English grammar: 100 main rules
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 100 MAIN RULES АНГЛИЙСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА 100 ОСНОВНЫХ ПРАВИЛ

Москва 2015

Электронные версии книг на сайте www.prospekt.org

УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.2Англ-923 В19 В19

Васильева Е. А. English grammar: 100 main rules (Английская грамматика: 100 основных правил). — Москва : Проспект, 2015. — 144 с. ISBN 978-5-392-14348-1 As soon as you started learning English you have to study basic grammar rules that help understand the language structure and as a result communicate effectively. In the reference guide 100 most common grammar rules are put together and explained in a clear form of tables with several examples to each rule. Referring to this grammar guide may be helpful for those students who have recently started learning English and still find grammar not simple to understand as well as for those advanced users who need just refresh their knowledge of English grammar or clarify some grammar points. Как только вы начинаете изучать английский язык, вам приходится изучать основные грамматические правила, которые помогают понять структуру языка и как результат — общаться более уверенно. В этой книге сто самых распространенных английских правил собраны и представлены в виде таблиц с несколькими примерами для каждого из них. Обратиться к этому справочнику будет полезно как тем, кто недавно начал изучение языка и столкнулся с трудностями понимания грамматических правил, так и продвинутым учащимся, которым необходимо освежить знания английской грамматики или уточнить некоторые непонятные моменты. Вся книга написана на английском языке.

УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.2Англ-923

Учебное издание

Васильева Елена Анатольевна ENGLISH GRAMMAR: 100 MAIN RULES АНГЛИЙСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА: 100 ОСНОВНЫХ ПРАВИЛ Справочник Оригинал-макет подготовлен компанией ООО «Оригинал-макет» www.o-maket.ru; тел.: (495) 726-18-84 Санитарно-эпидемиологическое заключение № 77.99.60.953.Д.004173.04.09 от 17.04.2009 г. Подписано в печать 10.10.2014. Формат 60×90 1/16. Печать офсетная. Печ. л. 9,0. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ № ООО «Проспект» 111020, г. Москва, ул. Боровая, д. 7, стр. 4.

ISBN 978-5-392-14348-1

© Васильева Е. А., 2014 © ООО «Проспект», 2014

Contents Rule 1. Proper and Common Nouns..................................................................... 6 Rule 2. Countable and Uncountable Nouns.......................................................... 7 Rule 3. Plural Form Nouns................................................................................... 8 Rule 4. Irregular Plural Form of Nouns............................................................... 11 Rule 5. Gender of Nouns.................................................................................... 12 Rule 6. Common and Possessive Cases of Nouns................................................. 14 Rule 7. Syntactic Functions of Nouns................................................................. 17 Rule 8. Adjectives............................................................................................... 18 Rule 9. Adjective Degrees of Comparison............................................................ 18 Rule 10. Substantivized Adjectives...................................................................... 23 Rule 11. Syntactic Functions of Adjectives.......................................................... 24 Rule 12. Cardinal and Ordinal Numerals............................................................. 25 Rule 13. Fractional Numerals. Operations with Numerals................................... 28 Rule 14. Numerals for Time Expressions............................................................. 29 Rule 15. Syntactical Functions of Numerals........................................................ 30 Rule 16. Personal Pronouns................................................................................ 30 Rule 17. Possessive Pronouns.............................................................................. 31 Rule 18. Absolute Form of Possessive Pronouns.................................................. 32 Rule 19. Reflexive Pronouns............................................................................... 33 Rule 20. Intensive Pronouns............................................................................... 33 Rule 21. Demonstrative Pronouns....................................................................... 34 Rule 22. Classification of Indefinite Pronouns..................................................... 35 Rule 23. Some, Any and their Compounds.......................................................... 35 Rule 24. Each, Every, Either............................................................................... 36 Rule 25. All, Both............................................................................................... 38 Rule 26. Many/ Much, Few/Little, Enough........................................................ 40 Rule 27. One/Ones............................................................................................. 41 Rule 28. Other, Others, Another, the Other, the Others ...................................... 42 Rule 29. Reciprocal Pronouns............................................................................. 43 Rule 30. Negative Pronouns................................................................................ 43 Rule 31. Indefinite Pronouns – Verb Agreement................................................ 44 Rule 32. Interrogative Pronouns.......................................................................... 45

Rule 33. Relative Pronouns................................................................................. 47 Rule 34. Compound Pronouns with -ever............................................................ 48 Rule 35. Syntactic Functions of Pronouns........................................................... 49 Rule 36. Articles................................................................................................. 50 Rule 37. Indefinite Article (a/an)........................................................................ 51 Rule 38. Zero Article.......................................................................................... 53 Rule 39. Definite Article (the)............................................................................. 58 Rule 40. Classification of Verbs........................................................................... 61 Rule 41. Be, Do, Have........................................................................................ 62 Rule 42. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs............................................................ 63 Rule 43. Finite Forms English Verb Categories.................................................... 63 Rule 44. Principal Parts of Notional Verbs........................................................... 65 Rule 45. Regular and Irregular Verbs................................................................... 65 Rule 46. System of Aspect-Tense Verbal Forms................................................... 70 Rule 47. Past Simple Tense Active...................................................................... 73 Rule 48. Present Simple Tense Active................................................................. 74 Rule 49. Future Simple Tense Active................................................................... 76 Rule 50. Past Continuous Tense Active............................................................... 79 Rule 51. Present Continuous Tense Active.......................................................... 80 Rule 52. Future Continuous Tense Active........................................................... 81 Rule 53. Past Perfect Tense Active...................................................................... 83 Rule 54. Present Perfect Tense Active................................................................. 84 Rule 55. Future Perfect Tense............................................................................. 85 Rule 56. Past Perfect Continuous Tense Active................................................... 86 Rule 57. Present Perfect Continuous Tense Active.............................................. 87 Rule 58. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Active............................................... 88 Rule 59. Future in the Past Tenses Active............................................................ 89 Rule 60. Simple Tenses Passive........................................................................... 91 Rule 61. Continuous Tenses Passive.................................................................... 93 Rule 62. Perfect Tenses Passive........................................................................... 94 Rule 63. Future in the Past Tenses Passive........................................................... 96 Rule 64. Forms of Subjunctive Mood.................................................................. 96 Rule 65. Use of Subjunctive Mood...................................................................... 98 Rule 66. Conditionals........................................................................................101 4

Rule 67. Formation and Use of Imperative Mood...............................................102 Rule 68. Non-Finite Forms...............................................................................102 Rule 69. Infinitive..............................................................................................103 Rule 70. Participle.............................................................................................105 Rule 71. Gerund................................................................................................107 Rule 72. Gerund after Essential Prepositional Verbs...........................................108 Rule 73. Verbs followed by Gerund....................................................................113 Rule 74. Verbs followed by Infinitive..................................................................113 Rule 75. Verbs with Direct Object followed by Infinitive.....................................114 Rule 76. Verbs with Direct Object followed by Infinitive.....................................114 Rule 77. Modal Verbs.........................................................................................115 Rule 78. Use of Modal Verbs..............................................................................116 Rule 79. Semi-Modals and Modal Equivalents...................................................119 Rule 80. Modal word.........................................................................................121 Rule 81. Adverbs: Formation.............................................................................122 Rule 82. Adverbs of Manner...............................................................................123 Rule 83. Adverbs: Degrees of Comparison..........................................................123 Rule 84. Adverbs of Time. Adverbs of Frequency................................................124 Rule 85. Adverbs of Location.............................................................................125 Rule 86. Adverbs of Degree................................................................................126 Rule 87. Adverbs that Modify Adjectives............................................................127 Rule 88. Order of Adverbs..................................................................................128 Rule 89. Syntactic Functions of Adverbs............................................................128 Rule 90. Prepositions.........................................................................................129 Rule 91. Meanings of Prepositions.....................................................................130 Rule 92. Conjunctions.......................................................................................132 Rule 93. Interjections.........................................................................................133 Rule 94. Types of Simple Sentence.....................................................................134 Rule 95. Subject-Predicate Agreement...............................................................135 Rule 96. Declarative sentences...........................................................................137 Rule 97. Compound Sentence............................................................................139 Rule 98. Complex Sentence...............................................................................140 Rule 99. Compound-Complex Sentence............................................................141 Rule 100. Punctuation.......................................................................................142

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Rule 1 Proper Nouns

Common Nouns

– names James Paul McCartney, Agatha Christie

– objects table, scissors

– pen-names, nicknames Mark Twain, Merylin Monroe, Jack Sparrow, Billy the Kid Spot, Dolly

– people baby, girl, man

– nationalities the Americans, the Dutch – celestial bodies Milky Way, Mars – water bodies Lake Baikal, the Nile – mountains Everest, the Himalayas – continents Africa, Europe – countries Russia, Great Britain – localities Liverpool, New York – streets Baker Street, Pall Mall – intracity objects and sights Hotel California, Big Ben – brands British Airways, Google – titles Animal Farm, Gone with the Wind 6

– creatures cat, snake – groups of people, animals family, jury, flock – substance sugar, water – material steel, cotton – facts, events birth, idea, rain – character, states, actions courage, nonsense, race, peace

Rule 2 Common Nouns Countable Nouns Singular form – a/an a man, a car, an orange – the the man, the car, the orange Plural form

Uncountable Nouns Singular form –Ø water, joy, information – the the water, the joy, the information No Plural form

– cardinal number five men, two cars, one hundred oranges – the the men, the cars, the oranges Note

Uncountable nouns => Countable nouns 1. from abstract to specific

light => a light sport => a sport time => a time 2. things made of certain materials cloth => a cloth iron => an iron paper => a paper 3. several uncountable nouns in plural form business => businesses cheese => cheeses tea => two teas



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8

noun-s/-ss/-ch/sh/-tch/-x/ => -es [ız]

a bus – buses a class – classes a speech – speeches a dish – dishes a match – matches a box – boxes

noun => -s [s] [z]

a club – clubs a bridge – bridges a rug – rugs a book – books a bottle – bottles a name – names a pen – pens a shape – shapes a star – stars a part – parts a bow – bows a sofa – sofas a kiwi – kiwis a menu – menus

Rule 3

But: a casino – casinos a solo – solos a zero – zeros a tango – tangos a dynamo – dynamos

a consonant before -о => -es: a hero – heroes an echo – echoes a motto – mottoes

a vowel before -о => -s: a radio – radios a studio – studios a zoo – zoos

noun-o => -s [z] noun-o => -es [z]

Plural Form of Nouns

a vowel before -y =>-s: a day – days a key – keys a guy – guys

But: Proper names Garry – Garrys Cindy – Cindys

a calf – calves a loaf – loaves a wife – wives a life – lives

a consonant before -y => -y into -i +-es: an army – armies a city – cities a country –countries

-s / -es a scarf – scarfs / scarves a hoof – hoofs / hooves a wharf – wharfs / wharves

a roof – roofs a serf – serfs a chief – chiefs

noun-f/fe => -es [z] noun-f => -s [z]

noun-y => -es [z] noun-y => -s [z]



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breeches fetters jeans pincers pliers scales scissors shorts spectacles tights

two-parts things (take plural verbs) athletics billiards draughts economics gymnastics mathematics physics

disciplines, sports (take singular verbs)

Plural – Only Nouns

-s /-es a flamingo – flamingoes /flamingos mango – mangoes/mangos

a cello – cellos a piano – pianos a photo – photos

annals belongings clothes contents goods measles mumps news outskirts

a whole consisting of many parts (take plural verbs)

-ff /-ffe =>-s: a cuff – cuffs a giraffe – giraffes

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tongs trousers

(take singular verbs) barracks crossroads customs gallows headquarters series species

premises proceeds remains riches savings stairs surroundings thanks

Rule 4 Irregular Plural Form of Nouns noun => -en an ox – oxen a child – children

noun => noun

noun => noun

a man – men a woman – women a tooth – teeth a foot – feet a goose – geese a mouse – mice a louse – lice

an aircraft – aircraft a headquarters – headquarters a means – means a deer – deer a fish – fish a cod – cod a salmon – salmon a trout – trout

a penny – pence a person – people

a sheep – sheep a swine – swine a fruit – fruit



noun-um/on =>-a noun-is => -es noun -us => -i addendum – addenda analysis – analyses bacillus – bacilli bacterium – bacteria basis – bases cactus – cacti corpus – corpora crisis – crises criterion – criteria curriculum – curricula datum – data diagnosis – diagnoses nucleus – nuclei oasis – oases phenomenon – phenomena terminus – termini thesis – theses

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Rule 5 Gender Nouns Masculine he

Feminine she

men, boys

women, girls

actor bachelor boy boyfriend brother cousin earl father fiancé

actress maid girl girlfriend sister cousin countess mother fiancée, bride

husband king lord nephew sir son uncle waiter

wife queen lady niece madam daughter aunt waitress

male animals bull cock buck drake gander stallion ram

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female animals cow hen doe duck goose mare ewe

Neuter Nouns Common Nouns inanimate things table room window both males and females adult applicant assistant candidate child domestic friend member participant passenger pensioner player relative servant student teacher worker collective nouns team group army police

Note 1. Refer to animals as “he” or “she” if their sex or name is known. Where is the dog? She is in the yard. 2. In certain cases inanimate things are given some masculine or feminine features and spoken of like gender nouns (personification). Masculine gender “power”

Feminine gender “beauty and tendress”

death summer the sun time the wind

nature rainbow the moon the earth spring

Look at the Sun. He is rising.

Look at the moon. She is beautiful.

1. Traditionally, feminine pronoun she is used for ships, cars or countries. Titanic was the largest passenger steamship in the world when she set off on her maiden voyage. England is proud of her poets. 2. In cases of uncertainty the word “baby” is referred to as a neuter noun. The baby seems to be hungry. It is crying.



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Rule 6 Cases of Nouns Singular

Plurar

Common case

man book

men books

Possessive case

man’s book’s

men’s books’

Common Case 1. Nouns in the common case don’t have any special ending. a man, men, a book, books 2. Such nouns act in the sentence as – the subject The man opened the box. Books are usually sold in bookstores. – a direct object I know those women. Pass me the salt, please. – an indirect object The hostess showed the guests their room. He reads his students lectures twice a week. – a prepositional object Tom sent an e-mail to his colleague. The law was admitted by the parliament. – an attribute Andrew got a new can opener. We need to buy a travel map. I admire the works of Shakespeare. He was a great man of talent. – an adverbvial modifier Olivia travels by car. Cats shouldn’t sit on the table. Possessive Case Possessive nouns express ownership. my parents’ house his uncle’s neighbours 14

Possessive Case Formation Singular Possessive noun’s student’s notes a child’s toy noun-noun’s a passer-by’s ticket my mother-in-law’s friends Singular Possessive with -s/-ss/-x noun’ = noun’s Dickens’ novels = Dickens’s novels the boss’ car = the boss’s car the fox’ tail = the fox’s tail

Plural Possessive nouns’ workers’ demands the Smiths’ house ladies’ room old wives’ tales noun and noun’s Sam and Pam’s cat Keats and Yeats’ poetry Irregular Plural Possessive noun’s children’s clothing sportsmen’s luggage People’s Republic

Note The possessive case is a feature of certain series of nouns. – living beings his brother’s name, a pet’s hotel – social groups family’s traditions, society’s norms – trade marks Sony’s approach, Microsoft’s future – geographical names Africa’s area, Russia’s progress, London’s parks, the ocean’s coast, the Nile’s water, the Everest’s peak – world/country/city world’s best films, our country’s policy, the city’s population

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– means of transport the ship’s crew, the plane’s engine, the bike’s design – celestial objects the sun’s rays, the planet’s orbit, the moon’s surface – time a year’s cycle, this month’s events, the week’s news, today’s level, a minute’s silence – day parts this morning’s newspaper, night’s dew, an evening’s entertainment – months, days of the week November’s sky, Monday’s results, Friday’s show – holidays New Year’s day, Easter’s date, April Fools’ Day – money some dollars’ worth, euro’s declines – distance at a mile’s distance, within a stone’s cast – place at my sister’s (house), at the doctor’s (office), to the baker’s (shop) – set phrases a pin’s head a needle’s eye for pity’s sake to have/arrive at one’s fingers’ tips at arm’s length

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Rule 7 Syntactic Functions of Nouns 1. Subject The team won the competition. Children need their parents. 2. Predicative Andrew is a businessman. An ordinary event turned to be a gorgeous festival. 3. Object Direct Object The cats drank the milk. Olivia has certain duties at work. Indirect Object The children gave their grandmother a present. The officer told his soldiers to attack. Prepositional Object I like to saunter through the town. Andrew brought flowers to his wife. 4. Attribute Prepositional Attribute He was appointed Head of Department. There is a cup of tea on the tray. Non-Prepositional Attribute Who knows the train timetable? A computer keyboard is one of the basic computer devices. Note noun + noun (nouns)

noun + noun (nouns)

a biology teacher (teachers), a love story (stories), a letter box (boxes)

a clothes shop (shops), a sports event (events), a customs seal (seals), an accounts department (departments), arms production

5. Adverbial Modifier They met in the park. He prefers a cup of coffee after dinner.

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Rule 8 Qualitative Adjectives

Relative Adjectives

a heavy bag, an interesting talk-show

a golden ring, medieval times

funny – funnier – the funniest

No degrees of comparison

heavy, funny , attractive, courageous, interesting, favourite, red, main

English, physical, golden, silky, coloured, medieval, international, solar

Rule 9 Degrees of Comparison Positive adjective

Comparative adjective + -er more + adjective less + adjective

Superlative the adjective + -est the most + adjective the least + adjective

Positive Degree of Adjectives 1. Description a busy street, a clever dog, a dull day, an expensive ring, a good attitude, a jealous man, an important signal, a weak accent, young people Note Qualitative adjectives can be modified by adverbs of degree. a dreadfully dull day, extremely hot weather, a fairly large message, a hugely important signal, an immensely famous picture, incredibly useful advice, an intensely busy street, a little/a bit expensive ring, a rather good attitude, a reasonably weak accent, quite an interesting list, a slightly somber event, a too jealous husband, an unusually clever dog, very young people 2. Comparison 1) Equality as + adjective + as The white kitten is as cute as the grey one. Playing games is as important as studying. 18

2) Inferiority not so + adjective (+ as) His idea is not so stupid. The view did not turn to be so splendid as we had expected. half as + adjective (+ as) Jimmy is half as tall as Jonny. Our house is half as big as the neighbours’. 3) Superiority twice (three times) as + adjective (+ as) The way was twice as long as yesterday. Olivia’s typing speed is three times as fast as Andrew’s. Comparative Degree of Adjectives The comparative degree demonstrates the difference between two objects. 1) Superiority – Most one- and two-syllable adjectives form the comparative degree by adding -er ending. adjective + -er clever - cleverer, dull - duller, large - larger, weak - weaker, young - younger Apple juice is sweeter than orange juice. These tickets are cheaper than those ones. Note – Adjectives ending in -y change the -y into -i and add -er. busy - busier, pretty - prettier, lazy - lazier, funny - funnier, juicy - juicier Cf.: shy -shyer, sly - slyer, grey - greyer – One-syllable adjectives with a short vowel followed by a consonant double this consonant and add -er. big -bigger, hot - hotter, fat - fatter, thin - thinner – Several two-syllable adjectives and all three- (and more) syllable adjectives form the comparative degree with more.

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more + adjective more expensive, more famous, more important, more interesting, more profitable, more somber, more useful The new hairdo makes Andrew more handsome. Time is more valuable than money. 2) Inferiority less + adjective less busy, less clever, less hot, less expensive, less famous, less important, less interesting This way is less easy than the way Andrew offers. I prefer less dangerous driving. Note Use certain adverbs to enhance the meaning of comparative adjectives. far/much/a lot slightly/a little/a bit Olivia is far prettier than her sister. This will sound a bit more polite. Note It is possible to use the double comparison of adjectives combined with change-of-state verbs. adjective-er + and + adjective-er more adjective + and + more adjective The days are getting shorter and shorter. The word is becoming more and more ridiculous. Note Use the following combination to emphasize the inevitable consequence in degree change of comparative adjectives. The adjective-er, the adjective-er The more adjective, the more adjective The sweeter products are, the unhealthier they are. The more luxurious goods are, the more expensive they are. 20

Superlative Degree of Adjectives The superlative degree demonstrates differences among three or more objects. 1) Superiority – Most one- and two-syllable adjectives form the comparative degree by adding -est ending. the adjective + -est clever - the cleverest, dull - the dullest, large - the largest, weak - the weakest, young - the youngest – Several two-syllable adjectives and all three- (and more) syllable adjectives form the comparative degree with most. the most + adjective the most expensive, the most famous, the most important, the most interesting, the most profitable, the most somber, the most useful 2) Inferiority the least + adjective the least busy, the least clever, the least hot, the least expensive, the least famous, the least important, the least interesting The least strong cheese will do for this sort of wine. What are the least prestigious jobs? Irregularly Compared Adjectives Positive



Comparative

Superlative

good

better

the best

bad ill

worse

the worst

little

less

the least

old

elder older

the eldest the oldest 21

far

farther further

the farthest the furthest

late

later latter

the latest the last

hind

hinder

the hindmost

Note A number of adjectives cannot be compared for degree. alive correct dead enormous excellent final gigantic

huge immediate impossible main mortal perfect pregnant

principal right sole superb supreme unique whole

They may be modified by the following adverbs: absolutely, completely, totally, nearly, virtually, essentially, mainly, almost. There was an absolutely dead silence in the room. I support your totally correct comment.

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Rule 10 Substantivized Adjectives the + adjective 1) Substantivized adjectives denote a whole class of persons characterized by a specific feature. In most cases such adjectives agree with a plural verb. the elderly, the handicapped, the lonely, the needy Olivia’s aunt works in school for the blind. The rich also cry. 2) Substantivized adjectives may as well refer to the whole nation. the Japanese, the English, the Dutch The ancient Chinese first invented paper. The Welsh try to preserve their language and culture. 3) A number of substantivized adjectives even take the plural ending -s, which let them pass into the category of nouns. the marines, the moderns, the nobles, the regulars, the Russians The Conservatives are leading in the polls. If you want to see the true measure of a man, watch how he treats his inferiors, not his equals. 4) Substantivized adjectives indicate abstract notions. Such adjectives agree with a singular verb. the future, the past, the present, the plural, the singular, the unknown, the unreal, the variable, the visible The obvious is fabulous, but the fabulous is obvious. You should use the Future Simple in this sentence.



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Rule 11 Syntactic Functions of Adjectives 1. Attribute We liked that warm meeting. I hear some pleasant music. Note There is a particular order for adjectives to describe a noun. Opinion – Size – Shape – Colour – Pattern – Age – Origin – Material – Purpose + Noun a clever young British professor two nice tiny round black old metal musical boxes that beautiful swift white new sailing boat 2. Predicate The meeting was warm. Your mother looks sad. I feel good about the offer. A predicate adjective follows a linking verb (to be, to seem, to appear, to look, to taste, to smell, to feel, to sound), but it refers to the subject of the sentence. 3. Subject and Object (Substantivized adjectives) The unemployed demanded concrete programs of public works. The young should help the old.

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Rule 12 The Numerals Cardinal



Ordinal

nought/zero

0

the noughth, the zeroth

one two three

1 2 3

the first the second the third

four five

4 5

the forth the fifth

six seven eight nine ten

6 7 8 9 10

the sixth the seventh the eighth the ninth the tenth

eleven twelve

11 12

the eleventh the twelfth

thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

the thirteenth the fourteenth the fifteenth the sixteenth the seventeenth the eighteenth the nineteenth

twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

the twentieth the thirtieth the fortieth the fiftieth the sixtieth the seventieth the eightieth the ninetieth

hundred hundred and one two hundred

100 101 200

the hundreth the hundred and first the two hundreth 25

thousand hundred thousand million billion

1,000 100,000 1,000,000 1,000,000,000

the thousandth the hundred thousandth the millionth the billionth

Note Mind the spelling. from 1to10

from 11 to 20

20,30,40,50…

ordinals

3 – three

13 – thirteen

30 – thirty

13-й – thirtieth

4 – four

14 – fourteen

40 – forty

40-й – fortieth

5 – five

15 – fifteen

50 – fifty

5-й – fifth

8 – eight

18 – eighteen

80 – eighty

8-й – eighth

9 – nine

19 – nineteen

90 – ninety

9-й – ninth

12 – twelve

12-й – twelfth

Note Don’t add plural -s to the words hundred, thousand, million preceded by another numeral. There were three hundred workers at the meeting. However, use those words (hundred, thousand, million, dozen) as plurals if the meaning “plenty, mass, great number” is applied. There were hundreds of workers at the meeting. Note As a rule, numbers from 1 to 10 are written out whereas two-word numbers should be expressed in figures. I need three photos. I need more than 50 photos. If a sentence begins with a numeral, it should be written out. Six hundred and fifty MPs sit in Parliament. Use a hyphen between tens and units. Twenty-one, fifty-three, ninety-nine 26

Note When a number is a name of an object (a bus, a room, a telephone, a page, a lesson), it is necessary to use cardial numbers, which are normally pronounced separately. Room 205 – room two oh five Bus 134 – bus one three four Tel. No. 9886057 – telephone number is nine double eight six oh five seven Page 21 – page twenty-one Lesson 13 – Lesson thirteen Note Multiplicative numerals Collective numerals Ranking numerals once twice thrice/three times four times many a time I’ve seen a building ten times as large as this one. single double triple multiple We need a double room. primary secondary tertiary It’s a very secondary matter.



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Rule 13 Fractional Numerals Common fraction The numerator is a cardinal number; the denominator is an ordinal number. 1/2 – one (a) half 1/3 – one (a) third 1/4 – one (a) quarter 1/5 – one (a) fifth 1/6 – one (a) sixth If the numenator is more than one, then the denominator is used in plural. 2/3 – two thirds 3/4 – three quarters 5/6 – five sixths Decimal fraction Each digit is pronounced separately. 25. 105 – two five point one nought five 0.746 – nought point seven four six Operations with Numerals 1. Addition 1+2=3 – one plus two is (equals) three; 1, 2 – the addends, 3 – the sum 2. Subtraction 3-2=1 – three minus two is (makes) one; 3 – the minuend, 2 – the subtrahend, 1 – the difference 3. Multiplication 3*2=6 – three multiplied by two/twice three is six; 3 – the multiplicand, 2 – the multiplier, 6 – the product 4. Division 6:2=3 – six divided by two is three; 6 – the dividend, 2 – the divisor, 3 – the quotient

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Rule 14 Numerals for Time Expressions 1. Periods 1) Century the seventh century, the twenty-first century 2) Decade the 1990s – the nineteen nineties, the nineties the 2000s – the noughties in the early seventies in the mid-twenties in the late forties 3) Year written form oral form 1045 ten forty five 1600 sixteen hundred 1804 eighteen (oh) four/eighteen 1976 hundred and four nineteen seventy six 2006 two thousand six 2012 two thousand twelve /twenty twelve in 1951 – in the year 1951 My Granny was born in 1926. 2. Dates written form December,5 August, 21

oral form the fifth of December/December the fifth the twenty first of August/August the twenty first

3. Time written form (official)

oral form (common)

12 a.m./24.00 3 a.m. 7.20 8.55 9.30 10.15 12 p.m./12.00 16.45 21.00

twelve midnight three in the morning / three o’clock twenty (minutes) past seven five (minutes) to nine half past nine a quarter past ten twelve noon/midday a quarter to five in the afternoon nine in the evening – nine o’clock

Let’s meet at 5 in the evening. The library is open from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m.

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Rule 15 Syntactical Functions of Numerals 1. Attribute Do you know the seven wonders? This is Andrew’s third trip abroad. 2. Subject Four of them didn’t join us. 2004, 2008 and 2012 are leap years. 3. Predicative They were the first. It’s five o’clock. 4. Object How many apples has he eaten? He’s eaten three. Show me those two, please.

Rule 16 Personal Subject Pronouns 1st person

Singular form

Plural form

I

we

2nd person

you

you

3rd person

he she it

they

Personal Object Pronouns 1st person

Singular form

Plural form

me

us

2nd person

you

you

3rd person

him her it

them

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Rule 17 Possessive Pronouns 1st person

Singular form

Plural form

my

our

2nd person

your

your

3rd person

his her its

their

Note Possessive pronouns are not spelled with an apostrophe. It’s essential to distinguish between the possessive pronoun whose and the contracted form who’s as well as between the pronoun its and the contracted form it’s. Who’s that? That is a cat. Whose cat is that? That is Olivia’s cat. But I don’t know its name. It’s (= It is) red and furry.



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Rule 18 Absolute Form of Possessive Pronouns 1st person

Singular form

Plural form

mine

ours

2nd person

yours

yours

3rd person

his hers its

theirs

Note Possessive absolute pronouns substitute nouns and have the same functions in a sentence. 1) Subject His car is black. Mine is red. Where are the tickets? Theirs are in the bag. 2) Object I have found your keys, but I can’t find ours. Olivia knows Andrew’s parents. Does he know hers? 3) Predicative These are not our keys, they’re yours. This black leather briefcase is his. Note To remember personal pronouns use the chart. Pronouns

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Subject Pronouns

Object Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns (Adjectives)

Possessive Absolute Pronouns

I we you he she it they

me us you him her it them

my our your his her its their

mine ours yours his hers its theirs

Rule 19 Singular form

Plural Form

Subject

Reflexive pronoun

I

myself

you

yourself

he

himself

she

herself

it

itself

we

ourselves

you

yourselves

they

themselves

Note The object is the same as the subject. Andrew hurt himself. Marc, Alice, help yourselves.

Rule 20 Intensive Pronoun Singular form myself yourself himself herself itself

Plural Form ourselves yourselves themselves

Note Intensive pronouns do not substitute nouns, but intensify their meaning. You must make that choice yourself. Andrew repaired the bike himself. We want to go there ourselves.



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Rule 21 Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns point to a certain object or person that can be either near or far in distance or time.

Local Remote Irrespective

Singular form

Plural form

this that such a such the same

these those sch the same

Note 1) Attribute This situation is incredible. We met that man on the station. Would you quit your job under these circumstances? Those shoes were so cute! That girl has such a voice! Such rules usually take effect. They work at the same department. Why are you asking me the very same questions? It’s possible to use demonstrative pronouns before the word one. These apples are sweeter than those ones. Andrew is an intelligent young man. Yes, he is such one. That’s the same one I’ve been looking for! The demostrative pronoun may be positioned before the adjective that refers to the same noun. This pretty girl is my sister. What are these strange conclusions? It’s such a wonderful life. It’s always the same old story. 2) The demonstrative pronoun can also be used in place of nouns. – Subject This must not continue. Those were the days. – Object Will you take this? Don’t tell them that. Andrew can’t work with those. 34

Rule 22 Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to unknown or not specified things or persons. any some

each either every all both

many much few little enough plenty several

one

other

Rule 23 some – statements I need some information about language courses. Some of the mistakes were silly. – offers and suggestions Would you like some tea? Shall I bring some refreshments? – requests Where can I get some paper? Could you give us some examples? – negative sentences Olivia didn’t know any of them. It doesn’t make any sense.

any

– questions Have you got any questions? Did any of Andrew’s friends call him? – if-clauses I can lend her my cell phone if there’s any need. If you come across any problems, please, report us. – statements Contact any of our assistants. Any answer will do.

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Compound Indefinite Pronouns -body

-one

-thing

some

somebody

someone

something

any

anybody

anyone

anything

Somebody phoned you ten minutes ago. Would you like something to eat? Can we take something to make notes on? You may invite anyone. Are they waiting for anybody? Andrew has not found anything.

Rule 24 each – only with countable nouns – refers to two or more things or persons that should be regarded separately and individually There were cars parked on each side of the street. She kissed each of her children. – agrees with a singular verb There are four apartments in our building. Each of the apartments has its private entrance. Each item was checked. – However, if the pronoun each follows the plural subject, it agrees with the plural verb. They each do their share of work. I have two people in the office and we each have our own email. every – only with countable nouns – refers either to indefinite number of things/persons or to a group of things/persons considered as a whole. We could see every star in the night sky. Every player in the team should cooperate. 36

– with modifiers such as nearly, almost, practically Olivia knows almost every neighbour. Practically every problem has practical solutions. – with time words such as minute, hour, day There’s a bus every ten minutes. Every morning Andrew goes jogging in the park. – makes compound pronouns with -body, -one, -thing Everybody likes presents. They invited everyone but James and Karen. Everything’s done by computer nowadays. Note The pronoun everyone differs from the word combination every one. Everyone is a synonym to everybody and refers only to persons. Everyone enjoyed the movie. Every one is a synonym to each one and refers both to persons and things. He watched a lot of movies and enjoyed every one. – agrees with singular verb Every citizen is obliged to observe the constitution. Each and every one of us has their own opinion. either – with countable nouns – refers to two or more things or persons There are shops at either end of the street. Either of these books is useful. Nick can wear watches on either hand. Note The pronoun either differs from the adverb either, which is used in negative sentences. If you don’t order the dessert, I won’t either. Olivia doesn’t know his address, Andrew doesn’t know either. – agrees with a singular verb Does either of you speak Chinese? Has either of you two seen Harry?

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Rule 25 all – with uncountable nouns and plural countables – has a generalized meaning All children need love. Olivia said good buy to them all. – The pronoun all agrees with plural verb if it’s used with plural countables; if it refers to uncountable nouns, then pronoun all agrees with singular verb. All the students were ready. All the milk was fresh. All the book was torn out. Note You may use the whole + noun instead of all the + noun when it goes with a singular countable noun. The whole book was torn out. – If all precedes other noun modifiers (the, this, my, etc), then it can be used either as all + noun, or all of + noun. Andrew invited all his (all of his) friends. It’s important to answer all the (all of the) questions. Note Use all of before object pronouns, but just all after them. Andrew invited all of them (them all). All of you (You all) have various questions. – As the subject it agrees with either singular or plural verb, that depends on the context. All is well that ends well. All have gone. – If the subject is a personal pronoun, then all is put between and the verb. We all decided to dinner out the next day. They all skate in winter. – If thеre is a linking verb, an auxiliary or modal one, then all goes after the first verb. We are all here. 38

They have all seen the movie. You should all take part in this conference. Note All is quite often substituted by comounds everybody, everyone, everything. All are happy. => Everyone is happy. All is ready. => Everything is ready. both – with plural countables – refers to two persons or things I like both (ties). Both (applicants) are equally experienced. – agrees with a plural verb Which project is better? Both are good. – Use of between both and another determiner. Both of these restaurants are expensive. Olivia knows both of his brothers. – Use both of with a personal object pronoun (him, her, them, etc); use both after a personal subject pronoun (he, she, they). Both of them (They both) are suitable. It’s a game that both of us (we both) can play.



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Rule 26 many/much – many with countable nouns; much with uncountable nouns – refer to indefinitely large number of things or persons Are there many books on the desk? Will it take much time to get to the centre? – mostly used in negative sentences and questions How many friends have you got? There isn’t much sense in it. – If many/much are determined by as, so, too, very, use them in affirmative sentences as well. There were too many variants to choose. They have changed so much this year. – If many/much are the subject or the subject attribute, then they can be used in affirmative sentences too. Much of the work has already been completed. Many students attend extra classes. Note Words a lot (of), lots (of), a plenty (of) are commonly used in affirmative sentences. We have a lot to discuss. There are lots of easy ways to follow. They still have plenty of snow. few, little – few with countables; little with uncountables – refer to indefinitely small number off things or persons; the implied meaning is “not enough” Nick is sad because he has few friends here. There was little flour, so I couldn’t bake a cake. – The indefinite article a/an with the pronouns few/little changes the implied meaning for positive “enough”. John has a few friends there. There was a little flour, so I could bake a cake. – It is preferable to use any in negative sentences and questions. Does John have any friends there? Andy doesn’t have any friends there. 40

Is there any flour at home? There is no flour at all. enough – with both countable and uncountable nouns – refers to indefinite but sufficient number of something You have enough time to write an article. Andrew told them enough.

Rule 27 one – refers to an undetermined person in general One cannot learn a language in three months. One should pay taxes. Note In the informal language undetermined persons can be as well expressed by the pronouns you or they. You must always try to do your best. They say the weather is changing. Note The pronoun one can be used in the possessive form (one’s) or in its reflexive form (oneself). One must learn from one’s mistakes. One should be careful not to hurt oneself. – agrees with a singular verb One never knows what may happen. More than one variant is appropriate. – substitutes the noun to avoid repetition; often used in Which-questions See those two handsome men? Andrew is the taller one. Which dress has Olivia chosen? The red one. Note The plural form of the pronoun is also possible. Andrew bought three apples: a red one and two yellow ones. Your problems are the ones that understood by many parents.

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Rule 28 other – with countables and uncountables – The implied meaning “different” is used for indefinite number of things or persons. Can you bring other shoes, I don’t like these ones. I can’t meet you today. Let’s do it some other time. Let’s watch other movie, I’m scared. others – substitutes a plural noun Others may know us better than we know ourselves. Some tourists stay on the beach, others explore the town. another – only with singular countable nouns – The implied meaning is “additional, one more”. Please give me another chance. The example is not clear? Would you like another? the other – with countable plural or singular nouns – The implied meaning “remaining, the rest” is for definite number of things or persons. There are two pens on the desk – one is blue, the other is red. You may take one or the other. You cannot take both. the others – substitutes plural nouns There were three keys in the drawer. One is here, where are the others? Don’t forget the others.

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Rule 29 Reciprocal Pronouns The pronouns refer to two or more people who do the same thing. each other – refers to two persons or things Olivia and Andrew are talking to each other. Sometimes parents disagree with each other. one another – refers to three or more persons or things The footballers are passing the ball to one another. The delegates followed one another into the debating chamber.

Rule 30 Negative Pronouns No – with both countable and uncountable nouns in negative sentences There’s no milk in the fridge. We had no opportunity to meet you. None – substitutes countable and uncountable nouns Is there a computer in the room? No, none. Most apples are ripe, none is/are green. I thought there was a little money, but none was left. Note The pronoun no defines a noun whereras the pronoun none substitutes it. He has no friends. Does he have any friends? None. Neither – not one nor the other of two things or persons Neither of Andrew’s parents works. One mustn’t smoke or drink here. Neither is permitted.

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Rule 31 Indefinite pronouns take either a singular or plural verb or both depending on the context. Pronoun + Verb (singular form)

one => Even if one is afraid, one has no choice. anyone => Does anyone want a drink? everyone => Not everyone enjoys sport. no one => There is no one else I want to invite apart from you. someone => Someone is reading your email. anybody => Is there anybody who doesn’t understand the rule? everybody => Has everybody remembered to bring a notebook? nobody => Nobody knows the answer. somebody => Somebody is knocking at the door. anything => Is there anything I can do to help? everything => Everything was good. nothing => Nothing ever happens in this town. something => There’s something wrong with him. another => Not another word was spoken. enough => Enough is enough. little => Little of the original building has survived. much => Was there much traffic?

Pronoun + Verb (plural form)

both => Both are doctors. few => Very few of the stuff come from the local area. many => Many of our stuff work part-time.

Pronoun + Verb (singular or plural form)

all => All you need is love. All children should be taught to read. any => Is there any coffee left? Are any of the paintings for sale? each => Each man hunts alone. Their each do their share of the work. either => Is either of them at home? / (informal) Are either of them at home? neither => Neither of them is coming. / (informal) Neither of them are coming. none => I know what people are saying, but none of it is true. None of my friends phones me any more. / None of my friends phone me any more. (informal) some => Some say it was an accident. Some information is important.

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Rule 32 Interrogative Pronouns Who? – refers exclusively to persons – serves to ask about the subject of the statement Who has eaten my porridge up? Who is speaking? Who is it? – If it is used with a preposition (which follows the verb), it acts as an object of the sentence. Who are they waiting for? Who did Andrew dance with? Who will you tell us about? Whose? – the possessive form of pronoun Who – refers to persons – serves to ask about an object or its attribute We’ve listened to all the reports. Whose was the most interesting? Whose bags are these? Whom? – the objective form of pronoun Who – refers to persons – serves to ask about an object in the sentence Whom are you going to invite? Whom did you speak to? / To whom did you speak to? What? – refers to things – serves to ask about the subject of the statement What is green and round? What has happened?

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– acts as an attribute to the subject What language are you speaking? What kind of music does she like? What is she like? – When it refers to persons it means “what kind of occupation or job” the subject has. What are you? What was your uncle? He was a policeman. Which? – refers to a certain number of things or persons – acts as the subject or its attribute Which is your floor, 10 or 111? Which way will you choose? Note If a great number of variants is implied, then one should use the question word what. Which is your floor? (a few variants) What is your address? (a lot of variants)

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Rule 33 Relative Pronouns who – refers to persons – substitutes the subject and at the same time connects it with the second part of the sentence He who laughs last laughs best. The man who is speaking to Olivia is her father. whom – refers to persons – substitutes the object and at the same time connects it with the second part of the sentence Andrew named those whom he recommended for the job. You should display respect for those people with whom you interact on a daily basis. Note It is preferable to use the pronoun who instead of whom in informal speech. The official letter usually begins with the phrase: To Whom It May Concern. It doesn’t matter who it may concern to. whose – refers to persons – substitutes the attribute to the subject and at the same time connects it with the second part of the sentence The man whose autograph I got is a famous footballer. All students whose score is high enough will get into the course. which – refers to things – substitutes the subject or an object and at the same time connects them with the second part of the sentence The cars, which facilitate our life, make it worse at the same time. I’d like to change the computer which I’m working at. that – refers to things and persons – substitutes the subject, its attribute or an object and at the same time connects them with the second part of the sentence

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Olivia has finally watched the film that came out long time ago. The man that Andrew was debating with is his professor. This is the house that Jack built. Moving to a metropolis is all that she wants. Note Pronouns which and that differ. The subordunate clause with which implies additional but not essential, urgent information; the subordunate clause with that carries significant further intensifying information. The diamonds, which are expensive, will always attract women. The diamonds that are most expensive were put in the safe-box. Note Pronouns whom, which, that may be omitted if they act as an object in a subordinate clause. The woman (whom) Tim met is his wife. The papers (which) he put into the safe-box are very important. The picture (that) you can see here was donated by a collector.

Rule 34 Compound Pronouns with -ever whoever

Whoever could it be? You can invite whoever you want.

whosever

Whosever is this untidy room? I wonder whosever phone is ringing.

whomever

Whomever are you praising so highly? Give the card to whomever you want.

whatever

She’s dyed her hair orange. Whatever next? You can choose whatever you like.

whichever

I can see two cars. Whichever is yours? You can contact us by email or telephone, whichever you prefer.

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Rule 35 1. Subject 2. Object 3. Predicative

Syntactic Functions of Pronouns

Personal pronouns: I, we, you, he, she, it, they It belongs to Andrew. (subject) The colleagues believe her. (object) Those were they. (predicative) Possessive absolute pronouns: mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs Theirs is an old mansion, ours was built in 1999. (subject) I’ll send the letter to mine. (object) This netbook is his. (predicative) Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those This tastes delicious. (subject) I’ll take those. (object) Indefinite pronouns: any, some, each, either, all, both, much, few, little, enough, plenty, others, the others Some of them haven’t arrived. (subject) They have both. (object) That’s all. (predicative) Compound Indefinite pronouns: somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing Does anybody live here? (subject) Olivia told nobody her secret. (object) It can be everyone. (predicative) Interrogative pronouns: who? what? which? Who knows Mary? (subject) What has happened? (subject) Which was the first? (subject) 4. Attribute Possessive pronouns: my, our, your, his, her, its, their Our course starts in September. I don’t understand your ideas.

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Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those That man looks strange. Why don’t you read these books? Indefinite pronouns: some, any, no, every, each, other, another, either, neither Can you give us some sheets of paper? Other people think differently. Interrogative pronouns: what? whose? What music do you like? Whose children are these?

Rule 36 Nouns Proper

Common Countable

Articles Singular form the, Ø the sun, America

the, Ø the Alps, Toms

Singular form

Plural form

Specific

Non-Specific

the the friend, the apple

a/an a friend, an apple

Specific Common Uncountable

Plural form

the the juice, the love

Specific

Non-Specific

the the friends, the apples

Ø, other determiners friends, apples some friends, many apples

Non-Specific Ø, other determiners juice, love little juice, some love

Note Countable singular nouns are logically used with an article in any way. I’ve bought a car. Where’s the car? 50

Rule 37 Indefinite Article Forms a

an

a hotel, a note, a table, a union, a yacht a young assistant, a simple error, a new office

an author, an element , an hour, an umbrella an American flag, an old tale, an honourable guest

Use of Indefinite Article 1. A thing or a person is mentioned for the first time. What’s this? It’s a computer. A man is standing at the window. Note The article а/an is used after there is. There is an apple in the vase. There is a man at the window. 2. It is pointed out that a thing or a person belongs to a particular group. Give me an apple, please. The article is written by John Smith, a student of our college. He is an engineer. Africa is a continent. 3. Any or every thing or a person of a certain group is implied. A child can do it. A cat knows where the mouse is. 4. It is used in the meaning of “one”. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. He didn’t say a word. A tea and a cake, please. Note The same meaning is revealed in the article a when it goes before the numerals hundred, thousand, million. a hundred friends, a thousand years,a million ways

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As well as before the nouns couple, dozen, pair, score and after the word half. a couple of times, a dozen of eggs, a pair of jeans There was barely a score of people. We met two and a half years ago. Note We use a/an in this meaning before the time words – second, minute, hour, day, week, month, year. Let’s ignore the rules for just a second. Wait a minute. He’ll be back in an hour. Olivia attends her classes twice a week. 5. before certain ailments (health problems) Lora is getting a headache. Do I have a cold or the flu? 6. with little, few in positive meaning There is still a little hope for a change. Can you cite a few facts? 7. after such, quite, rather It was such a beautiful day. Andrew offered rather a good idea. 8. in exclamations started with What What a pleasure to hear from you! What an ungracious remark! 9. with the verb to have together with several verbs of movement to express a short-time activity. to have a look, to have a sleep, to have a swim, to have a try, to have a rest 10. in fixed collocations as a matter of fact as a result as a rule at a glance 52

at a speed of at a time when at a loss in a hurry

go for a walk have a good time it’s a pity it’s a pleasure it’s a shame

Rule 38 Use of Zero Article 1. Things or persons are mentioned for the first time. Who are they? – They are (Ø) sportsmen. He doesn’t eat (Ø) bananas. 2. Things or persons (countale plural nouns) as well as abstract notions and material (uncountable nouns) refer to a certain class or group. (Ø) Milk is good for (Ø) children. He likes (Ø) music. Note The zero article is used even if there is an attributive adjective which goes before the noun. He likes (Ø) modern music. (Ø) Fresh milk is good for (Ø) little children. 3. The zero article is used when a noun is preceded by another determiner. 1) demonstrative or possessive pronoun Olivia should take these papers. Are your friends here? Note 2 The zero article is used with words north (northern), south (southern), west (western), east (eastern) Eastern customs differ from western habits. He speaks according to the southern pronunciation. 2) a cardinal number A football referee is assisted by two subordinates. Note If a cardinal number is used after a noun, then the zero article is required. Room 10, Lesson 13, Page 97 4. before exclusive job titles Professor John Wood has been appointed (Ø) Secretary General.

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1) before names (Ø) Liz Brown is staying at this hotel. Have you seen (Ø) William Drake? Note The zero article is needed with vocative expressions (Ø)Children, calm down! (Ø) Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to our conference. 2) a person’s title or rank go before his or her name (Ø) Queen Elizabeth II, (Ø) Sir Winston Churchill, (Ø) Lord Byron, (Ø) Doctor Watson, (Ø) Miss Marple, (Ø) Mrs.Doubtfire, (Ø) Colonel Sanders, (Ø) Admiral Nelson, (Ø) President Obama Note If there is no name after the person’s title or rank, then the definite article the is required. The President met with journalists. The Queen celebrates her 85th official birthday. Note The zero article is used to denote sib relationships. (Ø)Sister Jane, (Ø)Brother Thomas, (Ø)Aunt Polly, (Ø)Uncle Ben 5. 1) before continents Africa, America, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe Note The zero article also refers to the parts of the continents North/Northern, South/Southern, Central, East/Eastern, West/Western North America, Southern Africa, Central Europe, Southeastern Asia, Latin America 2) before countries (Ø) China, (Ø) France, (Ø) Great Britain, (Ø) Russia, (Ø) Saudi Arabia, (Ø) South Korea, (Ø) Ukraine, (Ø) Vatican Exceptions: the Netherlands, the Gambia, (the Democratic Republic of) the Congo 3) before regions (Ø) Texas, (Ø) Quebec 54

4) before islands (Ø) Greenland, (Ø) Majorca, (Ø) Sakhalin Note The definiite article is required before the word isle together with its geographical name. The Isle of Man, the Isle of Capri 5) before mounts, volcanoes (Ø) Kilimanjaro/(Ø) Mount Kilimanjaro, (Ø) Everest/(Ø) Mount Everest, (Ø) Fuji/(Ø) Mount Fuji, (Ø) Mont Blanc, (Ø) Vesuvius/(Ø) Mount Vesuvius 6) before lakes (Ø) Lake Baikal, (Ø) Loch Ness, (Ø) Lake Superior, (Ø) Lake Balkhash Exceptions: the Great Lakes, the Great Salt Lake 6. 1) before cities and towns (Ø) Athens, (Ø) Cape Town, (Ø) London, (Ø) Moscow, (Ø) New York, (Ø) Rome, (Ø) Saint Petersburg, (Ø) Stratford-on-Avon, (Ø) Washington Exception: the Hague Note The definite article is used before the word City together with its name. The City of Moscow, the City of New York, the City of Rome. 2) urban districts (Ø) Manhattan, (Ø) Soho, (Ø) Chinatown Exceptions: the City/the Square Mile, the Bronx 3) before streets, squares, parks (Ø) Oxford Street, (Ø) Park Lane, (Ø) Sixth Avenue, (Ø) Covent Garden, (Ø) Trafalgar Square, (Ø) Hyde Park Exceptions: the Mall, the Strand Note The zero article is used in road directory signs. (Ø) Blackrock Road, (Ø) Dixie Overland Highway 4) before airports, railroad stations, seaports, underground staitions (Ø) Gatwick Airport, (Ø) Victoria Station, (Ø) London Port, (Ø) Paddington Station

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5) before some places of interest (Ø) London Zoo, (Ø) Buckingham Palace, (Ø) Westminster Abbey, (Ø)Diana Memorial Fountain, (Ø) Windsor Castle Exceptions: the Royal Palace, the White Hall 7. 1) before educational institutions (Ø) Cambridge, (Ø) Moscow University, (Ø) Eton College, (Ø) Central High School Note The definite article is necessary before the word university/college when it goes beffore its name. The University of Oxford, the College of Central London 2) with words school, college, hospital, prison, jail (abstract meaning) be at (Ø) school, go to (Ø) school, leave (Ø) school Cf: My son goes to (Ø) school. The correspondent came to the school. Sarah stayed at (Ø) hospital for three days. The plumber is in the hospital. Note The zero article is used with words work, home, bed, town, sea, camp, when they denote not the place but the activity. It’s time to go to (Ø) bed. Andrew stayed at (Ø) home on Friday. 8. 1) before educational subjects and courses (Ø) Maths, (Ø) History, (Ø) Computer Science, (Ø) Economics, (Ø) Physical Training 2) in combinations play + sport Are the boys playing (Ø) football? 9. before seasons, months, days of the week We often travel in (Ø) summer. (Ø) December comes after (Ø) November. (Ø) Wednesday is her day off. 56

Note The zero article goes before holidays. (Ø) Easter is a religious holiday. 10. before meals What’s for (Ø) breakfast? (Ø) Lunch is served. Clive and Jude are invited to (Ø) dinner. 11. before languages and nationalities I study (Ø) Chinese. You know a lot about (Ø) French culture. Note The definite article goes before the word language together with its name. The English language is packed with exceptions. Note The definite article denotes a nation as a whole. How do the British view Americans? 12. instructions Use (Ø) pencil. Push (Ø) button. 13. in a word combination by + means of transport by (Ø) car, by(Ø) bus, by (Ø) train, by (Ø) plane, by (Ø) ship, by (Ø) boat One can travel by (Ø) air, by (Ø) sea, by (Ø) land. 14. in fixed word combinations at (Ø) night by (Ø) day by (Ø) name from (Ø) morning till (Ø) night



in (Ø) debt in (Ø) future in (Ø) public on (Ø) deck on (Ø) board to watch (Ø) television

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Rule 39 Use of Definite Article 1. the repeated mention of things, persons Andrew watched a new film yesterday. The film was frantic. There’s (Ø) heavy smog over the town. The smog is just getting thicker. 2. definite things or persons within a definite situation The cosmonauts managed to conduct experiments. Give me the pencil, please. The tension between the two countries remains. The milk in the package was not fresh. 3. the only thing or person in a definite situation Open the door, please. Olivia mopped up the floor and cleaned the windows. 4. the unique celestial objects the sun, the moon, the earth, the sky, the world, the universe 5. A singular countable noun introduces the whole group or class. The panda is a symbol of peace in China. The pencil was invented by Nicholas Conte. 6. before geographical regions the Antarctic, the Arctic, the Far East, the Middle East Note The following geographical expressions belong to this group: the North Pole, the South Pole, the Equator(the Line), the Western Hemisphere, the Eastern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere, the Northern Hemisphere the North, the South, the West, the East 7. 1) before archipelagoes the Aleutians/the Aleutian Islands, the Bahamas/the Bahama Islands, the British Isles, the Kurils/the Kuril Islands, the Philippines 2) mountain ranges the Alps, the Caucasus/the Caucasus Mountains, the Urals, the Rockies/the Rocky Mountains 3) deserts the Sahara/the Sahara Desert, the Gobi/the Gobi Desert, the Kara Kum 58

4) valleys the Central Valley, the Great Rift Valley, the Nile Valley, the Valley of the Kings Exceptions: Ø Death Valley, Ø Silicon Valley 5) cavities, gorges, passes, canyons the Mariana Trench, the Tara Canyon, the Grand Canyon 6) peninsulas the Balkan Peninsula, the Iberian Peninsula, the Indochinese Peninsula (Indochina), the Kamchatka Peninsula/Kamchatka 8. 1) oceans the Atlantic (Ocean), the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific (Ocean), the Southern ocean 2) seas the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean (Sea), the Red Sea, the Sea of Japan 3) rivers the Amazon (River), the Nile (River), the Thames (River), the Volga (River) 4) straits the Bering Strait, the Dardanelles, the English Channel, the Strait of Gibraltar 5) canals the Panama Canal, the Suez Canal, the Grand Canal of China, the Moscow Canal 6) currents the California Current, the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio Current 9. geopolitical names of countires the Kingdom of Belgium, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain (the UK), the United States of America (the USA), the Republic of Cuba, the United Arab Emirates (the UAE) the CIS (the Commonwealth of Independent States) the EU (the European Union) 10. 1) unique constractions, monuments the Great Wall, the Kremlin, the Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge, the White House, the Twin Towers, the Statue of Liberty Note The zero article is used when the name of constraction is preceded by another proper name. Ø Westminster Abbey, Ø Mark Twain House, Ø Albert Hall

59

2) theatres the Globe Theatre, the National Theatre, the Open Air Theatre, the Royal Opera House 3) cinemas the Odeon, the Vue, the Forum 4) concert halls the Philharmonic Hall, the National Symphony Hall, Ø Sydney Opera House 5) museums, galleries the British Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the State Hermitage, the Tretyakov Gallery, the National Gallery, the Photographers’ Gallery 6) hotels the Metropol, the Savoy, the Hilton, the Ritz-Carlton, the Plaza Note Cafes, restarurants are snormally defined by the article, but not always. the Astoria, the Fat Duck, Ø St. John, Ø Hibiscus 11.several newspapers and magazines the Guardian, the Times, the Daily Telegraph, the Sunday Morning 12. 1) the family name in plural form to denote a family as a whole the Browns, the Stuarts, the Thompsons 2) A person’s name is preceded by his or her job name. the engineer Faraday, the archaeologist Jefferson, Hemingway the Writer 13. to play the + musical instrument to play the piano, to play the violin, to play the drums 1) in the + a period of time in the past, in the future 2) in the + a part of the day in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening 14) fixed word combinations to tell the truth (to tell a lie), by the way, in the country, to take the trouble, to listen to the radio

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Rule 40 Notional Verbs

– have a lexical meaning – act as a simple predicate to work, to go, to play, to think

Link Verbs

– do not have an independent meaning – act as a compound nominal predicate to be, to seem, to appear, to become, to grow, to look, to sound, to stay, to taste, to smell, to feel, to remain

Auxiliary Verbs

– do not have an independent meaning – make complex verb forms to do, to be, to have, shall (should), will (would)

Modal Auxiliary Verbs

– express the attitude to the action – are used with notinal verbs can, must, may



61

Rule 41 Verbs to be, to do, to have can have several grammatical meanings and several functions in a sentence. 1. Notional Verb

be

– “to stand, to lie, to exist” He was at home. 2. Auxiliary Verb – Continuous Tenses I am writing. – tenses in passive voise The task was done. 3. Link Verb You were right. It is 5 o’clock. 1. Notional Verb

do

– “to make, to accopmplish, to carry” Do the exercise! What are you doing? 2. Auxiliary Verb – Simple tenses What do they want? I don’t watch TV. 1. Notional Verb

have

–“to possess” They have a good knowledge of the subject. She has two children. 1. Auxiliary Verb – Perfect tenses Have you had lunch yet? It has been built until at last. 62

Rule 42 Transitive verbs - require a direct object to complete the meaning Andrew sent a letter. Olivia laid the table.

Intransitive Verbs - do not take a direct object Andrew is sleeping on the sofa. Olivia is lying on the bed.

Note Polysemous verbs can be either transitive or intransitive depending on the context. We dance. (intransitive) We dance tango. (transitive) William runs every morning. Who runs Britain?

Rule 43 Finite Forms English Verb Categories Mood 1. Indicative – verbs indicate real actions – verbs change in tenses (past, present, future) Andrew eats an apple a day. If Andrew is hungry, he will eat an apple. 2. Imperative – verbs give intructions or commands Eat an apple a day. Let Andrew eat an apple. Don’t eat (anybody) the apple. 3. Subjunctive – verbs express wishes, opinions, feelings and other states of unreality I wish Andrew ate an apple! I wish Andrew had eaten an apple.

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– describes the relationship between the verb and the subject Voice 1. Active – the subject performs the action Jack built the house a year ago. 2. Passive – the subject is affected by the action of the verb The house was built (by Jack) a year ago. Aspect – defines the temporal structure of an action, its duration and completeness 1. Continuous They had been working for weeks. I wish I were being given other tasks. 2. Non-Continuous They finished their work. I have been given other tasks. Tense – indicates the time when an action occured 1. Past The group had organized several festivals by that time. 2. Present The assistant has prepared an information note. 3. Future The scientist will be working on this problem.

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Rule 44 Principal Parts of a Notional Verb Form I Base form

Form II Past Simple

Form III Past Participle II

Form IV Present Participle I

V work, go

V-ed worked, went

V-ed worked, gone

V-ing working, going

Rule 45 Regular Verbs

Irregular Verbs Past Simple

V-ed

V(II)

worked, lived, played

went, built, forgot Past participle

V-ed

V(III)

worked, lived, played

gone, built, forgotten Irregular Verbs

Form I



Form II

Form III

Group 1

be do have

was, were did had

been done had

Group 2

bet bid burst cast cost cut fit forecast

bet bid burst cast cost cut fit forecast

bet bid burst cast cost cut fit forecast 65

hit hurt let put read rid set shed spread shut slit split thrust upset

hit hurt let put read rid set shed spread shut slit split thrust upset

hit hurt let put read rid set shed spread shut slit split thrust upset

Group 3

begin drink ring run shrink sing sink stink swim

began drank rang ran shrank sang sank stank swam

begun drunk rung run shrunk sung sunk stunk swum

Group 4

build slide hear hold leave lose make mean sit

built slid heard held left lost made meant sat

built slid heard held left lost made meant sat

Group 5

bleed breed feed flee lead speed meet shoot

bled bred fed fled led sped met shot

bled bred fed fled led sped met shot

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Group 6

bring buy catch fight seek teach think

brought bought caught fought sought taught thought

brought bought caught fought sought taught thought

Group 7

cling fling hang sling string swing wring

clung flung hung slung strung swung wrung

clung flung hung slung strung swung wrung

Group 8

blow fly grow know throw draw withdraw

blew flew grew know throw drew withdrew

blown flown grown known thrown drawn withdrawn

Group 9

bend lend send spend sell tell

bent lent sent spent sold told

bent lent sent spent sold told

Group 10

forsake mistake overtake shake take undertake

forsook mistook overtook shook took undertook

forsaken mistaken overtaken shaken taken undertaken

Group 11

hide forbid ride bite write eat

hid forbade rode bit wrote ate

hidden forbidden ridden bitten written eaten 67

Group 12

creep keep sleep sweep weep

crept kept slept swept wept

crept kept slept swept wept

Group 13

lie see shine spin win

lay saw shone spun won

lain seen shone spun won

Group 14

lay mislay pay say

laid mislaid paid said

laid mislaid paid said

Group 15

bind find grind wind

bound found ground wound

bound found ground wound

Group 16

bear swear tear wear

bore swore tore wore

born sworn torn worn

Group 17

break speak wake weave

broke spoke woke wove

broken spoken woken woven

Group 18

drive forgive give strive

drove forgave gave strove

driven forgiven given striven

Group 19

arise choose freeze rise

arose chose froze rose

arisen chosen frozen risen

Group 20

deal feel kneel

dealt felt knelt

dealt felt knelt

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Group 21

stand understand withstand

stood understood withstood

stood understood withstood

Group 22

become come overcome

became came overcame

become come overcome

Group 23

tread forget get

trod forgot got

trodden forgotten got

Group 24

steal fall

stole fell

stolen fallen

Group 25

strike dig

struck dug

struck dug

Group 26

go

went

gone

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Rule 46 Tense

Voice Active

Past

Present

Future

70

Passive

Simple

Liz copied the documents yesterday.

The documents were copied by Liz yesterday.

Continuous

At that moment I was repairing the car.

At that moment the car was being repaired by me.

Perfect

They had done the work by Monday noon.

The work had been done by Monday noon.

Perfect Continuous

Ann had been preparing dinner for an hour before Nick came.

The dinner had been being prepared for an hour by Ann before Nick came.

Simple

Every Sunday Sam cleans the room.

Every Sunday the room is cleaned by Sam.

Continuous

Now Jane is writing the letter.

Now the letter is being written by Jane.

Perfect

Jack has already passed the exam.

The exam has been passed by Jack.

Perfect Continuous

We have been building a new house for two years.

The house has been being built for two years.

Simple

Tomorrow they will discuss the question.

Tomorrow the question will be discussed by them.

Continuous

The group will be holding a meeting at 2 p.m.

A meeting will being held by the group at 2 p.m.

Perfect

Michael will have translated the text by next Friday.

The text will have been translated by Michael by next Friday.

Perfect Continuous

Mrs. Trevor will have been teaching us for a year next May.

We have been being taught by Mrs. Trevor for a year next May.

Tense

Time past

Past Simple

She finished the work yesterday.

Past Continuous

I was sleeping at 7 a.m.

Past Perfect

You had known the answer before they asked you.

Past Perfect Continuous

He had been staying at the hotel for a month before he moved to us.

Present Simple

She likes jazz.

present If today were Saturday we could go to the country now.

future If they arrived tomorrow, they would meet him.

If I had known before that you are going to come by tomorrow, I would have been in then. If I had been sleeping now I wouldn’t have heard the call.

I want tea. Present Continuous

They are living in London.

Present Perfect

She has been to China.

Present Perfect Continuous

You have been speaking over the phone for two hours.

He is working now.

The train arrives at 7.50.

We are leaving for Spain next week.

I have not noticed any change.

He has been painting the room.

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Future Simple

Hold on. I’ll ask him now.

Future Continuous Future Perfect

They’ll visit the parents tomorrow. I’ll be waiting for you.

We’ll have been married for twelve years by December. She’ll have written the letter by 7 p.m.

Future Perfect Continuous

In ten minutes you’ll have been preparing the speech for three hours. They may be tired when you come as they’ll have been working for five hours.

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Indicative Mood. Simple Tenses Active Rule 47 Past Simple Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

V-ed (II)

Andrew studied economics in America two years ago. Andrew went to America two years ago. - Negative Subject

+

did not

+

V (I)

Andrew didn’t (did not) study cooking two years ago. Andrew didn’t go to Japan two years ago. ? Interrogative Did

+

subject

+

V (I)

Did Andrew study economics two years ago? Where did Andrew go two years ago? – statement of facts Columbus discovered America. – a succession of events in the past We finished working, went out and drove to the club. – a single action Yesterday Andrew passed the test. – a repeated action Every summer Andrew and Olivia visited their friends in France. – no connection to the present When Andrew was young he didn’t ride a bike. – the exact time is mentioned Olivia phoned just now. yesterday in 1999 some time ago the other day during the trip then last Monday when just now

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Rule 48 Present Simple Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

V /V-s (I)

Andrew and Olivia go to work together. Andrew studies economics. – Negative Subject

+

do/does not

+

V (I)

+

V (I)

They don’t (do not) go to work on Sunday. Andrew doesn’t (does not) study physics. ? Interrogative Do/ Does

+

subject

Do they go to work at 8 or 9 a.m.? Why does Andrew study economics? Note Add -s to the verb only when the subject is in the third form singular (he, she, it) in an affirmative sentence. Andrew (he) plays football on Tuesdays. Olivia (she) likes swimming. The Moon (it) goes round the Earth. In negative and interrogative sentences -s goes to the auxiliary do: do+ (-s) => does. Andrew does not play chess on Tuesdays. Does Andrew play chess or football? However, -s is added to the verb in the question to the subject as there are no any auxiliary verbs. Who plays football on Tuesdays? – a general action People build houses of different materials. – the truth The Sun rises in the East. 74

– a repeated habitual action Andrew reads newspaper at breakfast. – a succession of events happening at the time of speaking (in comments, presentations) I put the box on the table, open it and take an envelope out of it. – in timetables, instructions with verbs to arrive, to come, to leave, to start, etc. The conference begins at 10 a.m. – time indications for repeated actions They often meet Olivia in the health club. never seldom hardly ever rarely occasionally sometimes from time to time regularly often frequently every day/week/month/year usually always



75

Rule 49 Future Simple Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

shall/will

+

V(I)

Andrew will leave for Scotland next month. We shall celebrate the anniversary in summer. - Negative Subject

+

shall/will not

+

V(I)

Olivia won’t (will not) move to America. We shan’t (shall not) celebrate my birthday in summer. ? Interrogative Shall /Will

+

subject

+

V(I)

Will Andrew leave for Brazil? When shall we celebrate the anniversary? Note It is more common to use will (’ll) for all persons. Note In questions the verb shall with I, we realizes a modal meaning of wish to follow the instructions and offer to do a favour. Shall we start next unit tomorrow? Shall I order the taxi? Note In questions will/won’t with you is used to express a polite request. Will you open the window? – a single action Some day Andrew will stop smoking. – a repeated action Olivia will go to the swimming pool three times a week. – an unplanned spontaneous action What are your plans for the weekend? – I don’t know. Perhaps, I’ll invite friends to my place. 76

– feelings, doubts, thoughts (often with the expressions I think, I guess, I suppose, probably, perhaps, etc.) I don’t think I’ll pass the exam. It’ll probably be cold tomorrow. – time expressions for future He will go to the library one of these days. next week (next month, next year) tomorrow in 2020 in a month later one day one of these days then Note There are several grammar means to express the future, i.e. to be going to + V(form I), Present Continuous Tense и Present Simple Tense. to be going to

am/is/are going to + V(I) – the action is inevitable in the nearest future and there is a visible evidence. Look out! The tree is going to fall down. – the action is planned, there is prearrangment. Andrew’s colleagues are going to start a new project soon.

Present Continuous Tense

am/is/are + V-ing (IV) – personal timetable and plans for the nearest future (time and place is often specified) I am having an interview at 12.00 on Tuesday.

Present Simple Tense

V/ V-s (I) – official timetable, orders, instructions Next train for London leaves at 7.30. Where shall I buy the ticket for this train?



77

Note If a future action is possible only under certain conditions and circumstances, then the Present Simple Tense is used in Condition and Time Clauses. If clauses

When clauses

if unless suppose (that) provided (that)

before as soon as after when until while

If + S + V, S + will/shall + V

When + S + V, S + will/shall + V

S + will/shall + V, if + S + V

S + will/shall + V, when + S + V

If Andrew comes, he’ll meet Olivia. They’ll get surprised, when they see him. They will make a lot of mistakes While Andrew has an appointment, unless they learn the rules. Olivia will prepare the report.

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Indicative mood. Continuous Tenses Active Rule 50 Past Continuous Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

was/were

+

V-ing (IV)

Andrew was speaking over the phone at that moment. They were having lunch at 1 p.m. - Negative noun or pronoun

+

was/were not

+

V-ing (IV)

Andrew wasn’t (was not) driving then. We weren’t (were not) watching TV when you came. ? Interrogative Was/Were

+

subject

+

V-ing (IV)

Was Andrew sleeping? What were they doing those days? – an action was going on at a certain point in the past Andrew was having an interview yesterday at noon. – neither result nor perfection of the process is important Olivia was cooking. – a background action in progress which is interrupted by another action (Past Simple) While they were walking to work it started to rain. – a long lasting but not continuous action in a limited period of time in the past Olivia’s parents were building a new house in summer. at that moment at that time those days at 5 o’clock yesterday when while as long as



79

Rule 51 Present Continuous Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

am/is/are

+

V-ing (IV)

I am reading now. Andrew is speaking over the phone. You are studying. - Negative Subject

+

am/is /are not

+

V-ing (IV)

I’m not (am not) riding a horse now. Andrew isn’t (is not) walking. You aren’t (are not) diving in the ocean. ? Interrogative Am/Is/Are

+

subject

+

V-ing (IV)

Am I sleeping? Whom is he talking to? Are you joking? – an ongoing action at the moment of speaking You are reading this sentence now. – a continuous action in a limited period of time at present Andrew is taking a refresher course this month. – changing of a situation, its progress The weather is changing from minute to minute. –a permanent but unplanned action Olivia is always losing her keys. You’re always giving us so cute gifts! now at the moment at this time these days Look! Listen! nowadays

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Rule 52 Future Continuous Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

shall/will be

+

V-ing (IV)

Andrew will be working on the computer later. We shall be entertaining friends on Saturday evening. - Negative Subject

+

shall/will not have been

+

V-ing (IV)

He won’t (will not) be translating the letter. I shan’t (shall not) be reading at that moment. ? Interrogative Shall/Will

+

subject

+

have been

+

V-ing (IV)

Will he be studying or playing chess? Shall we be going to the sea then? – a continuous action at a certain moment in future Olivia will be sunbathing on the sea beach this time in a week. – a long lasting action in future, which will be interrupted by another action (Present Simple Tense, Time or Condition Clauses) When Andrew arrives, they’ll be having dinner. – a long lasting but not continuous action in a limited period of time in future Olivia’s parents will be building a new house during the summer. at that moment at that time at 5 o’clock this time in a week Note Stative verbs do not take the continuous form and do not add -ing. Such verbs are used in the Present Simple Tense instead.



81

Stative verbs Senses

Emotions and Relations

Opinion

Possession

feel (that) hear see smell taste

adore care desire forgive hate like love need prefer want wish

believe forget know notice recognize remember see think understand

belong consist contain have own possess

Hush! Do you hear anything?

I prefer paper books to e-books.

Do you believe him? We understand her.

Do you have any questions?

Do you feel that your life is rich in happy events?

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We don’t care of whose fault it is.

The team consists of ten members.

Indicative Mood. Perfect Tenses Active Rule 53 Past Perfect Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

had

+

V-ed (III)

Andrew had learned to drive by the end of school. Prior to the fire-brigade arrival the tree had burnt through. - Negative Subject

+

had not

+

V-ed (III)

Andrew made a list of things he hadn’t (had not) finished yet. Andrew saw a mate he hadn’t spoken with in over 15 years. ? Interrogative Had

+

subject

+

V-ed (III)

Had you watched the film when I came? How much had Olivia written by lunchtime? – an action was completed prior to another action Andrew had returned home by midnight. – a previously completed action in a sequence of events in the past Mr. Black entered the room, came up to Andrew and thanked him for what he had done. before after by 7 o’clock by the end of by that time



83

Rule 54 Present Perfect Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

have/has

+

V-ed (III)

Andrew’s friends have arrived. Olivia’s parents have bought a boat. Andrew has cleaned the flat. Olivia has put on a few pounds. - Negative Subject

+

have/has not

+

V-ed (III)

His parents haven’t (have not) called him yet. Her children haven’t broken a vase. He hasn’t (has not) opened the door. She hasn’t eaten ice-cream. ? Interrogative Have/Has

+

subject

+

V-ed (III)

Have they returned from the trip? Why haven’t you washed up? Has it ever rained here? What has she chosen? – an action is complete to a certain point of time at present Their child has learned how to read. – the result of an action is essential at present Andrew has broken his leg. He’s in hospital now. – an action is complete within a limited period of time at present We have gone to the cinema twice this week. – the tense is used to proclaim the news without details The acting president has sacked the entire cabinet. – an action started in the past and is still going on Andrew has worked in this company for many years. ever for never already yet lately recently just since before today this week this month this year 84

Rule 55 Future Perfect Tense + Affirmative Subject

+

shall/will have

+

V-ed (III)

Andrew will have mastered his French by the time he returns from France. We shall have forgotten them by then. - Negative Subject

+

shall/will not have

+

V-ed (III)

You will not have arrived at the office by 9 a.m. They will not have slept for a long time. ? Interrogative Shall/Will

+

subject

+

have

+

V-ed (III)

Will they have completed the project before the deadline? Shall we have gone on holiday by then? – an action will be complete by a certain moment in future Olivia will have known the results before Saturday. by the end of the term by 7 o’clock by that time by then



85

Indicative Mood. Perfect Continuous Tenses Active Rule 56 Past Perfect Continuous Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

had been

+

V-ing (IV)

They had been driving for three hours when the accident happened. - Negative Subject

+

had not been

+

V-ing (IV)

It had not been raining for several weeks and the soil dried thoroughly. ? Interrogative Had

+

subject

+

been

+

V-ing (IV)

Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived? – an action was going on by and at a certain moment in the past Olivia had been working on the computer for three hours when Andrew returned. – an action was complete by another action Andrew had a black eye. He had been fighting.

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Rule 57 Present Perfect Continuous Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

have/has been

+

V-ing (IV)

+

V-ing (IV)

We have been living here for six years. She has been studying Spanish for a month. - Negative Subject

+

have/has not been

You haven’t (have not) been reading the book for a week. It hasn’t (has not) been working for a long time. ? Interrogative Have/Has

+

subject

+

been

+

V-ing (IV)

Have they been playing tennis for an hour? How long has she been making the presentation? – an action started in the past, was and is still going on It has been raining all day long. – an action is complete by the moment of speaking, the result is obviuous Tom’s clothes are so dirty. He has been painting the fence.



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Rule 58 Future Perfect Continuous Tense Active + Affirmative Subject

+

shall/will have been

+

V-ing (IV)

By the year 2017, people will have been watching TV for 70 years. - Negative Subject

+

shall/will not have been

+

V-ing (IV)

The girls won’t have been planning the party. ? Interrogative Shall/Will

+

subject

+

have been

+

V-ing (IV)

By May, how long will you have been writing your book? – an action will start and be going on for some time in the future By the following summer they’ll have been selling pictures for a year. Note The Future Perfect Continuous Tense is rarely used.

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Indicative Mood. Future in the Past Tenses Active Rule 59 Future in the Past Tenses Active Future Simple in the Past

+ Affirmative (He said that)

Subject

+

would

+

V (I)

Andrew believed that he would help us. Olivia promised she would send a postcard from Japan. - Negative (He said that)

Subject

+

would not

+

V (I)

They knew Andrew wouldn’t (would not) be there. You mentioned you would go to America soon. Future Continuous in the Past

+ Affirmative (He said that) Subject

+

would be

+

V-ing (IV)

We knew that Andrew would be working then. I hoped that they would be preparing for the party. - Negative (He said that)

Subject

+

would not be

+ V-ing (IV)

I thought he wouldn’t (would not) be writing an article. They said the children wouldn’t be playing in the yard. Future Perfect in the Past

+ Affirmative (He said that) Subject

+

would have

+

V-ed (III)

We thought you would have finished the project. Andrew said he would have passed the tests.

89

- Negative (He said that) Subject

+

would not have

+

V-ed (III)

Olivia thought she would not have done the task. We told we would not have achieved such results without him. Future Perfect Continuous in the Past

+ Affirmative (He said that) Subject

+

would have been

+

V-ing (IV)

+

V-ing (IV)

Andrew understood that he would have been studying economics for three years by June. I knew the team would have been constructing the tower for a long time. - Negative (He said that) Subject

+

would not have been

Olivia reminded them that by the following month they’d not (would not) have been dealing with that company for a year.

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Indicative Mood. Simple Tenses PassIve Rule 60 Past Simple Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

was/were

+

V-ed (III)

Andrew’s bike was stolen some time ago. The papers were divided into piles. - Negative Subject

+

was/were not

+

V-ed (III)

The parcel wasn’t (was not) sent to her. We weren’t (were not) noticed among the guests. ? Interrogative Were/Was

+

Subject

+

V-ed (III)

Were you seen there? Was the letter written by Olivia? Present Simple Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

am/is/ are

+

V-ed (III)

A lot of mistakes are made in written tests. I am often asked questions. - Negative Subject

+

am/is/are not

+

V-ed (III)

We aren’t (are not) given any instructions. Olivia isn’t (is not) allowed to use this computer. ? Interrogative Am/Is/Are

+

Subject

+

V-ed (III)

Are they given extra classes? Why is Andrew often offered a new post?

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Future Simple Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

shall/will be

+

V-ed (III)

+

V-ed (III)

The plans will be shown to the chief. I shall be listened to by the audience. - Negative Subject

+

shall/will not be

We shan’t (shall not) be transferred to another office. Olivia won’t (will not) be met at the station. ? Interrogative Shall/ Will

+

Subject

Shall I be examined by the doctor? Will it be prepared in time?

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+

be V-ed (III)

Indicative mood. Continuous Tenses Passive Rule 61 Past Continuous Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

was/were being

+

V-ed (III)

+

V-ed (III)

The children were being taught to swim. The furniture was being moved. - Negative Subject

+

was/were not being

The lawn wasn’t being mown. The photos were not being printed. ? Interrogative Was/Were

+

Subject

+

being V-ed (III)

Was the document being edited? Why were they being told that story? Present Continuous Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

am/is/are being

+

V-ed (III)

The streets are being washed with the rain. Andrew is being operated now. - Negative Subject

+

am/is not being

+

V-ed (III)

The topic is not being discussed. The tickets are not being sold now. ? Interrogative Am/Is/Are

+

Subject

+

being V-ed (III)

Is the table being laid? Where are the students being tested?

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Indicative Mood. Perfect Tenses Passive Rule 62 Past Perfect Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

had been

+

V-ed (III)

The flat had been cleaned. The passport had been found. - Negative Subject

+

had not been

+

V-ed (III)

The window had not been broken. Tom had not been seen since 1989. ? Interrogative Had

+

Subject

+

been V-ed (III)

Why had the roads not been cleared? What had Olivia been prescribed? Present Perfect Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

have/has been

+

V-ed (III)

+

V-ed (III)

The name has been changed. They have been awarded. - Negative Subject

+

have/has not been

The school has not been rebuilt. They have not been involved in the project. ? Interrogative Have/Has

+

What has been done? Has the bag been lost? 94

Subject

+

been V-ed (III)

Future Perfect Passive

+ Affirmative Subject

+

shall/will have been

+

V-ed (III)

The project will have been completed by next month. These movies will have been dubbed by autumn. - Negative Subject

+

shall/will not have been

+

V-ed (III)

The letters won’t have been answered. The comment will not have been deleted. ? Interrogative Shall/Will

+

Subject

+

have been V-ed (III)

Will the gifts have been given by then? Will the clothes have been washed by tomorrow?



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Indicative Mood. Future in the Past Passive Rule 63 Future in the Past Passive is only used in subordinate clauses with the verb in a past tense in the principal clause. Future Simple in the Past Passive

I should be told. I should not be told. Should I be told? It would be done. It would not be done. Would it be done?

Future Perfect in the Past Passive

I should have been told. I should not have been told. Should I have been told? It would have been done. It would not have been done. Would it have been done?

Rule 64 Subjunctive Mood Simple

Present Active

Passive

V (I)

be + V (III)

I/he/she /it/we/ you/ they ask I/ he/she/it/we/ you/they be

I/ he/she /it/we/ you/ they be asked

Past Active

Passive

V-ed (II)

were + V-ed (III)

I / he/she /it /we/ you/ they asked I / he/she/it /we/ you/they were

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I /he/she /it /we/ you/ they were asked

Continuous

Present Active

Passive

be +V-ing (IV)

be + being V-ed (III) I/he/she/it/we/you/ they be being asked

I / he/she /it /we/ you/ they be asking

Past Active

Passive

were + V-ing (IV)

were + being V-ed (III) I/he/she/it/we/you/ they were being asked

I / he/she/it/we/you/ they were asking Perfect

Present Active

Passive

have + V-ed (III)

have + been V-ed (III)

I/he/she/it/ we/you/ they have asked

I/he/she/it/ we/you/ they have been asked Past

Active

Passive

had + V-ed (III)

had + been v-ed (III)

I / he/she /it /we/ you/ they had asked Perfect Continuous

I/he/she/it/ we/you/ they had been asked Present

Active

Passive

have +been V-ing (IV)

have + been being V-ed (III)

I/he/she/it/we/you/ they have been working

I/he/she/it/ we/you/ they have been being asked Past

Active had +been V-ing (IV) I/he/she/it/we/you/ they had been working

Passive had + been being V-ed (III) I/he/she/it/ we/you/ they had been being asked 97

Rule 65 Use of Subjunctive Mood Present Simple (Active and Passive) V (I) 1. Simple sentence – in conventional set expressions meaning wish or damnation Long live our partnership! God bless you! Heaven forbid. If it please the court. Be it so! Although it be (albeit) Perish the man! Confound it! Manners be hanged! 2. Compound sentence – in official orders, requests, suggestions We request that you be here tomorrow. It is possible that the patient eat two apples a day. It is urgent that Smith attend tomorrow’s meeting. They suggest that Mr. Parker move the car to parking lot. The employees demand that the director explain new working conditions. Note In this meaning the Subjunctive mood is used in a subordinate clause whereas a specific verb or an impersonal construction is put in the principal clause: V that advise ask (+ Subj. Passive) command demand insist order 98

It’s…that best crucial desirable essential important inappropriate

propose recommend request (+ Subj. Passive) require (+ Subj. Passive) suggest

necessary possible unlikely urgent

Note At present the subjunctive form with should is common: It is urgent that Smith should attend tomorrow’s meeting. They suggest that Mr. Parker should move the car to parking zone. Past Simple/Continuous/Perfect/Perfect Continuous/would Active and Passive 1. Compound Wish Sentence – an imaginary, unreal or unlikely action, doubt, wish (Past Simple/Continuous) wish, V-ed (II) Then at the party Olivia wished she were at home. I wish they didn’t mean good-bye. When you go to Japan, will you wish you spoke Japanese? I wish it were raining now. Andrew wished he was sleeping. – an unrealized action, regret and sorrow (Past Perfect/Perfect Continuous) wish, had V-ed (III) I wish he had helped us. Andrew wished the experiment had not failed. You will wish you had listened to us. Olivia wishes she had been staying with her parents last weekend. Note The form could + have V-ed (III) is also possible: I wish you could have phoned me in advance. – a theoretic, speculative action, which may happen in future; there is a special construction for a subordinate part of a sentence: would + V (I) or could + V (I)

99

I wish they would come together. She wished Sam would change his mind. Will you wish I would join you the following week? I wish we could arrange to meet tomorrow. He wishes he could help them now. 2. Complex Conditional Sentence – unreal, false, impossible conditions to perform an action at present or in future (Past Simple/Continuous) If + V-ed (II), would/could + V (I) If he decided to stay, she would be happy. We would answer at once provided that you sent us all the documents. – Мы ответили бы сразу, если вы пришлете нам все документы. Unless they paid, Andrew couldn’t do this work. If the sun were shining, we would go to the beach. – an imaginary action itself referred to the past or unreal or false conditions of the action (Past Perfect/Perfect Continuous) If + had V-ed (III), would/could + have V-ed (III) If we had not rented a car, we could not have travelled round the island. Unless the road had been mended they would have had to take a long way round. Provided she had paid the loan, the house would have been hers. If Andrew had been crossing the street when there was a red light a car would have hit him.

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Rule 66 Conditionals Zero Conditional (Type 0) – the action doesn’t refer to a specific tense, its conditions are always true If + V/V-s (I), V/V-s (I) If + V-ed (II), V-ed (II) If you heat water, it boils. If Andrew has time, he takes photos. If Andrew had time, he took photos. First Conditional (Type I) – the action may happen in future under actual conditions If + V/V-s (I), shall/will + V (I) If Andrew has time, he will take photos. Second Conditional (Type II) – the action is impossible in future as the conditions are unreal If + V-ed (II), would + V (I) If Andrew had time, he would take photos. Third Conditional (Type III) – the action was impossible in the past as the conditions were unreal If + had V-ed (III), would have + V-ed (III) If Andrew had had time, he would have taken photos. Note There can be a Mixed Type of Conditional sentences, when Type II elements and Type III elements are combined together. If + had V-ed (III), would + V (I) If Andrew had studied photography last year, he would take photos now.

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Rule 67 Formation and Use of Imperative Mood V (I) Eat an apple a day. Let Andrew eat an apple. Excuse me, please. Note It is possible to use pronoun you before the verb: You be ready to perform. Do not + V (I) Don’t eat the apple. Don’t let him go!

Rule 68 NON-FINITE FORMS Features of Non-Finite Forms

– no person category – no number category – no mood category – no tense category – no role of independent predicate – no aspect category – no voice category – part of a compound predicate – roles of different sentence members (object, subject, attribute, adverbial modifier) Andrew hit his leg doing karate. (Participle) It’s rather difficult for me to understand you. (Infinitive) Olivia enjoys dancing. (Gerund)

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Rule 69 Active Voice

INFINITIVE Simple

Continuous

Passive Voice

The action is simultaneous with the action of a finite verb. to V

to be V-ed (III)

to change

to be changed

The continuous action is simultaneous with the action of a finite verb. to be V-ing (IV)

No forms

to be changing Perfect

Perfect Continuous

The action precedes the action of a finite verb. to have V-ed (III)

to have been V-ed (III)

to have changed

to have been changed

The continuous action precedes the action of a finite verb. to have been V-ing (IV)

No forms

to have been changing Note The negative infinitive is formed with not before the infinitive: not to change, not to be changed, not to have changed, not to have been changed, not to have been changing Infinitive without to 1. after auxiliary verbs auxiliary verb +V shall go, will change 2. after modal verbs modal verb +V can go, must change Exception: ought to

103

3. after emotional verbs (to see, to hear, to smell, to taste, to watch, etc.) in the Complex Object sense verb + V We saw him enter the office. Note The Infinitive in passive is used with to. He was seen to enter the office. 4. after to make,to let make + V (I) let + V (I) Don’t make me change my mind. Let me help you. Note The Infinitive in passive is used with to. I was made to change my mind. 5. after had better, would rather, would sooner had better + V would rather + V would sooner + V You had better ring her up. I’d rather go now. Syntactic Functions of Infinitive Function

Example

Subject

To do exercises is good for you. To learn is important.

Attribute

We haven’t had time to prepare the test. Andrew is a man to be trusted.

Adverbial modifier

We should study to learn. To be presented, the project needs adaptation.

Object

Olivia decided to quit the job. They want to be met at the station.

Predicative

Your goal is to master English grammar. It seems to have been done in time.

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Rule 70 PARTICIPLE Present Participle (I)

Perfect Participle (I)

Past Participle (II)

Transitive verbs Active voice

Passive voice

Intransitive Verbs Active voice

An action is simultaneous with the action denoted by the verb. V-ing (IV)

being V-ed (III)

V-ing (IV)

changing

being changed

working

An action precedes another one, which is expressed by the verb. having V-ed (III)

having been V-ed (III)

having V-ed (III)

having changed

having been changed

having worked

A complete action performed on its subject. отсутствует

V-ed (III) changed

V-ed (III) You have changed the design.

Note The negative form: not + Participle not changing, not being changed, not having changed, not having been changed, not changed Syntactic Functions of Participle Function Attribute

Example Present Participle (I) We have to adapt to a changing world. The information being changed in the process of work must be properly structured. Working hours vary greatly around the globe. Past Participle (II) I like the changed town.



105

Adverbial modifier

Present Participle (I) Changing attitude you can change behavior. While being changed, the program can be reduced by far. When working on a project you should plan every step carefully. Perfect Participle (I) Having changed the rules, the provider attracted rather more participants. Having been changed by the author, the names sounded better. Having worked with Andrew for three years, Olivia can rely on him. Past Participle (II) When changed the town plan lost its uniqueness.

Predicative

Present Participle (I) Times are changing. The world is being changed by idlers. Past Participle (II) The course seems changed.

106

Rule 71 Active Voice GERUND

Non-Perfect Perfect

Passive Voice

An action goes together with an action of the main verb. V-ing (IV)

being V-ed (III)

changing

being changed

An action precedes an action of the main verb. having V-ed (III)

having been V-ed (III)

having changed

having been changed

Note The negative form of the gerund: not + V-ing not changing, not being changed, not having changed, not having been changed Syntactic Functions of Gerund Function



Example

Subject

Getting a good job is not easy. No smoking is allowed.

Attribute

You need a new or updated driving license. Her manner of speaking surprised me.

Adverbial Modifier

On returning home he phoned his friend. Instead of revising the material you’ve been pottering around.

Object

I thanked him for having helped us before. We expected her being admitted into the law school.

Predicative

What I love most is wandering about the town. Seeing is not beleiving.

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Rule 72 Gerund after Essential Prepositional Verbs Verb

Preposition + Gerund

ask worry He had no time to worry about not having any friends.

about

complain dream talk think She dreams of being a pop-star.

about/of + V-ing

apologize ask blame care forgive pay thank use Thank you for having informed us.

for + V-ing

escape keep prevent prohibit protect stop They can’t prevent me from leaving.

from + V-ing

believe participate succeed Andrew succeeded in having solved the problem.

in + V-ing from + V-ing

accuse approve

of + V-ing

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consist die suspect Andrew’s parents don’t approve of his getting married. concentrate congratulate depend insist rely spend money spend time Andrew insisted on paying the bill.

on + V-ing

adjust object They adjusted to living abroad.

to + V-ing

cope Olivia copes with working long hours.

with + V-ing

2. Gerund after Essential Phrasal Verbs Phrasal Verb + Gerund burst out carry on feel up to get around to

get away with get down to get out of get to

give up go on keep sb from keep on

leave off look forward to put off take to

Andrew took a look at Olivia and burst out laughing. It’s time you got down to looking for a job. Don’t give up improving relations. The students kept on asking questions. We’re looking forward to hearing from you. 3. Gerund after Adjectives and Participles used with Prepositions Adjective/Participle II anxious concerned disappointed excited

Preposition + Gerund about + V-ing

109

glad happy sorry Tom is disappointed about coming in the third place. angry bad clever good Olivia is good at playing the guitar. famous responsible You are responsible for planning the trip.

at + V-ing

for+ V-ing

interested She is interested in learning to cook.

in+ V-ing

afraid bored busy capable fond guilty proud sick tired I am bored of doing the same old job.

of + V-ing

keen Olivia is keen on speaking French. accustomed addicted committed dedicated devoted opposed used to They re opposed to building another shopping centre here. 110

on + V-ing to + V-ing

content Andrew is content with working in this firm.

with + V-ing

4. Gerund after Nouns with Prepositions Noun



Preposition + Gerund

doubt story We are in doubt in buying this car.

about + V-ing

preference reason regret reputation responsibility talent Her reputation for hosting is wellknown.

for + V-ing

belief delay difficulty experience There’s a difficulty in buying fresh fish in this supermarket.

in + V-ing

advantage chance danger disadvantage for the purpose habit hope idea knowledge love memory method opportunity possibility problem

of + V-ing

111

process risk way There are various methods of teaching languages.

to+ V-ing

addiction addition reaction In addition to coming late, Tim lost his key. 5. Gerund in Fixed Collocations be worth + V-ing

The book is worth reading.

in spite of + V-ing

In spite of studying a lot, Liz failed.

it’s no good + V-ing

It’s no good punishing them.

It’s no use + V-ing

It’s no use talking to him.

what about/how about + V-ing

What about cooking pasta?

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Rule 73 Verbs followed by Gerund Verb + V-ing (Gerund) acknowledge admit advocate anticipate appreciate avoid complete defend defer

delay deny detest disclaim discuss dislike endure enjoy entail

escape excuse facilitate feel like finish go imagine include involve

justify keep mention mind miss omit postpone practise prevent

recollect recommend report resent resist resume risk suggest tolerate understand

Rule 74 Verbs followed by Infinitive Verb + to V (Infinitive) afford agree aim appear arrange ask attempt beg choose claim



consent dare decide demand deserve desire determine elect endeavour expect

fail guarantee happen hesitate hope hurry incline intend learn long

manage offer plan prepare pretend profess promise refuse request resolve say

seem strive struggle tend threaten venture volunteer want wish would like yearn

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Rule 75 Verbs with Direct Object followed by Infinitive Verb + Direct Object (sb) + to V (Infinitive) advise allow authorize cause challenge

command convince direct enable encourage

force hire instruct invite motivate

oblige order persuade remind require

select send tell urge warn

Rule 76 Some verbs change their meaning depending on the following gerund or infinitive. Verb + to V (Infinitive)/ V-ing (Gerund) No change of meaning begin can’t bear can’t stand cease commence continue dread She continued to ignore us. She continued ignoring us.

hate like love need neglect prefer propose start

Verb + to V (Infinitive) /V-ing (Gerund) Change of meaning forget help; can’t help mean regret remember stop try Andrew forgot to study for his economics test. He forgot studying for his economics test. Olivia helped the woman to fill out the forms. She couldn’t help smiling. Sorry, I didn’t mean to insult you. Working in London meant renting a room there. We regret to tell you that your order has been cancelled. I regret telling you about him. Does she remember to go to the doctor? Does she remember going to the doctor? The old man stopped to talk to his friend. The old man stopped talking to his friend. The boy tried to open the door. He tried driving home another way.

114

Rule 77 Modal Verbs can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would – no Infinitive or non-finite forms (form II, form III, form IV) – form I only I must go. He must go. We must go. – all modal verbs are used in the present form; the past form is appropriate only for would, should, could, might – present and future tenses are formed with a notional verb (form I) without to I can speak Chinese. Will you read it? – a negative sentence is formed without an auxiliary verb Subject + Modal Verb + not + V (I) They shouldn’t meet there. – a question is formed without an auxiliary verb Modal Verb + Subject + V (I) May I call her? – most modal verbs have equivalents among notional verbs I can run fast. => I am able to run fast. You mustn’t drive without a valid license. => You are prohibited from driving without a valid license. – modal verbs are not used one after another You should can speak English. (неверно) You can English. You should speak English.



115

Rule 78 Modals

Features and Meaning

Can

physical ability +–?

Andrew can run very fast. I can’t open the door. Can you see her?

request ?

Can you fetch a chair? Can you give me some advice?

permission

They can take the car. They can’t drive alone. Can I smoke in here?

+–? possibility

Could

+–?

Shopping can be costly. We can’t afford this house. When can we get the results?

impossibility –

It can’t be true. It can’t have been done without his help.

physical ability, skill

Olivia could play the guitar. Could she dance the waltz? She couldn’t cook.

+–?

May

request ?

Could you speak a bit louder?

offer, advice +

We could try doing it ourselves. They could have asked us first.

probability ?+

Could this be a mistake? The wind could develop into a storm tonight. He could have gone home an hour ago.

permission, instruction

Children may stay here only with parents. You may not exchange your prize for cash. May I come in?

+–? request (formal) ? 116

Example

May I have another cup of coffee, please?

possibility +–? Might

probability +–?

Andrew isn’t on line, he might be driving home. She might have received the letter already.

general rule, obligation,

Each passenger must buckle the seat belt.

necessity

Olivia must call him immediately.

instant suggestion +

You must see this movie.

prohibition –

You mustn’t take photos in the gallery. –

probability +–?

It’s 7 p.m. Andrew must be having dinner. They must have sold the house before moving to Brazil. The letter isn’t open. She must not have read it.

Shall

offer ?

Shall we start?

Should

belief +

Our children should live in a prosperous country.

instant suggestion +

He should distance himself from such a person.

spontaneous decision +–

I can’t see any buses, so I’ll walk.

request for favour ?

Will you please stop whistling?

Offer (formal) ?( –)

Won’t you join us?

Must

Will



It may snow tonight. He may not know about Internet. Olivia may have consulted the doctor yesterday.

117

Would

request for favour ?

Would you mind opening the window?

offer ?

Would you like some juice?

preference +

We would like to thank you.

Degree of Permission, Advice and Obligation

must should could, might can, may You must work. You should work. You could work, if you want. You can work. Degree of Request informal formal

will can could would Will you give me you cellphone? Can you give me your cellphone? Could you give me your mobile phone? Would you give me your mobile phone, please? Degree of Asking for Permission direct question most polite request

can may could might Can I talk to you? May I talk to you? Could I have a talk with you? Might I have a conversation with you?

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Rule 79 Semi-Modals

Modal Equivalents

need, dare, ought to, used to, have to

be able to, be going to, be allowed to, be permitted to, be supposed to, had better, would rather, be about to

– go before the infinitive, not the base form (form I) ought to do, be going to do – inflected by number, person and tense I have to do, he has to do, we had to do Exception: ought to – has 1 form; used to – has only the past form – consist of several elemets be able to, had better, used to – informal Semi-Modals

Features and Meaning

Example

dare

be brave

He won’t dare to deny it.

need

must do

Andrew needs to work on his English.

no necessity –?

He didn’t need to stay in a hotel.

regret (refers to the past) –

I needn’t have done it.

suggestion, advice (= should)

She ought to withdraw

high probability 1)refers to the present and future 2) refers to the past +

The project ought to be successful. Olivia ought to have changed her mind.

ought to



119

necessity (= must) +

All the candidates have to be interviewed.

no necessity –

You don’t have to apologize.

responsibility (no choice) +?

When do I have to return the books?

used to

repeated action in the past (= would)

They used to play chess on Sundays.

be going to

planned future, aim

I am going to finish what I started.

nearest future with actual present signs

Look! The sky is overclouded. It’s going to rain.

physical ability, (=can, could)

You will be able to speak French fluently in several months.

have to have got to

be able to

skill

“overcome, cope with ”

Andrew was speaking very quickly, but Olivia was able to understand him.

possibility

I can play tennis, but I’m unable (not able) now.

be about to

nearest future “just on the point of” (= will, shall)

They are about to arrive.

be to

official arrangement

The delegation is to go to Moscow next week.

demand

No food is to be taken into the room.

credibility

Work on the new bridge is to begin this week.

moral obligation (= should)

I’m supposed to visit parents this weekend.

be supposed to 120

belief (= be expected to, be required to)

She was supposed to know how to behave properly.

be allowed to, be permitted to

permission (= may, might)

Women weren’t allowed to vote.

had better

advice, suggestion (either bad circumstances) (without to)

We’d better start at once.

would rather would sooner

preference (without to)

I’d rather not go out tonight. They’d sooner die than surrender. – Они предпочтут погибнуть, чем сдаться. Would you rather have tea or coffee?

Rule 80 Modal words apparently It’s apparently a trend right now. certainly evidently in fact The rules are, in fact, made to regulate their activity. maybe naturally obviously of course perhaps possibly probably surely

Maybe, I won’t go back. We obviously need the site. Of course, he lied.

Surely, I’ve met you before.

undoubtedly/no doubt unfortunately Unfortunately, we lost. Modal words express the speaker’s attitude to the thought expressed in a sentence.

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Rule 81 Adverbs: Formation Adj + -ly

Adj + Noun

quick => quickly strong => strongly vigorous => vigorously dull => dully busy => busily shy => shyly (but gay => gaily, daily, easily, noisily) enthusiastic => enthusiastically

meantime meanwhile sometimes

a- + Noun abed afoot asleep

Prep + Noun besides today

Prep + Adj abroad along aloud

Adverbs specify verbs and adjectives. Note Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives. daily - daily early - early

friendly -friendlily far - far fast - fast hard - hard

late - late little - little

long - long loud - loud

Some words ended with -ly are adjectives, not adverbs. lonely, elderly Note – The adverb hardly is opposite in meaning to the adverb hard. We are not tired. We can work hard. They are so tired. They can hardly walk. – The adverb of time lately differs from the adjective late and its derivative adverb late. Lately means “recently”: I arrived late for the train. What is new with you lately? 122

Note good => well Olivia is a good pianist. She plays the piano well.

Rule 82 Adverbs of Manner Carefully, easily, fast, hard, patiently, quietly, straight , well, etc. – go after the verb or an object We waited patiently for the meeting to begin. He ate the meat greedily.

Rule 83 Adverbs: Degrees of Comparison Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Adv

Adv-er

the Adv-est

Short adverbs hard close Adv+-ly

harder closer Adv

seriously quickly

hardest closest

more Adv more seriously more quickly

the most Adv the most seriously the most quickly

Irregularly Compared Adverbs Positive badly far well early

Comparative worse farther/further better earlier

Superlative worst farthest/furthest best earliest 123

Rule 84 Adverbs of Time after before

early now

once recently

soon then

today tomorrow yesterday

– go at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. He hasn’t played chess before. – The adverbs now, then, once can be placed in the middle of a sentence. It was now time to tell the truth. Some things happen only once in a lifetime. First listen then repeat. Adverbs of Frequency always constantly

habitually usually normally generally mostly commonly regularly

often frequently repeatedly

sometimes occasionally

hardly ever seldom rarely never

– chiefly go before the verb He often goes on business trips. – but after the verb be Tim is sometimes late for work. – sometimes can be placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence Sometimes she rides a bike. She rides a bike sometimes. She sometimes rides a bike. – The adverbs intensify their meaning if they are put either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. Often he goes on business trips.(True) He goes on business trips quite often.(True) He goes often on business trips. (False) 124

Note The adverbs of infrequency are not used in negative and interrogative sentences. Did you rarely attend classes? (False) They don’t seldom visit their friends. (False) Note Adverbs of Time Intervals are placed at the end of a sentence. They are used in formal speech. daily, weekly, monthly , yearly, annually The workers are paid monthly. Informal format offers expressions with every: every day, every week, every month, every year.

Rule 85 Adverbs of Location above ahead back downstairs

here inside near, nearby off

on out, over overseas

sideways there under up, upstairs

Note There is a short list of derivative adverbs: anywhere everywhere somewhere nowhere – The adverbs here and there can be placed at the beginning of a sentence before the verb be; The subject which is a noun goes after the verb. Here are the documents. There stood Andrew. – If the subject is a pronoun, it goes before the verb. Here they are. There it was.

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Rule 86 Adverbs of Degree adequately almost badly completely entirely

extremely immensely greatly highly hugely

hardly just scarcely little moderately

much nearly partially perfectly profoundly

practically quite rather too totally very

– Adverbs almost, largely, nearly, really, quite are mostly used before the verb. He almost became a professional. – Adverbs very much, a lot, little, a little, a bit go after the verb or the object. I like him little.

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Rule 87 Some adverbs can specify not only verbs but also adjectives and other adverbs. Adv + Adj She is extremely happy. They were absolutely exhausted. Adv + Adv You speak English quite well. I got up rather early. Exception: Adj + enough Adv + enough You’re mature enough to stay at home alone. Sam can’t run fast enough. – The adverb very does not go with descriptive adjectives that stand for the highest degree of a described feature. She is a very beautiful woman. (false) These are very unique researches. (false) It’s a very fantastic film. (false) – The adverb too before adjectives or another adverb means “more than is needed or wanted”. The coffee is too strong. Andrew drove too slowly. – The adverb too after an adjective or adverb means “in addtition, also”. The tea is strong too. Olivia drove slowly too.



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Rule 88 There is a certain order in which adverbs appear in a sentence, though it is flexible. Verb + adverb of Degree + adverb of Manner + adverb of Location + adverb of Frequency + adverb of Time Olivia loves very much to swim there practically every day.

Rule 89 Syntactic Functions of Adverbs – Adverbial modifier He runs quickly. When did they arrive? – Subject Quickly doesn’t mean well. Today is Friday. – Direct Object I don’t know when. – Attribute The then president gained the majority.

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Rule 90 Prepositions 1. Grammatical meaning of He is a friend of mine. Olivia bought a kilo of apples. to Andrew lent bike to his brother. Who’s the letter addressed to? by I’m reading some short stories by Chekhov. We were amazed by what she told us. with You should draw the plan with a pencil. She wiped her lipstick off with a tissue. 2. Lexical meaning Andrew went home after work. (Time) We were late because of you. (Cause) They spoke about the film.(Modal attitude) Note Prepositions normally precede the related words. However, there are several cases in informal speech where prepositions can follow the related words. – special questions What are you looking at? Who is Olivia dancing with? – relative clauses The project which Andrew participate in is rather ambitious. The movie which I’ve told you about is on in the local cinema. – infinitive constructions There’s a good view to look at. Do you have anything to write with? – exclamatory sentences What a strange topic to speak about!

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Rule 91 Meanings of Prepositions Prepositions of Time at

on

in

– exact time at 6 o’clock, at noon, at midnight

– days of the week on Monday, on Thursday

– a short period of time at night, at dawn, at sunset, at the weekend, at Easter, at Christmas, at the end of summer

– dates on the 2nd of January, on the 25th of September

– parts of the day in the morning, in the evening – months, seasons, years, centuries in August, in 1972, in spring, in the 21st century, in the past, in the present, in the future

Note Prepositions of time periods: about before by for (= around) between during from…to after They met the day before yesterday. The meeting lasted from noon to dinner. The town is within two hours from here.

since throughout

until/ till (= up to) within (= in)

Prepositions of Place and Location Prepositions of Direction at

on

in

– exact address at 19 Meads Road

– streets, squares on Felton Street, on Red Square

– towns, regions, countries, continents in Liverpool, in the Moscow region, in France, in Asia

at work, at class, at home, at the office, at the library, at school, at hospital, at the airport, at the market

in class, in the office, in the library, in school, in hospital, in the field, in the playground, in the car

on the field, on the train, on the floor, on the horse, on the plane, on the farm, on the beach

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Note Prepositions of place and location: above across against along

among around behind below

beside between by down

in front of inside near next to

opposite over through under

They sailed against the wind. There was a stain just below the pocket. The lawn in front of the house was beautiful. They marched through the town. Note Prepositions of directions: across around

at down

from into

off onto

over past

through towards to up

They were going down the river. He began to drive slowly past the houses. Exceptions: home Note Prepositions are widely used in various fixed word combinations. not at all at first at hand at last at a loss at once by chance by heart by the way



for example (instance) for good from time to time in advance in brief in common in fact in a hurry in particular

in private in public in vain inside out of course on behalf of on business on demand on duty

go on foot on hand on loan on one’s own on one hand…on the other hand on purpose on sale on the spot on the whole under age

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Rule 92 Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions join equal elements, such as homogenious parts of the sentence or independent sentences within a compound clause. for

and

nor

but

or

yet

so

Live for today, for tomorrow never comes. We were wet and tired. Olivia can’t be at the meeting nor can Andrew. I’m sorry, but I think you wrong. Is it Saturday or Sunday today? The proof of a theorem is simple yet effective. They got lost so they bought a street map. Correlative Conjunctions both…and

not only…but also

either…or

neither…nor

whether…or

Olivia felt both sad and happy at the same time. Not only did Andrew turn up late, but also he left the papers at home. Either you leave now or I call the police. They speak neither French nor German. I’m going, whether she like it or not. Subordinating Conjunctions if provided (that) unless

as because since

although though as whereas

after before when whenever while

where wherever

Provided that the weather is fine, Andrew will roller-skate. Since we’ve got a few minutes, let’s have a cup of coffee. Olivia is coming next week, though her parents don’t know which day. I try to use olive oil whenever it is possible. Put the flower where it gets as much sun as possible.

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Rule 93 Interjections



positive emotions (satisfaction, pleasure, etc.)

negative emotions (frustration, discontent, anger, etc.)

aha, bingo, bravo, hurray, yeah, yes

boo, drat, goodness, pooh, tut-tut, ugh

surprise

regret

agreement

doubt

ah, aha, boo, dear, eek, eh, gee, goodness, gosh, hey, oh, well, wow

dear, gee, oh, oops

ah, eh, uh-huh

er, uh, umm

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Rule 94 Simple Sentence (Independent Clause) Structure Subject + Predicate Olivia (subject) is an experienced manager (predicate). Her parents (subject) live far from the city (predicate). Kinds of Simple Sentences – subject + verb Andrew slept. Sit down! Oh, Harry! – subject + linking verb + subject complement The dinner smells delicious. Olivia was a student before she became a manager. – subject + verb + direct object Andrew welcomed the visitors. She should keep her temper. – subject + verb + indirect object + direct object He gave Olivia a bouquet of flowers. Could you call me a taxi, please? – subject + verb + direct object + object complement Andrew painted the walls white. Does he call himself a photographer? – subject + verb + complex object (=direct object + verb) We saw her entering the office. Olivia expected Andrew to come. – complex subject + verb (+object) It is said to be hot in September. Andrew is unlikely to arrive soon. Note The strucuture of the simple sentence can be complemented with attributes and adverbial modifiers. This elderly attractive (attribute) man plays the guitar incredibly fast (adverbial modifier). The ice on the river (attribute) melts slowly this year (adverbial modifier). 134

Rule 95 Subject-Predicate Agreement – singular Subject => singular Verb Andrew takes photos. Olivia is speaking in front of the committee. – plural Subject => plural Verb His friends take photos too. They are speaking about the project. – singular Subject with a prepositional phrase => singular Verb The colour of water depends on the rays of light. – plural Subject with a prepositional phrase => plural Verb The colours of the rainbow are so pretty in the sky. – each / every / no / one + Subject => singular Verb Each and every one of the flowers has its own colour and smell. Each of the companies supports a local charity. No smoking or drinking is allowed. Only one of the applicants has not participated in any of the championships. – Subject + and + Subject => plural Verb The cat and the dog are playing together. The teacher and his pupil have prepared an interesting presentation. – Subject + and + Subject (refer to one and the same thing or person) => singular Verb Stewed vegetables and pork tastes good. His colleague and friend (Pete) was on the breadline then. – singular Subject + or / nor/neither…nor/ either…or/ not only …but also + singular Subject => singular Verb Either Olivia or Andrew is going on a business trip to China. Not only the sofa but also the table was spotted. – plural Subject + or / nor/neither…nor/ either…or/ not only …but also + plural Subject => plural Verb Neither apples nor plums were ripe. – plural Subject + or / nor/neither…nor/ either…or/ not only …but also + singular Subject => singular Verb The pupils or their teacher knows the way.

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– singular Subject + or / nor/neither…nor/ either…or/ not only …but also + plural Subject => plural Verb The teacher or his pupils know the way. – Subject (derivative indefinite pronoun) => singular Verb Something has happened. Nobody wants to leave. Exceptions: many, both, several, few => plural Verb Few have a chance. Several were broken. – singular Subject (a collective noun that denotes a group of things or persons as a whole) => singular Verb Andrew’s family is happy to see him. The jury has decided not to award any prize at all. – singular Subject (a collective noun that denotes a group of things or persons severally) => plural Verb His family were involved in seeking for treasure. The jury want to go home. Note Collective nouns: audience, board, cattle, class, clergy, committee, crowd, family, flock, herd, jury, people, police, poultry, senate, team, troop etc. – plural Subject (a number of ) => plural Verb A number of questions were raised by the committee.

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Rule 96 Declarative sentences 1) Affirmative Subject + Predicate They are at home now. Andrew watched a film yesterday. 2) Negative Subject + Predicate + not Olivia is not ready. We have not been to Scotland yet. Interrogative sentences 1) General (Yes/No) Question Auxiliary Verb/ Modal verb/Link verb + Subject + Notional Verb/Predicative? Does Olivia work with Andrew? Have you been studying English long? Can we go? Are they friends? 2) Alternative Question Auxiliary Verb/ Modal verb/Link verb + Subject (or) + Notional Verb/Predicative (or)? Does Olivia or Mary work with Andrew? Have you been studying or teaching English? Can we go or run? Are they friends or foes? 3) Disjunctive Question Subject + Predicate, Auxiliary Verb/ Modal verb/ Link verb + not + Subject (pronoun)? Subject + Predicate + not, Auxiliary Verb/ Modal verb/Link verb + Subject (pronoun)?

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Olivia works with Andrew, doesn’t she? You have not been studying French, have you? We can’t go, can we? I am right, aren’t I? 4) Special (Wh-) Question Wh-word + Auxiliary Verb/ Modal verb/Link verb + Subject + Notional Verb/Predicative? Where does Olivia work? How long have you been studying English? Why can’t we go? With whom are they friends? / Who are they friends with? Note Wh-question words How How long How many How much How often

Who Whom Whose

What Which

5) Subject Question Who/What + Predicate? Who works with Andrew? Who has been studying English? Who can go? Who are friends? What helps you? What was destroyed? Imperative sentences V Don’t + V Stop! Don’t open the box. Please, speak louder. 138

When Where Why

Exclamatory sentences – indicate emotional state of the speaker – direct word order I love you! Our team won the championship! Take him away!

Rule 97 Compound Sentence (Independent Clause + Independent Clause) Subject + Predicate, /; /conj + Subject + Predicate Independent clauses are joinded by – comma Andrew studies economics, Olivia studies languages. – semicolon Andrew studies economics; Olivia studies languages. – co-ordinating conjunction (Rule 93) Andrew studies economics and Olivia studies languages.



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Rule 98 Complex Sentence (Independent Clause + Dependent Clause) Nominal (Noun) Clauses – subordinate of the subect Whatever Andrew does is his business. Who has taken the case is unknown. – subordinate of the object We knew what they wanted to offer us. Olivia said that she would give it up. – the predicative This is what you really need. The main idea was that there were several ways to choose. Relative Clauses – the subject attribute The man who is standing over there is Olivia’s father. The books which she brought cost a lot. – the predicate nominative attribute This is the house that Jack built. Those were the best fireworks I have ever seen. – the object attribute They thanked the guests who came and brought gifts. Give me back the key which I gave you. Adverbial Clauses – Time Clauses Before Olivia leaves, she is going to finish her work. – Reason Clauses We didn’t tell her because she was away. –Place Clauses They can stay where they are. – Concession Clauses Although it was raining, they went for a walk. – Condition Clauses Unless you work hard, you’ll fail in the exam. 140

– Manner Clauses Don’t talk to me as if I were a child. – Purpose Clauses Andrew took a computer course so that he could get a better job. – Result Clauses He was so weak that he couldn’t run. – Comparison Clauses Andrew is younger than he looks.

Rule 99 Compound-Complex Sentence It consists of one dependent clause and at least two or more independent clauses. Olivia forgot her friend’s birthday, so she sent her a card when she finally remembered. Dad went fishing, but Mom stayed home because she wanted to be there when Andrew arrived.



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Rule 100 Full Stop (.) – at the end of a statement It’s a nice date today. – with initials L.L. Bean, And. Stewart – with abbreviations of months or days of the week Jan. (January), Sat. (Saturday) – with abbreviations of Latin words cf. (compare), e.g. (for example), etc.(and so forth), Note The full stop is normally omitted in the abbreviations of country names or organizations. USA, UN, BBC Question Mark (?) – at the end of a question What did she do? Note Indirect questions are closed with a full stop. Andrew asked what she did. Exclamatory Mark (!) – at the end of an exclamatory sentence Wow! Stop it! Dash (–) – a break of thought (m- dash) What he said was true –– or so I thought – additional information Could you, please, call my collegue – Andrew Stewart –– about our project? – joins numbers in a range or words that describe a range (n- dash) 3:00 – 4:00 p.m. pages 215 – 342 June – August, 2010 142

Hyphen (-) – in compounds left-hand drive, well-known artist – in compound numbers (up to 100) twenty-seven, thirty-four – with several prefixes ex-president, self-confident, co-writer – in syllabification sa-tis-fac-tion, won-der-ful Colon (:) – before a list of items in a sentence The subjects Olivia is going to study are as follows: Economics, Statistics, French. – between the clauses when the second clause unpacks the first one Don’t forget the most important rule: there always is an exception for any rule. – after the greeting in a formal letter Dear Sir or Madam: – before any subtitles Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest Note The colon is omitted – before a list of items preceded by prepositions Olivia is interested in economics, statistics and French. – between the prediate and a direct object Andrew plays football, hockey and chess. – after such as Various fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, lemon and lime are full of vitamin C. Semicolon (;) – replaces a conjunction in linking two independent clauses It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.

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Comma (,) – between items in a row The mountains valleys, the meadows, the lakes and the wildlife should be protected in this area. – in compound sentences before a coordinating conjunction He is a good swimmer, and he knows that. – after a subordinate clause at the beginning of a complex sentence Since we’ve got a few minutes, let’s have a cup of coffee. – after the names (to separate the vocative) Andrew, come here. – with parenthetical elements Who, in fact, were they? – before or after direct speech She said, “I want you to come along with me.” – in apposition Harry Jones, Andrew’s uncle, is a well-known architect. Note In complex sentences a comma is not used before a dependent clause if it comes second. He was sure that everything would be done in time.

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