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Настоящее учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями ФГОС ВО направлений и специальностей технического уни
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ENGLISH FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Учебно-методическое пособие
Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации Сибирский федеральный университет
ENGLISH FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Учебно-методическое пособие
Красноярск СФУ 2021
УДК 811.111(07) ББК 81.432.1я73 С884
С884 English for materials science and engineering : учеб.-метод. пособие / Т. В. Ступина, Г. В. Гришина, Н. Ю. Максимова. – Красноярск : Сиб. федер. ун-т, 2021. – 88 с.
Учебное издание предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов второго курса бакалавриата направлений 22.03.01 «Материаловедение и технологии материалов», 29.03.04 «Технология художественной обработки материалов». Пособие состоит из 12 юнитов, содержит рисунки, таблицы, схемы, диаграммы на английском языке.
УДК 811.111(07) ББК 81.432.1я73 Электронный вариант издания см.: http://catalog.sfu-kras.ru © Сибирский федеральный университет, 2021
CONTENTS UNIT 1 ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE …………... UNIT 2 ENGINEERING MATERIALS ……………........................... UNIT 3 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS …………………………… UNIT 4 METALS ……………………………………………………… UNIT 5 CERAMICS …………………………………………………... UNIT 6 POLYMERS ………………………………............................... UNIT 7 COMPOSITES ………………………………………….......... UNIT 8 SMART MATERIALS ……………………………………….. UNIT 9 ART CASTING ……………………………………………… UNIT 10 FORGING …………………………………………………… UNIT 11 FILIGREE ……………………………………........................ UNIT 12 ENAMELLING …………………………………...................
4 12 19 26 33 39 46 53 60 67 74 81
UNIT 1 ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Starter 1. Put the words into the correct order to make the sentences about engineering. 1. Who, a, an, engineering, engineer, is called, practices, person. 2. Are, to find, physics, solutions, and, to, problems, mathematics, practical, suitable. 3. To, identify, the, is, understand, successful, engineer, forecast, and, the, product, future. Look through the sentences and make a conclusion about the word order in statements. 2. Read the definitions and say which one is about engineering and which one is about materials science. Explain your answer. ___ is a scientific study of the properties and applications of materials of construction or manufacture (as ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites). ___ is the discipline, art and profession of using technical, scientific, and mathematical knowledge to design and put into practice materials, structures, machines, devices, systems and processes that safely realize a desired objective. Look at the definitions one more time and find all nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, participles and infinitives. State their functions in the sentences. Reading Text 1.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 1.1. application – применение branch – отрасль civil – гражданское строительство mining – горная промышленность
nuclear – ядерный petroleum – нефтепромысловое дело to keep up – поддерживать to compete – конкурировать 4
1. Read the text and choose the best title (a, b, c, d) for the text. a) The history of engineering. b) The branches of engineering. c) Engineering is a profession. d) A successful engineer. ______________________? Engineering is one of the oldest occupations in history. It is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mathematics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information that depended on observation and experience rather than on theoretical knowledge. The development of science provoked the establishment of such branches as mechanical, civil, mining, metallurgical, chemical and electrical engineering. This growth in the number of specialties is continuing with the establishment of such disciplines as aerospace, nuclear, petroleum, and electronic engineering. Because of the large number of engineering fields today there are often many different kinds of engineers working on large projects such as the development of nuclear power or new aircraft. Today engineering has become a profession. A profession is an occupation like law or medicine that requires specialized advanced education; such occupations are often called the “learned professions”. Engineers must keep up with changes in their profession and those related to it. A mechanical engineer who does not know about new materials cannot successfully compete with one who does. All of this means that an engineer's education is never really finished so he or she must be willing to continue the learning process. Engineering is described as a profession that finds practical application of theoretical science. A successful engineer must enlarge the definition of practical to include the idea that the work is safe and desirable for society. 2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - What theoretical sciences are practically applied by engineering? - Physics and mathematics. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2. 5
Word order in the English sentences Most English sentences are based on the Subject, Verb, Object (SVO) word order, it means that the subject (S) comes first, the verb (V) comes second and the object (O) comes after the verb. Pay attention that the verb may consist of several words (auxiliaries + sense). Example: + Engineering (S) has become (V) a profession (O). – Some engineers (S) don’t know (V) about new materials (O). ? Why should engineer (S) know (V) about new materials (O)? 1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. The word order in the English sentences is fixed. 2. The verb comes first and the subject comes next. 3. The negative particle not is a part of the subject. 4. In some sentences the object can be missed. 5. The verb may include modal, auxiliary and sense verbs. 2. Read the sentences and find subjects, verbs and objects. 1. The discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering. 2. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and wheel. 3. One who practices engineering is called an engineer. 4. Engineer cannot be out-of-date, he should encourage himself for further development. 5. What is the term engineering derived from? Text 1.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 1.2. alloy – сплав composite – композитный материал novel – оригинальный, нестандартный to improve – улучшать, совершенствовать thorough – исчерпывающий, полный 6
silicon – кремний strength – прочность shape – форма property – свойство to tailor – приспосабливать для
1. Read the text and put the words in bold into the correct places. What is Materials Science and Engineering? Materials Science or Materials Engineering is the study of all materials we see around us every day. Materials Scientist or Engineer forms a bridge between the materials and engineering. It allows theory to be put into practice in a way which means everybody, so everything we do every day involves sciences. Materials Science or Engineering looks at all of the different groups of materials, metals and alloys, polymers, ceramics and composites. They improve new materials for new applications, develop existing materials to give improved performance and look at ways in which thorough materials can be used together. Materials experts need a different understanding of how materials work. This benefits they are able to control the structure of a material, often on an atomic level, since that its properties, for example strength, can be tailored to understand a particular application. It is also important to suit how materials can be processed to the shape required and materials scientists and engineers have developed many novel ways of making things. A good example is the silicon microchip found in our computers. 2. Are the sentences about materials science and engineering true or false? 1. Materials science studies all materials we see around us every day. 2. Materials science or engineering separates the sciences and engineering. 3. Materials scientists or engineers don’t look at all materials. 4. Materials scientists develop new materials. 5. Materials experts don’t know how materials work.
The verb to be The verb to be has the following forms: Present Simple
I am You are He/She/It is
We are You are They are
Am I? Are you? Is he/she it?
Are we? Are you? Are they?
I am not/ I’m not You are not/ aren’t He/She/It is not/ isn’t
We are not/aren’t You are not/aren’t They are not/aren't
I was You were He/She/It was Was I Were you Was he/she/it I was not/wasn’t You were not/weren’t He/She/It was not/wasn’t I will be You will be He/She/It will be Will I be Will you be Will he/she/it be I will not be/won’t be You will not be/won’t be He/She/It will not be/ won’t be
We were You were They were Were we Were you Were they We were not/weren’t You were not / weren’t They were not/ weren’t We will be You will be They will be Will we be Will you be Will they be We will not be/won’t be You will not be/ won’t be They will not be/ won’t be
Question form Negative
Question form Negative
The verb to be is used in the following patterns: 1. with a noun:
Engineering is a profession. 2. with an adjective:
New materials are available today. 3.with the -ing form to make the continuous aspect:
The scientists are developing new materials. 4.with the -ed form to make the passive voice:
Different materials are used everywhere. 5. with a prepositional phrase:
Silicon microchips are in our computers. 1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. The verb to be has only present tense forms. 2. The verb to be can be used as a part of a predicate. 3. There are three forms of the verb to be in past simple. 4. The verb to be does not need any auxiliaries to make question and negative forms in present and past. 5. The verb to be can function as a main verb, a linking verb and an auxiliary verb. 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb to be. 1. Different materials ___ in use since early days. 2. All materials ___ divided into different groups. 3. The earliest civil engineer ___ Imhotep. 4. Engineers ___ optimistic about their ability to meet global challenges over the next 10 to 20. 5. It ___ true that wind and waterpower ___ both used in a small way in various operations 100 years ago. Text 1.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 1.3. advancement – развитие circuit – электрическая цепь copes – возможности
to explore – исследовать to run out – истощаться to take apart – разбирать 9
1. Read the texts and match the speakers and the ideas. 1. James 2. Mark 3. Bill 4. Brenda 5. Sue
a. variety of career opportunities b. parents’ advice c. private quality like native curiosity d. technological and scientific discovery e. well-paid and prestigious job in future Why do you want to be an engineer?
James: “I've always been fascinated by, and driven to understand the way things work. The solar system, weather, biological processes, anything. But machines and circuits are things I could actually take apart and look inside without disrupting anything.”
Mark: “A combination of reasons. I liked figuring out how things worked and creating new things, even as a kid. I was good at and enjoyed math and physics, but no so much that I specifically wanted to become a mathematician or physicist. I liked the idea of a profession that paid well and had good prospects for advancement.”
Bill: “My parents encouraged me to take things apart and understand them, and showed me how to find out more about the pieces inside them. Whenever I get a new appliance, or toy, or electronic gadget, I always take it apart and look inside. No matter what your discipline in engineering, a broad background is key.”
Brenda: “An engineering education will help you to understand how many things in the world work, to have a good understanding of technology will help you to understand the many challenges facing our society. For example, why don’t we have electric vehicles rather than highly polluting cars? And what will we use for energy when oil runs out?”
Sue: “An engineering degree offers you plenty of scope to find your perfect job. Whatever sort of person you are if you have an interest in Science, Technology, Engineering or Maths there is a job to suit you! You could be developing a new material to help improve athletes’ performance times, or exploring energy‐efficient cars.”
Speaking Think about your reasons why you want to be an engineer. Share your ideas with other students and make the chart of reasons popularity. Start with the most popular one. Example: Student 1 Student 2
“My father was an engineer.” …
Writing Write a composition about the following topic: My future profession is an engineer. You should write at least 150 words.
UNIT 2 ENGINEERING MATERIALS Starter 1. Read the following definitions and say which one is for material and which one is for engineering material. A substance from which a thing is or can be made. A substance that is used to produce technical products. Read the definitions one more time and find all nouns. Define whether they are singular or plural. 2. Can you read and translate the following international words. Which are the names of engineering materials? nylon acrylic polyester aluminum polypropylene cement polythene chromium polyvinylchloride cobalt zinc formaldehyde zirconia nickel Are these materials countable or uncountable? Think about the products made from these materials that can be countable. Reading Text 2.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 2.1. clay – глина copper – медь to detach – отделяться, отсоединяться iron – железо opaque – непрозрачный
contaminant – загрязняющее вещество, примесь to decompose – разлагать на составные части steel – сталь transparent – прозрачный 12
1. Read the text and match the names of the materials groups and their descriptions. polymers metals ceramics
Engineering Materials Materials are so important in the development of civilization that we associate ages with them. In the origin of human life on earth, the Stone Age, people used only natural materials like stone, clay, skins, and wood. When people found copper, the Bronze Age started about 3000 BC. The use of iron and steel that gave advantage in wars started at about 1200 BC. The next big step was the discovery of a cheap process to make steel around 1850. Almost every substance has found its way into the engineering workshop at some time or other. The most convenient way to study the properties and uses of engineering materials is to classify them. The following classification is according to the way the atoms are bound together: The valence electrons are detached from atoms, and spread in an 'electron sea' that "glues" the ions together. The materials are usually strong, conduct electricity and heat well and are opaque to light. The bonding is covalent. Their electrical properties depend extremely strongly on minute proportions of contaminants. They are opaque to visible light but transparent to the infrared. Atoms behave mostly like either positive or negative ions. They are usually combinations of metals or semiconductors with oxygen, nitrogen or carbon. They are bound by covalent forces, and usually based on H, C and other non-metallic elements. They decompose at moderate temperatures (100 – 400 C), and are lightweight. Other properties vary greatly. They are made of different materials in intimate contact to achieve specific properties. The materials are used in "High-Tech" applications, usually designed for maximum performance, and normally expensive. 2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - What materials did people use at the Stone Age? - People used natural materials like stone, clay, skins, and wood. 13
3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2. Grammar Notes
Nouns. Plural and singular 1. Most singular nouns form the plural by adding -s. Example: a material – materials a product – products 2. A singular noun ending in s, x, z, ch, sh makes the plural by adding -es. Example: a research – researches a glass – glasses 3. A singular noun ending in a consonant and then y makes the plural by dropping the y and adding –ies. Example: a property – properties an impurity – impurities 4. There are some irregular noun plurals. Example: a focus – foci a nucleus – nuclei an analysis – analyses a thesis – theses a crisis – crises a phenomenon – phenomena a criterion – criteria a datum – data a basis – bases 5. Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb. Example: Ceramics is a brittle material. 1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. Plural nouns are characterized by the ending –s. 2. Plural nouns are always formed with –s. 3. If there is a consonant before –y in singular, – y changes in – i in plural. 4. There are no exceptions in the rule of plural nouns formation. 5. In some cases subject is plural but predicate is singular. 14
2. Find mistakes in the following sentences. 1. Material are simply atoms joined together in the solid state. 2. Materials science studies the fundamental physical and chemical basis. 3. Physics are thoroughly studied by all engineers. 4. Scientists can combine different materials propertyes. 5. These materials are of great importance for all branches. Text 2.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 2.2. alloy – сплав solid – твердое тело to replace – замещать to emerge – появляться to beat – превосходить 1. Read the text and answer the question that is in the title, give your explanation. Is it simple to make a choice? There are more than 50,000 materials available to the engineer. In designing a structure or device, how is the engineer to choose from this vast menu the material which best suits the purpose? Mistakes can cause disasters. More engineering components are made of metals and alloys than of any other class of solid. But increasingly, polymers are replacing metals because they offer a combinationof properties which are more attractive to the designer. And if you have been reading the newspaper, you will know that the new ceramics, at present under development worldwide, are an emerging class of engineering material which may permit more efficient heat engines, sharper knives, and bearings with lower friction. The engineer can combine the best properties of these materials to make composites (the most familiar is fiberglass) which offer specially attractive packages of properties. And, finally, one should not ignore natural materials like wood and leather which have properties which, even with the innovations of today's materials scientists, are hard to beat.
2. Are the sentences about the materials choice true or false? 1. It is difficult to count all the materials that surround us every day. 2. Metals and their alloys are the most widespread solid materials. 3. There are no materials which can be as attractive as metals for designers. 4. Ceramics is a new class of engineering materials. 5. Nothing can substitute natural materials. Grammar Notes
Nouns. Countable and uncountable nouns Countable nouns are for things we can count using numbers. They have a singular and a plural form. The singular form can use the determiner "a" or "an". Example: one material – 50000 materials Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot count with numbers. They may be the names for abstract ideas or qualities or for physical objects that are too small or too amorphous to be counted (liquids, powders, gases, etc.). Uncountable nouns are used with a singular verb. They usually do not have a plural form. Example: wood, leather, oxygen. 1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. If you want to ask about the quantity of a countable noun, you ask "How many? 2. Countable nouns can be used only in singular. 3. We cannot use numbers before uncountable nouns. 4. Uncountable nouns have both singular and plural forms. 5. If a subject is an uncountable noun, a predicate is singular. 2. Divide all nouns into two groups countable and uncountable. Copper, rubber, research, aluminum, steel, branch, industry, tin, polyester, alloy, lead, wood, paper, composite, metal, semiconductor, leather, water, mercury, bond, property, heat, electricity. a) Make two sentences with uncountable nouns as subjects. b) Make one sentence with a singular countable noun as a subject. c) Make one sentence with a plural countable noun as a subject. 16
Text 2.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 2.3. behavior – поведение to evaluate – оценивать flexibility – гибкость to select – выбирать to subject – подвергать tedious – трудоемкий transient – неустойчивый 1. Read the text and finalize each paragraph with the additional information. Use the questions for help. Facts to consider in the material selection procedure Material selection is a process which is performed to select the best materials which may have the potential to perform well both in industrially and commercially. Why has selection of materials become an important part of industrial design? In the field of mechanical engineering, the selection of material is a tedious task because there are a number of factors that have to be carefully evaluated before making the final decision. The main requirement may be the strength of a particular application, but depending on the working environment and behavior, several other factors may have to be considered. It is extremely important to make a correct choice. What can bad material selection result in? A great design may fail in the actual working environment. It may be subjected to a higher load than ever expected. It may be damaged by a chemical. In these ageing and transient conditions, only a good design with proper material selection may survive. What should the material engineer be able to do to prevent the product from damaging? One of significant importance of materials selection is the fact that it provides the designer with a greater flexibility to his design process. While selecting the material the minimum and maximum properties are examined. Further, what does the flexibility of the design process mean? These are the main reasons why material selection is inevitable in engineering design. 17
Speaking Work in small groups. Read the names of the materials below and put them into the correct group in the table. Aluminum, Si, steel, Ge, many minerals, fiberglass, brass, gold, titanium alloys, GaAs, glass, rubber, concrete, porcelain, plastics, wood, magnetic alloys.
1. 2. 3.
1. 2. 3.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Discuss at the round table the industrial application of some of these materials and make a conclusion about the most applicable engineering material. Writing Write a newspaper article about one of the groups of the engineering materials mentioned above. Note the branch of industry where the materials are applied, exact examples of products and your opinion about the materials you have described. Remember about stylistic peculiarities of newspaper article.
UNIT 3 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Starter 1. There are lots of different types of materials around us and all of them have different properties. They can be … .
Will you compare the materials according to their properties? Which of the materials is the hardest, strongest, etc.? Reading Text 3.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 3.1. absorbency – впитывающая способность brittle – ломкий, хрупкий elasticity – эластичность feature – черта hardness – прочность, сопротивляемость
plasticity – пластичность semiconductor – полупроводник stiffness – упругость strength – мощность toughness – жесткость waterproof – водонепроницаемость
1. Readd the text and matchh the propperties with h the desccriptions. Absorbbency Tooughness Strenggth Pllasticity
Hardneess Elasticity Stiffnesss Waterrproof
Materials and M a their propertiees There iss a myriadd of materrials arounnd us – thhey can bee found in anythhing from m buildin ngs to sp paceshipss. Materiaals can generallly be diviided into two classses: crystalline an nd noncrystalliine. The traditional t l exampless of materials are metals, m ceramiccs and polymers. New N and advanced a m materials that t are being developed d d include semicon nductors, nanomaterials, m be constantly c kept in mind is that such a fast biomaaterials ettc.What must materiaals evolutiion has neever been observed before, ass well as suuch a wide range of propperties. Soo, when we speak abbout a matterial we speak s abouut its prop perties. _ Resistance to sccratching and pressu ___ ure. _ Amouunt of forrce needed to break ___ k a materrial usuallly by push hing or pullingg down. _ Resistance to breaking ___ b byy cracking g. _ Amouunt of forcce needed to changee the shapee of a matterial. ___ _ Abilitty to returrn its originnal shape when a foorce is rem ___ moved. _ Abilitty to retainn the new shape wh ___ hen a forcee is removved. _ Abilitty of a maaterial to sooak up a liquid. ___ _ Resistance to liiquid, repeels water. ___ A materiaal can be describedd in a variety of waays for example it may m be strong but brittle, and thee combinaation of itts propertiies may ddetermine its use. o a mateerial can change according a to how the mateerial is The prroperty of treated d; clay is very diffeerent once it has beeen fired, roolled up newspaper is very differeent to a sheeet of new wspaper. 2. Askk the questions to thee words annd phrasess in bold. Exampple: - Where can diff fferent matterials be found? f om buildin ngs to spaaceships. - Theyy can be foound in annything fro d w the qu with uestions from fr Exerccise 2. 3. Worrk in pairss. Make a dialogue
Adjective vs. adverb An adjective is a word or set of words that describes a noun or pronoun. Adjectives may come before the word they modify or follow the word they modify. Example: That is a strong material. The material looks strong. An adverb is a word or set of words that modifies verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs answer how, when, where, why, or to what extent – how often or how much (e.g., daily, completely). Example: Materials can generally be divided into two classes. 1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. Adjectives can modify a noun or a pronoun. 2. Adverbs can modify a noun or pronoun. 3. All adverbs end in – ly. 4. Many adverbs do not end in – ly. 5. Adverbs are formed from adjectives with the help of – ly. 6. The word good is an adjective, whose adverb equivalent is well. 2. Choose an adjective or on adverb from the brackets. 1. The (original/originally) share is returned when the force is removed. 2. If a material can soak the liquid (quick/quickly), we talk about absorbency. 3. The blade must have a (high/highly) hardness, otherwise it will be damaged by the head of the screw 4. The price of such materials varies (great/greatly). 5. There are the so-called precious metals and gemstones(wide/widely) used in engineering. Text 3.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 3.2.
irreversible – неизменяемый, необратимый lattice – решётка, сетка pure – чистый propensity – склонность plot – часть to resist – сопротивляться
release – снятие напряжения to retake – возобновлять strain – напряженность to undergo – испытывать, переносить
1. Read the text and put the words elasticity and plasticity and their derivations into the correct place. Materials Behavior When a force is applied to the body, the two extremes of behavior which may occur are the pure ___ deformation of a solid and the pure viscous flow of a liquid. ___ is the propensity of a material to undergo enduring deformation under load when compressed. It is the quality or state of being ___. Ideal ___ is a property of materials to undergo irreversible deformation without any increase in stresses or loads. Elasticity and plasticity are two concepts discussed under materials science. ___ is a property of a material or a system that allows it to deform irreversibly. ___ is a property of a system or a material that allows it to deform reversibly. When an exterior stress is applied to a solid body, the body tends to pull itself apart. This causes the distance between atoms in the lattice to increase. Each atom tries to pull its neighbor as close as possible. This causes a force trying to resist the deformation. This force is known as strain. However, when the stress is high the plot passes a small jump on the axes. This limit is when it becomes a ___ deformation. ___ deformation occurs mostly due to the sliding of two layers of the solid. This sliding process is not reversible. 2. Are the sentences about the materials behavior true or false? 1. There are only three types of deformation. 2. Elasticity refers to liquids and viscosity refers to solid. 3. Elastic body returns to its original form after release of stress. 4. Elasticity is the first step of plasticity. 5. There is no difference between elasticity and plasticity. 6. The distance between atoms of elastic bodies is able to increase. 7. The force trying to resist the deformation is called strain. 8. The process of plasticity is not reversible. 22
Degrees of comparison Adjectives come in three forms, also called degrees. An adjective in its normal or usual form is called a positive degree adjective. There are also the comparative and superlative degrees, which are used for comparison, as in the following examples: Positive
the most viscous
There are also three degrees of adverbs. Positive
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. There are three degrees of comparison of adjectives. 2. There are some exceptions of the common rule. 3. The superlative degree of adjectives has the definite article. 4. All adjectives form degrees of comparison similarly. 5. Adverbs have the same degrees of comparison. 6. The superlative degree of adverbs has the definite article. 7. The adverbs ending –ly form degrees of comparison similar to long adjectives. 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of adjectives and adverbs. 1. The polymer materials appear to have ___ specific yield strengths than the metals. (high) 23
2. High-alumina ceramic has ___ specific modulus. (high) 3. The polymers have ___ specific modulus values and thus have ___ elongation. (low, great) 4. This means that the metals are ___ to deform than the polymers. (likely) 5. Based on this data ___ choice for the structure of a transportation vehicle would be a metal. (good) Text 3.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 3.3. crucial – ключевой to determine – определять frame – рама
specific strength – удельная прочность yield strength – условный предел текучести
1. Read the text and choose one of the variants from the brackets. Density importance The density of a material can be a crucial factor in determining the material that is best suited for an application. The density can be used to determine the relative weights of (a. materials, b. products, c. goods). This is an extremely important factor to consider if the material in question will be used to construct the frame of (a. a car, b. an aircraft, с. machinery). A lighter weight material will ultimately translate to greater payload capacity and decreased fuel consumption. A more important aspect of the density of the material is the role it plays in calculating its specific (a. toughness, b. hardness, c. strength). The specific strength is simply the strength-to-weight ratio of the material. The specific strength of a material is given by the tensile or yield strength divided by the (a. density, b. absorbency, c. plasticity) of the material. A material with a high specific strength will be suitable for applications suchas aircraft and automobiles. This means that the material has a light weight with the aforementioned benefits, but it also has a high strength. Both of these factors are important in such safety conscious applications.
2. Match the words (1-9) with the definitions (a-i). 1. composition 2. acidity 3. weathering 4. corrosion 5. density 6. conductivity
7. combustibility 8. size 9. shape
a. capability of igniting and burning. b. a thing's overall dimensions or magnitude. c. the level of acid in substances. d. the way in which the various parts are put together and arranged. e. the degree to which a specified material conducts electricity. f. any of the chemical or mechanical processes by which objects exposed to the weather are broken down. g. the external form, contours, or outline of something. h. the process of corroding. i. the degree of compactness of a substance.
Speaking Work in groups. Each group prepares a small talk about the properties of some engineering materials. Tell another group your descriptions without giving the name of the materials. Do not tell the whole description, but only a part of it. If your opponents are not ready to name the material, continue the description. Example: This material is a silvery-white, lightweight metal. It is soft and malleable. (a pause) It has low density, is non-toxic, has a high thermal conductivity, has excellent corrosion resistance and can be easily cast, machined and formed. It is also non-magnetic and non-sparking. It is the second most malleable metal and the sixth most ductile. (a pause) It is often used as an alloy because it itself is not particularly strong. Alloys with copper, manganese, magnesium and silicon are lightweight but strong. They are very important in the construction of airplanes and other forms of transport. (aluminum) Writing Write a report to an international conference on “High-performance Materials”. Start with a brief historical introduction, the development of materials, the modern application and conclude with your predictions for the future. 25
UNIT 4 METALS Starter 1. Read the names of materials and define whether they are metals or not. Iron, polystyrene, cement, steel, silica, aluminum, copper, leather, tin, rubber, nickel, titanium, polyethylene, nylon,concrete, bone, zinc. 2. Read the sentences about metals. What metals are they about? 1. People have used this metal since ancient times. 2. People use this metal in electrical equipment such as wiring and motors. 3. Now people are using it to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. 4. Andreas Marggraf discovered it in 1746. 5. Metal connects well with bone, so it has found surgical applications such as in joint replacements. Find the verbs in the sentences above and define the tenses that are used. Reading Text 4.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 4.1. alloy – сплав brittle – хрупкий carbon – углерод
copper – медь pure – чистый useful – полезный
1. Read the text and choose the best title (a, b, c, d) for the text. a) Metals. b) Metals and their properties. c) The advantages of metals in industry. d) Metals and other materials.
___________________ ? People began to use metals after wood and stone, but now metals are more important for our industry than these two old materials. Metals have such great importance because of their useful properties. Metals are much stronger and harder and that is why some engineering constructions and machines were impossible when people did not know how to produce and how to use metals. Metal is not as brittle as stone which was the first engineering material for people. Strength, hardness and plasticity of metals are the properties, which made metals so useful for industry. It is possible to find some very plastic wood, but it will be much softer than any metal; stone may be very hard, but it is not plastic at all. Only metals have a combination of these three most useful engineering properties. About two thirds of all elements found in the earth are metals, but not all metals may be used in industry. Those metals which are used in industry are called engineering metals. The most important engineering metal is iron (Fe) which, in the forms of alloys with carbon (C) and other elements, finds greater use than any other metal. It should be noted that engineering metals are usually used in modern industry in the form of alloys because the properties of alloys are much better than the properties of pure metals. Only aluminum may be largely used in the form of a simple metal. 2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - When did people begin to use metals? - People began to use metals after wood and stone. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2.
Active voice Simple tenses In most English sentences the subject performs the action denoted by the verb. Example: Metals have changed human’s life. Present Simple General facts, states of being, scheduled events in the future, and repeated actions Verb or Verb–s form, do/does Example: People use metals in construction. Past Simple Completed actions from the past that occurred at a specific time or facts/states of being that occurred in the past Verb + -ed/irregular form (Verb2), did Example: When did people begin to use metals? Future Simple Future actions, predictions, or promises will + Verb (base form) Example: Soon engineers will use advanced materials in all spheres.
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. There are three voices in the English language: active, passive and neutral. 2. In active voice a subject performs an action. 3. Present simple expresses repeated actions in the past. 4. The verb in past simple is used in the third form. 5. Future simple predicts actions. 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the verbs in simple tenses. 1. Ancient Egyptians lead as the cosmetic kohl to darken their eyelids. (use) 2. Today people lead on all continents except Antarctica. (mine) 28
3. Following World War I, the demand for lead ___ because of growth in the production of motorized vehicles. (increase) 4. In the near future scientists ___ how and where lead resources are concentrated in the Earth's crust. (study) 5. Research ___to understand better the geologic processes that ___ mineral deposits, including those containing lead. (help, form) Text 4.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 4.2. ferrous metal – черный металл non-ferrous metal – цветной металл malleable – ковкий to oxide – окислять
rust – ржавчина stainless steel – нержавеющая сталь tensile strength – предел прочности на разрыв
1. Read the text and put the words in bold into the correct places. What’s the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals? The simple answer is that ferrous metals contain iron while non-ferrous metals do not. The most common non-ferrous metal is steel. Common ferrous metals include copper, zinc, aluminum, and lead. The best identifying indicator is rust. Chromium reacts with the iron element to make iron oxide which is the reddish brown substance known as rust. However, stainless steel does not rust easily as it has high content of oxygen, making it resistant to oxidation. Another characteristic of ferrous metals is high magnetism. Steel is the commonly used metal in large scale projects needing a lot of metal for example railways, industrial containers and automobile making. Another common test for ferrous metals is their tensile strength. They will attract a magnet. Non-ferrous metals are used where contact with water or moisture is likely. This includes gutters, drainages, roofing, piping, etc. This is because they do not rust and corrode which could weaken them. They are also malleable making them useful in applications like electronic circuits and dentistry. They are also non-magnetic making them ideal for electric cabling.
2. Are the sentences about ferrous and non-ferrous metals true or false? 1. Metals are divided into two groups. 2. Steel and copper are the examples of one and the same group. 3. Ferrous metals are corrosive because of the iron that they contain. 4. Rust is the result of oxidation reaction. 5. Non-ferrous metals are characterized by tensile strength and magnetism. 6. Ferrous metals are recommended for the usage in wet environment. Grammar Notes
Continuous tenses Perfect tenses Present Continuous Actions that are happening right now, but not happening forever or future actions am, is, are + present participle (Verb + –ing) Example: Metals are becoming more popular nowadays. Past Continuous Actions that happened at a specific time in the past was, were+ present participle (Verb + –ing) Example: The engineers were testing new equipment when they heard an explosion. Present Perfect Actions that happened at an unspecified time in the past has, have + past participle (Verb3) Example: Titanium has found surgical applications such as in joint replacements. Past Perfect Actions that took place/began before another action in the past had + past participle (Verb3) Example: Wood and stone had lost their popularity after metals appeared.
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. A general rule for continuous tenses is to be + verb-ing. 2. A general rule for perfect tenses is to have + verb-ed. 3. Continuous tenses perform completed actions. 4. Perfect tenses denote actions in progress. 5. There are no future tenses in the groups of continuous and perfect tenses. 6. Continuous and perfect tenses have future tenses but they are rarely used. 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the verbs in continuous or perfect tenses. 1. Copper prices ___ this month again. (double) 2. These days the Indonesian unit of Freeport-McMoran’s copper mine ___ for last-minute ministry approvals. (wait) 3. Wood and stone ___ people with all necessary things before gold, copper and silver came into use. (provide) 4. Manufactures ___ iron alloys in the manufacture while architects ___ metals in construction. (use, apply) Text 4.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 4.3. to bend – гнуть luster – блеск malleability – ковкость to scratch – царапать sonorous – акустический 1. Read the text and finalize each paragraph with the additional information. Use the questions for help. Metals properties The majority of elements listed in the periodic table are metals. These elements usually share three main properties: Luster: Metals are shiny when cut, scratched, or polished. What is the reason for the metals to be shiny or not? Why can metals look “glassy”, “waxy” or “dull”? 31
Malleability: Metals are strong but malleable, which means that they can be easily bent or shaped. For centuries, smiths have been able to shape metal objects by heating metal and pounding it with a hammer. Most metals are also ductile, which means they can be drawn out to make wire. What are the examples of metals that can be both malleable and ductile? Conductivity: Metals are excellent conductors of electricity and heat. Because they are also ductile, they are ideal for electrical wiring. What is the classification of materials according to their conductivity? Most metals have high melting points and all except mercury are solid at room temperature. They are also sonorous – they often make a ringing sound when hit. Metals share many characteristics, but they do not all have the same reactivity. Some metals do not react at all with other metals, and because of this they can be found in a pure form (examples are gold and platinum). Because copper is relatively inexpensive and has a low reactivity, it is useful for making pipes and wiring. Other metals are highly reactive and combine easily with other elements, such as oxygen.
Speaking Work in small groups. Compare metals and non-metals according to their luster, malleability, conductivity, state (solid, gaseous, liquid), ductility, density, sonorous ability. Mention about exceptions. Writing Make a composition on the topic “What is a metal?” Give some general information about metals and their properties, choose one of the industrial branches where metals are used and make a detailed description of it. Your composition should be about 180 words.
UNIT 5 CERAMICS Starter 1. Which of these words can be connected with ceramics? Check new words in your dictionary. alloy fire
bend china liquid rusty
2. Complete the questions with one of the words in Exercise 1. 1. Can you ____ ceramics without breaking? 2. Can ceramics ____ under stress? 3. Canceramics be produced in the form of ____ ? 4. Can you ____ ceramics in a home oven? 5. Can ceramic ____be used in high-temperature environments? What does can express in the questions: ability, permission or obligation? 3.
Now work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions from Exercise 2.
Reading Text 5.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 5.1. binder – вяжущее вещество clay – глина corrosion-resistant – коррозионно-стойкий to fuse – плавить, соединять heat-resistant – жаропрочный
to mold – отливать в форму shrinkage – усадка to sinter – спекать, обжигать sol-gel – золь-гель superconductor – сверхпроводник
1. Read the text and organize information in a mind map over the text notes. Ceramics Ceramics can be defined as heat-resistant, nonmetallic, inorganic solids that are generally made up of compounds formed from metallic and nonmetallic elements. Although different types of ceramics can have very different properties, in general ceramics are corrosion-resistant and hard, but brittle. Most ceramics are also good insulators and can withstand high temperatures. These properties have led to their use in virtually every aspect of modern life. The two main categories of ceramics are traditional and advanced. Traditional ceramics include objects made of clay and cements that have been hardened by heating at high temperatures. Traditional ceramics are used in dishes, crockery, flowerpots, roof and wall tiles. Advanced ceramics include carbides, such as silicon carbide, SiC; oxides, such as aluminum oxide, Al2O3; nitrides, such as silicon nitride, Si3N4; and many other materials, including the mixed oxide ceramics that can act as superconductors. Advanced ceramics require modern processing techniques, and the development of these techniques has led to advances in medicine and engineering. The preparation of an advanced ceramic material usually begins with a finely divided powder that is mixed with an organic binder to help the powder consolidate, so that it can be molded into the desired shape. Before it is fired, the ceramic body is called "green". The green body is first heated at a low temperature in order to decompose or oxidize the binder. It is then heated to a high temperature until it is "sintered," or hardened, into a dense, strong ceramic. At this time, individual particles of the original powder fuse together as chemical bonds form between them. During sintering the ceramic may shrink by as much as 10 to 40 percent. Because shrinkage is not uniform, additional machining of the ceramic may be required in order to obtain a precise shape. Sol-gel technology allows better mixing of the ceramic components at the molecular level, and hence yields more homogeneous ceramics, because the ions are mixed while in solution. 2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - What are the properties of ceramics? - Ceramics are corrosion-resistant and hard, but brittle. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2. 34
Modal verbs Modal verbs (modals) are special verbs which give additional information about the function of the main verb. They are used to express ability, permission, possibility, obligation, advice, offer and so on. The most useful modals are can, may, must, need, should,shall, will. Here are some characteristics of modal verbs: They never change their form. You don't add "s", "ed", "ing". Example: Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or polycrystalline structure. They are always followed by an infinitive without "to". Example: Inorganic solids must meet special requirements. They are NEVER used with auxiliary verbs such as do, does, did, etc. The negative is formed simply by adding "not" after the verb; questions are formed by inversion of the verb and subject. Example: We should not define this compound material as a metal. Can heating harden the body of clay objects? 1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. Modal verbs express the speaker's attitude to the action. 2. Modal verbs form questions with the help of auxiliary verbs. 3. Modal verbs don't take -s- in the third person singular. 4. Modal verbs are followed by to-infinitive. 5. We use the modal can to make general statements about what is possible. 2. Fill in the gaps with can / may / must / need / will. 1. ____ I take your book “Clay: Contemporary Ceramic Artisans”? 2. We ____ divide these ceramics according to their properties and applications. 3. Nobody ____ worry about sintering process. 4. ____ you help me to mix two powders? 5. The ceramic product ____ be reliable and cost ____be optimized.
Text 5.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 5.2. bandwidth – полоса пропускания to ignite – воспламеняться impurity – примесь, включение interference – помеха
optical fiber – оптоволокно to scatter – рассеивать silica – диоксид кремния, кварц to splice – соединять, сращивать
1. Read the text. List basic pros and cons of optical fibers and copper cables. Optical fibers versus copper cables Optical fibers, used in modern optical communication systems are an example for the application of an advanced ceramic material. They are made of extremely high-purity silica, which must be free of even extremely small levels of impurities and other defects that would absorb, scatter or weaken a light beam. Sophisticated processing has been developed to produce fibers that meet the rigorous restrictions required for this application, but such processing is costly. Optical fibers started to replace some uses of copper cables in the 1970s, e.g. in telecommunications and cable TV. In these applications they are the preferred material, because the fibers carry signals more efficiently than copper cable and with a much higher bandwidth, which means that they can carry more channels of information over longer distances. For optical fibers, the longer transmission distances require fewer expensive repeaters. Also, copper cable uses more electrical power to transport the signals. In addition, optical fiber cables are much lighter and thinner (about 120 micrometers in diameter) than copper cables with the same bandwidth so that they take up less space in underground cabling ducts. It is difficult to steal information from optical fibers and they resist electromagnetic interference, e.g. from radio signals or lightning. Optical fibers don’t ignite so they can be used safely in flammable atmospheres, e.g. in petrochemical plants. Due to their required properties, optical fibers are more expensive per meter than copper. In addition, they can’t be spliced as easily as copper cable, thus special training is required to handle the expensive splicing and measurement equipment.
2. Are the sentences about optical fibers and copper cables true or false? 1. Optical fibers consist of silica. 2. Production of optical fibers is not expensive. 3. In telecommunication copper cables are widely used. 4. Copper cables have low bandwidth. 5. Fibers need less electrical power. 6. Fiber cables are thick. 7. Optical fibers can burn easily. 8. Copper cables can be spliced without difficulty. Text 5.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 5.3. creep resistance – устойчивость к ползучести fine powder – мелкодисперсный порошок melting – плавка pyroceram – стеклокерамика
slip casting – шликерное литьё thermal shock resistance – термостойкость toughness – вязкость welding – сварка
1. Read the text and match the headings (a, b, c) with the passages (1, 2, 3). a) Applications b) Properties c) Manufacturing Pyrocerams Pyrocerams or glass ceramics are widely used for ovenware. The covalently bonded silicon carbide, silicon nitride and silicon aluminum oxynitrides, or sialons (alloys of Si3N4 and Al2O3), are the best materials for high-temperature structural use. 1) The creep resistance of the materials is outstanding up to 1300 °C, and their low thermal expansion and high conductivity make them resist thermal shock well in spite of their typically low toughness, the thermal shock resistance being better than that of most other ceramics. Pyrocerams exhibit excellent resistance to corrosion, which accounts for their use in the chemical industry. 37
2) These materials are manufactured by the high-temperature reaction of silicon nitride with aluminum oxide. They can be formed by hot pressing fine powders and sintering them in the process, or slip casting followed by pressureless sintering, which provides greater shape and manufacturing flexibility. If the constituents are varied, the properties of the final ceramic vary too. However, continuous exposure to high temperatures can result in the material’s degrading back to these constituent parts. 3) Typical uses include burner and immersion heater tubes, injectors for nonferrous metals and protection tubes for nonferrous metal melting and welding fixtures. 2. Find the following words in the text. 1. A hard, brittle substance, typically transparent, made by fusing sand with soda and lime and cooling rapidly 2. An extremely hard bluish-black, crystalline substance produced by heating carbon with sand at a high temperature 3. A mixture of two or more metals 4. The process when the density of a material is increased by melting which forms bridges between particles 5. An act of applying force or weight to something 6. The quality of bending easily without breaking 7. Containing little or no iron 8. A compound of oxygen and another chemical element Speaking Work in pairs. Talk about ceramics as alternatives to traditional materials in your field of engineering. Think about opportunities and future replacement. Writing Write a paragraph about recent advances in ceramic technology. Compare Russian and foreign researches in this field.
UNIT 6 POLYMERS Starter
1. Look at the pictures with plastic products. Discuss why plastic has been chosen for each of these items. Example: Plastics are used for fuel tanks because they are resistant to chemicals. Fuel tanks have to be strong and last a long time, and plastics are durable. When speaking, pay attention to the verbs. Are they active or passive? What do you know about the category of voice? 2. Make a list of the properties of plastics that make them suitable materials for such a wide range of products. Reading Text 6.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 6.1. 39
aircraft engineering – авиастроение fiber composite – волокнистый композитный материал foamed – вспененный fuel consumption – расход топлива
jet – реактивное воздушное судно jumbo jet – широкофюзеляжное воздушное судно payload – полезная грузоподъемность wing box – кессон крыла
1. Read the text and decode the following shortenings: PU, PE, PS, PC, PP, ABS, PET. Ubiquitous plastics Plastics today Most people today don’t know there was a time before plastics. This was a time when a soccer ball still was made of leather, not foamed PU, and a surfboard was made of wood not PE. Today, yogurt tubes are made of PS, CDs of PC, shoes of PU, waste baskets of PP, computer keyboards of ABS, and soda bottles of PET. Plastics in aircraft engineering Jets have to be safe and airlines need planes that can fly economically. Consequently, the percentage of plastics integrated in jet planes is rising steadily. The development of the giant Airbus 380 has taken the use of plastics to a new level. For the first time in civil aviation, fiber composites were used to build wing boxes, which are the heart of any jet. Compared to a conventional aluminum structure, fiber composites help to reduce the total weight by 1.5 tons, which reduces fuel consumption while increasing payload and range. In comparison with the new jumbo jet, the proportion of plastics in an older Boeing is less than 5 %of the total weight. The A380 brings the figure up to 20 %, and in the Boeing 787, plastics make up more than half of the material used. Plastics as a Commodity For commodity manufacturers, plastic has become the material of choice for getting ahead of the competition. With its brightly colored iMac models, Apple proved that computers don’t have to be gray boxes. However, the greater the demands imposed by industry on plastics, the more expensive their manufacturing becomes. For this reason, industry is called on to develop corresponding methods that make the cost of manufacturing equal to or less than that of metallic materials. 40
2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - What was originally a soccer ball made of? - It was made of leather. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2. Grammar Notes
Passive voice We choose a passive structure when we focus on the action itself rather than who performs the action (the agent). The passive form is the verb TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE. Example: Plastics are also called polymers. The present perfect continuous, the past perfect continuous, the future perfect continuous and the future continuous are not normally used in the passive. We can use by to mention who performs an action. Example: Smart polymers were invented by scientists from Cleveland University. We can use the passive to describe a process, system or procedure. Example: The new methods for plastics manufacturing have been developed.
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. The passive helps to emphasize the agent of a sentence. 2.The subject of the passive sentences does nothing. 3. The doer of the action is introduced with the preposition by. 4. There is only one passive form in the perfect continuous. 5. We form the present simple passive with is / are and participle II of the main verb. 2. Use this chart to make true sentences. Put the verbs into the correct passive form.
1. The quality characteristics of polyurethane 2. These products 3. Polyester 4. Around 38 billion of plastic water bottles 5. The plastic resin
to patent to check to throw away to form to make out of recycled plastic
next month. each year. already. now. in 1941.
Text 6.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 6.2. adhesive material – адгезив, клеящее вещество counterpart – аналог enzyme– энзим, фермент
protein – белок starch – крахмал thermoset – реактопласт, термореактивная пластмасса
1. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the box in their correct form. animal application cotton industry molecule plant produce property rubber silk synthetic
Naturally occurring and synthesized polymers Naturally occurring polymers, those derived from plants and animals, have been used for many centuries, for example wood, ………… , ………… , ………… . Other natural polymers such as proteins, enzymes, starches and cellulose are important in biological and physiological processes in ………… and ………… . With modern research tools it is possible to determine the molecular structures of these groups of materials and to develop numerous polymers that are synthesized from small organic ………… referred to as monomers. ………… polymers and, to a limited extent, biopolymers form the basis for plastics, rubbers, thermosets, fibers and adhesive and coating materials. Most monomers for such polymers are the products of the petrochemical …………. . For such applications, as well as for the structural function of some biopolymers in nature, adequate mechanical ………… such as stiffness and strength are required. The synthetics 42
can be ………… inexpensively, and their properties may be controlled so that many are superior to their natural counterparts. In some ………… , metal and wood parts have been replaced by plastics, which have satisfactory properties and may be produced at lower costs. 2. Are the sentences about naturally occurring and synthesized polymers true or false? 1. Cotton is an example of a synthesized polymer. 2. Animals do not need natural polymers. 3. Monomer is a molecule. 4. Synthetic polymers are derived from petrochemical products. 5. Properties of natural polymers may be controlled. 6. Stiffness and strength are physical properties. 7. Synthesized polymers are more expensive than natural polymers. 8. Sometimes plastics can be used instead of metals. Text 6.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 6.3. die – головка, мундштук extrusion – экструзия, прессование film – пленка heat stability – термостойкость
injection molding – литье под давлением mold – литейная форма to solidify – затвердевать thermoplastic – термопласт, термопластмасса
1. Read the text and put the words in bold into the correct places. Processing of polymers Plastics can be injected in many ways, e.g. some polymeric materials can be cast like metals, i.e. a molten material is poured into a mold and allowed to solidify. This pressure can be applied for both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics, the latter being same cured in the mold to cool the thermoset. Extrusion Thermoplasts can also be extruded. Plastic chips are filled in a metal containing a screw. The polymer is then heated by heating elements so that it 43
melts. The screw forces the resulting resin through a die, which forms it into a special shape and lets the material become. This kind of processing produces, e.g. tubes, pipes, rods, and sheets or films. Injection Molding Injection molding is used to manufacture both, thermoplastic and thermosetting materials. The first steps are the then as in extrusion. The molten polymer is shaped at high pressure into the mold and kept under process, until it has solidified. Then the mold is opened and the piece is ejected. The molds are made from chamber, usually either steel or aluminum, and shaped to the desired form of the finished articles, e.g. garden chairs. 2. Match the words (1-8) with their definitions (a-h). 1. aluminum 2. article 3. chip 4. to cure 5. to melt 6. resin 7. rod 8. screw
a. a thin straight bar b. to make or become liquefied by heat c. a small piece of something removed in the course of cutting or breaking a hard material d. a solid or liquid synthetic organic polymer e. a threaded cylindrical pin with a head at one end f. a particular item or object g. a chemical element of atomic number 13, a light silvery-grey metal h. to harden after manufacture by a chemical process such as vulcanization
Speaking Look at the pie chart showing the different sectors which use plastics. Brainstorm these sectors in pairs or small groups. What is the largest sector?
Writing Use the verbs in the box in the passive voice and the notes to write a composition about Plastics in mechanical engineering. achieve fit improve mould perceive produce reduce replace shape use
steel and metal alloys engineering plastics mechanical strength and precision benefits machine output gears, supports, sliding elements, valve
UNIT 7 COMPOSITES Starter 1. Read the names of the materials and guess which of them are the composites? Aluminum, steel, minerals, fiberglass, brass, gold, titanium alloys, glass, rubber, concrete, porcelain, plastics, magnetic alloys, carbon fiber, Kevlar, wood. 2. Look at the information below and match the pictures with the names of the composite types and their descriptions. a.
1. A material with chopped or continuous fibers.
2. A material with embedded particles.
3. A material with two or more layers of different materials that bonded together.
Give the definitions of the composite types mentioned above, use the relative pronouns which or that. Why isn’t it possible to use the relative pronoun who?
Reading Text 7.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 7.1. to embed – вставлять, внедрять fiber – волокно foil – фольга
gravel – гравий rod – стержень stuff – вещество
1. Read the text and choose the best title (a, b, c, d) for the text. a) What is the history of a composite material? b) What is a "mackintosh”? c) What is a composite material? d) What is the reason for composites creating? ___________________ ? A composite is any material made of at least two other materials. There are many composites around you. Concrete is a composite. It is made of cement, gravel and sand, and often has steel rods inside to make it stronger. Those shiny balloons you get in the hospital when you are sick are made of a composite, which consists of a polyester sheet and an aluminum foil sheet, made into a sandwich. These are composites made from polymers, or from polymers along with other kinds of materials. One of the most common types is fiber-reinforced composites. These are materials in which a fiber made of one material is embedded in another material. Why would we do this? Let's find out ... One of the first fiber-reinforced polymer composites made by humans was a raincoat, created in the middle of the nineteenth century, by a Scottish fellow by the name of Charles Macintosh, who came up with a clever idea ... He took two layers of cotton fabric and embedded them in natural rubber, making a three-layered sandwich. This made for good raincoats because, while the rubber made it waterproof, the cotton layers made it comfortable to wear. To this day, a raincoat in Britain is referred to as a "mackintosh". You see, that's why we make composites: to make a material that acts like both of its parts. In this case, we combine the water-resistance of rubber and the comfort of cotton. 47
2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - How many materials should a composite include? - A composite should be made of at least two other materials. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2. Grammar Notes
Relative pronouns Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses. The most common relative pronouns are who, which, that. The relative pronoun we use depends on what we are referring to and the type of a relative clause. 1. We use who in relative clauses to refer to people. Example: Charles Macintosh, who came up with a clever idea, is famous in Great Britain. 2. We use which in relative clauses to refer to things. Example: One of the first fiber-reinforced polymer composites made by humans was a raincoat, which was created in the middle of the nineteenth century. 3. We use that instead of who or which in relative clauses to refer to people and things. That is more informal than who or which. Example: Charles Macintosh, that came up with a clever idea, is famous in Great Britain. One of the first fiber-reinforced polymer composites made by humans was a raincoat, that was created in the middle of the nineteenth century.
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. There are only three relative pronouns. 2. Whose and whom are relative pronouns. 3. Who, which and that are the most commonly used relative pronouns. 4. Which and that are for people. 5. Who and that are for things.
2. Fill in the gapps with thee correct reelative pro onouns. 1. The T new material m m be preeferred forr many reeasons: coommon ex may xamples incluude materrials ___ are a stronger, lighterr, or less expensive e when com mpared to trraditional materials. m 2. Composite C es have particular p strengthss and weeaknesses ___ sho ould be conssidered at the speciffying stagee. 3. Engineers ___ _ work with mateerials are called c matterial enginneers. 4. Fiber-reinf F forced plaastics havve captureed marketts ___ loow weight, anticorrrosive prooperties, loow mainttenance, and a a neeed for preefabricated d parts, com mbined witth very good mechannical prop perties, aree required and valueed. 5. Modern M m materials _ ___ are combined c with carbbon and synthetic fibers, creaate sophisticated poossibilitiess for matterial subsstitution aand thus replace steell productss. Text 7.2 t vocabuulary for Text T 7.2. Study the constittuent – сосставная часть ч discontinuous – прерывисстый fiber reeinforced compositee – компоозиционны ый матери иал, армированный волокнам ми matrix – матриц ца, вяжущ щее вещесство
laminar l coomposite – слоисты ый композиц к ционный м материал particulate p e compositte – композиц к ционный м материал с порошков п вым наполлнителем м reinforcem r ment – арм мированиее
1. Read the text and decoode the folllowing sh horteningss: Cs, FRP P, OMCs, CMCs, MMCss. Classificcation of composite c es Composiite materrials are commonlly classiffied at followingg distinct levels: • The firsst level off classificaation is ussually mad de with respect to the matrix constituennt. The major compositte classes include organic o maatrix comp posites, metal matrix m com mposites and a ceram mic matrix compositees. • The seccond levell of classification refers r to the reinfoorcement form – fiber reinforced r d composiites, laminnar comp posites annd particuulate comp posites. Fiber reinforcedd compossites can be furth her divideed into tthose con ntaining discontinuous orr continuoous fibers. 49
• Fiber reinforced composites are composed of fibers embedded in matrix material. Such a composite is considered to be a discontinuous fiber or short fiber composite if its properties vary with fiber length. Fibers are small in diameter and when pushed axially, they bend easily although they have very good tensile properties. These fibers must be supported to keep individual fibers from bending and buckling. • Laminar composites are composed of layers of materials held together by matrix. Sandwich structures fall under this category. • Particulate composites are composed of particles distributed or embedded in a matrix body. The particles may be flakes or in powder form. Concrete and wood particle boards are examples of this category. 2. Are the sentences about classification of composites true or false? 1. One group of composites is based on matrix. 2. The group based on the reinforcement form includes four types of composites. 3. Laminar composites are divided into discontinuous or continuous fibers. 4. The properties of FRP depend on fiber diameter. 5. Laminar composites have sandwich structure. 6. The particles of particulate composites have the size of a grain. Text 7.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 7.3. appliance – прибор, приспособление application – применение chemical-resistant – устойчивый к химическим реагентам to utilize – использовать 1. Read the text and match the headings (a-i) with the passages (1-9). a) Business f) Corrosion-resistant equipment b) Construction g) Civil infrastructure c) Transportation h) Consumer d) Aircraft/Military i) Electrical e) Marine
Composites application Composites are no longer considered "space-age" materials utilized only for space shuttles. This material has become a part of everyday life. 1) ___ Commercial, pleasure and military planes, including components for aerospace and related applications. 2) ___ Composite applications for the household and office including appliances, power tools, business equipment, etc. 3) ___ The largest of the markets, products include parts for automobiles, trucks, rail and farm applications. 4) ___ A relatively new market for composites, these applications include the repair and replacement of structures including buildings, roads, bridges, etc. 5) ___ Includes materials for the building of homes, offices, and architectural components. 6) ___ Products include sports and equipment such as golf clubs, tennis rackets, snowmobiles, furniture, microwave cookware. 7) ___ Products for chemical-resistant service such as tanks, pumps, fans, chemical processing, paper, oil and gas, and water/wastewater treatment markets. 8) ___ This encompassing market includes components for both electrical and electronic applications such as pole line hardware, substation equipment, microwave antennas, printed wiring boards, etc. 9) ___ Products for commercial, pleasure and naval boats and ships. Speaking Think about an exact application of a composite in one of the industrial branches. Make a short report about it. Present a composite material, its components, its properties and the examples of its application. 51
Writing Write a composition “Composites in everyday life”. Describe some of the objects that you use regularly which are made of composite materials. Imagine the same things but they are not made of composites. Would there be an opportunity of their existence? Emphasize the importance of composites.
UNIT 8 SMART MATERIALS Starter 1. What does the word smart mean for you? • neat • sensible • clever • fashionable
2. Look at the ‘smart things’in the box. Which of them are real / imaginary? smart board smart home
smart bronze smart coating smart gear smart grid smart lever smart material smart phone smart shape
Speak about the ways of describing real / unreal / situations in the present, past, and future. Reading Text 8.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 8.1. actuator – актуатор (исполнительное устройство) chiralpolymer – хиральный полимер dielectric elastomer – диэлектрический эластомер fluid – жидкость neural network – нейронная сеть
photochromic lens – фотохромная линза shape memory alloy – сплав с памятью формы stimuli – воздействие, влияние stress – напряжение structural material – конструкционный материал
1. Read the text and choose the best title (a, b, c, d) for the text. a) Smart materials. b) Smart materials and structures. c) Smart technologies. d) Applications of smart materials. 53
______________________? In recent years, there have been significant developments in the science and applications of smart, or ‘intelligent’, materials. These can be defined as materials with one or more properties (e.g. mechanical, thermal, optical, or electromagnetic properties) that can be varied in a predictable or controllable way in response to external stimuli, such as, for example, stress, temperature, moisture, pH and electric or magnetic fields. Such materials are now used in a vast number of applications, from photochromic lenses for sunglasses to military and aerospace uses. Smart structures incorporate smart materials and exhibit one or more of the following features: sensors or actuators which are either embedded withina structural material or else bonded to the surface of that material; control capabilities which permit the behaviour of the material to respond to an external stimulus according to a prescribed functional relationship or control algorithm. A smart structure is thus an integrated system comprising actuators, sensors and a control system. At a more sophisticated level, smart materials become intelligent when they have the ability to respond intelligently and autonomously to dynamically-changing environmental conditions. The technologies encompassed by intelligent materials are very diverse and include electrorheological fluids, fibrous materials, ceramics, photonics, microsensors, signal processing, piezoelectrics, dielectric elastomers, biomimetics, shape memory alloys, neural networks, nanotechnology, conducting and chiral polymers, liquid crystals, microactuators, biotechnology and information processing. 2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - What is the second name of smart materials? - They are intelligent materials. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2.
Conditionals A conditional is a sentence that states a condition and the result of that condition. A condition is something that can only happen IF something else occurs. A conditional sentence contains an independent clause (main clause) and a dependent clause that almost always begins with “IF” (if-clause). The if-clause can move before and after the main clause. When it comes before the main clause, the two clauses are separated with a comma. Example: If you are a materials engineer, you develop, process, and test materials. or You develop, process, and test materials if you are a materials engineer. There are 4 main types of conditional sentences: Zero Conditional Present, real situations
if + present simple, … present simple Example: If there is ever a time to learn about piezoelectrics, it is now. First Conditional Future, real situations
if + present simple, … will + infinitive Example: Ifyou bend or stretch this material, it will not break easily. Second Conditional Present or future unreal, imaginary situations
if + past simple, … would + infinitive Example: If this machine was made of a smart metal, a minor accident would be repaired by leaving the machine in the sun. Third Conditional Past unreal, imaginary situations
if + past perfect, … would + have + past participle Example: If you had used hydrogel-based microsensors, you would have measured all necessary quantities.
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. There are three ways to express that something is dependent on something else. 2. We can change the order of the clauses. 3. The if clause introduces a result. 4. The first conditional expresses less probable situations in the future. 5. The third conditional refers to theoretical past situations. 55
2. Complete the conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs. 1. If you this element above a critical temperature, it back to its originally remembered shape. (heat, spring) 2. If I the apparatus two days ago, I the properties of fibrous materials. (not break, test) 3. If a material to some stimulus in a useful, reliable, reproducible and reversible manner, it smart. (react, be) 4. If Anna this feature of the alloy, she it into another. (know, change) 5. If we new plastics materials, we the weight of this device. (use, reduce) Text 8.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 8.2. fatigue– усталость, находиться в состоянии усталости lightweight – легковесный repeated deformation – циклическая деформация
space probe – космический зонд stainless steel – нержавеющая сталь surgical tool – хирургический инструмент
1. Read the text and choose one of the variants from the brackets. Shape memory alloys The shape-memory effect was discovered in a gold-cadmium alloy by Arne Olander in the 1930s, but practical shape-memory alloys (also called SMAs, muscle wires, memory metals, and smart metals) only started to become popular in the early 1960s after the development of nitinol at the US Naval Ordnance Laboratory (nitinol actually stands for Nickel(a. Copper, b. Titanium, c. Molybdenum) Naval Ordnance Laboratory). Several decades later, shape-memory alloys are a popular choice for all kinds of medical and health-related (a. technology, b. production, c. equipment), including everything from dental (a. implants, b. pipes, c. scanners) to surgical tools. Unlike plastics, metals, and traditional alloys, shape-memory alloys are both strong and (a. durable, b. available, c. flexible), easy to sterilize, and corrosionresistant too. Being lightweight, tough, and capable of operating at high temperatures, they're also widely used in aerospace components in such things as space rockets and space probes. 56
Shape-memory alloys do have some drawbacks: they fatigue (break after repeated deformations) much more readily than ordinary stainless steel and they're notably more expensive (a. to design, b. to manufacture, c. to service) than traditional steel or aluminum alloys. 2. Are the sentences about shape memory alloys true or false? 1. Arne Olander was the first who observed the shape-memory effect. 2. Shape-memory alloys have a wide variety of applications in medicine. 3. It isn’t possible to work with SMAs at high temperatures. 4. Shape-memory alloys cannot be broken. 5. Aluminum alloys are cheaper than SMAs. Text 8.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 8.3. conductive material – проводящий материал graphene – графен self-assembling – самособираемый
sonar – гидроакустический Terfenol-D – терфенол-д waterproof– водонепроницаемый, водоотталкивающий
1. Read the text and answer the questions that are in the title, give your explanation. Amazing materials: what’s next? what else could they change? Imagine a world where you can spray a conductive material on any object and create an antenna. What if you could coat your smart phone with a material that is so waterproof that dropping it in a bath tub wouldn’t cause any harm to it. That world is here, thanks to the rise of smart materials. Smart materials are extraordinary materials. Changing shape and color isn’t the only strength of smart materials. Scientists and researchers are making super strong materials like graphene, which is a special form of the carbon element. You might be able to use graphene to make skyscraper superstructures, since it is very strong. In fact, it is 200 times stronger that structural steel. Another kind of smart material is Terfenol-D. It is a metal and it’s a smart material because, in a particular magnetic field, it can change shape up to 20,000 times a second! This smart metal can be used for anything involving rapid motion, and could be the next generation sonar technology. 57
Whhen you combine c 3D Printing techn nology with speciaal smart materials, m amazing things happpen. 4D D printing is pioneering the field of self-assem mbling sm mart mateerials. 4D D printing is i a proceess in which you caan 3D prin nt a materrial, and ggiven som me kind off energy, it i will asssemble intto an object all by y itself. This T kind of techno ology willl revolutionnize the manufactur m ring indusstry, as weell as construction annd infrastrructure. 2. Choosee the best definitionn for wordds in the teext. 1. enerrgy: a) the physical p o mental strength or s thhat allows you to doo things b) usabble power that comees from heeat, electriicity, etc. c) natuural enthussiasm and effort 2. harm m: a) actuual or potential ill efffects or daanger b) material damaage c) physsical injurry, especiaally that which w is deeliberatelyy inflicted 3. rise:: a) an inncrease inn number, size, amouunt, or deg gree b) an upward u moovement c) an innstance off social, coommercial, or politiical advanncement 4. strenngth: a) a goood or benneficial quaality or atttribute of a person or o thing b) the quality q or state of being b physsically stro ong c) the capacity c o an objecct or substtance to withstand of w g great forcee or pressu ure 5. supeerstructuree: a) a cooncept or idea basedd on otherss b) a paart of a shiip above thhe main deck d c) a paart of a buiilding aboove the fouundation Speakingg Work witth a partner. Choose one of the t new materials m inn the box. Think off the wayss it can be used in yoour field of o study. Compare C your y ideas with the oother studeents.
M METAL FOA AM
AMORPH HOUS ALLO OY
Writing Write an essay on “Advanced materials in engineering”. Try to use each of the following: • 150 – 180 words • two types of conditional sentences • four terms from the box biomaterials carbon deformation external stimuli integrated circuits lasers nano-engineered materials semiconductors stress smart materials shape memory alloys traditional materials
UNIT 9 ART CASTING Starter 1. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of the verb. remove
1. Foundries _______ with a large number of materials. 2. A number of foundries _______ on practically 100 per cent scrap. 3. There _______ two kinds of fire clays: flint clays and plastic clays. 4. The foundries _______ the relatively pure metals to produce the desired alloys. 5. The distillation process _______ all of the volatile material from the coal. Reading Text 9.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 9.1. abundance – изобилие, избыток, множество adornment – украшение execution – выполнение, достижение, использование extraordinary – выдающийся, исключительный to imply – означать, предполагать peculiarity – особенность, своеобразие pliancy – гибкость, эластичность weapon – орудие, оружие 1. Read the text and answer the following questions. - What civilizations practiced art casting in ancient times? What was this process used for? - What metals were preferable for treatment and why? 60
Antique and artwork metal casting Art casting is an ancient method of creating statues and sculptures that has been in practice in Meso-America, China, and Ancient Egypt since 2000 BC. The Greeks practiced it, so did the Romans, and pretty much. The lost wax casting process is the preferred method used when art casting. This process was used in ancient times to create bronze items. Small foundries like the type found in backyards, personnel workshops, and garages are able to use the lost wax casting process with a certain amount of professionalism. There are lots of metal castings available in the form of art and craft work, like art metal casting, decorative metal casting, antique metal casting, decorative crafted art work casting items, antique casting items, fine art casting products and more which are perfect for decoration purpose in home and work place. Discovery of the metals and the means of working them are the two major developments in the history of human civilization. The names generally given to the three prehistoric periods of man's life on the earth – the Stone, the Bronze and the Iron age – imply the vast importance of the progressive steps from the flint knife to the bronze celt, and lastly to the keen-edged elastic iron weapon or tool. Gold, silver, copper, tin, iron and lead were most popularly used metals in primitive ages. Their peculiarities have naturally marked out each of them for special uses and methods of treatment. The durability and the extraordinary ductility and pliancy of gold, its power of being subdivided, drawn out or flattened into wire or leaf of almost infinite fineness, have led to its being used for works where great minuteness and delicacy of execution were required; while its beauty and rarity have, for the most part, limited its use to objects of adornment and luxury, as distinct from those of utility. In a lesser degree most of the qualities of gold are shared by silver, and consequently the treatment of these two metals has always been very similar, though the greater abundance of the latter metal has allowed it to be used on a larger scale and for a greater variety of purposes. 2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - What is the preferred method used when art casting? - It is the lost wax casting process. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2.
The infinitive The infinitive is the root form of the verb. There are two kinds of infinitive: a) the to-infinitive Example: to create, to use b) the bare infinitive which is the root form of the verb without to, Example: create, use The to-infinitive is used: • after verbs such as advise, agree, decide, expect, hope, manage, offer, promise, refuse, seem, want, etc. Example: We decided to create a bronze sculpture. • with too and enough Example: The wax pattern wasn’t proper enough to insure the flow of metal.
to express purpose. Example: The pouring cup is carefully attached to the wax pattern to control the metal solidification. The bare infinitive is used:
after modal verbs (can, must, etc.). Example: We can leave a highly detailed positive image of the sculpture.
after the verbs let and make. Example: It lets us use many of the same tools the artist used.
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. The infinitive is the root form of the noun. 2. There are only two kinds of infinitive. 3. The to-infinitive isn’t used after too and enough. 4. After modal verbs we can use to-infinitive. 5. After the verbs let and make we don’t use to. 2. Write what the following words/phrases are followed by: to-infinitive (T.I.) or bare infinitive (B.I.). Make up your own sentences with the words.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
could + agree + let + must + want + learn + decide + promise +
make + seem + expect + can’t + it is nice + hope + may + advice +
Example: The shells still containing wax must be placed into the kiln and heated to 1600˚F. Text 9.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 9.2. comprehensive – всесторонний, обширный to dedicate – посвящать, предназначать to fabricate – придумывать, изготовлять to restore – восстанавливать, реставрировать to utilize – использовать, расходовать 1. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the box. use
unlock notice repair
PolichTallix Recently, the 3D Systems printing ecosystem was utilized by the PolichTallix Fine Art Foundry in Rock Tavern, New York, a museum dedicated to helping artists 1_________ and produce their own work. If you happened to visit the museum, which has been operating for nearly 50 years, you would have no choice but to 2_________ the grandiose sculptures being casted, fabricated, and now, even 3D printed. 63
PolichTallix has developed an expansive digital production sector, implementing a complete digital workflow that is handled by their 3D Artist and Production Specialist, Daniel Plonski. Their process starts with a 3D scan of their client’s idea or artwork, which is then transferred into 3D Systems’ Geomagic software, a comprehensive reverse engineering software that swiftly prepares 3D scan data for CAD modeling. In PolichTallix’s case, they 3_________ Geomagic as part of a scan-to-print workflow, making surfaces from points, matching 3D scans, filling holes, and more. According to Plonski, who attributes much of his work with PolichTallix as research and development, the fine art foundry is still working to 4________ the full potential of 3D printing technology. But, what the museum has proved to us thus far at least, is that 3D printing and 3D scanning technology can certainly 5_________ in tandem as a tool to 6__________ and restore the finest works of art. 2. Are the sentences about PolichTallix true or false? 1. PolichTallix has developed an expansive digital production sector. 2. Geomagic allows artists and clients to review and rework their ideas. 3. Their 3D Systems Projet 3500 CPX wax printer can’t bring the 3D scanned artwork into form. 4. The printer is used for producing smooth, high-resolution 3D prints. 5. The fine art foundry is still working to lock the full potential of 3D printing technology. Text 9.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 9.3. to dewax – удалять парафин hollow core – полый сердечник mold – литейная форма to pour – лить, разливать to sandblast – обдувать песочной струёй shell – оболочка, корпус to sustain – испытывать, претерпевать wax – воск, парафин 1. Read the text. Write down unknown words with transcription into your mini dictionary. Learn them by heart. 64
Lost wax casting process Lost-wax process, also called cire-perdue (Fr.), is a method of metal casting in which a molten metal is poured into a mold that has been created by means of a wax model. Once the mold is made, the wax model is melted and drained away. A hollow core can be effected by the introduction of a heat-proof core that prevents the molten metal from totally filling the mold. Common on every continent except Australia, the lost-wax method dates from the 3rd millennium BC and has sustained few changes since then. The lost wax process has been used since ancient times and produces exacting, finely detailed reproductions of the original work. Art castings of Colorado uses the lost wax casting process to cast both bronze and stainless steel sculptures. Many other foundries use the lost wax casting process but most of art castings clients will tell you that there are many things that clearly sets them apart from the competition. The basic steps are the same whether you are creating stainless steel or bronze artwork – make a mold, pour the wax, “chase” the wax, create a ceramic shell, dewax and pour the metal, sandblast the cast metal, weld all the pieces together, chase the metal, apply patina and mount it to a base. 2. Match the halves of each sentence and translate them. 1. At this point the wax is “Lost” leaving a hollow ceramic shell that is ready … 2. Art casting will apply various finishes and chemicals to the surface of the bronze … 3. Every piece is hand-crafted … 4. After dewaxing we pour the molten metal into the shell and allow it … 5. This wax replica will be used … A B C D E
to cool. to ensure they create the desired color effect that the artist desires. to create a bronze sculpture that will be an exact replica of the artist’s original. to accept the molten bronze. to match the exact size and proportions of the original.
Speaking Work in groups. Each group prepares a small talk about 3D printing and 3D scanning in art casting. Use the Internet or a library to find ideas. Begin with: 3D System opens up a world of possibilities … 65
Writing Use the phrases in the box to write a report about decorative metal casting. Start with ancient methods of creating statues, discovery of the metals and the means of working and conclude with modern practices of creating fine art using metal casting processes. to create a bronze sculpture antique casting items the exact size and proportions of the original molten metal the extraordinary ductility a hollow ceramic shell a level of welding metal chasing to use on a large scale to decorate homes and work places
UNIT 10 FORGING Starter 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Add your own ideas. • Forged items decorate the interior of any dwelling, making it to be unique and accentuating a delicate taste of the home owners. • In the garden – aesthetically acceptable staircase made of metal, openwork grates decorate not only windows, but the facades of the building as well … Reading Text 10.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 10.1. anvil – наковальня blacksmith – кузнец, кузнечный hammer – молот, кувалда
hereditary – потомственный plow – плуг sword – меч, шпага, сабля
1. Read the text. Find participles and translate the sentences with them in writing. Artistic forging Blacksmithing is one of the oldest crafts, consisting of rather complex technological processes. They necessitated the equipment of special premises – smithies equipped with forge and bellows, as well as a variety of forging tools (anvil, mites, hammers, files, etc.). Because of the increased fire danger, smithies were always located on the outskirts of settlements. Therefore, the blacksmiths residing on the outskirts seemed mysterious to neighbours, often considered shamans, and sometimes – sorcerers associated with evil forces. At the same time, it was believed in Russian villages that the smith can not only forge a plow or a sword, but also treat illnesses, arrange weddings, tell fortunes, drive away evil spirits. 67
People, though afraid of smiths, but respected them, giving due to the necessary for this profession qualities – strength, agility and courage. Blacksmithing was widespread in ancient Russian cities and villages. Russian blacksmiths possessed all the basic techniques of processing iron, copper and its alloys, as well as silver and gold. Everything that was required in everyday life was produced – axes, knives, hoops for barrels and tubs, nails, sickles, shovels, frying pans, massive riveted sheets of boilers, various locks (from simple to complex, with intricate mechanisms) and many other products. In blacksmith workshops weapons and military equipment was forged – swords, spears, helmets, chain mails. Blacksmiths could do fine work, producing decorative things and jewellery. Until the 19th century, technology of forging of metal practically did not change. With the development of scientific and technological progress, the blacksmith's hand-made business was displaced by the factory production line with hydraulic hammers and rolling mills. However, even today forge craftsmen are retaining, for example, handmade art forging and making piece products. In the very center of Vladimir, there is an operating smithy of the hereditary blacksmiths Borodins, which today is the center of conservation of blacksmith's craft and folk traditions. In the forge of Borodins ancient and modern works of decorative and applied art are presented. They are executed both in the traditions of Russian folk forging and in new techniques of jewellery forging. Blacksmiths Borodins participate in all-Russian and international art exhibitions. 2. Ask the questions to the phrases in bold. Example: - What does blacksmithing consist of? - It consists of rather complex technological processes. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2.
The participle The two types of participle in English are traditionally called the present participle (forms such as writing, singing and raising) at times, these are used independently also, and the past participle (forms such as written, sung and raised; regular participles such as the last, as well as some irregular ones, have the same form as the finite past tense). Past participles are sometimes used as adjectives. Example: They are forging a horseshoe for luck. Mechanized hammers are used in manufacturing facilities. Participles may correspond to the active voice (active participles), where the modified noun is taken to represent the agent of the action denoted by the verb; or to the passive voice (passive participles), where the modified noun represents the patient of that action. Participles are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses.
Participle I (Present Participle)
Participle II (Past Participle)
Using - использующий
Being used использующийся
Perfect Participle Having used использовавшийся Having been used после того как использовали
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. There are many types of participle in English. 2. The participle is a non-finite form of the verb having some adjectival and adverbial characteristics. 3. Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb. 4. Like other parts of the verb, participles can be either active or passive. 5. Participles are sometimes used as adverbs. 2. Complete the following sentences with the participles in the box.
made creating forged (3) used
1. _______ gates, fences, window grates and other items _______ by our craftsmen, will take an equitable position at your place, apartment, office. 2. Art forging allows ________ any ________ items to your taste. 3. A large number of items ________ in daily life require metal parts, which are ________ by the manufacturer. 4. People, though afraid of smiths, but respected them, ________ due to the necessary for this profession qualities. 5. In Russia it was the nail that was ________ the symbol of the beginning and the end of the house's construction. Text 10.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 10.2. beeswax – пчелиный воск brass – латунь collar – ожерелье
indestructible – неразрушимый linseed – льняное семя to withstand – выдерживать, противостоять
1. Read the text. Choose the correct answer to the questions and add more information from the text. What is the purpose of the text?
- to describe chemical properties of the metals - to advise how to forge bronze - to give general information about metal forging What is the main goal when forging metals? - to create artworks for interior and exterior decorating - to shape metals using localized compressive force - to develop art craft ironwork
Forged metals Almost all metals can be forged: iron, copper, bronze. Iron (mild steel) is the material used most commonly. Copper and brass give nice accents to iron, for instance as collars or leaves. It is seldom used on its own. Bronze is a most precious choice. It develops a beautiful patina and is almost indestructible by wind and weather. This aura of elegance and preciousness however comes at a price. Not only is the material very expensive. It also takes more skill to be forged. An additional metal that came into fashion in recent years for more contemporary art pieces is stainless steel. Iron will rust over time. This oxidation process is faster outside than inside, and faster in humid than in dry climates. Interior wrought iron can also be sealed with bees wax or various oils instead of modern lacquer coatings. The black of old forged iron was achieved by applying beeswax to the hot iron. This gives a nice satin black finish. Using linseed oil the black tends towards blue, a form of gun blueing. Copper is stable even outside. It will get brown and than black in months to a year and green after decades. If the typical reddish copper color is preferred it can be polished and clear coated. Although, the polished appearance will not last forever. Bronze typically is just polished and left alone to withstand the elements. It will develop a unique greenish patina that everybody knows from the statues that adorn old city's gardens and squares. 2. Are the sentences about forged metals true or false? 1. All metals can be forged. 2. Bronze is seldom used on its own. 3. Brass takes more skill to be forged. 4. The black of old forged iron was achieved by applying beeswax to the cold iron. 5. Copper gets black and then green after decades. Text 10.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 10.3. fireplace – камин forged iron – прокованное железо gates – ворота in demand – востребованный, пользующийся спросом ironwork – оковка, декоративные кованые изделия, чугунные украшения 71
1. Read the text and complete it with the phrases (a-e). a. durable furniture and beautiful sculpture b. as well as architectural work and furniture c. or wrought iron as it also commonly known d. and very prestigious and trendy e. from the twelfth to the seventeenth century Forged art ________ , forging process expended tremendously, and some of the finest examples of forged art come from that era. In the consequent time ironwork has only continued growing in popularity and prestige. Art craft ironwork became highly desirable for interior and exterior decorating 2________ . Ornamental ironwork become extremely popular in Europe, and soon spread all over the globe. Forged iron, 3________ , historically has been worked by blacksmiths. Using hammers and anvils blacksmith masters forge iron to certain shapes to produce a very wide range of products such as weapons, locks and gates. Wrought iron makes the strongest gates, 4________ . Iron's natural characteristics to take pretty much any shape, offers an excellent platform for art. Simply put, a blacksmith master is an artist. Forged metal is never outdated, always in demand, 5________ . Iron gates, railings, furniture, light fixtures, fireplace tools and accessories, and wrought iron sculpture add charm and value to your home, park, or business. Forged iron is a real art. 1
2. Organize information in a mind map over the text notes. Speaking Work in small groups. Talk about hand forged and machine made products, their advantages and disadvantages. How was the work done in the past? How is it done now? Writing Identify the following forged products. Write a short report about a wide range of blacksmith masters products.
UNIT 11 FILIGREE Starter 1. Read and translate the following sentences. 1. You can find him in the workshop any time between six and nine. 2. Nowadays, a wide variety of brooches, hairpins, and earrings are available in the market which is greatly loved by people. 3. After the 18th century, this filigree already had its own distinctive imaginary, motives and shapes. What are the underlined words in the sentences? State their functions. Reading Text 11.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 11.1. garnet – гранат openwork – ажурный орнамент gemstone – драгоценный камень, самоцвет pearl – жемчуг lace – кружево sapphire – сапфир jewellery – драгоценности, ювелирные украшения, ювелирное дело 1. Read the text and answer these questions. 1. When did the history of filigree begin? 2. Where was filigree very popular? 3. What kind of skill was it?
History of filigree Derived from the Latin word "filum" (meaning thread), filigree is an ancient art form that has been appreciated as far back as 2500 B.C. Twisted and formed to closely resemble lace, filigree refers to the openwork design of an exquisitely entwined bouquet of fine silver, gold or other metal threads. This lacing of metal was originally used to decorate personal ornaments including manuscript covers, armour, crosses and royal crowns. The rich history of filigree can be found in several ancient civilizations from Egyptian to Persian, extending throughout the Greek, Early Renaissance, Romanticism and Art Nouveau eras. Distinguished illustrations of filigree remain admired today, with many artifacts stored in locations around the world including the Vatican Museum in Venice, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Louvre in Paris and the British Museum in London. From its fabrication during the Egyptian period, the tradition of filigree maintained its charm over the course of thousands of years. It wasn’t until the late 4th century, during the Greek era, that gemstones such as pearls, garnets and sapphires were introduced into filigree work. Signifying an appearance of elegance and sophistication, filigree decoration remained constant until its alteration in the early 20th century. During his reign, fashion-forward King Edward VII transformed the original filigree with a monochromatic look for jewellery designs by combining metals, such as platinum, with colourless gemstones like diamonds. It was during this Art Nouveau era that the art of filigree jewellery became very popular. Although creating filigree is a specialized skill for the present-day jeweller, in ancient times this completely handcrafted technique was a customary skill of all jewellers. Today, modern-day technology allows filigree designs to be machine-cast and mass-produced making these components affordable to the modern jewellery designer. Over the past few centuries, filigree has been constructed in many cultures and varied in form and pattern. However, the elegance, beauty and superb craftsmanship of filigree has remained fascinating and continued its ongoing popularity. Today, filigree is available in a wide range of jewellery styles for both men and women. 2. Ask the questions to the phrases in bold. Example: - What is filigree? - It is an ancient art form. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2. 75
Prepositions Prepositions may be divided into prepositions of place and movement, prepositions of time and those, expressing abstract relations (linking words). • Use prepositions of place to say where somebody or something is. • Use prepositions of movement to show the direction in which somebody or something is moving. • Use prepositions of time to say when something happened, happens or will happen.
place on, in, at, under, among, between, in front of, near movement along, across, to, onto, from … to…, through, round time at, on, in abstract so, because, apart from, before, after, till, but, although
The Cathedral is somehow lost among all those bright pictures. One kilometer long silver wire can be made out of one gram of pure silver. They received a gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1937. Apart from jewellery, there are many other fascinating and beautiful things
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. There are six groups of prepositions. 2. Prepositions of place show where somebody or something is. 3. Near is a preposition of movement. 4. Although is a linking word. 5. Time and place are described with on. 2. Fill in the gaps with for, of, in, with, on, to. Some prepositions can be used more than once.
1. Filigree dates back ___ approximately five thousand years ago. 2. Anthropologists have traced the craft ___ filigree ___ the jewellers ___ many different ancient cultures. 3. ___ creating the designs ___ the filigree jewellery, the first step involves drafting the designs ___ a piece of paper. 4. ___ order to get a zigzag effect ___ the designs, the hair thin wires are crimped ___ the help of a machine which is specially designed ___ this process. 5. Many wedding ring mounts were made ___ filigree. Text 11.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 11.2. carve – вырезать engrave – гравировать gauzy – тонкий, прозрачный immense – огромный
inscription – надпись intricately – затейливо, причудливо mould – литейная форма vermilion – сульфид ртути
1. Read the text and explain the meaning of the processes (a-c). a. engraving b. carving c. drafting Silver filigree If we go deep into the process of making silver filigree, then it requires a lot of efforts. It is a completely different kind of creation which doesn’t involve the process of engraving, carving or moulding a block of metal into jewellery. The process of filigree art involves creating a piece by joining silver wires as thin as hair in bits and giving a complete shape to it. For creating the designs of the filigree jewellery, the first step involves drafting the designs on a piece of paper. The designs of filigree jewellery are chiefly inspired by the inscriptions on temples, statues of gods and goddesses, and the surrounding flora and fauna. Later, the wires made for making the outlines are carefully placed on the design sheets which take the beautiful shapes of the drawings. With great precision and craftsmanship, the craftsmen fill in the outlines giving the appearance of beautiful intricately woven gauzy patterns. During the whole process, craftsmen take immense care in protecting the delicate thin strands of silver from breaking down. 77
If we try to understand the depth of filigree art, jewellery is just one part of the creation which is made with filigree. Apart from this, there are many other fascinating and beautiful things created using filigree like decorative animals, inscriptions for temples, replicas for temples and idols of gods and goddesses. Some conventional items like vermilion containers, spoon and bowl for first meal of a new born and betel nut boxes are also given a special value by crafting them in beautiful designs using silver filigree. Nowadays, a wide variety of filigree jewellery mainly consisting of brooches, hairpins, and earrings are available in the market which is greatly loved by people. 2. Are the sentences about silver filigree true or false? 1. The process of making silver filigree isn’t very complex. 2. The craftsmen join silver wires and give a complete shape to a piece. 3. The designs of filigree jewellery are inspired by flora and fauna. 4. Jewellery is just one part of the creation which is made with filigree. 5. Nowadays filigree jewellery isn’t available in the market. Text 11.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 11.3. beading – отделка бисером enamel – эмаль sample – образец
solder – припой, спайка tableware – посуда utensils – утварь, столовые приборы
1. Read the text and find as many prepositions as you can. Classify them. Russian filigree Filigree is a kind of jewellery techniques, an openwork or soldered onto a metal background pattern of fine gold, silver or copper wire, smooth or suite in the rope. Besides, jewellers often decorate the filigree products with beading (small silver or gold beads) and enamel. Meanwhile, in ancient Russia scanning technique appeared in the IX – X centuries. In particular, Russian masters themselves have mastered the technique, and called it filigree. So, the Russian filigree, in fact, is the art of the millennium. Here is a sample list of metals that the craftsmen used for jewellery in filigree technique: zinc, tin, chromium, aluminum, iron, steel, copper, copper alloys (bronze, brass), silver and gold. 78
In the XVIII – XIX centuries filigree production took place in many artistic centers of Russia. Vases, salt shakers, boxes were a great work of art. In addition, crystals and pearls were used in the production. Since the XIX century, industrial production began in large scale using different technologies. In factories tableware, church utensils and toiletries were produced. Moscow masters’ products in the technique of filigree became popular gifts for foreign ambassadors and rulers of the diplomatic relations. Another important customer to jewellery has become a church, filigree was used to create an exquisite and beautiful objects of church plate. Foreign travellers have noted that, in particular, in the north of Russian an original school of scanning with elegance and miniature designs has been developed. 2. Find the logical ending (a-e) for each of the sentence beginnings (1-5). 1. The Russian North has developed an original school of scanning, … 2. The delicacy of the design … 3. In order to fuse the joins properly, … 4. The beautiful household items made in Krasnoselsk, … 5. Silver filigree brooches and buttons … a) soldered pieces are heated again on a stove. b) which in its elegance and miniature designs were carried out at the world’s best filigree. c) were also made in Scandinavia. d) displayed at international exhibitions in Paris (1937) and in New York (1939). e) gives the look of spider webs made of silver. Speaking Work in pairs. Discuss the rich history of filigree in Russia. Get information about: • unique Russian techniques and technological features • artistic centres of Russia • designs and variety of items Writing Imagine that you’re getting married and wanted your wedding ring to be made in filigree technique. You are able to do it yourself. Write the description of the process. You may use the notes in the box.
to create a ring mold to shape several pieces of wire to cut a gold solder to arrange threads and beads to embellish a ring to check for the design's symmetry pre-made settings durable precious metals wire arches ornamental design additional engraving gemstone accents
UNIT 12 ENAMELLING Starter 1. What do you know about enamel and enamelling? Discuss in pairs. 2. Choose the most important properties of enamel from the box. brittle chemically resistant corrosion resistant durable flexible hard light rigid smooth scratch resistant soft stiff strong tough Reading Text 12.1 Study the vocabulary for Text 12.1. cloisonne – клуазонне, перегородчатая эмаль enamelling – эмалирование fused glass – спеченное стекло kiln – печь для обжига murals – стеновая живопись opaque – матовый, непрозрачный
raku – раку (керамическая чаша, покрытая черной глазурью, для чайной церемонии в Японии) stencilled – трафаретный translucent – полупрозрачный transparent – прозрачный vitreous – стеклянный, стекловидный warping – деформация, искривление
1. Read the text and choose the best title (a, b, c, d) for the text. a) Enamel techniques. b) Fused glass on metal. c) Primary aim of all enamelling. d) Artistic heritage on six continents. 81
______________________? Enamelling is also known as fused glass on metal. Enamelling is characterized by brilliant, non-fading colors, tremendous durability, variety of color effects depending on angle of light, and tremendous versatility – from jewellery (many people are familiar with cloisonne, which is a type of enamelling), to bowls and wall pieces, to largescale interior or exterior murals. The medium of enamelling goes back two thousand years and forms part of the artistic heritage on six continents. Vitreous enamels are finely ground glass, like fine sand (or even more finely pulverized and mixed with an oil or adhesive). They may be opaque or transparent; their colors come from the use of various oxides. The surface quality of enamel can vary from a high gloss to a matte or dull finish. The color quality of enamel is heightened as light goes through the glass material and reflects back from the metal base through the color, especially when using translucent or transparent colors. The enamel is applied on metal, usually copper, gold, silver, or pre-coated iron or steel, and then fired in a furnace or with hand held torch. Although enamel takes only a few minutes to fuse, each color must be fired separately between 1350-1500° Fahrenheit, which means that most enamel art pieces have been fired at least six times, and sometimes as many as 30 or more. Enamels also must be “countered” (balanced) on the back for two reasons: to avoid excess warping and hence glass cracking, and also to avoid fire-scale. Every time metal is put into the kiln at such a high temperature, it burns and creates a black, flaky substance known as fire-scale. Not only it is messy, but it eventually weakens and destroys the metal. In between each firing, the artist must file all exposed edges to avoid black flakes contaminating the pristine environment of each separate enamel color. In working with the enamels various techniques can be used. Enamels may be sifted, painted, stencilled, sponged, dropped, or inlaid wet or dry on the metal. Further effects can be obtained by use of sgraffito, etching the metal, inlaying metal paillons, and/or high-firing. Experimental techniques such as raku-firing are also used. 2. Ask the questions to the words and phrases in bold. Example: - What does variety of color effects depend on? - It depends on angle of light. 3. Work in pairs. Make a dialogue with the questions from Exercise 2. 82
The definite article “the” Use the to refer to something which has already been mentioned. Example: The fracture surface does not coincide with the enamel/steel surface. Use the when you assume there is just one of something in that place, even if it has not been mentioned before. Example: The primary aim of all enamelling is to achieve a good bond between the enamel and the steel. Use the before superlatives and ordinal numbers. Example: Rostov enamel is considered the best in Russia. The first direction is to create a wide range of women’s decorations. Use the with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people and historical periods/events. Example: The Byzantines artists used not only chamomile enamel, but also cloisonne. Later, as the Renaissance flowered, there was a new burgeoning of the craft. Use the with names of geographical areas, rivers, mountain ranges, groups of islands, canals, and oceans. Example: France and Germany produced much work, with some of the early work produced in the Meuse Valley.
1. Are the sentences true or false? If it is false, correct the sentence. 1. The is never used to refer to something which has already been mentioned. 2. All adjectives are used with the. 3. The is used with names of countries. 4. The definite article is the same for all genders in singular and in plural. 5. We use the definite article when there is only one thing nearby. 2. Fill in the gaps with the where necessary and translate the sentences. 1. Beginning in ___ early medieval era, Limoges produced masses of ___ objects used in ___ Christian churches. 2. ___ Russians, of course, were later known for ___ beautiful work emanating from ___Fabergé studios in ___ late 19th and early 20th centuries. 83
3. After ___ revolution of 1917, ___ masters began working on creating a variety of ___ jewellery and household items. 4. ___ colored impregnations of the enamel created ___ impression of ___ precious stones or mosaics. Text 12.2 Study the vocabulary for Text 12.2. edge – край, грань intricacy – сложность, путаница mesh size – размер ячейки сита
overlap – перекрывать particle – частица sifting – просеивание
1. Read the text and put the words sift and cover and their derivations into the correct place. Proper enamel sifting process _____ is the process of dropping and catching falling enamel particles. Applying enamel by _____ is one of those processes where the person in control must overcome great expectations and settle for the basic nature of the process. Simple direct methods do not have the complexities necessary to make them feel like work. One does not have to struggle to make fine art or the intricacies of fine workmanship. The elementary approach as a foundation is of great importance to the ability of doing. The control factors are mesh size of the enamel; mesh size of the screen; the load of the sifter; the size and shape of the surface to be _____ ; the use or non-use of a holding agent; the desired pattern; the application evenness and thickness and personal motor skills. The enamel particles must be able to pass through the screen openings of the _____. The size of these openings, if large, allow the enamel to pass through most rapidly and in greater quantity. If small, both the speed and the quantity are reduced. The _____ path should first _____ the outside edge. The edge of the object should be half way into the _____ fall of the enamel. This ensures edge _____. If the _____ or the piece is moved so as not to completely cover, the edge all too frequently has insufficient enamel _____ . The falling enamel tends to be heavier in the center of the fall than at the edge. Thus overlapping of the path becomes important. If there is concern that the edge is not sufficiently _____ the path should be retraced twice before moving on to _____ the rest of the piece. 84
2. Find the logical ending (a-e) for each of the sentence beginnings (1-5). 1. Super fine enamel particles, called fines … 2. Removing the fines will improve … 3. It is not necessary … 4. A solid pan on the bottom … 5. Use a second solid pan on top … a) to screen opaque enamels. b) will catch the fines that sift through. c) can cause transparent enamels to appear cloudy. d) when screening to keep floating enamel dust under control. e) the clarity of your transparent enamels. Text 12.3 Study the vocabulary for Text 12.3. copper enamel – медная эмаль powdered glass – порошкообразное стекло
subtle hue – нежный оттенок to scour – чистить, промывать
1. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words and phrases from the box. the sifting-and-firing cycle the touch the kiln interior the design the finished surfaces the copper the panel
Copper enamelling Creating copper enamel art is an adventure. Copper enamelling is permanent, brilliant color. It is glass, not paint. We create copper enamel wall installations in panels, which, when displayed together, create large compositions of flowing patterns and gem like colors. We work on 1_________ of the composition as a whole, but each panel is fired individually. We start with panels of solid copper which have been scoured until they gleam. Vitreous enamel (pulverized glass) is gently sifted onto 2_________ . 3 _________ has been heated to a glowing orange; powdered glass melts and fuses onto the copper as it is fired. As 4_________ cools, the vibrant and subtle hues are revealed. Sometimes enamel “jewels” are added to the design. 5_________ is repeated until the desired effect is achieved. There can be as many as ten layers of 85
color and multiple firings of each panel. It is exhilarating to explore the evolution of a composition as each successive layer adds luminosity and depth. The colors remain rich and permanent. People are drawn to run their fingers 6 over _________ because they are shiny and smooth and cool to 7_________ . Copper enamel panels are tolerant of weather: water, sunlight, heat and cold. Each composition is unique and intended to stimulate your imagination. 2. Match the words (1-5) with the definitions (a-e). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
copper effect glass gleam surface
a. malleable, ductile metallic element b. the state of being operative or functional c. a flash or beam of light d. any face of a body or thing e. a hard, brittle, noncrystalline, more or less transparent substance
Speaking Work in groups. What do you know about traditional wet enamelling? How many steps does it comprise? Find information about enamel preparation, application and drying. Compare and discuss it. Writing Choose a product that you would like to enamel. Write the enamelling brief for your product. You may use the phrases in the box. to combine techniques to select the metal and the base coat of enamel to dry or wet stencils to sift transparent enamel to fire the base coats to try enamel colors to clean in the kiln to bend pieces of wire
ENGLISH FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Ступина Татьяна Владимировна Гришина Галина Викторовна Максимова Наталья Юрьевна
Компьютерная верстка И. В. Владимировой
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