# Essential statistics: exploring the world through data [Second edition] 9780134134406, 1292161221, 9781292161228, 0134134400, 9781292161280, 1292161280

We live in a data-driven world, and the goal of this text is to teach students how to access and analyze these data crit

534 137 45MB

English Pages 592 [586] Year 2016;2017

Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Title Page......Page 4
Copyright Page......Page 5
Dedication......Page 6
About the Authors......Page 7
Contents......Page 8
Preface......Page 12
Acknowledgments......Page 16
Index of Applications......Page 22
Chapter 1: Introduction to Data......Page 27
Case Study: Deadly Cell Phones?......Page 28
1.1. What Are Data?......Page 29
1.2. Classifying and Storing Data......Page 31
1.3. Organizing Categorical Data......Page 35
1.4. Collecting Data to Understand Causality......Page 40
Exploring Statistics: Collecting a Table of Different Kinds of Data......Page 50
Chapter 2: Picturing Variation with Graphs......Page 61
Case Study: Student-to-Teacher Ratio at Colleges......Page 62
2.1. Visualizing Variation in Numerical Data......Page 63
2.2. Summarizing Important Features of a Numerical Distribution......Page 68
2.3. Visualizing Variation in Categorical Variables......Page 76
2.4. Summarizing Categorical Distributions......Page 79
2.5. Interpreting Graphs......Page 82
Exploring Statistics: Personal Distance......Page 86
Chapter 3: Numerical Summaries of Center and Variation......Page 107
Case Study: Living in a Risky World......Page 108
3.1. Summaries for Symmetric Distributions......Page 109
3.2. What’s Unusual? The Empirical Rule and z-Scores......Page 119
3.3. Summaries for Skewed Distributions......Page 124
3.4. Comparing Measures of Center......Page 131
3.5. Using Boxplots for Displaying Summaries......Page 136
Exploring Statistics: Does Reaction Distance Depend on Gender?......Page 143
Chapter 4: Regression Analysis: Exploring Associations between Variables......Page 167
Case Study: Catching Meter Thieves......Page 168
4.1. Visualizing Variability with a Scatterplot......Page 169
4.2. Measuring Strength of Association with Correlation......Page 173
4.3. Modeling Linear Trends......Page 181
4.4. Evaluating the Linear Model......Page 194
Exploring Statistics: Guessing the Age of Famous People......Page 202
Chapter 5: Modeling Variation with Probability......Page 229
Case Study: SIDS or Murder?......Page 230
5.1. What Is Randomness?......Page 231
5.2. Finding Theoretical Probabilities......Page 234
5.3. Associations in Categorical Variables......Page 243
5.4. Finding Empirical Probabilities......Page 253
Exploring Statistics: Let’s Make a Deal: Stay or Switch?......Page 258
Chapter 6: Modeling Random Events: The Normal and Binomial Models......Page 273
Case Study: You Sometimes Get More Than You Pay For......Page 274
6.1. Probability Distributions Are Models of Random Experiments......Page 275
6.2. The Normal Model......Page 280
6.3. The Binomial Model (optional)......Page 293
Exploring Statistics: ESP with Coin Flipping......Page 308
Chapter 7: Survey Sampling and Inference......Page 325
Case Study: Spring Break Fever: Just What the Doctors Ordered?......Page 326
7.1. Learning about the World through Surveys......Page 327
7.2. Measuring the Quality of a Survey......Page 333
7.3. The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Proportions......Page 341
7.4. Estimating the Population Proportion with Confidence Intervals......Page 348
7.5. Comparing Two Population Proportions with Confidence......Page 355
Exploring Statistics: Simple Random Sampling Prevents Bias......Page 362
Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing for Population Proportions......Page 379
Case Study: Dodging the Question......Page 380
8.1. The Essential Ingredients of Hypothesis Testing......Page 381
8.2. Hypothesis Testing in Four Steps......Page 388
8.3. Hypothesis Tests in Detail......Page 397
8.4. Comparing Proportions from Two Populations......Page 404
Exploring Statistics: Identifying Flavors of Gum through Smell......Page 412
Chapter 9: Inferring Population Means......Page 429
Case Study: Epilepsy Drugs and Children......Page 430
9.1. Sample Means of Random Samples......Page 431
9.2. The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means......Page 435
9.3. Answering Questions about the Mean of a Population......Page 442
9.4. Hypothesis Testing for Means......Page 452
9.5. Comparing Two Population Means......Page 458
9.6. Overview of Analyzing Means......Page 473
Exploring Statistics: Pulse Rates......Page 477
Chapter 10: Analyzing Categorical Variables and Interpreting Research......Page 501
Case Study: Popping Better Popcorn......Page 502
10.1. The Basic Ingredients for Testing with Categorical Variables......Page 503
10.2. Chi-Square Tests for Associations between Categorical Variables......Page 510
10.3. Reading Research Papers......Page 519
Exploring Statistics: Skittles......Page 528
Appendix A: Tables......Page 544
Appendix B: Check Your Tech Answers......Page 552
Appendix C: Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises......Page 554
Appendix D: Credits......Page 576
Index......Page 578
Back Cover......Page 586