eaten. Even the raccoons born in zoos will soak their bread and fruit in whatever water is at hand.

parents,

all live

and

five or six

together until the

young ones,

new

babies are

born in April or May. Then the jcar-old coons must leave to make room for the new babies. The raccoon family has hunting lodges some distance from the

home

den. Sometimes after a night of

The skunk is a friendly little animal when it becomes used to people. Its black and white striped fur is soft and shiny.

is

a favorite sport in

teen-pound coon

is

many

places.

A

six-

outwitted only by the

use of weapons and greater numbers. It

believed to have more strength and courage than any one dog. It has even is

been able to outfight

a

pack of several

dogs.

Skimk, the Animal Outcast

The skunk in the

has long been an outcast animal world, even though it is

clever with

Raccoons make their home in a large, hollow tree. The family life of these likeable creatures must be very pleasant.

The

Coons are popular and amusing pets. But they seem to have a mischievous sense of humor which is a constant worry to their human friends. Coon hunting

Bernard King from Black Star

r

A

coyote's howl is one of the loneliest of the animal world. It is often at night on the Western prairies.

cries

heard

no bigger than reason for this barreled,

good-sized

a

The

cat.

the powerful, double-

is

scent gun under

Only

its tail.

animals that are able to break its back instantly dare to attack it. Many an unhappy dog has found that the skunk

is

well able to take care of

it-

the skunk raises its battle flag, and white tail, and stiffly stamps its front feet. Tlicn it whirls around with its rear flank to the enemy, and fires. The fluid is shot from two little squirt guns, or ducts. These are attached to self. First

or black

glands

small

skunk's aim

is

inside ver\-

to hit the eyes of fluid

is

mouth.

its

It

The

body.

foe. Tlie

very painful to the eyes

blindness.

dimly

the

accurate and

it

tries

yellow

eagerly, as they

and the

do when following

their

mother. They make safer pets when their scent glands have been removed by a simple operation. Many skunks, however, have been well-behaved pets, al-

sometimes causes temporary At night, this fluid glows very

in the dark.

Minks and weasels are swift, cunning, and keen of smell and sight. Both are

though

still

in possession of their scent

guns.

plump skunk, that has become slow and rather dull through trusting to its shooters. The skunk has no

The Coyote, Most Cunning of All Animals

need to hurry. So it strolls along through the woods, poking into old logs and digging out grubs and beetles with its long claws. It is not an expert hunter and insects, young cats what it finds easily mice, and the eggs of birds that nest on

have been written about fox-faced little wolf called the coyote. Strange and exciting tales have been told about it while listeners around desert campfircs watched the darkness for shadowy forms and the

the ground. Snapping-turtle eggs are also

glint of yellow eyes in the firelight.

cousins of the

Many

the



a favorite food.

By

eating

eggs, the skunks help

keep

many in

The

turtle

check a

tribes,

North.

them

from Lower California to the

The

P"ar

Indians of these tribes be-

lieved that there were no men in the beginning only coyotes, which gradually turned into men. These first coyotes were said to have only a hand or an ear



swishing through the grass and

leaves will cause

coyote was important in the folk almost all the Western Indian

tales of

enemy of wild ducklings. Baby skunks raised in captivity have an amusing way of trailing after their human friends. The mere sound of foot-

great

steps

stories

bushy-tailed,

to gallop along

47

Ch

48 men. marks of like

Little

by

a coyote

The

every way.

little,

they lost

all

the

and became men

in

Indians gave the coyote

credit for being the

most cunning

of

all

animals.

According to their tales, on a certain morning, the first man was to give all the newly created animals such gifts as strength, wisdom, and speed. Tlie coyote tried to stay up all night so that it could be the first one there in the morning. It not only fell asleep but slept so long that it was the last animal to arrive, and so there were few gifts left. But the first man took pity on this creature. He is said to have appealed to a god who gave the coyote the gift of great cunning. In return, the coyote did many good deeds for man when he was in trouble. Although no coyote can do the wonderful things that are told about it in these legends, the Indians honored it as an intelligent and clever animal. The coyote has always had many enemies.

Sheepherders,

cattle

ranchers,

and poultry raisers hunt the coyote because it sometimes kills their young stock. Many farmers and fruitgrowers are the coyote's friends, because they

know

that

it

phers, rabbits,

helps to destroy the go-

and other rodents that

eat

their crops.

What

the

coyote

lacks

in

speed,

and size it makes up for in cunning and intelligence. It can outwit faster animals by teaming with its mate. Two coyotes will hunt a deer by driving it around in circles. Tliey take turns at the chase. When the deer can run no more, it is killed. Tlie wary little prairie dog is also captured by means of teamstrength,

work.

One

by means of some of its cleverest tricks. Although it is hunted and trapped and poisoned, the little thirty-pound wild dog still holds its own. Moreover, it now lives East and North as well as in its old Western haunts. The coyote has only one mate during its lifetime. In the deep den which the parent coyotes dig in some sunny bank, teach

young ones the ways of the wild country where they live. The young also learn the ways of men, their worst entheir

emy.

The

familv hunts together until Octhe cubs are grown and

when

tober,

ready to find their

own

food.

When

they are hard pressed in the chase, or trapped, help is often given by other coyotes. Their call

away as two by others.

may be heard

or three miles. It

A common habit

is

is

as far

answered

for several

coyotes to gather at night and to howl, or "sing," together. of wildlife

and

Those who

are fond

consider the cry beautiful

thrilling to hear.

Rover, a pet coyote which one person raised, was one of the most handsome and likeable coyotes ever known. While captive, he had little chance to show his cleverness. But he had one remarkable trick. No matter how many times his chain became wrapped around his legs or a post, he was always able to free him-

A

year after parting from his

first

owner, Rover was brought back.

He

self.

rolled at this person's feet in the wildest

With howls of detail thumpings, he made it he knew him.

joy of recognition.

hght and clear that

The Beaver, Animal Engineer

coyote gets the attention of

the victim while the second coyote captures it. The coyote has outsmarted man

They

they raise their large family.

A

long time ago men built castles with thick stone walls. The walls of the

The cutting

teeth of

beaver, two in each jaw, have sharp edges like chisels.

the

Its it

broad, flat tail helps stand on its hind

to

It

Its

can carry

hind

feet

are

mud

with

its forefeet.

webbed for swimming,

The tail is slapped on the water as a signal.

legs.

^^7}f^^ ">

were not always strong enough to keep out enemies. So the men dug deep channels around their castles and filled them with uater. In much earlier times, castles

people built their homes on wooden the waters of lakes. Long before these lake-dwelling people li\ed, the beaxer was building its home in the middle of ponds, and even stilts o\'er

making the ponds. The bea\er, too, built this way in order to escape its enemies. Tlie beaver is the biggest American

member called

or gna\\ers.

Some

ro-

and ground squirrels, live and work underground. Some rodents, such as squirrels, travel and li\c

The

squirrel with

beaver

is

a sort of water

webbed hind

feet. Its

spent

in

or

near

ponds

and

than any other animals to gather food and to make comfortable and safe homes for their families. Their snug and strong

homes

of

and mud are many ways, men build. The so much like the

sticks

built in the water. But, in

they are like the houses

ways of beavers are ways of people that their

more

like that of a

life

history

storvbook an-

imal than that of a real creature. The beaver cuts down hundreds of

dents, such as gophers

in trees.

is

streams. Beavers \\ork longer and harder

reads

of the great group of animals

rodents,

life

whole

49

trees

and drags the branches into a

stream to build a dam. These dams are sometimes over seven hundred feet in length. Tlie water that has been partly

stopped forms a wide, deep pond. Then the beaver builds a house in the very

Beavers work together when they build houses and dams. The beaver on the left is pulling a branch through the water to the dam. On the right, another beaver is fitting the branches together tightly.

pond

with an entrance under the it Hves mostly on green It has placed these in cold storage under the ice-covered pond. The special tools of the beaver make

chisel-edged teeth as tools for carving

itself,

bone and horn. Another important

water. In winter,

twigs and the bark of branches.

it

possible for

These

it

its tail.

it.

The

shaped

do many strange

to

is

No

tail

tool of the beaver other animal has one like

is

broad and fiat, and is is about sixteen

like a paddle. It

inches long and has no hair on

beaver uses

its tail

as a steering oar

swimming.

When

danger

things.

Tlie

axes

of

special tools are

the

human

must be sharpened on

its

But

the teeth of the beaver are self-sharpening. They are like a good chisel with a

hard

steel edge.

beaver's teeth

inner side

is

The

is

outer side of the

\erv hard, while the

softer.

WHien the beaver

gnaws or cuts wood, the inner side of the tooth wears away faster than the outer part. This leaves a hard cutting edge which becomes sharper the more it

is

used.

One would

teeth

used the beaver's

big,

it

it

slaps

to

but they more often li\c in a "lodge," as it is called. Tlie beaver lodge is built of the waters of the pond. Its walls are two feet thick and they

think that the

would soon wear away. Instead, they never stop growing. Indians once

near,

warn other beavers. It never uses its tail as a trowel to smooth mud. But the tail does serve to keep the beaver from falling over when it climbs the slope of the dam on its hind legs. The bea\er uses its front paws to carry large gobs of mud or perhaps a heavy stone when it is building its dam. Beavers do not spend the winter sleeping so they must have a safe, warm home. Sometimes, in the drv bank, they dig a den with an underwater entrance, the water with

wood-cutter

a grindstone.

is

The when

it.

sharp,

strong teeth. There are four in all, two in the upper jaw and two in the lower.

mud and sticks in

orange-colored.

50

Wo

Animals of Fields and smoothly plastered inside with mud. As many as nine bca\ers live in some

are

lodges.

own

its

Each member of the family has separate bed of wood chips or

shredded bark, against the wall. The lodge is big enough to be a child's playliouse, but you could ne\cr find a door

which to

b\'

enter. Tlie

two doors of

the beaver lodge are near the bottom of the pond.

They

lead

water-filled tunnels to floor.

No

up through the t\\'0

holes in the

beaver comes or goes through

these doors without getting a good soak-

The

water brought into the probably keeps the house cool and ing.

summer.

in the

In

home damp

winter the moist fur of several

beavers makes a kind of steam

Sometimes the steam from bodies ceiling.

through the

rises

This

is

air

a sure sign to

side that the beaver family

is

their

heat.

heated

holes in the

anyone outat home. In

know

its own job. The way they dig long canals in order to float poles and branch-

dam is wonderful. Like any good homeowner, the beaver never lets its property run down. It is always on the lookout for leaks in the dam. Holes in

es to a

the

dam

are patched immediately with

and mud. Tliese busy animals

sticks

never

fail to find the smallest leak. Beavhave been known to go to live where there were man-made dams. Several times they have discovered and repaired

ers

leaks

which

men

Baby beavers

While

the babies are

ways.

It is

No

hard to

tell

lodge

May. From

still

small, the fa-

Beavers have been trapped and killed their valuable furs since the first

for

white

men came

most

all

stroyed,

to America, \^^^en al-

these animals

new

laws were

had been de-

made

to protect

them. In places where the climate is dry, people have found beavers valuable because they make ponds which help to save the supply of water. Now the beaver

no longer in danger. In many places, such as the national parks, beavers often do their work in the daytime because they no longer have to live in fear and is

hiding. ed, thev

Where

beavers are not protect-

work onh'

at night.

other interesting exactly

how

the

They work in one beaver seems to be boss

beavers do certain things. groups.

find.

summer the father beaver returns Then he helps to get the and dam ready for the winter.

In late

many

in

away for the summer weeks. Sometimes several fathers travel together on a sort of camping trip. They travel many miles up and down stream. to his family.

Beavers have

born

ther beaver goes

pond. But, inside the mud walls of its home, the beaver family sits and gnaws on twigs and bark. Here, too, it is safe from its enemies. Tlie beaver kitchen at the bottom of the pond is well-stocked. All through the autumn the beavers work hard to pile it with twigs and branches to last through the winter. Tlie pond is built deep enough to keep the water from freezing all the way to the bottom. The winter sun shines dimlv through the ice. Beneath the ice, in the cold, clear water, the beavers swim to their water kitchens. There they pick out juicy sticks of poplar, or branches of willow, and carry to their lodge.

could not

are

the time of birth, their eyes are open and their bodies are covered with fur.

winter, a thick layer of ice covers the

them

51

of a group, yet each animal seems to

The

Bat,

Radar Operator

Bats arc really flying mammals. Al-

though they

fly

through the

air,

they

Childcraft

52

have fur instead of feathers. nurse their young like other

A

And they mammals

wings are not like the wings of a bird. In fact, they are not real wings at all, but the strangest kind of hands with long, thin, webbed fingers. Fingers of this kind are never used for picking up food or for anything except flying. Bats have big, pointed ears and tiny do.

bat's

black eyes.

The web between bat

is

the fingers of the

thin, dark skin.

a

tends from the arms

all

The web

ex-

the way around

the lower part of the body, leaving only the

tail

hind

or

its

tip

and the sharp-clawed

held in front of a light, the bat's wings look as delicate as a faded rose petal with tiny red veins

showing

through. In front of a light, the bones of the arms, legs, tail, and all the joints show as clearly as they would in an X-ray picture.

bats

is

about

delicate

and

North American

it

must

fly

in total darkness

In the twilight and flies

in search of

dawn

it

sleeps.

hours, the bat

winged insects such as and beetles. Flight,

gnats, mosquitoes, too,

A

is

the bat's only means of escape.

bat cannot run.

And

its

walk

an

is

awkward crawl because its hind bend forward instead of backward

legs like

our own.

Mother

bats build

no

nests,

but carry

wherever they fly. Sometimes a mother bat has as many as four babies to carry, but usually she has only their babies

them may

or steeple.

sleep in hollow trees.

Some They

of al-

ways sleep upside down, hanging by the claws of their hind feet. Wrapped in the wings, bats sleep away

folds

of

most

of the twenty-four hours of the

their

Tlieir sharp,

day. Bats also sleep through the winter

crushing the

North, where there are no be found in cold weather. these harmless animals were believed to be evil. Like other harmless night creatures such as toads, spiders, owls, and black cats, they were often killed for no good reason. Now we know better, but there are still many

June beetles that they

thistledown fur

is

the finest to

be found on any animal, and grows closer together than the fur of other creatures. Their keen powers of hearing are far greater than ours. As they fly through the night, bats al-

most never bump into anything. They use sound effects in somewhat the same way that radar is used. While a bat is flying, it makes a high-pitched sound that people are not able to hear.

The

bats can guide their flight in darkness tell how close they are to any object by the echoes of the sound, which bounce back to them. Flight is most important to the bat. It must capture its food while it is fly-

because they can

cave, attic, barn,

for

are

shells of the

'ITie little ones cling to the mother's nipples and fur. Bats usually sleep and rest in some

fine.

needlelike teeth

hard

eat. Tlreir

And

lead to the ca\'es or barns where

one or two.

feet free.

When

Everything

ing.

through narrow, twisting passages that

months

in the

insects to

Years

persons

ago,

who

believe that bats are dirty,

ugly creatures.

Anyone who has raised a pet baby bat on milk from a medicine dropper will tell you that they are both affectionate and gentle. They spend most of their waking hours cleaning and combing their wings and coats, which are always spotless. Bats are valuable

eat millions of mosquitoes

because they

and

insects.

In the land of Mexico, high towers are

The porcupine is slow, but its spiny quills it from the attacks of enemies.

protect

especially

Iniilt

for

shelters

as

bats.

The Armored Porcupine

Only a few animals can defend themwhen they are born. The baby porcupine can, for it is covered with the same heavy coat of sharp, barbed spines selves

as its parents.

When

attacked, the animal covers

head with

its

stubby

legs, raises its

its

sharp

and begins to wave its moves its tail so fast that

spines, or quills, tail

wildly. It

some people think it throws its quills. But a porcupine does not throw its quills. ITiey must be driven into the flesh of an enemy by force. The quills have barbs at the ends, and it is as painful to remove them as it is to

favorite food. It

\\i\\

the porcupine by turning

rocky den.

pine.

The porcupine

will

spiration has salt in likes

to

gnaw on

it,

the young porcu-

lit-

and

sight as other

rodents, but their sharp quills are protection enough.

The While Goat. King

of the

The white

Mountaintops

goat looks

much

like the

common

goat, but it is not a goat at all. kind of antelope. Tliis animal always lives surrounded by cold, and by the dangers of great heights, falling rocks, and snowslides. It chooses the topmost peaks of our Rocky Mountains

Per-

It

so the porcupine

things people have

touched. Often these animals find ax

and leather saddles around camps and gnaw on them, much to the

many

belly.

Thev may not have

as sharp senses of smell

handles

anger of

By autumn,

care for enemies.

tle

go to

salt.

over

it

fallen leaves of the forest floor, with

also eat the

great trouble to get a taste of

able to over-

is

unprotected

pines are shuffling off alone through the

bark of such trees as aspen, cherry, birch,

and

its

In the early spring, two to four porcupine babies are born in a hollow tree or

to move into the body. Many animals have starved to death after getting a mouthful of porcupine quills. With this fine armor, the porcupine has no need for speed. It spends its lonelv davs walking through the woods in its flat-footed way, or climbing its favorite trees. Tlie bark of hemlock trees its

of these animals

and ripping open

remove fishhooks. Once the spines have been forced into the skin, they continue

is

Each

come

is

for

camper. Tlie two enemies that can defeat the porcupine are the otter and the fisher.

its

often

a

a

home.

One

or

called, are

53

'Ilie

icy, steep,

trails

it

follows are

and narrow.

two babies, or kids, as they are born in April or May. When

Childcraft

54

they leave their cave home after ten days, they are able to follow the twists and bends of a six-inch ledge on the

mountainside. They are expert mountain climbers by the time they are a

month old. The young ones have one dangerous enemy the eagle. The old goats band



together in small flocks in order to fight off these great birds that are looking for

own babies. Both the and mother goats have sharp,

food for their father

black horns ten inches long.

With

these,

they defend themselves and their young. parents must also fight wolves and lions, although they are only

The

mountain

a little larger

than ordinary goats. in the mountains

No matter how high

the white goats climb, there are many hunters who follow part of the way and shoot at them. But the white goat never shows fear, even when it has been trailed, cornered, or fired at.

hurry and

make

Nor

will it

a fatal misstep.

white goat will almost never

The

able to escape. It

be not even leap twenty-

five feet straight

the face of a

stand up on

From

its

hind

the places

legs to turn around.

down upon

calmly

seeks out,

it

or ten feet across a break in the

cliff,

Lynwood M. Chace from Century

to

looks

Here

finds

it

its

among

food

the tree-

where only lichens and mosses can grow. In winter it must dig these out

less rocks,

with its sharp, deerlike hoofs, unless it climbs even higher, where the winds

blow seventy miles an hour have swept away the snow. The white goat is well protected from cold by a fine, woolly undercoat and long, stiff hairs which make an overcoat. The white goat has one strange habit besides its mountain-climbing ability. that

Sometimes when tance,

sits

it

looking in the

dis-

up, dog fashion, on

its

it is

haunches, with front hoofs dangling beneath a bearded chin. But even then, this king of the mountaintops does not

seem to

lose its royal dignity.

The Mountain

Lion, Big

it is

trail,

it

the thousand-foot

walls of rock that rise above the clouds.

let itself

forced into a spot from which

may down

avoid being cornered. Sometimes the path it chooses is so narrow that it must

The mountain the cougar,

Game

Hunter

sometimes called

lion,

among

the rocky western America. In early days these yellow-eyed cats roamed over most of the country.

hillsides

still

and

lives

forests of

The mountain Hon its

neck

like

see in zoos. lion

is

has no mane on the African lions that we

The

color of the

brownish or grayish,

same color

as the deer

the jaguar,

it is

it

mountain

much

the

hunts. Next to

the largest cat that lives

wild in North America.

It

has been

is a young mountain lion, or puma. These animals are found among the attack sheep and

This

Rocky Mountains. They calves.

The Rocky Mountain goat lives high above the timber and valleys. Its white coat against the snow conceals

much

known

to weigh as

But

usual weight

300 pounds. 1 50 pounds. Tlie body is usually no more than four and one-half feet long with a three-foot its

tufted

Few

is

it

among

from

its

the

snowy peaks

enemies.

Two

cubs are usually born in spring. At first they are light brown with dark spots. But when the cubs are six months old the spots disappear, and the cubs grow a new coat like the mother's. When the cubs are four months old, they are ready a thicket.

as

midwinter or

about

tail.

persons see mountain lions in

Hunters often trail for days, or even weeks, before running them down. In one case, an animal was followed for two months. During a chase on level ground, the cougar often covers from twenty to thirty feet at a single bound. From a spot twenty feet high, these animals have been known to leap sixty feet to the backs of their native haunts.

carl\'

meat and to learn how to hunt. Mother and cubs stay together for a

them

to eat

year or two before each goes off to raise its

own

family.

The

father lion keeps

one mate throughout life. The mountain lion is the best

game hunter

many

in

America.

It

big-

prowls for

miles through the woods, seeking

the scent of deer feeding at night.

deer.

The mother mountain

lion

may

usually

years to raise her young.

there are

no

caves, she

is

When

makes her den

kill

two deer

in

one week,

if

It

there

no other game at hand. It kills only what it needs and buries, for future use, what it cannot eat. Like the house cat, the cougar shows

which to raise her babies. She may return to the same cave for finds a cave in

many

line

m 55

Childcr.\ft

56 great patience. c

,

A

few cougars, kept as tame and gentle. grown, wild ones have

j-j„».i„

pets for years, remain

Even when

full

been seen playing for hours like prnwn kiffpns themsplves kittens, all hv Dy tnemseives. grown

YOU WILL FIND other information

over-

and pictures

Volume 14: squirrels on pages 28, 30, and 37; snowshoe rabbit on page 35; a chipmunlc on page ^^^^^^^ „„ ^^J^\ an opossum on pageM and a mother opossum with babies on page 21; Virginia deer on page 23, and twin fawns on page ^5; elk on pages 29 and 32; a porcupine on page ^^. ^ ^^^^.^^ ^^,^^^. ^^ ^^^^ ^^, ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 34; a bat on page 37; and raccoons on pages 21 and 39. '"

a

^^. ^

SOME THINGS TO DO Plan a trip to the park, field, or woods with }oiir father or mother. Watch carefully for everything that goes on outdoors in the animal world. Make a list of the animals which you see. If you have a pair of field glasses, you will be able to watch many an animal 1.

without disturbing

it.

2. Keep a scrapbook of your favorite small animals of the outdoors. Fill it with pictures and interesting information. If, for example, the red fox is the subject of your interest, you might want to include some of the following, or all: Nursen,' rhymes about foxes

Indian fox legends sayings about foxes

Famous

Music about foxes Fox pictures

A list

of books about the fox

3. If you live in a large cit\, plan a visit to some museum of natural history. The specimens are often arranged just as they may be found in nature. Study the shape, color, and homes of these animals. This will help you to identify them the next time you go on a

nature

trip.

of you will want to follow the example of nature lovers and keep a Journal. Record in this the animals you have seen, when you saw them, and what they were doing. For example, March 10. Saw a cottontail in Thatcher Woods sitting behind a clump o{ dead grass. 4.

Many

BOOKS TO READ Bronson, WiLFRro SwANCOURT C/iiseJ-Tooth Tribe. Harcourt, 1939. Horns and Antlers.

1942. Coyotes. 1946.

Buff, Mary and Conrad. Dash and Dart. Viking, 1942. Lathrop, Dorothy Pulis. Hide and Go Seek. Macmillan, 1938. Lawson, Robert. Rabbit HiJI. Viking, 1944. MoE, Virginia. Animal Inn. Pictures by Milo Winter. Houghton, 1946.

OUR

PETS,

THE ANIMALS

WE KNOW

BEST

GEORG MANN

FOR MANY

thousands of years, boys throughout tlie world ha\e had pets for ions and playmates. \\'hat fun a walk in or woods can he with a dog which dashes

Pets are good companions. A boy and his dog quickly become fast friends, and find themselves sharing work and play.

and girls companthe park

back and forth with jovful bark! Or think of the fun you may ha\e from watching a graceful kitten that purrs by the fire or phnfullv chases a ball or spool of thread. Georg Mann, Science Editor of The World Book I''.NCYCLOPEDi.\, and author of many science articles, takes us into the fascinating world of pets. He writes interestingly of the habits and care of ani mals which share our linmcs and li\cs.

feed

it.

A

calf,

place to place.

These

THERE with each

arc nianv kinds of pets, \\c

pet pig will squeal and grunt

call it. A pet lamb, goat, or chicken will patiently follow its master around from

and come running wlien we

and

are only a

few of the many an-

imals that arc kept as pets.

Some

of these

some wear feathers, some wear scales, and some wear shells. T'here are flying pets and swimming pets, as well

can lia\c a special

wear

kind of fun. i\ pony nickers softly when we go to take a ride on its back. A graceful goldfish will swim along the sides of its tank waiting for us to

as

fur,

pets

that

crawl.

harmless snakes,

57

Birds,

fish,

mice,

turtles, alligators,

and

Childcraft

58 snails

make most

all

Sometimes

a

boy or

interesting pets. girl finds a

baby

animal that has lost its parents. Often, if the animal is fed and cared for it will grow to be an affectionate pet. Baby birds that have fallen from their nests, baby squirrels, chipmunks, lizards, and even skunks may become friendly pets and companions. No matter what kind of pet a boy or girl

may

have, he thinks that

best pet in the whole world.

erything

it

it

And

is

the

in ev-

does the pet seems to say:

first really tame dogs were ones that had been caught as puppies and brought up

among human

beings.

The

children of

these hunters of long ago frolicked with

the dogs around the campfires.

In addition to being useful in hunt-

dog learned many other ways to It barked a warning when enemies came near. Also, it helped to drive ing, the

help men.

away

bears, wolves,

imals that might children. Later,

and other wild an-

harm its master or his when man had tamed

sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, and horses, the

"My master who feeds me and cares for me is the most wonderful person in the

dog became

world."

The American Indians of early days had dogs to help guard their camps and to warn their masters by loud barks. Wlien the Indians wanted to move, they took two long sticks and tied them to a harness on the dog's back. The ends of the sticks trailed on the ground behind

The

Faithful

Dog

Everyone who has a dog for a pet will it is one of the most friendly and intelligent of pets. The dog has always been famous for his loyalty to his master. Sometimes he is given the name "Fido," which is a Latin word meaning "the faithful one." No other animal shows its devotion so openly. \\Tien the dog's master praises him, he romps with delight. He barks joyously and wags his tail. But when the dog is scolded, his ears fall limp, his tail droops, and he hangs his head as though in shame. Dogs are good companions and playmates. They seem to take part in our joys and in our sorrows. Dogs will protect property and guard young children. They are good workers and are used to help shepherds and hunters. They are agree that

also trained to guide blind persons.

Nobody knows when

how

dogs first became friendly with people. Perhaps, long ago, some wild dogs gradually lost their fear of man as they prowled around the camps of hunters looking for bones or leftover pieces of meat. Perhaps the or

a fine guardian for these

useful animals.

The Indians then loaded some household goods on the sticks. In this way, the dog helped his master move from place to place. A Tribute to a Dog. One of the most the dog. of their

touching tributes ever paid to a dog, or to any dumb animal, and one that is still remembered, is that of Senator George Graham Vest of Missouri. It was addressed to a jury during a lawsuit against a man who had killed a dog belonging to the speaker's client. Vest,

who at that won his

time (1870) was practicing law, The one

absolutely unselfish friend that a

man

can have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous,

is

his dog.

A

man's dog stands by him in prosperity and and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground where the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only he may be near in povert}', in health

his master's side

food to

offer,

he

He

the hand that has no the sores and wounds

will kiss

v\ill

lick

Our that

come

world.

encounter with the roughness of the guards the sleep of his pauper master as

He

When

the Animals

a prince.

other friends desert, he remains. When and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. If misfortune drives the master forth an outcast all

riches take wings

in

the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful privilege than that of accom-

dog asks no higher

him

panying

guard against

to

danger,

to

fight

against his enemies.

The Dog's 1.

want one week for my I

to bury 2.

I

it

Bill of

large

Rights

fresh

dessert;

*

in the flower box.

want clean water

in a clean dish

twice daily. 3.

I

want a

but draftlcss

dry, ventilated

place for sleeping. 4.

I

want

a collar that doesn't

me or isn't

so loose

it

choke

catches on

my

head. 5.

6.

I want a quiet place in the basement on the Fourth of July. I want e\ery boy softly reprimanded

who throws

my 7.

8.

stones at

me

or twists

ears.

I want folks to judge me as a dog and from a dog's viewpoints. I want everybody to keep in mind that I do with my mouth, most things they do with their hands; so,

they needn't be afraid of a dog's teeth. 9.

I

I

want

I

want

tect I

I

weighs

robes.

The

tiny

Chihuahua

than two pounds. But the huge Saint Bernard may weigh more than two hundred pounds. The great Dane is another large dog that weighs more than one hundred pounds. Some dogs, such as the German shepherd, still look much like wolves. Because of its strong mouth and jaws, the bulldog was once used to attack angry bulls in the brutal sport called less

bull-baiting. ITic comical-looking dachs-

hund with by

its

long body and short, stub-

ing. It

was once used for badger huntcould creep down into the holes

in the

ground where badgers

dig

legs

them

out.

The Russian

lived

and

v\'olfhound

has a slender body and long legs that make it a fast runner.

Most dogs today are kept as pets. But dogs are still useful helpers. Lonelv shepherds could not protect and guide flocks

what to do. Gentle, friendly collies are among the most famous of all the dogs

and body trained

can be of the

to

I

will give

my life

to pro-

it.

want

are all

fullest serv-

my mind

family, for

12.

But they

be considered one of the

I

dis-

ice.

11.

ferent breeds of dogs.

dif-

hundreds of sheep without their and well-trained dogs. TTie dogs keep the sheep f-oni straying and guide them where the shepherd wants them to go. Many dogs that herd sheep are so clever that they do not need to be told

as

tress.

so that

59

many

of

want to be treated kindly, just and all those in

treat children

10.

Best

descended from an animal that looked something like a wolf. Tliere are dogs of so many different shapes, sizes, and colors that it is hard to believe they can all be dogs. Our Pekingese is descended from the tiny sleeve dogs of China, which weighed so little that they could be carried in the sleeves of their masters' flowing

bone each

promise not

I

We Know

Kinds of Dogs. There are

in

he were

if

Pets,

my

master to be

to act the part.

my

god and

skilled

that help the shepherds. In England, the old English sheepdog is also used for herding sheep. It has long hair that

hangs

down

over

its

eyes.

On many

iHir With patience and kindness, a dog can be taught many tricks. This white dog has been trained to sit up and beg for food.

li\c

where

it is

sometimes

as cold as fifty

degrees below zero. Tliey can run for

many

miles \\ithout stopping. Explorers

have used such dogs to reach both the North and the South Poles. Many favorite dog pets help during the hunting season. The pointers, setters, spaniels, foxhounds, beagles, and retrievers are some of the most popular of such dogs, llic cocker spaniel is one of the most popular dogs in the United farms in Europe and the United States, herding cattle is still part of a dog's daily

States.

work.

it

Policemen and

soldiers ha\'e

to help guard property

and

it

used dogs

who are lost. Doberman pinseher and the German shepherd are commonly used for police is

good hunter. But house pet that

especially trained to go out into heavy

snowstorms to rescue men who had lost their way. Now, few people travel on foot over mountain roads. But the Saint Bernard dogs are still popular, both for their size and for their gentle dispositions.

Many perform

dier.

a sad-looking

a

when travelers tried to cross the high mountains of Switzerland on foot, these dogs saved many lives. Tliev were

guard dutv. It sometimes rears up on its hind legs and strikes out with its forepaws, just as a boxer does. In wartime, dogs of different kinds are trained to help soldiers, lliey carry messages and first-aid supplies for the wounded where no man can go. Some dogs are trained to guard and to attack. With one swift leap, they could disarm an enemy sol-

The bloodhound,

is

a lovable

ago,

valuable for

also

cocker

Of all the useful dogs, some of the most heroic have been the huge and shaggy Saint Bernard dogs. Many years

find children

Tire sleek bro\An-and-black

work. Tlie Boxer

The

makes such

does not always get the chance to be trained for hunting.

The

dog

kinds of dogs can be trained to tricks

intelligent

and stunts on the stage. Ercnch poodle is often

money

drooping ears and wrinkled face, uses its keen sense of smell to follow the trails of runaways and per-

taught to earn

sons lost in wild places. Tlie bloodhound

to human beings than the Secing-Eye dogs. Tliese are especially trained to guide blind persons. Calm, intelligent dogs of the larger breeds are usually best for such work. Tlie German shepherd dogs arc most

with

is

its great,

trained to find and not

son

it is

harm the

per-

trailing.

The Eskimos

of the Ear

North have

trained their dogs to pull heavy sleds across the snow.

These strong dogs can

this

show more devotion

60

for

its

master

in

way.

Tliere are probably

no animals that

POPULAR PETS

mt.

A

proii^^Bnglish Spiinger Spaniel wftk h6r poppies

A Puppy is a pet to cuddle and care for and The Box Turtle makes a good

pet.

It

.

.

.

one with

whom

needs no water, and eats

to

share exciting adventures.

carrots,

earthworms, and meat.

R. C. Miller. Guillumetw; Hoban. GuUlumette; Harriaon, Camera Clij

V

^j^^'^09^ Not everyone can have a Pony for a

pet, but

A Kitten makes a soft and gentle pet

.

.

we can all enjoy the tingling thrill .

which can take part

in

of riding one.

your playtime fun. luilUimeUe; Crowell, Black Star

;

The Parrot likes warmth, clean cages, and such food as moist bread and milk.

Rabbits

They

make

thrive

excellent outdoor pets.

on carrots and dandelions.

Mansfield, Black Star;

Goldfish are hardy. For this reason, they

make good

Haveman,

Guilluroette; Larr

pets for outdoor or indoor aquariums.

Our trained

often sliow

for

purpose.

this

good judgment

Animals

Pt

They

in guiding their

masters tlirougli crowded citv streets and in

and out

of street cars

and buses. With

the help of these devoted companions,

blind persons can

now

happy and

lead

useful lives.

Among

the dog's wild relatives are

woh'cs, jackals, foxes, and coyotes. Tliey

belong to the dog family. Like these,

all

the dog has sharp, pointed teeth which

And all dogs ha\e exactly the same number of bones ni their bodies, no matter how large or

are useful in tearing meat.

small they

may

Best

thick, curved claws touch the ground. This keeps them rather blunt. They are seldom used as weapons, but are handy for scratching

and digging.

Perhaps you have wondered whv, on a hot day, your dog thrusts out its tongue, and pants. Tliis is not because it is out of breath. It

is

the dog's way of keeping

dog perspires only through its tongue, llic body of a healthv dog is dry, even after exercise in hot weather. But as its tongue goes back and forth it cool. Tlic

drips water, lliis

is

the dog's perspira-

tion.

Different kinds of dogs liaxe different

be.

Most dogs do not

see as well as

you

can see better than others. To dogs, all colors look like different shades of black, white, and gray, as in a black and white photograph. Their other do.

We Know

Some

however, are very well developed. most upon their keen senses of smell and hearing. They can both smell and hear much better than we can. Most dogs can run fast for long dis-

coats.

Fox

terriers,

Boston

bulls,

and

pointers have short hair. Collies, spaniels,

setters,

and Russian wolfhounds

have long coats, some of them beautifully

waved and silky. Tlie and Scotch terriers

hair of Aire-

hard and

senses,

dales

Dogs

wiry. Tlie colors of different kinds of

rclv

tances. 'ITie

and

legs.

dog has

Like the

steps lightly along call

the dog's foot

toes.

On

its

strong, springy feet

and wolf, it toes. Wliat we

cat, fox,

on is

its

really only the dog's

hind leg there

bone that looks something This

From

is

pointed an elbow.

a

is

like

really the heel of the dog's foot.

this heel

dov\n to the

paw

is

the

upon which the dog never walks. Both the dog and the cat ha\'c five toes on each front paw and four toes on the back ones. Each of the sole of the foot,

dog's toes has a tough pad of thick skin,

which makes

a

Puppies need

cushion for walking.

The

to be trained in order to to be healthy, well-behaved dogs. These puppies are being taught to eat irom a bowl.

grow up

is

dogs are also different. The Irish setter has rich, reddish-brown fur, while the

golden retriexer is a beautiful brownishgold color. Foxhounds and beagles usu-

Dogs catch cold

easily after a bath. Long-

haired dogs such as this spaniel should be rubbed briskly with a towel until dry.

By the time the puppies

are

about

six

weeks

old, they are able to eat other foods besides their mother's milk. Wlien

they are weaned, they are given such foods as cow's milk, meat, and cereals.

Then

they no longer need to

li\'e

with

just as

WTien puppies start to get want to chew on things, teething babies do. They may be-

come

nuisances

shoes.

It

their mother.

their teeth, they

is

by chewing rugs or

wise to give puppies old

shoes, rolls of burlap, or rubber bones

which they can gnaw ally

have patches of black, tan, and

white. tian

is

The

coat of the graceful

white,

round black

speckled

all

Dalma-

over with

spots.

A Dog's Life. Puppies are carried inside the mother's body for about sixty-three

days before they are born.

dogs have had as pies at

many

one time, but

common. A

smaller

Some

as eighteen

large

pup-

number is not dog may have only this

as

much

as

on

they

way they can be kept from harming more valuable things. In this

please.

Puppies are curious and playful while they are growing up.

They

love to

romp

and run, to play games with bovs and girls, and to explore their surroundings.

They They

are usually friendly with everyone.

often look comical because their

paws seem too big

for the rest of their

bodies.

Some dogs may

live

be twenty

to

puppies at one time. New-born puppies are small and weak. They spend most of their time sleeping snuggled close to their brothers and sisters. When they are hungry, they wake up and crawl to their mother's side to drink the milk from her body. Puppies are born with their eyes closed. They are blind for the first nine

years old, but ten years

days. After that their eyes

open and the puppies begin to see, dimly at first. As the puppies grow stronger, they show more interest in the people and things around them. Soon they start walking

to get a

around on wobbly

This is because a puppy quickly gets used to its master's ways. Also, it can be more readily trained. A puppy can be adopted into the family when it is from eight weeks to six months old. A good

four or

or

five

legs, trying to

chew everything within

reach.

smell

most

dogs.

a long life for

is

In the last years of their

they lose most of their teeth. Their becomes thin and gray, and their sight grows dim. Then they must eat

lives,

fur

soft foods that are easy to ly,

they are contented to

chew. Usualsleeping in

lie

the sunlight.

Caring /or your Dog.

puppy

is

puppy instead

friendly

and

It is usually best

of a

grown dog.

lively,

and

is

in-

dog has been bathed and dried, its hair should be combed and brushed to keep it from tangling. After a long-haired

terested in everything that goes on. It

should look plump and healthy. The dog's natural food is meat. Most

one third to grown dog's food should be

experts think that from

one half of

a

meat. Tlie dog's food

may

also include

milk, cooked vegetables, eggs, als,

biscuit.

fish, cere-

canned food, and Small bones, such as poultry and

toasted

bread,

bones, should never be given. Too of any kind may wear down a dog's teeth. Some experts do not recfish

many bones

ommend

giving any bones to dogs. Pup-

pies, especially,

need plenty of milk to

make their bones and teeth strong. Growing dogs need plenty of food, and should be fed four or five times a day. Older dogs need only one or two meals, and should not be overfed, or they will grow fat and lazy. You should remember to feed your dog at the same time each day. It also needs plenty of water. Tlie water should be kept fresh and clean in a bowl where the dog can drink whenever

it is

brush. This

even more important than

be trained when they are three or four months old. Be sure that your pet dog is trained to obey your commands. Housebreaking is an important part of training. From the very beginning, your dog should be trained to go outdoors. Anyone training a dog must be patient in helping it to understand what is expected. You should never punish your pet harshly. A scolding is usually punishment enough for a mistake or occa-

thirsty.

Your dog needs a warm, dry place to sleep. Dogs that spend the winter days indoors in cold climates should not be

put out to spend their nights shivering in a cold kennel. Dogs with thin coats should not be kept outdoors in a kennel at any time during the year. The dog's bed, whether it is in the house or in an outside kennel, should be sheltered from drafts. Straw or a piece of carpet makes a

is

the occasional bath. Tliis removes dead hairs, and helps to make the coat shiny. TTaining Your Dog. Dogs can begin to

sional mischief. It is

fun to teach a dog to obey simple

commands, but

it

takes great patience.

The first task is to teach the dog its name and to come when it is called. Then the dog should be trained to wear

good dog bed. When the dog

is bathed, it should be thoroughly dried afterward so that it will not catch cold. Dogs need to be groomed daily with a comb and a fairly stiff

a collar

and to walk on a

leash.

This

is

especially important for city dogs that

must be walked on

63

a leash for their exer-

Cm

64

Dogs can be taught to obey such as "Come," "Down," "Sit,"

cise.

commands

Some

prefer the rollicking friendhness

which

of the dog,

is

almost always ready Others prefer

"Stay," and "Heel."

for a hike or tug-of-war.

teach your dog

the cat because

if

while for his

in a

It will be easier to you reward him once obedience. Keep your

commands as short as mands of one word are dog to

learn.

When "sit,"

Com-

possible.

the easiest for a

you

command

your dog to

gently put your hand on his

rump

and push him down. Keep on training him until he sits on command. Obeying the

command

good

him

to

sit

helps to

if

you want

to stop

street to talk to a friend. is

make

a

citizen out of your pet. It keeps

quiet

to teach

him

The

on the

next step

to "heel." This

means

that the dog should walk on your left

and

behind vou. At first, the puppy should be taught only a few commands in order not to confuse him. But he should be taught to obey every command that is given. Later on, after the dog has been taught the first commands, you may want to teach him other things. If the dog is to guard the house, he must be taught not to be too friendly with strangers. Hunting dogs must learn to find game and bring it back to their masters. TTiis is called "retrieving." If you have an especially fine dog that can be entered in dog shows, he must be taught how to walk and stand while he is being shown. But e\ery dog should be taught how to walk with its master, to come on command, and to sit and lie down on command. And every dog should be taught to stay off highways and away from side,

slightly

is

so neat, dignified,

and beautiful. It, too, can be playful and friendly in its own way. Many love both kinds of pets, and have both happily sharing the same home. Few cats can be trained to obey orders dogs can. They will not alwavs come arc called, for thev prefer to sit peacefully by themsches. But in other ways they have such good manners that their failure to obey does not matter much. Cats are sometimes said to be less affectionate than dogs. But in its own good time a cat shows warm afas

when they

fection by purring, arching

bing against

its

owner's

its

back, rub-

legs, or sitting in

his lap.

Cats need especially

less care

good pets

than dogs, and are

for small

homes and

They are so graceful and sure-footed that they can climb about apartments.

among

dom and at

delicate vases

and lamps and

upset anything. Tliey

meow

night.

mav

sel-

screech

if they are allowed outdoors Otherwise they make little

noise to disturb the family or the neighbors. It cats, as

little

is

trouble to housebreak

they are naturally

tidv.

E\ery dav

they carefully wash and groom them selves with their tongues.

Peoples

of

many

lands

have

had

strange beliefs, or superstitions, about cats.

Some

nine

lives,

persons believe that cats have that they are able to know

what will happen in the future, and that they have magical powers. Hundreds of

as to

Middle Ages, cats were supposed to be the fa\orite companions and helpers of wicked witches. When witches were said to fly through the air

pets.

at night

moving automobiles.

years ago, in the

The Graceful Cat

The owners of pets often argue whether cats or dogs make better

it

on

their broomsticks, their cats

wm Lf

Cats

make

mki^X'i

dainty pets. They keep themselves clean, and are quiet and well-behaved.

66

>HILDCR.\FT

were believed to ride with them. Many cats were thought to be witches in disFor this reason, cats were often cruelh' killed. Black cats were considered especially unlucky. Some cats were thought to be extremelv cle\er. The old fairy tale of Puss in Boots tells of such a cat, which used many sly tricks to make its master rich and powerful. Today we guise.

know

that

none

of those strange beliefs

about cats is true. Kinds of Cats. There are not nearly so

many

different breeds of

tame

cats as

birds. From the floor or the ground can jump easily to many times its own

and it

height.

Cats, like dogs, walk on

a fold of skin that looks like the case of

hunting knife. At most times cats keep their claws drawn into the skin. Then they have what we call "velvet a

pa\\'S."

Then

but they are usually smaller than most dogs. Some cats have tails and others have none. The color and the length of the fur varies, too. Yet every cat looks unmistakably like a cat. The body of the cat is long and slim.

like to

It

has

which

five

hundred

One

scientist has

said that a cat's muscles are almost as elastic

as

This enables it to through small openings. It

rubber.

squeeze itself is an unusually good climber, and can walk along high window ledges and small branches of trees without losing its balance. Unlike the dog, the cat cannot run for long distances. But it can make sudden springs and bounds. In this way, it is able to catch mice, rats.

are frightened or

become sharp weapons. Cats keep their claws sharp by scratching the bark of trees. If they are kept they

may tear the upholstery unless they are given a block of wood covered with a piece of carpet on which indoors, they

to scratch

and sharpen

their claws.

In bright light, the pupils of the cat's

different muscles,

it uses skillfully.

But when they

are hunting, they thrust their claws out.

there are of dogs. Cats are of different sizes

their toes

on the soles of their feet. Each toe is armed with a strong, sharppointed claw, which slides in and out of rather than

eyes close until they are narrow up-and-

down

slits.

Their eyes shut out most of

the light, and keep the cat from blinking.

The dimmer

the light, the

more the

pupils open. In the darkness of night, the

and almost round, like the pupils of a person's eyes. Cats can see well where there is little light. But neither the cat nor any other animal can see in complete darkness. pupils are quite large

The two

principal kinds of cats kept

as pets today are the short-haired

and

the long-haired cats. The short-haired ones are more common. They are believed to be descended Kaffir cat

from the wild which was tamed by the an-

cient Egyptians. Tire short-haired cats

have thick coats of short, straight fur. Their bodies are long and slim, and look like those of their wild cousins, the lions

A

mother cat nurses two hungry kittens while they sun themselves in a doorway.

Cats are good climbers. But kittens sometimes climb so high that they are afraid to come down, and have to be rescued.

and

tigers.

Nearly

all stray cats,

called

alley cats, are of the short-haired type.

make Even

just as

Short-haired cats

as long-haired ones.

become

good pets

may

alley cats

beautiful animals

they arc

if

given good food and clean homes. ITiere used to be two kinds of longhaired cats, the Angoras and the Persians. Today, these two kinds are usually just called long-haired cats.

They have

and long around their necks. shortthe They are usually heavier than \ery long, silky fur,

plumy

tails,

hairs called "ruffs"

haired cats.

The

colors of the fur

both

in

These

long-

may be

the same

and short-haired

cats.

colors include black, smoke-gray, bluish-gray,

silver-gray,

pure

white,

cream, brown, and orange. Some cats are one color. Others may be striped or spotted. Tlie tabby cat has tiger stripes, all

while the tortoise-shell cat has irregular patches of black, orange, and cream.

Two

are

cats

at

the

Many Manx

Manx and cats

intelligence

dark brown.

Some Siamese

and

color as faded raspberries. Kittens learn

tail.

The

Life of the Cat.

The mother

usually carries her kittens inside her for a little

mon

may

canary birds. Before they have walked around much, the cushions on the undersides of their paws have the same

are light blu-

ish-gray with darker face, ears, feet,

as

During

and sleep or nurse most of the time. Baby kittens have queer, shrill little voices that sound like the chirps of

and beauty. It has deep blue eyes. Its body is usually light tan, but the face, ears, feet, and tail are its

may have

each mother, or female, cat

have as many as one hundred and twenty kittens or even more. The eyes of newly born kittens do not open for eight to ten days. Like newborn puppies, kittens are helpless at first,

have no tails at all, although some have short, stumpy tails. Manx cats have long hind legs. Wlien they move fast they seem to hop like rabbits. Tlie Siamese is highly valued for

cats

as eight to twelve babies.

its life,

Siamese.

the

one time. Siamese

many

well-known kinds of short-haired

over two months.

It is

for four or five kittens to

to purr within a

cat

body com-

to play

three weeks

old,

When

be born

67

week or

They begin

tu^o after birth.

when

and soon

they are about frolic

around.

about seven weeks old they can

Childcraft begin to eat ground raw meat. Soon after that they ean get along without milk cat. But they need cow's milk to drink.

from the mother

warm The mother

plenty of

cat takes

good care

of

her kittens. She will fight fiercely to protect them. If thev are not safe in one

Thev like

rubbed and between the shoulmay always want cat not to romp or be petted. But when its name is called, it will usually be polite enough to look up and close its eyes gently, as if to be stroked gently, or

around the

ears

der blades.

A

to say: "I hear vou, master, but

nest, she carries

don't care to be bothered

holds

thanks!"

them to another. She them bv the skin on the backs of

their necks. y\s she walks with each kit-

head high so that the not drag on the ground. She

If a

care,

kittens will

years.

clean.

Some

father cats

kill

the

newborn

kittens because they are jealous of them.

Kittens like to play games that will

them for catching rats and mice. They can hardly ever resist pouncing on train

a piece of string

drawn across the floor, hung on the end of

or batting at a spool

a string. Kittens will nearly always

come

investigate faint scratching sounds such as a rat or mouse might make. If vou think you have lost your kitten,

to

make

a scratching noise

and

all

the kit-

tens within hearing distance will

come

running. It is said

that "curiositv killed a cat."

Kittens often get into trouble because of their curiosity. They like to explore

small dark places. In this way they sometimes get stuck in drainpipes or shut up

bureau drawers, even garbage pails. in trunks,

Most

cats are less playful

But even older

closets,

and

than kittens.

eats often enjoy playing.

Some are interested in marbles which they can roll on hard floors. Others enjoy racing after the tip of a long switch or a fishing rod drawn across the floor.

is

it

now,

home and good

given a good

likely to live

is

raw or cooked should never be fed pork, cheese, or such spicy, salty meats as ham or sausage. Beef, lamb, mutton, and horse meat are all suitable foods. Cats cat can be given either

meat.

It

also like heart, kidncv, lungs,

and

tripe.

P'ood with small, splintery bones should

never be given to cats. But the crumbly bones of canned fish do no harm if eaten. Some cooked vegetables, cereal, and toasted bread may be mixed with meat, but meat should be your pet's

main food. Milk is good

for cats

and

kittens.

But

thev cannot be healthv long if they eat nothing but milk and the mice or rats they

may

catch.

They

also

need to have

clean drinking water near.

Cats especially

l.ke catnip.

The

smell

or taste of fresh or dried catnip leaves

makes them act silly and frisky. Catnip is a good tonic, but too much of it makes cats want to fight or play too roughly. Cats may be allowed outdoors in cold weather, but should not be forced to stay outside. They need to have warm, dry places, free from drafts, where they

Roomy boxes

But, as a rule, cats are timid, and are

may

rough-and-tumble games and loud noises. Few cats like to be patted.

with soft materials

afraid of

really

about fourteen A few have been known to live be thirty-one old. to vears Caring for Your Cat. Like the dog, the

ten, she carries her

washes and combs the coat of each kitten with her tongue, and keeps the nest

cat

I

just

sleep.

When

cats

or baskets lined

make good eat beds. wash and comb them-

Our

Pets, the

Animals

sches with their rough tongues, they may swallow Icosc hairs. Tlie hairs mav not harm short-haired cats much, but the long-haired ones are likely to get liair balls in their stomachs, and become \ery sick. A cat should be brushed and

combed

often to remove the loose hairs

from

coat.

its

A cat

or kitten should never be turned

out to roam on city and woods. Stray sooner or

cats kill birds, and,

they die of cold or hun-

Instead of turning a cat loose,

ger.

much it.

later,

streets or in the fields

no other home

If

humane care for

is

it is

home

kinder to find another

for

Tame

Our Singing

yellow,

interesting

compando

ions. Since they live in cages, they

space.

easy to care for,

and

Most

of

them

arc

their food costs

of "rollers"

is

a long, sweet

warbling. "Choppers" can warble, too,

but they interrupt their warbling to add shorter notes that sound like "chopchop-chop." Male canaries are usually better singers than females. Young canaries imitate the sounds they hear around them. They sometimes learn to sing well a

if

thev are placed near

male bird that has

cial

The

food for

a

canary

is

mostly seeds.

Other foods include

bits of apple, grape, or cherry. Canaries also like leaves of let-

tuce or watercress, chickweed, and stalks of ripe plantain seeds. Tlie canary must

have food every day or it will starve. It also needs cool, clean water to drink

whenever

it

may

canary

wishes. live to

With good

care, a

be sixteen years

Parrots,

Our Talking

old.

Pels

birds are

parrots,

them can be taught to speak words which they hear. Parrots have sometimes been compared to monkeys, because they can climb around on the bars of their cages or hang from the ceiling. To do this they use their strong, hooked beaks, as well as their claws. The feet of parrots look more like hands of

than the feet of other birds do. Parrots

little.

The song

draft.

of the cage should ]ia\e a

more brightlv colored and there are no birds which have more interesting wavs. Many

white, orange-yellow, greenish-brown, or

need much

but not in a strong

airy

which can easily be removed for cleaning. Keeping the cage clean helps to keep the bird in good health.

than Pets

may be

canaries

They make

69

tray

Few

it.

TTiesc small birds are fa\orite pets be-

not

is

Best

found, the nearest

cause of their cheerful songs and bright

bro\\n.

which

Know

The bottom

society or animal shelter will

Canaries,

colors.

We

a fine song.

A

spe-

musical instrument called a canary sometimes used to train cais

organ

naries to sing.

Some

canaries even learn

to whistle short, simple tunes if thev hear them often. The canary needs to be kept in a cage

use their feet very skillfullv. Sometimes

they pick things up with their

and

feet,

hold them up to look at them with their bright eyes. 'lliere are

many

kinds of parrots and

closely related birds.

Among them

parakeets, macaws, cockatoos,

and

are

love-

Nearly all come from the hot, moist parts of the world. Some of these birds.

birds are only three inches long, while

may measure

others

three feet.

Many

kinds of parrots are kept as cage birds.

Some nests

of the smaller ones

and

raise

young

will

build

in their cages.

Parrots need clean cages that are large

enough

for

them

to exercise.

Young

par-

— ClIILDCRAFT

70

should be fed soft, moist foods such bread and milk. Older birds can eat

rots as

nuts, seeds,

and

ground ovster their

may

shells to

Thev also need help them digest

With good

foods. live

fruits.

parrots

care,

longer than their o\\ners.

parrots have been

known

Some

number

of days before

it

repeat

will

has heard. Parrots are not the only talking birds. Starlings, crows, magpies, and ravens

have

it

all

been trained to speak words or

sentences.

One

bird performers is

a

of the best of is

all

these

the mvna. Tlie

myna

medium-sized, rather dull-colored

bird from southeastern Asia. It can be trained to speak well.

no meaning

lieve that

the

They simply

But

scientists be-

talking birds understand of the words they speak.

imitate

will eat

caught with a net in the shallow water at the edge of a pond or brook. Goldfish.

to live for as

long as one hundred years. Teaching a parrot to speak takes great patience. The parrot may have to hear the word or words over and over for a

what

must not be kept same tank with small fish, or they them. Some aquarium pets must be bought in pet shops. Others can be ing pets, too. But they

in the

what they

ha\'e

may imitate the songs the mewing of cats.

fish

is

The

There

are man\' pets

low, orange, red, silver, or speckled in different colors. fringetails.

Some

Tliey

Some

which

breathe

the

live

in

goldfish are called

ha\'e

long

tailfins

sometimes longer than the bod\' itself which sweep down behind like a bride's train. The orandas have strange-looking growths on their heads. Tlie comet goldfish has large fins. But the queerest-lookmg goldfish is the telescope fish. This has a large double tail and e\es that look like a pair of telescopes.

Guppies. fish. It

has

The guppv is a small, lively become common because it

many

young. Guppies The female large as the male. But

are only an inch or

oxygen which is alwavs found there. Others must go to the surface now and then for air. Many kinds of water animals can be kept in an indoor aquarium with little trouble or expense. Others can be kept outdoors during warm weather. An old wash boiler, a watertight barrel, or an outdoor pool may be used. The most popular and attractive aquarium pets are goldfish and guppies. Other interesting ones include snails, frogs, tadpoles, mussels, newts, and mosquito larvae. Small turtles, and crayfish which look like little lobsters, are amusthe water.

peaceful

a

is

raised many different kinds. Goldfish may be brown, gray, black, white, yel-

gives birth to so

Water Pets

goldfish

easy to keep in the average

fish bowl or aquarium. Tlic goldfish has been admired for hundreds of years by the Chinese and Japanese, who have

heard, just as they of other birds or

that

is

about twice

as

two

long.

the male guppy has brilliant colors. No two male guppies have streaks and spots

which are exactly alike. Their colors often seem to change from gold to rose and from purple to black, depending on the brightness and direction of the light striking their scales. Tire tailfins of the

males also have

many

different shapes.

W^ien courting the female time, the male spreads his

at

mating

fins,

curves

body, and swims backward or sidewise as though dancing around her. Guppies are among the icw kinds of his

fish

whose young are born ali\e. Usually, hatched from eggs. Guppies will

fish are

Goldfish and little turtles are good pets for an apartment or small home.

have baby fish in an ordinary, crowded aquarium. Tlie female guppy may have only a few babies at a time or she may have fiftv or more. Tlie babies must swim awa\' quickh- to hide or their

hungrv mother is likely to turn and gobble them up as fast as they are born. Kinds of Tropical Fish. There are about six hundred kinds of tropical fishes sold in pet shops.

Most

of

them

are smaller

than goldfish. Vox this reason, more of them can be kept in an ordinary aquar-

Many

ium.

If

When

The

little neon tetra is red and silver. Along its sides it has a blue-green line which shines as brilliantly as a neon

in her

mouth

for

will

If

swim

tiny plants growing not harmed but the

and green from the in

to living

it.

The

fish are

to see the

fish.

placed in strong

is

may become cloudy

green water makes

fishes

again

like guppies, give birth

tails,

the aquarium

sunlight, the water

outside,

little

is

If

open pan. This allows much of the

go back into their mother's if danger threatens. Sword-

hatched, the

mouth

new aquarium is started, it pond water or rain water.

chlorine to leave.

about

twelve to fifteen days. After the eggs are

but

a

water from a faucet must be used, it is wise to let it stand for several days in an

kinds of small tropical fishes arc called mouthbreeders. A mother fish of this kind may carry as many as

one hundred eggs

in the aquar-

best to use

Several

light.

enough plants grow

ium, and the fish are not fed too much, the water seldom needs to be changed.

of these fishes are beautiful.

difficult for

it

you

The aquarium may be

voung. These fish are named for their long tailfins, which look like swords. The beautiful Siamese fighting fishes are so c|uarrclsonic that each one must be kept in a separate aquarium. Care of the Aquaiium. Most owners of goldfish are careful to pro\ide the right kind of place for their fish to live. An aquarium that is well planned has in it

placed farther from the direct sunlight. If the water becomes greenish in color, some of it may need to be replaced by

many

added.

in a

clear water.

Fishes

may

of the water

get sick

is

the temperature

if

changed

than their

faster

bodies can get used to it. Water should be brought to the same temperature as that already in the aquarium before it is

of the thmgs that fi.sh would find stream or pond. On the bottom is a

Aquariums

are

of

several

difTerent

w ith

two-inch layer of clean sand or gra\el. Water plants rooted in the sand can

shapes. Tlie best are oblong,

grow there and |3ro\ide some of the oxygen which the fish must breathe if thev

are common, but the curve of the glass makes the fish look unnatural. Unless the round bowls are kept nearly half

of thick, clear glass.

are to live.

71

Round

fish

sides

globes

Childcraft

72

almost

not enough surface area to allow oxygen from the air to enter the water. If the fish cannot get enough

at

oxygen, thev are in danger of suffocating. Fish cannot be healthy if too many are cro\\dcd into an aquarium. It is much better to ha\e two or three healthy

make interesting pets. Thev take up little room and are not noisy. The box turtle does not bite, and it may be tamed. The painted turtle, although it is prettier, is not so friendly. You can keep

ciiiptw there

is

fishes in a good-sized aquarium than to have a larger number that ha\'e to gasp for owgen. Such tiny fishes as guppies need much less oxygen than goldfish. It is usualh' a warning of trouble when the fish come to the surface of the water gasping for air. Perhaps some of the fishes need to be moved to another tank, or more growing water plants are

needed. Fishes should never be fed more than thev will eat in a short time. If a fewsnails are allowed to live in the aquarium, thev will cat some of the lefto\cr

the ordinary pet shops.

all

Turtles as Pets. Small turtles, especially

the box turtle and the painted turtle,

in

turtles

a

terrarium



a

shallow box

with about an inch of coarse sand or

A

few lumps of charcoal will keep it sweet and fresh. Co\er the sand with moss and dead leaves, and put a pan of water in the box. Your turtles will cat worms, bits of raw fish, and chopped meat. The larger female turtles will often lay soft round gra\el at the bottom.

eggs in the sand.

about

You

Unusual Pets

Many

of our unusual pets are wild

food and waste matter. Tliey also help to keep the glass clear inside by eating the film of tiny green plants that grow

human

there.

se\ere storms, are often picked

may need

more

will read

turtles in a later chapter.

creatures

that have been beings.

Birds,

With good

adopted hx

injured

during

up

after-

fish

sometimes grow strong again, and fly away. Others become so tame that they may spend

manv

the rest of their lives with their

Different xarictics of fishes

different kinds of food. Several kinds of

food can be bought at pet shops. But fishes also like bits of raw beef, fish, or shrimp. Many tropical fishes enjoy flies, mosquitoes, and other insects. Goldfish li\c best in water kept at the temperature of a fairlv cool room. Tropical fish, including guppies, need a somewhat warmer temperature. But se\enty degrees is about the right temperature.

ward.

care they

human

friends.

keep the tem-

Boys and girls who li^'e on farms may have the pleasure of caring for many other kinds of pets, both wild and tame. Calves, goats, colts, lambs, and roosters make good farm pets. Some farm children haxe had wonderful times bringing up fawns, raccoons, woodchucks, chameleons, and even skunks that ha\e lost their parents. On first thought, insects would seem to make queer pets. But in China,

perature exactly right by using a small

crickets are often kept as pets in beauti-

Most

living

rooms

are

warm enough

for

tropical fish. In cold weather, the aquar-

ium mav be placed near ter that

is

too

warm

to kill fishes. It

electric

heater

Wa-

a radiator.

or too cold

safest to

is

specially

is

likely

designed

for

aquariums. Such heaters can be bought

ful

little

fond of

i\'ory

cages.

The Chinese

are

crickets. Tliey like their chirping

Our

ANI^r.\LS

Tiir;

Pi'.TS,

and consider it mnsical. 'llic ]3ra\ing mantis, an odd insect fonnd in tlic Ihiitcd States, is sometimes kept as a pet. A caterpillar docs not seem friendly, bnt children often keep one in a cage or bottle, and feed it fresh leaves every da\-. At last, after it has gone through several changes, this crawling pet pro-

vides a wonderful sight as

slowlv un-

it

folds the gorgeous wings of a butterfly. Its

beautv then

is

wormlike

and carrving

waltzing,

and mice sold

at pet

A

shops

most

in-

kind of tame mouse is the or dancing, mouse, as it is called. This prettv mouse large part of its waking hours

sometimes spends

a

spinning gailv around in dizzy

Both

rats

their

fur

and

feet.

like tinv,

circles.

and mice wash and comb with their mouths

carefully

\Mien they do long-nosed

The hamster

this,

they look

cats.

another animal of the mouse family that is sometimes kept as a pet. It is larger than a rat. Like other members of its familv, it has many is

Italv,

pet rabbits are allowed to

roam freely in the barnvard, but they more usually kept in hutches. These should be large, well-\entilated, and strong enough to protect the rabbits

are

from dogs. Rabbits can be fed green root vegetables, and grain. Wild rabbits and jack rabbits arc not \cgctables.

easy to tame.

Guinea

pigs

eat

most of the same

foods that rabbits do. But their legs are

much

intelligent than guinea pigs,

these fat

little

but

animals are friendly and

Rabbits have babies quite frequently. So do their smaller relatives, the guinea pigs.

A

Choosing

Pet

pend live

largely in

on where you

a city apartment, to keep a

difficult

pony

If you would be

live. it

for a pet.

A

small dog, a cat, a canary, or a tank of fish may be the best to have. If you have

your own, a larger dog may be Or perhaps you might build a hutch in which to keep rabbits, a yard of

more

exciting.

or a cote for pigeons. care

you can give

a pet

The amount is

of

also important,

because some pets need less care than others. You need only to feed fish and canaries

and to keep

their tanks or cages

must be fed more and must be brushed and taken

clean. Dogs, however,

regularly

for walks.

babies.

In

more

playful.

Tlie kind of pet you ha\e should de-

clean, attractive pets.

teresting

73

do not stand cold and dampness well. Guinea pigs make little noise and they have no wav of defending themsches. Alany other pets arc much

for the

fuzz\' creature.

\\'hite rats

make

Best

reward for the task

a

of gathering leaves

We Know

to raise, but they

shorter than those of rabbits,

thev can hardly leap at

all.

Some

and

guinea

IMgs ha\e short fur like rats, but others

ha\c long, shaggy

hair.

They

are easy

In choosing a pet,

wise for your mother, brothers, and decide and exactly the kind of pet that you would like to own. No pet of any kind should c\cr be teased, harshly punished, or neglected. Many animals are easily frightened by sudden mo\ements and loud noises which they do not understand. Pets are playmates, not playthings. Tlicy must be cared for every day. They should not be handled too much, and may be injured if they are snatched up, squeezed, entire family sisters



or dropped.



it is

father,

to get together

Childcraft

74

SOME THINGS TO DO Ask your mother and father to help you plan a pet show for your friends and neighbors to enjo\ Gi\c blue ribbons to the owner of the best-looking dog or cat and to the most unusual pet. 2. If your pet is a dog, cat, or some farm animal, teach it to perform certain tricks. You will have to be very patient as you try to make your pet understand what you want it to do. As the trick is performed over and over again, be sure to praise your pet and reward it by giving it some tidbit to cat. 3. Prepare a pet book. From magazines and newspapers cut out pictures of special pets you would like to have. Also write in the book the food each pet likes to eat and the spe1.

.

cial care 4.

pet

it

Keep

needs from day to day. a record of your pet in a scrapbook

when you

first

get

it.

Give

its

age,

If you have a camera, take a picture of your name, and color. You can do this each year. Also, .

take pictures of your pet doing tricks, or in different positions. Write to teach your pet a trick, and interesting happenings that concern it.

how

long

it

takes

BOOKS TO READ Atkinson, Margaret F. Care for Youi Kitten. Greenberg, 1946. How to Raise Your Puppy. 1944. Cavanah, Frances, and Weir, Ruth C., eds. Treasury of Dog Stories; illustrations by Wesley Dennis. Rand McNally, 1947. DiTMARS, Raymond Lee. Twenty Little Pets from Ever)ivhere; illustrations by HeJene Carter. Messner, 1943. Morgan, Alfred Powell. Aquarium Book toi Boys and Girls. Scribner, 1936. Newberry, Clare. April's Kittens. Harper, 1940. Mittens. 1936. Baikis. 1938.

ANIMALS THAT WORK FOR MAN DOROTHY GUILDS HOGNER

^^'HEN

YOU

Be kind

to the animals that work for us. They are loyal and obedient servants, and deserve the best care that we can

go for a ride in the country, you see nianv animals on the farms \ou pass. Some may be grazing peacefully in green pastures by the roadside. Others, like horses and mules, may be helping the farmer do his heavy work. No one knows when animals began to work for man. But, since they

give them.

tamed, man has found more and more uses for them. Dorothy Childs Hogner, author of Barnyard Family and other popular children's books about farm animals, describes \i\idly the history and lives of the most important animals which have worked for man through the ages.

were

first

other beasts of burden, such as the elephant, yak, reindeer, and others work for

man

in different parts of the world.

Even more important

tlian

these are

the animals which help to provide

work for people in ANIMALS parts of the world. In Asia, the all

'llie

many port

The Horse,

used for work in rice fields and other lowlands, patient ox still pulls heavy loads in ^ water buffalo

his

Faithful Servant of

Man

is

parts of the world.

man and

deserts of Africa

man

with clothing as well as food. Without these animals, man could not live long.

Camels

For hundreds of years, the horse has been the friend, servant, and faithful companion of man. Horses help the farmer to plow, cultivate, and harvest

trans-

supplies across the

and

Asia.

The

the fields. On the Western ranches of North America, cowboys mounted on sturdy ponies round up the far-flung

llama

used as a pack animal in Peru and other Latin-Amcriean countries. Still is

75

Childcr,\ft

76

cattle. At some time or another, you must have been thrilled to see cowboys riding bucking broncos in the rodeos. You may e\en ha\e wondered how men were ever able to tame the first

herds of

wild horses.

some

In

horses

cities,

may

still

be

hauling milk wagons along the The horse often knows the route as well as the dri\-cr does. It will stand without hitching, and know without seen

streets.

being told when to stop and go. Some boys and girls who live in small to\\ns or in city suburbs are fortunate enough to have ponies as pets. Tliey saddle these for riding, or they may harness them to pony carts and go driving.

Farm

work horses

or

are large

and

strong. Light horses with arched necks

it is soon strong enough to up its heels and frisk about. The mother nudges her baby until it finds

wobbly, but kick

her milk. Tlie foal soon learns to nibble hay and oats, but the mare keeps giving it milk until the baby is from four to six months old. It grows verv fast. Shortly after her young one is born, the mare often has to go back to plowing, pulling a wagon, or some other work. Tlie colt must be trained for the special kind of work it is to do. The training begins long before the foal is weaned. Wearing a light halter, it is led about the farm\ ard. Bv being hitched to its mother's harness on the road, it gets accustomed to the sound of wagon

wheels.

At the age of two, the colt is its more serious training

harnessed and

At the age

bred for

begins.

pleasure driving or for such sports as

enough

running and harness racing, fox hunting, and polo. Others are trained, or

time, fifteen years or more, she may have as many as six to nine foals. Care of Horses. Both heavy and light

and

slender legs,

clean,

are

schooled, for exhibitions of fancy step-

ping and high jumping. Some of the most beautiful and graceful horses in the \\orld travel with circuses. The "rosin-backs," as the dappled grays used called,

by performers

have broad,

flat

in the ring are

to music.

The

and dance their backs.

cages and

in

These are and to trot

backs.

trained to keep a steady pace

of three, a

to have a foal.

must be fed and exercised propGreen grass is their natural food. On the farm and in the cities they are given hay and oats, varied with corn and bran. Cottonseed meal and cornstalks are good for horses. Horses are also fond of carrots and turnips, apples, and mohorses erly.

A

teen pounds of hay and twelve and a

Work

horses haul the heavy

band wagons. Ponies some-

A

mon-

newly born horse

draft horse will eat

pounds of oats a day. A cake should be kept in the stall at all Horses need plenty of water. tired, thirsty, and overheated should not be allowed to drink half

until

stand on

roads do not need

Tlie

feet. Its legs are

long and

fif-

of salt

times.

But

a

horse its

fill

its body is cooler. After a few mouthfuls, its head should be pulled up. Later, it should be given all the water

is usually born in the marc, or mother, carries the young inside her body for ele\'en months before it is born. Within an hour of the time a colt is born, it can

called a foal. It

its

about

lasses.

the ring with riders on

keys as jockeys. Life of the Horse.

spring.

old life-

"high-school" horses rear

times race around the ring with

is

filly is

During her

it

will drink.

Country horses

traveling

new

on

soft, dirt

shoes as often

ANIMAL HELPERS

Mules have been bred and used for work on American farms smce the days of George Washington, our first President. The frisky-looking colt will grow up to be a saddle horse like its mother. Gates. Frederic Lewia; Lair

flfi#i««

Dogs are useful

to

flocks of sheep. In

man

in

some

many

ways. They help shepherds to protect and herd their and northern Canada, husky dogs are hitched to sleds.

different

parts of Alaska

Dbaush. F. P. G-: Fanta

KB"^ ilv

There are

many

w_

kinds of cows. Some, like this pet cow, give us milk from which cheese made. Oxen have been used as beasts of burden since Bible tir

other dairy products are