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English for History Students

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

ФГБОУ ВО «Оренбургский государственный педагогический университет»

Н.Т. Николаева

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ «ENGLISH FOR HISTORY STUDENTS»

Допущено УМС ОГПУ в качестве учебно-методического пособия для обучающихся по направлению подготовки 44.03.05 Педагогическое образование (с двумя профилями подготовки), профилям История и Обществознание по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» (Б1.Б.3)

Оренбург 2019

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

УДК 4И (Англ) (07) ББК 81.2я 7 Н63

Рекомендовано к изданию в качестве учебно-методического пособия решением кафедры иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВО «ОГПУ» Автор-составитель: Н.Т.Николаева

Рецензент: О.В. Кабанова, к.п.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВО «ОГУ» Рецензент: С.И. Искаринова, к.ф.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВО «ОГПУ» Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие разработано в соответствии с требованиями ФГОС ВО для подготовки обучающихся очного отделения по направлению подготовки 44.03.05 Педагогическое образование (с двумя профилями подготовки), профилям История и Обществознание. В пособии представлены лексического

методические и

рекомендации

грамматического

материала;

бакалавру

по

теоретический

изучению материал

необходимый для самостоятельной подготовки к занятиям по курсу «Иностранный язык», а также дополнительные материалы для подготовки к экзамену, тестовые задания.

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Рецензия на учебно-методическое пособие «English for History Students» Николаевой Наили Тагировны Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие, составленное доцентом кафедры иностранных языков Николаевой Н.Т., разработано в соответствии с требованиями ФГОС ВО третьего поколения для подготовки бакалавров по направлению 44.03.05 Педагогическое образование (c двумя профилями подготовки) и предназначено для бакалавров 2 курса очного отделения Исторического факультета. В первой части учебно-методического пособия представлены десять разделов, каждый из которых содержит теоретический грамматический материал, лексико-грамматические упражнения, направленные на отработку и автоматизацию изученных грамматических явлений, тексты, лексический минимум,

лексико-грамматические

направленности. позволяющими

Каждые

упражнения

три-четыре

преподавателю

оценить

коммуникативной

раздела

завершаются

уровень

усвоения

тестами,

бакалаврами

изученного грамматического материала. Вторая часть учебно-методического пособия посвящена истории возникновения и становления англоговорящих стран: в аутентичных текстах раскрывается история образования таких англоговорящих стран как Канада и Австралия, анализируются особенности развития Шотландии, Северной Ирландии и Уэльса до их вхождения в Объединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. Кроме

того,

в

учебно-методическом

пособии

представлены

методические рекомендации по освоению дисциплины «Иностранный язык», направленные на организацию самостоятельной работы бакалавров. Рецензируемое учебно-методическое пособие отвечает требованиям, предъявляемым к работам подобного рода, и может быть рекомендовано к печати. Рецензент доц. каф. ин. языков ФГБОУ ВО «Оренбургский государственный Университет» ___________ О.В.Кабанова 3

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Рецензия на учебно-методическое пособие «English for History Students» Николаевой Наили Тагировны Представленное к рецензии учебно-методическое пособие разработано доцентом кафедры иностранных языков Николаевой Н.Т. в соответствии с требованиями ФГОС ВО третьего поколения для подготовки бакалавров 2 курса по направлению 44.03.05 Педагогическое образование (с двумя профилями подготовки) профилям История и Обществознание. Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие характеризуется логичностью построения, состоит из 10 разделов, каждый из которых содержит учебные тексты, лексический минимум, лексические и грамматические упражнения по изученным темам. Несомненным достоинством рецензируемого учебно-методическое пособия является коммуникативная направленность лексических упражнений, способствующих формированию навыков диалогической речи и коммуникативной компетенции бакалавров. Лексические задания разработаны с соблюдением принципов доступности, последовательности, повторяемости. Содержащиеся в учебно-методическом пособии упражнения направлены на закрепление и расширение знаний по лексике и грамматике английского языка. Рассматриваемое учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для бакалавров Исторического факультета, в нем представлены тексты, отражающие историю англоговорящих стран, позволяющие более детально изучить мир носителей английского языка. На основании вышеизложенного можно заключить, что в целом учебно-методическое пособие отвечает требованиям, предъявляемым к работам подобного рода, и может быть рекомендовано к печати и присвоению грифа УМС «ОГПУ». Рецензент К.ф.н., доц. каф. ин. языков ОГПУ ________________ С.И. Искаринова

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Предисловие Данное пособие предназначено для бакалавров второго курса очного отделения,

изучающих

английский

язык

по

направлению

44.03.05

Педагогическое образование (с двумя профилями подготовки), профилям История и Обществознание. Специфика пособия состоит в многоуровневой системе упражнений, позволяющей проводить эффективную работу с бакалаврами разного уровня владения английским языком – от начального до продвинутого. Цель – обучить бакалавров навыкам восприятия и порождения высказываний, понимания иноязычной речи, чтения и перевода текстов; помочь бакалаврам второго курса в подготовке к экзамену. Задачи: -

развить

основные

навыки

речевой

деятельности:

умение

диалогического общения, монологической речи; - познакомить бакалавров со структурой экзамена, особое внимание уделить подготовке к первому вопросу экзаменационного билета; - развить навыки самостоятельной работы бакалавров; - воспитать у бакалавров толерантное отношение к представителям других культур и народностей с помощью текстов исторической тематики. В результате освоения дисциплины бакалавр приобретет способность к коммуникации в устной и письменной формах на русском и иностранном языке для решения задач профессионального общения, межличностного и межкультурного взаимодействия. Бакалавр второго курса получит дополнительные знания по истории своей страны и англоязычных стран, поскольку все тексты уроков исторической тематики. Основная лексика урока представлена после текста и отрабатывается в серии лексических и лексико-грамматических упражнений. Каждый

раздел

включает

лексический

минимум,

лексические

и

грамматические упражнения, текст, вопросы к тексту, разговорные ситуации, 5

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

диалоги, которые направлены на развитие фонетических навыков, навыков чтения, письма, говорения. Материал пособия адаптирован для самостоятельного изучения, так как в соответствии с учебным планом, основная нагрузка приходится на самостоятельную работу. Пособие предусматривает возможность промежуточного контроля: изучив три темы, бакалавр выполняет тестовые задания. Преподаватель оценивает уровень владения лексическим и грамматическим материалом. Во

второй

части

содержится

серия

текстов

страноведческой

направленности (Units One – Five), которые знакомят бакалавров с ранней историей Уэльса, Шотландии и Северной Ирландии до их вхождения в состав Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, а также и историей англоговорящих стран (Австралии, Канады). Все тексты предназначены для самостоятельной работы бакалавров, направлены на закрепление лексического и грамматического материала, отработку навыков чтения и перевода. Автор выражает искреннюю благодарность кандидату филологических наук, доценту кафедры иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВО «Оренбургский государственный педагогический университет» Искариновой Светлане Ивановне и кандидату педагогических наук, доценту кафедры иностранных языков

ФГБОУ

ВО

«Оренбургский

государственный

университет»

Кабановой Ольге Владимировне за рецензирование данного пособия.

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Содержание Part One………………………………………………………………………...…..8 Lesson One. Лексическая тема «Авраам Линкольн». Грамматическая тема «Настоящее, прошедшее, будущее время группы Continuous» ……………….8 Lesson Two. Лексическая тема «Российская Федерация». Грамматическая тема «Будущее время группы Indefinite» …………………….………….…….14 Lesson Three. Лексическая тема «Москва – столица нашей родины». Грамматическая тема «Будущее время группы Perfect»…………………..….19 Test Yourself. Проверь себя...………...……………………………………...….25 Lesson Four. Лексическая тема «Лондон – столица Великобритании». Грамматическая тема «Страдательный залог»………………..….……………27 Lesson Five. Лексическая тема «Соединенные Штаты Америки». Грамматическая тема «Косвенная речь. Согласование времен.»…..….……..34 Lesson Six. Лексическая тема «История города Оренбурга». Грамматическая тема «Субстантивация прилагательных»………………...…………………….42 Test Yourself. Проверь себя...……………………………………..………….…49 Lesson Seven. Лексическая тема «Политические системы». Грамматическая тема «Used to, would для выражения действий в прошлом...............................51 Lesson Eight. Лексическая тема «Британское содружество наций». Грамматическая тема «Сослагательное наклонение» ………………...……....57 Lesson Nine. Лексическая тема «Древняя Русь». Грамматическая тема «Условное наклонение»…………………………………………………..……..64 Lesson Ten. Лексическая тема «Средневековая Русь». Грамматическая тема «Каузатив. Особенности образования и употребления»………….…………..71 Test Yourself. Проверь себя...…………………….………………………..……75 Part Two....…………………………………………………..………………...….77 Unit One. History of Wales ……………………………………………………....77 Unit Two. History of Scotland ………………………….………………………..87 Unit Three. History of Northern Ireland ………………………………………...104 Unit Four. History of Australia……………………..…………….………..……110 Unit Five. History of Canada……….……………………………………………119 Методические рекомендации по освоению дисциплины «Иностранный язык (английский)»…………………………………………………………………...131 Заключение……………………………………………………………………...136 Список использованной литературы……………………………………...…..137

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

PART ONE LESSON ONE Text 1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN Read, translate and retell the text: Among all presidents in the history of the United States, Abraham Lincoln is probably the one that Americans remember best. He brought honesty and integrity to the White House. Most of all he is remembered or he is associated with the final abolition of slavery. Lincoln became a virtual symbol of the American Dream whereby an ordinary person from humble beginnings could reach the pinnacle of society as president of the country. Abraham was born on February 12, 1809 in Kentucky, and spent the first seven years of his life there. Occasionally he and his sister Sarah attended classes in a log schoolhouse some 3 km from home. It was difficult time for the family, in which his father Thomas Lincoln tried to make living as a carpenter and farmer. The Lincolns moved from farm to farm around Kentucky until 1816, when the family left to settle in Indiana. During 14 years the Lincolns lived in Indiana and his childhood in the frontier of Indiana set the course for his character and motivation in life later. Abraham Lincoln began a long road to become the sixteenth president of the USA. In 1834, he was elected into the House of Representatives and began studying to become a lawyer. For the next few years, he practiced law all across the state. In 1847, he was elected into Congress, but his opinions did not ensure him a long stay there. He was vehemently against slavery. As a result, he was not elected for the second term. A few years later, slavery became a stronger issue, and more people wanted to abolish it. Lincoln joined Republicans, a new political party that opposed slavery. The Republicans nominated him for the US Senate in 1858. Abraham Lincoln's oratorical powers brought him to the attention of the nation. In 1860, he was nominated by the Republican Party as its candidate for the Presidency of the United States. Lincoln won by a small margin. 8

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

But with his election, the country began the process of dividing. South Carolina had seceded from the Union before he was even inaugurated. Other states followed to form the Confederation. The North and the South were divided, and the Civil War began. The war was not only over the abolition of slavery, but also for the rights of individual states to make their own choices. Later, Lincoln was elected for the second term of Presidency in 1864. The South surrendered, and the Civil War was ended on April 9, 1865. The difficult period of time began, the time for reconstruction and reconciliation, but Lincoln would not be the person to lead the country through this difficult period. On April 14, Abraham Lincoln with his wife attended the play in Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C. A few minutes past ten o'clock, an actor stepped into the Presidential box and shot the President. In the following morning Abraham Lincoln died. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: honesty – честность; integrity – порядочность; associated with – ассоциируется с; abolition of slavery – отмена рабства; humble beginnings – скромные начинания; pinnacle of society – вершина общества; occasionally – периодически; carpenter – плотник; set the course – установить курс; frontier – граница; lawyer – адвокат; vehemently – неистово; oratorical powers – ораторские способности; by a small margin – с небольшим отрывом; secede – выходить; Civil War – гражданская война; 9

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

surrender – сдаваться; reconstruction and reconciliation – восстановление и примирение. Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1. What is Abraham Lincoln famous for? 2. Where did the future president spend his childhood? 3. Why was not Abraham Lincoln elected for the second term into the Congress? 4. What was the new political party that opposed slavery? 5. What happened when Lincoln was elected for the post of president of the U.S. in 1860? 6. When did the Civil War end? 7. Why did not Lincoln lead the country through the post-war period? Exercise 2. Finish the sentences: 1. Abraham Lincoln is probably the one that ... 2. Most of all he is remembered or he is associated ... 3. Abraham was born on February 12, 1809 in Kentucky, and spent ... 4. It was difficult time for the family, in which his father Thomas Lincoln ... 5. During 14 years the Lincolns lived in Indiana and ... 6. Abraham Lincoln began a long road to ... 7. For the next few years, he practiced law ... 8. Lincoln joined Republicans, a new political party ... 9. Abraham Lincoln's oratorical powers brought him to ... 10.In 1860, he was nominated by the Republican Party as ... 11.The North and the South were divided, and ... 12.The difficult period of time began, the time for ... Exercise 3. Transcribe and read the following words: Among, Abraham, brought, honesty, associated, abolition, slavery, virtual, whereby, humble, pinnacle, society, Kentucky, occasionally, Sarah, carpenter, Indiana, course, frontier, lawyer, Congress, vehemently, opposed, oratorical, 10

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

powers, Presidency, margin, secede, inaugurated, Civil War, choices, surrendered, reconstruction, reconciliation, through. GRAMMAR Длительные времена (Continuous/Progressive) Настоящее длительное время (Present Continuous/Progressive) Настоящее

длительное

время

(Present

Continuous/Progressive)

образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be (I - am, he, she, it - is, we, you, they - are) и основного глагола с окончанием -ing: I am writing a letter at the moment. Am I writing a letter at the moment? I am not writing a letter at the moment. I’m not writing a letter at the moment. He is playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard now. Is he playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard now? He isn’t playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard now. Look! They are listening to her singing with great attention. Are they listening to her singing with great attention? They aren’t listening to her singing with great attention. Глагол в настоящем длительном

времени

(Present

Continuous/

Progressive) обозначает длительное действие или процесс, происходящий в момент речи. Используются следующие указатели времени: at the moment, now, Look! Listen! Прошедшее длительное время (Past Continuous/Progressive) Прошедшее длительное время (Past Continuous/Progressive) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be (was, were) и основного глагола с окончанием -ing: I was writing a letter at this time yesterday. Was I writing a letter at this time yesterday? I wasn’t writing a letter at this time yesterday. 11

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

He was playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard from 3 to 5 p.m. Was he playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard from 3 to 5 p.m.? He wasn’t playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard from 3 to 5 p.m. They were listening to her singing with great attention when he entered the room. Were they listening to her singing with great attention when he entered the room? They weren’t listening to her singing with great attention when he entered the room Глагол в прошедшем длительном времени (Past Continuous/Progressive) обозначает

длительное

действие

или

процесс,

происходивший

в

определенный момент времени в прошлом. Используются следующие указатели времени: at this time yesterday, from 3 to 5 p.m., when he entered. Будущее длительное время (Future Continuous/Progressive) Будущее длительное время (Future Continuous/Progressive) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола will be и основного глагола с окончанием -ing: I will be writing a letter at this time tomorrow. Will you be writing a letter at this time tomorrow? I won’t be writing a letter at this time tomorrow. He will be playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard from 3 to 5 p.m. Will he be playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard from 3 to 5 p.m? He won’t be playing hide-and-sick with his friends in the yard from 3 to 5 p.m. They will be listening to her singing with great attention when he comes home from work. Will they be listening to her singing with great attention when he comes home from work? 12

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

They won’t be listening to her singing with great attention when he comes home from work. Глагол в будущем длительном времени (Future Continuous/Progressive) обозначает длительное действие или процесс, который будет происходить в определенный момент времени в будущем. Используются следующие указатели времени: at this time tomorrow, from 3 to 5 p.m., when he comes. Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Continuous/Progressive): 1.

Look! They (to ride) horses across the field. 2. You (to write) a test at

this time tomorrow? 3. At this time yesterday his children (to play) in the park with their dog. 4. He (to read) a book when you (to cook) dinner yesterday in the evening? 5. She (not to sing) at the rehearsal now because she is ill. 6. You (to decorate) your room for Halloween when he (to make) your costumes yesterday? 7. We (to learn) this rule for the tomorrow’s test. 8. Sam (to sleep) all day yesterday. 9. They (to drive) slowly because of the bad weather. 10. While the baby (to sleep) mother (to do) some work about the house. Exercise2. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present or Past Simple; Present or Past Continuous/Progressive): 1.

Mike (to do) his homework when his friend (to come) to see him. 2.

When a hunter (to see) a hare it (to eat) a carrot. 3. Her son (to catch) a cold when he (to run) in the park without a hat. 4. The dog (to bark) because someone (to enter) the yard. 5. They (to dance) while the music (to play). 6. When the teacher (to enter) the classroom one of the students (to write) a date on the blackboard. 7. Jack’s mother (to cook) dinner when he (to return) from school. 8. The headmaster (to criticize) teachers’ work at the meeting yesterday. 9. They (to see) a squirrel while they (to walk) in the wood. 10. You (to clean) your room when he (to come)? Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple; Present, Past or Future Continuous/Progressive): 13

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

1.

He (to want) to know why his sister (to cry). 2. They (to remember)

that their friend Joe (to be) ill and (to decide) to visit him in the hospital. 3. Where she (to live) when she (to work) in Africa? 4. Their mother (to be) surprised when she (to see) that they (to play) golf with their neighbours. 5. What you (to do) if your best friend (not to invite) you to his party? 6. Her cat (to sleep) on her bed when she (to return) home. 7. You (to bring) your new CD player to school tomorrow? 8. They (to decide) to go home because the party (to be) boring and nobody (to dance). 9. When Jason (to realize) that he (to have) special powers he (to try) to get rid of them first. 10. Sara (to be) sure that her son (to sleep) in the next room. Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple; Present, Past or Future Continuous/Progressive): 1.

They (to forget) their notebooks in the classroom and (not to do) their

homework. 2. While he (to paint) the ceiling his mother (to wash) the windows. 3. She (to cut) meat when the lights (to switch) off. 4. They (to lose) their way while they (to walk) in the forest. 5. Children (to eat) ice cream when their parents (to talk). 6. Karl (to watch) a film when his sister (to call) him. 7. Ted (to wait) for us at the cinema entrance for 5 or 10 minutes. Let’s (to hurry) up! 8. Nick (to hurt) his leg when he (to play) basketball. 9. Martin (to lose) his keys while he (to run) from the dog. 10. Mary (to sing) when her grandparents (to come).

LESSON TWO Text 2. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION Read, translate and retell the text: The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia is bordered by Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Litva, Belarus, the Ukraine, Azerbaijan and China. Our land is washed by 12 seas, most of which are the seas of three oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. 14

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There is hardly a country in the world where such a great variety of flora and fauna can be found as in our land. Our country has numerous forests, plains and steppes, taiga and tundra, highlands and deserts. The Russian Federation is located on two plains, the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. Russia's most important rivers are the Volga, the main Siberian rivers and the Amur. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million. The world's deepest lake – Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1600 meters, is situated in Russia, too. The climate in Russia varies from the arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. Russia is a highly-developed industrial and agricultural country. Its vast mineral resources include oil, natural gas, coal, iron, zinc, aluminum, gold and other non-ferrous metals. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. The Russian Federation is a multinational state. It comprises many national districts, several autonomous republics and regions. The current population of Russia is about 150 million people. Russia is a constitutional republic with president as Head of State. The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Council of Federation and the State Duma. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: to be bordered by – граничить с to be located on – находиться, располагаться Great Russian Plain – Великорусская равнина West Siberian Lowland – Западносибирская низменность depth – глубина to vary – изменять, меняться mineral resources – полезные ископаемые non-ferrous metals – цветные металлы legislative power – законодательная власть to be vested in – передаваться to consist – состоять 15

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Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1. What is the total area of the Russian Federation? 2. How many countries is Russia bordered by? 3. What oceans wash the borders of the Russian Federation? 4. Is the Russian Federation located on two plains? 5. What are the longest mountain chains? 6. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million, isn’t it? 7. Are Russian flora and fauna various? 8. What is the climate in Russia like? 9. What is the current population of Russia? 10.What does the Federal Assembly consist of? Exercise 2. Finish the sentences below using words from the text: 1. The Russian Federation is … 2. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and … 3. The longest mountain chains are … 4. The total number of rivers in Russia is … 5. The climate in Russia varies from the arctic … 6. Russia is a highly-developed industrial and … 7. The capital of the Russian Federation is … 8. Russia is a constitutional republic with … Exercise 3. Translate from Russian into English 1. Российская Федерация занимает большую часть восточной Европы и северной Азии. 2. Россия граничит с восемью государствами, включая Финляндию, Латвию, Белоруссию, Китай и некоторые другие. 3. В Российской Федерации более двух миллионов рек. Самые крупные из них – Волга, Амур и реки Сибири. 4. Климат Российской Федерации меняется от арктического на севере до субтропического на юге. 16

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5. Россия – высокоразвитая промышленная и сельскохозяйственная страна. Exercise 4. Your English friend is planning a visit to Russia. Help him to choose where to go and what to see in our country. Work in pairs: Exercise 5. How well do you know your Homeland? What is (are): • the biggest Russian lake? • the longest Russian river (in European and Asian parts of the Russian Federation)? • a city with subtropical climate? • cities with arctic climate? • agricultural regions? • old historical cities? • places of recreation and tourism? GRAMMAR Простое будущее время (Future Simple) Простое будущее время (Future Simple) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола Will и основной формы смыслового глагола: Например: They will return home soon. Will they return home soon? They won’t return home soon. Глагол в простом будущем времени (Future Simple) используется для обозначения обычного, повторяющегося действия в будущем: Например: He will come to her birthday. Чаще

всего

используются

следующие

обстоятельства

времени:

tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/month/year/summer, soon, on Monday, in spring, etc. Например: We will pass our exams in June. В придаточных предложениях времени (when, after, before) и условия (if, whether) в значении будущего времени всегда используется глагол в настоящем (Present Simple). Например: If the weather is fine, we will go to the countryside. 17

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Theodor will return this book to the library when he reads it. Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple): 1.

He sometimes (to sing) in the bathroom. 2. You (to know) his full

name? 3. They (to spend) this weekend in the country. 4. Where (to be) the highest mountain in the USA situated? 5. He (to play) hockey every Tuesday and Friday. 6. You (to like) to swim in the sea? 7. Why Helen often (to wear) black clothes? 8. They (to show) us their new car at the weekend? 9. Chris (to be) rather nervous about his new neighbours. 10. Who (to be) your best friend at school? 11. Tom (to miss) tomorrow’s meeting because he (to be) still in the hospital. 12. What kind of books you (to prefer) to read? 13. Where (to be) your grandparents from? 14. Sam and Frank (to come) home at nine every week days, but yesterday they (to return) later than usual. 15. You still (to live) with your parents? Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple): 1.

What (to be) your favourite colour? 2. Ann (to like) pears but she (to

like) apples and bananas. 3. John (to try) to spend as much time with his children as he can. 4. You (to know) the girl who (to live) next door? She (to sing) rather well. 5. They usually (to go) to school by school bus, but yesterday they (to miss) it because Andy (to oversleep). 6. Mark (to be) very intelligent, he (to know) much because he (to read) much. 7. You (to come) to my place tomorrow? I (to want) to discuss a very important question with you. 8. The story was very interesting and all children (to listen) to it with great attention. 9. Tom (to draw) very well for his age. 10. Schoolchildren (to start) school in September in most countries. Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple): 1.

- Jack and James (to be) best friends since childhood, but now they (to

try) not to meet each other. - What (to happen)? – I really (not to know) for sure, but they (to quarrel) two years ago. 2. He (to go) to Siberia this summer and (to go) 18

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to the Lake Baikal next summer. 3. They (to prefer) to travel by air because it (to be) very fast. 4. We (to be) very tired yesterday because the English test (to be) very difficult. 5. You (to pass) me the salt? 6. Patriots (to be) people who (to like) their Motherland. 7. All shops (not to work) at Christmas. 8. Students (to be) glad to receive a scholarship two days earlier than usual. 9. Those who (to speak) loudly in a cold weather (to have) a sore throat the next day. 10. Andrew (to be) angry because he (not to receive) his money on time. Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present or Future Simple): 1.

We (to go) to the cinema if we (to have) time. 2. We (to go) to the

cinema when we (to have) money. 3. Children (to go) to Belorussia on their holidays if they (to find) enough money for the trip. 4. Students (to get) good marks if they (to write) their grammar test without mistakes. 5. If the weather (to be) fine they (to go) to the adventure park. 6. I (to meet) him at the airport when he (to arrive). 7. When students (to receive) their scholarship they (to be) very happy. 8. Before Alice (to come) to our party she (to visit) her grandmother. 9. After he (to pass) his driving test he (to receive) his driving license. 10. She (to invite) us to her birthday party if her parents (to allow) her.

LESSON THREE Text 3. MOSCOW IS THE CAPITAL OF OUR HOMELAND Read, translate and retell the text: Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. It was founded over 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as the start of Moscow history. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle by Russian lands for the liberation from the Tartar Yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St.Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target 19

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of Napoleon's attack. Three quarters of the city was destroyed by fire during Napoleon's occupation, but by the mid 19th century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again. Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometres (ancient Moscow occupied the territory of the present-day Kremlin). The population of the city is about 12 million. The heart of Moscow is Red Square, the central and the most beautiful square in Moscow. Here one can see the Cathedral of St.Basil the Blessed, or St.Basil's cathedral, erected by architects Postnik and Barma to commemorate Russia's conquest of the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture. Tourists can also see the monument to Minin and Pozharsky. In was designed by Ivan Martos in 1818 in memory of the Russian victory over the Polish invaders in 1612. The History Museum in Red Square is a magnificent building. Besides, it is one of the major scientific and educational institutions where we can follow the life of the Russian people since ancient times. But before all Red Square is famous the Kremlin which is situated there. The Kremlin is the oldest historical and architectural centre of Moscow. Its three magnificent cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the palaces and Spassky Tower with the clock attract the tourists' attention. The Czar-cannon and the Czarbell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world, are also in the Kremlin. There are other beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow.Moscow is also remarkable for its museums. At the Tretyakov Gallery paintings by great Russian artists are collected, and at the Museum of Fine Arts there are masterpieces by European painters. There are a lot of theatres in Moscow. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House, but drama theatres and studios are popular too. Moscow was the host to the XXII Summer Olympic Games in 1980. It has a number of sportsgrounds and stadiums built or reconstructed for that event. Moscow has the oldest Russian university, founded in 1755 by Lomonosov. Its new building was opened in 1953. It is 32 storeys high. 20

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The Metro, opened in 1935, is being constantly extended. Now it has 177 stations and is almost 292 kilometres long. It is among of the tourist attractions of the Russian capital. The number of new streets increases every month. The longest of them is Leningradsky Prospect which runs for 15 kilometres. Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of the political life of the country. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: anniversary – годовщина; architectural ensemble – архитектурный ансамбль; attraction – зд. достопримечательность; to be worth seeing – стоит посмотреть the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great – колокольня Ивана Великого the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed – собор Василия Блаженного citizen – житель conquest – завоевание, покорение to decorate – украшать to design – проектировать dome – купол to erect – воздвигать, сооружать fortress – крепость to go sightseeing – осматривать достопримечательности route – маршрут seat – местонахождение sportsground – спортивная площадка the Spassky Tower – Спасская башня the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier – могила Неизвестного солдата yoke – иго institution – учреждение, заведение skyscraper – небоскреб, высотное здание 21

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invader – захватчик the Khanate of Kazan – Казанское ханство mansion – особняк masterpiece – шедевр outstanding – выдающийся to reconstruct – перестраивать resident – постоянный житель Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1 When was Moscow's history started? What holiday did Moscow celebrate in 1997? 2 What part did Moscow play in Russian history? 3 When and why was the biggest part of Moscow destroyed by fire? 4 How many people live in Moscow? 5 What can tourists see in Red Square? 6 What historical events do the monuments in Red Square commemorate? 7 What objects of interest can one see in Kremlin? 8 What is the difference between the Tretyakov Gallery and the Museum of Fine Arts? 9 What theatres do you know in Moscow? Have you ever been to one of them? 10. What major international events took place in Moscow? 11. What is Moscow University famous for? 12. When was the Moscow Metro opened? Was it the first in the country? 13. What street in Moscow is the longest? How long is it? 14. What government departments are situated in Moscow? 15. What happened in Moscow in 1552? 1755? 1935? 1980? 16. Comment on these numbers according to the text: 15,32,177, XVI, XXII. 17. Have you ever been to Moscow? 18. What places of interest did you visit? 22

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Exercise 2 Transcribe and read the following words: Economic, commercial, centuries, Prince, Yuri, Dolgoruky, radually powerful, struggle, liberation, Tartar, Yoke, though, remained, quarters, square kilometres, ancient, architects, commemorate, conquest, Khanate, masterpiece, architecture, Pozharsky, designed, invaders, magnificent, major, scientific, cathedrals, remarkable, masterpieces, European, painters, theatres, reconstructed, increases, Parliament. Exercise 3. Finish the sentences: 1. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle by … 2. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible … 3. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to … 4. Three quarters of the city was destroyed by … 5. Now Moscow is one of … 6. The population of the city is … 7. The heart of Moscow is … 8. Tourists can also see the monument to … 9. The History Museum in Red Square is … 10.The Kremlin is the oldest historical and … 11.The Czar-cannon and the Czar-bell, the biggest … 12.There are other beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, … 13.At the Tretyakov Gallery paintings by great Russian … 14.Moscow was the host to the XXII Summer … 15.Moscow has the oldest Russian university … Exercise 4. Imagine that you are a tour guide. Make an excursion about Moscow for your groupmates. GRAMMAR Будущее совершенное время (Future Perfect) Будущее совершенное время (Future Perfect) образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов will have и третьей формы неправильного глагола. Если глагол правильный, то к нему прибавляется окончание -ed: 23

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Например:They will have translated the article by 3 p.m. Will they have translated the article by 3 p.m.? They won’t have translated the article by 3 p.m. Глагол в будущем совершенном времени (Future Perfect) употребляется для обозначения действия, которое завершится к определенному моменту времени в будущем: Например:He will have finished his work by the end of the day. Will he have finished his work by the end of the day? He won’t have finished his work by the end of the day. Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Perfect): 1.

He never (to be) abroad before. 2. Alice (to finish) her work by 5 p.m.

today. 3. Jim (to have) already his breakfast. 4. You (to see) this film before? 5. Mark (to return) already home, you may phone him. 6. She (to cook) supper by 6 p.m. 7. John (to read) the article by Monday? 8. Why (not to do) your work yet? 9. We (to pass) all our exams by July. 10. I was upset because Derek (to post) already the letter. Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple; Present, Past or Future Continuous/Progressive; Present, Past or Future Perfect): 1.

She (to water) all the flower before we (to come)? 2. They (not to

finish) writing their test by 4 p.m. tomorrow. 3. Why you (to read) the book yet? You had to return it to the library yesterday. 4. Their friend (to move) to Moscow some weeks ago. 5. Sam (to do) his homework before he (to go) to the party. 6. Jessica (to be) late for her classes because she (to oversleep) as she (to write) a composition till late at night. 7. Nick (to answer) all the questions before he (to go) home? 8. They (not to go) for the walk in the park because it (to start) to rain. 9. Children (to clean) their room before they (to go) to the zoo. 10. They (to play) baseball for half an hour when rain (to begin). 24

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Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple; Present, Past or Future Continuous/Progressive; Present, Past or Future Perfect): 1.

His parents (to be) angry because he (to invite) too many friends to the

party who (to dance) and (to laugh) very loudly. 2. The shop (to close) before he (to come). 3. This time next year Ted (to study) at a college. 4. They (to return) from their trip before the end of the week. 5. While they (to run) in the park one boy (to hurt) his leg. 6. She (to want) to go to the theatre but all tickets (to sell) out. 7. When she (to fly) to Moscow the plane (to vibrate) so vigorously that she (to be) scared. 8. The film (to turn) out to be rather boring and they (to decide) to return home. 9. Sara (to forget) to take a letter from the post office and the postman (to bring) it to her house. 10. Henry (to book) a ticket to the theatre beforehand. Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense (Present, Past or Future Simple; Present, Past or Future Continuous/Progressive; Present, Past or Future Perfect): 1.

Gill (not to come) to the university in time because she (to miss) the

bus and (not to have) enough money to take a taxi. 2. They (not to go) to the skating rink because they (to forget) their skates at home. 3. She (to dream) of becoming a model when she (to study) at school. 4. I (not to know) where she (to live) last year, but now she (to live) not far from the university. 5. The weather (to be) cold and they (to decide) to stay at home. 6. Alice (not to go)to the football match before she (to finish) her report. 7. They (to watch) a horror film when all the lights (to go) off. 8. When john (to come) to the airport his plane already (to fly) away. 9. Before Paul (to become) a doctor he (to work) in the animal hospital. 10. We (to go) home as soon as we (to finish) our work.

TEST YOURSELF Выберите правильный вариант: 1. Dany usually … the bass guitar. a) is playing b) play с) plays 25

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2. What subjects Sarah … now? a) learns

b) is learning

c) learn

3. It… rain hard tomorrow in the evening. a) will

b) shall

c) be

4. If the weather … warm, we will go to the park for a walk. a) will be b) have been

c) is

5. Shubert… more than 100 pieces of music. a) creates

b) created

c) will create

6. There … many visitors and guests at the birthday party last time. a) was

b) were

c) would be

7. My mom… to Chili. a) was b) has never been

c) never were

8. My parents … to the opera theatre last night. a) went

b) have gone

c) will go

9. My little brother and his friends … outside the house last afternoon when it began to snow hard. a) were playing b) had played c) will play 10. The policeman read the thief his rights after he … him. a) had caught

b) caught

c) will catch

11. Please, open the front door. Your uncle … a letter to you. a) brought b) has brought

c) had brought

12. It was informed by analytics that the prices for these automated systems … by the end of next month. a) had been increased; b) will be increased; c) would have been increased; d) will have been increased. 13. Kate could hear how her colleagues …the new regulations at work for 45 minutes already. a) had been discussed; 26

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b) discussed; c) were discussing; d) had been discussing. 14. Mrs. Brownie asked her friend how long she …this delicious cake. a) has been baking; b) had been baking; c) was baking; d) baked. 15. Yesterday Mr. Gironde did not notice that he … his favourite spectacles on the way home from work. a) has broken; b) had been braking; c) was breaking; d) had broken.

LESSON FOUR Text 4. LONDON IS THE CAPITAL OF THE GREAT BRITAIN Read, translate and retell the text: London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic, and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million. London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End, and the East End. The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices, and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is the St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the 27

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Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace, and a prison. Now it is a museum. Westminster is the governmental part of London. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned in Westminster Abbey. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets, and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling, etc. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big bell, known as "Big Ben". Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen. The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. The Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square. On the north side of the Trafalgar Square is the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is also famous for its library. There are a lot of factories, workshops, and docks in the East End. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: numerous — многочисленный ancient — древний, старинный striking — поразительный, замечательный to found — основывать fortress — крепость royal — королевский to crown — короновать outstanding — выдающийся 28

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statesman — государственный деятель to bury — хоронить tower — башня official residence — официальная резиденция wealth — богатство luxury — роскошь in memory of— в память о to contain — содержать priceless — бесценный Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1. Is London the largest city in the world? 2. What's the population of London? 3. Traditionally London is divided into four parts. Can you name them? 4. What do you know about the City? 5. Who was the St. Paul's Cathedral built by? 6. Who founded the Tower of London? When was it rebuilt? 7. What is the governmental part of London? 8. What building has more historic associations than any other building in London? 9. What is Big Ben? 10. Can you describe the Trafalgar Square? 11. Where do the working people of London live? 12. What are the most famous London museums and art galleries? Exercise 2 Translate from Russian into English using words and word combinations of the text: 1.

Лондон



столица

Великобритании,

ее

политический,

экономический и торговый центр. 2.

Сердце Лондона — это Сити, его финансовый и деловой центр.

Здесь расположены многочисленные банки, учреждения и фирмы, а также 29

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Английский банк, Фондовая биржа и Центральный уголовный суд, который находится в Олд-Бейли. 3.

В Сити находятся несколько известных старинных зданий.

Возможно, самое замечательное из них — это собор Св. Павла, самая крупная из английских церквей. 4.

Тауэр был основан Юлием Цезарем и в 1066 г. перестроен

Вильгельмом Завоевателем. 5.

Вестминстер — это правительственный район Лондона.

6.

В Вестминстерском аббатстве были коронованы почти все

английские короли и королевы. 7.

Через

дорогу

от

Вестминстерского

аббатства

находится

Вестминстерский дворец, место заседания британского Парламента. 8.

Букингемский дворец — это официальная резиденция королевы.

9.

Вест-Энд самая богатая и красивая часть Лондона, то символ

богатства и роскоши. 10.

Трафальгарская площадь — географический центр Лондона.

11.

На северной стороне Трафальгарской площади расположена

Национальная портретная галерея. 12.

В Ист-Энде много фабрик, мастерских и доков.

Exercise 3. Finish the sentences: 1. Its population is about ... 2. London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, ... 3. It was built in the 17th century by ... 4. The Tower of London was used as a fortress, ... 5. Westminster is the governmental ... 6. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned in ... 7. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is ... 8. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for ... 9. The West End is the richest ... 10.It was named in memory of Admiral ... 30

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11.On the north side of the Trafalgar Square is ... 12.It contains a priceless collection of ancient ... Exercise 4. Imagine that you are a tour guide. Make an excursion about London for your groupmates. GRAMMAR Страдательный (Пассивный) залог (Passive Voice) Страдательный залог очень часто используется в английском языке, гораздо чаще чем во многих других языках. Страдательный залог обозначает, что действие производится над подлежащим, а не само подлежащее выполняет какое-либо действие. Для образования страдательного глагола необходим вспомогательный глагол to be и третья форма неправильного глагола (если глагол правильный, то к нему прибавляется окончание -ed). Например: Flowers are watered by Ann. Страдательный залог используется: 1.

Если мы хотим обратить внимание на само действие, а не на его

исполнителя. Например: The History Class is being repaired at the moment. 2. Если исполнитель действия неизвестен. Например: The road was broaden after the repair. 3.

Если исполнитель действия очевиден и по этой причине не

называется. Например: The teacher said to his pupils: “The translation of the story must be done by Friday.” 4.

Если говорящий хочет сделать предложение неопределенно-

личным или безличным, тактично скрыв исполнителя действия. Например: It has been decided to close your firm. 5.

В официальных инструкциях, объявлениях, запрещениях для

более вежливого звучания. Например: The road can’t be crossed here. 31

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При преобразовании предложения из активного залога в пассивный, происходят следующие изменения: подлежащие становится косвенным дополнением с предлогом, а прямое дополнение становится подлежащим: Например: The girl broke her toy. The toy was broken by the girl. Если в предложении упоминается исполнитель действия, то при этом с одушевленными

существительными

употребляется

предлог

by,

с

неодушевленными существительными предлог with. Например: The fence was coloured by Tom. The fence was coloured with a long-handle brush. При формировании форм страдательного залога в предложениях с косвенным предложным дополнением на основе глаголов to account for, to agree upon, to arrive at, to depend on, to insist on, to laugh at, to listen to, to look at, to provide for, to rely on, to speak about, to send for, to take care of, предлог сохраняет свое место после глагола и выделяется фразовым ударением. Например: They sent for the doctor as soon as they came home. The doctor was sent for as soon as they came home. Таблица времен в активном и страдательном залоге Tense Present Simple

Active

Passive

The students write the test.

The test is written by the students.

Past Simple

The students wrote the test.

The test was written by the students.

Future Simple

The students will write the The test will be written by test.

Present Continuous

the students.

The students are writing the The test is being written by test now.

Past Continuous

the students.

The students were writing The test was being written the test.

by the students. 32

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Present Perfect

The students have already The test has been just written the test.

Past Perfect

written by the students.

The students had written the The test had been written test.

Future Perfect

The

by the students. students

will

have The test will have been

written the test. Modal Verbs

written by the students.

The students must write the The test must be written by test.

the students.

Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into Passive Voice. 1.

Stress … (to describe) as a psychological phenomenon. 2. Trees and

flowers … (to plant) in the park in spring. 3. Many mushrooms … (to collect) in this forest last autumn. 4. The exercise … (must to do) at home. 5. Electricity … (to switch off) in your block of flats tomorrow from 9 am till 5 pm. 6. Many houses … (to build) in Orenburg in the past few years. 7. Much work … (must to do) before we can go to the holidays. 8. The window … (to break) during the storm. 9. Not all vegetables … (to collect) from the fields yet. 10. New film by Steven Spielberg … (to see) by millions of people all over the world. Exercise 2. Replace the active form of the verb in each sentence with its equivalent passive form. 1.

They made some suggestions to improve the project. 2. The bill in this

restaurant includes service. 3. He is making a film about regional elections. 4. Underwater cameras have located the site of the sunken treasure. 5. Last year they were building a new ring-road around the town. 6. Some governments put pressure on companies to make donations for political purposes. 7. Not many countries will allow foreign investment on preferential conditions. 8. They made a decision to reduce export orders. 9. The criminal used a knife to kill the old lady. 10. Visitors must not feed the animals at the Zoo. Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into Passive Voice. 33

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1.

Visitors … (not to allow) into the park from 8 pm till 10 am. 2. All

equipment can … (to borrow) on request. 3. A bell … (to ring) three times before the beginning of the performance. 4. Visitors … (not to allow) to feed the animals. 5. Cars must … (to leave) at a parking area. 6. Dogs … (not to allow) in most shops and cafes. 7. Dogs and other animals … (to allow) in special cafes for pets. 8. Visitors … (to ask) not to touch anything in the museums. 9. Dogs must … (to keep) on a lead during the walk. 10. In every restaurant waiters … (to permit) to accept tips. Exercise 4. Replace the active form of the verb in each sentence with its equivalent passive form. 1. A bee stung Ted while he was sitting in the garden. 2. Everybody read Pushkin’s poems. 3. Jane locked the door when she went to school. 4. Children were playing football for the whole day yesterday. 5. Mother will cook dinner by 6 o’clock. 6. Ice on the road almost certainly caused the accident. 7. They offered John a well-paid job. 8. They serve breakfasts in this café from 8 to 10 am. 9. She wrote a letter to her aunt but hasn’t mailed it yet. 10. They decorated the city with flowers and flags.

LESSON FIVE Text 5. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Read, translate and retell the text: The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Atlantic seaboard, across the central plains, over the Rocky Mountains to the densely populated West Coast and then to the island state of Hawaii. The USA also includes Alaska in the north of the continent. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-border with Russia. 34

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The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The President is the head of the country. Every state has its own constitution and laws, but the main law of the country is the Constitution. The US Parliament consists of two Houses: The Senate and the House of Representatives. The main political parties in the country are the Republicans and the Democrats. The United States is a constitutional republic. The federal government is composed of three branches: - Legislative. The Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal laws, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. - Executive. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. - Judicial. The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval. The population of the country is about 239 million. The USA is called the «nation of immigrants», since the country was settled, built and developed by generations of immigrants and their children. Many different cultural traditions, ethnic sympathies and antipathies, different racial groups and religious affiliations make up the people of the USA. The USA is rich in mineral resources such as coal, gas, oil and different metals. It exports computers and electronics, transportation equipment and machinery. If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska. It is 6193 metres high. The United States is a land of rivers and lakes. The northern state of Minnesota is known as the land of 10 000 lakes. The largest and deepest lakes in the USA are the five Great Lakes on the border with Canada: Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario. America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the 35

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Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Mississippi is the world's third longest river after the Nile and the Amazon. The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: according to – в соответствии с, согласно, по чему-либо armament – вооружение attraction, sight – зд. достопримечательность to border on - граничить с coal – каменный уголь coast – побережье the Great Lakes – Великие озера highly developed – высокоразвитый the House of Representatives – Палата представителей lowlands – низменность, долина, низина manufacturing – промышленный origin – происхождение the Pacific Ocean – Тихий океан the Rocky Mountains – Скалистые горы to stretch – тянуться, простираться typhoon – тайфун Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1. What kind of state is the USA? 2. Where is it situated? 3. What is the USA washed by in the east and in the west? 4. What is the USA separated from Canada by? 36

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5. What is the total area of the country? 6. What are the principal rivers of the USA? 7. What is the population of the country? 8. Where do most people live? 9. Why are there representatives of all racial and national groups in America? 10. Where is the capital of the country situated? 11. How many states are there in the USA? 12. By what party has the political life in America been dominated? 13. What do the two parties contest at an election time? 14. What is the highest legislative body of the country? Exercise 2. Translate from Russian into English using words and word combinations of the text: 1.

Соединенные Штаты Америки — четвертая по величине страна в

мире после России, Канады и Китая. 2.

Она занимает южную часть Северной Америки и простирается от

Атлантического побережья через центральные равнины и Скалистые Горы до густо населенного западного побережья и затем до островного штата Гавайи. 3.

США состоят из 50 штатов и округа Колумбия, особой

федеральной территории, где находится столица страны — Вашингтон. 4. Население страны составляет около 239 миллионов человек. 5.

США называют «нацией иммигрантов», потому что страну

заселяли, строили и развивали поколения иммигрантов и их детей. 6.

Американский народ как нацию сформировали культурные

традиции многих наций и национальностей, наличие этнических симпатий и антипатий, разнообразие расовых групп и религиозных объединений. 7. Соединенные Штаты — земля рек и озер. 8. Северный штат Миннесота известен как земля 10000 озер. 9.

Самые крупные реки Америки — это Миссисипи, Миссури, Рио-

Гранде и Колумбия. 37

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10.Климат страны весьма разнообразен. 11.

Климат Тихоокеанского побережья значительно теплее, чем

Атлантического. Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks. Use the suitable words from the text: 1. The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, ... 2. It occupies the southern part of … and stretches from the Atlantic seaboard, across the …, over the Rocky Mountains to the … West Coast and then to the island state of ... 3. The total area of the country is about … million square kilometres. 4. The USA borders on Canada in the … and on … in the south. 5. It also has a … with Russia. 6. The USA is made up of … and the District of …, a special federal area where the … of the country, …, is situated. 7. The population of the country is about … million. 8. If we look at the map of the USA, we can see … and ... 9. The highest peak is Mount … which is located in ... 10.The United States is a land of … and …. 11.The largest and deepest lakes in the USA are the … on the border with Canada: Superior, …, Michigan, Erie, and ... 12.The Mississippi is the world's … longest river after the … and the Amazon. 13.The coldest regions are in the ... 14.Hot winds blowing from the … often bring ... GRAMMAR Косвенная речь (Reported Speech) Косвенная речь – это передача слов автора от третьего лица. При переходе от прямой речи к косвенной необходимо соблюдать несколько правил. 38

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Повествовательное предложение (Statement) Повествовательные предложения вводятся в косвенную речь при помощи союза that либо бессоюзно: Прямая речь: He says “Arthur is late for the lesson today.” 1. Косвенная речь: He says that Arthur is late for the lesson today. 2. Косвенная речь: He says Arthur is late for the lesson today. При переводе повествовательного предложения из прямой речи в косвенную все местоимения (личные, притяжательные, относительные) и соответствующие им формы глаголов меняются по смыслу: Прямая речь: She says “I want to speak to John after the lesson.” Косвенная речь: She says she wants to speak to John after the lesson. Прямая речь: They say “We are tired after our long walk.” Косвенная речь: They say they are tired after their long walk. Повелительное предложение (Command) Повелительные предложения вводятся в косвенную речь при помощи глаголов to tell, to ask, to order и неопределенной формы глагола: Прямая речь: He says “Come and have dinner with us tomorrow.” Косвенная речь: He asks to come and have dinner with them tomorrow. Отрицательные повелительные предложения вводятся в косвенную речь при помощи отрицательной частицы и неопределенной формы глагола: Прямая речь: She says “Don’t waste my time, I’m in a hurry.” Косвенная речь: She tells not to waste her time as she is in a hurry. Вопросительные предложения (Reported Questions) Вопросительные предложения вводятся в косвенную речь при помощи глаголов to ask, to inquire, to want to know. В прямом вопросе всегда обратный порядок слов, т.е. вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим (кроме вопроса к подлежащему, в котором всегда прямой порядок слов). В косвенном вопросе всегда прямой порядок слов, т.е. на первом месте подлежащее, а затем уже глагол. 39

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Общий вопрос (General Question) Общие вопросы вводятся в косвенную речь при помощи союзов if, whether: Прямая речь: He says “Do you know the time, Ann?” Косвенная речь: He asks if Ann knows the time. Косвенная речь: He asks whether Ann knows the time. Обратите внимание, что альтернативные вопросы задаются точно так же, как и общие: Прямая речь: He says “Will they go to Sochi or to the Crimea this summer?” Косвенная речь: He asks if they will go to Sochi or to the Crimea this summer. Косвенная речь: He asks whether they will go to Sochi or to the Crimea this summer. Специальный вопрос (Special Question) Специальные вопросы вводятся в косвенную речь при помощи тех вопросительных слов с которых они начинаются в прямой речи: Прямая речь: She says “Where are you going, Peter?” Косвенная речь: She asks where Peter is going. Косвенная речь: She asks Peter where he is going. Прямая речь: They say “When will our sister return home?” Косвенная речь: They ask when their sister will return home. Прямая речь: He says “Why is Tom shouting so loudly?” Косвенная речь: He asks why Tom is shouting so loudly. Прямая речь: My father says “Who is your best friend?” Косвенная речь: My father wants to know who my best friend is. Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Выразите следующие предложения косвенной речью: 1.

He says “Do you know that girl with red curly hair, Peter?” 2. He says

“I was very busy yesterday?” 3. They say “We are playing football till 5 o’clock 40

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today.” 4. They say “Our friend John is ill.” 5. He says “I don’t remember our home task for tomorrow.” 6. She says “Let’s go to the cinema tonight.” 7. Mother tells “Jack! Don’t do it again!” 8. They say “Tom will come tomorrow. Let’s meet him at the airport.” 9. He says “Ann is busy with her work. I won’t go to see her.” 10. The teacher says “Bring your books to the class tomorrow. We will write a composition.” Exercise

2.

Выразите

следующие

вопросительные предложения

косвенной речью: 1.He says “Where is my notebook, Sam?” 2. He says ”Why are you so lazy, Peter? I can’t do all the work myself!” 3. She says “Do you know the way to the nearest bank?” 4. He says “Will you hurry up, Ann? We are going to be late.” 5. He says ”Who is in the same class as Nick? I need to ask him some questions.” 6. Mark says “What kind of people are you afraid of, Linda?” 7. He says “Have you ever seen a polar bear?” 8. She says “Who are you going to visit a theatre with, Mary?” 9. He says “Does your brother know any foreign languages?” 10. Mike says “Did you visit your grandma last summer?” 11. He says “Was your sister playing the violin from 3 to 5 pm yesterday?” 12. She says “Where have you been for the whole week?” 13. He says “How many days will you stay in Australia?” 14. Pam says “Is it true that your father is a policeman, Jack?” 15. He says “What is your favourite colour, Lucy?” 16. My mother says “When have you done all your homework? I didn’t see you with a textbook.” 17. He says “Why are you so stubborn, John? I’m sick and tired of your quarrels with your younger sister.” 18. He says “Who knows our home task for Friday?” 19. He says “Is your friend at home or is he still in the hospital, Jane?” 20. She says “How much time does it take you to go to the centre of the town by car, William?” Exercise 3. Выразите следующие предложения косвенной речью: 1.

Derek says “Don’t take my things without permission!” 2. Donna says

“Look! A star is falling!” 3. Jonathan says “I need to clean my room and walk with my dog.” 4. Stella says ”Come to my place tonight. We’llwatchanewfilm.” 5. Oliver says “I was away too long to give you any pieces of advice.” 6. She says “I 41

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want to spend my summer holidays in a faraway country.” 7. The old man says “Don’t go across the street here! The traffic is heavy.” 8. The policeman says “Show what you have in your pockets, sir.” 9. Father says “Take out the rubbish and wash the dishes, Molly.” 10. They say “Let’s go home immediately.” Exercise

4.

Выразите

следующие

вопросительные

предложения

косвенной речью: 1.

George says “Where have you put my spectacles, Mary?” 2. He says

“Have you been at school yesterday, Sara?” 3. Philip says “How many lessons will we have tomorrow?” 4. He says “How much is this book?” 5. They say “How to go to the nearest underground station?” 6. Frank says “What town does Liza live?” 7. She says “Do you like psychological films?” 8. The teacher says “How much time is before the end of the lesson?” 9. Ted says “Have you read any plays by Shakespeare?” 10. Laura says “Why were you late yesterday, Peter?”

LESSON SIX Text 6. THE HISTORY OF ORENBURG Read, translate and retell the text: The history of Orenburg is very interesting. It got its name before it's factual foundation which took place three times. For the first time Orenburg was founded in August 1735 by the state expedition headed by the statesman Ivan Kirillovich Kirilov. It happened on the site of the present Orsk. For the second time Orenburg was founded in August 1741 by the state expedition headed by prince V.A.Urusov. It happened on the site of present village Krasnaya Gora (not far from Saractach). It was done according to the advice of the prominent Russian scientist Vasily Nikitich Tatischev. Finally, Orenburg was founded on its present site by the prominent Russian statesman Ivan Ivanovich Neplyev. Orenburg was planned not only as fortress but also as an important centre of commerce between Russia and Asia. The original fortress had 10 bastions and 4

42

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gates. In the 18th century the development of the town was rather slow because of the severe climate and the lack of population. During the peasant's uprising of 1774 Orenburg was besieged by the Pugachev's army. The Orenburg province was the site of exile for many prominent people - several Decembrists, poets Alexei Plescheyev, Taras Schevchenko; a composer Alexander Alyabyev and many others. Step by step the population of Orenburg and its province grew. In general, the population of the Orenburg province was multinational. At the beginning of the 19th century more and more buildings were constructed in Orenburg. They were private houses for nobleman, merchants, doctors, engineers, teachers, clerks and common people. More and more military and public institutions appeared in the town. In 1833 Orenburg was visited by A.S. Pushkin who collected materials for his literary works - "The Captain's Daughter" and "History of Pugachov". Vladimir Ivanovich Dal lived and worked in Orenburg for several years. Orenburg is the birthplace of the revolutionary poet M.Z. Mihkailov. S.T. Aksakov had a country - seat in the Orenburg province. He devoted many beautiful stories to the nature of the province. In the 1850ies the development of the greenery in the Zauralnaya Roscha began under the supervision of the engineer and general Bikbulatov. At the end of the 19th century Lukian Vasilyevich Popov, an artist belonging to the Peredvizhniks' movement lived and worked in Orenburg. One can see his works not only in the local museum of Fine Arts but also in the Tretyakov Gallery. Orenburg was traditionally famous for the Orenburg shawls. They are real works of art. There are some examples of fine architecture in Orenburg. The famous Karavan Sarai was built according to the project of architect Brullov. There are many interesting buildings in the present Sovetskaya Street (the former Gubernskaya, then Nicolaevskaya street). 43

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During the revolutionary years Orenburg was the place of severe battles between the Red and White Army. During the Great Patriotic War many factories were evacuated to Orenburg from the West of our country. Our People did their best for the victory. 188 people from Orenburg were awarded with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for their courage in combat action (service in battle) - among them were poet Musa Jalil and general Alexander Rodimtsev. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: factual – фактический prominent – известный fortress – крепость connected with – связано с … revolt – восстание besiege – осаждать exile – ссылка supervision – надзор, контроль evacuate – эвакуировать award – награждать courage – смелость, храбрость combat action – боевое действие Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1.

When was Orenburg founded?

2.

What is the name of the town derived from?

3.

Why was Orenburg both a town and a fortress?

4.

Did the town witness the Peasant Revolt under Pugatchov?

5.

Did it function as an important military outpost on the frontier?

6.

Who devoted many beautiful stories to the nature of the province?

7.

What was built according to the project of architect Brullov?

8.

How did the role of the town change after the October revolution? 44

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9.

How many people from Orenburg were awarded with the title of the

Hero of the Soviet Union for their courage in combat action? Exercise 2. Transcribe, read and translate the following words: Factual, foundation, headed, prince, Saractach, scientist, commerce, besieged, exile, province, multinational, constructed, merchants, clerks, birthplace, revolutionary, greenery, shawls, project, severe, courage. Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences: 1. For the first time Orenburg was founded in ... 2. For the second time Orenburg was founded in … 3. Finally, Orenburg was founded on its present site by ... 4. The original fortress had ... 5. During the peasant's uprising of 1774 Orenburg was ... 6. In general, the population of the Orenburg province ... 7. More and more military and public institutions ... 8. Orenburg is the birthplace of ... 9. S.T. Aksakov had a country ... 10.At the end of the 19th century Lukian Vasilyevich Popov, ... 11.One can see his works not only in the local museum of Fine Arts but ... 12.Orenburg was traditionally famous for ... 13.There are many interesting buildings in the present ... 14.During the revolutionary years Orenburg was the ... 15.Our People did their best for ... Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary: 1.

Orenburg was planned not only as fortress but also as an important

centre … commerce … Russia and Asia. 2.

In the 18th century the development … the town was rather slow …

the severe climate and the lack … population. 3.

The Orenburg province was the site … exile … many prominent

people - several Decembrists, poets Alexei Plescheyev, Taras Schevchenko; a composer Alexander Alyabyev and many others. 45

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4. Step … step the population … Orenburg and its province grew. 5.

… 1833 Orenburg was visited … A.S. Pushkin who collected

materials … his literary works - "The Captain's Daughter" and "History of Pugachov". 6. Vladimir Ivanovich Dal lived and worked in Orenburg for several years. 7.

… the 1850ies the development … the greenery … the Zauralnaya

Roscha began … the supervision … the engineer and general Bikbulatov. 8.

The famous Karavan Sarai was built according … the project …

architect Brullov. 9.

During the Great Patriotic War many factories were evacuated …

Orenburg … the West … our country. 10.

188 people … Orenburg were awarded … the title … the Hero … the

Soviet Union … their courage … combat action (service … battle) - … them were poet Musa Jalil and general Alexander Rodimtsev. GRAMMAR Субстантивация прилагательных Субстантивация (от лат. substantivum — имя существительное), процесс перехода в класс имён существительных слов, принадлежащих др. частям речи. Некоторые имена прилагательные в английском языке могут изменять свое значение и переходить в класс существительных. Например, это могут быть обобщенные или абстрактные понятия. Как правило, они используются только в единственном числе и с определенным артиклем: The mysterious has always attracted people. – Загадочное всегда притягивало людей. Однако некоторые из них могут стоять и во множественном числе: There are two variables in this equation. – В этом уравнении две переменные. Названия языков используются без определенного артикля: 46

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Chinese has become one of the most popular languages among European students. – Китайский стал одним из популярнейших языков среди европейских студентов. Часто

субстантивированные

прилагательные

используются

для

описания групп людей или национальностей, тогда они используются с артиклем the: The English are well-known for their mastery of sailing. – Англичане хорошо известны своим мастерством мореплавания. Субстантивированные прилагательные, обозначающие военное звание, должность, партийную принадлежность, пол, расу, и некоторые другие могут использоваться и в единственном (с артиклем a), и множественном числе. He behaves like a superior. – Он ведет себя, как главный. My superiors cannot accept such conditions. – Мое начальство не может принять такие условия. To look at him, you wouldn't think he used to be a marine. – По нему и не скажешь, что раньше он был десантником. Marines have always been a pride of our fleet. – Десантники всегда были гордостью нашего флота. Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Choose: the+adjective or the+adjective+people. 1. The government is cutting back on benefits for the unemployed \ the unemployed people. 2. The minister’s speech offended many of the unemployed \ the unemployed people in the audience. 3. There are not enough hospitals beds to accommodate the sick \ the sick people. 4. Some of the old \ the old people in the hotel remember when it was bombed during the war. 5. A new hostel is to be opened for the homeless \ the homeless people. 47

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6. The rich \ the rich people threw a party for all the disabled \ the disabled people in the town. 7. The survey showed that the rich / the rich people control 90% of the country’s wealth. 8. There is a shortage of guide dogs for the blind \ the blind people. 9. Sign language is usually taught to the deaf \ the deaf people to enable them to communicate. Exercise 2. Translate into Russian. 1. a change for the better; 2. a change for the worse; 3. none the less; 4. none the better; 5. none the worse for; 6. so much the better; 7. so much the worse; 8. to go from bad to worse; 9. if the worst comes to the worst; 10.to be the worst for; 11.to get the better of; 12.to have the worst; Exercise 3. Make nominalisations from adjectives by adding -ness, -ism, or ity. Add more to the table from your own reading. adjective

nominalisation

appropriate active complex desirable sceptical willing 48

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TEST YOURSELF Test Two. Reported Speech Выберите правильный вариант: 1. She said that her friend's name______Mary. a) is b) has been

c) was d) were

2.I saw what he______. a) means

c) is meaning

b) meant

d) has meant

3, She thought it______curious. a) '11 be

c) is

b) was

d) has been

4. He said he______hungry. a) was

c) '11 be

b) is

d) has been

5.I heard she______good English. a)speaks b) is speaking

c)speak d) spoke

6. John confessed he .________like football. a) doesn't

c) will not

b) didn't

d) do not 49

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7. He asked me how many lessons I______last week. a) had

c) had had

b) was having

d) have

8. He wondered what Dick______at that moment. a) did b) does

c) is doing d) was doing

9. He told me Jack ______back in a few minutes. a) would be b) was

c) is d) will be

10. He promised he______there in half an hour. a) is b) would be

c) will be d) was

11. She complained that no one______ever______to her. a) —, speaks

c) had spoken

b) — ,spoke

d) has spoken

12. The manager explained that the exhibition______lastweek. a) finished

c) is finished

b) finishes

d) had finished

13. He explained he______there two years before. a) had moved

c) moves

b) moved

d) was moving

14. The boy exclaimed that their team______the match atlast. a) had won

с) won

b) win

d) has won

15. He remarked he______already______the film. a) —, saw

c) had seen

b) —, sees

d) has seen

16. We ... by a loud noise during the night. a) woke up

c) were woken up

b) are woken up

d) were waking up 50

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17. A new supermarket is going to ... next year. a) build

c) be building

b) be built

d) building

18.‘ I ______ by the news he had told me the day before. a) am surprising

c) was surprised

b) surprised

d) am surprised

19.There was a fight at the party, but nobody ... . a) was hurt

c) hurt

b) were hurt

d) are hurt

LESSON SEVEN Text 7. THE POLITICAL SYSTEMS Read, translate and retell the text: Formally the USA is a Federal Republic, while the UK is parliamentary monarchy. In practice, this means the USA has an elected head of state (The President) who has real powers, while the UK has a hereditary monarch (The King or Queen), who has virtually no power but a lot of symbolism. The legislature in the UK (Parliament) consists of two houses, one of which has almost unlimited power (the House of Commons) while the other is appointed (with a few residual hereditary members elected from their own number) and has only limited powers to delay and revise legislation. In the US there are two house of the legislature (Congress), both of which are elected and have co-equal power to propose and reject legislation. Probably because in the US so many roles - especially that of President - is elected, personality is very much to the fore with a system of “primary” elections in each of the two big parties appointing a candidate who stands for election. The US also has what is effectively a two party system, where practically only the candidate from one of the two main parties stand a chance of election, but each of 51

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those parties does not have a single leader apart from the candidate if he/she is elected. In contrast the UK has two large parties but also there are other significant parties with representation in Parliament. Because the Prime Minister has to command a majority in Parliament (actually just the House of Commons), that person is usually the leader of the largest party in the house. The parties elect their own leaders outside of rhythm of general elections and if the governing party changes leader, the Prime Minister will change - in fact change of Prime Minister in this was is as common as change due to election. Another obvious difference with the USA is that in the UK there is always a defined “Leader of the Opposition” who will be leader of the next largest party (that is not in government) in the commons. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: Federal Republic – федеративная республика parliamentary monarchy – парламентская монархия elected – избранный hereditary – наследный, наследуемый legislature – законодательная власть revise – пересматривать residual – оставшийся co-equal – равный significant – значительный Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1.

Is the UK a constitutional monarchy?

2.

What is the Constitution of the UK based on?

3.

What are the main characteristics of the powers in the country?

4.

What is the composition of Parliament?

5.

Is the USA a federal state?

6.

What is implied by the separation of powers in the country? 52

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7.

When was the American Constitution adopted?

8.

What does the US Congress consist of?

Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences: 1. In practice, this means the USA has an ... 2. The legislature in the UK (Parliament) consists of two ... 3. In the US there are two house of the legislature (Congress), both ... 4. Probably because in the US so many roles ... 5. The US also has what is effectively a two party system, where ... Exercise 3. For statements 1-8, decide which answer is correct. Circle the corresponding letter. 1. In Great Britain a the Prime Minister is the head of state. b the Monarch; c the President; 2. In the USA a the President is the head of state. b the Prime Minister; c the Vice President; 3. In Great Britain a the Monarch is the head of government. b the Prime Minister; c the President; 4. In the USA a the Vice President is the head of government. b the Prime Minister; c the President; 5. In Great Britain a the Cabinet represents the legislative branch. b the House of Commons; c Parliament; 6. In the USA a the Administration represents the legislative branch. b Congress; c the Senate; 7. In Great Britain a the Prime Minister with cabinet and non-cabinet ministers represent(s) the executive branch. b the House of Commons; c the House of Lords; 8. In the USA a the Senate represent(s) the executive branch. b the President and his Administration; c Congress. GRAMMAR Used to, would 53

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Used to используется, когда мы говорим о действиях, которые были для нас привычными в прошлом, но не имеют места в настоящем. — I used to drink fizzy water, when I was a child. В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях данная конструкция используется редко, обычно используют простое прошедшее время (Past Simple), но, тем не менее, время от времени она употребляется. Вопросительные предложения строятся при помощи вспомогательного глагола “did”, который выносится в начало предложения, при этом глагол “use” используется в первой форме: — Did you use to eat junk food? – У тебя была привычка есть жирную пищу? Отрицание строится аналогичным образом: — No, I didn’t use to eat junk food. – Нет, у меня не было привычки есть жирную пищу. Отдельное

внимание

стоит

уделить

произношению:

“used to” не произносится как два отдельных слова, они как бы сливаются в одно, окончание “d” при произношении выпадает, получается, что мы произносим “used to” как [ju:stu]. Would Конструкция “Would +глагол в первой форме” также используется, когда мы говорим о действии, которое было для нас привычным в прошлом. Однако разница между этими двумя грамматическими конструкциями заключается в том, что вторая чаще используется, когда мы ностальгируем по былым временам. — When I was a child I would go to the cinema with my father every weekend – Когда я была маленькой, я каждые выходные ходила с отцом в кино. В этом предложении мы подчеркиваем, что скучаем по тем временам. Мы можем заменить “Would + V1” на “Used to”, если нам не важен этот 54

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оттенок ностальгии. Однако не всегда можно заменить “Used to” на “Would”, поскольку первая конструкция применяется в тех случаях, когда действия происходило регулярно, постоянно; вторая может использоваться, когда мы говорим о действии, которое повторялось время от времени. В русском мы бы использовали в таких случаях слово «бывало»: — After walking in the park my brother and I would buy a portion of ice cream, that ice-cream was the best in the World! – После прогулки в парке я с братом бывало покупали по порции мороженого, то мороженое было самым лучшим в мире! Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Choose the right variant. 1) After his football match, Bob (would/used to) often come home exhausted. 2) You (would/used to) like him. – Yes, but now I hate him! 3) She (would/used to) live in London before the war, and then she moved to New York. 4) I remember we (would/used to) go fishing every morning when I was a child. 5) The children (would/used to) often help me make a cake. They still do sometimes. 6) He (would/used to) be a very good tennis player, until he broke his ankle. 7) My grandfather (would/used to) swim in the river. Unfortunately, now it’s forbidden. Exercise 2. Choose the right variant. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1.

Jack … (used to/is used to) cooking for himself when he comes home

from work. 2.

I remember how we … (used to/are used to) listen to rock-n-roll music

all the time. 3.

Pam … (used to/is used to) spend hours in front of the mirror when

she was a teenager. 55

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4. They … (didn’t use to/are not used to) eating Japanese food. 5. Our town … (used to/is used to) be an industrial centre. 6. My son … (didn’t use to/isn’t used to) going to bed so early. 7. We … (used to/are used to) meet him every day. 8. I … (didn’t use to/am not used to) driving on the left. Exercise 3. Choose the right variant. 1. Carol ……………to have long dark hair, didn’t she? a)

is used; b)

used; c)

would

2. I have never driven an automatic car before, but I am sure I will soon……………to it. a)

get used; b)

be used; c)

used

3. When we were little, mum……………always read us a bedtime story. a)

was used to; b)

would; c)

got used to

4. I am surprised you are not tired. I didn’t know you……………to walking long distances. a)

are used; b)

got used; c)

used

5. I remember Uncle Bob very well, because he……………always bring us some sweets. a)

would; b)

was used; c)

used

6. ‘How do you know that woman?’ ‘She ……………to work with me.’ a)

was used; b)

used; c)

is used

7. They……………to the cold. a)

are used; b)

used; c)

would

8. I……………to getting up early and find it hard. a)

will get used; b)

am not used; c)

was used

9. I……………to exercise often when I was younger. a)

used; b)

will get used; c)

am used

10. My brother……………to travel a lot before he got married. a)

didn’t use; b)

used; c)

was used

11. Do you remember the things we……………to do when we were kids? 56

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a)

used; b)

were used; c)

got used

12. Tom……………to using a computer, but now he enjoys it. a)

isn’t used; b)

will get used; c)

wasn’t used

LESSON EIGHT Text 8. THE COMMONWEALTH OF BRITAIN NATIONS Read, translate and retell the text: The Commonwealth of Nations is a worldwide political organisation of independent nations with their dependencies, all of which recognize the British monarch as the head of the Commonwealth. The origin of the Commonwealth lies in the British Empire. Starting from the 16th century, Britain invaded a lot other lands. This was very violent most of the times. Some colonies, such as India, had large local populations ruled by British overlords. Others, such as Australia, became colonies for settlement by the British. At the beginning of the 20th century, these lands of settlement, known as Dominions, were largely internally governed. As these settlements became less profitable, there came the idea of the Commonwealth. In 1931 Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa were granted 'independence'. When World War II broke out, these Commonwealth nations and the colonies fought alongside the UK and its allies for the ideals of liberty. They helped the Allies to win in 1945.The independence for the remaining colonies followed soon after. Most joined the Commonwealth to remain close to the vast amount of resources that Britain had. From the start, the UK was the dominant force in what was known as 'the British Commonwealth'. It was run from the Commonwealth Office in London. By the 1950s, it had become 'the Commonwealth of Nations'. In 1965, an office called the Commonwealth Secretariat was set up to run the Commonwealth. The UK remained the dominant power giving directives through the various offices. Under the 'old Empire', the UK allowed some special rules for trade with the colonies. 57

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These rules made things from the colonies cheaper in the UK. They also encouraged the colonies to buy goods produced in the UK. The Commonwealth consists of most of the countries that were once parts of the British Empire. In 1926, Britain and its dominions agreed they were equal in status. They decided to be freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations. There are fifty-three members. Some are very large countries like Canada, India, and Australia. Some are just small islands like Barbados and Tonga. The issue of countries with constitutional structures not based on a shared Crown, who wished to remain members of the Commonwealth, was resolved in April 1949 at the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' meeting in London. Under the formula of the London Declaration, Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth. The land area of the Commonwealth nations is about 21% of the total world land area. The Commonwealth promotes educational programmes and exchanges between different countries. Every four year they hold the Commonwealth Games. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: Commonwealth – содружество worldwide – всемирный dependencies – зависимые страны, территории invade – завоевывать, захватывать internally – внутри страны, внутренне profitable – прибыльный liberty – свобода independence – независимость dominions – доминионы Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1.

What is the Commonwealth of Nations?

2.

Who is in the Head of the Commonwealth?

3.

How did the idea of the Commonwealth come?

4.

Why did some countries fight alongside the UK and its allies? 58

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5.

What was set up in 1965?

6.

What trade rules did the UK allow under the “Old Empire”?

7.

What countries does the Commonwealth consist of?

8.

What decision did Britain and its dominions come to in 1926?

9.

What is the land area of the Commonwealth?

10.

What does the Commonwealth promote?

Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences: 1. The Commonwealth of Nations is a worldwide ... 2. Starting from the 16th century, Britain ... 3. At the beginning of the 20th century, these lands ... 4. As these settlements became less profitable, there came the idea ... 5. In 1931 Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa ... 6. Most joined the Commonwealth to remain close to ... 7. By the 1950s, it had become 'the ... 8. The UK remained the dominant power giving directives through ... 9. These rules made things from the colonies ... 10.In 1926, Britain and its dominions agreed they were ... 11.Some are very large countries like Canada, ... 12.Under the formula of the London Declaration, Queen Elizabeth II is ... 13.The land area of the Commonwealth nations is about … land area. 14.The Commonwealth promotes educational ... 15.Every four year they hold the ... Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary: 1. The origin … the Commonwealth lies … the British Empire. 2.

Some colonies, … India, had large local populations ruled … British

overlords. 3.

When World War II broke …, these Commonwealth nations and the

colonies fought … the UK and its allies … the ideals … liberty. 4.

… the start, the UK was the dominant force … what was known …

'the British Commonwealth'. 59

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5.

… the 'old Empire', the UK allowed some special rules … trade … the

colonies. 6.

The Commonwealth consists … most … the countries that were once

parts … the British Empire. 7.

They decided to be freely associated … members … the British

Commonwealth … Nations. 8.

The issue … countries … constitutional structures not based … a

shared Crown, who wished to remain members … the Commonwealth, was resolved … April 1949 … the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' meeting … London. GRAMMAR Subjunctive Mood Сослагательное наклонение в английском языке — это форма глагола, выражающая

желание,

предположение,

сомнение

или

нереальность

выполнения действия. В русском языке это выражается глаголами в прошедшем времени в сочетании с частицей «бы» (чтобы, если бы и т. д.). Сослагательное наклонение Subjunctive I (синтетическая форма) употребляется в простом предложении и в главном и придаточном предложении сложноподчиненного предложения (в главном — с условным придаточным, выражающим нереальное условие). Сослагательное наклонение Subjunctive II (аналитическая форма) употребляется

в придаточном

предложении сложноподчиненного

предложения. Present Subjunctive образуется от инфинитива любого глагола без частицы to, например, be, see, go, write и т. д. Эта форма глагола остается без изменения, независимо от лица и числа (в 3-м лице единственного числа глаголы не принимают окончания -s, а глагол to be остается также без изменений в единственном и множественном числе). It is necessary that he be here at 6 o’clock. – Необходимо, чтобы он был здесь в 6 часов. 60

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It was necessary that they be here at 6 o’clock. – Было необходимо, чтобы они были здесь в 6 часов. It is important that he understand his mistake. – Важно, чтобы он понял свою ошибку. It was important that he understand his mistake. – Было важно, чтобы он понял свою ошибку. (Форма Present Subjunctive употребляется независимо от того, в каком времени стоит глагол главного предложения.) Глаголы в Past Subjunctive имеют ту же форму, что и в простом прошедшем времени (came, went, took и т. д.), а глагол to be имеет форму were для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа. If I саше here he would help me. – Если бы я приехал сюда, он помог бы мне. If I were there I should ring you up. – Если бы я был там, я позвонил бы вам. Употребление сослагательного наклонения: 

1. В придаточных предложениях, следующих после конструкций:

it is necessary — необходимо, it is required — нужно, необходимо, it is demanded — нужно (обязательно), it is important — важно, it is strange — странно и т. п., вводимых союзом that, употребляется Present Subjunctive или II форма Indefinite Subjunctive (should (have) + инфинитив без to). It is necessary that he read (should read) it. – Необходимо, чтобы он прочитал это. It is important that they know (should know) their new timetable. – Важно, чтобы они знали новое расписание. It is strange that she should have said it. – Странно, чтобы она это сказала. 

2. В придаточных дополнительных предложениях после глаголов,

выражающих приказание, требование, предложение, предположение — to order, to command, to suggest, to insist и др., употребляется II форма Indefinite Subjunctive. 61

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He ordered that the children should get up at 7 o’clock. – Он приказал, чтобы дети вставали в 7 часов. Her parents suggested that she should go to the South. – Её родители предложили, чтобы она поехала на юг. 

3. После глагола to wish в придаточных дополнительных

предложениях

для

выражения

желания,

надежды,

сожаления

о

невозможности желаемого, а также в выражениях типа I wish I knew (в значении I don’t know): а) если желание осуществимо, употребляется аналитическая форма would + инфинитив без to. I wish they would pass their exams. – Мне хочется, чтобы они сдали экзамены. He wishes I would come to Minsk. – Ему хочется, чтобы я приехал(а) в Минск. б) если желание нереально и неосуществимо, то в придаточном предложении имеет место сдвиг времен (Past Subjunctive от to be — were. Past Indefinite или Past Perfect — от всех других глаголов соответственно правилам согласования времен: если в главном предложении глагол стоит в Present Indefinite, то в придаточном — в Past Indefinite; если в главном предложении глагол стоит в Past Indefinite или в другом прошедшем времени, то в придаточном — в Past Perfect, т. е. Perfect Subjunctive). I wish they were there! – Я хотел(а) бы, чтобы они были там! I wish we had more films for children. – Я хотел(а) бы, чтобы у нас было больше фильмов для детей (но их мало). Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Open the brackets using Subjunctive after "I wish". 1. I wish I (to have) a season ticket to the Philarmonic next winter. 2. I wish I (to consult) the teacher when I first felt that mathematics was too difficult for me. 3. I love sunny weather. I wish it (to be) warm and fine all the year round. 4. I wish I (not to lend) Nick my watch: he has broken it 5.I wish you (to send) word as soon 62

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as you arrive. 6.I wish I (not to have) to do my homework every day. 7. I wish you (to go) skiing with me yesterday: I had such a good time! 8. I wish I (to know) Spanish. 9. I wish I (not to drink) so much coffee in the evening: I could not sleep half the night. 10. I wish you (to read) more in future. 11. I wish I never (to suggest) this idea. 12. I wish I (to be) at yesterday's party: it must have been very merry. 13. I wish we (to meet) again next summer. Exercise 2. Open the brackets using Subjunctive after "I wish". 1. I wish I (can) give up smoking. 2. She wishes she (to see) him at yesterday's party. 3. I wish I (to pass) my driving test last Monday. 4. I wish I (not to forget) my friend's birthday yesterday. 5. The boy is sad. He wishes he (not to break) the window. 6. My aunt wishes she (to stay) at home last weekend. 7. He wishes he (to know) something about cars. 8. I wish it (to be) sunny. 9. I wish it (to be) sunny during our picnic last Saturday. 10. She wishes she (to live) in the Crimea. 11. My friend wishes he (not to do) that last night. 12.1 wish I (to bring) my camera last summer. 13. I wish I (can) tell the future. 14. Do you wish you (to be) in the Guinness Book of Records? 15. Some people wish they (can) appear on a TV game show and become famous. 16. She often wishes things (to be) different. Exercise 3. Translate into English using Subjunctive after "I wish". 1. Ах, если бы вы сказали ей об этом в прошлое воскресенье! 2. Хорошо бы у нас сейчас были каникулы. 3. Если бы он пришел сегодня вечером! 4. Мы пожалели, что не попросили его совета. 5. Жаль, что вы отказались принять участие в пикнике. 6. Жаль, что вас не интересует этот предмет. 7. Мы бы хотели, чтобы вы упомянули эти факты. 8. Жаль, что мы опоздали на поезд. 9. Жаль, что вы включили телевизор так поздно. 10. Если бы я был свободен сейчас! 11. Жаль, что и вчера у меня было мало времени. 12. Хорошо бы вы написали ей об этом сами. 13. Жаль, что вы не обратили внимания на его предупреждение. 14. Он пожалел, что бросил университет. 15. Жаль, что уже поздно идти туда. 16. Ах, если бы я пришел на вокзал вовремя! 17. Жаль, что вы не читали такую прекрасную книгу. 18. Жаль, что она делает так много ошибок в речи. 19. Жаль, что вы не побывали на 63

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выставке. 20. Жаль, что я узнал об этом так поздно. 21. Как жаль, что мы не застали Колю дома. 22. Она сожалела, что не рассказала нам эту историю раньше.

LESSON NINE Text 9. THE ANCIENT RUSSIA Read, translate and retell the text: People exist at certain geographical location at some historical period; as time passed by areas of human distribution and borders of states changed. Both ethnic groups and states are not eternal: they are born and perish, develop and transform in new social communities. So Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian people were formed on the basis of eastern Slavonic super ethnic group. Formation of people (process of ethnogeny) and formation of states have economic base closely connected with inhabitancy of people and their way of life which in its turn influenced cultural and community features of ethnic groups. Natural cradle of eastern Slavic people of the Russian state was Eastern European plain. Its open spaces, landscapes, soil and climatic conditions, river basins determined not only the formation of dominant economic and cultural complexes, population settlements but also the formation of ethnic and state frontiers according to results of armed political conflicts and colonization processes. To the middle of the first millenium AD there were steady economic and cultural complexes located in woods, forest-steppes and steppe zones of Eurasia; the process of ethnogeny developed actively. To VI - VII centuries the final stage of eastern slavs allocation from common pro-Slavonic unity began. The transformation of eastern Slavic cultural and ethnic community into local independent civilization was connected with the adoption of Christianity by prince Vladimir in 988. 64

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With adoption of Christianity eastern Slavs entered Orthodox Church which determined development of the Russian state. Transformation of Kiev into the political, cultural and religious centre of eastern Slavic state resulted in gradual strengthening of cultural delimitation of the Kiev Russia relative the west slavic

neighbours

who

adopted

Christianity

from

Rome. Epoch of

the

Kiev Russia was the period of mainly southern orientation of eastern Slavic life. Russia

was

close

to

Byzantium

because

of

religious

and

trade

communications, to Bulgaria - because of common script. The form of government of the Ancient Russian state included three components - veche as a special form of national assembly which discussed the most important questions; royal authority with administrative, judicial and military powers; royal council which was the assembly of supreme administration representatives. The state was multinational from its formation. On the territory of Ancient Russia lived Finno-Ugric people - Karelians, Veps, Saams. The Perm land occupied by Komi was joined at the end of XV century. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: distribution – распределение ethnic groups – этнические группы eternal – вечный perish – исчезать ethnogeny – этногенез inhabitancy – населенность landscapes – ландшафты steady – стабильный, постоянный allocation – распределение adoption of Christianity – принятие христианства Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English: 65

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1.

Люди существуют в определенном географическом положении в

определенный исторический период,

с

течением

времени

ареалы

распространения человека и границы государств менялись. 2.

Образование людей

(процесс

этногенеза)

и

образование

государств имеют экономическую базу, тесно связанную с средой обитания людей и их образом жизни что в свою очередь повлияло на культурнобытовые особенности этносов. 3.

К середине первого тысячелетия

нашей

хозяйственно-культурные

комплексы,

устойчивые

эры

появились

расположенные

в лесах лесостепная и степная зоны Евразии; активно развивался процесс этногенеза. 4.

К

VI-VII векам начался

заключительный

этап

выделения

восточных славян из общего Прославянского единства. 5.

С принятием христианства восточные славяне вступили в

Православную Церковь, которая определила развитие русского государства. 6.

Преобразование Киева превращение

Киевской

Руси

в

политический, культурный и религиозный центр восточнославянского государства привело к постепенному усилению культурного размежевания Киевской Руси с западнославянскими соседями, принявшими христианство из Рима. 7.

Форма

правления

Древнерусского

государства

включала

составляющие - вече как особая форма национального собрания который обсуждал

наиболее

важные

вопросы;

королевская

власть

с

административной, судебной и военной полномочиями ; королевский совет, который был собранием представителей высшей администрации. 8.

Государство было многонациональным с момента своего

образования. 9.

На

территории Древней Руси жил

Финно-угорский

народ

-

карелы, вепсы, саамы. Пермская земля, оккупированная Коми, была присоединена в конце XV века . 66

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Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences: 1. People exist at certain geographical location at some ... 2. Both ethnic groups and states are not eternal: they ... 3. Natural cradle of eastern Slavic people of the Russian state was ... 4. Its open spaces, landscapes, soil and climatic conditions, river basins determined not only the ... 5. To VI - VII centuries the final stage of eastern ... 6. With adoption of Christianity eastern Slavs entered ... 7. Epoch of the Kiev Russia was the period ... 8. Russia was close to Byzantium because of ... 9. The state was multinational ... Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary: 1.

So Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian people were formed …

the basis … eastern Slavonic super ethnic group. 2.

Formation … people (process … ethnogeny) and formation … states

have economic base closely connected … inhabitancy … people and their way … life which … its turn influenced cultural and community features … ethnic groups. 3.

… the middle … the first millenium AD there were steady economic

and cultural complexes located … woods, forest-steppes and steppe zones … Eurasia; the process … ethnogeny developed actively. 4.

The transformation … eastern Slavic cultural and ethnic community

… local independent civilization was connected … the adoption … Christianity … prince Vladimir … 988. 5.

Transformation … Kiev … the political, cultural and religious centre

… eastern Slavic state resulted … gradual strengthening … cultural delimitation … the Kiev Russia relative the west slavic neighbours who adopted Christianity … Rome. 6. The Perm land occupied … Komi was joined … the end … XV century. 67

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GRAMMAR Условные предложения (Conditionals) Условные предложения в английском языке делятся на четыре типа. Нулевой тип условных предложений используется для выражения общих утверждений. Обе части предложения находятся в настоящем времени. Например: If you heat ice, it melts. Первый тип условных предложений используется для описания событий в будущем. В главном предложении используется Future Simple, а в придаточном после if Present Simple. Например: They will go to the mall if they get a scholarship. На русский язык обе части предложения переводятся будущим временем: Например: Они пойдут в торговый центр если получат степендию. Второй тип условных предложений описывает нереальную ситуацию, (что было бы если…). Например: If I had tickets, I would go to the football match. Хотя в предаточном предложении после if стоит глагол в прошедшем времени, на русский язык он может переводиться глаголом в настоящем или будущем времени. Например: Если бы у меня были билеты, я бы пошел на футбол. Третий

тип

условных

предложений

описывает гипотетическую

ситуацию в прошлом (что-то могло случиться, но не случилось…). В главном предложении глагол в Present Perfect, а в придаточном в Past Perfect. Например: If he had known English, he would have gone to the USA. Если бы он знал английский, он бы уехал в США. Тип

Форма глагола в главном Форма

придаточного

предложении

глагола

придаточном предложении

предложения 68

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Нулевой

Present Simple

Present Simple

conditional

Water boils

if you heat it for 100’C.

Первый

Future Simple

Present Simple

conditional

She will be glad

if he comes on time.

Второй

Future Simple in-the-Past

Past Simple

conditional

We would go to school

if we were not ill.

Третий

Would + Present Perfect

Past Perfect

conditional

She would have come here if she had had free time.

В придаточном предложении вместо if могут использоваться другие условные союзы: Условный союз

Перевод

So long as

Пока; до тех пор, пока

As long as

Пока; до тех пор, пока

Unless

Если не; пока не

Except if

Кроме случаев, когда

Even if

Даже если; хотя

Providing

При условии, если только; в том случае, если

Provided that

При условии, если только; в том случае, если

On condition that

При условии, если

In case

На случай, если; в случае, если

No matter how

Неважно как

No matter who

Неважно кто

No matter what

Неважно что

No matter where

Неважно где

No matter when

Неважно когда

Например: We are going to the park even if it rains. We are going to the park no matter how cold it is outside. 69

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We are going to the park except if it rains heavily. Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Complete the sentences using Zero or First Conditional. 1. Everybody … (to know) that magnits … (to attract) meatal. 2. If you … (not to know) the rules you … (not to get) a good mark for the test. 3. He … (not to receive) a scholarship unless he (to pass) all his exams successfully. 4. The children … (to be) very happy if you (to take) them to the adventure park. 5. We … (to go) to the circus no matter how expensive … (to be) the tickets. 6. No matter why you … (to be) absent we … (to wait) for you near the cinema’s entrance. 7. If temperature … (to be) below zero, water … (to freeze). 8. Water … (not to boil), unless you … (to heat) it for 100 ‘C. 9. No matter when I … (to see) Ann, I … (to tell) the truth. 10. Alice … (to stay) in New York if she … (to get) a job there. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences using Second or Third Conditional. 1.

If I … (to be) you, I … (to drive) more carefully in the rain. 2. I … (to

travel) round the world, if I … (to have) a lot of money. 3. If the weather … (to be) nice last week, we … (to go) to the forest. 4. If I … (to go) to Paris, I … (to seen) the Effel Tower. 5. If the tower clock … (not to be) so old, Big Ben … (to close) to reconstruction. 6. Unless you … (to be) so stubborn, you … (to have) so much troubles in your life. 7. If he … (to have) enough money, he … (to buy) a car. 8. I … (to accept) his invitation if I … (to be) you. 9. If Jane … (to have) enough apples, she … (to bake) an apple pie. 10. If you … (to invite) Tom to your birthday perty, he … (to come). Exercise 3. Write all four conditionals to the sentences below. Translate every sentence into Russian. 1. If Rosie (to sell) all the fish, she … (to be) very happy. 2. If Jimmy … (to come), I … (to be) very glad. 3. Liza … (to visit) her sister if she … (to go) to her native town. 4. If Donna … (to go) shopping, she … (to buy) expensive things. 5. If I … (to have) some free time, I … (to read).

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LESSON TEN Text 10. THE MEDIEVAL RUSSIA Read, translate and retell the text: The medieval Kievan Rus’ was an empire more territorially extensive, though more thinly populated, than anything else in Europe. The Rus’ ruled their empire as a confederacy of small principalities; it was the ruler of Kiev, and later Vladimir and Moscow, who held the title of Grand Prince and hence the sovereignty over the other princes. Initially, from the early 9th century, the princes were clearly subject to the Grand Prince who ruled like the king of an extensive kingdom. By the mid-11th century’s civil war, the princes became almost autonomous, with the Grand Princedom signifying not sovereignty but the “seat of the father” as a sign of superiority over one’s “brother princes”. The mediaeval Rus’ had significant power, being able to go head-to-head with the late antique and early mediaeval powerhouse, the Khazar Khanate, raze its capital, disperse its armies and take over the trade routes of the Pontic steppe. At the time, Russia was much less Christian and Christian institutions were less widespread or deep-rooted as under the modern empire of the Czars. The archbishopric of Kiev, not yet the Patriarchate of Moscow and all the Rus’, was subject to appointment by Constantinople and religious institutions like monasteries were not subject to state oversight, thus the Church was much less trusted with ownership of land or people. The people were also, much unlike the rest of Europe, not serfs or slaves but freemen able to move and settle where they will; this was the key to Russia’s rapid colonization and annexation of eastern territories. This was entirely unlike the later serfdom imposed by the Moscovite Czars. ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY: medieval – средневековый extensive – обширный principalities – княжества 71

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hence – таким образом sovereignty – владычество signifying – означающий superiority – превосходство disperse – рассеивать widespread – распространенный archbishopric – архиепископ annexation – аннексия, присоединение Lexical exercises Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English: 1.

Средневековая Киевская Русь была империей более обширной,

хотя и более малонаселенной, чем любое другое государство в Европе. 2.

Изначально, с начала IX века, князья подчинялись великому князю,

который правил как король обширного королевства. 3.

К середине XI века князья стали почти автономными, и Великое

княжество означало не суверенитет, а ”место отца“ как знак превосходства над своими ”братьями-князьями". 4.

В то время Россия была гораздо менее христианской, а

христианские институты были менее распространенными или глубоко укоренившимися, как при современной царской империи. 5.

Киевское

архиепископство,

еще

не

ставшее

патриархатом

Московским и всея Руси, подлежало назначению Константинополем, а такие религиозные учреждения, как монастыри, не подлежали государственному надзору. 6.

Кроме того, русские люди, в отличие от остальной Европы, были не

крепостными или рабами, а свободными людьми, способными передвигаться и селиться где угодно; это было ключом к быстрой колонизации и аннексии Россией восточных территорий. 7.

Это было совсем не похоже на позднее крепостное право,

навязанное московскими царями. 72

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Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences: 1. The medieval Kievan Rus’ was an empire ... 2. The mediaeval Rus’ had significant power, being able to ... 3.

At the time, Russia was much less Christian and Christian institutions

were ... 4.

The archbishopric of Kiev, not yet the Patriarchate of Moscow and all

the Rus’, was ... 5.

The people were also, much unlike the rest of Europe, not serfs or

slaves but freemen able to ... Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary: 1.

The Rus’ ruled their empire … a confederacy … small principalities;

it was the ruler … Kiev, and later Vladimir and Moscow, who held the title … Grand Prince and hence the sovereignty … the other princes. 2.

Initially, … the early 9th century, the princes were clearly subject …

the Grand Prince who ruled … the king … an extensive kingdom. 3.

… the mid-11th century’s civil war, the princes became almost

autonomous, … the Grand Princedom signifying not sovereignty but the “seat … the father” as a sign … superiority … one’s “brother princes”. 4. This was entirely … the later serfdom imposed … the Moscovite Czars. GRAMMAR Causative. Formation and Usage. Каузативная форма или каузативная конструкция (causative form или causative construction) - это сложное дополнение, которое показывает, что действие совершается по просьбе инициатора не им самим, а кем-то другим для него. Каузативная форма имеет следующую форму образования: Have (make, get) (в нужном грамматическом времени) + прямое дополнение + 3-я форма глагола Рассмотрим примеры: My father fixes his car – Мой папа чинит свою машину. 73

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My father has his car fixed – Моему папе починили машину. Как мы видим, в обоих предложениях речь идет о ремонте автомобиля, но в первом случае исполнитель выполняет действие самостоятельно, а во втором примере кто-то делает это вместо него. Примечание: Исполнитель действия обычно не упоминается, поскольку это неважно или же понятно из контекста. Например:

Tom has had his car repaired –

Очевидно,

что

механик

починил автомобиль Тома. В этом и заключается основная суть каузатива – он описывает ситуацию, когда мы находим 3х лиц, которые выполнят какую-либо работу вместо нас. В такого рода предложениях подлежащее (в нашем примере «My father») не является непосредственным исполнителем, он выступает в роли инициатора, является причиной того, что действие будет совершено. Отсюда и название конструкции – causative form (в переводе от «cause» – причина, «to cause» – побуждать, добиваться). Grammar exercises Exercise 1. Use the causative form to complete the sentences: 1. He didn’t cut his hair himself. 2. They didn’t repair the fence themselves. They ….. 3. I won’t fix the car myself. I ….. 4. She isn’t making the dress herself. She …. 5. They aren’t going to paint the house themselves. They … 6. They don’t develop their film themselves. They …. 7. She didn’t clean her jacket herself. She …. 8. He won’t clean the house himself. He …. Exercise 2. Use the causative form to complete the sentences: 1.

Someone is going to clean our windows tomorrow. What are we going

2.

The dentist pulled out one of Michael’s teeth yesterday. What did

to do?

Michael do? 74

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3.

The garage serviced her car for her. What did she do?

4.

Someone is installing a burglar alarm in Sue’s house. What is Sue

doing? 5.

They can send the information to you by email. What can you do?

6.

Eric’s wallet was stolen yesterday while he was doing the shopping.

What happened to him?

TEST YOURSELF Final Grammar Test Выберите правильный вариант: 1.He's speaking … 1) quiet 2) quietly 2. How long … it take you to get to work? 1) do 2) does 3) is 4) has 3. My train leaves ... 18.40 from Platform 1. 1) in 2) from 3) at 4) on 4. Do you have ... better ideas? 1) any 2) some 3) nothing 4) anywhere 5. Where are the keys? I can’t find .... 1) their 2) they 3) it 4) them 6. Avoid watering your cactus too much, ... may kill it. 1) this 2) that 3) these 4) those 7. Wait, there is someone at the door. ... there? 1) who's 2) whose 3) it's 4) its 8. I have known Liz for years. She is ... than her sister Jane. 1) more serious 2) a bit serious 3) not so serious 4) seriously 9. There are not so many hot days this July. In fact there are ..... of them this summer. 1) the least 2) less 3) fewer 4) the best 10. When the manager arrived, the problem ... . 75

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1) had already been solved 2) had already solved 3) had solved 4) solved 11. Weekends ..... outdoors by most English people. 1) spend 2) are spended 3) spent 4) are spent 12. Are you going to read the report? No, I ..… . I already know what it says. 1) mustn’t 2) shouldn’t 3) needn’t 4) can’t 13. David is quite an athlete. He wants to be strong and healthy that’s why he ... every morning. 1) is jogging 2) has jogged 3) jogs 4) has been jogging 14. I am sorry Ann can’t come to the phone right now because she ..... a shower. 1) is taking 2) has taken 3) takes 4) has been taking 15. I didn’t see Linda last month because she ..... around Europe at that time. 1) travelled 2) was travelling 3) had travelled 4) had been travelling 16. I can't meet you this evening. A friend of mine ..... to see me. 1) will come 2) will have come 3) is coming 4) comes 17. This is my first visit to London; I ..... . 1) never have been there before 2) before never have been there 3) have been there never before 4) have never been there before 18. By the time you come home you ..... everything I have told you. 1) will have forgotten 2) will be forgetting 3) will forget 4) have forgotten 19. Tom said that he had been late for work that morning, and he added that he ... before. 1) had never been late 2) is never late 3) was never late 4) never had been late 20. In my interview I asked Celia Young why ..... another romantic novel. 1) she had written 2) had she written 3) she wrote 4) she is writing

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PART TWO UNIT ONE. HISTORY OF WALES Text 1. Brief History of Wales The history of Wales begins with the arrival of human beings in the region thousands

of

years

ago. Neanderthals lived

in

what

is

now Wales,

or Cymru in Welsh, at least 230,000 years ago, while Homo sapiens arrived by about 31,000 BC. However, continuous habitation by modern humans dates from the period after the end of the last ice age around 9000 BC, and Wales has many remains from the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age. During the Iron Age the region, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was dominated by the Celtic Britons and the Brittonic language. The Romans, who began their conquest of Britain in AD 43, first campaigned in what is now northeast Wales in 48 against the Deceangli, and gained total control of the region with their defeat of the Ordovices in 79. The Romans departed from Britain in the 5th century, opening the door for the Anglo-Saxon invasion. Thereafter Brittonic language and culture began to splinter, and several distinct groups formed. The Welsh people were the largest of these groups, and are generally discussed independently of the other surviving Brittonic-speaking peoples after the 11th century. A number of kingdoms formed in present-day Wales in the postRoman period. While the most powerful ruler was acknowledged as King of the Britons (later Tywysog Cymru: Leader or Prince of Wales), and some rulers extended their control over other Welsh territories and into western England, none were able to unite Wales for long. Internecine struggles and external pressure from the English and later, the Norman conquerors of England, led to the Welsh kingdoms coming gradually under the sway of the English crown. In 1282, the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd led to the conquest of the Principality of Wales by King Edward I of England; afterwards, the heir apparent to the English monarch has borne the title "Prince of Wales". The Welsh launched several revolts against English rule, the last significant one being that led by Owain Glyndŵr in the early 15th century. In the 16th century Henry VIII, himself of Welsh extraction as a 77

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great grandson of Owen Tudor, passed the Laws in Wales Acts aiming to fully incorporate Wales into the Kingdom of England. Under England's authority, Wales became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and then the United Kingdom in 1801. Yet, the Welsh retained their language and culture despite heavy English dominance. The publication of the extremely significant first complete Welsh translation of the Bible by William Morgan in 1588 greatly advanced the position of Welsh as a literary language. The 18th century saw the beginnings of two changes that would greatly affect Wales, the Welsh Methodist revival, which led the country to turn increasingly nonconformist in religion, and the Industrial Revolution. During the rise of the British Empire, 19th century Southeast Wales in particular experienced rapid industrialisation and a dramatic rise in population as a result of the explosion of the coal and iron industries. Wales played a full and willing role in World War One. The industries of Empire in Wales declined in the 20th century with the end of the British Empire following the Second World War, while nationalist sentiment and interest in self-determination rose. The Labour Party replaced the Liberal Party as the dominant political force in the 1920s. Wales played a considerable role during World War Two along with the rest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Allies, and its cities were bombed extensively during the Nazi Blitz. The nationalist party Plaid Cymru gained momentum from the 1960s.

In

a

1997 referendum Welsh

voters

approved

the devolution of

governmental responsibility to a National Assembly for Wales, which first met in 1999 (From History of Wales / en.wikipedia.org). Text 2. Prehistoroc Wales The earliest known human remain discovered in modern-day Wales is a Neanderthal jawbone, found at the Bontnewydd Palaeolithic site in the valley of the River Elwy in North Wales, whose owner lived about 230,000 years ago in the Lower Palaeolithic period. The Red Lady of Paviland, a human skeleton dyed in red ochre, was discovered in 1823 in one of the Paviland limestone caves of the Gower Peninsula in Swansea, South Wales. Despite the name, the skeleton is 78

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that of a young man who lived about 33,000 years ago at the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period (old stone age). He is considered to be the oldest known ceremonial burial in Western Europe. The skeleton was found along with jewellery made from ivory and seashells and a mammoth's skull. Following the last ice age, Wales became roughly the shape it is today by about 8000 BC and was inhabited by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The earliest farming communities are now believed to date from about 4000 BC, marking the beginning of the Neolithic period. This period saw the construction of many chambered tombs particularly dolmens or cromlechs. The most notable examples of megalithic tombs include Bryn Celli Ddu and Barclodiad y Gawres on Anglesey, Pentre Ifan in Pembrokeshire, and Tinkinswood Burial Chamber in the Vale of Glamorgan. Metal tools first appeared in Wales about 2500 BC, initially copper followed by bronze. The climate during the Early Bronze Age (c. 2500–1400 BC) is thought to have been warmer than at present, as there are many remains from this period in what are now bleak uplands. The Late Bronze Age (c. 1400–750 BC) saw the development of more advanced bronze implements. Much of the copper for the production of bronze probably came from the copper mine on the Great Orme, where prehistoric mining on a very large scale dates largely from the middle Bronze Age. Radiocarbon dating has shown the earliest hillforts in what would become Wales, to have been constructed during this period. Historian John Davies, theorises that a worsening climate after around 1250 BC (lower temperatures and heavier rainfall) required more productive land to be defended. The earliest iron implement found in Wales is a sword from Llyn Fawr at the head of the Rhondda Valley, which is thought to date to about 600 BC. Hillforts continued to be built during the British Iron Age. Nearly 600 hillforts are in Wales, over

20%

of

those

found

in

Britain,

examples

being Pen

Dinas near Aberystwyth and Tre'r Ceiri on the Lleyn peninsula. A particularly significant find from this period was made in 1943 at Llyn Cerrig Bach on Anglesey, when the ground was being prepared for the construction of a Royal Air 79

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Force base. The cache included weapons, shields, chariots along with their fittings and harnesses, and slave chains and tools. Many had been deliberately broken and seem to have been votive offerings. Until recently, the prehistory of Wales was portrayed as a series of successive migrations. The present tendency is to stress population continuity; the Encyclopedia of Wales suggests that Wales had received the greater part of its original stock of peoples by c.2000 BC. Recent studies in population genetics have argued for genetic continuity from the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Neolithic eras.

According to historian John Davies, the Brythonic languages spoken

throughout Britain resulted from an indigenous "cumulative Celticity", rather than from migration (From History of Wales / en.wikipedia.org). Text 3. Wales in the Roman Era The Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and was completed in 78, with Roman rule lasting until 383. Roman rule in Wales was a military occupation, save for the southern coastal region of South Wales east of the Gower Peninsula, where there is a legacy of Romanisation. The only town in Wales founded by the Romans, Caerwent, is located in South Wales. Both Caerwent and Carmarthen, also in southern Wales, would become Roman civitates. During the occupation both the region that would become Wales and its people were a mostly autonomous part of Roman Britain. By AD 47 Rome had invaded and conquered all of southernmost and southeastern Britain under the first Roman governor of Britain. As part of the Roman conquest of Britain, a series of campaigns to conquer Wales was launched by his successor in 48 and would continue intermittently under successive governors until the conquest was completed in 78. It is these campaigns of conquest that are the most widely known feature of Wales during the Roman era due to the spirited but unsuccessful defence of their homelands by two native tribes, the Silures and the Ordovices. The Demetae of southwestern Wales seem to have quickly made their peace with the Romans, as there is no indication of war with Rome, and their homeland 80

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was not heavily planted with forts nor overlaid with roads. The Demetae would be the only Welsh tribe to emerge from Roman rule with their homeland and tribal name intact. Wales was a rich source of mineral wealth and the Romans used their engineering technology to extract large amounts of gold, copper, and lead, as well as modest amounts of some other metals such as zinc and silver. When the mines were no longer practical or profitable, they were abandoned. Roman economic development was concentrated in southeastern Britain, with no significant industries located in Wales. This was largely a matter of circumstance, as Wales had none of the needed materials in suitable combination, and the forested, mountainous countryside was not amenable to development. The year 383 denotes a significant point in Welsh history, remembered in literature and considered to be the foundation point of several medieval royal dynasties. In that year the Roman general Magnus Maximus would strip all of western and northern Britain of troops and senior administrators and launch a partly successful bid for imperial power, continuing to rule Britain from Gaul as emperor. Having left with the troops and Roman administrators, and planning to continue as the ruler of Britain in the future, his practical course was to transfer local authority to local rulers. Welsh legend provides a mythic background to this process (From History of Wales / en.wikipedia.org). Text 4. Post-Roman Wales When the Roman garrison of Britain was withdrawn in 410, the various British states were left self-governing. Evidence for a continuing Roman influence after the departure of the Roman legions is provided by an inscribed stone from Gwynedd dated between the late 5th century and mid 6th century commemorating a certain Cantiorix who was described as a citizen (cives) of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate (magistratus).[31] There was considerable Irish colonisation in Dyfed in south-west Wales, where there are many stones with Ogham inscriptions. Wales had become Christian, and the "age of the saints" (approximately 500–700) was marked by the establishment of 81

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monastic settlements throughout the country, by religious leaders such as Saint David, Illtud and Teilo. One of the reasons for the Roman withdrawal was the pressure put upon the empire's military resources by the incursion of barbarian tribes from the east. These tribes, including the Anglesand Saxons, who later became the English, were unable to make inroads into Wales except possibly along the Severn Valley as far as Llanidloes. However, they gradually conquered eastern and southern Britain. At the Battle of Chester in 616, the forces of Powys and other British kingdoms were defeated by the Northumbrians under Æthelfrith, with king Selyf ap Cynanamong the dead. It has been suggested that this battle finally severed the land connection between Wales and the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), the Brythonicspeaking regions of what is now southern Scotland and northern England, including Rheged, Strathclyde, Elmet and Gododdin, where Old Welsh was also spoken. From the 8th century on, Wales was by far the largest of the three remnant Brythonic areas in Britain, the other two being the Hen Ogledd and Cornwall. Wales was divided into a number of separate kingdoms, the largest of these being Gwynedd in northwest Wales and Powys in east Wales. Gwynedd was the most powerful of these kingdoms in the 6th century and 7th century, under rulers such

as Maelgwn

Gwynedd (died

547) and Cadwallon

ap

Cadfan (died

634/5), who in alliance with Penda of Mercia was able to lead his armies as far as Northumbria in

633, defeat

the

local

ruler Edwin and

control

it

for

approximately one year. When Cadwallon was killed in battle by Oswald of Northumbria, his successor Cadafael ap Cynfeddw also allied himself with Penda against Northumbria, but thereafter Gwynedd, like the other Welsh kingdoms, was mainly engaged in defensive warfare against the growing power of Mercia (From History of Wales / en.wikipedia.org). Text 5. Early Medieval Wales Powys as the easternmost of the major kingdoms of Wales came under the most pressure from the English in Cheshire, Shropshire and Herefordshire. This 82

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kingdom originally extended east into areas now in England, and its ancient capital, Pengwern, has been variously identified as modern Shrewsbury or a site north of Baschurch. These areas were lost to the kingdom of Mercia. The construction of the earthwork known as Offa's Dyke (usually attributed to Offa, King of Mercia in the 8th century) may have marked an agreed border. For a single man to rule the whole country during this period was rare. This is often ascribed to the inheritance system practised in Wales. All sons received an equal share of their father's property (including illegitimate sons), resulting in the division of territories. However, the Welsh laws prescribe this system of division for land in general, not for kingdoms, where there is provision for an edling (or heir) to the kingdom to be chosen, usually by the king. Any son, legitimate or illegitimate, could be chosen as edling and there were frequently disappointed candidates prepared to challenge the chosen heir. The first to rule a considerable part of Wales was Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri The Great), originally king of Gwynedd during the 9th century, who was able to extend his rule to Powys and Ceredigion. On his death his realms were divided between his sons. Rhodri's grandson, Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good), formed the kingdom of Deheubarth by joining smaller kingdoms in the southwest and had extended his rule to most of Wales by 942. He is traditionally associated with the codification of Welsh law at a council which he called at Whitland, the laws from then on usually being called the "Laws of Hywel". Hywel followed a policy of peace with the English. On his death in 949 his sons were able to keep control of Deheubarth but lost Gwynedd to the traditional dynasty of this kingdom. Wales was now coming under increasing attack by Viking raiders, particularly Danish raids in the period between 950 and 1000. According to the chronicle Brut y Tywysogion, Godfrey Haroldson carried off two thousand captives from Anglesey in 987, and the king of Gwynedd, Maredudd ab Owain is reported to have redeemed many of his subjects from slavery by paying the Danes a large ransom. 83

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Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was the only ruler to be able to unite Wales under his rule. Originally king of Gwynedd, by 1057 he was ruler of Wales and had annexed parts of England around the border. He ruled Wales with no internal battles until he was defeated by Harold Godwinson in 1063 and killed by his own men. His territories were again divided into the traditional kingdoms (From History of Wales / en.wikipedia.org). Text 6. Wales and the Normans At the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the dominant ruler in Wales was Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, who was king of Gwynedd and Powys. The initial Norman successes were in the south, where William Fitz Osbernoverran went before 1070. By 1074 the forces of the Earl of Shrewsbury were ravaging Deheubarth. The killing of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn in 1075 led to civil war and gave the Normans an opportunity to seize lands in North Wales. In 1081 Gruffudd ap Cynan, who had just won the throne of Gwynedd from Trahaearn ap Caradog at the Battle of Mynydd Carn was enticed to a meeting with the Earl of Chester and Earl of Shrewsbury and promptly seized and imprisoned, leading to the seizure of much of Gwynedd by the Normans. In the south William the Conqueror advanced

into Dyfed founding

castles

and

mints

at St

David's and Cardiff. Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth was killed in 1093 in Brycheiniog, and his kingdom was seized and divided between various Norman lordships. The Norman conquest of Wales appeared virtually complete. In 1094, however, there was a general Welsh revolt against Norman rule, and gradually territories were won back. Gruffudd ap Cynan was eventually able to build a strong kingdom in Gwynedd. His son, Owain Gwynedd, allied with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth won a crushing victory over the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion. Owain followed his father on the throne of Gwynedd the following year and ruled until his death in 1170. He was able to profit from disunity in England, where King Stephen and 84

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the Empress Matilda were engaged in a struggle for the throne, to extend the borders of Gwynedd further east than ever before. Powys also had a strong ruler at this time in Madog ap Maredudd, but when his death in 1160 was quickly followed by the death of his heir, Llywelyn ap Madog, Powys was split into two parts and never subsequently reunited. In the south, Gruffydd ap Rhys was killed in 1137, but his four sons, who all ruled Deheubarth in turn, were eventually able to win back most of their grandfather's kingdom from the Normans. The youngest of the four, Rhys ap Gruffydd (The Lord Rhys) ruled from 1155 to 1197. In 1171 Rhys met King Henry II and came to an agreement with him whereby Rhys had to pay a tribute but was confirmed in all his conquests and was later named Justiciar of South Wales. Rhys held a festival of poetry and song at his court at Cardigan over Christmas 1176 which is generally regarded as the first recorded Eisteddfod. Owain Gwynedd's death led to the splitting of Gwynedd between his sons, while Rhys made Deheubarth dominant in Wales for a time. Out of the power struggle in Gwynedd eventually arose one of the greatest of Welsh leaders, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn Fawr (the Great), who was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200 and by his death in 1240 was effectively ruler of much of Wales. Llywelyn made his 'capital' and headquarters at Abergwyngregyn on the north coast, overlooking the Menai Strait. His son Dafydd ap Llywelyn followed him as ruler of Gwynedd, but king Henry III of England would not allow him to inherit his father's position elsewhere in Wales. War broke out in 1241 and then again in 1245, and the issue was still in the balance when Dafydd died suddenly at Abergwyngregyn, without leaving an heir in early 1246. Llywelyn the Great's other son, Gruffudd had been killed trying to escape from the Tower of London in 1244. Gruffudd had left four sons, and a period of internal conflict between three of these ended in the rise to power of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (also known as Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf; Llywelyn, Our Last Leader). The Treaty of Montgomery in 1267 confirmed Llywelyn in control, directly or indirectly, over a large part of Wales. However, Llywelyn's claims in 85

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Wales conflicted with Edward I of England, and war followed in 1277. Llywelyn was obliged to seek terms, and the Treaty of Aberconwy greatly restricted his authority.

War

broke

out

again

when

Llywelyn's

brother Dafydd

ap

Gruffudd attacked Hawarden Castle on Palm Sunday 1282. On 11 December 1282, Llywelyn was lured into a meeting in Builth Wells castle with unknown Marchers, where he was killed and his army subsequently destroyed. His brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd continued an increasingly forlorn resistance. He was captured in June 1283 and was hanged, drawn and quartered at Shrewsbury. In effect Wales became England's first colony until it was finally annexed through the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542 (From History of Wales / en.wikipedia.org). Text 7. Wales in the Late Middle Ages After the passing the Statute of Rhuddlan (1284), which restricted Welsh laws, King Edward I's ring of impressive stone castles assisted in the domination of Wales, and he crowned his conquest by giving the title Prince of Wales to his son and heir in 1301. Wales became, effectively, part of England, even though its people spoke a different language and had a different culture. English kings appointed a Council of Wales, sometimes presided over by the heir to the throne. This Council normally sat in Ludlow, now in England but at that time still part of the disputed border area in the Welsh Marches. Welsh literature, particularly poetry, continued to flourish, however, with the lesser nobility now taking over from the princes as the patrons of the poets. Many consider Dafydd ap Gwilym, who flourished in the middle of the 14th century, the greatest of the Welsh poets. There were a number of rebellions including ones led by Madog ap Llywelyn in 1294–1295 and by Llywelyn Bren, Lord of Senghenydd, in 1316– 1318. In the 1370s the last representative in the male line of the ruling house of Gwynedd, Owain Lawgoch, twice planned an invasion of Wales with French support. The English government responded to the threat by sending an agent to assassinate Owain in Poitou in 1378. In 1400, a Welsh nobleman, Owain Glyndŵr (or Owen Glendower), revolted against King Henry IV of England. Owain inflicted a number of defeats on the 86

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English forces and for a few years controlled most of Wales. Some of his achievements included holding the first Welsh Parliament at Machynlleth and plans for two universities. Eventually the king's forces were able to regain control of Wales and the rebellion died out, but Owain himself was never captured. His rebellion caused a great upsurge in Welsh identity and he was widely supported by Welsh people throughout the country. As a response to Glyndŵr's rebellion, the English parliament passed the Penal Laws against Wales. These prohibited the Welsh from carrying arms, from holding office and from dwelling in fortified towns. These prohibitions also applied to Englishmen who married Welsh women. These laws remained in force after the rebellion, although in practice they were gradually relaxed. In the Wars of the Roses which began in 1455 both sides made considerable use of Welsh troops. The main figures in Wales were the two Earls of Pembroke, the Yorkist Earl William Herbert and the Lancastrian Jasper Tudor. In 1485 Jasper's nephew, Henry Tudor, landed in Wales with a small force to launch his bid for the throne of England. Henry was of Welsh descent, counting princes such as Rhys ap Gruffydd (The Lord Rhys) among his ancestors, and his cause gained much support in Wales. Henry defeated King Richard III of England at the Battle of Bosworth with an army containing many Welsh soldiers and gained the throne as King Henry VII of England. Under his son, Henry VIII of England, the Laws in Wales Acts 15351542 were passed, integrating Wales with England in legal terms, abolishing the Welsh legal system, and banning the Welsh language from any official role or status, but it did for the first time define the England-Wales border and allowed members representing constituencies in Wales to be elected to the English Parliament. They also abolished any legal distinction between the Welsh and the English, thereby effectively ending the Penal Code although this was not formally repealed (From History of Wales / en.wikipedia.org).

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UNIT TWO. HISTORY OF SCOTLAND Text 1. Early History of Scotland The recorded history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, when the province of Britannia reached as far north as the Antonine Wall. North of this was Caledonia, inhabited by the Picti, whose uprisings forced Rome's legions back to Hadrian's Wall. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonising Western Scotland and Wales. Prior to Roman times, prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BC, the Bronze Age about 2000 BC, and the Iron Age around 700 BC. The Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded on the west coast of Scotland in the 6th century. In the following century, Irish missionaries introduced the previously pagan

Picts to Celtic

Christianity.

Following England's Gregorian

mission, the Pictish king Nechtan chose to abolish most Celtic practices in favour of the Roman rite, restricting Gaelic influence on his kingdom and avoiding war with Anglian Northumbria. Towards the end of the 8th century, the Viking invasions began, forcing the Picts and Gaels to cease their historic hostility to each other and to unite in the 9th century, forming the Kingdom of Scotland. The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the House of Alpin, whose members fought among each other during frequent disputed successions. The last Alpin king, Malcolm II, died without issue in the early 11th century and the kingdom passed through his daughter's son to the House of Dunkeld or Canmore. The last Dunkeld king, Alexander III, died in 1286. He left only his infant granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway as heir, who died herself four years later. England, under Edward I, would take advantage of this questioned succession to launch a series of conquests, resulting in the Wars of Scottish Independence, as Scotland passed back and forth between the House of Balliol and the House of Bruce. Scotland's ultimate victory confirmed Scotland as a fully independent and sovereign kingdom. 88

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When King David II died without issue, his nephew Robert II established the House of Stuart, which would rule Scotland uncontested for the next three centuries. James VI, Stuart king of Scotland, also inherited the throne of England in 1603, and the Stuart kings and queens ruled both independent kingdoms until the Act of Union in 1707 merged the two kingdoms into a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain. Ruling until 1714, Queen Annewas the last Stuart monarch. Since 1714, the succession of the British monarchs of the houses of Hanover and SaxeCoburg and Gotha (Windsor) has been due to their descent from James VI and I of the House of Stuart. During the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Later, its industrial decline following the Second World War was particularly acute. In recent decades Scotland has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance, fuelled in part by a resurgent financial services sector and the proceeds of North Sea oil and gas. Since the 1950s, nationalism has become a strong political topic, with serious debates on Scottish independence, and a referendum in 2014 about leaving the British Union. People lived in Scotland for at least 8,500 years before Britain's recorded history. At times during the last interglacial period (130,000–70,000 BC) Europe had a climate warmer than today's, and early humans may have made their way to Scotland, with the possible discovery of pre-Ice Age axes on Orkney and mainland Scotland. Glaciers then scoured their way across most of Britain, and only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, around 9600 BC. Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, and archaeologists

have

dated

an

encampment

near Biggar to

around

12000 BC. Numerous other sites found around Scotland build up a picture of highly mobile boat-using people making tools from bone, stone and antlers. The oldest house for which there is evidence in Britain is the oval structure of wooden posts found at South Queensberry near the Firth of Forth, dating from 89

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the Mesolithic period, about 8240 BC. The earliest stone structures are probably the three hearths found at Jura, dated to about 6000 BC. Neolithic farming brought permanent settlements. Evidence of these includes the well-preserved stone house at Knap of Howar on Papa Westray, dating from around 3500 BC and the village of similar houses at Skara Brae on West Mainland,

Orkney

from

about

500

years

later. The

settlers

introduced chambered cairn tombs from around 3500 BC, as at Maeshowe, and from about 3000 BC the many standing stones and circles such as those at Stenness on the mainland of Orkney, which date from about 3100 BC, of four stones, the tallest of which is 16 feet (5 m) in height. These were part of a pattern that developed in many regions across Europe at about the same time. The creation of cairns and Megalithic monuments continued into the Bronze Age, which began in Scotland about 2000 BC. As elsewhere in Europe, hill forts were first introduced in this period, including the occupation of Eildon Hill near Melrose in the Scottish Borders, from around 1000 BC, which accommodated

several

hundred

houses

on

a

fortified

hilltop. From

the Early and Middle Bronze Age there is evidence of cellular round houses of stone, as at Jarlshof and Sumburgh on Shetland. There is also evidence of the occupation of crannogs, roundhouses partially or entirely built on artificial islands, usually in lakes, rivers and estuarine waters. In the early Iron Age, from the seventh century BC, cellular houses began to be replaced on the northern isles by simple Atlantic roundhouses, substantial circular buildings with a dry stone construction. From about 400 BC, more complex Atlantic roundhouses began to be built, as at Howe, Orkney and Crosskirk, Caithness. The most massive constructions that date from this era are the circular broch towers, probably dating from about 200 BC. This period also saw the first wheelhouses, a roundhouse with a characteristic outer wall, within which was a circle of stone piers (bearing a resemblance to the spokes of a wheel), but these would flourish most in the era of Roman occupation. There is evidence for about 1,000 Iron Age hill forts in Scotland, most located below the Clyde-Forth 90

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line, which have suggested to some archaeologists the emergence of a society of petty rulers and warrior elites recognizable from Roman accounts (From History of Scotland / en.wikipedia.org). Text 2. Roman Invasion The

surviving

pre-Roman

accounts

of

Scotland

originated

with

the Greek Pytheas of Massalia, who may have circumnavigated the British Isles of Albion (Britain) and Ierne (Ireland) sometime around 325 BC. The most northerly point of Britain was called Orcas (Orkney). By the time of Pliny the Elder, who died in AD 79, Roman knowledge of the geography of Scotland had extended to the Hebudes (The Hebrides), Dumna (probably the Outer Hebrides), the Caledonian Forest and the people of the Caledonii, from whom the Romans named the region north of their control Caledonia. Ptolemy, possibly drawing on earlier sources of information as well as more contemporary accounts from the Agricolan invasion, identified 18 tribes in Scotland in his Geography, but many of the names are obscure and the geography becomes less reliable in the north and west, suggesting early Roman knowledge of these areas was confined to observations from the sea. The Roman invasion of Britain began in earnest in AD 43, leading to the establishment of the Roman province of Britannia in the south. By the year 71, the Roman governor Quintus Petillius Cerialis had launched an invasion of what is now Scotland. In the year 78, Gnaeus Julius Agricola arrived in Britain to take up his appointment as the new governor and began a series of major incursions. He is said to have pushed his armies to the estuary of the "River Taus" (usually assumed to be the River Tay) and established forts there, including a legionary fortress at Inchtuthil. After his victory over the northern tribes at Mons Graupius in 84, a series of forts and towers were established along the Gask Ridge, which marked the boundary between the Lowland and Highland zones, probably forming the first Roman limes or frontier in Scotland. Agricola's successors were unable or unwilling to further subdue the far north. By the year 87, the occupation was limited to the Southern Uplands and by the end of the first century the northern 91

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limit of Roman expansion was a line drawn between the Tyne and Solway Firth. The Romans eventually withdrew to a line in what is now northern England, building the fortification known as Hadrian's Wall from coast to coast. Around 141, the Romans undertook a reoccupation of southern Scotland, moving up to construct a new limes between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde, which became the Antonine Wall. The largest Roman construction inside Scotland, it is a sward-covered wall made of turf around 20 feet (6 m) high, with nineteen forts. It extended for 37 miles (60 km). Having taken twelve years to build, the wall was overrun and abandoned soon after 160. The Romans retreated to the line of Hadrian's Wall. Roman troops penetrated far into the north of modern Scotland several more times, with at least four major campaigns. The most notable invasion was in 209 when the emperor Septimius Severus led a major force north. After the death of Severus in 210 they withdrew south to Hadrian's Wall, which would be Roman frontier until it collapsed in the 5th century. By the close of the Roman occupation of southern and central Britain in the 5th century, the Picts had emerged as the dominant force in northern Scotland, with the various Brythonic tribes the Romans had first encountered there occupying the southern half of the country. Roman influence on Scottish culture and history was not enduring (From History of Scotland / en.wikipedia.org). Text 3. Post-Roman Scotland In the centuries after the departure of the Romans from Britain, there were four groups within the borders of what is now Scotland. In the east were the Picts, with kingdoms between the river Forth and Shetland. In the late 6th century the dominant force was the Kingdom of Fortriu, whose lands were centred on Strathearn and Menteith and who raided along the eastern coast into modern England. In the west were the Gaelic (Goidelic)-speaking people of Dál Riata with their royal fortress at Dunadd in Argyll, with close links with the island of Ireland, from

whom

comes

the

name

Scots. In

the

south

was

the

British

(Brythonic) Kingdom of Strathclyde, descendants of the peoples of the Roman influenced kingdoms of "Hen Ogledd" (Old north), often named Alt Clut, the 92

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Brythonic name for their capital at Dumbarton Rock.[43] Finally, there were the English or "Angles", Germanic invaders who had overrun much of southern Britain and held the Kingdom of Bernicia, in the south-east. The first English king in the historical record is Ida, who is said to have obtained the throne and the kingdom about 547. Ida's grandson, Æthelfrith, united his kingdom with Deira to the south to form Northumbria around the year 604. There were changes of dynasty, and the kingdom was divided, but it was re-united under Æthelfrith's son Oswald (r. 634-42). Scotland was largely converted to Christianity by Irish-Scots missions associated with figures such as St Columba, from the fifth to the seventh centuries. These missions tended to found monastic institutions and collegiate churches that served large areas. Partly as a result of these factors, some scholars have identified a distinctive form of Celtic Christianity, in which abbots were more significant than bishops, attitudes to clerical celibacy were more relaxed and there was some significant differences in practice with Roman Christianity, particularly the form of tonsure and the method of calculating Easter, although most of these issues had been resolved by the mid-7th century. Conversion to Christianity may have speeded a long term process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted Gaelic language and customs. There was also a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish crowns, although historians debate whether it was a Pictish takeover of Dál Riata, or the other way around. This culminated in the rise of Cínaed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin) in the 840s, which brought to power the House of Alpin. In 867 AD the Vikings seized the southern half of Northumbria, forming the Kingdom of York; three years later they stormed the Britons' fortress of Dumbarton and subsequently conquered much of England except for a reduced Kingdom of Wessex, leaving the new combined Pictish and Gaelic kingdom almost encircled. When he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900, Domnall II (Donald II) was the first man to be called rí Alban (i.e. King of Alba). The term Scotia was increasingly used to describe the 93

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kingdom between North of the Forth and Clyde and eventually the entire area controlled by its kings was referred to as Scotland. The long reign (900–942/3) of Causantín (Constantine II) is often regarded as the key to formation of the Kingdom of Alba. He was later credited with bringing Scottish Christianity into conformity with the Catholic Church. After fighting many battles, his defeat at Brunanburh was followed by his retirement as a Culdee monk at St. Andrews. The period between the accession of his successor Máel Coluim I (Malcolm I) and Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm II) was marked by good relations with the Wessex rulers of England, intense internal dynastic disunity and relatively successful expansionary policies. In 945, Máel Coluim I annexed Strathclyde as part of a deal with King Edmund of England, where the kings of Alba had probably exercised some authority since the later 9th century, an event offset somewhat by loss of control in Moray. The reign of King Donnchad I (Duncan I) from 1034 was marred by failed military adventures, and he was defeated and killed by MacBeth, the Mormaer of Moray, who became king in 1040. MacBeth ruled for seventeen years before he was overthrown by Máel Coluim, the son of Donnchad, who some months later defeated MacBeth's step-son and successor Lulach to become King Máel Coluim III (Malcolm III). It was Máel Coluim III, who acquired the nickname "Canmore" (Cenn Mór, "Great Chief"), which he passed to his successors and who did most to create the Dunkeld dynasty that ruled Scotland for the following two centuries. Particularly important was his second marriage to the Anglo-Hungarian princess Margaret. This

marriage,

and

raids

on

northern

England,

prompted William the Conqueror to invade and Máel Coluim submitted to his authority, opening up Scotland to later claims of sovereignty by English kings. When Malcolm died in 1093, his brother Domnall III (Donald III) succeeded him. However, William II of England backed Máel Coluim's son by his first marriage, Donnchad, as a pretender to the throne and he seized power. His murder within a few months saw Domnall restored with one of Máel Coluim sons 94

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by his second marriage, Edmund, as his heir. The two ruled Scotland until two of Edmund's younger brothers returned from exile in England, again with English military backing. Victorious, Edgar, the oldest of the three, became king in 1097. Shortly afterwards Edgar and the King of Norway, Magnus Barefoot concluded a treaty recognising Norwegian authority over the Western Isles. In practice Norse control of the Isles was loose, with local chiefs enjoying a high degree of independence. He was succeeded by his brother Alexander, who reigned 1107–24. When Alexander died in 1124, the crown passed to Margaret's fourth son David I, who had spent most of his life as a Norman French baron in England. His reign saw what has been characterised as a "Davidian Revolution", by which native institutions and personnel were replaced by English and French ones, underpinning the development of later Medieval Scotland. Members of the AngloNorman nobility took up places in the Scottish aristocracy and he introduced a system of feudal land tenure, which produced knight service, castles and an available body of heavily armed cavalry. He created an Anglo-Norman style of court, introduced the office of justices to oversee justice, and local offices of sheriffs to administer localities. He established the first royal burghs in Scotland, granting rights to particular settlements, which led to the development of the first true Scottish towns and helped facilitate economic development as did the introduction of the first recorded Scottish coinage. He continued a process begun by his mother and brothers helping to establish foundations that brought reform to Scottish monasticism based on those at Cluny and he played a part in organising diocese on lines closer to those in the rest of Western Europe. These

reforms

were

pursued

under

his

successors

and

grandchildren Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I, with the crown now passing down the main line of descent through primogeniture, leading to the first of a series of minorities.[62] The benefits of greater authority were reaped by William's son Alexander II and his son Alexander III, who pursued a policy of peace with England to expand their authority in the Highlands and Islands. By the reign of 95

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Alexander III, the Scots were in a position to annexe the remainder of the western seaboard, which they did following Haakon Haakonarson's ill-fated invasion and the stalemate of the Battle of Largs with the Treaty of Perth in 1266 (From History of Scotland / en.wikipedia.org). Text 4. The Wars of Independence The death of King Alexander III in 1286, and the death of his granddaughter and heir Margaret, Maid of Norway in 1290, left 14 rivals for succession. To prevent civil war the Scottish magnates asked Edward I of England to arbitrate, for which he extracted legal recognition that the realm of Scotland was held as a feudal dependency to the throne of England before choosing John Balliol, the man with the strongest claim, who became king in 1292. Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, the next strongest claimant, accepted this outcome with reluctance. Over the next few years Edward I used the concessions he had gained to systematically undermine both the authority of King John and the independence of Scotland. In 1295, John, on the urgings of his chief councillors, entered into an alliance with France, known as the Auld Alliance. In 1296, Edward invaded Scotland, deposing King John. The following year William Wallace and Andrew de Moray raised forces to resist the occupation and under their joint leadership an English army was defeated at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. For a short time Wallace ruled Scotland in the name of John Balliol as Guardian of the realm. Edward came north in person and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298. Wallace escaped but probably resigned as Guardian of Scotland. In 1305, he fell into the hands of the English, who executed him for treason despite the fact that he owed no allegiance to England. Rivals John Comyn and Robert the Bruce, grandson of the claimant, were appointed as joint guardians in his place. On 10 February 1306, Bruce participated in the murder of Comyn, at Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries. Less than seven weeks later, on 25 March, Bruce was crowned as King. However, Edward's forces overran the country after defeating Bruce's small army at the Battle of Methven. Despite the excommunication of Bruce and his followers by Pope 96

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Clement V, his support slowly strengthened; and by 1314 with the help of leading nobles such as Sir James Douglas and Thomas Randolph only the castles at Bothwell and Stirling remained under English control. Edward I had died in 1307. His heir Edward II moved an army north to break the siege of Stirling Castle and reassert control. Robert defeated that army at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, securing de

facto independence. In

1320,

the Declaration

of

Arbroath,

a

remonstrance to the Pope from the nobles of Scotland, helped convince Pope John XXII to overturn the earlier excommunication and nullify the various acts of submission by Scottish kings to English ones so that Scotland's sovereignty could be recognised by the major European dynasties. The Declaration has also been seen as one of the most important documents in the development of a Scottish national identity. In 1326, what may have been the first full Parliament of Scotland met. The parliament had evolved from an earlier council of nobility and clergy, the colloquium, constituted around 1235, but perhaps in 1326 representatives of the burghs – the burgh commissioners – joined them to form the Three Estates. In 1328, Edward

III signed

acknowledging Scottish

the Treaty

independence under

of the

Edinburgh–Northampton rule

of

Robert

the

Bruce. However, four years after Robert's death in 1329, England once more invaded on the pretext of restoring Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol, to the Scottish throne, thus starting the Second War of Independence. Despite victories at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill, in the face of tough Scottish resistance led by Sir Andrew Murray, the son of Wallace's comrade in arms, successive attempts to secure Balliol on the throne failed. Edward III lost interest in the fate of his protégé after the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with France. In 1341, David II, King Robert's son and heir, was able to return from temporary exile in France. Balliol finally resigned his claim to the throne to Edward in 1356, before retiring to Yorkshire, where he died in 1364 (From History of Scotland / en.wikipedia.org).

97

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Text 5. The Stuarts After David II's death, Robert II, the first of the Stewart kings, came to the throne in 1371. He was followed in 1390 by his ailing son John, who took the regnal name Robert III. During Robert III's reign (1390–1406), actual power rested largely in the hands of his brother, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. After the suspicious death (possibly on the orders of the Duke of Albany) of his elder son, David, Duke of Rothesay in 1402, Robert, fearful for the safety of his younger son, the future James I, sent him to France in 1406. However, the English captured him en route and he spent the next 18 years as a prisoner held for ransom. As a result, after the death of Robert III, regents ruled Scotland: first, the Duke of Albany; and later his son Murdoch. When Scotland finally paid the ransom in 1424, James, aged 32, returned with his English bride determined to assert this authority. Several of the Albany family were executed; but he succeeded in centralising control in the hands of the crown, at the cost of increasing unpopularity, and was assassinated in 1437. His son James II (reigned 1437–1460), when he came of age in 1449, continued his father's policy of weakening the great noble families, most notably taking on the powerful Black Douglas family that had come to prominence at the time of the Bruce. In 1468, the last significant acquisition of Scottish territory occurred when James III was engaged to Margaret of Denmark, receiving the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands in payment of her dowry. Berwick upon Tweed was captured by England in 1482. With the death of James III in 1488 at the Battle of Sauchieburn, his successor James IV successfully ended the quasiindependent rule of the Lord of the Isles, bringing the Western Isles under effective Royal control for the first time. In 1503, he married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, thus laying the foundation for the 17th-century Union of the Crowns. Scotland advanced markedly in educational terms during the 15th century with the founding of the University of St Andrews in 1413, the University of Glasgow in 1450 and the University of Aberdeen in 1495, and with the passing of 98

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the Education Act 1496, which decreed that all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should attend grammar schools. James IV's reign is often considered to have seen a flowering of Scottish culture under the influence of the European Renaissance. In 1512, the Auld Alliance was renewed and under its terms, when the French were attacked by the English under Henry VIII, James IV invaded England in support. The invasion was stopped decisively at the Battle of Flodden Field during which the King, many of his nobles, and a large number of ordinary troops were killed, commemorated by the song Flowers of the Forest. Once again Scotland's government lay in the hands of regents in the name of the infant JamesV. James V finally managed to escape from the custody of the regents in 1528. He continued his father's policy of subduing the rebellious Highlands, Western and Northern isles and the troublesome borders. He also continued the French alliance, marrying first the French noblewoman Madeleine of Valois and then after her death Marie of Guise. James V's domestic and foreign policy successes were overshadowed by another disastrous campaign against England that led to defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss (1542). James died a short time later, a demise blamed by contemporaries on "a broken heart". The day before his death, he was brought news of the birth of an heir: a daughter, who would become Mary, Queen of Scots. Once again, Scotland was in the hands of a regent. Within two years, the Rough Wooing began, Henry VIII's military attempt to force a marriage between Mary and his son, Edward. This took the form of border skirmishing and several English campaigns into Scotland. In 1547, after the death of Henry VIII, forces under the English regent Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset were victorious at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, the climax of the Rough Wooing, and followed up by the occupation of Haddington. Mary was then sent to France at the age of five, as the intended bride of the heir to the French throne. Her mother, Marie de Guise, stayed in Scotland to look after the interests of Mary – and of France – although the Earl of Arran acted officially as regent. Guise responded by 99

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calling on French troops, who helped stiffen resistance to the English occupation. By 1550, after a change of regent in England, the English withdrew from Scotland completely. From 1554, Marie de Guise, took over the regency, and continued to advance French interests in Scotland. French cultural influence resulted in a large influx of French vocabulary into Scots. But anti-French sentiment also grew, particularly among Protestants, who saw the English as their natural allies. In 1560, Marie de Guise died, and soon after the Auld Alliance also ended, with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh, which provided for the removal of French and English troops from Scotland. The Scottish Reformation took place only days later when the Scottish Parliament abolished the Roman Catholic religion and outlawed the Mass. Meanwhile, Queen Mary had been raised as a Catholic in France, and married to the Dauphin, who became king as Francis II in 1559, making her queen consort of France. When Francis died in 1560, Mary, now 19, returned to Scotland to take up the government. Despite her private religion, she did not attempt to reimpose Catholicism on her largely Protestant subjects, thus angering the chief Catholic nobles. Her six-year personal reign was marred by a series of crises, largely caused by the intrigues and rivalries of the leading nobles. The murder of her secretary, David Riccio, was followed by that of her unpopular second husband Lord Darnley, and her abduction by and marriage to the Earl of Bothwell, who was implicated in Darnley's murder. Mary and Bothwell confronted the lords at Carberry Hill and after their forces melted away, he fled and she was captured by Bothwell's rivals. Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, and in July 1567, was forced to abdicate in favour of her infant son James VI. Mary eventually escaped and attempted to regain the throne by force. After her defeat at the Battle of Langside in 1568, she took refuge in England, leaving her young son in the hands of regents. In Scotland the regents fought a civil war on behalf of James VI against his mother's supporters. In England, Mary became a focal point for 100

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Catholic conspirators and was eventually tried for treason and executed on the orders of her kinswoman Elizabeth I (From History of Scotland /en.wikipedia.org). Text 6. Protestant Reformation During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a Protestant Reformation that created a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk, which became Presbyterian in outlook and severely reduced the powers of bishops. In the earlier part of the century, the teachings of first Martin Luther and then John Calvin began to influence Scotland, particularly through Scottish scholars, often training for the priesthood,

who

had

visited

Continental

universities.

The

Lutheran

preacher Patrick Hamilton was executed for heresy in St. Andrews in 1528. The execution of others, especially the Zwingli-influenced George Wishart, who was burnt at the stake on the orders of Cardinal Beaton in 1546, angered Protestants. Wishart's supporters assassinated Beaton soon after and seized St. Andrews Castle, which they held for a year before they were defeated with the help of French forces. The survivors, including chaplain John Knox, were condemned to be galley slaves in France, stoking resentment of the French and creating martyrs for the Protestant cause. Limited toleration and the influence of exiled Scots and Protestants in other countries, led to the expansion of Protestantism, with a group of lairds declaring themselves Lords of the Congregation in 1557 and representing their interests politically. The collapse of the French alliance and English intervention in 1560 meant that a relatively small, but highly influential, group of Protestants were in a position to impose reform on the Scottish church. A confession of faith, rejecting papal jurisdiction and the mass, was adopted by Parliament in 1560, while the young Mary, Queen of Scots, was still in France. Knox, having escaped the galleys and spent time in Geneva as a follower of Calvin, emerged as the most significant figure of the period. The Calvinism of the reformers led by Knox resulted in a settlement that adopted a Presbyterian system and rejected most of the elaborate trappings of the medieval church. The reformed Kirk gave considerable power to local lairds, who often had control over the 101

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appointment of the clergy. There were widespread, but generally orderly outbreaks of iconoclasm. At this point the majority of the population was probably still Catholic in persuasion and the Kirk found it difficult to penetrate the Highlands and Islands, but began a gradual process of conversion and consolidation that, compared with reformations elsewhere, was conducted with relatively little persecution. Women shared in the religiosity of the day. The egalitarian and emotional aspects of Calvinism appealed to men and women alike. Historian Alasdair Raffe finds that, "Men and women were thought equally likely to be among the elect....Godly men valued the prayers and conversation of their female coreligionists, and this reciprocity made for loving marriages and close friendships between men and women." Furthermore, there was an increasingly intense relationship in the pious bonds between minister and his women parishioners. For the first time, laywomen gained numerous new religious roles, And took a prominent place in prayer societies (From History of Scotland / en.wikipedia.org). Text 7. Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Puritan Commonwealth Although James had tried to get the Scottish Church to accept some of the High Church Anglicanism of his southern kingdom, he met with limited success. His son and successor, Charles I, took matters further, introducing an English-style Prayer Book into the Scottish church in 1637. This resulted in anger and widespread rioting. (The story goes that it was initiated by a certain Jenny Geddes who threw a stool in St Giles Cathedral.) Representatives of various sections of Scottish society drew up the National Covenant in 1638, objecting to the King's liturgical innovations. In November of the same year matters were taken even further, when at a meeting of the General Assembly in Glasgow the Scottish bishops were formally expelled from the Church, which was then established on a full Presbyterian basis. Charles gathered a military force; but as neither side wished to push the matter to a full military conflict, a temporary settlement was concluded at Pacification of Berwick. Matters remained unresolved until 1640 when, in a renewal of hostilities, Charles's northern forces were defeated by the 102

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Scots at the Battle of Newburn to the west of Newcastle. During the course of these Bishops' Wars Charles tried to raise an army of Irish Catholics, but was forced to back down after a storm of protest in Scotland and England. The backlash from this venture provoked a rebellion in Ireland and Charles was forced to appeal to the English Parliament for funds. Parliament's demands for reform in England eventually resulted in the English Civil War. This series of civil wars that engulfed England, Ireland and Scotland in the 1640s and 1650s is known to modern historians as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The Covenanters meanwhile, were left governing Scotland, where they raised a large army of their own and tried to impose their religious settlement on Episcopalians and Roman Catholics in the north of the country. In England his religious policies caused similar resentment and he ruled without recourse to parliament from 1629. As the civil wars developed, the English Parliamentarians appealed to the Scots Covenanters for military aid against the King. A Solemn League and Covenant was entered into, guaranteeing the Scottish Church settlement and promising further reform in England. Scottish troops played a major part in the defeat of Charles I, notably at the battle of Marston Moor. An army under the Earl of Leven occupied the North of England for some time. However, not all Scots supported the Covenanter's taking arms against their King. In 1644, James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose attempted to raise the Highlands for the King. Few Scots would follow him, but, aided by 1,000 Irish, Highland and Islesmen troops sent by the Irish Confederates under Alasdair MacDonald (MacColla), and an instinctive genius for mobile warfare, he was stunningly successful. A Scottish Civil War began in September 1644 with his victory at battle of Tippermuir. After a series of victories over poorly trained Covenanter militias, the lowlands were at his mercy. However, at this high point, his army was reduced in size, as MacColla and the Highlanders preferred to continue the war in the north against the Campbells. Shortly after, what was left of his force was defeated at the Battle of Philiphaugh. Escaping to the north, Montrose attempted to continue the struggle with fresh troops; but in July 1646 his 103

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army was disbanded after the King surrendered to the Scots army at Newark, and the civil war came to an end. The following year Charles, while he was being held captive in Carisbrooke Castle, entered into an agreement with moderate Scots Presbyterians. In this secret 'Engagement', the Scots promised military aid in return for the King's agreement to implement Presbyterianism in England on a three-year trial basis. The Duke of Hamilton led an invasion of England to free the King, but he was defeated by Oliver Cromwell in August 1648 at the Battle of Preston (From History of Scotland / en.wikipedia.org).

UNIT THREE. HISTORY OF NORTHERN IRELAND Text 1. Brief History of Northern Ireland From the late 19th century, the majority of people living in Ireland wanted the British government to grant some form of self-rule to Ireland. The Irish Nationalist Party sometimes held the balance of power in the House of Commons in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a position from which it sought to gain Home Rule, which would have given Ireland autonomy in internal affairs, without breaking up the United Kingdom. Two bills granting Home Rule to Ireland were passed by the House of Commons in 1886 and 1893, but rejected by the House of Lords. With the passing of the Parliament Act 1911 by the Liberal Party government (which reduced the powers of the Lords from striking down parliamentary Bills to delaying their implementation for two years) it was apparent that Home Rule would probably come into force in the next five years. The Home Rule Party had been campaigning for this for almost fifty years. However, a significant minority was vehemently opposed to the idea and wished to retain the Union in its existing form. Irish unionists had been agitating successfully against Home Rule since the 1880s, and on 28 September 1912, the leader of the northern unionists, Edward

Carson,

introduced

the Ulster

Covenant in Belfast, pledging to exclude Ulster from home rule. The Covenant was signed by 450,000 men. Whilst precipitating a split with unionists in the south 104

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and west (including a particularly sizeable community in Dublin), it gave the northern unionists a feasible goal to aim for. By the early 20th century, Belfast, the largest city in Ulster, had become the largest city in Ireland. Its industrial economy, with strong engineering and shipbuilding sectors, was closely integrated with that of Great Britain. Belfast was a substantially Ulster Protestant town with a Catholic minority of less than 30 per cent, concentrated in the west of the city. A third Home Rule Bill was introduced by the Liberal minority government in 1912. However, the Conservative Party was sympathetic to the unionist case, and the political voice of unionism was strong in Parliament. After heavy amendment by the House of Lords, the Commons agreed in 1914 to allow four counties of Ulster to vote themselves out of its provisions and then only for six years. Throughout 1913 and 1914, paramilitary "volunteer armies" were recruited and armed, firstly the unionist Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), and in response, the nationalist Irish Volunteers. But events in World War I Europe were to take precedence. Home rule was delayed for the duration of what was expected to be a short war and unionist and nationalist leaders agreed to encourage their volunteers to join the British army. The 36th (Ulster) Division, which was to suffer severely at the Somme in 1916, was formed predominantly from the UVF. Nationalists joined in

great

numbers

as

well,

with

"old"

Irish

regiments

from Munster and Leinsterbeing greatly strengthened by these recruits (From History of Northern Ireland / en.wikipedia.org). Text 2. 1916 Rising and Aftermath During World War I, tensions continued to mount in Ireland. Hardline Irish separatists (known at the time as Irish Nationalists and later as Republicans) rejected Home Rule entirely because it involved maintaining the connection with Britain. They retained control of one faction of the Irish Volunteers, and in Easter 1916, led by Thomas Clarke, James Connolly and others attempted a rebellion in Dublin. After summary trials, the British government had the leaders executed for treason. The government blamed the small Sinn Féin party, which had had little to 105

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do with it. The execution of the leaders of the rebellion turned out to be a propaganda coup for militant republicanism, and Sinn Féin's previously negligible popular support grew. The surviving leaders of the Irish Volunteers infiltrated the party and assumed its leadership in 1917. (The Irish Volunteers would later become the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in 1919.) Republicans gained further support when the British government attempted to introduce conscription to Ireland in 1918. Sinn Féin was at the forefront of organising the campaign against conscription. When the veterans of World War I, on both sides of the political divide, returned from the front in 1918 and 1919, they came back as battle-hardened soldiers. In the general election of 1918, the Irish Parliamentary Party lost almost all of its seats to Sinn Féin. Of the 30 seats in the six counties that would become Northern Ireland, 23 were won by Unionists, including 3 Labour Unionists and five of the six IPP members returned in Ireland were elected in Ulster as a result of local voting pacts with Sinn Féin. Guerrilla warfare gathered pace in Ireland in the aftermath of the election, leading to the Anglo-Irish War. Although lower in intensity in Ulster than the rest of Ireland, the conflict was complicated there by involving not only the IRA, British Army and Royal Irish Constabulary, but the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) as well (From History of Northern Ireland / en.wikipedia.org). Text 3. Partition The fourth and final Home Rule Bill (the Government of Ireland Act 1920) partitioned the island into Northern Ireland (six northeastern counties) and Southern Ireland (the rest of the island). Some unionists such as Sir Edward Carson opposed partition, seeing it as a betrayal of unionism as a pan-Irish political movement. Three Counties unionists, who found themselves on the wrong side of the new border that partitioned Ulster, felt betrayed by those who had joined them in pledging to "stand by one another" in the Ulster Covenant. The Belfast Telegraph reassured unionists who felt guilty about this "that it was better for twothirds of passengers to save themselves than for all to drown". Many Irish 106

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nationalists also opposed partition, although some were gratified that Northern Ireland contained a large nationalist minority that would deny it stability. The Treaty was given effect in the United Kingdom through the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922. Under Article 12 of the Treaty, Northern Ireland could exercise its opt out by presenting an address to the King requesting not to be part of the Irish Free State. Once the Treaty was ratified, the Parliament of Northern Ireland had one month to exercise this opt out during which month the Irish Free State Government could not legislate for Northern Ireland, holding the Free State's effective jurisdiction in abeyance for a month. On 7 December 1922 (the day after the establishment of the Irish Free State) the Parliament of Northern Ireland resolved to make the following address to the King so as to opt out of the Irish Free State: MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN, We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Senators and Commons of Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, having learnt of the passing of the Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922, being the Act of Parliament for the ratification of the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, do, by this humble Address, pray your Majesty that the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland. On 13 December 1922 Prime Minister James Craig addressed the Parliament of Northern Ireland informing them that the King had responded to the Parliament's address as follows: I have received the Address presented to me by both Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland in pursuance of Article 12 of the Articles of Agreement set forth in the Schedule to the Irish Free State (Agreement) Act, 1922, and of Section 5 of the Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922, and I have caused my Ministers and the Irish Free State Government to be so informed. The continuing violence created a climate of fear in the new region, and there was migration across the new border. As well as movement of Protestants from the Free State into Northern Ireland, some Catholics fled south, leaving some 107

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of those who remained feeling isolated. Despite the mixed religious affiliation of the old Royal Irish Constabulary and the transfer of many Catholic RIC police officers to the newly formed Royal Ulster Constabulary (1922), northern Catholics did not join the new force in great numbers. Many nationalists came to view the new police force as sectarian, adding to their sense of alienation from the state (From History of Northern Ireland / en.wikipedia.org). Text 4. 1925–1965 Under successive unionist Prime Ministers from Sir James Craig (later Lord Craigavon) onwards, the unionist establishment practiced what is generally considered a policy of discrimination against the nationalist/Catholic minority. This

pattern

was

firmly

established

in

the

case

of

local

government, where gerrymandered ward boundaries rigged local government elections to ensure unionist control of some local councils with nationalist majorities. In a number of cases, most prominently those of the Corporation of Derry, Omagh Urban District, and Fermanagh County Council, ward boundaries were drawn to place as many Catholics as possible into wards with overwhelming nationalist majorities while other wards were created where unionists had small but secure majorities, maximizing unionist representation. Voting arrangements which gave commercial companies multiple votes according to size, and which restricted the personal franchise to property owners, primary tenants and their spouses (which were ended in England in the 1940s), continued in Northern Ireland until 1969 and became increasingly resented. Disputes over local government gerrymandering were at the heart of the Northern Ireland civil rights movement in the 1960s. In

addition,

there

was

widespread discrimination

in

employment,

particularly at senior levels of the public sector and in certain sectors of the economy, such as shipbuilding and heavy engineering. Emigration to seek employment was significantly more prevalent among the Catholic population. As a result, Northern Ireland's demography shifted further in favour of Protestants, leaving their ascendancy seemingly impregnable by the late 1950s. 108

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The abolition of proportional representation in 1929 meant that the structure of party politics gave the Ulster Unionist Party a continual sizeable majority in the Parliament of Northern Ireland, leading to fifty years of one-party rule. While nationalist parties continued to retain the same number of seats that they had under proportional representation, the Northern Ireland Labour Party and various smaller leftist unionist groups were smothered, meaning that it proved impossible for any group to sustain a challenge to the Ulster Unionist Party from within the unionist section of the population. In 1935, the worst violence since partition convulsed Belfast. After an Orange Order parade decided to return to the city centre through a Catholic area instead of its usual route; the resulting violence left nine people dead. Over 2,000 Catholics were forced to leave their homes across Northern Ireland. While disputed for decades, many unionist leaders now admit that the Northern Ireland government in the period 1922–72 was discriminatory, although prominent Democratic Unionist Party figures continue to deny it or its extent. One unionist leader, Nobel Peace Prizejoint-winner, former UUP leader and First Minister of Northern Ireland David Trimble, described Northern Ireland as having been a "cold house for Catholics". Despite this, Northern Ireland was relatively peaceful for most of the period from 1924 until the late 1960s, except for some brief flurries of IRA activity, the (Luftwaffe) Belfast blitz during the Second World War in 1941 and the so-called "Border Campaign" from 1956 to 1962. It found little support among nationalists. However, many Catholics were resentful towards the state, and nationalist politics was fatalist. Meanwhile, the period saw an almost complete synthesis between the Ulster Unionist Party and the loyalist Orange Order, with Catholics (even unionist Catholics) being excluded from any position of political or civil authority outside of a handful of nationalist-controlled councils. Throughout this time, although the Catholic birth rate remained higher than for Protestants, the Catholic proportion of the population declined, as poor 109

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economic prospects, especially west of the River Bann, saw Catholics emigrate in disproportionate numbers. Nationalist political institutions declined, with the Nationalist Party boycotting the Stormont Parliament for much of this period and its constituency organizations reducing to little more than shells. Sinn Féin was banned although it often operated through the Republican Clubs or similar vehicles. At various times the party stood and won elections on an abstention’s platform. Labour-based politics were weak in Northern Ireland in comparison with Britain. A small Northern Ireland Labour Party existed but suffered many splits to both nationalist and unionist factions (From History of Northern Ireland / en.wikipedia.org).

UNIT FOUR. AUSTRALIA Text 1. Brief History of Australia The history of Australia is the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia with its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. The artistic, musical and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such traditions in human history. The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606. Later that year, Spanish explorer Luís Vaz de Torres sailed through, and navigated, Torres Strait islands.[1] Twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent New Holland. Macassan trepangers visited Australia's northern coasts after 1720, possibly earlier. Other European explorers followed until, in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook charted the east coast of Australia for Great Britain and returned with accounts favouring colonization at Botany Bay (now in Sydney), New South Wales. 110

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A First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 to establish a penal colony, the first colony on the Australian mainland. In the century that followed, the British established other colonies on the continent, and European explorers ventured into its interior. Indigenous Australians were greatly weakened and their numbers diminished by introduced diseases and conflict with the colonists during this period. Gold

rushes and agricultural

industries brought

prosperity.

Autonomous parliamentary democracies began to be established throughout the six British colonies from the mid-19th century. The colonies voted by referendum to unite in a federation in 1901, and modern Australia came into being. Australia fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars and became a longstanding ally of the United States when threatened by Imperial Japan during World War II. Trade with Asia increased and a post-war immigration program received more than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. Supported by immigration of people from more than 200 countries since the end of World War II, the population increased to more than 23 million by 2014, and sustains the world's 12th largest national economy (From History of Australia / en.wikipedia.org). Text 2. Early Indigenous Prehistory The ancestors of Indigenous Australians are believed to have arrived in Australia 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, and possibly as early as 70,000 years ago. They developed a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, established enduring spiritual and artistic traditions and used stone technologies. At the time of first European contact, it has been estimated the existing population was at least 350,000, while recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained. There is considerable archaeological discussion as to the route taken by the first colonizers. People appear to have arrived by sea during a period of glaciations, when New Guinea and Tasmania were joined to the continent. The journey still required sea travel however, making them amongst the world's earlier mariners. Scott Cane wrote in 2013 that the first wave may have been prompted by 111

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the eruption of Mount Toba. If they arrived around 70,000 years ago, they could have crossed the water from Timor, when the sea level was low; but if they came later, around 50,000 years ago, a more likely route would be through the Moluccas to New Guinea. Given that the likely landfall regions have been under around 50 meters of water for the last 15,000 years, it is unlikely that the timing will ever be established with certainty. The earliest known human remains were found at Lake Mungo, a dry lake in the southwest of New South Wales. Remains found at Mungo suggest one of the world's oldest known cremations, thus indicating early evidence for religious ritual among

humans. According

to Australian

Aboriginal

mythology and

the animist framework developed in Aboriginal Australia, the Dreaming is a sacred era in which ancestral totemic spirit beings formed The Creation. The Dreaming established the laws and structures of society and the ceremonies performed to ensure continuity of life and land. It remains a prominent feature of Australian Aboriginal art. Aboriginal art is believed to be the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world. Evidence of Aboriginal art can be traced back at least 30,000 years and is found throughout Australia (notably at Uluru and Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory, and also at Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Sydney). In terms of age and abundance, cave art in Australia is comparable to that of Lascaux and Altamira in Europe. Manning Clark wrote that the ancestors of the Aborigines were slow to reach Tasmania, probably owing to an ice barrier existing across the South East of the continent. The Aborigines, he noted, did not develop agriculture, probably owing to a lack of seed bearing plants and animals suitable for domestication. Thus, the population remained low. Clark considered that the three potential pre-European colonizing powers and traders of East Asia—the Hindu-Buddhists of southern India, the Muslims of Northern India and the Chinese—each petered out in their southward advance and did not attempt a settlement across the straits separating Indonesia from Australia. But fisherman did reach the north coast, which they called "Marege" or "land of the trepang". For centuries, Makassan trade flourished 112

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with Aborigines on Australia's north coast, particularly with the Yolngu people of northeast Arnhem Land (From History of Australia / en.wikipedia.org). Text 3. Impact of European settlement The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606. Twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent New Holland. Macassan trepangers visited Australia's northern coasts after 1720, possibly earlier. Other European explorers followed and, in due course, navigator Lieutenant James Cook wrote that he claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain when on Possession Island in 1770, without conducting negotiations with the existing inhabitants, though before his departure, the President of the Royal Society, one of the voyage's sponsors, wrote that the people of any lands he might discover were 'the natural, and in the strictest sense of the word, the legal possessors of the several Regions they inhabit. No European Nation has a right to occupy any part of their country, or settle among them without their voluntary consent. Conquest over such people can give no just title: because they could never be the aggressors.' The first governor, Arthur Phillip, was instructed explicitly to establish friendship and good relations with the Aborigines, and interactions between the early newcomers and the ancient landowners varied considerably throughout the colonial

period—from

the

curiosity

interlocutors Bennelong and Bungaree of

displayed

Sydney

to

the

by

the

outright

early hostility

of Pemulwuy and Windradyne of the Sydney region and Yagan around Perth. Bennelong and a companion became the first Australians to sail to Europe, where they met King George III. Bungaree accompanied the explorer Matthew Flinders on the first circumnavigation of Australia. Pemulwuy was accused of the first killing of a white settler in 1790, and Windradyne resisted early British expansion beyond the Blue Mountains (From History of Australia / en.wikipedia. org). 113

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Text 4. Conflict and disease According to the historian Geoffrey Blainey, in Australia during the colonial period: "In a thousand isolated places there were occasional shootings and spearings. Even worse, smallpox, measles, influenza and other new diseases swept from one Aboriginal camp to another ... The main conqueror of Aborigines was to be disease and its ally, demoralisation". Conflict in the Hawkesbury Nepean river district near the settlement at Sydney continued from 1795–1816, including Pemulwuy's War (1795–1802), Tedbury's War (1808–1809) and the Nepean War (1814–1816), as well as the interwar violence of the 1804–1805 Conflict. It was fought using mostly guerrillawarfare tactics; however, several conventional battles also took place. The wars resulted in the defeat of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Indigenous clans who were subsequently dispossessed of their lands. Even before the arrival of European settlers in local districts beyond coastal New South Wales, Eurasian disease often preceded them. A smallpox epidemic was recorded near Sydney in 1789, which wiped out about half the Aborigines around Sydney. Opinion is divided as to the source of the smallpox. Some researchers argue that the smallpox was acquired through contact with Indonesian fishermen in the far north and then spread across the continent, reaching the Sydney area in 1789. Other research by Craig Mear, Michael Bennett, and Christopher Warren argues that, despite controversy, it is highly likely that the 1789 outbreak of smallpox was a deliberate act by British marines when they ran out

of

ammunition

and

needed

to

expand

the

settlement

out

to

Parramatta. Smallpox then spread well beyond the then limits of European settlement, including much of southeastern Australia, reappearing in 1829–30, killing 40–60 percent of the Aboriginal population. The impact of Europeans was profoundly disruptive to Aboriginal life and, though the extent of violence is debated, there was considerable conflict on the frontier. At the same time, some settlers were quite aware they were usurping the Aborigines place in Australia. In 1845, settler Charles Griffiths sought to justify 114

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this, writing; "The question comes to this; which has the better right—the savage, born in a country, which he runs over but can scarcely be said to occupy ... or the civilized man, who comes to introduce into this ... unproductive country, the industry which supports life." From the 1960s, Australian writers began to re-assess European assumptions about Aboriginal Australia—with works including Alan Moorehead's The Fatal Impact (1966)

and Geoffrey

Blainey's

landmark

history Triumph

of

the

Nomads (1975). In 1968, anthropologist W.E.H. Stanner described the lack of historical accounts of relations between Europeans and Aborigines as "the great Australian silence". Historian Henry Reynolds argues that there was a "historical neglect" of the Aborigines by historians until the late 1960s. Early commentaries often tended to describe Aborigines as doomed to extinction following the arrival of Europeans. William Westgarth's 1864 book on the colony of Victoria observed: "the case of the Aborigines of Victoria confirms ...it would seem almost an immutable law of nature that such inferior dark races should disappear." However, by the early 1970s historians like Lyndall Ryan, Henry Reynolds and Raymond Evans were trying to document and estimate the conflict and human toll on the frontier. Many events illustrate violence and resistance as Aborigines sought to protect their lands from settlers and pastoralists who attempted to establish their presence. In May 1804, at Risdon Cove, Van Diemen's Land, perhaps 60 Aborigines were killed when they approached the town. The British established a new outpost in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) in 1803. Although Tasmanian history is amongst the most contested by modern historians, conflict between colonists and Aborigines was referred to in some contemporary accounts as the Black War. The combined effects of disease, dispossession, intermarriage and conflict saw a collapse of the Aboriginal population of Tasmania from a few thousand people when the British arrived, to a few hundred by the 1830s. Estimates of how many people were killed during the period begin at around 300, though verification of the true figure is now impossible. In 1830 Governor Sir 115

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George Arthur sent an armed party (the Black Line) to push the Big River and Oyster Bay tribes out of the British settled districts. The effort failed and George Augustus Robinson proposed to set out unarmed to mediate with the remaining tribespeople in 1833. With the assistance of Truganini as guide and translator, Robinson convinced remaining tribesmen to surrender to an isolated new settlement at Flinders Island, where most later died of disease. In 1838, at least twenty-eight Aborigines were murdered at the Myall Creek in New South Wales, resulting in the unprecedented conviction and hanging of six white and one African convict settlers by the colonial courts. Aborigines also attacked white settlers—in 1838 fourteen Europeans were killed at Broken River in Port Phillip District, by Aborigines of the Ovens River, almost certainly in revenge for the illicit use of Aboriginal women. Captain Hutton of Port Phillip District once told Chief Protector of Aborigines George Augustus Robinson that "if a member of a tribe offend, destroy the whole". Queensland's Colonial Secretary A.H. Palmer wrote in 1884 "the nature of the blacks was so treacherous that they were only guided by fear—in fact it was only possible to rule...the Australian Aboriginal...by brute force". The most recent massacre of Aborigines was at Coniston in the Northern Territory in 1928. There are numerous other massacre sites in Australia, although supporting documentation varies. From the 1830s, colonial governments established the now controversial offices of the Protector of Aborigines in an effort to avoid mistreatment of Indigenous peoples and conduct government policy towards them. Christian churches in Australia sought to convert Aborigines, and were often used by government to carry out welfare and assimilation policies. Colonial churchmen such as Sydney's first Catholic archbishop, John Polding strongly advocated for Aboriginal

rights

and

dignity and

prominent

Aboriginal

activist Noel

Pearson (born 1965), who was raised at a Lutheran mission in Cape York, has written that Christian missions throughout Australia's colonial history "provided a haven from the hell of life on the Australian frontier while at the same time facilitating colonisation". 116

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The Caledon Bay crisis of 1932–34 was one of the last incidents of violent interaction on the 'frontier' of indigenous and non-indigenous Australia, which began

when

the

spearing

of

Japanese

poachers

who

had

been

molesting Yolngu women was followed by the killing of a policeman. As the crisis unfolded, national opinion swung behind the Aboriginal people involved, and the first appeal on behalf of an Indigenous Australian to the High Court of Australia was

launched.

Following

the

crisis,

the

anthropologist Donald

Thomson was dispatched by the government to live among the Yolngu. Elsewhere around this time, activists like Sir Douglas Nicholls were commencing their campaigns for Aboriginal rights within the established Australian political system and the age of frontier conflict closed (From History of Australia / en.wikipedia.org). Text 5. Co-operation Frontier encounters in Australia were not universally negative. Positive accounts of Aboriginal customs and encounters are also recorded in the journals of early European explorers, who often relied on Aboriginal guides and assistance: Charles Sturt employed Aboriginal envoys to explore the MurrayDarling; the lone survivor of the Burke and Wills expedition was nursed by local Aborigines,

and

the

famous

Aboriginal

explorer Jackey

Jackey loyally

accompanied his ill-fated friend Edmund Kennedy to Cape York. Respectful studies were conducted by such as Walter Baldwin Spencer and Frank Gillen in their

renowned

anthropological

study The

Native

Tribes

of

Central

Australia (1899); and by Donald Thomson of Arnhem Land (c. 1935–1943). In inland Australia, the skills of Aboriginal stockmen became highly regarded and in the 20th century, Aboriginal stockmen like Vincent Lingiari became national figures in their campaigns for better pay and improved working conditions. The removal of indigenous children, by which mixed-race children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent were removed from their families by Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, was a policy actively conducted in the period between approximately 117

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1905 and 1969. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission argued that these removals constituted attempted genocide and had a major impact on the Indigenous population. Such interpretations of Aboriginal history are disputed by a few historians such as Keith Windschuttle as being exaggerated or fabricated for political or ideological reasons. This debate is part of what is known within Australia as the History Wars (From History of Australia / en.wikipedia.org). Text 6. Early European exploration Although a theory of Portuguese discovery in the 1520s exists, it lacks definitive evidence. The Dutch East India Company ship, Duyfken, led by Willem Janszoon, made the first documented European landing in Australia in 1606. That same year, a Spanish expedition sailing in nearby waters and led by Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós had landed in the New Hebrides and, believing them to be the fabled southern continent, named the land "Austrialia del Espiritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit), in honour of his queen Margaret of Austria, the wife of Philip III of Spain. Later that year, Queirós' deputy Luís Vaz de Torres sailed to the north of Australia through Torres Strait, along New Guinea's southern coast. The Dutch, following shipping routes to the Dutch East Indies, or in search of gold, spices or Christian converts, proceeded to contribute a great deal to Europe's knowledge of Australia's coast. In 1616, Dirk Hartog, sailing off course, en route from the Cape of Good Hope to Batavia, landed on an island off Shark Bay, West Australia. In 1622–23 the Leeuwin made the first recorded rounding of the south west corner of the continent, and gave her name to Cape Leeuwin. In 1627 the south coast of Australia was accidentally discovered by François Thijssen and named 't Land van Pieter Nuyts, in honour of the highest ranking passenger, Pieter Nuyts, extraordinary Councillor of India. In 1628 a squadron of Dutch ships was sent by the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies Pieter de Carpentier to explore the northern coast. These ships made extensive examinations, particularly in the Gulf of Carpentaria, named in honour of de Carpentier. 118

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Abel Tasman's voyage of 1642 was the first known European expedition to reach Van Diemen's Land (later Tasmania) and New Zealand, and to sight Fiji. On his second voyage of 1644, he also contributed significantly to the mapping of Australia proper, making observations on the land and people of the north coast below New Guinea. A map of the world inlaid into the floor of the Burgerzaal ("Burger's Hall") of the new Amsterdam Stadhuis ("Town Hall") in 1655 revealed the extent of Dutch charts of much of Australia's coast. Based on the 1648 map by Joan Blaeu, Nova et Accuratissima Terrarum Orbis Tabula, it incorporated Tasman's discoveries, subsequently reproduced in the map, Archipelagus Orientalis sive Asiaticus published in the Kurfürsten Atlas (Atlas of the Great Elector). In 1664 the French geographer, Melchisédech Thévenot, published a map of New Holland in Relations de Divers Voyages Curieux. Thévenot divided the continent in two, between Nova Hollandiato the west and Terre Australe to the east. Emanuel Bowen reproduced Thevenot's map in his Complete System of Geography (London, 1747), re-titling it A Complete Map of the Southern Continent and adding three inscriptions promoting the benefits of exploring and colonising the country. One inscription said: It is impossible to conceive a Country that promises fairer from its Situation than this of TERRA AUSTRALIS, no longer incognita, as this Map demonstrates, but the Southern Continent Discovered. It lies precisely in the richest climates of the World... and therefore whoever perfectly discovers and settles it will become infalliably possessed of Territories as Rich, as fruitful, and as capable of Improvement, as any that have hitherto been found out, either in the East Indies or the West. Bowen's map was re-published in John Campbell's editions of John Harris' Navigantium

atque

Itinerantium

Bibliotheca,

or

Voyages

and

Travels (1744–1748, 1764). This book recommended exploration of the east coast of New Holland, with a view to a British colonization, by way of Abel Tasman's route to Van Diemen's Land. 119

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Although various proposals for colonization were made, notably by Pierre Purry from 1717 to 1744, none was officially attempted. Indigenous Australians were less able to trade with Europeans than were the peoples of India, the East Indies, China, and Japan. The Dutch East India Company concluded that there was "no good to be done there". They turned down Purry's scheme with the comment that, "There is no prospect of use or benefit to the Company in it, but rather very certain and heavy costs" (From History of Australia / en.wikipedia.org).

UNIT FIVE. HISTORY OF CANADA Text 1. Brief History of Canada The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of PaleoIndians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization. Some of these older civilizations had long faded by the time of the

first European

arrivals and

have

been

discovered

through archaeological investigations. Starting in the late 15th century, French and British expeditions explored, colonized, and fought over various places within North America in what constitutes present-day Canada. The colony of New France was claimed in 1534 with permanent settlements beginning in 1608. France ceded nearly all its North American possessions to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French defeat in the Seven Years' War. The now British Province of Quebec was divided into Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 and reunified in 1841. In 1867, the Province of Canada was joined with two other British colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia through Confederation, forming a self-governing entity named Canada. The new country expanded by incorporating other parts of British North America, finishing with Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949. Although responsible government had existed in Canada since 1848, Britain continued to set its foreign and defense policies until the end of the First World 120

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War. The passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 recognized that Canada had

become

co-equal

with

the

United

Kingdom.

After

the Constitution was patriated in 1982, the final vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament were removed. Canada currently consists of ten provinces and three territories and is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Over centuries, elements of Indigenous, French, British and more recent immigrant customs have combined to form a Canadian culture that has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States. Since the conclusion of the Second World War, Canadians have supported multilateralism abroad and socioeconomic development domestically (From History of Canada / en.wikipedia.org). Text 2. Indigenous peoples in Canada Archeological and Indigenous genetic evidence indicate that North and South America were the last continents into which humans migrated. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50,000–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move gradually across the Bering land bridge

(Beringia),

from Siberia into northwest North America. At that point, they were blocked by the Laurentide ice sheet that covered most of Canada, confining them to Alaska and the Yukon for thousands of years. The exact dates and routes of the peopling of the Americas are the subject of an ongoing debate. By 16,000 years ago the glacial melt allowed people to move by land south and east out of Beringia, and into Canada. The Haida Gwaii islands, Old Crow Flats, and the Bluefish Caves contain some of the earliest Paleo-Indian archaeological sites in Canada. Ice Age hunter-gatherers of this period left litchis flake fluted stone tools and the remains of large butchered mammals. The North American climate stabilized around 8000 BCE (10,000 years ago). Climatic conditions were similar to modern patterns; however, the receding glacial ice sheets still covered large portions of the land, creating lakes of melt water. Most population groups during the Archaic periods were still highly 121

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mobile hunter-gatherers. However, individual groups started to focus on resources available to them locally; thus with the passage of time, there is a pattern of increasing

regional

generalization

(i.e.: Paleo-Arctic, Plano and Maritime

Archaic traditions). The Woodland cultural period dates from about 2000 BCE to 1000 CE and is applied to the Ontario, Quebec, and Maritime regions. The introduction of pottery distinguishes the Woodland culture from the previous Archaic-stage inhabitants. The Laurentian-related people of Ontario manufactured the oldest pottery excavated to date in Canada. The Hopewell tradition is an Indigenous culture that flourished along American rivers from 300 BCE to 500 CE. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell Exchange System connected cultures and societies to the peoples on the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Canadian expression of the Hopewellian peoples encompasses the Point Peninsula, Saugeen, and Laurel complexes. The eastern woodland areas of what became Canada were home to the Algonquian and Iroquoian peoples. The Algonquian language is believed to have originated in the western plateau of Idaho or the plains of Montana and moved with migrants eastward, eventually extending in various manifestations all the way from Hudson Bay to what is today Nova Scotia in the east and as far south as the Tidewater region of Virginia. Speakers of eastern Algonquian languages included the Mi'kmaq and Abenaki of the Maritime region of Canada and likely the extinct Beothuk of Newfoundland. The Ojibwaand other Anishinaabe speakers of the central Algonquian languages retain an oral tradition of having moved to their lands around the western and central Great Lakes from the sea, likely the Atlantic coast. According to oral tradition, the Ojibwa formed the Council of Three Fires in 796 CE with the Odawa and the Potawatomi. The Five Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) were centred from at least 1000 CE in northern New York, but their influence extended into what is now southern Ontario and the Montreal area of modern Quebec. They spoke varieties of 122

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Iroquoian languages. The Iroquois Confederacy, according to oral tradition, was formed in 1142 CE. In addition, there were other Iroquoian-speaking peoples in the area, including the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, the Erie, and others. On the Great Plains, the Cree or Nēhilawē (who spoke a closely related Central Algonquian language, the plains Cree language) depended on the vast herds of bison to supply food and many of their other needs. To the northwest were the peoples of the Na-Dene languages, which include the Athapaskan-speaking peoples and the Tlingit, who lived on the islands of southern Alaska and northern British Columbia. The Na-Dene language group is believed to be linked to the Yeniseian languages of Siberia. The Dene of the western Arctic may represent a distinct wave of migration from Asia to North America. The Interior of British Columbia was home to the Salishan language groups such as the Shuswap (Secwepemc), Okanagan and southern Athabaskan language groups, primarily the Dakelh (Carrier) and the Tsilhqot'in. The inlets and valleys of the British Columbia Coast sheltered large, distinctive populations, such as the Haida, Kwakwaka'wakw and Nuu-chah-nulth,

sustained

by

abundant

peoples

developed complex

salmon

and

shellfish. These

the

region's

cultures dependent on the western red cedar that included wooden houses, seagoing whaling and war canoes and elaborately carved potlatch items and totem poles. In the Arctic archipelago, the distinctive Paleo-Eskimos known as Dorset peoples, whose culture has been traced back to around 500 BCE, were replaced by the ancestors of today's Inuit by 1500 CE. This transition is supported by archaeological records and Inuit mythology that tells of having driven off the Tuniit or 'first inhabitants'. Inuit traditional laws are anthropologically different from Western law. Customary law was non-existent in Inuit society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system (From History of Canada / en.wikipedia.org).

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Text 3. New France and Former colonies and territories in Canada French interest in the New World began with Francis I of France, who in 1524

sponsored Giovanni

da

Verrazzano's

navigation

of

the

region

between Florida and Newfoundland in hopes of finding a route to the Pacific Ocean. Although the English had laid claims to it in 1497 when John Cabot made landfall somewhere on the North American coast (likely either modern-day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia) and had claimed the land for England on behalf of King Henry VII, these claims were not exercised and England did not attempt to create a permanent colony. As for the French, however, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula in 1534 and claimed the land in the name of Francis I, creating a region called "Canada" the following summer. Permanent settlement attempts by Cartier at Charlesbourg-Royal in 1541, at Sable Island in 1598 by Marquis de La Roche-Mesgouez, and at Tadoussac, Quebec in 1600 by François Gravé Du Pont all eventually failed. Despite these initial failures, French fishing fleets visited the Atlantic coast communities and sailed into the St. Lawrence River, trading and making alliances with First Nations, as well as establishing fishing settlements such as in Percé (1603). As a result of France's claim and activities in the colony of Canada, the name Canada was found on international maps showing the existence of this colony within the St. Lawrence river region. In 1604, a North American fur trade monopoly was granted to Pierre Du Gua, Sieur de Mons. The fur trade became one of the main economic ventures in North America. Du Gua led his first colonization expedition to an island located near the mouth of the St. Croix River. Among his lieutenants was a geographer named Samuel de Champlain, who promptly carried out a major exploration of the northeastern coastline of what is now the United States. In the spring of 1605, under Samuel de Champlain, the new St. Croix settlement was moved to Port Royal (today's Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia). Samuel de Champlain also landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24, 1604 (the feast of St. John the Baptist) and is where the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, and the Saint John River gets its name. 124

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In 1608 Champlain founded what is now Quebec City, one of the earliest permanent settlements, which would become the capital of New France. He took personal administration over the city and its affairs, and sent out expeditions to explore

the

interior. Champlain

became

the

first

known

European

to

encounter Lake Champlain in 1609. By 1615, he had travelled by canoe up the Ottawa

River through Lake

Nipissing and Georgian

Bay to

the

centre

of Huron country near Lake Simcoe. During these voyages, Champlain aided the Wendat (aka "Hurons") in their battles against the Iroquois Confederacy. As a result, the Iroquois would become enemies of the French and be involved in multiple conflicts (known as the French and Iroquois Wars) until the signing of the Great Peace of Montreal in 1701. The

English,

led

by Humphrey

Gilbert,

had

claimed St.

John's,

Newfoundland, in 1583 as the first North American English colony by royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I. In the reign of King James I, the English established additional colonies in Cupids and Ferryland, Newfoundland, and soon after established the first successful permanent settlements of Virginia to the south. On September 29, 1621, a charter for the foundation of a New World Scottish colony was granted by King James to Sir William Alexander. In 1622, the first settlers left Scotland. They initially failed and permanent Nova Scotian settlements were not firmly established until 1629 during the end of the Anglo-French War. These colonies did not last long except the fisheries in Ferryland under Sir David Kirke. In 1631, under Charles I of England, the Treaty of Suza was signed, ending the war and returning Nova Scotia to the French. New France was not fully restored to French rule until the 1632 Treaty of SaintGermain-en-Laye. This led to new French immigrants and the founding of TroisRivières in 1634. During this period, in contrast to the higher density and slower moving agricultural settlement development by the English inward from the east coast of the colonies, New France's interior frontier eventually covered an immense area with a thin network centred on fur trade, conversion efforts by missionaries, 125

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establishing and claiming an empire, and military efforts to protect and further those efforts. The largest of these canoe networks covered much of present-day Canada and central present-day United States. After Champlain’s death in 1635, the Roman Catholic Church and the Jesuit establishment became the most dominant force in New France and hoped to establish a utopian European and Aboriginal Christian community. In 1642, the Sulpicians sponsored a group of settlers led by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, who founded Ville-Marie, precursor to present-day Montreal. In 1663 the French crown took direct control of the colonies from the Company of New France. Although immigration rates to New France remained very low under direct French control, most of the new arrivals were farmers, and the rate of population growth among the settlers themselves had been very high. The women had about 30 per cent more children than comparable women who remained in France. Yves Landry says, "Canadians had an exceptional diet for their time." This was due to the natural abundance of meat, fish, and pure water; the good food conservation conditions during the winter; and an adequate wheat supply in most years. The 1666 census of New France was conducted by France's intendant, Jean Talon, in the winter of 1665–1666. The census showed a population count of 3,215 Acadians and habitants (French-Canadian farmers) in the administrative districts of Acadia and Canada. The census also revealed a great difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women (From History of Canada / en.wikipedia.org). Text 4. French and Indian Wars By the early 1700s the New France settlers were well established along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River and parts of Nova Scotia, with a population around 16,000. However new arrivals stopped coming from France in the proceeding decades, resulting in the English and Scottish settlers in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the southern Thirteen Colonies to vastly outnumber the French population approximately ten to one by the 1750s. From 1670, through 126

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the Hudson's Bay Company, the English also laid claim to Hudson Bay and its drainage basin known as Rupert's Land establishing new trading posts and forts, while continuing to operate fishing settlements in Newfoundland. French expansion along the Canadian canoe routes challenged the Hudson's Bay Company claims, and in 1686, Pierre Troyes led an overland expedition from Montreal to the shore of the bay, where they managed to capture a handful of outposts. La Salle's explorations gave France a claim to the Mississippi River Valley, where fur trappers and a few settlers set up scattered forts and settlements. There were four French and Indian Wars and two additional wars in Acadia and Nova Scotia between the Thirteen American Colonies and New France from 1688 to 1763. During King William's War (1688 to 1697), military conflicts in Acadia included: Battle of Port Royal (1690); a naval battle in the Bay of Fundy (Action of July 14, 1696); and the Raid on Chignecto (1696) . The Treaty of Ryswick in 1697 ended the war between the two colonial powers of England and France for a brief time. During Queen Anne's War (1702 to 1713), the British Conquest of Acadia occurred in 1710, resulting in Nova Scotia, other than Cape Breton, being officially ceded to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht including Rupert's Land, which France had conquered in the late 17th century (Battle of Hudson's Bay). As an immediate result of this setback, France founded the powerful Fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island. Louisbourg was intended to serve as a year-round military and naval base for France's remaining North American empire and to protect the entrance to the St. Lawrence River. Father Rale's War resulted in both the fall of New France influence in present-day Maine and the British recognition of having to negotiate with the Mi'kmaq in Nova Scotia. During King George's War (1744 to 1748), an army of New Englanders led by William Pepperrell mounted an expedition of 90 vessels and 4,000 men against Louisbourg in 1745. Within three months the fortress surrendered. The return of Louisbourg to French control by the peace treaty

prompted

the

British

to

found Halifax in

1749

under Edward

Cornwallis. Despite the official cessation of war between the British and French 127

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empires with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; the conflict in Acadia and Nova Scotia continued on as the Father Le Loutre's War. The British ordered the Acadians expelled from their lands in 1755 during the French and Indian War, an event called the Expulsion of the Acadians or le Grand Dérangement. The "expulsion" resulted in approximately 12,000 Acadians being shipped to destinations throughout Britain's North America and to France, Quebec and the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue. The first wave of the expulsion of the Acadians began with the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755) and the second wave began after the final Siege of Louisbourg (1758). Many of the Acadians settled in southern Louisiana, creating the Cajun culture there. Some Acadians managed to hide and others eventually returned to Nova Scotia, but they were far outnumbered by a new migration of New England Planters who were settled on the former lands of the Acadians and transformed Nova Scotia from a colony of occupation for the British to a settled colony with stronger ties to New England. Britain eventually gained control of Quebec City and Montreal after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and Battle of Fort Niagara in 1759, and the Battle of the Thousand Islands and Battle of Sainte-Foy in 1760 (From History of Canada / en.wikipedia.org). Text 5. Canada under British rule As part of the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763), signed after the defeat of New France in the Seven Years' War, France renounced its claims to territory in mainland North America, except for fishing rights off Newfoundland and the two small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon where its fishermen could dry their fish. France had already secretly transferred its vast Louisiana territory to Spain under the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) in which King Louis XV of France had given his cousin King Charles III of Spain the entire area of the drainage basin of the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains. France and Spain kept the Treaty of Fontainebleau secret from other countries until 1764. Britain returned to France its most important sugar-producing colony, Guadeloupe, which the French 128

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considered more valuable than Canada. (Guadeloupe produced more sugar than all the British islands combined, and Voltaire had notoriously dismissed Canada as "Quelques arpents de neige", "A few acres of snow"). The new British rulers of Canada abolished and later reinstated most of the property, religious, political, and social culture of the French-speaking habitants, guaranteeing the right of the Canadians to practice the Catholic faith and to the use of French civil law (now Quebec Civil Code) through the Quebec Act of 1774. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 had been issued in October, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory. The proclamation organized Great Britain's new North American empire and stabilized relations between the British Crown and Aboriginal peoples through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier (From History of Canada / en.wikipedia.org). Text 6. Invasion of Quebec During

the American

Revolution,

there

was

some

sympathy

for

the American cause among the Acadians and the New Englanders in Nova Scotia. Neither party joined the rebels, although several hundred individuals joined the revolutionary cause. An invasion of Quebec by the Continental Army in 1775, with a goal to take Quebec from British control, was halted at the Battle of Quebec by Guy Carleton, with the assistance of local militias. The defeat of the British army during the Siege of Yorktown in October 1781 signaled the end of Britain's struggle to suppress the American Revolution. When the British evacuated New York City in 1783, they took many Loyalist refugees to Nova Scotia, while other Loyalists went to southwestern Quebec. So many Loyalists arrived on the shores of the St. John River that a separate colony—New Brunswick—was created in 1784; followed in 1791 by the division of Quebec into the largely French-speaking Lower Canada (French Canada) along the St. Lawrence River and Gaspé Peninsula and an anglophone Loyalist Upper Canada, with its capital settled by 1796 in York, in presentday Toronto. After 1790 most of the new settlers were American farmers searching 129

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for new lands; although generally favorable to republicanism, they were relatively non-political and stayed neutral in the War of 1812. In 1785, Saint John, New Brunswick became the first incorporated city in what would later become Canada. The signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the war. Britain made several concessions to the Americans at the expense of the North American colonies. Notably, the borders between Canada and the United Stateswere officially demarcated; all land south of the Great Lakes, which was formerly a part of the Province of Quebec and included modern day Michigan, Illinois and Ohio, was ceded to the Americans. Fishing rights were also granted to the United States in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and on the coast of Newfoundland and the Grand Banks. The British ignored part of the treaty and maintained their military outposts in the Great Lakes areas it had ceded to the U.S., and they continued to supply their native allies with munitions. The British evacuated the outposts with the Jay Treaty of 1795, but the continued supply of munitions irritated the Americans in the run-up to the War of 1812. Canadian historians have had mixed views on the long-term impact of the American Revolution. Arthur Lower in the 1950s provided the long-standard historical interpretation that for English Canada the results were counterrevolutionary (From History of Canada / en.wikipedia.org).

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Методические рекомендации по освоению дисциплины «Иностранный язык (английский)» В задачи курса «Иностранный язык» входит совершенствование и дальнейшее развитие полученных в школе знаний, навыков и умений по иностранному языку в различных видах речевой коммуникации. Обучение видам речевой коммуникации Обучение

различным

видам

речевой

коммуникации

должно

осуществляться в их совокупности и взаимной связи с учетом специфики каждого из них. Управление процессом усвоения обеспечивается четкой постановкой цели на каждом конкретном этапе обучения. В данном курсе определяющим фактором в достижении установленного уровня того или иного вида речевой коммуникации является требование профессиональной направленности практического владения иностранным языком. Чтение Совершенствование

умений

чтения

на

иностранном

языке

предполагает овладение видами чтения с различной степенью полноты и точности понимания: просмотровым, ознакомительным и изучающим. Просмотровое чтение имеет целью ознакомление с тематикой текста и предполагает

умение

охарактеризовать

текст

на

основе с

точки

извлеченной зрения

информации

поставленной

кратко

проблемы.

Ознакомительное чтение характеризуется умением проследить развитие темы и общую линию аргументации автора, понять в целом не менее 70% основной информации. Изучающее чтение предполагает полное и точное понимание содержания текста. В качестве форм контроля понимания прочитанного и воспроизведения информативного содержания текста-источника используются в зависимости от вида чтения: ответы на вопросы, подробный или обобщенный пересказ прочитанного, передача его содержания в виде перевода, реферата или аннотации. Следует уделять внимание тренировке в скорости чтения: свободному беглому чтению вслух и быстрому (ускоренному) чтению про 131

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себя, а также тренировке в чтении с использованием словаря. Все виды чтения должны служить единой конечной цели – научиться свободно читать иностранный текст по специальности. Свободное, зрелое чтение предусматривает формирование умений вычленять опорные смысловые блоки в читаемом, определять структурносемантическое ядро, выделять основные мысли и факты, находить логические связи, исключать избыточную информацию, группировать и объединять выделенные положения по принципу общности, а также формирование

навыка

словообразование,

языковой

догадки

интернациональные



слова

опорой и

на

др.)

контекст, и

навыка

прогнозирования поступающей информации. Аудирование и говорение Умения

аудирования

и

говорения

должны

развиваться

во

взаимодействии с умением чтения. Основное внимание следует уделять коммуникативной адекватности высказываний монологической и диалогической речи (в виде пояснений, определений,

аргументации,

выводов,

оценки

явлений,

возражений,

сравнений, противопоставлений, вопросов, просьб и т.д.). К концу курса бакалавр должен владеть: –

умениями

подготовленного

монологической и

речи

неподготовленного

на

уровне

самостоятельно

высказывания

по

темам

специальности; – умениями диалогической речи, позволяющими ему принимать участие в обсуждении вопросов, связанных с его специальностью. Перевод Устный и письменный перевод с иностранного языка на родной язык используется как средство овладения иностранным языком, как прием развития умений и навыков чтения, как наиболее эффективный способ контроля полноты и точности понимания. Для формирования некоторых базовых умений перевода необходимы сведения по теории перевода: понятие 132

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перевода; эквивалент и аналог; переводческие трансформации; компенсация потерь при переводе; контекстуальные замены; многозначность слов; словарное и контекстное значение слова; совпадение и расхождение значений интернациональных слов («ложные друзья» переводчика) и т.п. Письмо В данном курсе письмо рассматривается не только как средство формирования

лингвистической

компетенции

в

ходе

выполнения

письменных упражнений на грамматическом и лексическом материале. Формируются также коммуникативные умения письменной формы общения, а именно: умение составить план или конспект к прочитанному, изложить содержание прочитанного в письменном виде. Работа над языковым материалом Овладение всеми формами устного и письменного общения ведется комплексно, в тесном единстве с овладением определенным фонетическим, лексическим и грамматическим материалом. Языковой материал рассматривается не только в виде частных явлений, но и в системе, в форме обобщения и обзора групп родственных явлений и сопоставления их. Фонетика Продолжается

работа

по

коррекции

произношения,

по

совершенствованию произносительных навыков при чтении вслух и устном высказывании. Первостепенное значение придается смыслоразличительным факторам: –

интонационному

интонационно-смысловые

оформлению

предложения

группы-синтагмы,

правильная

(деление

на

расстановка

фразового и в том числе логического ударения, мелодия, паузация); – словесному ударению (в двусложных и в многосложных словах, в том числе в производных и в сложных словах; перенос ударения при конверсии); 133

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– противопоставлению долготы и краткости, закрытости и открытости гласных звуков, звонкости (для английского языка). Работа над произношением ведется как на материале текстов для чтения, так и на специальных фонетических упражнениях. Лексика При работе над лексикой учитывается специфика лексических средств текстов

по

специальности

бакалавра,

многозначность

служебных

и

общенаучных слов, механизмы словообразования (в том числе терминов и интернациональных слов), явления синонимии и омонимии. Бакалавр должен знать употребительные фразеологические сочетания, часто встречающиеся в письменной речи изучаемого им иностранного языка, а также слова, словосочетания и фразеологизмы, характерные для устной речи в ситуациях общения. Необходимо знание сокращений и условных обозначений и умение правильно прочитать формулы, символы и т.п. Бакалавр должен вести рабочий словарь слов, которые имеют свои оттенки значений в изучаемом иностранном языке. Грамматика Программа

предполагает

знание

и

практическое

владение

грамматическим минимумом вузовского курса по иностранному языку. При углублении

и

систематизации

знаний

грамматического

материала,

необходимого для чтения и перевода, основное внимание уделяется правилам

чтения,

множественного

особенностям числа

английской

существительных,

фонетики, степеней

образованию сравнения

прилагательных и наречий, образованию и употреблению основных видовременных форм английского глагола, переводу из прямой речи в косвенную. Первостепенное значение имеет овладение особенностями и приемами перевода указанных явлений. При развитии навыков устной речи особое внимание уделяется порядку слов как в аспекте коммуникативных типов предложений, так и внутри 134

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повествовательного предложения; употреблению строевых грамматических элементов (местоимений, вспомогательных глаголов, наречий, предлогов, союзов); глагольным формам, типичным для устной речи; степеням сравнения прилагательных и наречий; средствам выражения модальности. Учебные тексты. В качестве учебных текстов и литературы для чтения используется оригинальная литература по тематике широкого профиля вуза, по узкой специальности бакалавра, а также литература по страноведческой тематике. Для развития навыков устной речи привлекаются тексты по специальности, используемые для чтения, специализированные учебные пособия для бакалавров по развитию навыков устной речи. Самостоятельная работа Самостоятельная работа бакалавров является обязательной для каждого бакалавра заочного отделения и определяется учебным планом. Время, отводимое на СР бакалавров, находится в пределах 80% от объема времени, отведенного на нагрузку по дисциплине. Для проверки уровня усвоения знаний и умений бакалавров можно использовать такие методы, как опрос (устный и письменный), контрольные задания. Рекомендуемая учебная литература, большое количество разных видов упражнений, доступность электронных ресурсов позволяет бакалаврам закреплять и совершенствовать материал самостоятельно.

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Заключение Данное пособие, предназначенное для бакалавров очного отделения, изучающих английский язык по направлению 44.03.05 Педагогическое образование (с двумя профилями подготовки), профилям История и Обществознание, прошло апробацию в группах бакалавров очного отделения Исторического факультета Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета в 2017-2018 учебном году. По итогам апробации в первоначальное пособие были внесены изменения, в частности пособие было дополнено многоуровневой системой лексико-грамматических упражнений, что позволило проводить эффективную работу с бакалаврами разного уровня владения английским языком – от начального до продвинутого. Цель (обучить бакалавров навыкам восприятия и порождения высказываний,

понимания

иноязычной

речи,

чтения

и

перевода

страноведческих текстов) была достигнута, поставленные задачи решены. Изучив курс иностранного языка с помощью данного пособия, бакалавры очного обучения развили основные навыки речевой деятельности: умение диалогического общения, монологической речи, чтения и перевода текстов; сформировали высокий уровень коммуникативной компетенции, необходимой для квалифицированной информационной и творческой деятельности в различных сферах; познакомились со страноведческим материалом аутентичных текстов, который познакомил бакалавров с ранней историей Уэльса, Шотландии и Северной Ирландии до их вхождения в состав Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, а также с историей таких англоговорящих стран как Австралия и Канада.

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Список использованной литературы: 1.

Голицынский,

Ю.Б.

Грамматика.

Сборник

упражнений

/Ю.Б.

Голицынский. – СПб.: КАРО, 2016. – 480 с. 2. Досковская, О.В. ENGLISH FOR EVERYBODY / Н.Т. Николаева, Н.Н. Савлюкова, Л.В. Чечикова, О.В. Досковская. М-во образования и науки Рос. Федерации, ФГБОУ ВПО «Оренб. гос. пед. универ.» – Оренбург, 2012. – 83 с. Режим доступа : http://rucont.ru/efd/169594, свободный. 3. Зверховская, Е.В. Практикум по грамматике английского языка. / Е.В. Зверховская, Е.Ф. Косиченко. – СПб.: Издательство «Лань», 2016, 688с. 4. Ильющенко, Н.С. - Discovering Britain / Н.С. Ильющенко. – М.: Книжный дом "Университет", 2017. — 401 с. 5. Николаева, Н.Т. Страноведение / Н.Т. Николаева: Учебное пособие для студентов 2 курса НОиИЯ. – Оренбург, 2015. – 239 с. 6.

Николаева

Н.Т.

Компетентностный

подход

в

формировании

лингвокультуры бакалавров в рамках учебного предмета «Страноведение» // Интернет-журнал

«Мир

науки»

2016,

Том

4,

номер

2

http://mir-

nauki.com/PDF/28PDMN216.pdf (доступ свободный). 7. Николаева, Н.Т. УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ «ENGLISH FOR PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS» [Электронный ресурс] / Н.Т. Николаева.— 2017 .— 119 с. — Режим доступа: https://rucont.ru/efd/639276 8. Миловидов, В.А. Ускоренный курс современного английского языка для начинающих = Elementary Crash Course in Modern English / В.А. Миловидов. – 7-е изд. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2015. – 448 с. 9. Михайлов, Н.Н. Лингвострановедение Англии: Учебное пособие для студентов филологических факультетов и факультетов иностранных языков высших учебных заведений. / Н.Н. Михайлов. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2016 – 208с. 9. Сатинова, В.Ф. Британия и британцы. / В.Ф. Сатинова. – Мн.: Выш. шк. , 2004. – 334с.: ил. 137

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10. Сатинова, В.Ф. Читаем и говорим о Британии и британцах. / В.Ф. Сатинова. – 3-е изд. – Мн.: Выш. шк., 1998. – 255с. 11. Тихонов, А.А. Грамматика английского языка: просто и доступно: учебное пособие для ленивых / А.А. Тихонов. – М.: Проспект, 2014 – 240 с. 12. Рум, А.Р. Великобритания: Лингвострановедческий словарь. / А. Р. Рум. – 2-е издание., стереотип. – М.: Рус. яз., 2017. – 560с. 13. Усова, Г.С. История Англии: тексты для чтения на английском языке. Серия «Учебники для вузов. Специальная литература» / Г.С. Усова. – СПб.: Издательство «Лань», 2014. – 256 с.

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