Excavations at Tepe Hissar, Damghan 9781512818574

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Polecaj historie

Excavations at Tepe Hissar, Damghan
 9781512818574

Table of contents :
FOREWORD
CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
I. THE EXPEDITION (FIGURES 1-3)
II. TESTS OF DAMGHAN AND VICINITY
III. THE EXCAVATION OF TEPE HISSAR
IV. HISSAR I
V. HISSAR II
VI. HISSAR III
VII. SUMMARY OF THE PREHISTORIC STRATA
VIII. PREHISTORIC CHRONOLOGY
IX. THE SASANIAN PALACE OF TEPE HISSAR
X. THE SASANIAN BUILDING AT TEPE HISSAR
APPENDIX I. TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF OBJECTS FROM TEPE HISSAR
APPENDIX II. FIELD EQUIPMENT
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS CITED
INDEXES
GENERAL INDEX

Citation preview

EXCAVATIONS AT TEPE HISSAR

P U B L I C A T I O N S OF THE I R A N I A N S E C T I O N OF THE U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM

EXCAVATIONS AT TEPE HISSAR DAMGHAN BY ERICH F. SCHMIDT

WITH AN ADDITIONAL CHAPTER ON THE SASANIAN BUILDING AT TEPE HISSAR BY FISKE KIMBALL

PUBLISHED FOR

THE

UNIVERSITY

MUSEUM

BY THE UNIVERSITY OP PENNSYLVANIA PRESS PHILADELPHIA 1937

E. BIOREN GETZE, Edäor M. ROGERS WAHREN, Associate

Editor

C O P Y R I G H T 1937 BY T H E U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM

TO MRS. WILLIAM BOYCE THOMPSON PATRONESS OP T H E IRANIAN EXPEDITION

FOREWORD I t is a pleasure to present herewith t h e definitive publication of the excavations a t Tepe Hissar b y D r . Erich F . Schmidt, Field Director. As an i m p o r t a n t foundation stone in early Iranian archaeology the content of t h e volume speaks for itself and needs no comment. T o those who extended to t h e Expedition support and assistance especial debts of gratitude are due, which h a v e in detail been acknowledged in t h e preliminary report, and which it is a sincere pleasure again to confirm. E v e n f u r t h e r t h a n k s m u s t be expressed to the principal patroness of the expedition, Mrs. William Boyce Thompson, and also to Mrs. Christian R . Holmes, and to M r . Carl Holmes whose generosity a t a particularly difficult juncture enabled Dr. Schmidt and his staff to bring the excavations to a satisfactory conclusion. We also gratefully acknowledge the cordial cooperation in I r a n of His Highness Foroughi, His Highness D j a m , His Excellency H e k m a t , D r . Faramandi, Dr. Sadiq, Dr. Shafagh and all those officials who helped us in solving our task. Since this volume was originally projected, it has been deemed advisable, for t h e sake of completeness and immediacy of publication, to include a discussion of t h e Sasanian Building a t Tepe Hissar which was the particular sphere of interest of t h e Pennsylvania Museum of Art, t h e expedition's co-sponsor during t h e first season. We are grateful to D r . Fiske Kimball, Director of the Pennsylvania Museum, for preparing a chapter in which he presents an interesting and well-considered plan of reconstruction of the Sasanian Building. HORACE

H.

F.

JAYNE

Director

[vii]

CONTENTS PAGE

I. T H E E X P E D I T I O N (FIGURES 1-3)

3

INTRODUCTION

3

T H E A I M S OF THE IRANIAN E X P E D I T I O N

3

V O Y A G E TO T H E E A S T

5

T E S T OF T E L L F A E A IN M E S O P O T A M I A

6

SUMMARY L O G OF T H E E X P E D I T I O N

7

D I V I S I O N OF LABOR

9

II. TESTS OF DAMGHAN AND VICINITY (FIGURES 4-15; PLATE II)

11

DAMGIIAN CITADEL (FIGURES 4, 7)

11

TARI(KH) K A N E H (FIGURES 8, 9)

12

T E P E M I MAS ( F I G U R E S 1 0 - 1 3 )

16

R U I N NARESIIAN (FIGURES 14, 15)

17

R U I N SHIR-E-SIIIAN (PLATE I I )

17

PLATE I I

18

III. T H E EXCAVATION OF T E P E HISSAR—INTRODUCTION (FIGURES IV. HISSAR I (FIGURES

20-60;

PLATES

III

16-19).

XIX:

19 21

HISSAR I SETTLEMENTS (FIGURES 2 0 - 2 3 )

21

HISSAR I BUILDING REMAINS (FIGURES 2 4 - 2 9 )

23

H I S S A R I BUILDING R E M A I N S UNCOVERED IN T E S T P L O T S ( F I G U R E S 3 0 , 3 1 )

37

HISSAR I POTTERY VESSELS (FIGURES 3 2 - 4 3 ; PLATES I I I - X I I I )

39

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

39

HISSAR I A POTTERY VESSELS (FIGURES 3 2 , 3 3 ; PLATE I I I )

40

Hissar IB Pottery Vessels (Figures 34-36; Plates IV-VI)

42

HISSAR I C POTTERY VESSELS (FIGURES 3 7 - 4 3 ; PLATES V I I - X I I I )

46

JARS AND GOBLETS OF HISSAR I C (FIGURE 4 2 ; PLATES X , X I )

50

C U P S OF HISSAR I C (PLATE X I )

52

EASEL-SHAPED PLAQUE OF HISSAR I C (OR I I A ? )

(PLATE X I )

HISSAR I B POTSHERDS (PLATES X I I , X I I I ) H I S S A R I O B J E C T S O F B A K E D AND U N B A K E D C L A Y ( P L A T E X I V , A ) SPINDLE WHORLS

52 52 53 53

BICONOID AND CONOID OBJECTS

53

POTTERY D I S K S

53

MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS

53

HISSAR I FIGURINES OF B A K E D CLAY (PLATE X I V , B )

54

H I S S A R I " S E A L S " AND S E A L - S H A P E D O R N A M E N T S ( P L A T E X V )

54

HISSAR I COPPER OBJECTS (PLATE X V I )

56

HISSAR I STONE OBJECTS (PLATES X V I I , X V I I I , A )

57

FLINT FLAKES AND CORES

57

FLINT SCRAPERS AND PERFORATORS

57

FLINT ARROW H E A D S

58

[ix]

C O N T E N T S PAGE

Celts Whetstones Pestles Polishers Weights Miscellaneous Objects

58 58 58 58 58 58

H I S S A R I B O N E A N D H O R N OBJECTS ( P L A T E X V I I I ,

B)

59

Awls Tubes Chippers Miscellaneous Objects

59 59 59 59

HISSAR I BEADS (FIGURE 44; PLATE X I X ) T H E D E A D OF H I S S A R I

61

(FIGURES 45-60)

62

Position of Body and Skull (Figures 49-60) Position of Arms and Hands Position of Legs and Feet Orientation (Figures 46-48) Mortality (Figure 49) Proportion of the Sexes (Figure 49) Manner of Disposal Mortuary Equipment (Figures 50-60)

63 64 64 64 64 67 67 67

PLATES I I I - X I X

88

V. HISSAR I I (FIGURES 61-82; P L A T E S X X - X X X I I )

106

H I S S A R I I SETTLEMENTS (FIGURES 61, 62)

106

HISSAR I I BUILDING REMAINS (FIGURE 63)

106

H I S S A R I I B U I L D I N G R E M A I N S ON T H E R E D H I L L ( F I G U R E S 16, 6 1 )

108

HISSAR I I POTTERY VESSELS (FIGURES 64-70; PLATES X X - X X V I )

Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar

IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB IIB

108

Painted Pottery (Figures 64-66; Plates X X - X X I I ) Painted Bowls (Figures 64-66; Plates X X - X X I I ) Painted Jars (Plate X X I I ) Painted Goblets and Cups (Plate X X I I ) Gray Pottery (Figures 67-69; Plate X X I I I ) Gray Bowls (Plate X X I I I ) Gray Jars (Figure 69; Plate X X I I I ) Gray Cups (Plate X X I I I ) Surviving Painted Pottery (Plate X X I V ) Gray Pottery (Figure 70; Plates X X V , X X V I )

H I S S A R I I OBJECTS OF B A K E D A N D U N B A K E D C L A Y ( P L A T E X X V I I ,

Miniature Vessels Pot Lid Whorls Disks Cones and Bicones Miscellaneous Objects

108 109 Ill Ill 112 112 114 114 114 116 A)

116

116 117 117 117 117 117

H I S S A R I I F I G U R I N E S OF B A K E D C L A Y ( P L A T E X X V I I ,

B)

HISSAR I I SEALS AND SEAL-SHAPED ORNAMENTS ( P L A T E X X V I I I , [X]

117 A)

118

C O N T E N T S PAGE HISSAR I I COPPER OBJECTS (PLATES X X V I I I , B , X X I X ) H I S S A R I I S I L V E R AND G O L D O B J E C T S ( P L A T E X X X ,

119

A)

121

HISSAR I I STONE OBJECTS (PLATE X X X I )

121

Flint Flakes, Cores, Scrapers and Perforators Celts Mullers, Whetstones, Pestles and Polishers Miscellaneous Objects

HISSAR I I BONE OBJECTS (PLATE X X X ,

121 121 121 122

B)

122

HISSAR I I BEADS (PLATE X X X I I )

122

T H E D E A D OF H I S S A R I I ( F I G U R E S 7 1 - 8 2 )

123

Orientation and Position of Body and Skull (Figures 71-73, 75-82) Position of Arms and Hands Position of Legs and Feet Mortality (Figure 73) Proportion of Sexes (Figure 73) Manner of Disposal Mortuary Equipment (Figures 75-82)

123 124 124 126 127 127 127

PLATES X X - X X X I I VI.

HISSAR III

(FIGURES

141

83-164;

155

P L A T E S I, X X X I I I - L X X )

HISSAR I I I SETTLEMENTS (FIGURES 8 3 - 8 5 )

155

H I S S A R I I I A R C H I T E C T U R A L R E M A I N S ON T H E M A I N M O U N D ( F I G U R E S 8 6 - 8 8 ) . . .

155

T H E HISSAR I I I B BURNED BUILDING (FIGURES 8 9 - 9 4 )

157

H I S S A R I I I AND I I A R C H I T E C T U R A L R E M A I N S ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

(FIGURES

HISSAR I I I C

(FIGURES

95-101)

102-104

( L E V E L 1 ) A R C H I T E C T U R A L R E M A I N S ON T H E N O R T H F L A T

HISSAR I I I POTTERY VESSELS (FIGURES

105-110;

PLATES X X X V I - X L I I I )

171 177 178

General Characteristics 178 Hissar III A Pottery Vessels (Plate X X X V I ) 178 Hissar I I I B Pottery Vessels (Figures 105, 106; Plates X X X V I I - X X X I X ) . . 180 Hissar I I I C Pottery Vessels (Figures 107-110; Plates X L - X L I I I 181

H I S S A R I I I O B J E C T S O F B A K E D AND U N B A K E D C L A Y ( P L A T E X L I V )

Miniature Vessels Pot Lids Whorls Disks Cones and Bicones Moulds Miscellaneous Objects

HISSAR I I I

Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar

FIGURINES

(FIGURES 1 1 1 - 1 1 7 ; PLATES X X X I I I ,

X L V - X L V I I I . . . .

I I I Human Figurines of Baked Clay (Plate XLV) I I I Animal Figurines of Baked Clay (Plate XLV) I I I Animal Figurines of Stone (Plates X X X I I I , XLVI) I I I Animal and Miscellaneous Figurines of Copper (Plate X L V I ) . . . . I I I C Mouflon Head of Gold (Figure 111; Plate XLVI) . IIIC Animal Effigy Vessel of Pottery (Figure 113; Plate XLVI) [xi]

184

184 185 185 185 185 185 186 186

186 186 188 188 189 189

C O N T E N T S PAGE

Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar Hissar

I I I B Effigy Lid of Copper (Figure 112) I I I Human Figurines of Alabaster and Bone (Figure 114; Plate XLVII). I I I Human Figurines of Copper (Plate XLVII) I I I C Human Effigy Vessel of Pottery (Figure 115; Plate XLVI) I I I Copper Wands or Symbols (Figures 116, 117; Plate XLVIII)

HISSAR I I I SEALS (FIGURE 118; PLATE X L I X )

191 191 191 194 194 197

Seal Cylinders Stamp Seals of Copper Seal Impressions Stamp Seals of Stone Stamp Seals of Baked Clay

197 199 200 200 200

HISSAR I I I COPPER OBJECTS (FIGURES 119, 120; PLATES I, X X X I V ,

L-LIV)....

Daggers (Plates I, L) "Bayonet Lances" (Plate L) Lances (Plates X X X I V , LI) Spearheads (Plate LI) Knives (Plate LI) Maceheads (Plate LII) Arrowheads (Plate LII) Axe (Figure 119) Mattocks (Figure 120, Plate LII) Chisels (Plate LII) Pins (Plate LIII) Tacks (Plate LIII) Needles (Plate LIII) Points (Plate LIII) Bracelets (Plate LIII) Finger Rings (Plate LIV) Earrings (Plate LIV) Double-Scroll Pendants (Plate LIV) Tubes (Plate LIV) Diadems (Plate LIV) Mirrors (Plate LIV) Miscellaneous Objects (Plate LIV)

201

201 201 203 203 203 204 204 204 205 205 205 206 206 206 206 207 207 207 207 207 207 208

HISSAR I I I LEAD OBJECTS (PLATE L V )

208

HISSAR I I I SILVER OBJECTS (FIGURE 121; PLATE L V )

208

HISSAR I I I GOLD OBJECTS (FIGURE 121; PLATE L V )

210

H I S S A R I I I VESSELS OF M E T A L ( F I G U R E S 1 2 2 , 1 2 3 ; P L A T E S L V I I , L V I I I )

210

Copper Vessels (Plate LVII) Lead Vessels (Plate LVII)

210 211

SILVER VESSELS (FIGURE 122; PLATE L V I I I )

211

GOLD VESSEL (FIGURE 123; PLATE L V I I I ) HISSAR

IIIC

VESSELS

PLATES L I X , L X )

OF ALABASTER

AND

COMMON

212 STONE

(FIGURES

124-132; 212

C O N T E N T S PAGE HISSAK I I I C

"MINIATURE

C O L U M N S " AND D I S K S OF ALABASTER AND

COMMON

STONE (FIGURE 132; PLATES L X I , L X I I )

216

HISSAR I I I STONE OBJECTS (PLATES L X I I I , L X I V )

219

Flint Flakes, Cores, Scrapers and Perforators (Plate LXIII) Arrow Heads (Plate L X I I I ) Celts Mullers (Plate L X I I I ) Whetstones (Plate LXIII) Pestles (Plate LXIII) Hammers (Plate LXIII) Macehead (Plate LXIII) Polishing Stones (Plate LXIII) Stone Whorls (Plate LXIII) Weights (Plate LXIII) Door Sockets (Plate LXIII) Mortars (Plate LXIV) Hoe (Plate LXIV) Miscellaneous Objects (Plate LXIV) H I S S A R I I I B O N E AND H O R N OBJECTS ( P L A T E L X V )

222

Awls Pins Miscellaneous Objects

222 222 223

HISSAR I I I BEADS (FIGURES 1 3 3 - 1 3 9 ; PLATES X X X V , T H E D E A D OF HISSAR I I I

219 219 220 220 220 220 220 221 221 221 221 221 221 222 222

LXVI-LXX)

(FIGURES 140-164)

Orientation and Position of Body and Skull (Figures 146-164) Position of Arms, Hands, Legs and Feet (Figures 151-164) Mortality (Figures 149, 150) Proportion of Sexes (Figures 149, 150) Manner of Disposal Mortuary Equipment (Figures 151-164) PLATES I, X X X I I I , XXXIV, XXXV, X X X V I - L X X 2, 187, 202, 228,

223 232

233 233 234 235 235 238 262

VII. SUMMARY OF T H E P R E H I S T O R I C STRATA (FIGURES 165-167; P L A T E LXXI) 297 VIII. P R E H I S T O R I C CHRONOLOGY (FIGURES 168, 169) Introduction TepeSialk Anau Rayy (Cheshmeh Ali) and Murteza Gert Nehavend Persepolis Village Susa and Southern Mesopotamia Northern Mesopotamia and Anatolia Anatolia The Relationship of Hissar I I and I I I [ xiii 1

319 319 321 323 323 323 324 324 324 325 325

CONTENTS PAGE

IX. THE SASANIAN PALACE OF TEPE HISSAR (FIGURES 170-175; PLATES LXXII-LXXIX) 327 T H E BUILDING (FIGURES 170, 172, 1 7 3 )

The Rooms Structural Details

ORNAMENTATION

Stucco Ornamentation (Figure 173; Plates LXXII, LXXIII) Stucco Sculptures (Plate LXXIV) Ornamental Architectural Details (Plates LXXV-LXXIX) Wall Paintings (Figures 174, 175)

CHRONOLOGICAL D A T A PLATES

327

327 331 331

331 334 335 336 337

LXXII-LXXIX

339

X. THE SASANIAN BUILDING AT TEPE HISSAR—BY FISKE KIMBALL (FIGURES 176, 177) 347 APPENDIX I . AND D .

T E C H N O L O G I C A L A N A L Y S E S O F O B J E C T S FROM T E P E H I S S A R — B Y L . C . R I E S C H

HORTON

351

Terms Used in Ceramic Research Analyses of Sherds Examination of Beads Analyses of Metal Objects Miscellaneous Analyses

APPENDIX I I . LIST

351 351 358 359 360

FIELD RJUIPMENT

OF PUBLICATIONS

362

CITED

365

I N D E X OF B U R I A L S

368

CATALOGUE-INDEX OF O B J E C T S

370

GENERAL INDEX

462

[xiv]

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Throughout this volume, numbers preceded by the letters D, M, N, or H are the field numbers of the objects referred to; numbers preceded by the letter P. are the page numbers of the principal textual reference. When an object illustrated by a Figure is not referred to in the text, the reference "See Catalogue" in the Figure legend is to the Catalogue of Objects beginning on page 870. When an object shown on a Plate does not have a specific text reference indicated in the Plate legend it is understood that it is referred to in the Catalogue of Objects. FIGURE

PAGE

1 . M A P OP T H E N E A R E A S T

4

2 . T H E B E G I N N I N G OF E X C A V A T I O N S AT T E P E H I S S A R

7

3 . A E R I A L V I E W OF T E P E H I S S A R AT T H E CONCLUSION O F E X C A V A T I O N S

8

4 . T H E C I T A D E L O F DAMGHAN FROM T H E E A S T E R N M O A T 5 . M A P OF DAMGHAN

10 FACING

6 . I S L A M I C V E S S E L D 1 6 FROM T H E C I T A D E L OF DAMGHAN

11 11

7 . I S L A M I C V E S S E L D 5 6 FROM T H E C I T A D E L OF DAMGHAN

12

8 . P L A N OF T A R I ( K H ) K H A N E H S H O W I N G T E S T P L O T S

13

9 . T H E T E S T OF T A R I ( K H ) K H A N E I I

14

1 0 . I S L A M I C ( 1 5 T I I ? C E N T U R Y ) B O W L M 4 7 FROM T E P E M U M A N

14

1 1 . T E P E M U M A N FROM T H E T O P OF T H E F O R T R E S S M O U N D

15

1 2 . I S L A M I C ( 1 5 T I I ? C E N T U R Y ) B O W L M 6 4 FROM T E P E M U M A N

15

1 3 . I S L A M I C ( 1 5 T H ? C E N T U R Y ) B O W L M 6 5 FROM T E P E M U M A N

15

1 4 . P A R T I I O - S A S A N I A N P I T C H E R N 6 FROM N A R E S I I A N

16

1 5 . P A R T I I O - S A S A N I A N C U P N 1 1 FROM N A R E S H A N

17

1 6 . M A P OF T E P E H I S S A R S H O W I N G P R I N C I P A L A R E A S E X C A V A T E D 1 7 . T E P E H I S S A R FROM T H E S O U T H W E S T

FACING

19 19

18.

C R O S S - S E C T I O N OF T E P E H I S S A R , E A S T - W E S T

20

19.

C R O S S - S E C T I O N OF T E P E H I S S A R , N O R T H - S O U T H

20

2 0 . W O R K IN T H E H I S S A R I S E T T L E M E N T S

21

2 1 . K E Y M A P OF H I S S A R 1

22

2 2 . P L A N AND C R O S S - S E C T I O N S OF H I S S A R I

STRUCTURES, UPPER LEVELS

24

2 3 . P L A N AND C R O S S - S E C T I O N S OF H I S S A R I S T R U C T U R E S , L O W E R L E V E L S

25

24.

K E Y P L A N O F H I S S A R I L E V E L S 1 , 1 A , 2 OR 2 A

2 5 . K E Y PLAN OF H I S S A R I L E V E L 2 A

27 30

2 6 . K E Y PLAN OF H I S S A R I L E V E L 2

31

2 7 . K E Y P L A N O F H I S S A R I L E V E L S 3 AND 4

34

28.

35

C R O S S - S E C T I O N O F S U P E R I M P O S E D L E V E L S ( 2 TO 4 ) IN P L O T D H 3 4

2 9 . F I R E P L A C E OF L E V E L 3 OR 4 B E L O W S E C T I O N 6 4 OF L E V E L 2

36

3 0 . S O U N D I N G T H E D E P T H OF H I S S A R I IN P L O T D G 6 9

37

31.

T E S T S Q U A R E D G 6 9 : P L A N S O F L E V E L S 1 , 2 AND C R O S S - S E C T I O N

38

32.

HISSAR I A BOWL H 3 4 4 6

41

3 3 . P O T T E R Y V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I A : 34.

H 3 4 4 1 AND H 3 4 5 3

HISSAR I B JAR H 3 4 6 1

41 43

35. HISSAR I C CUP H 2 0 5 7

45

36.

HISSAR I B BOWL H 2 0 9 3

45

37.

HISSAR I C BOWL H 4 6 0 0

47 [xv]

L I S T

OF

I L L U S T R A T I O N S

FIGURE

PAGE

38.

HISSAI; I C B O W L H 3 3 6 6

39.

I I ISSAI! I C B O W L H 4 7 1 3

49 49

40.

DISSAU I C B O W L H 4 4 7 9

49

41.

HISSAR I C BOWL H

51

42.

HISSAR I C JAR H

43.

HISSAR I C BOWL H 3359

51

44.

HISSAR I BEADS:

60

45.

HISSAR I C BURIAL E H

46.

ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I A SKELETONS

47.

ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I B

SKELETONS

65

48.

ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I C SKELETONS

65

49.

GRAPHS

3416

2884

51

H 4561, H 3412, H 4235, H 4456

SHOWING

13 X - 3 1

POSITION,

63 65

MORTALITY

AND

PROPORTION

OF

THE

SEXES

OF

THE D E A D OF HISSAR 1

66

50.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I A

68

51.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I A

70

52.

MORTUARY SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I A

71

53.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I B

72

54.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I B

74

55.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I C

76

56.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I C

79

57.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I C

82

58.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I C

83

59.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I C

85

60.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I C

86

61.

K A Y M A P OF H I S S A R I I

62.

PLAN

63.

K E Y P L A N O F H I S S A R I I B U I L D I N G S ON T H E S O U T H H I L L

64.

THE

65.

PAINTED B O W L H 4 5 1 6 OF HISSAR I I A

66.

PAINTED B O W L H 4 5 1 8 OF H I S S A R I I A

110

67.

G R A Y W A R E OF HISSAR I I A :

H 2998

113

68.

GRAY W A R E OF HISSAR I I A :

H 2889

113

69.

G R A Y W A R E OF HISSAR I I A :

H 2 8 9 0

70.

A

71.

ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I I A SKELETONS

AND

105

CROSS-SECTIONS

REMAINS,

OF

HISSAR

II

STRUCTURES

WITH

SOME

ON T H E S O U T H H I L L

LONG-NECKED

FACING

GAZELLE PATTERN

CIIALICE B O W L OF HISSAR I I B :

IIIA

H

OF HISSAR

IIA:

FACING BOWL

H 4470

107 107 109 110

113 2784

115 124

72.

ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I I B

73.

GRAPHS

74.

HISSAR I I A BURIAL E G

75.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I A

128

76.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I A

129

77.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I A

131

78.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I A

133

79.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I B

135

80.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I B

136

SHOWING

TIIE

SKELETONS

POSITION,

MORTALITY

OF THE D E A D OF HISSAR I I

124 AND P R O P O R T I O N

OF THE

SEXES 125

06 X - 4 6

126

F*VI]

L I S T

OF

I L L U S T R A T I O N S

FIGURE

PAGE

81.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I B

138

82.

M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF HISSAR I I B

139

83.

K E Y M A P OF H I S S A R I I I

84.

PLAN OF HISSAR

III

154

S T R U C T U R E S ON T H E M A I N

MOUND

between

154-155

between

154-155

85.

C R O S S - S E C T I O N S O F H I S S A R I I I S T R U C T U R E S ON T H E M A I N M O U N D

86.

KEY

87.

P L A N O F H I S S A R I I I C ? H O A R D ON T H E M A I N M O U N D

88.

C R O S S - S E C T I O N O F H I S S A R I I I C ? H O A R D ON T H E M A I N M O U N D

159

89.

T H E B U R N E D B U I L D I N G OF H I S S A R I I I B FROM THE N O R T H W E S T

160

90.

P L A N OF THE B U R N E D BUILDING OF H I S S A R I I I B SHOWING LOCATION OF O B J E C T S FOUND.

161

91.

P L A N OF THE B U R N E D BUILDING OF H I S S A R I I I B

162

92.

CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE B U R N E D BUILDING OF H I S S A R I I I B

163

93.

F E M A L E S Y M B O L S C U T INTO A S T A I R W A Y OF T H E B U R N E D B U I L D I N G OF H I S S A R I I I B . . .

165

94.

HYPOTHETICAL RESTORATION OF THE B U R N E D BUILDING OF H I S S A R I I I B

170

PLAN

OF

HISSAR

III

ARCHITECTURAL

REMAINS

ON

THE

MAIN

MOUND between

156-157 158

95.

KEY

96.

H O A R D I O F H I S S A R I I I C IN T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

P L A N O F A R C H I T E C T U R A L R E M A I N S ON T H E T R E A S U R E

HILL

FACING

97.

P L A N OF H O A R D I OF H I S S A R I I I C IN T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

173

98.

H O A R D I I OF H I S S A R I I I C IN T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

174

99.

P L A N O F H O A R D I I OF H I S S A R I I I C IN T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

175

172

100.

C R O S S - S E C T I O N S O F H I S S A R I I I A N D I I S T R U C T U R E S ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

101.

P L A N OF H I S S A R I I I

102.

KEY

103.

PLAN

104.

CROSS-SECTIONS

105.

T Y P I C A L B O T T L E P I T C H E R OF H I S S A R I I I B :

106.

U N U S U A L B O T T L E P I T C H E R OF H I S S A R I I I B :

107.

TYPICAL

108.

HISSAR I I I C

109.

HISSAR I I I C RED-WARE BOWL H

110.

HISSAR I I I C

111.

H I S S A R I I I C M O U F L O N H E A D O F G O L D F R O M H O A R D I ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L :

112.

C O P P E R L I D OR P L A T E H

113.

H I S S A R I I I C E F F I G Y V E S S E L OF P O T T E R Y :

114.

H I S S A R I I I C A L A B A S T E R E F F I G Y O F A W O M A N F R O M H O A R D I I ON T H E T R E A S U R E

115.

H I S S A R I I I C E F F I G Y V E S S E L OF P O T T E R Y :

116.

T H E W A N D OF A Y O U N G W A R R I O R OF H I S S A R I I I C :

117.

HISSAR I I I C

118.

S E A L S OF H I S S A R I I I B

119.

HISSAR I I I C

120.

HISSAR I I I C

COPPER MATTOCK H

121.

HISSAR I I I C

" S I G N A L H O R N S " O F S I L V E R A N D G O L D F R O M H O A R D I ON T H E

122.

S I L V E R V E S S E L S FROM H I S S A R I I I C :

123.

GOLD CUP H

AND I I

STRUCTURES

ON T H E T R E A S U R E

176

HILL

P L A N O F A R C H I T E C T U R A L R E M A I N S ON T H E N O R T H F L A T

H

OF

HISSAR

III

STRUCTURES

OF H I S S A R I I I

POTTERY

OF HISSAR

CANTEEN H

ON T H E

NORTH

STRUCTURES

IIIC:

H

FLAT

ON T H E N O R T H

H

FLAT

FACING

176

FACING

177

FACING

177

FACING

177

2227

H

3511,

171

179

3820 H

179

3941,

H

3512,

H

3932

181

4 2 1 9 F R O M H O A R D I I ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

GRAY BOWL H

183

3509

183

3 4 9 3 F R O M H O A R D I I ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

183 H

.3210.

189

2 2 5 2 FROM THE B U R N E D B U I L D I N G OF H I S S A R I I I B H

190

2785

191 HILL:

3500

HILL:

192

H

COPPER WAND H

2790

193 H

3578

195

4 6 3 D E P I C T I N G A F A T H E R , M O T H E R AND C H I L D

AND I I I C

COPPER A X E H

3225, H

H

3224, H

196 .

3 2 2 7 F R O M H O A R D I ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L 3247

FROM HOARD I

ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

3226

198 204 204

TREASURE 209

H

3606, H

3607

2 2 5 7 FROM THE B U R N E D BUILDING OF H I S S A R I I I B [ xvii ]

211 212

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIGURE

PAGE

1 2 4 . STEMMED ALABASTER P L A T E OF HISSAR U I C : H 3 5 2 9 1 2 5 . ALABASTER B O W L OF HISSAR U I C :

213

H 3615

213

1 2 6 . LONG-SPOUTED ALABASTER PITCHER OF HISSAR I I I C : H 2 7 7 3 1 2 7 . ALABASTER VASE OF A Y O U N G WARRIOR OF HISSAR U I C :

214

H 3595

215

1 2 8 . A L A B A S T E R J A R OF H I S S A R I I I C : H 3 4 9 4 / 5

217

1 2 9 . ALABASTER VESSEL OF HISSAR I I I C : H 2 7 8 1

217

1 3 0 . ALABASTER BOTTLE OF HISSAR I I I C :

H 3498

217

1 8 1 . A L A B A S T E R V E S S E L OF H I S S A R I I I C :

H 2247

132. HISSAR

IIIC

ALABASTER

"COLUMNS"

H

1841-3,

217 ALABASTER

DISKS

H

1845-6,

AND

GRAY BOTTLE JAR H 1 8 4 8

218

133. T H E HISSAR I I I B " D A N C E R ' S " ORNAMENTS: H 2 3 8 6 - 7

224

134. T H E HISSAR I I I B " D A N C E R ' S " ORNAMENTS: H 2 3 8 6 - 8

225

135. T H E HISSAR I I I B " D A N C E R ' S " ORNAMENTS: H 2 3 8 8

226

136. HISSAR I I I A ? BEADS: H 2111A

226

137. HISSAR I I I A ? BEADS: H 2 1 5 8

226

1 3 8 . G O L D O R N A M E N T S FROM T H E B U R N E D B U I L D I N G

OF H I S S A R

IIIB:

H 2362,

H

2360,

II 2 3 6 1

227

139. HISSAR I I I C BEADS: H 3 5 9 0 , H 3 5 9 4

230

1 4 0 . H I S S A R I I I B B U R I A L S ON T H E M A I N M O U N D

233

141. T H E HISSAR I I I B " D A N C E R ' S " BURIAL

234

142. TIIE HISSAR I I I B " D A N C E R ' S " BURIAL

235

1 4 3 . A B U R I A L OF H I S S A R I I I B

236

1 4 4 . T H E GRAVE OF A Y O U N G HISSAR I I I C WARRIOR 145. A HISSAR I I I C

B U R I A L W I T H A L A B A S T E R V E S S E L S ABOVE A L A Y E R O F H I S S A R

237 IIIB

S K E L E T O N S ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

238

1 4 6 . O R I E N T A T I O N OF H I S S A R I I I A S K E L E T O N S

239

1 4 7 . O R I E N T A T I O N OF H I S S A R I I I B S K E L E T O N S

239

1 4 8 . ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I I C SKELETONS

239

1 4 9 . G R A P H S S H O W I N G P O S I T I O N , M O R T A L I T Y AND P R O P O R T I O N O F T H E S E X E S OF T H E D E A D OF H I S S A R I I I A AND I I I C

240

1 5 0 . G R A P H S S H O W I N G P O S I T I O N , M O R T A L I T Y AND P R O P O R T I O N O F T H E S E X E S O F T H E D E A D OF H I S S A R I I I B

241

1 5 1 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA O F H I S S A R I I I A

242

1 5 2 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I I A

243

1 5 3 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I I B

244

1 5 4 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA O F H I S S A R I I I B

245

1 5 5 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I I B

246

1 5 6 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I I B

248

1 5 7 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA O F H I S S A R I I I B

249

1 5 8 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I I B

250

1 5 9 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA O F H I S S A R I I I C

252

1 6 0 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA O F H I S S A R I I I C

254

1 6 1 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA O F H I S S A R I I I C

256

1 6 2 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA O F H I S S A R I I I C

258

1 6 3 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I I I C

259

1 6 4 . M O R T U A R Y SCHEMA OF H I S S A R I I I C

261 [ SVILI ]

LIST

OF

I L L U S T R A T I O N S

FIGURE

PAGE

1 6 5 . T E P E H I S S A R B U R I A L S A C C O R D I N G TO A G E S

314

1 6 6 . G R A P H S S H O W I N G M O R T A L I T Y A N D P R O P O R T I O N O F T H E S E X E S FOR A L L P E R I O D S TEPE 167.

OF

HISSAR

314

G R A P H S S H O W I N G M O R T A L I T Y AND P R O P O R T I O N OF T H E S E X E S IN M O D E R N U . S . A . . . .

1 6 8 . SCHEMA OF CHRONOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS 169. SKETCH M A P OF THE N E A R EAST W I T H K E Y SITES MENTIONED 170. PLAN

OF THE

SASANIAN

B U I L D I N G AT T E P E

315 320

HISSAR

322 FACING

1 7 1 . K E Y M A P O F S A S A N I A N R E M A I N S AT T E P E H I S S A R

327 328

1 7 2 . M A P OF SASANIAN HILLOCK WITH P L A N OF ARCHITECTURAL R E M A I N S

329

173.

332

T H E C O L O N N A D E O F T H E S A S A N I A N B U I L D I N G AT T E P E H I S S A R

1 7 4 . FRAGMENT OF A P A I N T E D W A L L F O U N D IN R O O M 4 OF THE SASANIAN B U I L D I N G

336

1 7 5 . HYPOTHETICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF P A R T OF THE M U R A L F O U N D IN R O O M 4 OF THE SASANIAN BUILDING

337

1 7 6 . T H E S A S A N I A N B U I L D I N G AT T E P E H I S S A R : H Y P O T H E T I C A L R E C O N S T R U C T I O N B Y F I S K E K I M B A L L OF THE SOUTHEAST FACADE

349

1 7 7 . T H E S A S A N I A N B U I L D I N G AT T E P E H I S S A R : H Y P O T H E T I C A L R E C O N S T R U C T I O N BY F I S K E KIMBALL

OF T R A N S V E R S E AND L O N G I T U D I N A L S E C T I O N S

350

PLATE I . D A G G E R FROM THE B U R N E D B U I L D I N G O F H I S S A R I I I B II.

C U P A N D S H E R D S I N D A R K G R A Y ON B B O W N - R E D F R O M S H I R - E - S H I A N

2 18

III.

POTTERY VESSELS OF H I S S A R I A

88

IV.

POTTERY V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I B

89

V . POTTERY OF HISSAR I B VI.

90

POTSHERDS OF HISSAR I B

91

VII.

POTTERY V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I C

92

VIII.

P O T T E R Y VESSELS OF H I S S A R I C

93

IX.

POTTERY VESSELS OF HISSAR I C

94

X.

POTTERY VESSELS OF HISSAR I C

95

XI.

POTTERY V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I C

96 97

XII.

POTSHERDS OF H I S S A R I C

XIII.

POTSHERDS OF H I S S A R I C

98

XIV.

A . — H I S S A R I O B J E C T S O F B A K E D AND U N B A K E D CLAY

99

B . — H I S S A R I FIGURINES OF BAKED CLAY XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX.

99

H I S S A R I SEALS AND SEAL-SHAPED ORNAMENTS

100

HISSAR I COPPER OBJECTS

101

HISSAR I STONE OBJECTS

102

A — H I S S A R I STONE OBJECTS

103

B.—HISSAR

103

I

BONE OBJECTS

HISSAR I BEADS

104

XX.

P A I N T E D POTTERY OF H I S S A R I I A

141

XXI.

PAINTED POTTERY OF HISSAR I I A

142

XXII.

PAINTED POTTERY OF HISSAR I I A

143

XXIII.

G R A Y P O T T E R Y OF H I S S A R I I A

144

XXIV.

SURVIVING P A I N T E D POTTERY OF H I S S A R I I B [XIX]

145

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

PLATE

PAGE

XXV.

GRAY POTTERY OF HISSAR I I B

146

XXVI.

GRAY POTTERY OF HISSAR I I B

147

XXVII. XXVIII.

A . — H I S S A R I I O B J E C T S OF B A K E D AND U N B A K E D C L A Y

148

B . — H I S S A R I I B A K E D C L A Y F I G U R I N E S OF H U M A N B E I N G S

148

A . — H I S S A R I I A S E A L S AND S E A L - S H A P E D O R N A M E N T S AND H I S S A R I I B

COPPER

SEAL XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII.

149

B . — H I S S A R I I COPPER OBJECTS

149

HISSAR I I COPPER OBJECTS

150

A . — H I S S A R I I S I L V E R AND G O L D O B J E C T S

151

B . — H I S S A R I I BONE OBJECTS

151

HISSAR I I STONE OBJECTS

152

HISSAR I I BEADS

153

XXXIII.

HISSAR U I C ALABASTER FIGURINES F O U N D IN A W A R R I O R ' S GRAVE

XXXIV.

HISSAR I I I C

L A N C E B L A D E AND S H A F T O R N A M E N T S FROM H O A R D I

187 ON

THE

TREASURE HILL XXXV. XXXVI.

202

H I S S A R I I I C O R N A M E N T S PROM H O A R D I ON T H E T R E A S U R E H I L L

228

P O T T E R Y V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I I I A

262

XXXVII.

P O T T E R Y V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I I I B

263

XXXVIII.

P O T T E R Y V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I I I B

264

XXXIX.

POTTERY VESSELS OF HISSAR I I I B

265

XL.

POTTERY VESSELS OF HISSAR I I I C

266

XLI.

P O T T E R Y V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I I I C

267

XLII.

P O T T E R Y V E S S E L S OF H I S S A R I I I C

268

X I . I I I . POTTERY VESSELS OF HISSAR I I I C

269

XLIV.

270

XLV. XLVI.

H I S S A R I I I O B J E C T S O F B A K E D AND U N B A K E D C L A Y H I S S A R I I I F I G U R I N E S O F B A K E D AND U N B A K E D C L A Y H I S S A R I I I F I G U R I N E S OF S T O N E AND C O P P E R ; G O L D M O U F L O N H E A D ; VESSELS OF POTTERY

272

X L V I I . H I S S A R I I I H U M A N F I G U R I N E S O F A L A B A S T E R , B O N E AND C O P P E R XLVIII. XLIX.

271 EFFIGY 273

H I S S A R I I I C O P P E R W A N D S OR S Y M B O L S

274

H I S S A R I I I S T O N E S E A L S , B A K E D C L A Y S E A L S AND S E A L I M P R E S S I O N S

275

L . HISSAR I I I COPPER WEAPONS

276

L I . H I S S A R I I I C O P P E R O B J E C T S AND S H A F T O R N A M E N T S OF S I L V E R L I I . HISSAR I I I COPPER OBJECTS

277 278

LIII.

HISSAR I I I COPPER OBJECTS

279

LIV.

HISSAR I I I COPPER OBJECTS

280

L V . H I S S A R I I I L E A D O B J E C T S AND S I L V E R O B J E C T S L V I . HISSAR I I I GOLD OBJECTS LVII. LVIII. LIX. LX. LXI. LXII.

281 282

H I S S A R I I I C O P P E R V E S S E L S AND L E A D V E S S E L S

283

H I S S A R I I I S I L V E R V E S S E L S AND G O L D C U P

284

H I S S A R I I I C V E S S E L S OF A L A B A S T E R AND C O M M O N S T O N E

285

HISSAR I I I C ALABASTER VESSELS

286

HISSAR I I I C "MINIATURE COLUMNS"

287

H I S S A R I I I D I S K S O F A L A B A S T E R AND C O M M O N S T O N E

288

LXIII.

HISSAR I I I STONE OBJECTS

289

LXIV.

HISSAR I I I STONE OBJECTS

290 IXS]

LIST

OF

I L L U S T R A T I O N S

PLATE LXV.

PAGE 291

H I S S A R I I I B O N E AND H O R N O B J E C T S

LXVI.

HISSAR I I I BEADS

LXVII.

HISSAR I I I BEADS

293

LXVIII.

HISSAR I I I BEADS

294

LXIX.

HISSAR I I I BEADS

295

I.XX.

HISSAR I I I BEADS

296

LXXI.

292

E M O T I O N A L F E A T U R E S S U G G E S T E D BY S K E L E T A L P O S I T I O N S

317

SASANIAN PALACE COLUMN ORNAMENTATION

339

LXXIII.

SASANIAN PALACE P L A Q U E S WITH HYPOTHETICAL LOCATIONS

340

LXXIV.

SASANIAN P A L A C E STUCCO SCULPTURES

341

SASANIAN P A L A C E STUCCO ARCHIVOLT AND S O F F I T

342

LXXII.

LXXV. LXXVI. LXXVII. LXXVIII. LXXIX.

SASANIAN P A L A C E STUCCO ARCHIVOLTS

343

SASANIAN P A L A C E STUCCO A R C H I V O L T S AND S O F F I T S

344

SASANIAN P A L A C E STUCCO O R N A M E N T A T I O N OF D O O R S AND STUCCO F R I E Z E S . . . . SASANIAN P A L A C E STUCCO O R N A M E N T S , F R I E Z E , C O R N I C E S AND UNIT

345

WHEEL-SHAPED 346

[=i]

PLATE I

DAGGER FROM THE BURNED BUILDING OF HISSAR I I I B WITH RESTORATION.

SCALE 3 : 8

H 2 0 2 3 I s T H E F I E L D N U M B E R : P . 2 0 1 l a T H E P R I N C I P A L T E X T U A L R E F E R E N C E TO T H I S O B J E C T

I. THE EXPEDITION INTRODUCTION As soon as possible after the completion of an excavation, archaeological, t h a t is culture-historical, material ought to be made available in print to co-workers and to those of the general public who are interested in human development. A modern archaeological excavation, as compared with archaeological activities of the past century, has become as intricate and absorbing as other enterprises of our time, and elaborations are continuously taking place. Therefore, the field archaeologist does not have time for intensive library studies in order to follow up original sources. His camp library is necessarily limited. His duties in the field totally absorb his time and energy, if he is not assisted by an unusually large staff. Between seasons he has to prepare the results of the excavations for preliminary publications, and after the work is far enough advanced or completed, he has to combine all information for the final report. His direct duty consists in conscientiously excavating, recording, and publishing the contents of the culture deposit or deposits within the area of his activities. He attempts to link up his information with that obtained by neighboring excavations, but in many cases his results will be presented as raw material. Culture historians at home will combine all the results of various expeditions. Some will follow up individual culture features. Others will consider larger aspects. At any rate, there must be a division of labor. I n order to avoid delay in making excavation results available, the field worker must have the courage to be criticized or corrected, rather than keep his information from his coworkers until, after decades, his final results appear, at times as post mortems. T H E AIMS OF T H E IRANIAN EXPEDITION Terra Incognita has an irresistible fascination for the archaeologist. A girdle of archaeologically explored areas and oases, such as Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Anau, Kabul, the Indus Valley, and Elam, encloses the Iranian plateau. However, except for the information obtained mainly during the explorations of Ralph de Morgan, Ernst Herzfeld, and de Mecquenem and for the objects occurring sporadically in various museums, most ancient Iran was a sealed book to us. At last, in 1930, the government of Iran, under the wise and progressive rule of Reza Shah Pahlevi, passed an antiquity law which opened the country to intensive archaeological research. As soon as the antiquity law was passed, archaeological expeditions started work almost simultaneously in various parts of the country. The Oriental Institute expedition under E r n s t Herzfeld began to clear and partly to restore the royal building of Persepolis. Georges Contenau, under the auspices of the Louvre, worked at Tepe Giyan near Nehavend east of Kermanshah. Fredrick Wulsin tested Tureng Tepe near Asterabad for the

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University Museum of Philadelphia and the Kansas City Museum. Later T . J. Arne began operations in the same area. M. Upton, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of New York, started the excavation of Qasr Abu Nasr, a site near Shiraz, while Sir Aurel Stein explored the southern part of the country. The excavations of Susa in the Iranian border area of Elam were continued by de Mecquenem. A. Godard, the Director of the Antiquity Service, and A. U. Pope, Director of the newly founded American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, began painstaking surveys of historical monuments, while A. Godard, in addition, studied the extraordinary bronzes found in Luristan. 1 The Joint Expedition to Iran was sponsored by the University Museum, with Mrs. William Boyce Thompson as principal patroness, and by the Pennsylvania Museum of Art in Philadelphia. During the second season the American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology joined as co-sponsor. Our foremost aim was the excavation of a prehistoric deposit, Tepe Hissar, t h a t is Castle Hill, near Damghan, 361 kilometers east of Teheran. Professor Ernst Herzfeld had originally traced the site and suggested it for excavation. In addition we were to test the Citadel of Damghan and the environs of the town for the presence of Hecatompylos, one of the Parthian capitals. Due to climatic reasons, however, our activities in Iran could not start until the spring of 1931. Therefore, Mr. Horace H. F. Jayne, Director of the University Museum, suggested a short test of Tell Fara in Mesopotamia, in order to supplement the important results of the German expedition t h a t worked there in 1902-03. Professor Walter Andrae who was then in charge of the Fara excavations, courteously waved his priority in our favor. VOYAGE T O T H E EAST The members of the expedition left America in December 1930. The assistants, Derwood W. Lockard from the University of Chicago and Erskine L. White from the University of Pennsylvania, sailed on the Fabre Line directly to Istanbul, where Professor F. Schede courteously accommodated them in the German Archaeological Institute. The writer had to travel via Europe. In London he examined the Persian and Mesopotamian collections of the British Museum and had instructive talks with the Anthropologists, Sir Arthur Keith and W. M. Krogman, and with the Orientalist, Professor Gadd. In Paris he met the esteemed patroness of the expedition, Mrs. William Boyce Thompson. There was a conference with Professors Dussault and Contenau, and de Morgan's important Susa collection was examined. In Berlin Professor Andrae's advice as to conditions at Fara was of inestimable value. Equally important was the examination of the Fara finds in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum. The writer was courteously permitted to read the proofs of the publication on the German Fara expedition. I n Munich and Vienna the Academies of Science generously supplied him with publications on Iran otherwise difficult to obtain. 1

A. Godard, "Lea Bronzes du Luristan," in An Ariatica, X V I I , 1934. [5]

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On January 16, a t last, the whole expedition staff was assembled in Istanbul. After an enjoyable reunion with former fellow excavators of the Oriental Institute's Anatolian Expedition, we traveled on, via Konya, Adana, Aleppo and Carehemish to Nisibin. From here automobiles had to carry men and baggage to Mosul and Kirkuk, the northern head of the Iraq railway which finally brought us to Baghdad. For more than two weeks we had to contend with contractors and merchants while assembling the camp equipment and digging implements. Clever and efficient Mizrahi, a Baghdad contractor, was of great assistance to us. Here we also purchased our invaluable Ford truck, which proved to be a veritable "Ship of the Desert." I n Baghdad we also employed a chauffeur, Henry Bosauder, a foreman, Baba Georgis, and a cook. Mr. Lionel Smith, the Acting Director of Antiquities, as well as his successor, Dr. Julius Jordan, were extremely courteous and helpful; so were the curators of the I r a q Museum, Abdul Iiazak Effendi Lutfi and Selim Effendi Levi, and further, the American Vice-Consul, Mr. Livingston and the German Consul General, Mr. Litten, and Mrs. Litten. I n Baghdad the annual conference of field directors of Mesopotamian expeditions took place. The main purpose of these gatherings consists in bringing about friendly cooperation among the expeditions, an idea worth imitating in all other areas where geographical conditions allow it. At last, after trips in the vicinity of the town and to the excavations of H . Frankfort a t Tell Asmar and of F. Starr a t Nuzi, we were ready to start for Fara. T E S T OF T E L L FARA I N MESOPOTAMIA A field report on the results of this test has been published in the Museum Journal We are briefly summarizing the results of our soundings. The earliest stratum (Fara I) was accumulated during the Jemdet Nasr period. Wheelmade polychrome vessels painted black and purplish red on buff are the principal guide fossils of this time. F a r a I I was defined by cuneiform tablets of the Early Dynastic era. These have been published by our co-worker, S. N. Kramer.' T h e pottery of this period is plain and unattractive. T h e principal guide forms are inverted conoid bowls, short-necked cups with biconoid body and a flat disk base, while the short-necked pitchers have an oblong body and a convex base. The last occupational deposit (Fara I I I ) was attributed to the period of the Third Dynasty of Ur mainly on account of the occurrence of a cuneiform tablet dated " t h e year when Gimil Sin became king." T h e plain pottery closely resembles t h a t of F a r a I I , but the Fara I I I bowl has an off-set rim forming a neck, while the bowl-rim of F a r a I I is straight. Chronological differences shown by other categories of finds are explained in the preliminary publication mentioned above. 2 K. F. Schmidt, "Excavations a t F a r a , " in Museum Journal, X X I I , 3, 1931. Cf. also E r n s t Heinrich and Walter Andrae, " F a r a , " t h e final report of t h e German expedition published by t h e Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Vorderasiatische Abteilung. B S. N . Kramer, " N e w Tablets from F a r a , " in Journal of the American Oriental Society, L I I , 2, pp. 110-132.

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S U M M A R Y LOG OF T H E E X P E D I T I O N The expedition worked a t Fara from February until the beginning of M a y 1931. The F a r a finds were delivered to the Department of Antiquities in Baghdad and divided in 1932 between the Baghdad Museum and the expedition. On June 17,1931, we arrived in Damghan after the preliminaries, including the stocking up of supplies, were completed in Teheran. Work started on June 22 in the Citadel of

F I G . 2 . — T H E B E G I N N I N G O F E X C A V A T I O N S AT T E P E

HISSAR

Damghan, while the excavations a t Tepe Hissar began on July 19. The focal operations were temporarily interrupted by the test of Tepe Muman, and ended in November with the beginning of the rainy season. On December 20 we left for Teheran where we spent the winter working up the results of the first season. 4 In April 1932 the expedition staff made an instructive reconnaissance trip through Luristan to Dizful, Susa, Ahwas, Bushir, Shiraz, Persepolis and Isfahan. * Cf. the preliminary report, "Tepe Hissar Excavations, 1931," in Museum Journal, X X I I I , 4, 1933.

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The second excavation season started in May with the test of Tari(kh) Khaneh in the town of Damghan, followed by the continuation of the principal work a t Tepe Hissar. In mid-season the excavation had to be interrupted for ten days, due to the overwhelming number of burials and finds. In July the tests of Ruins Nareshan and Shir-e-Shian were made. In addition we made a trip to Meshed and across the northeastern mountains to Asterabad. The excavation stopped again in November. The finds were worked up and subsequently divided in Teheran in the same manner as were previously the objects of the first season. In the beginning of February 1933 the expedition started on its home voyage, spending eight days in the attempt to cross the snow-covered passes between Teheran and Baghdad. D I V I S I O N OF LABOR The duties of the scientific staff were approximately alike in Fara and in Damghan. The general organization and the administration were in the hands of the writer, who also catalogued the finds, recorded burials and part of the architecture, and was assisted in most phases of the work by the able archaeological assistant, Derwood W. Lockard, who in addition surveyed many excavated structures and removed the recorded burials. He took care of the extensive film files and the general office work. Erskine L. White, the architectural assistant, made a conscientious survey of the Sasanian palace and the plans of most of the prehistoric buildings. He made the technical description of the palace and assisted in describing the other architectural remains. K u r t Leitner made the excellent topographical survey of Tepe Hissar, the plan of the Damghan Citadel and of the town, and the maps of the vicinity of Damghan. St. Niedzwiecki and Boris Dubensky were the expedition photographers during the first and second season respectively. They did excellent work. Ivan Gerasimoff was our architecturally trained artist. He made drawings of every recorded object and paintings of particularly important finds. He restored stucco ornaments of the Sasanian palace and made theoretical reconstructions of the palace and of the burned buildings of Hissar I I I . We have to acknowledge the extraordinary amount of work accomplished by him. Mr. Ambaroff was our reliable and conscientious camp superintendent during the second season. Henry Bosauder, the chauffeur-mechanic, drove us across several thousand miles of deserts and mountains, and knew how to keep the Fords running, in spite of handicaps. Baba Georgis was the good head-foreman of the crew. H e had previously worked under Dr. W'aterman a t Seleucia. Khalil was the best sub-foreman; three men from Damghan occupied similar positions. The laborers were recruited from Damghan and from the neighboring villages. They are better than the Arab tribesmen of the Mesopotamian desert. Some were particularly able and could be trained for delicate jobs. I n the University Museum we have enjoyed the efficient cooperation of the Editor, Mr. E . Bioren Getze, and of Miss Mary Rogers Warren, attached to the expedition for its work a t home.

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F I G . 4 . — T H E CITADEL OF DAMGHAN FROM THE EASTERN MOAT

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II. TESTS OF DAMGHAN AND VICINITY' This publication deals mainly with the results of the work in the prehistoric and Sasanian strata of Tepe Hissar. We prefer, therefore, to postpone the detailed descriptions of the tests in the Islamic deposits and intend to append them to the descriptions of Islamic remains to be examined at Rayy (Rhages), near Teheran, by the Joint Expedition of the University Museum and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts which is now in the field. Damghan Citadel2 (Figures 4~7) In the town of Damghan we examined two sites, the Citadel and Tari(kh) Khaneh.

1)16 P.12 I'M.

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I t was our aim to determine whether pre-Islamic remains are present below the modern town, but we found no definite traces of an occupation ante-dating the Islamic period. In one test square inside the present Citadel enclosure we penetrated to the bottom of the culture deposit. We found several coins ranging, according to Mr. E. T. Newell, from the end of the 19th century to the loth century. One coin, found outside of the test square in the talus debris of the fortress wall, was identified as belonging to the time of the "Mongols of Persia, 13th century." We found objects of bronze, iron, glass and stone, in addition to some pottery vessels and great numbers of sherds which were recorded according to their relative depth. For the present we illustrate two glazed vessels only, apparently representing the most frequent 1

Cf. preliminary report, op. cit., maps on Plates LXXV and LXXVI. ' Ibid., plan on Plate LXXVII.

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types of ceramics in the upper part of the Citadel deposit. Simple lines, bands and loops in dark gray decorate the exterior of Bowl D 16 (found a t 2.3). The interior center is decorated with buds radiating from a stippled circle. The light brown surface and the primary decoration is covered with a greenish blue glaze, b u t the exterior bottom is left plain. The paste is light brown, medium. A coin (D 26) identified as "Persian 15th century" occurred .2 to .3 below the find level of the pot. Bowl D 56 occurred in a pit the orifice of which was about 1.7 below the top of the excavation. The surface glaze is grayish white with yellow stains, iridescent and crackled. I t covers a light and dark blue decoration, consisting of four bud-shaped units on the

D 56 P.12 F I G . 7 . — I S L A M I C V E S S E L FROM T H E C I T A D E L O F D A M G H A N .

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exterior and a six-pointed star in the center of the interior bottom. The paste is light brown, medium and porous. In the bottom layer of the test we noticed sherds with greenish blue glaze and very porous paste resembling frit. Tari(lch) Khaneh (Figures 8, 9) Before starting the second season a t Tepe Hissar we tested the interior of a ruined mosque called Tari Khaneh (God House) or Tarikh Khaneh (History House). Large baked bricks, closely resembling the bricks used in the Sasanian palace of Tepe Hissar' suggested t h a t the building had been constructed in early Islamic times, while the building methods of the Sasanian era still persisted. There was even a possibility t h a t Sasanian remains had been incorporated in the building. The test proved, however, t h a t below the floor of the court only Islamic remains occurred, except for a few plain sherds with dark gray and red shades found in the lowermost refuse. Their affiliation is doubtful, they may belong to a pre-Islamic period. Again, we must consider t h a t Sasanian objects were 3

Cf. p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , op. cit., p . 455 ff.

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M 47 P.IO

M 47

F I G . 1 0 . — I S L A M I C (15TH ? CENTURY) BOWL FBOM T E P E M U M A X . [14]

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PIG. 1 1 . — T E P E M U M AN FROM THE T O P OF THE FORTRESS MOUND

Vv v\ M 64 P.16 F I G , 12.—ISLAMIC (15TH ? CENTURY) BOWL FROM T E P E MUMAN. SCALE ABOUT 1 : 4

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M 65 P.16 F I G . 13.—ISLAMIC (15TH ? CENTURY) BOWL FROM T E P E MUMAN. S C A L E ABOUT 1 : 4

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certainly used for a considerable time after the Islamic conquest. On the completion of the test we concluded that Tari(kh) Khaneh is an early Islamic mosque and that no preIslamic remains of consequence (certainly not Hecatompylos) are below the present town of Damghan.

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F I G . 14.—PARTHO-SASANIAN P I T C H E R FROM NARESHAN.

Te-pe Muman (Figures

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10-13)

The test of this extensive ruin deposit, the principal elevation of which is called Tepe Muman, was rather sterile. A coin (M 55) may date the ruins. According to Mr. E. T . Newell, it belongs to the 15th century. Again we were disappointed in not finding preIslamic remains below the apparently one-occupational Islamic town. We illustrate three glazed bowls: M 47, purplish brown and green on pinkish brown; M 64, purplish brown and greenish yellow with light gray-brown on light brown; M 65, purplish brown and green with light pink on brown.

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Ruin Nareshan (Figures H, 15) The village Nareshan, about 3 kilometers northeast of Damghan, gave its name to the neighboring ruin hillocks and flat deposits which we tested. Although no directly datable objects occurred, we assume that the deposit was accumulated during the Sasanian period, or perhaps during the time of the Parthian empire. The ruins have the character of a temporary military camp, judging by the thin occupational refuse and ¡hillocks of fort-like appearance. Patches of Islamic ruins appear a t various points of the site. We illustrate two typical vessels: N 11 is plain with grayish white and red-brown shades. Sherds of similar type occurred in the environs of the Sasanian ruins a t Tepe Hissar. Pitcher N 6 is plain, yellowish brown. Ruin Shir-e-Shian

Nil FIG

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15 —PARTHO-SASANIAV C U P NARESHAN. SCALE 1 : 2

FROM

About 15 kilometers west of Damghan, near the village of Shir-e-Shian, dunes covered by innumerable sherds attracted our attention. The sherds closely resemble the ceramics of the earliest sub-phase (Hissar IA) of Tepe Hissar. They are handmade, either plain brown-red or decorated with simple geometrical patterns in dark gray on a brown-red wash or slip. On a few sherds very crudely drawn animals occur. The test, though quite extensive, did not reveal any constructions. We concluded, therefore, that the rather thin deposit was t h a t of a camp site. The type vessel (S 2) illustrated on Plate I I was found a t a depth of about .5. The handmade cup has a dark gray lozenge pattern on red-brown ground. We may add t h a t no metal objects or fragments whatsoever appeared during the test, while some copper objects were definitely associated with the earliest remains at Tepe Hissar.

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F I Q . 1 6 — M A P OF T E P E H I B S A B SHOWING P R I N C I P A L A R E A S EXCAVATED

III. THE EXCAVATION OF TEPE HISSAR INTRODUCTION (Figures 16-19)

In the preliminary report' we gave a short description of the town of Damghan, of the topography of Tepe Hissar and of the methods of approach. Little has to be added. We must mention, however, that the present report is based mainly on the results of the second working season which enabled us to establish a much more precise chronology than could be done during the initial operations. The three principal strata (Hissar I, I I and I I I ) defined in 1931, were further subdivided into sub-layers (Hissar IA, IB, IC; Hissar IIA and I I B ; and Hissar IIIA, I I I B and I I I C ) . We refer in this report to finds of the first season only when they supplement information obtained during the second year.

F I G . 1 7 . — T E P E H I S S A R FROM T H E S O U T H W E S T

At the same time we emphasize that, except for a few types of other objects, only the pottery could be attributed, with a fair degree of certainty, to definite sub-periods. Other objects which, on account of their burial associations with certain types of vessels, could also be attributed to sub-layers, are pointed out accordingly in the summary descriptions of the find categories within the strata. The map and two cross-sections of the site (Figures 16,18,19) show the horizontal extent of the deposit and the depth of the three main strata. The large squares (100 x 100 meters serve mainly as a survey grid, while the small squares (10 x 10 meters) are the actual excavation units. Those squares which were excavated during the two seasons are outlined on the map. 1

Op. cil., p. S25 ff.

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IV. HISSAR I T H E HISSAR I SETTLEMENTS (Figures 2 0 - 2 3 )

We mentioned in the preliminary report that the initial surface examinations clearly showed the presence of a stratum with painted pottery underlying a deposit characterized by gray ware.

F I G . 2 0 . — W O K K IN' T H E H I S S A R I S E T T L E M E N T S ( P L O T S D H 3 4 - 3 6 ,

43-46)

The stratum of painted pottery, Hissar I , did not reach to the surface at any point. Thin refuse crusts, burial layers, or house remains of the early gray ware stratum, Hissar I I , covered the remains of Hissar I at all spots where it was struck. This means that, as far as we know, the settlements of Hissar I at no point extended beyond the limits of Hissar I I (A). T h e thickness of Stratum I (cf. Figure 19) combined with the occurrence of [21]

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several occupational levels (that is, settlements), and with the ceramic development, all indicate a long and continuous occupation of the site during this period. We sounded Stratum I in twelve squares, scattered over the main complex of the site, but the most important information was obtained in Quadrant D H , where a series of seven connected plots (that is, seven hundred square meters, cf. Figure 21) were excavated from the surface to virgin soil where conditions permitted. In several test plots also virgin soil was reached, as marked on the mound cross-sections (Figures 18, 19). The sequence of Strata I , I I , and I I I was determined beyond doubt in Plots D F 09, D G 96-EG 06, and C F 42. I n these plots all strata of the mound were found superimposed. As to the remaining plots marked on the key map of Hissar I (Figure 21), comparison with the corresponding plan of Hissar I I (Figure 61) shows that here Hissar I I only was found on top of Hissar I. We do not know the full extent of the earliest settlements of Tepe Hissar. At two points only did we strike its edge. In Plot CG 25 a deep, stratified and sloping deposit of black refuse dirt, with thousands of Hissar I potsherds but rarely any wall remains, showed the typical situation encountered a t the margin of a settlement, where its trash is deposited. The second point is Plot CF 42. Here a thin refuse layer of Stratum I was admixed with the bottom layer of Hissar I I , suggesting definitely t h a t this point is beyond the margin of the actual Hissar I towns. Many years would have been required for the conscientious "slicing off" of the top strata in order to uncover extensive tracts of the Hissar I settlements. An entire working season would have been necessary solely to uncover Stratum I I I in its whole extent. Since, toward the end of the second working season, objects and information determining the culture contents of the Tepe Hissar strata repeated themselves continuously, we considered our task finished for the time being. Merely for the sake of obtaining complete plans of the successive settlements we would not advise the patron institutions to continue the operations a t the same site. According to our estimate, the Hissar I settlements covered an area with a diameter of roughly 200 meters, but it may actually have had an oval form of greater length, extending to the south as far as the twin hillock in Quadrant F F . The settlement complex excavated in Quadrant D H (Figures 22, 23) has the typical appearance of small Oriental ancient and modern towns, namely a maze of buildings, constructed without particular planning, expanding by means of arbitrary annexes, and separated by narrow crooked roads and passages. HISSAR I B U I L D I N G R E M A I N S (Figures 24-29)

The most important information as to the architecture of Hissar I was obtained in the seven associated plots excavated in Quadrant D H . There were no remains of outstanding or well-defined buildings. Thus we can describe the structural details only. The surface indicated that we might expect early remains of the gray pottery era, though the spot selected for this phase of the excavation was about two meters lower than [231

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the bases of the pronounced ruin elevations. Our assumption was verified by the sherds and by the burials with transitional Hissar I - I I (IIA) vessels, appearing in and below the top level (I). Any traces of period I I I were absent. Hissar I I sherds were mixed with decorated fragments showing the simple geometrical or conventionalized theriomorphic patterns of the late painted ware. M a n y burials were supplied with the stemmed gray vessels typical of Hissar I I , occurring in the same graves with late painted pots. Some burials had only gray ware, others only painted vessels. We are, therefore, quite sure t h a t Level 1 of this complex belongs to the transitional Hissar I - I I phase which we designate Hissar IIA. The first plan (Figure 24) shows the diagonally oriented building remains of two principal levels, Level 1 and the top of Level 2. This is due to technical reasons. I n cases where floors of one level are not well pronounced or not definable a t all, the excavator has to clear the top of the lower level to obtain a complete survey and description of the upper one. Furthermore, the belongings of those persons formerly living in the upper settlement had been given to the dead, whose graves extended, of course, into Level 2. Needless to say, the same phenomenon was encountered in all levels, and often a level was dated, relatively, by the contents of graves in the level below. The lower level (2) on Figure 24 belongs to the apparently most flourishing phase of Hissar I (C), while the corner of a building, in Plot D H 36, superimposed on Level 1 remains, may belong to a later phase, namely Hissar IIA. Sections

(Figure H)

The walls of these sections are built of sun-dried bricks, used in most prehistoric constructions of Tepe Hissar. The bricks are tempered with floral particles, presumably straw. The only additional wall type occurring in the prehistoric buildings consists of mud layers, with or without straw tempering. The latter wall type is called Chineh by the modern Iranians, a term we adopted ourselves. The bricks of Section I were laid transversely. No openings were noticed, though the heights of the walls averaged about four courses. Sections 3-5 (Figure 2Ji) The western corner of Section 1 is superimposed on Wall 3a of Level 1. T h e latter wall consists of one row of vertical bricks, and is continued by a broader wall foundation. A door (4a) connects Sections 3 and 4. A brick "pillar" is attached to it a t the northeastern side. Niche 4b (.25 height) extends into the northeast wall, while a "creephole" (4c) opens in the wall opposite the door. Such creepholes, t h a t is, openings close to the 1 We consider it sufficient t o give one detailed description of a n excavated structural complex with each s t r a t u m , i n a s m u c h a s architectural details are repeated in the other excavations. We call "sections" t h e subdivisions of buildings, such a s rooms, passages or indefinable divisions, in addition t o roads, courts, and so forth. Sections are numbered, while walls a n d other details adjoining t h e sections are designated b y letters in addition t o t h e section numbers. T h e metrical system is used for all measurements, for example, 1.035 stands for 1 meter, 3 centimeters a n d 5 millimeters.

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bases of the walls and large enough for an adult person to creep through, were quite frequently encountered in the later houses, particularly of Stratum I I I . The walls of Room 4 were preserved to a maximum height of 1.1. They were plastered with mud .01 to .05 thick. Since no brickmarks were noticed, we assume that these walls were built in Chineh fashion (cf. above). Irregular vertical fissures extend at unequal distances on the faces. A buttress (4d), such as is frequently noticed in buildings of all periods, is beside the southwest opening of the creephole. Section 5, a narrow annex of Section 4, opens into Section 3 only. The walls of this annex are constructed in the same fashion as those of the other rooms. Sections 6-7 (Figure 2k) These sections are part of a building extending into unexcavated territory. T h e y are superimposed on walls of Level 2. Some individual bricks were noticed on the outside of Wall 6a. The remainder is indistinct, and perhaps built in Chineh fashion. Sections 8-10 (Figure

Si)

These rooms belong to one building, in the same manner as Sections 3 - 5 and 6 - 7 are associated. The northeast border of Room 8 consists of a rather low foundation of vertical bricks. I t does not extend as deep as the bases of the other walls. Perhaps it was added during the later occupation of Rooms 1 and 2. The remaining walls appear to be Chineh. An inner buttress (8a) leans toward the southwest wall. Sections 9 and 10 are again built in Chineh fashion, except for a curved wall fragment in Section 10. I t may have been part of a bin or of a destroyed grave enclosure (?). I t is composed of vertical bricks with irregular contours. I t is possible that Wall 9a existed during Level 2 occupation and was re-used by the later settlers. Sections 11-21 (Figure Zli) Groups of rooms and wall fragments form a complex apparently comprising several houses. Section 11 is an extensive enclosure, perhaps a courtyard, including two bin-shaped constructions with thin walls (12 and 13). While these bins are constructed of brick fragments, the remaining walls seem to be Chineh. Such walls also enclose Sections 15 and 16, while Section 14 has again the character of a bin, enclosed on one side by upright brick fragments. Patches of the walls of Sections 15 and 16 are covered with common mud plaster. From where it had fallen, a white material is visible. Section 17 is open toward the southwest, but no opening connects it with any of the adjacent rooms. Underlying wall tops of Level 2 appear at the wall bases and crop out toward the southwest. The situation in Sections 18 to 20 is somewhat complicated. T h e Chineh walls of Section 18 are not clearly separated from those of the lower level. Again, Walls 19a, b, and c are built of bricks, though the contours of the latter are not distinct. T h e wall [28]

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separating Sections 19 and 20 seems to be a re-used wall of Level 2. I t is built in Chineh fashion, in the same manner as the lower southeast wall of Section 19, abutting Wall 20a. The remaining walls of Section 20, enclosing the best preserved room of Level 1, are built of bricks. The northwest wall stood .9 high. I t seems to be constructed of two rows of bricks laid lengthwise. (Dimensions of one of these: Length .5; Breadth .26; Height .11.) The floor is simply hard-tramped dirt, as in all prehistoric structures where the floors were a t all definable. A rectangular buttress is in the southeast corner, while a somewhat stronger one is in the center of Wall 19b. Below the floor of Section 21 several skeletons occurred which were oriented in a uniform manner. The thin walls of this room are rather indistinct. They appear to be built in Chineh fashion. Sections 22-27 (Figure 24) These sections are uncertain as to their stratigraphic position, they may belong to Level 1 or 2. All enclosures of this complex are built in Chineh fashion, but the mud of Walls 23a and 22 is mixed with rubble on their southeast faces. Cross-sections of these walls show interchanging layers of rubble and dirt, while the northwest faces show the normal mud plastered fronts. A well-defined doorway without socket stone connects Rooms 23 and 25. Passage 24 is blocked by a thin wall in the southeast. Section 27 is actually part of Section 11. Sub-level 2a (Figure 25) In intricately superimposed building complexes one seldom succeeds in separating accurately all structural remains into positions correct in relation to structures above and below. We had sliced off Level 1, intending to obtain pure Level 2 remains, but it appeared t h a t buildings of intermediate Level 1-2 origin existed. To these structures belong Sections 28 and 29, and 30 to 41. In several instances, as in Sections 31, 32 and so forth, it is clear t h a t Level 1 rooms had been accurately built on the foundations of the lower sub-layer. Section 41 consists of badly defined wall fragments only. The southeastern continuation obviously extends across walls of Levels 2 and 3, and is separated from them by a refuse layer. The walls of Sections 28 and 29 are mud plastered. Small subdivisions occur in Section 29. They were perhaps the sites of fireplaces, storage pots, bins, or the like. In Sections 30 to 37 no brickmarks are visible. It seems that this entire series has walls of Chineh type. In Section 38 to 40, however, definite bricks, irregularly staggered, form the walls. In the eastern corner of Section 39 a roughly trapezoid construction suggests a fireplace. Its walls, .6 to .7 high, are burned yellow and red. The bottoms of the two subdivisions are roughly oval depressions. The dividing wall rises little above the floor. [29]

[31 1

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Bricks in the southwest wall of Section 39 had the following characteristics:—color: grayish brown, common mudbrick shades; joints: .01 to .07 irregularly staggered; approximate dimensions: .47 x 26 x . l / . l l ; .49 x .23 x . l / . l l ; - x .25 x .1 / . l l . Level 2 (Figure 26) In the maze of structural remains of Level 2 only two narrow lanes (Sections 68 and 78) could be defined. As in modern Oriental towns they zigzag with unequal breadth between the buildings. Clusters of irregular enclosures form the houses, which in a few cases only can be defined individually. Tentatively we may distinguish the following house complexes:—Complex I : Sections 42 to 48, and 51; Complex I I : Sections 49, 50, 52 to 59; Complex I I I : Sections 60 to 67 and 70; Complex IV: Section 69. The wall remaining east of Road 78 may have formed several more buildings. Complex I Doors were defined only in a few rooms of Level 2. The wall remains were too low, or such walls that might have had openings have disappeared. A rectangular niche was in the southeast wall of Section 46. I t may have been a walled-up doorway. Only in Section 42 were some brick contours noticed. The remaining walls are Chineh, covered in most cases with smooth fire-darkened mud plaster. The latter often guided the laborers in tracing walls. Complex

II

A well-defined fireplace, shallow and circular, appeared somewhat above the floor of Section 53. I t was covered by a hard fire-reddened mud crust. A thin mud wall separated Sections 53 and 52, while a rectangular doorway through a wall of similar material opened into Section 54. The latter, in its turn, was connected with Passage (?) 49 by a doorway, the mud sill of which was preserved. In Section 49 two opposed buttresses (a and b) suggest that, at some time, this section was a passage between two houses, later perhaps blocked by the walls of Section 50. Similar buttresses occur on the outside of Wall 52a, and another at the fire-reddened outside of Wall 56a. Sections 58 and 57 are connected by a neatly smoothed rectangular doorway still .85 high and .5 wide. Complex

III

The Chineh walls of this complex are well plastered. Rectangular doorways connect Section 61 with the road (78), Section 63 with 64, 64 with 66 and with 70. An unusual, irregular oval doorway (65a) connects Rooms 65 and 66. A well-defined rectangular window, .65 wide and preserved to a height of .4, is in the center of Wall 65b, approximately 1.2 above the floor. [32]

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Complex IV Section 69 is enclosed by the typical outside wall of a building, or rather of a courtyard. Rectangular buttresses strengthen it at irregular intervals. At places it is evident that single bricks laid lengthwise form the rather thin wall. The northern and northeastern walls of Section 70 also show the contours of rectangular bricks. The remaining walls east of Road 78 are incoherent, due in part to the presence of superimposed walls of Level 2a which we did not remove for lack of time. Buttressed wall fragments appeared in Sections 71 and 72, which are connected by a well-defined rectangular doorway with smoothly plastered, rounded mud jambs. Bricks are definitely marked in the walls of the passage-like Sections 74 and 75. A rectangular fireplace of Level 2 occurred below the floor level of Section 37 (Level 2a). Its depression, enclosed as usual by a thin mud wall, is about .1 deep. A trapezoid hearth .3 to .4 deep, leaned against a wall fragment of Level 2 below Section 40 of Level 2a. Sections 79 and 80, the latter supplied with a buttress, have passage characteristics. Levels 3 and i (Figure 27) Had we been able to remove Level 2 and to clear Level 3 to its entire extent, the latter would give approximately the same impression as the upper settlement. As it is on the plan, only individual walls and some rooms are well marked below the structures of Level 2. Level 4 is represented by wall fragments only. At least they indicate that stable quarters were built by the first occupants of the site, though the first settlement seems to be less compact than the subsequent ones. As to the chronological position of the levels under consideration, Level 4 belongs to the earliest phase of Hissar I, namely Hissar IA, while a mixture of IA and IC sherds appeared in Level 3 in addition to fragments of a type not occurring in either sub-phase, but more closely related to IC than to IA. Sherds and vessels of this sub-type we called IB, (cf. Hissar I Pottery, page 39 ff.) and we may tentatively attribute Level 3 to this sub-phase of Hissar I. In the same manner as all superimposed buildings in the area under consideration, and, as a matter of fact, in all strata of the site, the walls of Levels 3 and 4 extend diagonally to the main directions. The bases of the Level 2 walls are at times .5 above the tops of the Level 3 walls. Again, instances occur in which the walls of the two levels are directly superimposed. Still, the level differences at certain points suggest that parts of the site were temporarily deserted between occupations. There are, of course, simple explanations for such a phenomenon. Section 81 of Level 3 has the same appearance as the Chineh-built parts of Level 2. Sooted mud plaster covers the walls. A rectangular doorway with mud plastered Chineh jambs and sill opens through one wall. The building fragments of Level 4 in the vicinity of, and below, Section 81 are also mud plastered Chineh walls. A roughly oval fireplace with thin, fire-reddened walls, .1 to .25 high, and situated [38]

[34]

HISSAR

JilitLrei

I

BUILDING

REMAINS

s

/Yu&riaf

uaii

ft ¿eo-cl

CKt-neA. ualL

2.

^¿eueiä

*C/jine/( Matt of Levei 4

Excavation

Bottom.

F I G . 28.—CHOSS-SECTION OF SUPERIMPOSED L E V E I Ä ( 2 TO 4 ) I N P L O T D H 3 k

[35]

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below Section 46 of Level 2, was attributed to Level 3. Northwest of Section 67, Level 2, again, superpositions of Levels 2, 3, and 4 were present. Doorways were preserved in both lower levels. In Level 3 a lintel was preserved. I t was only .9 above the sill. A rectangular window, .75 wide and preserved to a height of .55, was .3 west of the door. The lintel of the latter was about flush with the sill of the window. The situation of superpositions was repeated below Section 69 of Level 2. Section 84 (Level 3) contained a well-preserved rectangular hearth .2 deep and consisting of two divisions. In the occupational layer of Level 3, below Section 67 of Level 2, two handmade storage vessels occurred. They were roughly semi-oval and decorated with dark gray "ladders" and hourglass figures on red ground. Sherds of such storage vessels, frequently ornamented with solid lozenge patterns, seem to occur as late as Hissar IC. Two firepots rather than fireplaces stood in Section 82. They were shallow circular depressions enclosed by brittle, red-brown pottery shells. Below Section 56 of Level 2 an interrupted single course of bricks (.25 broad and of unknown length) showed one of these relatively rare instances of the use of such building units, instead of the Chineh type of construction more common during the earlier phase of Period I . Another Level 3 wall, below Section 55 of Level 2, was also constructed of bricks (Length .47; Breadth .235; Heightca. .1), and brick contours were found even on the Level 4 wall in the same section. F I G . 2 9 . — F I R E P L A C E O P L E V E L 3 OR 4 B E L O W SECTION 6 4 O F L E V E L 2 . Section 86 includes a well-defined room of SCALE 1 : 2 0 Level 3. There are door openings in two walls which are constructed in Chineh fashion. An oval fireplace, with reddened walls about .2 high, leans against one of the enclosures. Section 85 is built of well-preserved Chineh walls, mud plastered as usual and interrupted by rectangular door openings. A rectangular creephole rather than a doorway (roughly .8 x .35) extends through the southwest wall of the Level 3 room below Section 70 of Level 2. There are also traces of a circular reddened firehole in the center of this room .1 deep. A crushed, charred cooking pot lay close by. An ordinary doorway with curved mud jambs opened through the southeast wall of this room. Below Section 64 of Level 2 another well-defined fireplace occurred somewhat under the assumed floor of Level 3 (Figure 29). I t may have belonged to Level 3 or 4. The wall section of Level 3 in Plot D H 36 are again Chineh constructions.

7

-

HISSAR I B U I L D I N G REMAINS UNCOVERED I N T E S T P L O T S (Figures 30, 31)

In all test plots shown on the Key Map of Hissar I (Figure 21) fragments of Hissar I buildings appeared, except for Plot CF 42, which apparently is situated outside the occupied area of that time. In Plot CG 25, as we mentioned above, a very few wall remains

occurred; these were covered by stratified masses of black refuse dirt. Here the northern edge of the Hissar I settlements seems to have been struck. A short description of the remains in Test Square DG 69 (Figures 30, 31) will have t o suffice as an example of the situations encountered in the other plots. 2 The upper level showed incoherent wall sections only. Slight differences of depth suggested two building phases. Wall l b may have been built during the early phase (IIA) of Period I I . A thick refuse layer separated this wall from the underlying burials of 2 The information obtained in those plots is included in the sections on the other categories of Hissar I finds. The plans a n d descriptions are on file in the University Museum, Philadelphia.

[37]

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J A — T I T 27 *

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' -3 •> — V ^ T L . — — "

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f

'

H I S S A R

il

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H CROSS-SECTION

M

H I S S A R

I

P O T T E R Y

Hissar I C . Faint blockmarks appeared on Walls l a and lb. In the bottom layer of the excavation of 1931, gray ware was entirely absent. This fact, combined with the occurrence of I C burials in the lower part of the same layer, proves that it had accumulated during Hissar I C . A small enclosure (2) only contained the typical I I A mixture of gray and late painted ware. During the second season the formerly exposed remains were removed in order to penetrate to the lower levels, and, finally to the mound base. Below the floor of the old excavation we noticed that the rather light-colored painted pottery of I C and I B began to be displaced by the gray-on-red ware of Hissar IA. Burials of I C still appeared, imbedded in the earlier refuse, on top of the walls and in the rooms of Level 2, which the sherd contents definitely determined as Hissar IA. The floors of the Level 2 rooms were about four meters below the surface of the Painted Pottery Flat. The plan shows two sub-levels, but the ceramic situation does not seem to parallel the architectural conditions. There are rather neat, diagonally oriented rooms, regular as a rule, and enclosed by thin walls. These are Chineh walls, as are most of those of the upper level in this plot. Many wall faces were coated with smooth clay layers, which aided in defining the courses, otherwise difficult to trace. T h e plan of Level 2 suggests parts of a private house, composed of many rooms which are grouped around a small courtyard (4), while an open square or a street (15) may be situated to the northeast. The purposes of the rooms are not known. Several broken storage vessels, painted gray on brown-red stood in Room 1. No other stationary equipment was noticed. A large ring weight of stone lay about 1.5 above the floor of Room 11. I t belonged either to Level 1 or it had lain on the roof of the Level 2 room. From an undetermined height a well or refuse pit (13) extends into virgin soil. T h e lower sublevel (marked black on plan) of Level 2 shows a single room (3) with a rectangular, subdivided fireplace, in addition to some wall fragments in the southwest corner of the plot. In the remaining test plots the architectural remains gave no additional information, although the occupational levels always formed the frame work for the general recording system. HISSAR I P O T T E R Y VESSELS General

Characteristics

(Figures 3 2 - 4 3 ; Plates I I I - X I I I )

The ceramics of Hissar I are decorated with mat painted patterns, in contrast to the gray, unpainted vessels of the succeeding periods, a few surviving types with simple decoration excepted. The period of painted pottery proper is subdivided into three definite phases defined partly by a change in technique, and mainly, by changes in design. Several vessel forms, though elaborated in the course of time, stay fundamentally the same from the beginning to the end of the era of painted pottery and persist even to the end of Hissar I I , the period [30]

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of early gray ware. T h e final phase of painted ceramics falls into t h e beginning of Period I I (IIA), during which it persisted for a time, disintegrating 3 in design, in t h e end to be displaced almost entirely by t h e plain gray ware of Period I I . During Period I only chalice-shaped and conoid vessels occur, and the range of variants is small. They include stemmed jars and goblets, stemmed or conoid bowls and cups, and conoid storage vessels. T h e subdivisions of the series of painted p o t t e r y are defined as follows: Hissar I A : H a n d m a d e vessels decorated with simple rectilinear or, less f r e q u e n t l y , curvilinear designs. Animal p a t t e r n s are absent. T h e decoration is dark gray on a brown-red ground. Hissar I B : Wheelmade vessels, together with a few h a n d m a d e Hissar I A pots. Gazelles, and especially rows of birds and h u m a n beings, appear during this sub-phase. T h e m o s t characteristic p a t t e r n is a floral scroll or palmette. T h e decoration is d a r k brown, except for t h e vessels of Hissar IA type, while the ground is usually light brown. Hissar I C : Wheelmade vessels with d a r k brown decoration on a light grayish brown ground. T h e guide p a t t e r n is t h e ibex, while felines (leopards presumably) appear toward t h e end of this sub-phase. Hissar I I A : Wheelmade vessels with t h e same color scheme as those of Hissar I C . Gray-on-brown-red pots occur, t h e p a t t e r n s of which closely imitate t h e designs of the Hissar IA ware. R e d or brown vessels, often with flakedoff slip, are also found. Highly conventionalized gazelles with exaggerated necks and leopards, disintegrated in p a r t , b u t often identical with those appearing a t the end of Hissar I C , are f r e q u e n t in Hissar I I A . T h e gray vessels associated with t h e last painted ceramics are identical with those of Hissar I I B . Hissar IA Pottery Vessels (Figures 32, 33; Plate

III)

I n the preliminary report 4 on the work of the 1931 season, J a r H 1522 has been pointed out as one of the principal clues for t h e presence of an early Hissar I layer characterized by h a n d m a d e pottery. During t h e second season, wherever we p e n e t r a t e d to virgin soil, pottery of this type was associated with the deepest burials, and t h e h a n d m a d e , gray-onbrown-red potsherds filled the bottom layer. T h e j a r under consideration, and also t h e forms of t h e bowls, goblets and cups of Hissar IA are the definite prototypes of t h e entire ceramic series as late as Hissar I I , a fact easily verified by a comparison of t h e illustrations. T h e surface of J a r H 1522 is covered with a smooth b u t irregular brown-red wash or slip. T h e paste is buff-brown of medium fineness. Five dark gray branch p a t t e r n s and one panel with oblique undulating lines ornament the upper body, while series of two and three oblique dashes decorate the base. s D i s i n t e g r a t e is used h e r e in its literal sense. T h e d e s i g n r e f e r r e d t o a p p e a r s first a s a well d e l i n e a t e d f e l i n e b u t in H i s s a r I I A b r e a k s u p i n t o s e p a r a t e e l e m e n t s a n d b e c o m e s so c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d t h a t , w e r e is n o t f o r its p r o t o t y p e , it w o u l d b e a l m o s t u n r e c o g n i z a b l e .

' Op. nil., p p . 344, 353 a n d Pis. L X X X I V , L X X X V I I .

[40]

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P O T T E R Y

H 3446 P 42 FIG. 3-2.—HISSAR I A BOWL ( C G 9 5 , X - 2 4 ) .

H 3441 P 42

SCALE 1 2

H 3453 P 42

F I G . 3 3 — P O T T E R Y VESSELS OF HISSAR I A ( H 3 4 4 1 - C G 9 5 , X - 2 3 ; H 3 4 5 S - C G 9 5 , X - 2 C ) .

[411

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Simple zigzag patterns ornament t h e exteriors of t h e Hissar IA bowls here illustrated (H 3446, dark gray on brown-buff; H 3453, d a r k gray on red-brown; H 4735, dark grayish brown on red-brown; and H 5196, dark gray on brown-red). Inside decoration, such as the curvilinear cross on H 4735, is quite f r e q u e n t on IA vessels, while it is rare on vessels of t h e later groups. Dashes are painted on t h e hollow conoid bases. T h e paste of these vessels is red-brown, medium to fine, and medium. T h e goblets (H 2046, gray-brown on red-brown; H 4243, dark gray-brown on redbrown) of Hissar IA show a type of decoration identical with t h a t of t h e jars a n d bowls. Thick or thin zigzags cover the outer b o d y ; in one case four, and in t h e other case three, dashes ornament the base; a cross-shaped figure of straight and curved lines decorates t h e inside of H 4243. T h e color of t h e decoration of H 2046 is brown rather t h a n gray. T h e forms of jars, bowls and goblets of Hissar I A survive into later times; b u t also t h e most frequent cup decoration of the entire era of painted pottery, namely radiating vertical lines, exists already during the earliest phase. I n addition, t h e cup shape also survives, b u t the conoid cups of Hissar IA tend to be t r u n c a t e d a t t h e slightly concave base. Beside simple line decorations, series of zigzags, cross-hatched bands, " b r a n c h e s , " and waves occur. I n one case (H 4819, dark gray on brown-red) three bands filled with vertical dashes form the decoration, while two suspension holes perforate t h e rim. Cross-shaped figures again ornament the interiors of several cups, while small symbols of problematical meaning appear on the inside of some specimens such as H 3441. Only one, crude, brownred cup was noticed without decoration. I n the Section on the test of Shir-e-Shian (page 17) we mentioned t h a t t h e occupation of t h a t site corresponds in time to Hissar IA. A t Shir-e-Shian we found some a t t e m p t s a t animal patterns. Otherwise the technique, form and decoration of t h e Hissar I A vessels and those of the camp site are identical. We may state here t h a t we consider the chalice, appearing in t h e earliest occupational layer of Tepe Hissar, an advanced form. Thus, although Hissar IA vessels are t h e prototypes of a long series of Tepe Hissar ceramics, Hissar IA forms originally developed somewhere else. Hissar IB Pottery Vessels (Figures 34-36; Plates

IV-VI)

T h e most decisive differences between t h e vessels of Hissar IA and I B are t h e wheel technique and the animal patterns of Hissar I B , contrasted with t h e h a n d m a d e pots of Hissar IA, decorated solely with simple geometrical designs. However, it seldom happens t h a t a cultural phase simply breaks off, to be followed b y a totally different culture complex. We mentioned t h a t t h e forms of Hissar I A vessels persisted for some time. Furthermore, there were graves containing typical Hissar IA vessels, in addition to pots with Hissar I B characteristics. Again, there were burials which, according to their position, could not belong to the earliest sub-phase of Hissar I, although Hissar IA vessels occurred with them. T h e group of objects obtained under such conditions we classified as Hissar IB. T h e y are dealt with in t h e sections on Hissar I B ,

[42]

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AR

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P O T T E R Y

H 3461 P.44 F I G . 3 4 . — H I S S AH I B JAII ( C O 95, X - 2 8 ) .

[43]

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because even the typically Hissar IA vessels were used after the beginning of the new subphase. Several Hissar IA bowls and cups belong to this series. The handmade dark gray on brown-red Bowl H 4702, for instance, occurred in the same grave (DH 46 X-13) with the wheelmade dark brown on light brown Bowl H 4719, which represents a definite transitional type, as explained below. Bowl H 4702 has the characteristic zigzag pattern, the interior design and the color combination of Hissar IA. However, we have to mention here that we found similar zigzag patterns with similar colors among the wheelmade vessels (with flaking surface) in the last phase of painted ceramics (Hissar IIA). The rather unusual, large Bowl H 3467, with Hissar I technique, design and colors, occurred with the ibex Cup H 3464 (cf. below). The find-spots of the Hissar IA Bowls H 2093 and H 2092 attributed these vessels to Hissar IB. The grave in which they occurred (DG 69 X-26) was above the layer of Hissar IA. The handmade Bowl H 2093 has a typical Hissar IA design of cross-hatched panels on the outer body with four series of dashes on the base. The color of the decoration is brown, while the ground is red-brown and light brown. The color of the inner decoration is purplish brown, and the paste is buff-brown, medium to fine. A horizontal, hatched zigzag band decorates the outer body of Bowl H 2092, while three series of lines are on the base. This handmade vessel has the dark gray-on-brownred colors of the Hissar IA pottery and the paste is red-brown of medium fineness. The handmade Hissar IA cups, belonging to the Hissar I B group and decorated with lines radiating from the bottom, or from a point a little above, to the base, are identical with Cup H 3454, illustrated with Hissar IA. The jars of Early Hissar I B show one rather typical feature of the ceramic group under consideration. While the ground color of the Hissar IA vessels has as a rule pronounced red shades, it becomes brown or light brown, sometimes with buff, during Hissar I B , while during Hissar IC the ground tends to be light grayish brown, a t times almost grayish white. Jars H 2056 and H 3461 have each three pairs of suspension holes near the rim, a feature noticed in many jars of Hissar I B and IC. The brown decoration of the handmade Jar H 2056 consists of six panels filled with horizontal lines, and three series of dashes on the base. The wheelmade Jar H 3461 is painted dark brown on a smooth brown ground. Four broad, branch patterns, separated in each case by a series of three or four hatched and wavy bands, decorate the upper body, while three series of lines are on the base. The remaining vessels of this group are wheelmade. The decorations have gray or brown shades, while the ground is light brown or brown-buff. The buff ground of H 2057 is interrupted by grayish white patches. The favorite motive of Hissar I C , the ibex, appears here for the first time. One bowl (H 2063) and two cups (H 2057 and H 3464) are ornamented with three or four ibex panels separated by paired branch patterns, perhaps symbolizing the forest. The long, curved horns of the ibexes partly enclose a design which we consider sun symbols. Superimposed dots, lines or angles extend from the belly of the animals to the ground. We are doubtful as to the chronological position of Cup H 2091. Certain marks suggest wheel technique, and the ground color, buff and light brown shades, is most fre[44]

H I S S A R

I

»2057

P O T T E E Y

P.44

F i o . 35.—HISSAR I B CUP ( D G 6 9 , X - 2 5 ) .

SCALE 1 : 1

[ B BOWL ( D G 6 9 , X - 2 6 ) .

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quently encountered on the vessels of the Hissar I B layer. The burial in which this cup occurred (DG 69 X-24) was imbedded in Hissar IA refuse, and the gray decoration, consisting of three cross-hatched panels, is a distinct Hissar IA pattern. We tentatively attributed the vessel to the later phase under consideration, Hissar IB. Seven groups of parallel angles, bordered below by a band with lozenge filling, are painted in dark brown on the buff and grayish white ground of Cup H 2060. I t is a typical vessel of Hissar IB, though the main pattern, namely the series of parallel angles, is frequent during Hissar IC. The color scheme of Cup H 3066 is t h a t of Hissar IA. This design, too, is rather closely allied to the early ware. Stains and paired waves decorate the interior. Wheel marks are suggested by certain striations. The vessel may belong to either IA or IB. Certain design elements of the Hissar I B phase were only found on potsherds showing the same color scheme as the vessels above-described. The most interesting series of such design fragments occurring solely in this layer, so far as we know, pictures parts of plants and trees with scroll-shaped branches. One sherd (DH 36,14b) is decorated with hatched bands ending in bud-shaped figures (snake symbol?). There are fragments with ibexes discharging excrement (DH 35, 27 and D H 44, 22a) and another with an unusual ibex pattern (DH 34, 3c). The group of bird designs is interesting because it shows phases of conventionalization. 5 Due, apparently, to the playfulness of the pottery makers, the rather naturalistic bird pattern was already, to a certain extent, conventionalized during Hissar IB. Hissar IC Pottery Vessels (Figures 37-lfS; Plates

VII-XIII)

The chronological position of vessels within the era of painted pottery as a whole, compared with the ceramics of the succeeding periods is, of course, established beyond doubt. Due, however, to the more delicate differences of the vessels within the subgroups, there are quite frequently individual specimens or entire grave equipments which, even after conscientious testing of find conditions and comparisons with established earlier and later types, can only tentatively be attributed to a particular sub-phase. Hissar IA vessels are rather easily definable, due to pronounced distinctions in technique and design, but only so far as they occur in the lowermost remains. Already in the Hissar I B group, vessels with doubtful chronological position occur. There are IA pots which may actually represent surviving types. Others, attributed to the transitional phase due to the find conditions, may have been deposited with a person disposed of on some elevated point of the occupational IA level. Such a grave would reach into the superimposed layer of the Hissar I B occupants, or even higher up, and we would not attribute it to any sub-phase earlier than IB. Again, some vessels had to be attributed to the transitional phase because of their find-spots, although they are actually identical as to technique, type of design and ground color, with pots of the I C series. There are only a few absolute guide 1

Cf. also preliminary report, op. dl„ PI. L X X X V I I I a n d Bowl H 1126 with h u m a n "dancers," PI. L X X X V I I .

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features, such as the naturalistic plant and bird patterns, which occur solely during this transitional phase. Thus the group of vessels attributed to Hissar I C may include specimens of Hissar I B and others of the final phase (IIA) of the painted pottery era, overlapping with the beginning of Period I I . The brown-red ground of the I A vessels became buff or light brown during I B , and was finally displaced, to a large extent, by the light grayish brown or even grayish white surface of the I C vessels. The well executed ibex (cf. Bowl H 4600) is one of the guide patterns of IC, though there are ibexes on I C pots almost identical with those painted on certain Hissar I B vessels. Felines at various stages of conventionalization appear first toward the end of Hissar I C , while gazelles may already occur on I B patterns. T h e forms of the earlier ware persist, as we mentioned above, but modifications occur, and certain I B and particularly I C vessels are more graceful than the earliest ware, due to the superior technique. All vessels of I C are wheelmade, except a few doubtful pots of IA type and some cups. We emphasize here that we did not notice a single polychrome vessel or sherd in any substratum. Only one pigment was employed for decoration in each case. Bowl H 4600 is a type vessel of this series. The upper exterior body is decorated with bearded ibexes. Their curved horns enclose sun symbols. Wavy bands extend from their bellies to the ground, paired branch patterns separate the three panels, and four groups of lines ornament the base. The color scheme is dark gray on light grayish brown. The surface is smooth, while the paste is light brown, medium to fine. T h e ibex pattern of Bowl H 4544 (dark gray-brown on light grayish brown) is not so well executed. Series of parallel zigzags separate the five panels. Dots fill the space within the horn curves; wavy lines indicate the beard; the usual lines extend from the belly. Felines hunting gazelles are shown on Bowl H 3366. T h e felines are probably leopards. Dots mark their fur and the hair on the long curved tail. T h e gazelles are in solid black. Rows of dots extend from the bellies of the felines and gazelles to the ground. I t seems that these animals, as well as most of the other ibexes and gazelles with rows of dots or dashes below their bellies, are shown staling. T h e hourglass-shaped element between one feline and a gazelle may represent a rock, or the like, behind which the feline is waiting for its prey. Weaves, straight lines and dashes ornament the rest of the bowl. T h e decoration is dark brown on a smooth, light brown ground. Bowl H 4502 (dark brown on light grayish brown) is decorated with a rather naturalistic feline pattern, though we must admit that the "leopards" resemble monkeys as well. We hesitated to attribute Bowls H 4478, H 4479 (both dark brown on light grayish brown) and H 5136 (dark brown on light buff-brown) to Hissar I C . T h e first two mentioned occurred in a grave (X-10) below the floor of the Hissar I C level (2) in Plot D H 44, while H 5136 was imbedded in I C refuse in CG 25. Identical designs occur during the transitional Hissar I - I I phase (IIA). The attractive design of H 4479 shows four superposed bands with felines. The head is barely indicated. T h e tail is hatched, while the body and the three legs shown are dotted. Bowl H 5136 has a conoid form usually reserved for cups. [48]

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II 3360 P.I8

II 4713 See Catalogue

- H I S S A R I C BOWL ( E H 13, X - 2 4 ) .

Via. SO.—HISSAR I C BOWL ( I ) H 4 6 , X - 1 4 ) .

SCALE 3 : 8

SCALE 3 : 8

M B 3 9 B I H 4479 P.48 FIG. 4 0 — H I S S A R I C BOWL ( D H 4 6 , X - 1 4 ) . [49]

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T h e most attractive vessels of the large series of Hissar I C bowls with geometrical p a t t e r n s are Bowls H 3416 (dark brown on light grayish brown with buff), H 4593 and H 3359 (both dark brown on light grayish brown). I n addition to pleasing shapes and neatly executed exterior designs, these vessels are decorated on t h e interior in a fashion resembling the inner p a t t e r n s on certain Hissar I A and I B bowls. Technique, color scheme and paste of Hissar I C vessels h a v e been mentioned above, and t h e geometrical patterns of the group under consideration are self-explanatory; therefore detailed descriptions are superfluous. T h e simplest form of decoration, by means of groups of vertical dashes on the upper exterior (for example, H 3421, d a r k brown on light grayish brown), is the most frequent. Some vessels h a v e continuous b a n d decorations of horizontal waves, bands, rows of lozenges, zigzags and so f o r t h ; these m a y be solid or hatched. Again, there are panels filled with identical units and inter-changing with branches, groups of vertical lines, and so forth. Bowl H 4383 (dark brown on light grayish brown with buff) is decorated with paired sun symbols separated b y paired branches, while we call t h e design occurring on Bowls H 4501 and H 4641 "birds in flight" (both d a r k brown on light grayish brown, the latter with buff). Bowl H 4365 (dark brown on light grayish brown with buff) has a highly conventionalized bird p a t t e r n , explained in connection with t h e bird designs of Hissar I B (Plate VI). T h e stems of t h e tall bowls have horizontal b a n d patterns, a t times somewhat elaborated, while the bases of all bowls have t h e common decoration of three or four series of lines extending from a low shoulder b a n d to t h e rim of t h e base. Jars and Goblets of Hissar IC (Figure JfS; Plates X,

XI)

T h e ornamentation of jars and bowls is approximately alike. W e find the same rectilinear and curvilinear elements, the same panels and bands, and t h e identical base p a t t e r n . T h e jar of I C has a longer body and a shorter neck t h a n t h a t of IA, and, due to t h e wheel technique, the later vessel is finer and more graceful. Still J a r H 3052 (dark brown on brown) resembles the Hissar IA J a r H 1522 (Plate I I I ) quite closely. T h r e e pairs of suspension holes are in the neck of several specimens. J a r H 802, with one ibex and two gazelle panels separated by paired branches, is t h e m o s t a t t r a c t i v e vessel of t h e series.' T h e decoration is dark brown on a light brown slip (with light and d a r k stains) applied on the interior and exterior. T h e gazelles seem to stale, while the p a t t e r n below the belly of t h e ibex suggests either a tree design or "birds in flight." Three series of lines decorate the base. J a r H 2884 (dark brown on light brown) is dccorated with a series of h a t c h e d vertical zigzags and with groups of dashes on its foot. Goblets are rather rare in the layer of Hissar I C . T h e two samples shown h a v e t h e form of small jars and are ornamented with simple p a t t e r n s in customary fashion. T h e colors of H 4785 are dark gray on red-brown and brown, while H 4696 has the more common Hissar I C color scheme of dark brown on light grayish brown. A crude, small object of goblet form (H 4787) occurred in the I C layer of Plot D G 46. I t is h a n d m a d e , perhaps • C f . op, cil., p. 3-14 and PI. L X X X I I I , A.

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a trial piece, and decorated with irregular dashes on the interior; an irregular zigzag line is on the exterior. The object would qualify as a pot-stand as well. Cups of Ilissar IC (Plate X I ) The most common cup of all sub-phases of the painted pottery era is a conoid receptacle decorated with lines radiating from the base to the lip. The ground color is usually red-brown and the decoration has gray or brown shades. In Hissar IC, wheelmade and handmade cups of this type occur. H 4603 illustrates t h e most frequent shape, while H 3413 is an exceptionally good specimen with an unusually broad base. The more elaborately decorated series of cups shows the patterns known to us from bowls and jars. The cup with three ibex panels (H 3482, dark brown on brown) is virtually identical with cup H 3464 (Plate V) attributed to Hissar I B according to its find conditions. Conventionalized birds in flight are painted on Cup H 4695 (dark gray on buff and light buff), which might also occur in Hissar IB. The legs of the birds are simply marked by two parallel lines extending across the superimposed zigzags which indicate the bodies and heads (cf. also Plate X I I ) . Many cups have slightly truncated bases, which in several cases are somewhat concave. B u t none of the group under consideration has enough stability to be used without an additional pot-stand. Since only a few objects were found in the whole mound which could be employed for this purpose, we are sure t h a t pot-rings or stands of perishable material were used. Easel-shaped Plaque of Hissar IC (or IIA?) Though not a vessel, we prefer to deal with this odd-shaped object (H 4784, Plate X I ) at this point. I t consists of a hollow conoid base supporting an inclined plaque. The top is decorated in dark brown with two apparently almost identical panels, which are subdivided into irregular rectangles filled with waves, straight lines and zigzags, in addition to highly conventionalized felines. The two main panels are separated by bands with lozenge fillings. Dashes ornament the base. The smooth surface slip is light grayish brown with light buff areas, while the paste is buff of medium fineness. The purpose of this plaque is entirely problematical. I t is hard to believe t h a t it had a purely ornamental use. I t occurred in mixed Hissar IC-IIA refuse in Plot D H 43. I t may, therefore, belong to the final phase of the painted pottery era. Plaque fragment H 948 with ibex pattern (illustrated in the preliminary report) 7 and other minor parts of plaques may have belonged to similar, easel-shaped objects. Hissar IC Potsherds (Plates X I I , X I I I ) The group of ibex fragments here shown is instructive. While the animal itself is represented in stereotyped manner, the beard and particularly the symbol enclosed by the horns show considerable variety. The beard is marked by parallel curved dashes, by ' Op. til., PI. L X X X V I .

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parallel zigzags and by exaggerated wavy lines. The sun symbols within the curve of t h e horns are indicated by centered circles of dots, lines or both, by a wheel-shaped figure with six "spokes", and by a combination of seven tangent-centered circles. I n other cases parallel zigzags, rows of superimposed angles or tangent-centered circles are used as fill ornaments, while in one instance two rows of superimposed birds take the place of the more common sun symbol. Staling gazelles are shown in single or superimposed rows. A fragmentary feline in an unusual setting occurred on a large bowl sherd (DH 43, 13a). Sherd D H 35, 21b suggests the origin of the angular line patterns (for example, on Cup H 4817). The design on the sherd under consideration seems to represent long-necked birds, such as cranes or herons. The pattern on D H 43, 13b is problematical. HISSAR I OBJECTS OF BAKED AND U N B A K E D CLAY (Plate XIV, A)

Spindle whorls Only a few whorl shapes occurred in Hissar I. The most frequent shapes are biconoid or biconvex, illustrated by H 2668 (brown with dark gray paste), and H 3810 (red-brown). These forms were found in all substrata of Hissar I. One red-brown conoid whorl (H 3785) occurred in Hissar IC refuse. The cup-shaped whorls were all found in Hissar I C . Samples of this type are H 2723 (rough and dark gray), and H 2941 with light greenish granulated surface. Biconoid and Conoid Objects Bicones of baked or unbaked clay, as illustrated by the red-brown baked Specimen H 1806, were found in all substrata of the mound, from the beginning to the end of the occupation. A concave conoid object (H 3727) with blunt apex and convex base reminds one of a pestle. I t is made of grayish brown pottery. A problematical conoid specimen (H 3804) with smooth buff surface was found in Hissar IA. Pottery

Disks

Laterally perforated disks of problematical use but characteristic for all sub-phases of Stratum I are illustrated by specimens H 2286 (brown surface), and H 2628, which is biconcave with yellowish brown surface. Disk H 2666 is a re-ground red-brown potsherd with central perforation. Such perforated potsherds also occur in all strata of the mound, and in other culture areas as well. Miscellaneous Objects An object resembling a mould (H 3788), with five tubular depressions, occurred in doubtful Hissar IC refuse. I t has a buff and gray-brown surface. Its paste is dark gray, mud-brick-like. In the same substratum occurred a crescent-shaped object (H 2935) of [53]

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buff baked clay. Several problematical baked clay globes of the type of the light brown, flattened Specimen H 2971 occurred in Stratum I. Such objects were also found in the supposedly Hissar IA camp site of Shir-e-Shian (cf. page 17) and in later substrata of Tepe Hissar. All of them have a tubular depression almost perforating the object. They are possibly drill heads. HISSAR I F I G U R I N E S O F B A K E D CLAY (Plate X I V , B)

In Strata I and I I only figurines of baked clay were found, while metal, bone and stone figurines occurred in addition to baked clay specimens during the last period (III). The simple, baked or unbaked figurines of the successive strata cannot be distinguished. Sheep and rams seem to be the animals most frequently represented, b u t in most cases it is doubtful whether ovines or bovines are intended. T h e three figurines here shown (H 3647, H 3768, and H 1804) apparently illustrate ovines. They have brown and light grayish brown shades. In two cases the nose is perforated, while the third specimen (H 3768) has a hole in the right side. Such holes, single or in groups, were noticed in several contemporaneous and later specimens. The depressions suggest t h a t the figurines had been attached to a wall or to other objects. Figurine H 1804 occurred in Hissar IA refuse, while the two other specimens were found in sub-stratum IC. Painted figurines of baked clay occur in Substrata I C and I I A only. The head of a bovine (H 3656) painted gray on light buff, was found in straight Hissar I C refuse. The eyes are marked by a lateral perforation through the nose. The decoration consists of simple bands encircling the horns and the neck. One band extends vertically across the forehead. The second painted figurine here illustrated (H 3705) may actually belong to Hissar IIA. I t occurred in mixed Hissar IC-IIA refuse. A ram seems to be represented, judging by the curve of one preserved horn. The decoration is dark brown on a light brown ground. I t again consists of simple lines with some cross dashes. The eyes, marked by a lateral perforation, are enclosed by the curved ends of two lines.

HISSAR I "SEALS" A N D SEAL-SHAPED O R N A M E N T S (Plate X V )

Judging by the fact t h a t in Stratum I we found no seal impressions whatsoever, we assume that most or all of the seal-shaped objects of this time were used as ornaments. This theory is supported by the frequency of "seals" in individual graves. I n several cases more than half a dozen occurred with one person. We further noticed t h a t groups of seals, graded in size, lay beside the arms of some skeletons. Nearly all Hissar I seals belong to Hissar I B and IC. Only two " b u t t o n s " and a few stamp seals (for example, H 2051) were definitely attributed to Hissar IA. T h e type of the Hissar IB-C seal persists until Hissar IIA. Most seals of Stratum I are apparently made of gypsum or limestone, b u t some

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specimens of serpentine, baked clay and bitumen were found.8 Only one copper seal occurred. This seal (H 4449, not illustrated) is a circular disk .0165 in diameter with an abraded, probably simple, pattern and a loop handle on the center of the back. I t occurred in a Hissar I C grave. The Hissar I C serpentine seal (light grayish green), here illustrated (H 2920) has an irregular incised checker-board pattern, while the square handle has a lateral groove for suspension. The most interesting baked clay seal found so far, was described in the preliminary report. 9 Human figures, an ibex and snakes (?) form the pattern. I t occurred in mixed I C - I I A refuse. The three baked clay specimens here shown occurred in Substratum I C . Zigzags and centered circles in three panels of the grayish brown fragment form the pattern of H 2670. The fragmentary grayish brown Seal H 2937 has an intricate maze pattern, while the design of the light yellowish brown Seal H 2954 consists of concentric circles filled with rectangular stipples. T h e last-named specimen is conical with perforated apex. The other two specimens are discoid, with perforated conoid or loop-shaped handles. T h e Hissar I B and I C gypsum seals have a variety of simple and elaborate geometrical patterns. In some cases we are not certain as to the material employed. There are grayish green specimens which may consist of a different stone. The usual specimen is grayish white. Here we have to emphasize that in Hissar I C already traces of rudimentary glazing are suggested by iridescent green and brown stains and coats. Specimens of the transitional Hissar I - I I sub-phase (IIA) have sometimes a frit-like appearance. Contrary to our former opinion however, we doubt now whether frit was known during Hissar I proper.10 The most frequent pattern of the Hissar I B and I C seals is the cross filled with angular elements. This pattern occurs on circular, square and rectangular seals (H 4601, I C ; H 4535, I C ; H 4700, I C ; H 4504, I C ; H 3364, I C ; H 4708, I B ) . Another cross pattern filled with series of parallel incisions is shown by the Hissar IA Seal H 2051, which has an exceptionally pronounced conoid base. Concentric circles form the design of H 4645 (IC). H 4508 (IC) has a flower pattern closely resembling the design of the Hissar I A gypsum(?) Seal H 3800, which may actually be a button judging by its two perforations. Seals H 4646 (IC) and H 4392 (IC) have patterns subdivided into quadrants, while Seal H 2946 (IC) has an almost symmetrical design on opposite sides of a diametrical incision. In a similar manner, almost identical elements fill the semicircles of the pattern of H 4375 (IC). The following series of circular seals include simple and elaborate angular patterns consisting of rows of parallel zigzags and of simple parallel angles: H 4602 (IC), H 3047 8

J u s t before going to press we were able to obtain technological analyses of a group of Hissar finds f r o m e a c h of t h e t h r e e

prehistoric levels. (page 3 5 1 ) .

T h i s work was u n d e r t a k e n b y D r . L e o n a r d R i e s c h a n d M r . D o n a l d H o r t o n , whose report appears as Appendix I

I t included the examination of p o t t e r y sherds, beads a n d m e t a l o b j e c t s .

t h e field identification.

I n several cases t h e results o b t a i n e d modified

T h e reader will, therefore, understand t h a t throughout t h i s publication t h e use of t h e words g y p s u m , f r i t ,

b i t u m e n , g r a h a m i t e a n d limestone, especially in connection with beads and seals, is n o t always positive identification, b u t is s u b j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e c a s e of Hissar I a n d I I t o such modifications as a r e suggested in Appendix I .

W e wish t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e

interested a n d efficient co-operation of D r . R i e s c h and M r . H o r t o n whose work has added materially t o t h i s v o l u m e . • H 2 0 , op. cit.y p. 3 5 7 and P I . C L I . 10

C f . preliminary report, op. cit., p. 3 5 5 .

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(IC), H 3829, (IB), H 3365 (IC), H 4596 (IC), H 3376 (IC), H 3377 (IC). The rectangular Seal H 3713 (IC) has a pattern of parallel zigzags and angular depressions. Seal H 3428 (IC) is biconvex with short, perforated disk stem. A roughly symmetrical pattern of angles and stipples fills the two semicircles. Seals H 4717 (IC) and H 4487 (IC) are almost alike. Boxed-in rectangles form the patterns. A diagonal line, however, extends across the pattern of H 4717. On seal H 4488 (IC) the rectangles of the pattern are open on one side. Seal H 4376 (IC) has a design reminding one of a face, although the resemblance may not have been intended. Similar patterns occur on H 4384 (IC) and H 4450 (IC). Some simple designs of branch patterns, curved dashes, oblique lines and so forth are shown on the following series: H 4 6 9 8 ( I C ) , H 4 6 4 9 (IC), H 3427 ( I C ) , H 3 7 1 5 ( I C ) , H 4 5 3 6 (IC), H 3754 (IC). "Seals" without patterns (H 4442, I C ; H 4830, IC) also occur a t times, amplifying our theory as to the ornamental use of most or all of these seal-shaped objects. Buttons, usually biconvex with lateral groove for suspension or attachment, frequently occur in Hissar I. They have simple patterns as a rule, but more elaborate ones such as the filled cross are also found: H 4447 (IC), H 4534 (IC), H 3726 (IC), H 3730 (IC), H 3435 (IC), H 4443 (IC). "Seals" of this type are sometimes graded in size when found with one person. There are, finally, a few black bitumen specimens of the same forms as the gypsum seals. As a rule they are crushed, due to the frailty of the material. HISSAR I C O P P E R O B J E C T S (Plate X V I )

Copper objects were found associated with the lowest deposits of Hissar I. T o be, sure, they were only simple specimens, b u t they showed t h a t the earliest settlers of the mound were at least experimenting with the making of copper implements. At the same time, we must mention t h a t during the rather extensive test of the camp site Shir-e-Shian (cf. page 17), which is apparently contemporaneous with Hissar IA, no metal objects were found. This fact suggests that Hissar IA is rather close to the beginning of the Copper Age in northeastern Iran. Besides copper no other metals occurred in Stratum I. A gold bead (cf. page 121) was found in a low grave of doubtful Hissar I - I I origin, and may, therefore, be disregarded. The series of Hissar I copper objects include dagger and knife blades, pins, a doubtful finger ring, tacks, points, needles, and miscellaneous objects. The characteristic blade of Hissar I is illustrated by H 3408. I t is slender oblong, with a faint medial ridge and a short slightly contracted grip with convex end. The form of the wooden handle of the Hissar I C specimen under consideration is indicated in p a r t by a swallow-tail-shaped impression on the patina close to the grip. The Knife Blade H 3483 of Hissar IC had apparently a simple converging stem bent over and hammered flat. T h e Hissar I C Dagger H 4388 is unique. The patina on its perforated and offset grip does not show any markings of a cover of wood or similar material. I n those sections of Hissar IA which were examined, no blades occurred, but the Hissar I C type apparently persists, in slightly varied form, as late Hissar IIA. [56]

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T h e dead of Hissar I B and I C were often supplied with a copper pin, usually standing in one of the mortuary vessels. The characteristic shapes of the pin heads are conoid (H 2972), biconoid (H 3053), pyramidal (H 4704) and bipyramidal (H 4638). Pin H 4495 with hemispherical head may possibly belong to Hissar IIA. Impressions of thread are marked on the patina of H 4638, at the head end of the stem. The actual purpose of these pins is problematical. They may have been used as garment pins or as hair ornaments. In the graves preceding Hissar I B no pins were found. Tacks are rare in Stratum I. The tack-shaped objects (H 4715) here illustrated may have been ornaments of the Hissar I C person with whose remains they were found. The needle here shown (H 3469) occurred in a grave of the Hissar I B sub-phase. None was found in the layer of Hissar IA, but several specimens appeared in the principal substratum (C) of Hissar I . The head was formed by bending over the top. We assume that some of the copper points, occurring rather frequently in Stratum I , had been employed as weapon heads. Still, Specimen H 3797, found in Hissar IA refuse, suggests a tracer or perforator. A point with square cross-section, spatulate at one end while the other end is sharp, is inserted in a polished bone tube, discolored green at the end where the point protrudes. Again, Points H 3379 (IC) and H 3707 (IC or I I A ) show traces of wood remains at one end. Points of this general type occur from the earliest sub-layer (Hissar IA) to the last (Hissar I I I C ) . Ring H 2934 occurred in Stratum I, but it may be a technical intrusive from Stratum I I since no other ring-shaped objects were found in the earlier layer. T h e specimen under consideration may be a finger ring or an ear pendant. Its ends are tapering. One of the best samples of Hissar I workmanship in copper is a celt (H 4176) found on the floor of a Hissar I C room. I t is a slender, concave trapezoid with squared off sides and a convex chisel edge. Impressions of floral matter are on the patina of one face and were probably brought about by the position of the celt on floor refuse. HISSAR I STONE OBJECTS (Plates X V I I , X V I I I , A)

Flint Flakes and Cores These objects occur in all strata of Tepe Hissar. In Hissar I they may be somewhat more frequent, but their forms do not give any chronological clues. There are flakes with triangular (H 2906) and trapezoid (H 3795) cross-section. One or both edges are retouched and polished by use. The brown Flake H 2906 has one polished saw-tooth edge. T h e purplish brown Core H 3202 is a sample for several other specimens of its type although, as a rule, the cores are flaked off on all sides. We found no obsidian in any substratum of Tepe Hissar. Flint Scrapers and Perforators Both categories are present in all strata of the mound, although they are much rarer than the flakes. The brown scraper (H 1830) here illustrated has one retouched curved [57]

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edge. Perforators may be simple flakes with a pointed end, or have a pointed cylindrical and retouched end. Flint Arrow Heads Only two specimens t h a t may be classed as arrow heads were found during the excavations in Stratum I. This fact is puzzling because, with the possible exception of thin copper points, no other objects occurred which may have been used as arrow heads. T h e two specimens (H 4823 and H 4824) of brown flint occurred in Hissar IA refuse. They are elliptical with roughly triangular cross-section. Celts In Stratum I the celts are rare as compared with the later strata. We illustrate a semielliptieal specimen (H 2669) of greenish gray diorite (?) with rather blunt cutting edge, in addition to a well-wrought celt (H 2909) of gray diorite (?) which may have been used as an axe as well. Its cutting edge is smooth; the rest is rough. Whetstones A dark grayish brown slab (H 1821) illustrates the quite common Hissar I whetstone. An almost square stone object (H 2574) of the same color may also have been used for this purpose. Pestles Specimen H 2645 of brown common stone was presumably used as a pestle, judging by the pounding marks a t either end. Again, any oblong or roughly cylindrical stone would qualify as a pounding tool. Polishers We illustrate only one, roughly circular specimen (H 2644) of this omnipresent type of implement. Its two faces are polished. Polishing stones occur in many shapes, the polished areas indicating their use. Weights There is little doubt t h a t the irregular sandstone (?) object with grip (H 2095) was used as a weight, judging by the forms of the more elaborate later specimens of this group. I t was found in Hissar IC refuse. Miscellaneous Objects This series includes a gray discoid stone (H 3775) with smooth faces b u t battered centers. A smooth, light grayish brown stone ring (H 1984) may have been used as a spindle whorl, while H 3781, of grayish green serpentine, is identical with the laterally perforated pottery disks. Serpentine flakes of the type of H 2743 are frequently found in [58]

H I S S A R

I

BONE

AND

H O R N

OBJECTS

S t r a t u m I . T h e smaller one of the two flakes has a lengthwise incision, perhaps the guide line for f u r t h e r sub-division. W e assume t h a t these flakes were used for m a k i n g beads or similar ornaments. H 2599 is an oblong grayish brown stone object, perhaps a pendant, judging b y t h e groove encircling the irregular head. A piece of haematite (H 3791), gray and red-brown, m a y have been employed as a hammerstone or as a pigment. Fragments of mullers were also associated with refuse of Hissar IC, and a muller or h a n d grinder lay near a Hissar I B skeleton (CG 95 X-28, page 72).

HISSAR I BONE AND HORN OBJECTS (Plate XVIII, B)

Awls Pointed bones of sheep or other animals occurred in all strata of Tepe Hissar. There is no d o u b t t h a t these implements had been used for piercing soft material such as skins. W e illustrate only two out of m a n y Hissar I specimens (H 4831 and H 2564). Both are apparently made of sheep bone. T h e heads of the brown polished awls are formed b y the epiphysis of t h e animal bones. There occur also simple pointed flakes with or without a perforation for suspension. At times the point only is polished. I n Hissar I we found no bone objects of this type which could be called pins. Tubes One specimen (H 2036) illustrates the entire series. T h e brown, polished tube served a p p a r e n t l y as a handle for some device originally inserted in one of the openings. T h e postulated object (perhaps a piercer) was presumably kept in place by a string wound around t h e top and the end of the tube where an incision is traceable. Chippers F o u r implements of this type were found in Hissar IA and I C . One occurred in d o u b t f u l Hissar I I I A refuse. We assume t h a t this tool was used for the chipping or flaking of flint objects, as suggested by the usually chipped, spatulate end, marked on Specimen H 2068. Miscellaneous

Objects

Several spindle-shaped objects occurred in S t r a t u m I (H 3769). Their purpose is problematical. T h e specimen shown is brown, smooth, with one slightly spatulate and one pointed end. There were also two human (?) femur heads (H 3687) with perforations wide enough for use as spindle whorls. T h e specimen shown is fire-blackened. A boar tusk (H 2661), bluish gray and brown, m a y have been used as a scraper, judging by one sharpened edge.

[59]

[60]

HISSAR I BEADS (Figure 44; Plate X I X )

Great quantities of beads occurred in the graves of Hissar I. There were necklaces, armlets, bracelets, belts, anklets, and in some instances even diadems. The most common material 11 is apparently gypsum or a similar stone, with grayish white or light tan shades. Many Hissar I C beads seem to have light green and brown patches of rudimentary glazing (?). In one case, patches of red paint were noticed on a string of gypsum (?) disks. The following shapes of gypsum beads occur: disks of various sizes, slightly biconoid at times; oblongs; tubes; incised and plain bicones; and incised tubes larger than the plain tubes. Less frequent materials are black bitumen, occurring in the form of disks and tubes; light tan alabaster or a similar stone wrought into disks, rings, oblongs and globes; brown-red carnelian found in the form of thin and thick disks, tubes, and in one case, in the form of a rectangle with square cross-section. There is also some red jasper (?) in the form of disks and tubes; small natural shells; some tubular copper beads; frit (?) in the form of grayish white and slightly iridescent tubes, though frit is doubtful prior to Hissar IIA. The illustrations referring to this section show samples of Hissar I bead forms. Each shape occurring in a particular string is represented by one specimen. In addition to tubes and disks, oblong gypsum beads such as shown by H 2058 are the most frequent ones. Tubes and disks, mostly of gypsum, but some of bitumen, are illustrated by H 3010a. Samples H 4531 show a perforated natural shell, gypsum tubes and disks and a larger gypsum tube ornamented with incised angles and oblique dashes. In this case, as in several others we were not certain whether we have to deal with gypsum or frit beads, due to a slight iridescence on the grayish white surface. The Hissar IC string under consideration also included two carnelian disks, alabaster disks and a serpentine disk. Necklace H 4387 was composed of gypsum beads in the form of disks and tubes, in addition to two larger oblong beads with angular and oblique incisions. Individual incised beads are shown by the biconoid and tubular Specimens H 2727 and H 3653. The former has greenish stains. String H 3444a, illustrated by samples, includes gypsum tubes and disks, disks of bitumen, red jasper (?) and alabaster, and a light brown shell pendant, shown in the illustration. String H 3374 is composed of grayish white alabaster disks. Individual beads are illustrated by H 2908, a light tan, rectangular serpentine bead; H 3714, a light gray and purplish red, oval, serpentine pendant; and H 3799, the light tan spire of a shell. The arrangement of the beads as to color or size seemed to be unsystematic as a rule. Still, we noticed interchanging black and white beads, suggesting a sense for symmetry. On the other hand, on strings composed of various bead shapes, such as tubes, disks and oblong beads, units of the same shape were as a rule combined without alternations. The arbitrarily strung' beads in Figure 44 show one string of Hissar IA (H 4561), composed of gypsum, bitumen, and red jasper (?) beads in the form of small disks and tubes, two carnelian bicones and a large alabaster tube. The Hissar IC String H 3412 includes 11

See Appendix I.

[61]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

gypsum, bitumen (?) and carnelian beads in the form of small disks, tubes and bicones. The other Hissar IC string (H 4456) is solely composed of gypsum oblongs, a t times slightly biconoid. The beads of this string formed two anklets which could not be separated, due to the proximity of the feet of the skeleton. The Hissar I B necklace (H 4235) is composed of small disks and tubes of gypsum. T H E D E A D O F HISSAR I " (Figures 45-60)

In the same manner as most of the other items of this report, the description of the burial methods is also based on the results of the second working season, which enabled us to distinguish more closely the sub-phases of the culture periods. A comparison with the material of the first year showed t h a t in many cases the information of the second season verified, supplemented or corrected our former data. H a d there not been a second season, the information would have been fragmentary and, a t times, even incorrect. Out of seven hundred and eighty-two burials uncovered during 1932 and well enough preserved for statistical purposes, a hunded and forty-four belong to the first period of Tepe Hissar. There are forty-one of Hissar IA, twelve of Hissar I B , and ninety-one of Hissar IC. But it is understood without saying t h a t m a n y skeletons furnished only fragmentary statistical information, dependent on their preservation. For this report representative series of burials were selected and illustrated by schematic drawings based on the field sketches, and by photographs, while the statistics are based on the total of the burials above mentioned. In the field description all features of the position of a skeleton have been considered, and the entire mortuary equipment has been recorded; but some badly preserved objects of known form were subsequently discarded and appear on the burial schemata under their "plot record number" (e.g. "13") while the others are marked with a catalog number (e.g., " H 3429"). The burials themselves are numbered according to the excavation square in which they were found (e.g. X (symbol for skeleton) 31, E H 13). While in the burial schemata total positions and mortuary equipments are shown, our statistics, separated according to substrata, show the proportionate positions of the body and of the skull, and the numbers of skeletons belonging to the various age groups (Infant I : from birth until about age 7; I n f a n t I I : from about 8 until about 14; Juvenile: from about 14 until about 21; Adult: from about 21 until about 45; M a t u r e : from about 45 until about 05; Senile: after about 65). These age distinctions were applied by the writer in accordance with the teachings of Professor Oetteking of Columbia University. But it is self-evident that the morphological age limits do not always accurately correspond with the actual age of a person. Still, as a whole they agree. I n individual cases we could determine the sex of children and, more frequently, the sex of juveniles. However, we considered our statistics would be more accurate by disregarding the fragmentary 11 T h e physical anthropological aspects of t h e skeletal material from all Tepe Hissar strata are being worked u p b y D r . W. M . Krogman of Western Reserve University, and will appear in a f u t u r e publication.

[621

T H E

D e a d

O E

H I S S A K

I

information as to the sex of the persons prior to adult age. Our mortality graphs show in dotted lines t h e males and females included in the solid lines of the three last age groups. T h e circular graphs give the percentage of males and females in each sub-period, as determined b y the skeletal material of adult, mature and senile persons. T h e r e are, finally, the graphs indicating the direction of the bodies, with the skull marked b y a small circle. T h e direction of the body was determined b y taking the direction from t h e last lumbar vertebra to the atlas.

Fjc. W.

Position

of Body

and Skull

(Figures

-HISSAH I C

H u m AI. E H

1:1. X - 3 1

49-6(1)

T h e burial schemata and, still more strikingly, the position graphs show t h a t the people of all sub-periods of Ilissar I had a definite rule concerning the position of the head and, to a somewhat lesser extent, of the body of a deceased person. W i t h few exceptions, t h e skull and also the body of the Hissar I dead lay on the right side, and this burial rule was so strong that it persisted through the initial phase of Hissar I I (A).

[ 63 ]

JiXCAVATIONS AT 'J'EPB

HlSSAB

Position of Arms and Hands In a few cases arms and hands were perhaps laid out in a certain fashion, as suggested by a cup or bowl held by the hands of a skeleton. As a rule, arms and hands were left in their natural positions a t the time of death. Frequently the hands are in front of the face, although at times the arms are extended beside the body. In some cases the hands lay on the pelvis or in the pelvic aperture. In the summary chapter we will consider emotional aspects as suggested by the hands of skeletons of all periods. Position of Leys and Feet The prehistoric people of all periods a t Tepe Iiissar buried their dead with the legs contracted. However, in contrast to the later burials, the legs of the skeletons of Iiissar I are seldom closely flexed. The femora hardly ever form less than a right angle with the vertebral column. The feet are pulled up, pressed down, or normal. Orientation (Figures

46-i8)

The graphs showing the body orientation of the skeletons of Iiissar IA, B, and C are extremely interesting. They prove t h a t the people of Iiissar I, as late as the transitional sub-period of Hissar IIA (cf. page 124) had a definite rule as to the direction toward which a body should point. Considering, a t the same time, the fact t h a t nearly all Hissar I skulls face the right side, we tentatively associate the body direction, combined with the face position, with the position of the sun a t the time of the burial. I t appears t h a t the face was turned toward the sun. However, there is a puzzling factor. A hiatus comprising a sector of several degrees north and south of the east-west line appears in all direction graphs from Iiissar IA to Iiissar IIA. AVe are at a loss to find an explanation unless it be that people of this period did not bury at midday. At any rate, if our theory should be correct, and we can disregard the few disoriented skeletons which point northeast and southeast, we must assume that the people of the era identified by painted pottery buried their dead at daytime, in the morning and in the afternoon, avoiding sunrise, noon and sunset. Mortality {Figure Jf9) In the summary graph (page 314) the percentage of mortality within the age groups of all Tope Iiissar periods is considered. Comparing the individual graphs of the Hissar I sub-periods with those of Iiissar I I and I I I (Figures 7,'3, 149, 150) and with the summary graph, one notices a rather uniform mortality within the age groups of all periods. In proportion to the total of skeletons found in Hissar IA, the infant mortality is highest in this earliest sub-layer of the site. However, this may be accidental. At any rate, within the first three stages of life, the mortality is nearly always highest in the first group (Infant I). By far the larger percentage of the population died during the life stage of greatest vigor, as indicated by the graph apices coinciding with "Adult." Few lived longer than half a century. 1 641

F I G . 48.—ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I C SKELETONS

[65]

P o s i t i o n of Body

P o s i t i o n of

Skull

Skeletons :

Inf. I

Inf. II

Juv.

Ad.

Mat.

P o s i t i o n of

P o s i t i o n o f Body

Inf.I

Inf.l

Inf.II

I n f . II

gen.

Juv.

Ad.

Juv.

Ad.

Mat.

Sen.

Mat.

Sen.-

Skull

F I G . 4 9 . — G R A P H S SHOWING THE POSITION, MORTALITY AND PROPORTION O F THE S E X E S OK T H E D E A D OK H I S S A R I

100 ]

T H E

D E A D

OF

H I S S A R

I

Proportion of Sexes (Figure 49) One of the most striking results of our studies concerning the skeletal material of Tepe Hissar is the determination of the disproportionately small number of females, as illustrated by the circular graphs. The percentage of females determinable among the skeletons of the first stratum are as follows: Hissar IA 29.41%; Hissar I B 28.57%; and Hissar I C 21.05%. Only during one sub-period (Hissar IIB) does a normal proportion of the sexes occur. We admit t h a t it is always possible to make some mistakes in the determination of the sex of such skeletons which are morphologically on the border line. However, a few mistakes would not change the proportions of a large number of units. We simply have to admit the fact t h a t among the skeletons of the prehistoric population of Tepe Hissar, whether Hissar I, I I or I I I , we found only about one third females, with the exception of a single sub-group in which the proportions are nearly equal. The great total number of burials at our disposal excludes a statistical freak, though we would not base a conclusion on Hissar IA and B alone. There is a possibility t h a t the ancient people of Tepe Hissar killed girl infants in the same manner as is known from the Far East; b u t we were not able to determine the sex of infant skeletons, thereby verifying such a theory. Slain infants, furthermore, may have been disposed of in such a manner t h a t their remains were scattered by birds and animals. Actually, the extremely low proportion of females speaks against the theory of infanticide, for there is hardly a doubt t h a t social conditions were complicated by the low percentage of women. Polyandry might be expected in a community with such proportions of the sexes. Manner of Disposal The dead of all Tepe Hissar periods were buried in the mound area. We do not know whether any extra-mural burial grounds exist. We doubt it. At any rate, wheresoever the excavation penetrated below the surface crust of the mound, burials were uncovered. They appeared below the rooms of the houses, below open courtyards and lanes, and below the former surface levels of then uninhabited areas. There were graves everywhere. We never found remains of coffins, but in several cases traces of matting and fabrics could be determined. We assume therefore t h a t the dead of all periods were laid into simple pits. They were presumably wrapped in some garment, and perhaps a t times a matting or the like covered the floor of their grave. Mortuary Equipment

(Figures 50-60)

Men and women were about equally supplied with mortuary gifts, during Hissar I as well as during later periods. This suggests that the position of woman was not inferior to t h a t of man. The mortuary equipment includes pottery vessels, copper pins, daggers (with men only), seals or seal-shaped ornaments, and incredible numbers of beads of gypsum and other materials in the form of necklaces, bracelets, armlets, diadems, belts and anklets. As a rule, the gifts were grouped near the head and upper body of the dead. [67]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

O n t h e following p a g e s , a n d s i m i l a r l y in t h e c h a p t e r s o n H i s s a r I I a n d H i s s a r I I I , w e p r e s e n t s k e t c h e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b u r i a l s of t h e p e r i o d , t o g e t h e r w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of e a c h b u r i a l a n d t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g m o r t u a r y g i f t s . I n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s s u c h f e a t u r e s a r e o m i t t e d , as a rule, w h i c h a r e s h o w n o n t h e b u r i a l d r a w i n g s .

D H46 .X - 2 1

CG,95, X-26 FIG 5 0 —MORTUARY SCHEMATA OF HISSAR I A

DH 46 X-21 Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 26 degrees west of north. Preservation: broken (better than the average IA skeletons). Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 4734. Pottery goblet-bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red and red-brown, granulated. Paste: brown-red, medium. Decoration: five series of vertical parallel zigzags on exterior; four series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .101; height .139. H 4735. Pottery bowl. Stemmed and footed; shallow. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on red-brown.

Paste: red-brown, medium. Decoration: continuous parallel angles on exterior; cross of waves on interior. Diam. of rim .142; height .096. H 4736. Pottery cup. Convex cone; slightly concave base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on redbrown. Paste brown-red, medium. Decoration: radiating lines from slightly above base to rim. Diam. of rim .104; height .081. H 4737. Beads: necklace. Limestone disks; color: light gray-brown. Jasper disks; color: light tan-red. Length 1.08 (single string). H 4738, Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; abraded; convex, cylindrical perforated stem. Design: filled cross. Color: light graygreen. Diam. .021; height .014.

THE

DEAD

CG 95 X-26

Position: dorsal, head lateral, right. Direction: skull, 48 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male (?). Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 3453. Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed; almost vertical sides. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown. Paste: red-brown, medium. Decoration: four series of vertical parallel zigzags on exterior; cross pattern of lines and zigzags on interior; three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .177; height .122. H 3454. Pottery cup. Convex cone; small, slightly concave base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: radiating lines from slightly above base to lip. Diam. of rim .093; height .072. H 3455. Pottery goblet-bowl. Footed and stemmed; biconoid body. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown; smooth slip. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: parallel vertical angles with medial line; four series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .112; height .151. H 3457. Beads: necklace. Limestone disks; color: gray-white. Grahamite disks; color: black. Jasper disks; color: brown-red. Length .53. H 3456. Stamp seal. Limestone; rectangular; cylindrical perforated stem. Design: zigzag pattern. Color: gray-white. Length .023; breadth .017; height .011.

OF

HISSAR

I

H 3459. Polisher. Stone; oval; thin. Color: gray-green. Length .145; breadth .12; thickness .022. (Shown in schemata lying beside H 3458.) H 3458. Whetstone. Beveled edges; oblong. Color: gray-brown. Length .139; breadth .028.

D H 34 X-25

Position: dorsal, head lateral, right. Direction: skull, 47 degrees east of south (exception). Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 4559. Pottery cup, disk base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on brown-red. Paste; brown-red, medium to fine. Decoration: radiating lines from slightly above base to lip. Diam. of rim .093; height .077. H 4560. Pottery cup, concave base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted abraded decoration on purplish gray, granulated. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: radiating lines from slightly above base to lip. Diam. of rim. 112; height .093. H 4 5 6 2 . Beads: belt. Limestone tubes; color: light tan, green. Length 6.20 (single). H 4561. Beads: necklace. Limestone small disks and tubes; color: gray-white. Grahamite small disks; color: black. Carnelian bicones; color: brown-red. Jasper small disks; color: light tan, red-brown. Large alabaster oblong; color: light tan. Length 4.80 (single).

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

CQ55, X- 2 7

PH46. X - 2 3

FIG 51.—MORTUARY SCHEMATA OF HISSAR I A

DH 45 X-10 Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 47 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 4654. Pottery cup. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on brown-red, smooth slip. Paste: red-brown, medium. Decoration: radiating lines from slightly above base to lip. Diam. of rim .094; height .072. H4655. Beads: necklace. Alabaster globes and tubes; color: gray-white. Limestone tubes; color: light tan. Grahamite disks; color: black. Length 1.30 (single). H 4656. Beads: belt. Grahamite disks; color: black. Length 1.14 (single). CG 95 X-27 Position: upper part of body lateral right; lower, dorsal.

Direction: skull, 30 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 3460. Beads: necklace. Limestone biconoids; color: gray-white, light tan. Length .60. 73a. Small copper lump at forehead; staining, dark green (discarded). D H 46

X-23

Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 43 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: mature. Mortuary gifts: H 4739. Pottery cup, concave base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown. Paste: red-brown. Decoration: radiating lines from slightly above base to lip. Diam. of rim .095; height .071.

[70]

T H E

D E A D

OF

H I S S A B

I

cq95, X-a* FIG. 52.—MORTUARY SCHEMATA OP HISSAR I A

E H

13

Decoration: exterior, parallel zigzags; interior, a dash and faint patches. Diam. of rim .205; height .141. H 3447. Pottery cup. Convex cone, concave base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: four series of four vertical dashes on exterior. Diam. of rim .109; height .079. H 3448. Beads: necklace. Limestone tubes and small disks; color: white. Grahamite small disks; color: light tan and black. Length 2.64 (single). H3449. Beads: bracelet. Limestone; color: gray-white and light tan. Grahamite small disks; color: black. Length .54 (single). H 3450. Beads: diadem. Alabaster oblongs, oblique perforation; color: light tan. Length .16 (single).

X-46

Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 55 degrees west of south. Preservation: medium. Sex: ? Age: Infant II. Mortuary gifts: H 5242. Pottery cup. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: herringbone pattern. Rim diam. .094; height .082. H 5243. Beads: necklace. Gypsum disks; color: gray-white. Jasper disks; color: tan and red-brown. Length .836 (single). (Not shown in schema.) CG 95

X-24

Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull 25 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 3446. Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine.

EH 1 3 X - 4 3 Position: lateral, right, curled up. Direction: skull, 40 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: ? Age: Infant I.

[71]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

H4821. Beads: necklace. Limestone tubes; color: gray-white and light gray-green. Alabaster disks and tubes; color: light tan. Grahamite disks; color: black. Length .76. H4820. Beads: belt. Limestone short thick tubes and disks; color: gray-white, light gray-green. Grahamite disks; color: black. Alabaster short thick tubes; color: light tan. Length .76.

EH 13 X-43, cont Mortuary gifts: H 4819. Pottery cup. Concave disk base; two perforations for suspension at neck. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: horizontal and vertical bands. Diam. of rim .085; height .064.

// PQ69,

X-24

DH46,

X-13

GQ95,

X - 2 8

F I G . 58.—MORTUARY SCHEMATA o r HISSAR I B

D G

69

X-24

Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 40 degrees west of north. Preservation: totally decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 2091. Pottery cup. Concave conoid; concave base. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray painted decoration on buff and light brown, polished. Paste: light, medium to fine. Decoration: three vertical crosshatched panels, intermittent from base to lip. Diam. of rim .088; height .075.

H 2055. Beads: necklace. Limestone disks and tubes; color: gray-white, light tan. Length 1.36 (single). D H

46

X-13

Position: lateral, right; pelvis almost dorsal. Direction: skull, 47 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 4702. Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip.

T H E

D E A D

OF

D H 46 X-13, cord. P a s t e : red-brown, medium. Decoration: exterior, herringbone design; interior, three series of waves on stem and four series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .209; height .146. H 4703. P o t t e r y cup, slightly concave base. T e c h n i q u e : h a n d m a d e . Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. P a s t e : ? Decoration: radiating lines from above base t o rim. Diam. of rim .091; height .073. H 4719. P o t t e r y bowl. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: d a r k brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium t o fine. Decoration: small horizontal triple waves and parallel lines. D i a m . of rim .13; height .141. H 4705. Beads: bracelet. Limestone disks; color: light gray-brown. Length .49 (single). H 4706. Beads: bracelet. Limestone disks; color: light gray-brown. Length .49 (single). H 4 7 1 1 . Beads: armlet. Limestone small disks, tubes a n d oblongs; color: light gray-brown, gray-white. Length .2 (single). H 4712. Beads: necklace. Limestone small disks, tubes and oblongs; color: light graybrown, gray-white. T w o jasper disks; color: red. One carnelian bicone; color: red-brown. L e n g t h .06 (single). H 4709. Beads. Limestone disks; color: light gray-brown a n d gray-white. Jasper disk; color: light green. Length .57 (single).

H I S S A R

I

H 4710. Beads. Limestone disks, tubes and oblongs; color: light t a n , green, light brown. One carnelian bicone; color: red-brown. T w o grahamite tubes; color: black. Length 1.32 (single). (Not shown in schema.) H 4707. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular. Cylindrical perforated stem, oval top. Design: geometric plants (?). D i a m . .02; height .01. H 4708. Stamp seal. Limestone; square. Cylindrical perforated stem. Design: oblique cross with concave triangles. Color: graywhite, green stain. Breadth .017; height .009. H 4 7 0 4 . Copper pin. P a t i n a . Pyramidal head, long. Length .179; breadth of head .02; .023; diam. .004; height of head .016. CG 95 X-28 Position: dorsal, head lateral, right. Direction: skull, 35 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult, young. Mortuary gifts: H 3 4 6 1 . Pottery jar. Footed; three pairs of suspension holes near rim. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: d a r k brown painted decoration on brown, smooth slip. P a s t e : brown, medium t o fine. Decoration: four broad branches separated b y quadrupled wavy bands, hatched obliquely; three series of horizontal dashes on base. Diam. of rim .115; height .233. 72a. Stone grinder, oval.

[73]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

V F

I

O T

O B

°

DQ

DQ69,X-26

FIG. 54.—MORTUARY

36,

X-2.2

DCjé>9; X-2.5

SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R I B

ple-brown, roughened by rubbing stick. Paste: buff-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: exterior, vertically hatched panels separated by paired or tripled vertical lines around body; four series of dashes on base; interior, six tripled waves. Diam. of rim .166; height ,122.

D G 69 X - 2 6

Position: lateral, right; pelvis almost dorsal. Direction: skull, 66 degrees west of south. Preservation: totally decayed and broken. Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 2060. Pottery cup. Small; conoid; concave base. Technique: wheelmade (slow). Surface: dark brown painted decoration on buff and gray-white; polish roughened by wheel marks. Paste: light brown, fine. Decoration: seven scries of parallel angles on upper exterior below lip line; band of lozenges below. Diam. of rim .105; height .088. H 2092. Pottery bowl. Hemispherical; bell base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: red-brown, medium. Decoration: paired hatched zigzag band around body; three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .165; height .145. H 2093. Pottery bowl. Almost hemispherical; bell base. Technique: handmade. Surface: brown painted decoration on red-brown and light brown, smooth slip; interior design pur-

H 2094. Beads: bracelet. Limestone small tubes and disks; color; white, light tan. Length .226 (single). H 4233. Beads: bracelet. Limestone small disks; color: light tan. Length 1.05 (single). H 2061. Beads: necklace. Limestone disks, three sizes; color: gray-white, light tan. Length .78 (single). H 2062. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; convex base; cylindrical perforated stem. Design: filled cross. Color: gray-white, light tan. Diam. .032; height .019. 96. Pottery cup-jar. D G 36 X - 2 2

Position: lateral, left. Direction: skull, 65 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed.

[74]

THE

DEAD

OF

DG 36 X-22, cont. Sex: male. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 8463. Pottery cup. Footed and stemmed. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: checkerboard on exterior. Diam. of rim .096. H 3464. Pottery cup, conoid. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: brown painted decoration on light gray-brown and brown-buff, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: ibexes and paired branches. Diam. of rim .105; height .083. H3465. Pottery cup. Biconoid; small concave base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: ? Decoration: radiating lines from slightly above base to lip. Diam. of rim .079; height .088. H 3467. Pottery bowl. Conoid convex; concave disk base. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown. Paste: red-brown, medium. Decoration: herringbone pattern over entire exterior, three bands. Diam. of rim .241; height .295. (Not shown in schema.) H 3468. Beads: necklace. Limestone tubes; color: gray-white, light tan. Grahamite disks; color: black. Length .124. (Not numbered in schema.) H 3466. Stamp seal. Limestone; rectangular. Design: oblique cross filled with depressed angles and triangles. Color: tan and green. Length .022; breadth .016; height .011.

HISSAR

I

H 3469. Copper needle, slightly bent. Patina. Length .144; breadth .005; diam. .003. 43. Copper earring. D G 69 X-25

Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 35 degrees west of north. Preservation: totally decayed. Sex: male (?). Age: juvenile. Mortuary gifts: H 2056. Pottery jar, three pairs suspension holes at neck. Technique: handmade. Surface: brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip, slightly irregular. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: six panels of horizontal lines on upper exterior; three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .109; height .161. H 2057. Pottery cup. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on buff and gray-white, polished slip. Paste: light buff, fine. Decoration: four small ibex panels separated by paired branches. Diam. of rim .104; height .09. H 2059. Pottery cup, rounded rim. Technique: handmade, crude. Surface: gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip, roughened by rubbing striations. Paste: (?). Decoration: radiating lines from above base to rim; stains of red on interior. Diam. of rim .1; height .071.

[75]

H2058. Beads: necklace. Limestone; color: gray-white. Stone; color: brown-red. Grahamite; color: black. One large carnelian bicone; color: red. Length 1.15.

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AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

HLFFIL

DG,96,

DH44,X-tO

X-44

FIG 5 6 —MORTUARY SCHEMATA OF HISSAR I C

DH 44 X-10 Position: lateral, right; pelvis almost dorsal. Direction: skull, 48 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female. Age: adult, rather young. Mortuary gifts: H 4478. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheel made. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: two bands of five superimposed leopards encircle upper body; three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .161; height .153. H 4479. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light gray-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: band of four leopards below rim. Diam. of rim .172; height .152. H 4480. Pottery jar. Footed; three pairs of suspension holes in neck. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration : paired ladder design separated by pairs [76]

of wavy lines; three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .112; height .185, H 4482. Beads: bracelet. Limestone tubes, disks and oblongs; color: light tan, gray. Length 4.96 (single). H 4483. Beads: bracelet. Limestone tubes; color: light tan and gray. Length 5.6 (single). H 4485. Beads: anklet. Small limestone oblongs; color: light tan. Length 5.44 (single). H 4486. Beads: anklet. Small limestone oblongs; color: light tan. Length 6.24 (single). H4481. Beads: necklace. Limestone tubes, bicones; color: light tan. One carnelian disk; color: light brown. Length 3.2 (single). H 4484. Stamp seal. Glazed limestone; oval; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: oblique cross filled in with angled lines. Color: graywhite, brown glaze, iridescent. Length ,024; height .013; breadth .019. H 4487. Stamp seal. Limestone; rectangular; convex; perforated truncated conoid stem. Design: boxed-in rectangles. Color graywhite. Length .021; breadth .018. H 4488. Stamp seal. Limestone; rectangular; perforated truncated conoid stem. Design:

THE

DEAD

OF

D H 44 X - 1 0 , eont. boxed-in rectangles with one open end. Color: gray-white. Length .021; breadth .017. H 4489. Stamp seal. Limestone; oval; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: parallel zigzags and filled-in " T " . Color: gray-white. Length .023; breadth .022; height .011. H 4490. Stamp seal. Glazed limestone; circular convex; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: cross filled in with angles. Color: graywhite, iridescent brown. Diam. .021; height .017. H 4491. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular, convex; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: parallel angles and filled " T " . Color: graywhite, brown. Diam. .02; height .012. H 4492. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: cross filled in with angles. Color: brown. Diam. .016; height .012. H 4 4 9 3 . Stamp seal. Limestone; circular, perforated rectangular stem. Design: concentric circles, dot in center of each. Color: brown. Diam. .012; height .008. H 4494. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular biconoid; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: cross filled in with angles. Color: graywhite, brown stains. Diam. .011; height .009. H 4495. Copper pin. Patina. Hemispherical head. Length .127; diam. of head .017. 38. Red pigment. D H 43 X - 8 Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 65 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 4 7 4 4 . Pottery jar. Footed; three pairs of suspension holes. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light graybrown, medium to fine. Decoration: hatched zigzags. Diam. of rim .105; height .146. H 4745. Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. [•77]

HISSAR

I

Decoration: band of hatched zigzags and lines below rim; bands around stem. Diam. of rim .159; height .149. H 4746. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration : thick vertical bands between horizontal bands; above this ladder pattern, a zigzag band. Diam. of rim .149; height .122. H 4747. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: band of alternating groups of vertical lines and opposed zigzags below rim; series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .188; height .147. H 4 7 4 8 . Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration : band of alternating series of short horizontal zigzags and series of vertical lines; vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .183; height .107. H 4 7 4 9 . Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown. Paste: light gray-brown, granulated. Decoration: superimposed birds and series of vertical dashes. Diam. of rim .198; height .127. H 4750. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light gray, medium to fine. Decoration: tripled parallel waves and zigzags. Diam. of rim .223; height .154. H 5 2 3 8 . Pottery bowl. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: two superimposed bands with parallel angles. Diam. of rim .173; height .13. H5239. Pottery bowl. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: tripled parallel lines and zigzags. Diam. .223; height .154.

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

DH 43 X-8, cont. H 4456. Beads: anklet. Gypsum oblongs; color: light tan. Length 46 meters. H 4445. Beads: necklace. Gypsum oblongs and tubes; color: gray-white. Bitumen large disks; color: black. Two carnelian disks; color: red. Natural shell; color: gray. Alabaster disks; color: light tan. H 4446. Beads: necklace. Bitumen oblongs and tubes; color: black. Gypsum tubes and disks; color: light tan, gray. Length 24.08 (single). H 4454. Beads: Gypsum oblongs; color: light tan. Natural shells; color: gray, gray-white. Length 22.4 (single). H4455. Beads. Gypsum oblongs and tubes; color: gray-white, light tan, gray. Length .94 (single). H 4457. Beads. Gypsum oblongs and tubes; color: light tan. Bitumen disks, short oblongs and tubes; color: gray-white. Natural shells; color: gray. Alabaster disks; color: brown. Length .7 (single). (Not shown in Schema.) H 4438. Beads. Gypsum tubes, oblongs, disks; color: gray-white, glazed (?). Natural shells; color: gray. Bitumen tubes, disks; color: black. One carnelian tube; color: light tan. Length 4.96 (single). H 4439. Stamp seal. Gypsum; oval; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: oblique filled cross. Color: gray. Length .021; breadth .019; height .011. H 4440. Stamp seal. Gypsum; circular; perforated cylindrical stem slightly expanding at top. Design: cross filled with angles. Color: green. Diam. .017; height .008 H 4441. Stamp seal. Gypsum; square; perforated oval stem. Design: oblique cross and dashes. Color: gray-green. Breadth .015; height .009. H 4442. Stamp seal. Gypsum; glazed (?); circular convex. Color: gray-white, iridescent. Diam. .011; height .009. H 4443. Button seal. Gypsum; circular; lateral groove and perforation. Design: filled cross on each face; dot in each quadrant and in center. Color: green and tan. Diam. .011; height .007.

T E P E

H I S S A R

H 4447. Button seal. Gypsum; circular; flat; lateral perforation. Design: angles filling cross on both faces. Color: light tan, green stains. Diam. .015; height .009. H 4448. Stamp seal. Glazed (?) gypsum; circular convex. Design: angles filling cross. Color: gray-white, brown, iridescent. Diam. .012; height .009. H 4 4 5 0 . Stamp seal. Glazed (?) gypsum; perforated cylindrical stem, contracted at base. Design: parallel angles and zigzags. Color: gray-white, brown and green glaze (?), iridescent. Diam. .022; height .012. H 4451. Stamp seal. Gypsum; circular; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: angles filling cross. Color: light tan, green stains. Diam. .022; height .009. H 4452. Stamp seal. Gypsum; circular; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: filled cross, curved lines. Color: light tan, green stains. Diam. .018; height .01. H 4453. Stamp seal. Glazed (?) gypsum; rectangular biconoid. Design: parallel angles and zigzags. Color: gray-white, glazed brown. Length .02; breadth .017; height .012. H 4444. Copper pin. Patina. Head slightly biconical. Length .135; diam. .005; diam. of head .016. H 4449. Copper stamp seal. Patina. Circular disk; loop handle. Design: not traceable. Diam. .0165. 26. D G 96

Stamp seal (crushed). X-44

Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 60 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed and broken. Sex: male. Age: adult, young. Mortuary gifts: H 3051. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: brown painted decoration, abraded, on light brown and yellowbrown, granulated. Paste: light buff-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: six irregular checkerboard panels around body; three series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .176; height .165.

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T H E

D E A D

DG 96 X-44, cont. H 3052. Pottery jar. Footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on buff-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: seven-pointed star pattern on base; horizontal waves and zigzags on body and neck. Diam. of rim .102; height .17. H 3055. Pottery cup, pointed base. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown on buffbrown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown,

OF

H I S S A R

I

medium to fine. Design: wavy line below conventionalized birds on body. Diam. of rim .089; height .073. H 3056. Beads: necklace. Gypsum oblongs; color: gray-white. Length .49 (single). H 3054. Stamp seal. Limestone (?); cylindrical stem. Design: paired cross filled with one angle in each quadrant. Diam. .024; height .014; diam. of stem .011. H 3053. Copper pin. Patina. Biconical head. Length .169; diam. .004; diam. of head .017.

DH 3 6 , X - I 2

E H I3.X-37

FIG. 56.—MORTIARY SCHBMAT* OF HISS\R I C

DH 45 X-7 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 40 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed, crushed. Sex: ? Age: juvenile. Mortuary gifts: H4637. Pottery jar. Footed, Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown; red-brown stain, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: alternating branch pattern and series of wavy lines; three series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .114; height .188.

H 4639. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium. Decoration: wave encircles rim. Diam. of rim .198; height .145. H 4640. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: panels of vertical parallel waves and branches; three series of vertical dashes on base; four bands on stem, Diam. of rim .137; height .144.

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

DH 45 X-7, cont H 4641. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on buff and light buff, smooth slip. Paste: buff, medium to fine. Decoration: panels of three series of superimposed "birds" and vertical zigzags; waves on stem; three series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .183; height .159. H 4642. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: gray-brown, medium t o fine. Decoration: vertical lines and parallel zigzags. Diam. of rim .001; height .16. H 4643. Beads. Limestone oblongs, tubes and disks; color: light tan. Grahamite disks; color: black. Three carnelian bicones; color: red. Jasper disks; color: red-brown. Length 7.68 (single). H 4644. Beads. Limestone oblongs; color: light tan. Length 1.12 (single). H 4832. Beads. Limestone oblongs, disks and tubes; color: light tan and gray-white. Grahamite disks; color: black. Jasper disks; color: red-brown. One carnelian bicone; color: brown-red, transparent. Length 9.76 (single). H 4645. Stamp seal. Rectangular; slightly convex; concave, conoid truncated perforated stem. Design: concentric circles, deep central depression. Color: light green. Length .031; breadth .016; height .02. H 4646. Stamp seal. Rectangular; slightly convex; truncated, conoid perforated stem. Design: diagonal dashes. Color: light brown. Length .023; breadth .02; height .013. H 4647. Stamp seal. Limestone; rectangular; cylindrical perforated stem. Design: triangles. Color: light brown. Length .02; breadth .017; height .016. H4648. Stamp seal. Limestone; rounded; slightly convex; conoid truncated, perforated stem. Design: oblique filled cross, angles. Color: light brown. Length .021; breadth .018; height .014. H 4650. Stamp seal. Stone; circular; convex; almost conical; cylindrical perforated stem.

T E P E

H I S S A R

Design: filled cross, angles. Color: light brown. Diam. .029; height .019. H 4 6 5 1 . Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; slightly convex; cylindrical perforated stem. Design: filled cross. Color: light green. Diam. .03; height .016. H 4 6 4 9 . Stamp seal. Stone: circular; cylindrical stem. Design: "branch." Color: light brown. Length .015; breadth .013; height .008. H 4638. Copper pin. Patina. Bipyramidal head; traces of string a t neck. Length ca. .18; breadth of head .022; diam. .004. 13. Pottery bowl, black, fragments. D H 36 X-X2 Position: pelvis dorsal, upper part of body lateral, right. Direction: skull, 50 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female. Age: mature. Mortuary gifts: H 4364. Pottery jar. Footed and stemmed; three pairs of suspension holes in neck. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: buff brown, medium t o fine. Decoration: vertical waves; superimposed birds; three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .105; height .142. H 4365. Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light graybrown and buff, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: panel with conventionalized bird pattern; stippled lozenges; four series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .179; height .163. H 5241. Pottery bowl. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium t o fine. Design: series of vertical lines. Diam. of rim .187; height .105. H 4366. Beads: necklace. Limestone tubes, disks and oblongs; color: light t a n and graywhite. Grahamite tubes, disks and oblongs; color: green, black. Length 1.68 (single). H 4367. Beads: bracelet. Limestone tubes; color: light t a n , green. Length 1.14 (single).

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D H 36 X - 1 2 , cont. H 4 3 6 8 . B e a d s : bracelet. Limestone tubes; color: light brown. Length .8 (single). E H 13 X - 3 7 Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 37 degrees west of south. Preservation: totally decayed. S e x : female. Age: senile. M o r t u a r y gifts: 1 1 3 4 2 0 . P o t t e r y bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light graybrown, smooth slip. P a s t e : light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: alternating ladders and waves on body; three scries of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim. .158; height .137. 1 1 3 4 2 1 . P o t t e r y bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light graybrown, smooth slip. P a s t e : light buffbrown, medium t o fine. Decoration: series of vertical lines; four horizontal bands on stem. D i a m . of rim .18; height .157. I I 3422. P o t t e r y cup. Convex cone; small concave base. T e c h n i q u e : wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light red-brown, abraded, smooth slip. P a s t e : light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: radiating lines from base to lip. Diam. of rim .116; height .089. I I 3 4 2 3 . P o t t e r y bowl. Short stemmed and footed. T e c h n i q u e : wheelmade. Surface:

[81]

H I S S A R

I

dark brown painted decoration on light graybrown, smooth slip. P a s t e : light brown, medium to fine. D e c o r a t i o n : series of vertical lines. Diam. of rim . 1 9 2 ; height .118. H 3424. Copper pin. P a t i n a . Pryamidal head. Length .102; diam. .003. 113430. Beads: bracelet. Limestone oblongs; color: light gray-white. L e n g t h 2.12 (single). 113431. Beads: bracelet. Limestone tubes; color: light tan, light green stains. Length 2.44 (single). £ [ 3 4 2 5 . Beads: necklace. T w o large limestone bicones; color: gray-white and light t a n . Grahamite tubes and disks; color: graywhite. Length 2.36 (single). I I 3 4 2 9 . Beads: belt. Limestone tubes; color: gray-white. Grahamite oblongs, disks and tubes; color: light tan, light green and black. Length 4.12 (single). 113426. Beads. Limestone tubes and disks; color: gray-white, light tan, black. Grahamite disks; color: black. L e n g t h 1.22 (single). 113427. Stamp seal. Limestone; oval; tubular perforated stein. Design: crossing lines, two oblique and two parallel and irregulars. Color: liglit tan, light green. L e n g t h . 0 1 7 ; breadth .014; height .013. 113428. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular biconvex; short disk perforated stem. D e sign: diameter line; opposed parallel angles; two concentric circles of stipples. Color: gray-white, light tan. D i a m . . 0 2 8 ; height .011.

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

DH36;X-|7

E H 13, X - 3 1

EHI3,

X-32

F I G . 57.—MORTUARY SCHEMATA OF HISBAR I C

EH 13 X-31 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 51 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed and broken. Sex: male. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H3405. Beads: necklace. Limestone small disks, oblongs, and tubes; color: gray-white. Bitumen disks; color: black. Length 1.59 (single). H 3407. Beads: belt. Bitumen oblongs and disks; color: black. Limestone disks; color: gray-white. Jasper disks; color: red. Length 1.2 (single). H 3406. Beads: belt. Limestone tubes, disks and oblongs; color: gray-white. Bitumen disks; color: black. Alabaster disks; color: light tan. Length 3.36 (single). H 3404. Copper dagger or spearhead. Patina. Lanceolate blade; faint medial ridge; short rounded rectangular stem. Handle with swallow tail blade end marked on oxide. Length .275; breadth .024; thickness .005; length of blade .25; breadth of stem .016. DH 36 X-17 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 38 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult.

Mortuary gifts: H 4389. Beads: belt. Limestone tubes and disks; color: gray-white. Bitumen tubes and disks; color: black. Length 3.04 (single). H 4390. Beads. Carnelian bi-cone; color: yellow brown. Two small grahamite disks and tubes; color: gray-white. Limestone tubes; color: gray-white. Length .550 (single). H 4388. Copper dagger, unique form. Oblong blade; offset grip; oblong perforated end; faint medial ridge on blade; no grip cover marks on oxide, which is uniform on grip and blade. Length .223; breadth max. .031; thickness of blade .004; length of blade .109; thickness of stem .008; diam. of perforation .004. EH 13 X-32 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 33 degrees east of south. Preservation: decayed and broken. Sex: male. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 3409. Pottery cup. Convex cone; small concave bottom. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on brown, granulated. Paste: red-brown, medium to fine. Decoration: radiating lines from just above base to rim. Diam. of rim .123; height .096.

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D E A D

O F

EH 13 X-32, cont. H 3410. Beads: belt. Alabaster disks and large oblongs; color: light tan. Length .7. H3411. Beads: belt. Limestone tubes and small disks; color: gray-white and light tan. Length .63. H 3412. Beads. Gypsum tubes; color: gray-

H I S S A R

1

white. Bitumen, small disks; color: black. Length 2.08 (single). H 3408. Copper dagger. Patina. Long narrow blade tapering to blunt point; constricted at butt; faint medial ridge; bone impressions in oxide. Length .227; breadth .038; thickness .006; length of blade .245; breadth of stem .015.

DG36. X - 3 0 -MORTUARY SCHEMATA OP HISSAR I C

DH 35 X-24 Position: ventral. Direction: skull, 40 degrees east of south. Preservation: totally decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 4598. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium. Decoration: vertical dashes and paired branches on body; four paired lines on base. Diam. of rim .192; height .141. H 4600. Pottery bowl. Footed; convex cylindrical. Technique: wheelmade. Surface 1 dark brown painted decoration on light gray-

brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: three ibex panels and paired branches. Diam. of rim .153; height .17. H 4599. Beads: necklace. Limestone tubes and small disks; color: gray-white. Length 6,08 (single). H 4601. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular, slightly convex; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: cross filled with angles and depressions. Color: light brown, purple-red stain. Diam. .033; height .013. H 4602. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: three panels with paired zigzags. Color: gray-white, light brown, purple-red. Diam. .033; height .013.

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

body, three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .097; height .138. H 4380. Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: band of vertical dashes below rim and three series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .206; height .128. H 4383. Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light graybrown and buff. Paste: brown-buff, medium to fine. Decoration: paired branch pattern; three series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .149; height .129. H 4 3 8 1 . Beads: bracelet. Small limestone tubes and disks; color: yellow-brown, gray-white. Length 1.24 (single). H 4382. Beads: bracelet. Small limestone tubes and disks; color: yellow-brown and graywhite. Length 2.16 (single). H 4387. Beads. Limestone tubes, disks, oblongs, the latter incised with oblique lines and angles; color: gray-white. Length .196 (single). H 4384. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; convex; perforated, conoid stem. Design: incised " T " with circles. Color: light gray. Diam. .022; height .011. H 4385. Stamp seal. Limestone; oval; perforated oval stem. Design: cross filled with angles and depressions. Color: light tan. Length .019; .016. H 4 3 8 6 . Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; perforated oval stem. Design: faintly incised cross filled with angles. Color: light tan. Diam. .06; height .008. H 4379. Copper pin. Patina. Pyramidal head. Length .14; diam. .004; breadth of head .015.

DG 36 X-30 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 50 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed and broken. Sex: male. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H3482. Pottery cup. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on brown. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: ibexes and paired branches. Diam. of rim .113; height .086. H 3484. Beads: necklaces, (a) Limestone tubes and small disks; color: gray-white, light tan. (b) Bitumen tubes and small disks; color: black. Length (a) 1.8 (single); (b) .15 (single). H 3486. Bead. Alabaster tube; color: graywhite. Diam. .01; height .007. H 3485. Beads: belt. Limestone disks, slightly biconoid; color: light tan. Bitumen disks, slightly biconoid; color: black. Length .29. H 3483. Copper knife blade. Patina. Oblong; faint medial ridge; stem end broken; sides of stem bent over and hammered flat; rounded blade. Length .14; breadth .029; thickness .003; length of blade .124; breadth of stem .01. DH 36 X-16 Position: lateral, left. Direction: skull, 12 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H4378. Pottery jar. Footed; three pairs of suspension holes in neck. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: ladders and paired wave design on

84]

T H E

D H 34,

D E A D

OF

H I S S A B

I

DH36.X-I9

X-14

D H 35X-2.1

FIG 59 —MORTUARY SCHEMATA OP HISSAR I C

DH 34 X-14 Position: lateral right. Direction: skull, 40 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 4544. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on light gray-brown. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: ibexes and parallel zigzags. Diam. of rim .139; height .119. H 4545. Pottery cup, cone-shaped. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on 1 ight gray-brown, abraded. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: two paired waves separated by triple lines. Diam. of rim .107; height .086. DH 36 X-19 Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 64 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult, young. Mortuary gifts: H 4393. Copper pin. Conical head. Length .203; diam. .003; diam. of head .018. H 4394. Beads: necklace. Jasper disks; color:

purple-red. Bitumen disks; color: black. Limestone disks and tubes; color: light brown. Alabaster disks; color: gray-white. Length .68 (single). H4395. Seal. Limestone; circular; convex. Design: cross filled with angles. Color: tan. Diam. .125; height .013. H 4396. Beads: bracelet. Limestone disks, small; color: light tan. Length .02 (single). DH 35 X-21 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 45 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female (?). Age: mature. Mortuary gifts: H 4593. Pottery bowl. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: alternating zigzag and wavy lines. Diam. of rim .18; height .168. H 4594. Beads: necklace. Gypsum oblongs and small disks; color: gray-white. Length .8 (single). H 4595. Beads: bracelet. Gypsum, small disks; color: gray-white. Bitumen oblongs; color: black. Length 1.33 (single).

[85]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

DH 35 X-21, cont. H 4596. Stamp seal. Gypsum; convex; circular; cylindrical stem. Design: two incised triangles. Color: gray-brown. Diam. .024; height .014.

T E P E

H I S S A R

H 4597. Stamp seal. Gypsum; convex; circular. Design: parallel zigzag lines. Color: light green. Diam. .019; height .011.

I) H 3 6, X -15 FIG 6 0 —MORTUARY SCHEMATA OP HISSAR I C

EH 13 X-28 Position: lateral, right, almost dorsal. Direction: skull, 43 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: ? Age: juvenile. Mortuary gifts: H 3385. Pottery bowl. Stemmed and footed: almost cylindrical body. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: hatched zigzags and oblique checker design; three series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .127; height .143. H 3386. Beads: necklace. Limestone oblongs and disks; color: gray-white. Bitumen oblongs and disks; color: black. Length 3.36 (single). H 3388. Beads: bracelet. Limestone rings and small disks; color: gray-white. Bitumen

rings and small disks; color: black. Alabaster disks; color: light tan. Length 1.52 (single). H3387. Beads: bracelet. Limestone tubes; color: gray-white and light tan. Length .74 (single). H3391. Beads: anklet. Limestone oblongs, tubes and disks; color: gray-white, light tan. Length 15.36 (single). H3392. Beads: anklet. Limestone tubes, disks and bicones; color: gray-white, light tan. Length 1.9 (single). H 3393. Beads: anklet. Limestone small tube? and oblongs; color: gray-white and light tan. Length 1.04 (single). H 3394. Beads: anklet. Limestone oblongs color: gray-white and light tan. Length 1.28 (single). H 3395. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; convex; rectangular stem perforated. Design:

THE

DEAD

E H 13 X-28, cont. series of parallel zigzags at either side of diameter line. Color: gray-white. Diam. .019; height .014. H 3396. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular; cylindrical stem perforated. Design: cross filled with angles. Color: white with brown stains. Diam. .019; height .01. H 3398. Button seal. Bitumen; circular. Design: angular geometric pattern. Color: black. Diam. .016; height .005. H 3 3 9 9 . Stamp seal. Limestone; small rectangular stem perforated. Design: filled cross. Color: gray-white, slightly iridescent. Length .01; breadth .006; height .007. H 3397. Button. Bitumen; elliptical in cross section; circular; lateral perforation. Diam. .013; height .007.

OF

HISSAR

I

H 4371. Copper pin. Patina. Conical head. Length .169; diam. .005; diam. of head .018. H 4376. Stamp seal. Limestone; almost square; perforated stem. Design: geometric figures. Color: gray-green. Breadth .021-.022; height .0155. 35.

Pottery bowl fragments.

E H 13 X-18

Position: lateral, right, pelvis almost ventral. Direction: skull, 40 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed and broken. Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 3 3 3 3 . Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: band of angled ladder patD H 36 X - 1 5 tern below rim; series of vertical dashes on Position: dorsal. base. Diam. of rim .146; height .143. Direction: skull, 55 degrees west of south. H 3 3 3 4 . Pottery bowl. Footed and stemmed. Preservation: decayed. Skull broken. Technique: handmade. Surface: dark Sex: female. Age: adult. brown painted decoration on red-brown, Mortuary gifts: granulated. Paste: red-brown, medium. H 4374. Beads: bracelet. Gypsum oblongs; Decoration: zigzag band with vertical hatchcolor: light tan. Length .72 (single). ing on upper part of body; three series of H 4373. Beads: bracelet. Gypsum oblongs; vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .164; color: light tan. Length 2.16 (single). height .149. H 4375. Stamp seal. Gypsum; circular; convex; H3335. Beads: necklace. Limestone oblongs conoid perforated stem. Design: in form of and disks; color: gray-white. Common stone " Z " . Color: light green. Diam. .021; height oblongs and disks; color: black. Length .014. 9.12 (single). H 4377. Stamp seal. Gypsum; rectangular; cyH 3 3 3 6 . Beads: bracelet. Limestone oblongs lindrical perforated stem. Design: cross and disks; color: gray-white. Common stone filled with oblique angles and dots. Color: oblongs and disks; color: black, brown-red. dark brown to light brown. Length .027; Length 2.12 (single). breadth .024; height .019. H 3337. Stamp seal. Limestone; rectangular H 4405. Stamp seal. Gypsum; circular; slightly base; square handle. Design: oblique cross, convex; conoid truncated perforated stem. filled triangles. Color: gray-white, yellow Design: three panels—(a) zigzag, (b) zigzags and green. Length .027; breadth .022; height filled with angles, (c) depressions and dashes. .011. Color: light green. Diam. .036; height .019. H 3338. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular base H 4406. Stamp seal. Gypsum; circular; slightly and handle. Design: two halves filled with convex; conoid perforated stem. Design: triangles. Color: green-brown and graytwo paired zigzags either side of diameter line. white. Diam. .029; height .011. Color: light green. Diam. .023; height .015. H 3339. Stamp seal. Limestone; rectangular H 4372. Beads. Gypsum tubes, disks, oblongs. base; tubular handle. Design: oblique cross Carnelian disk (one); color: red-brown; filled with circles. Length .017; breadth .015; Grahamite disks; color: black. Length .8 height .013. (single). [87] 43. Copper ring, fragments.

PLATE III

PLATE V

PLATE VI

DH 44,10,3

DH 43.20a POTSHERDS OF H I S S AH I B .

DII 45,12a SCALE 1 : 2 .

S E E CATALOGUE OK OBJECTS

J>H 35, 171»

PLATE

VII

H 4502 POTTEKY V E S S E L S OF H I S S AH I C .

S C A L E 1 : 4 ; P A T T E R N S H 4 6 0 0 AND H 3 3 6 6 — 1 : 8 .

P. 48

PLATE

H 4383 P O T T E R Y V E S S E L S OF HISSAH I I 1 .

SCALE 1 : 4 ; PATTERN H 5 1 3 6 — 1 : 8 .

P. 48

VIII

PLATE IX

PLATE

H 4376 POTTERY VESSELS OP HISS AH I C .

SCALE 1 : 4 ; PATTERNS OP H 2 8 8 4 AND H 8 0 2 —•1:8 1

P.50—H 3052, H 4641, H 2884, H 802

X

PLATE XI

PLA'L'K

DH 36.9b

DH 3B. 10.26 P O T S H E R D S O F H I S S AH I C .

SCALE 1

S E E C A T A L O G I:R

XII

PLATE XIII

DH 48,13b POTSHERDS OF H I S S A R I C .

SCALB

1:2

P.53—DH 43, 13A, DH 35, 21B, DH 43, 13B

PLATE

XV

H i s s AN I SEALS AND SEAL-SHAPED ORNAMENTS. SCALE 1 : 2 P.55—H 2920 TO H 2047 INC.: P.56—H 3829 TO H 4443 INC.

PLATE XVII

PLATE XVIII

PLATE XIX

H I S S A R

I I

[105]

R E M A I N S

V. HISSAR II T H E HISSAR I I S E T T L E M E N T S (Figures 6 1 , 6 « )

We uncovered only one relatively well-defined building complex of Hissar I I (B) which is described below. A refuse film or actual building remains of Hissar I I A were always found on top of Hissar I , whenever the excavation penetrated to the lowest stratum. We believe, therefore, as mentioned in reference to Stratum I , that Strata I and I I had approximately the same extent. However, in the northwestern part of the site, Stratum I I may extend farther than the earlier deposit, as suggested by the situation in Plot C F 42, where a thin film of Hissar I was covered by a rather thick deposit of Hissar I I . As a whole, however, Stratum I I is thinner than the preceding and succeeding deposits. We assume, therefore, that Period I I was shorter than Periods I and I I I . This assumption cannot of course be generalized. Still, if we have to deal with deposits of one site, extending approximately over the same area, and composed of similar culture remains which produce an almost identical ruin volume, we are justified in assuming that a thin deposit had been accumulated in a shorter time than a thick stratum. In case particularly well constructed buildings existed during one period, as contrasted with poorly constructed buildings of the succeeding or preceding times, the thickness of the strata cannot count as a criterion for the relative duration of the occupations. HISSAR II BUILDING REMAINS (Figure 63)

The complex of Hissar I I B remains still to be described was uncovered on the South Hill. We disregard building sections of the first level (left white on the key plan, Figure 63) which appear to belong to Hissar I I I A . Some earlier walls of a third level (hatched horizontally) probably belong to Hissar IIA. The Hissar I I B remains are shown in black on the key plan. Comparing the general plan of the Hissar I I and Hissar I buildings, we do not see any difference. In both strata we have groups of rectangular rooms of about the same dimensions, oriented diagonally to the main directions. During both periods, the buildings had apparently been constructed in a haphazard manner. So far as we can see, a large kitchen, which was presumably the main living-room as well, was adjoined by smaller enclosures added at random. Chineh walls (mud-layers) are rarer in Stratum I I . Most walls have been built with rectangular mud-bricks. Four definite buildings of the level under consideration can be distinguished. They are composed of Sections 2 to 5; 6 to 8 (perhaps including 9 and 14); 10 to 13; and 15 to 18. Fragments of other constructions are shown in Sections 19 and 20. [106]

— ; — C « 0 / / /ICTION

—CIO// /£CTJOW

C(LO// / U T K N

F I G . 6 3 . — K E Y P L A N OF H I S S A R I I B U I L D I N G S ON THE SOUTH HILL PROBABLE HISSAR I I A : HISSAR I I B :

BLACK;

HORIZONTAL HATCHING;

PROBABLE HISSAR I I I A :

WHITE

H I S S A R

II

B U I L D I N G

R E M A I N S

Section 2 is apparently the main living-room, but only a bin-like construction (a) occurred in one corner. A doorway opens from Room 2 into a courtyard? (1). A double wall separates Sections 3 and 7, the clue for the distinction of the two buildings, to which the rooms belong. A doorway connects Rooms 7 and 8. The building composed of Rooms 10 to 13 is more interesting. The large living-room and kitchen has two fireholes, shallow depressions .1 and .05 deep. I t is connected by doorways with Rooms 10 and 13, but a narrow enclosure separates Rooms 11 and 13. A sleeping (?) platform (.3 to .4 high) of mud-bricks fills the northern part of Room 13 which is also connected with the smaller Room 12 by a doorway. The thin walls opposite either side of the entrance between Rooms 10 and 11 may perhaps have served as draft screens. A stairway of Level 1 with a firehole (?) beside it, is superimposed on parts of Room 13. The southwestern wall of the Building is strengthened by buttresses at irregular intervals. The main room (15) of the fourth building (Sections 16 to 18) is particularly interesting. Many household utensils occurred on its floor. These finds, in addition to a fireplace of Hissar I I I form, suggest that the building is perhaps somewhat later than those described above. It is possible that it was actually constructed during the intermediate Hissar II—III phase, namely Hissar IIIA, as some of the vessels found on the floor of Room 15 have definite Hissar II forms. Again, during the transitional Hissar II—III phase some stemmed Hissar I I pots still occur. In addition to vessels, a hand-grinder and fragments of such an implement were here found. The fireplace (a) is a square elevation with a shallow depression in the center. In the same manner as the Hissar I I I fireplaces of the same type, it is oriented diagonally to the direction of the walls. The walls and the floors of the building under consideration show the effect of conflagration, but one wall (15b) has no markings of fire and must have been added later, suggesting t h a t the building was at least partly re-used after its destruction. A creephole, such as described in reference to Section 4 (Hissar IIA) of Level 1 in the section on Building Remains of Hissar I (page 26), connects Rooms 15 and 16. The creephole is rectangular, .45 to .48 high and .42 wide. It seems to have been the only opening into Room 16, the walls of which were preserved to a height of about 1.6. Perhaps it was used as a storeroom. The steps, leading into Room 17 from the east, end .7 above the floor. They may have been constructed during the second occupation of the building. A doorway, preserved to a height of .7, connects Rooms 18 and 15, while another doorway opens from Room 15 toward the south. In Plot DG 51 only one room (19) is preserved. In the western part a hallway leads toward additional remains. In the northwestern corner of the room a fireplace extends partly below the wall. The southern and eastern walls are also interrupted by door openings. Section 20 in Plot D G 53 consists of wall fragments only. A hinge-stone was found in the door-opening (a) of a wall. In these plots of the South Hill, burials ranging from Hissar I I B to Hissar I I I B occurred. Excavation was stopped when the top refuse of Hissar IC was struck a t several spots. 11071

HISSAR II B U I L D I N G R E M A I N S ON T H E R E D H I L L (Figures 16, 61)

I n Plots CG 79, C G 89 and CG 99, building remains of Period I I (B) cropped out f r o m below deposits of Hissar I I I , determined in t h e uphill plots of t h e same series. All building remains from this area consist of f r a g m e n t s only, oriented, as usual, diagonally to t h e main directions. There is no need to illustrate or describe these wall f r a g m e n t s , b u t we add a series of mud-brick dimensions, t a k e n f r o m t h e Hissar I I (B) walls. L e n g t h : .5 B r e a d t h : .26 H e i g h t : .075 .565 " .29 " .085 .6 " .295 " .085 .59 " .31 " .08 All bricks appear to be m a d e with straw. HISSAR II P O T T E R Y

VESSELS

(Figures 64-70; Plates X X - X X V I )

Hissar IIA Painted Pottery

(Figures 64-66; Plates

XX-XXIJ)

Nearly all painted vessels described a n d illustrated in this c h a p t e r were f o u n d in graves which also contained t h e typical gray ware of Hissar I I . Consequently, there is no d o u b t t h a t these vessels belong to t h e last sub-phase of t h e p a i n t e d p o t t e r y era, overlapping t h e beginning of t h e era of gray ceramics. T h e r e is, of course, always a chance t h a t earlier pots were found a n d re-used during later times. However, m a n y of t h e vessels of this group show typological differences which verify t h e conclusion based on t h e find conditions. Such vessels which were n o t f o u n d in direct association with gray ware, are mentioned accordingly in t h e description t o follow. W e h a v e traced t h e ceramic development f r o m Hissar IA, characterized b y h a n d m a d e pots with simple geometrical p a t t e r n s , through Hissar I B , m a r k e d b y t h e appearance of the wheel, animal p a t t e r n s and p l a n t and bird designs, to t h e m a i n phase, I C , during which ibex, gazelle and feline p a t t e r n s are f r e q u e n t , in addition t o a n u m b e r of flexible geometric designs. T h e final phase of p o t t e r y decoration, except for some surviving types, is m a r k e d by extreme conventionalization of certain Hissar I C p a t t e r n s , t h e gazelle design offering t h e m o s t striking example. Felines disintegrate 1 and t u r n into purely o r n a m e n t a l units while others, we m u s t admit, keep a r a t h e r naturalistic appearance. T h e ibex a n d t h e bird seem to h a v e disappeared entirely. B u t it is interesting to notice t h a t during this time of disintegration t h e p o t t e r y makers t u r n again t o t h e simple style of decoration used ages before, during Period IA, b y their forefathers. W e refer t o t h e bowls a n d cups painted with simple zigzag p a t t e r n s a f t e r t h e old color scheme of d a r k gray on brown-red. A t times we could distinguish potsherds only b y m e a n s of t h e wheelmarks present on t h e Hissar I I A ware. 1

See footnote 3 in Chap. IV, p. 40.

[108]

H I S S A B

Hissar IIA

Painted

I I

P O T T E R Y

Bowls (Figures 6Jf-66; Plates

XX-XX11)

Bowls H 4665 and H 4470 are guide vessels of this time. Groups of highly conventionalized, long-necked gazelles, painted dark brown on a smooth light grayish brown ground, encircle the upper exteriors of the deep, wheelmade bowls. T h e units dividing the gazelle panels occur also during I C , but vessels and sherds with long-necked gazelles always appear in deposits with an admixture of Hissar I I gray ware. T h e dark brown on

H 4470 FIG. 0 4 . — T H E

P.I09

LOXG-NECKED GAZELLE PATTERN OF HISSAH I I A

( D H

44, X - 8 ) .

SCALE

buff, conoid Bowl H 5170 occurred in a grave (DH 34 X - 2 ) above the occupational level of Hissar I C . The gazelle pattern is here distorted almost beyond recognition. The gazelle design on Potsherd D G 35, 6b shows a somewhat less advanced stage of conventionalization, while on the second sherd (DH 35 L 1 - 2 ) the upper parts of the gazelles were simply attached to an hourglass-shaped figure. A fragment of a feline pattern is visible at the [109]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

H 4516 P.LLL FIG. 65.—PAINTED BOWL OF HISSAR I I A ( I ) H 34, X-8).

SCALE 3:4

H 4518 P.LLL FIG. 60.—PAINTED BOWL o r HISSAR I I A ( I ) H 34, X-8).

[110]

SCALE 3:4

H I S S A R

I I

P O T T E R Y

The group of four bowls with feline patterns (H 4797, H 4460, H 2874 and H 2997) shows phases of conventionalization from the rather naturalistic leopard on H 4797 to the use of the feline as a purely ornamental unit (H 2997 and H 2874) which could hardly be identified were it not for the more naturalistic examples. On the design of H 4460 and on H 4516 (Figure 65) the tail suggests t h a t the series of hatched triangles may be the legs and body of an animal. On the interior of H 2874 the faint contours of a feline are marked. The color of the decoration of these vessels is dark brown or dark gray, while the surface in each case is light grayish brown. Groups of dashes, radiating lines and parallel triangles decorate the bases. The paste is light brown, medium to fine. The next series of bowls shows simple geometrical patterns identical with certain Hissar I C decorations, but we emphasize again that all painted Hissar I I A vessels under consideration were found with gray ware, if not stated otherwise. The designs of this group include series of vertical, straight or angular lines (cf. Type Specimen H 4518, dark brown on light grayish brown, on Figure 66) and opposed rows of hatched triangles. Bowl H 4570 is an example of a number of Hissar IIA vessels with abraded or flaked-off patterns. Dark gray stains on the red-brown and light grayish brown surface of the bowl under consideration suggest a former pattern. Such vessels represent perhaps the last stage of the disintegration of pottery decoration before it is displaced by the plain gray surface of the newly introduced ware. The following bowls are actually decorated in Hissar IA fashion. Parallel angles or zigzags and hatched bands encircle the exteriors, while three of the vessels illustrated (H 4683, H 4569 and H 4676) have the old color scheme, namely dark gray on brown-red. Bowl H 4350 is painted purplish brown with yellowish brown shades on a buff ground. I n contrast to the early ware, however, the present vessels are wheelmade, and the paste has light brown shades, as a rule, as against the prevailing red-brown paste of Hissar IA. Only Bowl H 4676 was not directly associated with gray ware, but its type and find-spot definitely attribute it to Hissar IIA. Hissar IIA Painted Jars (Plate X X I I ) Simple wavy lines on the body, series of dashes on the base and, in one case, on the neck, decorate the sample specimens of Hissar IIA jars (H 4469 and H 4498). Three pairs of suspension holes pierce the neck of one jar in the same manner as earlier jars had been prepared for carrying and suspending. The color schemes are as follows:—H 4469: dark gray on light grayish brown with light gray-brown paste, medium to fine; H 4498: dark brown on light grayish brown and buff with buff paste of medium fineness. Hissar IIA Painted Goblets and Cups (Plate X X I I ) The wheelmade brown-on-light-brown Goblet H 4549 could, according to its design, belong to any sub-phase of the painted pottery era. I t occurred in a grave of the Hissar I I A layer. Goblet H 4458 is exceptionally well made. The dark gray decoration of parallel zigzag lines is applied on a smooth, almost polished brown-red surface. [Ill]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A S

The conoid cup with a design of lines radiating from the base to the lip (H 2990) occurs, with slight modifications only, from the beginning of the painted pottery era to its end. Cup H 3058, however, has the typical Hissar I I A pattern of highly conventionalized gazelles, which in this case are carried to almost the last step of stylization (cf. also Bowl H 5170). We noticed only one more advanced step: the horns and the bodies, which in the design under consideration are still marked by offset curves, turn to straight lines on a cup of surviving Hissar I I B type (H 2834, Plate X X I V ) , thus giving the gazelle groups the appearance of a fence pattern. Cup H 2891 is painted with a simple hatched zigzag band, while the spouted Cup H 4587 seems to be a characteristic vessel of Hissar IIA. At least we did not notice a similar vessel among the earlier wares. Hissar IIA Gray Pottery (Figures 67-69; Plate

XXIII)

We do not believe that the change from painted pottery to plain gray ware came about without decisive outer influences. We believe that it was due to a large-scale infiltration or an actual invasion of people from the Turkoman Steppe north of the Elburz Mountains. There Frederic R . Wulsin found in Tureng Tepe 2 near Asterabad, gray ware of a type more elegant and better executed than the average gray ware of Tepe Hissar, although there is a definite family resemblance and, at times, identity. We assume that the provenance of the Asterabad ware is situated closer to the center of the origin of gray ware, and from the Asterabad area came perhaps the carriers of the culture characterized by the new ware. I t is regrettable that Wulsin was not able to continue his excavation into lower strata of Tureng Tepe, but Professor T . J . Arne's subsequent work in that territory has furnished important additional information 3 amplifying our theories as to the relations of Tepe Hissar and the culture across the mountains. The absorption of Hissar I features by the newcomers is indicated by the persistence of Hissar I pot forms, and forceful new influences are marked by the disintegration and final disappearance (with few exceptions) of painted decoration after the appearance of plain gray ceramics. Hissar IIA

Gray Bowls (Plate

XXIII)

Within this series too, with few exceptions, only such vessels are described and pictured as were found associated with painted vessels in the graves. Vessels of this time found outside of graves are pointed out accordingly. During the early phase of the era of gray ceramics, many vessels with grayish brown tints occur, while gray of dark and light shades prevails. The paste is gray, medium or medium to fine. The surface is smooth or even polished, seldom granulated. Many forms are identical with those of Hissar I , as the illustrations plainly show. However, there are bowls with exaggerated tall stems, a form occurring solely in the gray ware of Hissar I I . Bowl H 4344 was found in a burial of the * F . R. Wulsin, "Excavations at Tureng Tepe, near Asterabad," in Bulletin American II, I bis. Supplement, 1932.

Institute for Per/nan Art and

T . J . Arne, " T h e Swedish Archaeological Expedition to Iran," in Acta Arckaeologica, VI, 1935. omane et ses Antiquités," in Geografiska Annaler, 1935, Sallskapet for Anthropologi och GeograB. 3

[112]

Archaeology,

Also " L a Steppe Turk-

H 2998 See Catalogue FIG. 6 7 — ( I R A Y WARE OF HISSAR I I A ( D G 9 6 , X - 3 6 ) .

H 2889 See Catalogue F I G . 6 8 . — G R A Y WARE OF HISSAR I I A ( D G 96, X-31).

SCALE 3 : 8

SCALE 3 : 8

H 2890 P . 114 FIG. 69.—GRAY WARE OF HISSAR I I A ( D G 96, X - 3 1 ) .

SCALE 3 : 8

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Hissar IIA layer (DH 36 X-3). Though the particular grave did not contain painted vessels we do not hesitate in attributing the bowl to this time. Hissar 11A Gray Jars (Figure 69; Plate X X I I I ) Jars H 2890 and H 3060, both with polished gray and gray-brown surfaces, are almost identical, in form, with certain painted jars of Hissar I. The neckless type of H 4577, however, was not encountered in the earlier deposit. The same is true also for Jar H 2992, with brown and buff surface roughened by the marks of a rubbing stick or similar tool. The paste of this vessel is light brown, while the other jars are of gray paste. Hissar IIA

Gray Cups (Plate X X I I I )

We have little doubt t h a t goblets also occur in the transitional I I A layer, though we have not found specimens definitely attributable to this time. The two cups here shown (H 3057 and H 4361) have rather characterless forms. Their surfaces are granulated redbrown and yellowish brown with buff. Hissar IIB

Surviving Painted Pottery (Plate

XXIV)

We stated previously t h a t the final phase of pottery decoration overlaps the earliest phase (Hissar IIA) of the era of gray ceramics. However, rather clumsily decorated vessels and sherds still occur sporadically in the principal sub-layer (IIB) of Hissar I I . They are surviving types, some of which still carry on the simplest designs of the preceding epoch (cf. H 2834). The painted bowl seems to have disappeared; jars, goblets, and cups only survive. Simple brown lines ornament the yellowish brown, smooth surface of Jar H 3906. Goblets H 4780 and H 5053 have wavy ornaments on the interior, reminding one of the early pottery decoration of Hissar I. Goblet H 5053 is handmade, in contrast to most vessels of Hissar I I . Its decoration is purplish brown on a light grayish brown and light buff slip. The surface of H 4780 is yellowish brown and light buff, with dark brown decoration. Goblet H 2148, according to its ornament, may as well have belonged to Hissar I I A ; as in all other sub-layers of the strata, there are earlier and later types which in many cases cannot be defined as such. As a m a t t e r of fact, mistakes in attributing finds to one or another sub-layer are a p t to occur. The most characteristic patterns of the surviving type are opposed "tongues" (cf. Cup 2147, dark brown on light grayish brown) and rows of cross-hatched circles (cf. Cup H 1872, dark brown on brown). Cup H 2834 shows an interesting conventionalization of the well-known gazelle pattern (cf. painted pottery of Hissar IIA). If we did not know the prototype of this design, we would hardly be justified in calling it the "standing gazelles" pattern. The decoration is dark brown on a buff ground, with gray and brown shades. Simple angular and wavy patterns are illustrated by Cups H 3913 (brown on light buff, perhaps IIA), H 3902 (red-brown on light buff), H 5051 (purplish brown on gray-brown), and H 5152 (dark brown on buff-brown). [1141

HISSAK

II

POTTERY

H 2784 P.116 FIG. 70.—A CHALICE BOWL or Hras.« I I B ( C F 37, LEVEL 3 Low). SCALE

3:8

[115]

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Hissar IIB Gray Pottery (Figure 70; Plates XXV,

H I S S A R

XXVI)

I t would hardly be possible to distinguish the gray vessels of Hissar I I A and I I B , were it not for the association of late painted vessels with the early gray pots of Hissar I I . At the present state of our knowledge we are not able to say t h a t the gray vessels of Hissar I I B which are illustrated, might not also occur in Hissar IIA, and vice versa. The most attractive vessel of this series is a chalice (H 2784), wheelmade as are most of the pots of Hissar I I , with a polished gray and grayish brown surface. The paste is gray, medium to fine. Bowls occur with or without a stem. An interesting stem ornament, consisting of three pairs of elevated rings, is shown on Bowl H 5070. The remaining footed bowls are varied as to the length of the stem and the form of the body. The latter is conoid or hemispherical, while the upper part is a t times contracted, forming a definite neck. The group of unstemmed bowls includes shallow conoid vessels and deeper, roughly hemispherical ones. Jars, again, occur with or without a stem. Slightly elaborated rims and bases, such as shown on Jar H 4179, were also found with other vessel forms. The surface colors of the gray ware do not have to be mentioned in each case. They range from light to dark gray, a t times with brownish shades. The surface color of the Hissar I I ware tends to be darker than t h a t of the Hissar I I I vessels. The series of unstemmed jars includes a rather large, smooth, slightly polished storage vessel (H 1822), ornamented with seven corrugations on the upper body. When found, the jar was filled with charred grain. Two jars (H 4783 and H 5118) are ornamented with rows or groups of small knobs and ridges. The zigzag ridges of H 5118 have the appearance of guides for a cord such as is used with a canteen. A prototype in metal is suggested by the ornamentation of these vessels. Jar H 2190 serves as an example for the remaining vessels of this general form. There is a variety of pleasing goblets which are actually small stemmed bowls or jars, with conoid or roughly hemispherical body. The same body forms occur in addition to biconoid shapes with the unstemmed cups. Cup H 5209 has a small lateral spout, noticed on several similar vessels. This type was perhaps used as a nursing cup for small children. The outer rim of Cup H 4848 is encircled by a dark grayish brown band with metallic lustre, also noticed on other cups of this time. HISSAR I I O B J E C T S O F B A K E D A N D U N B A K E D CLAY ( P l a t e X X V I I , A)

Miniature

Vessels

I n Hissar I we found only one crude, small hollowed-out object which might be classified as a miniature cup. Still, we have no doubt t h a t trial pots were modeled by children in order to learn the art of the adults (who were presumably women). The two Hissar I I specimens here illustrated are miniature editions of a jar and a bowl or cup. H 3172 has a red-brown, smooth surface. The coarse, unbaked Pot H 3748 is grayish brown. [116]

H I S S A R

I I

F I G U R I N E S

Pot Lid A red-brown disk (H 2622) has doubtless been used as a vessel lid. I t had been attached to the vessel rim by means of two perforations at opposite points of the periphery. The top is smooth, while the bottom is roughened, perhaps by heat or steam. Whorls The Hissar I whorl of miniature cup shape still occurs in Hissar IIA. Conoid (H 1729, brown and dark gray) and biconoid forms were also found, not definitely distinguishable from the whorls of Hissar I. The brown-red, ring-shaped Whorl H 1811 is unique. Disks There is no need to illustrate the Hissar I I disks. In Hissar IIA we found several of the laterally perforated Hissar I specimens. Re-ground potsherds also occurred as disks, solid or perforated. Cones and

Bicones

The specimens described in the corresponding Hissar I paragraph illustrate the Hissar I I series as well. For the present we consider the biconoid objects (cf. H 1806, Hissar I) as weights. Miscellaneous

Objects

A pottery crescent almost identical with H 2935 of Hissar I occurred in Hissar IIA refuse. A pottery globe with deep depression (cf. H 2971, Stratum I) was also found in Hissar I I . A "miniature hammer" (H 3037) of light gray pottery is a spool-shaped object with semi-globular ends. Another spool-shaped object (H 1746) of grayish brown pottery has a lateral perforation. A problematical two-horned specimen (H 3670) of gray pottery was attributed to Hissar IIA. HISSAR I I FIGURINES OF BAKED CLAY (Plate XXVII, B)

Human figurines first appear in Stratum I I ; at least none was found in the earlier deposit. The torso of a woman (H 3644) occurred in Substratum IIA. Light buff shades are on the light grayish brown slip. One of the two secondarily attached breasts and the left upper arm are preserved. Within the series of Tepe Hissar figurines this fragment suggests an unusually naturalistic representation of a woman. In addition to the grayish brown baked clay Figurine H 3735, apparently representing a highly conventionalized human being, only one specimen of this type occurred in Hissar I I refuse, although such figurines are quite frequent in Stratum I I I . The arms and the head are indicated by knobs. The figurine stands on an expanding, circular base; the legs are not defined. The two painted animal figurines probably originated during Hissar IIA. In the same manner as the decorated Hissar I specimens, the pattern of the figurines under con[117]

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sideration consists of simple lines or bands. H 2978 is painted dark brown on buff; H 1718 has the same color decoration, but the surface is light grayish brown. A few of the numerous usually grayish brown animal figurines of baked or unbaked clay are shown. H 1694 faintly resembles a mouflon. A donkey is suggested by Figurine H 1741, the surface of which is yellowish gray and light pink. Figurine H 1690 represents a cow or a sheep. The udders are suggested by a baggy protuberance. There are three depressions in the anus region, and two depressions are on the forehead. The sheep (?) Figurine H 3733 is entirely stippled; the eyes are marked by a lateral perforation. HISSAR I I SEALS AND SEAL-SHAPED ORNAMENTS ( P l a t e X X V I I I , A)

Hissar I seals or seal-shaped ornaments survive into the transitional Hissar I—II subphase, namely, Hissar IIA. We do not believe that they persisted until Hissar I I B . Some of the specimens of the group under consideration are doubtful. They may belong to Hissar IC. Frit seems first to appear during Hissar IIA. In several cases we were uncertain whether we had to deal with grayish white, glazed limestone or gypsum, or with actual frit.* In addition, baked clay, serpentine, one specimen of rock salt (?) and bitumen occur during Hissar IIA. The typical seal of Hissar I I B is made of copper. The patterns of the clay seals include the filled cross (H 1728, grayish yellow), concentric circles (H 3776, gray), concentric circles with radiating dashes (H 1785, brown-red), and parallel waves (H 1782, brown-red wash on light brown). One serpentine seal, with convex rectangular base but without pattern, occurred in a definite Hissar IIA grave. The material of H 3663 appears to be rock salt, grayish white and translucent. The only traceable part of the abraded pattern is an oblique cross. A black bitumen button (H 4414) is ornamented with parallel zigzags. A laterally perforated knob is on the center of the back. The patterns of the Hissar IIA frit seals are identical with the simple designs on the gypsum seals of Hissar I and IIA. Specimens without pattern also occur. The surface is usually grayish white and iridescent, at times with brown shades. We illustrate three samples only. The rectangular Seal H 3005 has oblique dashes on either side of a central line. The circular Seals H 2883 and H 2882 are ornamented with stipples and with a checker-board pattern, respectively. The Hissar I series of gypsum seals with simple patterns illustrate the Hissar IIA seals as well. However, the elaborate zigzag designs of Hissar I have not been found on the seals of the later deposit. Again, we must state that the most elaborate early seal (H 20)5 occurred in mixed Hissar IC and Hissar IIA refuse. We show two samples of the Hissar IIA series of gypsum seals. H 3712 has the omnipresent filled cross as the pattern, while H 4522 has oblique dashes on either side of a 4

See A ppendix I .

fi

Cf. preliminary report, op. cit., PI. X C I .

[118]

HISSAK

II

COPPER

OBJECTS

diametrical line. The "sealing base" is convex in both cases. The surface of H 4522 is light green and iridescent. The specimen is either glazed gypsum or, possibly, frit. I n Hissar I I B exceptionally large copper seals appear. Seal H 2183, found in a typical Hissar I I B grave, is a good example. The large discoid base is scalloped; the lobes are ornamented with simple filled crosses, while concentric circles or a scroll (?) is in the center. T h e cylindrical handle is perforated close to the middle of its height. Other Hissar I I B seals were illustrated in the preliminary report. 6 HISSAR I I C O P P E R OBJECTS (Plates X X V I I I , B and X X I X )

The series of Hissar I I copper objects is larger than that of Hissar I, and, shortly after the appearance of gray ware, definite elaborations of individual categories are marked. In Stratum I I ring-shaped ornaments such as bracelets, finger rings and earrings appear. The copper macehead occurs first during this time, and pins with elaborate coiled heads are frequent. I n addition, most of the simpler objects of Period I persist. There are only a few blades of Hissar I I in our collection. They closely resemble the blades of Hissar I. We are not sure whether the two specimens illustrated (H 3012 and H 4677) are dagger blades or spearheads. The same doubt exists concerning certain earlier and later blades of this general type. A medial ridge is marked on Blade H 3012, which is supplied with a short rounded stem, reminding one of Hissar I specimens. Blade H 4677 is oblanceolate with a faint medial ridge. The latter specimen belongs to the transitional Hissar I—II phase (IIA); H 3012 has been tentatively attributed to the same sub-phase. A blade of Hissar I I B , which is not illustrated, is almost identical with H 3012. As to Hissar I I blades published in the preliminary report on the first season, 7 we now believe t h a t H 1331 and H 1040 should be attributed to a time not earlier than Substratum I I I A , t h a t is, the transitional phase between Hissar I I and I I I . The maceheads of Hissar I I B are the most attractive metal objects of their time. One elaborate specimen (H 1200) is ornamented with incised zigzags and stars. T h e plain Macehead H 2021 expands into a seven-pointed star. Remains of the wooden handles were found in both heads. I n Stratum II, two chisel-shaped objects occurred. H 1813 has one spatulate and one pointed end, while both ends of H 2081 are spatulate. I n the transitional Hissar I—II layer (IIA) the characteristic pins of Hissar I still prevail. Pin H 2876 with bipyramidal head occurred in a grave of Hissar IIA. T h e typical pin of the main phase of Hissar I I (IIB) has a double scroll head (H 4856) formed by coiling the bifurcated stem ends. This pin type persists until Hissar IIIA. Thick stemmed nails with rather blunt points and broad, inverted conoid heads occur during all sub-phases of Hissar I I . Both specimens here shown (H 2086 and H 2172) have slightly concave tops. In addition, the head of H 2086 has a coiled appearance on the exterior. ' Op.tit.,PI. evil. ' Op. tit., PI. cm. [119]

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Needles occur in all strata of the mound except, apparently, in the lowest sub-layer (IA). H 3176 is a sample with a particularly large eye. Here, as seemingly in all other cases, the eye is formed by bending the stem end. Points are also omnipresent. The specimen illustrated (H 2592) has a rectangular cross-section in the center; one end is sharp, the other blunt. For the use of such objects see the section on Hissar I copper objects (page 57). In Stratum I I , bracelets and anklets of copper were first introduced. I t is strange, however, that in the graves of Hissar IIA ornaments of this kind were absent, although the gray ware of Period I I had appeared. The bracelets and anklets of Hissar I I B are seemingly identical with those of the succeeding period, except for the greater number of coils present in some later specimens. They are made of thin or thick copper wire, forming rings which are almost closed, slightly overlapping, or coiled. In Stratum I I we counted as many as seven coils (cf. H 2169 and H 2170). The ends of the wire are tapering as a rule, and squared off or bluntly pointed. The sizes and the find conditions prove that children (cf. H 1919 and H 1920) and adults alike were ornamented with bracelets and, to a lesser extent, with anklets of this type. The specimens illustrated include one pair of anklets (H 2194), namely two overlapping rings fastened together by their patina. Only three finger rings occurred in Stratum I I , and all of them were in the uppermost deposit of this time. This means that they may possibly belong to the transitional Hissar II—III layer (IIIA). The rings are made of thin coiled copper wire. The specimens illustrated (H 3911 and H 3912) have six coils. They were found in the same grave. The copper earrings of Hissar I I seem, as a rule, to be larger than those of the succeeding period. They are rings with tapering ends, usually somewhat overlapping. Earrings are still relatively rare in the stratum under consideration, certainly in comparison with their frequent occurrence in Stratum I I I . Spindle H 2171 is a unique specimen. I t was definitely associated with Hissar I I B objects in the well-equipped grave of a woman. Two whorls are attached to the slender, tapering stem. The globular, slightly biconoid whorl is ornamented with oblique incisions. Four coils or ridges are marked on the lower, conical whorl. Although these whorls when found were attached to the stem by oxide, subsequent cleaning determined that they were originally loose. Two interesting objects were found in the graves of infants. They may have been used as toys. Both have slender handles perforated at the end. In one case (H 2138) the opposite end expands into a flattened globe. H 4202 expands into a faintly corrugated cone. There is only one copper vessel (H 2210) that may possibly be attributed to Hissar I I B . I t occurred in a mixed I I B and I I I A layer of graves and refuse. I t is a small inverted conoid bowl with slightly flattened base and plain rim.

[ 120]

HISSAR I I SILVER A N D GOLD OBJECTS (Plate X X X , A)

During Period I I objects of precious metals are still rare, while none was found in Stratum I. All silver and gold objects of Stratum I I are ornaments. There are the following silver objects: "double scroll" pendants (H 2659 and H 2982), earrings (H 2983), a finger ring (H 2178), an oblong bead (H 2994), and a curious ladle-shaped pendant (H 2879). With the exception of the last-named specimen, these objects were paralleled by ornaments in copper. Gold occurred in the form of a few simple ornaments only. There is an oblong bead (H 1717) and a short band (H 2184) imbedded in material resembling gypsum. Judging by find conditions it was either used as an ear pendant or as part of a necklace. None of the lead specimens could be definitely attributed to Period I I , although a small ring of this material was found in the dumpheap beside a square where Period I I remains were excavated. HISSAR I I STONE OBJECTS (Plate X X X I )

Flint Flakes, Cores, Scrapers and Perforators There is no need to illustrate the Hissar I I flakes or cores. They are almost identical with those of Hissar I (cf. Plate XVII). In connection with the latter, we omitted mentioning t h a t most flakes, showing only one polished cutting or sawing edge, had presumably been inserted in some grip of perishable material, such as wood. The Hissar I I scrapers are also similar to those of Hissar I, b u t we illustrate the point of a perforator (H 1714) made of grayish brown flint. Parts of it have a roughly pentagonal cross-section, others a rectangular one. As to other flint implements, arrow heads did not occur at all in Stratum I I . Only two doubtful ones were found in Hissar I, while many occurred in Stratum I I I . Celts Specimen H 3191, made of grayish green stone, is exceptionally narrow. I t s cutting edge is battered. Celt H 2657, made of gray stone, illustrates the most frequent form. Mullers, Whetstones, Pestles and Polishers Fragments of stone mullers found in the refuse of Stratum I I and sub-layers I B and IC suggest t h a t such mills were known since the middle of the early period. However, since none of them lay on the floors of the Hissar I and I I buildings, we must admit the possibility t h a t the fragments could be technical intrusives from Stratum I I I (except for the grinder found with the Hissar I B burial, CG 95 X-28: cf. Figure 53). Still, we have no doubt t h a t wheat or similar grain was cultivated during the first two periods. If it was not ground on mullers, it may have been pounded in stone mortars. 8 8

Cf. preliminary report, op. cit., PI. X C I I I , c .

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The rectangular whetstone (H 3190) still persists in Stratum I I . The surface of the present specimen is partly smooth and granulated. The perforation for suspension extends obliquely from the top toward one face. The pestles are cylindrical or oblong stones, their battered ends showing the manner of their use. The specimen here shown (H 1722) may or may not have been employed as a pestle. I t is a natural lump of ore (haematite?) apparently wrought to its present shape. The polishing stones are usually circular or oval specimens showing areas polished by use. Miscellaneous Objects Neither in Stratum I nor in Hissar I I did we find hammers or axes of definite form. One weight occurred in Stratum I , and we have little doubt that its form existed during Period I I as well, though none was uncovered. Neither did we find door hinge stones in the first stratum of the mound, while one occurred in a Hissar I I house (page 107). We illustrate two shallow receptacles, one of grayish green serpentine (H 1812), the other (H 3642) of common gray stone. The collection of Stratum I I stone objects includes also a hammerstone (?) of haematite, some serpentine flakes of Hissar I type (from Hissar IIA), and a light tan plano-convex disk (H 2663), perhaps used as a spindle whorl. HISSAR II BONE OBJECTS (Plate X X X , B)

The common awls of Hissar I I and I are similar. We illustrate one specimen (H 2741) which may have been used as a needle. The polished object has a notched head end and a perforation near the top. Awl H 3631 is actually a bone flake with an exceptionally sharp "steeple" point. The same spindle-shaped bone objects occur in Strata I I and I. Specimen H 2948 has one flat side, suggesting the shape of a boat. A perforated femur head (H 1745) also occurred in Hissar I I . A fire-blackened corrugated object (H 1681) with parallel incisions was tentatively attributed to this period. HISSAR I I BEADS (Plate X X X I I )

The dead of Hissar I I A had been as abundantly supplied with ornaments as were the Hissar I burials, and the types of beads remained the same. Thus, the Hissar I series of beads (cf. page 61) illustrates the Hissar I I A beads as well. In Hissar I I B , personal adornments become less abundant. New materials for beads introduced during Hissar I I are rock crystal, lapis lazuli, turquoise, silver and gold. These materials were wrought into the following shapes: rock crystal, disks and oval pendants (H 2187); blue, and blue and white speckled lapis lazuli, ring-shaped and oblong, short and long tubes, disks and irregular rectangles; bluish green turquoise tubes and one trapezoid bead; silver with purplish gray patina, oblong beads, [ 122]

T H E

D E A D

OF

H I S S A R

II

bicones and disks. Gold was still extremely rare in Stratum I I . W e found one lapis lazuli bead with its center encircled by a narrow gold ring (H 2185). Gypsum* occurred in forms known f r o m Hissar I , namely, tubes, disks, oblongs and bicones. B u t one segmented t u b e of four divisions was also found in Hissar IIA. There are oblong, tubular a n d discoid b i t u m e n beads. Common stone beads were wrought into t h e same shapes as t h e other materials. F r i t occurred in the form of globes, tubes, disks, bicones and oblongs. T h e iridescence on t h e grayish white beads may be some glazy substance, present also in t h e form of greenish and brown glazy patches on other beads and on seals of Hissar I type. Brown-red carnelian occurred in t h e form of disks, bicones, and oblong p e n d a n t s (H 2223). T h e light t a n alabaster beads are disks and tubes. Red jasper (?) was found in t h e same forms as alabaster. Serpentine disks, roughly spool-shaped clay beads (?) (H 4792), small shells, and an irregular oval mothe»-of-pearl pendant conclude the series. W e illustrate a few samples only. Necklace H 2223 is composed of carnelian disks and oblong p e n d a n t s in addition to lapis lazuli disks, a crystal disk and bitumen and gypsum beads n o t illustrated. Necklace H 2179 includes a large tube and smaller tubes of lapis lazuli, carnelian disks and bicones and oblong bitumen beads. String H 1716 has oblong and ring-shaped lapis lazuli beads, crystal disks, and a turquoise tube. T h e above mentioned lapis lazuli bead with gold ring is included in Necklace H 2185, together with f r i t and gypsum beads. A Hissar I I B diadem (H 2176) was composed of oblong silver beads and limestone disks. Biconoid gypsum beads with greenish, glazy stains (H 4340) were found in Hissar I I A , while a biconvex carnelian bead (H 1836) with octangular edge occurred in mixed Hissar I I B - I I I A refuse. T H E D E A D OF HISSAR II (Figures 71-82)

I n t h e section dealing with the dead of Hissar I (cf. page 62) we explained technical features which do n o t have to be repeated here. Out of seven hundred and eighty-two burials uncovered during t h e second season, two hundred and nine were a t t r i b u t e d to Hissar I I . T h e transitional layer of Hissar I I A supplied ninety-one graves, and eightyseven burials belong to Hissar I I B . T h e rest could not be identified as to subperiods. T h e graphs accompanying this chapter have also been explained. T h e y deal with the position of body and skull, with the mortality during certain age groups, with the proportion of t h e sexes and with t h e direction of t h e bodies. T h e schematic burial drawings show t h e m o r t u a r y equipment and the positions of some Hissar I I skeletons. Orientation

and Position of Body and Skull (Figures 71-73,

75-82)

I t is interesting to compare the position graphs and the orientation graphs of Hissar TIA with those of Hissar I I B for they show a factor just as significant as the appearance of a new t y p e of pottery. T h e burial rules altered a t t h e end of Hissar I I A , showing a change of behaviour toward the dead, and, going a step farther, suggesting a change of cult. 9

See Appendix I.

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H I S S A R

While in Hissar I I A t h e ancient rules still predominate, as indicated b y t h e position of t h e skull facing the right side a n d b y t h e prevailing orientation toward northwest, west a n d southwest, in Hissar I I B t h e position a n d t h e orientation of b o d y a n d skull is ambiguous, and remained so until t h e end of t h e prehistoric occupation of T e p e Hissar. T o be sure, the east-west hiatus, noted in Hissar I , is n o t so pronounced in Hissar I I A . T h i s

F I G . 71.—ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I I A SKELETONS

F I G . 72.—ORIENTATION OF HISSAR I I B SKELETONS

means t h a t t h e faces of t h e dead m a y h a v e been placed t o w a r d t h e sun a t an angle corresponding to t h e position of t h e sun f r o m some time a f t e r sunrise until some t i m e before sunset, though midday was n o t favored, as a rule. Position of Arms and Hands W h a t has been said in regard to t h e position of t h e arms a n d h a n d s of t h e Hissar I skeletons is t r u e also for those of Hissar I I . I t seldom appears t h a t t h e position of t h e arms and h a n d s has been changed. As a rule t h e y were left in t h e m o r t u a r y position, which was then locked b y t h e rigor mortis. Position of Legs and Feet There is a tendency as early as Hissar I I A , t o flex t h e legs of t h e dead more closely t h a n in Hissar I . As to t h e purpose of t h e crouching position, whatsoever its original [ 124 ]

HISSAR I I À Right: Left

P o s i t i o n of Body

Position of Sltull

Right:

:

Left S

Dorsal

Dorsal:

Ventral:

Ventral: Basal:

SUeletons:

Inf.I

Inf.II

Juv.

Ad.

Mat.

Sen.

F I G . 7 3 . — G R A P H S SHOWING THE POSITION, MORTALITY AND PROPORTION* OK THE SEXES OF THE DEAD OF HISSAR I

[ I«5 I

E X C A V A T I O N S

A T

T E P E

H I S S A R

idea may have been, we believe that it simply had become a matter of economy of work and space. The feet of the Hissar I I skeletons are, as usual, pressed down, normal, pulled up, or distorted, perhaps by pain.

FIG. 7 4 — H I S S A R I I A BUBIAL E G 06, X - 4 6

Mortality

(Figure 73)

The general appearance of the mortality graphs of Hissar I I A and I I B is alike and our analysis of the Hissar I graphs (page 66) is largely true for Hissar I I as well. The Hissar I I graphs, however, are closer to the summary graph of all periods (page 314). The mortality decreases from Infant I to Juvenile, increases abruptly during the adult stage, and as usual, few attain mature or senile age. The graph of Hissar I I B may give some additional information as to the relative mortality of male and female. I t suggests that [126]

T H E

D E A D

OF

H I S S A R

I I

females, a t least during this sub-period, lived longer than males. T h e fourteen mature and senile skeletons include only four mature males, but eight mature and two senile females. Proportion of Sexes (Figure 73) Hissar I I A has an abnormally low percentage of females (26.31%) characteristic for most Tepe Hissar strata, while in Hissar I I B we have a fairly normal proportion of the sexes (female 48.68%). We have no explanation for this exception. Improved living conditions can hardly be a clue, since the wealth of Hissar I I I B and C appears to have been greater, and the percentage of women is only slightly above the proportions of Hissar I. We simply have to accept the fact of the average male predominance of 2 to 1 except in Hissar I I B . Manner

of

Disposal

The dead of Hissar II, like those of Hissar I and I I I , were deposited in the inhabited or in the temporarily deserted, areas of the mound. In addition to plain earth burials, the cist grave appears first during Hissar IIA, as illustrated by the mudbrick enclosure of D H 36 X-5 (cf. Figure 77) and by the Hissar I I B burial illustrated in the preliminary report on Plate CX. Mortuary Equipment

(Figures

75-82)

The categories of mortuary gifts are almost similar in all strata of the mound. T h e y are vessels, weapons with male skeletons, household implements, seals and objects of personal adornment. The most important and significant gifts in Stratum I I are the gray vessels of the Hissar IIA newcomers intermixed in the same graves with the last types of painted ware. Only a few simply painted types of small vessels survive after Hissar IIA. While the grave equipment is still preferably deposited a t the head of the skeleton, in many cases the gifts are found near the feet or other parts of the body.

[ 127]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

H I S S A R

H 4474. Beads: bracelet. Alabaster short tubes and disks; color: light tan. Length .90 (single). H 4475. Stamp seal. Limestone; circular convex; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: incised with crossed irregular angles. Diam. .023; height .015. H 4473. Stamp seal. Limestone; glazed (?) frit; perforated low cylindrical stem. Design: oblique cross. Color: gray-white, iridescent. Length .015; breadth .014; height .007. H 4476. Copper pin. Patina. Conical head. Length .042; diam. of head .013.

D H 44 X-8

Position: pelvis on right side; upper body dorsal. Direction: skull, 53 degrees east of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: mature. Mortuary gifts: H 4468. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray, gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: gray, medium. Diam. of rim. .223; height .208. H 4469. Pottery jar, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on light gray-brown. Decoration: horizontal waves separated by lines. Diam. of rim .099; height .16. H 4470. Pottery bowl. Footed; high stemmed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark graybrown painted decoration on light graybrown, smooth slip. Paste: light graybrown, medium. Decoration: long-necked gazelles separated by branches. Diam. of rim .192; height .166. H 4471. Beads. Alabaster, bitumen (grahamite), limestone tubes, disks and oblongs. Length (a) .19; (b) .43 (single). H 4472. Beads: bracelet. Alabaster disks and short tubes; color: light tan. Length .15 (single).

T E P E

D G 96 X-31

Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 45 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed and broken. Sex: male (weak mandible). Age: mature. Mortuary gifts: H 2889. Pottery bowl. Footed; hemispherical body. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray and gray-brown, polished. Paste: gray, medium fine. Diam. of rim .165; height .23. H 2890. Pottery jar, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray and gray-brown, polished. Paste: gray, medium to fine. Diam. of rim .122; height .195.

[128]

T H E

D E A D

OF

DG 96 X-31, cont. H 2891. Pottery cup, disk base. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: brown painted decoration on brown-red. Paste: brown-red. Decoration : horizontal zigzag band with vertical hatching. Diam. of rim .098; height .094, H 2893. P o t t e r y cooking jar. Roughly globular, with short neck. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray and brown, rough slip. Paste: gray, medium. Blackened by fire. Diam. of rim .093; height .131. H 2981. Silver earring. Tapering ends apart. Color: purple-gray. Diam, .017; thickness .002.

H 2983. Silver earrings (two). Tapering ends a p a r t ; almost crescent in shape. Color: purple-gray. Diam. .017; thickness .003. H 2982. Silver pendant. Loop and double scroll; lateral perforation; solid stem; center of scrolls open. Length .031; height .024; thickness .04. H 2892. Copper seal. Patina. Circular base; convex back; loop handle. Design: filled-in

DH35,X-I4

H I S S A R

II

cross pattern. Diam. thickness of base .01.

.018;

D H 34 X-2 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 45 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H5170. Pottery bowl, cone-shaped. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium t o fine. Design: gazelles; dotted triple band fragment. Diam. of rim .204; height ca. .16. H 4512. Beads: necklace. Limestone oblongs and disks; color: gray-white. Frit tubes; color: gray-white and light tan, iridescent. Bitumen disks; color: black. Alabaster disks; color: light tan. Carnelian bicones (two); color: red-brown. Length 2.48 (single). 2. Pottery cup, painted fragments.

DHVt.X-H F I G . 7 6 . — M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R

DH35X-14 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 45 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed.

.029; height

IH.M-X-a IIA

Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 4624. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted [ 129]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

D H 35 X - 1 4 , cont. decoration on light gray-brown and buff, smooth slip. P a s t e : light brown on buff, medium to fine. Decoration: band of leopard pattern below rim, below it a band of vertical hatched lozenges. Diam. of rim .219; height .16.

zontal waves and lines. Diam. of rim .10; height .17. H 4499. " S t a m p seal." Glazed (?) limestone; rectangular; convex; perforated rectangular, Length slightly oblong stem. No pattern. .02; breadth .014; height .009.

H 4576. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: brown painted decoration on light gray-brown and red, smooth slip. Paste: buff, medium to fine. Decoration : band of parallel angles below rim; series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .191; height .12.

D H 34 X - 8 Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 50 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 4516. Pottery bowl, footed. T e c h n i q u e : wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, granulated. P a s t e : light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: four superimposed leopards encircle upper part of body; series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .179; height .144.

H 4 5 7 7 . Pottery jar. Footed; convex bicone. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray, gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste gray, medium to fine. Diam. of rim .099; height .166. H 4578. Beads: bracelet. Alabaster tubes; color: light tan. Bitumen tubes; color: black. Short stone tubes; color: light gray. Length .44 (single). H 4579. Beads: bracelet. Limestone disks; color: gray-white. Alabaster disks; color: light tan. Length .11 (single).

D H 44 X-LL

Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 78 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. S e x : male. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 4496. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: buff-brown, medium. Decoration: two leopard bands. Diam. of rim .175; height .151. H 4497. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface gray to gray-brown, slight polish. P a s t e : medium to fine, gray. Diam. of rim .177; height .178. H 4498. Pottery jar, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown with buff, smooth slip. Three pairs of suspension holes in neck. P a s t e : buff, medium. Decoration: hori-

[130]

H 4517. Pottery jar, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray, gray-brown, smooth slip. P a s t e : gray, medium t o fine. Diam. of rim .10; height .149. H 4518. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown, light gray brown, smooth slip. P a s t e : light brown, medium. Decoration: series of parallel angles below rim; series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .186; height .097. H 4519. Beads: necklace. Gypsum oblongs; color: gray-white, tan. T w o silver beads; color: gray, purple-gray. Length .8 (single). H 4520. Beads: bracelet. Gypsum disks; color: gray-white. Bitumen oblongs, tubes and disks; color: black. One bitumen button; color: black. Length 1.56 (single). H 4521. Beads: bracelet. Gypsum short tubes and oblongs; color: gray-white and light tan. Bitumen short tubes and oblongs; color: black. Length 1.32 (single). H 4 5 2 2 . S t a m p seal. Gypsum; glazed; convex; circular; irregular incisions; perforated cylindrical stem. Color: light gray. Diam. .016; height .012. H 4523. Copper pin. Patina. Pyramidal head. Length .156; breadth of head .014; diam. .004. 15. Pottery bowl, painted. Leopard design.

T H E

D E A D

O F

H I S S A R

I I

D H 35, X - I O

E H

1 X

-AO

FIG. 77.—MORTUARY SCHEMATA OP HISSAR I I A

DH 36 X-5 Position: dorsal. Direction: skull, 35 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: ? Age: Infant II. Mortuary gifts: H 4347. Unbaked clay "loaf," oval. H 4348. Pottery jar. Crude; hemispherical; broad base. Technique: handmade. Surface: gray, red-brown; fire worn. Paste: (?). Diam. of rim .075; height .081. H 4349. Pottery tureen, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray, gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: gray, medium. Decoration: row of indentations on upper body. Diam. of rim .115; height .158. H 4350. Pottery bowl. Disk base; vertical sides. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: purplebrown, yellow-brown painted decoration on buff, granulated. Paste: buff, medium to fine. Decoration: parallel angles. Diam. of rim .141; height .108. H 4351. Beads. Gypsum disks; color: light gray and reddish brown. Bitumen disks; color: black. Natural shell. Silver loop with inserted rings. Length .8 (single). 9. Pottery bowl stem, discarded.

DH 35 X-10 Position: left lateral. Direction: skull, 32 degrees west of north. Preservation: decayed. Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 4663. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray, gray-brown, granulated. Paste: gray medium. Diam. of rim .258; height .03. H 4569. Pottery bowl. Footed; large expanding disk base. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, abraded. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: horizontal parallel zigzags. Diam. of rim .81; height .178. H 4570. Pottery bowl. Plain; footed; stem abraded. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: red-brown and light gray-brown; dark gray stains. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Diam. of rim .178; height .111. H4571. Beads: necklace. Limestone disks; color: black, gray-white, light tan. Length .29 (single).

[131]

E X C A V A T I O N S E H

AT

13 X-40

Position: vertical. Direction: skull, 43 degrees west of south. Preservation: totally decayed. Sex: female. Age: adult. Mortuary gifts: H 4795. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown and light buff, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: series of vertical dashes below rim; four series of vertical dashes on base. Diam. of rim .198; height .103. H4796. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface dark brown painted decoration on light brown, smooth slip. Paste: brown, medium to fine. Decoration: series of parallel angles. Diam. of rim .178; height .107. H 4 7 9 7 . Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: leopard band and opposed hatched triangles; angles on base. Diam. of rim .168; height .14. H 4794. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray, gray-brown, slight polish. Paste: gray, medium to fine. Diam. of rim .206; height .236. H 4799. Beads: bracelet. Limestone tubes and disks; color: light brown, green, white. Alabaster tubes and disks; color: light tan. Length 2.48 (single). H 4800. Beads: bracelet. Limestone oblongs; color: light gray. Alabaster disks; color brown. Grahamite oblongs; color: black. Length 3.04 (single). H 4801. Beads: armlet. Limestone; color: graywhite. Alabaster thick disks; color: light tan.

( 132]

T E P E

H I S S A R

Serpentine disks; color: light gray, translucent. Length 1.88 (single). H 4802. Beads. Serpentine disks; color: graygreen, translucent. Gypsum tubes and oblongs; color: light tan and gray. Bitumen oblongs; color: black. Length 8 (single). H 4803. Beads: anklet. Limestone oblongs and tubes; color: light tan, gray-white. Serpentine disks; color: light gray-green. Length 5.68 (single). H 4798. Beads. Gypsum tubes and disks; color: gray-white. Bitumen tubes and disks; color: black. Length .21 (single). H 4806. Stamp seal. Bitumen; circular; planoconvex; knob, perforated for suspension. Design: unilateral, lines, oriented differently at rim. Color: black. Diam. .011; height .005. H 4 8 0 7 . Button seal. Limestone (?); lateral groove and perforation. Design: branches on either face. Color: light tan. Diam. .008; height .003. H 4805. Button seal. Limestone; circular; biconical; lateral groove and perforation. Design: dashes on both faces. Diam. .01; height .006. H 4808. Button seal. Limestone; slightly biconical; lateral groove and perforation. Design: angular lines on either face. Color: light tan. Diam. .007; height .003. H 4804. Stamp seal. Limestone; convex rectangle; perforated cylindrical stem. Design: narrow branch pattern. Length .014; breadth .013; height .007. H 4810. Copper pin. Patina. Biconical head. Length .151; diam. .005; diam. of head .019. H 4809. Copper nail. Patina. Thick inverted hollow conoid head; blunt point. Length .186; diam. .01; diam. of head .043. 98. Pottery bowl fragments. Technique: wheelmade.

THE

DEAD

OF

„ 711

HISSAE

II

|

J > H 4 3 , X - 4

F I G . 7 8 . — M O R T U A R Y SCHEMATA OF H I S S A R

DG 96 X - 3 6

Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 45 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: male. Age: mature. Mortuary gifts: H 2997. Pottery bowl. Footed; disk base; short stem. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: graybrown, medium to fine. Decoration: series of three vertical leopards and filled oblique crosses; series of dashes on base. Diam. of base .176; height .138. HS ¡998. Pottery bowl. Footed; tall stem; shallow body. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray-brown, polished slip. Paste: gray, medium to fine. Diam. of rim .234; height .257. HS !999. Pottery bowl. Footed; short stem; cylindrical body. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray and gray-brown, slightly polished slip. Paste: gray, medium to fine. Diam. of rim .195; height .144. [133]

IIA

H5148. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray and light gray-brown, slip. Paste: buff, medium to fine. Decoration: band of leopards, below it a band of zigzag lines filled with hatched dots. Diam. of rim .166; height .13. H 3004. Pottery cup, convex conoid. Technique: wheelmade. Surface dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, abraded slip. Paste: light brown, medium fine. Decoration: series of radiating lines from base to rim. Diam. of rim .115; height .084. H 3002. Beads: bracelet. Limestone disks; color: light tan. Bitumen large and small disks and oblongs; color: black. Length .54 (single). H 3003. Beads: bracelet. Limestone disks and oblongs; color: light tan. Bitumen disks and oblongs; color: black. Lapis lazuli, large and small disks and oblongs, one small tube; color: blue. Length .56 (single). H3001. Beads: necklace. Alabaster disks; color: light tan. Bitumen disks; color: black. Length .83 (single).

EXCAVATIONS

AT

DG 96 X-36, cont. H 3005. Stamp seal. Glazed (?) frit; rectangular. Design: oblique dashes either side of line. Color: gray-white, iridescent. Breadth .012; height .007. H 3006. Buttons (two). Glazed (?) frit; grooved at each edge and perforated. Design: (a) oblique cross on either face; (b) faint lines on either face. Color: tan and graywhite. Diam. .008; height .004. H 3000. Copper pin. Patina. Flat bi-pyramidal head. Length .115; diam. .003; breadth of head .014.

D H 43 X-4

Position: lateral, right. Direction: skull, 80 degrees west of south. Preservation: decayed. Sex: ? Age: ? Mortuary gifts: H 4743. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray and light gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light graybrown, medium to fine. Decoration: opposed hatched zigzag bands. Diam. of rim .17; height .125. H 4412. Bead: belt. Thick alabaster disks; color: tan. Limestone tubes; color: light, gray-white. Length .14 (single). H 4413. Beads: necklace. Alabaster tubes and thick disks; color: tan. Limestone oblongs; color: gray-white. Length .63 (single). H 4414. Button seal. Bitumen (grahamite); circular; knob handle with lateral perfora-

TEPE

HISSAR

tion. Design: herringbone pattern. Diam. .015; height .004. 9. Pottery Bowl. Gray ware; fragmentary. DH 46 X - 9 Position: right. Direction: skull, 48 degrees west of south. Preservation: totally decayed. Sex: skull fragments only, but bones very small; probably female. Age: adult, advanced. Mortuary gifts: H 4691. Pottery bowl. Footed; small. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: gray, graybrown, slight polish. Paste: gray, medium. Diam. .155; height .117. H 4692. Pottery bowl. Footed; cylindrical stem. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on graybrown, abraded, light brown ground. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: two bands of opposed hatched triangles. Diam. of rim .159; height .135. H 4693. Pottery bowl, footed. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark brown painted decoration on gray-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration : four series of dashes on base. Diam. of rim .187; height .119. H 4694. Pottery cup, convex cone. Technique: wheelmade. Surface: dark gray painted decoration on red-brown, smooth slip. Paste: light brown, medium to fine. Decoration: radiating lines from base to rim. Diam. of r i m . l l l ; h e i g h t .078.

[134]

T H E

D E A D

OF

H I S S A E

I I

W 2.184 H2I8S/6 Hi/67—

£

FIG. 166.—GRAPHS SHOWING M O R T A L I T Y AND PROPORTION OF SEXES FOR A L L PERIODS OF T E P E HISSAR

[314]

Mortality f,

Modern U . S . A .

[315]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

of the hands, feet and head and finally locked by the rigor mortis. Certainly, in most cases, it is impossible to interpret skeletal positions. In several instances the position of the hands has been changed to hold a vessel, or the like, or the position of the feet may have been changed when flexing the legs. Post mortem movements of the body may change the positions of its parts prior to the rigor mortis. B u t where the original position is preserved we may at times gain a glimpse of the last feelings of a person whose skeletal remains we have to record. Judging from our impressions when recording the details of skeletal positions, most settlers of Tepe Hissar, considering now all the people of the successive periods, left life peacefully and calmly to go into the after-world of their belief. In the preliminary report, Plate CL, we showed a "Study in H a n d s " illustrating perfect calmness. The index finger and the thumb of the left hand gently grasps the tip of the middle finger of the right hand which is curved and tranquilly leans against the forehead of the Hissar I I I man. On our Plate L X X I peaceful resignation is expressed by the Hissar I I I Skeletons C F 38 X - l and CG 21 X - l . T h e indifference shown by CG 90 X-9 is greatly exaggerated by the skull which has shifted, due to earth pressure. T h e mandible is in its original position and the right cheek leaned against the flexed right hand. The pain expressed by the position of CG 90 X-5 is also greatly exaggerated by the open mouth. I n this case, too, the skull was pressed backward by the earth pressure. The cervical vertebrae, however, are also curved back and suggest t h a t the mandible is approximately in its original position. This would mean t h a t the head was partly thrown back, as though forced by pain. The position of the left hand on the heart region may also form a clue. The grave of two Hissar I I I C children, C F 89 X-4 and -5 was quite touching (see also Schema page 258). The smaller of the two brothers or sisters seems to caress the forehead of the older one, while the hand of the latter lies in the hand of the younger one. When studying the two small skeletons we could not help seeing brotherly or sisterly affection in the gestures of their hands. Although, in this case, we must see the feelings of the survivors principally, assuming t h a t they arranged the children's bodies in this manner. In other cases we noticed pain expressed by the teeth locked on the last joints of the fingers. Fear was expressed by the hands covering the eyes. Fortitude was shown by the young Hissar I I I C warrior who dug his face in the hollow of the right elbow and held his left hand beside the face, as though covering it from sight in order not to show his agony. This study is simply an a t t e m p t to increase the scope of skeletal recording. I n most cases it is not possible to define any emotional features, b u t where this can be done we should attempt to record and interpret. The End of Hissar

III

With Hissar I I I C the prehistoric occupation of the site comes to an end. We must admit t h a t we have no explanation for the desertion of Tepe Hissar during the period of [3161

PLATE LXXI

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

the greatest achievements this site had known. Our former theory, expressed in the preliminary report, collapsed when we succeeded in separating the sub-phases of Hissar I I I and found that the mass burials belong to Hissar I I I B and not to the last settlement. Perhaps the few red vessels found in Hissar I I I C burials furnish a clue which we are not yet able to follow.

[318]

VIII. PREHISTORIC CHRONOLOGY The accompanying chronological schema (Figure 168) attempts to correlate our observations a t Tepe Hissar with some other key sites in the Near East. I t will doubtless be corrected and supplemented, b u t it is useful to record one's opinion after completing certain stages of an enterprise. I t enables others to revise and build upon our experiences. We believe we have proved t h a t the sequence of the eight culture phases of Tepe Hissar is continuous, an important fact for the correlation of these phases with other sites. Hissar I with its three sub-phases is roughly the era of painted pottery on the northeastern plateau. H a n d m a d e vessels with dark gray geometrical decoration on brown-red ground characterize Hissar IA, the earliest phase of the Copper Age determined a t the site. With Hissar I B the wheel and animal patterns appear. In Hissar I C the ibex and, toward its end, the leopard form the guide designs. With Hissar IIA gray ware appears, first combined with disintegrated gazelle and leopard patterns, then in Hissar I I B displacing the painted ceramics, while the chalice form of the preceding epoch persists. Although Hissar I I I A is solely a transitional layer, new vessel forms appear in Hissar I I I B and I I I C combined with an extraordinary wealth of metal objects and, during the last sub-phase, with beautiful vessels of alabaster. Comparing, a t first roughly, this series with other sites in I r a n and in neighboring areas, we notice t h a t throughout Iran painted pottery is characteristic for the strata of the early copper (or bronze) age. This is the case a t Rayy, 1 Murteza Gert, ! Sialk near Kashan,» the doubtful neolithic or chalcolithic village near Persepolis, 4 Giyan near Nehavend, s and in the southern provinces.» We have the same situation in the Turkoman Steppe from Tureng T e p e ' to Anau, 8 in the southwestern lowland a t Susa, 9 and to a certain 1 In the mound of Cheshmeh All on the site of Rayy, we found on bedrock a layer with painted sherds of Anau I type. Above it is a thick stratum of handmade ware with the same color scheme as Hissar IA, but much finer and with quite different vessel forms. In contrast, the simply decorated ceramics of Hissar IA, splendidly conventionalized fleeing and charging ibexes and gazelles, occur in the approximately contemporaneous stratum of Rayy. It was followed by a stratum of Hissar IB remains, identical in every respect with objects of the corresponding layer at Tepe Hissar. 2 At Murteza Gert, about five miles west of Rayy, tests determined straight Hissar IB culture superimposed by a gray ware stratum of the early Iron Age. 8 The important work of the Louvre expedition, under Roman Ghirshman in cooperation with Professor Georges Contenau, determined a pure Hissar IB stratum as the first occupation of Tepe Sialk. It is followed by Hissar IC, after which the prehistoric occupation stops. On top of Hissar IC and totally unrelated to it, the French excavators found the key stratum with a Proto-Elamite tablet and pottery characteristic of that period (R. Ghirshman, "Une Tablette Proto-Elamite du Plateau Iranienne," Revue d'Assyriologie, XXXI, 3) which at last interlocks the culture series of the Iranian plateau with the lowland cultures of Elam and Sumer. 1 Ernst Herzfeld, Iranische Den.km.dler, Lieferung 1 and 2, Reihe 1, "Steinzeitlicher Hiigel bei Persepolis." But compare also H. Frankfort, Archaeology and the Sumerian Problem, p. 24. 6 Ernst Herzfeld, Iranische Denkmaler, Lieferung 3 and 4, "Niphauanda." G. Contenau and R. Ghirshman, Syria, XIV, 1,1Ô33. "Fouilles de Tepe-Giyan." 8 Sir Aurel Stein, in Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, Nos. 37 and 43. 7 F. R. Wulsin, "Excavations at Tureng Tepe, near Asterabad", Bull. Amer. Inst, for Persian Art and Archaeology, II, 1 bis. Supplement, 1932. 8 R. Pumpelly, Explorations in Turkestan, Prehistoric Civilizations of Anau, I and II. 9 Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique de Perse, XIX, Mission en Susiane.

[319]

E X C A V A T I O N S

Aliahar

Tell

B i l l a

Kish-Urui-Ur

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

-

Tr

L-g-

E

• « St 2 a .

a

U3

Persepoli

s

Tepe Giyan (Nehavend)

Tepe Sialk (Keshan)

Murteza

R R

Gerci

Ch e shine h

Al 1

(Rayy) o Tepe

Tureng

Hissar

Tepe

-tí ai 0) g a o p.

[320]

m

PREHISTORIC

CHRONOLOGY

extent in Mesopotamia, as shown by the cultures called Jemdet Nasr'° and A1 'Ubaid, 11 separated, however, in time by a stratum of plain ceramics called U r u k ware. 12 I n Anatolia the situation is different. The Alishar m o u n d " and others have shown t h a t incised black ware of assumably late neolithic date was followed by plain red ware with a slight admixture of simply painted pottery. Tepe Sialic I n attempting to coordinate the culture phases of Tepe Hissar with other key sites in Iran, Turkestan, Elam, Mesopotamia and Anatolia, we have few definite facts and m a n y contradictory opinions with which to work. We are clinging to the fact determined by our French colleague a t Tepe Sialk, namely, the superposition of a Proto-Elamite s t r a t u m on a layer containing material identical with t h a t of Hissar I C which, in its turn, is superimposed upon the earliest Sialk layer identical with Hissar IB. Layers identical with Hissar I B were also defined a t R a y y and a t Murteza Gert, about 360 kilometers west of Tepe Hissar. Concerning the date of the Proto-Elamite tablets, opinions differ. We accept, for the time being, the plausible dating of Professor Herzfeld. H e attributes them to a time corresponding to the Jemdet Nasr period in Mesopotamia and believes t h a t they originated at least during Uruk I V preceding Jemdet Nasr. 14 As to the dating of the J e m d e t Nasr period, it is generally accepted t h a t it falls into the second half of the fourth millennium. Permitting some time for the "colonization" of Iran as far north as Kashan (for t h e ProtoElamite stratum is alien to the Iranian Plateau) we assume t h a t this period a t Kashan is contemporaneous with the period of Jemdet Nasr in Mesopotamia. Thus we know t h a t the entire era of painted pottery (Hissar I C , I B and IA, precedes the Proto-Elamite period and with it the period of J a m d e t Nasr in Mesopotamia; t h a t is, we are not far wrong in assuming t h a t Hissar I C ends about 3500 B.C., while Hissar I A may actually extend into the fifth millennium. Our conservative estimate of the date of Hissar I as tentatively expressed in the preliminary report on Tepe Hissar has totally collapsed. So far, we are stepping on relatively safe ground. T h e rest may have to be considerably revised. We do not know whether Hissar I C a t Sialk was directly followed by t h e Proto-Elamite occupation and, therefore, we do not know which gray ware phase of Tepe Hissar is contemporaneous with it. For the moment, we assume t h a t it corresponds in time with Hissar I I A and I I B . Furthermore, we do not know the relative length of most 10 Ernest Mackay, Report on Excavations at Jemdet Nasr, Iraq, with preface by S. Langdon, Anthropology Memoirs of Field Museum of Natural History, I, 8, 1931. 11 H. R. Hall and C. L. Woolley, AI 'Ubaid—Ur Excavations, I, 1926. n J. Jordan and A. Noldeke, preliminary reports In Abhandiungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wiesenschaften, Ausgrabungen in Uruk (1932). For footnotes 10 and 12 cf. further, the valuable summary of E. A. Speiser, "Some Important Synchronisms in Prehistoric Mesopotamia," Amer, Joum. o/ Arch., X X X V I (1932), 4; and in all questions concerning Near Eastern ceramica: H. Frankfort, Studies in Early Pottery of the Near East, I and II, Royal Anthropological Inst. Occasional Papers 6 and 8, and by the same author, Archaeology and the Sumerian Problem, Oriental Institute Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, 4, 1932. 13 H. H. von der Osten, Discoveries in Anatolia, Oriental Inst. Communications, No. 14 and the preceding publications by the same author and E. F . Schmidt. The final, revised report on the work at Alishar is under preparation by H. H. von der Osten. " Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, V, 2, p. 60 ff.

[321]

P R E H I S T O R I C

C H R O N O L O G Y

of the culture periods represented on the accompanying table. A t the present state of our knowledge it cannot be more than a schematic attempt of correlation. All units will have to be lengthened or shortened. Anau Starting from Turkestan, across Iran to Elam, Mesopotamia and Anatolia, our first key site is Anau. I t s relation to northern Iran was illuminated by the work of Season 1934 a t Rayy. A t the mound of Cheshmeh Ali on bedrock, below a s t r a t u m corresponding in time to Hissar IA, we found many fragments which closely resemble the ware of Anau I, in technique, color scheme and patterns. Therefore, we do not hesitate to consider Anau I on our diagram as earlier than Hissar IA. As to the correlation of the subsequent layers of Anau with the Tepe Hissar strata, we are still ignorant, though sherds resembling Anau I I I were found a t Cheshmeh Ali. The next season will bring more light on their relationship with Hissar IA a t Rayy. Rayy (Cheshmeh Ali) and Murteza Gert Tepe Hissar, R a y y (Cheshmeh Ali), Murteza Gert and Sialk are definitely interlocked by the occurrence of an identical stratum, Hissar IB, a t all of these sites. Cheshmeh Ali and Murteza Gert stop after Hissar IB, while a t Sialk the era of old-Iranian ware ends with Hissar I C , followed by the above-mentioned Proto-Elamite layer. We must admit t h a t we hesitate to give a similar designation to the Hissar IA layers of Tepe Hissar and Rayy, in spite of the fact t h a t the same color scheme and technique occur in both sites, for in form, finesse and patterns they are distinct. However we have no doubt t h a t they are to a great extent contemporaneous. At Murteza Gert a stratum of late gray ware is superimposed on Hissar IB. We mentioned above t h a t the friendly cooperation of the French excavators, who found a burial site of this time near Sialk, enabled us to attribute this stratum to the beginning of the Iron Age. A later, b u t presumably pre-Achaemenian, cemetery with attractive vessels decorated, among other designs, with winged animals in red-brown on a buff ground was also uncovered a t Sialk. Nehavend Turning to the western mountains and to the south, the situation becomes more difficult. If we follow the lead of Professor E . Herzfeld 15 and the excavators of Tepe Giyan, G. Contenau and R. Ghirshman, 18 we must attribute the earliest deposit of t h a t site to the time o f S u s a l b i s a n d l . However, we belie ve t h a t Professor Herzfeld was also too conservative in attributing the beginning of Tepe Giyan to the middle of the fourth millennium, judging by his dating of the Proto-Elamite tablets, unless he dates J e m d e t Nasr far later than 3500. " " N i p h a u a n d a , " op. cit., p . 25. 19 "Fouilles de Tepe-Giyan," op. cit., p . 10-11.

E X C A V A T I O N S

Persepolis

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

Village

From Nehavend we turn to the prehistoric village near Persepolis. Professor Herzfeld shows an instructive diagram 1 ' correlating the Persepolis village with Susa I, Anau I, Samarra and Al'Ubaid. I n this diagram he states t h a t the Persepolis village may in part belong to the chalcolithic period. As to the purely neolithic character of Anau I, there is still some doubt, though the extremely primitive characteristics of the Anau I pottery at Cheshmeh Ali, together with the total absence of metal, seem to verify the assumption. For the moment we agree in part with Herzfeld's diagram (though we assume Anau I to be older than the Persepolis village and Susa I) until careful observations in the intermediate zones between Persepolis, Susa and Mesopotamia verify or correct it. Susa and Southern

Mesopotamia

Some sub-layer of Susa I I is contemporaneous with the Proto-Elamite stratum of Tepe Sialk which contains identical tablets, vessels and seals. Since the Proto-Elamite layer, superimposed on Hissar IC, and part of the exasperating Susa I I are contemporaneous with Jemdet Nasr, it follows t h a t the southern Mesopotamian strata preceding Jemdet Nasr, t h a t is Uruk and Al'Ubaid and the deposits underlying Susa I I , (Susa " I bis" and Susa I) are at least in part contemporaneous with Hissar IA to IC. We mentioned above (cf. page 319) t h a t the animal pattern, appearing during Hissar IA at llayy and with Hissar I B a t Tepe Hissar, seems to have spread eastward from the regions of Susa and Persepolis, Nehavend, and so forth, since, as far as we know, geometric designs only were used in the eastern regions. Thus we assume t h a t Hissar I B is later than Susa I, though, in the beginning, perhaps contemporaneous with it. Hissar IA, therefore, is for the time being assumed to be contemporaneous with Susa I . Northern Mesopotamia and Anatolia E. A. Speiser in his "Pottery of Tell Billa" 1 ' has shown the contemporaneity of Billa VI-VII with the Jemdet Nasr period of the south. H e has, furthermore, proved t h a t fourteen meters of debris had accumulated a t Tepe Gawra prior to Billa VII. 1 9 Thus, if Billa VI-VII belong to the Jemdet Nasr period, these strata must also be in p a r t contemporaneous with the Proto-Elamite stratum of Tepe Sialk. T h a t means the painted chalice ware of Billa VII, together with the gray or buff, mostly unpainted, ware of Billa VI, cannot be earlier than Hissar IIA. We have seen, in the detailed description of the Hissar IIA pottery and in the summary chapter, t h a t in this sub-layer the painted pottery is being displaced by the dark gray ware of Hissar I I and t h a t it has disappeared entirely in Hissar I I B . I t is interesting to note t h a t a similar, though presumably unrelated phenomenon, was observed at Tell Billa. The patterns of Billa VII, however, have no resemblance to 17

Iran. Denfon. I, 1, p . 12. Museum Journal, X X I I I , 3, p. 266-7 a n d table on p. 276. Speiser's Excavations at Tepe Gawra was published shortly before this report went t o t h e printer. On pp. 155, 156 in t h e instructive chapter on Foreign Relations, Speiser refers again t o t h e relationship between Billa V I I a n d t h e early T e p e Hissar P o t t e r y , namely Hissar IB, as pointed out above. 18

19

[324]

PREHISTORIC

the painted ware of Hissar IIA. conventionalized birds.

CHRONOLOGY

They remind one rather of Hissar IB, with its rows of

Anatolia As long as the eastern parts of Anatolia and northwestern Iran are almost unknown, our knowledge as to the relations between the ancient cultures of these two countries will have to remain rather vague. Roughly speaking, the long age of plain red pottery in Anatolia must to some great extent be contemporaneous with the era of painted pottery in Iran. 20 At what time in terms of Mesopotamian or Iranian chronology conservative Anatolia first produced painted pottery is still doubtful. We hope that the final publication under preparation by von der Osten will illuminate this and other questions. At any rate, the red pottery age of Anatolia was followed by a period characterized by pottery preserving to some extent the earlier forms but painted with bi-chrome and tri-chrome patterns. A culture which had not grown out of Anatolia and which is characterized by plain grayish brown or yellowish brown ware is in part contemporaneous with the period of painted ceramics. Osten believes he has proved t h a t the former culture is that of the Hittites, dating it from 2100 to 1200 B.C., while he estimates the duration of the early painted pottery era from 2400 to some time after 2100. Here the question rests at present, though there are still several problems left to be solved. Ktil Tepe, we think, contains some answers. In addition, K u r t Bittel's excavations at BoghazkOi will clear many points. The Relationship of Hissar II and III I t is too early to correlate the sub-phases of Hissar I I and I I I with definite phases of Mesopotamian history. However, once Henri Frankfort directed our attention to Ur and C. L. Woolley's publication of the Royal Cemetery a t Ur, we could not disregard the striking resemblances between certain ornaments, stone vessels, weapon shaft decorations and shapes of some stemmed metal and pottery vessels (cf. stemmed alabaster vessels of IIIC) of Early Dynastic Sumer and Hissar I I I C . We were inclined to attribute the end of Hissar I I I to the end of the Copper or Bronze Age, that is the first half of the second millennium B.C., b u t an earlier age may be indicated." In the chapter on Hissar IIA we traced the newly arrived gray ware to the Turkoman Steppe in the north. We postulate, therefore, the existence of gray ware in the northern steppe prior to Hissar IIA. Some fragments of painted pottery with geometric designs were also found a t Tureng Tepe, as well as in the Asterabad region in general. We are not able to say how long the occupation of Tureng Tepe lasted. There are vessel forms identical with those of Hissar IIIB, an alabaster lid and some pottery vessels suggesting that it 20 Compare however, Albrecht Gotze's valuable contribution "Kleinasien," in Kulturgesckichte des Allen Orienis, I I I , 1, chronological table with p . 198. 21 On t h e other hand, t h e occurrence of amber in Hissar I I I C points again to the first half of t h e second millenium, in case no center of ancient amber trade other t h a n t h e Baltic region should be discovered (cf. H . F r a n k f o r t , Studies in Early Pottery of the Near East, I I . p. 152, footnote 2).

[325 ]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

was occupied as late as Hissar I I I C , while burials of the Iron Age occurred in the top layer. T h e so-called "Sumerian Treasure of Asterabad," described by M. Rostovtzeff in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology22 and presumably found in Tureng Tepe, is actually a treasure of Hissar I I I C . The copper mattock (Rostovtzeff's Plate I I I , No. 13), the bident (No. 11), and spear head (No. 10), and alabaster jar (No. 8), the female figurines (No. 5 and 6) the "signal horns" (No. 4), and the shape of one gold pitcher (No. 2) are identical, or almost so, with objects or forms of Hissar I I I C . T h e only directly imported feature may be the presumably incised patterns on the gold vessels. The other features seem to be local but, as mentioned above, in relation to Sub-layer I I I C a t Tepe Hissar, some of them suggest Mesopotamian influence. 82

Journal

of Egyptian

Archaeology,

VI, p 4 ff. a n d PI. I I I .

[326 ]

ÜJ

z'

Q u_

io

H tu

£ Ö «

fa
Op. cU„ p. 456 and Pis. CLXVII, C L X V I I I . 2 The substance of this chapter is also to appear in The Survey of Persian Art. • M. Dieulafoy, L'art antique de la Perse, Part 4 (1885), Figs. 20, i l . Pis. VI, VII. * W. Andrae and H. Lenzen, Die Parthersladt Assur, 1933, Pig. 15.

[347]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

On the facade in front of the aisles, Gerasimoff assumed an arch rising from the capitals of the columns, but, on reflection, he had naturally to postulate aisle vaults a t a lower level, which he supported on arches springing from the sides of the shafts. He submitted no transverse section, b u t from his other drawings we may infer t h a t he supposed the aisles to have been covered with a series of transverse barrel vaults extending the nave arches and resting on the lower, transverse arches of the aisles. We may first remark t h a t in introducing the lower arches, both transverse and longitudinal, between the columns, Gerasimoff has shown them only diagramatically; their thickness would actually make them embrace a part of the column and die into it in a curved line. Andrae found a t Assur convincing remains of such a treatment of an arcade in Parthian times, s and it occurs near Tepe Hissar in the court of the early Islamic Tari(kh) Khaneh a t Damghan, b u t I know of no authenticated example in Sasanian buildings. With full recognition of the conscientious study given the problem by Gerasimoff, b u t also of the limitation of available comparative reference material in the field, I here propose an alternative solution of the whole vaulting problem. This has been carefully checked with the find-spots of the various elements, through the aid of Mr. Erskine White of the expedition, who originally charted them on the site, and who has kindly made the drawings herewith presented (Figures 176 and 177). In brief, the proposed scheme follows the system of the aisled halls a t Sarvistan in suggesting short columns, small arches from each capital to the outer wall, nave arches above this height (extending as deep transverse barrel-vaults to the outer wall), and then the stilted barrel vault of the nave. This scheme, while fundamentally the same in vaulting system as t h a t of Gerasimoff, has obvious advantage in simplicity of form and construction and in congruity with the monuments previously known and better preserved. I t is interesting to observe also t h a t the scheme arrived a t is closely related also to t h a t of the well-preserved aisled vaulted hall in the early Islamic palace of Ukheidcr, 8 which would thus follow Sasanian precedent. In further support of this restoration, as against the tentative field restoration, the following may be said: Although no two other archivolts found were of the same pattern, the lack of any different type of band for his upper aisle-arches of the facade forced Gerasimoff to give them a band identical with t h a t of the great central arch. This in spite of the fact t h a t all the fragments of this type found were in a pile squarely opposite the center of the front. For the arches below these blind upper arches he sought to employ a band of certain plaques not used elsewhere, b u t no corresponding roll architrave was found, the plaques themselves are not tapering, and they were not found in a position to justify his assumption. Accordingly we show no archivolts to the aisle arches. So, too, three types of plaques—boar's heads, female heads, and symbols—which he placed in horizontal bands above the arches from nave to aisles, were found in the center of the nave in three piles, respectively opposite the three rear pairs of nave columns. Accordingly we have placed these plaques in bands across the nave vault on the lines of these pairs of columns. • Op. at.. A b b . 3 3 , 34. • C f . 0 . R e u t h e r a n d G . Bell, Ukheidir.

[348]

E X C A V A T I O N S

AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

The date assigned to the building by Herzfeld, the second half of the third century, has been called in question by Friedrich Wachtsmuth, who is inclined to consider it later, perhaps belonging to the end of the sixth century.7 Dr. Schmidt's paragraphs describing the three coins found in the palace (pages 337-8) may have a bearing. The stucco ornaments found are closely related in style with fragments excavated at Ctesiphon* and by the Oxford-Field expedition at Kish, as well as with examples found

FIG. 1 7 7 . — T H E

SASANIAN

BUILDING

AT T E P E

HISSAR:

HYPOTHETICAL RECONSTRUCTION

LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS.

B Y F I S K E K I M B A L L O F T R A N S V E R S E AND

DRAWN BY ERSKINE WHITE

earlier by commercial diggers at Weramin, now in the Berlin Museum and the Pennsylvania Museum of Art.* The palace at Ctesiphon, which Herzfeld dated under Sapor I (A.D. 241-272), is attributed by Reuther and Wachtsmuth to Chosroes I (531-579). I t is doubtless too early in Sasanian research to attribute works merely on grounds of style, especially as we have so little material except from the southwestern portion of the empire in Iraq and the province of the Fars. Until there has been more excavation in the eastern and northern part, we cannot know whether the style originated there and moved westward or vice versa, and the whole chronological development remains to be cleared up. 7 8 s

Staatliche Museen in Berlin, Islamische Abteilung, Die Ausgrabungen der Zweiten Ktesiphon-Expedilion, 0 . Reuther, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Ktesiphon Expedition im Winter 1928-29, Figs. 14, 16. Illustrated in The Survey of Persian Art.

[ 350 ]

1933. p. 24.

APPENDIX I. TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF OBJECTS FROM TEPE HISSAR BY L.

C.

R I E S C H AND D .

HORTON1

T E R M S U S E D I N R E P O R T S ON C E R A M I C R E S E A R C H Color:—Colors will only be described as observed in a broken cross-section on a hand specimen (megascopic description). Colors are described according to the classification in Ridgeway's Color Standards. Hardness:—The scale of hardness rests on a scratching test made with a series of minerals of known hardness. The set of minerals to be used in these reports is known as "Ceramic Hardness Standards of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology," prepared by Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Rochester, N. Y. T h e scale of hardness and the minerals standards to which it refers is as follows: 2-gypsum, 2.5-cryolite, 3-calcite, 3.5-celestite, 4-fluorite, 4.5-chabazite, 5-apatite, 5.5-willemite, 6-adularia, 6.5vesuvianite, 7-quartz, 9-corundum. Shape of grains:—These are recorded as (1) rounded, (2) fairly well rounded or subrounded, (3) sub-angular, (4) angular. For illustrations see "Correlation of Oil Sands by Sedimentary Analysis," Trowbridge and Mortimore, Economic Geology, vol. 20, No. 5, Aug. 1925. Size of grains:—These are classified according to the scale adopted by U. S. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, as follows: 2.0-1.0 mm., fine gravel; 1.0-0.5 mm., coarse sand; 0.50.25 mm., sand; 0.25-0.1 mm., fine sand; 0.1-0.05 mm., very fine sand; 0.05-0.005 mm., silt; 0.005-0.001 mm., clay; under 0.001 ultra-clay. When chemical analysis is given, it refers to the body clay unless otherwise specified. ANALYSES O F S H E R D S Twenty-three sherds were examined megascopically with reference to color, hardness, and surface features, and microscopically in thin-section and powders with a petrographic microscope. Eighteen of these sherds were also analysed chemically. An excellent description of the analytical technique has been published by Anna O. Shepard. 1 H e r 1 As Dr. Schmidt has indicated on page 55, footnote 8, this report by Dr. Riesch and Mr. Horton was received after Dr. Schmidt's text had gone to the printer. The reader must, therefore, bear in mind that in so far as the material presented in Appendix I is applicable, Dr. Schmidt's text is subject to modification in respect to the composition of certain objects. Appropriate reference to this Appendix is to be found at pertinent points throughout this volume.—Ed. ' A T . Kidder and A. O. Shepard, The Pottery of Pecos, II, Yale University Press, 1936.

[351]

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AT

T E P E

H I S S A R

discussion of the petrography of ceramic materials is so complete that no further introduction to the subject need be given here. In general the procedure outlined by Shepard corresponds to the procedure followed in this analysis except that, unfortunately, a number of the analytical methods described by her were not available for the present study. These include determinations of porosity, breaking strength, heavy mineral separations, and firing tests at temperatures above 1050 degrees centigrade. Nor were there available for study any raw clays from the vicinity of Tepe Hissar. The sherds examined included nine from Period I , ten from Period I I , and four from Period I I I . They were selected as typical from among hundreds of similar sherds. Except for differences in thickness and color, all are of an apparently similar, dense, finegrained paste. The analyses were undertaken chiefly in an effort to determine whether or not the pastes from the three periods were in reality as similar as they appeared in the hand specimens. I t was thought that significant differences might suggest the possibility of establishing types and sub-types of the ware on the basis of composition. In view of the small number of sherds studied, all conclusions must be regarded as tentative. A full exploration of sub-type variations would involve the analysis of at least two hundred sherds. Red Ware—Megascopic

Observations

The paste is homogeneous and uniformly dense, with a limited number of lateral cracks, and a few white sub-angular inclusions and dark red nodules of hematite are visible with a hand lens. The inclusions are less than two tenths millimeter in diameter. The aplastic material is extremely finely divided, and the sherds break with a fairly even fracture. Physical Properties:—Color: the paste possesses the color of the fully oxidized iron, varying from English red (7 j) to brick red (5' j), wherein there is a uniformity of color throughout all surfaces of the sherd. Surface: the slip, which is very thin, has been smoothed, but still bears marks of the shaping tools, and apparently it was not polished. I t is of the same color as the paste. Paint: black stripes of varying penetration occur on the external and partially on the internal surfaces. Buff Ware (includes buff to orange)—Megascopic

Observations

The paste is strikingly uniform and dense, with no visible inclusions and only an occasional crack or pit. The fracture is fairly even. Physical Properties:—Color: there is a general distribution of color in this ware from light buff (17' f) to brownish vinaceous (5"' b). Usually the color is uniform but in some cases the external areas are lighter. Surface: a thin slip is present in the orange type but in the light buff wares the surface appears to be "wet-smooth" or "floated." The slip clay is of very fine texture and appears polished. Tool marks are present on all the sherds that have been smoothed. In a few cases a double slip is present. Paint: decoration is present in most cases around the lip and on the outside surface; however, a few specimens show paint present on the inside surface. Penetration of the paint is variable.

[352]

A P P E N D I X

Gray Ware—Megascopic

I

Observations

The paste is of very fine texture, uniform and with practically no visible inclusions. An occasional lateral crack or pit is found. Physical Properties:—Color: the range of color in the paste is from pale olive gray ( 2 3 " ' " f) to drab (17""), while the slip is a trifle darker. The fracture is sharp and fairly even. Surface: all sherds show a thin slip of uneven color, owing to the variable condition of firing. One specimen possesses an intensely black slip and, therefore, its surface is unlike the others, since it appears polished and contains carbonaceous matter. Tool marks occur on the external surfaces, although they are generally smoothed out. Clay The paste is composed of a minutely granular clay which in thin-section is observed to be isotropic. There is no definite orientation of the clay particles. The mean index of refraction is 1.59; the extremes are 1.580 and 1.605. Inclusions Minerals included in the clay are quartz, calcite, muscovite, biotite, hematite, magnetite, and in very small quantity orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars, as well as a few grains of unidentified ferro-magnesian minerals. Rosiwal analyses of these constituents were attempted, but the results were unsatisfactory, since the average grain size corresponds to the silt grade, and in addition the biotite and muscovite are shreds or plates with one dimension extremely small. The figures given below are, therefore, useful only for comparative purposes, and not for correcting the bulk chemical analyses to give the composition of the clay. The percentage by volume of measurable quartz ranges from a maximum of 13.70 to a minimum of 0.1. The average for all sherds is 5.9 per cent. Quartz is present as silt in all the sherds, in grains of fine sand grade in five sherds, and of sand grade in one sherd. Very minute silica needles (anisotropic) were observed in more than half of the sherds. Inclusions in quartz grains were noted; of these zircon and biotite have been identified. A peculiarity of the larger grains is the presence of intersecting cracks, which penetrate the grains in all directions without altering their homogeneous optical behavior. I t is believed that these cracks are the result of volume changes induced in the quartz by the heat of firing. Calcite is present in measurable quantity in nine sherds. The percentage by volume varies from a maximum of 4.8 to a minimum of 0.60. I t is to be understood here, as in the case of the figures given for quartz, that the lower limit is merely the limit below which the measurement of grains seemed impracticable. This may be demonstrated by calculating the molecular ratios of silica to alumina from the chemical analyses. The silica is several molecules in excess of the requirements even of a montmorillonite clay. In general the calcite grains are subangular to fairly well rounded, of very fine sand to silt size. All grains are aggregates, showing aggregate polarization phenomena, so fine in [853]

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texture that in most cases the highest powers of the microscope are required to resolve the mass into its component particles. This is the condition normally to be expected in calcite which has been calcined. In addition to the characteristic features developed by calcination, a number of the calcite grains show vitreous (isotropic) margins as described below. Hematite was observed in all the buff and red sherds. Its range is from grains of silt size to rounded nodules or spongy masses 0.5 mm. in diameter (sand). The average grain size corresponds to the silt grade. Magnetite is inferred from the magnetism shown by the gray and red sherds when tested with a hand magnet. The abundant black, opaque particles of sub-silt grade in the gray sherds is presumably the magnetic mineral. Biotite and muscovite are present in more or less abundance in all sherds examined. The plates and shreds are oriented parallel to the vessel walls, so that transverse thin sections show the directions of highest birefringence. The biotite is strongly pleochroic; the muscovite is colorless, and shows second and third order interference colors. Accessory minerals are present in very small grains in a number of sections. A few grains of orthoclase and plagioclase were recognized. The feldspars are angular, unaltered, and all of silt size. Separation and identification of other occasional accessories was not attempted. Vitrification In eight of those sherds in which calcite was identified, the calcite grains show a more or less extensive development of glass on their margins. No other vitrification was observed. None of the sherds has a vitrified surface. Slip and Paint Difficulty was encountered in preserving the surface layers during the preparation of the thin-sections. In only eight of the sections was it possible to observe slip and paint. The observations may be generalized as follows: The red and the orange sherds are slipped and painted. The slip is 0.01 to 0.02 mm. in thickness, isotropic or very faintly anisotropic, opaque in ordinary light, red or orange in reflected light. The paint layer is 0.005 mm. thick, isotropic, opaque and black in reflected light. The buff sherds are unslipped. The paint layer is 0.005 mm. thick, opaque, isotropic, black in reflected light. The gray sherds are slipped but unpainted. One of these, IIA-1, has a slip which is transparent and glasslike, but under crossed nicols shows strong double refraction and parallel extinction. Its thickness is 0.015 mm. The nature of this material is not known. Sherd IIIC-2, a gray sherd from Period I I I , has a slip 0.1 mm. thick, obviously composed of clay particles which are slightly doubly refractive, but do not show uniform extinction. The results of the chemical analyses of the body clays of eighteen sherds and slips of two sherds is given in Table 2.

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TABLE Period a n d S h e r d Number

HIA-1 HIA-2 HIA-2, D H 4 9 H I A - 4 , H 4426 HIB-1, DH45-6C HIB-2 HIB-3,DH45-15c HIB-4, DH45-10c H I C - 1 , H 3416 HIIA-1 H I I A - 1 , D H 46-7a HIIA-2 HIIA-2, DH 45-2 HIIA-S HIIA-4 H I I A - 4 , H 2875 HIIB-1 HIIB-2, H4280 H I I B - 4 , H 4769 H IIIA-2 HIIIA-3 H I I I B - 2 , H 3990 H IIIC-2, H 3267

Color of P a s t e ( R i d g w a y )

I

1

Hardness ( U n i v . of Mich. Standards)

Brownish Vinaceous, 5 " ' b Brick red 5' j English red 7 j Brick red 5'j Light ochraceous salmon, 1 3 ' d Light ochraceous bull, 1 5 ' d Light pinkish cinnamon, 1 5 " d Light buff, 17' f Light ochraceous buff, 1 5 ' d Drab, 1 7 " " Pale olive buff 2 1 " ' f Pale olive gray 2 3 " " ' f Vinaceous cinnamon 1 3 " b Drab, 1 7 " " Pinkish cinnamon 1 5 " b Pale olive gray 2 3 " " ' f Light ochraceous buff, 1 5 ' d Pearl gray 3 5 " " ' f Pinkish buff 17" f Light mineral gray, 2 5 " " f Light mineral gray 2 5 " " f Pinkish buff 1 7 " d Pale olive gray 2 3 " " ' f

P e r C e n t Quartz

3

12.6

2.5 2.5 4 3.5 4 4 3 4 3 2.5 4 4.5 3 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 4

11.0

Per Cent Calcite

3.3

fine sand-silt

Trace

8.3 4.2 3.4 4.5 3 3.9 4.2 9.3 3.5 5 3.7 1.5 12.7 5.6 2.9 Trace 3.2 12.5 7.6 3.6 13.7

Size range of Inclusions ( U . S . B u r . C h e m . & Soils Standards)

silt fine sand-silt v. fine sand-silt fine sand-silt silt sand-silt v. fine sand-silt fine sand-silt fine sand-silt v. fine sand-silt v. fine sand-silt v. fine sand-silt v. fine sand-silt fine sand-silt silt v. fine sand-silt silt silt fine sand-silt v. fine sand-silt v. fine sand-silt v . fine sand-silt

Trace 0.6 Trace 4.6 Trace 4.5 1.4 Trace 4.1 3.8 0.5 4.8 Trace Trace

Trace

TABLE 2 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS O F T H E S H E R D S

Period and Sherd Number

SiO,

AliOa

FejOi

HI-1 HIA-2 HIA-2, D H 4 9 H IA-4, H 4426 HIB-1, DH 45-6c H IB-3, D H 45-15c H IB-4, D H 45-10c H IIA-1 H IIA-1, D H 4 6 - 7 a H IIA-2, D H 4 5 - 2 H IIA-4 H IIA-4, H 2875 (Body Clay) H IIA-4, H 2875 (Slip Only) H I I B - 2 , H 4289 (Body Clay) H I I B - 2 , H 4289 (Slip Only) H I I B - 4 , H 4769 H IIIA-2 HIIIA-3 H I I I B - 2 , H 3990 H IIIC-2, H 3267

51.93 65.86 67.40 63.72 57.31 55.51 59.06 53.67 56.90 52.49 51.56 54.55 50.18 55.03 43.08 52.17 48.27 54.76 56.52 65.48

16.77 17.90 14.33 14.82 13.81 14.25 10.49 13.83 13.45 15.61 16.97 18.04 24.03 17.25 27.27 15.71 20.27 20.00 16.61 15.51

5.20 4.06 5.36 6.08 6.16 6.08 6.00 5.00 5.80 3.68 5.12 5.72 5.52 6.96 6.16 5.76 4.24 4.71 5.76 5.92

FeO

Trace Trace Trace

Pres.

Pres. Pres. Pres. Pres. Pres. Pres. Pres.

MgO

CaO

Alkali as KsO

COt

TiOt

P.O,

SO.

MnO

Ignition

2.13 2.37 2.40 3.55 2.96 3.00 3.20 3.05 3.46 3.18 1.75 3.10 2.23 3.87 1.46 3.38 2.31 1.36 3.00 2.55

11.71 1.52 2.44 5.22 10.94 11.30 13.96 14.15 13.40 14.46 15.28 10.96 11.18 10.96 10.60 13.88 9.04 11.36 10.92 2.92

4.32 5.83 6.19 3.92 5.59 5.44 4.30 5.14 4.63 4.65 5.13 4.73 2.17 4.17 2.55 4.32 4.69 5.56 4.63 4.68

3.69

0.99 0.88 0.54 0.80 0.68 0.62 0.82 1.00 0.68 0.32 0.40 0.96 1.04 0.80 0.64 0.68 0.66 0.66 0.60 0.72

0.38 0.24 0.13 0.27 0.31 0.35 0.37 0.59 0.37 0.33 0.42 0.36 0.28 0.35 0.40 0.39 0.31 0.33 0.39 0.43

0.36 Pres. Trace 0.02 Trace 0.25 0.04 0.09 Pres. 0.13 Trace 0.02 0.24 Trace Pres. 0.33 0.16 Pres. Pres. 0.16

0.05 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.05

6.16 1.33 1.20 1.52 2.20 3.16 1.72 3.41 1.24 5.08 3.34 1.54 3.08 0.56 7.80 2.80 10.02 1.23 1.52 1.88

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1.31 1.09 1.93 3.98 1.69

7.76

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Relation of Mineral to Chemical Composition A peculiarity of the chemical analyses is the presence of calcium oxide in amounts as high as 15 per cent without a corresponding amount of carbon dioxide which would be expected if the calcium were due to the presence of calcite ( C a C O j . Analyses of sherds from Tell Billa, published by Speiser3 in 1933, show a similar discrepancy. The lime content ran as high as 13 per cent, while the carbon dioxide content was considerably lower. Speiser, therefore, assumed that the lime had originally been present as calcite and that the carbon dioxide had been driven off by a firing temperature above 850 degrees centigrade. Shepard 4 criticised this assumption, chiefly because it has been demonstrated that calcite, when heated above its dissociation temperature, or even a t a lower temperature, if the lower temperature is maintained for a sufficient length of time, is transformed to calcium oxide, with the liberation of carbon dioxide, but that in contact with the atmosphere the CaO is subsequently hydrated and under favorable circumstances combines with C 0 2 to form calcium carbonate once more. The new form of calcite differs from the original in having an aggregate crystalline and optical character. In this investigation it was found that calcite in the sherds has the physical characteristics indicating completion of the calcination cycle, but the amount of calcite observed is in every case less than is required to account for the CaO in the chemical analysis. With one exception a correspondence does exist between the observed calcite and the carbon dioxide reported. A residue of calcium must, therefore, be accounted for in some other way. No other calcium minerals were observed. The phenolphthalein test gave no indication of free calcium oxide or calcium hydrate in the paste. One other possible source of calcium is suggested by the isotropic margins developed on grains of calcite. Experiments conducted in this laboratory showed that calcite which contains silicate inclusions begins to fuse a t about 900 degrees centigrade on rapid heating and is completely fused to a brown or colorless glass at 1000 degrees. Similarly Robson and Withrow' report that "lime is rendered inactive to water by calcination in the presence of impurities; especially silica and silicates." No such inclusions were detected in the minute particles of calcite in these sherds, but it is here suggested t h a t if similar minute grains had been distributed through the clay, in intimate contact with aluminous silicate and iron oxide particles, their reaction might have been the formation of a glass. Ries6 says: " I f . . . the temperature is raised higher than is required simply to drive off the carbon dioxide, and if some of the mineral particles soften, a chemical reaction begins between the lime, iron and some of the silica and alumina of the clay, the result being the formation within the clay of a new silicate of very complex composition." I t must be admitted, however, that the only glass observed in these sherds is marginal to the calcite grains. I t was found impossible to detect isotropic glass particles in a clay matrix which is itself not doubly refractive. The hypothesis is suggested, on indirect evidence, to indicate a possible future line of investigation. 8

E . A. Speiser, " T h e Pottery of Tell Billa," Museum Journal, X X I I I , S, pp. 249-283. ' Op. cii., pp. 425-427. ' J . T . Robson and J . R . Withrow, " T h e Dead Burning of Dolomite," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, VII, 1, J a n . 1924. * H . Ries, Clays, John Wiley and Sons, N . Y., 1927. [856]

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Nature of the Paint on Red and on Buff Ware Generally speaking, the paint designs or ornamental stripes on both types of sherds are of similar character. Although the stripes on the red ware appear black, while on the buff ware we find a dark brown to black-brown color, this may be entirely dependent upon the action of the paint upon the specific clay. No attempt was made to duplicate the paint to prove this point. The mode of application of the decoration is not settled, but it is thought that finely powdered mineral was mixed with some viscid liquid, either plant juice or resinous product, and applied with a brush. A striking characteristic is the uneven penetration of the paint into the surface. This leads to the conclusion that some liquid vehicle was used in conjunction with the mineral pigment. Since the paint penetrated the clay to quite a depth, removal of the pigment free of extraneous matter was found difficult; hence, no quantitative analysis was attempted of this material. However, the presence of ferric and magnetic oxides of iron and a trace of manganese account for the prevalent color. Apparently the organic matter, if it was present, has been almost entirely burned out. Upon firing the pigment in an oxidizing atmosphere the whole assumed a dark brown color. Thig paint lacked luster and showed very slight relief. Upon examination under magnification fused surfaces or appearance of a glaze were absent. The use of fluxes such as borax or natron, which would most likely tend to give a fused surface, is consequently ruled out as an admixture to the pigment. One specimen, a buff ware of Period III, namely, H IIIB-2, possessed a decorative paint the pigment of which was unlike that mentioned above. The pigment was akin to rouge, being argillaceous and easily rubbed off. The composition proved to be mainly ferric iron oxide, with some magnetic iron oxide, but no manganese. Although this paint had a few tenths of a millimeter relief, penetration was very slight. Most likely the paint was applied after the pot was finished, for on refiring the paint adhered more tenaciously. Firing

Temperature

I t was found that the gray sherds burned buff or light red when heated in a muffle furnace at a low temperature. This behavior would seem to indicate that the gray pottery was baked under atmospheric conditions not suitable for the oxidation of magnetite, but gives no positive information in regard to the maximum temperature obtained. The red and buff sherds showed no appreciable color differences when brought to 1050 degrees in 45 minutes. Higher temperatures were not obtained, consequently complete oxidation tests have not been made. As indicated in the discussion of the calcium oxide problem, there is evidence for supposing that the firing temperature reached 900 degrees, at which temperature all of the calcite had lost CO2, part of the calcium oxide fused, and the remainder was hydrated and recarbonated. That the temperature could not have been much above 900°C. is indicated by the fact that the muscovite in the sherds is unaltered. Shepard found that muscovite is dehydrated between 900 and 950°C.

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Conclusion Viewed as a whole, the twenty-three analyses are chiefly noteworthy for their revelation of similarities. The only diagnostic differences which might set apart one group of sherds from the others are the low calcium content, absence of calcite, and consequent red color of three sherds from Period I, which might serve as criteria for establishing these sherds as a type. A sherd from Period I I contains no measurable included particles except five per cent hematite and about 0.1 per cent quartz silt. If other sherds from the same source are similarly devoid of inclusions, a type designation might be established on this basis. Qualitatively the limited variation in chemical constitution and in the size and shape of the quartz grains, calcite, biotite, and muscovite emphasizes uniformity. Quantitatively there seem to be two possibilities: (1) The quantitative variation of the inclusions is no greater than might be expected as the natural variation of material in a sedimentary deposit. (2) Each of the sherds may represent a group of similar sherds in which the proportion of inclusions reported here is constant. Such constancy might make possible the definition of a number of sub-types. To explore this possibility will call for analysis of at least ten more sherds corresponding stratigraphically to each of those reported here. A more extensive application of ceramic tests and study of accessory minerals would undoubtedly make the investigation more conclusive. In a sense, this has been a vertical survey of the material; its chief conclusion is that what might be called a horizontal survey seems justified. E X A M I N A T I O N OF BEADS The results of a laboratory examination of several hundred beads show that some field identifications require correction. A majority of the beads, which had been described as limestone and gypsum appear to be clay, although limestone and gypsum beads do occur. They have a well developed surface vitrification, which varies from isolated patches of glass to a green glaze of measurable thickness marked with "crackle" lines. Surface coatings of sand, clay and carbonates frequently mask the glaze. Under the microscope the glaze surfaces appear to be not an applied coating but a product of the fusion of the clay itself. Several different clays were distinguished. All of these are cryptocrystalline, slightly doubly refractive, and their mean indices range from 1.595 to 1.63. Chemical analysis gave a 3:1 ratio of silica and alumina. Some of the black beads which had been called bitumen or grahamite were found to have no vitrification or other indications of baking, but they show the laminations characteristic of shale. The microscope reveals abundant inclusions of quartz silt. The chemical composition differs only slightly from that of the white clay beads, except in having a higher carbon content and less magnesia. I t is concluded that the material is a carbonaceous shale. Spiral grooves which are noticeable on a large number of those beads which have a good cylindrical shape, suggest that these cylinders were extracted from a clay deposit as drill cores in hollow tubular drills. The slight rotary motion of a tube pushed into clay would leave spiral markings. I t is presumed that the beads were subsequently heated to a [358]

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temperature high enough to produce vitrification of the surface, but not high enough to produce fusion and obliteration of the grooves. Chemical analysis was made on three types of beads to show their characteristic composition. The specimens consisted of white beads, (referred to as gypsum or limestone throughout this volume), 4 - 6 mm. long by 2 mm. thick, identified as clay type beads; small white beads (referred to as gypsum or limestone throughout this volume), 1 mm. long by 1 mm. thick, found to be a natural mineral of the serpentine group; and black beads (referred to as bitumen or grahamite throughout this volume), 4 - 6 mm. long by 2 mm. thick, the so-called shale type. The results are given in the following table. Silica Alumina Iron Oxide Magnesia Lime Alkali as K 2 0 Titanium Dioxide Phosphorous Pentoxide Carbon Loss on ignition

White Beads

56.85% 32.28% 2.47% 4.84% 0.10% 1.26% 0.68% 0.44% 1.08%

Small White Beads

60.80% 0.40% 4.83% 27.63% 3.54% 0.84%

1.92%

Black Beads

48.95% 31.76% 3.12% 0.94% trace 0.92% 0.25% present 13.44%

ANALYSES OF M E T A L O B J E C T S Copper Objects Various specimens of copper objects such as bracelets, rings and pins were analyzed chemically to determine the nature of the chemical composition, and to endeavor to ascertain whether the objects were wrought copper or bronze. All of the objects were thickly covered with patina, the greenish to blue-greenish coating produced by chemical agencies from the soil and air. In making the analysis the objects were thoroughly cleaned by removing the incrustation through physical means; subsequently only parts of the metal which were solid and undecomposed were used. Generally the objects were made of solid metal; however, some bracelets or rings possessed a hollow core. The results are given in the table on the next page. From the amount of tin found in the analyses, none of the objects can be termed true bronzes. The presence of the tin and lead came about, no doubt, from their association with the copper in the copper ore. There is no definite proportion of tin in the samples from any one level, and it is supposed that the variation may be due to the method of refining. The presence of as little as one to two per cent of tin gives the metal considerable stiffness, if we ignore the possibility of a probable hardening process having been used. The relative high purity of the copper can be attributed to the fact that probably fully oxidized outcrops of minerals such as malachite were used for the source of ore. The undetermined portion of the samples arose from the mineralization [859]

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of the specimen to cuprite throughout the entire body of the metal, and from there being an insufficient sample available to estimate elements like arsenic, antimony, bismuth. Identification N u m b e r

Copper

H IB-DH 45 X-16. Pin 96.74% 93.23% H IB-CG 25 »32. Pin 99.21% H I C - H 4 3 7 1 . Pin or nail 99.14% H IC-DH 35 X-6. Pin or nail 97.96% H IC-DH 43 X-14 »43. Pin 98.34% H IC-DH 45 S 136. Band 96.98% H IIA-CF 57 X-40 »61. Disk H IIIA-CF 55 X-10 in P. Ree. 22. Band. 96.28% H IIIC-CG 22 X-2 »8. Ring or bracelet 98.66% H IIIA-H 2199. Ring or bracelet 96.94% H IIIB-H 2429. Ring or bracelet 96.70%

Tin

Lead

1.74% 2.12% Trace 0.10% Trace Trace 1.53% 2.06%

1.52% Trace 0.10% 0.60% 0.61% 1.60% 1.49% 0.35%

Trace Trace Trace 0.71% 0.06% Trace Trace

0.78% 1.74% 2.24%

0.43% 0.65% 0.64%

0.13% Trace Trace

Iron

Undetermined

4.65% 0.69% 0.16% 0.73%

1.31%

0.67% 0.42%

Silver-Copper Object H I I I C - C F 65 »20. Fragment of ring or bracelet. Analyzed 38.51% 60.80% silver, 0.69% silver chloride and a trace of lead and iron.

copper,

Objects consisting of natural ore-bearing minerals H I I I C - C F 97. Band fragment. Yielded upon analysis 76.09% copper, 6.26% iron, 17.20% sulphur, a trace of tin and lead and 0.45% undetermined. This mineral was identified as bornite. H IIIC-DG 15 »32. Lump of ore. Gave the following analysis: iron as magnetic iron oxide, 56%; copper, 1%; and silica, 43%. Lead piece H IIIC-CG 90 X-10 » 16. Fragment. Gave the following analysis: lead, 99.18%, iron, trace; insoluble matter, trace; undetermined, 0.82%. MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES Analysis of Grain Small oval shaped seeds about 2 mm. long and § mm. thick. Practically all of the internal contents had been dried out, which left only the outside shell. In this condition the seeds were very fragile, although some of these identifying characteristics were still preserved. Upon examination this seed proved to be millet.

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Analysis of Red Pigment H IA-CG 95 X-26 # 79. A red powdery clay-like substance, similar to rouge. Analysis shows: silica, 41.18%; alumina, 21.07%; iron oxide (Fe 2 O t ), 20.37%; magnesia, 0.10%; lime, 1.50%; alkali as K 2 0 , 2.76%; phosphorous pentoxide, 0.30%; titanium dioiide, 1.80%; loss on ignition, 10.92%. This material is a natural ferruginous clay, which is commonly known as red ocher or rouge.

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APPENDIX II.

FIELD EQUIPMENT

The following categories of equipment are required on an archaeological expedition: camp, photography, survey and drafting, artist's equipment, office, specimen preservation, pharmacy, automobile, field railroad, digging tools and personal. The character of the camp equipment depends on the climate, on the particular geographical locality and on the financial conditions of the expedition, as well as on the intended duration of the excavation. At Fara, in the Mesopotamian desert, we lived in tents, bought second-hand in Baghdad. In addition, we covered some ruined rooms of the former German expedition house with straw mats and canvas. I t is self-evident t h a t our quarters were totally inadequate. The storms tore tents and "ceilings" to shreds, filling work rooms and living quarters with dust and sand. Occasional cloudbursts had catastrophic effects. However, for a short test lasting three months, it would not have paid to restore the old building or to build new quarters. The rest of the camp equipment a t Fara was equally primitive. Simple furniture had been made by a native carpenter in Diwaniyeh, 60 miles from Fara. T h e cooking was done on an oil stove, and dishes were of tin. The beds were collapsible cots. There was not much comfort in F a r a camp. On the other hand continuous expeditions in Mesopotamia have well equipped quarters, adapted to the trying climatic conditions. Compared with Fara, our camp in Damghan was rather luxurious. We rented a house in town, since the mound was only three kilometers from the town periphery. The finds were thus well protected, and could be worked up adequately. I n addition to the large museum, the darkroom and the dining room, there were individual rooms for every staff member. The kitchen and rooms for the technical staff were in an annex. T h e furniture and the commissariat department were also more elaborate than in the Mesopotamian camp. The photographic equipment consisted of two Zeiss cameras (Universal Jewel, 9 x 12 cm. and 13 x 18 cm.), and the corresponding films. T h e 13 x 18 films had to be imported from Germany, since none seems to be stocked in the Near East. Most of the darkroom equipment, printing paper and chemicals could be obtained in Teheran. T h e photographers constructed an ingenious device by means "of which enlargements could be made through the large camera. An apparatus for photographing objects according to various scales had been prepared in Berlin by Mr. Albert Jansen. I t consisted of a steel rod with two stands. The scales were marked on the rod, which also carried the camera, a board for the objects, and a background. This apparatus could be used vertically as well as horizontally. Topographical surveys, the plan of the Damghan Citadel, and important excavation plans were made with the Bell and Howell transit, which, together with a large level, was

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II

loaned to the expedition by Mr. Erskine L. White, Sr. Smaller surveys were made by means of two plane tables. A Brunton transit was employed for determing the orientation of skeletons and as a compact instrument in traveling. A small level was convenient for short cross sections. There were, further, stadia rods, chains and steel tapes, survey sticks, survey books, drafting utensils and papers. T h e artist's department was equipped with paper for ink drawings, water colors and various other draftsman's supplies essential to the faithful reproduction of the objects found. Finely ground gypsum was used for restorations of stuccos and other objects. The office was equipped with stationery of various kinds, two portable typewriters, and the like. Here were kept the catalogues of finds, namely a book with the objects recorded in numerical order, and three series of card files. The pottery vessels had, in addition, individual blanks with more detailed descriptions. Special blanks had also been prepared for burials. The photographs were catalogued in writing and pictorially, namely in albums containing the prints in numerical order. The office also contained a small library of archaeological publications. T h e specimen room was combined with the office. The catalogued and numbered objects were kept in handy boxes, as far as size permitted. M a n y objects had to be restored. Ambroid Cement was used for mending vessels and other objects. Mixed gypsum powder and glue was employed for restoring missing parts. Fragile human remains were coated with a diluted Ambroid. A thin solution of muriatic acid was used for cleaning ceramics and similar objects. T h e field pharmacy included quinine and plasmoquine, both used a t times prophylactically against malaria for the expedition staff, and for patients among the laborers and the townspeople. Alcohol, benzine, iodine, mercurochrome, bandages and cotton were the most frequently used medical supplies. Ammonia was employed against scorpion and insect stings. Opiates and salts were used for indigestion, a sulphur salve for cases of eczema among the natives. Morphine, camphor, caffeine and syringes were ready for emergencies such as painful injuries or heart attacks, b u t these medicines were never needed. T h e expedition had two Fords, one a half ton truck and one a touring car. T h e truck was essential for hauling the expedition's equipment, while the touring car was of inestimable value on the extensive trips across the country. Spare parts, such as tires, tubes, springs, and the like were available in Teheran, while other parts could be obtained only in Baghdad. A second-hand field railroad was purchased in Baghdad, and hauled to D a m g h a n on trucks. We had three hundred meters of narrow gage rail and three wagons each holding a cubic meter. We actually should have employed twice the number of rails and wagons, b u t the original expense and the cost of hauling to the distant goal were too much of a financial burden. A large-scale excavation can hardly be carried through entirely without a field railroad, because it would be suffocated by the dump-dirt. T h e digging equipment consisted of large and small picks, hoes, shovels and trowels, sweeping implements from whiskbrooms to delicate paint brushes, bellows, surgical and dental scrapers, supplemented by similar tools which were made by the native blacksmith.

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T E P E

H I S S A R

There were, further, tripod pulleys, baskets and buckets, ropes for outlining the excavation squares, paper bags and cardboard boxes, wooden lids for the protection of burials, numbered steel pins for the designation of burials, and the like. The personal baggage was the usual camping equipment for extremely hot and extremely cold seasons. While in summer only the lightest materials could be worn, in winter, especially during the trips across the mountains, lined leather jackets, long native sheepskins, boots of the same material, fur-lined gloves and leather caps are necessary to protect the traveler against the intense cold.

[364]

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS CITED ANDRAE, W. AND LENZEN, H., Die Partherstadi Assur, Leipzig, 19SS.

see also HEINBICH, E., "Fare." ARNE, T. J., "La Steppe Turkomane et ses Antiquités," in Geografiska Annaler, 1935, Sallskapet för Anthropologi och Geografi. "The Swedish Archaeological Expedition to Iran," in Ada Archaeologica, VI, 1985. BELL, G . , see REUTHER, O.,

Ukheidir.

CONTENAIT, G . AND GHIBSHMAN, R . , " R a p p o r t P r é l i m i n a i r e s u r

les Fouilles de Tepe-Giyan, près Néhavend," in Syria, XIV, 1, 1933. DiEUFALor, M-, L'Art Antique de la Perse, IV, Paris, 1885. FRANKPORT, H., Archaeology and the Sumerian Problem.—Oriental Institute Studie» in Ancient Oriental Civilization, 4,1932. Studies in Early Pottery of the Near East, I and II,— Royal Anthropological Institute Occasional Papers, 6 (1924) and 8 (1927). GHIRSHMAN, R., "Une Tablette Proto-Elamite du Plateau Iranienne," in Revue d'Assyriologie, XXXI, 3, 19S4. see also CONTENAIT, G., "Rapport Préliminaire." GJERSTAD, E., The Swedish Cyprus Expedition, I, Stockholm, 1934. GODARD, A., "Les Bronzes du Luristan," in Ars Asiatica, XVII, 1934. GÖTZE, A., "KLEINASIEN," in Kulturgeschicte des Alten Orients, III, 1, 19SS. HALL, H. R., Al 'XJbaid.—Ur Excavations, I, London, 1926. HEINRICH,

E.

AND ANDRAE,

W.,

"Fara,"

in

Vorderasiatische

Abteilung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin. HERZFELD, E., "Aufsätze zur Altorientalischen Archäologie—II. Stempelsiegel," in Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, V, 2, 1933. "Steinzeitlicher Hügel bei Persepolis," in Iranische Denkmäler, Reihe 1, Lieferung 1 and 2, 1932. "Niphauanda," in Iranische Denkmäler, Reihe 1, Lieferung 3 and 4, 1933. JORDAN, J . AND N O L D E K E , A . , Ausgrabungen

in

XJruk.—Abhand-

lungen der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1932. K I D D E R , A . V . AND SHEPARD, A . O . , The

Pottery

of Pecos,

II,

New Haven, 1936. KOECHLIN, R., "Les Céramiques Musulmanes de Suse au Musée du Louvre," in Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique de Perse, XIX, 1928, Mission en Susiane. KRAMER, S. N., "New Tablets from Fara," in Journal of the American Oriental Society, LU, 2, 1932. LENZEN, H., see ANDRAE, W-, Die Partherstadi Assur. MACKAY, E-, A Sumerian Palace and the "A" Cemetery at Kish, II.—Anthropology Memoirs of Field Museum of Natural History, I, 2, 1925.

MACKAY, E., Report on Excavations at Jemdet Nasr, Iraq.—Anthropology Memoirs of Field Museum of Natural History, I, 3, 1931. MARSHALL, SIR JOHN, Mohenjo-da.ro and the Indus Civilization, London, 1931. NOLDEKE, A . , s e e JORDAN, J . , Ausgrabungen

in

Uruk.

VON DER OSTEN, H. H., Discoveries in Anatolia.—Oriental Institute Communications, XIV, 1932; also the preceding publications by von der Osten and Schmidt in both the Communications and the Publications of the Oriental Institute. Ancient Oriental Seals in the Collection of Mr. Edward T. Newell.—Oriental Institute Publications, XXII, 1934. PUMPELLY, R., Explorations in Turkestan.—Prehistoric Civilizations of Anau, I and II.—Carnegie Institution Publications, 73,1908. REUTHER, 0., Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Ktesiphon Expedition im Winter 1928-29, Berlin, 1930. AND B E L L , G . ,

Ukheidir.

RIES, H., Clays, New York, 1927. ROBSON, J . T . AND WITHROW, J . R . , " T h e

Dead

Burning

of

Dolomite," in Journal of the American Ceramic Society, VII, 1, 1924. ROSTOVTZEFF, M., "The Sumerian Treasure of Astrabad," in Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, VI, 1920. SARRE, F., Die Kunst des Alten Persiens, Berlin, 1923. SCHMIDT, E. F., "Excavations at Fara," in Museum Journal, XXII, 3, 1931. "Tepe Hissar Excavations, 1931," in Museum Journal, XXIII, 4, 1938. see also VON DER OSTEN, H. H., Discoveries in Anatolia. SHEPARD, A. 0., see KIDDER, A. V., The Pottery of Pecos. SPEISER, E. A., Excavations at Tepe Gawra, Philadelphia, 1935. "The Pottery of Tell Billa," in Museum Journal, XXIII, 3, 1933. "Some Important Synchronisms in Prehistoric Mesopotamia," in American Journal of Archaeology, XXXVI, 4,1932. STEIN, SIR AUREL, in Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, 37 and 43. Survey of Persian Art, The, edited by A. U. Pope, now in preparation. WACHTSMUTH, F., Die Ausgrabungen der Zweiten Ktesiphon Expedition.—Islamische Kunstabteilung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, 1933. WITHROW, J . R . ,

s e e ROBSON, J . T . ,

"The

Dead

Burning

of

Dolomite." WOOLLEY, C. L., The Royal Cemetery.—Ur Excavations, II, London, 1934. AND HALL, H. R., AI 'Ubaid.—Ur Excavations, I, London, 1926. WULSIN, F. R., "Excavations at Tureng Tepe," in Bulletin of the American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, II, 1, bis, Supplement, 1932.

[865]

INDEXES

INDEX OF BURIALS A Burial reference in the principal text is indicated by the page number in ordinary type. A photographic illustration of an object found in a specific Burial is indicated in ordinary type by the Figure number followed in parentheses by the number of the page on which the Figure is located. The Schematic Drawings of Burials with textual description of the Mortuary Equipment are indicated by Figure and page numbers in italics. Photographs of Burials in situ are similarly indicated by italics. Only the Burials shown in the Schemata and those specifically mentioned in the text and Figures are listed. Many objects mentioned in the text or shown in the illustrations are from Burials which are not specifically mentioned, and it is felt that it would needlessly encumber this index to include them, since all objects together with the Burial with which they were found are listed in the Catalogue-Index of Objects beginning on page 370. In this Burial Index the lloman numeral following the Burial number indicates the period to which the Burial belongs. CF CF CF CF CF

38 38 38 47 47

X-l X-13 X-15 X-l X-2

III IIIB(?) IIIA m e UIC

C F 48 X - l HIB C F 55 X - l HIB "The Dancer"

3 1 6 ; Pl.LXXl

(317) 168 Fig. 151 (242) F i g . 113 (191) F i g . 115 (193) Fig. 161 (256) Fig. 155 (246) 2 0 6 ; 208; 2 1 1 212; 223; 229 F i g . 133 (224) F i g . 134 (225) F i g . 135 (226) Fig. Hl (234) Fig. 142 (235) Fig. 15S (244) Fig. 155 (246) Fig. 82 (139) F i g . 107 (181) Fig. 160 (254) F i g . 107 (181) F i g . 109 (183) 184; Fig. 160 (254)

CF 57 X-28 CF 57 X-40 C F 79 X - l

IIIB IIB IIIC

C F 88 X - l

IIIC

C F 89 X - 3 C F 89 X - 4 , 5

IIIC IIIC

Fig. 161 (256) Fig. 162 (258) 3 1 6 ; Pl. LXXI (S17)

C F 89 X - 1 0

IIIC

Fig. 162

C G 10 X - 2 C G 10 X - 8 C G 13 X - l

IIIB IIIB IIC

CG CG CG CG CG

IIIC IIIB(?) IIIB IIIB IIIC

Fig. 156 (248) Fig. 158 (250) F i g . 126 (214) F i g . 129 (217) Fig. 164 (261) Fig. 160 (254) 316; PI. LXXI (317) Fig. 158 (250) Fig. 158 (250) 233; Fig. 161 (256)

20 21 22 22 31

X-2 X-l X-4 X-5 X-7

(258)

CG CG CG CG CG CG CG CG

89 89 90 90 90 90 95 95

X-2 X-10 X-5 X-9 X-15 X-23 X-23 X-24

IIB IIB IIIB mc(?) HIB IIIB IA IA

C G 95 X - 2 6

IA

C G 95 X - 2 7 C G 95 X - 2 8

IA IB

C H 64 X - l

IIIC

C H 64 X - 2

IIIC

CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH

IIIB IIIB IIIB IIIB IIIA IIIB IIIC IIIA IIIA IIIC IIIC IIIC IIIB IIIC

65 65 65 75 85 86 87 95 95 96 96 96 96 97

X-l X-4 X-20 X-13 X-15 X-2 X-2 X-17 X-28 X-l X-2 X-16 X-23 X-l

Fig. 82 Fig. 81 3 1 6 ; PI. LXXI 3 1 6 ; PI. LXXI Fig. 157 Fig. 143 Fig. 33 Fig. 32 Fig. 52 Fig. 33 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 34 5 9 ; Fig. 53

Fig. Fig. 2 2 9 ; Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 2 3 1 ; Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.

116 127 144 159 122 125 159

(139) (138) (317) (317) (249) (236) (41) (41) (71) (41) (68) (70) (48) (72)

(195) (215) (»7) (252) (211) (213) (252)

106 (179) 157 (249) 154 (245) 155 (246) 151 (242) 156 (248) 162 (258) 152 (243) 152 (243) 163 (259) 124 (213) 163 (259) 156 (248) 163 (259)

I N D E X

DF 04 X-15 DF 04 X-16 DF 07 X-Sa DF 09 X-l DF 09 X-29 DF 09 X-41 DF 69 X-l DF 78 X-25 DF 78 X-26 DF 88 X-18

IIIA IIB HIB nie IIB IIB IIB IIB IIB IIB

DG 20 X-21 DG 36 X-22 DG 36 X-30 DG 51 X-5

IIIB IB IC IIIB

OF

Fig. 151 («#) Fig. 80 (136) Fig. 151 (245)

Pl. X X X I I I (187) Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.

79 80 79 81 81 81

(135) (136) (135) (138) (139) (138)

Fig. 157 (249) Fig. 51t (74) Fig. 58 (83)

Fig. 105 (179) Fig. 15k (245)

DG 53 X-l DG 53 X-4 DG 53 X-8 DG 53 X-9 DG 60 X-8 DG 69 X-24 DG 69 X-25

IIIA(?) IIIA IIB IIB IIIA(?) IB IB

Fig. 79 (135) Fig. 136 (226) 46; Fig. 53 (72) Fig. 35 (45)

DG 69 X-26

IB

44; Fig 36 (45)

DG 69 X-27 DG 96 X-30 DG 96 X-31

IB IC IIA

Fig. 44 (60) Fig. 42 (51) Fig. 68 (113) Fig. 69 (IIS)

DG 96 X-S6

IIA

DG 96 X-44

IC

DH 34 X-2 DH 34 X-8

IIA IIA

DH 34 X-14 DH 34 X-25

IC IA

DH 35 X-10

IIA

Fig. 137 (226)

Fig. 152 (243) Fig. 80 (137)

Fig. 54 (74) Fig. 54 (74)

Fig. 75 (128)

Fig. 67 (113) Fig. 78 (133) Fig. 55 (76)

109; Fig. 75 (128) Fig. 65 (110) Fig. 66 (110) Fig. 76 (129) Fig. 59 (85)

Fig. 44 (60)

Fig. 50 (68) Fig. 77 (131)

B U R I A L S

DH 35 X-14 DH 35 X-21 DH 35 X-24

IIA IC IC

DH 36 X-3 DH 36 X-5 DH 36 X-l 2 DH 36 X-15 DH 36 X-16 DH 36 X-l 7 DH 36 X-19 DH 43 X-4 DH 43 X-8

IIA IIA IC IC IC IC IC IIA IC

Fig. 77 (131) Fig. 56 (79) Fig. 60 (86) Fig. 58 (83) Fig. 57 (82) Fig. 59 (85) Fig. 78 (133)

DH 44 X-8

IIA

Fig. 64 (109)

DH 44 X-10 DH 44 X - l l DH 45 X-7 DH 45 X-10 DH 46 X-9 DH 46 X-1S DH 46 X-14

IC IIA IC IA IIA IB IC

48; Fig. 55 (76)

DH 46 X-21 DH 46 X-23

IA IA

Fig. 50 (68) Fig. 51 (70)

EG 06 X-46

IIA

Fig. 74 (126)

EH IS X-18 EH 13 X-24

IC IC

Fig. 60 (86)

EH 13 X-28 EH 13 X-31

IC IC

EH 13 X-32

IC

Fig. 60 (86) Fig. 45 (63) Fig. 57 (82)

EH EH EH EH EH

13 X-36 13 X-37 13 X-40 13 X-43 13 X-46

IC IC IIA IA IA

Fig. 76 (129) Fig. 59 (85)

Fig. 37 (47) Fig. 58 (83)

114

Fig. 44 (60)

Fig. 55 (76)

Fig. 75 (128)

Fig. 76 (129) Fig. 56 (79) Fig. 51 (70) Fig. 78 (133) 44; Fig. 53 (72)

Fig. 39 (49) Fig. 40 (49)

Fig. 38 (49) Fig. 43 (51)

Fig. 44 (60) Fig. 57 (82)

Fig. 41 (51)

Fig. 56 (79) Fig. 77 (131) Fig. 52 (71) Fig. 52 (71)

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height .014 length .037

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diam. of rim .234 height .257

diam. of rim .176 height .138

diam. of rim .123 height .157

diam. of rim .114 height .092

diam. of rim .093 height .131

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DG 96 X-44 p. 79, Fig. 55

DG 96 X-44 p. 79, Fig. 55

DG 96 X-44 p. 78, Fig. 55

DG 96 X-42

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DG 96 X-36 p. 133, Fig. 78

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H 3009

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diam. of rim .098 height .094

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University Museum 33-22-23

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Pl. XXXVIII Pl. XLII

University Museum 33-21-858

Pl. XXXIX

University Museum 33-21-483

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University Museum 33-21-463

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Pl. XXV

Pl. XXXVI

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Pl. XXXVIII

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University Museum 33-22-31

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Pl. XL

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H 4070

cup-jar

DG 20 X-21 p. 250, Fig. 157

DG 20 X-21 p. 250, Fig. 157 L

H 4053

diam. of rim .084 height .145

diam. of rim .155 height .126 rH

burnished

burnished

DG 20 X-21 p. 250, Fig. 157

DG 20 X-17

F

wheelmade

:

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gray-brown

handmade

burnished

DG 20 X-6 rH

bowl

gray-brown

handmade

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H 4046

H 4045

light gray

plain -

CH 97 X-7

G

bottlepitcher

cup

handmade

diam. of rim .102 height .039 i-l

gray-brown

plain G

H 4044

cup

handmade

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gray

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H 4032

cup, spouted

diam. of rim .085 height .083

CH 97 X-6 U

H 4026

plain

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CH 97 X-l p. 260, Fig. 163

CH 97 X-l p. 260, Fig. 163

*0

handmade

plain

diam. of rim .062 height .103

diam. of rim .028 height .229

U

gray

handmade

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burnished

WS

buff

handmade

handmade

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cup

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H 4018

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gray-brown

2

pitcher, spouted

H

H 4011

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gray-brown

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canteen

H

H 4009

H University Museum 33-21-738

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Pl. XXXIX

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DG 11 X-47

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diam. of rim .077 height .083

PERIOD

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painted

DEPTH I

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handmade

PLOT AND GRAVE F

buff-brown

DIMENSIONS 8

cup

DECORATION

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H 3990

FORM

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[382]

bowl

cup-jar

vase-cup

goblet, stemmed

gray-brown

gray-brown

gray

red-brown

light gray

handmade

handmade

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handmade

handmade

handmade?

burnished

burnished

burnished

painted

plain

burnished

plain

burnished

burnished

diam. of rim .08 height .087

diam. of rim .146 height .137

diam. of rim .085 height .133

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;

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diam. of rim .039 height .446

diam. of rim .075 height .094

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diam. of rim .081 height .189

diam. of rim .09 height .132

diam. of rim .088 height .057

diam. of rim .067 height .127

CH 85 X-10

CH 86 X-2 p. 248, Fig. 156

CH 86 X-2 p. 248, Fig. 156

DG 69 X-33

DH 06

DH 07, Hoard, plot record 19

DF 69 X-l p. 135, Fig. 79

DF 69 X-l p. 135, Fig. 79

DF 68 X-2

CF 57 X-43

CF 57 X-40 p. 138, Fig. 82

CF 57 X-40 p. 139, Fig. 82

IIB

IA IIIB IIIB IIIB

IIIB

IIIC

IIB

IIB

IIIA

IIB

IIB

IIB

IIB

University Museum 33-21-466

PI. XXVI

PI. XL Fig. 108

PI. XXXVIII

Pl. Ill

PI. XXXVIII

Teheran

University Museum 33-21-760

Teheran

University Museum 33-21^746

University Museum 33-21-9

Teheran

University Museum 33-22-446

University Museum 33-21-498

University Museum 33-21-502

Teheran

Teheran

PI. XXVI

PI. XXXVI

PI. XXVI

In collection of Mrs. W. B. Thompson

PI. XXV

University Museum 33-21-600

University Museum 33-21-570

PI. XXXVI

University Museum 33-21-545

Teheran

111 collection of Mrs. "W. B. Thompson

PI. XXVI

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H 4260

H 4248

H 4246

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gray

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CF 57 X-40 p. 139, Fig. 82

CF 57 X-40 p. 139, Fig. 82

IIIA

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ILLUSTRATION

PI. XXXVI

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H 4243

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CF 57 X-S5

CH 95 X-28 p. 243, Fig. 152

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canteen

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IIIA

TEXT

TO —1

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CH 95 X-17 p. 243, Fig. 152

PERIOD

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University Museum 33-21-148

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University Museum 33-21-173

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University Museum 33-21-201

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University Museum 33-21-144

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ILLUSTRATION

University Museum 33-21-311

TEXT

PI. XV

PERIOD

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spindle?

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limestone?

button seal

button seal

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diam. .011 height .005 diam. .008 height .003

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[455] t© . »f w « S 22 of « eo

length .186 diam. .01

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