Essays on Religion and the Ancient World

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Essays on Religion and the Ancient World

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ARTHUR DARBY NOCK Essays on Religion and the Ancient World

Arthur Darby Nock Essays on Religion and the Ancient World Selectedandedited,with an Introduction, Bibliographyof Nock's writings, andIndexes, by ZEPH STEWART


Harvard University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts 1972










Printed in Great Britain








author of 'that masterpiece of patient brilliance'

PREFACE OLLOWING THE DEATH of Arthur Darby Nock there were suggestions froi_nscholars i~ seve~al countries that a selecti~n of his papers and reviews be published m book form. In undertaking the project I was faced first of all with the difficult task of selecting the material. I have been aided in several instances by the advice of Nock's friends and colleagues who are more familiar than I with some of his fields of interest. Some difficulties of choice were resolved by the omission of papers which are available in standard works of reference; certain reviews of great importance in detail (like those of Behn's Mithrasheiligtumzu Dieburg and Vermaseren's Corpus)have been omitted because the remarks of wider interest made in them are found elsewhere in more discursive papers. Anyone who talked with Nock or has read his letters knows of the fresh, direct, and well phrased judgments he could make. Some of these pointed comments appear in papers otherwise unworthy of inclusion here; so I have collected some of them in a final chapter of 'obiter dicta'. The description of Nilsson's Geschichte dergriechischen Religionwhich is quoted in the dedication of these volumes is such an 'obiter dictum', taken from Nock's survey of recent work and trends of scholarship for the reprint of his 'Early Gentile Christianity'. Preparation of this collection has been far more demanding than I had expected. I have made several hundred small corrections in the papers as originally printed and have tried to standardize the style of reference within the limits of each paper: I can hope only that new errors have not been introduced in the process. It has been hard to resist the continual temptation to add notes referring to more recent discussions, but such a task should be done thoroughly, if at all, and with wider knowledge than I possess. I have in fact given references to re-publications of texts and articles which may be more readily available to the reader, when I have known them, and very occasionally to a comprehensive later discussion of a topic which loomed large. This has been done, I fear, with a certain caprice reflecting my own interests, but I regret particularly that printing was too far advanced to add references throughout to the invaluable reprinting of Louis Robert's papers (Amsterdam, 1969). These aids to the




reader, cross-references, and other explanatory notes have been added in square brackets. References to the pagination of later editions of works has seemed unnecessary when the later editions themselves, like Nilsson's, contain cross-references. The original pagination of Nock's essays and reviews is indicated throughout, and original footnote numbers have been retained in all cases (even of papers reprinted in part) except for those which had to be changed to conform to continuous numbering. I have given titles to the reviews in order to indicate their principal interest and have slightly altered the original title_ of one paper (from Coniectanea Neotestamentica)to fit the section of it which has been reprinted here. Numbers in bold face type are those of the bibliography of Nock's writings which is placed after the papers. The aim has been everywhere to make Nock's work more easily available and useful. A rather complex index of cross-references to all his papers has been compiled as an added help for those who expect to make systematic use of his learning. Together with the precis of articles in the bibliography, the list of books reviewed, and the other indexes, it will provide, I hope, a partial substitute for that complete index of Nock's writings for which Nilsson had hoped. I have received much kindly aid in my work on these papers, most of it from Nock's many friends. A Fellowship grant from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation gave me free time and the means to get the major part of the work accomplished. For this I am most grateful, as I am for help, advice, and encouragement especially to Professor Herbert Bloch, Dean Henry Chadwick, Professors Harold Chemiss and Sterling Dow, Dean Krister Stendahl, and my former teacher and Nock's long-time collaborator, Father A-J. Festugiere. Much of my work was done in the vicinity of Oxford, where I enjoyed the hospitality and the facilities of Christ Church, the Bodleian Library, and the Haverfield Library, and where I was able to consult with profit not only Dean (then Professor) Chadwick but also Professor E. R. Dodds, Professor Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Dr. C. H. V. Sutherland, Professor Sir Ronald Syme, Dr. Stefan Weinstock, and another of Nock's former collaborators, Mr. Colin Roberts, who as Secretary to the Delegates of the Oxford University Press has been a chief promoter of these volumes. One of the pleasures of my association with Nockiana was a visit to the Portsmouth Grammar School, where through the kindness of the Very Reverend E. N. Porter Goff, Mr. C. Macdonald, Mr. R. H. Willis, and Dr. F. R. Langmaid I was able to gather interesting background information and to see Nock's earliest published writings, his editorials in the school newspaper. Professor R. A. Kraft had with Nock's help done most of the work on the bibliography when he and Professor R. B. Ward kindly let me take it



ov~r; !"1-rs.F. L. Holmes helped with this and other papers. After some hes1tat1on I have completed the bibliography in the same very inclusive manner in which it had been begun under Nock's direction. Professors J. M. R. Cormack, F. M. Cross, Jr., Charles Edson, R. N. Frye, Saul Lieberman, Marsh McCall and C. B. Welles gave me particular help, as did Mr. G. K. Jenkins and Mr. Aron Zysow, but so many others have added a suggestion here or there that it would be vain to try to name them all. I cannot fail, however, to mention the thoughtful encouragement I have received from four ofNock's closest friends, Professor Georg Luck, Miss G. M.A. Richter, Mr. John Voss, and Dr. F. R. Walton, and I am particularly regretful that Professor Nilsson did not live to see the work completed to which he had given his blessing. These volumes and their editor, lastly, owe much to the careful and considerate patience of the staff of the Clarendon Press.

Lowell House,Harvard January 1970

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Acknowledgement is due to the following for kind permission to reprint papers which appeared originally in publications for which they are responsible: the editor of The AmericanJournal of Archaeologyfor 'Sarcophagi and Symbolism' and 'The Problem of Zoroaster'; the editor of The AmericanJournalof Philologyfor reviews of Johnson, Otto-Bengtson, and Wagenvoort; the American Philosophical Society for 'Religious Attitudes of the Ancient Greeks' (Proceedings);the Director of the Institut de Philologie et d'Histoire orientales et slaves for 'Seviri and Augustales'(Annuaire);B. G. Teubner for 'Eunuchs in Ancient Religion' (Archiv fur Religionswissenscheft);The Brooklyn Museum for 'Later Egyptian Piety' (CopticEgypt); the editors of ConiectaneaNeotestamentica for 'Word-Coinage in the Hermetic Writings'; the editor of Gnomon and C. H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung for reviews of Harder, Dibelius, Goodenough, and Schoeps; the editor of Gnomon and W eidmannsche Verlagsbuchhandlung for reviews ofKerenyi, Deubner,Jonas, Goodenough, and Gundel; the editor of Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studiesfor the review of Downey; Harvard University Press for 'Lvvvo:os 0e6s' and 'A Cult Ordinance in Verse' (Harvard Studies in Classical Philology,© copyright by the President and Fellows of Harvard College),



and for 'A Diis Electa','Cremation and Burial in the Roman Empire', 'A Vision of Mandulis Aion', 'The Gild of Zeus Hypsistos', 'A Feature of Roman Religion', 'Orphism or Popular Philosophy?', 'The Cult of Heroes', 'The Roman Army and the Roman Religious Year', and 'Gnosticism' (The Harvard TheologicalReview, © copyright by the President and Fellows of Harvard College); the Secretary of the Hibbert Trust for 'The Study of the History of Religion' (The HibbertJournal); the editor of the Journal of BiblicalLiteraturefor 'The Vocabulary of the New Testament' and reviews of Parrot and Klauser (editor); the Committee of the Egypt Exploration Society for 'A New Edition of the Hermetic Writings' and 'Greek Magical Papyri' (The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology);the Council of the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies for 'Studies in the Graeco-Roman Beliefs of the Empire', 'Notes on Ruler-Cult I-IV', and the review of Reitzenstein-Schaeder (The Journalof HellenicStudies);the Council of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies for 'The Genius of Mithraism', 'The Emperor's Divine Comes', 'Deification and Julian', 'Posidonius', and the review of BidezCumont (The Journal ofRoman Studies); Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. for 'Early Gentile Christianity and its Hellenistic Background' (A. E. J. Rawlinson, ed., Essayson the Trinity andthe Incarnation);Macmillan & Co. Ltd. for 'Paul and the Magus' (Foakes Jackson and K. Lake, The Beginnings of Christianity);the Director of the Imprimerie Catholique for 'Nymphs and Nereids' (Melangesde l'UniversiteSaintJoseph); the editor of Mnemosyne for 'Hellenistic Mysteries and Christian Sacraments'; Oxford University Press for the selection from 'Magical Texts from a Bilingual Papyrus in the British Museum' by H. I. Bell, A. D. Nock and Herbert Thompson, Proceedingsof the British Academy 17, published by Oxford University Press; the Franz Joseph Dolger-Institut and Aschendor.ffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung for 'Conversion and Adolescence' (Antike und ChristentumErganzungsband I); the Director of the Revue des EtudesAnciennesfor 'Oracles theologiques'; the editorial board of Vigiliae Christianaeand North-Holland Publishing Co. for 'Tertullian and the Ahori'; and the Executors of the Estate of Arthur Darby Nock for all residual rights which lie with them.

CONTENTS Arthur D. Nock 21 February 1902-n January 1963



Introduction r. Eunuchs in Ancient Religion ARW23, 1925 2. The Augustan Restoration CR 39, 1924-25 3. Diatribe Form in the Hermetica




xv I

7 16 26

4. Studies in the Graeco-Roman Beliefs of the Empire JHS 45, 1925 33 5. Early Gentile Christianity and its Hellenistic Background Essays on the Trinity and the Incarnation,ed. Rawlinson, 1928 49 6. Notes on Ruler-Cult I-IV JHS 48, 1928 134 7. Oracles theologiques REA 30, 1928 160 8. Greek Novels and Egyptian Religion Review ofKerenyi, Gnomon4, 1928 169 9. Greek Magical Papyri

]EA 15, 1929 IO.

Iranian Influences in Greek Thought Review of Reitzenstein-Schaeder, JHS 49, 1929

rr. Ivwo:os 0e6s HSCP 41, 1930

176 195 202

12. A Diis Electa:A Chapter in the Religious History of the Third

Century HTR 23, 1930 I

3. The Lizard in Magic and Religion Magical Texts from a BilingualPapyrus,Proc.Brit. Acad. 193 r

14. Cremation and Burial in the Roman Empire HTR 25, 1932

252 271




15. Paul and the Magus

The Beginningsof ChristianityV, ed. Jackson-Lake, 1933


16. The Study of the History of Religion HibbertJournal31, 1933

33 I

17. The Vocabulary of the New Testament ]BL 52, 1933


18. Seviri and Augustales

Ann. de l' Inst. de Philo!.et d'Hist. orient.2 (Mel. Bidez), r934


19. A Vision of Mandulis Aion HTR 27, r934


20. Attic Festivals Review of Deubner, GnomonIO, r934



Magistriand Collegia Review of Johnson, AJP 56, r935


22. The Gild of Zeus Hypsistos HTR 29, r936


23. The Milieu of Gnosticism Review of Jonas, Gnomonr2, r936


24. The Genius of Mithraism ]RS 27, r937


25. The Question of Jewish Mysteries Review of Goodenough, GnomonI3, I937


26. Conversion and Adolescence

Pisciculi. .. Franz Joseph Dolger dargeboten,ed. KlauserRlicker, r939


27. A Feature of Roman Religion HTR 32, r939


28. Astrology and Cultural History Review of Gundel, Gnomon15, r939


29. Orphism or Popular Philosophy?

HTR 33, r940



30. Greeks and Magi Review of Bidez-Cumont, JRS 30, r940




3r. Tomb Violations and Pontifical Law 527 Review of Parrot, JBL60, 1941 32. Religious Attitudes of the Ancient Greeks Proc.Amer. Philos. Soc. 85, 1942 534 33. Ruler-Worship and Syncretism 551 Review of Otto-Bengtson, AJP 63, 1942 34. Philo and Hellenistic Philosophy Review of Colson (ed. and trans.), CR 57, '1943 559 35. Later Egyptian Piety CopticEgypt, Brooklyn Museum, 1944 566 36. The Cult of Heroes HTR 37, 1944 575 37. Mana and Roman Religion Review ofWagenvoort, AJP 65, 1944 603 38. Sarcophagi and Symbolism AJA 50, 1946 606 39. \Vord-Coinage in Greek ConiectaneaNeotestamenticaII, 1947 642 40. The Emperor's Divine Comes JRS 37, 1947 653 41. Christianity and Classical Culture Review of Klauser (ed.),JBL 67, 1948 676 42. The Problem of Zoroaster AJA 53, 1949 682 43. Graeco-Egyptian Religious Propaganda Review of Harder, Gnomon21, 1949 703 44. Tertullian and the Ahori 712 VigiliaeChristianae4, 1950 45. Soter and Euergetes The Joy of Study: Papers. .. F. C. Grant, ed. Johnson, 1951 720 46. The Roman Army and the Roman Religious Year HTR 45, 1952 736 ''--' 47. Hellenistic Mysteries and Christian Sacraments Mnemosyne 5, 1952 791 48. The Book of Acts 821 Review of Dibelius, Gnomon25, 1953



49. Deification and Julian JRS 47, 1957 50. A Cult Ordinance in Verse HSCP 63, 1958 5r. Posidonius JRS 49, 1959 52. Religious Symbols and Symbolism I 53. 54. 55. 56.


Review of Goodenough, Gnomon27, 1955 Religious Symbols and Symbolism II Review of Goodenough, Gnomon29, 1957 Religious Symbols and Symbolism III Review of Goodenough, Gnomon 32, 1960 Nymphs and Nereids Mel. Univ. St. Joseph(Beyrouth)37, 1961 'Son of God' in Pauline and Hellenistic Thought Review of Schoeps, Gnomon 33, 1961 Gnosticism

833 847 853 877 895 908 919 928

HTR 57, 1964 58. Isopoliteiaand the Jews


Review of Downey, Gr. Rom. Byz. Stud. 4, 1964 59. Obiter Dicta

960 963


Bibliography of the published writings of A. D. Nock Index of cross-references Index of books reviewed

966 987 991


Names and Subjects Texts Emended or Interpreted 3. Modern Authors 1.



1025 1028

ABBREVIATIONS Thefollowing arethe mostcompendious abbreviations. Othersshouldbe easily intelligiblewithin the contextof eachpaper. AHR: The AmericanHistoricalReview AJP: The AmericanJournal of Philology Anatolian Studies:Anatolian Studiespresentedto Sir W. M. Ramsay (1923) AR W: Archivfiir Religionswissenschaft BCH: Bulletin de correspondance hellenique BMC: British Museum Coins BSA: British Schoolin Athens CAR: The CambridgeAncient History CIC: Corpusinscriptionumgraecarum CIL: Corpus inscriptionumlatinarum CJ: The ClassicalJournal CP: ClassicalPhilology CQ: The ClassicalQuarterly CR: The ClassicalReview CRAI: Comptesrendusde l'Academiedes inscriptionset belleslettres CSEL: Corpusscriptorumecclesiasticorum latinorum DACL: Dictionnaired'archeologie chretienneet de liturgie Dar.-Sagl.: (Daremberg-Saglio)Dictionnairedes antiquitesgrecquesec romaines F Gr Hist: (Jacoby)Die Fragmentedergriechischen Historiker FHG: (Muller)Fragmentahistoricorum graecorum



FRLANT: Forschungenzur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testament

GCS: Die griechischenchristlichenSchriftstellerder erstendrei Jahrhundert GGA: Gottingische gelehrteAnzeigen HD(S): HarvardDivinity (School) HN 2 : (Head) Historianumorum,ed. 2 HSCP: HarvardStudiesin Class'ical Philology HTR: The Harvard TheologicalReview HU: HarvardUniversity IG: Inscriptiones graecae IGRR: (Cagnat-Lafaye)Inscriptiones graecaead res romanaspertinentes ILS: (Dessau)Inscriptioneslatinaeselectae Jahrb:JahrbuchdesDeutschenArchaologischen Instituts Jahresh.:Jahreshefledes Osterreichischen Archi:iologischen Institutes JBL: TheJournalof BiblicalLiterature ]EA: TheJournalof EgyptianArchaeology ]EH: TheJournalof Ecclesiastical History JHS: TheJournalof HellenicStudies JRS: TheJournalof Roman Studies JTS: TheJournalof TheologicalStudies NS: Notizie degliscavi OGIS: (Dittenberger) Orientisgraeciinscriptiones selectae PG: (Migne) Patrologiae cursuscompletus,Seriesgraeca PGM: (Preisendanz)Papyrigraecaemagicae PL: (Migne) Patrologiaecursuscompletus,Serieslatina PSI: PubblicazionidellaSocietaitalianadi papirologia RAC: Reallexikonfur Antike und Christentum



RE: (Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, etc.) Realencyklopiidie derclassischen Altertumswissenschajt REA: Revue des etudesanciennes REG: Revue des eludesgrecques REL: Revue des etudeslatines RGVV: Religionsgeschichtliche Versucheund Vorarbeiten Roscher:(Roscher) AusfiihrlichesLexikon dergriechischen u. romischenMythologie SB: Sitzungsberichte SEC: Supplementumepigraphicum graecum SGDI: (Collitz-Bechtel) SammlungdergriechischenDialektinschriften SIC: (Dittenberger-v. Gaertringen) Sylloge inscriptionumgraecarum.ed. 3 UPZ: (Wilcken) Urkundender Ptolemaerzeit


INTRODUCTION A. D. Nock's genius for learning showed itself early. In 1929 Rostovtzeff sent to him-he was then only twenty-seven-a copy of The Socialand EconomicHistory of the Roman Empireinscribed 'in remembrance of [the international conference in} Oslo and all I learned from him there'. Two decades later Nilsson called him the world's leading authority on the religion oflater antiquity. His death in 1963, shortly before his sixty-first birthday, interrupted a life of active and productive scholarship. There would be no need of apology for collecting the published papers of a scholar thus recognized by his peers. In Nock's case there are two special reasons for doing so. Much of his most important work appeared in the form of articles and reviews; they best served his peculiar genius for bringing together the relevant evidence relating to any topic of GraecoRoman life. His interests, furthermore, were remarkably wide and changed much in emphasis during his lifetime, with the consequence that his writings are scattered through many different kinds of publications. The present collection not only includes Nock's most important papers and reviews; it also represents fully the range of his interest and the variety of his approach. For with wise generosity the Delegates of the Oxford University Press have permitted it to be more rather than less inclusive in scope. So one will find here a wide choice of the writings upon which his high reputation among experts is based, although in the interest of economy only sections of certain papers have been reprinted and the work of collaborators in at least one article has been (perhaps too rigorously) excluded. There is no necessity to review Nock's life and work here. Admirable accounts of his personality, his attitudes, and his achievements are readily available in the obituaries which followed his death, especially in the Minute by a group of his Harvard colleagues published in the Harvard UniversityGazette (22 Feb. 1964) and reprinted the same year in Harvard Studies in ClassicalPhilologyand The Harvard TheologicalReview, in the obituaries by Nilsson in Gnomon and by Chadwick and Dodds in The Journalof Roman Studiesin 1963, and in Berve's notice in the jahrbuchof the Bavarian Academy (1964).



It will be more relevant rather to say a word about the characteristics ofhis essaysand reviews. Nock's chief contribution to scholarship was his insistence that every issue be examined in the light of all the available information. Some of his papers are valuable chiefly for their collection of evidence, and although they could of course be supplemented now, in many cases the work has never been re-done. He had a genius, furthermore, for seeing the relevance of unnoticed evidence. Unlike most scholars (and most men) he was delighted when someone could prove him wrong; his interest in getting at the ~ruth overrode all considerations of vanity and personal theorizing. He idolized those-like Rostovtzeff, Nilsson, and Miss Richter-who had the knowledge and the frankness to correct or criticize him. There is an interesting exchange of letters with one of his most valued friends, Campbell Bonner, in regard to one of the papers reprinted here, the review of Les Mages hellenisesof Bidez and Cumont. Bonner felt that Nock did not make clear whether his references were meant to supplement the material in the book under review or correct it, and whether or not they provided important new information; in particular he felt that Nock had been too easy on the authors for what he had clearly shown to be their errors. He suggested that a new article on the subject would have been a more appropriate form than a review. Nock's reply is revealing in its frank and accurate assessment of his own attitudes and working habits: I am most grateful for your criticisms of my review. As a matter of fact, it was written as an article and, except where I expressly dissent from BidezCumont on interpretation, the great majority of the references are, I think, my own. I was in a somewhat difficult position. I think that what I wrote should have been printed as an article and I did in fact suggest that to The Journal of Roman Studies,who had asked me to review the book. The trouble was to try to make certain points without producing fifty pages. Also, although you may despise this, my veneration for the authors and my gratitude to them, personally as well as technically, rather got in the way of my saying what I meant: which was, that although their volumes give the most superb collection of material, and material often inaccessible,and very many illuminating interpretations, they do not state the issues involved as clearly as I think they should be stated, and they are too prone to give at least the suggestion of attaching to these reports of Persian material more authority than belongs to them. So rightly or wrongly I understated what I felt. I think the form which you suggest would have been preferable, decidedly so; but then arose the difficulty that J.R.S., while probably well supplied with paper for three years, was rather short of copy. On the whole, it would have been a pity, would it not, to suppress the r~ferences-fTTJVavrnho:KTOV iepWOVVT]V avo:Ao:[3ovcro: µETa 1TCXO"T]S 6o:TTCXVT]S 1TOAVTEAOVS TOVSµEVeeovs E6pTjcrKEVO"EV evcre[3ws.•. .1 From

these words Usener concludes: 'Es hatte also schon im crsten Jahrhundert der Kaiserzeit sogar in dem abgeschlossenen Arkadicn die Zersetzung und Auflosung des alten hellenistischen Kultus begonnen.' 2 For the decay of temples other evidence could be adduced, 3 but the significance of this text is rather that even 'in dem abgeschlossenen Arkadien' a native4 was devoting himself to the restoration of ancient shrines and worship. It may be that Euphrosynos had learned the Augustan policy on his visit to Rome, and imitated it on his return, but there is a more likely interpretation. The Augustan revival is itself the product of an age increasingly favourable to belie£ If scepticism is a prominent feature of intellectual circles in the third century H.C., 5 and credulity a not less prominent J

1 BCH XX 126; a revised text in IG V 2, 268, SIG 783, 11. 34 ff.: cf WilamowitzMoellendorff, Hermes XXXV 536, for its date. For undertaking all priesthoods if. SEG II 447 (second century B.C.: Histria), 451 (first century B.C.: ibid.). 2 Rh. Mus. LV 291 = Kl. Sehr. IV 3 n (1. 22, which he quotes as vmpe[,-!µcx] w0s ,-fjs 'E/\Aa6os 6eovs, is now read vmp~[fl]'ll ,-00s -rfjs 'EAi\a6os opovs). 3 Cf. J. G. Frazer, Pausanias I xiv6; Gruppe, Griech. Myth. 1494 f. Some temples at Mantinea may have been destroyed in the wars which marked its chequered history. Pausan. VIII 9. 6, which Usener quotes, refers to the temple of Aphrodite Symmachia, founded in commemoration of the victory of Actium, and preswnably existing for some time afterwards. 4 L. 25: 6 µeo6ymos. 5 Cf. M. L. Strack, GGA 1900, 642 ff., and in particular Phylareh. fr. 23 Miiller (FHG I p. 339 [ = F Gr Hist 81 F 24]), ap. Athen. XIII 593c 61Kcxlwsol -rroAAol Kcx-ra:cppovovo1-rov 6Elov (but this is in the mouth of one Danae at the point of death, and Phylarchus also wrote a work TTeplTfjs -rov ~10s emq,aveias): contra,J. Beloch, Gr. Gesch. IIl 1 443 ff., also Polyb. IV

CR 39 (1925) 6o-67 [22]




feature in th~ _secondcentury A.D., the first century B.c. may well represent a trans1t1onal phase. Before the imperial policy had come into operation, perhaps before it had taken definite shape, Horace could say to the rich man (Sat II 2. 103): cur eget indignus quisquamte diuite? quare/ templa ruunt antiqua deum? Concrete illustrations are not lacking. In 64/3 or 62/r B.c. a Mantinean woman named Nikippa Pasia 1Tpoevo116ri6e Kcxi o:s 1Tpocre8eiTo6 vcxos o!Ko6oµ{as;6 at Temnus a temple was being repaired in 62 B.c. with public money, 7 and in the same period at Athens an Asclepieum was restored at the priest's expense, 8 at Syme a temple mended thanks to the generosity of an individual who accepted financial responsibility for subscriptions which were paid in a dilatory manner.9 As early as 92 B.c. we find a systematic ordering of the mysteries at Andania.10 This movement of thought found expression in a number of ways. In philosophy there is the mystical development of Stoicism; there is also the emphasis with which Philodemus asserts that Epicurus did not deny the reality of the gods, and criticizes Stoic contradictions of popular tradition.1 1 Again, in art we see the considerable use of cult scenes as decoration; people liked to see the children's procession to Diana and that sort of thing. 12 Tibullus and even Ovid show the same interest in 20 on Arcadian piety, SIC 695. 15 ff. on Magnesian piety, Gruppe, op. cit. 178, 1493 on

the revival of the Amphictyony of Calauria, and in general Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, HellenistischeDichtung I 68 ff. 6 IC V 2, 265: c£ 266 (46/ 5 or 44/3 B.c.). 1 Cic. Pro Fiacco44. • SIC 756. JG XII 3 suppl. 1270. A restoration of the temple of Apollo at Gythium in Laconia, K