А к электронному учебнику English for police officers

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А к электронному учебнику English for police officers

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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ КАЗЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «МОСКОВСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ МВД РОССИИ ИМЕНИ В.Я.КИКОТЯ» Кафедра иностранных языков УТВЕРЖДАЮ Зав. кафедрой иностранных языков, заслуженный работник высшей школы, к.ю.н. _________________И.А. Горшенева

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ К ЭЛЕКТРОННОМУ УЧЕБНИКУ «ENGLISH FOR POLICE OFFICERS. ECONOMIC SECURITY» БЛОКИ 2 И 4

Авторы: Зав. кафедрой иностранных языков, к.ю.н., профессор, Заслуженный работник Высшей школы И.А. Горшенева доцент кафедры иностранных языков, к.ф.н, Е.В. Королева Старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков Е.А. Сенченко

Москва 2019

Capitals. 1. Translate the text. Эдинбург — сердце и древняя столица Шотландии с почти полумиллионным населением. По праву считается одним из красивейших и самых колоритных городов Соединенного Королевства. Эдинбург уникален среди городов Шотландии, благодаря развитому туризму, близости к Англии и причудливой смеси культур. Здесь ультрамодные клубы могут размещаться в старинных зданиях XV века, только в этом городе мирно пересекается прошлое и будущее. Эдинбург — один из наиболее процветающих в экономическом отношении регионов Великобритании. Экономический подъем произошел в 1999 г., когда был восстановлен Парламент Шотландии, после чего в городе было образовано большое количество правительственных учреждений, и в связи с этим начался рост занятости населения. Важная область экономики Эдинбурга — туризм. Эдинбург является самым популярным туристическим направлением Шотландии. Пик туристической активности приходится на летние месяцы, когда в Эдинбурге проходит фестиваль искусств. Каждый год в августе в Эдинбург съезжаются лучшие театральные и концертные труппы мира, а также многомиллионная армия поклонников и просто туристов. 2. Find information about the main sights of Edinburgh. Make a report. 3. Read and translate the text. What city is it about? Each state in the USA has a capital, but have you ever wondered how exactly each capital came to be the lucky, chosen city? Take California for example. Of all the great cities in California – San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Los Angeles– why Sacramento? According to the California State Capitol Museum, Sacramento became the official capital of California in 1854. The ultimate decision to make Sacramento the capital of California – although initially met with resistance – came down to three primary reasons: gold, people, and location.

John Sutter settled the area that is now Sacramento in 1839, establishing it with a fort to facilitate trading and military activity. He went on to build other resources, including mills in the nearby foothills. It was in one of these mills where an employee of Sutter discovered gold. With the discovery of gold, the city of Sacramento was quickly incorporated and became the heart of the gold rush. It served as a major distribution center due to its location and proximity to San Francisco. With this, the city started to grow, bringing in more services and entrepreneurs. This, in turn, gave the city a strong economic base, and helped lure in powerful people. They helped to facilitate the development of infrastructure. Street grids were completed, buildings were erected, and within a few years, the state government was located in Sacramento. As the USA continued to grow, California saw many cities, especially those located on the ocean, surpass it in size and economic importance. However, Sacramento’s landlocked location actually proved to be beneficial in the fight to remain as California’s capital. Since it was not on the water, it was not an easy target for invasion like other coastal cities. At the same time, Sacramento’s proximity to rivers that led to San Francisco and other ports allowed the city to partake in economic activities both on land and at sea. Today, Sacramento has been able to hold onto its position as the capital of California. 4. Answer the questions: What were the reasons for Sacramento to become the capital of California? Explain why. What kind of location does Sacramento have? Is Sacramento the biggest city in the state? 5. Prepare a report about another capital city in the USA. I.

In the city. 1. Read the description of the sights and guess their names and the city they are situated in:

- It was France's gift to America. Built in 1886, it remains a famous world symbol of freedom and one of the greatest American icons. It is one of the world's largest statues, standing just under 152 feet tall from the base to the torch, and weighing approximately 450,000 pounds. - Attending a show in this area is one of the top things to do. Considered the pinnacle of American theater, this is the place to see the latest shows and the longrunning classics. For the most popular shows, tickets should be purchased well in advance. - Where the two towers once stood, now stand two square reflecting pools, each one acre in size. The area is a moving tribute to the almost 3,000 people killed as a result of attacks on September 11, 2001 and also the six people killed in the earlier bombing in February, 1993. - This Bridge, with its Gothic-shaped arches and suspension cables, is one of the city's most recognizable landmarks and has inspired generations of poets, songwriters, and painters. It was completed in 1883 and was the world's first steel suspension bridge. A wood plank walkway, only open to pedestrians and cyclists, runs above the lanes of traffic. 2. Is it true or false? The Statue of Liberty was erected in 1986. It’s easy to buy tickets for Broadway shows. The National September 11 Memorial is dedicated to the victims of the terrorist attacks. Cars are not allowed to cross The Brooklyn Bridge. 3. Explain the words in bold type. 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the words in brackets. One of the______________ (famous) shopping streets in America, Fifth Avenue is New York's premier shopping area, where many top designers ____________(have) their flagship stores. Cartier, Tiffany, Bergdorf-Goodman, the famous Apple Store Fifth Avenue, and of course Saks Fifth Avenue, as well as many others line this posh avenue. Even non-shoppers can enjoy a walk along

Fifth Avenue. The best area ________ (run) from approximately the south end of Central Park to the New York Public Library, or _______ (specifically), between 60th Street and 40th Street. 5. Look at the map and find the shops mentioned in the text. Tell where they are situated.

6. Find more information about the sights of New York and present it.

II.

Getting around the city. 1. Study the chart.

2. Read and translate the dialogues. Dialogue 1. T - Excuse me! Excuse me, sir (madam, miss)! Could you tell me how to get to the bank, please? P - Sure. When you leave the hotel, turn left and walk three blocks. Make a left turn at the bookstore. You will see a cafe and a post office. The bank is next to the post office. T - Thanks a lot. P - You're welcome. Dialogue 2. T - Excuse me, can you help me? I'm looking for Redwood Travel Agency. / I'm trying to find Redwood Travel Agency.

P - It's on the fifth floor. Go to the end of this hall and turn left. The elevators are there. The receptionist on the fifth floor will help you to find their office. T - Thank you. One more question, please. Could you tell me where the restrooms are? P - They are on the second floor. Take the escalator to the second floor, turn right and go down the hallway. The restrooms are on the left, opposite the stationery store. T - Thank you very much. Dialogue 3. T - Could you tell me where the Science Museum is, please? P - It is on the corner of Maple Street and Lincoln Road. T - How do I get there from here, please? P - Go down this street and turn right at the traffic light. Walk two blocks and turn right onto Maple Street. Go past the department store and the flower market, and you'll see the Science Museum across the street. It is a large red-brick building. You can't miss it. T - Is it far from here? P - No, it's just a ten-minute walk. T - Thank you very much. P - You're welcome. Dialogue 4. T - Would you mind giving me some directions? P - What are you looking for? T - The Central Exhibition. Do you know where it is? P - The Central Exhibition? Well, it's pretty far from here. You'd better take a bus. T - Is it a long ride? How long does it take to get there? P - About ten minutes by bus. T - Which bus do I take to get there? P - Let me think. It's probably best of all to take Bus 5 on East Street.

T - And where is East Street, please? P - Walk down this street to the next intersection and turn right. You will be on East Street. The bus stop will be near a small park on your right. T - Thank you. P - Any time. Have a nice day. 3. Choose the most appropriate answer. 1. Excuse me! … is the post office, please? a) How b) What c) When d) Where 2. Could you tell me … to get to the History Museum, please? a) how b) what c) when d) where 3. Can you tell me where … , please? a) is the bank b) the bank c) the bank is d) there a bank 4. Would you mind … me some directions, please? a) explaining b) giving c) helping d) offering 5. I am … for the new children's library. a) asking b) finding c) looking d) trying 6. Walk two blocks and turn left ... . a) around the bank b) at the traffic light c) in the corner d) into a large hotel 7. Go ... the flower shop, the drugstore, and the supermarket. a) across b) behind c) opposite d) past 8. The library will be on your left. It's a large red-brick building. You can't … it. a) find b) forget c) miss d) see 9. Could you tell me where … some souvenirs, please? a) can I buy b) could I buy c) I can buy d) should I buy 10. There are several souvenir shops on Apple Street, about three blocks … . a) away from b) from here c) near here d) not far Check

4. Make up your own dialogues.

5. Read the text about Melbourne. Melbourne's a compact city. It's mostly flat, with several forms of transport that move easily in and out of the city's central business district. The Melbourne's grid layout makes it an easy city to navigate. Most of the city's attractions are within walking distance from each other. Public transport, be it train, tram or bus, taxis, vehicles and push bikes, find it safe to traverse the city streets and it's viable laneways. If travelling on public transport, all you need is a myki card. This is a plastic 'smartcard' with a stored value which can be topped up and re-used again. Once purchased, you'll be ready to travel around the city, exploring all those Melbourne attractions, the numerous theatres, the beautiful parks and gardens that are scattered throughout the city and restaurants, cafes and coffee shops.

6. Find information about: - The size of the city;

- Kinds of transport you can ride;

- The landscape of the city;

- Transport card used in the city;

- The city planning;

- Places to visit.

7. Look at the map of Melbourne centre.

8. Find: - The place where laws are passed

- The place to entertain yourself

- The place to enjoy nature

- The business centre

- The place to learn

9. Explain the way from the State Library to the Southbank area. 10.Check yourself. 1. Choose the correct variant. ___Moscow is the capital of ______Russia. 1) the the

3) - the

2) a the

4) the -

5) - -

Our friend lives in _____Washington in ___ USA. 1) - the

3) - -

2) the the

4) the –

_______ Monolongo river is in ________ New Zealand. 1) the the

2) the -

3) - -

4) - the

5) a the

_____ Cape Town is one of the main cities in _____ South Africa. 1) - -

3) - the

2) the -

4) - a

5) the the

2. Put the verbs in the correct form. Swiss Re _________ in 2003 (complete) The Sydney Opera house __________ for concerts and performances (use). The Eiffel Tower can ________ from most parts of Paris (see) The exhibits of the British Museum ________ during the WWII (damage). 3. Mark the sentences True or False. __ The Crown Jewels are kept in the Tower of London. __ Greenwich is famous for its art gallery. __ The population of Ottawa is 1.2 mln people. __ Washington is called "the coolest little capital in the world" __ Canberra got the title of "bush city" because it's very green. 4. Follow the route and write the destination place. Go along Jefferson street. At the crossroads turn right. when you come to the police station, pass it and the parking lot, cross Highway 141, using the traffic lights and at the next crossroads turn right. What do you see in front of you? 5.You are on Silver Lake. You should go to the police station. Put directions in the correct order.

III.

__ Turn left and cross the bridge.

__ Turn to Westboro Avenue.

__ Ride along route 17.

__ You will see the police station on

__ You should not go to Free Way,

the left.

turn left.

__ Pass the parking lot.

State system of the UK.

1. Read and translate the text: The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. He or she acts as the head of Her Majesty's Government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, often summed-up under the label of "royal prerogative." According to constitutional convention, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, which he or she heads, are accountable for their actions to Parliament, of which (by convention) they are members. To this day the Prime Minister always also holds one or more of the more ministerial positions (since 1905 it has always been that of First Lord of the Treasury). The Prime Minister is appointed by the Sovereign, who has to choose the individual most likely to command the support of the House of Commons (normally, the leader of the party with a majority in that body). By tradition, before a new Prime Minister can enter 10 Downing Street for the first time as its occupant, he or she is required to announce to the country and the world that he or she has kissed hands with the monarch of the day, and thus has become Prime Minister. This is usually done by saying words to the effect of: "Her Majesty the Queen [His Majesty the King] has asked me to form an administration and I have accepted." The Prime Minister's chief duty is to "form a Government"—that is to say, to create a Cabinet or Ministry which will sustain the support of the House of Commons. He or she generally coordinates the policies and activities of the Cabinet and the various Government departments, acting as the "face" of Her Majesty's Government. The Prime Minister also has a wide range of powers of appointment. Ministers, Privy Counsellors, Ambassadors and High Commissioners, senior civil servants, senior military officers, members of important committees and commissions, and several other officials are selected, and in some cases may be removed, by the Prime Minister. The period in office of a Prime Minister is not linked to the term of Members of the House of Commons. A prime minister once appointed continues in office as Her Majesty's head of government until either they resign, are dismissed or die.

2. Answer the questions: 1. What is the political role of the British Prime Minister? 2. Who can become the Prime Minister? How? 3. What are the duties of the Prime minister? 4. In what case is the Prime Minister changed? 3. What do these terms mean: Constitutional monarchy, authority, government, to dissolve the parliament, to appoint, to pass a law, commander-in-chief, international treaty, body, law-making process, to elect, direct popular vote, hereditary peer, bishop. 4. Translate the text into English. Великобритания — конституционная монархия. В последнее столетие прослеживается тенденция передачи властных полномочий правительству, но значимость монарха по прежнему велика. За ним сохранено право созывать и распускать парламент, назначать премьер-министра, утверждать законы, принятые парламентом. По закону королева является верховным главнокомандующим. Как глава государства она имеет право объявлять войну и заключать мир, подписывать международные договоры и соглашения. Высший орган законодательной власти — парламент. Он состоит из палаты лордов и палаты общин. Парламент занимается законотворческой деятельностью. Парламент избирается по мажоритарной системе относительного большинства прямым и тайным голосованием на основе всеобщего избирательного права. Верхняя палата — палата лордов — состоит из наследственных и пожизненных пэров (получивших звание за заслуги перед страной), архиепископов и старших епископов Англиканской церкви, лордов Высшего апелляционного суда. Ее роль второстепенна и полмономочия сильно ограничены. Премьер-министром становится лидер партии, получившей наибольшее количество мест в Палате Общин. Он формирует Правительство, которое состоит из членов кабинета (около 20), министров, не входящих в кабинет, и

младших министров (как правило, парламентских заместителей министров). Большинство министров являются членами палаты общин. 5. Sum up information you have learned about the state system of the UK. IV.

State system of the USA. Read the text “US government”. By the Constitution of 1787 (and the amendments to it) the government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one. The highest executive power in the United States is vested in the President of the United States, who is elected for a term of 4 years by electors of each state. The Presidential election is held every 4 years in November. The President of the USA must be a native-born citizen, resident in the county for 14 years and at least 35 years old. The President is to care out the programs of the Government, to recommend much of the legislation to the Congress. He is to appoint Federal Judges, ambassadors to other counters and hers of various government, departments, called secretaries. The legislative power belongs to the Congress of the United States, consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of to members from each state elected for a term of 6 years, one third being elected every lo years. The number of representatives from each state to the House of Representative depends on the number of people in each particular state. In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must pass both the Houses and must be signed by the President. An important role in the American legislation is played by so-called ‘lobbyists». They are often more influential than Congressmen themselves. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the United Stales and the head of the judicial branch of power. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief justice of the USA and a number of Associate Justices. The United States is divided into 11 judicial circuits, each one being served with a Federal Court of Appeals. There are about 90 district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system.

Most of the criminal and civil cases are fried by these courts. Each state has a constitution similar to the Constitution of the entire nation and ail the power in each state is divided info executive legislative and judicial. The head of each state is the governor of the state. Each state has own system of courts similar to that of the Federal courts. 2. Using the questions, retell the text. 1. What branches is the government of the USA composed of? 2. Who does the highest executive power in the United States belong to? 3. What kind of person must the President of the USA be?

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

What are some of the functions of the President? Who is the legislative power vested in? How many chambers does the Congress consist of? How many members are there in the Senate? In the House of Representatives? What must all bills and resolution pass in order to become a law? 3. Study the chart:

4. Find the correct translation of the functions of the US President. The President of the USA shall:

Президент Соединенных Штатов Америки:

1. appoint federal judges and ambassadors

a.имеет право подписывать законы

2.preside over the executive branch

b.имеет право налагать вето на законопроект c.издает указы

3.have the right to sign legislation 4.have the right to veto bills 5.have the power to pardon

d.назначает федеральных судей и послов e.имеет право объявлять амнистию

f.возглавляет исполнительную ветвь власти 7. have the power to negotiate and sign g.имеет право проводить переговоры treaties и подписывать договоры 6.issue executive orders

8. head the state and the government of h.является главой государства и the USA. возглавляет правительство США 5. Make up the word-combinations and use them in your own sentences. To constitute in a presidential election every four The current years The executive to extend pardons Running the USA To sign to negotiate and sign treaties To veto mates To appoint power To override legislation and treaties to have the power President to issue Executive orders to have unlimited power Three qualifications for the Presidency to list A veto with a 2/3s vote of both houses to vote Judges, ambassadors and other federal offices Bills 6. Find the correct definition. 1. Electoral college 2. Commander-in-chief 3. Impeachment 4. Veto 5. Department 6. Presidential election 7. The Senate 8. The House of Representatives

a.The lower chamber of the US Congress b.The formal charging of a government official with any high crimes and misdemeanors c.A formal procedure for voting d.The largest unit of the executive branch, covering a broad area of government responsibility. The heads of the Departments form the president’s cabinet. e.A body of electors who are chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and the vicepresident. f.The upper house of the congress g.Laws enacted by lawmaking body h.An officer in charge of all of the armed forces of the country

7. Complete the following sentences. 1. The full name of the country is … . 2. The government of the USA is … . 3. The President is the head … . 4. The US President is responsible for… . 5. The President may sign … . 6. The President in the USA also appoints… . 7. The President has the power … . 8. The President can issue… . 9. The President may be impeached … . 10. The President and the Vice President are elected … . 11. The Constitution lists … . 12. Millions of Americans vote … . 13. The people elect the members … . 14. The President is limited … . 15. The President presides… . 16. The US President has unlimited power … . 17. The President may not dissolve … . 18. The current President … . 8. Read the following interesting facts about the USA. Did you know any of them?  When the President is unmarried or his wife dies during his term, another female relative will become the First Lady. Three president’s daughters, two president’s sisters, two nieces and two daughters-in-laws have been First Lady.  In 1777 the Continental Congress decided that the flag would have 13 alternating red and white stripes, for the 13 colonies, and 13 white stars on a blue background. A new star has been added for every new state. Today the flag has 50 stars.  The bald eagle has been our national bird since 1782. The Founding Fathers had been unable to agree on which native bird should have the honor-Benjamin Franklin strongly preferred the turkey! Besides appearing on the Great Seal, the bald eagle is also pictured on coins, the $1 bill, all official U.S. seals, and the President's flag.  The word “dollar” transformed from the German “taller”- the name of silver coin. In colloquial language it is often called “buck”.  The White House was originally grey, but after the fire of 1814 was painted white to hide the blackened walls.

9. Find and tell about some interesting facts about the state system of the USA. 10.Translate the article in written form. State senator who sponsored 'bathroom bill' wins North Carolina GOP primary in do-over House race by Eli Watkins, CNN, May 15, 2019 Washington (CNN) Dan Bishop, a state senator who sponsored North Carolina's controversial "bathroom bill," won Tuesday's Republican primary in a special election for an open congressional seat, CNN has projected. Bishop becomes the GOP nominee for the open House seat following a lengthy legal dispute and a call for a new election in North Carolina's 9th District. Bishop was projected to receive more than the necessary 30% of the vote in the district's primary Tuesday night, surpassing nine other Republicans seeking the nomination to avoid a runoff. He is nationally known as an original sponsor of North Carolina's "bathroom bill," which attempted to block cities from allowing transgender people to use public bathrooms for the sex with which they identify. Following the election of a Democratic governor and significant backlash, the bathroom law was repealed in part. North Carolina's congressional seat drew national attention in the wake of the midterm elections last year when allegations of fraud emerged following the close race between Republican Mark Harris and Democrat Dan McCready. McCready, the only Democrat in the race, is now set to face Bishop in a September 10 general election. According to the candidate list from the state board, the race also includes one Green Party and one Libertarian candidate. 11.Retell the article using the plan. The plan for rendering a Expressions to be used while rendering the article newspaper article 1. The title of the article

The article is headlined .... The article is entitled ....

The title of the article is .... The headline of the article is .... 2. The author of the article, The author of the article is .... the newspaper, where and The article is written by.... when

the

article

was The article is (was) published in....

published 3. The message/the main idea The article is about.... of the article

The article is devoted to .... The article deals with .... The article touches upon .... The article addresses the problem of.... The article raises/brings up the problem .... The article describes the situation .... The article assesses the situation .... The aim of the article is to provide the reader with information about.... The main idea of the article is… The article informs us about… / comments on…

4. The contents of the article

The author starts by telling the reader that.... The author goes on to say that.... The author writes / states / stresses / underlines / emphasises / points out that.... According to the text … The author comes to the conclusion that.... In conclusion, the author draws the attention of the reader to....

5.

Your

opinion

of

the I find the article interesting / important / dull /

article/your assessment of the useful / of no value / too difficult to understand and article

assess. I think…

My point is that… I believe that… In my opinion… V.

State system of Russia. 1. Study the chart

2. Translate the article into English. Do you agree that Russia is trying to build this kind of state system? Социальный капитализм (источник https://www.politforums.net/internal/1328719804.html). Термин «социальный капитализм» относится к разновидности капитализма, получившей развитие во многих странах Центральной и Западной Европы. Изначально он сложился в Германии, но в тех или иных формах его принципы нашли применение также в Австрии, странах Бенилюкса, Швеции, Франции и большей части Скандинавии. Идеологически эта разновидность капитализма опирается скорее на тот весьма гибкий и прагматичный подход, который в свое время был предложен Фридрихом Листом, чем на строго

рыночные принципы классической политической экономии. Лист понимал роль политики в экономике, отстаивая, например, тот взгляд, что для защиты зарождающихся отраслей промышленности от превратностей международной конкуренции необходимо идти на государственное вмешательство в экономику Главная тема социального капитализма — идея социального рынка, на котором рыночную конкуренцию с ее борьбой за выживание можно было бы, так сказать, «обвенчать» с необходимостью думать о людях и об обществе в целом... Увеличение зарплат,материнский капитал,реформа силовиков и армии,новая система грантов,даже Сколково и т.д.......-это всё социальный капитализм. Мир сильно меняется, появились новые тенденции нового общества и нового мирровозрения... 3. Translate the sentences into Russian.  Law is the system of rights and obligations which the state enforces.  A state is a nation or territory considered as an organized political community under one government.  The principles of interaction between the constituent units of the state and the center are the factor that determines its organizational form.  Federal and national states take into account the interests of different groups of the population.  In the unitary state state power is concentrated as a whole at the state level, and the country's compound entities do not have sovereignty, that is, they are not independent and are subordinate to the center.  The republic grants the society and, in particular, every citizen the right to take part in the formation of the state and the system of government.  Law-making power is vested in representative institutions, which, in turn, are responsible to civil society.  State law cannot contradict federal law because the Constitution states that federal law has power over state law. 4. Answer the questions:

1. What is the organizational form of the RF? 2. Is Russia a federal or national state? 3. Give examples of unitary states. 4. Can any citizen take part in state operation in our country? 5. What are Russian representative institutions? 5. Read the article. Retell it and express your attitude (from https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2019/05/14/who-is-mr-ivanov-why-russiasmiddle-class-is-shrinking-a65563) In the five years since 2014, the share of those in Russia who consider themselves middle class has shrunk from 60 percent to 47 percent. People who have savings, travel abroad, and frequent restaurants usually think of themselves as middle class, Yaroslav Lissovolik, head of the analytics department at Sberbank CIB, told the newspaper Vedomosti. Today’s middle class is different from the middle class of industrialized societies of the first half of the twentieth century, when the term became common. Income is only part of the story everywhere, but Russia’s case is particularly complicated, owing to the large share of highly urbanized citizens who see themselves as middle class by virtue of their education and employment status. In Russia, all income groups, and particularly those associated with the middle class, have become critically dependent on the public sector. Pensions, public transfers, and public sector wages account for about half of total incomes in Russia. The share of income from public wages and pensions for better-off groups has grown, while the share of income coming from entrepreneurial activity or property has declined. Middle-class citizen is more likely to be a government employee, a teacher, or a pensioner than a shop-owner, a private company employee, or a freelancer. 6. Check yourself: 1. American Parliament is called 1) Senate

4) House of Commons

2) House of Representatives

5) National Assembly

3) Congress

2. British Parliament consists of two Chambers 1) The Senate and the House of Representatives 2) The House of Lords and the House of Commons 3) The House of Lords and the House of Representatives 4) The Prime Minister and the Shadow Cabinet 3. The lower chamber in Russian Parliament is 1) The Federal council

3) The Senate

2) The Federal Assembly

4) The State Duma

4. American President is 1) the head of legislative branch 2) the Commander-in-chief of the armed forces 3) the chief formulator of the national policy 4) the head of executive branch 5) the head of Supreme Court 5. There are____________ Senators in the USA 6. There are____________Representatives in the USA. 7. The House of Commons has_________ MPs. 8. There are _________deputies in the State Duma. 9. What is the role of the President of the RF? 1) he initiates legislation 2) he is the head of the judicial branch 3) he checks and balances the three branches 4) he presides over the government 10. What are the functions of the President of the RF? 1) appoints ministers

4) makes laws

2) he makes treaties

5) commander-in-chief of the armed

3) enforces laws

forces

11. When was the Russian Federation set up? What kind of state is it? 12. What are the official symbols of Russia? 1) the national emblem

2) the national anthem

3) the national flag

5) the president

4) the Red Square 13. Combine the two parts:

VI.

Russian president

can't refuse to sign a bill.

The House of Lords

initiates the impeachment procedure

The British Queen

may veto the bill.

The House of Representatives

can reject the bill only twice.

The Senate

makes a decision on impeachment

Court system of the UK.

1. Read the text about the Supreme court: (from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8283608.stm) The UK's Supreme Court has replaced the Law Lords in Parliament as the most powerful court in the country. It is the last court of appeal in all matters other than criminal cases in Scotland. It means the Supreme Court becomes the final pillar in the constitution: Parliament creates laws, the government and public bodies use those laws - and the courts monitor their application. The court is situated opposite the Houses of Parliament at the renovated Middlesex Guildhall. It has three courtrooms which it's claimed have been "specially designed for their purpose: discussing important points of law in the atmosphere of a learned seminar, rather than the adversarial environment of many other courts". In all courtrooms, Justices sit at a crescent-shaped desk. There is always an odd number of justices so that there can be a clear majority one way or the other. Justices have each to reach their own conclusions and then write their legal opinion. Most cases will be heard by five Justices although nine will sit to rule on the most important cases. Opposite them will sit the legal teams - with six spaces for advocates.

The bright carpet, and the court's more formal-looking logo, depict the four emblems of the constituent parts of the UK - the Welsh leek, English rose, the Scottish thistle and the Northern Irish flax. To become a Supreme Court justice you must have been a senior judge for at least two years or a qualified lawyer for at least 15 years. If there’s a vacant place, a selection commission chooses the candidate, the prime minister makes a final recommendation to the Queen, who makes the appointment. 2. Answer the questions: 1. What is the role of the UK’s Supreme court? 2. What can you see in the building of the Supreme court? 3. Why do you think there’s always an odd number of judges during sessions? 4. Who appoints the Supreme court justices? 3. Translate the text in written form. The jury in Britain Trial by jury is an ancient and important feature of English justice. Although it has declined in civil cases, it is the main element in criminal trials in the crown court. Jury membership was once linked to the ownership of property, which resulted in male and middle-class dominance. But now most categories of British residents are obliged to undertake jury service when summoned. People between the ages of 18 and 70 whose names appear on the electoral register, with certain exceptions, are liable for jury service and their names are chosen at random. Ineligible people include, for example, judges and people who have within the previous ten years been members of the legal profession or the police, prison or probation services. People convicted of certain offences within the previous ten years cannot serve on a jury. Before the start of a criminal trial in the crown court, 12 jurors are chosen from some 30 names randomly selected from local electoral registers. The prosecution and the defense may remove individual jurors on the panel, giving reasons for doing so. The jurors who have not been challenged become the jury for the case. They listen evidence at the trial and give their verdict on the facts, after having

been isolated in a separate room for their deliberations. The verdict may be "guilty" or "not guilty", resulting in acquittal or conviction of the defendant. 4. Write out 10 words connected with the court system. VII. Court system of the USA. 1. Read the text and tell about the main provisions of the Judiciary Act of 1789. Early Development of the United States Court System By Martin Kelly, February 26, 2019 Article Three of the US Constitution stated: "The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." The first actions of the newly created Congress were to pass the Judiciary Act of 1789 that made provisions for the Supreme Court. It said that it would consist of a Chief Justice and five Associate Justices and they would meet in the nation's capital. The Judiciary Act of 1789 additionally stated that the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court would include appellate jurisdiction in larger civil cases and cases in which state courts ruled on federal statutes. Further, the Supreme Court justices were required to serve on the U.S. circuit courts. Part of the reason for this to make sure that judges from the highest court would be involved in the principal trial courts learn about the procedures of the state courts. While the Supreme Court is the highest court in the land, it has limited administrative authority over the federal courts. It wasn't until 1934 that Congress gave it the responsibility for drafting rules of federal procedure. The Judiciary Act also marked out the United States into circuits and districts. Three circuit courts were created. Two justices of the Supreme Court were assigned to each of the circuits, and their duty was to periodically go to a city in each state in the circuit and hold a circuit court in combination with the district judge of that state. The point of the circuit courts was to decide cases for most federal criminal cases along with suits between citizens of different states and civil cases brought by the US Government. They also served as appellate courts. As the

United States grew, the number of circuit courts and the number of Supreme Court justices grew to ensure that there was one justice for each circuit court. Congress created thirteen district courts, one for each state. The district courts were to sit for cases involving admiralty and maritime cases along as some minor civil and criminal cases. The cases had to arise within the individual district to be seen there. Also, the judges were required to live in their district. They were also involved in the circuit courts and often spent more time on their circuit court duties than their district court duties. As new states arose, new district courts were established in them, and in some cases, additional district courts were added in larger states (https://www.thoughtco.com/early-development-united-states-courtsystem-104770) 2. What kinds of courts were created in the early days of the USA? Do they still function? 3. Read and translate the article (https://www.lawfirmmanagement.ru/trainingusa/reportsusa/russian-americanlegal-systems) Чем американская система правосудия отличается от российской? Для получения доступа к профессии выпускнику юридической школы необходимо сдать экзамен и стать членом ассоциации юристов в своем штате. Чтобы представлять интересы своего клиента в другом штате, нужно сдать там экзамен или привлечь к участию в процессе адвоката, имеющего лицензию в данном штате. В противном случае адвокат может только присутствовать в суде, быть консультантом. Должность судьи выборная. Каждый судья избирается населением на 10 лет. Кандидат в судьи должен иметь хороший послужной список, опыт работы как в адвокатуре, так и в прокуратуре. В США по большей части применяется прецедентная система. Для того, чтобы выиграть дело в суде, адвокатам необходимо найти прецедент из практики суда того штата, в котором дело рассматривается, и предложить принять такое же решение. Но в Луизиане, как и у нас, применяется

континентальная система, когда защиту выстраивают не на прецедентах, а на толковании законов. Система правосудия состязательная. Адвокаты по уголовным делам могут добывать и представлять свои доказательства. По гражданским делам существует обязательный досудебный обмен документами, стороны должны раскрыть свои доказательства, на которые они будут ссылаться, оппонентам. Судьи заслушивают аргументы защиты и обвинения и затем выносят решение. Судья ведет себя достаточно корректно, объясняет свою позицию присяжным, может пригласить защитника к себе в кабинет, чтобы что-то обсудить. Прокуроры и адвокаты стараются эмоционально воздействовать на присяжных, поскольку они — простые граждане, на них нужно произвести впечатление. Очень развита досудебная практика урегулирования конфликтов, особенно гражданских. Адвокаты встречаются и решают: идти в суд или нет. Суд тоже активно использует процедуру медиации. 4. What about Russia. Compare the two systems using the text. VIII. Court system of the Russian Federation. 1. Read and translate the text. Overview of the Judicial System of the Russian Federation Justice is administered in the Russian Federation only by courts. The judicial power is self-dependent and acts independently from the legislative and the executive powers. Justice is administered in the forms of constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal proceedings. The judicial system of the Russian Federation is established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal Constitutional Law “On the Judicial System of the Russian Federation” of December 31st, 1996. Currently, Russia’s judicial system is composed of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, federal courts,

constitutional (charter) courts and justices of the peace of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The main task of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is to resolve cases regarding the constitutionality of normative legal acts of all levels. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation heads the system of courts of general jurisdiction and the system of commercial courts. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation exercises control over the activities of lower courts, gives them clarifications on issues of judicial practice in order to guarantee a uniform application of legislation. District courts are the basic element of the system of courts of general jurisdiction. These courts handle most civil, criminal and administrative cases. Some cases are handled in first instance by courts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Moreover, such courts function as an appellate instance vis-àvis the district courts. There are specialized military courts within the system of courts of general jurisdiction: at the level of garrisons and at the level of military circuits (fleets). Commercial courts administer justice in the sphere of entrepreneurial and other economic activities. Justices of the peace consider property disputes with an amount of claims under 50 000 RUB, criminal cases, in which the maximum possible punishment does not exceed 3 years of imprisonment and other cases of similar complexity. Appeals against the decisions of justices of the peace are considered by district courts. 2. Answer the questions: What is the position of courts in the state system of Russia? What documents establish the court structure? What types of courts function in the RF? 3. Which courts:  exercise control over the activities of lower courts to guarantee a uniform application of legislation; 

function as an appellate instance vis-à-vis the district courts;

 resolve cases regarding the constitutionality of normative legal acts of all levels;  hear criminal cases, in which the maximum possible punishment does not exceed 3 years of imprisonment;  give clarifications on issues of judicial practice; 

handle most civil, criminal and administrative cases;



administer justice in the sphere of entrepreneurial and other economic activities;



consider property disputes with an amount of claims under 50 000 RUB;

 review appeals against the decisions of justices of the peace. 4. Tell about the judicial system of the Russian Federation. 5. Test yourself 1. Put the sentences in the correct order __ He was charged with robbery.

__ He was arrested.

__ He was found guilty.

__ He was taken to the police station.

__ He was questioned.

__ He came before the Magistrates'

__ He was fined 200 pounds and

Court.

given a two-year suspended sentence

__ Joe broke into a shop.

__ He was seen breaking in and the police were called. 2.Insert the correct words and phrases into the sentences 1) He was________ 400 pounds and banned from driving for a year. 2) After 12 hours, the Jury finally reached its _____: the prisoner was guilty. 3) There isn’t enough evidence to_______ that he committed the crime. 4) This is a complex case so the jury may take time to________. 5) If you________ the judge might give you a lighter sentence. 6) The number of young people who _____ crimes has risen sharply in recent years. 7) The judge _____ him to seven years’ ____ for armed robbery. 8) One________ was able to give a good description of the thief. 9) There’s no________ in this country so he’ll probably be sentenced to life imprisonment.

__ witness

__ prove

__ verdict

__ fined

__ death penalty

__ sentenced

__ admit

__ commit

__ make a decision

__ imprisonment

3.Write a correct term: There are two types of criminal courts in Britain - the ______ for minor offences and the _____ for more serious ones. _____ is a person who breaks the law. _____ is someone who sees a crime being committed. The lawyer who prepares the case for his or her client prior to appearing in court is called a _____. The lawyer who actually presents the case in court is called a _______. The sum of money left with a court of law so that a prisoner may be set free until his or her trial comes up is called ______. The formal statement made by a witness in court is called a ______. 4. Apply Passive Voice: 1. Police investigate crimes. 2. The State Duma makes laws. 3. Courts resolve disputes. 4. Police arrested a criminal yesterday. 5. The Parliament has already passed the law. 6. Some laws provide for benefits for workers injured. 6. Choose the correct variant. If people ________the rules, the law ________ them with something unpleasant often called a sanction 1) disobey

3) threatens

2) will disobey

4) is threatened

Law ________as a rule of human conduct, imposed upon and enforced among, the members of the state. 1) is defined

2) defines Laws __________ in many countries. 1) codified 2) were codified Laws __________ and such enforcement usually ___________by the state. 1) have been enforced

3) is carried out

2) are enforced

4) carries out

A defendant _________ to obey law, so he __________. 1) is punished

3) was punished

2) refuses

4) refused

In England there ____a rule that a man must not wear a hat in church 1) is 2) are 6.Translate Russian terms into English: (Закон) is a term which is used in many different senses. To (юриста) law has a far narrower meaning - the principle recognized and applied by the state in (суде). The English (правовая система) has still been copied by many nations. (Судебный процесс) becomes the center of a contest between both parties in which one emerges as the winner. By the time it starts, each (сторона дела) should gain as much information as possible. IX.

Constitution of the UK.

1. Read and translate the text (from https://www.bl.uk/magnacarta/articles/britains-unwritten-constitution). Professor Robert Blackburn: “ For most people, especially abroad, the United Kingdom does not have a constitution at all in the sense most commonly used around the world – a document of fundamental importance setting out the structure of government and its relationship with its citizens. However, in Britain we certainly say that we have a constitution, but it is one that exists in an abstract sense, comprising a host of diverse laws, practices and conventions that have evolved over a long period of time. The key landmark is the Bill of Rights (1689),

which established the supremacy of Parliament over the Crown. It stated that it was illegal for the Crown to suspend or dispense with the law, and insisted on due process in criminal trials. Another characteristic of the unwritten constitution is the special significance of political customs known as ‘conventions’, which oil the wheels of the relationship between the ancient institutions of state. These are unwritten rules of constitutional practice, vital to our politics, the workings of government, but not committed into law or any written form at all. There is irony in the fact that the United Kingdom today does not have a written constitution, yet historically it has had a rich heritage of pioneering constitutional charters and documentation. First and foremost is Magna Carta (1215), the ‘Great Charter of the Liberties of England’. This established the principle that our rulers, at that time the king, could not do whatever they liked, but were subject to the law as agreed with the barons they governed. This simple concept laid the foundations for constitutional government and freedom under the law. Over the past century there have been a number of Acts of Parliament on major constitutional subjects that, taken together, could be viewed as creating a tier of constitutional legislation, albeit patchy in their range and with no special status or priority in law. They include: The Parliament Acts (1911–49) that regulate the respective powers of the two Houses of Parliament. The Representation of the People Acts (1918) (as amended) providing for universal voting and other matters of political representation. The European Communities Act (1972) making the UK a legal partner in the European Union. The Scottish, Welsh and Northern Ireland devolution Acts of 1998 (as amended) creating an executive and legislature for each of those three nations in the UK. The Human Rights Act (1998) establishing a bill of rights and freedoms actionable by individuals through the courts.

Recently, too, some conventions have been subject to an ad hoc codification, such as the principles of ministerial responsibilities in the Ministerial Code. The purpose of the Human Rights Act 1998was to incorporate into UK law the rights and freedoms guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights (1953). If a written constitution for the future is to be prepared, it must be one that engages and involves everyone, especially young people, and not simply legal experts and parliamentarians. Some of the mystique and charm of our ancient constitution might be lost in the process, but a written constitution could bring government and the governed closer together, above all by making the rules by which our political democracy operates more accessible and intelligible to all. 2. Name basic constitutional documents of the UK. What principles were established by each of them? 3. Should Britain adopt constitution? Prove your point of view. X.

Constitution of the USA. 1. Read the text “Comparison of the UK and US Constitutions” The UK is one of only three countries in the world that doesn't actually have a single document you can point to and say "that's the constitution". (Israel and New Zealand are the others.) The UK has constitutional laws, but any of them could be repealed by Parliament at any time. There's no law in the UK that declares Parliament to exist, in the way that the US constitution declares Congress to exist. It's all because being an island nation, there has never been an invasion of the UK since 1066, and perhaps it's just the British character but we've never had a violent revolution either. So we started without a constitution and it's all just evolved over centuries. The nearest we came to a revolution was England's brief experiment with being a republic in 1649-60, having executed King Charles I for treason - not acting in the best interests of the nation and causing the English Civil War between King and Parliament. That failed because nobody thought to draw up a way of choosing the national leader, and the monarchy ended up being restored because at least we knew how that works! The UK is still theoretically an absolute monarchy, and it's only custom and convention and a few laws that stops it being one. Most notably, the Bill of Rights 1689 prevents any law being made without the consent of Parliament. That's the key one that stops Queen Elizabeth II doing just as she likes (and it was a response

to Charles I, and his son King James II who failed to learn from his father's mistakes). Look at it logically and it's all amazingly haphazard, but everyone in a position of power knows what the "unwritten rules" are and so far it's worked. It's all wide open to a potential Hitler taking advantage of all the legal gaps, but while there isn't one, nothing will change. The US, by contrast, started much later when the idea of a constitution already existed. So it was obvious to the Founding Fathers that they should draw one up, and a good job they made of it too. Meanwhile, one thing the US has inherited from the UK is a system of common law, in which unless a legislature or Congress has actually legislated on something, courts can go on precedent - what has been decided before. The US constitution makes a clear distinction between legislature, executive and judiciary and ensures all three are completely separate. The UK's miscellaneous collection of constitutional laws and conventions makes the judiciary completely separate and independent, but does not ensure a separation of the legislature and the executive - indeed, they most certainly aren't. Members of the government (the executive) are expected to be members of Parliament (the legislature) so they can answer questions in Parliament. Totally, different from the US system, where the President and his ministers are prevented from being part of Congress. 2. Read the extracts from the Constitution of the USA concerning executive branch. 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows 2: Each State shall appoint…a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress… 3: The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President…

5: No Person except a natural born Citizen… shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. 8: Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” Section 4 The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. 3. Rewrite the articles of the American Constitution to speak about the Russian President. 4. What electoral system seems better to you: direct popular vote as in the RF or American indirect vote through electors? Prove you opinion. XI.

Constitution of the Russian Federation. 1.Read the text “Constitution of the Russian Federation” Constitution of the Russian Federation is Russia's supreme law, passed through a national vote. It contains the basic principles of the Russian constitutional system. Constitution: · defines the federative structure of the Russian Federation; · establishes the principles of sovereignty and independence of the Russian Federation; · defines the principle of separation of powers between legislative, executive and judicial branches; · establishes equality of ideologies and religions; · defines the Russian Federation as a secular state. The Constitution of the Russian Federation defines the rights and freedoms of a human and a citizen, sets their priority when handling any questions, and proclaims the principle of equality before law and court. As for the federative structure, the Constitution contains the list of component units of the Russian Federation, covers the questions that are in the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and those that are in the joint jurisdiction of federal and local authorities. Articles are devoted to the bodies of federal power: the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, and the Government

2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 3. 1. 2. 3.

of the Russian Federation and also the judicial power of the Russian Federation. In these articles, the order and the terms of appointed and elected officials and the limits of their competence are defined according to the principle of separation of powers. The Constitution accepted on December 12, 1993 at the all-Russia referendum, full authority in the RF belongs to the President and bodies of legislative (two-chamber parliament - Federal Assembly), executive (Government of the Russian Federation) and the judicial authority, which work independently. President of the Russian Federation is the Head of the State; the duties of the President are listed, including his status of the Supreme Commander of the military forces of the Russian Federation. The Constitution also contains the text of the oath taken by the President of the Russian Federation when entering the post. Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (the Federation Council and the State Duma) represents the legislature. The order of electing representatives for these chambers, their competence, terms of office are provided by the Constitution. Government of the Russian Federation is the executive branch. The Constitution determines the extent of its jurisdiction and also defines the order and the terms of office of government officials. Power is implemented by means of constitutional, civil, administrative, and criminal legal proceedings. The Constitution establishes the principles of independence, irremovability and immunity of judges, thus providing for objectiveness and impartiality of the court. System of courts of the Russian Federation consists of: · the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation; · the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation; Separate articles are devoted to the office of Public Prosecutions of the Russian Federation with functions of supervision and control, and to the procedure for adoption of Constitutional amendments. The Constitution regulates the questions of local self-government, including its authority and sphere of activity and Final provisions regulating the promulgation of the Constitution and its enforcement are included in Part 2 of the Constitution. Translate into Russian: to establish the principles of 9. military forces sovereignty and independence 10.to represent the legislature to cover the questions 11.to determine the extent of the to be devoted to the bodies of federal jurisdiction power 12.immunity of judges competence 13.objectiveness and impartiality of the legislative authority court. executive authority 14.supervision and control judicial authority 15.promulgation of the Constitution and to list the duties its enforcement Find English equivalents in the text суверенитет 4. светский принимать закон 5. разбирать вопрос независимость 6. провозглашать

7. равенство 12.чиновник (должностное лицо) 8. судопроизводство 13.несменяемость (постоянство) 9. сроки полномочий 14.предусматривать 10.вступать в должность 15.беспристрастность 11.исполнять 16.приносить присягу 4. Answer the questions: 1. What does the Constitution of the RF define and establish? 2. What provisions does the Constitution have regarding the federative structure? 3. What are the bodies of federal power? 4. Who does the full authority belong to under the current Constitution? 5. What provisions concerning the legislature are provided by the Constitution? 6. What is the executive branch of the RF? 7. How is judicial power implemented in the RF? 8. What does the system of courts consist of? 5. Combine synonims: 1. fundamental a) impartial 2.power b) period of time 3. independently c) be vested in 4. establish d) choose 5. duty e) obligation 6. solemn promise f) basic g) 7. term separately 8. elect h) oath 9. objective i) set up 10. belong to j) authority 6. Combine antonyms: 1. competence a) dependence 2. enter b) reject 3. sovereignty c) ignorance 4. accept d) vacate 5. secular e) religious 7. Read extracts from chapter 1 of the Russian Constitution: The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System (http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-02.htm) . Find the same provisions in the original of the Constitution. 1. The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government. The names "Russian Federation" and "Russia" shall be equal.

2. Man, his rights and freedoms are the supreme value. The recognition, observance and protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen shall be the obligation of the State. 3. The bearer of sovereignty and the only source of power in the Russian Federation shall be its multinational people. The people shall exercise their power directly, and also through the bodies of state power and local self-government. The supreme direct expression of the power of the people shall be referenda and free elections. 4. The sovereignty of the Russian Federation shall cover the whole of its territory. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws shall have supremacy in the whole territory of the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation shall ensure the integrity and inviolability of its territory. 5.The Russian Federation consists of Republics, territories, regions, cities of federal importance, an autonomous region and autonomous areas - equal subjects of the Russian Federation. The Republic (State) shall have its own constitution and legislation. The territory, region, city of federal importance, autonomous region and autonomous area shall have its charter and legislation. 6. Every citizen of the Russian Federation shall enjoy in its territory all the rights and freedoms and bear equal duties provided for by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. 10.The state power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial power. The bodies of legislative, executive and judicial power shall be independent. 11. The state power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (the Council of the Federation and the State Duma), the Government of the Russian Federation, and the courts of the Russian Federation. 8. Find English equivalent of the word combinations: - государственная власть

- орган местного самоуправления

- Федеральное Собрание

- пользоваться правами и свободами

- исполнять обязанности

- целостность и нерушимость

- верховенство Конституции

- правовое государство

9. Make sentences with the following word combinations: - republican form of government

- to exercise power

- recognition of the right

- to bear duties

- the bearer of sovereignty 10.Test yourself. Finish the sentences: 1) Constitution establishes … · the principles of independence and partial sovereignty of the RF · equalities of ideologies but not religions · the principle of separation of powers 2) As for the federative structure, the Constitution … · covers the questions that are exclusively in the jurisdiction of the RF leaving out the competence of federal and local authorities · contains the list of component units of the RF · covers only those questions that are in the joint jurisdiction of federal and local authorities 3) The bodies of federal power are… · the Federal Assembly of the RF and the judiciary of the RF · the President of the RF and the Government of the RF · all the bodies mentioned above in a) and b) 4) The Federal Assembly of the RF represents · the legislature · the judiciary · the executive branch 5) The Constitution determines… · the extent of the jurisdiction of the executive branch · the order and the terms of office of the governmental officials · both 6) Judicial power is implemented by means of … · civil and criminal legal proceedings · constitutional and administrative legal proceedings · all the proceedings mentioned in a) and b) Match the words with definitions: impartiality

1. exemption from normal legal duties, penalties, or

competence

liabilities, granted to a special group of people

enforcement

2. authoritative control over the affairs of others

an official

3. responsibility to make laws

the judicial power 4. all actions that are authorized or sanctioned by law and the executive power

instituted in a court or a tribunal for the acquisition of

legal proceeding

rights or the enforcement of remedies

the legislative power5. the part of government that has sole authority and supervision

responsibility for the daily administration of the state

immunity

affairs 6. the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state 7. one who holds an office or position, especially one who acts in a subordinate capacity for an institution such as a corporation or governmental agency 8. a giving force to, authority, or effect to 9. the quality or condition of being legally qualified to perform an act 10.freedom from favoritism, disinterestedness, fairness

Translate into English. 1. Конституция Российской федерации - главный нормативный акт, имеющий высшую юридическую силу. 2. Конституция устанавливает основы социального, экономического и политического устройства России. 3. Конституция провозглашает идею приоритета прав и свобод человека. 4. Носителем суверенитета и единственным источником власти в РФ является ее многонациональный народ. 5. Все граждане России равны перед законом и судом. 6. Статья 10 Конституции Российской Федерации предусматривает принцип разделения государственной власти на законодательную, исполнительную и судебную. 7. Судебная власть осуществляется посредством конституционного, гражданского, административного и уголовного судопроизводства. 8. Согласно Конституции судьи обладают независимостью, несменяемостью и неприкосновенностью. 9. Компетенция Прокуратуры включает надзор за исполнением законов всеми учреждениями, должностными лицами и гражданами. 10. При вступлении в должность Президент Российской Федерации приносит присягу.

XII. System of law of the UK. 1. Read the text and find: -definitions of private law and public law -definitions of criminal and civil law -the difference between criminal and civil cases -the jurisdiction “The Legal System in the United Kingdom (UK)” The study of law distinguishes between public law and private law, but in legal practice in the UK, the distinction between civil law and criminal law is more important to practicing lawyers. Public law relates to the state. It is concerned with laws, which govern processes in local and national government and conflicts between the individual and the state in areas such as immigration and social security. Private law is concerned with the relationships between legal persons, that is, individuals and corporations, and includes family law, contract law and property law. Criminal law deals with certain forms of conduct for which the state reserves punishment, for example murder and theft. The state prosecutes the offender. Civil law concerns relationships between private persons, their rights, and their duties. It is also concerned with conduct, which may give rise to a claim by a legal person for compensation or an injunction - an order made by the court. However, each field of law tends to overlap with others. For example, a road accident case may lead to a criminal prosecution as well as a civil action for compensation. Substantive law creates, defines or regulates rights, liabilities, and duties in all areas of law and it’s contrasted with procedural law, which defines the procedure by which a law is to be enforced. Criminal and civil proceedings are usually very different. In a criminal proceeding a prosecutor prosecutes a defendant. If the verdict is “guilty”, the defendant is convicted. He will have a criminal record for the crime and will be punished by one of a variety of punishments ranging from life imprisonment to a fine, which is paid to a court. If the defendant is found “not guilty”, he is acquitted and allowed to leave court without punishment. In civil cases a claimant sues a defendant or brings a claim against him. The proceeding may result in judgement for the claimant, which means that the defendant is found liable and the judge may order the defendant to pay damages.

Jurisdiction There are four countries and three district jurisdictions in the UK: England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. All share a legislature in the Westminster Parliament for the making of new laws and have a common law tradition, but each has its own hierarchy of courts, legal rules and legal profession. Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own Assembly and since 1999 Scottish Members of Parliament (SMPs) have sat in their own Parliament. Under an Act of the Westminster Parliament, the Scottish Parliament has power to legislate on any subject not specifically reserved to the Westminster Parliament such as defense or foreign policy. The UK`s accession to the European Communities in 1973, authorized by the European Communities Act 1972, has meant the addition of a further legislative authority in the legal system. The UK is also a signatory of the European Convention of Humans Rights and this has been incorporated into UK law. 2. What kinds of punishment do you know? Find answer in the text: There are several kinds of punishment available to the courts. Crimes are punished according to their seriousness. More serious crimes are given harsher penalties. In declaring a sentence a judge may take into account the following: prior criminal record, the age of the offender and other circumstances surrounding the crime, including cooperation with law enforcement officers, the amount of loss to victims, whether a weapon was used in the crime, the age or helplessness of the victims. Punishment may include: — a fine — term of imprisonment (time in jail or prison) — probation or parole — community service For criminal offences fines are often used when the offence is not a very serious one and when the offender has not been in trouble before For more serious crimes the usual punishment is imprisonment. The length of sentences varies from a few days to a lifetime. However, a life sentence may allow the prisoner to be released after a suitably long period if a parole board agrees that his detention no longer serves a purpose.

Probation is the suspension of jail time. An offender on probation is ordered to follow certain conditions set forth by the court, often under the supervision of a probation officer. Offenders are ordinarily required to refrain from subsequent possession of firearms, and may be ordered to remain employed, live at a directed place, obey the orders of the probation officer. Parole is the supervised release of prisoners before the completion of their sentence in prison. They may be returned to prison if they violate the conditions of their parole. Conditions of parole often include things such as obeying the law, avoiding contact with the parolee’s victims, obtaining employment, and maintaining required contacts with a parole officer. Community service requires the offender to do a certain amount of unpaid work usually for a social institution such as a hospital Restricting freedom in the form of house arrest as a new alternative type of punishment in the russian federation has now been adopted in connection with coming into force of new provisions in the criminal and criminal correctional codes. 3. Answer the questions: 1. What does punishment for a crime depend on? 2. What does a judge take into account in declaring a sentence? 3. In what cases are fines used for criminal offences? 4. What is the main idea of probation? 5. What is a parole? 6. What does community service require? XIII. System of law of the USA. 1. Translate the texts in written form: “The legal system in the United States” The legal system in the United States is similar in many ways to the English system. One of the main differences is the existence of the United States Constitution which is interpreted by the highest court, the Supreme Court. The nine Supreme Court judges, who are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate, can only be removed from office by impeachment.

Federal judges are also pointed for life by the President. They deal with federal law, which applies to the country as a whole, and with important cases involving citizens from different states. State judges hear cases involving the law of a particular state. They hold office for ten years and are usually elected, or confirmed in office by election. The jury. The number of people who make up a jury varies from state to state, efforts are made to ensure that they represent a fair cross-section of society. Both the defense and the prosecution are allowed to reject a certain number of jury candidates. Except in minor cases, the defendant in a criminal case has the right to be tried by a jury, and many civil cases are also heard by a jury. In most states, the task of the jury is only to decide whether the defendant is innocent or guilty, while it is the judge who passes sentence. The attorneys, who represent clients in court, have been trained at law schools and are licensed to practise only in certain states. If they wish to practise in a different state, they may have to take another exam. In a criminal case, the prosecution attorney is appointed by the District Attorney to prosecute the defendant. The defense attorney will be provided by the Public Defender's Office if the defendant cannot afford to engage her or his own lawyer. The prosecution may agree to charge the defendant with a less serious offence if he or she agrees to plead guilty. This is known as plea bargaining. “The US legal system” The US legal system is based on federal law, augmented by laws enacted by state legislatures and local laws passed by counties and cities. Most rights and freedoms enjoyed by Americans are enshrined in the first ten amendments of the US Constitution and popularly known as the ‘Bill of Rights’. American law and the US Constitution apply to everyone in the US, irrespective of citizenship or immigration status, and even illegal immigrants have most of the same basic legal rights as US citizens. Under the US constitution, each state has the power to establish its own system of criminal and civil laws, resulting in 50 different state legal systems, each supported by its own laws, prisons, police forces, and county and city courts. There’s a wide variation in state and local laws, making life difficult for people moving between states. Never assume that the law is the same in different states (Conflict of State Laws is a popular course in American law schools). The US Judiciary The US judiciary is independent of the government and consists of the Supreme Court, the US Court of Appeals and the US District Courts. The Supreme Court, the highest court in the land, consists of nine judges who are appointed for life by the President. Its decisions are final and legally binding on all parties. In deciding

cases, the Supreme Court reviews the activities of state and federal governments and decides whether laws are constitutional. The Supreme Court has nullified laws passed by Congress and even declared the actions of US presidents unconstitutional. Momentous judgments in recent years have involved the Watergate scandal, racial segregation, abortion and capital punishment. However, when appointing a Supreme Court judge, the President’s selection is based on a candidate’s political and other views, which must usually correspond with his own. The Supreme Court was for many years made up of members with a liberal or reformist outlook, although this trend has been reversed in recent years with the appointment of conservative judges by successive Republican presidents. The federal courts A separate system of federal courts operates alongside state courts and deals with cases arising under the US Constitution or any law or treaty. Federal courts also hear disputes involving state governments or between citizens resident in different states. Cases falling within federal jurisdiction are heard before a federal district judge. Appeals can be made to the Circuit Court of Appeals and in certain cases to the US Supreme Court. 2. Read the text “Trials in common law systems” A criminal case passes through several phases before trial. At the first stage the crime is reported and investigated. Then, if there is “probable cause”, i.e. reasonable grounds (something more than mere suspicion to believe that a particular person committed the crime)the person can be arrested. An arrest warrant is necessary unless the pressure of time requires immediate action (e.g. before the suspect flees). Finally, criminal charges must be lodged against the defendant. They must be based on probable cause, preponderance of evidence, or prosecutor’s evidence that supports a belief in the defendant’s guilt. In the USA most cases are resolved without a trial. Attorneys for the defence and prosecution usually reach a plea bargain. The judge must decide whether the guilty plea was freely given and whether there was some factual basis for the plea, but judicial disapproval of an agreed upon plea is rare. In English law a person is innocent until proven guilty. This means that in a trial the burden of proof is on the prosecution and if the prosecution cannot establish a reasonable cause for conviction the court must acquit the accused.

The appeal is a petition for review of a case that has been decided by a court of law. The appeal system is mostly for the benefit of the defendant, but it is possible for the prosecution to appeal for a retrial Appellate courts cannot overturn a verdict simply because they disagree with it — e.g., with how the jury weighed the evidence and decided to believe one witness more than another witness. Appeals tend to focus on problems in the trial, judge’s legal ruling, the instructions to the jury, and the trial procedures, not simply in the judge’s factual interpretations. 3. Find English equivalents: Судебный процесс

Неоповержимые доказательства

Расследовать преступление

Адвокаты со стороны обвинения и

Достаточные причины

защиты

Ордер на арест

Досудебное урегулирование

Подозреваемый

Повторное слушание дела

Обвинение по уголовной статье

Отменить приговор

4. Give explanation to the terms: Burden of proof

Preponderance of evidence

Probable cause

A plea bargain

Criminal charge

Legal ruling

5. Is the system of pre-trial arrangement of disputes is widespread in Russia as well? XIV. System of law in Russia. 1. Scan the text and name official sources of Russian law (from https://www.loc.gov/law/help/legal-research-guide/russia.php). Historically, Russia belongs to the continental legal system, and a written law, which was passed under the established legislative procedure, is the main legal source. About 10,000 laws, regulations, and other legal acts are passed in Russia annually. 1. Constitution

The Constitution is the supreme Russian law and major legislative instrument. It establishes the principle of superiority of law in the system of legal sources. 2. Federal Constitutional Laws Federal Constitutional Laws establish the group of most important legislative acts. The federal constitutional law is adopted if it has been approved by at least threequarters of the total number of the Federation Council (upper chamber of the legislature) members and by at least two-thirds of the total number of the State Duma (lower chamber of the legislature) members. The president of Russia cannot veto federal constitutional laws. These are laws on the state of emergency, the change of the status of a constituent component of the federation, on constitutional amendments, on government, on referendum, on the judiciary, on the Constitutional Court, and some other. 3. Federal Laws Federal laws regulate issues included into executive authority of the Russian Federation and its components. The Constitution protects priority and direct effect of federal laws throughout the territory of Russia. In case of a conflict between federal law and another act issued in Russia, the law will prevail. 4. International Treaties Universally acknowledged principles and standards of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation are a part of Russia’s legal system. Should an international treaty of the Russian Federation establish rules other than those established by a domestic law, the rules of the international treaty will prevail. 5. Executive Regulations Decrees and directives of the Russian President establish a separate category of legal acts and do not belong to subordinate legislation. Due to an absence of required laws, the President can pass decrees regarding all questions without any limits if a valid federal law does not regulate this issue. A large group of executive acts comprises documents issued by the federal government, ministries, state committees, committees, and other federal agencies.

6. Other Legal Acts An additional group of delegate legislation is comprised by normative acts of federal executive authorities. They develop, add, and concretize existing legal norms. 7. Judicial Decisions Following the traditional civil law approach, judicial practice is restricted to applying and interpreting the law, and the precedent cannot serve as a legal source. According to Russian legal doctrine, judges are supposed to use only written law contained in codes, statutes, or regulations in deciding a case; however, a decision to vacate a particular legal act proves to be a source of law, and the Constitutional Court indicated that its previous decisions shall be followed as stare decisis. 8. USSR legislation Soviet laws and regulations are applicable when Russian domestic legislation lacks such laws and the Soviet law does not conflict with any existing Russian law. Presently, Soviet law has the transitional function and exists until the Russian legislature adopts laws in those areas. 2. Read the text more attentively and answer the questions: 1. What legal system is adopted in Russia? 2. What is the main source of law? 3. What principle does the Constitution establish? 4. What is the difference between constitutional federal law and federal law? 5. What state bodies can issue regulations? 6. Is precedent the source of law in Russia? 3. Find English equivalents in the text: противоречить закону

внутренний закон

«стоять на решенном»

чрезвычайное положение

международное соглашение

поправка в закон

4. What legal system seems better to you: continental law or common law?Prove your point of view.