EXPLORE ESP32 MICROPYTHON: Python Coding, Arduino Coding, Raspberry Pi, ESP8266, IoT Projects, Android Application Projects

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EXPLORE ESP32 MICROPYTHON: Python Coding, Arduino Coding, Raspberry Pi, ESP8266, IoT Projects, Android Application Projects

Table of contents :
PYTHON VS MICROPYTHON - COMPARE & ACCESS
MicroPython for ESP32
INTRODUCTION
INSTALL PYTHON 3
INSTALL THONNY IDE
INSTALL PUTTY
SOLVE PORT IS NOT DETECTED DEVICE DRIVERS
INSTALL MICROPYTHON ON ESP8266 ESP32
HOW TO GET STARTED WITH MICROPYTHON
ESP32 MICROPYTHON WITH RASPBERRY PI
ESP32 MICROPYTHON WEB SERVER
CHANGE ESP32 WIFI CREDENTIALS FROM MOBILE
Download the MicroPython firmware
FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING THONNY IDE
FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING ESPTOOL
FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING ESPRESS-IF TOOL
DEVELOPING AND DEBUGGING ESP32 IOT APPLICATIONS USING ESPRESSIF ECLIPSE PLUGIN
PRINT FUNCTION
TYPE FUNCTION
INPUT FUNCTION
HELP FUNCTION
CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS (IF,ELSE, ELIF)
FOR LOOP
CREATE WON FUNCTION
ESP32 TUTORIAL USING MICROPYTHON LETS GET STARTED
E4HOME AUTOMATION USING WEBSERVER ON ESP32 SENDING HTML PAGE DNS MDNS ESP32
BLINK AN LED
ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION
CAPACITIVE TOUCHPAD
DHT11 -TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
ESP32 INTERNAL TEMPERATURE
ESP32 INTERNAL HALL EFFECT SENSOR
MULTI THREADING
FATAL FURY ON ESP32 TIME TO RELEASE HARDWARE EXPLOITS
AUTO CONNECT TO WIFI NETWORK

Citation preview

EXPLORE ESP32 MICROPYTHON Python Coding, Arduino Coding, Raspberry Pi, ESP8266, IoT Projects, Android Application Projects

By Akira Shiro

TABLE OF CONTENTS PYTHON VS MICROPYTHON - COMPARE & ACCESS MicroPython for ESP32 INTRODUCTION INSTALL PYTHON 3 INSTALL THONNY IDE INSTALL PUTTY SOLVE PORT IS NOT DETECTED DEVICE DRIVERS INSTALL MICROPYTHON ON ESP8266 ESP32 HOW TO GET STARTED WITH MICROPYTHON ESP32 MICROPYTHON WITH RASPBERRY PI ESP32 MICROPYTHON WEB SERVER CHANGE ESP32 WIFI CREDENTIALS FROM MOBILE Download the MicroPython firmware FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING THONNY IDE FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING ESPTOOL FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING ESPRESS-IF TOOL DEVELOPING AND DEBUGGING ESP32 IOT APPLICATIONS USING ESPRESSIF ECLIPSE PLUGIN PRINT FUNCTION TYPE FUNCTION INPUT FUNCTION HELP FUNCTION CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS (IF,ELSE, ELIF) FOR LOOP

CREATE WON FUNCTION ESP32 TUTORIAL USING MICROPYTHON LETS GET STARTED E4HOME AUTOMATION USING WEBSERVER ON ESP32 SENDING HTML PAGE DNS MDNS ESP32 BLINK AN LED ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION CAPACITIVE TOUCHPAD DHT11 -TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ESP32 INTERNAL TEMPERATURE ESP32 INTERNAL HALL EFFECT SENSOR MULTI THREADING FATAL FURY ON ESP32 TIME TO RELEASE HARDWARE EXPLOITS AUTO CONNECT TO WIFI NETWORK

PYTHON VS MICROPYTHON COMPARE & ACCESS Programming is something that every modern makers should have some grasp. Figuring out exactly what program is best for your particular purpose can be half of the battle. I've had a chat previously about programming, but as an overview programming is simply the process of creating instructions for a computing device to comprehend and execute. These instructions are referred to as a software. Once the software program is run, the computing device will perform the specified task. The programming language is a set of commands, directives and other syntaxes, which gives you a vocabulary to create these software programs. Now Python and micro path and our power house programming languages. Each language can support your programming needs to almost the limits of your imagination. Both languages are transportable open source growing in popularity, comparatively, easy to use. And free. They also have similar syntax, keywords and operators. So how exactly do they differ from each other? Get up, get up, get up, get the fuck up. The biggest factor is that Python because of its intensive processing demands requires a full-sized computer. Laptop or cloud server to run effectively in Harrison, the hardware requirements of micro path and up orders of magnitude lower. This means macrobiotic can operate effectively on microcontrollers and microprocessors to clarify a microcontroller is a compact integrated circuit designed to govern a specific operation inside an embedded system to the table. I brought an Arduino UNO. Which is a perfect example of this. A microprocessor on the other hand is an integrated circuit that contains all the functions of a central processing unit of a computer, which includes an operating system. Demonstrate this. I brought to the table, a raspberry PI full model B eight gigabytes, which is a perfect example of a microprocessor. Both these devices can easily fit in the Palm of your hands and encourage and makers, rainbows of creativity. Now with most recent

modern technology, this concept of micro Python for credit card size computers, whereas Python for lodge, computational devices. This concept is just not become so cut and dry. Some micro processes have become so powerful. They can functionally run Python. The newest rush reply for model B eight. Gigabytes is a perfect example. So does it take to make a streamlined slimmed down Python? Start by ripping out, hates the libraries leaving only a subset of library. A module is a Python object with an arbitrarily named attribute, which you can bind and reference. Simply a module is a file consisting of Python code. A library is a collection of a whole bunch of these modules. Furthermore, of the few libraries left, remove unnecessary functions in classes that come with Python. A function is a bulk of code, which only runs when it's. Clauses are essentially a template to determine variables and functions of objects. Objects are simply collections of data. Some features that will not cater well to constraint systems also removed. And some freedoms with syntax are eliminated. This is a simplification of what Damian George, an Australian program and physicist did in 2014. Turning Python into what we see today as micro Python. These changes mean micro Python is an extremely compact programming language takes up less than a megabyte of storage space. And underload utilizes only around 16 kilobytes of Ram. If you're interested in each and every detail at a highlight. Come take a look at the write-up on this topic, where I go very deep into this jumping into the computer. You can see on one of the core electronic website, here's a particular write-up. And if you jump on deep dive on differences between Python and micro Python, it will talk about the real nitty gritty details. Between path and a micro Python, both Python and micro Python, programming languages are free to download and use jumping over here. You can see where you can download Python and jumping over here. You can see where you can download micro Python. They also open source so that it gives individuals the freedom to modify, contribute, and propose improvement. There are also online. Browser-based emulators for both Python and micro path. And so you don't even need to download anything to experience these languages. Also, if you're interested in micro bullets that will run micro Python brilliantly, come back to that webpage that I showed

you before and under micro Python compatible bullets, you'll see a whole bunch of micro bullets that will run Python.

MicroPython for ESP32 This is indeed the coveted just before lunch slot. Um, so if any of you feel yourself kind of slowly slumping over, I won't take it personally. It's. The way these things go. So I'm here to talk about the ESP 32 port of micro Python. U m, we've, we've talked about, um, micro Python as a, as a project overall from Damien talked about some specific application of micro parts and is a great way to prototype stuff. I'm Anna and I'm coming, you're talking about this ESP 32 port, which I'm really, really excited about. So it's great to be able to come and talk about it to you. Um, There's some background about micro Python, but it's probably not all that necessary since we've already kind of covered that fairly well. But for anyone who wasn't here before, it's a reimplementation of Python. I'd say it's a Python because it's very much like all the other pythons. And if you know how to program Python, you know how to program Miko Pathan, it runs on small controller boards of various kinds, including the PI board and the micro bit. And these ESP 82 66 systems on a chip that have become very popular recently. And now it's got a port to the ESP 32.

What are those chips? An ESP 82 66, which you can't really see because it's all. Pretty horrible, um, is a small system on a chip featuring on board wifi and various other peripherals. Um, they kind of first, uh, actually, before I get onto that, they're made by a company called expressive who are a fabulous manufacturer. Um, I think the thing that makes espresso particularly interesting as the, one of the first of the Chinese manufacturers to really embrace the open source world, they're very active in a, an open source community. They're very supportive of our open source development efforts. Um, and that's really great. And I, um, I think that's been a great advantage for them as well. Uh, the 82 66 became a real enthusiastic stream, partly because it's very powerful thought it is partly cause you could get them for like $2. Um, And the has learned a lot out of that. They've taken a lot of inspiration from the things people have done with 80 to 60 Sixers, many of them fairly silly, but nonetheless people have had a lot of fun with them. People have tried a lot of things. People have put a lot of interesting stuff together and the company has been able to learn from that and combine a lot of that knowledge into the ESP 32.

So as I mentioned before, the HQ 66 came to prominence, um, as a. Uh, wifi, accessory for Arduinos and things like that until somebody's looking at the spec sheets realized it was well, several times as powerful as the Arduino, it was helping out. And that this relationship seemed a little silly and that perhaps we should just develop directly for the 82 66 instead, it's got a reasonably nice, uh, sea-based um, SDK. It's not that hard to get started in. But there is a bit of a barrier to entry there. Um, and thankfully someone Damien ported, a micro Python across to it. I discovered this, I just started developing some stuff ready to 66. I got really fired up about it after Linux con Jalong. I think it was got really excited about this whole 82 66 chip and writing. See again, and I hadn't written C in ages and. Just as the novelty and excitement of writing, see again, was starting to wear off. My copay thing came off out. So I let upon micro Python and went, this is the coolest thing ever. Um, and I got more into it and I got more into it. I got really excited about it. And then I started working on it sort of just with it. And then I started running C again to work. And so the cycle, but never mind. So yeah, following up on the 82 66, there's now the ESP. 32, as I said before, it's taken a lot of inspiration from what people have done. It's more powerful. Again, there's two CPU because instead of one CPU core, there's an ultra low power

processor, which is a really cool little accessory. That's really just like a, uh, uh, very small, very slowly. It's just got enough power to wake up the other CPS, if something interesting is happening and if you're running on a battery, that's a really important thing. Runs a slightly faster clock rate. Most importantly to us, it's got a heap more Ram five 20 K does not sound like a great amount of Ram to a modern developer. Um, I installed some software, uh, yesterday to do the machine learning things that downloaded. Um, I wasn't an a half a terabyte or something of data onto my laptop just to install. Um, but you. It's enough to be usable for, for Python, for micro Python, one 60 K headroom on the ADC. 66 isn't is plenty enough to run micro Python, but your applications tend to bump into that limit fairly easily. The five 20 K gives us a bit of bit of breathing room. It's also got a bigger flash, which is really nice. These devices are much less powerful than something like an RP zero w which is the next sort of thing up that you might be thinking of. That's the wireless PI zero, uh, that's a much more powerful CPU running at a faster rate. It's got a lot more memory. It's got a lot more ability to expand with, with flash and things like that. But yeah, provide a little middle ground. It's an interesting market segment. That's kind of opened up between the eight bit sort of Arduino AVR world and that RPO world. Um, the 32 is very interesting because it features as well as the wifi that you know about. It's got a Bluetooth, um, which is really handy. A lot of things these days speak BLE of various kinds is great for talking to mobile devices and other sensors and things like that. It's got more IO lines than the 82 66, which is really handy. It's got more than one analog input. Um, as Anna mentioned, there's only one analog input on the. Uh, 82 66, which you can get a little bit annoying at times. Uh, the ESP 32, you can configure like eight of them and you can actually change them between pins, which is kind of cool. Um, it's also got a digital analog converter, which has kind of handy, uh, pulse with modulation of various pins. They've done a really interesting thing. They've built a capacitive touch sensing circuit. Into the thing. And so there's eight capacitive touch sensors. So if your project wants to have a, a touch interface, rather than a button interface, it's really easy. You don't need any external components, just a piece of copper, um, which is a really good feature.

It's a really interesting, it tells you something really interesting about their approach. This may not be the cheapest system on a chip out there, but if you need no other chips on the board, They can still compete. So it's a really interesting little way of thinking about it. And similarly, there's that ultra-low pro power processor and there's even things like there's a whole effect sense of built into the chip. I think that's pretty cool. Very few people need it. However it's there. It's easy to make. It's just another piece of Silicon on the die. If your application does, for some reason, need a high current measurement device, you can just lay your board out so that the processor has the power line running right past it. And you'll see a signal on that hall effect sensor. That's kind of cool. One less component again.

A group of Russians called Zerto bars, a very good at boiling chips in acid, um, and taking photos of them under a microscope. So this is actually a picture of a decapper ESP 32. Um, It gives you some idea of, of just how crazy the architecture of these chips is.

If you zoom in on that top corner there, you can actually see the circuitry of this thing, the coils and the stuff to make a hardware radio. I think that's quite fascinating that you can actually do this. You can make coils and wiring and circuits out of Silicon that are right there on the die.

And it's actually quite beautiful in a strange and. I have no, it reminds me of maps in those old games, like quake and things like that with the circles and

paths and all that stuff. It's really amazing that this is a thing we can do these days. I think you normally

wouldn't buy it as a individual discreet little piece of Silicon because frankly, the pins are far too small and you can't even see them, but they're available as these sort of modules, which are much easier to solar they're on a 20th inch sort of picture on the edge. So you can actually hand sole to them. If you. Work at it. Um, and they're quite a handy little chip that a little RF screen that tab on the top there isn't built-in antenna. So you don't even need to deal with anything that isn't like a digital 3.3 volt line. Um, Oh, sorry. And the, the flash memory is, is under that little can as well. So, um, it's all, it's all basically there for you to use. It's quite easy to work with that kind of thing.

If that seems also a little bit too hard to. Um, deal with, in terms of soldiering, there are lots of these boards available, um, from various manufacturers. There's a Spock fund one there in the middle, which has got a integrated battery controller. The other ones is Ida fruit. Oh, sorry that one's a dev kit. Say the other one is an Ida fruit fair. Uh, you, I should know that. Does it say it in tiny little letters? No, it doesn't. Um, One of their Huizar ranged maybe or something it's got an onboard battery controller as well. The better control is, as Anna said, a very, very handy, if you want to have some kind of portable device, cause it's something that's quite easy to get wrong. So having a board that has that on there, so you can just plug a lipo in is really handy. Um, so they're really good in those, the standard headers around the outside, it makes it very easy to get started on this stuff and prototype stuff together with little wires. Um, All right.

So that's the module. I, it was just talking about community since we're here. One of the things about conferences is they're very much about the community and over, about having a community. I think it's really important that we have a micro Python community, that we have a Python community and a micro bison community within that. Um, and in ESP 32 microbiomes and community within the micro Python community. I noticed this news article the other day, um, Intel launched with great fuss and excitement, the Galileo platform and all of this sort of stuff. And it was going to take over the world of IOT and everything is going to be fantastic. And lots of people have them and yeah, it's all going to be beautiful. And there was no real community behind it. And so whatever it was a year later wind hadn't really taken off and everyone's looking at their watch going out. Did we do anything cool with that? And then, or NICU, they just shelved it just like that bank. So anyone who spent a lot of time and effort and stuff, developing stuff or learning about that platform, it's kind of a separated from under you, which I think is really disappointing. I mean, it wasn't nice platform. It's just, it was a good idea, but unless there's a community, a single company, can't push a. Platform along well, they can for awhile, until I lose enthusiasm that they can't make it a global thing. So it needs to be more than that. It needs to be a community of people. And that's

something I'm really trying to get going with micro bison as well.

Um, so where are we at with micro? And so I talked here last year, possibly this very room about, um, uh, ESP, 82, 66 micro bison. Um, and there was a lot of fun. And at the time there was select much muttering about this new ESP 32. Those modules actually finally started making it out onto the market in about November. Um, and then they promptly disappeared off the market. Again, every single one of them sold. And then they appeared again here and there in dribs and drabs. And. Everyone responded to this in the sense of a way by ordering as many of them as they could possibly get hold of. And then they immediately went out of stock again. Um, and finally I got hold of my first ones in November and we could start working on stuff. Um, Damien got hold of his as well, apparently around them. Um, because the initial ports, uh, dates back to December, uh, which is when the ripples started to actually work, um, I can't actually read it. I'm not very good with dates and times, but I am pretty good at typing. Get logged into the terminal. So it around December, somewhere there. Uh, and then I ended up coming across and doing some work on the project with Damian to get the wifi. Stuff going and TCP sockets and some more support for other GPIO functions then. And that work, that, that initial work on this

port, um, I'd just like to thank microbic for sponsoring that work. Um, they helped make that possible to get that off the ground. As a, another port started on ASP 32, they make a really cool little robot called the Edison, which is pictured there, which had a little educational robot thing. So I just wanted to say thank you to them and give them a little bit of a, uh, thank you.

From there we went on and we actually finally admitted we were doing this thing and stuck it up on GitHub. Um, which is great because it made other people leapt all over it. And then I went down to limits coffee, Tazzy to kind of like, you know, launch it. Wow. It's a good excuse. Isn't it? Um, we went down there and at limits comp, we had support from expressive to make, uh, a little board called an IO tos, which is this thing pictured, um, Which has a little, uh, our led display and it has a joystick and it has an ESP 32 on top and all of that sort of stuff. And, uh, as I'm working up to my talk about how to develop C code for the ESP 32, I got up on stage and said, ah, look, unfortunately we haven't actually got microplasm booting on the IO tos yet. And so on. And the car put up their hand and said, Yes I have. Oh, right. Okay. Excellent. So, um, we did indeed get that running on the Iotas, which was cool. Um, and Jaya who's probably around here somewhere. I got it working with

the Neo pixels on the board and people added more stuff and suddenly we had a snowball rolling, which is brilliant. It's this community thing I'm talking about is that we've suddenly got multiple contributors. It's not just one person or two people or three people pushing this thing along. It starts snowballing. So that's really exciting. We went from software SPI to hardware SPI, which was a great start. Um, other functions appeared. Someone said, why is there no PWM? And I said, of course there's PWM. And I said, no, there isn't. I mean, Oh yeah, I didn't write that after all. I thought I had. Oops. So someone implemented that, which has great, Andy Valencia there, um, you are support arrived. So now you can talk to all three you out on the board. Um, Which is another thing that took me by surprise. When I discovered I actually had three U arts, which was kind of cool, uh, and other people are adding more support all the time. I've mentioned a few names here. There are many, many, many more contributors, um, in the, in the thing get logged as your friend. But I just want to emphasize the fact, this is becoming a community thing. This is becoming something that is bigger than just a couple of people. And here we are at Python again,

what's in progress. Uh, So the ESP 32 also got used on a badge at a conference in Amsterdam, I think, or near Amsterdam anyway, uh, called Shi, uh, and the whole bunch of people from that, uh, community have been putting a lot of effort in it, on things like, uh, Bluetooth, Ellie, and, uh, I think the same people are involved in the deep sleep thing. I can't remember now. Uh, those are pull request numbers, uh, and those things are waiting to kind of get merged back into the main line of a VSP 72 micro Python. But once that's working, it'll support, uh, Bluetooth ele it'll deep be able to deep sleep so that you can run it off batteries and it can wake up, do some thinking, go to sleep again. Um, There's some more sophisticated PWM control available on the chip. Uh, one of the fun things about this is, is that espresso for kind of doing a lot of their development of their SDK. Very publicly. This is very unusual, but they've released a very early SDK and they call it an IDF, um, IOT development framework. They released it quite early with a lot of things missing, and then they slowly adding those things bit by bit. Which is a little challenging at times for us trying to keep up with, with their development. But it's really exciting as well because every now and then you'll discover a new piece of hardware is now available. I, we also need to have at some point some support for that ultra low power CPU, because that's a really exciting piece of hardware for anyone who wants to run stuff on batteries and a really exciting thing. That's just suddenly become a thing recently. Um, Is to attach more Ram to this thing. So there's a new chip coming out from espresso or a new module coming out from expressive soon, which has got four megabytes of onboard, um, Ram serial attached Ram. So it's just attached to, um, the internal bus of the, the module and. I think it's really exciting. Can we make micro Python use this big slice of Ram? You know, if we've got more Ram available, can Python use that? And I've been sort of looking at it and poking gently at it. And just before this talk, Googled it again, and someone's in the meantime implemented it. So that'll be really, that's, that's pretty amazing. It's um, something we have to

now look at how to integrate that back into the main line of, of micro Pathans. So it's not to make it too much of a fork, but it's really exciting that we can now address. That much more Ram. And if you look at the dev kits and things like that, a lot of dev kits have a pixel map, display of one sort or another. Iotas had a display. The dev kit from expressive has one, the badges all tend to have maybe an ePaper display. Um, they did, it would help lot. I love to have a kind of standardized frame buffer approach that would work across multiple of those devices. So everyone doesn't have to reinvent how to do this every time. Um, Probably a much lighter approach than you'd normally use for like a web tech or whatever, but like come up with something. So those are all things that are kind of in progress at the moment.

So we've got coming up, we've got a, um, a sprint signed up for Monday. Um, that's really exciting. I've never actually kind of run a sprint before or, or, um, Participated in a Python sprint. Um, but I'm hoping it will let us achieve some really cool stuff. Um, expressive or very kindly provided some support for that. There's a whole box full of, um, ESP 32 dev kits, uh, for people that can contribute at the

spring. Um, if you happen to have a sprint ticket for Monday, please do come along. It will be a hoot. Uh, I think it's not just, I mean, micro itself is written in seat. So you need a fair bit of C programming ability to, um, make much progress within the guts of micro Python. But if you do have some C background, it's actually very, very easy to work on. So, um, uh, partly I guess, because it's relatively recently implemented and it's implementing quite a modern way and it's. Quite well-documented internally and all of that sort of stuff. It's, it's a nice code base to work with. But the other thing is that there's a lot of work that still needs to be done on this platform in passing, uh, and okay. A lot of work that needs to be a feedback that needs to be done about how do we make this a better Python platform? How do we keep our classes in our libraries? As pathetic as possible within the scope of, of micropayment. Um, so there is a definitely a role for people who aren't see people as well within that sort of spring and all of that. And it'd be great to come and hang out and just, you know, get a chance to talk to each other about what we're interested in doing and so on and so forth. Um, Tim who is around here somewhere or another, Oh, up the back, Tim. Hey, Tim, uh, has also got an SPGA board,

uh, port of. Micro Pythen that he's interested in doing some work with on Monday. Uh, that's basically running micro bison in a little soft core within an SPGA. And so there's a whole Python tool chain there, um, that lets you configure the FPJ from Python and then program the actual running of the FPGA in Python and so on and so forth. It's a really interesting effort. Um, I don't think Tim is talking about it this year, but you talked about it at Linux con, right? Have I got my timeline? Right? Right which one I'm talking about, I'll post that link as well. Um, so there's that. And the other thing I wanted to just mention is I'm, uh, running or organizing a micro path and meetup group here in Melbourne, uh, at, uh, connected community hackerspace, which is just opposite Swinburne. Um, that gives you a chance to come along and just meet up with some fellow enthusiasts and, uh, do some interesting kind of work. It's very handson space, there's machine tools. There's things like that. Um, Play around with hardware, have a bit of an experiment, get to know the platform, not so useful for those of you out of state, but for people who are around here, if people are interested in running a similar thing anywhere where you happen to be from, I'm happy to help out with information about that stuff too, and help get things started elsewhere. So cool. That's about all I had to talk about. In terms of this stuff. Does anyone have any questions about these P 32 port or about my career path in general? um, I'd heard that there were some issues with the actual Silicon in the ASP 32, in terms of some of the functionality, is that, uh, or maybe you could comment on sort of just give an update in terms of rev one Silicon out now. Uh, so you could say that that would imply that there isn't a totally perfect thing in rev, zero Silicon. I don't know, specifically myself. I haven't bumped into, into the problems, but then my, my stuff has occupied a relatively small part of the Silicon. So I'm not sure. Um, yep. Thank you, Nick. Um, What's the development experience like, um, on these chips, I know it's juicy, it's a GCC port, but is there a good GDB, um,

interactive debugging, things like that? Uh, I'm I've been strictly off in the world of, uh, print statements, um, and logging. Fire that via the serial port. You're glad to get those out working. Uh, yeah, so I haven't actually tried using GDB on it. Interestingly though, the dev kit J or whatever, it's called, not the dev kits to see little ones, but the big ones have a tag port and things like that on them. So, and I think I'm not a hundred percent sure, but I think what's on there is so there's a Juul, a USB converter. And one of them goes to the standard serial ripple kind of port that we use and that you flash the chip through it. I think the other one actually goes through to the, uh, jaytag port or something similar like that. So there's some circuitry there that I don't yet understand, um, that I think will let you do that debugging over USB rather than actually having to get out the, the, you know, old Xilinx jaytag cable or whatever you've got. Um, Uh, so far though, I haven't bumped into too many things that aren't solvable that way. Maybe I've just been lucky.

INTRODUCTION I like to introduce you to the coast. Micropattern for everyone using ESP 32 or ESP two double six, micro biotin is a lightweight version of Python programming language designed for microcontrollers. We use ESP 32 as the development board for the school. USPA two double six. Also can use to learn 80% If you are new to embedded system or, you know, Python language you want to learn and burdensome.

Don't worry about this bulky wiring based around the projects the SACCR diagrams are provided for you.

That is the default. And this is plenty with the 0.2 seconds at the end, this one is blending with one second each and every Lydia is bringing into different speeds. Multithreading as well. We mainly use. Windows operating system to explain this project, but at the same will support for Mac operating system as well as Linux operating system. We'll also discuss how to solve if the port is not detected in session three, we'll be flashing microbiota and firmware to ESP 32. The same will work for the ASPA two w six in session four. We'll be discussing about Python three syntax. If you already know by ten three, you can skip this session in session five. That is very important. Session of the scores will be controlling the GPA pins starting from bringing an led to multithreading. You can see here, which having them yellow color that only work with ESP 30. We know that ESP 32 or ESP do double six. How by Fe connectivity, the session. And we'll be able to auto-correct by fan into, by using ESP 32 or ESP, a two double six. If you have ESP, w six already, you can start with that. We need an DST 11 center module to measure temperature and humidity. I used LD T3, voltage regulator to regulate the voltage to 3.3 volt, 10 kilo on potential meter. Phew. One kiloohm resistors, 10 to 50 mil jumbo wires, a mini breadboard. Very most important part here it is. Micro USB

cable. It should be a good quality cable. This will be a kickstart to micro Python.

INSTALL PYTHON 3 Let's check vitamin three is installed in your PC using command prompt type CMD in the search bar. So command from this loaded type Python space, hyphen version.

So I do showing like Python is not recognized. We have been installed by then to this day. Open a browser and go to biotin.org.

Yeah, you can download vitam version. So it is available for windows, Linux, and max. So it automatically detects for the operating system itself. So click over here or it can go to other operating systems and download. So I am just clicking here. Then it will get downloaded to your download folder in the case of windows operating. Go to download folder by 10 is downloaded. Rightly not as an administrator click on add by ten three point eight two-part install.

Wait for a few minutes, you have sex as fully insured by country in your PC. Let's say by tennis installed successfully closed this week. No, go to command prompt by typing CMD. Check it again by 10 in salt. So by ten three point eight 0.2 is installed. That is showing right now. So you have successfully installed by then 3.8 0.2 let's check is the five 10 is working. So to log the biotin type Python here So now the Python Shelly's Lauder Bryn command. Come in is over. So it should have drained welcome to microbiomes and goals. Let's see. So it is spender. That means biotin 3.8 0.2 is successfully installed. In some cases, when we died by 10 or when we check biotin version, then it will show the is not set. In that case. You have to install the part. Let's see how to set the pot up on command drawn.

Check where the Python is installed by using ware by 10 So this shows the part of the bite and where it is installed. It is installed app data, local programs. Copy this right-click on PC. Both the properties, where do advanced system settings go to environmental variables,

go to part here and here you can click on you and you can pace the part here you can click on. Okay. So that is a way you can set apart. Once you set apart

again, open command, bro. Check it is installed.

INSTALL THONNY IDE We need an ID for scripting and managing microbiomes and code. In this case, we are using Tony ID. Let's install, Tony ID to easy open any of the browser, go to tony.org.

Tony ID is available for Mac windows, as well as Linux operating system. Here you can download based upon your operating system. In this case, I'm going to download. Tony for windows operating system. Just be here in the case of windows operating system for other operating system, you can choose. So just click, then it will get started. Downloading, go to download folder. Tony ID application is downloader.

Right? Click on the application, click on DNS and administrator click on next. Accept the agreement, click on next browse to a proper drive. So I'm keeping it as a default. Click on next and you can create an desktop icon by clicking. Here we go next. And just install it. Read for a few minutes. Tony ID is successfully installed. Click on finish.

Tony ID shortcut is already done. Right turn in the desktop.

Always. You can tell us from the. Double click on the icon, pick on that scope. So if you have another language, you can choose that Tony ID successfully loaded.

So by default, Tony ID comes with biotin 3.7 0.7 by default. Python is a loaded here. We'll check. A default. Python is working using print command. By 10 is working here. So this is the shell. This is the potential Linda Tony ID will change the default interpreter later to use microbiota for ESP 32 or ESBA two WCX.

INSTALL PUTTY I can cause began install another piece of useful software for windows operating system called party. It can be used to communicate directly to ESP 32 or ESP similar softwares. Also, you can find for other operating systems. Let's now insert party for windows. Got a browser. Go to party.org.

Here you can click this portion. So it will get started downloading. I have already downloaded so you can download and go to download for them to find this application and download for them. Buddy is already downloaded that I click and click on install

pig run here. You go next browse about, I keep it as a default click on next.

I short cut to a desktop so you can choose one of this. I'm just gaping this option. Install. So what is successfully installed? Click on finish icon is already created in the desktop. We'll be using this application later.

SOLVE PORT IS NOT DETECTED DEVICE DRIVERS If the body is not detected in your busy, when you're collecting ESP 32 or ESP two double six, we have the install communication driver IC majorly of the development board user CP 2 1 0 X or CS 3 4 0 tips 32. It comes with the CP 2 1 0. And ESPN two w six Lauren bought it comes with CST four zero check we'll be installing CS 3, 4, 0 first going to device manager, device manager, manager. I have two board here. This one is ESP eight, two and six. This is ESP 32, which users 3, 4, 0 chip. And this is a CP 2, 1 0 chip. So let me connect C uh, ESP, uh, two double six.

The waste manager is reloader. You can see it is detected something like USB 2.0 CDL, but the driver is not installed so fast. We have installed the . Then we'll be coming back to CP 2, 1 0 already installed CP 2, 1 0, and I'm reconnecting and checking it.

If I can enter the ESP 32, you can see there is something called a port comes. If I take boards, you can see the column six is I located to ESP 32. And which users CP 2, 1 0 communication tip from silicone labs. So one, I didn't insert this one. I already insert, but we'll be checking how to install both. In your busy. So if I say I'm connecting back to ESP, we'll be installing the device diver for this one ARPANET browser. You have research CSD for zero driver wcs.com. Click on this website that is ww.ca wcs.cn. To download the driver. Click here now website is loaded.

So this is in Chinese. No worries. So this is a driver. You have to install. If you have a Google translator, you can translate into English.So it's support CS 3, 4, 0. So many chips they do in support with Desi yourself, see is 3, 4, 0. So just pick over here to download the software. I have already downloaded the software, so I'll be going to download for them.

You got it right? You're not an administrator. Yeah. You can click on install

button. It is Xs fully installed right now. You're going to AKI check the device driver. I'll be reconnecting it. Now in, under the board, he can tease. He really, USBC is 3, 4 0. It is as in calling five for ESP a to w six. So you have successfully installed CSV for zero driver IC. So this is the kind of ISIS this is for using for communication. So let's see. In the case of ESP 32 Danila is using mostly that is CP 2 1 0 6. We'll be installing that next, go to the browser. X there's always shows to Silicon labs website, go to Silicon labs website.

I'm going to use download for windows 10 because my system is windows 10. You can take on download option, so it will get downloaded. I have already downloaded so you can download it, go to your download folder. Right-click so extract file. Or extra to a particular driver drive is always good. So click here. So I'm going to use this one right-click and run as an administrator click on next finish, because I have already installed that. So you have successfully in Salta CP Duwan zero communication. I see connecting those ESP 32, which uses CP 2 1 0 chip. This is the communication tip over here under the ports. It is . So you have successfully installed board communication, IC drivers.

INSTALL MICROPYTHON ON ESP8266 ESP32 Do you want to install on your ESP? Oh, ESP 32. No.

Would MCU then keep watching. So this is surprisingly simple to do so over here, I've got funny installed on the map. They works the same way on raspberry PI as it does on windows. So here I'm just using a node MCU, which runs on the ESP 8, 2 66. So I've plugged that in and what I'm going to do now at the bottom of the screen there, I click on it. When I click where it says Python, and I'm going to choose a different interpreter numb here, we have a list of all the different interpreters

that we can select from one of those is micropolitan on the ESP 8 2, 6, 6. So I'm gonna select. And then I'm going to click on install or update firmware.

Now I do need to nip out to a website to grab the latest binary of micro hyphen. So let's head over to Microsoft than to all get that file downloaded.

So over here in micro Python, we're just going to click on the download tab and then we'll scroll down to see which different boards we can download the package for. And here we are, the expressive boards.

And we will, the generic expressive ESP 8 2 6 6 module two. We're going to click on that and then it'll give us loads of different versions of this. And we just want the top one, the latest one, that's one

point 15 at this point in time. So now that that's downloaded to my downloads folder, we can head back over to Fonny and then I'm going to click on the firmware browse button,

click on the downloads for. And then right at the top there, we have the file up just downloaded. I'm going to leave that as it is now, I'm going to erase the flush before installing. I'm just going to let it pick the port, which has the

same report. So let's click install and it says there it's installing the store, but raising flush and within a couple of seconds, maybe about a minutes time, it will have completed that way. Right. A hundred percent right. Dumb.

We can close that dialogue box. We can click. Okay. And. It will say, please restart or stop and restart. Sometimes it seems to work, sometimes it doesn't. And you can also just click on here to go to micro Python generic. And that also seems to just make it work. So there we go. We can see you've got microbiome and at one point 15 on the ESP module, USPA 2, 6, 6. So let's just, uh, import machine.

And then do a DIR machine just to check. We can see that that we've got Micro-Pak to be installed. So this also works on ESP 30 twos. I've got an ESP 32 here as well. So let's plug that module in. So we're gonna head back over to the microbiome insight and on that, I'm going to go back one and I'm going to find the generic, ESP 32 modules. I'm going to click into that and then scroll down and we're going to look for it. The most recent stable version.

So some of these say unstable, we want the most recent stable version. So that's version one point 15. It's going to click that to download it. Sorry, here, Anthony. We're going to do the same thing again. We're going to click on the bottom and we're going this time. We're going to choose micropipet and ESP 32, we're going to click on the configure interpreter.

We can now go over to install and update the firmware. Like, would it be.

We can find the firmware that we've just loaded, which is this 15.1 for ESP 32. And then we can just click the serial bottom itself. We now click install.

They should detect that, um, flash. Now, if it doesn't detect the board, when you first plug it in and report yeah. What you'll need to do is disconnect the board and then hold down the boot bottle. When you pull down the boot box and connect the power again, still hold it down and then click install again.

And this time it should detect it, um, to start flushing the firmer. So if I just moved that up, We can see that, that it's now erasing the flush and

then it'll restart again after it's raised the flush and then start installing. Sometimes you just need to hold down that boot button once, while you apply the power, click the install, and then release the boot barn. So we can see that it's now a righted. So that's completed now a hundred percent and we can. Exit that, um, have a look and see if we've got plank, bison installed. Let's click. Okay. And there we go.

HOW TO GET STARTED WITH MICROPYTHON We will learn how to get started with micro Python. I will walk you through in setting up your micropolitan environment and we will also

prepare the development board of your choice to work with micro Python. For this I will be using an ESP 32 development board from express it, but this tutorial will be compatible. And would work with other micropolitan compatible board with some minor adjustments, especially with been assignments. Maybe sometimes I will be also using this one. This one is held tech wiped by KIPP, which is also with ESP 32 onboard. Now we are here in my desktop. I will be opening my. Google Chrome. So in preparation, number one, download Toni Python IDE from Tony, that org. And since I am using windows, I will be downloading the windows version and it's also compatible with Linux, Mac and windows.

So it downloads. And save it to and save it to the folder of your choice. I will be saving it in the desktop for easy reference. So here, this is one of the best beauty pool and beginner friendly ID available. We will also use Tawny Python to erase and flash new firmware to ESB 32 with the help of ESP tool login. Number two, download the micro Python pyramid from micro Python that org Mike I, uh, on that or go to download section.

And at the bottom, there is a, by the way, these are the boards compatible with micro Python. It's a spy board, STM 32. And this one, uh, Y PI with Y and express E board. Which our ESP 82 66, ESP 32 and tiny Pico. Tiny Pico is also ESP 32, by the way. So download the generic, ESP 32 model. And you scroll down, look for ESP 32. Yeah. Download the latest stable version. So for the stable, these are the stable versions or this one, one point 13, it's newly released last, uh, September two. So I will download this one and save it to the folder of your choice. And I will choose again, the older I created in the desktop with Microsoft. No number three, download the ESP 32 USB driver from Silicon labs website. knobs. Yeah, this is why. And this. It's under the side labs that com and download the software. I am using windows 10. So I will download this one and say it again to the polder of your choice. Yes. So you beat again in the desktop micro Python folder start gunboat. Okay. Number four and pour later, references, download the pin assignments or pin pin outs, or a schematic diagram of your development board. You will be needing it later on to know, let's say the pin assignment of the onboard led.

So I have here, a copy of the Venus are immense for this. Uh, ESP 32 development board. So I will post the link of this for you to download and also have the schematic diagram.

But this one is not exactly per this like, uh, development board, because I think this one has 36 patience while this one has a total of 30 pins on the, this is, uh, This is do it ESP 32 dev kit version one with 30 pins number pipe. Now that we have all the necessary files, let's install the Toni Python IDE. So let's install the Toni Python in the stack. Micro Python folder, Toni Python, I D E. Next step. Yes. Maybe create the stock shortcut or ECE references and installed Tony Python is beginner friendly ID because it is simple to use. And all the necessary tools is included such us repo, terminal Python, editor file access to micro Python file system. And even flashing the micro Python theorem, where, and these are all available in graphical user interface. Now don't think one lines all is click here and there in one simple IDE of course there are more feature rates, applications available. We can look at such SBS code, but as of this moment, let's just use Tanya Python for simplicity. So I will click penis. Number six installed that ESP 32 USB driver. So I will extract this one using a seven zip extract, two same folder and look for, okay. X 64, because I am using 64 bit windows and just click. Yes, the next. And finish. Let's verify if the installation of the USB driver is successful by connecting the ESP 32 to our computer, then right.

Click the start, start button and look for device. under the device manager, click pour the ports. And if you are successful installing the USB driver, you should see the Silicon labs CP 2 1 0 X USB two U R breeds. We'd come number.

And as for me, this is come pour, take note of this because we will need this one later. Before we can begin using the ESP 32 per micro Python

development and programming. We need to erase the original film where, and then plush a new firmware with micro Python, interpreter installed. So let's open the Tonya Python. I already have the micro Python inside. So that's why I'm having useful prompt of the micro Python. But for the sake of tutorial, I will show you how to plush the ESB 32 with new layer to do that. Click the tools menu in the Toni Python, manage plugins and in the search box type E S P tool and hit enter, click install, and give it some time downloading Dan. Okay.

Then when you see that and installed both on here, I will just click close. Now we are ready to plus a new payment where to our ESP 32 to do that, click again, the tools menu, then select options and click the interpreter tubs then. Which interpreter or device should Tony use for running your phone? I will select ESP 32.

It could be circuit Python, but I'm at the probe or micro Python by using the BBC microbiome or micro Python, ESP 32 82 66 or micro Python, generic. This one is using piebald. So let's select the micro Python ESP. And in the ports select the correct compart, which is comb. Pour, then click open the dialogue for installing or upgrading micro Python on your device. I will click this one and in the port select again, they come poor and in the Pilgrim where select brow. And go to the folder you choose before I choose the one, the, the microbiome on Paul there in the

desktop, then I will select the bean pile, which is the PM where with micro Python interpreter installed. So I will open then make sure that the erase plush before installing is tick or check should be. Then click install. Give it some time until this one is successful. Okay. Erasing is complete.

Now writing now it's flashing a new firmware to the ESP 32 leak. Okay. Click close and click. Okay. Now the micro Python is successfully installed

to the ESP 32 development board. Now we can check this one. We can test some code.

Let's make the onboard led lights on and lights off, making some codes, import machine. And let's create a burger bowl, L E D N set it to the pin into the onboard led and, and let's set the pin direction to output. And the turn on the led, we just need to send L E d.org.

As you can see the led onboard is turn on to turn it up. You're saying led that off like that, or led that value equals one or N E D. That value equals zero, but turn it. Or led that value to through or L E D that value to false, very easy. Right. And you can make it without compiling. And the moment you send the, the code, like this one led that value to them. The moment I press this one. The onboard led will turn on. See, it's very fast. You may ask how about to blink the onboard led just like the blink example of the Arduino to do that. We need to import time or delay import time. Okay. Now while true. So to turn it on L E D that on, we need to wait some time or delay some time. So that is a time at this time that is sleep. Let's say for 500 milliseconds, 0.5 L E D. That oh, and time that is sleep. 0.5.

So when I hit enter twice, it will execute the code one, two. And as you can see the led, the onboard led is now blinking. Just like the blink example of the Arduino ID. That's all for now in the next week, we will learn what is microbiota. And how it works, or any question John or suggestion regarding this tutorial, please feel free to write it in the comments section and I will be happy to answer it.

You may also interested to check out the companion blog posts of this tutorial for additional information at tech thinker, blogspot.com. And if you enjoy this video, Give me a thumbs up and share these to your friends and subscribe for more. Be just like this. Thank you. And have a good days ahead. See you and the next week.

ESP32 MICROPYTHON WITH RASPBERRY PI We'll demonstrate how to set up a program in ESP 32 microcontroller running micro Python from a raspberry PI. All my tutorials are fast paced, but the code notes updates and more are available on my website. And as always a link will be placed in the description.

Here's an ESB 32 breakout board connected to a 16 by two LCD display showing temperature readings from a DSA TB 20 sensor connected via a one wire interface. This is a standalone setup, but ESB three twos can easily transmit temperature and other sensor data wirelessly from multiple remote locations to a central server, such as a raspberry PI.

Here's the JQ 6,500 sound module connected via you are to an ESP 32. The module lets you store and play audio files. The motion detector is also connected to a GPL input pin. When motion is detected and interrupt fires and a sound place. The ESP three, two is a very powerful and versatile chip. Here's a generic ESP 32 breakout board. And I got an eBay for a few dollars.

They're sold on alley express for around the same price as my generic E-bay

version out of fruit also has an ESB through to board with battery support called the who's on 32 it's part of their feather series. It's more expensive, but they offer a large selection of add on boards with features such as a real-time clock SD card displays, GPS and more. Another board is the PI comm YPI 2.0, which is compact. Has an RGB led and has an external intent option.

The MP3 two is designed for efficient wifi and Bluetooth, including Bluetooth, low energy or BLE. It has powerful 240 megahertz dual core. My controller with five 20 K of S Ram. The chip is designed for mobile devices. So it has ultra low power consumption. There are three, two GPL pins with support for I squared, C I two S by and you are in addition has multiple analog to digital channels and digital to analog hardware, accelerated encryption pulse with modulation capacitance, touch interfaces, and a bunch of. The built-in wifi makes the SB 32, a great solution for road devices, such as sensors, inputs, and relays. If there's interest, I'll probably turn this project into a series that demonstrates connecting sensors to the SB 32 in detail and using network messaging protocols, such as MQTT to report data back to the PI wireless.

One of the main reasons I like the ESB three, two is that you can program it in Python, more specifically micro Python, the very efficient streamlined version of the Python three programming language, which is optimized to run on microcontrollers, such as the SB 32. The raspberry PI is great for many projects, but it's a full fledged computer with a Linux operating

system for simple, repetitive tasks, such as monitoring sensors and

controlling relays. It's often easier, cheaper, more reliable, and more efficient to use a microcontroller, which boots up instantly and just runs your profile. Especially if your project uses batteries or solar, because the ESP through two uses a fraction of power required by the PI. Also many sensors have settable interference, especially on longer wire runs. A more reliable approach is to connect the sensor with a short wire to an ESP three, two, and then transmit the results using ethernet or a wireless protocol. To get started. The micro Python firmware needs to be uploaded to the ESB 32. This can be done with a simple USB cable, which provides a two-way serial interface between the PI and the SB 32. It also provides five volt power on a breadboard. I have an ESB 32 breakout board next to the board is an old grasp PI B plus, but any PI should work. I'll plug one, ended up the USB cable into the pie. The other end plugs into the micro USB port on the ESP 32 board. The red light indicates that it's got power.

Now for the software first, please make sure the PI is up to date from a terminal type pseudo app. Get update and C2 app get upgrade. She used the latest version of raspy and Jessie to ensure you have all the necessary software or utility called ESP tool will be used to upload the micro Python

firmware it's installed using pseudo PIP three install ESP tool. I'm using PIP three to target Python three. Okay. That's successfully installed now type D message grip, TTY USB.

This shows that a CP to 10 X, U R T USB bridge is attached to port TTY, USB zero. Some devices need to be put into programming mode using the push buttons on the board before you can use the SB tool. However, I found it's not necessarily on the ESP. At least not on this one to test the connection type ESP tool PI double dash port slash dev slash TTY USB zero followed by the command flash ID. This query is the ESB three two for basic info, such as the chip type, ESB 32 and flash size four megabytes.

It looks like everything's okay. Before uploading the firmware, it's recommended to erase the chip. I'll use the up arrow to recall the last ESB tool command and change flash ID to erase flat. This gives us a blank slate. Okay. The chip erase completed successfully. A copy of the micro Python firmware is required. You could build it yourself from the source code on the GitHub repo, but it's much easier just to download a daily, build open a web browser and go to micro python.org.

Click the download tab, click ESP 32. Currently only one firmware is available for the ESB 32 click to download it. Once that completes close the browser. The micro Python firmware build was downloaded to the downloads folder. LS shows a long file name, highlight the name and copy to the clipboard or recall the last ESP tool command. This time erase flash has changed the right flash hex, zero specifies the starting address to right type download slash for the downloads folder. And then just paste them the firmware file name from the clipboard. The firmware is now being written to the SB 32. It's pretty quick, but I'll speed it up. So you don't have. It verified. Okay.

So the board should be ready for coding. Micro Python boards have a redeveloped print loop or rebel, which is a simple interactive programming environment. It's similar to the Python idle shell on the SB 32, the rebels access to using a serial connector.

Other boards like the ESPN , which is a very popular predecessor to DSP 32.

In addition to a serial rep will also have a web rebel, which allows you to imagine program them over the web. this feature has not yet been implemented on the ESB 32, along with many other features, but new stuff has been at a daily. there might be more options for now. We'll stick to cereal, the same USB cable that we use to program the USP. 32 can also be used to access the router.

Any serial programs such as putty or screen should work. However, these programs won't let you manage the SPF 32 file system, which can be used the story or programs.

Ideally, you want a program that provides a rebel terminal and also can perform file system commands. I've tried several programs and currently my favorite is our shell. It can be installed using pseudo PIP three, install our. This simple program will run on the raspberry PI for its access to the rebel terminal in the ESP 32.

It also provides file management to transfer, manipulate files on both the PI

and the ESB 32 installation is complete to start our shell type. Our shell double dash buffer size equals 30 PTAC P dev TTY USB zero. Okay. Our shell is running and is connected to the USP. The current terminal can be used to execute file commands. For example, type boards to list all connected boards. The single board is returned with ID PI board, which we'll need it. As a reference later, the boot PI file automatically run a startup and contains low-level code to set up the board and finish booty. You typically don't want to edit it. However, you can add a file called main PI. If you need to run your own code as startup after the boot pie type rebel to open the micro Python programming environment, the terminal will now accept Python. Print. Hello, world outputs. Hello world. Let's try something a little more colorful. The typical first program has to blink an led instead of a regular led.

I'll use a Neo pixel ed.

This is an RGB led with a built-in chip to control, color, and brightness. It can be driven using a single data line, and it's very easy to connect to the ESP. A five-year-old pin provides power.

A one end 4,004. Diode is used to drop the Neo pixel voltage from five volts to 4.3 volts, which allows Neo pixel to read the ESP 30 twos, 3.3 volt data output the MP3 to 3.3 volt output needs to be at least 70% of the Neo pixel

supply voltage to register commands. If the Neal pixel is running at five volts, then the ESB 32 is below this range at 66%. But at 4.3 volts, it's good to go at 76% a ground from the ESP 32 is connected to a ground on the Neo pixel. GPL 13 is connected to data in please note that a single Neo pixel can use up to 60 mil amps at full brightness. Therefore, if you want to run a strip of LEDs, I use an external power source to prevent damaging the board. And a fruit has several helpful tutorials regarding Neo pixels, and I'll put links up on my website and ESP 32 breakout board is plugged into a bread. One problem with this particular breakout board is that it's a little too wide and only one row of pins is accessible in the ESB 32. They do make versions that are narrower and more breadboard friendly. The five old pin from the SB 32 is connected to a five volt rail. A ground is connected to a ground rail. I'll add the Neo pixel ground first it's best practice to connect the ground. First I, when disconnecting the ground should be removed last here's an eight millimeter Neo pixel. It's placed with the flat side on the right. So the third pin ground connects to the black ground jumper. One in 4,004. Diode is placed between the five volt rail and the five old pin on the Neo pixel. Again, the diode has a voltage drop of 0.7 volts, which ensures the Neal pixel can read the ESP 30 twos, 3.3 volts output instead of a dial.

You can also use a level shifter on the data line to convert between 3.3 volts and fighters. Finally the data in pin on the Neo pixels connect the GPL 13 on the ESP 32. Okay. That takes care of the hardware. Now let's write some Python code, minimize our shell and run idle three. Create a new file from machine pin is important. The pin library is very similar to the raspberry PI GPO library lets you reference it and control the ESB 32 GPIO pins from Neo pixel import Neo pixel. This library drives Neo pixel LEDs and strips. From time imports, sleep micro Python is a subset of Python. Therefore it doesn't have all the standard libraries. For example, an easy way to cycle RGB led colors is to vary the hue between zero and one. This can be done with the HSV RGB method, which is part of the Python color system. Right. Since it's not included with micro Python, I'll just paste the HSV to RGB function into my code from the color SIS library.

HSV is a common cylindrical coordinate representation of points in an RGB color model. This function simply converts an HSV value, hue, saturation, and brightness to an RGB value. Red, green, blue. I'm not going to explain how this function works because it's not relevant to this tutorial, but all the code is on my website. If you want to explore it. The Neo pixels instantiated on GPO pin 13. One indicates the number of LEDs, Neo pixels are also sold in strips of LEDs and he can control multiple using a single GPO pin. Spectrum is a list to represent 2048 colors. This first range of zero to 2048. And the second is 2048 to zero to try statement, to catch errors, wraps the main wild loop, which is infinite, a four loop cycles through the color spectrum range.

He was said to a value from zero one, which is divided into the 2048 steps NPS zero. Our first, the first Neo pixel led Millie have one for using this trip. We could reference other LEDs. The HSV to RGB function has passed the hue 1% saturation and brightness and said only 15% to make it a little easier to fill MP right sets. The Neo pixel led to the specified color loop sleeps for 10 milliseconds and continues except as used to gracefully exit the program upon control C finally ensures the led is turned off by setting red, green, and blue to zeros. Okay. I'll save the program. I'll call it RGB pie and put it in the documents folder.

Back in our shell. I type control X to exit the rebel, but I'm still in our shell LS list.

The contents of my home directory CD documents, switches to the folder where I saved the Python program. Ellis again, shows the file. RGB PI LS slash PI board shows the file contents on the ESB. 32 PI board is the ID for the ESP 32 that we determined earlier using the boards command.

Currently the SB 32 only contains the boot PI five. CP RGB PI slash PI board copies the RGB PI file to the ESP 32. Now LS slash PI board shows the RGB file list successfully copied rappel to return to the micro Python rappel import RGB loads and runs the micro Python program. Back on the breadboard.

ESP32 MICROPYTHON WEB SERVER My project are fast paced, but all the code notes updates and more are available and website, and as always a link will be placed in the description. This is the third in a series of ESP 32 project. The previous two demonstrate the basics of installing and using micro Python within ESP 32, and also how to connect and control Neo pixel LEDs and DHT 22 sensors. I recommend you watch them. Building on the two previous project, we'll start with a web page that shows the temperature humidity from a DHT 22 sensor connected to it. It used to be 32.

The page will automatically update with new sensor readings.

Next we'll create webpage with a JavaScript dial to remotely control the color and brightness of a Neal pixel RGB D attached to an ESB 32.

All the time tools from the two previous project have been installed on a raspberry PI three running the latest updated version of Raspbian stretch. I've also loaded the latest micro Python firmware onto an ESB 30. Specifically, uh, we most Loland 32 in a terminal start by running our shell to connect to

an ESB 32 on T T Y U S. all Penn tack a to enable ASCII and code binary file transfers, which currently I find to be more reliable also at TAC E nano, this enables editing files directly on the ESP 32 with the nanotech status. Unlike the ASPA 2 66, the SP 32 version of micro Python. Currently it doesn't remember your wifi settings. The web server will require network access. So I'll create a Python script on the ESB 32 to automatically connect to my wifi network on boot and it slash PI board slash main dot PI creates a new file that will be saved in the ESB three twos route. Main dot PI as a reserved file name that automatically runs on boot up after the boot.py file important network loads network library, station instantiates, and network w land and enables the station interface station active. True activates the network interface. Station connect connects to my wifi access point. The method takes two parameters. The first is the SSI ID of my access point, which is row Tron. And the second is the wifi password. That's all it takes to enable wifi control owes saves the file and then control X exits nano upon exiting our shell automatically updates the ESP three to with the edited file LS slash PI board shows the newly created main.py file I'll type rebel to enter the micro Python.

Now when I press the reset button, the SB 32 reboots the main.py file is executed and ESB 32 establishes a wifi connection. Okay. The ESB 32 is connected and it's assigned the iPad.

He address ten.zero.seven dot 39 for the web server.

All be easy and open source micro Python library called micro web serv created by a fantastic programmer named John Chris. He's done a great job, making a very powerful, lightweight web server. That's easy to get up and running on the and also Python modules. It supports route handling and posts. You can exchange Jason format on HT methods to implement a full rest API. It works with Ajax even supports web sockets for real-time data exchange. I'll probably make a future project just on websites. The library also provides a Python template language, which lets you create dynamic web pages.

In addition to regular static, HTML pages, it can serve most of the popular web mime types, such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, images, PDF, CSV, zip XML, and more. You just place your files in the web path and then they can be requested by a web browser. I'll scroll up and copy the repo address to the clipboard. Minimize the browser, then open a new terminal window. In the home folder type good clone and then paste in the microwave, servant dress from the clipboard. Okay. The library has been downloaded. LS shows the Michael Webster folder CD into the downloaded folder at Les tack. It shows all the files that came with the library. These need to be copied to

the ESB three to the first. I'm going to delete some unnecessary files to save space and expedite the transfer. RM dot get tack RF deletes the good folder. We don't need the license file or the read me file.

Or the config dot Yammel file shows what's left since we already have a main.py file to handle the wifi connection, I'll use MV to rename the main.py file to start that PI this is a web server example that demonstrates many of the libraries features. Let's take a look at it. Idle three, start up pie opens the example file for editing micro web server,

which is the main web server libraries imported a function called HTTP handler test. Get handles a get. Gets our web requests that return data, as opposed to posts, which are used to submit data such as a form, content is set to a string of HTML content, which includes a placeholder for the client's IP address below the IP address is a simple form with the first name, last name, and a submit button HTP client. Get IP address dynamically populates the client IP address, please. HTTP response, right? Response. Okay. Serves the page. There are no headers content type is text HTML Carr said

is a UTF and the content equals the contents during above there's another route handler called HTTP handler test posts.

This handles posted data from the simple form above when the user clicks the submit button form data is retrieved using HTP client read request, posted form date.

First name and last name are extracted. A content string is used to display the posted names. HTML escape is used to ensure the return strains are safe to display, which is a good security practice. Again, write response. Okay. Returns the response to the browser. As in the previous get handler the following four methods demonstrate WebSockets, but I'm going to save those for a future project. The two route handler methods that we just looked at above are defined. When a user browses to the route test. If the request is a get than the HTP handler test get will be fired. Otherwise, if the test route is hit by a post, then the HTP handler test post method will be fired. A microwave servers instantiated and pass the route hand. The library was originally written for the Python module, chooses a slightly different route path and ESP 32.

Therefore I'll add the web path argument and set the value to slash www slash. This just tells the library that our web files will be stored in a folder called www on the ESB 32, the next three lines of this example, handle web sockets. And finally start as used to start the web server threaded false to turn off threading, I'll save the one change to the example. Okay. Now let's copy the

contents of the microwave server library and examples to the ESP 32. It looks like I forgot to remove one file. RN, boot dot PI deletes a sample file called boot dot pie. We definitely own a copy of this to the ESB 32,

because it would overwrite the existing boot.py file, which usually you shouldn't modify unless you know what you're doing. Okay. Now everything looks good. I'll close the second terminal and return to our shell control X close to the rappel, but we're still in our show. CD micro web serve switches into the microwave serve folder. Well, it looks like our shell doesn't support uppercase a, which stands for almost all, apparently lowercase a for all woodwork, but it doesn't really matter since I already deleted the hidden get folder. Ellis alone shows the content which will now copy to the ESB 32, our sync dot slash board sinks, all the files and folders in the current directory to the ESB 32.

LS slash PI board says that all the files, including the www soap folder have been successfully copied for apple starts the micro Python rappel import start starts the web server or not. Apparently I have a bug in the start.py file online, 80 a problem with an RX. Okay, control X exits the rappel back to the main our shell terminal edit slash PI board slash startup PI opens up the startup PI file residing on the ESP three two for editing there, 86 lines.

So the bug online 80 should be close to the bottom. I'll scroll all the way

down. I see the problem. A dash instead of an equals.

It should be web path equals slash www slash control. Oh, saves the edit and control X exits nano and updates. The SB 32 with the file change. Back to the rappel. Since the web server library crashed upon the last import, I'll press the reset button on the SB 32 to start with a clean slate.

Otherwise there could be conflicts import start again. Now it's working correctly. A web server is running on the ESB 32. I'll switch back to the chromium web browser and browse to the ESP 32 IP address HTTP colon slash slash ten.zero.seven to 39. Followed by the path test. This hits the test route, which fires the corresponding get handler.

The IP address of the raspberry PI is displayed along with the simple form. I'll enter a first name, last name and click submit. This hits the test route again, but this time it fires the post handler, which simply returns the names from the field. All right. We've got a working web server. In addition to the routes, the micro web server library can also serve regular HTML files and most common mind types.

Switching back to the micro web server GitHub site and listing the www folders show several example files, index dot HTML.

As a basic webpage styles are loaded from an external CSS file. There are common HTML tags and some sample text upping images displayed, and there's a hyperlink to download a PDF file. The next example file is tests dot

PI HTML. This demonstrates the Python templating language double braces designate code blocks high is used to define a function test function. You can use loops. You can use if statements you can call defined functions. All this code is run on the server when the webpage is requested and the results are returned to the browser in the address bar all type HTTP colon slash slash ESP three.

To address slash index dot HTML. The sample H mill files returned. There was an image style text, and a link that when clicked, downloads a PDF file, changing the web address to test dot PI HTML loads, the Python template, and example the white text on black show. Some foreloops there are function calls and only the third LF was true.

The included examples provide a wealth of information to help you get started. Now let's build on these examples by adding a temperature humidity sensor, and a Neo pixel led to our web server, the DHT 22 temperature humidity sensors connected to the ESB 32 3 0.3 volt powers provided by the ESB 32.

Along with the ground. The sensor data line is attached to GPO 15 and Neo pixel led is also connected. Five old power from the SB. 32 is stepped down at 4.3 volts using a diet. The grounds are connected and the data inline is attached to GPL 13. Here's what the components look like on a small breadboard. I've already gone over Neo pixels and DHT 20 twos in the prior two project of this series. If you're interested in more installation details, please check them out. And my website also has the wiring schematics and additional pictures back in idle. I have a blank Python file from Michael F serve import micro serve for a machine import. From DHT import DHT 22, the sensors instantiated for the DHT 22, a route get handler method is defined called HTP handler DHT.

Get a try statement, wraps the sensor measure call TNH are set to the return, temperature and humidity. There are checking confirms that all instances are float values. If so the variable data set to the format of temperature and humidity, Elson and valid reading errors recorded and accept throws at the sensor cannot be right. Right response. Okay. Returns the response headers is set to no cash because we always want to display the latest sensor readings content type of set to an event stream because I'll be using server center fence to ensure the sensor readings on the webpage are updated. This is a simple alternative to web sockets and is a good fit. When the updates only go in one direction from the server to the client, although server send events do have limited browser compatibility compared to the more popular web sockets Carr said is UTF. And content is said to the data, which is formatted for the server center fence. A single route handler is specified for the DHT route upon a get request. It'll fire the method bub to return the DHT 22 sensor data micro web serve web servers and stains and created and passed the route handler and the www web path.

The start method starts the web server. I'll save the Python while and the documents folder and call it DHT underscore web dot pie. I'll close the idol exit out of the river.

And exit out of our shell CD to the documents folder, where I saved the DHT

underscore web Python file. Now let's create an HTML file to periodically pull the DHT route nano DHT dot HTML creates a blank HTML file to save time I'll paste in all the code.

We've got a basic boiler plate HTML file with a few additions. A single div with ID result will be used to display the sensor. This grip will pull the DHT route, approximately every three seconds, which I believe is the default for server sent events, error checking ensures that the events sources supported by the browser. If so a source variable set to a new event source and pass the host name, which will be the IP address of the ESP 32 followed by the DHT. Source on messages fired when the events source receives new data from the server, it populates the result. Div inner HTML with the updated temperature and humidity readings. Again, server send events may have browser compatibility issues. This simple code is just for demonstration purposes control. Oh, save the HTML file and control X exits nano I'll reopen our shell Ellis shows the DHT dot HTML file and the DHT underscore web Python file. C P D H T underscore web dot PI slash PI board copies. The Python file to the root folder of the ESP 32 CP DHT dot HTML slash PI board slash www copies. The HTML file to the www web path folder on the SB 32 rappel returns to the rappel import DHT underscore web starts the web

server, no errors this time.

I'll open chromium on the PI and browse to HTTP colon slash slash ten.zero.seven, 9 39 slash DHT dot HTML.

The webpage shows 27.2 degrees Celsius and 33.4% humidity and the data updates every few seconds. Since the low end 32 has a battery check, the SB

32 board can now be placed anywhere within range of my wifi access point, where I want to check temperature and humidity via the web. For the last example, I'll create a webpage to control the color and brightness of a Neo pixel led control. See stops the web server and I'll press the reset switch to get a clean start and then press control X to exit the rappel back in idle. I have a new blank Python file. The first two inputs are the same as the previous example. Then from Neo pixel important Neo pixel and import Jason to manipulate Jason data variable, NP instantiates, a Neo pixel on pin 13. One indicates a single led a route handler called HTP handler led posts will handle Jason posts, content and sent using the HTP client read request content method, a color sticked will store the posted color data.

Jason load converts the Jason color con. Blue green and red are extracted using this comprehension for the color stick MPA, zero sets the Neo pixel to the specified RGB color. I'm not sure if there's a bug in the Neo pixel library or if it's just my Neo pixel lad, but the argument order is currently green, red, blue, instead of red, green, blue, as it appears in the doc.

NP right. Displays the specified color on the led HTTP response, right response, Jason. Okay. Sends an okay response back to the browser. A single route handler handles the led route for posts and fires, the above route handler method accordingly the micro web servers and Stan shaded with the rod handler and web path, then star is used to start the web server. I'll save the file and the documents folder and call it led_web.com. I'll close idol and open a new terminal window to control the color and brightness. I'll use an open-source JavaScript hue color wheel for HTML five called hue wheel. It provides a donut shaped control that affords color and brightness settings for both mouse and touch support, click hue, wheel.men dot JS, then click RA and right click to save the JavaScript file to the documents folder. Now let's create an HTML webpage to host the color wheel and interact with the Python led right. CD documents. LS shows the downloaded hue wheel.men. JavaScript file nano led dot HTML opens a blank HTML file for editing I'll paste in all the HTML code, which is similar to the DHT example, the hue wheel.men digest files imported also underscore dot JS is imported from a CDN. It will be used to throttle the Jason posts. The body has a container div, which holds a diff for the hue wheel and an info.

The script defines a throttle set color function, which calls the underscore throttle method and passes the function set color, and 400 milliseconds for the wait time. This prevents a page from overloading, the web server with too many posts. HW is set to a new hue wheel when the wheel changes color or brightness, the unchanged method is fired and cause the throttle set color function. Most of the other settings are just defaults. The set color function will post a specified color to the web server. The info div displays the current RGB color, red, green, and blue color. Jason stores, the RGB color data, red, green, and blue in adjacent compatible format. X HDP is set to a new XML HTTP request. XH PDP open sends the post to the HTTP colon slash slash followed by the ESP 32 IP address followed by the led. Set request header since the content type to application Jason X HCP send post the color Jason data. This will fire the led route handler on the web server and change. Neo pixel led color control over to save and control X to exit back in our shell LS shows the led underscore web Python code, the wheel JavaScript library and the led HTML file.

CP led underscore web dot PI slash PI board copies. The Python file to the ESB 32 root directory CP hue wheel.men dot JS slash PI board slash www copies. The JavaScript file to the ESB 32 web path folder CP led dot HTML slash PI board slash www copies. The HTML file to the SB 32 web path. Rappel opens the rep. Import led underscore web starts the web server, although the webpage and my mobile phone, as I slide the touch dial, the Neo pixel led color changes, pressing the brightness ring changes the led brightness.

CHANGE ESP32 WIFI CREDENTIALS FROM MOBILE

You can change the S with a D to wifi, SSL ID and password from the mobile app. After changing the assessor ID and password, I will turn on and off led to show you this project is running successfully to access the internet via ESP today.

Do we need to connect it to a nearby network? Suppose I have to connect ESP to my home router.

A simple way to provide router access ID and password is wire code. If you are using this technique, then you know that whenever you doubt your password changes, you need to make some changes in code. And as your code changes, then you have to reapply code the code.

That's why I have developed this project where you can connect us with a D two to any network using mobile app. I'm going to use the Bluetooth function of ESP to change wifi name and password. Let's start with the catering ceremony, opening the Google browser search for things we don't pump.

I have already account. If you don't tell them, create first to your email and password. And signing. I have created DeGeneres before create new tenant. I signed any name I'm going to assign yes. With they do best. Make sure field one boxes checked, scroll it down. And save cannon to make sure what is running successfully or not click on API keys from API keys. Copy. I tell food.

Control C open new tab based here, change field one value to any of new medical value, like 99, enter, open your things speaks or what, but I will view you will see same or lose in period level. Mentors or what is working now close that no, Deb next step is to create mobile app or creating a web open new tab search for MIT app inventor.

Create apps, start new project assigned name. I'm going to assign ESP to test,

press. Okay.

This is the homepage of MIT app inventor from user interface. Take list picker, change properties change wit to fill parent, please. Okay. Jenny fold change font. Change font size and now change text Jen specs to connect to Bluetooth. from layout

change, parameter change to feel better and do same procedure. One more

time. Dan take one, one more. and change a bit to feel burdened from user interface. Take level lazier. take one more level and place into the next next box. Less text book one and text box to change. Parameter of level one change with, to feel parent fund and on-site.

Then speaks to society. Select text box one select phone to work on-site is 20 with which is feel pattern. It is hint. do same thing just with the next box change, take sides, font, and wit, and text to password. Do same procedure with the X-Box too. Okay. From layout. change parameter to take label and take change with it. It is text. I'm not going to use this label change button barometer with, to fill parent foreign sites. It's 20 use font, bold and change text two. And that

from layout take coriander regimen. Change parameter with, to fill parent same from layout, take vertical arrangement. Um, I'm going to do this, put it under regiment five. Okay. Lit select vertical arrangement change with two full parent. This. Okay. Take two and take one more, more than three and place below, but then too, Jenny parameter of going to change with two will parent risk. Okay. Change font size to 20. Change change X to L E D on those same procedure with button three,

instead of led on 10, takes two led of From connectivity, select Bluetooth plane mode will appear at below.

Now half part is done. Next part is connection log Magnum. From block, select variable. First take initiative, global name and change variable. Name to S ID and second variable name to password. Select from text, we're able to condition a done now from list picker, one select list picker, one dot before

picking, and let's pick one after picking. so let's, let's pick her one and say list we one, not eliminate to block from Bluetooth. Plant one, select Bluetooth client, one dot address and names. From the speaker one select block. Okay. Set list. Bigger one dot selection to block. And from Bluetooth client one select call Bluetooth client one dot connect. And select address from let's pick out one blog, these pick bigger one dot selection. So like button one, button, one click function. When button one is click, we are going to send. As his ID and password said necessarily take a society from textbooks. One dot text. And say global password from X-Box dot texts, textbooks to dot texts from Bluetooth client one select. Call center call due to plan one, doc, send text going stream.

they can distinct assign in middle. Now get what the variable for two variable is a society. And second variable it's password safe, globalized society, and get, get globalized society and get global password in middle tech comma. We are going to send this to everyone to Now, when we turn to it's click. This is led on button. Now we have to say URL first set. We have one dot URL from text, take empty string in this thing. We are going to copy you, Aaron. And from one call with one dot get function, button to function is ready. We need this URL. Copy this URL from things. Speak server,

click on API keys. Copy this right. Jennifer URL, copy control C and based here. Control V. Jen filled one value from zero to one. This function is ready. Now make a duplicate of this function,

instant of button too. Right. But then three, this is led off function and change string failed one. It will do one. Two failed one equal to zero. What entry function is also ready? What block diagram is ready now,

download the app from build and save Epic and fire to my computer.

I'm going to save on next door. I didn't see many mites. Now you can see they pick a file more this, a bigger file to your mobile copy. Open my computer, opening their mobile. Internal storage and based in any Florida install this app and your mobile open file manager, open Epic FIS it. We'll see dot APK. Yes and open mobile app is ready.

Now, next part is to write ESP 32 code from file. Create new file closed previous one. Okay. No, save this file. First use any folder I signed name same. Now write the code to save time. I have already died this code. You can download this code from Udo description. Control a copy and paste here. We need to make few changes before install this code.

First channel number copied channel number from things with server open

things, speak.

click on API keys. You will see channel ID

control C copy, open ID DoubleClick, close update, play and control V.

Now next it, that API key, same copy from things with et cetera, open Arduino ID. Okay. Double click and paste. Next part is your router, SSL ID and password. First you can assign any . Afterwards, we can change this SSI, then password from mobile app. This is the password. Don't change the meaning part of the code connect ESP hundred two to your comfort.

From tools, select board I already selected board is ESP 32. They model and

same from tools,

select communication poll compote. In my case com port is 12. Now upload the code.

It will take some time. Code is uploaded. Make a connection. As per the circuit diagram, you can download the circuit diagram from the description below with the alphabet board,

I will develop this circuit diagram. There are two LEDs and one switch switches used to change the password of the router. Green entity is used to indicate we are in Bluetooth mode and ready, ready, ready? It used to on an awful purpose, I'm going to power this circuit using compote. Final output. First, I'm going to turn on my mobile hotspot. If you see SSI ID and password, this is the same, which I have used in program this. Okay. Now. Open mobile app. I said the circuit.

Now, if you press on the red led will done on same. If you press done led, we're done up now. I'm going to change. Password off router. I'm going to change SSI society to any name like M M M five times M. And I'm going to change password any number like eight times nine. and press okay. Now open mobile app. Now, if I turn on led, if I press led on led will not turn on because our ESP 32 is not connected to any network. Now what I'm going to do, I'm going to change password first, down on Bluetooth. You will see here because I already paired with this with a do. If you are using, if you are, your device is not where your device is available in available devices.

Open app one more time. And if you press connect to BT switch, you will see ESP t-to device here. No. Now first pressed switch to enter into the Bluetooth mode. Green green. Ready? We'll turn on to indicate we are in Bluetooth mode now please connect to Bluetooth switch, press ESP 32 and now type SSI ID and password, and now type new SSI ID and password as society is five times M and password. Is it eight times nine? Right. Green led will turn off when this access ID and password is successfully.

The seal now plays led on led will turn on and press a lady off. Uh, Lily will turn off, turn off. You can change password as many times as you want.

Download the MicroPython firmware We'll be discussing how to install microbiomes and framework to ESP 32. Same way. You can also install two ESP ADU, double six. For that you need a framework open any of the browser and go to micro biden.org website. You can go to downloads under download tab.

There are so many boards and it's frame where you can download out of that. You have to find four. Expressive ESP based bots. It is categorized based upon the board, which you have. You can download the frame where in my case, I'm using ESP 32 Borneo. So I'm clicking on gender ESP 32 module available here. these governments are very important commands. These commands will be using on the coming week.

So just come do the frame where right now we have a lot of options available. So these first few it is showing is unstable. That means let us torsion that they're working on it. So if you wanted to work with the latest one, you can choose any of them. If you under the use with the stable version, you can go with any of this. So I am just trying with, uh, the latest one. I'm going to use this unstable one for right now. So I'm just going download. I can save to download folder name. You can change otherwise, just keep it. Yeah. The extension of this file is being filed. I'm just saving this. If you are using USB a two double six, you can go to download and under expressive baseboards, you can go to ESP ADW, six module. From there, you can download the latest versions so you can download this and you can use it.

FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING THONNY IDE We'll be looking at how to flash micro Biten Fenway to ESP 32 for that. Yeah. The open Toni ID go to tools. Manage plugins here. We need to install one plugin called ESP tool. So type here, ESP tool search. My case USP tool is already installed.

This is satisfied. Otherwise there is an option to install with gum. You can click on that.

After this go to tools, options. Interpreter default, interpreter will be Python in Roberta. You can change to micro Python interpreter here. Two options are there mainly. Micro Python, ESP 30 and micro Python, ESP ADW six. Mostly we are discussing about these two boards. The other boards also are available here. I am using ESP 32 board here. So I'll be selecting this one and you had to choose a port already. We have downloaded and installed the driver. Make sure that you are using a short USB. Otherwise, there is a chance the port will not detect. So if, if it is detected, it will show exact board. You have to click here, same board, you have to navigate to where it is the frame where is downloaded. Make sure that erase flash before installing click on browse. And here, this is a bin file, which we have already downloaded.

Select that one. Click on open. Now you have to click on install before installing. We wanted to know about something. Two buttons are here. This one is enable button, and this one is booked button, press the boost button. You must press the boost button. I'm keeping like this same time. You can click on install. So I'm going to click on install. And just release that boot, but now you can see erasing flash is the raised the flash

no it's doctor uploading the new framework, this uploading 5%. That's done.

Just wait for a few minutes. Now when you successfully flat micro by frame, where to ESP 32 board that is asking to click on hard reset button. Hard reset button is Ian pin over here. So before disconnecting the power, you have to click on reset button on this one. This is the mode one. This is a reset one, press. This one. So, this is the way you can reset. Maybe you can try one or two times click on. Okay.

You have successfully uploaded your micro by 10 frame where now you can disconnect close Tony ID open again, Tony ID and reconnect. check it is detector from port click on that click on. Okay. And click on reset button. Yeah, before that it is get lauded. As you have to click on reset button, you can see here, these micro potential is loaded. I'm just trying with a brain comment in Biten three's index. The print command is if it is a string in the double codes, you are able to type what do you want it to get it? Print? I just given just hallowed is up in command. So I'm going to print it. Here, this is working under shell. So if I end up this quarter, we'll go to ESP 32 and it runs over there and it responds will be available in the shell. It is blended. Hello world, the responses. Get him back to our shell available here. Also connect with Patty. Let me close this.

Open the application. This case we are using CDL communication. So click on CDL communication, and we know that gong, it is six default. The board rate is double , double zero. Is that the foldable rate? So you team the default board rate here and then after that, just click on enable preset button.

Now you can see micro Python is lauded using party application here. Also, we can try the same. I'm going to endo. So it doesn't reflect the bipolar. Also,

you will be able to kind of do ESP. This is the easiest way you can apply micro Python fan, where to ESP 32 as well as ESP, ADW six.

FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING ESPTOOL We'll be checking using ESP tool or hub to flash micro-biome undo ESP 30 to go to micro pattern website, click on downloads, find out what board ESP dirty too. These commands are very important here. These comments are, we are going to use make sure that ESP Dooley's already installed.

Let's check ESP tool is installed or not open command prompt, just type CMD, three installed ESP tool. And this case, the requirement is satisfied.

We have already downloaded the frame where if you haven't then go and download the frame where this is the command to erase that. Data in ESP 32 bays that you have to change the boat name here it is showing the board name of the Linux for the windows. It is comm six in our case. So how to check, go to device manager under device manager, check on the ports. You can find it is connected to column six, go to command, prompt change. It does calm. Where calm is in Capitola.

Does you have to press the boost button in the ESP 32 and ender and just release the board button within one or two seconds. Now it started raising the fresh successfully raised. Now it is asking to reset that heart reset. You have the press Rhonda enable button or reset button in the ESP 32. Next step is to upload the framework. I'm going to create a folder under you might do that. I'm going to say, see, use us under you might do. I created ESP 32 folder. Inside that I have saved this bin. Fire that to come to command prompt, just copy the next agreement over here and paste here. Do things you wanted to change.

You have to change the board, us calm six, which we know calm six. The last one is a bin file name that also you have to replace with that. Let us downloaded one. Just copy the file name. I have copied,

I just based it all over here. Press the boost button and end up just release. . It's not working. Okay. The issue is the folder, which I selected is wrong. So I have to go to ESP 32 folder command is CDSP 32. That is a folder, which I

created and just list those things just . So I can see all the frameworks, all the files over there just paid the same command. Only. Just change the bin file name. By copying from here,

this space here, enter before that you must press boot button anda and release the boot button in one to two seconds gap. Now it is start to writing now it's 80% of Java now successfully flat. Micro-biome frame where you have to reset by pressing enabled or reset button in that ESP 30 to just open party redefined ESP 32. You can open.

Now the shell is loaded here. just check with bring command. And this command is working successfully in case if we haven't installed ESP tool properly. Then we have to set that ESP to part. So we'll check how to set the part off ESP tool. First, we have to check where it is a USP tourists installed go to command prompt,

just typed up command peep show hyphen F ESP tool, which shows that follow where it is installed. This is the part of the ESP tool where it is. Installed, just copy the spot control.See right-click on the specie. Go to properties, go to advanced system settings there. And

when Mendel variables is there, click on. And when burials go to bat and click on new, already have set the pot. You can click on new, if it is not set and. Based up path, which you have copied and click on. Okay. So if you do that, you can avoid these kinds of issues. Like ESP tool is not recognized.

FLASHING MICROPYTHON USING ESPRESS-IF TOOL We are going to flash micro Biden to ESP 32 by using another software from Xplosive open any of the browser and go to expressive website so we can search explosive. Explosive is a manufacturer of ESP 82 and ESP two double six chip Ganga, two softwares. You can go to support. Under downloads, you can go to tools. Okay. You can choose. Yes. 32. It's already showing itself. That is flashing downloads.

This is the tool we under the use here. Flash download tool for USPA two double six, ESP 32. And it's let us associate that is ESP 32 S so you can download the software. I'm just downloading the software. There is only work with windows operating system. Download ones, download, go to download. Application is downloaded. Now you can go to download folder. You have to extract this extract here option, or this option can be used. I'm using this option extractor on the Fordham, open inside flash download underscore tool. This

is the application.

Click on Vernazza administrator can give on developer mode here.

We have different options based upon which is your development board. You can choose that if you're using ESP eight double six, you can click on that. If you're using ESP 32, you can click on that. My gaze I'm using ESP 32. So I'm clicking over here. There's the interface here is a area where we wanted to upload our frame.

Where is a area we want to do, where we want to do say the code, the location we have to give first, you are to come over here. Select compote six default board rate is double one, double zero. This is the first option, not the last option.

So these two things are selector. And first we can erase click on the board button in the ESP 32 and click on erase after two seconds, you can laser board button. So I'm going to click on your highs and what button is already pressed and released. So it is showing it is finished. Right. That is successfully. It is erased.

Now we'll check is have any framework using party default settings already there ESP 32, which we have done. And last time and pecan. Yeah, you can see a random areas are coming. That means the frame where we erased. So just closes. Okay. Then here we have to click on this three dots, go down, download folder where it is already downloaded, select this been fired, and

we cover here which location we wanted to save for that you can open micro

Python website micropattern.org. Go to download.

What our board ESP 32. And here we look at this, the program female location is this one. Okay. Just copy this location. That is zero X one to build zero based that here.

Done keep remaining. Same press on booed button in the ESP 32. And here you have an option to start so you can click on start.

Same time. You have to press on boot button and hold for two or three seconds. After clicking on the start button. I just released. Now you can see it is just started uploading the frame.

in the command prompt. It is showing that Bates also it is successfully flashed. Micro-biome where to ESP 32, you can even check by using parti and click on a reset button. Don't forget to click on reset button, always the frame where will not save, just click on frame, reset button that is enabled. But. On ESP 32 and open. See it right now. Micro Biden is loaded. It's Shelly's loaded here. You can drive with the brain command stri. All right. The sprinting that means successfully. We flashed microbiomes in a frame where two years, Peter ditto, the same way. You can also apply a frame where to ESP eight to double six. This application is only able to work with windows operating system. Make sure that before using this application, you have installed ESP tool properly. How to check that I'm disclosing them. Go to command prompt. If you under the install, if you haven't installed ESP tool properly, like Amanda install, ESP tool pro is PIP three, install E S B. There's is like a man you can use to install the USB tool. Then only that particular application will work.

So this is already satisfied. Other way you can check ESP deal is installed or not list command. So USP tool is one of the thing that is ESP. Two 2.8 is already in installed. So first you can use this command list to check puppies installed properly, but it's not installed. You can use this command to install that ESP.

DEVELOPING AND DEBUGGING ESP32 IOT APPLICATIONS USING ESPRESSIF ECLIPSE PLUGIN Expressive, uh, is most well known for the ESP 82 66 and ESP 32 wifi enabled microcontrollers, which offer a very accessible way to start an IOT project. Uh, these chips are used in consumer devices, such as smart home devices and appliances and some industrial applications, uh, for example, in data collection gateways and so on. Especially if itself is based in Shanghai and has offices in China, India, and in Europe, in the Czech Republic with employees working remotely from, uh, seven other countries as well. Uh, if you aren't yet familiar with the specific products,

I'll briefly introduce them, uh, on the next slide, wifi and Bluetooth enabled

microcontrollers or systems or chipped or SOC, uh, as we call them are the specific, main product I'll show the comparison of the SOC. Uh, we have right now on the next slide, but. Uh, the ones that, uh, we need to keep in mind are the ESPN two 66, ESP third shoe. And ESP urge us to based on the SOC is expressive also designs modules, which integrate additional components, such as SPI, flash, and Ram, and some passive components. These modules, uh, go through certification process, uh, and do not require too much effort to be integrated into products. Next the development boards. Uh, these are based again on espresso chips and modules, and they include other components such as power supplies, um, and debugging interfaces, uh, USB connectors, and so on, uh, shown here is the ESP 32 cutsie, which is a very common and simple design. Um, there are also many third-party development boards, which are based on a single form factor. Other development boards, uh, include displays, sensors, audio, codecs, and so on. Next on the software side, especially it provides free software development kits, which can be downloaded from GitHub for all of our products. Typically these SDKs are built around a real-time operating system and they include, uh, other approved curriculum, library sessions, book, or peripheral device drivers, wireless and TCP, IP stacks, uh, false systems and, um, some high-level protocol libraries. I'll tell you more about one of the SDKs or the ESP idea in a minute, the most recent addition to expressive software is the cloud solution. ESP Rainmaker. It provides end to end connectivity between an IOT device, the cloud, and the smartphone app, making it really easy to prototype and deploy applications. Uh, we're not going to go into the ESP Rainmaker in this talk, but if you're interested, check out a specific website, what details.

Let's have a quick look at the ESP 82 66, uh, the ESPN and ESPN 32, and how they compare to each other. As you see the, all these microcontrollers have on order of few hundred kilobytes of Ram, a 160 to 240 megahertz CPU frequency and a variety of different peripherals. Uh, the code is typically stored in external SPI flash memory. And, uh, also additional external SPI Ram can be connected to the, uh, ESP, ESP 32 and ESP.

Yeah. Uh, here are some more details about the ESP 32, a stew, which was launched this year. Uh, compared to the ESB 32, it has improved cryptographics accelerators and physical security features. Uh, it has larger, uh, OTP, key storage. Uh, it has hardware, digital signature module. In addition to the flash encryption and secure boot, which were present in the ESB 32 is, uh, used to be threatening. Uh, the microcontroller has a wide range of peripherals and these can be multiplexed to annually 42 general purpose iOS. Uh, especially if it has a couple of development boards, which make it easier to start a project based on the ESP 32 S two, for example, here on the left, you see the ESP 32 is to sell a one. Okay. So that's, uh, that's it for the hardware part and the introduction let's move on to the ESP idea,

the specify OT development framework. USPI DF. Um, has been in development by expressive since 2016. As I mentioned before, it is built around free artists real-time operating system. Um, the framework redundant CNC plus plus contains more than 70 libraries. Uh, we call them components. These components can cover many areas. Uh, for example, drivers security, fall systems, utilities, networking, provisioning, debugging, and probably some others. Uh, there is a large number of examples and we have online reference documentation USPI of major and minor releases are maintained for three months and we do prepare the bug fix releases.

So what's inside. ESP idea is ESPN is built around a set of command line tools, uh, such as system, uh, K conflict configuration tools. Uh, it's the same, uh, tool set that is used in Linux kernel and other real-time over insistent projects, such as, uh, not excellence zipper for configuration, uh, GCC Kampala, new debugger, and also multi-view Python scripts, which are either driven by CMake. No, for example, for co-generation or invoked by the user directly, uh, like in the case of flushing the application to the development board or setting up some security related features or doing tracing or debugging, uh, and the goal is to integrate all these tools into the ID.

These tools were all built with command line interface usage in mind. Um, but eventually we want them to be a natural part of the integrated development environment. Um, on this diagram, you can see, uh, the different tools that we have and how they relate to the integrated development environment. On the left side, uh, there are tools related to installation configuration and the build process. Uh, the integration between ID and see make is pretty standard. But for the other parts of the SDK, we had to introduce new user interface and who could into the build process. Um, then on the right right side, you see the parts that are related to running the program on the development board and to debugging, uh, the GDB integration again, uh, ease the existing part, uh, we are using, but for other aspects like, uh, size analysis of fleshing, uh, serial monitor, Tracing, we have to implement some custom logic and the UI in the plugin.

I'd like to finish my part of the talk by mentioning a few challenges we met when adapting the CLI tooling to, uh, ID. Okay. Uh, the first is that the command line tools, uh, had to be augmented with a machine output mode, for example, to produce Jason output instead of a human readable list or a table. Uh, this is especially tricky if the tool is running some lengthy operation because, uh, progress reporting needs to be implemented. Um, and the, the other, the other case is propagating errors from the COI. To the user so that these errors, they, uh, they can be, uh, found in the ID perspective.

The second one is, uh, related to users expectations about the installation and onboarding process. Uh, when we work with CLI tools, uh, multiple installation steps are required. For instance, uh, we get some prerequisites and store clone, a get repository. We were on a certain script. Uh, we install drivers, we set up environment variables and so on. And ID plugin takes over many of these steps, but at the same time, users get less visibility into the underlying process. Uh, and it is harder for them and for us to troubleshoot, if anything goes wrong. So when an ID or an installer attempts to sets everything up, expectations are higher and we need to be mindful about collecting enough information about enough logs and data about the system, so that in case anything goes wrong, we can find the reason. And, uh, the final one is related to automated testing. Uh, automated testing, I think becomes more challenging for, um, an ID tool kit compared to a set of command line tools. Uh, of course having this, the test for the underlying tools in the first place gives us more confidence that the tools themselves work fine, but due to different release cycles of the SDK and the ID plugin, we may need some regressions due to the changes in the argument's interfaces and so on. So testing becomes very important, um, for an UI UI based application, it is often less straightforward than for the command line tools. And this is the,

uh, the other thing that we are seeing. Uh, this concludes my part of the talk and I pass it onto conduct to tell us more about the ESP RDF plugin for eclipse and show how to use it. Thank you. bHi, everyone. Come to the ESP idea of eclipse plugin session. Um, as I went, I already spoke about ESP idea. Uh, I'll give you a brief idea on the eclipse login, uh, for an ESP idea, and then we'll get into the demo part. So eclipse plugin is, uh, developed based upon the eclipse CDT, uh, eclipse. It is one of the most powerful ideas for developers it's been used for years, and it has a lot of features which are required for developing and debugging the applications. So what we are trying to do here is hands the eclipse CBT, um, providing the, um, the required features, uh, especially for a specific, uh, ESP developers. So this plugin is our label for windows, Mac Reyes, and the Linux platforms. And it's suppose for ESP that they do an ESP, that is two obligations. Uh, here's the current status of this plugin is an open source. Uh, it should be able to access directly from the GitHub page. So if you guys would like to contribute anything back to the, uh, to the plugin, that would be great. So we have already released, uh, the one major version, um, So when that full, currently we are running with the one dot two dot three, I would say, which is just a lazy day back. So that's suppose, uh, uh, eclipse 2019 September version, which is a four that 17 version. And if you want, if you guys wanted to access the update and eclipse CDD, you should be able to use the update site, or it is also available in the eclipse pocket marketplace.

So here are the set of features it provides, um, As what we are trying to do is, uh, as ESP idea fees, having, uh, um, doesn't set up features. So we are trying to simulate all those features, using an aid in the ID so quickly. Let me, uh, get into a demo part. So all eight. So I'm already having the eclipse CDT, uh, which is for that 16. So once you, how, uh, eclipse led what the next step would be, uh, you need to install the, uh, idea of eclipse plugin using the update side. So once that is, then you should be able to see all the specific features or plugin features within your eclipse eclipse. Uh, the first thing, what you need to verify is you need to make sure that you are in the CDT perspective. So this I can represent CC plus plus then you can go to, uh, help you wanted to download and configure ESPN.

So, yeah. So, all right, so this is the, uh, this is where you can choose whether you wanted to install the new ESP idea of, or you wanted to select an existing DSP idea of directory. If it is already installed. So, for example, if you want to do, uh, install the new one, you can choose anything from this list. So just lack of time, I already installed the, the master version of ESPN. Yeah. So I'll just go with an existing one. So for that, you just select this use and existing ESP ID of directory from the trial system, then going brows, your ESP ID of the fleet. So here's the one, this is my ESP IDF, which is already installed. So just click on open and finish. So what this did, was it just configured your idea from this code path to the selected ESPN directly and based upon that, it is trying to ask you, do you want to install direct flight tools for the selector DSP idea? Uh, since the tools will rally for ESPN, ESPN, your version. So we might need to install the, the tools required for that. So I'll just click yes. Find.

So if you want, you can choose a good and Python executable. So what I can do is probably I will set up the, uh, the Python three, so clicks installed all.

So I'll just make it large. The visibility fine as I can see. Uh, so what this does, is it invokes some of the commands from the ESP idea of as a good, see, it is trying to invoke idea of tools, install our command. It will install all these quiet tune chains, which are required for, for ESP idea of.

And, uh, after that, it also, uh, configured the Python environment, pot, the ritual by Don environment, with the pot, which you are given. And, uh, finally the, it expose all your tune parts to either keep CDD bill environment. So as you can see, uh, the configured CDD bill environment variables, you can check the preferences here. So if you wanted to see whether all my environment variables are configured or not, you can just go to, uh, and just go to preferences.

So in the CC plus place the bill. And environment s

o eerie could see all the parts which are already configured. So my bot contains all, all the tools, information along with the, uh, like Python, what are the excludables, which are required to run your DSP audio commands. Dogs are configured the see, make pot cool spot. Uh, since we support like ESPN do on ESPN two S two, we are configured. Uh, so these are automatically configured as part of it, but also check the core build tool chains where under the Caldwell tool chains for

So that's pretty much from the preferences. I'll just go back to the, the reason it took very less time for this, since the tools are already installed it, just trying to verify whether it is installed or not, if it is already installed, it just, I know I just keeping the download part of it. So that's the reason we could able to install very quickly.

So next thing is I will, we'll go ahead and create a product. So create a new

project here. So let's go with a simple example. Like maybe we want to play it another way. And for now we will select one of the Hallowell template from the existing list, which we get it from IDEO. Fine. So just click on finish.

So this creates the simple Hallowell application. Uh, let me open the file. As you could see the, the structure for the CME ESPN product. So we'll also have a build folder. And currently it's an empty and under the main, you should be able to see all of the source content.

So we're here. Uh, here's the simple, uh, Hallowell example, which we wanted to run and build it. Uh, please ignore this FSTs will be resolved once you build the application. So once you created a product, the next logical step would be, we need to decide to which, uh, built or gate which board we need to build this application.

So here's the one you need to select the launch target. What I'm going to do is I'm going to play it a new launch target, just kick on new launch target,

click on ESP dog gate USP, 30 to finish. Fine. You can just go ahead and click on bill.

So this is going to take a couple of seconds. So the bill is completed, uh, as you could see, uh, the moment the bill is completed, all the risks are resolved, uh, for your project.

So the next thing is, so this icon represents a bill and the next icon next to the, uh, this bill represents a flash. So it'd be, let me check with, uh, I selected the light, uh, uh, the CDL port. So this is the, uh, the serial port for my device. Uh, here is my device, which I'm trying to, uh, program it. This is ESP. fine. So click on finish, and you can just click on run. So this will actually flash it to the new eyes. So it's going to flash it to the device now. String to connect to the serial port and writing our app to the, to the board. So this is done once this is done, maybe you wanted to see how my program is getting executed. So for that, uh,

you can launch the, um, serial monitors. So here's our Cedar monitor ESP idea of CDL monitor. So by default, your CDL port and board rate is selected based upon the existing . So click on finish

it's just trying to restart a 10 gets here, uh, in this loop now. So once this is done, it will restart the boat. So as you could see, it's getting this started again. Fine. So this is about the, uh, the flashing into the device and, uh, We

also have other sort of features like you wanted to see the memory obligation usage for your application.

So that is our level as part of the obligation size analysis. So click on this.

So this will launch the obligation size analysis. As you could see in the value section, it gives an Hy-Vee a high level overview for your DDM flash food and the static data usage. This is the pictorial representation for the same.

And in the detail section, you could, you could also able to see how each of the file are each file as getting used. And what does that mean? What do you for each one of the, of the symbols? So it should be able to even, you know, sod this memory usage, and also it should be able to even search a particular file from here. So that is about the application size analysis editor. Um, other important editor, which we provide is as DQ configuration editor.

So using an as degree conflation editor, it should be able to configure any project or chipped related settings. At the board level settings, for example, now we are using an ESP 30.

Do you want it to make any ESP specific settings? So we should be able to do it from here. So all you have to do is just to make a change and click on save, and it will be saved to the, uh, to the, uh, uh, application.

Um, you can also see the preview of this changes. Um, as you can see, these are the set of change. Uh, the moment you make any changes, it will be reflected as part of the preview app. The other feature, which we added recently was ESPN channel. So to access the ESP ID of tenants, select the project and click on the, the terminal icon from here. So choose the ESP idea of tenant from the list of tenants click on. Okay.

So this will be launched by default in the hello world. Application has, you can see this is launched at the root directory of follower. This Verde followed comes with all the environment variables, which we already configured for the earlier project. For example, if you want to check, click on EMV, as you could see, the pot is configured with also Delphi environment variables, which are required to then, uh, some of the commands from the terminal. And as you also could see openness, it scripts, IDO bot, everything is configured as part of the internet. So the reason why we introduced this ESP Turner was to, to access some of the, uh, ESP ID of commands, which are not integrated as part of the initiatives. For example, ESP called down DDB subdue working. So these features are not integrated as part of the eclipse tidy, but it should be able to access those features directly from the ESPN of 10.

So the next feature which I wanted to talk is, uh, the open OCD debugging. So let's get into Reno city, click on the Hallowell project. So on the light leak, you will see the debug grass click on the debug confrontations. So here's the one USP idea of GDB open hostility, buggy. So this is the customized, uh, ESP idea of open non-city debugging, which comes with the,

uh, the three configurations.

So click on the new configuration, as you could see by default, this Hallowell configuration is created with all the configuration settings. The project and the XQ executable file Hallowell dot LF,

and in the next tab, as it would see the open OCD and the GDB clients set up, everything is by default configured. So the only thing which we need to take is controlling the interface, interface files for your specific board. Currently I'm using my, uh, ESP roller kit. But if you're having some of the board, you need to configure the, uh, the interface and the board configuration related.

So in the startup, in the startup already, the insulation con configurations are already configured. And all the settings, which are required to debug your application is already taken care. So by default, uh, we will hold it the big point of the app and the school mean. So this is the post break point where the application will be halted. So what I'll do, we'll just click on the, um, Yeah. So it is asking us to switch to the debug mode, click on switch.

So the first break point delegation got halted at the app and the school main. So let's click on FBA eight.

Yeah. As you could see it as holiday, the next break point between added in different loop. So where we are just trying to, you know, uh, look for not a thousand milliseconds and now we can able to debug kind of step-by-step I'm just taking six. Um, all right. So, uh, this is about the debugging launching

the debug configuration. And, uh, now, while you're debugging, you might need a couple of other reviews. So those are already, uh, as part of the eclipses D for example, debugger console. So this shows what is the big point, which is getting executed and it, what line and it, what, which thread is getting, uh, in working this particular, uh, this particular break point. So as you could able to see all those information as part of the debugger console, And this also have the registers view.

So you can see the Denver post registers and the values associated with that. And the other one is, um, the, so as you could see here that some other views, the variables view, where you will be able to see the variable values, which are defined that you are in your program and the big ones where you will be able to see the break points, which are configured.

And in the expression view, you should be able to add the expression. If you want to do it, will you would set an expression. I wanted to see the value audio and also a able to see the assembly level instructions in the, uh, in the December, this assembly view. So here the assembly, they will instructions for your application for your program, uh, is shown here. So while you are executing this. So as you could see the assembly instructions are, so it's getting changed and how it is, you know, switching between the context. So everything will be shown as part of the assembly view. So, yeah, that's pretty much, which I would like to show us for the demo.

PRINT FUNCTION We'll be discussing about biotin threes index. Those who already know by ten three, you can skip the session. Otherwise you can learn the basics index from the session. Make sure that you have connected your ESP 32 to your laptop or desktop using a USB cable. I just connected right now. Then open our ID. You can see the microbiota essentially is loaded here. First, we'll be starting with the brain function. We will be able to print something in the ship. If you wanted to come in something, you can use hash. So after hash something you have written that will not be execute. Start printing something here directly. We can use shell here. So I'll be just using the print here to bring something. Print normal opening and closing baskets inside. I can give anything. So here I am going to print something and number just, I'm going to print a number three if I end up and the number three will be printed over here. This code is actually running in ESP 32 and it's executed over there that replays getting into micro potential here, print three. So this is just to bring them numbers. Now, if we wanted to bring some string, then the command is print. Then in a single code or double code, anything you can use, if you use single code, you have to use single code. If you're using double code, you have to use the double codes. This case. I am just using double codes. Hello, then close this one.

Now let me run this here. You can click on rank. Oregon, press F I, so I'm just speaking on brand.

So it will be asking to where to save. There are two options you can save in that computer, or you can save directly do micro by 10 device. That is ESP 32. In my case, you can also use ESP 82 double six. This case I am just saving to this computer, keeping in the desktop. I just creating one

file and folder. Micropipette coasts instead, instead that I can save this. 4.1 brain function. You can save this, make sure that this is as a dot P Y extension. Cause you must save it as a Python file and save this. You are getting to output second line here it is. That is to bring three and this line to print. Hello world. Now we will be using variables to print something so variable. It can be indigenous. It can be flawed. It can be string and things can be there. Now let's start with KB. I wanted to bring my name. First name is a second. Name is ed or last name is ed. I'm giving two variables. You can name variables, ABCD, anything you can name. You're giving like variable. First name mine. First name is Harish. The Heidi issues are saying to ABA, they will call the fastening. Now last name he called to conduit. So now it is assigned us conduit to last name and how to print it. So, if I wanted to print first name, I can use like print that is available directly called available in this console in the shell, you will be able to get Haddish after fast to let me run this by using FIP, Harish is in defined.

Okay. I forgot to put w codes because this is a string. So you must be in. You must give in double quotes or in Google's both will work. So now the hardest string is able to first name variable and last name variable.

Now let's run. Now you can see the first command that painting. Three second command over here, printing hello world. And this is that last one. We are asked to print the first name. So it is printing the name. Harish here, put both the names will be using string can Ganden nation string and get any relation. Simply we can use by putting a comma let's check print, normally opening and closing bracket. So I wanted to get it. My name is so here. I wanted to give in coats, double codes. My name is. Okay. One this much. I wanted to get brain first after that, I wanted to add the first name and the last name, how you can add the first name and the last name. So after the, you can protect karma. This karma makes string Ganga nation. Now, what is the next one? I wanted to print my first name. So I have the call, the first available that it first. Name again, after that the second name have to come. There is a space is required. That's why I'm putting a space then protect coma, then LA awesome. Using a coma. The string can guide any nation.

Let's check how it behaves. Now you can see my name is so everything is coming in double coats. This is a string. After that you are adding another variable and one more variable. This border actually string. That's why there is no, it does are coming over here. So it is pending. My name is Harish conduit. So this is one window you can print and combine two variables. If it is string, now it will be using another Mudder dot four. My mother let's check. My name is. After that, what are the vehicles have become where the places are they're there. You have to put in opening and closing curly bracket, wherever the opening and curly closing curly bracket is coming there. We will be discussing that in detail. And after that I need a space. I need the last name then again, opening and closing curly bracket. Now what I have to do, I have to close. Double codes. Once he disclosed the double codes, he can put dot format. Now, here, you can give whatever the variables have to come in between the opening and closing curly brackets. So first I need that first name, first underscore name. This is the variable. Then you can protect coma. Then next one. Last underscore name, that his last name we have done. It had a lot of advantage, mostly in Python program. Nowadays you will be seeing like this. So make sure that okay. I forward to

those one more closing bracket here.

Yeah, that's done now. Let's run. Now you can see it is also printed by dot format. Hi, my name is Harish country. Now in these places, I actually, by default, the foster name will come on the foster place and the second place here, the next available that will be loaded. That means this is counting us faster, available. That is we call it us indexing women. We are considering indexing zero index and this index number one. So here, what will happen? It is default. Index number zero index. Number one in the available. This is index number zero, and this is index number one. So index number zero will be load here. Index number one will be load here. Now, what is that doing? Is I wanted to print something like last name, then the faster name. I can do a small trick. I'm just copying this. You don't want her to pay change over here? What are you can do? You can change the index number inside the opening and closing curly bracket by default but we can change dusk index. Number one.

Now the last name will bring fast. Then here I can give index numbers. Yeah. Now what will happen? Faster. Name will come at the last. Now let's see. Let me print. Now. You can see the difference.

TYPE FUNCTION We'll be discussing about defunct ion Antoni ID. You can see on the lefthand side, there is file system. I can navigate to the main file system where I can see all the code, where it is saved. So I just changed the location of the codes, where I wanted to save time. I'm changing for the F in my case, first accord is already there. So I'm just closing this. I'm putting a variable, a. number three, I'm giving B equal though. Any Florida value in D and available C equal do string I'm giving string. You can give in double gold source in good courts. It's not an issue. And D I can give you a bullion and E is available. I'm giving something else. That's a double am, giving single quotes or double quotes. I can give this time. I'm just giving you that single quote.

Let me run this. I can say it to my computer, or I can say it directly to that device. This time I am saving to my computer and share it is taught by and save. Now you can't see anything on the shell because it is not printing anything, but the code has run over. So how I can check, I can check here type what is available? What is that type of variable? A I can check here now.

This isn't indigent. We can see over here again, also check for the other one type the variable B. Yeah. This is a float type. Then let's check the case of E it's set up so like that we can identify each and every debatable. What type is. So it helps in program. Now I wonder to print everything one by one in a single step.

I'm just copying this print, the diaper off all the variables, a B, C, D, and E let's say van Brian by clicking here, or you can click on a file in this case, I'm just clicking on a fight, pressing on a fight.

I can see the first one is an individual. Second one is a flawed. The other one is a stream. And for the one is a bullion and the fifth one is a tablet.

INPUT FUNCTION We'll be discussing about input function. If you wanted to get an input from any user, we'll be using input function, you can click on new, make sure that your device is connected to ESP 32.

Go to tools, options. The interpreter should be micro by 10 ESP 32. It is connected to a proper. I grew up with Dennis Lauder in the ship. Plus we have to create a baby. I'm going to get a name of any of the person creating an variable called a name. If you're considering other language, we have to mention what type of vulnerabilities, but here we don't want it to mention it automatically understand. And it detects itself the command here. It is in. Opening and closing brackets. So in my case, I am requesting to enter your name so I can put like double quotes and or your name to make it looking good. Again, put a full call in here. I closed this one. Let me run this.

make sure it is dark. Now you can see on the terminal, it is asking under your name. We are not getting any response or you're not getting any output. Why? Because we haven't asked to print something. No, whatever the name it is getting that will be saved to a variable called name. Then we are asking to bring that variable. So the print variable, it is my, our name is ed, so it will get printed. Now let's again, run just right, Joe. Joey. Okay. Now it's printing joy. Why? Because it is saved in the name. And we asked to print it. I wanted to ask that age also and putting in another variable age equals input gets set for that age.I'm just running this.

and the age that is just starting now, let's check the type of each type of the name, variable that is a string then type of the age. That's also straight.

We actually given a number, but it is showing like string itself. Now, what is the problem? Whenever you use an input function, it always take all the inputs are string. So if you want to do give it us number, then you want it to

convert it as number that is very important for that. We will be using another trig and creating another variable age underscore one. Let's try. My name. So just right now, it's starting last year, age is 29 now check bot using Thai function. I'm just checking current age. That is age. That is a string.

Now check the diaper. Last year, age by using eight underscore one. So let's check the difference. This is right now indigent. So this is a way you can convert the string value into any leader if you're giving any numbers. Okay. So I'll be updating those things here, sprint everything together.

Ask him to end up my name, my current age last year, H I C the first available that's a string.

Second variable is also a string because we haven't converted here. And the third one, it's an indigent.

HELP FUNCTION We'll be discussing your bone health function. How function is very important function, and it is very useful function. Click on new here. I can run the help function directly in the shell. Let's check. What are the modules before modules are available in that ESP 32. Similarly, you can also check the case of ESP 82, double six. There are more modules available in the case of ESP. You must check that I'm right now using ESP 32 command is help.

These are the modules we are going to use for the coming You can see some of this USP 32 module and very important module is machine. Inside the machine, there are a number of functions. Are there out of this? I wanted to know one of the module and what are the functions inside the model? In that case, you have to input that particular module. So how to import the command is board. Okay. The module name. I'm going to use the module name machine here because the machine is, we are going to use the most. So I am going to import machine. Now you can see, there is no EDA. The machine is important in the shell. Now I want you to know that what are the functions inside the machine, how to know that help. Hey, you don't want her to put the single or double coats? Just type the module name here. The

module name is machine and just end it.

Now you can see these are the functions available in the module,

colder machines, you can set four frequency reset, unique ID, sleep mode, light sleep mode. Then why stop timer? Timer is Deckard to connect. Then a lot of things to pin, mostly we are using pin one of the function, then analog to digital converter. That's bad ADC. And DCA I to see PWM now we drive

it to somewhere. That is, we are going to use my T3 in here. This comes under school. There is the one underscore third. So just I'm copying this first. I have to import that otherwise I will not get so in board. Okay. The module name. I just import thing. So that particular module is important. Now I under the, see what are the functions inside that particular module, how it is help the normal bracket.

You have to put that module, name, these other functions available here. Out of that, we are going to use this particular function to start a new. In one of our coming project So these are the files, which is inside the micro-biome and device. That is in my case, ESP 32. These are the files, say everything that laptop or the desktop. And if you under the know the variables here,

you can go to view that a lot of things you can and showing our interface, the ID. If I wanted to know about the case of variables, I can recall. So all the elements we'll show here.

CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS (IF,ELSE, ELIF) We'll be discussing about conditional statements like Eve S and Eleaf data in your file. Let's start with the basic one. We are going to get a number from a user from a range one to five, and it is checking and we are going to predict taking at a friend's number. So I am putting a variable color. Value it's available. And by default, I am giving it a reference that is for then I wanted to take an input from a user variable, call the value. Then we know that we have to take the input, uh, that number it is there. So I wanted to convert it as a number. Then we have to use it inside the end. I can use input function. And there are a number in a range one to five. Now we will be checking is of value is equal to the reference value for that we will be using if inside the bracket we have to give that condition value is equal to equally equal to means it is checking is the value is exactly the same. Once it is given, you have to put F free card. Then you have to give under here. Intonation is very important. You can see there is one dab. It is an indentation. The other language, you mostly have it opening and closing curly, but. In that biotin's index, actually, this isn't intonation international is very important in the case of Python programming language. So you make sure that in the nation is followed. So remaining codes are coming under that. If condition now, if both are seen, then I wanted to print something. It is matched.

Now let me run this again, save to computer and say this. Oh, it is asking. And then the number in a range, one to five, let me end the F for itself, then check the output. Now you are getting the output Mazda value and that means it is matched. No, again, I'm just running that. I'm going to end up another way. Let it be a do now. You're not getting any output. You had expected some output, but you are not getting any output by. We haven't said like, if it is not matched, then what you should have to print or what we want to do show to others. So that case we are putting something called here. So as he's actually coming, once it is checked, the if, then it will be jamming ELLs.

Now, if it is not mass, that it is the number is not for the remaining all the condition I can run with it. And so under Ellis, all the remaining conditions come so that why you don't want to put any specific condition here. You have to put a full call in here, gender. Check the intonation here that automatically comes, but check from your side also international always. Then let me bring it is not matched. Now let's run a fire. You can use asking, do enter a number. Let it be three. Number is not matched again, running for. Now the value is matched. So this two way we can understand how to use Yves and ELLs that are possibilities, like one to five. So if you ended one, it wanted to show you in that. Number one, if you ended up to it, wonder if you ended up number two and if you're entering something out of this range, it want to show. Then no, I lose out of range in this case, make sure that you are not giving any input 4.5 or something. Why? Because it gives some eras over here. So this eras we can use, try and accept doubt, but this time we are not discussing with that. So you try to always give the numbers a one to five or more than that should not give any Florida. Now let's check with that next one, taking one by one condition. And one of the condition is satisfied.

It will trend for that. We are using Eleaf so fast. We wondered check one of the conditions because this condition will work. So that's why I will don't wander. Repeat that Eve. Value equal to equal to number one and four. Colin. I wonder the print and a third number is one that is another possibility. The number can be two this case instead of using, as we will be using something new called if condition we wanted to give value, supposed to be equal, to equal to two. And that values too. Now, similarly, I have other options, the four or five like that.

Now we can get all the possibilities from one to five. If I give one supposed to be a number 10, then it is not coming in this, uh, Eve and LF. So the other condition comes. So what I can do, I can S uh, meaning all the possibility. I can print and our number is not in the range. Okay. Now let's try asking them to end on a particular number. Let me check this part also will work.

Let me end up to now it is saying that number is not massive because in this area we are taking the reference number is due and does a part is showing like, and that value is to buy because I have given a number to that mirror. Again, I'm giving for now ma'am as the value in dirt and ended values for, because it is coming over here.

Now once again, I run, I'm giving you a value of something like eight that is

out of our range. Then let's see. Then their number is not in that range. So this program is successfully working. You can see each and every variable and the value presently. While loop That is an infinite loop. It is very important. Most of the programs we are using, why loop start a new file, why true and full coding instead of true, we can also give other conditions. If that particular condition satisfied it will run condition is always true. That means it always run again, again and again. I wanted to print something. Hello? Okay. The code is done, but there is a problem. If I am not giving any proper time here. Now, my interface may got stuck because in a fraction of second number of times, it is going. But in hello? Hello. Hello. So that's why we have to give a small delay over here for that. We have import something called a sleep. The function sleep from the module called a time frame. Module name is time import sleep after print. I want to wait for one second. How we'll call sleep the time we can give in seconds. Time also, you can see in milliseconds and microseconds by changing a little bit over here, but now we are looking into second twice. So here I am just giving one. That means it is for one second. Let me upload this code.

you can see in the shell, it started printing. Hello in each and every one second gap. It's still continued printing. I undertake. The sprinting, all interrupt the program.

There is a shortcut that is keyword interrupt. That is control. Plus C I can see the program has, uh, interrupted in between by using and keyword interrupt. You can see now it is not printing, right? I'm going to change that. Something like two seconds that may again, renders. Now you can see each and every two seconds it is printing. Hello, soft reboot. This ESP 32. There is another sharp guard that is press control. Plus B in the keyboard. I can see it is soft. Rebooted.

FOR LOOP We'll be discussing about follow open a new file, a particular set of program under two, ran for it. Certain number of times like five times, six times, maybe 10 times, maybe 50 times we can use actually for loop for any variable, any variable name we can give XYZ. Even you can give name anything, counter any name you can give for the variable. I'm just giving the name of the variable as X giving in. Yeah, the function is range by default. It's starting from zero. I am giving a range, then start from zero. And the value which I given that will be excluded, that means maximum.

It will go up to nine. I ended up bring that back. X-ray now. So it is going to increment each and every time by one by default print X, let's say this. See now you can see in the shell, it started with zero and ended at night. That way it is starting from zero by default and whatever this valley is giving that will be excluded. Oh, you turned up at a time. It is incremented by. One, one like that. And each and every time, what are the value of X that is get printed over here? So it's, that's why I said it can be used to run a certain program to a particular number of times if you are bringing any lady only for 10. Yeah. Then you can

use this command so that lad will only run for, at that particular 10 times, instead of printing, you can make the command to bling daily. We can also use in underway the four loop for variable name. You can change, or you can keep as it's same, but I'm just changing industry.

Why in range Dodd from two, it ends at night print. Ready? Boom. Wait, let me up. Yeah, the faster set of program that means. Nine here after that, it is starting from two and ending at night. So this value is excluded in this case. By default, it is incrementing by one, but we wanted to change like incremented value should be two, three, or something like that for we can give any bad variables is that I'm giving in range, starting value. Let me give two. Comma ending value. I'm just giving some other values. I'm being like 26 and each and every time that addition value should be supposed to be three. That is a difference print. It started with to exclude 26 and each and every time. The difference is three. That means first we will be to the next available B five, the next evaluate be eight. Like that. It will go.

Let me run. This code can see here it is Springer till nine. That is this program. After that it started with the two, then three more added five. Then I gained three modern. Then it is going 11 until up to 23. It is going because 26 will not come here because 23 plus three, that is 26, but this only six will not be added in this program. So that's why we got delayed 23.

CREATE WON FUNCTION We are going under discuss very important topic that is make our own functions. Why it is relevant. You have created a code that set of code wanted to use in several time. Then again, writing the same goal is not good. That's why we are creating functions. That is a key variable called deaf space. What is the name? Needed for other function that you can give us the next and just giving it any name. You can give him giving a name, something like symbol, then opening and closing brackets, and you can protect and you check inundation. I ended up print something print, Now we have created faster function. So function name is symbol. You have to call the name of the function. My function name is . This is a way you are calling a function.

Now let me run this be right exchange. Save this. Okay. Now you can see the value is printed. Now I wonder the suppose, print it again and again, then we can use slave function here. How we can use sleep. We know that from time module, you have to import sleep. No, I can use here. I have to create while loop here while true. This is what I said, the case of Fido. So you have to give proper introduction. You can. Single dad then here I can give to repeat again

and again and again for a time. So sleep 1.5 seconds. Now let's check

now I see this is the function, but this function is called here. That is inside it while true loop. So it is going to print each and every time it's a function is calling and it is doing. Print function that is printing again after 1.5 seconds. Again, calling this function and printing like that, it is going okay. I hope you understood the basics. Now we have to look into some more time with arguments and or retain. So first we will be looking into arguments. So I'm just changing this. I don't want to do make it confused. I just removing this too. Okay now let's see. How do you use arguments? That's inside the function. We wanted to pass some values. That'd be actually called the arguments. I'm creating a on function called add. Now inside this bracket, I wonder the past two arguments so I can give two variables name here. Let it be variable a then next to variable, I can give coma. Now two variables I have given as the arguments C equal to a plus B. Now this is a condition we have given. We wanted to bring the value print. Some is shrinking any nation we can use, put a coma, and once it is added, the value is going to save and see. So I wanted to call the beta. We'll see here that, okay. Now how to call them. Calling is very easy. How to call ad. We

wanted to pass two arguments. Now I wanted to add two numbers, like six and five, so six. That is a faster variable. That is a faster argument that is going to AE and fight. That will go to B. Let me run this.

why this is not coming over here. Print because I haven't called here. If I got then the function symbol also will get printed over here. Okay. This is what we call that passing arguments. I'm creating another function. Def that is a key word. Any name you can give? I wonder to give only one variable. That's why I put X. You can give anything that's up to you. Full colon. Then something I'm calling, uh, it does return, whatever the value you have paused in X that should be multiplied with two, so I can give it to you, indu. X now, whenever I call this function, if I passed five in X is five will come over here. That will be multiplied with two. Then this value will again, go to X. That is the thing will happen here. Now I wanted to print that properly. Normally how we can call, we know that you can call like M U L what is the value you wanted to pass here? The argument anybody can give, let me take the number eight. Um, I wanted to pass here, but I wonder print also for printing. I had to add print.

Otherwise, I won't be able to see what is the value of coming over here.

Now I can run this C eight is past two X. That eight into two is multi plate. That value 16 that's 16 is again, coming to yeah. So that return value is actually printed over here. Function is very important in Python programming.

ESP32 TUTORIAL USING MICROPYTHON LETS GET STARTED Hey guys, just sitting here on this gloomy morning, waiting for a meeting to start.

So I thought I'd show you this new application now here's the problem that people run into. They see all this talk about things like this. I mean, I even did this on my channel, right? This is. IOT device and internet of things device. Okay. And you hear all this talk about the internet of things, and then you hear about this stuff like, oh, you know, the ESB 32, it's this wonderful chip just for the internet of things has wifi on it. You can do this, you can do that. Okay. Well that's all well and good. But what you don't hear is when you have something like this, I mean, I. Touched on it in the project I did on this weather thing. Um, is that when this takes a reading, I mean, so you've got

your device here and it reads you timid temperature, humidity, pressure connects to the internet, and then it sends it somewhere. Well, where does it send it? And that is the key.

See that's missing for most people, like, uh, you know, the viewers on this. That's the key that's missing. Where do you send it? Okay. So maybe you, you know, you've gotten yourself an ESP 32 here. We got a little fun board. We've got lots of ESP, 32 things here. They're all connected to the. So you get this, you start doing some micro Python, you get pretty good at that. You can connect to the internet. You can, uh, you can read sensors, you can flashlights and all that, but then you want to make an IOT device and you're stuck because what you're missing is that place to send your data. So what you have to have. Is a server somewhere. So then you got to, you know, get some space on digital ocean. You got to set up a Linux box up there. Yeah. You have to get yourself a domain name. You have to worry about, uh, certificates and HTTPS. And then you got to build yourself an API to accept your data on and on and on what that's a different kind of programming then. Right. What most of you guys are doing with this. And so it's a roadblock. In fact, I got. Uh, rope made the other day and we were talking about this and he just hit a roadblock because he, he couldn't hit that and do that next part. So

what I've done is come up with an application for you guys to use that does that part for you. So this is, is a. Place on the cloud where you can take your data here. You can just one line, just send data up there. I've already written the software for your ESP 32 and your desk. So just with one line of code, you can send data up there and it's there and then you can retrieve it back to here if you want, or you could, you know, retrieve it to here or you can bring it down to your desktop or all right. We had a technical difficulty there. All right. Anyway, so you can bring it down to your desktop, whatever you need to do. Um, so it's just like a place where you can send data and it can stay there for a little while and then you can bring it down to another device, whatever you need. So you can swap commands. You can send something from your desktop out to here. Um, you could send something from here, go to there and then to your desktop, you know, whatever you need to do. So I'm going to switch over to screen record, and let's go over this thing. Okay. All right. We're starting here on my YouTube channel. Don't forget to subscribe because it helps me write. So please do all right, we'll go up here. And now this is a fresh start of Firefox. I got there's nothing in here. Um, everything's fresh just like you guys might encounter it.

So we're going to go to E Z I O t.link. L I N. That's all we got to do and it takes us there. Now you'll see that this is unsecure. So if you want, you can do HTTP, uh, S and get to the secure link or, you know, the secure site, but it really doesn't matter because there's really nothing happening on the website. It's just a landing page. And a place where you can find the links to the places that you want to go. Okay. So the website's not really doing anything. It's just a front end to the server to where the API exists. That we'll be hitting that API with our, uh, Python tools. Okay.

So the links that are here, well, here's the link to my Patrion account. If you want to be a patriarch that helps support, uh, you know, pay for the server and all that kind of. Um, and then the other main link is to get lab to easy IOT on get lab where all the instructions are, where the files are, the stuff that you need. Okay. And then there's a link to my YouTube channel. And here down, down here is a link to Iowa lottery.io. Now easy IOT is made for us. It's for hobbyists and developers. It's a place where you can take your device. You can send data up here, it'll stay here and then you can pull it down to your desktop. Or you can send commands from your desktop up to here and then pull them down to your device and do things. But it's not a full service cloud IOT location. If you need something like that, where you have indefinite storage. Um, all sorts of analytics and tracking and, uh, artificial intelligence and all that.Then you need to go to high audrie.io for us.

This is just a hub where we can send data and use it some other place. Okay. All right. So that's the main links that we have. So let's head on over to get lab. Once we get over to get lab. You can see that I am not signed in. Okay. And you guys don't need to be signed in either. This is a open repository for downloading. All right. Now the two files that you are interested in. Well, really the one file that you're primarily interested in is easy. IOT dot P Y. Okay. This is the SDK or software development. And if you scroll down, you'll see that it, uh, it has imports for micro Python. So we'll work on micro Python. It also has imports for regular Python. So it will work on your desktop works in either place. Okay. So we need, um, we need this. All right. So, well actually let's just go ahead and hit the download and I'm going to save the file and. It's done. Okay. So let's go back now. The other file that you might want is the rebel ACE dot P Y. And this is a file that you can use to upload, uh, easy IOT dot P Y to your ESP 32. It's what I use. Um, so I'm going to go ahead and download that as well. Uh, you can use whatever you want. It doesn't. It does. Oh, here we go. Okay. So, and then the last thing is the read me file, which is, will be displayed right here. So the read me file has, um, an introduction to what, uh, easy IOT is. We've already started talking about that. It's just a place where

you can. Take data from your device, you can send it up to the cloud and then you can download it to your desktop, or you can download it back to another device. So you could swap data between devices, that sort of thing, a brief overview of what you can do. You can upload data, you can upload up to 1,024 rows. Um, and then after 1,024 rows, if you upload again, it's going to drop the oldest row often there. Uh, you get six, uh, items that you can upload. You can put a group in, you know, like, uh, what group of, uh, IOT devices you're using. You can put a device name in, and then you got four data spots. These can take integers that can take floats, or they can take strings. Uh, these first three days to one day to two and data three, they can tell. Uh, strings up to 32 character as long. So that would be four names and stuff like that. And then the last one data for it can take a string up to 256 characters long. So that would be for a place. If you wanted to put up a little bit of a Jason or something like that, some extended data, you could stick it there. Okay.

Now that seems limited, but it's really not. It probably would take care of 95% of the IOT. Uh, devices that exist in the world. I mean, because you're just sending little things, that data up there, you're not sending huge amounts of data. I mean, there are some but most don't, so this will take care of a lot of

stuff. Okay. So you can upload your data and then of course you can get your data back. Okay. Whatever you put up there, you can get it back. You get timestamps and you get the IP address. Of where it was sent from when you, when you get it back and then of course you can delete your data. Uh, I'm not interested in your data. You put it up there, you manage it. Yeah. You delete it, whatever you want to do. And then, you know, we talked about passing data between devices, by uploading and downloading between devices. Okay. Now things you can't do look easy IOT. It's not for unlimited data. We talked about what you can. That's not for huge data. Okay. You got to get a better service. Like something like I honoree, if you need to put huge amounts of data and keep it forever. And then, you know, user support, uh, you know, I'm, I'm building this for our community on YouTube to use and it's tested it works. So just follow the instructions. There's your user support. This is the user support file or reading right there. I mean, it's just me. Okay, so security, um, you know, don't use this for personal data. Don't use it for military secrets. Don't use it for commercial secrets. Um, you know, we use HTTPS, uh, for the web traffic, but in the back end, we're not storing it in an encrypted fashion. So, you know, use it to swap data around. Don't use it for anything that's critical if you need that. Then you need to buy, uh, you know, pay for, uh, a big, a real IOT cloud service or, you know, make your own. Okay. And then here here's the documentation. Okay. And then, um, this is the test kind of the test run stuff. We'll go through this, but this is just explains how to do everything. So you can do some testing. You can get an account. This is what we're going to be.

Um, and then here's the different functions. Now, this stuff is rate limited. I mean, your target rate limit is once per second. Right. But if you have a bunch of devices and they're sending data, there's a little bit of buffer in there. So if you know, a couple of them send data at the same time, it's going to still work. Okay. And then everything is identified by row IDs and there's just different stuff in there. And then, so this is how you post it. We'll go through that. This is how you get data. This is how you delete your data. You can get stats, there's some extra functions for connecting to wifi. If you're on an ESP 32 or something using micro Python, uh, we'll go through, get it, getting credentials so you can have your own account. And then there's just some, uh, ticks, tips and tricks in here. Okay. All right. So we have downloaded the, um, Two files that we're going to use. And now we're going to shift over to a directory and a command line and, and give them a shot. All right, here is a directory I've created. This is just a fresh directory. The only thing in it is, uh, the two files that we downloaded now, notice they did change the name a little bit when we downloaded them. So we'll, we'll, uh, rename those things. To what they should be, which is just take off the get lab folder. Right? Okay. So we'll use this one. we'll use that when we load to the ESP 32, but right now we're on the desk. And we're just

gonna use, uh, easy IOT dot P Y that's the software development kit, the SDK. We're going to use this with Python on the desktop. Okay. So I'm going to pop it open and then let me adjust it. Now. I'm doing everything new here just as if you guys were doing it. Okay. So let me get this adjusted where you can see. Okay, so here we go. Soft wear development kit. There it is. Now the first thing we're going to look at is this, the API key and secret and version. Those are credentials and you will get your own credentials eventually, but these are credentials. It just comes with the credentials for an example, sample set of data up on the, uh, And we're just going to use that everybody can use that. You don't have to get your own credentials, but if you use this, you're going to be mixing your data with other people's data. It's possible to do it, but you know, no reason not to get your own thing. Okay. Um, so there's that, here's our base URL that we're going to be hitting to get it. You see, it's the easy IOT we're using HTTPS. Right? Cause we want it secure our data transfer to be secure. And then we're going to hit the API, which is. Uh, the application programming interface. Right. And that's where the exchange happens, but you don't need to know about that. All right. Here's micro Python imports or regular Python imports. Okay. If you're just going to use it for micro Python, you could, you could take out this and, and use this, this stuff down here, but it doesn't matter. Okay. Now here are the functions that we can do. Stats. We can get stats for. We can post data, this that just means send, send some data, send these things up and posted on the cloud. We can get that data back, um, and we can delete that data. Okay. And then there's a couple of functions for once you're on your ESP 32 or micro Python device. Um, these are some wifi functions. You can scan your basic connect and do. All right. Uh, this is the request functions, which you will never have to bother with. All right. And then credentials, we can, uh, get credentials. And this will just guide you through getting credentials for yourself so that you have your own space on the cloud, where you can put your own data. Okay. And it's just based on your. And then when you're done or if you're ever done, or if you ever want, you can delete your credentials and that will just completely wipe you off the system as if you never existed. Okay. So, uh, that's it that's, that's it, that's all, all we need to do. We just need

to be able to put data up there and we need to know what data we've got up there. So that's all there is to it. So we're using this. Initially the example account. So let's just hit F five and run this thing and let me get it to where you guys can see it. Hold on. Almost there. I'm going to let it run off the end a little bit. Uh, it'll just make it easier to see the data. Okay. So the first thing let's just do stats. Okay. So this is for the example account. So our stats tell us that this is the size on disk. Um, there's no data up there, so, uh, we'll have to put some up there and, uh, let's see. So there's no minimum row ID. There's no maximum row ID, I guess we'll have to put some up there. I thought I thought I had something running that was putting data up. Um, but then it'll have a rate limit now that for this example account, you can, it it's rate limited at two requests per second. There's a little burst buffer and that sort of thing.

And then there's an email over here that's associated with the account, but that's not even a real email. So don't, don't worry about that. All right. So since there is no data up there, let's just put some data up there. So all we got to do is, uh, dude posted. And oops, you got to spell it. Right. All right. And then remember, well, since we're on the desktop, let's do this and it'll tell us we can put the group, we can put a group, a device, uh, and then we have four spots for data. So let's just say, um, our group will be test or testing.

Okay. And our device let's just make it desktop. Okay. How about that. And then, uh, let's put some data up there.

We'll do 1, 2, 3. That's an inner, we'll do 1, 2, 3 0.4, five, six. There's your float. And then, uh, how about, um, a hello world for some texts? And then, you know, we don't even have to put them all in there. We don't have to fill all the spots, so let's just do that. Okay. We posted data, that's it. We just posted data. We put data in the cloud with that one line of stuff. Okay. And what it returns for us is, uh, the row ID of the row that we just added to the data. So if we get stats now, we'll see that there is one row of data in there and the minimum row ID. Uh, one and one is the max. Okay. All right. So let's, let's just stick another data in there, actually. Why don't we do, I'll tell you what we can do. Let's just do a little thing. So, um, uh, four X and range 10. Okay. Now this is going to burst data and it'll, it'll handle this little burst, but then, um, So let's just put an X right here and then we don't even need this and we'll make this since we're on. Uh, since we're on our desktop, I'll use an F string and we'll put X right there too. All right. Now this is going to do a burst of 10. It's going to load it up there. Yeah, and it probably won't hit the limit. Yeah. If we did many more than that, it would hit the limit. Okay. So every time it posted data, it returned to us the row ID of the data that we

posted. So we had already posted one. So it started at 2, 3, 4 5 6, 7 8, 9, 10 11.

So if we do our stats now, You can see, we have 11 rows of data. The lowest row ID is one. And the maximum role ID is 11. Now the lowest row ID. Won't always be one. So let's say after you put 1,024 rows of data in there, then you put another one in there. It's going to drop row one off and you're going to have thousand and 25. So this would become two. And then every time you add, you know, it would, it's going to drop it off. Okay. All right. So that's us putting data on the cloud. So the next thing we need to do is, um, we need to get the data back. So we've, we know how to do stats.

We know how to post data, and so let's get some data back. Okay. So for getting data, we can just say, give me 10 lines and that will give us the most recent 10 lines. Or we could say, give us some data after a particular row ID, and then we could add the group or device. So it would match on only rows that have that group or only rows that have that device. So that would allow that that allows you to exchange command. So if you, you know, your group could, you could say the group has command and the device. No, maybe fun board one. So then your desktop, you could send up, Hey, fund board one, do this and then fund board one could pull it down and, uh, and then do to command. Okay. So get data. So here's a little trick we could just say, well, let's just do a number. Okay. So let's just say get data five. Now that should return the last five things. And I you'll see it's a list. Of lists of data. So why don't we do this for row and get data five front row, make it easier to see. Okay. So the last five pieces of data that were loaded up there by us. Is, uh, 11, 10, 9, 8, and seven, where the row IDs now here's, what's being returned here. This is your row ID. This is your epic time, right? It's the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970. That's how computers keep time.

And then this is the epic time, uh, converted to GMs. All right. And then normally you would get an IP of what put the date up there, but because this is, everybody's doing this, uh, we're not doing IPS right here. Okay. And then there was our group name and here is our device, uh, the target device or the device that posted it, whatever you put in there. And then here's the numbers we put in there. Here's our hello world. And then you see these two or none because we weren't posting any data there. Now here's a little trick. So if, if we bring this down, we can do after. So I want to see the data after row ID five. Now this one will return all data with a row ID that's after role ID five. Okay. So there you see it, it started, uh, the, the earliest one was. All right.

So we could do, now here's a little trick we could say after zero now, zero never exist as row ID. So if you use after zero, it's going to bring back everything that you've done or, you know, the whole thousand and 24 or however many you have. Okay. So that brought back all of our data because everything after row ID a zero. Okay. And let's see if we wanted to, well, we need to add data. So let's, um, let's post data with something different in it. Uh, post data and our group can be, we just we'll be, uh, let's just do that. Okay.

So now let's pull back all that data again and you'll see that role ID tool. Right. We saw real ID 12 there it's just group two and then everything else was empty. Okay. So we can do this. Let's do this again. But instead of doing that, we can actually specify the group. So group equals group two. Okay. It's only going to pull back one of course, cause we only did one that had a group name of group two. Uh, but that way you can select, uh, more specifically what you want to get. Right. So we can do that for group or we could do that for device either one. All right. That's how you get your data back now. Delete data. We can delete it by giving it real ID. We can delete everything before a row ID or we can delete all the data. Okay. So let's, let's try it out. Okay. So we just do delete data and we can say, well, if we just want to do one, you can actually cheat, but let's do it the right way first. Okay. So row IDs equals and then we have a list. So let's pick one out in the middle. Let's go with row ID eight. It's in the middle of the dataset sort of, uh, eight. Well, we can do eight. Well, let's go ahead and do seven as well. Okay. So we're just telling it, delete data, row IDs seven and eight, so they should go away. All right. What gets returned is the number of role IDs that were deleted. So it did delete two row IDs now. If we did this and we said, you know, 800 and 700, it's not going to return anything because those row IDs

don't exist. Right. All right. So now that we've done that, let's pull this down and we'll see that nine and then it jumps to six. Uh, so those are Dawn. Uh, so we deleted row IDs. Now the trick that I was going to show you. Is, if you just have one thing, you don't have to give it it'll list. You can just say, you know, delete data nine. And then if we pull this down, there you go.

Nine it's gone. Okay. Um, and then let's say we want to get rid of some old data. So we've read, we posted data. We'd read it. Uh, you know, that's the thing about that's one of the before and after things, you know, after for reading and before for deleting it's so that we don't have to pull, let's say we've got a thousand rows of data in there. We don't need to pull that down every time that's hard for ESP 32 to process. Um, and it weighs bandwidth on the server and all that kind of stuff. So we just we'll, uh, we can delete old data by using before, and we can. Get new data by using after and say, you know, like saying after the last row ID that I saw. Okay. So we just keep track of that. So, all right. Well delete data before what let's say before. Um, three. Okay. So before three is going to delete only two in one. And so we see that we got, we have two things that were deleted.

And then if we drop this down and try it again, you'll see that two and one are now gone. Okay. And then let's see. Hmm. The last thing is X all equals true. So any true value for X all? Oh, that's the wrong thing. That's going to give you that. I'm supposed to be doing delete. Yeah. Okay. X all equals true. Or you could do X, all equals one. Anything that evaluates to true. If we do that, it says it deleted seven rows of data. And then if we do this, we get nothing back, but no, that's do the wrong thing. We do this. Do we, can we get some rows? We can't get any rows. There's nothing left. So see what stat says. Yeah. So for stats, we've got no rose, no real IDs where we, we deleted all of our data. Well, we deleted all the thing, data in the example. Okay. So that's all the functions. That's all you need, you push data up there, you pull data back. Uh, you can exchange data by pushing it from one place and pulling it from another, um, all that kind of stuff. Uh, so the next thing is how do we get an account? All right. The next step is to get some credentials of our own. All right. What we're going to use is this command right here, get creds. There's no key words or anything like that. Right. So let's jump back over here to our window, which I cleared out and

we're just going to do, uh, we have to type the right thing, get creds. All right. Now I'm going to use my, uh, email address because I need to receive an email. So. And I am setting up a real account. All right. So what's your email, what's your, uh, email again? Just to make sure you got it right now. It's saying, Hey, look, I just checked and I don't know you. So do you want to create a new account? Well, yes. Yes. And then it's going to ask you to read some stuff and you should read this stuff and agree to it.

So what is saying, it's saying this is a free experimental service that's for my Patrion and YouTube supporters. Uh, and I may not keep it forever. I may, uh, may dump you off there if you're not someone that I know, but for now, we'll just make it available to everybody. Even if you're not a patriotic. Um, let's see you shouldn't be sending any sensitive data, right? We use encryption on the front end, but we don't own the back end. So your stuff is not stored in an encrypted way. Don't send anything sensitive. Don't send anything. That's commercial, medical, military, whatever, if it's, if it's critical data, that's not what this is for. This is for your, uh, IOT experimental and development devices. Right? Uh, don't do anything. Uh, don't, you know, this isn't a forever place. If you, if you need forever, then download it immediately. Uh, let's say, uh, keep your key and secret, which you're we're about to

get, keep those, uh, keep those hidden. Don't give those to anybody because they can manipulate your account using those. Um, and then this just says, Hey, I'll be a good part of the community. Abuse things. I won't download too much data. I won't try to sign into anybody's account. I'll just be a nice person on the community. So do you agree? Yeah, I agreed all that. Cause it makes sense. All right. So then it's gonna send a code code to your email and we need to get that code. So I'm going to go and get that code from my email. And now I'm back with the code and I just copied it and I've got to paste it right there. Okay. So that just verifies that your email address is good. And then it says, Hey, I sent your new credentials to your email address. So why don't you go get my new credential? Okay. Now I have my new credentials. So let me show you what I'm going to do with them. I'm going to go up here to the top of the screen. And underneath these, I'm going to paste exactly what was sent to me, which is a copy. This is the example account, and this is my new account. And I know I just told you not to let people see your key in secret, but by the time you watch this project, I will have already changed. So don't worry about that. You won't be able to use my account. Okay. So

now I've got my own stuff in there, right? I mean, this is my own account. Okay. And so I'm going to save that and I'm going to it. And here we are back again, uh, with our, our new account. Okay. So if we do stats. We can look and see that the email associated with this account is now my email. Okay. So this is my account. Uh, you see, the size is zero. No one's ever done anything in here. All right. So let's post some data, uh, post data.

I'm just going to say. All right, so let's do a get data. We'll get there one. Alright, so there it is. So my current IP address, you can see it now. That's my current IP address and here's the epic time. And that's the data put in there. It's not really a, a group name, but you don't really have, you know, that's just a signal. Okay. So there's, there's that? Okay. And then, um, well, I'm not going to delete this now, but if I wanted to delete it, then I would just do delete creds and then it would ask me, do you really want to delete this? And yeah. Because, um, we're about to go over onto the ESP 32 and do it there. But if we did want to delete it, we could say yes here. And it would just totally wipe us off the system. Okay. But we'll say no for now. And, uh, just to make sure that we didn't wipe ourselves off the system, we can get our stats and there you go.

So we got one row of data in there. Now you'll see that my max rate of Reza, regular users once per second, that's that's the target you should do is not making a query or request to pose, to delete whatever.

Don't make a query, but once a second, and that's just for commuters, right? I have this running on it, you know, it's not a huge server that I, that I have it running on, so, okay. So that's, that's all there is to getting creds, uh, credentials. The last thing we got to do is go over. And get on the ESP 32, load our stuff on the ESP 32 and try it from the SB 32. All right. So we're back to our folder and we are about to connect up to the ESP 32, but to get started, I'm going to pop open a terminal here and let me connect up to the SP 32. So there we are. I'm going to, uh, just want to show you. That I'm starting with no, there's no files in here. Okay. So everything that we're going to be using is in the easy IOT dot P Y script that we will use that we're, we're about to load it up here. Okay. So we've got clean slate, fresh install of microphone. All right now let's pop this open. This is easy IOT. Now the thing that we want to make sure is that we have put our credentials in here and here are our, our credentials. Uh,

we could comment this out if we'd want it to. And the other thing that we don't really need, if you want is you can go down here. And comment out all of this credit chill stuff, because it just is taking up space that you don't need. Okay. So you can comment all of the credential stuff out, cause we're not going to be doing credit stuff on ESP 32. Okay. So that's all we need to make sure we have got our credentials in here and we, we, you can, or can't it doesn't matter. Comment out the extra stuff. And then we've got the terminal open. So I'm going to get out of this is connected to the P 32. I'm going to get out of that. Control a control X I'm using Pico comm control, a control X gets us out of there. And then I am going to load up the, uh, I'm gonna use , uh, to load. My ESP 32. Now I'm showing you this, just so you'll be reminded if I do this, it says permission denied and that's because I haven't made it where I can execute. so I'm just going to do, uh, James mod plus X making it executable, and we're doing it on . All right. And now we can do this. So what this is saying is I want you to, I'm going to run rebel A's uh, this is the port that we're on. I'm on a Linux box, of course. Uh, so this is the port and then I want to include easy IOT dot P Y.

Okay. So it is compiling it. Now the nice thing about is that it cross compiles it for you already so that it's, you know, smaller and loads. Okay, but there it is. We've loaded it up. So let's connect back up to our ESP 32. Oh, let me just get out of there. That that's part of the load. So, uh, I'm going to do a control D, which is, uh, a reboot and then I'm going to import oh, S. We'll see what's happening. Okay. So you can see the only thing we have is easy IOT. Okay. So let's just import easy.

Oh, T actually let's make it easier. Uh, let's just do from easy IOT. Okay, tight, save my life, import everything I need help. Okay. So from easy IOT import everything now on the ESP 32 different from the desktop, we do have to connect to the internet so we can do a w remember I included some tools. So let me pop that over.

Tools that we have for the internet. We have wifi scan and wifi connect, and

that's what I'm going to use. Wifi connect. So let me get my terminal back. Let's get rid of this. All right. So got my terminal back and I'm just going to. Why five connect and I'm going to connect to my test network.

Uh, let's see, Darwin net test. That's what we're going to use. So I got a bunch of wifi networks I can use, and this is my test one, and here's my crazy crazy password. All right now, of course you wouldn't want to show your stuff if it was important, but this is just the test network. It's not important. All right, so let's connect, connect. Come on, buddy. You can do it. There we go. All right. We're connected. So now we can just do the same things that we did on the desktop. So let's start with, let's start with staff. Now you'll notice on the ESP 32, it does take a little bit longer to get stats and, or to make these connections. Right. So you really don't have to worry too much about rate limits when you're using your ESP 32. It just doesn't work that fast. Okay. Okay. So let's see. So from the desktop, you know, we had, uh, here, the rows that we had, we only had one row that we stuck in. But now we can see it using the ESP 32. So let's, uh, let's do well. Let's, let's do this for a row and get data print row. So it takes it a little while to do it, and then there's our row. So that was the row that we added from the desktop. If, if you

remember, okay, so now we can add data. Let's see, let's say we're going to use a group so we can say maybe our group is ESP 32. And maybe we're on, we're using fun board one and let's say hello from and SP 32. So it's posting, it should give us a real ID too. So if we do this. We should get back both of them. Oh. I only asked for one row of data. Okay. Hold on. Let's ask for, uh, uh, let's see, we'll say one row, but I'm going to get after that zero would be the same as doing after zero, right? Like that would be the same as that. What we'll just do it like that. That'll give us all our rows. Okay. So there's all our rows. So the last one we added was this one. Hello? From the fund or from the ESP 32. All right. Now, if we go back to the desktop, okay. So this is the desktop and let me do an F five. Get a screen. Okay.

And let's post data. Let's call it a command. So let's say we were going to send a command and we want to send it to fun board one. And we're going to say my shorts. Okay. So we posted that data on the fund board one or two to the cloud.

Now let's go back over here and let's, let's see, four row and group equals, uh, command devise equals what. We call it a fun board one. So this would be how you would, uh, so let's do

make sure we get everything. So let's see what commands we have available to us today. Okay. So we asked for everything after zero, which has given me everything where the group equals command and the device is fun board one.

So we, we see that what we did on the desktop has now showed up here and we could, uh, run, let's say this was a real command, and then we could run the command and then we could get rid of it. Right. So we can say. We can delete data three and that's the role ID three. So we're done with the command. Okay. All right. So we've deleted that and then we could respond back. Maybe we will, uh, let's see, would be post data. And we could say that the group would be the response. And this is a response from, from fund board one. And we could say I did it and we post that data. And then if we go back to let me find it here. This is our desktop get data. This is going to get all the date data. Oh, I should've, I should've done, uh, What did I do wrong? Four row and get data. Right, right. There we go. So let me expand this a little. Okay. So here's our response back from fund board one. I did it. So that was, uh, just an example of how we could use our desktop. We, we sent a command with the desktop and now we get the command back, uh, that it was completed. Okay. So that's really all there is to it. So. Send commands up there or send data up there. We can pull data down and we can have a conversation between our devices. All right. So that's pretty much it. So I'm going to control a and control X and I'm out of here. All right. That's about it. It should be because it's a different. I've been at this for a week. Amy got a haircut. I even changed clothes, but anyway, that's about it. I look, I need you guys to get your IOT device and try this thing out. Get yourself an account and start loading some data up there and let's see how this thing works. I think it's gonna work great. Um, I think we can all use it.

E4HOME AUTOMATION USING WEBSERVER ON ESP32 SENDING HTML PAGE DNS MDNS ESP32 you're also going to learn how you can send the HTML pages, or we can see a simple text messages to the connected clients with this wifi episode. After that, I will also let you know what is DNS all about and what is this MDNS and how to use the MDNS onto this ESP to board. And in the end, I will making a simple home automation project in which I have create a web interface, uh, so that we can control home appliances, which is connected with the ESP three, two board from our smartphone. Or we can say a laptop. So this is all you're going to learn after watching this full project. So let's get started open up the Arduino. Okay, so here is the code written by me, or we can say edited by me. The code says home automation, web server. So this is particularly edited version of the original code, which is available into the files, examples into, uh, what we can say, wifi web server, and to this hello server.

So this was the original code and I have edited this particular code to make, uh, this home automation, web server. So I will explain this whole motivation website in detail, and I will be uploading this particular core on my GitHub account. And you can easily download it from the link Oliver in the description of this project. So let's just start with this particular code. This particular core starts with the four necessary library. Declaration. First is wifi dot. Add second is wifi client, or as third is a web server not ad and for this ESP MD and a star test. Uh, first of the three, our family must be family. We live with you all because first of all, some of the functions, like by if I don't connect my phone to begin, all the functions are available in this particular library. Then the wifi client related functions are available into this particular library by for server related functions are ever into this library and the MDNS, what does MDNS I will let you know. But, uh, the emptiness functions are stored into this particular library. So there's all the necessary library. Oh, let me tell you one more thing. Uh, you can use the same core by writing just the ESP two six, six wifi.at least pick two, six is wifi client. Don't add, uh, likewise, if you don't know what I'm talking about, kindly which all the third episode in which I would

talk into detail about this particular technique of using the core of ESP three, two into the two

Okay, so let's move ahead. We have the constant character, which says SLE name and the password. So he needed to write the routers as a name and password to which an ESP three, two will get connected to it. Our ESP three, two is acting as a wifi station. It is not acting as a wifi access point. That means we need to provide the second name and password to it. Uh, now that router may not be connected to internet, but still it requires a central router to get connected to it. And all the other clients will also get connected with that particular router and then we'll need th is particular project will work. Okay. So let's move ahead. We have a string called button. Uh, not this particular thing is nothing but a HTML page. I had been talking about this particular stimuli page or how this estimate page looked like for the, in the code where we are using this particular button HTML page. Okay. So let's just, uh, give it a pause right now. I will discuss it later on. When you had,

we have a web server or a class was instances declared as sober and it is open at port 80. Okay. So, uh, this is particularly actually report number actually report number is 80 and our server is, you know, and that particular port only. Okay. So moving ahead, we have a constant, uh, indigent entity, which is not used in our products. I was just demoted. Rather than I have used the inbuilt entity, uh, which is, uh, you know, built in this particular yes, Patricia Ward, I'm just turning on and off the lat using that web server. We'll discuss everything for them more than the hell. We have function called white handled road. Okay. So this particular function. Okay. Let's just discuss about this particular function here. This function includes this. So for instance, which is nothing but the instance of our web server class. What does this function do? server.center. Now this function requires three inputs. First is that quarter, the STD big quarter. Now I have discussed the atrophy code in the previous episode, which is episode three of the CSPD received. If you want to know, what is this all codes about? Now I will clear what is 200 court? About 200 code refers to a successfully successful communication in particular, our actual DB protocol. Okay. So 200 is a kind of a success code.

So we need to send this code at the starting. And the first input is the success code, which is 200. If, if it, if it does that era kind of code, then we will be sending four zero four, which we are sending here in this particular section, we'll discuss a letter. So first of all, the court, we need to send that issue to be code, which is 200 in this case, then we need to specify what type of, you know, data we are sending. Okay. So that is defined in this second input. So in this case, we are sending HTML page and for HTML build, we need to write text forwards less. SGML. If we are sending a simple plain text message, then the format should be text forward slash plain. This defines that we are sending a Blaine message while this particular, uh, defines that via sending estimate repeats in the form of data. Okay. Now the third input is the Estabil page itself.

So what we are doing or on the handle load, what does handle route defines let's just comment here. So you can get a clear image. What is this dude about route is regarded as a homepage of that server. For example, if, if in case our ESP three, two has an IP address called one nine one six eight.one.one forwardness. Now this particular address is called the root of RDSP two web. So this is not the IP address assigned to the CSP tier two.

I'm just. Uh, you know, explaining you the simple example. If this was the IP address of the respiratory ward, then this , now this page is called or is regarded as a route page of this web server. So whenever we are on the road based what we need to do, that particular thing we need to define here. So what the school says, whenever we are on the route page, or we can say the home bed does send this particular estimate page to the client. Got it. So whenever we are opening, there's a route page of ESP three, two episodes will be given particular webpage, uh, in the form of HTML. Okay. So this is what this handled with functional about one, the head

we have handled, not found. And what this particular functions is. See if you requested the route page of the web server, which is for example, one nine, two.one 600, 101. So that is a road page. Okay. And if you are writing slash page one, now, if that page one exist in the East between two, then it will give the page one. But if the page one doesn't exist in the verified web server of the SPT two, then it is termed as not found. Okay. The page, not from the generally VFC that added four zero four. It says page not found, this is the particular addict. If any particular handle or any particular link requested is not found on the web server, then what we

need to do, then we need to send this particular chunk of code. Okay. Which says, first of all, it will be printed as file not found, then it will be printing the, you are right now. What do you mean by you? Are I let just comment here. I will be explaining in very, very simple terms. For example, our IP address is one nine, two.one six eight, got one.one. So whatever written after this forest list is regarded as you are I okay. So let me type as a page one slash on. Okay. So this particular term is regarded as a U R I, I have also. Open that particular thing on the web browser. Okay. So here is the page not found added, which I requested in this portal. Yes. The three, two board, which says you are at his lamp to slash off. Okay. So this particular thing is regarded as a U R I. Okay. And after that, it is printing as the matter, like get or post, but generally, uh, in this particular code I will using the get request method only. So it does the get method and the argument. So this particular thing is, or in response to the connected client, if there is an added called page not found. Okay. So after that year, we are sending the four zero four, which is the status score. Four page not phone. Then we are sending a plain text message and then we are sending the message itself. Okay. But this particular function is sending this particular page to the connected client. Okay. But this is all about the function. What had been, not found. Okay. Moving ahead.

We have the white setup. White setup says, first of all, the analytics built in which is, uh, uh, the built in led of the ESP toward. So we are the guarding of, we are declining it as output. Of course we are using this led as output, and we'll just remove this particular term because we are not at all using this led. Okay. After that, we are beginning the serial monitor at double zero portrait. Pretty simple. Then wifi got more function. Okay. Vifa got more function. We have three types of modes in the years. Pedro six is all we can say the years. Peter first is the station more. Second is the access point more? And third is a boat model. In this particular project, we are using it in a station mode in which ESP two six is all we can say is the three door they'll get connected to particular router. Okay. So this is a station mode. And after that, we are beginning the connection to that particular router, who is, this is every name and password are defined here. Okay. This is also pretty simple.

After that, it says waiting for the connection and after then it is establishing the connection and it will print connected to that particular site name or particular router name. And after that, with the function called via fiber to local IP, it will the printing, the local IP address assigned to this particular ESP to work. Now you almost been knowing if you are not knowing, letting clear. Every device, every client connected to the router will be assigned a particular IP address, which is dynamic. Okay. So it is made possible at every time we get different IP address. Okay. So this is not a composer, is that the every time we were getting the same IP address, we could, it's kind of a dynamic IP address. We just termed as a local IP address. Okay. So we'll be getting the local IP address from the Cedar murderer, as soon as it gets connected to that router. Your head. We have, if condition with says MDNS dot begging ESP three, two. Now this is the point where I should explain the DNS. Okay. Now what does this DNS all about? So DNS stands for domain name system. Now, what is this domain name system? Let me explain you with a simple example. We all have used the google.com. It's a great Sargent in, and we are using it in day to day life. Let me tell you

some facts. Every website has its own sower. Google has also, so what, and every server is basically a computer and every connected computer has its own IP address. Okay. Uh, and we're using that IP address. We are able to communicate to the particular computers, right? So this is one fact, second fact is a computer works on number. They don't know what is google.com. They don't know what is facebook.com. Rather they know the IP address of Google and Facebook. And if we provide them the IP address, then only they can communicate to their server, but we never provide IP address. Right. So how they are, how they know, whereas Google invest Facebook. Let me clear one fag, the IP address of google.com is this two one six dot five, two one six, dot one six four. So if we are writing this particular IP address on our web browser, then also we will be getting this Google webpage, let us test it out. I will press the enter. And as you can see, we are here with the google.com only, right? So if [email protected] or if you write the IP address, it is one and the same and how it becomes the same. This is because of the domain name system C our human mind is likely to remember names rather than the numbers while the computer remembers the number rather than the name. So there is a mediator in between called the domain name system. Now what the system do, uh, when you, when we are requesting a link, for example, a google.com. And if a computer don't know about the IP does what the computer will do. The computer will send this google.com to a domain name system, and that system contains the domain name. And on the other side, it contains its IP address. Also. So whenever can computer request the google.com low-maintenance maintenance system, the domain name system returns the IP address to the computer, and then the competitor request that particular IP address. And we get the webpage or we can get the Google doc. So this is the process. Once we had ended the google.com and. Computer bought the IP address the computer, or we can say the web browser stores, that particular IP address in the cache memory. So next time you fear opening google.com. It won't be requesting the domain in the system rather than it

will fetch the data from the cache memory. And we can get the google.com much faster. Uh, as compared to what we have entered for the first time. Okay. So this is all about the domain name system. I hope you must be, uh, cleared about this domain name system. And if we want to know into detail about domain name system, I have attached to one link in the description of this project, which contains a detailed project out DNS. Okay. So this is all about the deal. Yeah. There's a domain name system now, what is this? MBN is about, right. Uh, he had it as hidden as , rather than BNS now MD in the stands for multicast domain name system. Now what's the difference. See if I need to explain it, uh, very shortly, then it can be regarded as a light version of DNS. DNS requires a separate server, which is called a name server on with, there are multiple domain names and on the other side, there is a IP addresses. So it requires a different store. What and other systems. Okay. It is a domain mean system. It requires multiple things to do the tasks. MDNS doesn't require the name. So server all just kind of a standalone mattered to get this DNS working on the small tip, like ESP three, two, or ESP two, six, six. So what does MDNS do? Ambient is makes us back inside this year's poetry to board and in the stack, we have, I bet on the one side and on the other side, we have the name using which we can access the web server of this ESP three to now that name we can decide on our own. Okay. So that name here is E S B3 two. So, whatever we are writing under this inside this particular bracket is the guided as a name of that particular web server. If, if I write a such thing, then it becomes the such in, becomes the name of this wifi web server, which is running on this ESP three, two board. Okay. So with this, it becomes very easy to interact on. It's very easy to know what this web server is all about. For example, we have two web servers running on two different ESP, three, two boards. One contains the data of motion sensor, one condense the data of temperature sensor. So if we want the temperature sensor, we don't need to remember the IP address of this

particular board. Rather we can assign a name called temperature, right? And now it's very easy to remember that on which server the temperature data is store. Okay. But if it was IP address, then it will be very confusing for a human being to know on which iPad does the temperature data is stored on which IP it is. The motion data is stored. Rather than we can give a name like Embridge to this web server and emotion to this website. Well, now it's very easy to face the temperature data and the motion data. I hope I'm clear about those, how this MDNS is useful to us. Okay. This particular case we are giving the name S ESP three too. So next time, if we want to go inside the web server, we don't need to write this it's IP address. Rather. We need to write. E S P three, two dot local and forward slash. Okay. So this particular term is equal to writing the IP address. Okay. So dot local is compulsory. After writing the name of the web server. Okay. If it was such, then the address will be such in dot local to get inside and CS potato. Okay. So it's very simple. Now it's really very easy and MDNS is really very helpful to make a project using multiple ESP three, two boards with running with the different, different web servers. Okay. But this is all about MDNS. Let's move ahead. We have started. We're not on now. Watch this function. Do. This function has two inputs.

It can be regarded as one is a condition. And second is a result. If we got forward less in response from the client, then we need to send the handle route. If we got slash lamp one slash on from the client, we need to send this . So it's kind of a condition and the reserve. Okay. So, uh, whenever we got this forward slash this forward slash mean the route page, right? Or for example, If we are requesting ESP three to dot NOCO forge dash, then this particular function will get activated. And in this points, we'll be getting this handle road, which we already discussed this. Okay. So we are just getting the estimate page in this point, when we're we are requesting this particularly. Got it. Moving ahead. Somewhere not on. So whenever we are requesting slash lamp one slash on, then what we need to do, then we need to define here. So then we are sending simply a 200 response, which with a successful connection response, then we are sending a text HTML page and button itself. So every time we are sending the button, HTML page, only how the button SDM of page looks .

Let me show you. Okay. So he and his dad came a bit, I will simply pop it this STL page. And, uh, here's one website that has a link in the description. So let's just click on the run. So, uh, this is the particular page which I have created XTML page with says the home automation web interface. Click on the respected button to switch the appliances. So we have lamp on, on and off, we have lamp to on and off. So I just learned the basic statement. And after that, I just learned about the buttons and how to create the buttons. Okay. So this is Mark. I learned about this particular things. So I just learned what is required for this particular project, because I need to shoot it as soon as possible to upload it in this particular week. We are turning on the led on the next function. We are getting off requests. So we are turning off the led and we are also sending this HTML page. So every time we are, we get requests from the server via just sending the skimmer page. And after that, we are doing the task. If it's four on, then we are turning on the entity or if it was four off, then we're turning off the led. So this is kind of an automation project, which can be made easily by simply installing a via web server program onto this ESP three towards. Let me clear the thing. This is a local area network based. So this will work only within

the range of the router on ESP three, two board is connected to it. Won't work. If we are trying to turn on and off appliances from a different country or a different area, it won't work. It will work only within the range of the router. Okay. So likewise, I've created a second page called lamp too. And if the lamp to VR getting on request, then also I returned this built-in led high because I'm not having another output, uh, on this particular board rather than I need to connect the led on the, uh, external GPIO pin. But I don't have a breadboard right now, so I haven't attached anything. So, what I'm doing is if, if I'm getting this lamp to and on requests, then also I'm turning on the, uh, inbuilt reality. And if I'm getting them to offer request, and also I'm turning on the monster in build, and likewise, you can create many buttons and many pages like lamps, uh, three on and off fan one slash on fan one, fan winch left off.

And, uh, you can just, you know, Don on and off the respective appliances inside this function. And, uh, in the response, you should send the page and you should increase the number of buttons, uh, here, That's also, I told you, so I think this is all about the code. Uh, where it is. Okay. This is all about the court and have the last function with says server

on not found whenever we are not finding any page. For example, if I request a lamp three slash on, then there is no piece of, uh, of lamp three. So what it will do, it will just send this handle, not phone function, which is nothing, but this added a message to four or four and a quarter percent. And the message would be sent all file, not phone. After that we are just beginning the Southern word and then the monitor, it will say the more Deadwood Principe. So we'll start there. And the white lobe, it, it does handling the client nothing as is done on the white bloop. So this is on a bond. The home automation, web server code led to select the board uploaded onto the SP three, two board. And, uh, let's see everything in action. So I will click on this upload button, I'll press and hold this boot button. If you don't know, what's the reason of pressing this button drop the first episode of the series. Okay,

it's done uploading it really opened the CD more than press reset button. Okay. So it is connected to my router, which is SMS is guard his own local IP address, but we don't need to remember thanks to MDNS. So amnesty says the responders started. So MDN is working perfectly and the solver is also started. So we'll move to Google Chrome, uh, make sure your device is connected to that same network on with the USB three, two is

connected.

We'll go to the new tab and we'll just type E S P three, two dot local. Okay on requesting this particular link, we will be getting a web page or estimate page and response. Okay. So we successfully got the same, uh, estimate page we, uh, which we have seen here. Okay. It's the same STP as page. We are getting a response. Okay. Uh, so if I click on this on button, the light will turn on. Let me just zoom it now. I think it's specific. I'll look on this on button and, uh, Yeah, it depends either turned on am. As soon as I click on this off button that it turns off on and off. And the same happens if I click on the lamp tone, because I have given the same command on this lamp to function only.

Okay, on and off on that. And as soon as you are clicking on and off, as you can see the link here is changing. Okay. Uh, let us live on this land bond. So the link turns to be slash lamp bond slash slash lamp one slash on. If I click create a, sorry, if I click on this lamp, one off the link changes to okay. Slash lamp one slash of so. Everything is perfectly working as per the core. We have written, let me just zoom it out. These, this particular web server is perfectly working on this ESP T2 board. So this kind of amazing project, I mean, you can make your own home automation system using this ESP too, but you just need to attach the relay and on the relay, we can connect the different appliances and give it a name. On this web page, or you can say that scramble page and likewise we can control or from laptop, or if we can even control using a smartphone, uh, you can even make an application.

BLINK AN LED Because we are going to control different GPS. Europeans. Don't worry about this circular door here. It's very easy. The first project we'll be looking at how to control the default lad.

This is the power in DD and there isn't one more in it. Easier at default identity connected to GP or pin number two bling. This particular led that is a faster project we are going to do. Make sure you are. ESP 32 with a USB cable, press the reset button. The shell is loaded right now. Create a new file for controlling this GPA or pins. We have to use machine module. So machine module actually used to control all this peripheral command is import a module mushy import time. These are the two modules we want to do for our machine. We are going. Function pin from time. We are going to use a function sleeve from machine in port pin. From time in board sleep, you have to create an object to control this, let Optiv cancer stuff, the pin number, and it should be an input or an outside creating an object. Any name you can give, I'm just giving like a Lily underscore or B D any name you can give. I have given something like this equals. Bin. Now we

have to give the DPA your pin number before the lady is in GPA, pin number two, comma bean dog out. Where are these capital letters this created and led? To epi number two, and we are creating that penis actually. And I'll put pain. Now you can create a while. You have to call the object led underscore or BJ. That is an led object goat value. If one means that makes it on zero means that makes it off. So I am giving led underscore object dot value. And the value should be one that makes led on then after make it on. I wanted to give a small, uh, sleep time. So one second do it becomes on for that sleep. One second, after that, I wanted to make the lady object to be off led underscore or widget or value. Zero. That makes led to be off. How much time you want to do off again? You can put sleep again. You can give one. So we have successfully completed the code.

Let's run this, save in the system. You can see on the board right now, but it's going to happen. The default lad right now just started blinking at one second. Okay. Delay

again, change the dine or here. And the sleep I'm just going to change the task 0.2 seconds on and off time. And let me update.

No, I see it is blinging very fast with her 0.2 seconds. Delay.

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION We will be looking at how to use ADC. That is analog to digital. Yes. I have used a potentiometer. I'll be showing the circle training.

And one terminal of the potential meter is connected to 3.3 volt and another terminal is connected to ground. And the center at that point is connected to GP up in number 32, new file import, ABC and pin from machine. This is a command we use to import pin and ADC funds. From machine module from time module import sleep, we have to create an object and ADC object. Again, name anything in easy underscore object. You have to call ADC inside the bracket. You have to say, what is a pin GP up in number 32 in this case? Why do you want me to read this for that? I'm using an unavailable value. The object ADC re. And release each and every one second gap, we wanted to get it printed. So what we can do, we can go give it sleep.

One second time. I have no discord. Save this code. Now it is evaluate reading us 673, somewhere like I'm going to rotate this point. Yeah.

Nowadays is to Zillow increasing the value.

By default, the maximum value we can read it is 4,095. Instead of this potential meter, we can also use ADR like that. We can measure the light in density.

Also, we can use this method to find the mortgage of a battery or something like that.

CAPACITIVE TOUCHPAD That's right button in ESP 32.

There are seven capacity that spins out there. We can use just like a switch. I have used GPA up in number 27. This is connected. This wire is connected to GPA up in number 27. When I'm touching on this particular terminal works assets switch. Let's see how to code for this a machine. We have to import that's bad and. We can import the sleep. Also, we have the, that an object that object that's fine. There'll be number I'm using DB in number 27 in this case as the touch screen. Now, if I wanted to read the value in that touch screen again and again, I can use while loop using a new variable where I'm going to save the value of that. This command makes to read pin and the value should be saved to available call the value I'm giving you small sleep time. Point five seconds.

Let's see if I do happen. Let me run. This code have sailed. Now the valley is coming like around 600 plus at one time touching this particular pin. Let's see, what is it?

Now, once I test the value is decreased. It is comes around 50 60, somewhere that that's, the value is less than hundred.

Once I released the value is going around 600 plus. So this change we can use to accurate any of the task too. I'm going to. Control one of those led to make it on and off. There's one of those led here I used that is connected to GPA up in number 25, lets me control GPO, be number 25, which is connected to the lady too, on and off. When we touch for that, I'm just changing this portion value. We know that the value, when I touched it is less than a hundred. If not touched is greater than. 600. So we can take a mean value, like 600 plus hundred. That is 700 divided by two. That is around three 50. So three 50, we can take us a mean value. Even we take 200. Also find in this case, I have to create another object for the Illini led object and lady B number DBA been twenty-five. I'm using this. Led dot on. This is another way we can make this particular pin to be on the one of the last project we used the dot value function here. We can also use in another way that is dot on function. I'm giving a small time here as I can make the it needed to be off. So I made a small mistake. It should be capitalized. Can really. off sleep. Now let's see how it will work. So value is extended. The value is greater than 200. We, I made the lady to be on. When I touch the lady becomes cough. You see, when I touched the span, the lady becomes.

So this is the way you can use the capacity that spins.

You can go to the pin out diagram using that you can identify

what all that spins out available. You can use that at spins.

DHT11 -TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY we are going to use a sentence.

This is a DST 11 sensor, which can measure temperature and humidity. It uses us one way, communication to power. This DST 11 module. I have used a 3.3 voltage converter. I see here, this voltage converter converts a voltage into 3.3. That voltage is giving the DST 11 here. The data wire is connected to DBA up in number 14, in this case, that's a good diagram. You can see.

So, this is the way it is connected. This is DST 11. Now let's see how to go with this. The embody pin and sleep DSD module. We have to create an object for the DSD module here. DSD underscore orbiter is object B HD dot B H D 11. Then bin. We have to say pain. Pin number, this case I'm using DBA up in number 14 for one buyer communication. Now we have created that DSD object that is connected to the number. Darkly we called to measure most of the cases. It shows some era to hour that we can use something called a try and accept that is exception handling. So you don't want to do very much about this tries the code. If it is not working it, accept the assumption again, it will try like that it is actually working dry. I wanted to read the value DSD underscore dot measure. Now, individually, we wanted to get that temperature and humid. For that I'm using two variables for temperature. I'm using it. Variable called a temp DST underscore or BJ doc generator. This is the way you can measure the temperature for humidity. I'm creating an variable TM dot humidity and you under the printers. There's a way you can bring temperature and humidity. I can put a sleep here, maybe one second time. It is trying to sure. And you're just getting the temperature and humidity. It is trying to print, not able to do that. Then we have to accept that Iran except us E so this up, if there is any eater and after that, it's again, price

and try to measure them back. And if it is any lot, it is getting if by mistake, if you have connected in the wrong bin or it is unable to read this, then everything will come under-do. Yeah. Or let me say, check what we can do print, fail to read DSE 11.

Well, reset this module.

Okay. Let me upload this code and seeing the screen, the humidity and the temperature is showing. Now the values can changing. If I blow, then the value of temperature and humidity is changing and blowing into the sensor to value is changing so way. You can also keep the sensor very close to USC. Fan that I'm also, you can see the difference in temperature and humidity.

ESP32 INTERNAL TEMPERATURE We will be measured in Danna temperature of the ESP 30 like that. We can find how hot it is aboard and all. Let me stop. We are using a function called ESP 30 in bot ESP 32. To print with the delay you can use sleep from time. You can import sleep. Now, if you want to read again and again, you can use Y. Reading is very easy. You can create a variable. Here we are getting the value in Fahrenheit. Command is ESP 32 dot raw underscore temperature. Now the value is actually saving to the variable Calder, temporary temp. Underscore F we can print it. We will name let it be two seconds.

Now let upload this code. Save.

Now you can see what is the temperature in Fahrenheit of the ESP third? This is the way we can measure them. I wrote them rated off the ESP 32.

ESP32 INTERNAL HALL EFFECT SENSOR We are going to check the heart effects center in the ESP. I have a device with me here will have a magnet. Let me ensure that

you can see is that test. That means to have a magnet. You have the import. Yes, P 32 module. So important sleep. You can use Y loop using a variable hall effect, sensor value. How to read this ESP 32 dark hall underscore since there's the command we wanted to use to read the whole lab Qualifacts center value again, give it sleep time.

Save the score, seeing his coat.

No, you can see the hall effect, sensor values around a hundred, 110, and something is going, I'm going to keep it discloser.

Kenzie. When I kept it's very closer. Now, the value is reduced to around 20. It is detected magnetic in density and I am removed.

Again, it will go to that hundred around a hundred values range again, I'm keeping, oh, it's changing to 20 nearby value.

MULTI THREADING Multithreading in this case at the same time, the processor can do multiple tasks using threading function. You may be seeing the turning functioning in Debra assessors or are AMD patients. Same way it's miniature version. We can implement in the ESP 34 that we have to import underscore thread function, name. It does in a different way. I don't want it to call everywhere trend thread, thread, underscore thread. I can call it as in another way that is I'm giving like, okay, underscore thread. I can call it just ditch. So wherever it needs to be underscored thread there about, I can use th in import pin as well as sleep. I'm going to use three LEDs. That's cute is like this

one is connected though. DBA up in number 25. One is connected to DPA in number 33. And another one is GB up in number two, that is a default led. So we have to create all three objects. I wanted to individually control all these three LEDs blinking at a different blink rate. That's where we are going to implement that thread. We have to create that led functions, pin dot out led to that has been number 33 and led three. I'm using us in number two. So these are the three LEDs. I created the object led one in 82 and the three, all these pins are output pins. If

you want to import the thread, we have to create different functions for each and every elite. And we have to call that particular function in that thread. Def is a key word for creating function. At 81 now inside, actually we have to pass two arguments. It is connected to thread function. You have to pass two arguments, it can be anything. So one argument, I am taking us message and there is a time. So two variables I am giving over here for time. I'm simply giving us . Wine too. Now I can bring the message now. I wanted to make the lady want to be on and off with the time, whatever I am passing. Yeah. And lady object one dot on then sleep. Yeah, I can pass that time. A lady, one. off passing the time, variable and pass D.

So I have created the first function. Now I have to create similar way for that. Other two more began, copy and paste and have to do that necessary. Editing function. Number two, I can keep it as message. Instead of led one, I can change the led to and led to similarly I can create one month. That is for about next one. Third one function name is underscore sorry. Function under score 83 here. I wanted to control that third Gilead. So here I can change this. Okay. Now we have created three different functions for controlling three different LEDs.

Now how to go the thread function. Okay. I show that from here, you can import underscore, right? you can see here. How do you call the thread is stop. Underscore new underscore threats. This is the way we have to actually call them function threat. But if you look into detail after calling this, you have to pass a typical, let's see how the buses is properly. Then some cases, if the thread is not working well, now what we can do, we can use, try and accept my dad to handling here. So I'm using that one, right? Try what I am trying to do. I am trying to initiate the first two, how to initiate the fostered. Third underscore thread underscore threat. We actually calling it us H right now by using this line of code. So H dot stop, underscore new. Underscore today. Okay. And you have the bus, some of the things in this bracket, first things you wondered about the function name to condo, the foster lady, the function name is this one function underscore led. so, um, just pass this function, then protect comma. Then you have to pass up. That is two things. This stuff will actually go into this message and that made even deep. So DV know that that is our. Message. You can put anything messages and messages. So that's why I'm putting in double coats led one, and then you can give then put a comma and what rate did want it to

blink, but I wanted to bring it up 0.2 seconds time.

Okay. Similarly, I can repeat for the other. Two more thread and that's one, the thread function name is lad underscore two. This one is three. And here also I can change like two and this is three. You can change anything. And the second one, I need a blink rate. Let it be one second. And the third one, I need a bling radius, two seconds. Okay, that is the lady in the 2051 blink with the 0.2 seconds led in the 33 pin debate 33, that blinks with one second. And the lady in the DBA two, that brings me two seconds. Now we are trying it. I, if any urine is coming, there is one year colder that dark era. So we have to accept that. So how do accept. It's up underscore dog. Then you can get this under the micropattern.org, the website. If you can find it. Now, if it is found any kind of eater than what you'd wanted to get print so I can get printed.

This is the message I would like to get into CD Manito here in the shell. Let's update. And you back that are three LEDs. One is this one, one is this one and another is a default. I'm going to update this the same.

I'm going to update to microbiomes and device so I can click on micro and device here. I can give the name.

So you have to give the extension as door. Be wifi. So by default, there is a file called it would not by his area. Don't do anything with that. So you have to create something, the name dot P Y extension. So this is going to save in that ESP 32. You can also save in that device itself, or you can save in your laptop this time. I just say showing like how to save into death. Yes, Peter did that.

This particular lady is planning with her two seconds delay. That is the

default lad. And this is plenty with the 0.2 seconds delay. And this one is blending with her one second or multithreading is working well. into different speed CDL morning.

You can't eat the festivities blinging and they showing a lady one secondary lady supposed to be showing a lady two and 30 . This is the way you can use multithreading does an example of multithreading same way you can implement for, uh, different applications can simultaneously run by using ESP 32.

FATAL FURY ON ESP32 TIME TO RELEASE HARDWARE EXPLOITS I focus on hardware and Loevinger ability. So no affiliation. So it's time to play now.

So few, few months ago I decided to break, sorry. I decide to investigate into the ESP search tool. And, um, yeah, because it's a system on chips. Pretty well deployed today. It was raised in 201 6 by a specification guide company. They sold more than 100 millions of devices in January, 2019. They became the wireless MCU is SOC market leader and they claimed to have state-of-the-art security and provide 12 years longevity commitment. So it's quite nice. Let's see. You can find this kind of platforms in IOT, a lot of different IOT today's and bidding this platforms, and also on the way. And it can be used as a wireless peripheral to have connectivity to two previous system generation. So the target of course, is the following one USP such to

manufactured in fortune and a metallic node packages, CRI offenses boxes, millimeter for Jade pins.

So it has some, some, some features. I will not describe all the features of these chips, but here we can see you as an integrated, more than providing wifi and Bluetooth is to Trello power based on extent, surgical colleagues, the six disco can run up to a 240 megawatts. He has Rome as Ram, but no CPU caches, a lot, a lot of GPI O's touch sensor, block ADC. A lot of features. Also a lot of protocols supported by this, uh, IOT chips for ISPI three. You aren't even can, but, uh, no USB, unfortunately. So typically it comes with this, uh, form factors. It's a system in package module the most, uh well-known is a USP such to w room such to, I mean, this module is very easy to integrate with existing devices.

You will just have to footprint the module on your PCB E comes with an integrated flash storage and other chilled for four megabytes. It's FCC certified and it's really low cost. Maybe one to last to the loss for the tests. I will use a distance from one kit. It's a dune, an official one, but I mean, same. You plugged that to the micro USB, you can pull out the antibiotic treatment kits. It provides a TT TTI USB ports dial to, to USB port to, to, to deal with, um, with, with the cheap and the, and to program it. And then he has also some exposed eaters and it's very low cost. I mean, $15

about the software as perceive as develop and, um, Open source the deferment framework on GitHub. It's based on extensor, ESP, such to LF toolchain, and they also provide a set of Python tools called ASP tool. And it is used to manage the configuration of the cheap to, to flush the firmware to the NPA, et cetera, et cetera. So quality of documentation is very good. They provide data sheets, they provide the technical reference manual. They even provide a read the docs IO. They supported Reno, but I don't use it because it's pre-compiled library and I don't like it. And this chip is also an official amaze on AWS IOT platform. So you can run a free, whereas mangos, Wes and everything you want RTOs.

So judging that today is to focus on built-in security. To do that. I just grabbed the data sheet. And then at this chapter security, I can see four points. So we are going to talk about crypto hardware actually, or stores. We are going to talk about secure boot, flash, encryption, and a witch.

So it's time to start, but before to start, we need a plan. I will spend about three months to investigate on these devices. During my spare time, my

objectives is to break one by one. The security features previously listed for that. Of course I use physical access because I mean, it's easy and it's a possible attack scenario today. For example, we can fuck. We can think about a supply chain attacks are even the dude. The final user attacking his own devices to profit. So I will probably use other techniques. Fourth injection site channel, maybe Microsoft during PCB modifications, some reverse, and the court review.

So towards the Volvo faulted voltage for injections. Sometimes call it a voltage equation. So it's a, well-known still efficient and low-cost fault injection techniques nowadays, a lot of public resources about voltage unleashing. So I will not detail a lot, so it can go to the internet for that. But the goal of these techniques is to pet up the power supply, to induce a fault during critical software hardware operation done by the, by the platform. So we can expect effects like skipping genes, frictions, for example, this is typically useful to bypass a CMP instruction. We can also expect a modification of that. Of course, this is really useful when you have to modify branch conditions. For example. But we can also found the unexpected effects because it's really difficult to predict and to understand faults in nowadays complex CPU architectures to do due to the due to the cash effects,

maybe due to the pipelines of, of the, uh, of the, of the character.

So when we talk about voltage glitching, we have to standardize the power domain. So yeah. The power domain of the USP, such too. He has a three separate per domain is the IO power domain. It's not interesting for us. It's RTC real time clock, domain, and CPU domain. First, we are going to focus on CPU domain, and we can see it share to power signals, VDD CPU, and VDR to see this is quite weird, but there are other, this is our design. So we can see also some low dropout, uh, regulators LDO in between the secure domain and the, and the external signals. This is to stabilize internal voltage, and this may be, can have effects against the glitchy. I don't know. And then in the data sheet, it's clearly specified pronoun detectors is present inside the chip and. They say, if the BDO detects a voltage drop, it will trigger a signal shut down and even send a message on your art. So this can maybe detect some glitches. So I did some tests and yes, I can. I can see the, the, the message on you. What about the WTO and the reset of the chip, but this is only effective on VDD RTC. So consequently, I will only use VDD CPU to glitch. My ESP searched.

So now it's time to prepare the target. So I removed the shield. It's quite easy. We can see now the ESP, such two in the center and near to eat the SPI flush. Okay. The module is not screened, but the schematic side available. So it's, it's really easy to reverse. I removed the capacitors connected to the VDD CPU and VDD RTC. If you consider two images, you will be, you will be a diff it's, maybe six or seven capacitor misses.

So after that, I have to modify the PCB for that three steps. I exposed the VDD CP. Trey's been such a seven. I cut this trace and I connect my glitch that put the VDD CPU and I found a GNG, a point quite, quite trivial.

Then the, about the other setups, I designed my own mat e glitters. It's based on of 46, 19, which is an analog switch. I add some passive components, SMA connectors to be able to plug and unplug easily. My cables. I

synchronize this Gleacher by a scope and I triggered this, the glitch by signal generators. I send USB commands to set the different parameters, like the delay, like the weeds of the glitch, like the voltage. So at the end, It looks like that. I mean, it's, um, it's a little setup and it's controlled by patron scripts and it can run steering data's fully automatized. So when I sleep, I can reach.

So I need to, they will fight the voltage glitching effects for that. I propped the, you got zero because the URL is directly powered by DVD D CPU. Then I glitch and I can see very big glitch effects on the, on the signal. It means inside the chip, we can expect the same effects, the same low, low dropout effects. So for me, the effects looks quite good. I'm quite confident now.

And it's now time to, to make the third test on the crypto call. So crypto coin is also called a crypto accelerators. Crypto engine sometimes is just a peripheral to speed up the competition of different algorithms. Like, Hey, yes, share RSA. Why it is interesting to porn because it is used by the crypto libraries of expressive too. They take it the dedicate, the one, but it's also used by the arm and that GLS, Amber jealousy, the arm cryto library, and a lot of IOT are using it today. My goal is to focus on the CPU crypto interface. So typically the crypto drivers, of course, I do not expect to find a pure software because this crypto library was audited since long time by a lot of skilled people and a cryptographer keep talking. But me, I I'm going to look for vulnerability triggered by false injections.

So it's time for code review, but in the data sheet first, they provide the first step to describe a single ICS operation. So we can see the firstest initialization of registers. Then you write one to a specific registers to start the IES. You, you wait until the end of the competition, and then you read the results from the ISA Tex M registers. And this, when you look at that, you see a design weakness because the registers use to store the plain text. Also used to store the cipher text. This is typically are called Anchorage in place and it can be risky because if something goes wrong during the IOSCO or even during the step three, I'm pretty sure I can retrieve the Printex directly. So this was pretty cool and simple to exploit as a first book. And it's why I'm going to demonstrate that now.

So we look at the code. It's a crypto driver for a yes. And then we see the same naive implementation of the steps previously described. So yeah, they use the, uh, men block, uh, viable an array point, uh, an Arab pointer to store the input, but also to start the output. So previous weaknesses confirmed here. We have multiple spots to trigger and to S to, to inset our fault, we can. Trigger ISDN start. For example, we can try to fall to the wild condition. We can also try to fault the follow-up. So it's quite, it's quite easy here. So as a poke, we can see on cipher number two, the IES output is correct, but on the cipher, number three, the cipher text output is the same than the input. So this was a very simple proof of concept.

Now the vulnerability. Number two is a about, uh, a set set key is a function to load the key inside the crypto call. So it has to be secure and here we can see just the follow-up. It's an unprotected follow-up to load a very, very sensitive data. Consequently, when you target this follow-up. You will change the value of the, of the final, uh, cipher text and then using a little Python script. You said two, zero instead of a, such a, such a, such a, such a rich play by 16. And then you obtain the same cipher text. So it means the key was a set to zero. And this is good because the value of this key is now persistent until the next set key. So it's typically nice to attack a ISC CBC,

for example, this wasn't a, some of the veal knife found in the crypto core. So as a little conclusion, the crypto code does not improve security. I found the surveillance in IAS and share as precise as perceive as batch since. Um, bet jealous. I dunno. I went to responsible disclosure and, uh, yeah, I didn't talk during one month, but during this time as precede tried to silent patch me, so this is not very reluctant and the big boon tea from arm and bet jealous is a fake one. So you don't receive any reward. So I decided to not share with them. But I was a little bit in a furry and the ready to point a little bit harder now.

So let's talk about the secure boot of the ESP starts to secure, which is the protect from authenticity is here to avoid firmware modification because it's easy to flush directly a malicious firmware into a SPI flush, especially when you have a physical access and the CRC today, they are not sufficient. The secure boot, we create a chain of trust from the boot room, which is the first code executed inside the USP to the bootloader until the final application. So secure boot is here to guarantee the code running on the devices is genuine and it will not boot if one of the images are not properly signed.

So first during the production. The the, the, the developer has to set the sexual bootcamp as BK. This is burned into issues. Block number two, I will explain later I choose uses, but it's a memory inside ESP such this secure boot key cannot be readout or modified because the issues is, are hit, right, protect protected. And this key will be used by the Bertram to perform ISA 256 ECB. Then the developer. We'll create a CDSA KPI. The private key will be used to sign the up and the public key will be integrated to the bootloader to verify the signature of the application. So the bootloader signature is the following. Now we have 192 bytes eaters located at zero zero on the flush SPI layout. The first. 128 bytes are pure random. And then we have a digest 64 bytes digest. This, this just is the result of the Ash of the encrypted bootloader. Plus the CGSA PB key. And this are encrypted by the, by yes. Using the secure key. And then it's just ashed. To, to, um, to finally obtain the in the spa fleshly out now on the field.

The good process is the following one, according to my reverse reset vectors. Okay. T that address at the bottom, then the rum starts the rum loads and check the boot images using the secure bootcamp. Loading from the OTP from the chooses, then the Patruda starts is if everything is okay, then the bootloader load and check the final application using the ECGC PB key. And finally, if everything is okay, the application is running, using a executives in place mechanism. Here we have two verification mechanisms. One is the boot rom stage. Stage zero, which is here to compute the digest with the secure boot key and compare with the 64 bytes edgy, just previously flushed at the zero X 80 inside the SPI unwell. Then we have also a CDSA verification done by the bootloader. And the micro sec was, is used. It's an open source, uh, erupted Jeff's cryptography. So. I will focus on stage zero, of course, because the signature here is based on symmetric crypto. And this is a very, very, uh, uh, big mistake. So, and I will focus on secure boot. Key of course, is the IAS used to sign the bootloader and this is a critical asset, but, and fortunately it is protected because I cannot read out this secure boot key from the issues is according to expressive

now. I'm going to set the secure boot on the USP search tool. This can be done automatically by the, by the framework, but I prefer to do it manually. I'm burning the secure boot key inside the block. Number two, using this command. And then I set the secure boot to abs done the fuses to activate the secure mechanism. We consider issues map here. We can see a integration point on the BLK too, because I cannot read out this key. Okay. Sexual beauty set, but I didn't, uh, bondage tag. He chooses, we will see that later because I think debug is always pretty easy and prettier useful to explore it and to prepare exploits.

So sexual, which action is very simple. I designed a little a coder, so it's a little water. I sign it using the SBK I make flash and then it runs, of course, then I unsigned, I modify the code to do an , but I don't sign it. I have no key. I flush it inside. I compiled a flush and then of course it failed because the verification in stage zero is not, um, it's not good. And this is perfect for me because

now I want to bypass the secure boot. Why? Because bypassing the secure boot will give two workers. Good execution. Good execution of the, on the devices is the first things to do for when you ask something. I will force the ESP substitute to execute an insight bootloader, and then I will load my insight up. I will focus on Butran because it's always outward, always nice to exploit from vulnerability. And it's always nice to fix. It's always difficult to fix patrol vulnerability. So I need to reverse the petroleum.

And first I need to then pit. To them, the petroleum. It's very simple. I look at the memory map. I can see it the first line. It's very simple. And then maybe you remember, I did them dumb G-Tech if uses. So I connect a little FDDI border to the USP certitude. I use to GDB. And I have a, now a full, fully back access Island to the reset vectors. I can singular. I can single step inside the Bertram so I can also easily dump the Bertram.

And it's time to reverse. I will not describe all the rivers because it's quite a painful task, but extend size, exotic architecture has some different, um, mechanism than arm and, uh, architectures like G-Star windowing. The lens of instructions are difference. Also they have different lens depending on instructions. So. Hopefully the instructs, the instruction set architecture is available for that for the Riverside we'll use either with a plugin from the mud inventor. Very, very nice plugging from this guy. And I also grab the secure boot edge inside saggy tub, which is listing all the wrong functions they deprecated since. But now I have all the, all the symbols. And I also call a friend to check my mess. Always go to a friend's agenda. It's not, it's not perfect, but it's clearly doable. I can reverse. And for example, ear, I displayed the start of the rom functions.

So, so I dig a little bit inside this, uh, Bertram and I locate the functions in charge to check the secure boot. And the petroleum it's called check finish. And when, when the results is wrong, we'll go to the left side and we'll print a secure boot check failure. We will, we will see on the URL, uh, uh, previously. So this is decided by a BN brunch, if not equal immediate instructions. And the result will depend on the eight, 10 registers. Which is store storing the, the return value of the secure boot check finished function. So my goal, I want the PC to jump to the 40 zero zero 75 C5 to execute the bootloader. So these little instructions is my target now.

So it's because I have access. I will validate this. Using a little, uh, G-Tech script. So I use a piano CD to connect them. And then I launched my, uh, my, uh, script to GDB. I wait a little bit and then we can see, we can run and sign the code, using a little patch on eight, 10 registers. So now we stand for it's time to pawn. For real, because in real life you don't have a geotag normally available. And I was not able to find a way to export and to exploit this film by pure software.

So here for the injection is my only way I modify a little bit to the producer setup, to glitch SIMIT NUSELI on VDD CPU and Alison VDU RTC to have a maximum dropout. And I also probably the SPI mosey. To have a timing information about the frames.

GSPI the first attempts they look like that on the, this is a scrub scope screen. And of course my previous is, it is helpful to find the timing and the, and the,

and the specific windows I have to, I have to insert the glitch. So. I will locate. Yeah. Yeah. I assume inside. Yeah. So we can see channel one is the cellular output, providing some printer, uh, information. Then we have the SPI, um, frames and I will glitch just after the end of the SPF frame. Okay. Yeah, we can see the glitch was not able to modify the corridor of the Bertram and then we can see the secure boot check, fail message at the end.

But with a little bit of time, a little bit of, uh, um, modification of parameters. We can see here on this scope, screen the message on the UART as the change. And this, it means the CPU is jumping to the entry point. executive now.

So as a book from the shell point of view, it looks like that. The the ASP search tool is an easy infinite loop, trying to look to, to load the, this insane bootloader. And finally using a little glitch. I can run my inside code, sorry for the chilled Mitch we'll slate.

So the conclusion secret with my past exploits. It's I'm done using a neutron

vulnerability trigger by fault injections. This is not persistent if a reset of course, but the good, the good thing is you have no way to fix without, uh, on revision. I went to responsible disclosure. I sent the pecan drink for, I posted on September one. Then the vendor provide a situated visa. We have September two. They request the CV and they decide to patch, um, the secure boot model by enabling all the times the flash encryption. So it means now this attack is not possible because you will have an encrypted bootloader, and this will not be correctly decrypted. By the USP such tool. And then your bootloader will not be executive because it will execute, uh, uh, trash instructions, uh, for the information security lab called the rescue founded the same vulnerability than me. I mean, on the secure board, my job is done now and it's wire.

I'm looking for the flash encryption. The role of the flush encryption is to protect the filmer confidentiality. And of course it is to protect against the Beanery rivers without flushing encryption. It's really easy to extract sensitive data. I, I did a little bit of work at the beginning of it. Yeah. With that pouring gas on the summer, uh, light bulbs, wifi, light bulbs. So always was a little job. Fiance. Encryptions is more and more present to the devices. For me, it's a little bit of, um, security by obscurity, but

nevertheless can be, it can be efficient as precede recommend secure boot refresh encryption for maximum security.

So let's redo this for flash encryption mechanism in inside the ESP search tool. We have a flush memory controller and the flush encryption blocks is done in hardware, doing encryption and decryption. Inside this flash memory controller, it fetched the key from the excuses and it also fetch some other parameters and it decrypts an anchor grifter instruction and data into a caches. And from a software point of view, you cannot access towards this particular. Oh gosh. It's so yeah, the flash encryption key is the main asset it's digest key used to decrypt the firmware and it storing issues. BLK one.

So I do the same. I said the flesh interruption, I burn the flesh encryption key inside bill K one. I activated the flush encryption. I flush and encrypted firmware insider. I checked my issue's map. We can see now we cannot read out BLK one and DLK two. And the firmware I dump. The flash firmware to verify it is encrypted. So maybe it's not a very, uh, very common, uh, to, to see central Tinder on this picture, but you can, you can trust me, it's encrypted and we can see ECB because some, some, some 16 bytes, um, data can be repeated.

So how to break the flush encryption? I did some tests. And I did not find a particular weakness to access the key by a pure software and did not find a way to attack by a differential false analysis, which is a kind of fault injection techniques to attack a yes, my last op was a side channel analysis to target, to patrol that decryption during the, the, the load. From the, from the, from the spa flush to the, to the restaurant. But my setup was a little bit too limited, I think, because SPI plus it producing a lot of noise and I was not able to control the spa frame properly to, and then to have nice acquisition for my, uh, for my, uh, offline treatment of, of, uh, DPA curves. I tried DPA attack CPA, but I didn't have enough leakage. So. I spent one week, no results. I am. I was a little bit tired and yeah, I mean, I have to conclude on that and yes, I lost against the flush encryption, but I remember to follow some advices. And as photographers we say, if you watch carefully open-end techniques, you will maybe find these weak points.

And it's why I'm going to explain right now, because the weak point was in the OTP fuses and the OTP chooses. It's a one-time programmable memory based on excuses, of course. And if uses is, can be programmed just one time from zero to one, once it is burned, it is over, you have no possibility to rewrite it or to ripe it. The organization of the GSP search to, uh, if she uses array is the following on BLK zero. You have ESP, such two configuration BLK one is dedicated to fresh and, and key BLK two is dedicated to secure, but key and BAK three is reserved for user application, like a custom Mark, for example, or Somoza data. According to his perceive this infuses their cannot, they are re right protected. And so you cannot read out or modify once the protection bits are set and this infuses RA, they are managed by your issues controller, a dedicated piece of hardware inside the USP search tool.

Let's go to reverse, to reverse a little bit, these fuses and in the Bertram, I only find to identify two of two functions. If you read an issues program and this functions, they are only used during a special boot mode. And this is kind of interesting for me. The boot rom never touch OTP values directly. It means only the fuses controller has access to the OTP it's pure hardware process. And because the boot rums need the sexual with key. This process has to be set before the Bertram execution.

So let's talk about the special boot mud. The ESP started to as a special boot mode called Donald boot. It's a management model to flush firmware, to set infuses, et cetera. And this can be, can be activated by connecting IO. Zero to GNG and then to pull up and then we will obtain a dis a message on the UART. Yes. is the dedicated Python utility to communicate with the previous, uh, run functions. He has dedicated comments available from UART to deal with the fuses. So you can, um, you can program it's quite useful.

So let's talk about the issues protection, because when you try to dump the issues is value on a USP, maximum security, um, set. You will obtain only zero. So you can see block one and block two in block three is only zero, but my goal was to identify the right protection bit. And this I found yeah. On the first word of BLK zero. And these two bits here are the read protection bit, but okay.

Wait, where is the, I have no view. Yeah, sorry, but I know some stuff I know the boot room does not manage the issues. I know the issues controller has to do the job before. I also have some knowledge about the special boot and. Also the location of the reproduction bit. My goal, my idea is to bleach the issues controller initialization to modify the read-write protection. And then I sent them command in special mode. I read out the BLK one and be allocated.

So I call that photog rich. Then first I have to identify this other process. It's I did, I do that by a simple power analysis. And then when I zoom a little bit inside this process and I glitch at this very specific time here, we can see the power consumption channel three. The results of the glitch during this activity is the following this.

He's a secure boot key and a flushing cryption key extracted from issues from a maximum sexual USP such. So when you obtain that, I mean, you're quite happy.

But certainly the , they are not exactly true values due to the glitch effects or due to the two due to the, um, the design of the, of the, of the chooser array. And I know that because I planned the keys, so I know the value. So I do the,

um, I have to do some offline statistical analysis. So I repeat such a 50, 50. 50 times that, um, do attacks to obtain a set of them. But Keith and I just keep the most recurrent bytes, ER, is for secure with generalizes. And finally, in the worst, in the worst condition, I have to brute force one bites of the IAS 256. Key is not so bad. Is it the same for fresh encryption? And I mean, one bite brute-force. It's not a problem.

So he has the flu fertile exploits. First we have to decrypt the firmware. You dumped bankrupted VMware using the download mode or by dumping the flash directly, you perform the fatter leech to extract the keys. You run the statistical analysis, and then you have to confirm the true flush encryption by decrypting the firmware. Okay, so you, you set the script and when you obtain a decrypting somewhere, You know, the key, the key you have used to decrypt the firmware was the good one. Uh, we have to respect the bite or the, in the binary file. It's completely different than the, than, than the, than the bite, the, in the, in the issue's array. So yeah, it's just, it's just a remark.

And then now FEMA is not decrypted. I know I can. Extract the first 128 random bytes located at zero X, zero in the decrypted, the fume. Well, I also extract the Petrolia at address zero X, 1000, and then I confirmed the true secure boot key by, um, computing again, the digest. So here is the, is the, is the initial digest located at zero X 80 and by using a digital security patrol document once and the, and the, and the, the keys. When, when I obtain the same digest, it means the secure key I have used for the specific commands was the good one. Now I know the two keys I can write my code. Maybe you need to learn I don't know. I compile using a fresh encryption key and a secure boot key. This is a totally transparent now and set it by the, by the, by the framework of, um, of the vendor. I flushed the new firmware and it's done

so about the conclusion of that. It's a exploit leading to a key and a fresh encryption key instructions, your break, secure boot and fresh encryption because it's based on a symmetric, crypto and attack your can decrypt the firmware and access sensitive data can access. IP can access a user data and attacker can sign and run his own encrypted code persistently. So good luck to detect if the female was modified. It's low cost, low complexity. If the keys are not unique by devices, you can have a nice, uh, trouble. It's easy to reproduce, I think no way to fix and all the USP such diversion of in a row.

So vendors, ration, responsible disclosure. Of course I pop. I sent a poke on July 24, the images we have previously seen, he questioned the CV for me. And then I posted November searching and it was nice because they publish a security advisory on November one. So, I mean, they learn since the, the first, uh, The faster communication between us. They are more reactive. I mean, it's kind of nice to see that. So in the security advisory, uh, they say they have a no solution, but you can be the next edition of the USP search. It's so bad for business. But, yeah, it's still millions of aerobic devices on the field for the coming years.

The impact for beast. I mean, don't worry. You're connected. Devices is safe. It's not a troll. It's not a program for you for the developers in case you are using a USP, such to security fees to have previously attacked. To protect your cigarettes. I'm in, you shall be a little bit void maybe for your information identified three company using a USP, such to fresh encryption and secure boot in the project to protect, to protect their business model. I will not, uh, um, tell the name of this company for the vendor. It's forced to modify slick on to save his longevity commitment and his reputation. And the, yeah, my, you just, I just have a question about current devices or fretful sales.

So final conclusion now, an attacker with physical access can compromise USP, such to security, buddy. It's best system bypass of secure boot and fresh encryption. So fix no fix, but form is broken. A new chip fashion will be released. For me, it's the end, a little general message for vendors. So don't patch silently than patch. Silently security researcher is not elegant. It's not a good technique, new results coming soon. Of course. So stay tuned, reference in credits here. Uh, how long does it take until it actually glitch and you manage the successful to actually bypass. He's not in the first drag. Yes. I'm trying. How am I? How much time? Who should I let it run until I get the result? I mean, yeah, I was in the identification process, so it takes me a lot, a little bit of time. But now with this presentation and with, and with the, um, the blog post, you can reproduce very easily because you have the timing. You have the weeds of the glitch you have to set up. I mean, for, even for a proficient taco, I mean, in one week he can reproduce this attack. I'm pretty sure about that. No, the question was, if I try it, for example, I have some devices that don't want to hock it. How much time does it take? If I have a production line to heck. I have to keep it for how long until I managed to. You said you like English every time

in the first try because usually the bottom litchi, it takes, you have to try for multiple times until you actually get the results. Yes. Because you have to try multiple time because you don't know the specific parameters. Off your off your bleach. Okay. So you have it. You can use almost to every touch. And with this presentation, you can find a lot of information. So this will speed up your process. Okay. Thank you very much. Welcome. Uh, very nice. Reshared thank you very much. For percent in it. It was super good. Uh, do you know if the new ASP 32 S two is vulnerable to, or that is the new version that they, I mean, you should probably, um, contact the vendor for that. Because they have no information and, uh, I'm pretty sure they don't want to send me a USP search to, as to for evaluation. So you should contact them. nice. Uh, thank you for the talk. Uh, I went away to a voltage greeting for the encryption. Did you call it any faulty Sephora test? Can you repeat, please? When you took reaching to the encryption, uh, like the encryption core deal, get any faulty separate tests. Yes. Yes, of course. You have a lot of faults. Uh, you have to, to sort to filter us and then depends on your own on the algorithm. And you try to attacks depends on, on what you want to do. Yeah. You can use or not. The different faults. Some fulltime more useful than others. Yeah. Uh, I mean, uh, you said you get some, um, Safford tax, which is, uh, the same as the plain tax. That means the encryption doesn't execute. So did you get any, uh, faulty Safford tax, which is different than the plain text? Yes, of course. Okay. But it depends on your timing. Okay. Because of course, if you are going to glitch the competition of GIS yes, of course you will have faulty cipher texts and maybe you will be able to do DFA, for example.

AUTO CONNECT TO WIFI NETWORK Carnegie or ESP 32 to your laptop using a USB cable and reset your ESP 32 by pressing enable or the reset button micropattern and terminal is Lauder or the Shelly's Lauder to connect with any network you have to import network network is important. Now we have to create an object. My object name is station. We are going to set it. Does it station mode may object to be active.

So how to make it active, you have to say true, no stash and more get activate. So it is getting activated for scanning any of the network available around the command Mandy's object creator. That is station God scan.

Here. These are the results. Yes. One network is you might do under years, ESB, hippie, kind of the reason why another S ESB, AP one more. Then these are the society of different network. So these are the strings of each and every network. This command. Check, is it connected to any of the network mistaken? Tell me DCS that debt. Now it is showing. Okay. It is not connected to any of the network. That's why it is returning for someone to connect with you. My network. How to connect station. That is our object, dark connect. We have to pass a society and password here. You have the boss, you are a society. In my case, I am passing Maya society. You might do comma. You are the passive password in my case.

this is the password. I'll change that later now. Let's see, uh, it is connected. Now we can check. Is it connected or not? By station.is connected command. Now it's showing that truth. That means it is connected. The ESP 32 is connected to my network, local IP address of my. ESP 32 by using the command station. He's our object creator. now by this command, this ISTA IP address. So it is showing the IP address, subnets, subnet mask, and everything.

So this, this is a way we can make sure that it is connected to wifi, or we can make it connect. I hope you understood this. Now what we have to discuss little bit detailed deal. This many projects we discussed code, and it is saved into a laptop or the desktop, some programs. We also see everything to that. ESP did any check on this. Micropattern device the file system, the bulldog by his main file here. This is one of the file Meech we saved from the last session. I'm just going to delete this when the ESP 32 boots up the fast to fire is going to run this boot.by so we can take what other things inside. So these are the commands inside boot or pilot. We don't want her to change anything in the boot door. By now, once a boot is run the next two, one by default, the ESP 32 check for a file called main door by now, we haven't made any file called the main door pipe. So if a mean program is there, you have to agree. Your project into main door pipe. If the power is gone, once the power came back after boot.by program, we'll go to and check for the main door pipe. Then the program will drive. We are going to write a code for auto connect to wifi network. We know that what, like I mentioned, we wanted to use, I'm going to create a function, keyword, Def connect import network, your SS ID, your. Password me late. We wanted to create our object here. We had created like something called the station. CBA can create here. Station is the objective, do it. The station mode in the ESP 32 by the command, activate this function, the object connect to our network. So that's the one we used here as, as ID and password. Okay. You can change here. You are a society and password while station dot E is connected. You going to do equally. Fourth. That means if it is not connected, then just pass, pass means then it will not do anything otherwise, so you can make it, print it. Okay. Let it be print print. No. Not connected to network. You can give anything always you can put, pass over their other case. We can print the connection is successful. Also. We can make it brain. What is the configuration? That is the IP address for that? We can use print. We use this one. Okay. Can copy and paste over here. I'm going to save Windup Micro pay then device name, Calder connect, wifi. That that is copy this one. Also, we need this later, make all these to get it. Connect auto connect for that, uh, after by the other file, which is running is main or by, so I wanted to create some file called the main door. Control S

to the same micropolitan device, make sure that main.by, okay. I just saved the Stu the device. Now, in this case, we have created a complete function that is connect wifi. So I can import this complete module two. Main door PI. So how we can do our own module in port we are the call the same way here, how we have saved. Okay. I just imported that under this particular module, there is only one function. That function is kind. Now I have to call that particular file. How do I use that function? Why you fight? Okay. Dodd, I ordered to make it connect that is from here to here so I can use

no. Let me save. Now UC Carnation is successful, then it is showing also the IP address, which is allocated by the router to ESP 13. I have done some corrections. I let I have put in double quotes by considering previous one of the program. So actually this value have to pass to this variable. So you can directly give the variable name here. Not in double codes, then I have added some time also here. So it makes enough time to make it connect. Now what I'm going to do, I'm going to reconnect the ESP 30 to reboot.

You can control plu s D no after soft reboot, commercially successful. It's again, given the IP address. Now let's set for the hard reset. I just remote. I just reconnected. I'm not going to do any coding here. I'm just going to just re-inject DDA RBL.

Oh, my group had an RPN. Is Laura.

After trying so many number of times, it is again connected successfully to our life. Thank you for watching this video. I hope you understood. Almost the basic of micro identities.

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