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English for postgraduate students
 9785763842203

Table of contents :
Предисловие
Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research
Unit 2. Attending a conference
Unit 3. Writing a research paper
Unit 4. Preparing an annotation
Unit 5. Translating scientific papers
Self – assessment progress tests
References
Supplementary information

Citation preview

В пособии представлены материалы, необходимые для сдачи кандидатского экзамена по английскому языку, а также для подготовки докладов на международных конференциях и публикации статей в рецензируемых научных журналах.

В. В. Воног, О. А. Прохорова

ENGLISH FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Учебное

пособие

ИНСТИТУТ ФИЛОЛОГИИ И ЯЗЫКОВОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ

Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации Сибирский федеральный университет

В. В. Воног, О. А. Прохорова

ENGLISH FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Учебное пособие

Красноярск СФУ 2020

УДК 811.111(07) ББК 81.432.1я73 В735 Р е ц е н з е н т ы: В. В. Кольга, доктор педагогических наук, профессор кафедры летательных аппаратов Сибирского государственного университета науки и технологий имени М. Ф. Решетнева, член-корреспондент РАЕ; А. В. Коршунова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры английской филологии Красноярского государственного педагогического университета им. В. П. Астафьева

Воног, В. В. В735 English for postgraduate students : учеб. пособие / В. В. Воног, О. А. Прохорова. – Красноярск : Сиб. федер. ун-т, 2020. – 100 c. ISBN 978-5-7638-4220-3 В пособии представлены материалы, необходимые для сдачи кандидатского экзамена по английскому языку, а также для подготовки докладов на международных конференциях и публикации статей в рецензируемых научных журналах. Предназначено для аспирантов и соискателей инженерных, гуманитарных и естественнонаучных специальностей. Электронный вариант издания см.:

УДК 811.111(07)

http://catalog.sfu-kras.ru

ББК 81.432.1я73

ISBN 978-5-7638-4220-3

© Сибирский федеральный университет, 2020

CONTENT Предисловие..................................................................................................4 Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research.......................................................6 Unit 2. Attending a conference.................................................................... 18 Unit 3. Writing a research paper.................................................................. 29 Unit 4. Preparing an annotation................................................................... 44 Unit 5. Translating scientific papers............................................................. 54 Self – assessment progress tests................................................................... 74 References.................................................................................................... 90 Supplementary information......................................................................... 91

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Учебное пособие предназначено для работы в группах аспирантов, соискателей и научных работников, готовящихся к сдаче кандидатского экзамена по английскому языку. Целью пособия является развитие коммуникативных умений всех видов речевой деятельности, а также навыков перевода, аннотирования и реферирования научной литературы. Учебное пособие направлено на формирование языковой компетенции во всех видах речевой коммуникации, включая развитие следующих умений: • использование всех видов речевой деятельности (аудирования, чтения, письма, говорения) в ситуации профессионального и научного общения; • ведение беседы по специальности и научной тематике; • участие в научных дискуссиях по научным и глобальным проблемам современности; • подготовка статьи в рецензируемые научные журналы; • представление доклада (презентации) на научных симпозиумах, конференциях; • реферирование и аннотирование аутентичной литературы по специальности и научной тематике; • перевод научных текстов по избранной специальности с адекватным сохранением плана содержания. Пособие содержит следующие тематические разделы: 1. Обсуждение научного исследования. 2. Участие в конференции. 3. Подготовка научной статьи. 4. Реферирование научной статьи. 5. Перевод научной литературы. Каждый раздел включает следующие блоки заданий: • ключевой тематический вокабуляр; • лексические и/или грамматические задания, позволяющие ввести и консолидировать тематическую лексику. Активный лексический и грамматический минимумы определяются темами пособия; • речевая практика (Reading, Listening, Speaking, Writing), включающая задания на комплексное развитие умений в нескольких видах речевой деятельности. Задания включают материалы, направленные на 4

Предисловие

понимание прочитанного или прослушанного текста, его обсуждение, языковые и ролевые игры, написание эссе, составление монологов или диалогов на заданную тему. Данные задания обычно рассчитаны на работу в парах или в группах. При отборе текстов авторы стремились к тому, чтобы каждый текст носил общенаучный характер, был насыщен лексикой, связанной с научной работой. Пятый раздел способствует развитию переводческой компетенции обучающихся. Задания содержат упражнения, вызывающие максимальное затруднение при чтении и переводе научной оригинальной литературы. В пособии представлены Self – assessment Progress Tests – тесты для самостоятельного определения достижений знаний, умений и навыков, приобретенных в процессе обучения за определенный период. Учебное пособие содержит серию упражнений, отражающих авторскую концепцию контроля (апробируемую в рамках диссертационного исследования). Предлагаемый формат проведения квази-конференции проходит в несколько этапов с возможностью оперативной коррекции результатов исследовательской и поисковой работы обучающихся в индивидуальном режиме; взаимоконтроля и самоконтроля аспирантов. Пример разработки включен в пособие в качестве вспомогательного и справочного материала приложения/supplementary information. Учебное пособие «English for Postgraduate Students» прошло апробацию в восьми группах аспирантов нелингвистического профиля ФГАОУ ВО СФУ, представляющих такие направления, как 08.06.01 «Техника и технологии строительства», 07.06.01 «Архитектура», 13.06.01 «Электро- и теплотехника», 03.06.01 «Физика и астрономия», 15.06.01 «Машиностроение», и доработано по результатам опытного обучения.

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UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION TO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Topical Vocabulary: Speaking about a scientific activity 1. The topic of the research. The paper deals with … The study is devoted to … The investigation studies … An extensive study of the problem of … has been undertaken in the paper. A comprehensive analysis of … has been presented in the research. 2. The aim of the research. The aim of the study is to determine the value … The research is aimed at revealing the ways of … The main purpose of the paper is to establish … The investigation is designed to simplify the procedure of … 3. The novelty of the research. We offer a fundamentally new approach … The essential merit of our work is … The approach is not similar to that previously used … The novelty of the research can be seen … Unlike commonly recognized definition of … 4. Methods applied. Modern methods of scientific analysis have been applied … Unconventional approach to … has been presented in the paper. Reliable methods of analyzing facts of … The comparative method is useful in … The approach is more flexible and permits … 5. Describing your findings. It was found that … The data obtained enables us to determine the nature of … Our findings provide evidence for … The present observation supports the viewpoint … The study has revealed a better understanding of … based on … From the analysis of the data it was determined that … 6

Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research

6. Further application and research. The findings may find practical application in … This approach is applicable to … The findings are especially helpful when … It is suggested that … should be … 7. The results of your research, conclusions. It has been shown that … It’s concluded that … The results obtained show/confirm/indicate … /… made it possible to conclude/ Results from experiments prove … As a result of the investigation it was observed … We reported our results at … 8. Supervision. supervisor – руководитель research ~/adviser – научный руководитель production of a thesis – написание диссертации experienced (in) – имеющий опыт (в) work closely – работать в тесном сотрудничестве to guide – направлять to offer advice and guidance – дать совет и направление to formulate one’s research proposal – формулировать направление исследования to define a programme of research/study – определить программу (область) исследования expert in the chosen area of research – специалист в избранной области исследования to design work on the thesis – спланировать работу по диссертации to be involved in research seminars, colloquia – принимать участие в научно-исследовательских семинарах, коллоквиумах to present one’s thesis for examination – представить диссертацию на обсуждение a stimulating research environment – благоприятные условия для исследования to provide training in research – обеспечить обучение в области научных исследований 7

English for postgraduate students

to monitor progress – следить за прогрессом to provide feedback – обеспечить обратную связь to remain aware of the student's situation and needs – быть в курсе проблем аспиранта approach – подход innovative – новаторский holistic – целостный

Speaking and Vocabulary 1. In small groups, discuss the following questions. 1. What field of knowledge are you doing research in? 2. What are the necessary components of scientific research? 3. What’s the purpose of your present study? 4. Are there any difficulties in your research work? 2 a. Complete the sentences with the words in the box. service

challenge

benefits

respectability

creative

intellectual

What makes people undertake research? 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its ___________. 2. Desire to face the ___________ in the solving the unsolved Problem. 3. Desire to get ___________ joy of doing some ___________ work. 4. Desire to be of ___________ to Society. 5. Desire to get ___________. 2 b. Which of the points do you agree/disagree with? Is there anything else you would add?

Reading 1 Science What is science? Etymologically, the word “science” is derived from the Latin word Scientia meaning knowledge. Science refers to a systematic and organized body of knowledge in any area of inquiry that is acquired using 8

Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research

“the scientific method”. Science can be grouped into two broad categories: natural science and social science. Natural science is the science of naturally occurring objects or phenomena, such as light, objects, matter, earth, celestial bodies, or the human body. Natural sciences can be further classified into physical sciences, earth sciences, life sciences, and others. Physical sciences consist of disciplines such as physics (the science of physical objects), chemistry (the science of matter), and astronomy (the science of celestial objects). Earth sciences consist of disciplines such as geology (the science of the earth). Life sciences include disciplines such as biology (the science of human bodies) and botany (the science of plants). Social science is the science of people or collections of people, such as groups, firms, societies, or economies, and their individual or collective behaviours. Social sciences can be classified into disciplines such as psychology (the science of human behaviours), sociology (the science of social groups), and economics (the science of firms, markets, and economies). The natural sciences are different from the social sciences in several respects. The natural sciences are very precise, accurate, deterministic, and independent of the person making the scientific observations. For instance, a scientific experiment in physics, such as measuring the speed of sound through a certain media or the refractive index of water, should always yield the exact same results, irrespective of the time or place of the experiment, or the person conducting the experiment. However, the same cannot be said for the social sciences, which tend to be less accurate, deterministic, or unambiguous. For instance, if you measure a person’s happiness using a hypothetical instrument, you may find that the same person is happier or less happy (or sad) on different days and sometimes, at different times on the same day. Furthermore, there is not a single instrument or metric that can accurately measure a person’s happiness. For example, you will not find many disagreements among natural scientists on the speed of light or the speed of the earth around the sun, but you will find numerous disagreements among social scientists on how to solve a social problem such as reduce global terrorism or save an economy from a recession. Sciences can also be classified based on their purpose. Basic sciences, also called pure sciences, are those that explain the most basic objects and forces, relationships between them, and laws governing them. Examples include 9

English for postgraduate students

physics, mathematics, and biology. Applied sciences, also called practical sciences, are sciences that apply scientific knowledge from basic sciences in a physical environment. For instance, engineering is an applied science that applies the laws of physics and chemistry for practical applications such as building stronger bridges or fuel-efficient combustion engines, while medicine is an applied science that applies the laws of biology for solving human ailments. Both basic and applied sciences are required for human development. 1. Read the text and answer the questions. 1. What is the etymology of the word “science”? 2. How can science be grouped? 3. What do natural science and social science study? 4. What are the main types of natural science? 5. How can social sciences be classified? 6. What is the difference between natural science and social science? 7. What is the scientific purpose of basic sciences? Give examples of basic sciences. 8. Why do applied sciences can be called practical sciences? Give examples of applied sciences. 2. Find words or phrases in the text which mean. 1. an official attempt to discover the facts about something (paragraph 1). 2. someone or something special, esp. because it is completely different or extremely unusual (paragraph 2). 3. accurate in form, time, detail, or description (paragraph 4). 4. the recorded information that results from studying a scientific event (paragraph 4). 5. believing that everything that happens must happen (paragraph 5). 6. to judge the quality, effect, importance, or value of something (paragraph 5). 7. an area of study that is studied only for the purpose of developing theories about it, not for the purpose of using those theories in a practical way (paragraph 6). 8. acts of using something for a particular purpose in order to provide effective solutions to problems (paragraph 6). 10

Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research

3. Describe your research according to the following plan. Work in pairs. 1. Natural science / Social science. 2. Type of a discipline. 3. The aims and tasks of your science. 4. The aim of your research (what scientific problem you are going to solve). 5. Basic science / Applied science. 6. A practical application of your research.

Reading 2 1. You are going to read the text about the most important features of scientific research. Read it quickly and match the titles to the correct paragraph. a) Rational b) Original c) Systematics d) Empirical e) Reproducible f) Objective g) Controlled h) Ordered i) Consider everyday problems j) Provisional Ten most salient features of scientific research 1 ________________________ Scientific research is not a random observation, but is the result of a well-structured plan, with specific objectives. The plan that must guide a scientific investigation and consider all the aspects and moments of this research: from the objects of study and the variables to be taken into account, to the rhythm of work that must be followed in order to arrive at conclusions in time expected. 2 ________________________ Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by control mechanisms that allow it to obtain truthful results. 11

English for postgraduate students

Chance has no place in scientific research: all actions and observations are controlled, according to the researcher's criteria and according to the object investigated, through well-defined methods and rules. 3 ________________________ The results of a scientific investigation must deal with the aspects of reality related to the subject under investigation. The aspects that characterize a particular research must be observable in the real world. Scientific research refers to issues that can be measured and identified as facts. 4 ________________________ Science in general is characterized by being logical. Its empirical characteristic makes it necessary to be based on real and verifiable facts, and demands from the researcher a critical attitude and a dispossession of his personal conceptions or judgments of value. 5 ________________________ The findings obtained through scientific research should be able to be reproduced under the same conditions established in the study. The fact of having controlled the variables that were part of the process, allows to be able to reproduce the results achieved. 6 ________________________ In a scientific investigation, the hypotheses constitute the nucleus of the study, and must be generated of problems and situations of the daily life, that affect the people of habitual form. It is hoped that scientific research will solve a problem that ideally affects several groups of people. 7 ________________________ The goal of the investigator is not to justify own postures, but to expose the facts in the purest way possible. The explanation arising from scientific research must be legitimate for people with different points of view. The results of scientific research must be universal. 8 ________________________ Science is constantly expanding. The debate is a fundamental part of the scientific field. Therefore, a scientific investigation must be able to be questioned and, if there is some subsequent research proving contrary hypotheses, it must be able to rectify. 9 ________________________ There is no sense in focusing scientific research on proven facts. A scientific investigation must treat new or little studied aspects, so that the 12

Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research

result of the study implies a true contribution to the science and the humanity. In any case, it is essential that scientific research brings something new and useful for people. 10 _______________________ Scientific research needs planning so that it can yield true results. This planning must have a specific order, which responds to the interests of the study. (https://www.lifepersona.com/10-characteristics-of-scientific-research-to-be-highlighted)

2. Read the text again carefully. Are the statements true, false, not given? 1. Planning of the research shouldn’t include any deadlines. 2. Chance plays a great role in a scientific investigation. 3. Scientific research should be based on what is experienced or seen rather than on theory. 4. Scientific research shouldn’t be replicable. 5. Conclusions should be justified by data. 6. Scientific research touches upon the most urgent issues of daily life. 7. The aim of the researcher is to support his personal beliefs and opinions. 8. The researcher should give attention to unproven facts.

Language Focus: Grammar 1. Fill in the gaps with the correct past tense form of the verbs given. James Watson James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist. He is credited for co-discovering the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). His discovery (1) ___________ (describe) by other biologists and Nobel laureates as the most important scientific discovery of the 20th century. He (2) ___________ (bear) in Illinois. Growing up, James Dewey Watson (3) ___________ (spend) hours birdwatching and (4) ___________ (decide) to major in ornithology but Erwin Schrodinger’s book titled ‘What is Life’ (5) ___________ (have) such a profound impact on him that he (6) ___________ (choose) genetics in the 13

English for postgraduate students

end. He (7) ___________ (receive) his B.S. degree from the University of Chicago, and his PhD from Indiana University. He was strongly opposed to the belief that genes (8) ___________ (be) proteins that could replicate and DNA (9) ___________ (be) a simple tetranucleotide that (10) ___________ (support) the genes. He finally (11) ___________ (find) success with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, when the trio (12) ___________ (discover) the double helix structure of the DNA molecule. For this discovery James Dewey Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins (13) ___________ (earn) the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1962. 2. Give a short talk (2 minutes) on a famous scientist in your field of research. Use the past tenses.

Reading 3 1. In small groups, discuss the following questions. 1. Can anyone be a good researcher? 2. What do you think makes a good researcher? Think of three qualities or characteristics. 2. Read the text quickly. Are any of the points similar to your answer to Exercise 1? Who is a Researcher, What Does He Do? Do researchers possess specific qualities that make them succeed in the field of scientific inquiry? Find out in the article below if indeed you have any of the qualities a good researcher must have. If not, then you train and build yourself up on those qualities that you find yourself wanting. While everyone in university will be given the opportunity to do research, not everyone can do it unless they possess the qualities required of a good researcher. Just like leaders, scientists can also be made, not just born. But there are innate qualities that researchers must possess to succeed in this challenging task that requires a lot of imagination and perseverance. What then are the qualities of a good researcher? Here are five notable attributes of people who tread the path towards discovery: 14

Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research

1. A good researcher manifests thirst for new information. A good researcher shows an open mind about things. He does not just take things by themselves but explores new grounds. He adopts the philosophy of “thinking beyond the box”, leaving out the conventional for something innovative. Pieces of evidence of this thirst for new information manifest in people who do not stop learning. Those persons who maintain an open mind for new possibilities to happen, even when everything appears to have been discovered or studied. Two hundred years ago, has anyone ever thought that man could go to the moon, or explore the depths of the sea? Or tap on the keys of the cell phone to communicate with another person so far away? 2. A good researcher has a keen sense of things around him. Keenness is a quality developed through an observant attitude. A good researcher sees something more out of a common occurrence around him. And he sees this quickly. 3. A good researcher likes to reflect or think about the things he encounters. Researchers who pause and reflect on the knowledge that they gained, either formally in school or through their experience, gain insights. Insights are creative thoughts that make one nod his head and say, “Aha, this is something I have been looking for!” An original idea was born. 4. A good researcher must be intelligent enough to express his ideas. How can you express your thoughts if you cannot write? The point here is that a good researcher must be adept in the written language. How can people understand your point when you are the only one who can understand what you have written? Intelligence to express ideas is a quality that appears to reside in gifted individuals. 5. A good researcher applies a systematic approach in assessing situations. Research requires systematic and objective thinking to arrive at something. Logical reasoning, therefore, is applied by a good researcher. He can analyze things, meaning, he can break down a complex situation into manageable bits that he can focus his attention into.

15

English for postgraduate students

Do you have these qualities? If not, then it’s time for you to develop the hidden talents in you through training and continuous learning. (https://simplyeducate.me/2012/10/24/5-qualities-of-a-good-researcher/)

2 a. Which qualities of a good researcher mentioned in the text are you good at? Which areas do you need to develop? 2 b. Look at the highlighted words in the text and match them with the synonyms in the box. way

desire inborn capacity acuteness skilled determination intuition

dril

2 c. Summarize the text by completing the following sentences. 1. The text deals with … 2. A good researcher requires … 3. A researcher maintains an open mind for … 4. A researcher develops a keen sense of … 5. A researcher reflects on … 6. Insights are … 7. Capability to express ideas … 8. A systematic approach is … Speaking 1. Give a two – minute talk on your work with a supervisor. Use the following phrases: to be experienced (in); to offer advice and guidance; to formulate one’s research proposal; to define a programme of research/study; expert in the chosen area of research; to design work on the thesis; create a stimulating research environment; to provide training in research; to monitor progress; to provide feedback; to remain aware of the student's situation and needs. 2. Work in pairs. Discuss your scientific activity with your partner. Use the questions below as a guide to your talk. 1. What research is being carried out by you now? 2. What’s the purpose of your present study? 3. Do you sometimes try new methods? 16

Unit 1. Introduction to scientific research

field?

4. Is your problem studied anywhere else? 5. Could you give a review of current literature on your subject? 6. Whose works are best known in your field of research? 7. Whose ideas had a profound influence on the development of your

8. What contribution will you make by your research to that particular branch of science? 9. How many sections will your thesis have? 10. What preliminary conclusions can be drawn from your work? 11. How long might it take you to complete the work? 12. When do you expect conclusive results? 13. What should be done to encourage further research in your field? 14. What would you suggest for upgrading research in your area? 15. Have you written any scientific papers? 16. Have you ever attended international conferences? 17. Is collaboration important in research and how is it realized? Writing You have been invited to write an article for a university newspaper about your scientific research. The article should explain: • why you have decided to become a researcher; • what qualities of a researcher you possess; • topic, purpose and novelty of your paper; • expected results and practical application of your scientific work. Write your article in 220–250 words. Writing hints. 1. This task gives you the chance to practise using words and phrases from Topical Vocabulary: Speaking about a scientific activity (given at the beginning of Unit 1). 2. Follow a universal article format (title of your article, introducing paragraph, body, conclusion paragraph). 3. Do not write the whole article in one paragraph; use at least 3 paragraphs for heading, body, conclusion. 4. Do not include unnecessary things in your article; it can make your article messy and create difficulties to readers. 17

UNIT 2. ATTENDING A CONFERENCE Topical vocabulary: participating in a conference conference – конференция annual conference – ежегодная конференция regular conference – очередная конференция forthcoming conference – предстоящая конференция to take part (participate) in conference – принимать участие в конференции participant – участник to run under auspices – проходить под эгидой (при содействии) organizing committee – организационный комитет preliminary announcement – информационное письмо paper(s) – научная работа(ы), доклад(ы) poster papers – стендовые доклады review papers – обзорные доклады abstract (s) of the papers – тезисы доклада agenda – повестка дня letter/notification of acceptance or rejection – уведомление о принятии (доклада) или отказа registration – регистрация участников конференции registration fee – взнос участника location and hours of registration – время и место регистрации deadline – крайний срок conference proceedings – сборник трудов конференции opening/welcoming address – вступительное слово working language – рабочий язык to deliver/present a report – выступить с докладом simultaneous to take the floor – выступить, взять слово plenary session – пленарное заседание workshops – секционные заседания / мастерская / семинар discussion – обсуждение panel discussions – обсуждение докладов специалистами round-table discussion – обсуждение за «круглым столом» 18

Unit 2. Attending a conference

issue/problem under discussion – обсуждаемая проблема to exchange opinions (on) – обменяться мнениями topical – актуальный to talk shop – говорить на профессиональные темы reasoning – ход мыслей суждения social program(me) – культурная программа to close a conference – закрыть работу конференции closing speech – заключительное слово 1. Pronunciation. Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words. Agenda, announcement, scholar, colleagues, participant, address, attendee, committee, under the auspices, council, plenary session, experienced, submitted, requirements, diagrams, drawings, characteristic, schemes. 2 a. Match the words and their meanings. 1) agenda 2) committee 3) deadline 4) fee 5) participant 6) preliminary 7) registration 8) round-table 9) take the floor

a) an amount of money that you pay to do something or that you pay to a professional person for their work. b) happening before something that is more important, often in order to prepare for it. c) a list of things to be done, business to be discussed at a meeting. d) to begin speaking at an important public meeting. e) discussion is one in which everyone can talk about things in an equal way. f) time or day by which something must be done. g) a person who takes part in or becomes involved in a particular activity. h) a small group of people chosen to represent a larger organization and either make decisions or collect information for it. i) the act of recording names and details on an official list. 19

English for postgraduate students

2 b. Complete the text with the words given below. Review papers, reasoning, reports, topical, diagrams, workshop, discussions. I was particularly interested in the workshop on architecture, since it is my specific field. There were more than twenty scientific contributions to our 1) …, all of them being on 2) … problems of architecture and applied sciences. According to the workshop schedule I was the last to speak. All the 3) … were followed by 4) …, mine wasn’t an exception. I was asked several questions and did my best to answer all of them. I spoke without even looking into my notes and tried to make my 5) … very clear. I also attended a poster session and found it of particular interest because I managed to study numerous texts of the papers supplied with 6) …, drawings, schemes and photographs. The final session with 7) … was truly rewarding for it summarized all that had been going on not only at the conference but also in the field of architecture for the past twelve months.

Reading 1. In small groups, discuss the following questions. 1. Have you ever participated in a scientific conference? 2. What was the type of the conference (all-Russian, international, etc)? 3. What is a typical procedure of participating in a scientific conference? 4. How did participation contribute to your research? 2 a. Read the text quickly. Are any of the points similar to your answer to Exercise 1? Attending a conference Attending a conference is a professionally rewarding experience. In addition to socializing with colleagues from other institutions and a trip to a possibly exotic locale, the two main reasons to attend a conference are to hear presentations and to converse with other researchers. An organizing committee usually sends the so-called “Preliminary Announcement” to all the establishments concerned with the view of supplying potential participants with general information about the conference. From the announcement you will learnt such important things as the main programme of the conference, 20

Unit 2. Attending a conference

orders of plenary sessions, rules for scientific contributions, requirements to submitted abstracts, information about registration fees, hotel reservations, etc. If you want to publish your abstract in Conference Proceedings you will need to fill in the preliminary application form and mail it without delay. After that you have to submit a short abstract of your paper (one printed page) before the deadline. The conference starts with the registration of attendees. Before the plenary session you’ll have some time to get acquainted with other participants, to look through the latest information, to buy some booklets about the conference work. You should also tell others about your research. Think about how to frame your work to convey how interesting it is. This is an important skill not just for a conference but in general. Plan your pitch, practice it with your friends, then further refine it through interactions at the conference. Remember to talk first about the goals of your research, and only then about the techniques you are using. You have to convince others that the work is worth hearing about before they will be willing to listen to the technical details. You’ll learn a lot from talking about your work – seeing what confuses people and receiving their ideas and suggestions, for example – but remember that no one likes to be in a conversation in which they only listen. You need to always tell people about your work, but also be sure to ask others about their work (even doing so first). You’ll also learn a lot by listening and by asking questions. Keep an open mind, and try to deeply understand their research. You will benefit a lot from a specific atmosphere of the conference characteristic of any scientific meeting: groups of delegates discussing something, the sight of prominent scholars surrounded by their followers, talks, smiles, greetings, exchange of opinions. (https://homes.cs.washington.edu/~mernst/advice/conference-attendance.html)

2 b. Read the text and answer the questions. 1. What kind of opportunity does any conference give to researchers? 2. What is «Preliminary Announcement?» What is its role? 3. What details does a conference programme include? 4. What is necessary to submit before preparing a report? 5. What is the author’s advice for first-time conference attendees? 21

English for postgraduate students

2 c. Summarize the text by completing the following sentences. 1. Two main reasons to attend a conference are … 2. An organizing committee usually sends … 3. From the announcement you may learnt important information concerning … 4. If you want to publish your abstract in Conference Proceedings you … 5. Before the plenary session you may … 6. Remember to talk first about the goals … 7. You will benefit a lot from …

Listening 1. Work in pairs. Match scientific methods with their definitions. Which methods do you use in your research? 1. analysis 2. experiment 3. observation 4. theory 5. induction 6. hypothesis 7. deduction

a) an idea or explanation of smth that is based on a few known facts but has not yet been proved to be true or correct. b) the act of watching smth carefully for a period of time, esp. to learn smth. c) the process of using information or finding the answer to the problem. d) a method of discovering general rules and principles from particular facts and examples. e) a formal set of ideas that is intended to explain why smth happens or exists. f) a scientific test that is done in order to study what happens and to gain new knowledge. g) the detailed study or examination of smth in order to understand more about it.

2 a. Watch the video. What methods are described in it? 2 b. Watch the video again and complete the sentences below.

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Unit 2. Attending a conference

1. However, the steps involved into scientific method ________ widely among the different scientific disciplines. a) disprove; b) gain knowledge; c) vary; d) pose. 2. A well-conceived question usually leads to the ________. a) conclusion; b) problem; c) hypothesis; d) data analyses. 3. The scientist ________ what an outcome will be when he tests his hypothesis. a) inspires; b) predicts; c) proves; d) refutes. 4. The scientist has to make observations of the results that he gets from the ________. a) prediction; b) hypothesis; c) statement of knowledge; d) experiment. 5. Based on the ________ he made, the scientist has to determine whether his hypothesis was correct. a) observation; b) scientific investigation; c) unique method; d) feedback. 6. Real scientist may go back and repeat steps many times before they come to any ________. a) experience; b) scientific equipment; c) conclusions; d) key steps.

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English for postgraduate students

2 c. Are these sentences true or false? 1. A scientific method is a set of procedures that scientists follow to gain knowledge about the world 2. However, the steps involved into scientific method are much the same among the different scientific disciplines. 3. A well-conceived question usually leads to the hypothesis. 4. The scientist can’t predict what an outcome will be when he tests his hypothesis. 5. The scientist usually makes observations of the results that he gets from the experiment. 6. Based on the observation he made, the scientist seldom determines whether his hypothesis was correct or not. Speaking 1 1. Speak on the latest conference you’ve attended. Use the key points below as a guide to your talk: • preliminary announcement; • when and where was the conference held; • number of participants; • registration fee; • accommodation provided; • problem field of the conference; • conference agenda; • plenary session; workshops; • conference proceedings.

Presentations Speaking 2 1. Work in pairs. Think about the presentations that you have been to. What were the characteristics of the good ones? Which of these suggestions do you agree with? To make an effective presentation, you should: 1) find out as much as possible about your audience; 2) introduce yourself (name, position, company); 24

Unit 2. Attending a conference

3) start with a joke; 4) outline the structure of your talk; 5) vary the tone of your voice; 6) refer to your notes as often as possible; 7) use clear visual aids; 8) summarize your main points.

Reading 1. You are going to read the text about the most important features of a presentation. Read it quickly and match the titles to the correct paragraph. a) Questions; b) Conclusion; c) Introduction; d) Body. What makes a good presentation? 1 ________________________ This is the first impression that your audience have of you that is why it is very important. You should concentrate on getting your introduction right. You should use the introduction to: • welcome your audience; • introduce your subject; • outline the structure of your presentation; • give instructions about questions. 2 ________________________ This part is the “real” presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be “in control”. You will be relaxed and confident. The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of care-fully spaced visuals. Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation: • do not hurry; • be enthusiastic; • give time on visuals; • maintain eye contact; 25

English for postgraduate students

• modulate your voice; • look friendly; • keep to your structure; • use your notes; • signpost throughout; • remain polite when dealing with difficult questions. 3 ________________________ This part of the presentation is used to: • sum up; • (give recommendations if appropriate); • thank your audience; • invite questions. 4 ________________________ This is a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can pre-pare your response in advance. You may wish to accept questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for questions after your presentation. Normally, it is your decision, and you should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest in what you have to say and they deserve attention. Sometimes you can reformulate a question. Or answer the question with another question. Or even ask for comment from the rest of the audience. (https://www.topcorrect.com/blog/useful-english-phrases-fora-presentation/) 2. Read the text again carefully. Are the statements true, false, not given? 1. Introduction is the first impression that your audience have of you. 2. You should use the introduction to outline the significance of your report. 3. Maintain eye contact otherwise you have to include visuals in your presentation. 4. In conclusion you outline the structure of your presentation and give instructions about questions. 5. There is no need to answer the questions as you may ask for comment from the audience.

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Topical Vocabulary 1. Match the phrases with their function in the presentation. Function

Phrases

Welcoming your audience

Many thanks for your attention.

Introducing your subject

Good morning, collegues. Good afternoon everybody.

Outlining your structure

Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions. I’ll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.

Giving instructions about questions

To start with I’ll describe the aims and topicality of my research. Then I’ll mention some of the problems we’ve encountered and how we overcame them. After that I’ll consider the results obtained by means of doing experiments in the laboratory.

Summing up

Now I’ll try to answer any questions you may have. Are there any questions? Do you have any questions?

Thanking your audience

I’m going to talk today about … The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of ...

Inviting questions

In conclusion,... Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we've considered.

2 a. Work in pairs. The phrases from a presentation titled «The way will be living in 2030» are below, but they are jumbled. Number them in the correct order. Compare the answers with your partner. a. Well, that’s it. Thank you for listening. b. To sum up, I think the key thing is that the Internet is going to transform our lives in ways that we can’t fully predict yet. 27

English for postgraduate students

c. To get an idea about the effect of the Internet on personal communication, have a look at this graph showing the incredible increase in the number of e-mails being sent between people every day. d. The title of my talk is «Internet applications: present and future». So, communication between people. e. Right, I’ll move on now to business-to-business uses of the Internet and how they may develop over the next 20 years. f. OK, now let’s look at how the Internet might change society and the way we live and work. g. My name’s Maria Robles and it’s an honour to have been invited to this conference as a keynote speaker. h. I’m going to talk about three main areas: communication between people, business-to-business interaction, and the social effects of the Internet, with a look at how we might be using it in the year 2030. i. I’ll talk for about 45 minutes and then we'll have 15 minutes for questions. If you have any questions, I’ll be delighted to answer them now. j. If you could keep your questions until then, we’ll have a chance to go into them more deeply. 2 b. Mock conference. Follow the main steps described in Attachment 1 to present your report based on your current research in a group.

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UNIT 3. WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER Topical Vocabulary: How to write a paper for a scientific journal 1. Abstract and Introduction. This paper considers / reports on / deals with / aims at / describes / examines / presents A comparison of … with … is made. An attempt to … is made. To determine whether … The purpose of this study was to … This study tested the hypothesis that … There have been few long-term studies of ... This study was undertaken to … The aim of the work described ... 2. Methods. A method of … is proposed. Data on… are discussed. Analysis was carried out using ... The design of the experiments was to reveal… Discussion will focus on the problem of … Present data encompass a period of … ... was used to calculate ... 3. Results. The results of … are discussed The most important results are as follows … The results indicate the dominant role of … The results are supported by… We have been able to show that … The … of ... was determined by ... ... yielded a total of ... ... was highly correlated with ... 4. Discussion. This may be explained by ... Our experimental results demonstrate … 29

English for postgraduate students

These results indicate … ...it appears … The presence of … suggests.

Speaking and Vocabulary 1. In small groups, discuss the following questions. 1. What are the ways of exchanging scientific information? 2. What are the reasons for publishing research papers? Think of three reasons. 3. Why is it difficult to be published in the international literature? 2 а. Complete the text with the words in the box. Check your answer to Exercise 1. Publishing in the international literature experiments record submitting criticism requirements attract legitimize recognition sufficient feedback share ________ a manuscript to an international journal is a way of participating in the international scientific community. Researchers publish their papers to ________ ideas and results with colleagues. These are some other reasons for publishing: • to leave a ________ of research which can be added to by others; • to receive due ________ for ideas and results; • to ________ interest from others in the area of research; • to receive expert ________ on results and ideas; • to ________ the research; i.e. receive independent verification of methods and results. Getting published is also a skill: not all writers are published. Some reasons for this fact include the following: • not all research is new or of ________ scientific interest; • ________ do not always work: positive results are easier to publish; • scientific journals have specific ________ which can be difficult to meet: publishing is a buyer’s market; 30

Unit 3. Writing a research paper

• communicating your work and ideas opens you up to potential ________. 2 b. Which of the points do you agree/disagree with? Compare your ideas with your partner.

Listening 1. You are going to hear journal editor Professor David Simon giving advice on what to think about before you start to write an article. Decide which six out of the ten pieces of advice are given in the recording. 1. When you plan to write an article you should bear in mind the four A’s: Aims, Audience, Awareness of existing work, Articulation of your ideas clearly. 2. One more very important decision is defining a target audience. 3. Choosing the right journal for your paper will influence the chance of getting published easily and quickly. 4. When writing an article, you don’t just cover your own research, you consider it in relation to the existing literatures. 5. If time to publication is important to you, you should check journal websites or recent issues to see whether they report the average time to publication. 6. Plagiarising or self-plagiarising can lead to damage not only your own reputation, but also the reputation of the journal. 7. Good tip would be to leave both the introduction and the conclusion to the end after you have written the main part of the article. 8. You can optimize your publication success by understanding and meeting the selection criteria of the journal. 9. You should carefully select the journal you will submit to and prepare the manuscript content and style to maximize your chances of acceptance. 10. While writing your paper, it is helpful to get a second opinion from your fellow students or a more senior colleague. 2. Listen again and complete the statements. 1. Publication of articles is crucial in terms of __________ for career purposes as well as __________. 31

English for postgraduate students

2. There are numerous journals which are specialized in ________, either within a particular discipline, or perhaps ________ on a particular geographical region. 3. ________ the work of others when you cite them, or quote them directly is very important. 4. Specific journals have clear ________ and obviously you need to follow those if provided. 5. You can find help from a variety of sources while writing your paper: through ________ among your ________ students or early career researchers or perhaps get a second opinion from a more senior colleague or mentor.

Reading 1 Research article structure (1) Publication in a reputable, peer reviewed journal should be the goal of every researcher, as this provides the most effective and permanent means of disseminating information to a large audience. Having selected a journal, it is essential to carefully read and follow the guidelines for authors published within the journal or obtained directly from the editor or publisher. These guidelines are usually very specific and include rules about word limit, organization of the manuscript, margins, line spacing, preparation of tables and figures and the method used to cite references. (2) There are four major sections to a scientific article, sometimes known as AIMRaD: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. There are additional minor sections that precede or follow the major sections including the title, abstract, acknowledgements, references, appendices. (3) Title of the article conveys the essential point of the paper. A good title is brief and informative. Titles should not exceed 10 or 12 words, and they should reveal the content of the study. If the report is of a very problematic issue its title may be in the form of a question. (4) An abstract is a brief summary (of specified word limit) of the content of the paper. It should provide the highlights from the introduction, methods, results, discussion and conclusions. It must make sense when read in isolation for those who read only the abstract. 32

Unit 3. Writing a research paper

(5) Introduction should contain a brief history of the research problem with appropriate references to the relevant literature and the purpose of the study. The introduction should also explain whether the study is an extension of a previous one, or whether a completely new hypothesis is to be tested. The results of the current study are not to be referred to in the introduction. (6) Methods explain how you studied the problem, which should follow logically from the aims. Depending on the kind of data, this section may contain subsections on experimental details, materials used, data collection/ sources, analytical or statistical techniques employed, study area, etc. (7) Results explain your actual findings, using subheadings to divide the section into logical parts, with the text addressing the study aims. Tables are an easy and neat way of summarizing the results. An alternative or additional way of presenting data is in the form of line graphs, bar-charts, pie-charts, etc. (8) Discussion is the most difficult section of a report to write and requires considerable thought and care. Essentially it is a consideration of the results obtained in the study, guided by any statistical tests used, indicating whether the hypotheses tested are considered true or are to be rejected. (9) Conclusions should comprise a brief statement of the major findings and implications of the study. It is not the function of this section to summarize the study; this is the purpose of the abstract. New information must not be included in the conclusions. (10) Acknowledgments is an optional section. You can thank people who directly contributed to the paper, by providing data, assisting with some part of the analysis, proofreading, typing, etc. (11) References include cite references by author and year unless instructed. 1. Read the text and answer the questions. 1. Why should researchers publish their papers in reputable journals? 2. What do guidelines in the journal specify? 3. What does the abbreviation IMRAD mean? 4. What are additional minor sections of the article? 5. What should an abstract provide? 6. What are the aims of the Introduction? 7. What information should the section Methods comprise? 33

English for postgraduate students

8. What are easy ways of presenting the results in the manuscript? 9. What is the most difficult part of writing the scientific paper? Why? 10. What is the function of the Conclusions? 2. Find words or phrases in the text which mean. 1. considered by experts in the same field of research (paragraph 1). 2. spreading or giving out something, especially information, ideas, etc., to a lot of people (paragraph 1). 3. to make known, to show (paragraph 3). 4. to be clear and easy to understand (paragraph 4). 5. related to a subject being discussed (paragraph 5). 6. an amount by which something is increased, or something added to something else (paragraph 5). 7. providing a clear statement of the important points (paragraph 7). 8. continuous and careful thought (paragraph 8). 9. to refuse to accept, consider, submit to, take for some purpose (paragraph 8). 10. the effect that an action or decision will have on something else in the future (paragraph 9). 11. finding and correcting mistakes in text before it is printed or put online (paragraph 10). 3. Identify which part of a research paper the following steps comes from. Write one of the following letters at the end of each line: I = Introduction, M = Methods, R = Results, or D = Discussion. 1. Include specialized chemicals, biological materials, and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories. 2. Describe the importance (significance) of the study – why was this worth doing in the first place? Provide a broad context. 3. Analyze your data, then prepare the analyzed (converted) data in the form of a figure (graph), table, or in text form. 4. Decide if the experimental design adequately addressed the hypothesis, and whether or not it was properly controlled. 5. Do not include commonly found supplies such as test tubes, pipet tips, beakers, etc., or standard lab equipment such as centrifuges, spectrophotometers, pipettors, etc. 34

Unit 3. Writing a research paper

6. Comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical reasons for using it. 7. Try to offer alternative explanations if reasonable alternatives exist. 8. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. 9. Describe the mehodology completely, including such specifics as temperatures, incubation times, etc. 10. Decide if the experimental design adequately addressed the hypothesis, and whether or not it was properly controlled. 11. Summarize your findings in text and illustrate them, if appropriate, with figures and tables. 12. To be concise, present methods under headings devoted to specific procedures or groups of procedures. 4. Select an article in your own field of research from your target journal included in Web of Science or Scopus databases, written by a native speaker of English (check authors’ names and the location of their work sites to help identify an author’s language background). Analyse the structure of the selected paper, using the text “Research article structure” and the questions below as a guide to your talk. 1. How is the paper organized? Does it match the AIMRaD structure? 2. What are the main headings and subheadings? 3. Are there any additional sections? Which ones? 4. Does the title of the article convey the essential point of the paper? Is the title a noun phrase, a sentence, or a question? How many words are used in the title? 5. What information elements are presented in the abstract (background information, the purpose of the study, the methods used, the results of the study, a statement of conclusion, etc.)? 6. What information does the Introduction contain? 7. How are examining data displayed in the article (tables, etc.)? 8. Can you identify any strategies the authors have used to clarify the key messages of their Discussion section (subheadings, topic sentences)? 9. Do you think the Discussion could have been improved by using a different arrangement? 10. What information is given in the Conclusion? 35

English for postgraduate students

Language Focus: Grammar 1 a. Articles have been removed from the following Abstract of the paper. Write it again including 15 missing articles. Consult the Grammar tip before doing the task. Grammar Tip: using the articles appropriately in science writing The article can be a/an, the or zero article. Compare: (a) Research is an important activity in the world. (b) The researches of this professor were continued by his colleagues. (c) An interesting piece of research was conducted in our university. (a) an uncountable noun is used in a general sense; (b) a specific piece of research is identified; (c) a countable noun is being mentioned for the first time. Are firms in clusters really more innovative? Paper examines empirically whether firms located in strong industrial clusters are more innovative than firms located outside these regions. study performs firm-level analysis for two countries: Italy and the United Kingdom. European patent data for period 2008–2018 are used as indicator of firms’ innovative activity, and are related to employment in region where firms are located, and other cluster-specific and firm-specific variables. Main result of paper is that clustering alone is not conducive to higher innovative performance. Whereas location in cluster densely populated by other innovative firms positively affects likelihood of innovating, quite strong disadvantages seem to arise from presence of non-innovative firms in firm’s own industrial sector. Regarding impact of other industrial sectors, preliminary results seem to indicate, in case of Italy, that strong presence of firms in other related industries spurs innovative performance. 1 b. Analyze the use of articles in the abstract of your selected paper in your own field of research. 2 a. Decide which tenses are used in the following text (verbs in bold) and think of a reason for the use of different tenses. Consult the Grammar tip before doing the task. 36

Unit 3. Writing a research paper

Grammar Tip: using tenses In scientific writing the choice of verb tenses is quite limited. The most commonly used tenses are: the simple present, the simple past, the present perfect. Present tense is used to state facts that are generally valid from the point of view of the writer (general facts). Past tense is used when the sentence focuses on the completed study: what was done and found. Present Perfect tense is used to show what work has been done and is still in progress. Many authors, however, have pointed out the limitations of such tools. First, participants in mediation (parties and mediators) are often reluctant to use those tools. Moreover, there is no way to assess whether a particular mediation will benefit from these systems or not. The authors remark that the major limitation of those tools is that they all focus on decision support rather than process support. In other words, they only help the users in making decisions and do not allow for enhancing the mediation process. The authors created a web-based negotiation support system, enabling parties to use text, audio and video. Three groups of students were asked to negotiate a mock case using different features: text only, text and audio, and text, audio and video. The goal of the study was to verify if audio and video features made the negotiation easier, more efficient and more effective. Unsurprisingly, it appeared that text combined with audio gave better results; but the participants reported that the video brought nothing to the process; it even made it worse. 2 b. Complete the following sentences by using the most suitable tense for the verb in brackets. 1. Recent years ________ (to witness) increased recognition of the crosscutting nature of food (in)security among academics, policymakers, and other stakeholders. 2. This section ________ (to demonstrate) the types of insights that can be acquired by applying the three diagnostic steps. 3. In 2010, the Government of Canada ________ (to launch) the Food Security Strategy that doubled aid spending on food and agriculture development. 37

English for postgraduate students

4. Since 2010, the Government of Canada ______ (to contribute) over CAD$450 million to the United Nation’s International Fund for Agricultural Development and the World Bank’s Global Agriculture and Food Security Program. 5. In the second section, the author further ______ (to show) the close interrelationship between appropriation of mathematical tools and development of school identities within the dominant culture. 6. In its conventional usage, the term food security ______ (to describe) a situation in which all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food and healthy life. 7. In order to begin to develop support for mediation, the Director ______ (to encourage) one of the managers to be trained as a mediator. 8. The number of hungry people ______ (to increase) in every region in the world except Latin America and the Caribbean since 1995. 9. Only a few previous studies ______ (to investigate) the effect of resource supply on the relationship between propagule pressure and recruitment of an introduced species. 10. The second element of the research strategy ______ (to involve) a programme of nineteen semi-structured interviews with key organizational actors. Grammar Tip: the choice of tenses in scientific papers Abstract: generally, use the simple past (or for a concise introductory phrase the present perfect); for general statements and facts use the present tense. Introduction: use a mixture of present and past tense; the present tense is applied when you are talking about something that is always true; the past tense is used for earlier research efforts, either by your own or by another group. If the time of demonstration is unknown or not important, use the present perfect. For the concluding statements of your introduction use the simple past; you may use the past perfect, when you talk about something that was true in the past but is no longer so. Methods: here you generally use the passive voice in the simple past. Results: simple past and present tense should be employed here, but when you refer to figures and tables you use the present tense, since they continue to exist in your paper; you can mix active and passive voice.

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Unit 3. Writing a research paper

Discussion: use the simple past for your own findings and the perfect tense for cited information; the present tense is also acceptable, if you prefer that one (in such statements as ‘We can conclude that …’. Conclusions and Further work: use present perfect to make clear that your statements still hold at the time of reading; for further work the future tense (or the present) is acceptable. (Moore, Tsuda: A Practical Guide to the Use of Scientific English) 3. Analyze the use of tenses in your selected paper in your own field of research. Does it match the information given the table Grammar Tip: the choice of tenses in scientific papers? Grammar Tip: active and passive verb forms When we use an active verb, the grammatical subject of the verb actually does the action indicated by the verb. For example: subject + active verb + object. The scientist + discusses + important issues. With a passive verb, the grammatical subject does not do the action of the verb (the biting, in this case). For example: subject + passive verb + agent. Important issues + are discussed + by the scientist. 3 a. Change the following sentences from active to passive. 1. Many researchers have pointed out that the passive voice is a marked stylistic feature of scientific writing. 2. She researched the life cycle of over 15 types of mice. 3. In this study, we present our design of an electric hot water tank. 4. Previous studies have used comparative analysis of ORF2 sequences to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among different FCV isolates. 5. We  found  a strong correlation between above-ground and belowground biomass accumulation in Platanus occidentalis. 6. This study develops an efficient methodology to examine a space– time continuous dataset for urban irrigation water use. 7. We dissolve the sodium hydroxide in water.  8. We determined the presence of larvae by dip netting.

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English for postgraduate students

9. The researchers have examined the possibility of cold fusion  for many years. 10. DNA encodes genetic information. 3 b. Find 5 passive sentences from your selected article in your own field of research, and rewrite them in the active voice. Then find 5 sentences in the active voice that use a transitive verb, and rewrite them in the passive voice.

Reading 2 1. Discuss the questions. 1. Why do journals reject the articles? 2. Can the article be rejected, without even being peer-reviewed? 2. Read the article about the reasons why research papers are rejected. How similar are the reasons to your answer in Exercise 1? Editorial reasons for research paper rejection When a manuscript is submitted to a high-quality scholarly journal, it goes through intense scrutiny — even before it's seen by the editor-in-chief and selected for peer review. 1. It fails the technical screening. Before they even go to the editor-in-chief, articles are checked for technical elements. The main reasons they are rejected are: • The article contains elements that are suspected to be plagiarized, or it is currently under review at another journal. (Republishing articles or parts of articles, submitting to one or more journals at the same time or using text or images without permission is not allowed). • The manuscript is not complete; it may be lacking key elements such as the title, authors, affiliations, keywords, main text, references and all tables and figures. • References are incomplete or very old. 2. It does not fall within the Aims and Scope. Each journal has a well-defined aim and scope, details of which are easily available on their website.  If the subject matter of the journal does not match the scope of the article, it will be rejected, without even being peer-reviewed. 40

Unit 3. Writing a research paper

3. It's incomplete. • The article contains observations but it is not a full study. • It discusses findings in relation to some of the work in the field but ignores other important work. 4. The procedures and/or analysis of the data is seen to be defective. • The study lacked clear control groups or other comparison metrics. • The study did not conform to recognized procedures or methodology that can be repeated. • The analysis is not statistically valid or does not follow the norms of the field. 5. The conclusions cannot be justified on the basis of the rest of the paper. • The arguments are illogical, unstructured or invalid. • The data does not support the conclusions. • The conclusions ignore large portions of the literature. 6. It's simply a small extension of a different paper, often from the same authors. • Findings are incremental and do not advance the field. • The work is clearly part of a larger study, chopped up to make as many articles as possible. 7. It is incomprehensible. The language, structure, or figures are so poor that the merit can't be assessed. Have a native English speaker read the paper. Even if you are a native English speaker. 8. It is boring. • It is not archival, is incremental or of marginal interest to the field. • The question behind the work is not of interest in the field. • The work is not of interest to the readers of the specific journals. (https://www.elsevier.com/connect/8-reasons-i-rejected-your-article)

3. Read the text again carefully. Decide whether the following statements True or False. Justify your answers by what is said or implied in the text. 1. Not following the technical writing standard set by a journal can’t be the only reason for rejection of papers.

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2. Your article may be rejected if references used do not have enough impact factor or they are too old. 3. Submission to multiple journals at the same time is allowed. 4. Flaws in the manuscript’s arguments and/or conclusions can’t lead to rejection. 5. A simple enlargement of your previous paper may lead to rejection. 6. If the paper is of no interest or value to the journal’s audience, it may still be accepted. 7. Native English speakers shouldn’t care about their article proofreading. 4. Match the words from the article with their definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1. scrutiny

a) imperfect in form or function

2. plagiarized

b) in a series of amounts, small

3. scope

c) not true or acceptable, or not correctly thought out

4. incomplete

d) impossible understand

5. defective

e) barely within a lower standard or limit of quality

6. invalid

f) lacking some parts, or not finished

7. incomprehensible

g) the range of matters considered or dealt with

8. incremental

h) the careful and detailed examination of something

9. marginal

i) using another person’s idea or a part of that person's work and pretending that it is your own

or

extremely

difficult

to

5. Use the words from Exercise 4 to complete the sentences. 1. Most research proceeds by small ________ advances. 2. The conclusion was based on ________ or inaccurate information. 42

Unit 3. Writing a research paper

3. The figures are likely to come under close ________. 4. However, this is ________ logic, based not on the presence of evidence but on its absence. 5. The writing ability of some of the researchers is so poor that their papers are almost ________. 6. These economies remain ________ because of their very narrow export bases in primary commodities. 7. I'm afraid that problem is outside the ________ of my lecture. 8. The results of the election were declared ________ by the court. 9. The book contains numerous ________ passages. 6. Make up 6 questions to the text above. 7. Role-play the following situation. You are having a meeting with Editor-in-Chief of a high-quality scholarly journal. Ask him any questions how to publish a scientific paper in peer reviewed journal.

Writing 1. Write of an Abstract of your own paper or of a selected article in your own field of research. Use the sentence templates. The article analyzes ________. As part of a long-term research effort aimed at ________. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine ________; (2) analyze ________; (3) establish ________; and (4) discuss ________. The applicability of ________. The paper ends with a discussion of ________.

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UNIT 4. PREPARING AN ANNOTATION Topical vocabulary: making a summary Monograph – монография Chapter – глава Section – раздел Paragraph – параграф, абзац Illustrations – рисунки, пояснения References – ссылки List of literature – список литературы Review – обзорная работа (обозрение) Paper – научная статья Article (on) – статья (о, об) Report (on) – сообщать о (об) The book under review – рассматриваемая (рецензируемая) книга Content – содержание Material – материал (содержание работы) Deal (with) (dealt) – рассматривать (вопрос) Touch (upon) – касаться, затрагивать Devote to – посвящать, уделять внимание Be addressed (to) – быть предназначенным, предназначаться (для), адресоваться Question, problem, issue – вопрос, проблема A disputable question – спорный вопрос A vital question – насущный вопрос A key question – основной вопрос Author – автор The author of the article believes … – полагает … (considers …  – считает …; explains … – объясняет …; describes … – описывает …; discusses … – обсуждает …; points out ... – указывает …; emphasizes ... – подчеркивает …; comes to the conclusion … – приходит к выводу …). summary/abstract/précis – реферат annotation – аннотация aim/purpose/object – цель intention – намерение 44

Unit 4. Preparing an annotation

action – действие effect/function – роль, функция approach – подход method/technique – метод sum up/summarize – подвести итог, подытожить, резюмировать assume – считать, допускать, полагать consider – считать, рассматривать find/reveal – находить, обнаруживать maintain – утверждать intend – намереваться show/demonstrate – показывать, демонстрировать suppose/suggest – предполагать report – сообщать interpret – объяснять, интерпретировать think/reckon – считать prove/give evidence – доказывать call attention to – обращать чье-либо внимание на give/pay attention to – уделять внимание кому-то (чему-то) do away with – покончить с, отказаться от make attempt – делать попытку, пытаться make mention of – упоминать о make reference to – ссылаться make use of – использовать, найти применение take account of – принимать во внимание, учитывать take advantage of – воспользоваться take notice of – замечать, обращать внимание на 1. Pronunciation. Consult a dictionary and practice the pronunciation of the following words. Monograph, disputable, issue, vital, references, constitutes, ubiquitous, valuable, durability, concept, premature, technologies, subsequent, imperial units, considered. 2. Match the words and their meanings. 1) monograph

a) the end or final part of something 45

English for postgraduate students

2) references

b) being not definitely true or right, and therefore is something that you can argue about

3) issue

c) very useful because it helps you to do something

4) disputable

d) a part of something you say or write in which you mention a person or thing

5) valuable

e) a piece of writing about a particular subject in a newspaper or magazine

6) emphasize

f) a long article or a short book on a particular subject

7) conclusion

g) to say a word or phrase louder or higher than others to give it more importance

8) article

h) a subject or problem that is often discussed or argued about, especially a social or political matter that affects the interests of a lot of people

Reading 1. Read the summary of the book “Civil Engineering Materials” written by Peter A. Claisse and answer the questions. 1. What is the title of the book under review ? 2. Who is the book written for ? 3. What is the purpose of the book ? 4. What subjects are included ? 5. Can you tell us how many parts does the book consist of ? 6. Do you think it’ll be interesting and useful for you ? This book covers the construction materials content for undergraduate courses in Civil Engineering and related subjects, and will also be a valuable reference for professionals working in the construction industry. The topics are relevant to all the different stages of a course, starting with basic properties of materials and leading to more complex areas, such as the theory of concrete durability, and corrosion of steel. The first 16 chapters cover the basic properties of materials, and how they are measured. These range from basic concepts of strength to more complex topics, such as diffusion and adsorption. The following 13 chapters cover cementitious 46

Unit 4. Preparing an annotation

materials. The production and use of reinforced concrete, as well as its durability, are considered in detail because this is the most ubiquitous material that is used in construction, and its premature failure is a massive problem worldwide. The subsequent chapters consider the other materials used in construction, including metals, timber, masonry, plastics, glass, and bitumens. The final chapters discuss examples of composites, and adhesives and sealants, and then cover a number of potentially important technologies that are currently being developed. The book is intended for use both in the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as in other countries, so both metric and imperial units are discussed. 2. Retell the text by completing the following sentences. 1. This book covers … 2. The topics are relevant to … 3. The first 16 chapters cover … 4. The final chapters discuss examples of … 5. The book is intended for use …

Speaking and Vocabulary 1. Match Russian and English equivalents. 1. The paper constitutes a critical review of …

a) Особенно подчеркивается компетентностный подход.

2. The work treats and summarizes the knowledge on … 3. The information is given as a part of synthetic whole. 4. A competence-based approach is especially emphasized. 5. Be referred to ...

b) Автор статьи полагает …

6. The author of the paper believes … 7. The paper is addressed to the general reader.

c) Статья представляет собой критический обзор … d) Информация подается как часть единого целого. e) Статья адресована рядовому читателю. f) Работа анализирует и обобщает сведения по… g) Относиться к …

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2. Work in pairs. Study examples of clichés, which can be used to make a summary. Complete the last column with your own examples. Compare your answers with a partner. A part of the summary

Clichés

Examples

The article (text) is headlined … The headline of the article (I have read) is … The article is entitled … The author of the article (text) is … The article is written by …

1. The article is entitled “Optimized design of drilling and blasting operations in open pit mines”. 2. … 3. …

The theme of the The text deals with ... paper The article is devoted to ... The chapter is about … The article touches upon …

1. The text deals with the design and operating conditions of the device. 2. … 3. …

The key prob- The author emphasizes the lems (thematic idea of ... points) discussed The author points out that ... Attention is drawn to the fact ... In the opinion of the author it is …

1. Attention is drawn to the deformation of the lattice and calculation of parameters. 2. … 3. …

Introducing sec- Further the author reports ondary informa- The author states … tion The article goes on to say … According to the text …

1. According to the text Photoelectric emission is considered. 2. … 3. …

The heading

The conclusion The author comes to the 1. It is concluded that the at which the au- conclusion tha t... model provides a very thor arrives The author concludes by good fit to the experimental saying ... data. The basic approach of the 2. … author is that, etc. 3. … 48

Unit 4. Preparing an annotation

A part of the summary

Clichés

Examples

Your opinion I found the article topical, 1. The article presents a wide about the text important, dull, of no val- and intelligent grasp of methue, outdated. ods that make a significant contribution to my research. 2. … 3. … 3 a. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions with your partner. 1. What is the title of the monograph ? 2. What does the monograph begin with (an introductory part; an acknowledgement; few general remarks) ? 3. What is each chapter preceded by (theoretical framework; methods, results and discussions) ? 4. What does the book touch upon (the new data in the sphere of …; the innovative techniques in; cutting-edge technologies) ? 5. What contribution does the book made to your research (applications of new methods; positive effect of the work done in the field of; experimental technique) ? 3 b. Work in pairs. When making a summary, you may use the following plan: 1) the heading; 2) the theme of the paper; 3) the key problems (thematic points) discussed; 4) the conclusion at which the author arrives. Make a summary of the monograph you deal with according to the plan.

Listening 1. You are going to listen to the report “How can countries make progress in global climate cooperation?” Put the following phrases in the order you hear them according to the example. Greenhouse gas emissions, climate summits, effective climate treaty, distribution of costs, to employ sanctions, polluter-pays principle, online

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survey experiment, to mitigate the negative consequences, to commit global climate packs, global warming, to keep track of smth. 1. to mitigate the negative consequences 7. 2.

8.

3.

9.

4.

10.

5.

11.

6. 2. Listen again. Read the summary and find five mistakes. The research is titled “How can countries tackle climate change and mitigate the negative consequences of global warming?” Clearly, political leaders will not sign onto agreements that are not cost-effective and even if they did, only an agreement with broad public support across countries stands a chance it actually being implemented. According to the author, possibility for climate treaties depends on the costs and features an agreement just like demand for a car depends on its price and options. Support for a climate treaty depends strongly on the agreements costs. Our research suggests that the public values three features of a climate agreement: the distribution of costs, membership and enforcement. It is concluded that politicians can design more attractive agreements by including many countries, by creating an independent monitoring body to keep track of whether countries are meeting their emission limits and by employing small sanctions for countries that miss their obligations.

Language Focus: Grammar 1. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. 1. Путем проведения экспериментов они решили эту проблему. … making experiments they solved this problem (on / by/ in). 2. Без анализа результатов эксперимента они не могут решить эту проблему. 50

Unit 4. Preparing an annotation

… analyzing the results of experiment they can’t solve this problem (without / within / instead of). 3. При изучении этой проблемы они провели ряд экспериментов. … studing this problem they made a number of experiments (at/ in/ by). 4. Вместо того, чтобы обозначить гипотезу, она провела наблюдения. … stating a hypothesis, she made some observations (instead of/ without/ with). 5. Статья представляет широкий спектр методов, которые вносят значительный вклад в мое исследование. The article presents a wide grasp of methods that make a significant contribution … my research (in/to/with). 6. В конце статьи автор приходит к выводу, что исследование содержит ряд неточностей. In the end of the paper the author comes … conclusion that research contains a number of inaccuracies (in/ on/to). 2. Give a short talk (2 minutes) on a paper in your field of research. Mind the use of prepositions.

Reading 1. In small groups, discuss the following questions. 1. Have you ever heard of sustainable recourses of energy? Can anyone be a good researcher? 2. What are advantages and drawbacks of using sustainable recourses of energy instead of fossil fuel? 2. Read the text quickly. Are any of the points similar to your answer to Exercise 1? Farmland Is Also Optimal For Solar Power We often associate giant solar arrays with deserts. But the extreme heat can curb solar panels’ potential. “It’s like your laptop or your home computer. If it overheats, it slows down. So there’s this tradeoff between having a lot, 51

English for postgraduate students

a lot of sun like in a desert, but if it gets too hot the efficiency of those panels drops.” Oregon State University ecological engineer Chad Higgins. His team is interested in where photovoltaic panels should be located in order to maximize energy production. In addition to moderate temperatures and sunlight, they found that conditions for the most efficiency include low relative humidity and gentle winds that enhance transfer of heat from the panels. By analyzing satellite data for these four factors, they created a map of potential solar panel productivity for different land types around the globe. Coming out on top? Agricultural croplands. “And you think about it for a minute and it kind of makes sense. What is agriculture, but taking the sun’s rays and converting it into a form of energy that we consume? So there's this sweet spot where you get a lot of sun but it’s a temperate temperature and that is where you get the maximum productivity. And that’s also where plants thrive.” Other factors also favor cropland solar. “Agricultural lands tend to be closer to population centers where there is a market for electricity, rather than way off in the desert. Agricultural lands tend to be flat. They tend to be already disturbed. So you don’t have as many ecological conservation worries.” Higgins’ team thinks that agriculture and solar can complement each other, paving the way to a more sustainable energy future. The researchers estimate that installing photovoltaic panels on just one percent of croplands worldwide would be enough to meet all of humanity’s global electricity needs. (https://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/farmland-is-also-optimal-forsolar-power/#transcripts-body)

Vocabulary giant – гигантский solar arrays – панель солнечной батареи curb – ограничить tradeoff – обратная зависимость photovoltaic panels – солнечная батарея croplands – пахотные земли

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Unit 4. Preparing an annotation

3. Make a summary of the text “Farmland is also optimal for solar power” according to the following instructions. The headline of the article I have read is … The aim of the article is to … The author begins with telling the reader that … The article constitutes a thorough discussion on ... In conclusion I can say that … I found the text valuable (of no value) because … 4. Make a summary of a paper in your field of research according to instructions given above.

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UNIT 5. TRANSLATING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS Topical vocabulary a noun – имя существительное an adjective – имя прилагательное a verb – глагол an adverb – наречие numeral – числительное preposition – предлог Active Voice – действительный залог Passive Voice – страдательный залог inversion – инверсия positive degree – положительная степень comparative degree – сравнительная степень superlative degree – превосходная степень Participle – причастие Gerund – герундий Infinitive – инфинитив Subjunctive mood – сослагательное наклонение Exercise 1. Put the following words in the columns according to their part of speech: a noun, an adjective, a verb or an adverb. a noun

an adjective

a verb

an adverb

generation Generation, human, separately, section, physical, accumulation, animal, produce, structure, special, humanity, school, literature, organize, university, special, philosophy, testable, logically, formulate, antiquity, modern, era, generally, topic, phenomenon, universal, dominant, ordinary, period, associate, discipline, linguistic, classify, rubric, formally, generate, accumulate, philosophically, dominate, historical, universally, arrange, specify, type, criticize, expression, economics, creature, prehistoric, intelligent, arrange, physically, natural, material. Nota bene! 54

Unit 5. Translating scientific papers

Typical suffixes of Typical suffixes of Typical suffixes of Typical suffixes of nouns adjectives verbs adverbs –er heater (обогреватель) –tion acceleration (ускорение) –ment equipment (оборудование) –ness stiffness (жесткость) –age voltage (напряжение)

–able measurable (измеримый) –ible audible (слышимый) –ful useful (полезный) –less useless (бесполезный) –al (–ial) axial (осевой) –ive active (активный)

–ize (–ise) to energize (подключать к источнику питания) –fy (–ify) to verify (проверять, контролировать) –en to lengthen (удлинять) –ate to separate (отделять)

–ly directly (прямо) –ward forward (вперед) –fold twofold (в два раза)

Exercise 2. Work in pairs. Read information about peculiarities of translating scientific texts. Translate a part of a monograph (about 1000  symbols) connected with your research in a written form. Underline examples described in information below. Discuss them with your partner. Особенностью научно-технической литературы является то, что она рассчитана на специалиста в данной отрасли знаний. Язык научнотехнической литературы имеет свои грамматические, лексические, фразеологические особенности и сокращения. Рассмотрим, что характеризует грамматическую структуру предложения в научно-технических текстах, и приведем примеры: 1. Наличие длинных предложений со сложной структурой, несколькими второстепенными предложениями, с целым рядом однородных членов, специальной терминологией. Часто зависимые от подлежащего и сказуемого слова стоят на значительном расстоянии от слова, которое они определяют. Motors, used practically in every branch of industry, transport and agriculture, are applied for converting different forms of energy into mechanical energy.

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English for postgraduate students

Моторы, используемые практически в каждой отрасли промышленности, транспорта и сельского хозяйства, применяются для преобразования различных форм энергии в механическую энергию. 2. Использование многокомпонентных атрибутивных словосочетаний. The important measurement parameters – важные параметры измерения. 3. Употребление определений, образованных путем стяжения синтаксических групп. electric power losses – losses of electric power; water driven generators – generators driven by water. 4. Употребление страдательного залога. With a catalyst the reaction was accelerated tenfold. Реакция была усилена в десять раз благодаря катализатору. 5. Отсутствие некоторых служебных слов (артиклей, вспомогательных глаголов) в таблицах, графиках и спецификациях. Slow down operation of rheostat handle. – Опустите ручку реостата. 6. Насыщенность текста специальной терминологией и терминологическими сочетаниями. Термин – слово или словосочетание, имеющее особое значение, выражающее понятие, свойственное данной, конкретной отрасли науки и техники. Термины – явление многозначное, они могут иметь разное значение в пределах разных наук. valve – клапан (в машиностроении); valve – электронная лампа (в радиотехнике). 7. Контекст является решающим фактором при переводе термина. Большую трудность для перевода представляют термины-неологизмы, являющиеся характерной особенностью научно-технического языка, поскольку они могут быть не отражены в словарях (например, фирменные названия продукции). В технической литературе широко используются стереотипные слова или фразы – клише; в них входят идиомы, устойчивые выражения, набор готовых фраз. В специальной научно-технической литературе часто встречаются различные сокращения и аббревиатуры. В прил. 2 представлен подробный список сокращений. emf – electromotive force – электродвижущая сила; hp – horce power – лошадиная сила (единица мощности); kw – kilowatt – киловатт; 56

Unit 5. Translating scientific papers

a.c. – alternating current – переменный ток; d.c. – direct current – постоянный ток; v. – voltage – напряжение; r.p.m. – revolutions per minute – обороты в минуту; W – watt – ватт. 8. Использование заимствований из латинского языка. В прил. 2 содержится подробный список таких заимствований. e. g. Muller et al. considered this method to be taken. Мюллер и другие считали, что этот метод должен быть принят. Функция языка научно-технической литературы – информативная (сообщение информации), поэтому перевод должен быть точным и адекватным. 9. Инверсия и усилительные конструкции являются характерной чертой научных текстов, используемых для усиления того или иного члена предложения. Существует ряд случаев отступления от прямого порядка слов: а) на первое место может быть вынесено дополнение: This deflection of the needle Oersted saw adjusting by chance the wire parallel to the needle. Именно это отклонение стрелки заметил Эрстэд, случайно поместив ее параллельно проводнику. Due to Franklin’s kite experiment was the lightning conductor invented. Именно благодаря эксперименту Франклина с воздушным змеем был изобретен громоотвод; б) смысловая часть сложного сказуемого может быть выражена прилагательным, причастием I, причастием II или существительным с  предлогом, при этом глагол связка (обычно be) стоит после обстоятельства: Important in that experiment was the direction of current flow. В этом эксперименте важным фактором являлся поток тока; в) инверсия в уступительных придаточных предложениях: Difficult though it was Lomonosov left his father’s home longing for mastering sciences. Как бы трудно не было, Ломоносов, стремясь к изучению наук, покинул отцовский дом;

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г) инверсия может быть выражена некоторыми наречиями, союзными словами и их сочетаниями (only, never, rarely, not only…but, neither…nor, both…and, etc.), если они стоят в начале предложения. Both he and his class saw that when the current was turned on, the needle deflected almost at right angle. Как он, так и его класс увидели, что стрелка отклонялась почти под прямым углом, когда электрический ток был включен; е) nor или neither обычно употребляется после отрицательных предложений. При переводе их следует переводить «а также» и добавить «не». They couldn’t explain the origin of lightning; neither could they find practical application for the above mentioned phenomenon. Они как не могли объяснить происхождение молнии, так и не могли найти практического применения вышеупомянутому явлению. 10. Значительную роль в научно-технической литературе играют служебные (функциональные) слова, создающие логические связи между отдельными элементами высказываний. Это предлоги и союзы (в основном составные) типа: on (по), upon (относительно), in (на), instead of (вместо), in preference to (по отношению к), except (for) (за исключением), in addition (to) (в дополнение к), owing to (вследствие), due to (из-за), thanks to (благодаря), according to (в соответствии с), in order to (для того, чтобы). e. g. Thus, in order to be a success, much more investment was required. Таким образом, чтобы преуспеть, требовались большие инвестиции. 11. В научной литературе встречаются слова, близкие по форме к русским, но разные по значению. В прил. 2 содержится подробный список таких слов. It lasted the whole decade. Это длилось целое десятилетие. Exercise 3. Translate the sentences paying attention to Latin words. 1. In fact, after World War II, cybernetic notions such as information, control, system (i.e., an assemblage of interdependent interacting entities) and feedback (i.e., the idea of reintroduction of outputs in the system), became extremely influential. 58

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2. Indeed, in our discipline we use names for certain elements (“wall”, “room”, “stair”, “ceiling”, “beam”, etc.) to indicate what are in fact particular arrangements of elements. 3. In course of the reflection process some fragments receive more light than others, and the sharpness with which they are present in the image is inevitably subject to variation (focusing on large fragments implies that smaller fragments become more vague and vice versa. 4. On a practical level, the design and construction process for a building relies on mathematics for measurements, timelines, weights and structural calculations (Salvadori 1968; Swallow et al. 2004). 5. Thereafter, returning to the historic time line, in Part IV, architectural examples drawn from 1100 AD to 1400 AD (from Medieval to Romanesque) are analysed. 6. Thereafter she offers a possible explanation for the planning of both the city and countryside of Florence, which is in accordance with Roman practices, relies on a range of clear geometric processes and responds to symbolic concerns about genius loci. 7. Across 47 chapters, authored by 53 scholars of architecture, mathematics, engineering and philosophy, the present volume contains examinations of key theories, buildings and treatises which, between 2000 BC and 1500 AD, evidence the crucial relationships between architecture and mathematics. При переводе аутентичных научно-технических текстов на русский язык наибольшее затруднение вызывают следующие разделы: имя существительное (правило ряда), имя прилагательное, глагол, страдательный залог, инфинитив, причастие, герундий, модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

Имя существительное. Правило ряда Правило ряда (атрибутивные словосочетания) можно сформулировать следующим образом: если после артикля (или другого определителя существительного) стоит ряд слов, чаще всего существительных и без предлога, то только последнее из них будет тем словом, к которому относится артикль и с которого надо начинать перевод этого ряда, мысленно ставя после него вопрос «Какой?» 59

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These management assessment techniques are well-known. Эти методы оценки управления хорошо известны. Часто ряд состоит из трех слов, среднее из которых может быть прилагательным, причастием (Participle I или Participle II) или герундием. Перевод такого ряда следует начинать тоже с последнего слова и продолжать строго в обратном порядке, причем при переводе должна быть соблюдена грамматическая форма среднего слова. The silicon purifying system (purifying – Система,очищающая кремний Participle I) A water-heated tank (heated – Participle II)

Бак, нагреваемый водой

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences paying attention to the chains of nouns. 1. The appraiser uses more than one approach to value, like the sales comparison and the cost approaches. 2. Experience shows that work study does in fact provide one of the most valuable means of improving production efficiency. 3. In addition to the organizational approach, chief programmer team operations are based on two major innovative disciplines. 4. For wind, needed materials include high-performance compounds for turbine blades and the rare-earth metal neodymium necessary to build structures. 5. The subject matter of this article involves the implementation of a maximum absolute error algorithm comparison criterion. 6. Geothermal heat pump system uses the ground you already own to heat and cool your home. 7. In such cases the time-delayed ion ejection method proved particularly valuable in determining the equilibrium constants. 8. An electronic document should specify only the external behavior. 9. To a large extent, it can be understood that second-order-cybernetics have a philosophical stance, and that this approach can be associated with challenges to more conventional scientific positions.

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Имя прилагательное Прилагательные в английском языке, в отличие от русских имен прилагательных, не обладают категориями рода, числа и падежа. Качественные прилагательные так же, как и в русском, имеют три степени сравнения: положительную (нулевую), сравнительную и превосходную. Односложные прилагательные и двусложные, оканчивающиеся на – у, –е, –er, –ow, образуют сравнительную степень путем прибавления к положительной степени суффикса – er, а превосходную степень степень – путем прибавления суффикса – est: light – легкий / lighter – легче / lightest – самый легкий; busy – занятый/ busier – более занятый/ busiest – самый занятый; clever – умный/ cleverer – умнее/ cleverest – самый умный; narrow – узкий/ narrower – уже/ narrowest – самый узкий. Большинство двусложных прилагательных, состоящих из трех и  более слогов, образуют сравнительную степень при помощи слов more – более и most – самый большой, наибольший: e. g. protective –защитный / more protective – более защитный/ most protective – самый защитный. Exercise 5. Translate the sentences paying attention to degrees of comparison of adjectives. 1. These representations become semantically richer, overcoming the problems of most CAD systems, which can only be used, at best, to represent the form of architectural entities. 2. The thinner the layers, the greater the stirring and the total area of contact and hence the greater the potential for heat and salt exchange. 3. Naturally, it is when the vagueness is least that we find the analysis most satisfying. 4. Transistors do, however, hold out a promise for smaller, simpler and less expensive computers with the high performance for the future. 5. Because recent theories deal with domains in which much higher energies are considered, the curvatures that are presently contemplated are stronger and more complicated.

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6. More competent, but fewer people deal with carefully orchestrated teamwork. 7. In view of this fact I decided to place much greater emphasis on general principles, and less on the details of individual systems. 8. Relatively less attention has been paid to another possible way of obtaining a better performance for the memory. 9. This is not the case for smaller or larger scales, or for energies that are significantly larger than those we encounter in our typical daily environment.

Глагол Глагол в английском языке может использоваться в трех наклонениях. В изъявительном наклонении глагол выражает реально осуществимое действие в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени. Глагол может употребляться в утвердительной, вопросительной и отрицательной формах. В повелительном наклонении глагол выражает побуждение, приказание, приглашение к действию. В повелительном наклонении глагол не обладает показателями грамматического времени. В сослагательном наклонении глагол выражает предполагаемое, возможное, желаемое действие и не обладает показателями грамматического времени. В отличие от изъявительного наклонения, которое выражает реальное действие, а значит, имеет фактор времени, сослагательное наклонение (образуется с помощью would, could, should) выражает предполагаемое, желаемое, возможное действие, а значит, не имеет показателей времени. В русском языке сослагательное наклонение выражается глаголом в прошедшем времени, после которого ставится частица бы. If they used the right water-cement ratio, they would produce concrete of high strength and durability. Если бы они использовали правильное водоцементное соотношение, они бы создали бетон высокой прочности и долговечности. Повелительное наклонение образуется с помощью инфинитива без частицы to и стоит в начале предложения, например: Turn on the light! Включите свет! Isolate the wire. Изолируйте провод.

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Отрицательная форма повелительного наклонения образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do с добавлением последующей частицы not, например: Don’t touch the wire, it’s dangerous!... Не прикасайтесь к этому проводу – это опасно! Exercise 6. Translate the manual paying attention to the mood. Creating Topics for Your User’s Problems Start with identifying the problems that your user(s) might encounter during the lifecycle of the product and that s/he wants to solve. Typical problems might include: installing the product, using the product, using the product safely, maintaining the product and disposing of the product. If the problem is too complex, you could break it down into chunks. I asked Philip to identify the problems and solutions that his user might encounter during the product lifecycle. In order to do so, I created another template for Philip. In the left column of the Lifecycle tab, the stages of a product’s lifecycle are mentioned. These are derived from the international standard for user instructions, the IEC 82079. On the Lifecycle [ISOVOX] tab you see how Philip adjusted the lifecycle to his own product. Action: Use this template and the instructions on the first tab to identify the problems your user might have during the lifecycle of your product and present their solutions. (https://instrktiv.com/en/user-manual-template/)

Особенностью научного текста является приобретение одним и тем же словом разных значений (распадение слова на омонимы). Для английских научно-технических текстов очень важно словопроизводство способом конверсии: переход слова из одной части речи в другую без каких-либо морфологических изменений в составе слова. Наиболее распространенным видом такого перехода является образование глаголов от имен существительных и наоборот, например: motor (двигатель, мотор)

to motor (работать в режиме двигателя)

a handle (ручка управления, рукоятка)

to handle (оперировать, манипулировать, обслуживать) 63

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a generator (генератор)

to generator (работать в генераторном режиме)

increase (увеличение);

to increase (увеличивать, повысить)

a record (запись, регистрация)

to record (регистрировать, записывать)

empty (пустой)

to empty (опорожнять).

Exercise 7. Translate the following groups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb, or a verb and an adjective, or a noun and an adjective, with the same form. They can have similar or different meanings. Look up your dictionary if necessary. 1. Did the speaker stress the need for better education? 2. Stress can lead to the building collapsing. 3. They place too much stress on money and position. 4. He mentioned the cause of structural failure. 5. These facts cause an increase in the span of the beam. 6. Don’t stay away without good cause. 7. They should concrete the garden path. 8. This caused the expansion of the concrete floor. 9. The walk was paved with concrete. 10. Beams of light penetrated the darkness. 11. The transmitter beams radio waves all over the country. 12. A frame consists of beams and columns with foundation. 13. Various materials can be used to construct a water tower. 14. The high mountains tower over the little town. 15. Piles were driven for a platform to support a tower crane.

Глагол в страдательном залоге Пассивную форму (Passive Voice) глагола можно отличить от активной (Active) благодаря наличию вспомогательного глагола be перед причастием II от смыслового глагола: be + Participle II (-ed, 3-я форма)

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Глагол be изменяется – выражает время, число, лицо и обычно не переводится (кроме тех случаев, когда этого требуют нормы русского языка). Причастие II от смыслового глагола не изменяется и переводится в том времени, в котором стоит вспомогательный глагол be, например: am asked '(меня) спрашивают', is written 'пишется', was said '(ему, ей) сказали', will be invited '(их, ее, его) пригласят', will be read '(его, ее) прочтут'.

Voice.

Exercise 8. Translate the text paying attention to the use of the Passive

What is a Rainbow? A rainbow appears when sunlight and water meet. They are caused by the refraction and dispersion of the sun’s light by rain or other water droplets in the atmosphere. Rainbows can be seen not just when it’s raining but also on misty or foggy days, in the spray of a waterfall, and even in dew, basically they can appear whenever there are water droplets in the air and there is sunlight shining from behind at the right angle. It’s called light refraction, and on a sunny day, with a hosepipe, you can even create your own rainbow in the garden. (https://english-magazine.org/english-reading/english-for-science-technology)

Exercise 9. Translate the sentences paying attention to the use of the Passive Voice. 1. Le Corbusier chose 1829 mm as a fundamental measure, from which the entire sequence is derived. 2. Some of the most extensive of these featured large, walled enclosures made of crude mud bricks which were sometimes finished in a type of plaster. 3. What may be done at any time will be done at no time. 4. Through an analysis of these altars, Joseph demonstrates that while the origin of Indian mathematics has often been linked to largely theological or symbolic purposes. 5. Currently these decisions are made by the operators and the excavation depends on their skills. 6. A mechanical method was substituted for an electric one. 7. The dragline positioning problem is considered as a sequential decision making problem. 8. This phenomenon is accounted for by the sudden rise of temperature. 65

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9. For the estimations use will be made of a hypothetical reference model. 10. In addition to the three spatial dimensions of our ordinary perception, there are six spatial dimensions that are strongly curved in all versions of the theory.

Инфинитив. Объектный и субьектный инфинитивные обороты Инфинитив (неопределенная форма глагола) – это неличная форма глагола, которая выражает действие безотносительно к лицу и числу. Формальный признак инфинитива – частица “to” (to ask, to write). Формы инфинитива Выражает действие, одновременное с действием, выраженным глаголомсказуемым Выражают действие, предшествовавшее действию, выраженному глаголомсказуемым

Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous

Active to write to be writing

Passive to be written –

to have written To have been written to have been – writing

I want to help you. – Я хочу помочь вам. I want to be helped. – Я хочу, чтобы мне помогли. The professor is glad to see his former students. – Профессор рад видеть своих прежних студентов. The professor is glad to have seen his former students. – Профессор рад, что повидал своих прежних студентов. Не is proud to be working with this famous scientist. – Он гордится тем, что работает с этим известным ученым. Не is proud to have been working with this famous scientist for many years. – Он гордится тем, что проработал с этим известным ученым много лет. Объектный инфинитивный оборот – это сочетание существительного в общем падеже (brother, device) или местоимения в объектном 66

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падеже (mе, you, him, her, it, us, them) с инфинитивом, выступающее в предложении как сложное дополнение. We know this scientist to have made an important discovery in electronics. Мы знаем, что этот ученый сделал важное открытие в электронике. Этот инфинитивный оборот переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзами «что, как, чтобы», причем существительное (или местоимение) переводится подлежащим придаточного предложения, а инфинитив – сказуемым. Объектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется после следующих глаголов-характеристик: • выражающих желание: to want – хотеть; to wish – желать; to desire – желать; I’d like – Мне хотелось бы. I want him to come. – Я хочу, чтобы он пришел; • выражающих умственное восприятие: to consider – полагать; to suppose – полагать; to assume – считать; to believe – считать; to expect – ожидать; to know – знать; to think – думать. They consider us to have made the experiment. Они полагают, что мы провели эксперимент; • выражающих физическое восприятие: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe. После этих глаголов инфинитив употребляется без частицы “to”. Не saw this scientific centre grow day by day. Он видел, как этот научный центр рос c каждым днем; • выражающих принуждение, разрешение, просьбу: to force – вынуждать; to allow – позволять; to cause – вызывать; to permit – разрешать; to make – заставлять; to order – приказать. He ordered these devices to be repaired as soon as possible. Он приказал отремонтировать эти приборы как можно быстрее. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот – это сочетание подлежащего (существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в именительном падеже) с инфинитивом глагола, указывающим на действие данного подлежащего. Этот оборот узнают в предложении по сказуемому в страдательном залоге с последующим инфинитивом. 67

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Такой оборот переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзом «что». Перевод начинают со сказуемого (is known, are said), которое становится сказуемым главного предложения и переводится неопределенно-личной формой глагола (известно, говорят); подлежащее (he, they) становится подлежащим придаточного предложения, а инфинитив (to work, to test) – его сказуемым. He is known to work here. – Известно, что он работает здесь. Глаголы (в страдательном залоге), с которыми употребляется субъектный инфинитивный оборот: is (are) said – говорят; is (are) known – известно; is (are) supposed – предполагают (полагают); is (are) expected – ожидают; is (are) found – обнаружено; is (are) seen – видно; is (are) claimed – утверждают; is (are) reported – сообщают. Рассмотрим особый случай субъектного инфинитивного оборота. В русском переводе такой оборот дает дополнительное придаточное предложение. Глаголы-характеристики, выступающие в роли сказуемых в предложениях с оборотом «подлежащее с инфинитивом» в активной форме, представлены ниже: to seem to appear to prove to turn out to happen to chance

казаться, по-видимому; казаться, по-видимому; оказываться; оказываться; случаться, случайно оказываться; случаться, случайно оказываться.

Exercise 10. Translate the sentences paying attention to infinitive constructions. 1. Unfortunately this approach is unlikely to be successful. 2. This proved to be false. 3. The method is reported to give good results. 4. We expect him to come tomorrow with his sister. 5. The new rocket is reported to go into operation next year. 6. The helium atom was found to have two electrons. 7. He observed the stars appear in the sky. 8. We know the ohm to be the standard unit of resistance. 9. The plant is sure to receive new machines. 10. The delegation is likely to come tomorrow. 68

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11. The soil proved to be rich in minerals. 12. Lightning was proved to be a discharge of electricity.

Причастие Причастие I (в простой форме: Indefinite Active) образуется от инфинитива без частицы to прибавлением окончания -ing. Participle I соответствует русскому причастию действительного залога (т. е. причастию с суффиксами ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ, -вш), например: to play to have to plan

playing having planning

играющий; имеющий; планирующий.

Причастие II в качестве правого и левого определения соответствует в русском языке страдательному причастию с суффиксами -мый, -ный, -тый. e. g. The article translated into English is very long. Статья, переведенная на английский, очень большая. e. g. The subjects studied by our students are rather different. Предметы, изучаемые нашими студентами, довольно разные. Participle II Passive (being asked, being used) в функции правого определения переводится страдательным причастием настоящего времени (используемый, получаемый) или определительным придаточным предложением. e. g. Rockets being used for high altitude research are equipped with special instruments. Ракеты, используемые (которые используются) для проведения исследований на больших высотах, оборудуются специальными приборами. Exercise 11. Translate the text paying attention to the participle. What is Obesity? Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on a person’s health, leading

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to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. In other words, it means to be dangerously overweight. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. (https://english-magazine.org/english-reading/english-for-science-technology?start=15)

Герундий Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, выражающая процесс действия и совмещающая в себе свойства глагола и существительного. Герундий совпадает по форме с причастием. В русском языке герундия нет. Формы герундия Active

Passive

Indefinite

writing

being written

Perfect

having written

having been written

Герундий может выполнять в предложении те же функции, что и существительное, т. е. функции: 1) подлежащего (стоит всегда перед сказуемым). Conducting scientific experiments is useful for our post students. Проведение научных экспериментов очень полезно для наших аспирантов. 2) именной части сказуемого (стоит после глагола-связки to be). The profession of an attorney is defending people in the court. Профессия адвоката состоит в том, чтобы защищать людей в суде. 3) части глагольного составного сказуемого после глаголов, выражающих начало, продолжение и конец действия: to begin, to continue, to finish, to start, to go on, to stop. e. g. He went on installing equipment. Он продолжал устанавливать оборудование.

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Unit 5. Translating scientific papers

4) дополнения: • прямого дополнения: I remember having applied for this grant some years ago. Я помню, что я подавал грантовую заявку несколько лет назад; • предложного дополнения обычно после глаголов, прилагательных, причастий, требующих после себя определенных предлогов: to depend (on, upon), to result (in), to insist (on), to object (to), to succeed (in), to think (of), to hear (of), to be fond of, to be proud of, to be interested in. He insists on doing research in the laboratory. Он настаивает на проведении исследования в лаборатории. 5) определения (после определяемого слова, с предлогом of или for). We used this method of studying the scientific data. Мы использовали этот метод изучения научных данных. 6) обстоятельства (употребляется всегда с предлогами by, without, with, in, on, before, after, instead of, in addition to, because of, besides, thanks to и др.). Instead of dealing with theoretical part of his thesis he began a new experiment. Вместо того, чтобы проработать теоретическую часть своей диссертации, он начал новый эксперимент. Exercise 12. Translate the sentences paying attention to the gerund. 1. Instead of producing thermoelectric devices our plant deals with generating power for various purposes. 2. They are interested in generating heat and cold from electricity. 3. Semiconductors are excellent means of generating heat and cold from electricity. 4. This method of examining a machine tool is connected with a new technology. 5. In spite of facing a lot of problems connected with a new machine the engineer goes on mending it. 6. Centrifugal training is an important element of preparing a space flight. 7. The mechanic is keen on improving an out-of-date machine.

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English for postgraduate students

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты В английском языке модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (be able to, be allowed to, have to, be to) имеют несколько функций, выражающих возможность, запрет, вероятность, разрешение и т. д. Модальные глаголы (кроме эквивалентов) самостоятельно образуют вопросительные и отрицательные предложения. Функции: долг, обязанность, необходимость. Перевод: должен, обязан, приходится, вынужден. must have to или has to (had to – will have to) be to (am/are/is to – was/were to – will be to) You must do your homework. Will you have to get up early? He was to work hard. Перевод: мочь, уметь. can (could) be able to (am/are/is able to – was/were able to – will be able to) I could do it yesterday. He won’t be able to help. I can read in English.

verbs.

Exercise 13. Translate the sentences paying attention to the modal

1. In the first place, we have been able to represent architecture in its complexity (i.e., architecture represented as a complex system), increasing the amount of information that is stored about an architectural object. 2. This pressure system do not have to be specified. 3. To transform this concept of movement in architecture, we should consider both the dynamic possibilities of the design elements as well as the option of tracing motion in a static form. 4. In order to make this hydro power station a whole number of highly involved scientific and engineering problems had to be solved. 5. Therefore, a form could be considered a spatial memory of certain movement in space-time. 6. That inevitable dual transformation allows controlling the design in a more flexible way. 7. Bad news should be broken gently and good news all at once. 8. Such a corrupt and despotic government must in itself be weak just when a government ought to be strong. 9. This could therefore help to deal with a multitude of objects and subjects at once. 10. Special techniques have had to be advised for solving the problem. 72

Unit 5. Translating scientific papers

11. They will, in general, have to be content with the data available. 12. On another level, Fuller’s influence might also be felt in “Planning for Productivity” and “Development Index”, based on his involvement in systems theory. 13. The planner must ensure the feasibility of this strategy. 14. We will be able to analyze and understand the organization of design objects and processes, so that we can advance in the translation of architecture to the world of organization.

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SELF – ASSESSMENT PROGRESS TESTS Test 1 №

Тестовое задание (Английский язык) Circle the appropriate letter

1

2

3

4

5

6

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A degree is: a) a document certifying smth b) an academic qualification c) a term denoting smth d) a stage in a scale A degree is awarded: a) after completion of an essay b) after granting smth c) on completion of a research and educational course d) after getting a license Doctor of Philosophy or PhD [,pi:eit∫'di:] is awarded: a) on acceptance of a thesis b) after an original idea c) after a contribution to knowledge d) after a completion of a course study A diploma is: a) a plural form of a diplomat b) art or skill in smth c) a new qualification d) an educational certificate A diploma usually differs from a degree in that it ... a) is of a higher standard b) is awarded by university c) is of a lower standard, awarded by non-university d) is a vocational, less academic, awarded by non-university A certificate is ... a) a general word denoting any document b) an award granting by a college of education c) a document certifying a completion of a course study d) a paperback file

Ответы

Self – assessment progress tests



Тестовое задание (Английский язык) Ответы An English equivalent for «Свидетельство об образовании» is: a) certificate of birth 7 b) certificate of health c) certificate of education d) marriage certificate An English equivalent for «Медицинское свидетельство» is: a) certificate of health b) certificate of education 8 c) marriage certificate d) certificate of birth An English equivalent for «Свидетельство о рождении» is: a) certificate of education b) certificate of birth 9 c) certificate of health d) marriage certificate

An English equivalent for «Свидетельство о браке» is: a) certificate of birth 10 b) marriage certificate c) certificate of health d) certificate of education Degree exams are ... a) exams for a driving license 11 b) finals for a first degree c) graduation exams d) entrance exams A degree ceremony is ... a) graduation ceremony 12 b) a religious ceremony c) for a newly-weds d) a special ceremony for awarding certificate and diplomas A degree certificate is ... a) a written document 13 b) a document certifying that the holder was awarded a degree c) a medical certificate d) a certificate for diplomas 75

English for postgraduate students



Тестовое задание (Английский язык) A First degree is called … a) Doctor’s degree 14 b) Master’s degree c) Bachelor’s degree d) a candidate of science VIVA means: a) an oral exam 15 b) a defense c) a question d) a discussion The Master’s degree is awarded: a) after a year’s postgraduate course 16 b) after finals c) on acceptance of a thesis d) before finals The Master of Philosophy means a degree: a) only for philosophy 17 b) for humanities c) only for philosophy and arts d) for all faculties The obtained qualifications are called: a) licence in education, diploma in teaching 18 b) certificate in education, degree in education c) diploma in education, certificate in education d) document in education, certificate in education An English equivalent for «Диплом» is: a) first degree, a diploma 19 b) a diploma, a certificate c) a document, a paper d) a degree, a certificate A degree course is a course: a) for research workers 20 b) of study preparing students for a first degree c) preparing students for high degrees d) preparing students for finals 76

Ответы

Self – assessment progress tests

Test 2 №

Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Ответы

Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. В настоящем докладе делается описание … a) This paper aims at b) This paper reports 1 c) This paper presents d) This paper deals with e) This paper describes f) This paper examines Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. В настоящем докладе сообщается о … a) This paper aims at b) This paper reports 2 c) This paper presents d) This paper deals with e) This paper describes f) This paper examines Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. В настоящем докладе представлен … a) This paper aims at b) This paper reports 3 c) This paper presents d) This paper deals with e) This paper describes f) This paper examines Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Настоящий доклад имеет своей целью … a) This paper aims at b) This paper reports 4 c) This paper presents d) This paper deals with e) This paper describes f) This paper examines 77

English for postgraduate students



Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. В настоящем докладе исследуется ... a) This paper aims at b) This paper reports 5 c) This paper presents d) This paper deals with e) This paper describes f) This paper examines Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. В настоящем докладе рассматриваются … a) This paper aims at b) This paper reports 6 c) This paper presents d) This paper deals with e) This paper describes f) This paper examines Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Настоящие данные охватывают период в … a) Data on … are discussed b) The design of the experiments was to ... 7 c) The methods used for … are discussed d) The effect of … on … is discussed e) Present data encompass the period of … f) A method of … is proposed Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Обсуждается влияние … на … a) Data on … are discussed b) The design of the experiments was to … 8 c) The methods used for … are discussed d) The effect of … on … is discussed e) Present data encompass the period of … f) A method of ... is proposed

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Ответы

Self – assessment progress tests



Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Ответы

Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Обсуждаются данные по … a) Data on … are discussed b) The design of the experiments was to … 9 c) The methods used for … are discussed d) The effect of … on … is discussed e) Present data encompass the period of … f) A method of ... is proposed Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Эксперименты были направлены на выявление … a) Data on … are discussed b) The design of the experiments was to … 10 c) The methods used for … are discussed d) The effect of … on … is discussed e) Present data encompass the period of … f) A method of … is proposed Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Описываются методы, используемые для … a) Data on … are discussed b) The design of the experiments was to … 11 c) The methods used for … are discussed d) The effect of … on … is discussed e) Present data encompass the period of … f) A method of … is proposed Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Предлагается метод … a) Data on … are discussed b) The design of the experiments was to … 12 c) The methods used for … are discussed d) The effect of … on … is discussed e) Present data encompass the period of … f) A method of … is proposed

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English for postgraduate students

№ 13

14

15

16

17

18

80

Тестовое задание (Английский язык) Ответы Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Самые важные результаты имеют следующий вид … a) The results indicate the dominant role of … b) The most important results are as follows … c) The results of observations are supported … Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Результаты указывают на доминирующую роль … a) The results indicate the dominant role of … b) The most important results are as follows … c) The results of observations are support … Choose an English equivalent for the Russian sentence. Результаты наблюдений дополняются ... a) The results indicate the dominant role of … b) The most important results are as follows … c) The results of observations are supported … Choose an English equivalent for the Russian phrase «предварительная повестка дня»: a) provisional agenda b) letter/notification of acceptance or rejection c) opening/welcoming address d) conference proceedings e) to take the floor Choose an English equivalent for the Russian phrase «вступительное слово»: a) provisional agenda b) letter/notification of acceptance or rejection c) opening/welcoming address d) conference proceedings e) to take the floor Choose an English equivalent for the Russian phrase «сборник трудов конференции»: a) provisional agenda b) letter/notification of acceptance or rejection c) opening/welcoming address d) conference proceedings e) to take the floor

Self – assessment progress tests



Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Ответы

Choose an English equivalent for the Russian phrase «уведомление о принятии (доклада) или отказа»: a) provisional agenda 19 b) letter/notification of acceptance or rejection c) opening/welcoming address d) conference proceedings e) to take the floor Choose an English equivalent for the Russian phrase «выступить, взять слово»: a) provisional agenda 20 b) letter/notification of acceptance or rejection c) opening/welcoming address d) conference proceedings e) to take the floor

Test 3 №

Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Ответы

Choose a verb that forms a noun with the suffix – ment: a) renovate 1 b) improve c) distribute Choose a verb that forms a noun with the suffix – sion: a) decide 2 b) develop c) distribute Choose a sentence where the word «beams» is translated into Russian as «балки»: 3 a) Beams of light penetrated the darkness. b) A frame consists of beams and columns with foundation. c) The transmitter beams radio waves all over the country

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English for postgraduate students



Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). Let me introduce Mr Quick to you. He is our new ... 4 a) direction b) director c) directory Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). She was unhappy with the ... in which the company was going: 5 a) direction b) director c) directory Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). I don’t remember her telephone number. Please look it up in the ... 6 a) direction b) director c) directory Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). In the 1960s there became great ... for oil from the Far East: 7 a) competitive b) competitors c) competition Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). There appeared new ... in the market. 8 a) competitive b) competitors c) competition Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). They work on a very small profit margin so their prices are very ... 9 a) competitive b) competitors c) competition

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Ответы

Self – assessment progress tests

№ 10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Тестовое задание (Английский язык) Ответы Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). Leading ... can predict the country’s rate of inflation: a) economics b) economical c) economists Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). What were your marks in ...? a) economics b) economical c) economists Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). The new Honda does fifty miles per gallon. It is very ... to run: a) economics b) economical c) economists Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). Since we bought the computer, ... has increased by 15 %: a) production b) productive c) productivity Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). Henry Ford began the mass ... of automobiles: a) production b) productive c) productivity Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). During his work at the plant he became a very ... manager: a) production b) productive c) productivity Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). I prefer working for different ... agencies: a) advertising b) advertisers c) advertisement

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English for postgraduate students



Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). Put an ... in the paper concerning your job: 17 a) advertising b) advertisers c) advertisement Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). We can’t publish this material since our ... don’t like it: 18 a) advertising b) advertisers c) advertisement et al. (et alia) in English means: a) and others 19 b) for example c) from the date of Christ birth A.D. (Anno Domini) in English means: a) and others 20 b) for example c) from the date of Christ birth e.g. (exampli gratia) in English means: a) and others 21 b) for example c) from the date of Christ birth etc. (et cetera) in English means: a) and so on 22 b) on the contrary c) for and against pro et con in English means: a) and so on 23 b) on the contrary c) for and against vice versa in English means: a) and so on 24 b) on the contrary c) for and against

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Ответы

Self – assessment progress tests



Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Ответы

N.B. (nota bene) in English means: a) pay attention 25 b) under existing conditions c) that is i.e. (id est) in English means: a) pay attention 26 b) under existing conditions c) that is in vivo in English means: a) pay attention to 27 b) under existing conditions c) that is Choose an English equivalent for the underlined word. Актуальность исследования была убедительной. 28 a) The actuality b) The topicality c) The importance Choose an English equivalent for the underlined word. Шины «Мишлен» произведены из высококачественной резины. 29 a) polymer b) resin c) rubber Choose an English equivalent for the underlined word. Аспиранты  проводят научные исследования совместно с научными руководителями. 30 a) Under-graduates b) Aspirants c) Post-graduates Choose an English equivalent for the underlined word. It lasted several decades. 31 a) декад b) десятилетий c) поколений

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English for postgraduate students



Тестовое задание (Английский язык)

Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). You must be very ... when you drive in wet weather. 32 a) care b) careful c) careless Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). I can’t understand a word of these instructions – they’re ... 33 a) incomprehensible b) suitable c) comprehensible Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a, b or c. The tourist information office was very ... , and told us everything we needed to know: 34 a) creative b) helpless c) helpful Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). A person or company that employs people is a (an) ... 35 a) employer b) employee c) director Complete the sentence choosing the right option: a), b) or c). Someone who is ... wants things to happen now; they cannot wait for things: 36 a) impatient b) patient c) unpatient

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Ответы

Self – assessment progress tests

KEYS Test_1 1. B (an academic qualification); 2. C (on completion of a research and educational course); 3. A (on acceptance of a thesis); 4. D (an educational certificate); 5. D (is a vocational, less academic, awarded by non-university); 6. A (a general word denoting any document); 7. C (certificate of education); 8. A (certificate of health); 9. B (certificate of birth); 10. B (marriage certificate); 11. B (finals for a first degree); 12. D (a special ceremony for awarding certificate and diplomas); 13. B (a document certifying that the holder was awarded a degree); 14. C (Bachelor’s degree); 15. A (an oral exam); 16. C (on acceptance of a thesis); 17. D (for all faculties); 18. C (diploma in education, certificate in education); 19. A (first degree, a diploma); 20. B (of study preparing students for a first degree). Test_2 1. E (this paper describes); 2. B (This paper reports); 3. C (This paper presents); 4. A (This paper aims at); 5. F (This paper examines); 6. D (This paper deals with); 7. E (Present data encompass the period of); 8. D (The effect of … on … is discussed); 9. A (Data on … are discussed); 10. B (The design of the experiments was to); 11. C (The methods used for … are discussed); 87

English for postgraduate students

12. F (A method of ... is proposed); 13. B (The most important results are as follows); 14. A (The results indicate the dominant role of); 15. C (The results of observations are supported); 16. A (provisional agenda); 17. C (opening/welcoming address); 18. D (conference proceedings); 19. B (letter/notification of acceptance or rejection); 20. E (to take the floor). Test_3 1. B (improve); 2. A (decide); 3. B (A frame consists of beams and columns with foundation); 4. B (director); 5. A (direction); 6. C (directory); 7. C (competition); 8. B (competitors); 9. A (competitive); 10. C (economists); 11. A (economics); 12. B (economical); 13. C (productivity); 14. A (production); 15. B (productive); 16. A (advertising); 17. C (advertisement); 18. B (advertisers); 19. A (and others); 20. C (from the date of Christ birth); 21. B (for example); 22. A (and so on); 23. C (for and against); 24. B (on the contrary); 25. A (pay attention); 88

Self – assessment progress tests

26. C (that is); 27. B (under existing conditions); 28. B (The topicality); 29. C (rubber); 30. C (Post-graduates); 31. B (десятилетий); 32. B (careful); 33. A (incomprehensible); 34. C (helpful); 35. A (employer); 36. A (impatient).

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REFERENCES 1. Cargill M., O’Connor P. Writing scientific research articles: strategy and steps / A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication, 2009. 174 p. 2. Moore M.A., Tsuda, H. A Practical Guide to the Use of Scientific English – A Skeleton Approach. APOCP Handbooks, APE Press Ltd, Nagoya and Bangkok. 2003.

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SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Приложение 1 Подготовка к квази-конференции включает три этапа. Рассмотрим алгоритм каждого этапа. Первый этап: 1. Аспиранты вместе с преподавателем выбирают тему конференции, которая удовлетворила бы всех. 2. Выбирают из числа аспирантов, кто будет организатором (если аспирантская группа многочисленная (человек 15), то можно выбрать оргкомитет (например, из 2 или 3 человек). Организатор будет в то же время и участником конференции (за это можно начислить и бонусные баллы). 3. Каждый из аспирантов должен определиться с темой своей презентации (по теме исследования или одной из своих статей и т. п.). 4. Каждый из аспирантов должен (в течение, например, пяти-семи дней прислать в оргкомитет online заявку на участие (Attachment 1.1). 5. На следующем занятии оргкомитет докладывает группе результаты своей работы (сколько заявок, какова тематика и предполагаемая программа конференции). 6. Выработка критериев. Преподаватель и студенты решают, что является самым важным для успешной презентации. Второй этап – проведение конференции: 1. Презентация (краткая) каждого из аспирантов. 2. Комментарии, вопросы группы и преподавателя каждому из выступающих (Attachment 1.2). 3. Анализ каждой презентации группой по выделенным ранее критериям (Attachment 1.3). Третий этап – подведение результатов конференции: 1. Оргкомитет в лице аспирантов подводит результаты (сколько докладов, какие наиболее интересные и т. д.). 2. Преподаватель подводит итоги: что получилось, что не очень, как будут исправлять недочеты. Дальнейшая программа действий и рекомендации. 91

English for postgraduate students

Attachment 1.1 2020 Conference Registration Form Name Badge and Mailing Information (use a separate form for each person) Name

________________________________________ (for database)

Badge Name

________________ (this name will appear on your name badge)

Title

POST-GRADUATE STUDENT__________________________

Department/Unit

____________________________________________________

Institution/Organization ____________________________________________________ Mailing Address

____________________________________________________

City

__________ State/Prov. ___________ Postal Code __________

Work Phone

______________ Fax ______________ E-mail _____________

2019–2020 Membership Dues

Membership Amount Enclosed

Regular

$72

$ _____

Institutional*

$180

$ _____

International

$85

$ _____

International Institutional

$215

$ _____

Retired

$36

$ _____

Student

$36

$ _____

Conference Registration Early Bird

Regular

On-site

Registration

(postmarked by 9/21) (postmarked after 9/21) Amount Enclosed Member (must have paid 2018−2019 dues)

$180

$220

$240

$ _____

(includes 1 year membership)

$255

$295

$315

$ _____

Student or Retired

$130

$160

$180

$ _____

Non-member

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Supplementary information

Attachment 1.2 Topical vocabulary: discussing a report I have a question and a comment (a remark) to make. – У меня есть вопрос и комментарий. I should (would) like to know… – Я хотел бы узнать. I should (would) point out (emphasize) that … – Я хотел бы заострить внимание, что … I think (suppose, presume) that ... – Я думаю (предполагаю, допускаю), что … What is your opinion on ...? – Какое ваше мнение по поводу…? In my opinion… – По моему мнению; as to me… – что касается меня; as for me… – что касается меня; to my mind… – по моему мнению. What in your opinion is the reason for..? – По вашему мнению, какая причина для…? I hold (am of) the same opinion. – Я придерживаюсь того же мнения. I could comment on the question. – Я хотел бы сделать комментарий относительно вопроса. Would you tell us how… – Вы не подскажете, как … That’s right – точно; exactly – точно; quite true – истинная правда. If I understand you correctly … – Если я вас правильно понимаю. If I am not mistaken … – Если я не ошибаюсь. Do I understand you correctly that ... – Я правильно вас понимаю, что … Do you agree to that? – Вы согласны с этим? I’m (particularly) interested in this problem. – Я (особенно) заинтересован этой проблемой.

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English for postgraduate students

Attachment 1.3 Criteria used to assess a presentation: Demonstrated Fluency and Knowledge

Verbal and Non-Verbal Presentation Techniques

impressive use of grammatical structures; extensive range of everyday expressions and technical vocabulary; minimal pronunciation and no in-slide spelling errors

effective, fully consistent and appropriate to the topic use of diagrams/pictures/graphs; direct eye contact, addressing the audience or the visuals, seldom looking at notes; confident answers to the questions with explanations and elaboration

appropriate, clearly organized; quite logical; some use of research and experience

competent use of grammatical structures; fluent and natural use of everyday expressions and technical vocabulary; minor and unobtrusive pronunciation and in-slide spelling errors

consistent use of diagrams/ pictures/graphs; direct eye contact with audience, looking at notes; answers to all questions without elaboration

lacking content; no logical structure; negligible attempt to use research and experience

limited use of grammatical structures, everyday expressions and technical vocabulary; repeated words; pronunciation errors sometimes impeding understanding; many inslide spelling errors

inconsistent and inappropriate diagrams/ pictures/graphs; minimal eye contact with audience, while reading mostly from the notes; answers to only rudimentary questions

confusing, incorrect content; difficult to follow structure; 2 no use of research and experience

lengthy sentences; no technical vocabulary; too many pronunciation and in-slide spelling errors

no use of diagrams/pictures/ graphs; no eye contact with audience, entire report is read from notes; wrong answers to all questions

off topic presentation; lack of logical sequence, 1 research and experience

distracting grammatical, lexical, pronunciation and in-slide spelling errors

no diagrams/pictures/graphs; no eye contact, monotonous reading; cannot answer questions

Content and Coverage wide, accurate, relevant information; clear, concise, well-structured, straight to the point content; logical 5 sequence; use of research and experience

4

3

0 incomprehensible due to serious errors

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Supplementary information

Приложение 2 Слова и сокращения, заимствованные из латинского языка, часто встречающиеся в научно-технической литературе: Латинское слово/выражение

Эквивалент на английском языке

Эквивалент на русском языке

ab initio at first, from the beginning A.D. (Anno Domini) of our Era in the year of our Lord

с начала новой эры, нашей эры; от Рождества Христова

addenda ad hoc ad infinitum ad interim

приложение, дополнение существенный; уместный до бесконечности, без конца тем временем, пока, некоторое время до полудня; утром

an addition, appendix to the point for ever, indefinitely meanwhile, in the meantime

a.m. (ante meridiem) in the morning a posteriori a priori

from the experience, empirically апостериорный, основанный на опыте in advance, before the experiment на первый взгляд

C. (circa) e.g. (exampli gratia)

nearly, about for example

приблизительно, примерно, около например

et al. (et alia) etc. (et cetera) exterior extra fauna flora habitat id. (idem) i.e. (id est) in ex in parvo in re

and others and so on outward aspect, outside, outer additional animals plants place of living the same author, book, etc. that is completely, fully a little concerning

in situ in toto in vitro

in/on the place altogether in the tube

in vivo

under existing conditions

и другие и так далее, и тому подобное внешний (о виде), внешняя часть добавочный, дополнительный животный мир растительный мир родина, место распространения, тот же то есть полностью, дословно в незначительной мере касательно, относительно, в вопросе о на своём месте в целом, целиком в пробирке; в искусственных условиях в организме

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English for postgraduate students

Латинское слово/выражение

Эквивалент на английском языке

ipso facto

from the very fact

locus, loci modus operandi mutatis mutandis

a location a way of action with the necessary alterations

N.B. (nota bene) par excellence

Note!; Pay attention! primarily, mainly, largely

p.m. (post meridiem) prima facie pro et con(tra) pro forma sui generis terra incognita vice versa v.s. (versus)

in the afternoon at first sight for and against to observe the form particular, special, unique an unknown country, region on the contrary against

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Эквивалент на русском языке в силу самого факта; таким образом место, местоположение образ действия с учётом необходимых изменений Внимание! преимущественно, главным образом после полудня на первый взгляд за и против примерный; ориентировочный своего рода, в своем роде неизвестная область (знания и т. п.) наоборот против

Supplementary information

Приложение 3 Ряд принятых сокращений в англо-американской технической литературе: Сокращение, принятое в международной системе SI

Значение на английском языке

Значение на русском языке

A.i.

artificial intelligence

искусственный интеллект

a.c.

alternating current

переменный ток

amp.

ampere

ампер

С.

degree Centigrade

градусы Цельсия

Сm

centimeter

сантиметр

F

frequency

частота

d.c.

direct current

постоянный ток

fig.

figure

рисунок

EMF. (emf)

electromotive force

электродвижущая сила

G

gram

грамм

h

henry

генри

hr

hour

час

in.

inch

дюйм

j

jole

джоуль

kg

kilogram

килограмм

km

kilometer

километр

kv

kilovolt

киловольт

kw

kilowatt

киловатт

m

meter

метр

Mf

microfarad

микрофарад

Lb

pound

фунт

rpm

revolutions per minute

оборотов в минуту

W

watt

ватт

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English for postgraduate students

Приложение 4 Существует ряд слов, близких по форме к русским, но разных по значению: Английское слово

Русский эквивалент

actual

фактический (не актуальный)

accurate

точный (не аккуратный)

brilliant

блестящий (реже бриллиант)

camera

фотоаппарат (реже камера)

conductor

проводник, провод (реже кондуктор)

contribution

вклад (реже контрибуция)

control

управление (реже контроль)

data

данные (не дата)

decade

десятилетие (не декада)

figure

рисунок, цифра (реже фигура)

instrument

приборы, аппараты (реже инструменты)

intelligence

интеллект, ум, разведка (не интеллигенция)

list

список (не лист)

magazine

журнал (не магазин)

mark

знак, метка (не марка)

momentum

инерция, движущая сила (не момент)

number

число, количество (реже номер)

original

подлинный (реже оригинальный)

personal

личный состав, персонал (не персональный)

phenomenon

явление (реже феномен)

prospect

перспектива (не проспект)

principal

главный, основной (не принципиальный)

production

производство (реже продукция)

professor

преподаватель (также профессор)

(to) realize

понимать, выполнять (реже реализовать)

solid

твердый, массивный (реже солидный)

speculation

размышление, рассмотрение (реже спекуляция)

(to) translate

переводить (не транслировать)

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Учебное издание

Воног Вита Витальевна Прохорова Ольга Аркадьевна

ENGLISH FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Учебное пособие

Редактор Л. Ф. Калашник Компьютерная верстка О. А. Кравченко

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