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Evaluation of the Indices of Deception in the Psychogalvanic Technique

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FORDHAM UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL

J a n u a r y 29,

1c£2

This dissertation prepared under my direction by

....................

entitled Evaluation of the Indices 'of Deception ~in the Psycho-

g a lv a n ic T e c h n iq u e ,

,

has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

Degree o f

Doctor of Philosophy........... ...............

j G J L i (F aculty A d vise r)

EVALUATION

OF THE

INDICES

IN THE P S Y C H O G A L V A N I C

OF DECEPTION TECHNIQUE

By FABIAN LOGUE RQUKE B.A., B o s t o n College, *34 M.A., Fordham. University, *37

DISSERTATION S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQU I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF P H I L O S O F H Y IN THE D E P A RTMENT OF P S Y C H O L O G Y AT F O R D H A M U N I V E R S I T Y

N E W YORK 1941

ProQuest Number: 10992503

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10992503 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

L

•J

iii 1

r TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

LIST OF TABLES. . .................................. LIST

I.

iv

OF F I G U R E S ....................................

v

P R E F A C E ..............................................

vi

THE P R O B L E M OF LIE D E T E C T I O N ....................

1

Criti c a l Resume P r o b l e m of I n v e s t i g a t i o n II.

M E T H O D O L O G Y ......................................

21

General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The P s y c h o g a l v a n i c Response Subj ect s Procedure Instrument Electrode s Records III.

TREATMENT

OF R E S U L T S ..............................

34

Visual A n a l y s i s of the Records The Judges Int e r p r e t a t i o n s at Time of Tests Ratings of Judge A and Judge B A n a l y s i s of Indices C orre l a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s W e i g h t e d Scores Di scus s ion IV.

L.

S U M M A R Y A ND C O N C L U S I O N . . . . ......................

80

A P P E N D I X .................................

84

B I B L I O G R A P H Y ........................................

98

J

iv r

LIST OF TABLES

n

Table

Page

I, Numb e r of A d e q u a t e Responses able R e c o r d s ••••••• II.

III.

43

Per Cent A c c u r a c y of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Judges Using Individual and C o m p a r a t i v e M e t h ­ ods of Diagno sis. .«••••• ........

44

P er Cent A c c u r a c y of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n on T h i r ­ t een Groups w i t h A d d i t i o n a l R e c o r d s .

47

C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t s between the D e c i ­ sions of the Judges and Actual Guilt or Innocenc e • • . ................ •••••

43

.

IV.

in U n i n t e r p r e t •••••••••••

V. C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t s b e t w e e n the Judgments of Judge A and Judge B in the Individual Anal......... • • • • • • • ..•••••••••• ysis. VI. VII. VIII.

P er Cent A c c u r a c y of Indices in D i s t i n g u i s h i n g Guilt from I n n o c e n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........

58

Per Cent A c c u r a c y of Indices Based on Records I and II C o m b i n e d ....... ...............

59

Per Cent A c c u r a c y of the S u b j ective I n t e r p r e ­ t a t i o n and the Obj e c t i v e Indices Based on Identical Groups of C a s e s • • • • • • • • •••••

60

IX. P o i n t B i s e r i a l C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of the Indices and Guilt or I n n o c e n c e . ............... X.

XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

XV.

XVI.

l_

49

Change in B R b e t w e e n First and Last in Each R e c o r d .......

63

Responses 65

01 C o e f f i c i e n t s b e t ween the Changes in the In­ dices and Guilt.. ..... • • • • • • ............ •••••••

67

P o i n t B i s e r i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of c/p P GR Values, Record I, Group D . . ......................

71

P e r Cent A c c u r a c y of Composite W e i g h t e d dices (Comp a r a t i v e Analysis) ..........

73

P o i n t Bis e r i a l t w een W e i g h t e d I n n o cence •

In­

C o r r e l a t i o n Coef f i c i e n t s b e ­ Com p o s i t e Indices and Guilt or ........ • • • • ...... ••••••••

74

P e r Cent A c c u r a c y of Composite Indices with Crossed W e i g h t s (Comparative A n a l y s i s ) ..........

76

Point Biserial Correlation Coefficients be ­ t w een C o m p o s i t e Indices w i t h Crossed We i g h t s and Guilt or I n n o c e n c e ........................••••

76 j

V r

“i

LIST

OF F I G URES

Figure I. II. III. IV.

S p e c i m e n R e a c t i o n ..................................

Normal Record... Normal

VI.

R e j ected

IX.

89

........................

Record. •

Rejected

VIII.

88

Normal R e c o r d .........................

V.

VII.

l.

Page

Record

.. ........................

R e c o r d ....

90 91 92 93

Re j e c t e d R e c o r d ....................

94

Rejec t e d R e c o r d . . . ............

95

Skeleton

96

C i r cuit of the P a t h o m e t e r ........

j

VI

PREFACE

This w o r k Father

is r e s p e c t f u l l y d e d i c a t e d to

Summers,

the m e m o r y of

S.J.

Acknowledgements Ab o v e all, Kubis, ance,

I w i s h to t h a n k my mentor,

for his p a t ient but

even m ore for his

I wis h Costello,

c r i t i c i s m and his

to t h a n k

who

also

steady,

Dr,

generous

friendly

assisting

assist­

encouragement.

in a special w a y Mr.

spent long hours

Joseph F.

in the

Ti m o t h y laborious

w ork of computation. To Mr. i n d ebted

F r a n k Routh i e r

for

and Mr. W a r r e n K e l l y

I am

their loyal help.

I w i s h to t h a n k B r o t h e r B. Thomas,

D i r e c t o r of

L i n c o l n Hall,

and Br o t h e r Paul for granting p e r m i s s i o n for

my

in that

e x p e riment

institution,

and

I app r e c i a t e

sin­

c e rely the c o o p e r a t i o n given me by Bro t h e r s Aloysius, Leo,

Anthony

School;

and Lewis.

to B r o t h e r James

to Miss W e i n i g grateful quent

L.

To B r o t h e r Michael,

for the

and

Mr.

at

St.

and Father O ' B r i e n at St.

F l a n a g a n at the

cooperation

in

Casita Maria,

obtaining

Amedy,

Jerome's Raymond's; I

am

the n o n - d e l i n ­

subjects.

J

r

n

E V A L U A T I O N OF THE INDICES OF D E C E P T I O N IN THE P S Y C H O G A L V A N I C T E C H NIQUE

L_

J

r

n C H A PTER I THE P R O B L E M OF LIE DET E C T I O N That

it is important for man to k n o w the truth

a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h few, eras

of m a n ’s social

if any, will development

deny.

is an

In the ancient

there were

attempts

at

lie d e t e c t i o n w i t h definite i m pressionistic and dramatic I techniques. P r o c edures, such as ordeal, combat, and t o r ­ ture, were

were b a sed on s u perstitious beliefs invalid.

the pulse, based,

However,

or havi n g

the

certain methods,

in emotion,

present

scientific

of course,

such as feeling

subject chew dry rice,

k n o w i n g l y or unknowingly,

actions

and,

and were the

were

on the p h y s i o l o g i c a l forerunners

of our

approaches.

With the e x c e p t i o n of a method of recording, istratus

2

kno w l e d g e

used

change the

a perfectly

of its n a ture

ta t i o n of the

results.

in pulse,

latter half

re­

objective

and effects

technique with and a p r oper

He used an objective

vtrhich was

s u b j e ctively

of the last

Eras-

interpre­

indicator,

interpreted.

century an instrumental

In tech­

nique

for lie d e t e c t i o n had its first practical a p p H C a 'Z tion w h e n L o m b r o s o used a p l e t h y s m o g r a p h in the i n t e r r o ­

g a tion

of criminal

suspects.

1. John A. Larson, Lying and Its D e t e c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago^ T932, C h . TIT} Paul V. Trovillo, "A H i s t o r y of Lie Detection", J_. C r i m . L aw and Criminology, 1939, 29, 848-881; 30, 104-119.

TH4 8-8 54T^ 2. Ib i d ♦, p. 849. 3. Gina L o m b r o s o - F e r r e r o , Criminal M a n , G.P. Sons, N e w York and London, 1911, p. 225.

!_

P u t n a m ’s

J

2

r

h

The tific

specific

a p p r oaches

tec h n i q u e s

to lie

used

in the

so-called

scien­

d e t ection can be c l a s sified under

the fol l o w i n g headings: 1# 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Free A s s o c i a t i o n Technique Respiration Blood P r e ssure B l ood P r e s s u r e and R e s p i r a t i o n M o t o r Reactions The P s y c h o g a l v a n i c Response Miscellaneous

Jung'*' d e v e l o p e d indicated land

the free a s s o c i a t i o n technique

its use for the det e c t i o n of deception.

a p p lied the a s s o c i a t i o n principle

v e s t i gations w i t h In seven

subjects

series of tests,

jects,

forty

tained

from all but

actually with

a total

of w h o m were controls,

Cros-

in a series

suspected

and

of in­

of theft.

of f i f t y-five

c o n f essions w ere

sub­ ob­

one of those who had been indicated as /p

56

(61)

57

(49)

67

60

c/f

66

(62)

62

(58)

68

68

77

68

66

62

ac/anc

M e a n Value

1.

72

i

1

69

; 67

74 _____________ 66

The four values in pa re n t he se s are based on the a r i t h ­ metic m e a n of the values of the criteria. The 77 value is based on the m e d i a n value of the six pr op ort ion s (c/p) o b t a i n e d in record I. The 74 value is based on the ar it hm et ic average of the same six proportions. In vi e w of the gr ea te r d i s c r i m i n a t i v e accuracy of the m e d i a n values, fur the r st at istical analysis of the arithmetic averages was not made. J

59 r

In sp ect ion of the table

ferences.^-

The values

are

ten de nc y for the ac/anc (Av - 6S^) index. and

No pr o n o u n c e d

index to be more

of

with

dif-

d i sc ri min ati ve (Av ** 62^)

exist be tw ee n records

I

D and Group ND. the per cent ac cu rac y values of the twelve

ob tai ned fr o m b o t h records

I and

Obta ine d fr om avera gin g the two medians,

record I and the m e d i a n of record

of c/p

II and the the m ed ia n

II.

TA BLE VII Pe r Based

Cent A c c u r a c y of on Records

Group Indices

Median I & II

Md

I and

Indices II Combined

D

Group ND

Av er a g e I & Md

II

Median I & II

Md

Ave rage I & Md

c/p

67

66

60

61

c/f

77

79

66

63

c/p

62

59

66

60

c/f

62

67

71

71

67

68

66

64

II

PG R

W Mean Value

n

a slight

or the c/p

based upon the m e d i a n value

or c/f values values

(Av«63^)

differ en ces

Table VII p r es en ts indices

app rec iab le

fairly consistent,

th an eit her the c/f

II or b e t w e e n Group

the

reveals no

1. A co m p a r i s o n of the c/p index in the P G R and W c a t e ­ gories for record I reveals a d if fer en ce of 21 per cent, c/p(PGR) being 77, while c/p(W) is 56. The standard error of this di ff e r e n c e is .072, yi el d i n g a critical ratio of less than three, and co ns eq u e n t l y of doubtful st ati stical reliability. Since this dif fe re nc e is the largest p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e an in gf ul dif fe re nc e in the table, it is re aso na b le to expect no s ta ti st ic al ly reliable di ff er en ce s of any ps yc ho l o g i c a l significance >- wi t h i n this table.

60 r

-i A g a i n there

value

significant

results neither

of the per cent a c c u ra cy nor

indices.^ accu rac y c/p

are

Some

slight

of the c/f

index

C o mp ar is on

in the

in the

com parison

of the

t e nd en cy exists for the gre at er

index

(Av * 70/^)

as compared with the

(Av * 6 2 ^ ) . of Subj ect ive

Int erp re ta ti on and Obj ect ive

An al ys is Direct subje cti ve

c o m pa r i s o n

Table VII,

In the

su bjective

d ia gn ose d

accordingly,

no

judg men t was made records

indices were me as ur a b le .

di rect

tables

are

in Table

interpretation,

as d o ub tf ul

data ba sed on all

two

statistical

from the data p r es en te d

records were

th ese

accuracy of the m e t ho ds

i n t e r pr et a ti on and gross

is not po ss ibl e

tains

of the

Thus

of

analysis II and

in

c e rt ai n

or u ni nte rp ret ab le, on them.

Table VII

in wh ich

the various

the cases

r e p r es en te d

not

identical.

co m p ar is o n of the

subje ct ive

and, con­

in

Table VIII gives

a

and ob jective methods,

TABLE VIII P e r Cent A c c u r a c y of the Subj ective And the Obj ective

Indices Ba s e d on Identical

Group 1 N S ub je ct ive Obj ec t i v e

Inte rp re tation

j |

D

Or ou£s

of C a s e s

Group ED

Judge A

Judge B

Judge A

Judge B

29 pairs

33 pairs

21 pairs

38 pairs

93

79

100

76

72

73

86

69

jTI The largest di f f e r e n c e cri tical ratio of 2.7.

in this table

(79-59)

yields

a

61 r w h e n the c o m p u t a t i o n is based on the method.

In each

instance,

jective

in te r p r e t a t i o n

p on di ng

obje cti ve

not

several

analysis.

subjecti ve

indices

value

c/p,

of the

The differences, N being

(ex.

small

sub­

c/f,

int er pr et at io n

c/p,

PGR,

hov/ever,

are

in each paired

evalua tio n of the

tive m e a s u r e . u s e d ' f o r this the c/f,

in each

is hi gh e r than that for the c o r r e s ­

Since the judges*

based upon the of

ac curacy per cent

st a ti st ic all y reliable,

comparison.

same cases

is d e fi ni te ly

i n te rr ela tio n

and W ) , the o b j e c ­

co mp ar i s o n is the m e a n value

of

P G R and W indices co rr e s po nd in g to the m e a n

of Me d i a n

I and

II columns of Table ¥11.

Go rr el ati ona l A n al ysi s The above the two

values,

analysis was based upon the or two

sets of values,

g r e a t e r than the other.

This

the basis

m ine

rel at io n of m a g n i t u de

guilt or inn ocence proce dur e quate

judgment ’’g u i l t y ” .

irr esp ect ive

of c o r r e l a t i o n was

var iable

correlation

of these

in dex values

The form ula

a

The p r o b l e m of an a d e ­

in volving a continuous

and a di cho tom ous

(Guilt or I n n o c e n c e ) , the latter assuming face.-1

to

solved by the f o r mu la for

coefficient

(criterion values)

con­

To d e t e r ­

of such comparison,

used.

co rr e l a t i o n t e c h n iq ue was

a bise ria l

of whi ch was

"gr eater t h a n ” aspect

stituted the

for the

one

co mp ar i s o n of

is the following:

variable

a tw o- fol d

sur-

2

bis

1.

Richardson, M.TiT., and Stalnaker, J.M., ”A Note on the Use of Bi -s er ia l r in Test R e s e a r c h ” , J. Gen, Psychol., 1933, 8, 463-465. j_2• The aut ho r is ind eb te d to Dr. Robert T. Rock, Jr., for the ter minology. This coe fficient is also called the po int biserial.

62 r w h e r e Mt * M e a n of the

i conti nuo us

variable for the total

con tinuous

variable

group Mp » M e a n of the d ic ho to mou s

of the

group

t s Standard d e v i a t i o n for the w h o l e

of the

con tinuous

variable

group

p * P r o p o r t i o n of indiv id ua ls group

for one

c o n s id e r e d

in the dicho to mo us

in Mp as compared to the

total

group q = l^p Table di ch ot om ou s These

IX

variable

co rr e l a t i o n

offer no

and the several

index values.

co eff ic ie nt s are of low m a g n i t u d e

except

ind icated

the point bi se r i a l s b e t w e e n the

(S-l)

great pr om is e

nev er t he le s s, ences

pr es ent s

of predi cti ve

one,

value.'*’

all positive.

in prev io us

analyses

and

They are,

Several

differ­

are noted here also,

namely, 1.

The

index ac/anc

gives the

great est ma gni t u de .

Av Av Av

Next

bis ac/anc V

c o r r e l a t i o n of the is the c/f D

ND

.32

.25

bis

c/f

.28

.21

bis

c/p

.25

.18

index.

1. A m u l t i p l e r e g re s s i o n eq u at io n for pur poses of p r e ­ di ct io n was not deemed jus tified in v i e w of the low m a g n i t u d e of the coeffi ci en ts , their probable low reliability, and the na ture of the as su m p t i o n s u n d e r ­ lying this type of c or r e l a t i o n coefficient. L

_i

63

r

TABLE IX Point

Biserial

of the

Co rr e l at io n Coe fficients

Indices

and Guilt or

Innocence^

Group D

Group ED

Record

Record

Ind ices I

PGR

I & II

I

II

I & II

c/p

.31

.21

.27

.35

-.03

.16

c/f

.31

.13

. 30

.23

.10

.17

.39

.20

.24

.34

.11

.22

c/p

.17

.23

.27

.20

.17

.25

c/f

.38

.28

. 36

.30

.31

.37

.44

.45

.39

.36

.31

.29

ac/anc

W

II

ac/anc

.

2. The co rr el a ti on s

,- -

are of hi gh e r m a g n i t u d e for

Group D.

A v of all 3.

iy bis

The co rr el a t i o n s

D

ND

.30

.21

are of highe r m a g n i t u d e

for the

W indices.

1. The or d e r of m a g n i t u d e of the PE of these co ef fi ci en ts m a y be e st im a te d from the fo llowing PE values *Y bis PE Group D PE Group ND

.10 1.09 +-.09

.20

.30

.40

.50

1.09 1.08 +*0 8 +.08

1.08 +.0 8

1.07 +.07

and J.W. Dunlap# MA G r aph ic al Method for C o mp ut in g the Stan da rd E rro r of B is er ia l r " , J. Exp. Educ., 1934, 2, 274-277. ~ L

64 D

A T of V

bis

ND

( (W)

»33

.24

(PCJR)

.26

.18

n

C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the BR index concerns the fol lo wi ng aspects s 1.

re lation of the change record

2.

II w i t h

relation wit h

record more

does the BR increase

Does

above,

the f ol l o w i n g two va ri a b l e s were

guilty?

record

second

innocent and d e ­

E m pl oy in g the same tec hn iq ue co rr elated

as

for

D and Group ND: a.

B RlI - BHj

b.

Guilt or Innocence

The point bi s e r ia l and — .07

(Group ND).^

r e l i a b i l i ty of the

con se quently,

the first

sign.

No

it is not adequate

can be made co n c e r n i ng

.22

(Group

the

surprising

D) and to

interpretations, relation of

or innocence.

second aspect

response was

are

In v ie w of the low magnitude,

in B R with guilt For the

co ef fic ie nts

co eff i c ie nt s

find t h e m of o p po si te

1.

in the

it increase for the

for the

change

innocence.

innocent than for the

crease

Group

I to

or innocence.

p r o n o u n c e d l y for the

gu ilty person?

guilt or

of the change in BR w i t h i n one

guilt

For example,

actual

in B R from record

of the BR index,

the BR for

co m p a r e d with the BR for the last

The / c o e f f i c i e n ts of c o rr el at io n of a fou rf ol d point surface for the same v a ria bl es are .21 and — .07. This c o e f f ic i en t is used and n o t e d below.

low

65 r response

"i in each

record*

slig ht ly b e t w e e n these

It either increased or de creased

two

end points,

or re ma ine d constant.

A f o ur fo ld t ab le was t h e n set up. The co ef f ic ie n t ^ two

variables

expresses the r e la ti on b e t w e e n

i nd ic ate d

in each table.

c o n t i n u i t y of va ri a b l e s

is made,

m ul a is g e n e r a l l y a p p li ed to The fo u r f o ld d i s t r i b u ti o n s

the

No a s s u mp ti on of

since the

correlation for­

a fourfold point

surface.

g iv en in Table X involved two TABLE X

Change b e t w e e n First

and Last

in Each Record

Responses

Record

I

Inn o c e n ce -G u il t

change in BR

in BR

Record

vari ab le

In no cen ce -G ui lt variiable

G

I

G

8

6

21

22

-h

5

4

-

26

27



.05

/ = .04

v a ri ab le s both of wh i c h are only one of w hi ch is e s s e n t i a l l y

1.

L_

Guilford, N e w York, involved.

expressed d i c h o t o m o u s l y , but

is d i s c o n t i n u o u s

c ont in uou s

J.P., 1936,

II

(change

(G-l),

while

the

other

in BR either pos it iv el y

P s y c h o m e t r i o M e t h o d s , McGraw -H ill , p. 352, for the f o r m u l a and as su m p ti on s

J

66 r or neg atively)* In other words, and increase

i The / coeffic ie nts the

are low and positive.

co rr el at io n between guilt and

in BR w i t h i n the same

record

innocence

is negative,'*' but

very low and unreliable. It was the change to

record

expla ine d above

in the II.

c/p,

were

com puted

increase

c/f and ac/anc

Using the

as w it h the BR change

indices was

ratios

from record

same type of fo urfold

and G— I variables,

I'

distribution

the / coe ffi cie nts

for the r e la ti on of innocence or guilt to

in each of the

An actual

that one of the

table will

indices

i llu str ate

from record the type

I to

record II.

of d i s tr ib ut io n

used. G change in c/f

21

22

18

17

-.07

Here we note

a very

chang e o r an inc re ase guilt .

si ight ten de ncy of a p o s it i ve

in the

Table XI p res ent s th e /

the :r elation b e twe en chan ges dices b e t w e e n Positive

1,

c/f ratio to be r el at ed to

records

in the m a g n i t u d e

and guilt

co e f fi c ie nt s

coeffic ient s exp ress ing of the

in

or innocence.

indicate that a po s i t i v e

change

It is obvious that the p o s it iv e or ne g at iv e cha ra ct er of the c o e ff i ci en t is co nt ingent upon the ar ran gem ent of the rows and columns. If the G and I columns were interchanged, / w o u l d be negative. In the above tables, the relation be tw ee n innocence and increase in BR is p os it ive and c o n s e q u e n tl y n eg at iv e as regards guilt.

67 r TABLE XI

in the

Indices

and Guilt

Group D

c/p

.06

c/f

-.07

.06

to o 1 •

L..

.03

ac/anc

Group ND

• o 03

Indices

PG R

bet wee n the Changes

I

(B Co e f f i c ie nt s

i

W

c/p

.00

-.01

c/f

.05

.04

.02

-.05

ac/anc in the

index is p o s i t i v e l y re lated to

c o e f f i c i e n ts

express

positive

I n s p e c ti on of the ta b l e nounced

or reliable

changes

in m a g n i t u d e

II and guilt

re la tio nsh ip wi th guilt. very clearly that no p r o ­

r el a ti o n s h i p of the

n e ga ti ve

is indicated b e t w e e n the

indices from record

I to

record

or innocence.

The general cor re la ti o na l The

shows

innocence;

co nc l u si on s

ana lys is

single

are

indices

from this

sect ion of the

these:

of the PG R and W variables

p o s i t i v e l y co r r e l a t e d w i t h the G-I the co ef f ic i en ts

variable,

are of l o w m a gn it ud e

are but

and low

reliability; The

c or rel at ion s

in c/p,

c/f and ac/anc

are in ge neral i_

ficance.

b e t w e e n changes

in BR,

the

changes

indices arid the G-I variable

very low and of no pr ac tical

signij

68 Weighted

Scores

n

In view of the above single

indices

the p o s s i b i l i t y of

tion w i t h

several

score was

investigated.

indices

change

w o r k with the

co mbi ned as

change

I to

in c/p,

c/f,

II it was

and decided to

c/f,

a v c/av nc

Records

I and

II

W

: c/p,

c/f,

av c /a v nc

Records

I and

II

I

indices

in the P G R var iable were for Record

and II combined.

dure

was used for W.

were

com bi ne d w it h the three

also

done

Further,

for PG R II and W

W I and W II were

a l g e b r a i c a l l y the bined.

a raw score

scores

data

I

This was

score.

scores

is r e la ti v e l y

simple

raw scores to be co m ­

standard d e v i a t i o n its de viate value

However,

are n e e d e d

from the

such a p ro ce du re

in­

amount of labor and the re lative p r e c i ­ obtained

seems g r e at er t h a n

by the p r e c i s i o n of me a s u r e m e n t . origin al

for W I.

for P G R

Finally, P G R I, P G R II,

of the

m e a n of the distrib ut io n.

sion in the

and

the process being m e r e l y to add

z scores

a de f i n i t e

II,

same co mb in at io n p r o c e ­

indices

II.

Only the m e a n and the

in or de r to give

The

given a single

are used,

I, for Record

combined

the three indices

The p r o b l e m of com bining z scores

of

cor relations t ha n

: c/p,

for Records

values L-

indices

PGR

into a c o m p o s i t e va l u e

volves

composite

following:

The three

when

individual

record

the

the c o r r e l a ­

a weighted

yie ld ed hig he r

in BR and the

av c/ a v no fr om record

relative to

increasing

Since the

the PG R and W va ri ables the

co nc lusions

is pr o b a b l y

seem to indicate.

is ju st ified

In other words,

the

less precise than the t r a n s m ut ed Fu rthermore,

it is desi ra bl e _j

69 r her e to ??eight the va lues

of the

w h i c h they s eem to m a k e the best guilt

or innocence.

W i t h this

pr o c e d u r e was d e c i d ed upon. each

a value

g u il ty

and only four

c/p index, c r i m in at iv e Similarly,

seemed

if there we re

t w e n t y g ui lt y 1.8,

if there were

to have a fair degree of d i s ­

si gni ficance.

innoc.ent in div idu als

In the

be lo w 1.1,

mi nus

only to

a value

of fi fteen

in noc ent

in nocent

out

for

G

each

given these plus

it is to be noted,

in separ at in g

give -weights to

as m a n y

values were g iv e n w hi ch would y ie ld 3/2,

score

or

are a s s i g n e d which

the guilty from

individuals.

In order to

at least

beyon d

I and five

scores above and b e l o w a cert ain value,

innocent

with

of — 3 w o u l d be gi v e n any

raw scores

val ue was f a i r l y d i a g n o s t i c

ible,

indiv id ual s

Such w e ig h t s w e r e wo rk e d

The weights,

as having

of 4" 5 wo uld be g i v e n any

instance

the i n d iv id ual

values.

(I)

and

of less than

In the f ir st example,

(G) and fou r innocent

score be l o w 1.1. index and

twenty

above the 1.8 value of the

fi fteen

t h e o r e t i c a l l y a va lu e

in di vi du al s

L.

seemed to d i s c r i m ­

indiv id ual s with c/p values

of 1.8 or more.

two

Thus

examined

it seemed r e as on a b le to cons ide r such a value

some di a gn os t ic

the

w hi ch

of

cap acity b e t w e e n gu i l t y and innocent persons.

only five gui lt y 1.1,

innocen t

distributions

G— I variable were

innocent.

that point

the fo ll o w in g

The biserial

(or values)

inate guilty from the

I in the d i r e c t i o n in

d i s c r i m i na ti on b e t w e e n

in mind,

index and the d ic ho to mo us

to det er mi n e

scores

in wh ic h there were i nd iv id u al s

and two

above

scores

as p o s s ­

pr op o r ti on s

either three

a certain value

guilty b e l o w some such point.

of

gu il ty to or three The _]

70 r fo ll ow in g values w er e used:

+*1#

if the

p r o p o r t i o n of G to

but not 4-2.

-i

if the

reaching

3/2

2/l

p r o p o r t i o n of G to

but not

I was above

reaching

I was

2/l

or more

5/2

4-2.5

if the

p r o p o r t i o n ranged from 5/2 to

4-3.

if the

p r o p o r t i o n was

3/l

3/l

or greater.

Si mi la r ne ga t i v e we ig ht s were used w h e n the p r o p o r ­ tion of innocent to guilty assumed the values An

actual

m or e

d i s t r i b u t i o n will make

concrete.

Table XII

gives

selec tio n

the fr eq ue nc i es

p re p o n d e r a n c e at the classes majority

of G,

at 1.0

of G fr eq ue nc ie s

(five

at 1.1

of cases

obta ine d at the

If only a

for example,

or fo ur

three

An

attempt

limiting

individuals at

discrimina­ is made to

each

of

included, end,

then

o b t a i n no wei ght s

and the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n betw een guilt

cence w o u l d be c o nf ine d to o n l y a fr a c t i o n of the l.

to

at each tail

small n u m b e r were

the g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of individuals would w ha ts oev er,

from a

(seven out of twelve).

obta in a p p r o x i m a t e l y tw e n t y five per cent the di st ributi on.

of I to

out of seven)

included and the

limits.

at

is e x e m p li fi ed

in fl ue nci ng the choice of the

values are the n u m b e r ratio

This

1.0 and 1.1 whe re we have a change

The oth er fac tors

tive

versa.

is not

intervals

change f r o m a p r e p o n d e r a n c e and vice

dis­

I for Group D.

They are u s u al ly the

of I f r e q u e n c ie s

a majority

for Record

of the up per and lower limits

al t o g e t h e r arbitrary. w h ic h

the w e i g h t i n g pr oc e d u r e the p o i n t - b i s e r i a l

t ri b u t i o n of the c/p P G R values The

indicated.

or i nn o­ groups j

71 'TABLE XII Point Biserial

Di st ri b u t i o n Record

Class

of c/p P GR Values

I , Group

G

I)

I

2.6 2.5 2.4

we ig ht

2.3 2.2

2.1

N*12

2.0 1.9 1. 8 1.7

1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2

1.1

1.0

we ight

\

.9 .8 .7

all values N«7

N-18 less than

.6 .5

j

72

examined• W h e n the scores,

raw scores were

the n e w c/p,

c/f,

transmuted

into these we i g h te d

and av c/av nc values

for each

value w er e

added a l g e b r a i c a l l y to form alump value for

(1) P G R I;

(2) P G R II;

(6) W.I and

II;

(9) P G R

W

I,

The

(4) W I;

scores

of 1,

2, 4,

indices,

the al ge braic It was

the

several

n e w scores same the

and 5 were

the c/p,

men ta l

e x pe ct ed indices

be tt er

o/f,

records. of the

co mposed

A def in it e

accu ra cy

indicators

seven for records for the

of the

analysis

The

is noted

indices II;

records

II for

as an index

of each p ai r of

values

guilt

in c o m p a r i s o n to the indices in the

of c/p, previous

ranged from sixty-two the

c/f,1 in d i v i ­

to

sixty-

range in the we i g h t e d values

is from sixty-nine

of the mean w e i g h t e d

groups

or innocence.

in the per cent of

indices

records

The a v e ra ge

each e x p e r i ­

the per cent a c c u r a c y of each

average

I and

score was used

individual

seventy-six. I and

su mmation of

co mposing

in de te r m i n i n g

increase

corresponding

and

d e s c r i b e d pr e vi ou sl y was made be tw ee n

indices

and u n w e i g h t e d

3,

score 9

of guilt or innocence.

comparative

The

values;

scores

co mp osite value's w ou ld make these

these w e i g h t e d

and av c/av n c . dual

into

Table XIII gives

co mp osite

cent

II;

of each of

and ac/anc;

that the weighting

A g a i n the h i g h e r

in this

ac c u r a c y w it h

and W

indices.

of each of the two me mbers

pair.

of guilt

per

sum of twelve

type of analysis scores

(5) W II;

I, P G R II, W II.

7, and 8 were c o m p o s e d of six w e ig ht ed

was

l.

II;

(7) P G R I and W I; (8) PG R II

three w e i g h t e d 6,

(3) P G R I and

D and ND is

to

values for

seventy-four;

the _j

73 TABLE XIII Per

Cent A c c u r a c y of Composite We i gh te d

Indiees

(C o m p ar at iv e A n a l y s i s ) Group D

Group ND !"

Gompo site Indices

Rec. I

Rec • II

~ ~-

Rec . I Rec. I & II I - -' r



Rec • II

Rec. I & II ....



PGR

76

77

81

74

63

74

W

76

78

74

so

75

76

P G R and W

71

74

80

74

68

77

69

76

!

L _ .. M e a n Values

74

c o r r e s p o n d i n g av erage five*

The

nocence

is d e fi n it el y

Tho ugh

increased

and

and in­ scores

per centages

are d e f i n ­

in co m p a r i s o n to

ranging from si xt y - e i g h t to be tw een the w e i g h t e d

such an index as ac/anc

obtain that

the

is sixty-

as the ac/anc for W- wh ere p e r c e n t ­

The di ff e r e n c es

son to the n u m b e r

of indices

are

slight

in­

in c o m p a r i ­

vdiich have been summed up to

increase.

Were the w e i g h t e d ninety

as we w e i g h t

in the

of a c c u r a c y are ob t a i n e d

seventy-seven.

b e tw ee n guilt

o v e r w h e l m i n g l y large

indices

indices

instead of single values.

the increases

they are not

dices

76

for the individual

compo sit e

some i s o la te d ages

78

cap ac it y to d i sc ri min at e

and as we use

ite,

76

in d e x to

or n i n e t y - f i v e per cent

f r o m a pra ct ic al

point

of view.

increase the

accuracy to

it wo uld have more

value

Ev ide ntl y a w e i g h t i n g -J

74 r pro ce d ur e on the b as is of two records to

the p r o b l e m of o b ta in in g

A mere

visual

mately

the

ana ly si s

accurate d i a g n o s t i c

of the two

same de gre e

is no

need

cise m e a s u r e m e n t tional

appar ent ly point

a p pr ox i m a t e l y the

for each

Same

problem has been

chapter,

namely,

to

of

in p r e ­

and c o m p u t a t i o n when a few m i n u t e s ^

in the early part of this

Add iti on a l

approxi­

From a pr ac tical

that the an s w e r to the

n u m b e r of tests

indices.-

to waste two to three hours

analysis w o u l d yield

It seems

answer

records yields

of a c c u ra cy as these

refine d m e a s u r e m e n t procedures. vi ew there

is not the

inspec-

results.

indicated

increase the

subject.

C o r re la t io na l A n a l ys is

Using

the w e i g h t e d

scores,

com p u t e d be tw e e n

the several

variable.

X I V gives

Table

the point biserial

com posite the

indices

was

and the

G-I

results.

TABLE X I V Point B i se ri al between Weighted

Comp os it e

Comp osi te

PG R

(I)

PGR

(II)

PGR W

1. L-

& W & W

(I) (II)

(I & II)

or

Innocence

D

Group ND

CO

(I & II)

and Guilt

.40 t .08

.45 t .08

.45 i .07

.49 t .07

. 4 1 t .08

. 3 4 t .08

.36 t .08

.54 ± .07

.50 dT.07

o .

(I & II)

Coe ffi cie nts

Group

Indices

to

W

Indices

.

PGR

Co rr ela tio n

The av er ag e time to make a compa ra ti ve diag no si s on the basis of two records for each m e m be rs of the group was not m or e than two minutes. -*

75 r

E x a m i n a t io n of the table

are of g r e at e r m ag n i t u d e

and the G— I variable.

of this

chapter,

in the previous

section

s u b s t a n t i al ly the pr edi cti ve

possibil­

of the c o r r e l a t i o n coefficients.

Ap p l y i n g

Crossed W e i g h t s

A d i f fi c u l t y such we ights

In this was

As

individual

a la bo rious m e t h od of c o m p u ta ti on has

failed to increase

that

"i that the coe fficients

than those b e t we en the

indices

ities

reveals

case,

the

inherent are not

always

sole p u rp os e

to di sc o ve r to what

values

It was

r e co gn iz ed

ily a pp li ca ble on a group mined,

for each

the we ig ht s

could be

is

to other data. indices

of d i f f e r e n t i a ­

increased by

setting

index. that the wei gh ts w er e not n e c e s s a r ­ To test

their ap p l i c a b i l i t y

that fr om which t he y were

a s s i gn ed to group

group ND and those group

the degree

to ot her data.

other than

ap pl icable

of using the w e i g h t e d

extent

ti o n of guilt or innocence critical

in this m e t h o d of w e i g h t i n g

D were

deter­

app lied to

assi gne d to group ND were

applied to

D. Table X V shows the pe rce nta ge of ac cu r a c y

co mposite .indices

of the PGR,

W,

of the

and PGR & W, w it h the

cr ossed weights. It is in all

readily

seen that

the pe rc e n ta ge s

are lower

cases t h a n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e s

in

Table XIII. Table XVI gives the agre em en t we ig ht s l.

the point

b e t w e e n the

and guilt

biserial

composite

c o e f fi ci en ts

indices with

of

crossed

or innocence.

_]

76 TABLE XV Per Cent A c c u r a c y of with

11

Composite

Indiees

Crossed Weights

(Co mp ar at iv e A n a l y s i s )

Group

D

Group ND

..

.



Rec. I

Rec. II

Rec. I & II

Rec • I

Rec • II

Rec • I & II

PGR

60

53

75

58

44

58

W

50

55

58

62

58

73

PGR & wr

60

68

73

71

58

64

M e a n Values

57

59

69

64

53

64

Co mposite Indices

A g a i n it is in all

cases

than

readily in the

seen that the

results

co rr e s p o n d i ng values

are lower

in Table XIV.

T A B L E XVI Point

Biserial

be t we en Compo si te

Co rr el at io n Indices with

and Guilt Compo s ite Indices PGR W

(I. & II)

.05

.16

.35

.25

. 33

II

.10

.13

(I & II)

. 56

.34

PG R II & W

l_

Group ND

.27

I & W I

PGR & W

Crossed Weig hts

Innocence Group D

(I & II)

PGR

or

Coefficients

77

Such weights, tive

cap ac it y

therefore,

of ce rt ai n

value

that mi ght

the d i s c r i m i n a - 1

derived,

but they are of

in their a p p l i c a t i o n to other data.

regard they do not help be v a l id ly and

increase

indices wh en used upon the data

fr o m w h i c h the we ights were doubtful

m ay

in es ta bl is hi ng an index that wo uld

reliably ap pl icable to

be brought

In this

any and all cases

for e x a m i n a t i o n and diagnosis.

Di s c u s s i o n Ce rt ai n c o n cl us ion s study.

Several

found to be more

methods But

readily d i s c er ni bl e

indices have been teste d dia gnostic

fact that we i g h t i n g di ag nostic

are

than others.

the several

accuracy.

Indeed,

Of value

indices has

the best

some have been

nique has

it is gra nted that

its merits,

has y i e l d e d

no one

of the obje ct iv e

deter mi ne w h e t h e r a p e r s on was ter h o w m a n y

such t e c h ni qu es

increase the

diagn os ti c

ce rtain limits.

These

one c o n e er n i ng

procedure,

its

tec hn iq ue

itself w i t h this of

they c annot hope to

que st io ni ng

beyond

reliab ili ty of the

adequacy.

The

re li a b i l i t y is

of records taken,

ex amining t e ch ni qu e

subject matter.

No m a t ­

are co nd i t i o n e d by two f a c ­

itself wi th the

st an d a r d i z a t i o n of the

concerns

c e rt ai nl y and u n e r r i n g l y

are used,

limits

tech­

of indices

guilty or Innocent.

itself a f un c t i o n of the nu m b e r

ency of the

such a w e i g h t i n g

accu ra cy of the results

the oth er wi th

indices.

index or c o m b i n a t i o n

a value wh ich w o u l d

is the

i n cr ea se d their

of an aly sis was that using the w e i g h t e d

even th oug h

tors,

and

from this

and the c o n s i s t ­

. The a d eq ua cy of the

question: suitable,

Is the and does

the

proc ed ur e

situ at ion and it fulfil

its

78 i —

—^

‘its purpose? the

Is the

ex pe rimental

lies

in a real

censure,

situation of the

life

or the

re a ct io n of the

situation,

ill will

able. tial

At best the elements

same na ture

associates?

and actual

experiment

lie

in

as w h e n he

to escape punishment,

of his

ancy b e t w e e n e x p er im en ta l

subject to the

hopes

Some d i s c r e p ­

situations

is i n e v i t ­

to extract the

essen­

of e v e r y d a y life w hi ch are under c o n s i d e r a ­

tion. For the pr ac t i c a l sults are of definite re lative

significance.

of gu i l t

for more than two,

second place,

ought not to be

the abs en ce

because such as

this

that

ever be a ratio valid more

factors

into

records

can be made. and

of cert ain abn orm al it ie s large cha nges

several

in BR,

an ot he r

records,

it is h i g h l y

or value,

to

consideration,

a partially

or

reason

and taking

it appears

all

suppose that

have to be d et er m i n e d

for

subjective

improbable

di ag nostic

in its a p p l i c a t i o n to r ea so na ble

than four

of guilt or innocence will p r o b a b l y

remain on at least

is meant

is need

days.

the dia gn os is

always

as a basis

There

to fatigue,

for the a d v i s a b i l i t y of taking

that

is the

reaction to the questions.

of record m a y be due

all

re­

th er e ma y be records w h i c h can not

of any galvanic

Taking

records

a re liable d ia gn os is

reaction,

t h e m on diff er en t

important

or innocence.

i n t er pr et ed

of p s y c h o l o g ic a l

This type

Most

and p r o b a b l y for more

each subject b e f o r e

In the

i n v e s t i g a t o r these

in ad eq u a c y of having only two

for the di ag n o s i s

from

criminal

level.

By

that there will

of lying,

individuals.

equ ally It is m u c h

a separate value will

each individual,

ap p l i c a b le

only

79 that

individual

able

that

test

period,

during

a limited

period*

such an index could be dev eloped the

in t e r p r e t i n g the

results

It is conceiv-”* in a preliminary-

of v/hich w ou ld form some basis

reactions

of the regular

for

examination.

■U

-i

r C H AP TE R

IV

S U M MA RY AND CONCLUSIONS

This in the The

study pu rp or t ed

to evaluate

cr iteria

p s y c h o g a lv an i c m e t h o d for the de te c t i o n of deception.

in st rument

and the

dev el o p ed by the

late

One h u n dr ed

te ch nique Rev. W.C.

and

seventy

and n i n e t y no n- de l i n q u e n t, to

the various

eigh te en years,

d e si gn ed

to

vestigation

of

boys,

cases.

the takin g of the money. innocent pe r s o n

Summers,

There was

There was

quarter w h e n he de ni ed taking

if he was

of each

There was

a

of each subject who it.

And fi na ll y

subject evaded detection,

records

subject

These

in­

a

caught.

A m i n i m u m of two responses

actual

a definite act,

pair.

took t he

pu ni sh m e n t

lie on the part

in the

situation

a guilty pe rs on and an

and actual

if the

in age fr om nine

elements

in each experimental

a reward

eighty delinquent,

ranging

d e fi ni te

there was

S.J..

in an ex pe rimental

clo se ly the

criminal

e x am ina tio n was that

subjects,

were te sted

simulate

of

of the p s y c h o g a l v a n o m e t r i c

to a st an dardized

were

taken.

with

the om i s s i o n of a fe w that were

qu es ti on na ir e

records were then analyzed as follows, found to be uninter-

p retable• 1.

Su bj ec t i v e

analysis

by two judges

of each ex pe ri m e n t a l 2.

Su b j e c t i ve of each

son w it h his 3. O b j e c t i v e L.

records

p a i r in comparison.

an alysis by two

subject

of the

judges

of the records

co ns id e re d ap art from the c o m p a r i ­

pa r t n er

an a l y s i s

in the

experiment.

of the various

indices,

c/p -I

81 r

(critica 1/pr evious), ac/anc

(average

(critical/following),

cr it ic al/ ave rag e n o n - c r i t i c a l )

for the var iables obj ec ti ve

c/f

P G R and W

analysis

R e s i s t a n c e )5 all

(recovery time),

of the variable BR

co nsi der ed

v a li di ty as dia gno st ic

and

(Basic

in regard to th eir

indices

of tr uth

or f a l s e ­

hood • The obje cti ve aspects, 1«

analysis

was

carried

out under

several

namely! Gross

analysis

of each

b e t w e e n the gui lty

index for d i s c r i m i n a t i o n

and innocent

subject

in each

pair. 2. C o r r el at io na l

analysis

the re la tio nsh ip dex and the

b e t w e e n the m a g n it ud e

lying

response*

w ith the raw scores 3*

Correla tio nal

of each index to det ermine

The f o l lo wi ng con cl us io ns

of the are

in­

This was done both

and wi th w e i g h t e d

analysis

of the

combined

scores. indices.

drawn f ro m this

inves­

tigation ! 1. D e ta il ed dices

sta tistical

of d e c e pt io n

yields

analysis

of the various

in the ps yc ho ga l v a n i c

no ob jec tiv e mea sure

in ­

te chn iqu e

which d is cr im in at es

w it h high deg ree of accu rac y a lying from a t r u t h ­ ful 2.

response*

Di ff ere nce s various

3. The

in the di sc ri mi na ti ve

indices

are

small and unreliable.

co mb i n a t i o n of the

co mpo sit e

separate

index of greater

than any of the

cap ac it y of the

separate

indices yields

di sc ri mi na ti ve

indices.

value

a

82

r

n 4.

C o r r e l a ti on with guilt

5.

coeff ic ien ts

but

for

on which they were

co ef fi c i e nt s 6. The

but

low.

the raw scores,

do not at ta in high pred ic ta bi li ty .

p l i c a t i o n of the w e i g h t s to the that

indices

of the w e i g h t e d composite

are h i g h e r than those

still

various

or in nocence are positive,

C o r r e l at i on c o e f f i ci en ts scores

of the

Ap­

group opposite

e st ab li sh ed

lowers

the

obtained.

results are

consistent for t h e

two

groups

tested. 7. The a c cu ra c y of subjective high

enough on the basis

ju st if y a c o nc l u si ve

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is not

of only two

judgment.

two judges for bo th groups, only s e v e n ty -s ev en 8. The ac cu r a c y of

records to

The average

using two

subjective

in cr ea se d with

of records 10.

is

in t e r pr et at io n in­

c o r re sp on de nc e be tw ee n the ratings

judges

records,

per cent.

creased w i t h the ta king of additional 9. The

of the

an increase

records. of the two

in the nu mb er

obt ai ne d for each subject.

The p o s s i b i l i t y for accurate d i ag no si s

of gu ilt or

inn ocence by the use

is indicated

in the

results of one

o bt ai n ed

as m a n y

an adequate pairs of the

of 96.1 per

of the two judges,

records

dia gnosis.

se v e n t y - e i g h t

re ex amining

group bec ause

records,

cent with

t h ir te en

of doubtful

he ob t a i n e d an accur acy

individual

out of

when he

as he dee med n e c e s s a r y for After

del in qu en t

or u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e

on

of this tec hn iq ue

analysis

eighty c a s e s ) ; and

(based

97.5 per cent analysis

acc ur ac y with the

(based on all

comparative

forty pairs).

r

~f

Q U ES TI ONN AI RE FORM A DELINQUENT

A. (I)

1.

Is your n a m e ------- ?

2.

Is today Tuesday?

3. Have you any sisters? 4. Did you take the money?

B.

5. Is your mo t h e r

C.

6. Did you get 60 in your last week?

(I I )

7. Have yo u the D.

living? cottage marks

quarter?

8. Did you get a visit

last

Sunday?

9. Did it rain this morning? B. (II)

10* Is your mo th er living? 11. H av e you the quarter?

D.

12. H av e you any

C.

13. Did you get 60 in you r la st week?

(I)

cottage marks

14. Did you take the money? D.

(II)

15. Did you get a visit

last

Sunday?

16. Have you the quarter? 17. B.

(I)

sisters?

Is to day Tuesday?

18. Is y o u r mother

living?

19. Did you take the money? 20.

Is your n a m e ------- ?

The Roman n um er als indicate the critical questions. letters indicate the emotional standards.

L

The

J

r

n QU ES TIO NN AIR E FO RM B DELINQUENT

1. Are you fifteen years 2. A. (I) B.

Is it raining now?

3. Have you any brothers? 4.

Did you take the quarter?

5.

Is y ou r father

6 . Did you C.

living?

eat brea kf ast

this morning?

7. Did you get A in conduct

last week?

8. Have yo u got the money?

(II) D.

9. Have you been let home 10.

(I)

Did yo u take the

on a visit?

quarter?

A•

11. Have yo u any brothers?

B.

12.

Is your father living?

13.

Have you the money?

C.

14.

Did you get A in conduct

D.

15. H av e you been let home

(II)

last week?

for a visit?

B.

17.

Is your father

>-> 00 .

16. Have you the money?

(II)

(I)

old?

living?

Did you take the quarter?

19.

Are you fif teen years

old?

QUE ST ION NA IRE FOR M A NO N- DE LI NQ UE NT

c.

1.

Is yo ur n a m e ---- --?

2.

Is today Tuesday?

3. Have y o u any sisters? 4.

Did you take the money?

B.

5.

Is y ou r mo ther

C.

6 • W er e you ever kept back

(I)

7. Have yo u got the

(II) D.

8. Did y ou ever live 9. Did

B.

it

in an institution?

rain this morning?

Is y o u r mo th er

living?

you got the

quarter?

12. H a v e you any sisters?

C.

1 3 . Were yo u

B.

in school?

Did you take the money?

15.

Did you ever live in an institution?

16.

Have you got the

17.

Is t od ay Tuesday?

quarter?

t—1 .

(II)

ever kept back

14.

Is y o u r mo th er living?

19.

Did yo u take the money?

20.

Is your n a m e ------ ?

00

D.

in school?

quarter?

A•

(I)

L

10.

11. Have

(II)

(I)

living?

r

n QU ES TIO NN AIR E FORM B N O N - DE LIN QUE NT

1. Are you fifteen years 2. A.

B.

C.

Is it raining now?

3. Have you

any brothers?

4.

Did you take the

quarter?

5.

Is y ou r

6.

Did you eat bre akfast

7.

Did you fail

father living? this mor ning?

any of y ou r mi d y e a r

exams ?

8. Have you got the money?

(II) D.

9. Were

you ever chased

by a cop?

10.

Did you take the quarter?

A.

11.

Have you any brothers?

B.

12.

Is your father living?

13.

Have you got the money?

C.

14.

Did you fail

D.

15. Were you ever chased by a cop?

(I)

(II)

any of your mi dy e a r exams ?

16. Ha ve you got the money?

(II) B. (I)

old?

17.

Is your father living?

18.

Did you take the

19.

Are you

quarter?

fifteen years

old?

Fig. 1 Specimen Reaction

o

Nor ma l

Record

u>

I■>

Li >

o

o < si