Ephesians, Volume 42 (42) (Word Biblical Commentary) 9780310521686, 0310521688

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Ephesians, Volume 42 (42) (Word Biblical Commentary)
 9780310521686, 0310521688

Table of contents :
Cover Page
Title Page
Copyright Page
Editorial Preface
Author’s Preface
Main Bibliography
1. Content/Structure/Genre/Style
2. Relation to Colossians and the Rest of the Pauline Corpus
3. Authorship/Pseudonymity/Canon
4. Setting and Purposes
5. The Thought of Ephesians
Prescript (1:1, 2)
Blessing of God for His Salvation In Christ (1:3–14)
Thanksgiving With Prayer for Believers’ Knowledge of God and Their Awareness of the Church’s Significance (1:15–23)
God’s Gracious Salvation As Resurrection and Exaltation With Christ (2:1–10)
The Gaining of the Gentiles’ Privileges of Participation In God’s New Temple Through Christ’s Reconciliation (2:11–22)
Paul As Minister of the Mystery to the Gentiles (3:1–13)
Further Prayer—For the Completeness of the Readers’ Experience of God—With Doxology (3:14–21)
The Church’s Calling to Maintenance of the Unity It Already Possesses (4:1–16)
Exhortation to Live According to the New Humanity Rather Than the Old (4:17–24)
Practical Injunctions About the Old and New Life (4:25–5:2)
From Darkness to Light (5:3–14)
Wise and Spirit-Filled Living (5:15–20)
Household Relationships—Wives and Husbands (5:21–33)
Household Relationships—Children and Parents (6:1–4)
Household Relationships—Slaves and Masters (6:5–9)
Concluding Appeal to Stand Firm In the Battle Against Spiritual Powers (6:10–20)
Postscript (6:21–24)

Citation preview


Editorial Board Old Testament Editor: Nancy L. deClaissé–Walford (2011 – ) New Testament Editor: Peter H . Davids (2013 – )

Past Editors Ralph P. Martin (2012 – 2013) Bruce M. Metzger (1997 – 2007) John D. W. Watts (1977 – 2011) Ralph P. Martin (1977 – 2012) 1 2 3 4 5 6a

General Editors

Old Testament Editors:

James W. Watts (1997 – 2011)

New Testament Editors:

Lynn Allan Losie (1997 – 2013)


Genesis 1– 1 5 ...............Gordon J. Wenham Genesis 16 – 5 0 .............Gordon J. Wenham Exodus..................................John I . Durham Leviticus............................. John E. Hartley Numbers................................. Philip J. Budd Deuteronomy 1:1 – 21:9, 2nd ed. . . Duane L. Christensen 6b Deuteronomy 21:10 – 34:12.......... Duane L. Christensen 7a Joshua 1–12, 2nd ed...............Trent C. Butler 7b Joshua 13–24, 2nd ed.............Trent C. Butler 8 Judges....................................Trent C. Butler 9 Ruth – Esther.....................Frederic W. Bush 10 1 Samuel, 2nd ed................Ralph W. Klein 11 2 Samuel................................ A. A. Anderson 12 1 Kings, 2nd ed.....................Simon J. Devries 13 2 Kings...........................................T. R. Hobbs 14 1 Chronicles Roddy Braun 15 2 Chronicles Raymond B. Dillard 16 Ezra, Nehem iah.......... H. G. M. Williamson 17 Job 1– 20 David J. A. Clines 18a Job 21 – 37 David J. A. Clines 18b Job 38 – 42 David J. A. Clines 19 Psalms 1 – 50, 2nd ed Peter C. Craigie, Marvin E. Tate 20 Psalms 51 – 100.....................Marvin E. Tate 21 Psalms 101 – 150, rev ed Leslie C Allen 22 Proverbs Roland E. Murphy 23a Ecclesiastes Roland E. Murphy 23b Song of Songs/Lamentations . . . .Duane H. Garrett, Paul R House 24 Isaiah 1– 33, rev ed John D. W. Watts 25 Isaiah 34 – 66, rev ed John D. W. Watts 26 Jeremiah 1 – 25 Peter C. Craigie, Page H. Kelley, Joel F. Drinkard Jr. 27 Jeremiah 26 – 52 ...............Gerald L. Keown, Pamela J. Scalise, Thomas G. Smothers *forthcoming as of 2014 **in revision as of 2014

David A. Hubbard (1977 – 1996) Glenn W. Barker (1977 – 1984)

28 Ezekiel 1 – 19...........................Leslie C. Allen 29 Ezekiel 20 – 48.........................Leslie C. Allen 30 Daniel John E. Goldingay 31 Hosea –Jonah**...................Douglas Stuart 32 Micah – Malachi**.................Ralph L. Smith 33a Matthew 1 – 13.................Donald A. Hagner 33b Matthew 14 – 28...............Donald A. Hagner 34a Mark 1– 8:26** Robert A Guelich 34b Mark 8:27 – 16:20 .................. Craig A. Evans 35a Luke 1 – 9:20...........................John Nolland 35b Luke 9:21 – 18:34.....................John Nolland 35c Luke 18:35 – 24:53...................John Nolland 36 John, 2nd ed. . . . George R. Beasley–Murray 37a Acts 1– 1 4 * ........................Stephen J. Walton 37b Acts 15 – 28* Stephen J. Walton 38a Romans 1– 8 James D. G. Dunn 38b Romans 9 – 16..................James D. G. Dunn 39 1 Corinthians* Andrew D. Clarke 40 2 Corinthians, rev ed Ralph P. Martin 41 Galatians Richard N. Longenecker 42 Ephesians Andrew T. Lincoln 43 Philippians, rev. ed. . . .Gerald F. Hawthorne, rev by Ralph P Martin 44 Colossians, Philemon** . . . Peter T. O’Brien 45 1 & 2 Thessalonians**.................F. F. Bruce 46 Pastoral Epistles William D. Mounce 47a Hebrews 1 – 8.........................William L. Lane 47b Hebrews 9 – 13.......................William L. Lane 48 James Ralph P. Martin 49 1 Peter J. Ramsey Michaels 50 Jude, 2 Peter**.......... Richard J. Bauckham 51 1, 2, 3, John, rev ed Stephen S. Smalley 52a Revelation 1– 5 David E. Aune 52b Revelation 6 – 16......................David E. Aune 52c Revelation 17 – 22 .................. David E. Aune


ANDREW T. LINCOLN General Editors: Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, Glenn W. Barker Old Testament Editors: John D. W. Watts, James W. Watts New Testament Editors: Ralph P. Martin, Lynn Allan Losie


ZONDERVAN Ephesians, Volume 42 Copyright © 1990 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Previously published as Ephesians. Formerly published by Thomas Nelson, now published by Zondervan, a division of HarperCollinsChristian Publishing. Requests for information should be addressed to: Zondervan, 3900 Sparks Dr. SE, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49546 This edition: ISBN 978-0-310-52168-6 The Library of Congress has cataloged the original edition as follows: Library of Congress Control Number: 2005295211 The author’s own translation of the text appears in italic type under the heading “Translation”, as well as in brief Scripture quotations in the body of the commentary, except where otherwise indicated. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other—except for brief quotations in printed reviews, without the prior permission of the publisher.

978031021686_wbc_ephesians_vol42.indd 4

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FOR DAVID AN D PA U L ets ävSpa reXetov (Eph 4:13)


ix x xiii xxix

Editorial Preface Author’s Preface Abbreviations Main Bibliography IN T R O D U C T IO N 1. C on tent/S tructure/G en re/Style 2. Relation to Colossians and the Rest o f the Pauline Corpus 3. A uthorship/P seu donym ity/C anon 4. Setting and Purposes 5. T h e T h o u g h t o f Ephesians

xxxv xxxv xlvii lix lxxiii lxxxvii

CO M M ENTARY Prescript (1:1,2) Blessing o f G od for His Salvation in Christ (1:3– 14) T hanksgiving with Prayer for Believers’ K now ledge o f God and T h eir Awareness o f the C hurch’s Significance (1:15– 23) G od’s Gracious Salvation as Resurrection and Exaltation with Christ (2:1– 10) T h e G aining o f the G entiles’ Privileges o f Participation in G od’s N ew T em p le T h rou gh Christ’s Reconciliation (2:11– 22) Paul as Minister o f the Mystery to the G entiles (3:1– 13) Further Prayer— for the C om pleteness o f the Readers’ Experience o f God— with D oxology (3:14– 21) T h e Church’s Calling to M aintenance o f the U nity It Already Possesses (4:1– 16) Exhortation to Live A ccording to the N ew H um anity Rather than the O ld (4:17– 24) Practical Injunctions A bout the Old and N ew Life (4:25– 5:2) From Darkness to Light (5:3– 14) Wise and Spirit–Filled Living (5:15– 20) H ouseh old Relationships— Wives and H usbands (5:21– 33) H ousehold Relationships— Children and Parents (6:1– 4) H ousehold Relationships— Slaves and Masters (6:5– 9) C oncluding A ppeal to Stand Firm in the Battle against Spiritual Powers (6:10– 20) Postscript (6:21– 24) dexs In

1 1 8 45 83

122 166 196

222 270 292 316 337 350 395 411 429 461 469

Editorial Preface T he launching of the Word Biblical Commentary brings to fulfillment an enter– prise of several years’ planning. The publishers and the members of the edito– rial board met in 1977 to explore the possibility of a new commentary on the books of the Bible that would incorporate several distinctive features. Prospec– tive readers of these volumes are entitled to know what such features were intended to be; whether the aims of the commentary have been fully achieved time alone will tell. First, we have tried to cast a wide net to include as contributors a num ber of scholars from around the world who not only share our aims, but are in the main engaged in the ministry of teaching in university, college, and semi– nary. They represent a rich diversity of denominational allegiance. T he broad stance o f our contributors can rightly be called evangelical, and this term is to be understood in its positive, historic sense of a comm itm ent to Scripture as divine revelation, and to the truth and power of the Christian gospel. T hen, the commentaries in our series are all commissioned and written for the purpose of inclusion in the Word Biblical Commentary. Unlike several o f our distinguished counterparts in the field of commentary writing, there are no translated works, originally written in a non–English language. Also, ou r comm entators were asked to prepare their own rendering of the original biblical text and to use those languages as the basis of their own comments and exegesis. W hat may be claimed as distinctive with this series is that it is based on the biblical languages, yet it seeks to make the technical and scholarly approach to a theological understanding of Scripture understandable by—and useful to—the fledgling student, the working minister, and colleagues in the guild of professional scholars and teachers as well. Finally, a word must be said about the form at of the series. T he layout, in clearly defined sections, has been consciously devised to assist readers at differ– ent levels. Those wishing to learn about the textual witnesses on which the translation is offered are invited to consult the section headed Notes. If the readers’ concern is with the state of m odern scholarship on any given portion o f Scripture, they should turn to the sections on Bibliography and Form/ Structure/Setting. For a clear exposition of the passage’s m eaning and its rele– vance to the ongoing biblical revelation, the Comment and concluding Explana– tion are designed expressly to m eet that need. There is therefore something for everyone who may pick up and use these volumes. If these aims come anywhere near realization, the intention of the editors will have been met, and the labor of our team of contributors rewarded. General Editors:

David A. Hubbard Glenn W. Barker t Old Testam ent: John D. W. Watts New Testam ent: Ralph P. Martin

Author’s Preface T h e letter to th e Ephesians, with its lofty them es an d lofty language, has evoked equally lofty praise. W hile few w ould indulge in the extravagance o f praising it as “th e divinest com position o f m a n ” (cf. S. T . C oleridge, Table Talk, May 25, 1830, in Specimens of the Table Talk of the Late Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. H. N. C oleridge [L ondon, 1835] 88), m any m ore w ould be p re p ared to agree th at it is “th e crow n o f Paulinism ” (cf. C. H. D odd, “E phesians,” The Abingdon Bible Commentary, ed. F. C. Eiselen, E. Lewis, an d D. G. Downey [New York: A bingdon, 1928] 1224 – 25). O thers, how ever, have not fo u n d E p h e‫־‬ sians so congenial. Some, th o u g h sym pathetic to its m essage, struggle with its ap p aren tly tu rg id style a n d abstract tru th s (cf., e.g., W. Sanday a n d A. H eadlam , Romans [E dinburgh: T . & T . Clark, 1895] lv); o thers see its em phasis on the C h u rch as a distortion o f P aul’s th o u g h t which, they believe, m ay well n eed reversing ra th e r th an ratifying (cf., e.g., E. K äsem ann, Perspectives on Paul [ET; L ondon: SCM, 1971] 120– 21), while one scholar, because o f th e difficulties su rro u n d in g th e p u rp o se o f th e letter, depicts it as “the W aterloo o f com m entato rs” (cf. E. J . G oodspeed, The Meaning of Ephesians [Chicago: University o f Chicago Press, 1933] 15). My own theologically orien ted assessm ent o f th e letter’s im pact will be fo u n d in th e final b rief com m ents o f th e Introduction. B ut com m entators’ feelings ab o u t an d assessm ents o f the text on which they have w orked are inevitably colored by th eir own circum stances. I have experienced both th e attractions an d the difficulties o f E phesians, a n d at th e sam e tim e the process o f w riting ab o u t th em has h ad its peaks a n d troughs. T h e com m ission to w rite this comm entary has accom panied m e th ro u g h a transatlantic m ove from an A m erican sem inary to th e quite d ifferent d em ands o f an English theological college, an d th ro u g h a fu rth e r m ove to a B ritish university. It has also accom panied m e th ro u g h an ex ten d ed p erio d o f dom estic traum a. T o take u p th e language o f th e epistle, th e w ork on th e com m entary has h ad its tim es o f being exhilarated by th e expo sure to “th e heavenlies” a n d its tim es o f battling it o u t “in the evil days.” D u ring the latter I have in d eed w o ndered w h eth er I h ad m et my W aterloo! I am grateful, th erefo re, to th e editor, Professor R. P. M artin, fo r his tru st in an d en co u rag em en t o f my contribution to th e series, an d for his patience with my “m ism anagem ent o f career m oves,” each o f which m ean t m issing o u t on ex ten d ed sabbatical leaves w hich could have b een devoted to th e com pletion o f this project. T h e pleasure o f having th e ed ito r as a colleague in Sheffield d u rin g th e last eig h teen m onths has also acted as a sp u r to finishing the writing. E phesians’ style o f w riting can be contagious. I am grateful, th erefo re, also to J . C h risto p h er T hom as, whose read in g o f th e ro u g h d ra ft o f the com m entary has, in particular, sp ared readers from having too m any lengthy sentences inflicted o n them . My com pletion o f th e latter stages o f th e w ork owes m uch to th e friendship an d love o f Carol, to w hom a n d fo r w hom I am thankful. O f th e m any w ritings o n E phesians w hich have co n trib u ted to this com m en-

Author's Preface


tary, I am indebted most to three other commentaries—to the older English commentary by J. A. Robinson for its lucid syntactical and exegetical insights, and to the more recent commentaries by two Germ an Catholic scholars, J. Gnilka and R. Schnackenburg, for their thorough discussions of the concepts of the letter in their first-century setting. As far as my own contribution is concerned, I shall be pleased if, as well as helping the reader to think the writer’s thoughts after him, and thereby to be in a better position to interact with those thoughts, this comm entary is able to dem onstrate the value of keeping an eye on the rhetorical purpose of the flow of thought. I hope, too, that for some readers it will become evident that a decision in favor of a postPauline setting in no way diminishes and may well, in fact, enhance the value of the letter’s message for the Church. In comparison with those in some of the other volumes in this series, the Explanation sections in this commentary are longer. In them I have attem pted to provide the reader with the fruit of the more detailed earlier sections and to pick out the particular theological emphases of each passage. I trust that the ability to read through the Explanations in order to gain relatively quickly an understanding of the thrust o f particular passages and a sense of the overall flow of thought in the letter will compensate for the small degree of repetition that is involved. Sheffield, England. February, 1990.

A n d r e w T. L in c o l n


A. A

General Abbreviations Codex Alexandrinus ad comment on Akkad. Akkadian ‫א‬ Codex Sinaiticus Ap. Lit. Apocalyptic Literature Apoc. Apocrypha Aq. Aquila’s Greek Translation of the OT Arab. Arabic Aram. Aramaic B Codex Vaticanus C Codex Ephraemi Syri c. circa, about cent. century cf. confer, compare chap(s). chapter(s) cod., codd. codex, codices contra in contrast to CUP Cambridge University Press D Codex Bezae DSS Dead Sea Scrolls ed. edited by, editor(s) e.g. exempli gratia, for example et al. et alii, and others ET English translation EV English Versions of the Bible f., ff. following (verse or verses, pages, etc.) fern. feminine frag. fragments FS Festschrift, volume written in honor of ft. foot, feet gen. genitive Gr. Greek hap. leg. hapax legomenon, sole occurrence Heb. Hebrew Hitt. Hittite ibid. ibidem, in the same place id. idem, the same i.e. id est, that is impf. imperfect

infra in loc. Jos. lat loc. cit. LXX M masc. mg. MS(S) MT n. n.d. Nestle no. n.s. NT obs. o.s. OT p., pp. pace

//, par(s). par. passim pi. Pseudep. Q q.v. rev. Rom. RVmg Sam. sc.

Sem. sing. Sumer. s.v. sy Symm.

below in loco, in the place cited

Josephus Latin the place cited Septuagint Mishnah masculine margin manuscript(s) Masoretic text (of the Old Testament) note no date Nestle (ed.), Novum Testamentum Graece26 rev. by K. and B. Aland number new series New Testament obsolete old series Old Testament page, pages with due respect to, but differing from parallel(s) paragraph elsewhere plural Pseudepigrapha Quelle (“Sayings” source for the Gospels) quod vide, which see revised, reviser, revision Roman Revised Version margin Samaritan recension scilicet, that is to say Semitic singular Sumerian sub verbo, under the word Syriac Symmachus

xiv T gTheod. TR tr. UBSGT Ugar. UP u.s.

A b b r e v ia t io n s

Targum Theodotion Textus Receptus translator, translated by The United Bible Societies Greek Text Ugaritic University Press ut supra, as above

v, vv viz. vg v.l.

vol. X

verse, verses videlicet, namely

Vulgate varia lectio, alternative

reading volume times (2x = two times. etc.)

Note: The textual notes änd numbers used to indicate individual manuscripts are those found in the apparatus criticus of Novum Testamentum Graece, ed. E. Nestle and K. Aland et al. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 197926). This edition of the Greek New Testament is the basis for the Translation sections. B. Abbreviations for Translations and Paraphrases American Standard Version, Moffatt ASV American Revised Version NAB (1901) Authorized Version = KJV NEB AV NIV Good News Bible = Today’s GNB English Version Jerusalem Bible NJB JB Jewish Publication Society, JPS Phillips The Holy Scriptures

KJV Knox

J. Moffatt, A New Translation of the Bible (NT 1913) The New American Bible The New English Bible The New International Version (1978) New Jerusalem Bible (1985) J. B. Phillips, The New Testament in Modem English

King James Version (1611) = AV R. A. Knox, The Holy Bible: A


Translation from the Latin Vulgate in the Light of the Hebrew and Greek Original


Revised Standard Version (NT 1946, OT 1952, Apoc. 1957) Revised Version, 1881–85 Today’s English Version

C. Abbreviations of Commonly Used Periodicals, Reference Works, and Serials Acta apostolicae sedis antiken Judentum s und des AARSR American Academy of Urchristentums Religion Studies in Religion AGSU Arbeiten zur Geschichte des AASOR Annual of the American Spätjudentums und Schools of Oriental U rchristentums Research AH F. Rosenthal, An Aramaic AB Anchor Bible Handbook



Australian Biblical Review Abr-Nahrain



Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament



Acta orientalia


Ancient Christian Writers


Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan American Ecclesiastical Review Archiv fü r Orientforschung


Arbeiten zur Geschichte des


American Historical Review W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch Annali dell'istituto orientali di Napoli American Journal of Archaeology American Journal of Arabic Studies Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology

Abbreviations AJBI

Annual of the Japanese Biblical Institute American Journal of Philology American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature American Journal of Theology




Analecta lovaniensia biblica et orientalia Arbeiten zur Literatur und Geschichte des hellenistischen Judentums Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society Analecta biblica Analecta Bollandiana J. B. Pritchard (ed ), Ancient


J. B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient



Near East in Pictures


Near East Supplementary Texts and Pictures J. B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts


The Ante-Nicene Fathers




Analecta orientalia


Andover Newton Quarterly Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, ed.


H. Temporini and W. Haase, Berlin Arbeiten zur Neutestamentlichen Textforschung




Alter Orient und Altes Testament American Oriental Series J. Marouzeau (ed.), L ’annee





Acta sanctae sedis Assemblies du Seigneur Archives des sciences sociales des religions Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute

Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments Das Alte Testament Deutsch Acta Theologica Danica African Theological Journal Anglican Theological Review Andrews University Seminary Studies


Biblical Archaeologist


Biblioteca de autores cristianos W. Bauer, A Greek-English


Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, ET, ed. W. F.


philologique APOT


Arndt and F. W. Gingrich; 2d ed. rev. F. W. Gingrich and F. W. Danker (University of Chicago, 1979) Bibliothèque archéologique et historique Bangalore Theological Forum Biblical Archaeology Review Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists

R. H. Charles (ed.),


Bonner biblische Beiträge

Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament Archiv fü r Reformationsgeschichte


Bulletin of the Council on the Study of Religion


F. Brown, S. R. Driver, and C. A. Briggs, Hebrew and


Archives royales de Mari


Archiv orientální


Acta Reg. Societatis Humaniorum Litterarum Lundensis

English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford:


Clarendon, 1907) F. Blass, A. Debrunner, and R. W. Funk, A Greek


Archiv fü r Religionswissenschaft

Grammar of the New Testament (University of


Acta seminarii neotestamentici upsaliensis

Chicago/University of Cambridge, 1961)

xvi BDR BeO


A b b r e v i a t io n s

F. Blass, A. Debrunner, and F. Rehkopf, Grammatik des



Biblische Studien

neutestamentlichen Griechisch Bibbia e oriente


Biblica Sacra Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies


Bibliotheque de sciences religieuses


The Bible Translator Biblical Theology Bulletin

Beiträge zur biblischen Exegese und Theologie Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium Beiträge zur evangelischen Theologie Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie Beiträge zur Geschichte der biblischen Exegese

Bible Review


Biblische Untersuchungen


Bulletin du Centre Protestant dEtudes (Geneva) Bible et vie chretienne Biblical World


Biblisch-Historisches Handwörterbuch R. Kittel, Biblia hebraica Biblia hebraica stuttgartensia


Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament



Beiträge zur historischen Theologie


Biblische Zeitschrift Beihefte zur ZAW





Biblische Beiträge

BibLeb BibNot

Bibel und Leben Biblische Notizen

BibOr BibS(F)

Biblica et orientalia Biblische Studien (Freiburg, 1895- ) Biblische Studien (Neukirchen, 1951- )




The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Cambridge Ancient History

The Bible Today Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society ( = Yediot) Bulletin de Vinstitut frangais d’archeologie orientale


Commentaire de l’Ancien Testament


Bibliotheque des cahiers de l’Institut de Linguistique de Louvain


Cultura biblica Collationes Brugenses et Gandavenses Catholic Biblical Quarterly


CBQ Monograph Series


Comenius Blätter fü r Volkserziehung


Corpus Catholicorum Corpus Christianorum Cambridge Greek Testament Commentary Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester


Brown Judaic Studies


Bibel und Kirche


Biblischer Kommentar: Altes Testament


Book List Bulletin de litterature ecclesiastique Bibel und Liturgie



Beihefte zur Evangelische Theologie Beihefte zur ZNW Beihefte zur ZRGG


Bible and Literature Series Black’s New Testament Commentaries


Bibliotheca orientalis Biblical Research


Church History Catholic Historical Review Corpus inscriptionum graecarum Corpus inscriptionum iudaicarum Corpus inscriptionum latinarum


Abbreviations CIS CJT ClerRev CLit CM

Corpus inscriptionum semiticarum Canadian Journal of Theology Clergy Review Christianity and Literature Cahiers marials


Commentaire du Nouveau Testament


Communautes et liturgies


Coniectanea biblica


Concilium Coniectanea neotestamentica Church Quarterly Church Quarterly Review Comptes rendus de l'Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres Crozier Quarterly




Corpus scriptorutn Christianorum orientalium Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum A. Herdner, Corpus des tablettes en cuneiformes alphabetiques Calvin Theological Journal Concordia Theological Quarterly Currents in Theology and Mission Communio viatorum Dictionnaire d ’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplement Diakonia

C.–F. Jean a n d j. Hoftijzer, Dictionnaire des inscriptions semitiques de Vouest



Discoveries in the Judean Desert Doctrine and Life


Etudes bibliques


Encyclopedia of Biblical Theology Ecclesiastical Review Euntes Docete (Rome) Estudios Eclesidsticos Eglise et theologie


EH AT EKKNT EKL Emman Encjud EnchBib EpR ER Erjb EstBib ETL ETR


Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion symbolorum Deutsche Theologie Dictionnaire de theologie catholique Dansk teologisk tidsskrift Dunwoodie Review

Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon Emmanuel Encyclopedia judaica (1971) Enchiridion biblicum Epworth Review Ecumenical Review Eranos Jahrbuch Estudios biblicos Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses Etudes theologiques et religieuses

Erfurter Theologische Studien Evangelische Kommentar Evangelical Quarterly Evangelische Theologie Exegetisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament (EWNT),

ed. H. Balz and G. Schneider, 3 vols. (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1980–83) Exp ExpTim

Expositor The Expository Times


Forschung zur Bibel Facet Books, Biblical Series Fathers of the Church


Faith and Mission


Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments Frankfurter Theologische Studien

D. W. Thomas (ed.), Documents from Old Testament Times Downside Review

Exegetisches Handbuch zum Alten Testament Evangelisch-katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament


W. von Soden, Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik


Griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller Gesenius-KautzschBergsträsser, Hebräische



A b b r e v ia t io n s


Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar,

ed. E. Kautzsch, tr. A. E. Cowley Grundrisse zum Neuen Testament Greek Orthodox Theological Review Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies Gregorianum Geformelet Theologisch Tijdschrift Grace Theological Journal Geist und Leben


Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible IDBSup

Supplementary volume to


IDB Israel Exploration Journal Irish Ecclesiastical Record H. Dessau (ed.), Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (Berlin,

1892) Int ISBE

Interpretation International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. G. W.


Irish Theological Quarterly Indian Theological Studies


Journal asiatique Journal of the American Academy of Religion

Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum


W. Baumgartner et al., Hebräisches und aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament


Handbuch zum Alten Testament


Homiletica en Biblica Horizons in Biblical Theology


Harvard Dissertations in Religion


HeyJ HibJ

Heythrop Journal Hibbert Journal



Handkommentar zum Alten Testament Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament


Das heilige Land


Handbuch zum Neuen Testament Harper’s NT Commentaries


History of Religions


Harvard Semitic Monographs Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament


Journal of the American Medical Association JANESCU Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University Journal of the American JAOS Oriental Society Journal of Asian Studies JA S R. E. Brown et al. (eds.), JBC The Jerome Biblical Commentary JBL Journal of Biblical Literature Journal of Bible and Religion JB R Journal of Cuneiform Studies JCS


Judean Desert Studies


Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Journal of Ecclesiastical History Journal of Ecumenical Studies Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society Journal of Hellenic Studies Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies Journal of Indian Philosophy Journal of Jewish Studies Journal of Middle Eastern Studies


Harvard Theological Review


Harvard Theological Studies



Hebrew Union College Annual


Hermeneutische Untersuchungen zur Theologie



Interpreter’s Bible Illustrated Bible Dictionary,

ed. J. D. Douglas and N. Hillyer IBS

Irish Biblical Studies

International Critical Commentary G. A. Buttrick (ed.),


Abbreviations JM S JNES JPOS JQR

Journal of Mithraic Studies Journal of Near Eastern Studies Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society Jewish Quarterly Review



Jewish Quarterly Review Monograph Series



Journal of Religion Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Journal of Religious Ethics Journal of Religious Studies Journal of Religious History Journal of Roman History Journal of Religious Thought Journal for the Study of Judaism Journal for the Study of the New Testament Journal for the Study of the



Old Testament tsO ILL f f Vis 9 L I JSOT Supplement Series




Journal of Semitic Studies Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Journal for Theology and the Church Journal of Theological Studies Journal of Theology for South Africa Judaica


H. Donner and W. Röllig,


Liturgisches Jahrbuch E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae Veteris Testamenti Louvain Studies G. W. H. Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon Lutheran Quarterly Lutherische Rundschau Liddell-Scott-Jones, GreekEnglish Lexicon Lexikon fü r Theologie und Kirche Lutheran Theological Seminary Bulletin


Lunds universitets ärsskrift

LumVie LVit LW

Lumiere et Vie Lumen Vitae Lutheran World


Modern Churchman McCormick Quarterly


Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft


Melita Theologica


H. A. W. Meyer, Kritischexegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament


J. H. Moulton and G. Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament (London: Hodder, 1930) Moffatt NT Commentary






M émoires présentés à l’Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres Patrologia Graeca, ed. J. P.


Melanges de science religieuse

L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in


Marburger theologische Studien

Veteris Testamenti libros Kerygma und Dogma



Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament Kleine Texte

Münchener theologische Zeitschrift Melanges de l’universite SaintJoseph


King's Theological Review




Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften E. Sellin (ed.), Kommentar zum Alten Testament

(London) LCC LCL LD

Library of Christian Classics Loeb Classical Library Lectio divina

Les LingBib

Lešonénu Linguistica Biblica


Migne, 1844ff.


Mitteilungen der vorderasiatisch-ägyptischen Gesellschaft


Nachrichten von der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen New Blackfriars



New Century Bible (new ed.)


A b b r e v ia t io n s

R. C. Fuller et al. (eds.),


New Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture


M. R. P. McGuire et al. (eds.), New Catholic Encyclopedia


New Clarendon Bible


Nederlands theologisch tijdschrift Neotestamentica Near East School of Theology Review New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, A Review of Greek Inscriptions, etc., ed.

Neot NESTR NewDocs


G. H. R. Horsley, North Ryde, NSW, Australia New Frontiers in Theology New Gospel Studies Nag Hammadi Studies New International Commentary on the New Testament C. Brown, ed., The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, 3

vols. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975–78)

Numen: International Review for the History of Religions Neue Zeitschrift fü r Missionswissenschaft


Orbis biblicus et orientalis Österreichische Biblische Studien


Oxford Classical Dictionary

W. Dittenberger (ed.), Orientis graeci inscriptiones selectae (Leipzig: Hirzel,


)1903-5 Oriental Institute Publications Orientalia lovaniensia periodica

OLZ Or OrAnt OrChr OrSyr

Orientalische Literaturzeitung Orientalia (Rome) Oriens antiquus Oriens christianus L ’orient Syrien


Ökumenischer Taschenbuch-Kommentar zum NT Oxford Theological Monographs Oudtestamentische Studiën



Niew theologisch tijdschrift


New International Greek Testament Commentary


Neue Jahrbücher fü r deutsche Theologie Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift Norsk Teologisk Tijdsskrift Novum Testamentum Supplement to NovT


Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers



La nouvelle revue theologique New Testament Abstracts


Fayûm Papyri


Patrologia graeca, ed. J. P.



Migne K. Preisendanz (ed.), Papyri

PhEW PhRev pj

graecae magicae Philosophy East and West Philosophical Review Palästina-Jahrbuch




N eutestamentliche Abhandlungen Das Neue Testament Deutsch N eutestamentliche Forschungen New Testament Library


New Testament Studies


The New Testament for Spiritual Reading New Testament Tools and Studies




Proceedings of the American Academy of Jewish Research


Proclamation Commentaries M. Black and H. H. Rowley (eds.), Peake's Commentary on



the Bible Palestine Exploration Fund , Quarterly Statement Palestine Exploration Quarterly

Pelican New Testament Commentaries Patrologia orientalis Oxyrhynchus Papyri Proceedings of the Irish Biblical Association

Abbreviations PRS PRU PSTJ

Perspectives in Religious Studies Le Palais royal d’Ugarit Perkins (School of Theology) Journal



Revue d ’histoire et de Philosophie religieuses Revue de Vhistoire des religions Rivista biblica Rheinisches Museum fü r Philologie


Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series


Princeton Theological Review


Regensburger Neues Testament


Pseudepigrapha Veteris Testamenti graece Pauly-Wissowa, Real-


Encyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft


Review of Religion Rivista di Storiae Letteratura Religiosa (Turin) Rivista degli studi orientali Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques Recherches de science religieuse Revue théologique de Louvain Revue de théologie et de Philosophie


Supplement to PW


Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine


RArch RB

Revue d’assyriologie et d’archeologie orientale Reallexikon fü r Antike und Christentum Revue archéologique Revue biblique


Revue Bénedictine


Revista de cultura biblica Realencyklopädie fü r protestantische Theologie und Kirche Revue des Études Augustiniennes




Recherches bibliques


Revue d’égyptologie Revue des études juives


Religion and the Arts

RelS RelSoc RelSRev RES

Religious Studies Religion and Society Religious Studies Review Repertoire d’épigraphie semitique Restoration Quarterly Review and Expositor Revista biblica Revue de Qumrän Review for Religious Revue des sciences religieuses Revue sémitique Revue thomiste Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique

RestQ RevExp RevistB RevQ RevRel RevScRel RevSém RevThom RGG RHE



Reformed Theological Review


La Revue de l'Université Laval Revue de Vuniversité Ottawa

RUO SacPag




Sacra Pagina Sitzungberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften (phil.-hist. Klasse) Salmanticensis

Studien zum Alten und Neuen Testament Sammlung ausgewählter kirchen- und dogmengeschichtlicher Quellenschriften


Sitzungsberichte der (königlich preussischen) Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (phil.-hist. Klasse)


Sources bibliques Stuttgarter biblische Monographien


Studii biblici franciscani liber annuus La sainte bible de J érusalem



Society of Biblical Literature Abstracts and Seminar Papers SBL Dissertation Series SBL Masoretic Studies SBL Monograph Series

A b b r e v ia t io n s


SBL Sources for Biblical Study SBL Septuagint and Cognate Studies SBL Texts and Translations Stuttgarter biblische Monographien Stuttgarter Bibelstudien Studies in Biblical Theology Source chretiennes Sciences ecclesiastiques Science et esprit Studies in Comparative Religion


preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Studia postbiblica Studies in Religion / Sciences Religieuses


Semitic Study Series


Studia theologica Svensk teologisk ärsskrift Studia biblica et theologica


Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah


Svensk teologisk kvartalskrift


H. Strack and P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament, 4 vols. (Munich:

Beck’sche, 1926–28)




Scripture Bulletin


Studia biblica


Studies and Documents


Studia Evangelica

StudNeot SUNT

Studia neotestamentica Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments Studia in Veteris Testamenti pseudepigrapha

1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6 (= TU 73 [1959], 87 [1964], 88 [1964], 102 [1968], 103 [1968], 112 [1973] SEÄ Sef SeinSend Sem SemiotBib



Svensk exegetisk årsbok Sefarad Sein Sendung Semitica Semiotique et Bible

Sitzungsberichte heidelbergen Akademie der Wissenschaften Studies in Historical Theology Skrifter Utgivna Av Kungl. Humanistika Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity


Scottish Journal of Theology Studi e materiali di storia delle religioni


Studien zum Neuen Testament Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series


Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt


Symbolae osloenses Society for Old Testament Study Monograph Series


Studia papyrologica


Sitzungsberichte der


Southwestern Journal of Theology


Symbolae biblicae upsalienses


Tantur Yearbook Transactions of the American Philological Association Theologische Beiträge


Torch Bible Commentaries


Theologische Blätter The Bible Today


Theologische Bücherei Theological Collection (SPCK)


Theology Digest


G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds., Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 10 vols., ET (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964– 76) Texts and Studies

TF TGl Th ThA ThBer

Theologische Forschung Theologie und Glaube Theology Theologische Arbeiten Theologische Berichte


Theologischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament


Abbreviations ThViat


Theologia Viatorum Trinity Journal Toronto Journal of Theology Theologische Literaturzeitung


Tyndale New Testament Commentaries


Theologie und Philosophie (ThPh) Theologisch-Praktische Quartalschrift Theologische Quartalschrift Theologische Revue Theologische Rundschau Theological Studies



Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum


TT TTKi TToday

Theological Students Fellowship Bulletin Theologische Studien und Kritiken Teologisk Tidsskrift Tidsskrift for Teologi og Kirke Theology Today


Trier theologische Studien


Trierer theologische Zeitschrift


Texte und Untersuchungen G. 1. Botterweck and H. Ringgren (eds.),



Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament TW N T


G. Kittel and G. Friedrich (eds.), Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament Tyndale Bulletin Theologische Zeitschrift


Vigiliae christianae Verbum caro Verbum domini Vetera Christianorum Verkündigung und Forschung K. Aland (ed.), Vollständige Konkordanz zum griechischen Neuen Testament Vox Evangelien (London)


Verbum salutis

VSpir VT

Vie spirituelle Vetus Testamentum


Vetus Testamentum, Supplements


M. Luther, Kritische Gesamtausgabe (= “Weimar” edition) Word Biblical Commentary Westminster Commentary


Wort und Dienst Westminster Dictionary of the Bible


Wege der Forschung


Westminster Historical Atlas of the Bible


Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament


Die Welt des Orients Westminster Theological Journal


Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament


Word and World Wiener Zeitschrift fü r die Kunde des Morgenlandes Wiener Zeitschrift fü r die Kunde Süd- und Ostasiens



United Bible Societies Greek New Testament Universitas Catholica Lovaniensis


Ugaritische Forschungen


University of Florida Humanities Monograph Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament



Una Sancta Union Seminary Quarterly Review C. H. Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook

Uppsala universitetsärsskrift



Zeitschrift fü r Assyriologie Zeitschrift fü r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina- Vereins Zeitschrift fü r evangelische Ethik Zeitschrift fü r historische Theologie


A b b r e v ia t io n s

Zeitschrift fü r Kirchengeschichte Zahnfs Kommentar zum N T Zeitschrift fü r katholische Theologie Zeitschrift fü r Missionskunde und Religionswissenschaft Zeitschrift fü r die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft


Zeitschrift fü r Religions- und Geistesgeschichte Zeitschrift fü r systematische Theologie Zeitschrift fü r Theologie und Kirche Zeitschrift fü r wissenschaftliche Theologie

D. Abbreviations for Books of the Bible, the Apocrypha, and the Pseudepigrapha OLD TESTAMENT NEW TESTAMENT Matt 1 Tim Gen 2 Chr Dan Mark 2 Tim Hos Exod Ezra Luke Titus Neh Joel Lev John Philem Num Arnos Esth Acts Obad Heb Deut Job Rom Ps(Pss) Jonah Jas Josh Mic 1 Pet Judg Prov 1 Cor Nah Ruth Eccl 2 Cor 2 Pet Hab 1 John Gal 1 Sam Cant Eph 2 John Zeph Isa 2 Sam Jer Phil 3 John Hag l Kgs Col Zech Lam Jude 2 Kgs Rev 1 Thess 1 Chr Ezek Mal 2 Thess APOCRYPHA Baruch Bar 1 Kgdms 1 Kingdoms Epistle of Jeremy 2 Kgdms 2 Kingdoms Ep Jer S T h Ch Song of the Three Children 3 Kgdms 3 Kingdoms (or Young Men) 4 Kgdms 4 Kingdoms Susanna Sus 1 Esd 1 Esdras Bel Bel and the Dragon 2 Esd 2 Esdras Pr Man Prayer of Manasseh Tob Tobit 1 Macc 1 Maccabees Judith Jdt 2 Maccabees Add Esth Additions to Esther 2 Macc 4 Ezra 3 Macc 3 Maccabees 4 Ezra Wisdom of Solomon 4 Macc Wis 4 Maccabees Sir Ecclesiasticus (Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach) E. Abbreviations of the Names of Pseudepigraphical and Early Patristic Books Adam and Eve Life of Adam and Eve Apocalypse of Abraham Apoc. Abr.

(1st to 2nd cent, a .d .) 2–3 Apoc. Bar. Syriac, Greek Apocalypse of Baruch Asc. Isa. Ascension of Isaiah Apoc. Mos. Apocalypse of Moses As. Mos. (See T. Mos.) Apoc. Elijah Apocalypse of Elijah 1–2–3 Enoch Ethiopic, Slavonic, Hebrew Enoch

Ep. Arist. Ep. Diognetus Jub. Mart. Isa. Odes Sol. Pss. Sol. Sib. Or. T. 12 Patr. T. Abr. T. Judah

Epistle of Aristeas Epistle to Diognetus Jubilees Martyrdom of Isaiah Odes of Solomon Psalms of Solomon Sibylline Oracles Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Testament of Abraham Testament of Judah

Abbreviations T. Levi

Testament of Levi, etc.


Apoc. Pet. Gos. Eb. Gos. Eg. Gos. Heb. Gos. Naass. Gos. Pet. Gos. Thom. Prot. Jas. Bam. 1–2 Clem. Did. Diogn. Herrn. Man. Sim. Vis. Ign. Eph.

Apocalypse of Peter Gospel of the Ebionites Gospel of the Egyptians Gospel of the Hebrews Gospel of the Naassenes Gospel of Peter Gospel of Thomas Protevangelium ofJames Barnabas 1–2 Clement Didache Diognetus Hermas, Mandates Similitudes Visions Ignatius, Letter to the Ephesians

Phil. Pol. Rom. Smym. Trail. Mart. Pol. Pol. Phil.

Iren. Adv. Haer.

Tert. De Praesc. Haer.


Ignatius, Letter to the Magnesians Ignatius, Letter to the Philadelphians Ignatius, Letter to Polycarp Ignatius, Letter to the Romans * Ignatius, Letter to the Smymaeans Ignatius, Letter to the Trallians Martyrdom of Polycarp Polycarp, Letter to the Philippians Irenaeus, Against All Heresies Tertullian, On the Proscribing of Heretics

F. Abbreviations of Names of Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Texts Milhāmāh (War Scroll) Cairo (Genizah text of CD 1QM IQS Serek hayyahad (Rule of the the) Damascus Community, Manual of (Document) Discipline) Hev Nahal Hever texts Appendix A (Rule of the lQSa Masada texts Mas Congregation) to IQS Khirbet Mird texts Mird Wadi Murabbacat texts lQSb Appendix B (Blessings) to Mur Pesher (commentary) IQS P Copper Scroll from Qumran 3Q 15 Q Qumran Cave 3 IQ, 2Q, Florilegium (or Numbered caves of 4QFlor 3 Q etc. Eschatological Midrashim) Qumran, yielding from Qumran Cave 4 written material; Aramaic “Messianic” text followed by abbreviation 4QMess ar from Qumran Cave 4 of biblical or apocryphal Prayer of Nabonidus 4QPrNab book from Qumran Cave 4 Qumran literature QL Testimonia text from Genesis Apocryphon of 4QTestim lQapGen Qumran Cave 4 Qumran Cave 1 4QTLevi Testament of Levi from Hödäyöt (Thanksgiving 1QH Qumran Cave 4 Hymns) from Qumran Phylacteries from 4QPhyl Cave 1 Qumran Cave 4 First or second copy of lQIsaa,b Melchizedek text from llQM elch Isaiah from Qumran Qumran Cave 11 Cave 1 Targum of Job from 1lQ tgjob Pesher on Habakkuk from lQpHab Qumran Cave 11 Qumran Cave 1 G. Abbreviations of Targumic Material Tg. Onq. Tg. Neb.

Targum Onqelos Targum of the Prophets

Tg. Ket. Frg. Tg.

Targum of the Writings Fragmentary Targum

xxvi Sam. Tg. Tg. Isa. Pal. Tgs. Tg. Neof. Tg. Ps.-J. Tg. Yer. I

A b b r e v i a t io n s

Samaritan Targum Targum of Isaiah Palestinian Targums Targum Neofiti I Targum Pseudo-Jonathan Targum Yerusalmi I *

Tg. Yer. II Yem. Tg. Tg. Esth I, II

Targum Yerusalmi II * Yemenite Targum First or Second Targum of Esther

*optional title

H. Abbreviations of Other Rabbinic Works ‫כ‬Abot R. Nat. >Ag. Ber. Bab. Bar. Der. Er. Rab. Der. Er. Zut. Gem. Kalla Mek. Midr.

5Abot de Rabbi Nathan ‫נ‬Aggadat Beresit Babylonian Baraita Derek Eres Rabba Derek Eres Zuta Gemara Kalla Mekilta Midras; cited with usual

abbreviation for biblical book; but Midr. Qoh. = Pal. Pesiq. R.

Midras Qohelet Palestinian Pesiqta Rabbati

Pesiq. Rab Kah. Pesiqta de Rab Kahana Pirqe R. El. Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer Rab. Rabbah (following

abbreviation for biblical book: Gen. Rab. [with periods] = Genesis Sem. Sipra Sipre Sop. S. cOlam Rab. Talm. Yal.

Rabbah) Semahot Sipra Sipre Soperim Seder cOlam Rabbah Talmud Yalqut

I. Abbreviations of Orders and Tractates in Mishnaic and Related Literature ‫י‬Abot cArak. cAbod. Zar. B. Bat. Bek. Ber. Besä Bik. B. Mes. B. Qam. Dem. cEd. cErub. Git. Hag. Hai. Hör. Hui. Kelim Ker. Ketub. KU. Macas. Mak. Maks. Meg. MeHl. Menah.

5Abot cArakin cAboda Zara Baba Batra Bekorot Berakot Besä (= Yom Tob) Bikkurim Baba Mesica Baba Qamma Demai cEduyyot cErubin Gittin Hagiga Halla Horayot Hullin Kelim Keritot Ketubot Kibayim M acaserot Makkot Maksirin (= Masqin) Megilla MeHla Menahot

Mid. Miqw. Moced Moced Qat. M acas. S. Nasim Nazir Ned. Neg. Nez. Nid. Ohol. c0r. Para Pe'a Pesah. Qinnim Qidd. Qod. Ros. Has. Sank. Sabb. Seb. Sebu. Seqal. Sota Sukk. Tacan.

Middot Miqwa'ot Moced Moced Qatan M acaser Seni Nasim Nazir Nedarim NegaHm Neziqin Niddah Oholot cOrla Para Pe*a Pesahim Qinnim Qiddusin Qodasin Ros Hassana Sanhedrin Sabbat SebiHt Sebucot Seqalim Sota Sukka Tacanit


Abbreviations Tamid Tem. Ter. Tohar. T. Yom cUq.

Tamid Temura Terumot Toharot Tebul Yom cUqsin

Yad. Yebam. Yoma Zabim Zebah Zer.

Yadayim Yebamot Yoma (= Kippurim) Zabim Zebahim Zeracim

I. Abbreviations of Nag Hammadi Tractates Acts Pet. 12 Apost.

Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles Allogenes Allogenes Ap. Jas. Apocryphon of James Ap. John Apocryphon of John Apoc. Adam Apocalypse of Adam 1 Apoc. Jas. First Apocalypse of James 2 Apoc. Jas. Second Apocalypse of James Apoc. Paul Apocalypse of Paul Apocalypse of Peter Apoc. Pet. Asclepius 2 1–29 Asclepius Auth. Teach. Authoritative Teaching Dial. Sav. Dialogue of the Savior Discourse on the Eighth and Disc. 8– 9 Ninth Ep. Pet. Phil. Letter of Peter to Philip Eugnostos Eugnostos the Blessed Exegesis on the Soul Exeg. Soul Gospel of the Egyptians Gos. Eg. Gospel of Philip Gos. Phil. Gospel of Thomas Gos. Thom. Gospel of Truth Gos. Truth Concept of our Great Power Great Pow. Hyp. Arch. Hypostasis of the Archons Hypsiph. Hypsiphrone Interp. Know. Interpretation of Knowledge Marsanes Marsanes

Melch. Norea On Bap. A On Bap. B On Bap. C On Euch. A On Euch. B Orig. World Paraph. Shem Pr. Paul Pr. Thanks Prot. Jas. Sent. Sextus Soph. Jes. Chr. Steles Seth Teach. Silv. Testim. Truth Thom. Cont. Thund. Treat. Res. Treat. Seth Tri. Trac. Trim. Prot. Val. Exp. Zost.

Melchizedek Thought of Norea On Baptism A On Baptism B On Baptism C On the Eucharist A On the Eucharist B On the Origin of the World Paraphrase of Shem Prayer of the Apostle Paul Prayer of Thanksgiving Protevangelium of James Sentences of Sextus Sophia of Jesus Christ Three Steles of Seth Teachings of Silvanus Testimony of Truth Book of Thomas the Contender Thunder, Perfect Mind Treatise on Resurrection Second Treatise of the Great Seth Triparite Tractate Trimorphic Protennoia A Valentinian Exposition Zostrianos

Main Bibliography Commentaries Abbott, T. K. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles to the Ephesians and to the Colossians. Edinburgh: T. 8c T. Clark, 1897. Allan, J. A. The Epistle to the Ephesians. London: SCM, 1959. Barth, M. Ephesians. 2 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1974. Beare, F. W. “Ephesians.” In The Interpreter's Bible, Vol. 10. Nashville: Abingdon, 1953, 597– 749. Beet, J. A. A Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistles to the Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians. 3rd ed. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1902. Bengel, J. A. “Ephesians.” In Bengel’s New Testament Commentaries. Vol. 2. Tr. C. T. Lewis and M. R. Vincent. Reprint Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1981. Benoit, P. Les Epitres de Saint Paul aux Philippiens, ä Philemon, aux Colossiens, aux Ephesiens. Paris: du Cerf, 1959. Bruce, F. F. The Epistle to the Ephesians. London: Pickering and Inglis, 1961.———. The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. Caird, G. B. Paul’s Letters from Prison. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. Calvin J. Commentaries on the Epistles of Paul to the Galatians and Ephesians. Tr. W. Pringle. Edinburgh: T. 8c T. Clark, 1854. Chadwick, H. “Ephesians.” In Peake’s Commentary on the Bible, ed. M. Black and H. H. Rowley. London: Nelson, 1962, 980–84. Chrysostom, J. Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, and Homilies on the Epistle to the Ephesians. Oxford: J. H. Parker, 1845. Conzelmann, H. “Der Brief an die Epheser.” In Die Briefe an die Galater, Epheser, Philipper, Kolosser, Thessalonicher und Philemon, ed. J. Becker, H. Conzelmann, and G. Friedrich. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck 8c Ruprecht, 1976, 86– 124. Dahl, N. A. “Ephesians.” Harper’s Bible Commentary, ed. J. L. Mays. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1988, 1212– 19. ———. et al. Kurze Auslegung des Epheserbriefes. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck 8c Ruprecht, 1965. Dale, R. W. The Epistle to the Ephesians. London: Hodder 8c Stoughton, 1901. Dibelius, M., and Greeven, H. An die Kolosser, Epheser, an Philemon. Tübingen: Mohr, 1953. Eadie, J. A. A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: T. 8c T. Clark, 1883. Ernst, J. Die Briefe an die Philipper, an Philemon, an die Kolosser, an die Epheser. Regensburg: F. Pustet, 1974. Ewald, P. Die Briefe des Paulus an die Epheser, Kolosser und Philemon. 2nd ed. Leipzig: Deichert, 1910. Foulkes, F. The Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians. London: Tyndale Press, 1963. Gaugier, E. Der Epheserbrief. Zürich: EVZ, 1966. Gnilka, J. Der Epheserbrief. Freiburg: Herder, 1971. ———. DerKolosserbrief. Freiburg: Herder, 1980. Haupt,E.DieGefangenschaftsbriefe. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck 8c Ruprecht, 1902. Hendriksen, W. Ephesians. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1967. Henle, F. A. Der Epheserbrief des heiligen Apostels Paulus. Augsburg, 1908. Hodge, C. Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians. London: James Nisbet, 1876. Houlden, J. L. Paul’s Letters from Prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970. Hugede, N. L ’Epitre aux Ephesiens. Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1973. Johnston, G. Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon. London: Nelson, 1967. Lightfoot, J. B. St. Paul’s Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon. London: Macmillan, 1879. Lindemann, A. Der Epheserbrief. Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 1985. Lock, W. The Epistle to the Ephesians. London: Methuen, 1929. Lohse, E. Colossians and Philemon. Tr. W. R. Poehlmann and R. J. Karris. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971. Martin, R. P. Colossians and Philemon. London: Oliphants, 1974. ———. “Ephesians.” In Broadman Bible Commentary. Vol. 11. Nashville: Broadman, 1971, 125–77. Masson, C. L ’Epitre de Paul aux Ephesiens. Neuchätel: Delachaux et Niestle, 1953. Meinertz, M., and Tillmann, F. Die Gefangenschaftsbriefe. Bonn: Hanstein, 1931. Meyer, H. A. W. Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Epistle to the Ephesians and the Epistle to Philemon. Tr. W. P. Dickson. Edinburgh: T. 8c T. Clark, 1880. Mitton, C. L. Ephesians. London: Oliphants, 1976. Moule, C. F. D. The Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Colossians and to Philemon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968. Moulton,


M a i n B ib l io g r a p h y

H. K. Colossians, Philemon and Ephesians. London: Epworth, 1963. Mussner, F. Der Brief an die Epheser. Gütersloh: Gerd Mohn, 1982. O’Brien, P. T. Colossians, Philemon. WBC 44. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1982. Olshausen, H. Biblical Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, and Thessalonians. Edinburgh: T. 8c T. Clark, 1851. Patzia, A. G. Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians. New York: Harper and Row, 1984. Pfammatter, J. Epheserbrief, Kolosserbrief. Würzburg: Echter Verlag, 1987. Robinson, J. A. St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians. 2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1904. Roon, A. van. De Brief van Paulus aan de Epheziers. Nijkerk: Callenbach, 1976. Salmond, S. D. F. “The Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians.” In Expositor's Greek Testament. Vol. 3. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1903. Schlatter, A. Die Briefe an die Galater, Epheser, Kolosser und Philemon. Stuttgart: Calver, 1963. Schlier, H. Der Brief an die Epheser. Dusseldorf: Patmos, 1957. Schnackenburg, R. Der Brief an die Epheser. Zürich: Benzinger, 1982. Schweizer, E. The Letter to the Colossians. Tr. A. Chester. London: S.P.C.K., 1982. Scott, E. F. The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1930. Simpson, E. K., and Bruce, F. F. The Epistles of Paul to the Ephesians and to the Colossians. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957. Soden, H. von. Die Briefe an die Kolosser, Epheser, Philemon; die Pastoralbriefe. Freiburg: Mohr, 1893. Staab, K. Die Gefangenschaftsbriefe. Regensburg: Pustet, 1959. Swain, L. Ephesians. Wilmington, DE: M. Glazier, 1980. Synge, F. C. St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians. London: S.P.C.K., 1941. Taylor, W. F., and Reumann, J. H. P. Ephesians, Colossians. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1975. Thompson, G. H. P. The Letters of Paul to the Ephesians, to the Colossians, and to Philemon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967. Westcott, B. F. St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians. London: Macmillan, 1906. Wette, W. M. L. de. Kurze Erklärung der Briefe an die Colosser, an Philemon, an die Epheser und an die Philipper. Leipzig: Weidmann, 1843. Zerwick, M. Der Brief an die Epheser. Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1962.

Monographs and Articles Adai, J. Der Heilige Geist als Gegenwart Gottes in den einzelnen Christen, in der Kirche und in der Welt. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1985. Albani, J. “Die Metaphern des Epheserbriefes.” ZW T 45 (1902) 420–40. Alexander, N. “The Epistle for Today.” FS W. Barclay, Biblical Studies, ed. J. R. McKay and J. F. Miller. London: Collins, 1976, 99– 118. Allan, J. A. “The ‘In Christ’ Formula in Ephesians.” N TS 5 (1958–59) 54–62. Arnold, C. E. Ephesians: Power and Magic. Cambridge: CUP, 1989. Baker, N. L. “Living the Dream: Ethics in Ephesians.” SW JT 22 (1979) 39–55. Barth, M. The Broken Wall. London: Collins, 1960. ———. “Conversion and Conversation: Israel and the Church in Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians.” Int 17 (1963) 3–2 4 .———. “Die Einheit des Galater- und Epheserbriefs.” TZ 32 (1976) 78–91. ———. Israel und die Kirche im Brief des Paulus an die Epheser. Munich: Kaiser, 1959.———. “Traditions in Ephesians.” N TS 30 (1984) 3– 25. Benoit, P. “Body, Head, and Pleroma in the Epistles of the Captivity.” In Jesus and the Gospel. Vol. 2. Tr. B. Weatherhead. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1974, 5 1–92. ———. “L’Horizon paulinien de l’Épître aux Éphésiens.” RB 46 (1937) 342–61, 506– 25. ———. “Rapports litteraires entre les epitres aux Colossiens et aux Éphésiens.” In Neutestamentliche Aufsätze. FSJ. Schmid, ed. J. Blinzler, O. Kuss, and F. Mussner. Regensburg: Pustet, 1963, 11–22. Best, E. One Body in Christ. London: S.P.C.K., 1955.———. “Recipients and Title of the Letter to the Ephesians: Why and When the Designation ‘Ephesians’?” AN RW 2.25.4 (1987) 3247–79. Bieder, W. “Das Geheimnis des Christus nach dem Epheserbrief.” TZ 11 (1955) 329–43. Bogdasovich, M. “The Idea of Pleroma in the Epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians.” Downside Review 83 (1965) 118– 30. Borland, A. “God’s Eternal Purpose.” EvQ 34 (1962) 29–35. Bouttier, M. “L’horizon catholique de l’épître aux Éphésiens.” In L'É vangile, hier et aujourd'hui. FS F. J. Leenhardt. Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1968, 25– 37. Bowman, J. W. “The Epistle to the Ephesians.”

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Int 8 (1954) 188–205. Bratcher, R. G., and Nida, E. A. A Translator’s Handbook on Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians. London: United Bible Societies, 1982. Bruce, F. F. “St. Paul in Rome: 4. The Epistle to the Ephesians.” BJRL 49 (1967) 303–22. Burger, C. Schöpfung und Versöhnung: Studien zum liturgischen Gut im Kolosser- und Epheserbrief. Neu‫־‬

kirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1975. Cadbury, H. J. “The Dilemma of Ephesians.” N TS 5 (1959) 91– 102. Caldwell, E. C. “The Purpose of the Ages.” PTR 16 (1918) 374–89. Cambier, J. Vie Chrétienne en Église: L ’Épître aux Éphésiens lue aux chrétiens d’aujourd’hui. Paris: Desclé e, 1966. Caragounis, C. C. The Ephesian Mysterion. Lund: Gleerup, 1977. Carr, W. Angels and Principalities. Cambridge: CUP, 1981. Cerfaux, L. “En faveur de l’authenticite des epitres de la captivite.” In Litterature et Theologie Pauliniennes. Bruges: Desclee de Brouwer, 1960, 60–71. Chadwick, H. “Die Absicht des Epheserbriefes.” ZN W 51 (1960) 145–53. Coipe, C. “Zur Leib-Christi-Vorstellung im Epheserbrief.” In Judentum , Urchristentum, Kirche, ed. W. Ehester. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1964, 172– 87. Corley, B. “The Theology of Ephesians.” SW JT 22 (1979) 24– 38. Coutts, J. “The Relationship of Ephesians and Colossians.” N TS 4 (1958) 201– 7. Cross, F. L., ed. Studies in Ephesians. London: Mowbray, 1956. Dahl, N. A. “Der Epheserbrief und der verlorene erste Brief des Paulus an die Korinther.” In Abraham unser Vater. FS O. Michel, ed. O. Betz, M. Hengel, and P. Schmidt. Leiden: Brill, 1963, 65– 7 7 .———. “Ephesians, Letter to the.” IDBSup (1976) 268–6 9 .———. “Gentiles, Christians, and Israelites in the Epistle to the Ephesians.”In Christians among Jews and Gentiles, ed. G. W. E. Nickelsburg, and G. MacRae. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986, 31– 39; also H TR 79 (1986) 31–3 9 .———. “Interpreting Ephesians: Then and Now.” CurTM 5 (1978) 133– 43. Danker, F. W. “Ephesians, Epistle to the.” ISBE 2 (1982) 109– 14. Dautzenberg, G. “Theologie und Seelsorge aus paulinischer Tradition: Einführung in 2 Thess, Kol, Eph.” In Gestalt und Anspruch des Neuen Testaments, ed. J. Schreiner. Würzburg: Echter, 1969, 96– 119. Davies, W. D. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism. 2nd ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1967. Deichgräber, R. Gotteshymnus und Christushymnus in derfrühen Christenheit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck 8c Ruprecht, 1967. Efird, J. M. Christ, the Church, and the End: Studies in Colossians and Ephesians. Valley Forge, PA: Judson, 1980. Ernst, J. Pleroma und Pleroma Christi. Regensburg: F. Pustet, 1970.———. “Von der Ortsgemeinde zur Grosskirche—dargestellt an den Kirchenmodellen des Philipper- und Epheserbriefs.” In Kirche im Werden, ed. J. Hainz. Munich: F. Schoningh, 1976, 123–42. Fendt, L. “Die Kirche des Epheserbriefs.” TLZ 77 (1952) 147–50. Findeis, H.-J. Versöhnung— Apostolat—Kirche. Würzburg: Echter Verlag, 1983. Fischer, K. M. Tendenz und Absicht des Epheserbriefs. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck 8c Ruprecht, 1973. Fung, R. “The Doctrine of Baptism in Ephesians.” StBibT 1 (1971) 6– 14. Gewiess, J. “Die Begriffe nkripow und TrXrJpcjjLia in Kolosser- und Epheserbrief.” In Vom Wort des Lebens. FS M. Meinertz. Münster: Aschendorff, 1951, 128–41. Gnilka, J. “Das Akkulturationsproblem nach dem Epheser- und Kolosserbrief.” In Fede e cultura alia luce della Bibbia. Turin: Editrice Elle Di Ci, 1981, 235–47.———. “Das Kirchenmodell des Epheserbriefes.” BZ 15 (1971) 161– 84. ———. “Das Paulusbild im Kolosser- und Epheserbrief.” In Kontinuität und Einheit, ed. P. G. Müller and W. Stenger. Freiburg: Herder, 1981, 179–93. ———. “Paränetische Traditionen im Epheserbrief.” In Melanges Bibliques. FS B. Rigaux, ed. A. Descamps and A. de Halleux. Gembloux: Duculot, 1970, 397–410. Goguel, M. “Esquisse d’une solution nouvelle du problème de l’épître aux Éphésiens.” RH R 111 (1935) 254– 84; 112 (1935) 73–99. Goodspeed, E. J. “Ephesians and the First Edition of Paul.” /£ L 70 (1951) 285–9 1 .———. “Ephesians, the Introduction to the Pauline Collection.” In New Solutions of New Testament Problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927, 11– 2 0 .———. The Key to Ephesians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.———. The Meaning of Ephesians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933. Gore, C. St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians. London: John Murray, 1898. Gregg, J. A. F. “The Commentary of Origen upon the Epistle to the Ephesians.” JT S 3 (1902) 233– 44, 398–420, 551–76. Grob, F. “L’image du corps et de la tête dans l’Épître aux Éphé–


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siens.” ETR 58 (1983) 491–500. Halter, H. Taufe und Ethos: Paulinische Kriterien fü r das Proprium christlicher Moral. Freiburg: Herder, 1977. Hanson, S. The Unity of the Church in the New Testament: Colossians and Ephesians. Uppsala: Almquist 8c Wiksells, 1946. Holtzmann, H. J. Kritik der Epheser- und Kolosserbriefe auf Grund einer Analyse ihres Verwandtschaftsverhältnisses. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1872. Hort, F. J. A. Prolegomena to St. PauVs Epistles to the Romans and the Ephesians. London: Macmillan, 1895. Houlden, J. L. “Christ and Church in Ephesians.’’ SE 6 (1973) 267– 73. Howard, G. “The Head/ Body Metaphors of Ephesians.” N TS 20 (1974) 350– 56. Jeal, R. R. “The Relationship between Theology and Ethics in the Letter to the Ephesians.” Ph.D. diss., University of Sheffield, 1990. Käsemann, E. “Epheserbrief.” RGG 2:517–2 0 .———. “Ephesians and Acts.” In Studies in Luke-Acts, ed. L. E. Keck and J. L. Martyn. London: S.P.C.K., 1968, 288–9 7 .———. “Das Interpretationsproblem des Epheserbriefes.” In Exegetische Versuche und Besinnungen. Vol. 2. 3rd ed. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck 8c Ruprecht, 1970, 253–6 1 .———. Leib und Leib Christi. Tübingen: Mohr, 1933.———. “Paulus und der Frühkatholizismus.” ZTK 60 (1963) 75–89. King, A. C. “Ephesians in the Light of Form Criticism.” ExpTim 63 (1952) 273–76. Kirby, J. C. Ephesians, Baptism and Pentecost. London: S.P.C.K., 1968. Knoch, O. “Die Botschaft des Epheserbriefes.” In “Durch die Gnade Gottes bin ich, was ich bin.‫ ״‬Ostfildern: Schwabenverlag, 1984, 74–89. Kuhn, K. G. “The Epistle to the Ephesians in the Light of the Qumran Texts.” In Paul and Qumran, ed. J. Murphy-O’Connor. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1968, 115– 131. Lightfoot, J. B. “The Destination of the Epistle to the Ephesians.” In Biblical Essays. London: Macmillan, 1893, 375–96. ———. Notes on Epistles of St. Paul. London: Macmillan, 1895. Lincoln, A. T. Paradise Now and Not Yet. Cambridge: CUP, 1981. ———. “A Re-examination of ‘The Heavenlies’ in Ephesians.” N TS 19 (1973) 468–83. ———. “The Use of the OT in Ephesians.”J SAT 14 (1982) 16–57. Lindemann9A. Die Aufhebung der Zeit: Geschichtsverständnis und Eschatologie im Epheserbrief. Gütersloh: Gerd Mohn, 1975.———. “Bemerkungen zu den Adressaten und zum Anlass des Epheserbriefes.” ZNW 67 (1976) 235– 5 1 .———. Paulus im ältesten Christentum: Das Bild des Apostels und die Rezeption der paulinischen Theologie in derfrühchristlichen Literatur bis Marcion. Tübingen: Mohr, 1979. Lona, H. E. Die Eschatologie im Kolosser- und Epheserbrief. Würzburg: Echter Verlag, 1984. MacDonald, M. Y. The Pauline Churches. Cambridge: CUP, 1988. Mackay, J. A. God's Order: The Ephesian Letter and This Present Time. London: Nisbet and Macmil‫־‬ lan, 1953. MacPhail, J. R. “Ephesians and the Church of South India.” SJT 10 (1957) 57–75. Martin, R. P. “An Epistle in Search of a Life-Setting.” ExpTim 79 (1968) 296– 3 0 2 .———. Reconciliation: A Study of Paul's Theology. London: Marshall, 1981. Meeks, W. A. “In One Body: The Unity of Humankind in Colossians and Ephesians.” In God's Christ and His People, ed. J. Jervell and W. A. Meeks. Oslo: Uni versi tetsforlaget, 1977, 209–21. Meritan, J. “L’ecclesiologie de l’epitre aux Ephesiens.” RB 7 (1898) 343–69. Merkel, H. “Der Epheserbrief in der neueren exegetischen Diskussion.” AN R W 2.25.4 (1987) 3156–3246. Merklein, H. Das kirchliche Amt nach dem Epheserbrief. Munich: Kösel, 1973.———. “Paulinische Theologie in der Rezeption des Kolosser- und Epheserbriefes.” In Paulus in den neutestamentlichen Spätschriften, ed. K. Kertelge. Freiburg: Herder, 1981, 25–69. Metzger, B. M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. London: United Bible Societies, 1971. Meyer, R. P. Kirche und Mission im Epheserbrief. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1977. Mitton, C. L. “The Authorship of the Epistle to the Ephesians.” ExpTim 67 (1955–56) 195–98. ———. The Epistle to the Ephesians. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951. ———. “The Relationship between 1 Peter and Ephesians.” JTS 1 (1950) 67–73. Moir, I. A. “The Text of Ephesians Exhibited by Minuscule Manuscripts Housed in Great Britain—Some Preliminary Comments.” In Studies in New Testament Language and Text, ed. J. K. Elliott. Leiden: Brill, 1976, 313–18. Moody, D. Christ and the Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963. Mooney, C. F. “Paul’s Vision of the Church in ‘Ephesians.’ ” Scr 15 (1963) 33–43. Moule, C. F. D. An Idiom-Book of New Testament Greek. 2nd ed. Cambridge: C.U.P., 1971. Moule, H. C. G. Ephesian Studies.

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London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1900. Murphy-O’Connor, J. “Truth: Paul and Qumran.” Paul and Qumran, ed. J. Murphy-O’Connor. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1968, 179–230. ———. “Who Wrote Ephesians?” TB T 18 (1965) 1201–9. Mussner, F. Christus, das All und die Kirche. 2nd ed. Trier: Paulinus, 1968.———. “Contributions Made by Qumran to the Understanding of the Epistle to the Ephesians.” In Paul and Qumran, ed. J. Murphy-O’Connor. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1968, 1 5 9 7 8 ‫ ־‬. ———. “Die Geschichtstheologie des Epheserbriefes.” BibLeb 5 (1964) 8– 12. Ochel, W. Die Annahme einer Bearbeitung des Kolosser-Briefes im Epheser-Brief Würzburg: Konrad Triltsch, 1934. Odeberg, H. The View of the Universe in the Epistle to the Ephesians. Lund: Lund Universitets Arsskrift, 1934. Percy, E. Der Leib Christi in den paulinischen Homologoumena und Antilegomena. Lund: Gleerup, 1942.———. Die Probleme der Kolosser- und Epheserbriefe. Lund: Gleerup, 1946.———. “Zu den Problemen des Kolosser- und Epheserbriefes.” ZNW 43 (1950–51) 178–94. Pereis, O. “Kirche und Welt nach dem Epheser- und Kolosserbrief.” TLZ 76 (1951) 391–400. Pokorny, P. Der Epheserbrief und die Gnosis. Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1965. ———. “Epheserbrief und gnostische Mysterien.” ZN W 53 (1962) 160–9 4 .———. “Soma Christou im Epheserbrief.” E vT 20 (1960) 456– 64. Polhill, J. B. “The Relationship between Ephesians and Colossians.” RevExp 70 (1973) 439–50. Reuss, J. “Die Kirche als ‘Leib Christi’ und die Herkunft dieser Vorsteilung bei dem Apostel Paulus.” BZ 2 (1958) 103–27. Ridderbos, H. Paul: An Outline of His Theology. Tr. J. R. de Witt. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975. Roels, E. God's Mission: The Epistle to the Ephesians in Mission Perspective. Franeker: Wever, 1962. Roon, A. van. The Authenticity of Ephesians. Leiden: Brill, 1974. Rowston, D. J. “Changes in Biblical Interpretation: Ephesians.” BTB 9 (1979) 121– 25. Sampley, J. P., et al. Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, The Pastoral Epistles. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1978. Sanders, E. P. Paul and Palestinian Judaism. London: SCM, 1977. Sanders, J. T. “Hymnic Elements in Ephesians 1–3.” ZN W 56 (1965) 214–32. Schille, G. “Der Autor des Epheserbriefes.” TLZ 82 (1957) 325–3 4 .———. Frühchristliche Hymnen. Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1965. Schlier, H. Christus und die Kirche im Epheserbrief. Tübingen: Mohr, 1930. Schmid, J. Der Epheserbrief des Apostels Paulus. Freiburg: Herder, 1928. Schnackenburg, R. “Der Epheserbrief im heutigen Horizont.” In Massstab des Glaubens. Freiburg: Herder, 1978, 155– 7 5 .———. “Er hat uns mitauferweckt: Zur Tauflehre des Epheserbriefes.” LJ 2 (1952) 159–8 3 .———. “Gestalt und Wesen der Kirche nach dem Epheserbrief.” In Schriften zum Neuen Testament. Munich: Kösel, 1971, 268–87. ———. “L’Idee de ‘Corps du Christ’ dans la lettre aux Ephesiens: Perspective pour nötre temps.” In Paul de Tarse. Apötre du nötre Temps, ed. L. de Lorenzi. Rome: Abbaye de St. Paul, 1979, 665–85. Schweizer, E. “Zur Frage der Echtheit des Kolosser- und des Epheserbriefes.” ZNW 47 (1956) 287. Smalley, S. S. “The Eschatology of Ephesians.” EvQ 28 (1956) 152–57. Smith, D. C. “The Ephesian Heresy and the Origin of the Epistle to the Ephesians.” Ohio Journal of Religious Studies 5 (1977) 78–103. Steinmetz, F.-J. “Jenseits der Mauern und Zäune: Somatisches Verständnis der kirchlichen Einheit im Epheserbrief.” Geist und Leben 59 (1986) 202– 14.———. “Parusie-Erwartung im Epheserbrief? Ein Vergleich.” Bib 50 (1969) 328–36.———. Protologische Heilszuversicht: Die Strukturen des soteriologischen und christologischen Denkens in Kolosser- und Epheserbrief. Frankfurt: Josef Knecht, 1969. Stott, J. R. W. God's New Society: The Message of Ephesians. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1979. Summers, Vi. Ephesians: Pattern for Christian Living. Nashville: Broadman, 1960. Tachau, P. “Einst" ”und “Jetzt"”im Neuen Testament. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Sc Ruprecht, 1972. Usami, K. Somatic Comprehension of Unity: The Church in Ephesus. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1983. Vanhoye, A. “L’épître aux Éphésiens et l’épître aux Hébreux.” Bib 59 (1978) 198– 230. Warnach, V. “Taufwirklichkeit und Taufbewusstsein nach dem Epheserbrief.” Liturgie und Mönchtum 33/34 (1963–64) 36–51. Weiss, H.-F. “Gnostische Motive and antignostische Polemik im Kolosser- und im Epheserbrief.” In Gnosis und Neues Testament, ed. K.-W. Tröger. Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1973, 311–24. Wild, R. A. “ ‘Be Imitators of God’: Discipleship in the


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Letter to the Ephesians.” In Discipleship in the New Testament, ed. F. Segovia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985, 127–43. Williamson, L. God's Work of Art. Richmond, VA: CLC Press, 1971. Wilson, R. A. “ ‘We’ and ‘You’ in the Epistle to the Ephesians.” SE 2. (1964), 676–80. Wink, W., Naming the Powers. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984. Yates, R. “Principalities and Powers in Ephesians.” NB 58 (1977) 516–21. Zwaan, J. de. “Le ‘rythme logique’ dans l’epitre aux Ephesiens.” RH PR 6 (1927) 554–65.

Introduction Select Bibliography Barker, G. W.; Lane, W. L.; and Michaels, J. R. The New Testament Speaks. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Childs, B. S. The New Testament as Canon: An Introduction. London: SCM, 1984. Fuller, R. H. A Critical Introduction to the New Testament. London: Duckworth, 1966. Guthrie, D. New Testament Introduction. 3rd ed. London: Tyndale Press, 1970. Johnson, L. T. The Writings of the New Testament. London: SCM, 1986. Keck, L. E., and Furnish, V. P. The Pauline Letters. Atlanta: John Knox, 1975. Koester, H. Introduction to the New Testament. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982. Kümmel, W. G. Introduction to the New Testament. Rev. ed. Tr. H. C. Kee. Nashville: Abingdon, 1975. Martin, R. P. New Testament Foundations. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans; Exeter: Paternoster, 1978. Marxsen, W. Introduction to the New Testament. Tr. G. Buswell. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968. Moffatt, J. An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: T. 8c T. Clark, 1912. Perrin, N., and Duling, D. C. The New Testament: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982. Roetzel, C. J. The Letters of Paul. Atlanta: John Knox, 1975. Schenke, H.-M., and Fischer, K. M. Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testaments. 2 vols. Gütersloh: Gerd Mohn, 1978. Wikenhauser, A. New Testament Introduction. Tr. J. Cunningham. New York: Herder 8c Herder, 1958. 1. C o n t e n t /S t r u c t u r e /G

e n r e /S ty le

Bibliography Alexander, P. S. “Epistolary Literature.” In Compendia Rerum Judaicarum ad Novum Testamentum. Vol. 2, ed. M. E. Stone. Assen: van Gorcum, 1984, 579–96. Audet, J. P. “Literary Forms and Contents of a Normal Evxapuoria in the First Century.” SE 1. (1959) 643– 62. Aune, D. E. The New Testament in Its Literary Environment. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987. Berger, K. “Hellenistische Gattungen im Neuen Testament.” AN RW 2.25.2 (1984) 1031–1432, 1831–85. ———. Formgeschichte des Neuen Testaments. Heidelberg: Quelle 8c Meyer, 1984. Bjerkelund, C. J. Parakalö. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1967. Burgess, T. C. “Epideictic Literature.” Studies in Classical Philology 3 (1902) 89–261. Dahl, N. A. “Interpreting Ephesians: Then and Now.” CurTM 5 (1978) 133–43. Doty, W. Letters in Primitive Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1973. Jewett, R. The Thessalonian Correspondence. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986. Johanson, B. C. To All the Brethren. Stockholm: Almquist 8c Wiksell, 1987. Kennedy, G. A. New Testament Interpretation through Rhetorical Criticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984. Lausberg, H. Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik. 2nd ed. Munich: Max Hueber, 1973. Malherbe, A. J. “Ancient Epistolary Theorists.” Ohio Journal of Religious Studies 5 (1977) 3– 77. O’Brien, P. T. Introductory Thanksgivings in the Letters of Paul. Leiden: Brill, 1977. Perelman, Ch. The Realm of Rhetoric. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982. Perelman, Ch., and Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. The New Rhetoric. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1969. Roberts, J. H. “Pauline Transitions to the Letter Body.” In LApotre Paul, ed. A. Vanhoye. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1986, 93–99. Sanders,

J. T. “The Transition from Opening Epistolary Thanksgiving to Body in the Letters of the Pauline Corpus.” JBL 81 (1962) 348–6 2 .———. “Hymnic Elements in Ephesians 1–3.” ZN W 56 (1965) 214– 32. Schubert, P. Form and Function of the Pauline Thanksgivings. Berlin: A. Töpelmann, 1939. Stowers, S. K. Letter Writing in Greco-Roman Antiquity.


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Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1986. Thyen, H. Der Stil der jüdisch-hellenistischen Hornilie. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1955. White, J. L. The Form and Function of the Body of the Greek Letter. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1972. ———. “Saint Paul and the Apostolic Letter Tradition.” CBQ 45 (1983) 433–4 4 .———. “New Testament Epistolary Literature.” A N R W 2.25.2 (1984) 1730– 56. Zwaan, J. de. “Le ‘rythme logique’ dans l’epitre aux Ephesiens.” RH PR 6 (1927) 554–65. T h e letter to th e E phesians falls into two distinct, th o u g h not totally separate, parts— chaps. 1– 3 an d chaps. 4–6— with the “A m en” at the en d o f chap. 3 a n d th e change to direct ex h o rtatio n at th e beginning o f chap. 4 as clear division m arkers. R ecognition o f these two parts is determ inative for discussion o f each o f th e areas o f content, stru ctu re, genre, an d style. T h e two parts reflect the w riter’s two m ajor concerns, often described loosely as theological o r doctrinal an d ethical. B ut particularly the fo rm er label o f “theological” o r “doctrinal” does n o t do en o u g h justice to eith er th e form o r co n ten t o f chaps. 1– 3. W ithin th e fram ew ork o f an ex ten d ed thanksgiving these chapters contain a re m in d e r to th e G entile C hristian readers o f th e privileges an d status they enjoy as believers in C hrist an d m em bers o f th e C hurch, reinforcing for th em th eir significance in G od’s plan for history an d th e cosmos. T h e second p a rt o f the letter th e n constitutes an appeal to live in the C h u rch an d in the w orld in th e light o f these realities an d n o t simply to becom e m erged into the ethos o f th e su rro u n d in g culture. T h e re is an explicit link betw een the two parts th ro u g h the notion o f calling. If chaps. 1–3 are a re m in d e r o f the read ers’ calling (cf. 1:18, “th a t you m ay know w hat is the h ope o f his calling”), th e n chaps. 4–6 are an ex h o rtatio n to live in a m a n n e r ap p ro p riate to th at distinctive calling (cf. 4:1, “I . . . ex h o rt you th ere fo re to lead a life w orthy o f the calling with which you w ere called”). Simply to see E phesians in term s o f th e discourse on the unity o f the C h u rch which begins at 2:1 (cf. Keck an d F urnish, The Pauline Letters, 127; Patzia, 113 – 18) does n o t do en o u g h justice eith er to th e co n ten t a n d th ru st o f 2 :1–10, 3 :1–13, an d 3:14–21 o r to the bulk o f th e paraenesis. Similarly, to entitle 1:3– 3:21 “T h e Mystery o f the Inclusion o f th e G entiles” is to re ad this them e into 1:3–2:10 an d 3:14–21 in an u n w arran ted fashion, an d to describe 4 : 1–6:20 as “E xhortation to U nity o f Spirit in Peace” is no t to take sufficient account o f the varying emphases o f th e different sections o f paraenesis (pace Roetzel, The Letters of Paul, 105– 6). T h e first th ree chaps, have th e overall fram ew ork o f a long thanksgiving (cf. also J. T . Sanders, JB L 81 [1962] 348– 62; G augler, 124– 25). T hey o p en with a eulogy o r blessing o f G od fo r all the privileges o f salvation enjoyed by th e read ers (1:3 – 14) an d m ove into a thanksgiving perio d with its intercessory prayer-re p o rt for th e addressees’ know ledge o f G od an d his pow er a n d o f the C h u rch ’s significance in his purposes (1:15– 23). T h e intercessory prayerre p o rt is picked u p again later, focusing this tim e on th e re ad ers’ experience o f pow er, love, an d fullness (3:1, 14 – 19), before th e first h alf is ro u n d e d off with a doxology (3:20, 21). T h e re m a in d er o f this first p a rt o f the letter pursues the w riter’s aim in a form less explicitly related to liturgy. T h e initial intercession (1:15– 23) blends into a re m in d e r o f th e greatness o f the salvation G od has accom plished fo r the readers. T h is re m in d e r is expressed by m eans o f the



twofold contrast betw een th eir past an d th eir present: first, in term s o f the change from spiritual death to new life in C hrist (2:1– 10) and, second, in term s o f th e change from being deprived G entiles in com parison with Israel to being p a rt o f th e one new hum anity with access to the F ath er an d a place in th e new tem ple o f th e C h u rch (2:11– 22). T his anam nesis (cf. 2:11, “remember, th erefo re . . .”) is a recalling o f the heritage o f th e past in a way th at is form ative for p resen t attitudes an d actions. It is continued w hen th e re tu rn to intercession (3:1, 14– 19) is in te rru p te d by a fu rth e r rem inder, this tim e o f w hat the readers, as p art o f th e o n e C h u rch with its significant role, owe to the m inistry o f the apostle Paul (3:2 – 13). T h e re are also, o f course, aspects o f anam nesis, the rem em b erin g o f G od’s graciousness an d pow er at w ork on b eh alf o f believers, in the berakah an d thanksgiving (cf. also A udet, SE 1 [1959] 646, 655 n. 1, 659 n. 1). If the first h alf o f the letter is distinguished by its epistolary use o f liturgical form s an d its elem ents o f anam nesis, the second h alf is distinguished by the extent o f its concern with paraenesis. From its o p en in g direct appeal in the parakalō clause taken over from th e P auline letter (“I . . . ex h o rt you th erefo re,” 4:1), the latter h alf is alm ost totally given over to ethical exhortation, the m ajor sections o f which em ploy the w riter’s favorite term for believers’ conduct, the verb nepmarelp, “to walk” (cf. 4:1; 4:17; 5:2; 5:8; 5:15). T h e readers are u rg ed first to play th eir p a rt in m aintaining th e unity o f the C hurch, which is on its way to m aturity th ro u g h its m inisters o f the w ord an d the love o f all its m em bers (4:1– 16), an d th en to live as those who have been tau g h t the C hristian tradition an d are m em bers o f the new hum anity ra th e r th an the old (4:17–24). T h e distinctive conduct re q u ired o f C hristian believers is given m ore specificity in th e two sections which follow. T h e ir words an d deeds are to reflect the contrast betw een th eir new life an d th eir old (4:25– 5:2) an d the contrast betw een w hat is ap p ro p riate fo r the believing com m unity an d w hat is characteristic o f sinful outsiders. By preserving such a contrast the readers will in fact have an effect on the darkness o f the su rro u n d in g m oral clim ate (5:3 – 14). T h e readers are th en enjoined to live wisely an d to ap p ro p riate the pow er o f th e Spirit, which will result in corporate edification and w orship (5:15–20). Such living will also result in m utual subm ission in the specific relationships betw een h u sb an d a n d wife, p aren t an d child, m aster an d slave, set o u t in this w riter’s version o f th e household code with its distinetive elaboration o f the m arriage relationship in the light o f th e relationship betw een C hrist an d the C h u rch (5:21– 6:9). T h e paraenesis culm inates in a call to the read ers to be strong an d stand firm in the spiritual battle against the powers o f evil th at are arrayed against th em an d to engage in constant prayer (6 : 10– 20 ).

Like a n u m b er o f o th e r early C hristian com positions, Ephesians resists clearcut classification in term s o f ancient epistolary an d rhetorical categories (cf. also A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 199, 203, for the general p o in t ab o u t N T letters). M ore w ork is n eed ed on this im p o rtan t aspect o f the letter, an d w hat follows is sim ply an outline o f som e o f the considerations involved. E phesians appears to be an ad ap tatio n o f the Pauline letter form . It does have th e usual prescript with its m ention o f w riter an d addressees an d its C hristian greetings (1:1, 2) a n d ends with som e typical closing features,

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e.g., a reference to an apostolic representative (em ploying the sam e w ording as Col 4 :7 ,8 ), a wish o f peace, an d a grace-benediction (6:21– 24). A re the p rescript an d th e postscript simply a fram ing device fo r a letter-essay o r philosophical letter (cf. A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 167– 6 8 ; B erger, A N R W 2.25.2 [1984] 1132– 38)? E phesians does have som e features in com m on with such letters in th at it provides teaching which leads to advice ab o u t how to live, b u t it is distinguished by th e liturgical elem ents in the first p art, som e o f which are also epistolary characteristics o f the Pauline letter. It is th erefo re m ore th an ju s t a theological tract barely disguised as a letter (pace K äsem ann, RGG 2:518; Fuller, A Critical Introduction to the New Testament, 6 6 ; C onzelm ann, 8 6 ; L indem ann, Z N W 67 [1976] 240; Schenke an d Fischer, Einleitung 1:174). In addition to its beg in n in g an d end, it m akes use o f such elem ents o f P aul’s letters as an introductory eulogy, a thanksgiving period an d in tercessory p rayer-re p o rt, an d paraenesis, th o u g h it is th e only letter in the Pauline corpus with b oth a eulogy an d a thanksgiving period (cf. also van Roon, Authenticity, 45– 56). B ut does E phesians have a letter body? T h e re are difficulties in d eterm in in g w here th e body begins an d ends in P aul’s letters (cf. Doty, Letters in Primitive Christianity, 34; A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 183, “the analysis o f the central section o f early C hristian letters rem ains problem atical”). B ut it can be said th at E phesians has few o f the usual features o f the Pauline letter’s body— its own form al opening, its transitional form ulae, an d its concluding “eschatological clim ax” o r m en tio n o f an apostolic parousia o r travel plans. In reg ard to th e p rom inence o f th e features o f th e thanksgiving period a n d the absence o f a n orm al body, E phesians is p erh ap s closest to 1 Thessalonians (cf. also B jerkelund, Parakalô, 184 – 85, who holds th at in term s o f stru ctu re Ephesians should be com pared with 1 T hessalonians; K üm m el, Introduction, 3 5 1–52). S chubert (Form and Function of the Pauline Thanksgivings, 16–27; cf. also O ’B rien, Introductory Thanksgivings in the Letters of Paul, 141–46) suggested th at 1 T hessalonians h ad no m ain body because the thanksgiving o f 1:2–3:13 itself constitutes the body. H ow ever, W hite (The Form and Function of the Body of the Greek Letter, 70–72) argues th a t th e body is a structural elem ent, th o u g h to be sure, taken u p into, sh aped by, a n d logically d e p e n d e n t on the thanksgiving. Jew ett (The Thessalonian Correspondence, 71– 78, 216–21) provides a sketch o f the various views an d suggests, in a com bination o f epistolary an d rhetorical analysis, th at 1:2– 5 is to be seen as the thanksgiving p ro p e r with 1:6– 3:13 as th e narratio o f th e g ro u n d s fo r thanksgiving. In Ephesians the m aterial im m ediately after th e initial thanksgiving p erio d p ro p e r does n o t have a disclosure form ula o r a fo rm ula o f request, which frequently introduces the body. R oberts (“Pauline T ran sitio ns,” 93–99) argues th a t creedal statem ents can also function as transitions to th e letter body, b u t it is very dou b tfu l w h eth er E ph 1:22, 23 is best described as a discrete p erio d containing a creedal statem ent, as he claims. In stead 2 :1 continues the train o f th o u g h t already b eg u n in the intercessory prayer-re p o rt ab o u t th e display o f G od’s pow er on b eh alf o f believers bu t now gives this m ore direct application to th e readers. Yet if it is th e case th at the body o f th e P auline letter has as a m ajor characteristic two parts to its arg u m en tatio n — first, a m ore tightly organized theological p a rt an d , second, a less tightly constructed appeal fo r the concretization o f



the principles espoused earlier (cf. W hite, The Form and Function of the Body of the Greek Letter, 159; A N E W 2.25.2, 1746– 48; A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 188, 191)— th e n 1:3–3:21 an d 4 : 1–6:20 correspond to those parts. O th e r scholars (cf. Doty, Letters in Primitive Christianity, 2 7 ,3 7 ; Roetzel, The Letters of Paul, 22–24), how ever, see paraenesis as a separate section after th e body in th e Pauline letter, so th a t its th ree m ain sections are thanksgiving, body, an d paraenesis. In this case Ephesians could be seen as replacing the body by ex ten ding both the thanksgiving an d the paraenesis. We suggest, therefore, th at 1:3–3:21 functions as the equivalent to the first p art o f the body, which h ere has the overall shape o f an extended thanksgiving period (cf. also Dibelius-G reeven 78), an d th at the parakalö clause in 4:1 acts as the transition to th e paraenesis, which can be taken as th e equivalent o f the body’s second m ajor p art. In fact, thanksgiving an d paraenesis m ake good com panions. B ringing th em to g eth er in the central section o f the letter in this way can be seen to be a n atu ra l developm ent from the Pauline letter. As we have seen, am ong P aul’s own letters, 1 T hessalonians constitutes a move in this direction. In any case, thanksgivings in P aul’s letters already begin to argue th at a p articular course o f action is re q u ired by the situation (cf. Doty, Letters in Primitive Christianity, 32). As S chubert (Form and Function of the Pauline Thanksgivings, 89) puts it, “All Pauline thanksgivings have eith er explicitly o r implictly paraenetic fu n ctio n.” Noticeably, however, Ephesians in its body an d as a whole lacks the m arks o f the typical Pauline letter’s addressing o f particular an d im m ediate issues. It contains no list o f personal greetings, an d its them es an d th eir treatm en t are m ore general th an specific. T h y en (Der Stil der jüdisch-hellenistischen Homilie, 63, 119– 20) pro p o sed th at the body o f th e letters o f Paul, with th eir teaching and paraenesis, reflected the m an n er in which Paul p reached to his congregations an d may th erefo re have been influenced by the synagogue homily. T h e body o f E phesians seems even m ore like the w ritten equivalent o f the oral presentation th e w riter w ould have delivered to a congregation at its assembly for w orship. It is the w ritten equivalent o f a serm on o r hom ily (cf. A lexander, “Epistolary L iteratu re,” 584, who claims th at the Jew ish literary letter may have grow n o u t o f the serm on an d been re g ard e d as “the w ritten analogue o f the serm o n ”; he cites 2 Apoc. Bar. an d R om ans as exam ples). C ertainly its liturgical form s w ould have enabled th e read in g o f the letter to fit a p p ro p riately into a liturgical setting. Its o p en in g sequence o f eulogy, thanksgiving, intercession, an d doxology was w idespread in Jew ish an d early C hristian worship. As J. T. Sanders (ZN W 56 [1965] 214) asserts, “the doxology at the en d o f ch. 3 is a closing liturgical elem ent, ju s t as th e blessing an d thanksgiving in ch. 1 are o p en in g liturgical elem ents” (cf. also Gnilka, 27; Kirby, Ephesians, 84– 89; 126– 38). O f course, the concluding “A m en” in 3:21 also signals the liturgical setting o f th e letter (cf. O. C ullm ann, Early Christian Worship [London: SCM, 1953] 23– 24, “T h e liturgical A m en, likewise taken over from Judaism , is said by the congregation, as we see from 1 C or 14:16”; cf. also Kirby, Ephesians, 8 8 , on th e im portance o f this congregational response). In d eed Ephesians has been described as a liturgical hom ily (cf. Gnilka, 33, an d on liturgical elem ents in hom ilies cf. also T hyen, Der Stil, 2 8–31). N o certainty can be attached to such a classification, how ever, since th ere is no clearcut evidence


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from this p erio d o f any fixed form s fo r eith er early C hristian o r Jew ish synagogue hom ilies (cf. A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 197,

202). T h e two basic parts o f this w ritten discourse a n d th eir functions m ay nevertheless reflect general p attern s fam iliar from Jew ish tradition. O ne exam ple is the “covenant speech” p a tte rn in w hich a re m in d e r o f w hat G od h ad d one on b eh alf o f his people was followed by a call to keep his com m andm ents. Sections o f D euteronom y have this sequence, an d the book also includes a song o f praise (cf. L. H artm an , “B undesideologie in u n d h in ter einigen paulinischen T ex te n ,” in Die paulinische Literatur und Theologie, ed. S. P etersen [Göttingen: V andenhoeck & R uprecht, 1980] 103 – 18, fo r th e influence o f this sort o f m aterial on P aul’s letters a n d thought). It is possible th at Jew ish proselyte baptism ex erted som e influence, since m uch later sources (cf. b. Yebam. 47; Gerim 1.5) indicate th at an address o f congratulation a n d exhortation accom panies th e rite (cf. also F. Gavin, The Jewish Antecedents of the Christian Sacraments [L ondon: S.P.C.K., 1928] 31– 32, 35, 56). B ut th e adoption o f the rite a n d its in terp retatio n was still evolving d u rin g the last p a rt o f the first century c .e ., so u n certainty m ust still su rro u n d its influence on early C hristian cerem onial. It is easy to see, how ever, why th e sort o f serm on the body o f E phesians reflects has been related to a C hristian baptism al setting (cf. esp. Kirby, Ephesians, 150–61; also R. R. Williams, “T h e Pauline C atechism ,” 89– 96; Dahl, TZ 7 [1951] 241– 64; C outts, N T S 3 [1956– 57] 115– 27; P okorný, Z N W 53 [1962] 160– 94), in which the p re ach e r recalled the activity o f God in the change from believers’ past to th eir p re sen t a n d th e n ap p ealed to th em to live o u t the significance o f th eir baptism . B ut, alth o u g h the letter contains som e strong baptism al m otifs, its co n ten t is n o t sim ply to be red u ced to an exposition o f the significance o f this rite. Its subject is m uch b ro a d er—C hristian existence as a whole. Ephesians is som etim es classed as a general letter (cf., e.g., A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 218), but, despite its m ore general n atu re in com parison with th e u n d isp u ted P auline letters, th e letter’s co n ten t is no t solely d eterm in ed by the situation o f its w riter. T h e co n ten t shows clear signs th at the w riter does have a pastoral concern for a particular g ro u p o f recipients, certain churches in w estern Asia M inor, a n d has shaped his m aterial to m eet th eir needs (cf. also S chnackenburg, 19; see fu rth e r Section 4). In term s o f ancient epistolary theory th ere is n o th in g to disqualify it as a letter. It is a real com m unication, speaking in th e w ritten m edium to those absent as th o u g h they w ere present, an d is ad a p te d to th e circum stances an d m ood o f its a d d re ssees as far as these can be ascertained (cf. also Dahl, IDBSup [1976] 268; contra, e.g., K üm m el, Introduction, 356; M ussner, 17). Its style is a m ixture o f the graceful an d o rnam entative with th e plain an d direct (cf. M alherbe, Ohio Journal of Religious Studies 5 [1977] 15–27). Its letter form should no t th erefo re be dism issed as n o n real b u t should be seen as a n atu ra l extension o f the Pauline letter in the direction o f an epistolary serm on o r hom ily. D ahl has called E phesians “a letter o f re m in d e r an d o f co n gratulation” (CurTM 5 [1978] 141). A lthough its first p a rt does have a congratulatory tone, its re m in d e r o f w hat the readers have becom e as the C h u rch is not, o f course,


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in th e form o f a direct congratulation o f the readers. T his w ould n o t in any case be in line with th e w riter’s perspective on the grace o f God, to which, he holds, believers owe everything. T h e rem in d er, th erefo re, takes the shape o f a celebration before G od o f all th at he has accom plished for these believers, an d it takes place in the context o f praise an d thanksgiving. So, is th e first p a rt o f E phesians m ore like an ancient letter o f congratulation o r m ore like one o f thanksgiving (though no t to th e readers b u t to G od for w hat he has done for th e readers)? A ncient epistolary theorists d eterm in ed the type o f a letter in th e light o f th e action its w riter in ten d ed to p erfo rm th ro u g h it. In term s o f its overall in ten d ed effect on the readers, the first p art, with its th an k sgiving an d rem in d ers, serves prim arily to bolster th eir sense o f th eir calling, th eir aw areness o f th eir status as those who belong to the C hurch. In th at sense it is probably best seen as a C hristian version o f the letter o f congratulation. B ut in any case the letter’s two parts m ean th at its genre is a m ixed one. T h e second p a rt is a variation on the G reek letter o f advice—the logos protreptikos o r logos parainetikos (cf. A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 161; B erger, A N R W 2.25.2 [1984] 1138– 45). T h e letter as a whole th en brings to g eth er w hat P seudo-D em etrius (Epistolary Types 11, 19) w ould call th e congratulatory an d the advisory, an d Pseudo-Libanius {Epistolary Styles 4, 5, 20, 45, 52, 67, 92) th e congratulatory an d the paraenetic types o f letter (cf. M alherbe, Ohio Journal of Religious Studies 5 [1977] 28– 39, 62– 77). E phesians, as we have it, is in the form o f a letter, b u t since the letter would have been m ean t to be re ad aloud to its recipients, an d since, as we have suggested, th e bulk o f it is equivalent to a serm on, a rhetorical analysis o f it is also ap p ro p riate (cf. also Jo h an so n , To All the Brethren, 42– 43, on the relationship o f rhetorical analysis to letters; fo r a m ore detailed discussion o f the rhetoric o f E phesians as it affects the relationship o f the two halves o f the letter, see also R. R. Jeal, “T h e R elationship betw een T heology an d Ethics in the L etter to th e E phesians,” Ph.D. diss., University o f Sheffield, 1990). T h e congratulatory a n d th e paraenetic, th e re m in d e r o f the read ers’ calling an d the appeal to live o u t th at calling, com bine the epideictic an d the deliberative rhetorical genres (cf. L ausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, 53–61, for a discussion o f th e th ree m ain genres an d th eir possible com binations; cf. also B erger, Formgeschichte, 17 – 19; as G. Lyons [.Pauline Autobiography: Toward a New Understanding (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1985) 64] points out, “T h e freedom ancient w riters exercised in the m ixing o f genres an d in the organization o f a discourse com plicates rhetorical analysis m aking a m easure o f subjectivity unavoidable.”) P erelm an’s an d O lbrechts-T yteca’s description o f epideictic rh e toric serves to illum ine the in ten d ed effect o f the first p a rt o f Ephesians: “T h e arg u m en tatio n in epideictic discourse sets o u t to increase th e intensity o f ad h erence to certain values, which m ight n o t be contested w hen considered on th eir own b u t m ay nevertheless no t prevail against o th e r values th at m ight com e into conflict with them . T h e speaker tries to establish a sense o f com m union cen tered aro u n d particular values recognized by the audience an d to this en d he uses the whole range o f m eans available to th e rhetorician for purposes o f am plification an d en h a n cem en t” (The New Rhetoric, 51; cf. also


I n t r o d u c t io n

K ennedy, New Testament Interpretation through Rhetorical Criticism, 74–75). T hey also p o in t o u t th at this kind o f oratory is a showpiece for artistic virtuosity an d is m ost in d an g e r o f becom ing rhetoric in the pejorative sense o f the word. T h e o rn am entative thanksgiving a n d p ray er o f E ph 1– 3 is an effective rhetorical strategy. It is one th in g fo r a w riter to arg u e a case with his readers, which m ay o r m ay no t be persuasive, b u t it is a n o th e r th in g to give thanks an d pray fo r them . T his sets u p a differen t relationship in which the readers are affirm ed, in which th eir sym pathies are gained, an d in which a com m on relationship to G od an d to C hrist a n d com m on values g ro u n d e d in this relationship are consolidated. It avoids focusing on any differences betw een th e w riter an d the readers, it eschews confrontation, an d it goes beyond linear a rg u m e n tation to touch th e re ad ers’ religious em otions an d C hristian com m itm ent. In th e deliberative genre a speaker o r w riter seeks to persuade an audience to take certain actions. Paraenesis is n o t necessarily deliberative. It can function in bo th deliberative an d epideictic rhetoric, d ep e n d in g on w h eth er it is calling for a change o f behavior o r simply re iteratin g com m on values (A une, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 191, 208; B erger, A N R W 2.25.2, 1139). T h o u g h som e o f th e paraenesis in E phesians is a re m in d e r o f com m on values (cf., e.g., 4:20, 21) an d calls fo r a preservation o f w hat is already the case (cf. 4:3; 6:10– 17, which re tu rn s to th e epideictic genre, see below), for the m ost p art the w riter is seeking an adjustm ent in the re ad ers’ behavior so that, w here necessary, it will becom e m ore distinctly C hristian, th at is, m ore in line with w hat h e deem s to be ap p ro p riate for those who belong to the C hurch. P araenesis frequently functioned, as it does in places here, to rem in d those addressed o f w hat they should already know, b u t it did this in o rd e r to ex h o rt them to take action on th e basis o f this know ledge. T his second p a rt o f the letter attem pts by persuasive (protreptic) an d dissuasive (apotreptic) m eans to en co u rage the readers to take certain actions in the fu tu re an d is th erefo re prim arily deliberative. In fact, the epideictic first p a rt o f the letter leads well into the deliberative second p art, fo r the role o f the epideictic “is to intensify adherence to values, ad h eren ce w ithout which discourses th at aim at provoking action cannot find th e lever to m ove o r inspire th eir listeners. . . . T h e goal is always to stren g th en a consensus a ro u n d certain values which one wants to see prevail an d which should o rien t actions in the fu tu re . It is in this way th a t all practical philosophy arises from the epideictic g e n re ” (Perelm an, The Realm of Rhetoric, 19–20; cf. also B urgess, “Epideictic L itera tu re,” 96, 101– 2, 229– 34, on the close links betw een the epideictic an d the deliberative). In E phesians the combination o f th e two rhetorical genres m akes fo r a m ore pow erful overall impact. T h e celebration, w orship, a n d p ray er th a t precede the paraenesis are likely to m ove an d inspire the read ers to th e action called fo r m ore effectively th an if th e letter h ad consisted prim arily o f a string o f exhortations. It is significant th at the peroratio o f 6 : 1 0 – 2 0 , which sum s u p the concerns o f the whole letter, com bines both epideictic an d deliberative elem ents. H ow ever, it re tu rn s prim arily to th e epideictic with its call to stand firm in the battle an d th u s to preserve the values th e w riter has attem p ted to instill in his readers. A n epistolary analysis o f the letter in the light o f th e above discussion w ould result in th e following:

Introduction 1:1,2 1:1a 1:1b 1:2 1:3– 6:20 1:3– 3:21 1:3– 14 1:15– 23 2:1– 10 2:11– 22 3:(1)2 – 13 3:14– 21 4:1– 6:20 4:1– 16 4:17– 24 4:25– 5:2 5:3– 14 5:15– 6:9 6:10– 20 6:21– 24 6:21, 22 6:23 6:24


I. Prescript A. S ender B. A ddressees C. G reeting II. Body A. E xtended T hanksgiving 1. Eulogy 2. Initial T hanksgiving Period an d Intercessory Prayer-R eport 3. R em inder o f R eaders’ Experience o f Salvation 4. R em inder o f R eaders’ Privileges as G entile Participants in the New C reation an d New T em ple 5. R em inder o f R eaders’ D ebt to Paul an d His Ministry 6 . Intercessory Prayer-R eport an d Doxology B. Paraenesis 1. E xhortation to M aintenance o f the C h u rch ’s Unity 2. E xhortation to Live A ccording to the New H um anity R ath er T h a n th e O ld 3. Practical Injunctions ab o u t th e O ld an d New Life 4. E xhortations ab o u t Speech, Sexual Morality, and Living as C hildren o f L ight 5. E xhortation to Wise an d Spirit-Filled Living in W orship an d in H ousehold Relationships 6 . E xhortation to S tand Firm in the Spiritual Battle an d to C onstant P rayer III. Postscript A. R eference to Apostolic R epresentative, Tychicus B. W ish o f Peace C. G race-B enediction

A b rief rhetorical outline o f the letter on th e o th e r h an d m ight be as follows: 1:1– 23 1 :1 ,2 1:3– 14 1:15– 23 2:1– 3:21 2:1– 10 2 :1 1–22 3:(1)2– 13 3:1, 14–21 4 :1–6:9 4 :1–16 4:17– 24

I. E xordium A. P rescript B. Eulogy C. T hanksgiving an d Prayer II. Narratio o f G rounds for T hanksgiving A. R em inder o f R eaders’ Salvation in C hrist B. R em inder o f R eaders’ Privileges as G entile Participants in the New C reation an d New T em ple C. Digressio: R em inder o f R eaders’ D ebt to Paul an d His M inistry D. Transitus o f Intercessory P rayer an d Doxology III. Exhortatio A. E xhortation to M aintenance o f th e C h u rch ’s U nity B. E xhortation to Live as the New H um anity

xliv 4 :2 5–5:2 5:3– 14 5:15– 6:9 6:10–24 6:10– 20 6:21– 24

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C. Seven Specific E xhortations about the O ld an d New Life D. E xhortations ab o u t Speech, Sexual M orality, an d Living as C hildren o f L ight E. E xhortation to Wise an d Spirit-Filled Living in W orship an d in H ousehold R elationships IV. Peroratio A. Final E xhortation to S tand Firm in the Spiritual Battie B. Postscript

T h ro u g h its eulogy about th eir salvation a n d its thanksgiving an d in tercessory p ray er o n th eir behalf, th e exordium leads th e readers into this epistolary discourse in such a way as to m ake th em receptive to its m essage (cf. Q uintilian 3.8.7; 4.1.5, on th e ex o rd iu m ’s function o f gaining the audience’s favorable disposition an d sym pathy tow ard the discourse). T h e narratio functioned as a re p o rt o f th e circum stances o n w hich the audience was to base its perspective o r actions (cf. Aristotle, Rhet. 3.6.1– 11; Q uintilian 4.2.1). H ere th e re is a skillful transition from th e exordium into the narratio with its recalling o f the re ad ers’ past experience. T his continues th e flow o f th o u g h t, as w hat has previously been said ab o u t C hrist is now applied to th e readers (cf. L ausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, 163). T h e narratio o ften contains an excursus o r digressio, fo u n d h ere in 3:2 – 13 (cf. L ausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, 187– 88), Q uintilian (4.3.1) suggests th at a digression in the narratio enables speakers to m ove to “som e pleasant an d attractive topic with a view to securing the u tm ost a m o u n t o f favor from th eir aud ien ce.” C ertainly som eone w riting in P aul’s nam e is calculated to increase his re ad ers’ favor an d tru st by digressing ab out the suffering apostle’s m inistry on th e ir behalf. T o g e th e r with th e transitus such a digression helps th e readers to be well disposed tow ard the ethical adm onitions in P aul’s nam e th a t are ab o u t to follow (cf. also Q uintilian 4.3.9). T h e re tu rn to intercessory p ray er a n d th e doxology o f 3:14–21 are h a rd e r to classify rhetorically b u t are probably best seen as having th e role o f a transitus, which frequently concludes a narratio in a pow erful affective m a n n e r an d can function as a new exordium (cf. L ausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, 188– 89). J u s t as on an epistolary analysis Ephesians does no t contain a norm al letter-body, so on a rhetorical analysis it does n o t contain the usual a rg u m e n tatio th at was at th e cen ter o f m ost discourses. Instead, this is replaced by the ex ten d ed exhortatio (cf. Q uintilian 3.6.47; 9.2.103), which begins at 4:1. In rhetorical term s th e exhortation o f 6 : 1 0 – 2 0 is to be th o u g h t o f as th e m ain p a rt o f th e peroratio, providing a striking final appeal to the readers, which sum s u p th e n eed to g u ard all th a t belongs to th eir calling in the battle against hostile o p posing forces a n d attem pts to arouse th em to the ap p ro p riate action by th e th reefo ld use o f th e verb “to stan d .” T h e style o f E phesians m atches th e contents o f its two parts. In the first p a rt w hat m ay be called th e language o f w orship is dom inant. T his is a p p ro p riate to its epideictic genre, in which “th e style is th e m ost distinctive feature. . . . A tendency to o rn a m e n t o f every kind is fostered. . . . ‘A po m p an d prodigality o f w ords,’ well-balanced periods, a style h a lf poetic, h alf oratorical,



are th e qualities m ost desired” (Burgess, “Epideictic L iteratu re,” 94). H ym ns an d o th er form s o f praise to th e gods were considered a stan d ard type o f this g enre (cf. B urgess, “Epideictic L iteratu re,” 110– 14, 130, 174– 80, 191– 94). T o p u t across his th oughts an d give them a presence th at acts u p o n the read ers’ sensibilities, th e w riter uses a n u m b er o f stylistic techniques such as repetition, synonymy, an d am plification. As P erelm an puts it, “W ithout doubt, to create presence it is useful to insist at length u p o n certain elem ents; in prolonging the atten tio n given them , th eir presence in th e consciousness o f the audience is increased. O nly by dwelling u p o n a subject does one create the desired em otions” (The Realm of Rhetoric, 37). C haracteristic o f the style o f Ephesians are th e rep etitio n an d parallelism o f its m any long, an d in some cases, exceedingly long sentences. In the latter category are 1:3– 14; 1:15– 23; 2:1– 7; 3:1– 7; 4:11– 16; 6:14–20. T hese long sentences extend them selves by m eans o f relative clauses, clauses with o n o r a n o th e r conjunction an d participial construetions. K. G. K u h n points o u t th at these tapew orm -like sentences, which drag on with loosely stru n g to g eth er clauses, also occur with frequency in the Q u mran literature, especially in the H ym ns o f T hanksgiving, an d suggests th at th eir presence in E phesians is to be explained on th e basis o f a continuity o f tradition {Paul and Qumran, 116– 20). A gain an d again words which are either synonym ous o r related in m eaning are linked by m eans o f a genitive construetion. In this way, fo r exam ple, the w riter dwells on the notion o f divine pow er— r\ evepyeva rod Kparovs rrfr lax1>0? avrov, lit., “the w orking o f the strength o f his m ight” (1:19), 77 evepyeva rrfr bvvapeco? avrov, “the w orking o f his pow er” (3:7), o r to Kpäros ri]