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E n g lish G ram m ar series Jacqueline Morton, editor English Grammar for Students o f French English Grammar for Students o f Spanish English Grammar for Students o f German English Grammar for Students o f Italian English Grammar for Students o f Latin English Grammar for Students o f Russian English Grammar for Students o f Arabic English Grammar for Students o f Japanese Gramática espaňola para estudiantes de inglés
© 2011, Jacqueline Morton
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage retrieval system, without per mission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the Ư.S.A.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2010930232
To the Student Tips for learning Chinese 1. Whaťs in a Word? Meaning Part of speech Function and form 2. What is a Noun? 3. What is Meant by Number? Count nouns vs. non-count nouns 4. What is a Subject? Subject vs. topic 5. What is an Object? 6. What is a Verb? 7. What is a Modal Verb? 8. What are the Uses of the Verb “to be"? 9. What is Meant by Tense? Tense vs. aspect 10. What is the Progressive? 11. What is the Imperative? 12. What is a Pronoun? 13. What is a Personal Pronoun? 14. What is the Possessive? 15. What is a Reflexive Pronoun? 16. What is an Interrogative Pronoun? 17. What is a Demonstrative Pronoun? 18. What are Indefinite and Negative Pronouns? 19. What are Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences? What is a phrase? What is a clause? What is a sentence? 20. What are Affirmative and Negative Sentences? 21. What are Declarative and Interrogative Sentences? Yes-or-no questions ■-questions Tag questions 22. What is the Causative Construction? iii
1 1 5 6 7 8 9 11 11 15 16 19 23 27 28 31 32 35 37 40 42 45 47 49 51 53 58 58 59 61 62 64 64 66 67 69
23. What is a Relative Clause?
24. What is a Conditional Clause?
25. What is Meant by Active and Passive Voice?
26. What is an Adverb? Intensifiers
27. What is an Interrogative Adverb?
28. What is an Adjective?
29. What is Meant by Comparison of Adjectives?
30. What is a Demonstrative Adjective? "Like this"/”Like that? ”；"This way7”That way"
31. What is an Interrogative Adjective?
32. What is a Preposition?
33. What is a Conjunction?
34. What is an Interjection? Chinese characters
TO THE STUDENT English Grammar for Students o f Chinese explains basic termi nology and concepts of English grammar, focusing on those aspects of grammar that are most applicable to learning Chinese. Once you understand the terms and concepts as they apply to your own language, it will be easier for you to understand what is being introduced in your textbook and by your teacher. This handbook supplements your Chinese language text book. It is not intended to teach Chinese or to replace any Chinese language learning materials. TIPS FOR LEARNING CHINESE
Chinese is not linguistically related to English and it is cul turally distant from the Western world. As such, when learning Chinese words you will not have roots similar to English to help you memorize. Moreover, Chinese words are represented by visual symbols rather than by an alpha betic writing system representing sounds. Learning to speak Chinese, to understand Chinese, to read Chinese and to write Chinese are independent tasks requiring different learning techniques. The following tips will help you be more efficient and effective in your study of Chinese. ■ Before doing an assignment read the sections in English Grammar that cover the topics you are going to study in your textbook. ■ Read the grammar section in your Chinese textbook, taking notes on whatever you do not understand so you can ask your teacher for clarification. ■ Focus on the function of the pattern, such as patterns used "to make a com parison" or "to indicate that an action has occurred.” ■ Study how the grammar applies to the Chinese examples given in your textbook. ■ Read the Chinese examples out loud until you have mem orized th em . W ritin g them out w ill also help you remember them.
TO THE STUDENT
■ Make up your own sentences or dialogues to illustrate the grammar rule (check with your teacher to make sure your sentences are correct). ■Use the new grammar patterns when you are speaking in class and in your homework assignments. The best way to learn grammar is to use it. Memorization — Chinese requires a great deal of memoriza tion of characters, vocabulary and sounds that are very for eign to our ears. To be effective, memorization requires concentration. Short repeated practice in daily sessions is more effective than occasional longer sessions. Learning vocabulary
Flash cards are a good, handy tool for learning new words and their m eaning. You can carry them with you, group them as you wish and add information as you advance. Cre ating your own flash cards is an im portant first step in learning vocabulary. 1. On one side, write the Chinese word in Chinese charac ters. Make sure you focus on words, whether they are one or more characters. 2. On the other side of the card, write the following: ■ the pinyin of the word so you have an idea of how to pronounce it. Pinyin is a close approximation of C h i nese pronunciation. For accurate pronunciation you will have to rely on audio materials (see below). ■ the English equivalent could be several words or an explanation ■ a short sentence in Chinese using the word or expres sion. Learning the word in con text is particularly im p ortan t since there is often no direct English-Chinese equivalent. ■ a personal note or memory aid to help you remember the Chinese word 3. Study the words and their meaning until you can go back and forth between Chinese and English, English and Chi nese, and pinyin and characters. 4. Always try to use new words in your written homework assignments.
TO THE STUDENT
Learning Chinese characters
There is no magic formula for learning Chinese characters. You must spend time every day practicing them; cramming the night before a quiz does not work. Again, consistency is the key. In the initial stages, writing out characters by hand is an effective way to remembering and recognizing them. The following strategies are effective: 1. Write out individual characters 15-20 times. First by copying, then from memory. This gives you a feel for the shape of the character, the stroke order, and the compo nents that comprise the character. 2. Write out the Chinese dialogue or sentences in characters several times. This will help you learn how the words are used in context. 3. Look at the dialogue in pinyin, and write out the charac ters from memory. This will help you make the connec tion between how to say the words and how to write them. 4. Make sure you take time to review characters learned pre viously. This can easily be done with flash cards. 100
Hearing and speaking Chinese
Remember that pinyin is only a close approxim ation of Chinese pronunciation. To learn to distinguish and pro nounce Chinese sounds you have to have regular exposure to an audio program or a teacher. If you have access to an audio program in your Chinese learning materials, follow this strategy: 1. Listen to the Chinese word or dialogue. 2. Repeat out loud m im icking the pronunciation on the audio. 3. If you are not sure if your pronunciation is correct, record your repetitions and compare them to the model on the audio program. 4. Once you feel comfortable repeating the expressions, simulate performing the dialogue: play the first expres sion, stop the recording, then respond with the next expression, and so on. 5. Finally, practice saying the entire dialogue until you can perform it accurately and fluently. When you first begin your study of Chinese, this may be slow going, but once you get the hang of it, it will get easier.
TO THE STUDENT
In a written passage or dialogue do not write words in pinyin above the characters. This would lead you to refer to pinyin instead of the characters when called upon to per form in class. If you feel you must have pinyin to help you remember the characters, write it off to the side so you can cover it up and retain an uncluttered and authentic written passage. Reading Chinese
Make it a practice to read Chinese everyday. At the begin ning this may entail nothing more than reading the sen tences, dialogues, and reading passages in your textbook. Later you should add reading material from other sources. CAREFUL — Grammar and vocabulary are only the basic components used to communicate. You will have to learn when and how to use the proper grammar patterns and vocabulary from your Chinese textbook and your teacher.
W H AT^ IN A W ORD? IN ENGLISH
In written form an English word is a cluster of letters rep resenting sounds reflecting how the word is pronounced, book — one word bookstore ^ one word made up of two words: book + store English num erals, however, are symbols that do not reflect the way they are pronounced. For example, we have learned to associate the sound "one" w ith the numeral 1 and "two” with the numeral 2, yet we associate the sound “twelve” when we put the 1 and 2 together. It is important to understand English words in four ways: meaning, part of speech, function, and form. IN CHINESE
Unlike English, in written form a Chinese word does not reflect sounds or indicate pronunciation. Like Engish numerals, a Chinese word is represented by symbols. These symbols are called CHARACTERS. One word can be comprised of one or more separate characters, each char acter being one syllable and having a meaning. Charac ters are written equidistant from one another, even if they are forming one word. O ne
chē rii shū
1 syllable -> 1 word
car you book
Two CHARACTERS — 2 syllables — 1 word chú kitchen +fáng room chúfáng bào report + ztiipaper — baozhi
To make it easier for beginners to use this handbook, Chinese words and examples are written in Roman letters, otherwise known as PINYIN. By transcribing Chinese characters to sounds, pinyin gives an approximation as to how the word is pronounced. More advanced students can consult pp. 105-11 for the equivalent in Chinese characters. It is important to understand Chinese words in two ways: meaning and part of speech.
English and Chinese do not share a common linguistic ancestor. This means that English words and their C h i nese equivalents bear little to no resemblance to one another. English apple person to go to come
C hinese pínggũo rén qù lái
The equivalent of an English word can be one or more Chinese characters. By grouping individual characters, each w ith its own m eaning, C h in ese creates a new meaning, i.e., a new word, that will have a different Eng lish equivalent. As an example, leťs take the one-character words zhong middle and guó country. When grouped together, or with other characters, these two characters create a new word, zhong middle + guó country -»■ Zhongguó China zhong middle + xué school — zhongxué middle school mẽi beautiful + guó country Mẽiguó America Since Chinese characters are written equidistant from one another, it is not uncommon to be able to recognize indi vidual characters in a sentence but to not know which characters go together to form a new word with a different meaning. Therefore, when memorizing vocabulary, you should focus on learning the group of characters that make a word, rather than individual characters. It is more efficien t to learn that Zhongguó means China, and zhongxué means middle school, and so on, rather than the separate characters that make up the word. By using pinyin in this handbook, we have been able to group characters according to the word they form. When warranted, in the word-for-word analysis below the C h i nese examples, we have ungrouped the characters to show you the meaning of each one. CAREFUL — English and Chinese words do not always have a direct equivalent. English often needs more than one word to express a Chinese word and vice versa. When translating from one language to the other, it is often best to express the idea rather than translating word-for-word.
PART OF SPEECH In En glish
Words in English are classified into categories called PARTS OF SPEECH. The following parts of speech are identified in English: nouns verbs pronouns adjectives articles
adverbs prepositions conjunctions interjections
Each part of speech is discussed in a separate chapter of this handbook.
In C hinese
In the twentieth century, Chinese started classifying words according to the traditional parts of speech used in Western languages. The following parts of speech are identified in Chinese: nouns verbs pronouns adjectives
adverbs prepositions conjunctions interjections
Unlike English, Chinese does not have articles (see p. 9 in What is a Noun?). However, Chinese identifies three parts of speech that do not exist in English: Particles — Particles are characters placed at the end of sentences or after verbs giving additional meaning to verbs and sentences (see What is a Verb?, p. 23 and What is a Modal Verb?, p. 27). Particles themselves are not trans lated into English, but are reflected in the English equiva lent of the verb. Classifiers — Classifiers are characters used when counting or specifying nouns (see What is a Noun?, p. 9; What is Meant by Number?, p. 11; What is a Demonstrative Pronoun?, p. 51; and What is an Interrogative Adjective?, p. 96). Except in a few specific cases, classifiers themselves are not trans lated into English. Markers —Markers are characters used with various parts of speech: verbs use markers to show aspect (see pp. 32-4 in What is Meant by Tense?), nouns use markers to show plural (see p. 14 in What is Meant by Number?, and verbs and adjectives use markers to show the negative (see pp. 62-3 in What are Affirmative and Negative Sentences?).
FUNCTION AND FORM In En glish
Function — In English, the role a word plays in a sentence is called its function. For instance, words classified as nouns and pronouns can have the following functions: subject direct o bject in d irect o b ject o b ject o f a preposition
Each function is discussed in a separate chapter of this handbook. Form — The form of different parts of speech can change depending on various factors. Here are some examples. ■Nouns change form depending on whether they refer to one or more persons or objects. o n e man o n e book u 140
four men four books
Pronouns change form depending on their function. He is a g o o d stud ent, subject T h e teacher likes him.
■Verbs change form depending on who is doing the action of the verb. I look at th e b ook.
/ makes US use the form look 150
H e looks at th e b o ok .
he makes US use the form looks
Verbs also change form depending on when the action of the verb takes place. H e takes the bus to sch o ol.
now H e took th e bus to sch o ol.
In C hinese 160
Unlike English, Chinese words never change form. Refer ring to the examples above, the same Chinese character would be used for he/him, for look/looks, and for takes/ took. To indicate the various meanings other characters are attached, but the original character never changes.
WHAT IS A NOUN? A NOUN is a word that can be the name of a person, an animal, a place, a thing, an event, or an idea. ■ a person ■ an a n im a l ■ a place ■ a th in g ■ an even t or activ ity ■ an idea or con cep t
boy, girl, Professor W ang, C o n fu ciu s panda, m onkey, tortoise, crane Beijing, lake, m o u n tain , C h in a bicycle, flower, shirt, Great W all b a d m in to n , party, Sp ring Festival T aoism , tru th , poverty, sadness
As you can see in the list above, a noun is not only a word that names something that is tangible (i.e., something you can touch), such as horse, wall, lamp, it can also be the name of something that is abstract (i.e., that you cannot touch), such as patience, honor, and sadness. A noun that refers to a person, place, or thing, etc. is called a COMM ON NOUN. It can be preceded by a DEFINITE ARTICLE, the, or by an INDEFINITE ARTICLE a (an before a vowel).
Laozi was a philosopher.
The teachings o f Confucius are w ell k n o w n .
A noun that is the name of a specific person, place, or thing, etc. is called a PROPER NOUN. Proper nouns always begin with a capital letter. All the nouns in the list above that are capitalized are proper nouns. Comm on nouns, however, only begin with a capital letter when they are the first word of a sentence or a question. To help you learn to recognize nouns, look at the para graph below where the nouns are in italics. In early November I traveled alone to the Simatai section o f the Great W all. T his section o f the wall is rough and steep. I got a late start, and after h ik in g for nearly two hours, the sun began to set. I was overcom e w ith melan choly as I th ou gh t about m y recent loss. It began to rain.
It was a co ld , steady rain m ixed w ith sleet. I w ondered h o w lo n g it w o u ld take m e to hik e d ow n to th e sm all town I could see below.
A noun can have a different function in a sentence (see p. 8); that is, it can be the subject of a sentence (see What is a Subject?, p. 15) or the object of a sentence (see What is on Object?, p. 19). IN CHINESE
In Chinese, common and proper nouns are identified the same way as they are in English. A Chinese noun can be made up of one or more characters, i.e., each character being one syllable. Pinyin groups the characters according to the word they form. ■one character shū bĩ m
multiple characters g õ n g g ò n g q ìch ẽ gõnggòng = public qìchẽ = car
d ià n ỳ ĩn g diàn = electric ying = image
Unlike English, Chinese nouns are not preceded by either definite or indefinite articles. When written in Chinese characters they do not reflect capitalization. However, when Chinese is written in Roman script, known as PINYIN, as in this handbook, Western language convention is fol lowed, i.e., capitalization of words at the beginning of sen tences and of proper nouns. As in English, a Chinese noun can have a different function in a sentence, i.e.; the subject or the object of a sen tence.
WHAT IS MEANT BY NUMBER? N u m b e r in the grammatical sense means that a word can be classified as singular or plural. When a word refers to one person or thing, it is said to be SINGULAR ；when it refers to more than one, it is PLURAL. o n e book
tw o books
A singular noun is made plural in one of two ways: 1. a singular noun can add a n o r 〃-es〃 book kiss
2. some singular nouns change their spelling m an lea f c h ild
men leaves children
C ollective n o u n s — Collective nouns are singular nouns that refer to more than one person. O u r team w o n th e c o m p etitio n . T h e government sits in B eijing. T h e fam ily w en t to C h in a .
A collective noun can be added to a common noun to refer to more than one person or animal. A different collective noun is used depending on the meaning of the common noun. A group o f people. collective
comm common noun
There was a school o f fish sw im m ing in the p o n d . collective
Flocks o f birds were g o in g south for th e w inter. collective
COUNT NOUNS vs. NON-COUNT NOUNS
A COUNT NOUN is a c o m m o n n o u n t h a t c a n b e c o u n t e d a n d th e r e fo r e it h a s a s in g u la r a n d p lu r a l fo r m ; i .e ., 1 house 2 houses, 1 child -> 4 children.
A N ON -COUN T NOUN is a c o m m o n n o u n t h a t c a n n o t b e c o u n te d a n d th erefo re it o n ly h as a sin g u la r fo rm ; i.e ., air, lib erty, hope. 40
The pattern for count nouns is the following: number + count noun: 1 b ook — 2 books 1 m an — 4 m en
Some count nouns must also be accompanied by a UNIT OF MEASUREMENT. A different unit of measurement is used depending on the meaning of the count noun. The pattern is the following: number + unit of measurement + count noun. I b o u g h t one loa f OỈ bread. number unit of count noun measuremeni
H e ate tw o pieces o f m eat. T h e recipe calls for 1 pound o f butter. T he b ottle con tain s 5 ounces o f m ilk.
Chinese also makes the distinction between count and non-count nouns. Unlike English where the count noun's spelling indicates whether it is singular or plural, in Chi nese the same form is used for both. Chinese relies on two ways to indicate if a count noun is singular or plural: con text and classifiers. Context — The other words in the sentence will often indicate whether the noun is singular or plural. M ă Jù n de tó n g x ú e shì Z h o n g g u ó rén. Mă Jù n = Majun + de possessive particle — Majurťs tóngxúe = classmate singular shì = to be Zhongguó = China rén = person
M ajuď s classmate is Chinese. M ă Jù n de tó n g x ú e dõu shì Z h o n g g u ó rén. Mă Jùn = Majun + de possessive particle — Majun's tóngxúe = classmate dõu = all of them plural shi = to be
Zhongguó = China rén = person
Majurťs classmates are Chinese. Both ofM a ju ď s classmates are Chinese. M ă Jù n de tóngxúe shì Z h o n g g u ó rén hé R ìbền rén. Mă Jùn = Majun + de possessive particle — Majurťs tóngxúe = classmate shì = to be Zhongguó = China rén = person hé = and more than one classmate -* plural Rìbến = Japanese rén = person
M ajuď s classmates are Chinese and Japanese.
Classifiers — Unlike English where only a limited number of count nouns requires the use of a unit of measurement, Chinese requires a unit of measurement, called a CLASSI FIER, with all count nouns. As in English, Chinese classi fiers are related to the m eaning of the noun. Consequently, when you learn a new Chinese count noun, you should learn if a specific classifier accompanies it. For exam ple, when you learn the word shū for book, you should also learn the classifier ben. Many Chinese dictio naries list the classifier in parentheses after the noun and before the definition. Alternatively, if a noun does not have a specific classi fier, the general classifier ge is used. The pattern is as fol lows: number + classifier + noun. Here are a few examples of different classifiers. ■inanimate nouns that are perceived as bound objects (books, magazines, notebooks) ben
wu ben shū wu = five běn shū = book
number classifier noun
■inanimate nouns that are perceived as long and skinny (rivers, sừeets, neckties) tiáo liăn g tiá o hé liăng = two tiáo hé = river
number classifier noun
■animate nouns that refer to a specific number of persons or a specific person — ge wu ge péngyốu wu = five ge péngyốu = friend
number classifier specific no. of persons -»• 5
Nà ge rén shi wo de lăoshĩ. 130
nà = that
ge rén = person shi = to be wo = I + de possessive particle lăoshĩ = teacher
classifier specific person
That person is my teacher.
When the number of persons is not specified, the plural marker -m e n can be added to the noun, without a classi fier. Wo de lăoshĩmen dõu hen hăo. wo = I + de possessive particle — my ỉăoshĩ = teacher + m e n plural marker -> teachers unspecified no. of teachers dõu = all/both hen = very (see p. 82) hao = good
All my teachers are good. Both my teachers are good. 150
depending on context
Classifiers are not only used with count nouns; they are also used with nouns preceded by words referred to as SPECIFIERS, such as the demonstrative adjectives this and that (see What is a Demonstrative Adjective?, p. 93) and the interrogative adjectives which and how many (see What is a Interrogative Adjective?, p. 96). N o n - c o u n t n o u n s — As in English, Chinese non-count nouns are always singular. Unlike count nouns, they are not preceded by a classifier.
WHAT IS A SUBJECT? The SUBJECT is the person or thing that performs the action of the verb. To find the subject, always look for the verb and then ask who? or what? before the verb (see What is a Verb?, p. 23). The answer will be the subject. Michael speaks C h in e s e . Verb: speaks W ho speaks Chinese? Answer: Michael — subject
The trees sw ayed in th e w in d . Verb: swayed What swayed in the wind? Answer: the trees ^ subject
Sometimes a subject is a group of words that go together by meaning. People who speak Chinese are in d em an d . Who is in demand? Answer: people who speak Chinese -* subject
The old trees were c u t d o w n . What was cut down? Answer: the old trees -* subject
To find the subject ask who? or what? before the verb. Subjects can be located in various places in a sentence. In the following examples the subject is in boldface and the verb italicized:
D id the b u s arrive o n tim e? W ith his allo w an ce, Rongsheng bought a b icycle. L o o k in g in th e m irror was a little girl.
As in English, to identify the subject of a Chinese sen tence ask who? or what? is doing the action in the sen tence. H ongw en knows how to speak English. Who knows how to speak English? Answer: Hongwen -> subject
Hóngw én h u i s h u o Y in g w é n . Hóngwén = Hongwen hui = to know how shuõ = to speak Yingwén = English
As in English, a Chinese subject can be more than one word. A ll the new students that came speak Chinese. W ho speaks Chinese? Answer: all the new students that came -» subject X ĩn lái de xuésheng dõu sh u õ Z h o n g w é n . xĩn = new lái = to come de modification particle [new come modifies student] xuésheng = student dõu = all shuõ = to speak verb Zhongwén = Chinese
S o m e C h in e s e se n te n ce s d o n ’t h a v e a Stated s u b je c t, o n ly a to p ic (see b elo w ).
SUBJECT VS. TOPIC
Topic is a grammatical term associated with sentences and refers to what a sentence is about. The topic can be one word, or a phrase, usually followed by a comma or a pause. The rest of the sentence is called a COMMENT, that is, informa tion about the topic. To Kunming, I suggest y o u take th e train.
1 --------------------------1 comment
Meat, I d o n ^ eat. i
The topic is usually the first noun or phrase in the sen tence. Since the subject often appears at the beginning of the sentence, the subject and the topic are often the same word. Careful, just as you cannot assume that the first word in a sentence is the subject, you cannot assume that the subject is always the topic. ■ subject and topic — same Lu Tan gave m e a b ook. Lu Tan, is the topic because it is what the sentence is about; it is also the subject because Lu Tan performs the action o f the verb gave.
■ subject and topic
Dumplings, we love; tofu, I avoid, topic
subject topic subject
Dumplings is the top ic because that is w hat the sentence is about and we is the subject because it performs the action of the verb love. Tofu is another topic and I is the subject because it performs the actions of the verb avoid.
As in English, the topic is usually the first noun or phrase in a Chinese sentence. Also, as in English, you cannot assume that the subject is the topic. ■ subject and topic — same Wo x íh u ã n c h ĩ m án ggu õ . wo = I xlhuan = to like chi = to eat mángguổ = mango
topic + subject
/ like to eat mangoes. m
subject and topic -> different M ángguõ, w o ch ile sān ge. mángguố = mango topic wo = I subject ch! = to eat + le completed action aspect marker sān = three ge general classifier
Mangoes, I ate three (of them).
Chinese is considered a topic-prominent language, in that not all Chinese sentences have a subject, but all sentences have a topic. In the following sentences, the subject is either stated or implied. Nà ge fanguan, fúw ù bù hăo. nà = that ge general classifier fánguan = restaurant fúwù = service b ù negative marker = not hao = good
That restaurant, the service is not good. Y ifu
X I w án le. ylfu = clothes topic xl = to wash + w a n aspect marker for finished action le completed action aspect marker
The clothes, (someone) has finished washing them. implied subject
N à bẽn shũ, ch ũ b ăn le. nà = that bến classifier bound object shū = book topic chũbăn = to publish [omission of it, see p. 43] le completed action aspect marker
That book, (someone) has published it Fángzi gàihăo le. fángzi = house topic gài = to build + h ă o verb action is complete — finished being built le completed action aspect marker [omission of it, see p. 43]
The house, (someone) has finished building it
Remember that Chinese sentences always have a topic, but do not always have a subject.
WHAT IS AN OBJECT? An 0 B1ECT is a noun or pronoun related to a verb or a preposi tion. It is the receiver or goal of the action of the verb and tells where the action is directed (see What is a Noun?, p. 9; What is a Pronoun?, p. 40; What is a Verb?, p. 23 and What is a Preposition?, p. 98). Y o n g iu n writes
a letter. ļ
The b oy w ent w ith his friend. preposition
There are three types of objects: direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of a preposition. The terms "direct" and “indirect" indicate the manner in which the noun or pronoun object is related to the verb. The object of a preposition is introduced by a preposition. D irect OBJECT — A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb directly. It answers the question whom? or what? asked after the verb. H e m et his friend. He met whom? His friend. His friend is the noun direct object.
H e b o u g h t pens. H e collects them. He bought what? Pens. Pens is the noun direct object. He collects what? Them. Them is the pronoun direct object.
In d ir ect OB1ECT — An indirect object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb indirectly, through the preposition to or for. It answers the question to whom? or for whom? asked after the verb. H e gave th e p o em to his friend. He gave the poem to whom? His friend. His friend is the noun indirect object. H e w rote th e p o em for her. He wrote the poem for whom? Her. Her is the pronoun indirect object.
OBļECT OF A PREPOSITION — An object of a preposition is a noun or pronoun that follows a preposition and is related to it, forming what is called a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. The object answers the question whom? or what? asked after the preposition. H e w ent with Lu You. He went with whom? Lu You. Lu You is the noun object of the preposition with. H e w alked behind him. He walked behind whom? Him. Him is the pronoun object of the preposition behind.
T he n ecklace is in the box. The necklace is in what? The box. The box is the noun object of the preposition in.
S e n t e n c e s w it h a d ir e c t a n d in d ir e c t OB1ECT — A s e n te n c e m a y c o n t a in b o t h a d ir e c t o b je c t a n d a n in d ir e c t o b je c t th a t c a n be eith er n o u n s or p ro n o u n s.
W hen a sentence has both a direct and an indirect object, the following two word orders are possible: 1. subject (S) + verb (V) + indirect object (IO) + direct object (DO) L ili gave her sister a gift. 60
W ho gave a gift? Lili.
Lili is the subject. Lili gave what? A gift.
A gift is the direct object. Lili gave a gift to whom? Her sister.
Her sister is the indirect object.
2. subject + verb + direct object + to + indirect object L ili gave a g ift to her sister. I
The first Structure, under 1, is the most common. However, because there is no "to" preceding the indirect object, it is more difficult to identify its function than in the second structure. Regardless of the word order, the function of the words in these two sentences is the same. Be sure to ask the ques tions to establish the function of words in a sentence.
As in English, Chinese has three types of objects: direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of a preposition.
D ir ect OB1ECT — Most Chinese verbs only take a direct object that is typically inanimate, i.e., a non-living thing such as a book or an idea. / read that poem. I read what? That poem. That poem — direct object inanimate W o kànle nà shou shĩ. wo = I kàn = to read + le completed action aspect marker nà = that shou classifier for songs, poems, verses of scripture shĩ = poem
Indirect OB1ECT_ Indirect objects in Chinese are typically animate, i.e., a living thing such as a person or animal. fingjing gave it to me. Jingjing gave to whom? To me. To me — indirect object animate
Jingjlng gei wo. Jlngjĩng = Jingjing gếi = to give [omission of it, see p. 43] wo = I
O bject of a prepo sition — Objects of prepositions in C h i nese work the same way as in Engish. Xiaoqi is chatting with his/her friend. Xiaoqi is chatting with whom? W ith his/her friend. His/Her friend ^ object of preposition with
Xiăoqí zai gēn tā de péngyốu liaotiān. Xiăoqí = Xiaoqi zài progressive aspect marker gēn = with tā = he/she + de possessive particle — his/her péngyốu = friend liáotiãn = to chat
w ith a d ir e c t
OB1ECT AND AN INDIRECT OB1ECT —
When there is a direct and indirect object in the same sen tence, the pattern is the same as the English structure 1 (see p. 20). The pattern is the following: indirect object (the animate) + the direct object (inanimate).
He gave (gives) one book to me. He gave what? One book -> direct object He gave to whom? To me — indirect object
Tã gei wo yĩ bẽn shu. tā = he/she gěi = to give wo = I ỹĩ = one ben classifier bound object shū = book / loaned her a dictionary. I loaned to whom? To her. I loaned what? A dictionary.
indirect object animate
direct object inanimate
indirect object animate direct object inanimate
W o jiè geile tā yi ben zidian. wo = I jie = to lend gei = give [often used with verb to lend] + le completed action aspect marker tā = she indirect object animate yĩ = one běn classifier bound object zidian = dictionary direct object inanimate
Consult your textbook for exceptions to the rule above when the direct object precedes the indirect object.
WHAT IS A VERB? A VERB is the word that indicates the action of the sentence.
H u a n g runs to sch o o l everyday. H u a n g believes exercise is h ea lth y .
As you can see, the word "action” is used in its broadest sense, not necessarily physical action. There are two types of verbs: 1. D y n a m i c v e r b s — D ynam ic verbs express a physical activity. For example, to run, to hit, to talk, to walk, to read. 2. S tative v e r b s 一 S ta tiv e v erb s exp ress a state la s tin g a lo n g time or a permanent condition. For example, to like, to know, to prefer, to be, to have, to own, to imagine, to include, to wish, to understand, to want, to think. The fu n ction of the other words in the sentence often depends on their relationship to the verb. For instance, the subject of a sentence is the word doing the action of the verb and the object of the sentence is the word receiving the action of the verb (see What is a Subject?, p. 15 and What is an Object?, p. 19). IN ENGLISH
You cann ot write a gram m atically correct sentence without a verb. English verbs are inflected, that is they can change form depending on 1) who is doing the action and 2) when the action is taking place. Here is an example of changes with the verb to be. m who is doing the action, i.e., the subject I am P in g is P in g an d M a ry are m
w h e n t h e a c t i o n is t a k i n g p l a c e , i . e . , t h e t e n s e (se e What is Meant by Tense?, p . 31) n o w ~^\am past ^ I was future I will be
Some stative verbs can also be used with action verbs. Jie li likes to eat C h in e s e fo o d .
stative main verb verb 40
To help you learn to recognize verbs, look at the para graph below where verbs are in italics. Three students entered th e restaurant, selected a tab le, and sat down. T h e y studied th e m e n u th e w aitress gave th e m a n d fin a lly decided to order G o n g b a o C h ic k e n a n d so m e d u m p lin g s. T h e y took their tim e chatting d u rin g th e m eal. W h e n th e y finished, th e y got th e b ill, paid, a n d left. T h e m eal had been less expen sive th a n th e y had expected.
IN CHINESE 50
As in English, Chinese has dynamic and stative verbs. Unlike English sentences which require a verb, Chinese sentences can have a verb or an adjective that fu n c tions like a verb (see verbal adjective, p. 87 in What is an Adjective?). Chinese verbs, whether dynam ic or stative, never change form. Other words in the sentence, i.e., the con text, will often guide you to the English equivalent. ■who is doing the action Tã kàn d ià n y ĩn g . tā = he/she kàn = to watch diànỳíng = movie
person doing the action verb
H e watches a movie. W o m e n kàn d ià n y ĩn g . wo = I + m en plural marker — we kàn = to watch diànylng = movie W e watch a m o v ie. 70
persons doing the action verb
■when the action is taking place Tā zu o tiān kàn d ià n y ĩn g . tā = he/she zuotiān = yesterday kàn = to watch điànỷíng = movie
He watched a movie yesterday.
when the action took place verb
W o m e n jln tiā n k à n d ià n y ĩn g . WČ = I + m en plural marker -» we jlntiān = today kàn = to watch diànylng = movie
We watched a movie today. We w ill w atch a movie today.
when action takes place verb
Chinese also uses aspect markers to indicate when the action of the verb takes place (see p. 32 in What is Meant by Tense?). S t a t iv e v e r b s 一 As in E nglish , C h in ese stative verbs describe situations that do not involve action. Tā h e n zūn jing tā de lă o sh ĩ. tā = he/she hến = very (see p. 82) zūnjing = to respect tā = he/she + de possessive particle his/her lăoshĩ = teacher
He/she respects his/her teacher. W o de p é n g y ố u x ìn g H á n . wo = I + de possessive particle — my péngyổu = friend xing = to be surnamed Hán = Han
M y friend^ last name is Han. m
the stative verb shi to be is used when it is followed by a noun (see What is a Noun?, p. 9) L ĩ R ó n g s h ì g õ n g c h é n g sh ĩ. LĨ Róng = Li Rong shì = to be gõngchéngshĩ = engineer
to be noun
Li Rong is an engineer.
■the stative verb shi to be is omitted when it is followed by an adjective (see verbal adjective p. 87). L ĩ R ó n g h en m án g . LĨ Róng = Li Rong hěn = very (see p. 82) máng = busy
Li Rong is busy.
CAREFUL — The meaning of Chinese verbs can be affected by context and aspect markers. Be sure to consult What is Meant by Tense?, p. 31. TERMS USED TO TALK ABOUT VERBS
— In English, the various forms a verb can take are called the inflection of the verb: / do, he does. ■ TENSE — In English, a verb form can indicate tense; that is, the time (present, past, or future) of the action of the verb in relation to the time the person is speaking: I do, I did, I will do (see What is Meant by Tense?, p. 31). ■ ASPECT MARKERS — In Chinese, aspect markers are used to give an extended meaning as to how the action of the verb takes place; for instance, aspect markers indicate whether an action is complete or not, in progress or not, or has happened before or not (see pp. 32-4 in What is Meant by Tense?). ■ AD1ECTIVAL VERBS — In Chinese, predicate adjectives can function as verbs and replace the verb (see p. 87 in What is an Adjective?).
WHAT IS A MODAL VERB? A MODAL VERB is a v erb t h a t c o m p le m e n ts th e m e a n in g o f a n a c c o m p a n y in g v erb , ca lle d th e MAIN VERB.
Huan must study for the exam.
modal verb main verb
Modal verbs complement the meaning of the main verb in different ways. They always precede the main verb. I can speak Chinese.
to know how to speak Chinese
I may speak Chinese, to have permission to speak Chinese
I must speak Chinese, to have to speak Chinese
As in English, Chinese has modal verbs. They always pre cede the main verb. The most common are hùi will, or to know how to (depending on context), néng to be able, kẽyĩ to be allowed to, dei must, yĩnggâi should. Wo huì shuõ Zhongwén. wố = I huì = to know how to shuõ = to speak Zhongwén = Chinese
I know how to speak Chinese. Wo kẽyĩ shuoZhongwén. wo = I kếyĩ = to be allowed to shuõ = to speak Zhongwén = Chinese
/ may speak Chinese. Wo dei shuoZhongwén. wo = I děi = must shuõ = to speak Zhongwén = Chinese
I must speak Chinese.
WHAT ARE THE USES OF THE VERB "TO BE"? 1
The verb to be can be used in one of two ways: as a main verb or as an auxiliary verb: Lili is a student.
[ verb : main Lili is living at home, auxiliary verb (main verb to live)
IN ENGLISH 10
The verb to be changes form to reflect the person doing the action of the verb, i.e., the subject, and to reflect when the action is taking place, i.e.; the tense (see What is a Sub ject?, p. 15 and What is Meant by Tense?, p. 31). I am, you are, he is I was, you were I will be, you will be
P resent tense Past tense F uture tense
In conversation the above forms are often shortened: I am ťm , it is iťs, they are they^e, and so on. These are called the CONTRACTED FORMS of the verb. He is leaving tonight. H e^ leaving tonight. There is nothing to eat. Therms nothing to eat.
The verb to be can be used as a main verb or as an auxil iary verb: ■as a main verb it can be used alone Yan is Chinese.
■as an auxiliary verb it can be used to change the tense of the main verb (see What is the Progressive?, p. 35) Yan is going to China. I
present Yan was going to China. I
past Yan will go to China.
8. VERB "TO BE"
As a main verb, the verb to be is usually used as a LINKING because it links the subject to a noun, adjective, or prepositional phrase. It is primarily used in one of two ways:
■linking the subject to a noun ^ identifies an object, person, or situation This is a pen. subject object
I am a Chinese teacher.
I_ _ —-— — I
It is five o^lock.
■linking the subject to an adjective or prepositional phrase — identifies a state of being or location The children are ha . subject
The cafeteria was noisy. subject
The books are on the shelf. J subject
I •:」 , prepositional phrase
The verb to be in Chinese is shi. As all Chinese verbs, the verb shi never changes form regardless of who does the action or when it takes place. Since Chinese verbs do not have tenses, and therefore have no need for auxiliary verbs, shi is only used as a main verb. To choose the correct English equivalent you will have to rely on context. Wo shì lẵoshĩ.
no indication of time
wo = I shi = to be lăoshĩ = teacher
I am a teacher. Wo qùnián shì lăoshĩ. wo = I qùnián = last year shi = to be lăoshĩ = teacher
a teacher last year.
"last year" — past
• VERB "TO BE 〃
■linking the subject to a noun -> shi is expressed Zhang X in is a teacher.
Zhāng XIn shi laoshr. Zhang X ĩn = Zhang Xin shi = to be lăoshĩ = teacher
■linking the subject to a prepositional phrase — shi is omitted (see p. 20 in What is an Object?) The books are on the shelf.
Shū zai shūjia shàng. 90
shū = book zài = on shūjia = bookshelf shàng = on top of
■linking the subject to an adjective ^ shi is omitted (see verbal adjective, p. 87 in What is an Adjective?) Zhang X ỉn is busy today.
Zhāng X ĩn jīntiān hen m áng.
Zhāng X ĩn = Zhang Xin jīntiān = today hến = very (see p. 82) m á n g = busy
Zhang X in is not tall.
Zhāng X ĩn bù gāo. Zhāng X ĩn = Zhang Xin b ù negative marker = not
gāo = tall
Remember to delete shi in sentences with adjectival clauses, even though you will use is when translating these sen tences into English.
WHAT IS MEANT BY TENSE? The TENSE of a verb indicates when the action of the verb takes place in relation to speech time: at the present time, in the past, or in the future. past
I ate the apple.
I am eating the apple.
I will eat the apple.
English has many tenses. By simply putting the verb in a different form and without giving any additional information, you indicate when the action of the verb takes place in relation to speech time. Listed below are the main Eng lish tenses and their name: P resen t
I study I do study I am studying
PRESENT PRESENT EMPHATIC PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
P a st
I studied I did study I have studied I had studied I was studying
SIMPLE PAST PAST EMPHATIC PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT PAST PROGRESSIVE
I will study I will have studied I will be studying
FUTURE FUTURE PERFECT FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
Unlike English, Chinese verbs do not have tenses to indi cate when an action takes place. Here is an example of the English equivalents of a Chinese verb. Wo qù m ăi shū. wố = I qù = to go mãi = to buy shū = book/books
/ am buying a book/books. / bought a book/books.. / am going to buy a book/books.
to be in the process of past action future action
. TEN SES
To indicate when the action takes place relative to speech time, Chinese relies primarily on context, i.e., the overall subject matter or words related to tim e, and aspect markers (discussed separately below). Zhāng Ping chi Zhongguó cài. Zhāng Ping = Zhang Ping chĩ = to eat Zhongguó = China cài = food
Zhang Ping eats Chinese food. 50
Zhāng Ping zuótian ch ĩ Zhongguó caì. Zhāng Ping = Zhang Ping zuotiān = yesterday chĩ = to eat Zhongguó = China cài = food
Zhang Ping ate Chinese food yesterday.
Zhāng Ping m ingtiān ch ī Zhongguó caì.
Zhāng Ping = Zhang Ping mingtiān = tomorrow chi = to eat Zhongguó = China cài = food
Zhang Ping will eat Chinese food tomorrow.
TENSE VS. ASPECT Tense — refers to the time when an action takes place in
relation to the time of speaking. Aspect — situates the verbal action within a time frame not necessarily related to the time of speaking. IN ENGLISH 70
English has tenses to situate an action within a time frame and English grammars rarely refer to the term "aspect." For our purpose, however, we can associate aspect to the English progressive tenses which add an additional time element to the tense of the verb. Huan walks home.
present tense indicates a habitual action true at the time of speaking , i.e ., H uan always walks hom e; he d o esn ’t drive home. 80
Huan is walking home. present progressive tense ^ indicates not only that the action is true at the present time, but that it is in progress at the time of speaking; i.e., Huan is walking home now.
IN C H IN E S E
To situate an action within a time frame Chinese relies on ASPECT MARKERS. These markers are words placed before or after the verb, or suffixes added to the verb, or particles placed at the end of the sentence. Here are a few examples: ■progressivlty (action of the verb is in progress) progres sive aspect marker zai + verb Tiãnxúe zài kàn diànshì. Tiãnxúe = Tianxue zài aspect marker kàn = to see diànshì = television
action of the verb is in progress verb
Tianzue is watching television. m
experience (action of the verb has taken place at least once before) ^ verb + experience aspect marker -guò Tā qùguò Zhongguó. tā = he qù = to go + g u ò aspect marker
verb + action of the verb has taken place before
Zhongguo = China
He has been to China before.
■completion (action of the verb is complete) — verb + completed action aspect marker -le (le is a separate word when the verb is at the end of a sentence, see pp. 77-8) Zhándé kànle sān bẽn shū. Zhándé = Zhande kán = to see verb + + le aspect marker action of the verb is completed sān = three ben classifier for bound object shū = book
Zhande read three books. m
change of state (action of the verb has changed or a new action is beginning) sentence final particle le Tã bù he jiu le. tā = he/she bù negative marker = not he = to drink jiu = alcohol le final particle
H e does not drink anymore.
verb action of the verb has changed
34 X ià y u le. xià = to rain yù = to descend le final particle
verb verb action of the verb is beginning
It is Starting to rain.
Since Chinese verbs do not have tenses, when translating a Chinese sentence into English you will have to select the English tense which is the most appropriate to the context.
10 WHAT IS THE PROGRESSIVE? The PROGRESSIVE is a verbal construction used to talk about actions or events that are in progress, or in a state of continu ance, at a specific moment. Xiaobin is talking on the phone.
at this moment, i.e. right now
Xiaobin was talking on the phone.
at that moment, i.e. in the past
The progressive construction is made up of the verb to be + the -ing form of the main verb: is walking, was walking, etc. The tense of the verb to be indicates when the action of the main verb takes place: in the present, past, or future (see What is Meant by Tense?, p. 31). P resent progressive
It is snowing. present -♦ right now as I am speaking tense
It was snowing.
past ^ some time in the past tense F uture progressive
It will be snowing. future tense
some time in the future
Unlike English, the progressive is only used for ongoing actions in the present. To indicate English past and future progressive tenses, Chinese adds words such as yesterday and tomorrow to the verb. The English present progressive is expressed in Chinese with various aspect markers known as PROGRESSIVE or DURATIVE aspect markers (see p. 33 in What is Meant by Tense?). The aspect marker used depends on the meaning of the verb and whether you want to stress that the action of the verb is in progress at the time of speaking.
10. PRO G RESSIVE
Here are a few examples of progressive aspect markers: ■action verbs can use one of two progressive aspect markers: zái1 + action verb or action verb + -zhe + sen tence final particle ne 40
Tã zài kàn diànshì. tā = he/she zài kàn = to watch diànshì = TV
progressive aspect marker action verb
He is watching TV. Tā chīzhe fan ne. tā = he/she chī= to eat + zhe fan = meal ne
action verb progressive aspect marker sentence final particle
He is eating. u
action verbs can stress the fact that the action is progres sive by adding zhéngzái in the process of before the verb Tā zhéngzái kàn diànshì. tā = he zhéngzái kàn = to watch diànshì = TV
in the process of verb
He is in the middle o f watching TV.
■posture verbs (e.g.; to sit, to stand, to stop) add the pro gressive aspect marker -zhe after the verb Mài Lián zài chuáng shàng tángzhe. Mài Lián = Mai Lián zài = on chuáng = bed shàng = on top of tầng = to lie down + zhe 70
posture verb progressive aspect marker
M ai Lian is lying on the bed.
CAREFUL _ Your textbook will indicate the appropriate aspect marker for different contexts.
lrThe word zài has two functions in Chinese: 1. before a verb it functions as the progressive aspect marker 2. before a location it functions as a preposi tion and means in, at, on (see p. 99).
WHAT IS THE IMPERATIVE? T h e IMPERATIVE is th e c o m m a n d fo rm o f a verb. It is used to give so m eo ne an order. There are affirm ative co m m a n d s (an ord er to d o s o m e th in g ) a n d n e g a tiv e co m m a n d s (an order n o t to do som ething). Open the door! D o ď t open the door!
IN ENGLISH T h e re are tw o ty p es o f c o m m a n d , d e p e n d in g o n w h o is to ld to d o, or n o t to do, som eth ing. 1. ,fY o u MCOMMAND — W h e n th e speaker gives a n order to o n e or m ore p erson s to d o s o m e th in g , th e d ic tio n a ry fo rm o f the verb is used. W h e n an order is g iv en n o t to do so m eth in g, dorťt is placed before the verb. A ffirmative imperative Answer the phone. Clean your room. Speak softly.
N egative imperative D on^ answer the phone. D o ď t clean your room. D o ď t speak softly.
2. "W e" c o m m a n d — W h en the speaker gives an order or sug g e stio n to h im s e lf or h e rse lf as w ell as to o th ers to do som ething, the phrase le ťs (a contraction o f let us) is used + the dictionary form o f the verb. W hen an order is given not to do som ething, leťs not is placed before the verb. A ffirmative imperative L eťs leave. L eťs go to the movies.
N egative imperative L e ts not leave. L e ts not go to the movies.
IN CHINESE As in E n g lis h , th e re are a ffir m a tiv e a n d n e g a tiv e c o m m and s, o ne for you and another for we. 1 . MY 〇 UMCOMMAND T h e a ffirm a tiv e c o m m a n d is m a d e b y m e re ly sta tin g the verb.
Zuò xià. = to sit xià = to descend ZUÒ
. IM PERATIVE
The command can be softened by adding the suggestion particle ba at the end of the sentence. Zuo ba. Have a seat
The negative command is made by placing bié don;t before the verb. In more formal situations, such as on signs, bù yào (lit. not to need) is used before the verb. Bié c h ĩ.
D on’t eat!
Bù yaò hē léng shui. 50
bù negative marker = not yào = to need hē = to drink léng = cold shui = water
Dorťt drink cold water!
2. mW emc o m m a n d The plural pronoun women is used with the suggestion particle ba at the end of the sentence. W ỗm en 60
wo = I + men plural marker -* we zou = to leave ba suggestion particle
Leťs leave. W om en qù kàn diànỷĩng ba. wổ = I + men plural marker — we qù = to go kàn = to see diànỳĩng = movie ba suggestion particle
Let’s go see a movie.
The negative command is made by placing bié doďt and the suggestion particle le at the end of the sen tence. In formal situations the suggestion particle ba is placed at the end of the sentence. Women bié qù kàn diànỳĩng le.
wò = I + men plural marker — we bié = don't qù = to go kàn = to see
.IM P E R A T IV E
diànỳĩng = movie le suggestion particle
Leťs not go to a movie. Women bié qù le. wo = I + men plural marker -> we bié = don't qù = to go le suggestion particle
Let’s not go. 90
CAREFUL — Do not translate the do, does, did of the English
negative commands. They merely serve to indicate the Eng lish negative and have no Chinese equivalent.
WHAT IS A PRONOUN? A PRONOUN is a word used in place of one or more nouns. Therefore, it may stand for a person, animal, place, thing, event, or idea (see What is a Noun?, p. 9). Tingting likes to swim. She practices every day. pronoun replacing Tỉngtìng
There are different types of pronouns, each serving a dif ferent function and following different rules. They are listed below with a reference to the chapter in which they are discussed. Personal pronoun — A pronoun that refers to a person or thing (see p. 42). I like her. He is talking to
Reflexive pronoun — A pronoun that reflects the action of the verb back to the subject of the sentence (see p. 47). Ping looked at himself. The students congratulated themselves.
Interrogative pronoun — A pronoun that asks a question about a person or thing (see p. 49). Who made this? W hat did you say?
Demonstrative pronoun _ A pronoun that points out a
person or thing (see p. 51). This is a great book. I prefer those.
Possessive pronoun — A pronoun that shows possession
(see What is a Personal Pronoun?, p. 42). Whose book is that? Mine. Yours is on the table.
Relative pronoun — These pronouns are used to introduce relative clauses (see p. 71). The man who came is very nice. That is the book which you read last summer.
Indefinite pronoun — These pronouns are used to refer to unidentified persons or things (see Whot are Indefinite and Negative Pronouns?, p. 53). One doesn^ do that. Something is wrong.
Pronouns are identified the same way as they are in Eng lish. See the separate chapters on different types of pro nouns. CAREFUL — The placement of pronouns in a Chinese sen tence is different from the English word order. Consult your textbook.
13 WHAT IS A PERSONAL PRONOUN? A PERSONAL PRONOUN is a word that replaces a noun referring to a person or a thing (see What is a Pronoun?, p. 40). She is reading a Chinese book, refers to a person
It tells the story of a dragon, refers to a thing
Personal pronouns are divided into the following cate gories: FIRST PERSON -> the person speaking, SECOND PERSON -> the person spoken to, THIRD PERSON the person or thing spoken about. The word “person" in this instance does not necessarily mean a human being; it is a gram matical term which can refer to any noun. Except for the second person you, personal pronouns have a singular and plural form, depending on whether they refer to one person or thing or to more than one person or thing (see What is Meant by Number?, p. 11). / admire her very much. 1st pers. 3rdpers. sing. sing.
We admire them very much.
l s, pers. pi.
She admires it very much.
They admire you very much.
2nd pers. sing, or pi.
Personal pronouns also change their form according to the function they have in a sentence: subject, object, or possessive (see What is a Subject?, p. 15, What is an Object?, p. 19, and Whot is the Possessive?, p. 45).
13. PERSONAL PRONOUNS
He wants to send his photos to her. 1 1 3rdpers. sing. subject
1 1 3rdpers. sing. possessive
1 1 3,d pers. sing. object
They want to send their photos to them. 1 3rdpers. pi. subject
1 3rdpers. pi. possessive
3rdpers. pi. object
As a reference, here is a list of English personal pronouns according to their various functions: 1st pers. sing. pi. 2nd pers. sing. pl 3rd pers. sing. pl-
we you you he/she/it they
me us you you him/her/it them
my our your your his/her/its their
Like English, Chinese has first, second, and third person personal pronouns. They are made plural by adding the marker -men to the singular form (see p. 14 in What is Meant by Number?). 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
women nĩm en tāmen
Unlike English which has three forms for the 3rdperson singular (he, she, and it), Chinese makes no distinction between he and she in the spoken language or in pinyin, but the two pronouns have different characters in the written language. As for the pronoun it, it is usually omitted. Nà ben shū hẽn hăo. Wo hẽn xĩhuãn. nà = that bẽn classifier for bound objects shū = book hen = very (see p. 82) hao = good wo = I hen = very (see p. 82) xĩhuãn = to like "it" not expressed
That book is good. I like it.
13. PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Unlike English where personal pronouns have different forms depending on their function (/, me, my for the 1st person singular), Chinese uses the same personal pronoun as subject, object, and possessive. Here are some examples: Wo xĩhuân tā. =I xihuan = to like tā = he/she
I like her/him. T ā x ĩh u ã n w o . tā = he/she xĩhuãn = to like wo = I
He/she likes me.
Tā x ĩh u ã n w o d e shū. tā = he/she xĩhuãn = to like wo = I + de possessive particle shū = book
subject possessive —
He/she likes my book.
Since Chinese personal pronouns don't change form, when translating a personal pronoun into English you will have to rely on context and function to select the appro priate English form.
14 WHAT IS THE POSSESSIVE? The term POSSESSIVE means that a noun owns or possesses another noun (see What is a Noun?, p. 9). Hongyi's Chinese book is on the table, possessor
You can show possession in three ways. 1. An apostrophe can be used after a noun. ■an apostrophe + "s” is added to a singular possessor Daohon^s bicycle Li Baťs poem singular possessor
■an apostrophe is added to a plural possessor that ends w iti an "s’’ the students/ teacher the boys, locker room I plural possessor
_ an apostrophe + "s" is added to a plural possessor that does not end in "s〃 the merťs department the children^ playground I
2. The word of can be used before a noun. ■of is placed before a proper or common noun possessor the bicycle ofDaohong I proper noun possessor
the address o f a friend I
singular common noun possessor
the teacher o f the students plural common noun possessor
3. A possessive form of a personal pronoun can be used (see What is a Personal Pronoun?, p. 42).
14. PO SSESSIVE
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN my our yo u r his her its th eir
garden garden y o u r garden h is garden h e r garden its garden th e ir garden my
Chinese does not use any of the above English structures. Instead, Chinese uses the modification particle de to indi cate the possessive. The pattern is the following: proper or common noun + de, or singular or plural pronoun + de. Here are a few examples. D à o h ó n g d e zixin g ch e Dàohóng = Daohong proper noun + de possessive particle ^ Daohong^s zixingche = bicycle
Daohong’s b ic y c le x u é s h ẽ n g d e lă o sh ĩ xuéshẽng = student common noun + de possessive particle — student's lăoshĩ = teacher
the student's te a c h e r w o d e chẽ wo = I + de possessive particle -> my chẽ = car
my ca r
tâm en de chẽ tā = he/she + m en plural marker they + de possessive particle — their chẽ = car
their ca r The modification particle de is also used in modifying phrases (see p. 59) and in relative clauses (see pp. 72-3).
WHAT IS A REFLEXIVE PRONOUN? A REFLEXIVE PRONOUN is a pronoun that reflects the action of the verb back to the subject of the sentence. Li Li looked at herself in the m irro r.
reflexive pronoun — same person
Many regular verbs can take on a reflexive meaning by adding a reflexive pronoun. T h e c h ild dresses th e d o ll.
regular verb T h e c h ild dresses herself.
verb + reflexive pronoun
Reflexive pronouns end with -se lf in the singular and -selves in the plural. S ubject PRONOUN
R eflexive PRONOUN
1st person 2 nd person
he she it
m yse lf yo urself h im se lf
P lural 1st PERSON 2 nd person 3REDPERSON
you th ey
yourselves them selves
Chinese has only one reflexive pronoun ziji. The pattern is the following: singular or plural personal pronoun or noun + ziji. W o Z 1J 1 q u . wo = I
singular personal pronoun
zìjĩ = self qù = to go
rm going myself.
15. R EFLEXIV E PRONOUNS
Women z ìjĩ 40
qù. wo = I + men plural marker -* we zìịĩ = self qù = to go
plural personal pronoun reflexive pronoun
We are going ourselves. N ĩ z ìjĩ m ăi shénm e? n ĩ = you zìjĩ = self măi = to buy shénme = what
personal pronoun reflexive pronoun
W hat did you buy yourself? 50
Lìli z ìjĩ
y ào q ù M ế ig u ó . Lili = Lili zìjĩ = herself yào = will qù = to go Mẽiguó = America
noun reflexive pronoun
Lili will go to America by herself. Since there is only one Chinese reflexive pronoun, when translating a Chinese reflexive into English you will have to select the English reflexive that corresponds to the subject.
16 WHAT IS AN INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN? An INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN is a word that replaces a noun and asks a question (see What is a Noun?, p. 9). Who is c o m in g for d inner? W hat d id y o u eat for d inner?
A different interrogative pronoun is used depending on whether it refers to a person, to a thing, or to show possession. ■person
^ who or whom
Who speaks C h in ese? Who (whom) d id y o u see? ■th in g
W hat h a p p en ed to y o u ? W hat w ill y o u b u y today? ■possession
Whose is this?
An interrogative pronoun is identified the same way as it is in English. As in English, a different interrogative pronoun is used depending on whether it refers to a person, to a thing, or to show possession. ^ who or whom Nĩ de lă o s h ĩ shì shéi?
ní = you + de possessive particle — your lăoshĩ = teacher shi = to be shéi = who
Who is your teacher? N ĩ rènshi shéi? n ĩ = you rènshi = to know shéi = who
Who(m) do you know?
m SỊ dSOliM
9SOIỊM *ť- apiịlBd 9AỊSS9SS〇d ap + OlļM = iaqs aq Oļ = iqs
3PỊ3IỊS — 9 p a p i ļ i e d a A īs s a s s o d + O IỊM . ļ a i ļ s «e- d s o īļM .
)X3ļu〇 3 uo buipuaddp
u o ļssasso d ■
;o p Oļ S u io S noÁ. 9XV ļ v t ļ M c r
iS m o p noÁ. 9ẲV ìv t ị Ạ ị 1BqM
op Oļ = onz noẤ = IU ^ am uaiỊS on z I1S[ 3UIII3IỊS < - 说 释 — 6 u ļq ļ _
S N flO N O iid 3八I丄V D O iiy ] 丄NI 9L
'puduị ÁUI St sttiL
puaijj = noẤSuẹd ẤUI [B9ds a iļļ UIOJJ J 9 iļ ļin j JO 9 s o p SỊ P 9 Íq o IO u o s ia d 9 iļļ i9iỊ19qM p u ^ Sļ39ļqo JO s u o s ia d a io u i JO a u o O ļ S u i u a j 9 J 9JB n o Ẩ I91Ị191ỊM u o S u ip u a d a p u n o u -O ld 9 A I^ JļS U O U I9 p 1U9J9JJTP B S9SĨI 9S9U ỊIỊ3 'lỊSỊỊỖ Ug 9>ļn
3S3 NIHD Nl J3>[它3ds
J3>[的 ds Oļ as〇ỊD ỊưinỊd
UIOIỊ ẤBME laiỊịirự
dSOlļļ í S iq
9S911X •9SBD1ỊĨ1S Ư 9S00L 〇
(l9>[P9ds 91Ị1 UIOJJ jaiļļinj) 9S01ỊỊ i(j9>[E9ds aiļļ Oļ 9S0ỊD) dSd\ņ :pa(qo 10 uosiad 9U0 u^iļļ 9JOUI Oļ S u iu a p i 91^ noẤ U91ỊM ■ J9>ỊB9ds UIOJJ ẤBMB I9lỊ1Jĩụ
J9>ỊB9ds Oļ 9S〇p
jB ļn S m s
iB Ịn S u ĩs
•n^UIS SỊ d u o ļ V l ļ ļ ! S i q SỊ du o SỊ11X *S9SBD1ins A U I 9JH 9 J9 H
(l9>[P9ds 91Ị1 UIOIỊ ẨPMP J9iļļinj) duo ļv iļļ 10 ļv iļļ i(j9>[B9ds aqļ Oļ 9S〇p) duo Sļt[ļ 10 siiņ :p9ļqo 10 uosiad auo Oļ S u iiia p i 9JP noẨ U91ỊM ■ •J9>[P9ds 9lļļ UIOIJ ẤBMB I91Ị1 -jnj IO Oļ 9S〇p Sī p9ļqo JO uosiad 91Ị1 J9T11911M PUB spalqo IO suosiad ajorn JO 9U0 Oļ S u iu a p i ai^ noẤ jaiỊ19iỊM uo Suipuadap pasn Sī unouoīd 9Aiļ^iļsuoui9p 1U9J9JJIP V HSI1 3 N3 Nl •sm o Ấ
dSO lịX *9UTUI ST S Ị l l l
^un 〇N D SỊ 1DLỊM 99S) 1X91U0D aiļļ UIOIJ p〇OļSI9pun 10 pauoiļ
-U9UI ẤỊsnoỊAaid paíqo UB JO uosiad ư ẤjỊD9ds JO ļno 1UỊ〇d Oļ unou 12JO PB91SUỊ pasu piOM B SỊ NfiONOMd 3AI1VÍJ1SNOIAI3Q v 么NílONOHd 3八I1 VU 1 SN 0
These are ours. u
those ^ nà + xiẽ
W o zh ēn x lh u ã n nàxiẽ. w o= I zhẽn = truly xihuân = to like nà = that + xiê plural marker — those
I truly like those.
For more on demonstrative words, see What is a Demon strative Adjective?, p. 93.
WHAT ARE INDEFINITE AND NEGATIVE PRONOUNS? An INDEFINITE PRONOUN is a word used to refer to an unidenti fied person or thing (see What is a Noun?, p. 9). Someone is h o m e .
not a definite person
A NEGATIVE PRONOUN is the negative equivalent of an indefi nite pronoun. Nobody is h o m e. negates the existence of someone
Indefinite pronouns have affirmative forms and a corre sponding negative form. A ffirm ative
referring to persons
som eone an y o n e
n o o ne
som ebo d y anybody
referring to th in g s
so m e th in g
a ilin g
o f in d efin ite p r o n o u n s in q u e s t io n s a n d a n s w e r s
Question — An indefinite pronoun starting with some is
used if an affirmative answer is expected; a negative indef inite pronoun starting with any is used if a negative answer is expected. Is somebody co m in g ? (the exp ectatio n is th a t som eone is com in g) Is anybody co m in g ? (the exp ecta tio n is th a t n o b o d y is com in g)
Affirmative indefinite answer
starting with some is used. Yes, somebody is co m in g . Yes, he b o u g h t somethiņg.
an indefinite pronoun
18. IN D EFIN ITE AND N EG ATIVE PRONOUNS
Negative indefinite answer~The indefinite pronoun used depends on whether the indefinite pronoun is the subject of the sentence or has another function. ■ subject of a sentence the corresponding negative pro noun starting with no is used. Q uestion : I s s o m e b o d y (so m e o n e ) co m in g ? affirmative pronoun = subject Answer:
N o , n o b o d y (or n o o n e) is co m in g . negative pronoun = subject
Q uestion : I s there s o m e t h in g o n th e table? affirmative pronoun = subject
N o , there is n o th in g o n th e table.
negative pronoun = subject
■ not the subject of the sentence ^ one of two ways to respond: 1. negative verb + an affirmative pronoun starting with any 2. affirmative verb + the corresponding negative pro noun starting with no Q uestion D id yo u give it to a n y b o d y ? verb
affirmative pronoun = indirect object
N o , I d id r ť t g iv e it to a nỵ b o d y . negative affirmative verb pronoun N o , I g a v e it to n o o n e . affirmative negative verb pronoun
Q uestion D id he b u y a n y t h in g ? verb affirmative pronoun: direct object 70
N o , he d id r ť t b u y a n y th in g .
I- ■,, ■ )
negative affirmative verb pronoun
N o , he b o u g h t n o th in g . affirmative negative verb pronoun
18. IN D EFIN ITE AND N EG ATIVE PRONOUNS
Chinese has indefinite pronouns, but they are used more in writing than in everyday speech. As they are usually introduced at an advanced level, we shall concentrate on the two ways indefiniteness is expressed in everyday speech. 1. expressions to indicated indefiniteness in questions, and in the affirmative and negative answers: Q uestion: you to have + m éiyổu [lit. not to have] not A ffirmative indefinite answer: you to have N egative indefinite answer: m éiyồu not
The negative marker m éiyốu is used for past events and, therefore, is a good indication that the English verb is in the rpast tense.
Q u es tio n
Y ou m eiyou
you = to have méiyỗu negative marker = not rén = person lái = to come
D id someone/anyone come? Affirmative indefinite answer Y ou
you = to have rén = person lái = to come
Yes, someone came. Negative indefinite answer M éiyố u
méiyổu negative marker = not rén = person lài = to come
No, no one came.
2. question words or interrogative pronouns used in nega tive answers to indicate indefinitiveness. Q uestion：you to have + m éiyou [lit. not to have] not A ffirmative indefinite answer：you to have + information N egative indefinite answer: bù not + verb + question word The negative marker bù is used for present or future events and, therefore, is a good indication that the Eng lish verb is in the present or future tense.
18. IN D EFIN ITE AND N EG ATIVE PRONOUNS
Q u es t io n
N ĩ q ù năr? n ĩ = you qù = to go năr = where
verb interrogative adverb
Where are you going? Affirmative answer
Wo q ù nàr. wo = I qù = to go nàr = there
Vm going over there. Negative answer
Wo bù q ù năr. wo = I bù negative marker = not qù = to go nar = where
verb interrogative adverb
Fm not going anywhere. Q u es t io n
N Ĩ y o u m é iy ổ u m ă i shénme? n ĩ = you you = to have m éiyốu negative marker = not măi = to buy shénme = what
verb interrogative pronoun
D id you buy something? Affirmative answer W o m ăile d õ n g x i. wo = I mãi = to buy + le completed action aspect marker dõngxi = thing 150
Yes, I bought things. Negative answer W o méiyổu m ăi shénme. wổ = I méiyồu negative marker = not măi = to buy shénme = what
I didn’t buy anything.
verb interrogative pronoun
18. IN D EFIN ITE AND N EG ATIVE PRONOUNS
NĨ you m é iy ố u rènshi shéi? n ĩ = you you = to have m éiyổu negative marker = not rènshi = to know shéi = who
verb interrogative pronoun
D id you know anyone? Affirmative answer Y o u , w o rènshi laoshi. you = to have -> yes wo = I rènshi = to know lăoshĩ = teacher
Yes, I knew the teacher. Negative answer W o m éiyồu rènshi shéi. wo = I méiyổu negative marker = not rènshi = to know shéi = who
verb interrogative pronoun
I didn’t know anyone. CAREFUL — English indefinite pronouns do not always translate directly into Chinese. Always look at the context in which they are used before choosing the proper C h i nese equivalent.
19 WHAT ARE PHRASES, CLAUSES, AND SENTENCES? 1
In a sentence, groups of words, i.e.; phrases and clauses, are classified according to the parts of speech they contain. Sen tences, i.e., simple, compound, and complex, are classified according to the clauses they contain. WHAT IS A PHRASE? I n E nglish
A phrase is a sequence of two or more words, without a subject and a verb (as opposed to a clause that contains both a subject and a verb, see below), that functions as a unit in a sentence. The focus of the unit, i.e., the essential word in the phrase, is called the HEAD of the phrase. The other words in the phrase, called MODIFIERS, give additional information about the head. The different types of phrases are identified by the part of speech of either the head of the phrase or the first word of the phrase. In the examples below, the head is in bold italics, the modifier(s) in italics. _ noun phrase — noun + modifier(s) T h e Forbidden C it y is an important architectural monument. T h e sage is a man respected for his wisdom.
■adjectival phrase — adjective + modifier(s) W a n g Peng was wise beyond his years. T h e c h ild was exừemely well behaved.
■demonstrative phrase — demonstrative pronoun + modifier⑸ This book is m in e; those books are hers.
■prepositional phrase — preposition + noun or pronoun 30
H e studied C h in e s e in Nanjing. She w ent with him to th e park.
■verb phrase — verb + words that give a particular meaning to the verb. Here are examples of the various meanings of the verb to look depending on the word that follows. T h e students look at th e blackboard.
I i I to see
T he m o th e r looks after th e ch ild ren , to take care of T h e ch ild ren looked for the soccer ball. 40
I n C hinese
In addition to the phrases described above, Chinese iden tifies another commonly used phrase. ■modifying phrase — a phrase, made up of adjectives, nouns, verbs, or prepositions, that precedes a noun or noun phrase and gives additional information about the noun or noun phrase. Whether long or short, the struc ture is the following: modifying phrase + modification particle de + noun or noun phrase. QÍ zixíngchě de rén yijing zou le. qi = to ride verb noun zixingche = bicycle modification particle de rén = people noun yĩjĩng = already zou = to go le completed action aspect marker
noun phrase phrase
Those people who rode bicycles have already left.
Wo zuótian zài nĩ jiā rènshi de rén
shì n ĩ de gẽge. pronoun wố = I zuotiān = yesterday adverb zài = at preposition modifying pronoun riĩ = you noun phrase jiā= home verb rènshi = to meet modification particle de rén = person noun shi = to be phrase n ĩ = you + de possessive particle — your gẽge = older brother
The person I met at your house yesterday was your older brother.
WHAT IS A CLAUSE? I n E nglish
A clause is a group of words containing at least a subject and a verb (as opposed to a phrase that does not contain a verb); it can also contain a variety of modifiers. There are two types of clauses, main and subordinate.
■main (independent) clause — a clause that expresses the 80
central idea of the sentence and that could stand alone as a sentence. ■subordinate (dependent) clause — a clause that modifies the meaning of the main clause and cannot stand alone as an independent sentence. It can begin with a coordi nating conjunction, a relative pronoun or a relative adverb (see What is a Conjunction?, p. 101, What is a Rela tive Clouse?, p. 71, and What is an Adverb?, p. 79.) main clause
Kayla went to China because she wanted to learn Chinese, subordinating conjunction
main clause subordinate clause
who went to China, learned Chinese.
I--- ----- --------- 1 1-------------- —~ ~ ------ [
This is the country where Kayla learned Chinese.
■ • I
There are different types of subordinate clauses; the two most common are relative clauses and conditional clauses (see What is a Relative Clause?, p. 71 and What is a Condi tional Clause?, p. 74). I n C hinese
Like English, Chinese has main clauses and subordinate clauses. Unlike English, however, Chinese clauses do not always have a verb; they can have a verbal adjective (see pp. 87-8 in What is an Adjective?). Moreover, unlike English where the subordinate clause can come before or after the main clause, in Chinese most subordinate clauses come before the main clause. Ymwéi tā Xiang xúe Zhongwén, suõyĩ tā qù Zhongguó. yĩnwèi = because subordinating conjunction tā = he/she xiăng = to want xúe = to learn verb Zhongwén = Chinese suoyf = therefore tā = he/she qù = to go verb Zhongguó = China
Because he/she wanted to learn Chinese, he/she went to China.
WHAT IS A SENTENCE?
A sentence is an expression of a complete thought, usually consisting of a subject and a verb. In writing, the end of a sentence is marked with a period, question mark, or excla mation mark. I n E nglish
There are three types of sentences. ■simple sentence — A simple sentence consists of one main clause with no subordinate clause.
He speaks Chinese.
■compound sentence — A compound sentence consists of
two or more main clauses joined by coordinating con junctions. I
He studied Chinese and he lived in X i^ n .
■complex sentence — A complex sentence consists of a
main clause with one or more subordinate clauses. I
Lars liked Kunming because the weather was nice. subordinating conjunction
I n C hinese
Like English, Chinese has simple, compound, and com plex sentences.
20 WHAT ARE AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES? A sentence can be classified as to whether it states a fact or situation that is, or a fact or situation that is not. An AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE states a fact or situation that is; it affirms the information. China is a country in Asia. She works at the bookstore. He liked to eat dumplings.
A NEGATIVE SENTENCE states a fact or situation that is not; it negates the information. It includes an element of negation. China is not a country in Africa. She does not work at the bookstore. He does not like to eat dumplings.
An affirmative sentence can be made negative by adding one of the two following negations: 1. by adding not after some verbs A ffirm ative
N eg ativ e
Chang is a student. W ang Zhan can do it. You should go. They will drink tea.
Chang is not/isrťt a student. Wang Zhan cannot/carťt do it. You should not/shouldďt go. They will not/woďt drink tea.
2. by adding do, does, or did 4- not to the dictionary form of other verbs A ffirm ative
N eg ative
We read a lot. Yuan writes well. The train arrived.
We do not/doďt read a lot. Yuan does not/doesrťt w ú te well. The train did not/didďt arrive.
As in English, an affirmative sentence is made negative by adding a term of negation. The term of negation chosen depends on when the action takes place: 1. actions that are current or will take place in the future ^ add the negative marker bù before the verb or the verbal adjective
20. A FFIRM A TIV E AND N EG ATIVE SENTENCES
W omen b ù q ù shũdiàn. wồ = I + m en plural marker — we bù negative marker = not qù = to go shũdiàn = bookstore
We are not going to the bookstore, We will not go to the bookstore.
present or future depending on context
Xiăo Ping míngtiân b ù s h à n g k è . Xiăo Ping = Xiao Ping mingtiān = tomorrow bù negative marker = not shàngkè = to go to class
future event verb
X iao Ping will not go to class tomorrow.
2. actions that occurred in the past - add the negative marker meiyou [lit. not to have] before the verb
W omen zuótian m é iy ổ u qù shũdiàn. wo = I + m en plural marker — we zuotiān = yesterday m éiyốu negative marker = not qù = to go shũdiàn = bookstore
past event verb
We didn't go to the bookstore yesterday. 60
Xiao Ping zuótian m é iy ò u shàngkè. Xiăo Ping = Xiao Ping zuótian = yesterday m éiyổu negative marker = not shàngkè = to go to class
past event verb
Xiao Ping did not go to class yesterday.
Since there are no tenses in Chinese verbs, negative markers can be an important indication of the tense of the English verb: bù the English verb is present or future, méiyõu the English verb is past. CAREFUL — Do not translate the do, does, did of the Eng lish negative. They merely serve to indicate the English negative and have no Chinese equivalent.
WHAT ARE DECLARATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES? A sentence can be classified according to its purpose. A DECLARATIVE SENTENCE is a sentence that makes a statement; it provides information. All statements in English and Chinese end with a period. The Great Wall is located in northern China.
An INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE is a sentence that asks a question. All questions in English and Chinese end with a question mark. Where is the Great Wall?
Interrogative sentences can be classified into three types: yes-or-no questions, w h- questions, and tag questions. YES-OR-NO QUESTIONS
A yes-or-no question is used when you expect an answer with a "yes” or “no.” See l/VTiaf Cf厂e /Aff//7T?cyf/Ve and 5er?tences?, p. 62. Q u e s t io n ： A n sw er:
Did you eat Chinese food last night? Yes, I d i d . Nơ, I didrťt.
In E nglish
A declarative sentence can be changed to a yes-no ques tion in one of two ways: 1. by changing the word order of the declarative sentence, from subject + verb to verb + subject (see What is a Sub ject?, p. 15, and What is a Verb? p. 23). D ecla ra tive
Y es -o r -no q uestio n
Yang Huan is home.
Is Yang Huan home?
2. by adding d o , d o e s , or d id before the subject and changing the verb to the dictionary form of the verb. D eclarative
Y es -or -no questio n
They hike together. Do they hike together? Yang Huan likes soccer. Does Yang Huan like soccer? Shuying went to China. D id Shuying go to China?
21. D ECLA RATIVE AND IN TERRO G ATIVE SENTENCES
h in e s e
Unlike English, Chinese has no equivalent for the words “yes" and “no.” Instead, when the answer is “yes” the pos itive form of the Chinese verb or verbal adjective is used and when the answer is “ no" the negative form of the Chinese verb or verbal adjective is used. There are two ways to change a declarative sentence to an interrogative sentence: 1. by attaching the question marker ma to the end of the declarative sentence. Tã xihuan yùndòng. D e c l a r a t iv e
tā =he/she jahuān = to like yùndòng = sport
y I n t e r r o g a t iv e
He/she likes sports.
Tā xĩhuãn yùndòng ma? Does he/she like sports?
x ĩh u ã n .
positive form of verb
Yes. Answer negative
B ù x ĩh u â n . bù = not xĩhuãn = to like
negative form of verb
No. 2. with the pattern: verb + negative marker bù + repetition of the verb Tā shi ni de laoshl D e c l a r a t iv e
Ỷ I n t e r r o g a t iv e
tā = he/she shi = to be nĩ = you + d e possessive particle -» your lăoshĩ = teacher
He/she is your teacher. Tã s h ì b ù s h ì rií de lăosh ĩ? verb shi = to be negative marker bù = not verb repeated shi = to be
Is he/she your teacher? Answer affirmative
S h i.
positive form of verb
Yes. Answer negative
BÙ s h i. bù = not shi = to be
negative form of verb
21. DECLA RATIVE AND IN TERRO G ATIVE SENTENCES
NĨ de mama măile píngguố.
D e c l a r a t iv e
m = you + de possessive particle — your mama = mother măi = to buy + le completed action aspect marker pingguo = apple
Your mother bought apples. N Ĩ de mama h ù i b ù h ù i hùi = will bù = not hùi = will măi = to buy
I n t e r r o g a t iv e
m ă i píngguố? modal verb (see p. 27) negative marker modal verb repeated main verb
W ill your mother buy apples? Answer affirmative
H ù i.
positive form of verb
Yes. Answer negative
B ù h ù i.
negative form of verb
bù = not hùi = will
CAREFUL — Do not translate the do, does, did of the Eng lish negative. They merely serve to indicate the English negative and have no Chinese equivalent. VƯH- QUESTIONS
Wh- questions are used when you want to obtain information. Q u e s t io n :
W hat did you eat last night?
A n sw er：
ate Chinese food.
In E n g l i s h
A w/z-question, also called an information question, con tains interrogative words (or wh-words), such as who, what, when, where, why, and how (see What is an Interrogative Pro noun?, p. 49). A declarative sentence can be changed into a wh-question by placing the interrogative word appropriate for the information you want to obtain at the beginning of the question. D eclarative
q uestio n
Chen Hua likes soccer. W hat does Chen Hua like? Chen Hua went to China. Where did Chen Hua go? 120
h in e s e
Chinese has interrogative words equivalent to English interrogatives. However, unlike English where interroga-
. D ECLA RATIVE AND IN TERRO G ATIVE SENTENCES
tive words are always placed at the beginning of a ques tion, in Chinese interrogative words are always placed in the same position as the information they are replacing. This is also the position as the answer to the question. Tã xĩhuãn chi Z h o n g g u ó cài.
D e c l a r a t iv e
tã = he/she I word before last xĩhuân = to like chĩ = to eat Zhõngguó = China cài= food
He/she likes to eat Chinese food.
Wh- q u e s t io n
Tā xĩhuân chĩ s h é n m e cài?
I word before last
What kind o f food does he/she like to eat? Tã xĩhuãn chĩ T à ig u ó cài.
I word before last
He/she likes to eat Thai food. 140
A declarative sentence can be changed to a question by adding a short phrase, sometimes called a TAG, at the end of the statement. As with yes-or-no questions, you expect a "yes〃 or "no" answer Q uest丨 ON: A n sw er:
You ate Chinese food last night, didn’t you? Yes, I did. Nơ, I didn’t.
In E n g l is h
A different tag is used depending on whether the declara tive sentence is affirmative or negative. ■ affirmative declarative sentence ^ negative tag
Wang Li plays volleyball, doesrťt he? affirmative
Rongrong and Xiaoqi are Americans, arerťt they? affirmative
■ negative declarative sentence ^ affirmative tag This isn^ a Chinese character, is it? 160
Li Wen didn^ go to Hong Kong, did she? negative
21. D ECLA RATIVE AND IN TERRO G ATIVE SENTENCES
In C hinese
In Chinese, tags are always affirmative and seek agree ment with the affirmative or negative declarative sentence that precedes. They can be formed in one of two ways: 1. by adding the dui correct or shi good + question marker ma 170 D e c l a r a t iv e AFFIRMATIVE
Ỷ T ag
q u e s t io n
Ã n p ín g d ă p áiq iú . Ẩnpứig = Anping dă = to hit páiqiú = volleyball
Anping plays volleyball. Ẫ n p ín g d ă p áiq iú , d u i m a ? Ā n p in g d ấ p áiq iú , s h ì m a ? Anping hit volleyball + tag
Anpỉng plays volleyball right? D e c l a r a t iv e 180
y T ag
q u e s t io n
Ã n p ín g b ù d a p áiqiú. Ãnpíng = Anping bù negative marker = not da = to hit páiqiú = volleyball
Anping doesrťt play volleyball. Ẫ n p ín g b ù d ă p áiq iú , d u i m a ? Ấ n p ín g b ù d ă p áiq iú , s h ì m a ? Anping doesn’t hit volleyball + tag
Anping doesrťt play volleyball, right? 190
2. by adding duibudui (dui correct + bu not + dui correct) or shìbushì (shì xơơd + bu /7ƠÍ + shi 又 ƠƠÍỈ) D e c l a r a t iv e AFFIRMATIVE + TAG
Ấ n p ín g d ă p áiq iú , d u ìb u d u ì? Ã n p ín g d ă p áiq iú , s h ìb u s h ì? Anping hit volleyball + tag
Anping plays volleyball right? D e c l a r a t iv e N e g a t iv e + TAC
A n p ín g m é iy ố u d ă p áiq iú , d u ìb u d u ì? Ẫ n p ín g m é iy ố u d ấ p áiq iú , s h ìb u s h ì? Anping didn't hit volleyball + tag
Anping didrťt play volleyball, right? 200
CAREFUL — When asking a question with wh- question
words, you cannot use ma, the verb + bù + verb pattern, or a tag question.
WHAT IS THE CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTION? The CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTION applies to sentences in which the subject of the sentence doesn't carry out the action of the main verb, but has the action performed by someone else. The mother makes her children do their homework. subject
performer of the action of the main action to do h o m ew o rk
The causative construction consists of the subject + make, have, or force + performer + action. The coach forces the team to run laps. subject
performer of the action of the main action to run laps
The president had his secretary write letters. subject
performer of the action of the main action to write letters
In in form al speech get and have are often used in a causative construction. I got my friend to feed my dog while I was away. I had my friend feed my dog while I was away. The meaning of some verbs imply a causative construction. I surprised my friend. ^ I made my friend be surprised. I scared my friend. ^ I caused my friend to be scared. IN CHINESE
Like English, Chinese has causative constructions. They are introduced by one of the following verbs: sh ĩ, ràng and jiao, all three meaning to cause, or bĩ meaning force. The mother made the child do homework. M a m a b l háizi zu ò gõngkè. māma = mother bĩ = to force háizi = child zuò = to do gõngkè = homework
22. CAU SATIVE CO N STRUCTIO N
Today’s homework made him/her go crazy. Jin t iā n de zuòyè ràng tā fā fē n g . jlntiān = today de modification particle zuòyè - homework ràng = to cause tā = he/she fāfēng = to go crazy
CAREFUL — Though the Chinese causative words mean cause or force they are usually translated as made as in ^He made me do it.^
23 WHAT IS A RELATIVE CLAUSE? A RELATIVE CLAUSE is a dependent clause which gives additional information about the head noun of the main clause (see pp. 59-60 in Whot are Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences?).
relative clause additional information about the book
r ~~ — I The book, that I read yesterday, was very interesting, head noun of main clause: “The book was very interesting."
A relative clause is usually introduced by a relative pro noun, e.g. who, whom, whose, what, which and that or a relative adverb, e.g. where and when (see What is a Pronoun?, p. 40 and What is on Adverb?, p. 79). The relative clause always comes directly after the head noun. ■Relative pronouns functioning as the subject of the rela tive clause and possessive pronouns are always stated.
relative clause additional information about the person
The person who plays badminton is Miss Liu. head relative pronoun noun subject of plays
relative clause additional information about the person
The person whose book I borrowed has left. I I head possessive pronoun noun
■Relative pronouns or adverbs functioning as direct or indirect objects, or objects of a preposition are often omitted (see What is an Object?, 19). relative clause additional information about the woman
The woman / saw yesterday was Li Ling. The woman (whom) I saw yesterday was Li Ling. head noun
relative pronoun (omitted) direct object of saw
2B. RELATIVE CLAUSES
relative clause additional information about the book
T he b o o k / read was interesting. T he b o o k (which or that) I read was interesting. head relative pronoun (omitted) noun direct object of read
relative clause additional information about the student
T h e stud ent / spoke to was very n ice. T h e stud ent (to whom) I spoke was very n ice. head noun
relative pronoun (omitted) indirect object of spoke relative clause additional information about the school
I w en t to th e sam e sch o ol m y brothers went to. I w en t to th e sam e sch ool (where) my brothers w ent head noun
relative adverb (omitted) indirect object of went
Relative clauses in Chinese are formed using the modifica tion particle de. Unlike English where the relative clause follows the head noun, in Chinese the relative clause pre cedes it. The pattern is the following: relative clause + de + head noun/noun phrase + verb/verbal adjective [+ object]. Follow these steps for the correct Chinese pattern: 1. Identify the head noun. 2. Find the relative clause. 3. Place the relative clause + modification particle de before the head noun. 4. Complete the main clause. Here are some examples. The book (that) I read was interesting. 1. Identify the head noun book 2. Find the relative clause by asking "what book is this? the one / read 3. Relative clause + de + head noun: I read + de + book 4. Complete the main clause by asking ^what about the book?w-» is interesting Wo kàn de nà bền shũ hen yòuyìsi. WỐ = I , v kan = to read de
} relative clause modification particle
23. RELATIVE CLAUSES
nà = that ben classifier for bound objects shū = book head noun hen = very (see p. 82) yòuyìsi = interesting verbal adjective
The woman (that) I saw yesterday was Li Ling. 1. Identify the head noun -> woman 2. Find the relative clause by asking W what woman is this?/, ^ the one I saw yesterday 3. Relative clause + de + head noun: I saw yesterday + de + woman 4. Complete the main clause by asking “what about the woman” —was Ij Wo zuótian kànịỉàn de nỉirén shì Lĩ ling, wo = I zuótian = yesterday kánjián = to see de nurén = woman shi = to be LĨ ling = Li Ling
relative clause modification particle head noun verb noun
CAREFUL — Chinese relative clauses can sometimes be
long and complex.
24 WHAT IS A CONDITIONAL CLAUSE? A CONDITIONAL CLAUSE is a d ep en d en t clause w h ich expresses a c o n d itio n to be fille d in order for th e CONCLUSION CLAUSE, i.e ., th e m a in c la u s e , to b e re a liz e d (see p p . 5 9-6 0 in What are
Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences?). condition conditional clause
conclusion conclusion clause
If you read this book, you will do well on the test. "ī iiuilu K A C C t 二c n
A conditional clause is usually introduced by a conjunc tion such as if, unless, i f not (see What is a Conjunction?, p. 101). The conditional clause can come before or after the conclusion clause. conclusion clause
You will do well on the test, if you read this book. IN CHINESE
Like English, Chinese has conditional clauses. Unlike Eng lish where the conditional clause can come before or after the conclusion clause, in Chinese the conditional clause is always the first clause. ■Conditional clause — expressed with yàoshi or ruguo if before or after the subject. It can also have the condi tional clause marker de huà at the end of the clause. ■Conclusion clause — if there is a subject, the pattern is the following: subject + jiù then, if there is no subject the conclusion clause can begin with jiù. Rúguò nĩ qù; wố jiù gếi nĩ qían. rúguổ = if nĩ = you subject qù = to go wo = I subject jiù = then gếi = to give ni = you qian = money
I f you go, ru give you money.
24. CO N D ITIO N AL CLAUSES
X ià xu ề de h u à, jiù b ù qù. xià = to descend xuẽ = snow de h u à conditional clause marker jiù = then bù = not qù = to go
conditional clause 40
If it snows, [we] woďt go. I
any noun or pronoun depending on context
When the "if" meaning is implied by the presence of the conditional clause marker de huà at the end of the condi tional clause and jiù then at the beginning of the conclu sion clause, yàoshi or ruguo can be omitted. N ĩ qù Zhongguó de huà, jiù bâng wố măi ỹi bến
Zhongwén cídiăn. n ĩ = you qù = to go Zhongguó = China de huà conditional clause marker ịiù then bang = to help wo = I măi = to buy yl = one ben classifier for bound objects Zhongwén = Chinese cídiăn = dictionary
I f you go to China, buy a Chinese dictionary for me. In Chinese, there is a fair amount of stylistic variation. Sometimes the if clause (ruguo or yàoshi) is included, other times, if the context is clear, it is omitted.
25 WHAT IS MEANT BY ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE? V o i c e in the grammatical sense refers to the relationship between the verb and its subject. There are two voices, th e ACTIVE VOICE a n d th e PASSIVE VOICE.
c： c c:\
A c t iv e v o i c e — A sentence is said to be in the active voice when the subject is the performer of the action of the verb and the direct object is the receiver of the action. In this instance, the verb is called an ACTIVE VERB. In the examples below the subject (S) performs the action of the verb (V) and the direct object (DO) is the receiver of the action (see What is a Subject?, p. 15 and What is an Object?, p. 19). 10
The teacher writes the exam.
c; cil I-;:;
The teacher invited the students.
c; ： ； !：
P a s s iv e v o ic e _ A sentence is said to be in the passive voice when the subject is the receiver of the action of the verb. In this instance, the verb is called a PASSIVE VERB. The performer of the action, if it is mentioned, is called the AGENT. In the examples below the subject is the receiver of the action of the verb.
The exam is written by the teacher. agent [doing the writing)
The students were invited by the teacher.
agent (doing the inviting)
The passive voice is expressed by the verb to be in the pre sent, past, or future + the past participle of the main verb. 30
The exam is written by the teacher. present ^ it is being written now
The exam w as written by the teacher, past — was written before
The exam w ill be written by the teacher. future -► will be written later
25. A CTIV E AND PASSIVE VO ICE
When an active sentence is changed into a passive sen tence the following changes occur: 1. the direct or indirect object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence and 2. the subject of the active sentence becomes the agent of the passive sentence introduced with by. The agent is often omitted. A c t iv e ： Xiao Li gave a flower to Wang You. I
subject active verb
P a s s iv e ：
Wang You was given a flower by Xiao Li. subject
Wang You was given a flower. 50
In Chinese, the passive construction is usually used for past events. One of three words is used to introduce the agent: bèi (primarily used in written Chinese), ràng, or jiao, each translated with the English by. The pattern is the following: subject [+ by agent] + verb. A c t iv e : Tã tõule wo de zixíngchě. su b je ct tā = he/she ve rb tõu = to steal + le completed action aspect marker wo = I + de possessive particle —my d ire c t o b je ct
zixingche = bicycle
He/she stole my bicycle. P a s s iv e : Wo de zixingche bèi tā tõu le. wo = I + de possessive particle — my su b ject zixíngchě = bicycle bèi = by agent tā = he/she ve rb tõu = to steal le completed action aspect marker (see p. 33)
My bicycle was stolen by him/her. A c t iv e :
Tā de dìdi dăhuàile tā de diànnăo. tā = he/she + de possessive particle —his/her ļ su bject dìdi = little brother ve rb dăhuài = to break + le completed action aspect marker tā = he/she + de possessive particle —his/her d ire c t o b je ct diànnăo = computer His/her little brother broke his/her computer.
25. A C TIV E AND PASSIVE VOICE
Tã de diànnăo jiao tã de dìdi dăhuài le.
P a s s iv e ：
tā = he/she + de possessive particle-* his/her su b je ct diànnăo = computer jiao = by agent tā = he/she + de possessive particle — his/her didi = little brother dăhuài = to break ve rb le completed action aspect marker (see p. 33)
His/her computer was broken by his/her little brother.
A c t iv e ： Lăoshĩ
p ĩp ín g le xu ésh en g . lăoshĩ = teacher piping = to criticize + le completed action aspect marker xuésheng = student
su b ject ve rb
d ire c t o b je ct
The teacher criticized the student P a s s iv e ：X u é s h e n g b è i
lăosh ĩ p ip in g le. xuésheng = student su b je ct bèi = by ag e n t lăoshĩ = teacher piping = to criticize ve rb le completed action aspect marker (see p. 33)
The student was criticized by the teacher. CAREFUL _ The use of the passive construction in C h i nese is more limited than in English because it is usually associated with adversity or bad news.
WHAT IS AN ADVERB? An ADVERB is a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It indicates manner, time, place, quantity, or degree (see What is a Verb?, p. 23 and Whot is an Adjective?, p. 86). Xiaoqi drives well
_verbI adverb r describes the verb drive, how Xiaoqi drives
The boat is very big.
] T adverb adjective describes the adjective big, how big I ate too quickly. adverb adverb describes the adverb quickly, how quickly
There are different types of adverbs: ■ adverbs of manner — answer the question how? These adverbs are the most common and they are easy to rec ognize because they end with -ly. Zhongshu sings beautifully. The economy recovered rapidly. ■ adverbs of time — answer the question when? They will arrive soon. The guest arrived late. ■adverbs of place — answer the question where? Leave your shoes there. The teacher looked around. ■ adverbs of quantity or degree — answer the question how much? or to what extent? He sleeps little these days. They always eat at home. Notice in the examples above that the adverb can be placed before or after the word described.
As in English, Chinese has adverbs that describe verbs. However, English adverbs that describe adjectives or sta tive verbs are called INTENSIFIERS and are discussed sepa rately (see pp. 82-3). Chinese adverbs are usually placed before the verb, and occasionally before the subject (see What is a Subject?, p. 15). ■adverbs of time — usually placed before the verb Tā zuótian láile zhèr. tā = he/she zuotiān = yesterday adverb lái = to come verb + le completed action aspect marker zher = here
He/she came here yesterday. ■ adverbs of place — always placed before the verb. The pattern is the following: subject [+ time expression] + place + verb + object. Wo zuótian zài túshũguăn kàn shū. wo = I subject zuótian = yesterday zai = at túshũguăn = library kàn = to read shū = book
place verb object
/ read a book yesterday a t the library. Tã zài sùshè kàn d iàn sh ì. tā = he/she su b je ct zài = at ì place sùshè = dorm I kàn = to watch verb diànshì = television object He/she watched television a t the dorm . Some English adverbs are expressed by Chinese adjectives. ■ English adverbs of manner Chinese adjectives placed before the verb. The pattern depends on the number of syllables of the adjective. a) one syllable ^ adjective repeated twice + modifica tion particle de + verb
Tā m à n m à n d e p in zh e chá. tā = he/she màn = slow màn = slow de pin = to taste + zhe progressive aspect marker chá = tea
one-syllable adjective one-syllable adjective
modification particle verb
He/she tasted the tea slowly [savored the tea].
b) two syllables — adjective + modification particle de + verb Lèle zài r e n z h ē n de xu é x í. Lèle = Lele zài progressive aspect marker renzhēn = conscientious de xuéxí = to study
two-syllable adjective modification particle verb
Lele studies conscientiously.
■ English adverbs of quantity or degree ^ Chinese adjec tives placed after the verb. The pattern is the following: verb + modification particle de + adjective regardless of the number of syllables. W a n g Lì x i ẽ d e b ù CUÒ. W áng Li = W ang Li xiě = to write de bù negative marker = not CUÒ = wrong
verb modification particle one-syllable adjective
Wang Li writes w ell X ia o L in g shuõ d e h ế n liu li. Xiao = little Ling = Ling shuõ = to speak de hen = very (see p. 82) liúlì = fluent
verb modification particle multi-syllable adjective
X iao Ling speaks fluently.
CAREFUL — Consult your textbook since different patterns
have different meanings. For example: ■ adjective + modification particle de + verb — describes describes how an action is/was carried out
mànmàn d e zo u . tā = he/she màn = slow + màn = slow de zou = to walk
one-syllable adjective one-syllable adjective modification particle verb
He/she was walking slowly.
■ verb + modification particle de + adjective shows the result of the action Tā zou de hẽn màn.
tā = he/she zou = to walk de hen = very (see p. 82) m à n = slow
verb modification particle adjective
He/she walked slowly.
English adverbs that describe adjectives are known as intensifiers in Chinese. Common intensifiers include the following English adverbs: very/ truly, really, so, completely, exừemeỉy, quite, especially, etc. The intensifier hen meaning very is always used before a verbal adjective, however, it is considered a "weak" version of the word and usually not translated in English. As English adverbs, most Chinese intensifiers precede the adjective or adverb described, however, a few follow the adjective or adverb described. Here is an example of two intensifiers that precede the adjective described. Tā jīn tiā n fěicháng m án g , tā = he/she jīntiān = today fěicháng = very máng = busy
intensifier verbal adjective
He/she is extremely busy today. T ã de m èim èi zhēn p ià oliàn g. tā = he/she + de possessive particle his/her mèimèi = younger sister zhēn = really piàoliàng = pretty
His/her younger sister is really pretty.
intensifier verbal adjective
Here is an example of an intenstfier that follows the adjective. Nà bẽn shũhăo jíle. nà = that bến classifier for bound objects shū = book hao = good jíle = extremely
That book is extremely good. In Chinese, intensifiers can also be used to described sta tive verbs (see p. 23 in What is a Verb?). Women tèbié zūnjing nà ge lăoshĩ. wo = I + men plural marker — we tèbié = especially zūnjing = to respect nà = that ge general classifier lăoshĩ = teacher
intensifier stative verb
We especially respect that teacher. Consult your textbook for a list of the few intensifiers that follow the adjective or adverb.
27 WHAT IS AN INTERROGATIVE ADVERB? An INTERROGATIVE ADVERB is an adverb that asks a question about place, time, manner, or reason (see What is an Adverb?, p. 79). Where do you live? IN ENGLISH
Interrogative adverbs are placed at the beginning of a question. The most common interrogative adverbs are where, when, how, and why. When are you coming back? How are you coming back Why are you coming back? IN CHINESE
In Chinese the most common interrogative adverbs are năr/năli where, shénme shíhòu when, zenme how, and wèi shénme why. Nĩ zh ù năr?
Cl > c Cr
n ĩ= you zhu = to live năr = where 20
Where do you live? shénme shíhòu h ú i
n ĩ = you shénme = what shíhòu = time húi = to return lái = to come
When are you coming back? NĨ zenme h ú i lái? 30
n ĩ = you zěnme = how húi = to return lái = to come
How are you coming back? Nĩ wèi shénme h ú i lái le? n ĩ = you wèi shénme = why húi = to return
lái = to come le completed action aspect marker
Why did you come back? Unlike English where interrogative adverbs are placed at the beginning of a question, in Chinese their placement varies. Consult your textbook for the placement of C h i nese interrogative adjectives.
28 WHAT IS AN ADJECTIVE? 1
An AD1ECTIVE is a word that indicates a quality of a noun or pronoun. The book is interesting. noun described
It was expensive. pronoun adjective described
10 J Ỉ m1 *= — i i- f\1 i !
Interrogative adjectives and demonstrative adjectives are addressed in separate chapters. In this chapter we will con sider descriptive adjectives. IN ENGLISH
A DESCRIPTIVE AD1ECTIVE is a w o rd t h a t d escrib es a q u a lity o f a n o u n or a p r o n o u n .
Wang Wei wrote an interesting poem. \
l u * < l * -
adjective describing the noun poem
l t l l l p
It is pretty. _• J adjective describing the pronoun it Descriptive adjectives are divided into two groups depending on how they are connected to the noun they describe: attributive adjectives and predicate adjectives. A t t r ib u t iv e AD1ECTIVE — An attributive adjective is con nected directly to the noun it describes and always pre cedes it. The good students came prepared, 30
attributive noun adjective described
The farmers bought a new tractor. r attributive adjective
P redicate a d je ct iv e _ A predicate adjective is connected to the noun or pronoun it describes by a STATIVE VERB such as to be, to feel, to look (see p. 23 in What is a Verb?) and always comes after the noun or pronoun described.
28. A DJECTIVES
T h e students are good.
stative predicate verb adjective
It looks new. I I I
. pron. predicate stative adjective verb
As in English, a descriptive adjective can be identified as a predicate or an attributive adjective depending on the way the adjective is connected to the noun or pronoun it describes. A ttr ibu tive AD1ECTIVE — As in English, an attributive adjec tive precedes the noun that it describes. The pattern is the following: adjective + m odification particle de + noun described. Lánsè de zixingche shi wo de. lánsè = blue de zixingche = bicycle shi = to be wố = I + de possessive particle -* my
adjective modification particle noun described
The blue bicycle is mine.
Dà de zidian zai zh u o zi
dà = big de zidian = dictionary zai = at zhuozi = table shàng = on top
adjective modification particle noun described
big dictionary is on the table. omitted before a preposition (see p. 30)
P r e d ic a t e a d je c t iv e s — Unlike English where predicate adjectives follow stative verbs, Chinese predicate adjec tives, known as VERBAL ADJECTIVES, function both as adjec tive and verb, thereby replacing the verb. Like English predicate adjectives, verbal adjectives come after the noun or pronoun described. The pattern is the following: pronoun/noun described + verbal adjective.
28. AD JECTIVES
Tā hẽn piàoliàng. tā = she hen = very (see p. 82) piàoliàng = pretty
pronoun described verbal adjective
She is pretty. verb replaced by adjective
Nà ge laoshi hen hao. nà = that ge general classifier laoshl = teacher hen = very (see p. 82) hăo = good
noun described verbal adjective
That teacher is good. I
verb replaced adjective
CAREFUL — The verb sh i to be is omitted in a Chinese sen tence when it is followed by an adjective, but not when it is followed by a noun (see p. 30 in What are the Uses of the Verb "fo be’?). Here is an example: En g l is h : to be + a d je c tiv e C h in ese : v e rb a l a d je c tiv e This book bag is heavy. adjective
Zhè ge shũbaõ hen zhóng. zhe = this ge general classifier shữbaõ = book bag hen = very (see p. 82) zhóng = heavy
to be + n o u n C h in ese : s h i + n o u n Chen Rong is an artist.
E n g l is h :
Chén Róng shì yĩ ge yishůjia. Chén Róng = Chen Rong shì = to be y ĩ = one ge general classifier yishůjia = artist
WHAT IS MEANT BY COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES? C o m p a r a t iv e a d je c t iv e s are u se d to c o m p a r e q u a litie s o f p e r so n s or th in g s a n d to sh o w w h ic h p erso n or t h in g h as a greater, lesser, o r e q u a l d egree o f t h a t q u a lit y (see What is an Adjective?, p . 86). ►arison of adjectives
The moon is bright but the sun is brighter.
English has three degrees of comparison.
P o s i t i v e d e g r e e — This form refers to the quality of a person or thing. It is simply the basic form of the adjective. The restaurant is expensive. His speech was interesting. The philosopher is wise. C o m p a r a t iv e d e g r e e — This form compares the quality of one person or thing to that of another person or thing. The comparison can indicate one has the same, more, or less of the same quality. Equal degree — Persons or things have the same degree of the quality. The pattern is the following: as + adjective + as. This restaurant is as expensive as that one. The boy is as intelligent as his sister.
Greater degree — One person or thing has a greater degree
of the quality. It is formed differently depending on the length of the adjective. ■short adjective + -er + than The philosopher is wiser than most men. The sun is brighter than the moon. ■more + longer adjective + than The book is more expensive than the calendar. This book is more interesting than that one.
29. COM PARISON OF AD JECTIVES
Lesser degree — One person or thing has a lesser degree of the quality. The pattern is the following: less + adjective + than. My brother is less intelligent than my sister. This book is less interesting than that one. S u p e r l a t i v e DEGREE — This form is used to stress the highest degree of the quality. It is formed differently depending on the length of the adjective. ■the + short adjective + -est This philosopher is the wisest in China. The sun is the brightest star in our heavens. ■the most + longer adjective This restaurant is the most expensive in Beijing. This will be the most important exam of the year.
Li CŤ: SI-
There are the same three degrees of comparison of adjec tives as in English. Since comparative adjectives are verbal adjectives they do not require the use of the verb shi to be in the Chinese pattern of comparison. P o s i t i v e d e g r e e — An intensifier such as fěicháng exừemely is usually placed before the verbal adjective (see pp. 82-3 in What is an Adverb?). Tā fěicháng gāo.
c; Ď:1 s 60
tā = he/she fěicháng = extremely gāo = tall
intensifier verbal adjective
He/she is extremely tall. C o m p a r a t i v e d e g r e e — Different words are used depending on the type of comparison. Equal degree — The adjective yíyàng same is used. The pat tern is the following: noun or pronoun + gēn (or hé) and + noun or pronoun + yíyàng (+ verbal adjective). Nà tiáo kůži gēn zhé tiáo qúnzi yíyàng gùi. nà = that classifier for articles of clothing kůži = pants gēn = and zhè = this t i á o classifier for articles of clothing qúnzi = skirt tiá o
29. COM PARISON OF AD JECTIVES
yíyàng = same gùi = expensive
same verbal adjective
That pair o f pants and this skirt are the sa m e price. Tā de gẽn w o de y íy àn g . tā La — = he/she 11C/311C + de possessive particle - * his/hers Ỉ gēn = and wo = I I + de possessive particle - ♦ mine J yíyàng = same
same His/hers is the sam e as mine. Greater degree — There are two ways to compare: ■ the most common: noun or pronoun + bi compared with + noun or pronoun + verbal adjective Z h o n g w é n bĩ Y in g w é n n án . Zhongwén = Chinese bĩ = compared with YIngwén = English nán = difficult
comparedwith noun verbal adjective
Chinese is m ore d ifficu lt than English. m
noun or pronoun + bi jiao comparatively, relatively + verbal adjective Z h e b e n shū b ijiá o p iá n y i. zhè = this bẽn classifier bound objects shū = book bijiao = comparatively piányi = cheap
comparatively verbal adjective
This book is relatively cheaper, m
noun or pronoun + the verbal adjective w ithout an intensifier (compared to the positive degree with an intensifier, see p. 90) Tā g ā o . tā = he/she gāo = tall
pronoun verbal adjective
He/she is taller. T ā g ā o , n ĩ bù g ā o . tā = he/she gāo = tall ni = you bù negative marker = not gāo = tall
He/she is tall, you are not [tall]. He/she is taller than you are.
pronoun verbal adjective pronoun verbal adjective
29. COM PARISON OF A DJECTIVES
Lesser degree — The negative marker m éiyốu [lit. not to have] not is used. There are two possible patterns: ■ noun or pronoun + m eiyou + noun pronoun + verbal adjective Tã méiyồu wo gāo.
tā = he/she méiyốu negative marker = not
wo = I
gāo = tall
He/she is not as tall as I am. 130
noun or pronoun + méiyồu + noun or pronoun + name 5Ơ + v erb al a d jectiv e
Tā méiyồu wo name gāo.
i!：/ Í, ii" “liw nn』 c: err ỈỈS
tā = he/she méiyốu negative marker = not
wo = I
name = so gāo = tall
He/she is not as tall as I am. 140
S u perlative ad jectiv e.
d eg r ee
— n o u n or p r o n o u n + z u i
most + v erb al
Zhè pán cài zùi hăochĩ. zhè = this pán classifier for plate of food cài = to eat zui = most hăochĩ = good
most verbal adjective
This dish is the tastiest. This dish is the best tasting. 150
Obviously, you will add the appropriate form of the verb to be when translating Chinese comparative adjectives into English.
30 WHAT IS A DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE? A DEMONSTRATIVE AD1ECTIVE is a w ord th a t p o in ts o u t a n o u n . This book is interesting, points out the noun book
The demonstrative adjectives this and these refer to per sons or objects near the speaker, and that and those refer to persons or objects further away from the speaker. This and that are the singular forms, and these and those are the plural forms (see What is Meant by Number?, p. 11). S in gu lar Close Further away
this dog that dog
these dogs those dogs
As in English, a different demonstrative adjective is used to point out a person or object near the speaker or further away from the speaker. In Chinese, demonstrative adjec tives are considered SPECIFIERS in that they refer to a specific noun, this book, as opposed to that book. As specifiers, they require the use of classifiers following the same pattern as when a specific number is attached to a count noun (see pp. 13-4). The pattern is the following: demonstrative adjec tive + classifier + noun.
zhè/zhèi; that nà/nèi Z h è ge rén shì wo de shìyõu. zhè = this
rén = person shì = to be wồ = I + de possessive particle ^ my shìyồu = roommate
This person is my roommate.
30. DEM O N STRATIVE A DJECTIVES
W o y ào m ăi nà b ẽn shū. wo = I yào = to want mãi = to buy nà = that bẽn shū = book
demonstrative adjective classifier for bound objects
/ want to buy that book.
■ these those >a'sal Ề 1 a
zhe + plural marker xiẽ -> zhéxiě nà + plural marker xiè - nàxiè
Z h é x iě rén shì w ồ de p én gy ố u . zhè = this + xiẽ plural marker — these rén = person shì = to be wo = I + de possessive particle = my péngyốu = friend
These people are my friends.
i v i i N l i
N à x iẽ shū shi tā de. demonstrative adjective nà + xiẽ plural marker — those shū = book noun shi = to be tā = he/she + de possessive particle — his/hers
Those books are his/hers.
If a specific number is used after a demonstrative adjec tive, the pattern is the following: singular demonstrative adjective + number + classifier + noun. Z h è w ủ ge rén shi w o de p én gy ố u . zhè = this demonstrative adjective wu = five number ge rén = person shi = to be wo = I + de possessive particle = my péngyốu = friend
These five people are my friends.
30. D EM O N STRATIVE AD JECTIVES
sān bẽn shū shì w ố de. nà = that sān = three bến shū = book shì = to be wo = I + de possessive particle — mine
demonstrative adjective number classifier for bound objects noun
Those three books are mine. "UKE THIS"/"LIKE THAT"; "THIS VƯAY"/"THAT WAY" IN ENGLISH
To point out the way the action of the verb is done, English uses phrases such as like this/iike that; this way/that way, meaning in this/that manner. Please, do it like this. Don^ eat like that. IN CHINESE
To express the way an action is done, Chinese uses DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERBS, so called because they describe a verb (see What is an Adverb?, p. 79). The word yan g, meaning manner, is added to the demonstrative adjec tives. The pattern is the follow ing: zhe this + y àn g manner zhéyáng or nà that + yàng manner nàyàng. N ĩ yĩnggãi zhéyáng ZUÓ. n ĩ = you yĩnggâi = should zhe = this + yàng = manner ZUÓ = do
You should do it this way. Tā n à y à n g shuõ h e n h ăo . tā = he/she nà = that + yàng = manner shuõ = to speak hến = very (see p. 82) hao = good
Iťs good for him/her to speak like that.
For more on demonstrative words see What is 0 Demonstra tive Pronoun?, p. 51.
WHAT IS AN INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE? An INTERROGATIVE AD1ECTIVE is a word that asks for information about a noun (see What is an Adjective?, p. 86 and What is a Noun?, p. 9). Which book do you want? asks information about the noun book
The words which and what are interrogative adjectives when they come in front of a noun and are used to ask a question about that noun. ■which — to ask a question when a limited number of possible answers is implied. Which student is giving a presentation?
asks for information about the noun student Which student out of the limited number of students in the class.
■what — to ask a question when an unlimited number of possible answers is implied. W hat flight are you taking to China? asks for information about the noun flight What flight out o f the unlimited number of flights to China.
As in English, Chinese identifies two interrogative adjectives: ■which nă Nă is considered a SPECIFIER (see p. 93) because the noun that follows refers to a specific person, thing, event, or idea, out of an implied limited number. As a specifier, it requires the use of a classifier (see pp. 13-4). The pattern is as follows: interrogative adjective + classifier + noun. Jīntiān nă ge xuésheng huì zuò bàogào? jīntiān = today nă = which
xuésheng = student hui = will ZUÓ = to do bàogào = report
Which student is giving a presentation today?
31. IN TERRO G ATIVE A D |EC TIV ES
N ĩ zài kàn
nă bẽn shũ?
n ĩ = you zài progressive aspect marker kàn = to read nă = which bẽn shū = book
interrogative adjective classifier for bound objects noun
Which book are you reading?
■what shénme Shénme is not considered a specifier because the noun that follows refers to a person；thing, event, or idea out of an implied unlimited number. As such, it does not require the use of classifiers. The pattern is the following: interrog ative adjective + noun. Nà shì shénme shū? nà = that shì = to be shénme = what shữ = book
interrogative adjective noun
What book is that?
Nĩ x ĩh u â n shénme yánsè? n ĩ = you xihuãn = to like shénme = what yánsè = color
interrogative adjective noun
What color do you like?
You should have no problem selecting the proper Chinese interrogative adjective: use nă + classifier when referring to specific persons, things, events, or ideas and shénme when referring to general objects or things.
32 WHAT IS A PREPOSITION? 1
A PREPOSITION is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun to other words in the sentence. prepositional phrase
Wang Ping is in Beijing.
preposition noun object of preposition
The noun or pronoun following the preposition is called the OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION. The preposition plus its object is called a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. 10
Prepositions usually indicate location, position, direction, or time. ■location Guangzhou is in southern China.
■position The book is under the table.
■direction They flew to Shanghai. 20
■accompaniment Susan spent the evening with her friend.
■time We lived in Asia for many years.
■agent (see p. 76 in What is Meant by Active and Passive Voice?) The poem was written
Some prepositions consist of more than one word: because of, instead of, due to, next to, in spite of, in front of. To help you identify prepositions and prepositional phrases, the prepositions that introduce each phrase are in italic boldface and the prepositional phrases are in italics. Tea is popular throughout C h in a . In fact, the m ajority o f people drink tea several times a day. It is drunk before as well as during meals. This practice has been common from early times until the present. Because o f the huge population in China, tea production is a major industry.
32. PREPO SITIO N S
You will find a list of Chinese prepositions in your textbook. Here are a few common Chinese prepositions: zai at, in, on (see footnote p. 36) dùi to, towards dào to (movement to a location) to, for gěi xiàng towards, from gēn with, from from (movement from a location) cóng As you can see above, zai has more than one English equivalent. When translating from Chinese, context will easily guide you as to which English preposition to use. X iă o M in g z à i tú sh ũ g u ă n zuò gõ ngkè. X iă o M in g = Xiao M in g zai = at túshũguăn = library
ZUÓ = to do gõngkè = homework
Xiao Ming does his homework at the library. Xiao Ming did his homework at the library. Tã z à i c h u á n g sh à n g kán b áo zh l. tā = he/she zài = o n
chu áng = bed shàng = o n top o f kàn = to read báozhi = newspaper
He/she reads the newspaper on the bed. He/she read the newspaper on the bed. When translating from English, you will have to rely on the context to select the appropriate Chinese preposition. Here are some examples. ufo ť f gẽi, ti or omitted ■gei — an action done for the benefit of someone He/she bought a book for me. T ã g e i w o m ă ile shū. tā = he/she gẽi = for [for m y benefit] wo = I m ãi = to buy + le com pleted action marker shū = book
32. PREPO SITIO N S
■tì — an action done by someone else instead of you He/she taught for me yesterday. Tā zuótian t ì wo jiāo shū. tā =he/she zuotiān = yesterday tì = for [instead o f me] wo = I jiāo + shū = book — to teach
■omitted when referring to periods of time We lived in Nanjing for many years. Women zhù zài Nanjing hen duõ nián. wổ = I + m en plural marker -> we zhu = to live zai = at N a n jin g = N a n jin g h en = very (see p. 82) duõ = m uch nián = year
//fronť, cóng or 1Í ■cóng — movement from one place to another / flew from China to America. Wo cóng Zhongguó fēi dào Mẽiguó. WỒ = I
cón g = from Zh ongguó = C h in a fēi = to fly dào = to arrive M ếiguó = America
■lí — distance between one place and another The bookstore is far from here. Zhèlĩ lí shũdiàn hen yuan. zh èlĩ = here
11= from shũdiàn = bookstore h en = very (see p. 82) yuan = far
CAREFUL _ Regardless of the English preposition, the best way to know which Chinese preposition to use is to look at the context in which the preposition is being used and to choose accordingly.
33 WHAT IS A CONJUNCTION? A CONJUNCTION is a word that links two or more words or groups of words. H e had to cho o se betw een g o o d and evil. conjunction 十 hey
le fi because th e y were bored, conjunction
There are two kinds of conjunctions: coordinating and subordinating: ■ a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION joins words, phrases, and clauses that are equal; it coordinates elements of equal rank. The major coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, for, and yet go o d or evil word
over the river and th ro u g h the w oods
T h e y in v ited US, but we couldnťt g o . clause
■ a SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION joins a dependent clause to a main clause; it subordinates one clause to another. A clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction is called a SUBORDINATE CLAUSE or DEPENDENT CLAUSE (see pp. 59-60 in l/V/?cư (7厂e Phrases, ơcíưsa, cmd Common subordinating conjunctions are before, after, since, although, because, if, so that, while, and when. I
Although we were in vited , we d id n ^ go. subordinating conjunction main clause
T h e ch ild ren left because th ey were h u n g ry . subordinating conjunction
Notice that the subordinate clause may come either before or after the main clause. IN CHINESE
Like English, Chinese has coordinating and subordinating conjunctions, sometimes referred to as CONNECTING WORDS. ■ Chinese coordinating conjunctions are used in the same way as they are in English. The most common are k e s h i but, h é and, h u ó z h e or, and h á i s h ì or used in questions. Tā xiầng qù Zhongguó, kẽshì méiyồu qián. tā = he/she xiầng = to want qù = to go Zhongguó = China
kẽshì = but
m éiyốu = not qián = m oney
He/she wants to go to China, but has no money. Wo chi Tàiguó cài hé Rìbẽn cài. wố = I chì = to eat Tàiguó = Thai cài = food hé = and Riběn = Japanese cài = food
two words coordinating conjunction two words
/ eat Thai and Japanese food. NĨ y à o
jia o z i
haishi c h ū n ju a n ?
n í = you yào = to w ant jiaozi = dum plings 70
háishì = or
chūnjuan = egg rolls
Do you want dumplings or egg rolls? _ Chinese subordinating conjunctions, also called c 〇NmTIONALS, can consist of one word, such as y à o s h i if, or of two words linking two phrases, such as y i n w é i ... s u ồ y ĩ because ... therefore (see What is a Conditional Clause?, p . 7 4 .)
Yàoshi m chi, wo ye chi. yàoshi = if 80
rii = you ch ĩ = to eat
subordinating conjunction subordinate clause
w 〇= I yẽ = also chi = to eat
I f you eat, I'll eat too. Yinwei tã qù, suõyĩ wo yẽ qù. ylnwéi = because tā = he/she qù = to go suoyt = therefore w o= I ye = also qù = to go
subordinating conjunction subordinate clause 90
Because he/she went, I also went Unlike English where main and subordinate clauses can come in any order, the majority of subordinate clauses in Chinese are conditionals and come at the beginning of the sentence, i.e., before the main clause.
WHAT IS AN INTERJECTION? An INTER1ECTION is a word used primarily in spoken language to express an emotion, to call out, or to respond to someone. It usually appears at the beginning of a sentence and stands apart from the rest of the sentence. IN ENGLISH
There are a variety of words, including most profanity, that can be used as interjections. In writing, interjections are separated from the rest of the sentence by an exclama tion point or a comma with an exclamation point at the end of the sentence. Wow! You did great. Hey, you! Oh, what a great deal! Huh? What are you talking about? IN CHINESE
The most common Chinese interjection is āiyā (or the variant pronunciation âiyõu), which is used to express a variety of emotions: surprise, amazement, disgust, and anger, among others. Ãiyã, shì nĩ a! āiyā = oh shi = to be nĩ = you a surprise particle at the end of sentence
Oh, iťs you! Ãiyõu, hen téng! ãiyõu = oh hến = very (see p. 82) téng = pain
Oh, it really hurts! The word wèi is used to get someone’s attention. Wèi, guò lái! wèi = hey guò = cross lái = to come
Hey, come here! Although there are not as many interjections as in Eng lish, they are used just as frequently.
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马骏的同学是中国;V。 马骏的同学都是中国人。 马骏的同学是中国人和日本人。 两条河 五个朋友 那个人是我的老师。 我的老师们都很好。 洪文会说英文。 新来的学生都说中文。 我喜欢吃芒果。 £ 巢，我 l i 了三个。 i 个饭馆服务不好。 衣服洗完了。
K S Ùa i s ì o \ \XẲ isHầ Amp— -Ả
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C H IN ESE C H A R A C T E R S
那本书出版了。 房子盖好了。 了那首诗。 晶晶给我。 小运在跟他的朋友聊天。 他给我一本书。 我借了给他一本书。 他看电影。 我们i 电影。 他扣天《 电k 我们今天看电影。 他 很 尊敬他&老 师。 我的朋友性韩。 李榕是工程师 Č
我会说中文。 我可以说中文。 我得说中文。 我是老师。 我去年是老师。 张新是老师。 书在书架上。 张$±天很等亡。 张新不局。
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天学在看电视。 他去过中国。 沾德看了三本书。 他不喝酒了。 下雨了。 他在看电视。 他吃着饭呢。 他正在看电视。 麦莲在床上躺着。 吃。 坐T "。 坐吧。 別吃ẽ 不要喝冷水。 我们走吧。 我们去看专影卩巴。 _ 我们别去看电影了。 我们别去了。 我们 你们 他们 书很好。我很喜欢。 我喜欢他。 他喜欢我。 欢我的书。 道宏的自行车 学生的老师 我的车 他们的车 我自己去。
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CH IN ESE C H A R A C T E R S
我们自己去。 你自己买什么？ 莉莉自己要去美国。 你的老师是谁？ 你认识谁？ 你做什么？ 是谁 的 ？ 这是我的朋友。 那是他的书包 这些是我们的。 我真喜欢 i 些： 有没有人来？ 有人来。 Ồ 有人 你去哪儿？ 我去那儿。 我不去哪儿。 你 有 没 有 么 ？ 我买了东西。 我没买Í十么ẽ 你有没有认识谁？ 有， _ 我认识老师。 我没有认识谁。 骑自行车的人已经走了。 我昨天在你家认识的人是你的哥哥。
眼 泡 货撕 ¥不苑 去氏 观 呢呢
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他喜欢运动。 他喜欢运动吗？ 喜欢。 不喜欢。 他是你的老师。 他是不是你的老师。 i 。
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你的妈妈买了苹果。 你的妈妈会不会买苹果？ 会。
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他喜欢吃中国菜。 他喜欢吃什么菜？ ế í 欢吃泰国菜。
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安平打排球。 安平打排球，对 吗 ？ 妄平打钿球：是 吗 ？ 妄平示衧排球。 安平不打排球, 对 吗 ？ 安平不打排球，是 吗 ？ 安平打排球，对不 对 ？ 妄 平 球 ：是不是？ 安平没秦打排球，对不 对 ？ 安平没有打排球，时不时？
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CH IN ESE C H A R A C T E R S
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下雪的话，就不去。 你去中国的话，就帮我买一本中文词典。 他偷了我的自行车。 i â 勺自ữ 车被Í也偷了。 他的弟弟打坏了他的电脑。 他的电脑叫他的弟弟打坏了。 老师批评了学生。 学生被老师批评了。 他昨天来了这儿。 我昨天在图书馆看书。 他在宿舍看电视。 他慢慢地品着茶。 乐乐在认真地学习。 王力写得不错。 小玲说得很流利。 他慢慢地走。
iiítís iĩõ i 芩天非龠Í亡。 Í 也的妹妹貪i k 那本书好亟了。 我们特别尊敬那个老师。 你住哪儿？ 你什么时候回来？ 你怎么回来？ 你为什么回来了？ 蓝色的自行车是我的。 大 恥字典在 桌 子 ±。 他很漂亮。 那个老师很好。 这个书包很重 Õ 陈容是一个艺术家。
C H IN ESE C H A R A C TER S
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他的跟我的一样。 ặ 文比英文难。 这本书比较便宜。 他高。 他高，你不高。 他没有我高。 Í也没有我那么高。 这盘菜最好吃。 这个人是我的室友。 我要买那本书。 这些人是我的朋友。 i 些书是他的。 这Ẽ 个人是我的朋友。 那三本书是我的。 你应该这样做。 f也那样说很好Õ
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你在看哪本书？ 那是什么书？ 你喜欢什么颜色？
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他昨天替我教书。 我们住在南京很多年。 我从中国飞到美国。 这里离书店很远。
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他想去中国，可是没有钱。 我吃泰国菜和日本菜。 你要饺子还是春卷？ 要是你吃，我也吃。
112 Page 1 0 3 1. 8 6
因 为 他 去 ，所 以 我 也 去 。
Page 1 0 4 1. 21 1. 2 7 1. 3 3
哎呀，是 你 啊 ！ 哎yõ u , 很 疼 ！ 喂 ,过 来 ！
INDEX active voice 76 article 7, 9 aspect 7, 32-3 com pleted action aspect marker -le 33 experience aspect marker -g u ò 33 progressive aspect markers 36 progressive aspect marker zai 33 sentence final particle le 33 adjective 86-8 attributive adjective 86-7 com parison o f adjectives 89-92 dem onstrative adjective 93-5 interrogative adjective 96-7 predicate adjective 87 verbal adjective 87 adjectival phrase 58 adjectival verbs 26 adverb 7, 79-83 dem onstrative adverb 93-5 interrogative adverb 84-5 ā iy ā 104 b a suggestion particle 38 b èi 77 b e n classifier 13 b ĩ 91 b ié 38 b ĩ jia o 91 b ù negative marker 55, 62, 63, 65 b ù yào 38 causative construction 69 character 2-4, 5, 6-7, 8, 10, 105-
classifier 1, 13, 14 clause 59-60 conditional clause 74-5 conclusion clause 74-5 m ain (independent) clause 59-60, 101, 102,103 relative clause 71-3 subordinate (dependent) clause 59-60, 101, 102, 103 com m and 37 com m en t 16 com parison 89-92 .
con ju n ction 7, 60, 101-3 c ó n g 100 con n ecting words 102 de possessive particle 50 de m odification particle 46, 59, 72, 80, 81, 82, 87 de h u à conditional clause marker 74, 75 dem onstrative 93-5 dem onstrative phrase 58 direct object 19, 20, 21 d u i 68 d u ib u d u i 68 durative aspect marker 35 ge general classifier 13, 14 g ẽi 99 g ē n 90 -g u ò experience aspect marker 33 h á is h ì 102 h é 90, 102 h ẽn intensifier 82 h ù i 27 h u ó z h e 102 indirect object 19, 20, 21 in flection 26 intensifier 82-3 interjection 104 interrogative adjective 96-7 interrogative adverb 84-5 interrogative pronoun 49-50 interrogative sentence 64-8 it 43 jia o 77 jiu 74, 75 k esh i 102 -le completed action aspect marker 33 le sentence final particle 33 le suggestion particle 38
like thisAike that; this way /that way 95 lin kin g verb 29
r Ể A t âM Is
[a; .d lff
1 Aca xslo^