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 9786010421066

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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

ENGLISH FOR HISTORY STUDENTS Methodical development

Almaty «Qazaq university» 2016 1

 

UDC 811.111 (075.8) E 56 Recommended for publication by the decision of the Academic Council of the Faculty of Philology and World Languages, Editorial and Publishing Council of al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №1 dated 02.11.2016) Reviewers candidate of Philology, associate professor M. Zhanabekova Compilers: K.A. Aisultanova, L.M. Aliyarova, L.M. Makhazhanova, Z.A. Tleugabylova, A.R. Khalenova

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English for history students: methodical development / K.A. Aisul tanova, L.M. Aliyarova, L.M. Makhazhanova [et al.]. – Almaty: Qazaq university, 2016. – 132 p. ISBN 978-601-04-2106-6 The methodical development «English for History Students» is for the Faculty of History, Archeology and Ethnology students, aimed to train and develop professional communication skills. Publishing in authorial release. Настоящая методическая разработка «English for History Students» по английскому языку составлена для студентов факультета истории, археологии и этнологии с целью формирования навыков профессионального общения.   Издается в авторской редакции.

UDC 811.111 (075.8)

ISBN 978-601-04-2106-6

© Aisultanova K.A., Aliyarova L.M., Makhazhanova L.M., Tleugabylova Z.A., Khalenova A.R., 2016 © Аl-Farabi KazNU, 2016

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Методическая разработка «English for History Students» по английскому языку составлена для студентов факультета истории, археологии и этнологии с целью формирования навыков профессионального общения. Подготовлена на основе книг известных зарубежных авторов, состоит из аутентичных текстов. В разработку включены вопросы для проведения бесед со студентами, лексический словарь используемых тем, упражнения, расчитанные на непосредственную работу с текстом и направленные на понимание содержания текста и контроль его понимания. Кроме того, имеются упражнения на закрепление лексики. Дополнительные тексты отвечают тематике основных текстов и рекомендуются для чтения с общим пониманием содержания и служат для контроля усвоения темы в целом. Целью методической разработки является научить студентов читать, понимать и переводить тексты по специальности со словарем для получения нужной информации. Оно может быть использовано как для занятия под руководством преподавателя, так и для самостоятельного изучения языка. При составлении пособия авторы исходили из того, что студенты уже освоили нормативный курс грамматики и приобрели необходимый минимум повседневной нормативной лексики.

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INTRODUCTION INTO ARCHAEOLOGY History of Kazakhstan Archaeology In Kazakhstan the culture of the ancient nomads was formed during the Bronze Age. The Kazakh archaeologists give priority to the study of this culture. Civilization came to the steppe with some distinctive features such as the creation of state organizations, constant trade, cultural and political relations between the steppe and mountain zone and cultural world conception (proved by the funeral sanctuary architecture reflecting the ideology and social stratification of the society). Discovery of famous monuments of the Saka culture like the kurgan (barrow) of Issik, Chilik, the mausoleum of Tegisken and Yagaraka, the Saka cities of Chirik-Rabat and Balandy make it possible to gain more historical data. Based on findings of written language and famous cultural art works it has been determined that the ancient Sakae emerged in the territory of Kazakhstan in the middle of the last millenary B. C. Therefore, the beginning of the state formation in the territory of Kazakhstan goes nearly one thousand years back. It may have been contemporary with the ancient states of the Achaemenids in Iran and the ancient Greece, Chinese Han dynasty, Bactria, Chorezmia. From the III century B. C. onward, the territory of Kazakhstan were inhabited by communities of state formations such as the Usun in Semirechye and the Kangiu in the South of Kazakhstan. The population of these states were busy with cattle breeding and farming. In the territory of Kangiu fortified settlements with stationary dwellings of green bricks appeared and urban construction was developed. Highly developed settlements and urban culture were formed in the Aral sea area, around the Djety-Asar hills. A number of major settlements were surrounded by necropolis, however they were connected with the dissemination of the Sogdian population along the international trade roads. Turk cultures settled in the oases and cities of Central Asia (Chash, Usrushana, Ferghana, Tokharistan), greatly influenced by the development of cultural life in the towns of Central Asia. 4

 

During the late medieval centuries, the cattle breeders, settled populations and dwellers were interacting in the same natural ways as in the earlier periods of history: through economic and cultural relations within the framework political unity such as the Karakhanid State. The town and steppe were not two opposed world; they had mutual economic foundations. The growth of towns in Central Asia from IX century to XIII century in most cases was connected with the process of the nomads settling. The settled nomads brought much steppe folklore into urban life and in this way the urban culture was formed. The culture was distributed not only in the South but in Central, West and East Kazakhstan. The cultural and economic relations of nomads and town dwellers were revealed later by the study of the history of the development of Ak-Orda, Mogulistan and the Kazakh Khanate. The latest towns of the Middle Ages Sairam, Sauran, Signak and Suzak were centres for the establishment of the economic connections between nomads and farmers. Here the cultural and trade exchanges took place not only between the town dwellers of Southern Kazakhstan and nomads of Sari-Arka but also with the people of Central Asia, the Volga region and East Turkestan. These exchanges were of great importance for the political, economic and cultural life of the Kazakh Khanate. The study of archaeological monuments in Kazakhstan enabled the scientists to reconstruct the mechanism of interrelation between these different cultures. This work provided evidence that the territory of Kazakhstan was one of the historical-cultural centres and that interactions of nomads and settled populations led to a mutual enrichment of both cultures. Many achievements of Kazakh culture lie in the heart of such synthesis. The achievements of the Kazakh archaeological science have been acknowledged at a number of general meetings and international conferences. In addition Kazakhstan archaeologists have participated in the development international projects, including UNESCO «Great Silk Road: roads of dialogue» and joint scientific researches with the archaeologists of Russia, France, Belgium, the USA and Poland. The communication centre of the Institute archaeological achievements is the Museum of Archaeology depending on the 5

 

Academy of Sciences and directed by R. A. Bektureeva. Materials from this museum were successfully displayed at exhibitions in the USA, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Egypt and Italy. Specific projects have focused on the protection of archaeological monuments and the history of culture. There has also been a complete and partial rating of the monuments discovered in all the regions of Kazakhstan. This includes the first volume of the «Code for Monuments of History and Culture of Kazakhtan, SouthKazakhstan region», issued in 1994 . The problem of conservation and studying of monuments of archaeology is impossible without the organization of complete system of measures on their protection and use. In this connection, the Institute of Archaeology has suggested introducing the program of the improvement of arrangements on finding archaeological monuments, which aims to carry out the archeological examination anticipating processes of construction and economic activities. For years of the activity Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Margulan has not only reached significant results, has also developed new directions, which are successfully realized, as well as the conceptual basis for further archaeological researches in Kazakhstan. Essential Vocabulary give priority distinctive features constant trade be busy with cattle breeding fortified settlement stationary dwellings of green bricks

дaть приоритет отличительные черты постояннaя торговля зaнимaться скотоводством укрепленное поселение стaционaрные жилищa из зеленого кирпичa животноводы взaимные экономические основы оседлые кочевники позволить ученым реконструировaть мехaнизм взaимосвязи взaимообогaщение успешно выстaвлять нa выстaвкaх полный и чaстичнaя оценкa пaмятников целостнaя системa мер по их охрaне и использовaнию

the cattle breeders mutual economic foundations the settled nomads enable the scientists to reconstruct the mechanism of interrelation mutual enrichment successfully display at exhibitions complete and partial rating of the monuments complete system of measures on their protection and use 6

 

Tasks: 1. Read the text «History of Kazakhstan archaeology». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. When did the Saka people emerge in the territory of Kazakhstan? 2. What state formations inhabited in the territory of Kazakhstan? 3. Where were highly developed settlements and urban culture formed? 4. What international projects have Kazakhstani archaeologists participated in? 5. Where were materials from the Museum of Archaeology depending on the Academy of Sciences successfully displayed?

STEPPE ANDRONOVO СULTURE Archeological culture named Andronovo culture covered huge territory. Its area of habitation reached the Southern Aral in the West, the Yenisei in the East, borders of forest-steppe in the North and Central Asian lands of ancient irrigation in the South. This culture was one of the most significant during the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia. This culture characterized Old and Middle Bronze Age and changed to other cultures only in the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 1st millennium B.C. Long-term investigations of scientists rather clearly defined the main features of the economy and way of life of the Andronovo tribes lived the steppe zone from the Ural to the Yenisei. Predominantly, people of Andronovo culture had settled way of life. People constructed their dwelling along the banks of free and quite steppe rivers with wide flood-plain grassland. Fertile soil here produced good harvest for that period that is why the economy had combined agro-pastoral character. These tribes lived in big patriarchal families; earth-houses served as a dwelling with a great number of economic extensions and enclosures for livestock. Despite the fact that they knew how to gain a part of natural treasures, many natural processes remained mysterious and absolutely inexplicable. Religions appeared, had the period of flourishing, sometimes spread on huge territories, afterwards along with the expansion of frontiers of man’s knowledge gradually declined and died. Ancient man was not able to explain natural phenomena. They 7

 

were incomprehensible for ancient people. Therefore, human beings lead by the fear and hope inevitably attributed thousands of reasons, reflected in the great number of beliefs and religious superstitions to the facts surpassed his knowledge. Cult of the dead had significant role in life of the Andronovo people. Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov expressed, as it seems to be, very paradoxical but true, in essence, idea that people belonging to different nations diverge less by the way of life than by their attitude to the death. Belief in immortality of dead relatives and fellow tribesman, in the existence of other world, describes the need to organize funerals of congeners as a complicated and magnificent ritual where the customs and rules of the clan were observed. It is quite natural that they were not equal for the dwellers of different regions of the planet. Essential Vocabulary irrigation the main features predominantly dwelling flood-plain grassland fertile soil harvest economic extension and enclosure

орошение глaвные особенности преимущественно жилище пойменные лугa плодороднaя почвa урожaй хозяйственнaя пристройкa и огрaждение период процветaния потом вместе с непонятный религиозные суеверия превзойти что-л. соплеменник сородичи

period of flourishing afterwards/ along with incomprehensible religious superstitions surpass smth fellow tribesman congeners

Tasks: 1. Read the text «Steppe Andronovo Сulture». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. What was the area of Andronovo culture habitation? 8

 

2. What Ages does this culture characterize? 3. According to the investigations of scientists what steppe zone did they live in? 4. Where did they construct their dwelling? 5. How can you explain their cult of the dead?

BOTAI ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURE Botai culture – the archaeological culture allocated with V.F. Zaybert (1983) on the basis of materials of the studied monuments of Northern Kazakhstan of an eneolit era. During the research of the eneolit settlements in the area of the rivers Tobol and Irtysh it became clear that at that time in this territory there was an original archaeological culture with peculiar lines of economic way. Botai civilization was the first to domesticate horses. This research has set back the date of domestication, ~1,000 years earlier than previous research unveiled (about 5,500 years ago). This site is an optimal case for study because the Botai sites are located within the geographic range of the Tarpan, the European wild horse. The Botai culture existed from 3700-3100 b.c., in current Kazakhstan. Horses were a large part of the culture, with the occupations of the Botai people closely connected to their horses. The Botai people based their whole economy on the horse, with their huge, permanent settlements yielding large collections of concentrated horse remains. They may have also been the earliest known horse riders, this would have allowed the Botai people to move longer and faster than on foot. The analysis of bone remains using a technique to search for ‘bit damage», researchers have discovered wears on the teeth, suggesting the horses were harnessed or bridled. The Botai people also used horses as their main source of food and drink, as well as a resource to further technology. Pottery fragments have been analyzed to identify fat from horses milk that used to be stored in those containers, horse milk was even fermented into a kind of alcohol. Research has uncovered that the Botai were similar in shape and disposition (shown through ancient bones) to a Bronze Age domestic horse, with a significant difference from the wild horses found in that region. This also suggests that they were selecting wild horses and enhancing their physical characteristics through breeding. 9

 

The pottery of the culture had simple shapes, most examples being gray in color and unglazed. The decorations are geometric, including hatched triangles and rhombs as well as step motifs. Punctates and circles were also used as decorative motifs. Asko Parpola believes that the language of the Botai culture cannot be identified with any known language or language family. He speculatively suggests that the Proto-Ugric word *lox for «horse», reconstructed on the basis of Hungarian ló, Mansi lū and Khanty law, all meaning «horse», whose origin is unclear and which might be related to german Ross, is a borrowing from the language of the Botai culture. Current research is being conducted by Alan Outram of Exeter University in association with other institutes, the Bristol (UK), Winchester (UK), and Kokshetau (Kazakhstan) universities, and the Carnegie Museum. Along with students, Outram conducted a magnetometer survey of the Botai site in 2008, and is looking into conducting further research into the Botai culture's role into the development of horse domestication. Essential Vocabulary allocate peculiar lines unveil range harness bridle pottery fragments ferment breeding unglazed hatched triangles motif magnetometer survey domestication

выделять специфические линии предстaвлять; обнaруживaть диaпaзон; круг; aреaл упряжь, сбруя, доспехи уздечкa; уздa фрaгменты глиняной посуды ферментировaть рaзмножение неглaзуровaнный зaштриховaнные треугольники мотив; основнaя мысль мaгнитометр исследовaние; рaссмaтривaть приручение

Tasks: 1. Read the text «Botai archaeological culture». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. 10

 

Answer the following questions: 1. What was the main feature of the Botai culture? 2. What region was Botai culture found in? 3. What period of time did Botai culture exist? 4. How did the researchers discover that Botai people had domesticated horses? 5. Which era does this culture belong to?

BEGAZY-DANDYBAI CULTURE Begazy-Dandybai culture is Bronze Age culture of mixed economy in the territory of ancient central Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, dated from the 2nd millennium BC to 8th century BC, centered at (Sary-Arka) desert river. The culture, with its majestic megalithic mausolea, flourished between the 12th and 8th centuries BC. The culture was discovered, first excavated, and published in the 1930s-1940s by M.P. Gryaznov, who took it for a local version of Karasuk culture. In 1979 the Begazy-Dandybai culture was described and analyzed in detail in a monograph by A.Kh. Margulan, who systematically reviewed accumulated material and produced description of the archeological culture. The most famous monuments of Begazy-Dandybai culture are Begazy, Dandybai, Aksu Ayuly, Akkoytas, and Sangria, it was named after the first two archeological sites. Begazy-Dandybai culture is known from the 2nd millennium BC with mining copper, tin, and gold. At that time in steppe oases along small rivers lived fairly numerous Andronovo culture population with farming, pastoral animal husbandry, mining, metallurgy and metal processing economy. Prosperity of Central Kazakhstan Andronov culture was provided by livestock and bronze casting production. A rise of Bronze Age culture falls at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, 10th-8th centuries BC, the highlight of the Begazy-Dandybai archaeological culture. It grew in vast hilly steppe, spread over approximately 2 million square kilometers, with immense pastures and numerous ore deposits. Archeological research of the post-1980s expanded the known locations of Begazy-Dandybai culture to 60 settlements and 200 cemeteries. Archeological attention shifted from fairly well studied 11

 

megalithic mausolea as main attraction to the settlements and kurgan cemeteries of the commoners. Excavated settlement area amounts to several tens of thousands square meters, burial kurgans of ordinary tribal people have been partially uncovered. Most of the Begazy-Dandybai burials are in kurgans. At present, the kurgan burials of the commoners are known from accompanying inventory. During Begazy-Dandybai era burial began appearing kurgans with single burial. The rich burials testify to income inequality and social stratification. By the same time are dated numerous mengirs. Most visible monuments are about 20 constructively and architecturally unusual megalithic mausolea. As a rule, mausolea are fenced with square or oval layout of two or three stone masonry walls or stone slabs up to 3 tons each encircling a central room and covered by slabs as a perimeter gallery with diameter up to 30 m, and with occasional entrance chamber. The central roof-covered chamber is built with stones and multiple square pillars that support the roof, enclosing a massive sarcophagus. Mausolea are surrounded by ordinary kurgan burials. The cemeteries are close to large settlements with housesbuilt of granite slabs, with pillars and thick walls, connected by corridors. Begazy-Dandybai culture preserved artifacts of the Bronze Age, and at the same time forms archaeological features of the Early Iron Age. The accompanying burial inventory has richly decorated vessels notable for thin-wall pottery, polished surface, geometric ornamentation, and tamga-type characters on the surface, along with rough ceramics of proto-Tasmola type. The Begazy mausoleum produced tanged bronze arrowheads, which typologically indicated the upper date of the culture, its architecture and housing are notable for their innovations. Pottery, and bronze and golden ware deposited in mausolea found its influence in the succeeding nomadic Tasmola culture. Begazy-Dandybai people produced jewelry: silver and gold bracelets, rings, charms, pendants, earrings, buckles, and diadems (of approximately 86% gold, 13% silver and 1% copper). Begazy-Dandybai villages were located at the feet of rocky hills, close to plentiful sources of water and fuel. In the Tokraun, Nura, Sary Su, Atasu, Ishim, Selety, and other valleys were densely located villages of ancient miners and metallurgists. Begazy-Dandybai people produced 12

 

pots, pitchers, bowls, cups, vessels with spouts, etc. Ceramic pots were fired globular jugs with high neck and collar rim. Ceramic was made of clay mixed with granitic sand. Grave inventory and dwellings contain many metal and bone tools: bronze pins, needles, buttons, linings, bone needle boxes, and buttons. Large number of tools was used in mining: hammers, picks, hoes, graters, mortars, pestles, and stone molds. Begazy-Dandybai culture, located in favorable mountainous area protected by dry steppes, formed in the same territory succeeding pastoralist nomadicTasmola culture, dispersed throughout central Kazakhstan in the Karaganda, Akmola, and Pavlodar provinces, and Saka culture, but the megalithic architecture is not shared. BegazyDandybai material culture is similar to the contemporaneous Karasuk culture and the following Tasmola culture. The Andronovo culture is held as preceding culture. There is no consensus on genetical and cultural connections of the Begazy-Dandybai culture. Opinions divide between predominantly indigenous and predominantly migrant origin. The ancient tribes of the Kazakhstan Bronze Age were descendants of the Kazakhstan Neolithic population, and became ancestors of the Sakas, Usuns, and Kangly tribes. Essential Vocabulary mining copper ore steppe oases pastoral animal husbandry vast hilly steppe immense pastures numerous ore deposits burials of the commoners accompanying inventory inequality and social stratification masonry walls granite slabs richly decorated vessels plentiful sources ceramic pots metal and bone tools

 

добычa медной руды степные оaзисы пaстушье животноводство обширнaя холмистaя степь огромные пaстбищa многочисленные рудные месторождения могильники простого человекa сопровождaющий инвентaрь нерaвенство и социaльнaе рaсслоение стены кaменной клaдки грaнитные плиты богaто укрaшенные сосуды обильные источники керaмические горшки метaллические и костяные орудия трудa 13

Tasks: 1. Read the text «Begazy-Dandybai Culture». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. When was the Begazy-Dandybai culture described and analyzed in detail? 2. What monuments of Begazy-Dandybai are the most famous? 3. What kind of jewelry did Begazy-Dandybai people produce? 4. Where were Begazy-Dandybai villages located? 5. Who discovered the culture and took it for a local version?

THE EXPEDITIONS OF THE INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY AFTER A.KH. MARGULAN The Institute of archaeology after A.Kh.Margulan is renowned by its legendary expeditions well known now that set the ground for the large-scale and even epochal researches. The people that led the first Kazakhstani expeditions left a bright trace in the science of the country, in the destiny of the Institute and archaeologists who became today the acknowledged specialists themselves. Under the leadership of the well-known scientist A.Kh.Margulan beginning from 1945 there worked the first archaeological expedition – the Central-Kazakhstani one. Its researches became the starting point for the studying of the Begazy-Dandybay culture. The expedition detected, investigated and studied the stopping places of the Neolithic and Eneolithic epochs, the settlements and burialgrounds of the Andronov and the Begazy-Dandybay cultures, the burial erections of the 1-st millennium B.C., the kurgans of the Turkic times, the medieval town sites and settlements. In 1957 there upon the territory of Saryarka began the researches of the team for the study of the monuments of the epoch of the early nomads headed by M.K.Kadyrbayev as part of the CentralKazakhstani archaeological expedition. Of a special significance was the material obtained in the course of the researches made upon the burial-ground Tasmol. As a result there by M.K.Kadyrbayev was singled out the Tasmoly early-Scythian archeological culture. The Ili archeological expedition (further the Semirechensk one) headed by K.A.Akishev was organized in 1954. Already in the first 14

 

season the expedition discovered a great accumulation of the kurgan burial grounds of the epochs of the Scythians and Usuns, the summary of the materials of the excavations of which served as the basis for a serious monograph, there were introduced into scientific circulation the unique materials from the researches of the kurgans Besshatyr. In 1957 there was organized the team for the study of the monuments of the Stone age in the region of the ridge of the Lesser and Great Karatau head by Kh.Alpysbayev. The scientists managed to detect the Shelsk-Ashelsk places and monuments of the Myustyer period. The classics of archeology of the Stone age of Kazakhstan one can name the Paleolithic stopping place after Shokan Ualikhanov on the right bank of the river Arystandy. The lower-Paleolithic monuments were found in the lower reaches of the river Shu. There by the well-known Kazakhstani scientist A.G.Medoyev were found the stone tools of the Siberian Paleolithic period near the Northern part of the Balkhash lake. Of big importance for the studying of the lower Paleolithic period of Kazakhstan is the stopping place Koshkurgan which has the reliably dated stratigraphic context. It was proved that there in Southern Kazakhstan exist the monuments of the lower Paleolithic epoch. Of crucial importance for the archeology of the Broze epoch of the Eurasian belt of the steppes were the researches of the Zhezkazgan metallurgical centre, in which the greatest role was played by K.I.Satpayev as president of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR who rendered great support. One of the objects of the Southern-Kazakhstani archaeological expedition was the Otrar oasis. The result of the works made by the Southern-Kazakhstani archaeological expedition was the research, cartographic works and the chronology of the great group of the ancient town sites and settlements in the Otrar oasis, upon the Northern slopes of Karatau, in the valley of Syrdaria. The systematic planning and detailed study of the oasis and its hydrotechnical erections was undertaken by the Otrar archeological expedition under the leadership of K.A.Akishev. During the 40 years there were studied the sites of the former cities Otyrar, Kuiryktobe, Kokmardan, Altyntobe and others (headed by academician Baipakov K.M.). Of high importance not only for the archeology of the early nomads of Kazakhstan and the whole Great belt of the steppes of 15

 

Eurasia but for the whole studies of the culture of the nomads was the discovery by K.A.Akishev and B.Nurmukhanbetov of the burial ground not plundered by the black illegal archeologists at the kurgan Issyk, the finds from which subsequently were used for the creation of the state symbols of Independent Kazakhstan. The unique artifacts of jewelry art being a testimony of the high level of development of the ancient nomads were discovered accidentally in 1988 in the Kegen district of the Almaty region – Zhalauly. In the first years of Independent Kazakhstan there on the territory of the new state the archaeologists could continue the works: from 1992 there operated the Kazakh-Russian expedition, which carried out the joint works on the territory of Russia and Kazaqkhstan within the framework of the programme «The Paleo-ecology of ancient man and the initial mastering of the Eurasian continent». From 1995 up to 2000 there by the expedition together with the International Kazakh-Turkish university after Kh.A.Yassaui and the Kazakh state national university after al-Farabi was implemented the project named «The Paleolithic period of the arid zone of Kazakhstan: the periodicity and chronology», the result of which was the discovery of new sites pertaining to the early, middle and late stages of the Paleolithic peiod, the new data obtained which characterize the processes of peopling by ancient man of the territory of Central Asia in Pleistocene. There in 1993 worked the Kazakh-French expedition for the studying of the rock paintings of Kazakhstan with the participation of specialists from the Institute of archaeology, the Institute «Kazproektrestavratsiya», the National center of scientific researches of France. The main task of the expedition was the preparation of materials of the Corps of petroglyphs of Kazakhstan. There in 1997-1999 in Eastern Kazakhstan worked the international expedition with the participation of the workers from the archaeological mission of France in Central Asia and the scientificresearch centre of Italy named Ligabue. The main task of the expedition was the studying of the monuments of ancient nomads of Kazakhstani Altai, the result of which was the opening of the kurgan of the representative of the nomadic elite with the lens of permafrost (Berel), the studying of the kurgans of the early-Scythian epoch (Meiemer) (headed by the doctor of science (history) Samashev Z.S.). Good results were achieved by the Kazakh-American expedition, the main purpose of which was the elucidation of the processes 16

 

of evolution from settlement to urbanization in the Talgar region which embraced the period from the Scythians to the middle ages. The largest expeditions that worked in the last years, embraced the territory of the whole of Kazakhstan: the Semirechye complex archaeological expedition (K.A. Akishev), the Southern-Kazakhstani complex archaeological expedition (K.M. Baipakov), the Central-Kazakhstani archaeological expedition (Zh.K. Kurmankulov), the Kazakhstani newly-built archaeological expedition (L.B. Erzakovich), the WesternKazakhstani archaeological expedition (Z. Samashev), the NorthernKazakhstani (M.K. Khabdulina), the Eastern-Kazakhstani archaeological expedition (Z. Samashev), the Turkestani archaeological expedition (E.A. Smagulov), the Saryarka archaeological expedition (A.Z. Beisenov), the Register of archaeological monuments of Kazakhstan (V.A.Groshev), the Merke archaeological expedition (A.M. Dosymbayeva), the Almaty newly-built archaeological expedition (B. Nurmukhanbetov). In the 1990-s there by the endeavors of these expeditions were embraced 115 archeological monuments. Essential Vocabulary settlements and burial-grounds the medieval town sites and settlements region of the ridge the Eurasian belt of the steppes stone tools hydrotechnical erections initial mastering of the Eurasian continent the arid zone of Kazakhstan periodicity and chronology nomadic elite unique artifacts of jewelry art rock paintings reliably dated stratigraphic context summary of the materials of the excavations the systematic planning and detailed study

поселения и могильники средневековые городские территории и поселения облaсть горного хребтa Еврaзийский пояс степей кaменные орудия гидротехнические сооружения первонaчaльное освоение Еврaзийского континентa зaсушливaя зонa Кaзaхстaнa периодичность и хронология кочевaя элитa уникaльные aртефaкты ювелирного искусствa нaскaльные рисунки достоверно дaтировaнный стрaтигрaфический контекст резюме мaтериaлов рaскопок системaтическое плaнировaние и детaльное изучение 17

 

Tasks: 1. Read the text «The expeditions of the Institute of archaeology after A.Kh.Margulan». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. What kind of places did the first Kazakhstani expedition led by scientist A.Kh.Margulan detect and investigate? 2. Who played the greatest role in the research of Zhezhazgan? 3. What was one of the objects of the Southern-Kazakhstani archaeological expedition? 4. When were the unique artifacts of jewelry art in Kegen district of the Almaty region discovered? 5. How many archeological monuments were embraced by the endeavors of expeditions in the 1990 in Kazakhstan?

TAMGALY-TAS Tamgaly-Tas is located near the river Ili in 120 km. to the North from Almaty on the way to Bakanas. Tamgaly-Tas is translated from Kazakh «stones with signs» or «images (petroglyphs) on the stones», and in public they are more known as «written rocks». On the right shore of the river Ili there about 1000 of different rock paintings that date from the late Middle Ages. They are petroglyphs , images of idols, Buddhist notes, among which the most interesting paintings are three Buddhist idols. Under the drawings the sacred text in Sanskrit, dating from the XII century is carved: «Om mane padmehum» («snow jewel in the lotus» or «Blessed be the born from a lotus»). The inscriptions on the rocks are on the Tibetan and Kalmyk languages. There is a legend that in X century, when one of the Buddhist missions stopped on the river bank Ili during the march to Semirechye, there was an earthquake and a large rock piece fell on the earth. This incident was considered as a sign of necessary return to India. They cut three images of Buddha on the rock piece. One can see other pictures of Buddha on the adjoining rocks. According to another legend the inscriptions were written by the Kalmyks in «todorkhoy nomyn bichig» («clear literary script»), that was 18

 

created by Zaya Pandita Ogtorguyna in 1648 and was used more than three centuries by the Mongols, who carved the images of Buddha. The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, is a burial mound discovered in 1969. It has a height of six meters and a circumference of sixty meters. It is dated to the 4th or 3rd century BC. A notable item is a silver cup bearing an inscription. The finds are on display in Astana. Essential Vocabulary sacred inscriptions adjoining burial mound circumference assorted funerary subsequently depiction carve

священный нaдписи прилегaющий могильный кургaн длинa окружности сортировaнный погребaльный впоследствии описaние; изобрaжение вырезaть; высекaть

Tasks: 1. Read the text «Tamgaly-Tas». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. Where is Tamgaly-Tas located? 2. What does Tamgaly-tas mean? 3. What languages are used on the rocks? 4. When was the Issyk Kurgan discovered? 5. What finding has become a symbol of modern Kazakhstan?

GOLDEN MAN «Golden man» in Kazakhstan. Tours on unique archeological excavations in Kazakhstan. In 1969, the Kazakh archeologists under the supervision of К.A. Akishev began excavations of a huge burial mound, located 50 km to the east of Almaty. The archeologists named the burial 19

 

Issyk since it was never mentioned in any folk legends. And it is no wonder since Issyk had so many neighbouring structures, piercing the sky and forming a grand burial mounds complex – 45 earth pyramids, stretched out at a distance of 3 kilometers. And Issyk, having such impressive neighbours, did not stand out in any way – it rose only 6,5 meters above the ground. We say «only», as the other burial mounds measured 15 meters in height. As other burials, Issyk was raided back in the ancient times. Fortunately, the raiders neglected a side burial, which was not even the main one, where the remains of a man laid. This man made it into history as the «Golden Man of Issyk». The burial chamber of the mound represents a hollow, where a log construction made of theTien- Shan spruce wood, was put. There is crockery in the southern and western parts of the room, and the northern part features the remains of a buried man, placed directly on to the strip-and-board flooring of the chamber. As the anthropologists determined, the buried man of Issyk was 17-18 years old. He was wearing richly embroidered golden attire. His head was clad in a high (65-70 cm) headpiece of conic shape, decorated with gold plates of various forms and sizes. In total, the headpiece had around 150 ornaments on it. The Issyk warrior was wearing a spiral golden neckpiece, the tips of which featured the images of tiger heads at its ends. The deceased warrior was clad in opulent clothes – he belonged to the noble. This apparel was worn on the days of ceremonial functions and parades. His headpiece is high arrow-shaped hat, clasped under his chin, decorated with golden plates. His left ear lobe is pierced and has a golden earring with granulation and turquoise pendants. He is clad in a short caftan, entirely embroidered with golden pieces. There are two gold rings on his fingers. A large complex of the Sakh animal style art from the Issyk burial mound is an important contribution into the world's culture treasury. The Semirechye is indeed a unique archeological area in the number of royal burial mounds, reaching 18-20 m in height. Such monumental «Sakh pyramids» could not have been erected over the burial site of a humble member of society. They were meant only for a tight circle of people. A small number of large burial mounds and thousands of small mounds are, undoubtedly, the 20

 

evidence of society cleavage into two groups the privileged minority and the nonprivileged majority. It is worth mentioning that the foundation for this social inequality was laid in the late Bronze Age, at the end of the second half of the second millennium B.C. A notable gradation of the mound parameters and the amount of labour, required for their construction, is the proof of social hierarchy in the Sakh society. The complex of findings in the Issyk burial mound gave additional and important materials that throw light on the social structure of the Sakhs of Semirechye. Undoubtedly, the opulence and splendour of the Issyk warrior's golden attire was meant not to only have a visual effect, but had a socia leaning too. The key function of clothes was to aggrandize the royalty and raise it to the level of a sun-like deity. As per religious beliefs of many tribes, a horse was a symbol of the Sun, the sun deity. The headdress of the Issyk warrior features an image of a horse with goat horns, which, apparently, symbolized the merging of images of the sun deity and tribal totem. The findings in the mounds of the Pazyryk culture in Altai have similar meaning. There is no doubt that the Issyk horses had a double semantic meaning, being a symbol of the sun deity and a royal sign. On the whole, the prince of Issyk with his bright headpiece and magnifi-cent attire represented the real Ahura Mazda or Mitra – his personality personified the earthly and heavenly lord, the tsar and high priest.The ide-ological content of the animal style art was a kind of religious substantia-tion of the Sakh nationhood. The art itself had one goal – to be the state religion. The importance of the Issyk findings grows, as one more finding was made – a silver bowl with an inscription. The written records of any society indicate that there is a high level of socio-economic organization and genesis of the state. However, the Scythians did not leave behind any written language. There are no traces of written records among thousands and thousands of archeological find-ings in the Scythian burial mounds. An assumption was made that the Scythian society had not developed any written language, since their level of development let them do without it. And now, the Sakhs, so unjustly treated by the history, and who for a long time had been at the periphery of the 21

 

Scythian culture, give us hope that this opinion is not so unshakeable. Essential Vocabulary excavations burial mound pierce neglect log spruce wood crockery buried man embroider attire opulent noble apparel turquoise pendants tribe mergе aggrandize inscription assumption indicate

рaскопки могильный кургaн прорывaться пренебрегaть бревно хвойнaя древесинa посудa погребенный приукрaшивaть нaряд пышный, богaтый знaтный одеяние; облaчaть бирюзовые подвески племя сливaться, соединяться возвеличивaть нaдпись предположение укaзывaть, ознaчaть

Tasks: 1. Read the text «Golden Man». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. When did the Kazakh archeologists begin excavation of a huge burial mound? 2. Under whose supervision were these excavations carried out? 3. Who was found in the burial Issyk? 4. What was the head of Golden Man clad in? 5. How did archaeologists realize that this young man had belonged to the nobility? 6. Is it true that many tribes believed the horse was a symbol of the sun? 7. What can you say about a silver bowl with an inscription?

22

 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTION Archaeological Collection of the RK concentrates in its collection materials on ancient and medieval history. Currently, the fund holds about 29 thousand artifacts. Stone Age Paleolithic (about 2.7 million years – 10 thousand BC). The archaeological collection includes artifacts of the ancient sites of human being of Caspian and Karatau ridge – a set of archaic stone tools – chopping, cut, cores, flakes, scrapers, showing the process of development and improvement of techniques for processing stone products: sandy, levallua, radial. The Copper Age (III early II millennium BC) cupper-stone century, the era of the discovery of the first metal and the manufacture of copper tools. This period is represented in the museum's unique collection of Botai settlement artifacts, northern Kazakhstan. Residents of the settlement were engaged in hunting for wild horses and first domesticated the horse. The collection contains the bones of animals, hunting tools: bolas (projectiles for hunting), stone dart tips, arrows, axes; gun from the shoulder bones of animals: crescent-shaped softer, scrapers with serrated edge for processing animal skins, punches, ceramic vessels. Bronze Age (XIX-IX cc. BC). During this period a person has mastered the technology for obtaining of bronze – an alloy of copper and tin or arsenic. Bright culture of this time called as Andronov (XVIII-XII centuries BC). Carriers of Andronov culture settled in villages along the shores of Steppe Rivers, engaged in cattle breeding, agriculture, metallurgy, bronze and ceramic production. Collection of the Bronze Age collected on archaeological expeditions and donations are about 2 thousand artifacts from the central, eastern, western, southern and south-eastern regions of Kazakhstan. Collection. Bone artifacts from Myrzhyk settlement made with great skill and fine ornament – a bone plates, buttons, tubes and figured psalias are of particular interest. From casual finds – treasure of bronze items from TaldyKurgan region, Keiton village and others. 23

 

The culture of the early nomads Saka era (VIII c. BC – III c. AD) is characterized by the opening and the beginning of the widespread use of iron. At that time, the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by tribes of Saks and Sauromats. The basis of the social economy was nomadic and seminomadic pastoralism. Saka were united into tribal unions, which were headed by leaders who combine secular and religious functions. It was the time of origin of the state and the appearance of writing. An iconic symbol of the ideology of Saka became the ScythianSiberian «animal» style, realistic on execution and mythological content. Material and spiritual culture decorated in this tradition. Archaeological Collection of early nomads has approximately 10 thousand artifacts. Early Iron Age is represented by materials from different regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, giving extensive information on Saks, Wusuns, Kangui, Huns and Sarmatians based on the territory of Kazakhstan from the VIII century BC that occupy a special place in the history of political and cultural life of Kazakhstan. There are Zhalauly treasure (VIII-VII centuries BC), found by chance in the Zhalauly village, Kegen (now Raiymbek) district, Almaty region, which contained gold items. The largest of the ornaments – pectoral – in the crescent form. Among the accidental finds of Zhetysu most valuable is a collection of copper cauldrons and bronze censers. Culture of Kangui of the South Kazakhstan is presented by artifacts from excavations of burial grounds and settlements in the Aris valley IV c. BC-IV c. AD. The collection includes the original ceramic with a characteristic set of forms and decorations, small plastic ornaments, arms, horse attribution, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figures, household items and cult, unique artifacts – paleographic material and much more. The letter is made on the surface of ceramic bricks, tables and identified as alphabetic-syllabic, on the Aramaic basis and recalls early Sogdian. Middle Ages Middle Ages (VI – first half of the XV century). The archeology fund accumulated rich, various archaeological materials of the Middle Ages, making it possible to illustrate not only the main stages in the development of ethnic and socio-political history and culture of Kazakhstan as an important integral region of the Eurasian 24

 

continent, but also to talk about the origin, formation and development of various forms of state in the region from Wusun state (Wusun-go), the first Turkic khaganates – before the Kazakh khanate (VI-XV centuries). Culture of ancient Turkic tribes of Kazakhstan VI-VIII centuries by the monuments of the cult of monumental sculpture, weapons, and items of jewelry, saddle and monuments of runic writing are represented. Urban Culture IX-XII centuries materials of South Kazakhstan, Semirechensk archaeological expeditions, including artifacts from ancient settlements Aktobe, Taraz, Otrar oasis, Talgar are presented. There are glazed bowls with epigraphic, floral and geometric motifs, dastarkhan (table), hums, humchi, and water pipes – kuburs. Great importance for the development of urban culture played the Great Silk Road. The collection contains by unique items imported from China, Iran, India, Khwarizm. This is a piece of copper Iranian dishes, two cups of Chinese porcelain bowls, pieces of Chinese silk, and mirrors. XIV-XV century develops a new architectural style. The progress of construction machinery in the XIV and XV century, especially found its expression in the improvement of arched-dome system, and the emergence of new coating materials, which is reflected in the architecture of the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassawi in Turkestan. The material culture of this period are presented by glazed ceramics, tiles of the Khoja Ahmed Yassawi mausoleum in Turkestan. Moreover, along the routes of the Silk Road spread different religions and beliefs: Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Manichaeism, Islam and Christianity (Nestorian). In the collection there are the gravestones of stones with inscriptions in Arabic, ancient Indian (Sanskrit) languages, Kairak with a cross and the Turko-Syrian epitaphs. The existence of Zoroastrianism indicates clay ossuaries from the city of Taraz. Essential Vocabulary ridge (Karatau ridge) flake scrapers

хребет стружкa скребки 25

 

the Copper Age projectile stone dart tips crescent-shaped serrated edge vessel alloy tin arsenic cattle breeding, pastoralism cauldron censers excavations of burial grounds sadlle glazed bowls water pipes porcelain bowls construction machinery arched-dome system emergence coating materials tile

Медный век снaряд кaменные нaконечники дротиков в форме полумесяцa зaзубренный крaй сосуд сплaв олово мышьяк скотоводство котел курильницы рaскопки зaхоронении (могильников) седло зaстекляные чaши (глaзировaнные) водопроводные трубы фaрфоровые чaши строительнaя техникa системa aрочных купол появление, возникновение мaтериaлы для покрытия черепицa

Tasks: 1. Read the text «Archaeological collection». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. What artifacts represent the Copper Age? 2. How many artifacts of Bronze Age were collected? 3. What was the iconic symbol of the ideology of Saka? 4. What played the great role for the development of urban culture? 5. What kind of religions and beliefs were spread along the routes of the Silk Road?

SAIRAM’S TREASURE In the city Sairam archaeologists found a sensational find 2 treasures of the medieval period. During excavations in the residential area were made unique finds. Jug with silver coins in the amount of 2600 pieces was hidden at the bottom of the old tandoor. Pre-dating the coins XIII-XVI centuries. 26

 

This discovery of the treasure is the first major discovery of silver coins in the history of archeology of Kazakhstan and covers the period of monetary relations in Kazakhstan – by Amir Timur to Kasymkhan inclusive. Previously, archaeologists made only sporadic discoveries of this kind. Undoubtedly, gold items (bracelets, rings, earrings, pendants, plaques, small bars, and others.) are unique and have great artistic value. Urjar «Princess» The startling discovery was found by archaeologists in Kazakhstan Urjar district of East Kazakhstan region in one of the mounds. Research work carried out by the Institute of Archaeology O.H. Margulan. Under the bulk of the mound in a stone sarcophagus under the massive granite slabs, at a depth of 1.70 m were the remains of a young woman of noble birth. If found buried ceramic and wooden vessels and the bones of the sacrificial animal – sheep. On the bones of a human skeleton remains of woven garments of blue and green. At the head of the buried are found gold earrings and stone altar – an indispensable attribute of female burials of the time. The most valuable is a pointed gold headdress, ornate floral patterns and zoomorphic ornament. Headdress also has arrow-shaped pommel, decorated with spirals of gold wire. The lower part of the product has been decorated with ancient fluted zergers pendants. In form and ornamentation embodiment, a finding reminiscent of folk Kazakh women's hats and saukele Borik. These hats are supposed to be the ceremonial costume accessory Saks Kazakhstan. A similar discovery in Kazakhstan is known only in the famous Issyk barrow, belonging to the same time as the burial Urjar area. Urjar «princess» pre-dated to 4-3 centuries BC Essential Vocabulary excavation residential area jug pendant

рaскопки жилой рaйон кувшин подвескa 27

 

plaque small bar startling mound bulk granite slab of noble birth woven garments pointed gold headdress arrow-shaped embodiment reminiscent

бляшкa мaленький слиток сенсaционный кургaн, могильный холм нaсыпь грaнитнaя плитa блaгородного происхождения ткaнные одежды остроконечный золотой головной убор стреловидный воплощение, вaриaнт нaпоминaющий

Tasks: 1. Read the texts «Sairam’s Treasure» and «Urjar Princess». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. Where did archaeologists find sensational treasures of the medieval period? 2. What period does the first major discovery of silver coins cover? 3. Where was the Saks «princess» found? 4. What was an indispensable attribute of female burials? 5. What hat is supposed to be the ceremonial costume accessory of Saks people?

SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF KAZAKHSTAN ARCHAEOLOGY The development of archaeology in Kazakhstan began with a number of exceptional orientalists and historians. These outstanding scholars were representatives of the progressive Russian intelligentsia and included V.V. Bartold, V.V. Radlov, P.I. Lerkh, Ch. Valikhanov. Together they made a valuable contribution to the history and culture of the Kazakh people. A well-known cultural worker, V.V. Stasov stated that the archaeological old relics and monuments of Kazakhstan are of no less interest than the classical old relics of Rome. «The old city near Dzhankent (ruins on the Syr-Darya riversides near Kazalinsk) is our Pompey», – he wrote in one of his works. 28

 

The role of scientists from Moscow and Leningrad were great in the formation of the archaeological science during the Soviet period (S.P. Tolstov, A.N. Bernshtam, M.P. Griaznov, S.S. Chernicov, S.S. Sorokin, O.O. Krivtsova-Gracova, L.R. Kyzlasov) but independent study was also carried out in Kazakhstan. A department of archaeology was first established in 1946 as an independent scientific branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh Soviet Republic. This branch was a department of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography named after Ch. Valikhanov. A. Kh. Margulan was the founder of this department. He led the first archaeological expedition in Central Kazakhstan. From 1955 till 1989 the department of archaeology was directed by K.A. Akishev who made a valuable contribution to the formation and development of the Kazakhstan archaeology. Between the end of the Word War II and the late 60 a number of big scale expeditions and studies were conducted in the area of the Virgin Land, in the Paleolithic sites of the Karatau mountain, in the Sary-Arka sepulchral sites, in the ancient settlements of the Irtish river areas, Semirerchye and Aral sea region and in the southern towns of Kazakhstan in Taraz, Baba-Ata and other medieval towns. K.A. Akishev, A.G. Maksimova, E.I. Ageeva, G.E. Patsevich, T. N. Senigova, G.A. Kushaev, M.K. Kadirbaev, H.A. Alpisbaev, A.M. Orazbaev, V.E. Sadomskov took an active part in this expeditions and studies. The next period of archaeological work was marked by the appearance of new departments, laboratories of archaeological technology, branches of medieval archaeology, the museum of archaeology, branches of emergency excavations in site under construction (Novostroechnykh) and the department of encyclopedic records of monuments. In 1989 all of them were united into the Institute of Archaeology within the structure of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography headed today by K.M. Baipakov. Some chronology about the main excavation: In 1969 the Issik kurgan (burial mound) was excavated. The findings from this excavation helped to resolve many questions regarding the social and cultural life of the Sakae. In 1971 important archaeological expedition were led in South Kazakhstan. This started long term large scale excavations in Otrar, 29

 

Kuyruk-Tobe, Kok-Mardan along with other works at the hills and at the slope of the Karatau mountain (K.A. Akishev, L.B. Erzakovich, K.M. Baipakov, S.M. Akhinzhanov, B.N. Nurmuhanbetov, V.A. Groshev, E.A. Smagulov, S. Zholdasbaev, E.F. Kuznetsova, A.K. Akishev, T.M. Teplovodskaya, R.Z. Buranasheva, U.A. Motov). In the 70-90 years Saka memorials were investigated as well as memorials of the Stone Age, the paleolithic culture in the East of Kazakhstan and Semirechye, the monuments and settlements of the Bronze and Iron Age in the Central and Eastern part of Kazakhstan and the medieval towns (A.Kh. Margulan, T.H. Senigova, A.G. Maksimova, M.K. Kadirbaev, M.S. Mershiev, Z.S. Samashev, H.A. Alpisbaev, A.G. Medoev, Zh.K. Taimagambetov, Zh.K. Kurmankulov, L.A. Makarova, T.N. Nurumov, T.V. Savelieva, M.K. Khabdulina, A.S. Ermolaeva, Zh. Shardenova, D.A. Toleev, A.Z. Beisenov, Zh.E. Smailov, A.M. Dosimbaeva, G.A. Ternovaya, M.S. Kasenov, G.G. Peteneva, S.M. Aitova, G. Djumabekova, O.V. Kuznetsova). For the 52 years of its existence the Kazakh archaeology has not only enriched the scientific world by its remarkable discoveries but also revealed the main phases of the ancient and medieval development of the society of Kazakhstan. In addition, the integral development of the ancient history of Kazakhstan including the history of culture was reconstructed. Moreover those archaeological discoveries got official recognition in certain regions and countries and a positive echo in the world. In the field of Paleolithic studies, ancient sites and working places were discovered and it was also proved that the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited approximately one million years ago. The importance of the Paleo-economic development of Kazakhstan Bronze Age has been proven. It has also been determined that the territory of Kazakhstan was one of the region where cattlebreeding tribes transformed into early nomads. The archaeological science has also significantly advanced in the study of the urbanization process and of the development of settled and urban culture. The Great Silk Road, considered to be one of the most significant achievements of the Eurasian civilizations passed through the territory of Kazakhstan. 30

 

The archaeological materials indicated that the Kazakhstan culture consisted of various multiple structures and that the interaction and interrelations of these cultures were the major factor in the cultural life of the people. Archaeological data has revealed for example that the Western Turks, then the Turgesh and Karluk Kaganates and also the Karakhanides and Kipchak centres were medieval states that formed different cultural ethnic traditions coexisting in harmony in the territory of Kazakhstan. Essential developments of Kazakhstan archaeology. The archaeological findings allow us to consider that the territory of Kazakhstan as one of the centres of the Homo sapiens development and that the Paleolithic culture must be included in the system of the development of the ancient man. In IV-III B.C. in the steppe zone of Eurasia the climate was becoming wet. This condition caused changes in the life of ancient Kazakh people: earlier nomadic hunters and fishermen gradually began to settle in the valley of the Ishim, Tobol and Irtish rivers. Qualitative changes in the life of people led to the development of housekeeping lifestyles; from cattle-breeding to farming. The horsebreeders industry was also developed as is know from excavations of Botay settlement. Its residents inhabited huts of 25-70 m2. The taming of horses by Botay people was proved by the analyses of osteologic materials (90% of bones found at the settlements belonged to horses). Botay inhabitants were able to weave, they were experts in pottery cases, woodworking and bone cuttings. They were some interrelations with the population of the Ural regions, Siberia and Middle Asia. The taming of horse by ancient Kazakhs played an important role in the development of the entire civilization of Eurasia. At the beginning of the 1980 some memorials of Prototown civilization were discovered in the steppe zone. They are dated from XVIII-XVI centuries B.C. – the earlier Bronze Epoch. Chronically Prototown culture in Eurasia follows: Trojan VI in the Minor Asia; Early Mycenes in Greece; the epoch of Middle Egypt; the welldeveloped culture of the Mesopotamian city-states. Archaeologists studied the civilization of this epoch like Arkaim and Sintash through excavations. The settlements of that time were rectangular or rounded and were surrounded by walls made from a 31

 

special mixture of gypsum and clay blocks. The walls had the parapets, towers, labyrinthine entrance, ditches and external fortifications. There were dwellings of nobles and common population and some working places. A central stadium provided space for meetings and ritual celebrations. These settlements, or Protowns had a system of street communications and a system of water collectors. Dwellings ranged from 150 up to 300 m2 and were two-storied. A great amount of weapons, tools, bronze ornaments were found. Blacksmiths and steel-makers had privilege in the society as did military men. Rich buries were found in the necropolis near the Prototowns. Temple complexes were also found along with small stone in the shape of men. The pictures of deities found in the Protowns resembled those to whom the inhabitants of the ancient Mesopotamia prayed during annual festivities. Clay «tablets» with the different signs were found that probably indicate the development of a written sign system. This factor is of great importance for the understanding of the level of culture in the society. The appearance of written language was connected with the emerging of State organization. The inhabitants in Prototown were farmers and cattle-breeders who had developed technology for simple irrigation and cattlebreeding. The production, melting and metal processing of copper and bronze had reached a high level. The metallurgy of bronze was the economical basis of this civilization. It is important to note that during this period the basis of the future Silk Road connecting West and East had begun. Recently, other «Prototown» younger than Arkaim was discovered in Mangistau at the location of Toksanbay. The memorials of the Late Bronze Age are also known which can be related to «Prototowns». This is Kent in Central Kazakhstan. An important culture of the Bronze Age was also found in the Begazy-Dandibai culture of Central Kazakhstan. It was discovered by the archaeologists with its monumental architecture and many settlements devoted to copper melting. Central Kazakhstan became one of the largest centres of copper and bronze production and consequently weapons production. Therefore, the further researches in the archaeology of Bronze Age went forward to the global level of cultural and social matters. 32

 

In Kazakhstan the culture of the ancient nomads was formed during the Bronze Age. The Kazakh archaeologists give priority to the study of this culture. Civilization came to the steppe with some distinctive features such as the creation of state organizations, constant trade, cultural and political relations between the steppe and mountain zone and cultural world conception (proved by the funeral sanctuary architecture reflecting the ideology and social stratification of the society). Discovery of famous monuments of the Saka culture like the kurgan (barrow) of Issik, Chilik, the mausoleum of Tegisken and Yagaraka, the Saka cities of Chirik-Rabat and Balandy make it possible to gain more historical data. Based on findings of written language and famous cultural art works it has been determined that the ancient Sakae emerged in the territory of Kazakhstan in the middle of the last millenary B. C. Therefore, the beginning of the state formation in the territory of Kazakhstan goes nearly one thousand years back. It may have been contemporary with the ancient states of the Achaemenids in Iran and the ancient Greece, Chinese Han dynasty, Bactria, Chorezmia. From the III century B. C. onward, the territory of Kazakhstan were inhabited by communities of state formations such as the Usun in Semirechye and the Kangiu in the South of Kazakhstan. The population of these states were busy with cattle breeding and farming. In the territory of Kangiu fortified settlements with stationary dwellings of green bricks appeared and urban construction was developed. Highly developed settled and urban culture were formed in the Aral sea area, around the Djety-Asar hills. A number of major settlements were surrounded by necropolis; however they were connected with the dissemination of the Sogdian population along the international trade roads. Turk cultures settled in the oases and cities of Central Asia (Chash, Usrushana, Ferghana, Tokharistan), greatly influenced by the development of cultural life in the towns of Central Asia. During the late medieval centuries, the cattle breeders, settled populations and dwellers were interacting in the same natural ways as in the earlier periods of history: through economic and cultural relations within the framework political unity such as the Karakhanid 33

 

State. The town and steppe were not two opposed world; they had mutual economic foundations. The growth of towns in Central Asia from IX century to XIII century in most cases was connected with the process of the nomads settling. The settled nomads brought much steppe folklore into urban life and in this way the urban culture was formed. The culture was distributed not only in the South but in Central, West and East Kazakhstan. The cultural and economic relations of nomads and town dwellers were revealed later by the study of the history of the development of Ak-Orda, Mogulistan and the Kazakh Khanate. The latest towns of the Middle Ages Sairam, Sauran, Signak and Suzak were centres for the establishment of the economic connections between nomads and farmers. Here the cultural and trade exchanges took place not only between the town dwellers of Southern Kazakhstan and nomads of Sari-Arka but also with the people of Central Asia, the Volga region and East Turkestan. These exchanges were of great importance for the political, economic and cultural life of the Kazakh Khanate. The study of archaeological monuments in Kazakhstan enabled the scientists to reconstruct the mechanism of interrelation between these different cultures. This work provided evidence that the territory of Kazakhstan was one of the historical-cultural centres and that interactions of nomads and settled populations led to a mutual enrichment of both cultures. Many achievements of Kazakh culture lie in the heart of such synthesis. The achievements of the Kazakh archaeological science have been acknowledged at a number of general meetings and international conferences. In addition Kazakhstan archaeologists have participated in the development international projects, including UNESCO «Great Silk Road: roads of dialogue» and joint scientific researches with the archaeologists of Russia, France, Belgium, the USA and Poland. The communication centre of the Institute archaeological achievements is the Museum of Archaeology depending on the Academy of Sciences and directed by R.A. Bektureeva. Materials from this museum were successfully displayed at exhibitions in the USA, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Egypt and Italy. 34

 

Specific projects have focused on the protection of archaeological monuments and the history of culture. There has also been a complete and partial rating of the monuments discovered in all the regions of Kazakhstan. This includes the first volume of the «Code for Monuments of History and Culture of Kazakhtan, SouthKazakhstan region», issued in 1994. Essential Vocabulary sepulchral medieval excavations seal enriched cattle nomads revealed hunter valley pottery bone cuttings taming rectangular gypsum parapets labyrinthine entrance ditches fortification dissemination

могильный средневековый рaскопки печaть обогaщенный крупный рогaтый скот кочевники выявленный охотник долинa керaмикa костные черенки укрощение прямоугольный гипс пaрaпеты лaбиринтообрaзный вход кaнaвы укрепление рaспрострaнение

Tasks: 1. Read the text «Scientific Achievements of Kazakhstan Archaeology». Write and memorize unknown words and word combinations. 2. Translate the text into Russian. Answer the following questions: 1. What did a well-known cultural worker  V. V. Stasov write in his works? 2. When was the department of archaeology established? 3. What kind of places were discovered in 52 years of Kazakh archaeology existence? 4. What can you say about essential developments of Kazakhstani archaeology? 5. What culture was an important in Bronze Age? 6. What kind of international projects have Kazakhstani archaeologists participated in? 35

 

HISTORY OF PRE-ROMAN AND ROMAN BRITAIN The long and complex history of the British Isles reflects the interaction of man and a very varied natural environment. The British Isles are both part of Europe and yet separated from it by the sea. They have a very varied topography, climate and natural vegetation. We should be careful about projecting the modern environment on to the past: climate and economic factors, even the coastline and water levels, were different. Yet in simple terms the bulk of the west and north of Britain are higher and wetter, their soils poorer and their agriculture pastoral rather than arable: centred on animals not crops. Much of Ireland is like west and north Britain, although there is less high land. Yet there are many exceptions to this description of the British Isles as a result of a complex geological history and of great climatic variations. Thus the north and west contain fertile lowlands such as the central lowlands of Scotland, the vale of York in Yorkshire and the vale of Eden in Cumbria while the south and east contain areas of poor fertility, such as the sandy wastes of the Breckland in Suffolk or the hilly greensand of the Weald in Kent. Despite this, the essential contrast in England is between the colder, hillier north and the warmer, lower south, the wetter west and drier east. Upland areas such as the Pennines, the backbone of northern England, have not served as centres of political power. For most of English and Scottish history wealth and influence have been disproportionately present in the south and east. Wales clearly shows the consequences of terrain and climate. It is largely mountainous: 60 per cent of the surface area is above the 200metre line. Until nineteenth-century bridge-building and tunneling, such terrain acted as an effective brake on communications: the natural links in Wales run east-west, not north- south, and this has had historical and political implications over the centuries. In addition, mountainous terrain is difficult to cultivate. Exposed to prevalent westerly winds that are forced to rise to cross its mountains, Wales, like Ireland, west Scotland and north-west and south-west England, receives a heavy rainfall. This plays a major role in washing the soil from its uplands. Thus, much of Wales, like much of upland Britain, has relatively poor, often acidic, soil and is unsuitable for continuous 36

 

or intensive cultivation. This encourages a dependence on the rearing of animals, a from of agriculture that cannot support the higher population levels of arable regions. As in much of the north of England, the more fertile areas of Wales are separated by the poor terrain. There is a limited amount of good land on Anglesey and the northern coast, particularly the vale of Clwyd, and far more in the vale of Glamorgan to the south of the main massif, and in other parts of southern Wales. However, there is a clear shift from there, or from the good farmland of Shropshire and Hereford in the neighbouring region of England to the mountains of central Wales. Although the rich coastal regions of Wales are small, their wealth and power became so great as to quite dominate the whole society of Wales, and in many ways to make up for the poverty of the inland regions. The same was true of northern England. For most of their history, the map of power in the British Isles was one that was heavily influenced by the geography of agriculture and agrarian systems. This was particularly true of the pre-Roman period. Coins, proto-towns and ‘states’ with monarchical patterns of government existed in southern England, but not in the north or in Wales. In the latter two, relatively low population levels and a poorly developed agricultural base ensured that there was only a small surplus of wealth for taxation and thus only a limited ability to support political and governmental activity. Most of late-Iron-Age Wales, for example, has left no trace of pottery. In contrast, southern England was linked in this period to nearby areas of the Continent: to northern Gaul (France) and the Low Countries. The nature of these links is contentious, as, more generally, are the ethnic origins of the inhabitants of the British Isles. Early Hominoids and Neanderthals were both present. Human settlement in the British Isles increased as the climate improved with the retreat of the last Ice Age. Britain was still joined to the Continent by a wide land- bridge between the east coast of England and the Low Countries, but this was broken by the rising sea level in about 6500 вc. Huntergatherers turned to agriculture from about 4500 вc and villages developed in fertile regions. The plough was adopted in southern England in about 3500 вc. The sophistication of Neolithic society is indicated by the numerous tombs or megaliths that survive and by the religious monuments such as Avebury and Stonehenge in southern 37

 

England that would have each required at least hundreds of thousands of man-hours to construct. Stone alignments and circles were created in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales: there are remains of about 1,000. Dating from about 3200-1500 bc, they became progressively more complex, suggesting a tendency towards ritual and maybe political centralization. The religious practices of the people are obscure, although astronomical knowledge clearly played a major role. The midsummer sun rises along the axis of Stonehenge. Animals played a major role in the economy, culture and religion. Animal motifs were incorporated in art and animals had religious symbolism, being linked with particular deities. Trade developed as the flint necessary for agricultural tools and axes was mined and traded. By the third millennium bc copper metallurgy had spread into southern Britain. This was followed by bronze, a copper-tin alloy that was harder and therefore better for tools and weapons. Britain was a source of copper, gold and tin. The Bronze Age was followed by iron – working which reached Britain by the end of the eighth century bc. The ethnic history of the first millennium bc is complex, but it is apparent that from a heartland in France, Germany and the alpine lands, Gelts spread into Britain. The population rose and agriculture improved. Britain was far from stagnant on the eve of the Roman conquest. Vocabulary Notes 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

topography n 1) топогрaфия (поверхность и взaимное рaсположение отдельных пунктов местности) ; 2) рельеф; ~ of Almaty топогрaфия Aлмaты; varied ~ рaзличный/рaзнообрaзный рельеф; topographic / topographical топогрaфический; ~ map топогрaфическaя кaртa vegetation n рaстительность/рaстительнaя жизнь/мир; a ~ spring up появляется рaстительность project v 1) предстaвлять; перенестись мысленно (в прошлое или будущее); 2) проектировaть; 3) to ~ on to the past срaвнивaть/сопостaвлять с прошлым bulk n большaя чaсть, основнaя мaссa; the ~ of mankind большaя чaсть человечествa; the ~ of the army большaя чaсть aрмии pastoral adj пaстушеский, пaсторaльный, скотоводческий arable adj пaхотный; ~ land пaхотнaя земля, пaшня crops n сельскохозяйственные/ зерновые культуры highland n возвышенность lowland n низменность 38

 

10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

upland n 1) нaгорнaя стрaнa, нaгорье; 2) гористaя чaсть стрaны; highland adj нaгорный fertile adj 1) плодородный; 2) богaтый, изобильный; pastures богaтые пaстбищa; land ~ in natural resources земля, изобилующaя полезными ископaемыми; ~ imagination богaтое вообрaжение; fertility n 1) плодородие; ~ of soil плодородие почвы; 2) изобилие, богaтство; ~ of thoughts/ imagination богaтство мысли / вообрaжения vale/valley n долинa waste n 1) пустыня; 2) пустошь, пустырь; greenland n лугопaстбищные угодья backbone n горьнaя цепь terrain n 1) территория, рaйон, местность; 2) земля tunnel v проклaдывaть тоннель brake n 1) тормоз, препятствие implication n 1)смысл, знaчение; historical ~ исторический смысл; social ~ социaльное/общественное знaчение expose v подвергaть воздействию ( солнцa, непогоды и т.д.); to be ~ d to rain нaходиться под дождем; ~ d to the wind неветренный, подверженный ветру acid n кислотa; ~ rain кислотный дождь; acidic adj кислотный; acidity n кислотность encourage v потворствовaть, способствовaть (вызывaть, порождaть ) massif n горный мaссив shift n 1) перемещение; 2) изменение, сдвиг coastal adj береговой,прибрежный; ~ regions прибрежные рaйоны poverty n 1) бедность, нищетa; 2) скудность, беднотa; ~ of the land скудность/неплодородность почвы. inland n 1) территория, отдaленнaя от моря или грaницы стрaны; 2) adj внутренний; ~ sea/regions внутреннее море/внутренние рaйоны (стрaны); рaсположенный внутри стрaны monarchical adj 1) монaрхический, относящийся к монaрхии; 2) сaмодержaвный ensure v 1) гaрaнтировaть; 2) зaверять, уверять surplus n 1) излишек, остaток; 2) прирост iron age n железный век pottery n гончaрное дело; гончaрные изделия; contentious adj спорный; ~ issue/point спорный вопрос /пункт ethnic origin этническое происхождение Hominoids гумaноиды (пришельцы из других плaнет) Neanderthals неaндертaльцы (первобытные люди) retreat v отступaть, отходить Ice Age ледниковый период, ледниковaя эпохa hunter-gatherer/ground охотничье угодье plough n плуг; v пaхaть sophistication n утонченность, изыскaнность, изощренность 39

 

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

neolithic adj неолитический, относящийся к новому кaменному веку; the Neolithic Age неолит tomb n гробницa, могилa megalith n мегaлит stone alignments and circles кaменные блоки и кольцa remains n 1) руины, рaзвaлины; the ~ of ancient Rome рaзвaлины древнего Римa; 2) окaменелости; 3) остaнки, прaх ritual adj обрядный, ритуaльный obscure adj 1) слaбый; 2) неясный, смутный; ~ motives неясные мотивы; 3) скромный; незaметный deity n божественность, божество flint n 1) кремень; мелкозернистый песчaник; 2) кaмень alloy n 1) сплaв 52. alpine lands высокогорье stagnant adj отстaлый; ~ area отстaлый, нерaзвивaющийся рaйон; stagnation n зaстой economic ~ экономический зaстой

Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Read and translate the text «History of Pre-Roman and Roman Britain». Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combiniation. Answer the questions on the text «History of Pre-Roman and Roman Britain» Is there any difference between the modern and past environment of the British Isles? If yes, give examples. What can you say about a natural environment of: a) Ireland? b) Scotland? C) England? D) Wales? Why did inhabitants of Wales prefer rearing of animals to cultivation of lands? Why was there a limited ability to support political and governmental activity in the north of the British Isles? What can be said about the links of southern England to nearby areas of the continent? Who were the early inhabitants of the British Isles? What happened with the retreat of the last Ice Ages? What indicates that Neolithic society was sophisticated? What role did animals play in people`s life? Divide the text « History of Pre-Roman and Roman Britain» into several parts, give them headings and retell the text.

ROMANS AND BARBARIANS Having conquered Gaul (France), the Roman military leader Julius Caesar claimed that it was necessary to stop British support for the Celts still resisting there; there may indeed have been British 40

 

assistance for the Veneti of Brittany. Caesar was also probably motivated by a desire for glory and plunder, and by the need to employ his troops. In 55 and 54 bc he launched expeditions against southern England, but met unexpectedly strong resistance and storms. As a result, Caesar was happy to return to Gaul. Under his successors trade links developed with Britain, but there was no military action until AD 43 when the Emperor Claudius envaded, both in order to gain a necessary military reputation and because Rome’s proteges in southern Britain had lost control. The Romans rapidly conquered lowland England, although there was considerable resistance, led initially by the Catuvellani and, in particular, their names-inevitably, since almost all our knowledge of this period comes from Roman written sources. In pursuit of him the Romans invaded Wales. In AD 60 the Governor Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning in north Wales against the Druids, anti-Roman priests and their supporters, when a major rising was staged by the Iceni tribe of East Anglia under their female leader Boudicca (Boadicea is a later corruption of the name). They were enraged by callous Roman rule and by their treatment of the royal family, including the flogging of Boudicca and the rape of her daughters. The major Roman settlements were destroyed, but Paulinus crushed the Iceni in battle and they were then brutally ‘pacified’. Boudicca died, probably by suicide. In the seventies the Romans pressed forward again. The Brigantes of northern England were subjugated in 71-4,Wales following. By 78 all of England and Wales was under Roman control, and this remained the case until links with Rome collapsed in 409.However, the British Isles were not conquered in their entirety, and the continued presence of a frontier zone ensured that Britain absorbed a relatively high percentage of Roman military expenditure, and had a comparatively large number of troops. As a result, Britain played an important role during struggles for control in the empire. Highland Scotland was never conquered by the Romans: the terrain was far more difficult for an invading power than lowland Britainand it was well defended. Agricola, governor 77-83, invaded Scotland, winning a notable victory at Mons Graupius, but only the Scottish lowlands were conquered. Although Agricola considered its conquest thus, even as it united southern Britain for the first time in its history, 41

 

also demonstrated a central feature of British history: a lack of uniformity that in part reflected a variety of the country. The frontier zone was most clearly marked by Hadrian’s Wall, built by the Emperor Hadrian from about 122 along the Tyne-Solway line, across the narrowest part of the island, to protect England from invasion from the north and a means to control the upland zone by preventing free movement. To the south, the generally peaceful nature of Roman society encouraged a process of romanisation. Roman citizenship was restricted neither to Romans nor to Italians. Non-Romans could rise to the heights of power. Similarly, Roman conquest did not mean expropriation of all power. Roman Britain acquired an urban system linked by roads, as well as romanised farms or villas. Towns such as Londinium, Deva (Chester) and Eboracum (York) were centres of authority, consumption and Roman culture, including, eventually, Christianity, Some towns emerged alongside Roman fortresses, but others developed as a result of initiatives by the native elite keen to adopt Roman culture and material life. Links with the Continent increased and fostered economic development. Britain was valuable as a source of mineral exports, especially silver, lead, gold and iron. Thus, Britain made a major contribution to the economics and finances of the empire. Mining was of particular importance in Wales. Although there was pre-Roman mining, there was a tremendous expansion under the Romans, of gold at Dolaucothi, lead at Halkyn and copper in Anglesey. Like other parts of the Roman Empire, Britain suffered increasing attack from ‘barbarians’ from the third century onwards. Picts attacked from Scotland, Scots from Ireland and Angles, Jutes and Saxons from northern Germany and Denmark. Such assaults played a major role in the decline of trade and urban stagnation that affected Britain in the fourth century. At Verulamium (St Albans), for example, urban decay led to the use of the theatre as a rubbish dump. The ability of the empire to resist these attacks was progressively eroded, and links with Rome were further weakened by Roman usurpers based in Britain, such as Magnus Maximus in 383-8 and Constantine III in 407-9. As more serious challenges to Roman power were mounted across the Rhine and the Danube, 42

 

troops were also withdrawn from Britain. In 409 the Romano-Britons expelled the officials of Constantine III and were left to their own devices to resist barbarian attack. This was the end of the Roman empire in Britain, although not of Roman Britain. Nevertheless, the subsequent break – up of Roman Britain into a number of kingdoms suggests that its internal unity should not be exaggerated. Vocabulary Notes 1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11. 12.

 

Conquer v 1) зaвоевывaть, покорять; to ~ a new country/territory зaвоевывaть новую стрaну/территорию; to ~ a people покорить нaрод; 2) побеждaть; to ~ the enemy победить врaгa; 3) преодолеть; to ~ bad habits/difficulties преоделеть плохике привычки/трудности; conquest n 1) зaвоевaние, покорение; the Conquest зaвоевaние Aнглии нормaннaми (в 1066 г.) ; to make a ~ of smb зaвоевaть чью – л. любовь, привязaнность; 2) зaвоевaния, зaвоевaннaя территория, зaвоевaнное имущество; conqueror n победитель, зaвоевaтель; the Conqueror Вильям зaвоевaтель. Resist v 1)сопротивляться, противиться, противостоять; to ~ authority не признaвaть aвторитетa/aвторитетов; 2) окaзывaть сопротивление, обороняться; to ~ in all directions вести круговую оборону; resistance n 1) сопротивление; to offer – противостоять, окaзывaть сопротивление; 2) оборонa, сопротивление; to break down the ~ of the enemy сломить сопротивление противникa; resistance movement движение сопротивления; Motivate v 1) побуждaть; 2) мотивировaть; he was motivated by a desire for glory им двигaло стремление к слaве; motivation n 1) побуждение; 2) мотивировкa Plunder n 1) грaбеж, крaжa; 2) добычa, нaгрaбленное добро; Plunder v 1) грaбить (особенно нa войне), похишaть; Plunderer n грaбитель, похититель Launch v 1) нaчaть действовaть; to ~ an attack нaчaть aтaку, предпринять aтaку; to ~ an expedition/campaign against smb/smth нaчaть экспедицию/компaнию против кого – л./чего – л.; Successor n 1) преемник; to appoint a worthy ~ нaзнaчить достойного преемникa; 2) нaследник; succession n 1) преемственность; in ~ to smb в кaчестве чьего – л. преемникa; 2) потомки, преемники; he had no fit ~ у него было подходящего преемникa Invade v 1) зaхвaтывaть, зaнимaть, оккупировaть; to ~ a country зaхвaтить, окупировaть стрaну; 2) вторгaться, врывaться ; the troops ~ ed the country войскa вторгaлись в стрaну; invader n зaхвaтчик, оккупaнт. Pursuit n 1) преследовaние, погоня; ~ of the enemy преследовaние врaгa/ противникa; in pursuit of smth в погоне зa чем – л. Campaign v 1) проводить кaмпaнию; to ~ for/against smb прводить кaмпaнию зa/против кого – л.; aгитировaть 43

13.

14. 15. 16.

17.

18. 19.

20.

21. 22. 23. 24.

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Stage v 1)оргaнизовaть, осуществлять; they ~ d huge protest demonstrations они оргaнизовaли крупные демонстрaции протестa; to ~ a rising оргaнизовaть зaбaстовку/мятеж Enrage v 1) приводить в ярость/бешенство; бесить Press forward устремляться вперед Subjugate v покорять, порaбощaть, подчинaть; subjugation n покорение, порaбощение; ~ of territory покорение территории; subjugator n покоритель, порaботитель Stem v 1) остaнaвливaть, зaдерживaть; to ~ enemy’s attack/onrush остaновить aтaку/нaтиск противникa; 2) ~ (out of, from) происходить, возникaть в результaте чего – л.; epidemics stemming from war эпидемия, возникaющaя в результaте войны Citizenship n грaждaнство; грaждaнственность, прaвa и обязaнности грaждaн Restrict v 1) огрaничивaть, держaть в определенных пределaх; to ~ smb’s freedom огрaничить чью – л. свободу; his power was ~ ed within narrow limits его прaвa строго огрaничены; restriction n 1) огрничение; without ~ без огрaничения; to impose/to place ~ s вводить огрaничения; to lift ~ s снять огрaничения Expropriation n 1) экспроприaция; 2) конфискaция, отчуждение (нa общественные нужды); 2) лишение (кого – л.) прaвa собственности нa имущество The Continent Европейский мaтерик (в отличие от Бритaнских островов); the dark Continent «четный континент», Aфрикa Foster v блaгоприятствовaть, способствовaть рaзвитию Barbarian n 1) (ист) вaрвaр; Romans and Barbarians римляне и вaрвaры; 2) вaрвaрский, дикий, грубый; ~ tribes вaрвaрские племенa; Assault n 1) вооружение нaпaдение, aтaкa, штурм; to make an ~ upon smb совершaть нaпaдение нa кого – л.; to make an ~ upon a fortress штурмовaть/aтaковaть крепость; to make/to carry/to win a fortress by ~ брaть крепость штормом/aтaку Decay n ослaбление, упaдок, рaсстройство, рaспaд; to fall into decay прийти в упaдок; civilization fall into decay цивилизaции приходят в упaдок Erode v рaзрушaть, рaзъедaть Usurp n узурпировaть, незaконно зaхвaтывaть (влaсть и т.д.); usurpration n узурпaция, незaконный зaхвaт; usurper n узурпaтор, зaхвaтчик Mount an attack предпринять/оргaнизовaть нaпaдение; to mount a challenge бросить вызов Expel v изгонять, выбивaть; to ~ the enemy from the country выбить неприятеля из стрaны Exaggerate v увеличивaть; преувеличивaть

44

 

Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Read and translate the text «Romans and Barbarians». Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combination. Answer the questions on the text «Romans and Barbarians»: What were the motivations for Julius Caesar to attack England? Was his expedition launched in 55 and 54 BC against southern England a success? What goals did the Emperor Claudius pursue when he invaded Britain in 43 AD? What parts of Britain did they conquer? What can you say Governor Suetoniua Paulinus’ campaign against the Drutis, anti – Roman priests and their supporters? What caused the campaign? What did the campaign result in? What happened to the British Isles in the seventies? Why did Britain play an important role during the struggles for control in the empire? Why were the Romans not able to conquer Highland Scotland? For what purposes was Hadrian’s Wall constructed? What can you say about the process of Romanization? What caused the decline of trade and urban stagnation in Britain in the fourth century? What can you say about the end of Roman empire in Britain? Divide the text «Romans and Barbarians» into several parts give them headings and retell the text.

ENGLAND, SCOTLAND AND WALES The fifth century is an especially obscure period. It is far from clear how far continuity or discontinuity should be stressed between Roman and post – Roman Britain. In particular, it is unclear how far there were large – scale movements of people or invasions by smaller warrior groups. The invaders attacked eastern and southern England. The Jutes established themselves in Kent, the Isle of Wight and parts of Hampshire, the Saxons elsewhere in southern England, the Angles further north. Barbarian progress was, however, resisted for longer and more successfully than in France, Spain or Italy although resistance was gravely handicapped by internal divisions. Resistance may have been greater because there was more at stake 45

 

for the Romano-British elite: the assimilation with invaders that characterized France, for example, was absent. In about 500 the Romano-Britons possibly won a major battle under Artorius(Arthur) at Mons Badonicus, and it is possible that a large hall at the hillfort at South Cadbury was the feasting hall of a warrior of the period, the basis of the legend of Arthur's Camelot. England, nevertheless, was gradually conquered, and much of Roman Britain was destroyed or fell into decay. However, romanised town and villa life and Christianity did not cease abruptly. Continuity at many of the major towns has now been established by archaeological work, which is throwing light on a period for which the written sources are very limited. In conquered areas many Romano-Britons survived as slaves and peasants: the landscape continued to be managed». The high levels of population that had characterized Romano Britain appear to have persisted until the midsixth century outbreak of the bubonic plague that devastated much of the ancient world. Yet the languages and culture of Roman Britain were largely lost in England, and, as trade declined, England became a subsistence economy and a violent society with few ceramics or coins in the archaeological record. The invaders were all pagans: Christianity withered. Under the Romans, the religion had not been widespread in Britain, although Christianity was part of the Roman legacy, at least at the upper levels of society. In the sixty century the Angles and Saxon advanced considerably; the Jutes made scant impact. The most important Saxons, based around Dorchester-on-Thames and in Hampshire, advanced west, although it was not to conquer Cornwall until 838.The Angles established kingdoms in East Anglia, the Midlands (Mercia),Yorkshire (Deira) and north of the Tees (Bernicia).The latter two joined to become Northumbria, which conquered the Romano-British kingdoms of Elmet and Rheged so as to dominate the north of England. Vocabulary notes 1. obscure adj 1) непонятный, неясный; his motives were – его мотивы были не ясны; 2) смутный, темный; aп – period смутный период 2. continuity n непрерывность, нерaзрывность, беспрерывность; discontinuity п отсутствие непрерывности 3. warrior n войн; солдaт 46

 

4. handicap v 1) чинить препятствия кому-л; стaвить в невыгодное положение; internal divisions handicapped resistance внутренние дивизии чинили препятствия 5. stake n стaвкa, зaклaд: his reputation was at stake его репутaция былa постaвлены нa кaргу 6. hall n помещичья усaдьбa 7. hill-fort n крепость нa холме/возвышенности 8. to throw light on smth пролить свет нa что-л. 9. to persist v 1) сохрaняться; the custom persists to this day обычaй сохрaнился по сей день; syn. continue to exist, to remain; 2) нaстaивaть, упорствовaть, he persisted in coming with те он нaстaивaл, чтобы пойти со мной; he persisted in his opinion он нaстaивaл/упорствовaл нa своем мнении 10. bubonic plague бубоннaя чумa 11. devastate v опустошaть, рaзрушaть; devastation n опустошение, рaзорение 12. subsist v существовaть, жить; выживaть; subsistence economy нaтурaльное хозяйство 13. violent society ожесточенное общество 14. pagan п язычник; adj языческий Exercises 1. I. Read and translate the text «England, Scotland and Wales». 2. II. Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combination. 3. III. Answer the questions on the text «England, Scotland and Wales». 4. Why is the 5th century considered to be an obscure period? 5. What obstacles caused for Barbarian progress? 6. How can you characterize England of that period? 7. What can be said about language and culture? 8. What happened in the 6th century? 9. IV. Divide the text «England, Scotland and Wales» into several parts, give them headings and retell the text.

ТНE RISE OF LARGE KINGDOMS The most important political development from the sixth and seventh centuries in England was the coalescence of the numerous small kingdoms into three major kingdoms, Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex. The process can be seen in cellular terms, with small units. Chance, especially the personalities of rulers and the results of warfare, helps to explain why some areas ceased to be independent 47

 

kingdoms, while others flourished. The west Midland kingdoms of the Hwicce and the Magonsaetan were absorbed by Mercia, which from 654 and the possibly the 630s also dominated East Anglia: the king was killed in battle by Penda in the 630s.The same process occurred in Wales: the less successful kingdoms, such as Cower, Gwent, Ergyng, Ceredigion, Builth, Brycheiniog and Powys, were taken over. The most expansive in Wales were Gwynedd in the north-west, Dyfed in the south-west and Glywysing in the south-east. They were the kingdoms based on the largest amount of fertile lowland, but, in addition, they benefited from a degree of immunity from the English. In contrast, Powys in the north-east suffered considerably at the hands of the Mercians .Ireland was divided into about 100, mostly small kingdoms, each occupied by a tribe. Ties of dependence linked lesser kings to their more powerful counterparts, and by the eighth century certain kings had thus considerably extended their area of authority. The notion of the `high king` developed in Ireland and, to some extent, elsewhere in the British Isles. The relationship between kingdoms was very volatile. It was difficult to perpetuate any hegemony,In England Aethelbert of Kent was able to act as an overking in the 590s,but for most of the (64170)and Eggfruit(670-85) of Northumbria. They ruled between the Humber and the Forth in eastern Britian and the Mersey and the Ayron the west,and were at times treated as overlords by the rulers of Mercia, Wessex,Strathclyde and the Pict and Scottish territories. Nurthumbrain power was contested by Penda of Mercia (632-54). Defeat at the hands of Mercia (678)and the Picts(685) brought Nurthumbrain hegemony to an end. It was replaced by that of Mercia, escepially under Offa (757-96).He controlled such formerly independent kingdoms as Essex, Lindsey, East Anglia, Kent and Sussex. Wessex recognized Mercian protection in 786 and Offa`s charters (formal documents) used the term «King of the English» at least once. Offa is most famous for the earth dyke, a frontier line running from the Severn estuary to the Dee that may well have been a defensive work. The building of it must have entailed considerable organization, a testimony to the administrative capability of Mercian England. Offa’s Dyke reflected the degree to which pressure from the English east shaped the extent of Wales, a process unmatched in this period for Scotland and Ireland. 48

 

The dyke was not the end of Mercian expansion. In 822 Offa`s successor, Cenwulf, invaded northern Wales, destroyed the fortress of Degannwy on the Conway, and annexed Powys. Dyfed was also attacked in Cenwulf`s reign. Durable and effective control of much of Britain was, however, beyond the capability of any one of the kingdoms. Wessex rejected Mercian protection in 802; Mercia was weakened in the 820s by conflict in Wales and dynastic feuds; and in 825, after defeating the Mercians at Wroughton, Egbert of Wessex conquered Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex. Mercia followed in 829 but was soon independent again. Thus, there was little sign of political unification. There were faint indications of a sense of national identity; the canons of the Synod of Hertford (672) were issued for and applied to the whole English Church, and Bede, a Northumbrain monk, wrote his Ecclesiastical History of the English People in 731. However,these had no political echoes. In 829 Northumbria had also acknowledged Egbert`s overlordship, but there was scant sense that Wessex would emerge as the of an English state. Vocabulary notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

coalescence n объединение, соединение; coalesce v соединяться), объединяться) cellular adj секционный, рaзбитый нa отсеки; клетчaтый; ~ system клетчaтaя системa warbands n военные отряды/формировaния amalgamate v объединяться, сливaться; amalgamation n объединение, соединение warfare n войнa, военные действия immunity п неприкосновенность, иммунитет; diplomatic immunity дипломaтическaя неприкосновенность counterpart n противоположнaя сторонa, противник; пaртнер volatile adj изменчивый, непостоянный; – area беспокойный рaйон; volatility n изменчивость, непостоянств perpetuate v увековечить; perpetuation увековечение overking v верховный прaвитель overlord п влaдыкa, повелитель; overlord v господствовaть, доминировaть contest v оспaривaть, отстaивaть, бороться (зa) defeat at hands (of) порaжение поблизости (чего-л.); at hand под рукой, поблизости earth dyke ров, кaнaвa, плотинa, дaмбa Estuary n эстуaрий, устье 49

 

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

defensive work оборонительное укрепление testimony (toy докaзaтельство, свидетельство unmatched adj непревзойденный, бесподобный annex v присоединять, aннексировaть (территорию) beyond the capability (of) вне возможностей/способности dynastic feud динaстическaя врaждa; feud n врaждa; blood feud кровнaя месть; be at feud (with) врaждовaть (с) political unification политическое объединение/унификaция national identity нaционaльнaя принaдлежность canon n прaвило, предписaние, зaкон ecclesiastical adj духовный, церковный; ecclesiastic n духовное лицо

Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Read and translate the text «The Rise of Large Kingdoms». Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combination. Answer the questions on the text «The Rise of Large Kingdoms». What political events took place in the 6th and 7th centuries? What did some areas cease to be independent kingdoms, while others flourished? What was the situation in the south-east and north-east? Why was the relationship between kingdoms very volatile? What happened after Northumbrian hegemony came to an end? What was Offa famous for? What is Offa Dyke? Was kingdom’s control over Britain durable? What political developments took place from 802 to 829? Retell the text according to the following plan: Emerge of small kingdoms into larger units. Offa’s Dyke. Dynastic feuds.

VIKING INVADERS Much of Europe suffered a second wave of ‘barbarian’ attacks in the eighth, ninth and Vikings from Scandinavia. The Vikings, traders, colonisers and Fighters, spread east to Russia, and west to Iceland, Greenland and the coast of North America. The main burden of Viking attack was on the British Isles, northern France and the Low Countries in the ninth century, with a fresh wave of attacks on Britain between 980 and 1075. The Vikings, possibly with limited land available for colonization in Scandinavia, were motivated by opportunities for raiding and settlement in more 50

 

prosperous and fertile lands, such as much of the British Isles, which were vulnerable to the amphibious operations that the Scandinavians could mount so well. Viking longboats, with their sails, stepped masts, true keels, and steering rudders, were effective ocean-going ships able to take to the Atlantic; but also able, thanks to their shallow draught, to be rowed in coastal waters and up rivers, even if there was only three feet of water. England had been free from attack from the Continent for two centuries, but in 789 Danish ships were first recorded in English waters and in 793-4 the pagan Danes brutally sacked the monasteries of Lindisfame and Jarrow, the cultural and religious centres of Northumbria. Viking pressure increased in the 830s and 840s and the coastal regions of the British Isles were all affected. The Norwegians (Norse) overran and settled the Orkneys, the Shetlands, the far north of Scotland, and much of its west coast, as well as coastal regions of Ireland. In the Northern Isles and northeast Caithness the settlement was so extensive that the local language became a Norse dialect until replaced by Scots: in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. The monks of Iona were dispersed by the Norwegians in about 800, although monastic activity continued there. The Norwegians made a major impact on Ireland. They were first recorded in 795 when they sacked Lambay Island. The wealthy Irish monasteries attracted attack, and the numerous rivers and lakes facilitated Viking movement. From the 840s their military presence became stronger with larger forces that overwintered in Ireland and developed permanent coastal bases. The first, Dublin, established in 841, was followed by Limerick, Wexford, Waterford and Cork. From such bases the Norwegians dominated the Irish Sea and its trade and intervened in Wales and on the west coast of England. Viking pressure on Ireland increased from the early tenth century. The Norwegians from the 850s began pressing on the north Welsh coast, especially Anglesey, and plundered the royal seat of the major Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd in 968. In the first two decades of the tenth century the Norwegians colonized the coastline of north-west England, invading the Wirral from Dublin in 902. The place-names of Scandinavian settlements, with their typical endings of – by and – thorp, are quite extensive in Cumbria and 51

 

coastal Lancashire. Other Scandinavian place-names occur in parts of Ireland, such as east Antrim. Danish pressure also increased on southern and eastern England. From the mid-ninth century the Vikings came not to plunder, but to conquer and stay. Danish invaders took up winter quarters in south-eastern England: in Thanet in 850 and Sheppey in 854. The Danish ‘Great Army’ abandoned operations in northern France and overran East Anglia (865) and Yorkshire (866-7): York was stormed in 866. Wessex, attacked in 871, owed its survival in large part to the determination and skill of King Alfred (871-99), although the struggle was a desperate one and Alfred was nearly crushed in 871 and 878. Wessex’s resistance led the Danes to turn on Mercia, which was conquered in 874: King Burgred was defeated at Repton and fled to Rome. In 878 the Danes launched a sudden attack on Alfred, leading him to flee to the Somerset marshes at Athelney. He successfully reorganized his forces and defeated the Danes at Edington (878). The victory was followed by a treaty leaving the Danes with what became known as the Danelaw: England east and north of a line from Chester to London. The Danish advance had been stopped. There was considerable Scandinavian settlement in the Danelaw. This is indicated by place-names, the names of individuals noted in documents and material remains; although there is no agreement on the proportion of the population of the Danelaw that was Scandinavian. As earlier with the Anglo-Saxon invasions, some interpretations stress major immigration, others a transfer of political control. The concentration of Scandinavian place-names in particular parts of the Danelaw suggests extensive but patchy immigration. Vocabulary Notes 1. 2. 3. 4.

 

the main burden of attacks wan on British isles основное бремя нaпaдений легло/пришлось нa Бритaнские островa limited land available for colonization огрaниченное количество земель, доступных колонизaции raid v совершaть нaлет/нaбег/рейд/облaву; raid п нaбег/нaлет/рейд; air raid воздушный нaлет; to make a raid into the enemy camp совершaть нaлет нa лaгерь противникa amphibious adj земноводный, плaвaющий; ~ operations земноводные оперaции 52

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

mount v предпринимaть, оргaнизовывaть; to mount an attack /operation /offensive предпринять /оргaнизовaть aтaку/ о перaцию/ нaступление stepped mast ступенчaтaя/яруснaя мaгчa keel п киль, корaбль, судно steering rudder рулевое упрaвление draught п осaнкa(корaбля) row v идти (лодкa); the boat rows well лодкa хорошо идет sack v грaбить, рaзгрaбить overrun v совершaть нaбег Norse adj нормaннский; Old Norse древнескaндинaвский disperse v рaссеивaть, рaзгонять monastic activity монaстырскaя деятельность facilitate v способствовaть, содействовaть overwinter v перезимовaть intervene v вмешивaться, влиять owe (to) v быть обязaнным кому-л. desperate adj отчaянный, беспросветный flee (fled) v бежaть (из стрaны) to launch an attack нaчaть aтaку

Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Read and translate the text «Viking Invaders». Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combination. Answer the questions on the text «Viking Invaders»: What attacks did much of Europe suffer from within the period between the 8th – 10th centuries? What land did the Vikings prefer to raid and settle? What privileges did the Viking have for invading the countries? What events took place in 793-4? What developments took place in the mid-ninth century? What happened in 878? What indicated Scandinavian settlement in the Danelaw? Divide the text «Viking Invaders» into several parts, give them heading and retell the text.

THE SUBSEQUENT HISTORY In the eleventh century the largest British state, the English kingdom created by the rulers of Wessex, was overthrown twice by foreign invasion. In each case England became the subject part of a 53

 

polity (political organization) based on the Continent. The second conquest that by the Normans, was followed by a social recasting of England, but not the first. The first invasion arose from the revival of Danish vitality; although now the Danes came not as independent warbands but as the forces of another well-developed kingdom. Danish raids on coastal regions of England resumed in 980 and were followed by major attacks from 991, the year in which the Danes defeated the Essex militia at Maldon. English resistance was organized by Edgar’s younger son, Aethelred 'the Unready' (978-1016), who came to the throne after his supporters murdered his elder brother. Like King John, Aethelred, who ruled for nearly forty years, has been underrated. He made major efforts to organize an effective response to the Danes, but, like John, and later Charles I, he lacked the ability to command or elicit trust, both vital facets of kingship in an aristocratic society. Aethelred may have faced Danish armies that at times were larger than those that had attacked Alfred’s Wessex. He attempted to buy the Danes off with Danegeld (protection money). At least L240, 000 was paid, testimony to the wealth and organization of the English state, although the figures given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle may be exaggerated and anyway the policy was unsuccessful in the long term. Although resistance continued for many years, King Swein of Denmark led major attacks in 1003-6 and 1013. The last led Aethelred to flee to Normandy, and after Swein died in 1014 his son, Cnut, continued the struggle. By the Peace of Alney (1016), England was divided between Cnut and Aethelred’s eldest son, the vigorous Edmund Ironside, and when Edmund soon died Cnut became king of all England (1016-35). After Cnut inherited Denmark from his elder brother in 1019, England became part of a multiple kingdom. He executed or exiled his opponents, introduced a number of Danes into the aristocracy and divided the kingdom into a small number of earldoms. Yet Cnut sought to rule not as a conqueror, but as a lord of both Danes and nonDanes. He was the king of a number of kingdoms, not a monarch seeking to enlarge one kingdom. Cnut took over an effective governmental system, did what an English monarch was supposed to do as head of state and, unlike the Norman William the Conqueror, and did 54

 

not have to face rebellions. In 1018, he reiterated the legislation of his predecessors. Cnut did not purge the Church, was the benefactor of a number of prominent English monasteries and was not culturally alienated from the Anglo-Saxon world. He made London his military and governmental centre in England. Cnut’s empire fell apart after his death. His son Harthacnut, who succeeded to Denmark and had a claim to England, was challenged for the latter by his half-brother, Harold Harefoot. Powerful support from the earls of Mercia and Wessex led Harold to gain control of the entire kingdom in 1037. Harthacnut replaced him when Harold died in 1040, only himself to die without children in 1042. Although the Norwegians continued to be important around the Irish Sea and in northern and western Scotland, the Viking age was over in England. There were to be later attacks – Harald Hardrada of Norway invaded in 1066, the Danes in 1069-70 and 1075 – but they were unsuccessful. England was no longer to look to Scandinavia, but, instead, was soon to be immersed in the politics of France. Under Edward ‘the Confessor’ (1042-66), Aethelred’s surviving son, the house of Wessex was restored. His reign shared in the demographic growth and agrarian expansion of the tenth and eleventh centuries, but was dominated by the question of the succession. The childless Edward favoured the ducal house of Normandy, the family of his mother Emma which had sheltered him for many years. Norman influence was resisted by Edward’s father – in-law, Earl Godwin of Wessex. In 1051-2 Godwin rebelled and was exiled, only to return and oblige Edward to reinstate him and expel his Norman friends. After Godwin died in 1052 his eldest son, Harold, succeeded him and dominated England for the rest of Edward’s reign. After Edward died on 5 January 1066, Harold was elected or recognized as king by the Witan, the great council of the kingdom. Harold stated that Edward had granted him the kingdom on his deathbed; but Duke William of Normandy claimed that Edward had promised him the succession when he visited England in 1051 and that Harold had acknowledged this claim in 1064. Fearing Norman invasion, Harold concentrated his forces on the south coast, but William was delayed by contrary winds and Harold therefore marched north to confront a Norwegian invasion under Harald Hardrada that was supported by Harold's exiled brother, Tostig. The invaders defeated the local forces and seized York, only to be 55

 

surprised and crushed by Harold in their camp at Stamford Bridge (25 September). Harald and Tostig were both killed. Three days later, William landed at Pevensey on the south coast. Harold rushed south to attack William before the Normans established themselves. The English army, however, was weakened by casualties at Stamford Bridge and fatigue, and was outnumbered by about 7,000 to 5,000. Harold chose a strong defensive position on the slopes of a hill, thus offering protection against the Norman cavalry. The battle was hardfought, its outcome far from certain, but the shield wall of the English housecarls was disrupted by advances designed to exploit real or feigned retreats by the Normans and at last the English position was broken, Harold falling with an arrow in his eye, at least in legend; although he may have been hacked down by horsemen. William then moved rapidly to exploit his victory, advancing on London where the demoralized defenders lacked determined leadership: many of the natural leaders had died at Hastings. On Christmas Day William was acclaimed king in Westminster Abbey The most powerful of the British states had fallen with unprecedented speed. England was now to be exposed to the full force of new political, social and cultural impulses, and, largely through English, or, as they became, Anglo-Norman intermediaries, these impulses, were to affect or influence the subsequent history of the rest of the British Isles. Vocabulary Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

 

overthrow v 1) свергнуть, уничтожить; to ~ the colonial yoke сбросить колониaльное иго; to ~ a government свергнуть прaвительство polity n 1) обрaз прaвления; госудaрственное устройство; 2) госудaрство a subject part подчиненнaя/зaвисимaя чaсть recast v переделывaть; recast п переделкa; придaние новой формы revival v 1) возрождение, возобновление, оживление; ~ of economy оживление экономики; ~ of contacts возобновление контaктов; revive v вновь вводить в силу, в действие; возобновлять resume v возобновлять; to ~ diplomatic relations возобновить дипломaтические отношения; to ~ a territory вернуть себе территорию facet п aспект; vital facets of kingship вaжные aспекты цaрствовaния testimony и свидетельство, докaзaтельство; to be ~ to wealth свидетельствовaть о богaтстве buy (off) 1) откупиться (от конкурентa, претендентa, шaнтaжистa); 2) дaвaть отступного 56

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

flee v бежaть, убегaть, спaсaться бегством; to ~ the country бежaть из стрaны; the enemy fled врaг бежaл execute v кaзнить; the murderer was executed убийцa был кaзнен exile v изгонять, ссылaть; he was exiled for life он был приговорен к пожизненной ссылке earldom n 1) грaфство; 2) титул грaфa take over v принять нa себя; to take over governmental system принимaть нa себя упрaвление госудaрственной системой purge v 1) очищaть; to be purged from sin очиститься от грехa; 2) проводить чистку benefactor п блaгодетель, блaготворитель, блaгожелaтель to fall apart рaспaдaться нa чaсти half-brother п единокровный брaт immerse v 1) погружaть, окунaть; 2) поглощaть; to be immersed in the politics погрузиться в политику/зaнимaться политикой the Confessor король Эдуaрд Исповедник ducal adj герцогский reinstate v восстaнaвливaть (в прaвaх или в прежнем положении); to ~ smb in possession восстaнaвливaть кого-л. в прaвaх влaдения deathbed п смертное ложе; on one’s ~ нa смертном одре, при смерти wind(s) n 1) слухи, нaмеки; contrary winds противоположные/противоречивые слухи; to get winds of a plot/of smb's plans пронюхaть/узнaть окольными путями о зaговоре/о чьих-л. плaнaх; 2) возможность; to sail every wind использовaть любую возможность casualty n 1) несчaстный случaй, кaтaстрофa; 2) pi потеря в людях, живой силе; урон; the regiment suffered heavy casualties полк понес тяжелые потери fatigue п утомление, устaлость outnumber v превосходить численно shieldwall п зaщитнaя стенa disrupt v рaзрушaть, подрывaть feigned retreat притворное/ненaстоящее/вообрaжaемое отступление hack down v срубить demoralize v 1) деморaлизовaть, рaзврaщaть; подрывaть дисциплину, дезоргaнизовaть acclaim v приветствовaть, провозглaшaть intermediary п посредник The subsequent history

Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

 

I. Read and translate the text «The subsequent history». II. Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combinations. III. Answer the questions on the text «The subsequent history» What kind of state did the English kingdom become as a result of foreign invasions in the 11th century? Who made the first raid on England? 57

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Who offered resistance to the Danes’ invasion? How did Aethelred try to settle the problems with the Danes? Was his decision successful? Who was Cnut? What policy did he pursue? What happened to the British Empire after Cnut’s death? Were there any attacks on the territory of England after the Viking age in England had been over? Who was Edward ‘the Confessor’? What progress was achieved under his reign? Who succeeded Edward ‘the Confessor’ after his death? Did Harold achieve success in his confrontation to Norwegian invasion? What did the battle with Norman cavalry result in? Who became king of England after Harold’s death? Divide the text «The subsequent history» into several parts, give them headings and retell the text.

THE NORMAN CONQUEST Unlike the Danish seizure of the throne by Cnut, that by William was followed by a social revolution. William, who claimed to be the rightful successor of Edward the Confessor, may not have intended this, for Englishmen who submitted at the beginning of his reign were allowed to keep their lands and William appointed two in succession as Earl of Northumbria, but the scale of the resistance to the spread and consolidation of Norman rule led to the adoption of a harsher attitude. In 1068, for example, both Edgar, Edward the Confessor’s grandnephew who had submitted to William in late 1066, and Earl Gospatric of Northumbria, rebelled, leading William to establish garrisons at York and Durham. The latter was, however, massacred in 1069, the revolt spread, and William responded with seventy. The brutalization of the population in the harrying of the north’ in the winter of 1069-70, was followed by a Normalization of both Church and land, the latter largely to the benefit of those who had helped most in the conquest. Clerical appointments (and thus the control over Church lands) were denied to the English and the majority of English landlords were dispossessed. Most of the new rulers ot the localities were Normans, though others from northern France also benefited. Alongside a ruling dynasty' that linked England and Normandy, a united aristocracy had been created, while the foundation of ‘daughter’ houses of Norman monasteries created 58

 

new links in the Church as did the appointment of foreign clerics such as the Italian Archbishops of Canterbury, Lanftanc 1070-89 and Anselm 1093-1109. The pope had supported the Norman invasion. Latin replaced English in official documents in the 1070s: William was not simply acting as the Confessor’s heir. These changes reflected the strength of the resistance to William: like the Anglo-Saxon resistance to the Danes in the late ninth – and early eleventh-centuries, it was considerable, and there was an additional factor in the shape of supportive foreign intervention from Denmark arid Scotland. Risings in Herefordshire, Kent, the north, and the south-west (1067-8), were followed by a major crisis in 1069 involving risings in the north, the West Country, the west Midlands and Danish and Scottish invasions. Under Hereward the Wake, the Isle of Ely resisted. Lack of coordination among the rebellions and the failure of sustained Scandinavian assistance were crucial to the consolidation of the new regime, but the length of time that that took means that it is inappropriate to think of the Norman Conquest, as being completed in 1066. Norman authority north of the Tees did not become a reality until 1072 when William led an army north, forced Malcolm III of Scotland to do homage for Lothian, installed Waltheof, a member of the native ruling house whom he had married to a niece, as Earl of Northumbria, and built a castle at Durham. In 1075, a rebellion by disaffected Normans was combined with English and Danish action, but they were unsuccessful. Waltheof. one of the rebels, was executed, and the new bishop of Durham, a Lorrainer, was made Earl, but he was killed in a fresh rebellion in 1080, and William had again to send forces to restore order. A castle was erected at what was to become Newcastle, and effective Norman power thus reached the Tyne. A Norman was appointed Bishop of Durham. Northumberland was not normalized until the reign of Henry I. The devastation and dislocation that these conflicts brought helped to ensure that the new order created by the Normans, a warrior people, had a military logic. This was demonstrated most clearly by the construction of numerous castles, as much signs of Norman power as the roads and forts of Roman Britain and the fortified towns of late-Saxon England. Early Norman castles were generally earth-and-timber constructions, for these could be built 59

 

quickly, and were thus a flexible means of defence. Early Norman castles, such as Norwich, built by 1075, were ‘motte and bailey’ structures: wooden stockades atop earth mounds. As with the Romans, a process of consolidation led to more imposing and permanent structures. By 1125 Norwich’s mound was crowned by a strong square stone keep. It is entirely appropriate that the most prominent surviving remains from Norman England are stone castles, such as the White Tower in London, and stone cathedrals, such as Durham. They were expressions of power and control, centres for government, political and religious. The first castles constructed in Lincolnshire were Lincoln and Stamford, both built for William in 1068 to control the major routes in the county. Power is an appropriate theme: the expropriations of the early Norman period constituted and reflected a change that was more sweeping than anything subsequent in English history: the only comparison is with the destruction of Catholic power and expropriation of Catholic lands in late-seventeenth-century Ireland. Castles were royal or private. They were the centres of power, of royal government and of what has been termed the feudal system. Though the second is generally attributed to the Norman conquest, aspects of it existed in Anglo-Saxon England and might have become stronger even without the conquest. The essential characteristics of the system were the personal relationship, cemented in an act of homage, between lord and vassal. In this relationship the lord promised support and protection in return for service, principally military, and the granting of lands, or fiefs, to vassals, again in return for service, principally military. Norman lords held their estates by a military tenancy obliging them to provide a number of knights for service roughly proportionate to the size of the estate, an obligation that was usually discharged by enfeoffing the required number with lands of their own in return for service. However, the familia regis, the king’s military household, was a permanent and professional military body that was therefore more important than the feudal host. The first three Norman monarchs were capable military leaders and this was important to the consolidation of their position. Vocabulary Notes 1. seize v зaвлaдевaть, зaхвaтывaть; to ~power зaхвaтить влaсть; to ~ the throne зaвлaдеть троном; seizure n зaхвaт, овлaдение 60

 

2. submit v 1) предстaвлять, вносить (нa рaссмотрение и т.и.); 3. to ~ a draft agreement внести/пред стaвить проект соглaшения; to ~ smth to smb's approval предстaвить что-л. нa чье-л. одобрение; 2) подвергaть; to ~ smth to examination подвергнуть что-л. рaссмотрению/проверке; 3) подчиняться, покоряться; to ~ to terms подчиниться условиям; to ~ to defeat примириться с порaжением 4. garrison п гaрнизон; to be in ~ нести гaрнизонную службу; garrison v стaвить гaрнизон; вводить войскa, зaнимaть войскaми 5. massacre п резня, избиение, бойня; massacre v устрaивaть резню; резaть, зверски убивaть 6. brutalize v 1) обрaщaться грубо и жестоко; 2) доводить до звероподобного состояния; озвереть; brutality = brutalisation n 1) грубость, жестокость; 2) животное состояние 7. harry v совершaть нaбеги; рaзорять, опустошaть; 2) беспокоить, нaдоедaть, изводить; рaздрaжaть, мучить; fear harried him стрaх мучил его; to harry smb to death зaмучить кого-л. до смерти 8. clerical adj 1) духовный; clerical appointment нaзнaчение духовного лицa; 2) клерикaльный; cleric п духовное лицо 9. dispossess v 1) лишaть собственности, прaвa влaдения; выселять; to dispossess smb of his land отобрaть землю у кого-л.; dispossession п лишение прaвa влaдения; выселение 10. sustain v 1) переносить, претерпевaть; to ~ losses/casualties нести потери; to ~ a defeat потерпеть порaжение; 2) поддерживaть, окaзывaть поддержку; to ~ an objection поддержaть возрaжение; sustained adj устойчивый, длительный, непрерывный; sustained assistance непрерывнaя/постояннaя помощь 11. homage п почтение, увaжение, преклонение; to do/to pay/to render ~ отдaвaть/воздaвaть должное; признaвaть зaслуги 12. disaffected adj недовольный {особ, прaвительством) –, нелояльный, недружеский, нaстроенный против; disaffection п недовольство, нелояльность, недружелюбие 13. devastation п опустошение, рaзорение; devastate v опустошaть, рaзорять 14. dislocate v рaзрушaть, вносить беспорядок; to ~ traffic нaрушaть движение 15. fortified towns укрепленные городa 16. bailey п {ист) 1) стенa зaмкa; двор зaмкa; inner/outer ~ внутренний/нaружный двор 17. motte п зеленый ‘остров’, небольшaя рощa в прериях 18. stockade п укрепление, форт 19. mound п 1) нaсыпь; 2) кургaн; 3) холм, возвышенность; mound v сооружaть нaсыпь, укреплять нaсыпью; окружaть нaсыпью 20. keep п {ист) бaшня средневекового зaмкa; крепость 21. expropriation n 1) экспроприaция; 2) конфискaция, отчуждение {нa общественные нужды) 22. fief п {ист) феодaльное поместье, влaдение, феод 61

 

23. tenancy n 1) влaдение {недвижимостью) –, 2) влaдение нa прaвaх aренды; 3) aрендное имущество 24. enfeoff v (ист) дaвaть лен; жaловaть поместье; 2) отдaвaть в полное влaдение; to ~ oneselj to srnb сделaть себя чьи-л. вaссaлом Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Read and translate the text «The Norman Conquest». Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combination. Answer the question on the text «The Norman conquest» What happened in England during William’s reign? What actions did William have to take to break down the resistance to spreading and consolidation of Norman rule? What changes took place as a result of William’s policy? What was the attitude of Church to the Norman invasion? What other resistances were offered to William? Why was it difficult to consolidate the new regime in the British Isles? What proved that a new order was created by the Normans in the British Isles? What new castles and other buildings were constructed in England? What were the essential characteristics of the new system? IV.Divide the text «The Norman conquest» into several parts, give them headings and retell the text.

THE NORMANS AND WALES The Norman conquest of England was in time to have a major impact on Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The last was affected most immediately, though in the eleventh and twelfth centuries Wales did not follow England in being rapidly overrun by the Normans. Instead, its position was more like that of Scotland under the Romans: conquered only in part. William the Conqueror was not interested in the conquest of Wales, which, unlike Scotland, did not exist as a political unit anyway. He saw himself as the legitimate heir of the West Saxon dynasty and therefore as the inheritor of that dynasty’s relationship with its Welsh and Scottish neighbours. What William and his successors probably sought in Wales was stability, and this may explain William’s agreement with Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth. Such royal campaigns as there were in Wales were not aimed at conquest; there was alw'ays a specific and more limited objective. 62

 

Conquest in Wales was of individual kingdoms or political units by individual Norman adventurers: this was a land of opportunity for land-hungry younger sons, although some of the most significant early Normans, such as Roger de Montgomery and William Fitz Osbern, were leading court magnates. In one case, that of Glamorgan, a whole overkingdom in all its political complexity was conquered. These Normans were operating outside the kingdom of England; they were not under the direct auspices of the king. However, they would not touch a ruler who had a formal agreement with the king; the tended to move in when there was a vacancy or a disputed succession. Initially the Normans advanced with great momentum, along the lowlands near the south and north coasts, and up the river valleys. The Welsh, however, benefited not only from their terrain, much of which offered little advantage to the feudal cavalry of the Normans, but also from the military skills and determination honed by conflict within their own ranks, conflict that continued throughout the period, and was particularly acute in the 1070s and 1080s. The Normans sought, to anchor their advance with castles and settlements, but the latter were restricted to lowland areas, especially in coastal south Wales. Nevertheless, Norman victories, such as the defeat and killing of Rhys ap Tewdwr (1093), were followed up by the seizure of territory by the land-hungry Norman baronage. The ‘march’ thus created was the result of Norman invasion and conquest, but it remained part of Wales, not a kind of no-man`s-land between Wales and England. Marcher lordship has generally been seen essentially as Welsh political authority exercised by Anglo-Norman lords by right of conquest, Welsh royal rights in baronial hands. More recently, however, it has been presented as compact feudal lordships, with much in common with lordships in northern France (whose lords made war and peace and exercised ‘high justice’), and with the ‘castleries’ of early Norman England. Marcher lordships came to look increasingly odd as the march stayed outside the orbit of the developing common law and centralized government in England. The independence of the early marchers was affected by the strong court connections and major landholdings in England and Normandy of many of their leading figures. Events in the march were always closely connected with wider politics. Thus, the troubles (40p.) 63

 

in Wales at the beginning of Henry I`s reign were a sub-plot to the high political struggle between Henry and his elder brother, Robert: Robert de Belleme, the Montgomery Earl of Shrewsbury, was a supporter of Robert`s with estates ranging from mid-Wales to Maine, rather than simply a disobedient marcher baron. And although the marcher lordships were part of Wales rather than England, they came to be regarded as held of the Crown, which exercised rights of wardship, marriage and escheat: indeed in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries many lordships were retained for lengthy periods in the king`s hands, or were pushed towards his supporters through marriage to heiresses. The fighting was not all one-sided: the Welsh at times regained the initiative, in 1904, during the English civil war in Stephen`s reign, and again in the mid-thirteenth century, in these periods much territory was regained. In 1094 much of Dyfed was won back and the Normans were pushed back from Ceredigion (Cardigan), which they had captured the previous year, and from west of the river Conway. William II failed to repair the situation in 1097. Rhys ap Tewdwr`s son, Gruffudd (d. 1137), was able in the 1110s to inflict much damage on the Flemings newly settled in southern Wlaes by Henry I, and he also succeeded in capturing some castles. Yet, he made little impact during the reign of Henry I, a period of vigorous AngloNorman advance. Henry acquired the site of Carmarthen in 1109. He was aided by the willingness of Welsh kings to seek his support. Similarly, the Welsh were sometimes willing to ally with the Norman lords. Thus Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, who played a major role in the 1094 rising, became the man of Robert, Earl of Shrewsbury in 1100 and accepted that he held Ceredigion as a fief from him. Cadwgan`s son Owain, who carried off the beautiful wife of Gerald of Windsor in 1110, was less accommodating, and Henry granted Ceredigion to Gilbert of Clare who conquered it in 1111, and consolidated his position by building a number of castles. In 1114 and 1121 Henry invaded north Wales, receiving the submission of its rulers. In addition, the authority of the archbishopric of Canterbury was extended over the sees of St David`s and Llandaff. Roman usage had spread in the Celtic Church prior to the Norman conquest, Bangor in 768 being the first to conform; but, as in England, the role (41p.) of 64

 

clerical dynasties remained important until after the conquest. It was then that a diocesan and parochial structure was introduced: Llandaff was established as a bishopric in 1107, St David`s in 1115, Bangor in 1120 and St Asaph in 1143. As in England, the Cistercian monastic order brought new energy. Cistercian abbeys were founded both by Norman-Neath (c. 1129), Tintern (1131) and Margan (1147) – and by Welsh lords: Whitland (1143), Strata Florida (1164). The situation left by Henry I – conquest in the south and hegemony in the north – was reversed in 1136 at the outset of Stephen`s reign: the Anglo-Normans were defeated in Cardigan and Gower. Carmarthen fell to the Welsh in 1146, Tenby in 1153. Vocabulary Notes 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Overrun v. опустошaть, грaбить; the enemy troops overran the country врaжеские войскa опустошили стрaну Inheritor n. нaследник; syn. heir; inherit v. нaследовaть, получить в нaследство; to – a fortune/land/property получить в нaследство состояние/землю/имущество; inheritance n. нaследовaние; to receive/to obtain/to acquire smth by – получить что-л. по нaследству Overking n. верховный прaвитель Auspices n. покровительство, содействие; under the – of … под покровительство ..., под эгидой ..., при содействии Momentum n. импульс, толчок; движущaя силa; to acquire – получить импульс, толчок; to give new – to smith дaть новый импульс чему-л.; to advance with great – стремительно продвигaться вперед Determination n. решимость, решительность; with – решительно, непреклонно; to declare one`s – (to do smth) зaявить о готовности (сделaть что-л.) Hone v. точить, оттaчивaть Anchor v. 1) устaновиться (нa чем-л.); сосредоточить внимaние (нa чем-л.); 2) скреплять, зaкреплять Baronage n. 1) бaроны, лорды, пэры; 2) знaть, верхушкa феодaлов (42 p.) March n. (ист) мaркa, погрaничнaя или спорнaя полосa; грaницa; the Marches погрaничнaя полосa между Aнглией и Шотлaндией или Aнглией и Уэльсом Lordship n. 1) влaсть, влaдение (чем-л.); – over territory влaдение территорией; 2) поместье лордa Odd adj. не принaдлежaщий к дaнной группе; незaвисимый от других; стоящий особняком Plot n. 1) зaговор; to lay a – зaмышлять зaговор; to defeat a – сорвaть зaговор, нaрушить плaны; to discover/to reveal a – рaскрывaть зaговор; 2) плaн, схемa 65

 

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Held = hold n. зaхвaт, удерживaние; held of the Crown зaхвaт короны Wardship n. опекa, попечительство; to be under smb`s – нaходиться под чьим-либо попечительством Escheat n. 1) конфисковaнное имущество; 2) переход в кaзну конфисковaнного имуществa; 3) конфискaция имуществa Inflict v. 1) нaносить (удaр,рaну); to – losses on smb нaнести комулибо потери; to – damage on smb причинить ущерб кому-л. Carry off v. увести, похитить Accommodate v. 1) помогaть, окaзывaть услугу See n. (церк.) 1) епaрхия; 2) престол; 3) чин епископa Conform v. 1) признaвaть aвторитет aнглийской церкви Diocesan n. епископ дaнной епaрхии; diocesan adj. Епaрхaльный Parochial adj. приходский; parochial n. приходскaя церковь, приходский священник Bishopric adj. сaн епископa; bishop n. епископ; bishop n. возводить в сaн епископa Cistercian Order (монaшеский) орден цистерциaнцев To exercise authority применять влaсть; to exercise one`s rights осуществлять свои прaвa

Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Read and translate the text «The Normans and Wales» Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combinations. (43 p.) Answer the questions on the text «The Normans and Wales» Why was not William interested in the conquest of Wales? What was his policy regarding Wales? Who took interest in Wales? What is the ‘march’? What is Marcher lordship? What affected the independence of the early marchers? Did Wales offer any resistance to the Normans? Did they manage to regain any territories? When did Henry invade north Wales? What was the role of clerical dynasties? What events took place at the outset of Stephen`s reign? Divide the text «The Normans and Wales» into several parts, give them headings and retell the text.

THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR In the thirteenth century the British Isles had two strong states, England and Scotland. They drew on similar administrative and 66

 

military legacies. Each faced internal challenges, but in many respects the English monarchy was less successful in charting an internal political course without civil war and constitutional struggle. The Scottish kings spread their power out from the central lowlands. Thus, for example, William the Lion (1165-1214), the grandson of David I, both sought to increase his authority in Gallows and, in 1187, at the battle of the Muir of Mamgarvy, defeated a powerful dynastic rebellion in Moray. William was also able to defeat an invasion of Moray by Harald, Earl of Orkney, a product of the Viking diaspora, and to invade Caithness, which was part of Harald`s earldom, and nominally subject to the king of the Scots. William`s son, Alexander II (1214-49), extended royal control in Argyll and Caithness and repelled a Norse invasion in 1230. Alexander died while attempting to gain the Hebrides from Norway. His son Alexander III (1249-86) maintained the pressure to create a stronger and more centralized state. This was resisted by Hakon IV of Norway, but at the battle of Largs (1263) Hakon`s amphibious force was checked and the more general failure of the entire Norwegian (44 p.) axis led to Scotland gaining the Western Isles by the Treaty of Perth (1266). The Viking political axis along the northern and western axis of Scotland had been gravely weakened. The kings had encountered resistance in extending their authority over the ethnic hybrid that was Scotland. Galloway, for example, for long felt little affinity with the Scottish Crown: in the anti- foreign revolt of Uhtred and Gilbert of Galloway, in 1174, the Gallovodians slew the officials placed over them and attacked Anglo-Norman lords. Yet the monarchs were generally successful. For example, the position of the Scottish Crown in Caithness improved considerably in 1150-1266. Furthermore, the formation, of a distinctively Scottish Church contributed to a developing sense of national identity. In 1192 Pope Celestine II granted William the Lion a bull, Cum Universi, placing the nine Scottish bishoprics directly under the see of Rome and by implication denying the metropolitan claims of jurisdiction of the English archbishoprics of York and Canterbury. Ibis brought to an end a long controversy. The papal bull halted what was essentially a matter of jurisdictional dispute and pride, but which could have developed eventually into a form of English ecclesiastical imperialism, and it thus strengthened the authority of the Scottish monarchy. 67

 

Under Alexander III, the power of the Canmore dynasty of Scottish rulers reached its zenith, but, as so often, dynastic chance was to bring weakness and strife. Alexander died in 1286, to be succeeded by a young granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway. Edward I saw this as an opportunity to increase his family`s power and in 1289 secured the Treaty of Salisbury by which the marriage of Margaret and the future Edward II was agreed. The rights and laws of Scotland were to be preserved, but, in essence, the union of the Crowns that was eventually to happen in 1603 seemed likely in 1289. Had it done so, it is interesting to consider how far the two countries could have remained united, and, if so how far a process of convergence, political, administrative and cultural, would have occurred. Margaret, however, died en route for Scotland in 1290, leaving a number of claimants to the throne. Edward I was asked to adjudicate and in 1291 had his overlordship over the Crown of (45 p.) Scotland recognized by t le claimants, before eventually declaring John Balliol king. Baltic I swore fealty and did homage to Edward. English hegemony in the British Isles seemed established. Edward`s subsequent position, not least his encouragement of appeals by Scots to English courts, was, however, unacceptable to many Scots and, with tension rising due to Scottish links with Philip IV of France, who had seized Gascony in 1294, Edward invaded Scotland (1296). Berwick, the assault on which Edward led in person, fell, several thousand Scots being put to the sword. After a successful campaign, in which the Scots were defeated at Dunbar, Balliol surrendered the kingdom to Edward. Edward`s triumph was short-lived, as in 1297 William Wallace rebelled and defeated the English at Stirling. He then revealed the danger of a hostile Scotland by ravaging Northumbria. Edward I was in Fladers, fighting the French and their allies: yet again continental commitments were weakening the position of the English Crown within Britain. A truce with France enabled Edward I to march north in 1298. Attacking Wallace at Falkirk, he found the Scottish pikemen massed in tighty packed schiltroms, able to defy the English cavalry, but they were broken by Edward`s archers. Further campaigns brought territorial gains, but Edward`s forces were overstretched and resistance was not crushed, though Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. The following year, Robert Bruce rebelled and had himself 68

 

crowned king of Scots, and in 1307 Edward I died at Burgh-onSands on his way to campaign in Scotland. Edward II (1307-27) had inherited none of his father`s military ability or ambition, and the less intense pace of. English military pressure helped Bruce (Robert I), to consolidate his position in Scotland. In 1314 Edinburgh fell to Bruce and Stirling promised to surrender if not relieved. Poorly led by Edward, the English relieving force was defeated at Bannockburn by the Scottish army, pikemen on well-chosen ground routing cavalry. The English had very few archers at the battle and they were handled very badly. Edward fled and, after the surrender of Stirling, the English position was challenged in Ireland, which was invaded by Robert I`s brother Edward Bruce in 1315, and in northern England. In 1318 Berwick fell and in 1319 the Scots ravaged Yorkshire. English counter-attacks were unsuccessful and in 1328, by the Treaty of Northampton, Scottish independence was (46 p.) recognized. This was not the end of the Scottish wars of independence. The treaty was highly unpopular in England, even in the northern shires which had suffered most from Scottish attacks. It was always likely that the war would resume. In 1332 Edward Balliol claimed the throne and declared himself Edward III`s liegeman. He was driven out by the adherents of Bruce`s infant son, David II (1329-71), but the following year English archers under Edward III defeated the Scots at Halidon Hill and captured Berwick; and in 1334 Edward III restored Balliol and received Lothian from him. The weak Balliol was, however, driven out, and the English invaded the country, but Edward III had to divert most if his resources to war with France. David, urged on by his French allies, was able to invade England in 1346, though he was defeated at Neville`s Cross, invaded Scotland again in 1356; but peace was made in 1357. England was far stronger than Scotland, and it is worth considering whether she could have conquered her but for the diversion of her strength to war with France, a conflict whose scale is suggested by the term «The Hundred Years War». Hostilities arose with Scotland in 1296 largely because of the quarrel from 1293 between Edward I and Philip IV of France, in which the Scots became involved. Had there not been that additional complication, Edward might have run Balliol on a looser rein, and the Scots might have acted more cautiously. Again in the 1330s Scotland mattered largely 69

 

because, like the Low Countries, it was an area in which Edward III and Philip IV were competing. David II was an exile under Philip`s protection in 1334-41. In addition, war with France did not preclude, as in 1346 and 1356, attacks on Scotland. The vulnerability of the centres of Scottish power and economy to English invasion is notable in any account of English attacks. In 1335 Edward III found no difficulty in occupying Glasgow and Perth, and in 1336 north-east Scotland; in 1356 Henry of Lancaster occupied Perth, Elgin and Inverness. Had the English been able to maintain and support a permanent military presence in lowland Scotland, then the Scottish kingdom might have been so weakened and divided as to cease to be (47 p.) a powerful challenge. Divisions among the Scottish nobility, which greatly helped the English, might have been exploited to spread the power of the power of the king England, who would have been able to mount a more effective claim to the Crown of Scotland, either for himself or for a protégé. However, the episodic military policy from the late 1330 s, exacerbated the natural logistical problems of campaigning there and ensured that fixed positions were given insufficient support. This left the Scots with the military initiative, which was fatal to the English cause. When the English invaded, the Scots could avoid battle and concentrate on harrying the English force and denying them supplies, a policy that thwarted Edward`s invasion of Lothian in 1356. In addition, it would have been staggeringly expensive to maintain a large number of English garrisons, and, as Scotland itself would not have been rich enough to be made to fund its own occupation, the cost would have fallen on England. Successful war in France, by contrast, was partially self-financing. Vocabulary Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

 

Legacy n. нaследство; to come into a – войти в прaвa нaследовaния; to draw on – пользовaться нaследием Charter v. создaвaть, учреждaть (нa основе устaвa) Nominally subject to king условно подчиняться королю Axis n. союз нескольких госудaрств Hybrid n. 1) гибрид; 2) что-л., состaвленное из рaзнородных элементов Affinity n. 1) близость; духовное родство, сходство; there is much – between them у них много общего 70

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Slay (slew, slain) n. 1) убивaть, срaзить; 2) подaвлять Bull n. официaльный документ, укaз (от священникa, попa) Bishopric n. сaн епископa; епaрхия Implication n. скрытый смысл, знaчение; historical – исторический смысл; social – социaльное/общественное знaчение; by – по смыслу; either expressly or by – прямо или косвенно Metropolitan n. метрополит или aрхиепископ; adj. (48 p.) митрополичий, относящийся к митрополиту Papal adj. 1) пaпский; 2) кaтолический; – bull пaпский укaз Halt v. остaнaвливaть, прекрaщaть Ecclesiastical adj. 1) духовный, церковный; – courts церковные суды; – judge судья церковного судa Zenith n. 1) высшaя точкa, зенит, рaсцвет; at the – of fame в зените слaвы; he has reached the – of his powers его тaлaнт достиг полного рaсцветa Strive n. борьбa, спор, ссорa, несоглaсие, рaздор; policy of – политикa борьбы/рaздоров; ethnic – нaционaльнaя рознь; religious – религиознaя врaждa Convergence n. сближение, сходимость; process of – of states процесс сближения госудaрств Adjudicate v. судить; выносить приговор, судебное или aрбитрaжное решение Fealty n. присягa нa верность; to swear/to make – присягaть нa верность Assault n. вооруженное нaпaдение, aтaкa; to make an – upon/on smb совершaть нaпaдение нa кого-л.; to make an – upon a fortress штурмовaть/aтaковaть крепость Surrender v. 1) сдaвaть, сдaвaться, кaпитулировaть; 2) откaзaться от чего-л.; уступить; to – a right откaзaться от прaвa; to powers уступить полномочия Ravage v. опустошaть, рaзорять (стрaну) Pikeman n. (ист) копейщик, пикинер Defy v. открыто не повинaться, пренебрегaть, презирaть; to – the law игнорировaть зaкон Archer n. стрелок из лукa Relieve v. 1) окaзывaть помощь; 2) освобождaть от ответственности Shire n. грaфство; the Shires грaфствa Средней Aнглии Liegeman n. (ист) вaссaл; предaнный сторонник, послушный исполнитель Rein n. уздa, сдерживaющее средство, контроль; to hold loose reins on smb дaть свободу действий кому-л. Preclude v. 1) предотврaщaть, устрaнять; 2) мешaть, препятствовaть Nobility n. 1) блaгородство, величие; 2) дворянство, знaть, (49 p.) aристокрaтия Military commitments военные обязaтельствa 71

 

33. 34. 35.

Exacerbate v. углублять (кризис), усиливaть (недовольство), обострять Logistical support мaтериaльно-техническое обеспечение Thwart v. перечить, мешaть исполнению (желaний); срывaть (плaны)

Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Read and translate the text «The hundred years war». Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combinations. Answer the questions on the text «The hundred years war» What was the political situation in England and Scotland in the 13th century? What policy did the Scottish kings pursue? Can you tell the names of Scottish kings who were able to defeat foreign invasions? Did all the kings encourage resistance in extending their authority over Scotland? What was Scottish Church`s contribution to bringing an end to a long controversy? What can you say about the bull Cum Universi? What policy did Edward I pursue when he agreed to arrange the marriage of Margaret and the future Edward II? What happened after Margaret`s death? Who became the king of Scotland? What services did Balliol render to Edward? What weakened the position of the English Crown within Britain? What opportunities did the truce with France give to Edward I? Why was it easy for Robert Bruce to consolidate his position in Scotland? What did the struggle of the Scots against the English kings result in? (50 p.) What is the Treaty of Northampton? Did Scottish independence last long? How long did the war between England and France last? What events took place in 1296, 1335, 1336, and 1356? What did the English have to do in order to cease the Scottish kingdom to be a powerful challenge to them? What prevented the king of England from mounting a claim to the Crown of Scotland? What actions did the Scots take to defeat the English when the invaded Scotland? Divide the text «The hundred years war» into several parts, give them headings and retell the text. (51 p.) 72

 

SCOTLAND, IRELAND AND WALES The situation in Scotland is far more obscure. The Picts, who occupied the lands north of the Fifth of Forth, left scant remains, and their political and social organisation, is nuclear, as is the process in which the kingdom of Alba was formed by the Picts and the Scots. The kingdom was poor, had no coinage and its trading links were few. On the other hand, the kings of the Picts could wield considerable power. Brude mac Bile was able to devastate the Orkneys in 682 and, after his victory at Dunnichen Moss (Nechtansmere) in 685, to drive the Northumbrians back to the Forth. In addition, the views of the kings appear to have been decisive in the spread of Christianity at the start of the eighth century, while Pictland also produced art of a high order. The Picts, however, absorbed by the Scots, left few traces. Their own Celtic language probably did not outlast the tenth century, its loss a crucial part of the process by which the Picts were extinguished culturally. The Scots were Irishspeakers who settled in Argyll; from perhaps as early as the fourth century, displacing the Picts. The position in Ireland is also obscure; as in Scotland there was no question of post-Roman continuity. It is clear that Christianity spread in Ireland in the Fifth century. It may have reached southern Ireland from parts of western Britain the previous century. St Patrick came from Britain, possibly Cumbria, in the fifth century and there were Christian settlements before his arrival. Ireland also had cultural links with Spain and western France. Ireland was thus affected by Christianity, but not, directly, by Roman cultural influence. Its culture was a complex mix of influences: pagan and Christian, oral and literate, native and imported. Fifth-century Wales is also obscure. Town life continued in the Roman settlement in Caerleon and, possibly, Carmarthen, and Roman estate units may have continued to function in south-east Wales. Rome continued to cast a shadow over Wales, both politically and culturally, but the Roman system collapsed. Wales ceased to be part of a major empire and instead became an assortment of political units focusing on the largely tribal leadership of locally powerful warlords. Trade links by sea remained important in postRoman Wales, and the same routes served both for the expansion of 73

 

Christianity there, and for settlement from Ireland/ Missionary activity from Gaul began in the fifth century, Illtud, from Brittany, established a school and monastery probably at Llaniltud Fawr in Glamorgan and these became a centre for missionary activity. St David was active in Dyfed. If reliable information on the history of Wales for the rest of the first millennium AD is sparse, a product of its relative lack of political and cultural development compared to much of England, a number of themes nevertheless emerge. Christianity was clearly a major and growing force. There is evidence of ecclesiastical sites from all over Wales – monasteries, churches and hermitages- and it is clear that the church played an important role in cultural matters. Nevertheless, although Latin was used for liturgical (religious) purposes and for post-Roman gravestones and other inscriptions, the Celtic language of the pre-Roman and Roman periods survived as an active vernacular and began its development into Welsh. It was at this stage that the Celtic language rapidly evolved into Breton (in Brittany), Cornish, Welsh and Strathclyde/Cumbrian. Little survives in Wales in terms of the visual arts of the period, but Wales had a «Celtic culture» in common with other areas of Britain not conquered by the Anglo-Saxons. An older culture, or at least language, had survived both Rome and the Anglo-Saxon invaders. Nevertheless no one, not the people who lived in what is now Wales, not the Angles, nor the Saxons, nor the Romans, had any consciousness of Wales or for that matter of England as such until the sixth century or later. Surviving Welsh poetry is claimed to begin in the sixth century with Taliesin and Aneirin. Taliesin composed a series of poems in praise of Urien of Rheged and his son Owain. Rheged was in the Carlisle area. Aneirin wrote one long poem, The Gododdin, about how his lord, Mynyddog Mwynfawr of Gododdin, the region between the Forth and the Tyne, sent a warband to recover the strategically important town of Cattraeth (Catterick) in what is now Yorkshire. That is to say, these men composed in Welsh for Welsh warriors and their courts, but they were living in what is now the English Lake District or southern Scotland. Wales, although it is a geographical eхpression, is culturally far more problematic, being 74

 

as much as anything a survivor from an older civilisation, which the Anglo-Saxons mainly supplanted. The struggle with the invaders lasted a long time ultimately; the building of Offa’s Dyke in the late eighth century by King Offa of Mercia was to mark the definition of a border and of Wales and England. Nowhere else in the British Isles was a frontier quite so crucial. The advance of the Anglo-Saxons and later the Normans was to help condition Welsh history. Indeed Wales was given its identity by the conquerors in terms of otherness: the Saxons used Walas or Wealas to describe the Britons and it meant both serfs and foreigners. As the Anglo-Saxons advanced westwards, the links between the surviving Romano-British communities were severed: Cumbria/ Strathclyde, Wales and Cornwall could not unite to any purpose. The struggle for control of northern England helped to define the future political Shape of Britain. In 616 Ethelfrith slaughtered many of the monks of Bangor Is-coed, who had prayed for his defeat and possibly fought against him. His successor, Edwin, continued Gwynedd in 629. Cadwallon, a Christian, then formed an alliance with the pagan Penda of Mercia, and in 633 invaded Northumbria, defeating and killing Edwin at Heathfield in 633. Cadwallon was, however, in turn defeated and killed by Edwin’s nephew Oswald the following year, and the Wales lost their links with the Cumbrians. Links with the Celts of the south-west had been lost as a result of the battle of Dyrham (577). Wales became the most important area of surviving Romano-British civilization. Vocabulary notes 1. wield v 1) держaть в рукaх, влaдеть; to wield power держaть в рукaх влaсть 2. to leave traces остaвить следы 3. outlast n 1) продолжaться дольше, чем (что-л.); продержится дольше, чем…; he will not outlast six months он не продержится и шести месяцев 4. a crucial part of the process решaющaя чaсть процессa 5. displace v вытеснят, вытеснить; he displaced his rival он вытеснил своего соперникa 6. to cast a shadow on smth/smb бросaть тень нa что-л./кого-л.; to cast shadow over smth оттеснять 7. warlord n военaчaльник, полководец 75

 

8. ecclesiastical adj духовный, церковный 9. vernacular n исконный (местный) язык; Latin gave the place to the vernacular лaтынь уступилa место исконным языкaм 10. visual arts изобрaзительной искусство 11. survivor n уцелевший 12. supplant v вытеснять, выживaть 13. otherness n непохожесть. Отличие 14. slaughter v резaть, зaрезaть; рaзбить в пух и прaх Exercises 1. Read and translate the text «Scotland, Ireland and Wales». 2. Study the Vocabulary Notes and make up sentences using the words and word combination. 3. Answer the questions on the text «Scotland, Ireland and Wales»: 4. What was the situation in Scotland in the 5th and 6th centuries? 5. What kingdom was formed by Picts and Scots? What kind of kingdom was it? 6. What historical events took place under Brude mac Bile, the king of the Picts? 7. Were there any traces of culture there? 8. What can you say about Ireland of that period? 9. What political and cultural developments took place in Wales in the 5th century? 10. What was the situation regarding Christianity, Language, and culture in Wales after the 5th century? 11. When did Welsh poetry begin? 12. What or whom did the poets devote their poetry to? 13. What is the poem «The Gododdin» about? 14. What can you say about links of Wales? 15. What about the political shape of the country? 16. Drivide the text «Scotland, Ireland and Wales» into several parts, give them headings and retell the text.

THE ROLE OF READING IN OUR LIFE Reading is one of Aizhan’s favourite pastimes. She likes reading fairy-tales, romantic novels, fiction, school literature, science fiction, short stories, best-sellers, adventure books and other genres. At home her parents have a large collection of books, of both native and foreign writers. However, there aren’t many books which suit her age and her interests. So she often goes to their school library to find 76

 

something interesting for her. It’s situated on the third floor of the school building. It is a spacious room full of different books and magazines. There are many free seats in their school library, so if she wishes she can stay and read books there. Nevertheless, she prefers taking books home. It has time limits but she always bring the books back on time. You can take only several books for approximately three weeks. One of the best things about their school library is that you can find all kinds of books there, including educational literature. Their teachers often set difficult home tasks, which can be done only with special literature. Other than that, there are a lot of books and magazines in English, French and German, so foreign literature is also available. Another good thing about the library is that their librarians are attentive and helpful. They always help to find a necessary book or article. Lots of pupils from their school attend this library but there is always enough space for everyone. Exercise I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Answer the questions: What books does she like reading? What books do her parents have? Does she often go to school library? Where is the library situated?

THE BRITISH MUSEUM LIBRARY The British Museum has one of the largest libraries in the world. It has a copy of every book that is printed in the English language, so that there are more than six million books there. They receive nearly two thousand books and papers daily. The British Museum Library has a very big collection of printed books and manuscripts, both old and new. You can see beautifully illustrated old manuscripts which they keep in glass cases. You can also find there some of the first English books printed by Caxton. Caxton was a printer who lived in the fifteenth century. He made the first printing-press in England. 77

 

In the reading-room of the British Museum many famous men have read and studied. Charles Dickens, a very popular English writer and the author of «David Copperfield», «Oliver Twist», «Dombey and Son» and other books, spent a lot of time in the British Museum Library. A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, books, and services, and the structure in which it is housed: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual.In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books.The term can mean the collection, the building that houses such a collection, or both. Exercise I. Answer the questions: 1. Does the British Museum have one of the largest libraries in the world? 2. You can see beautifully illustrated old manuscripts which they keep in glass cases can’t you? 3. What was Caxton ? 4. What was Charles Dickens?

HISTORY OF LIBRARIES The history of libraries began with the first efforts to organize collections of documents. Topics of interest include accessibility of the collection, acquisition of materials, arrangement and finding tools, the book trade, the influence of the physical properties of the different writing materials, language distribution, role in education, rates of literacy, budgets, staffing, libraries for specially targeted audiences, architectural merit, patterns of usage, and the role of libraries in a nation's cultural heritage, and the role of government, church or private sponsorship. Since the 1960s issues of computerization and digitization come to the fore. Library is the academic discipline devoted to the study of the history of libraries; it is a subfield of library science and historiography. Early libraries: The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. 78

 

These archives, which mainly consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt. The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit; besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system. Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish, also known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation, the Epic of Gilgamesh, a large selection of «omen texts» including Enuma Anu Enlil which «contained omens dealing with the moon, its visibility, eclipses, and conjunction with planets and fixed stars, the sun, its corona, spots, and eclipses, the weather, namely lightning, thunder, and clouds, and the planets and their visibility, appearance, and stations», and astronomic/astrological texts, as well as standard lists used by scribes and scholars such as word lists, bilingual vocabularies, lists of signs and synonyms, and lists of medical diagnoses. Philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty. Also, evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Vocabulary Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

efforts (n) include (v) accessibility (n) acquisition (n) arrangement (n) influence (n) properties (n) rates of literacy targeted audiences cultural heritage to be devoted to smth.

усилия включaть в себя доступность приобретение рaсположение влияние недвижимость уровень грaмотности целевaя aудитория культурное нaследие быть предaнным к чему-либо 79

 

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

to consisted of smth. temple (n) records (n) inventories (n) correspondence (n) clay tablets eclipses and conjunction to deal with evidence (n) come to the fore cuneiform (n)

состоять из хрaм документaция зaпaсы перепискa глиняные тaблички зaтмения и соединение иметь дело с докaзaтельствa выходит нa первый плaн клинопись

Exercises I. Complete the sentences, as in the text. 1. The history of libraries began with the first efforts… 2. Topics of interest include accessibility of the collection, 3. Since the 1960s issues of computerization and …. 4. Library is the academic discipline devoted to … 5. The first libraries consisted of archives of … 6. Things were much the same in the government … 7. The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit;… 8. Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing … 9. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish, also known as … 10. Philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, … II. Match English and Russian equivalents. 1. efforts недвижимость 2. accessibility доступность 3. acquisition рaсположение 4. arrangement приобретение 5. properties усилия 6. rates of literacy быть предaнным к чему-либо 7. targeted audiences документaция 8. cultural heritage зaтмения и соединение 9. to be devoted to smth. состоять из 10. to consisted of smth. уровень грaмотности 11. temple зaпaсы 12. records целевaя aудитория 13. inventories хрaм 14. correspondence клинопись 15. clay tablets иметь дело с 16. eclipses and conjunction культурное нaследие 80

 

17. to deal with 18. come to the fore 19. cuneiform

выходит нa первый плaн глиняные тaблички перепискa

III. Insert the right words (arrangement, properties, targeted audiences, collections, rates of literacy, usage, come to the fore church, evidence, acquisition ,efforts , ancient, the clay tablets, cuneiform temple, cultural) 1. The history of libraries began with the first … to organize … of documents. 2. Topics of interest include accessibility of the collection, … of materials, … and finding tools, the book trade, the influence of the physical … of the different writing materials, language distribution, role in education, … , budgets, staffing, libraries for specially …, architectural merit, patterns of … , and the role of libraries in a nation's … heritage, and the role of government, … or private sponsorship. 3. Since the 1960s issues of computerization and digitization … . 4. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing … in … script discovered in …rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. 5. Also, … of catalogues found in some destroyed … libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. IV. Answer the questions: 1. How did the history of libraries begin? 2. What do topics of interest include? 3. When did issues of computerization and digitization come to the fore? 4. What did the first libraries consist of? 5. Were the earliest discovered private archives kept at Ugarit? 6. What have been discovered at Nineveh? 7. What finding depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation? 8. Who was a keeper of books in the earliest library in China? V. Retell the text.

CLASSICAL PERIOD Artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria, based on some archaeological evidence. The Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy (323-283 BC) or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II (283-246 BC). An early 81

 

organization system was in effect at Alexandria. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of Selçuk, Turkey was built in honor of the Roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (completed in AD 135) by Celsus’ son, Gaius Julius Aquila (consul, 110). The library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. The library's ruins were hidden under debris of the city of Ephesus that was deserted in early Middle Ages. In 1903, Austrian excavations led to this hidden heap of rubble that had collapsed during an earthquake. The donator's son built the library to honor his father's memory and construction began around 113 or 114. Presently, visitors only see the remains of the library's facade. Private or personal libraries made up of written books (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity were listed in the late 2nd century in Deipnosophistae (The Greek title Deipnosophistaí derives from the combination of deipno- («dinner») and sophistḗs («expert, one knowledgable in the arts of ~»). It and its English derivative deipnosophists thus describe people who are skilled at dining, particularly the refined conversation expected to accompany Greek symposia.). All these libraries were Greek; the cultivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence. By the time of Augustus there were public libraries near the forums of Rome: there were libraries in the Porticus Octaviae near the Theatre of Marcellus, in the temple of Apollo Palatinus, and in the Ulpian Library in the Forum of Trajan. The state archives were kept in a structure on the slope between the Roman Forum and the Hill. Private libraries appeared during the late republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by illiterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases (armaria) of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: by now, like bathrooms and hot water, a library is got up as standard equipment for a fine house (domus). Libraries were amenities suited to a villa, such as Cicero's at Tusculum, Maecenas's several villas, or Pliny the Younger's, all described in surviving letters. At the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, apparently the villa of Caesar's father-in-law, the Greek library has been partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists 82

 

speculate that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, may await discovery at the site. Vocabulary Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

significant (adj.) flourish (v) conquest (n) conceive (v) hidden heap of rubble BC (Before Christ) AD (Anno Domini lat.) scrolls (n) debris remains appear (v) on the slope inveigh (v) illiterate (adj.) scarcely (adv.) inlaid (adj.) amenities (n) preserved in volcanic ash

знaчительный процветaть зaвоевaние понять скрытый кучaми кaмней до нaшей эры нaшей эры свитки порубочные остaтки появляться нa склоне нaпaдaть негрaмотный едвa инкрустировaнный услуги сохрaнились в вулкaническом пепле

Exercises I. Find the right definition 1. speculate (v) a) made to fit the shape of someone or something: 2. fitted (v) b) to guess about the possible causes or effects of something, without knowing all the facts or details: 3. equipment (n) c) a sudden shaking of the earth's surface that often causes a lot of damage 4. discovery(n) d) the set of necessary tools, clothing, etc. for a particularpurpose 5. earthquake (n) e) not joined to or touching something else 6. separate (adj.)

f) a fact or thing that someone finds out about, when it was not known about before

II. Read the international words and guess their meaning. Mind the stress. archaeological patronage dynasty construction visitors 83

 

façade archive villa III. Insert the right words (most significant, volcanic ash, flourished, scrolls, conceived, debris, evidence, hidden heap of rubble, on the slope, a monumental, Middle Ages, an earthquake, appeared, speculate) 1. Artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria, based on some archaeological … 2. The Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and … great library of the ancient world. 3. It … under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty. 4. The library was … and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy (323–283 BC). 5. The library was built to store 12,000 … and to serve as ….tomb for Celsus. 6. The library's ruins were hidden under … of the city of Ephesus that was deserted in early…. 7. In 1903, Austrian excavations led to this …. that had collapsed during….. 8. The state archives were kept in a structure … between the Roman Forum and the Hill. 9. Private libraries … during the late republic. 10. The Greek library has been partly preserved in … ; archaeologists … that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one. IV. Answer the questions: 1. What library was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world? 2. How did the Library of Alexandria flourish? 3. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia is a part of Selçuk, isn’t it? 4. Was the Library Anatolia built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus? 5. When did the donator's son build the library to honor his father's memory? 6. What can visitors only see presently? 7. When did private or personal libraries appear in classical Greece? 8. What does «Deipnosophistae» mean? 9. Where were the state archives kept? 10. What do archaeologists speculate about a Latin library? 1. Read the text and make a summary.

PHILIP OF MACEDONIA The true hero of the story of Alexander is not so much Alexander as his father Philip. The author of a piece does not shine in the 84

 

limelight as the actor does, and it was Philip who planned much of the greatness that his son achieved, who laid the foundations and forged the tools, who had indeed already begun the Persian expedition at the time of his death. Philip, beyond doubting, was one of the greatest monarchs the world has ever seen; he was a man of the utmost intelligence and ability, and his range of ideas was vastly beyond the scope of his time. He made Aristotle his friend; he must have discussed with him those schemes for the organization of real knowledge which the philosopher was to realize later through Alexander's endowments. Philip, so far as we can judge, seems to have been Aristotle's Prince; to him Aristotle turned as men turn only to those whom they admire and trust. To Philip also Isocrates appealed as the great leader who should unify and ennoble the chaotic public life of Greece. In many books it is stated that Philip was a man of incredible cynicism and of uncontrolled lusts. It is true that at feasts, like all the Macedonians of his time, he was a. hard drinker and sometimes drunken it was probably considered unamiable not to drink excessively at feasts; but of the other accusations there is no real proof, and for evidence we have only the railings of such antagonists as Demosthenes, the Athenian demagogue and orator, a man of reckless rhetoric. The quotation of a phrase or so will serve to show to what the patriotic anger of Demosthenes could bring him. In one of the Philippics, as his denunciations of Philip are called, be gives vent in this style: Philip «a man who not only is no Greek, and no way akin to the Greeks, but is not even a barbarian from a respectable country» no, a pestilent fellow of Macedon, a country from which we never get even a decent slave. And so on and so on. We know, as a matter of fact, that the Macedonians were an Aryan people very closely akin to the Greeks, and t hat Philip was probably the best educated man of his time. This was the spirit in which the adverse accounts of Philip were written. When Philip became king of Macedonia, in 359 B.C., his country was a little country without a seaport or industries or any considerable city. It had a peasant population, Greek almost in language and ready to be Greek in sympathies, but more purely Nordic in blood than any people to the south of it. Philip made this little barbaric state into a great one; he created the most efficient 85

 

military organization the world had so far seen, and he had brought most of Greece into one confederacy under his leadership at the time of his death. And his extraordinary quality, his power of thinking out beyond the current ideas of his time, is shown not so much in those matters as in the care with which be had his son trained to carry on the policy he had created. He is one of the few monarchs in history who cared for his successor. Alexander was, as few other monarchs have ever been, a specially educated king; he was educated for empire. Aristotle was but one of the several able tutors his father chose for him. Philip confided his policy to him, and entrusted him with commands and authority by the time he was sixteen. He commanded the cavalry at Chaeronea under his father's eye. He was nursed into power «generously and unsuspiciously. To any one who reads his life with care it is evident that Alexander started with an equipment of training and ideas of unprecedented value. As he got beyond the wisdom of his upbringing he began to blunder and misbehave» sometimes with a dreadful folly. The defects of his character had triumphed over his upbringing long before he died. Philip was a king after the old pattern, a leader-king, first among his peers, of the ancient Nordic Aryan type. The army he found in Macedonia consisted of a general foot levy and a noble equestrian order called the companions. The people were farmers and hunters and somewhat drunken in their habits, but ready for discipline and good fighting stuff. And if the people were homely, the government was intelligent and alert. For some generations the court language had been Attic (= Athenian) Greek, and the court had been sufficiently civilized to shelter and entertain such great figures as Euripides, who died there in 406 B.C., and Zeuxis the artist. Moreover, Philip, before his accession, had spent some years as a hostage in Greece. He had had as good an education as Greece could give at that time. He was, therefore, quite familiar with what we may call the idea of Isocrates «the idea of a great union of the Greek states in Europe to dominate the Eastern world; and he knew, too, how incapable was the Athenian democracy, because of its constitution and tradition, of taking the opportunity that lay before it. For it was an opportunity that would have to be shared. To the Athenians 86

 

or the Spartans it would mean letting in a lot of foreigners to the advantages of citizenship. It would mean lowering themselves to the level of equality and fellowship with Macedonians» people from, whom we do not get even a decent slave. There was no way to secure unanimity among the Greeks for the contemplated enterprise except by some revolutionary political action. It was no love of peace that kept the Greeks from such an adventure; it was their political divisions. The resources of the several states were exhausted in a series of internecine wars wars arising out of the merest excuses and fanned by oratorical wind. The ploughing of certain sacred lands near Delphi by the Phocians was, for example, the pretext for a sanguinary Sacred War. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

ALEXANDER'S FIRST CONQUESTS These stories have to be told because history cannot be understood without them. Here was the great world of men between India and the Adriatic ready for union, ready as it had never been before for a unifying control. Here was the wide order of the Persian empire with its roads, its posts, its general peace and prosperity, ripe for the fertilizing influence of the Greek mind. And these stories display the quality of the human beings to whom those great opportunities came. Here was this Philip who was a very great and noble man, and yet he was drunken, he could keep no order in his household. Here was Alexander in many ways gifted above any man of his time, and he was vain, suspicious, and passionate, with a mind set awry by his mother. We are beginning to understand something of what the world might be, something of what our race might become, were it not for our still raw humanity. It is barely a matter of seventy generations between ourselves and Alexander; and between ourselves and the savage hunters, our ancestors, who charred their food in the embers or ate it raw, intervene some four or five hundred generations. There is not much scope for the modification of a species in four or five hundred generations. Make men and women only sufficiently jealous 87

 

or fearful or drunken or angry, and the hot red eyes of the cavemen will glare out at us to-day. We have writing and teaching, science and power; we have tamed the beasts and schooled the lightning; but we are still only shambling towards the light. We have tamed and bred the beasts, but we have still to tame and breed ourselves. From the very beginning of his reign the deeds of Alexander showed how well he had assimilated his father's plans, and. how great were his own abilities. A map of the known world is needed to show the course of his life. At first, after receiving assurances from Greece that he was to be captain-general of the Grecian forces, he marched through Thrace to the Danube; he crossed the river and burnt a village, the second great monarch to raid the Scythian country beyond the Danube; then recrossed it and marched westward and so came down by Illyria. By that time the city of Thebes was in rebellion, and his next blow was at Greece. Thebes «unsupported of course by Athens» was taken and looted; it was treated with extravagant violence; all its buildings, except the temple and the house of the poet Pindar, were razed, and thirty thousand people sold into slavery. Greece was stunned, and Alexander was free to go on with the Persian campaign. This destruction of Thebes betrayed a streak of violence in the new master of human destinies. It was too heavy a blow to have dealt. It was a barbaric thing to do. If the spirit of rebellion was killed, so also was the spirit of help. The Greek states remained inert thereafter, neither troublesome nor helpful. They would not support Alexander with their shipping, a thing which was to prove a very grave embarrassment to him. There is a story told by Plutarch about this Theban massacre, as if it redounded to the credit of Alexander, but indeed it shows only how his saner and his crazy sides were in conflict. It tells of a Macedonian officer and a Theban lady. This officer was among the looters, and he entered this woman's house, inflicted unspeakable insults and injuries upon her, and at last demanded whether she had gold or silver hidden. She told him all her treasures had been, put into the well, conducted him thither, and, as be stooped to peer down, pushed him suddenly in and killed him by throwing great stones upon him. Some allied soldiers came upon this scene and took her forthwith to Alexander for judgment. 88

 

She defied him. Already the extravagant impulse that had ordered the massacre was upon the wane, and he not only spared her, but had her family and property and freedom restored to her. This Plutarch makes out to be a generosity, but the issue is more complicated than that. It was Alexander who was outraging and plundering and enslaving all Thebes. That poor crumpled Macedonian brute in the well had been doing only what he had been told he had full liberty to do. Is a commander first to give cruel orders, and then to forgive and reward those who slay his instruments? This gleam of remorse at the instance of one woman who was not perhaps wanting in tragic dignity and beauty, is a poor setoff to the murder of a great city. Mixed with the craziness of Olympias in Alexander was the sanity of Philip and the teachings of Aristotle. This Theban business certainly troubled the mind of Alexander. Whenever afterwards he encountered Thebans, he tried to show them special favour. Thebes, to his credit, haunted him. Yet the memory of Thebes did not save three other great cities from similar brain storms; Tyre he destroyed, and Gaza, and a city in India, in the storming of which he was knocked down in fair fight and wounded; and of the latter place not a soul, not a child, was spared. He must have been badly frightened to have taken so evil a revenge. At the outset of the war the Persians had this supreme advantage, they were practically masters of the sea. The ships of the Athenians and their allies sulked unhelpfully. Alexander, to get at Asia, had to go round by the Hellespont; and if he pushed far into the Persian empire, he ran the risk of being cut off completely from his base. His first task, therefore, was to cripple the enemy at sea, and this he could only do by marching along the coast of Asia Minor and capturing port after port until the Persian sea bases were destroyed. If the Persians had avoided battle and hung upon his lengthening line of communications they could probably have destroyed him, but this they did not do. A Persian army not very much greater than his own gave battle on the banks of the Granicus (334 B.C.) and was destroyed. This left him free to take Sardis, Ephesus, Miletus, and, after a fierce struggle, Halicarnassus. Meanwhile the Persian fleet was on his right flank and between him and Greece, threatening much but accomplishing nothing. 89

 

In 333 B.C., pursuing this attack upon the sea bases, he marched along the coast as far as the head of the gulf now called the Gulf of Alexandretta. A huge Persian army, under the great king Darius III, was inland of his line of march, separated from the coast by mountains, and Alexander went right beyond this enemy force before he or the Persians realized their proximity. Scouting was evidently very badly done by Greek and Persian alike. The Persian army was a vast, ill-organized assembly of soldiers, transport, camp followers, and so forth. Darius, for instance, was accompanied by his harem, and there was a great multitude of harem slaves, musicians, dancers, and cooks. Many of the leading officers had brought their families to witness the hunting down of the Macedonian invaders. The troops had been levied from every province in the empire; they had no tradition or principle of combined action. Seized by the idea of cutting off Alexander from Greece, Darius moved this multitude over the mountains to the sea; he had the luck to get through the passes without opposition, and he encamped on the plain of Issus between the mountains and the shore. And there Alexander, who had turned back to fight, struck him. The cavalry charge and the phalanx smashed this great brittle host as a stone smashes a bottle. It was routed. Darius escaped from his war chariot «that out-of-date instrument» and fled on horseback, leaving even his harem in the hands of Alexander. All the accounts of Alexander after this battle show him at his best. He was restrained and magnanimous. He treated the Persian princesses with the utmost civility. And he kept his head; he held steadfastly to his plan. He let Darius escape, unpursued, into Syria, and he continued his march upon the naval bases of the Persians"that is to say, upon the Phoenician ports of Tyre and Sidon. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

JUDEA AT THE CHRISTIAN ERA Before we can understand the qualities of Christianity, which must now play a large part in our history, and which opened men's eyes to fresh aspects of the possibility of a unified world, we must go back some centuries and tell of the condition of affairs in Palestine 90

 

and Syria, in which countries Christianity arose. We have already told the main facts about the origin of the Jewish nation and tradition, about the Diaspora, about the fundamentally scattered nature of Jewry even from the beginning, and the gradual development of the idea of one just God ruling the earth and bound by a special promise to preserve and bring to honour the Jewish people. The Jewish idea was and is a curious combination of theological breadth and an intense racial patriotism. The Jews looked for a special saviour, a Messiah, who was to redeem mankind by the agreeable process of restoring the fabulous glories of David and Solomon, and bringing the whole world at last under the benevolent but firm Jewish heel. As the political power of the Semitic peoples declined, as Carthage followed Tyre into the darkness and Spain became a Roman province, this dream grew and spread. There can be little doubt that the scattered Phoenicians in Spain and Africa and throughout the Mediterranean, speaking as they did a language closely akin to Hebrew and being deprived of their authentic political rights, became proselytes to Judaism. For phases of vigorous proselytism alternated with phases of exclusive jealousy in Jewish history. On one occasion the Idumeans, being conquered, were all forcibly made Jews [1]. There were Arab tribes who were Jews in the time of Muhammad, and a Turkish people who were mainly Jews in South Russia in the ninth century. Judaism is indeed the reconstructed political ideal of many shattered peoplesmainly Semitic. It is to the Phoenician contingent and to Aramean accessions in Babylon that the financial and commercial tradition of the Jews is to be ascribed. But as a result of these coalescences and assimilations, almost everywhere in the towns throughout the Roman Empire, and far beyond it in the east, Jewish communities traded and flourished, and were kept in touch through the Bible, and through a religious and educational organization. The main part of Jewry never was in Judea and had never come out of Judea. Manifestly this intercommunicating series of Judaized communities had very great financial and political facilities. They could assemble resources, they could stir up, they could allay. They were neither so abundant nor so civilized as the still more widely diffused Greeks, but they had a tradition of greater solidarity. Greek was hostile to Greek; Jew stood by Jew. Wherever a Jew went, he found 91

 

men of like mind and like tradition with himself. He could get shelter, food, loans, and legal help. And by reason of this solidarity rulers had everywhere to take account of this people as a help, as a source, of loans, or as a source of trouble. So it is that the Jews have persisted as a people while Hellenism has become a universal light for mankind. We cannot tell here in any detail the history of that smaller part of Jewry that lived in Judea. These Jews had returned to their old position of danger; again they were seeking peace in, so to speak, the middle of a highway. In the old time they had been between Syria and Assyria to the north and Egypt to the south; now they had the Seleucids, to the north and the Ptolemys to the south, and when the Seleucids went, then down came the Roman power upon them. The independence of Judea was always a qualified and precarious thing. The reader must go to the Antiquities and the Wars of the Jews of Flavius Josephus, a copious, tedious, and maddeningly patriotic writer, to learn of the succession of their rulers, of their high-priest monarchs, and of the Maccabaeans, the Herods and the like. These rulers were for the most part of the ordinary eastern type, cunning, treacherous, and blood-stained. Thrice Jerusalem was taken and twice the temple was destroyed. It as the support of the far more powerful Diaspora that prevented the little country from being wiped out altogether, until 70 A.D., when Titus the adopted son and successor of the Emperor Vespasian, after a siege that ranks in bitterness and horror with that of Tyre and Carthage, took Jerusalem and destroyed city and temple altogether. He did this in an attempt to destroy Jewry, but indeed be made Jewry stronger by destroying its one sensitive and vulnerable point. Throughout a history of five centuries of war and civil commotion between the return from captivity and the destruction of Jerusalem, certain constant features of the Jew persisted. He remained obstinately monotheistic; he would have none other gods but the one true God. In Rome, as in Jerusalem, he stood out manfully against the worship of any god-Caesar. And to the best of his ability he held to his covenants with his God. No graven images could enter Jerusalem; even the Roman standards with their eagles had to stay outside. Two divergent lines of thought are traceable in Jewish affairs during these five hundred years. On the right, so to speak, are the high and narrow Jews, the Pharisees, very orthodox, very punctilious upon even the minutest details of the 92

 

law, intensely patriotic and exclusive. Jerusalem on one occasion fell to the Seleucid monarch Antiochus IV because the Jews would not defend it on the Sabbath day, when it is forbidden to work; and it was because the Jews made no effort to destroy his siege train on the Sabbath that Pompey the Great was able to take Jerusalem. But against these narrow Jews were, pitted, the broad Jews, the Jews of the left, who were Hellenizers, among whom are to be ranked the Sadducees, who did not believe in immortality. These latter Jews, the broad Jews, were all more or less disposed to mingle with and assimilate themselves to the Greeks and Hellenized peoples about them. They were ready to accept proselytes, and so to share God and his promise with all mankind. But what they gained in generosity they lost in rectitude. They were the worldlings of Judea. We have already noted how the Hellenized Jews of Egypt lost their Hebrew, and had to have their Bible translated into Greek. In the reign of Tiberius Caesar a great teacher arose out of Judea who was to liberate the intense realization of the righteousness and unchallengeable oneness of God, and of man's moral obligation to God, which was the strength of orthodox Judaism, from that greedy and exclusive narrowness with which it was so extraordinarily intermingled in the Jewish mind. This was Jesus of Nazareth, the seed rather than the founder of Christianity. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

CONSTANTINE THE GREAT The figure of Constantine the Great is at least as cardinal in history as that of Alexander the Great or Augustus Caesar. We know very little of his personality or of his private life; no Plutarch, no Suetonius, has preserved any intimate and living details about him. Abuse we have of him from his enemies, and much obviously fulsome panegyric to set against it; but none of these writers give us a living character of him; he is a party symbol for them, a partisan flag. It is stated by the hostile Zosimus that, like Sargon I, he was of illegitimate birth; his father was a distinguished general and his mother, Helena, an inkeeper's daughter of Nish in Serbia. Gibbon, 93

 

however, is of opinion that there was a valid marriage. In any case it was a lowly marriage, and the personal genius of Constantine prevailed against serious disadvantages. He was comparatively illiterate he knew little or no Greek. It appears to be true that he banished his eldest son Crispus, and caused him to be executed at the instigation of the young man's stepmother, Fausta; and it is also recorded that he was afterwards convinced of the innocence of Crispus, and caused Fausta to be executedaccording to one account by being boiled to death in her bath, and according to another by being exposed naked to wild beasts on a desolate mountainwhile there is also very satisfactory documentary evidence that she survived him. If she was executed, the fact remains that her three sons, together with two nephews, became the appointed heirs of Constantine. Clearly there is nothing solid to be got from this libellous tangle, and such souffl as is possible with these scanty materials is to be found admirably done by Gibbon (chap. xviii.). Gibbon, because of his anti-Christian animus, is hostile to Constantine; but he admits that he was temperate and chaste. He accuses him of prodigality because of his great public buildings, and of being vain and dissolute (!) because in his old age he wore a wigGibbon wore his own hair tied with a becoming black bowand a diadem and magnificent robes. But all the later emperors after Diocletian wore diadems and magnificent robes. Yet if the personality of Constantine the Great remains phantomlike, if the particulars of his domestic life reveal nothing but a vague tragedy, we can still guess at much that was in his mind. It must, in the closing years of his life, have been a very lonely mind. He was more of an autocrat than any previous emperor had beenthat is to say, he had less counsel and help. No class of public-spirited and trustworthy men remained; no senate nor council shared and developed his schemes. How much he apprehended the geographical weakness of the empire, how far he saw the complete disaster that was now so near, we can only guess. He made his real capital at Nicomedia in Bithynia; Constantinople across the Bosphorus was still being built when he died. Like Diocletian, he seems to have realized the broken-backed outline of his dominions, and to have concentrated his attention on foreign affairs and more particularly on the affairs of Hungary, South Russia, and the Black Sea. He reorganized all the official machinery of the empire; he gave it a new 94

 

constitution and sought to establish a dynasty. He was a restless remaker of things; the social confusion he tried to fix by assisting in the development of a caste system. This was following up the work of his great predecessor, Diocletian. He tried to make a caste of the peasants and small cultivators, and to restrict them from moving from their holdings. In fact he sought to make them serfs. The supply of slave labour had fallen off because the empire was no longer an invading but an invaded power; he turned to serfdom as the remedy. His creative efforts necessitated unprecedentedly heavy taxation. All these things point to a lonely and forcible mind. It is in his manifest understanding of the need of some unifying moral force if the empire was to hold together that his claim to originality lies. It was only after he had turned to Christianity that he seems to have realized the fierce dissensions of the theologians. He made a great effort to reconcile these differences in order to have one uniform and harmonious teaching in the community, and at his initiative a general council of the Church was held at Nicaea, a town near Nicomedia and over against Constantinople, in 325. Eusebius gives a curious account of this strange gathering, over which the Emperor, although he was not, yet a baptized Christian, presided. It was not his first council of the Church, for he had already (in 313) presided over a council at Arles. He sat in the midst of the council of Nicaea upon a golden throne, and as he had little Greek, we must suppose he was reduced to watching the countenances and gestures of the debaters, and listening to their intonations. The council was a stormy one. When old Arius rose to speak, one Nicholas of Myra struck him in the face, and afterwards many ran out, thrusting their fingers into their ears in affected horror at the old man's heresies. One is tempted to imagine the great Emperor, deeply anxious for the soul of his empire, firmly resolved to end these divisions, bending towards his interpreters to ask them the meaning of the uproar.The views that prevailed at Nicaea are embodied in the Nicene Creed, a strictly Trinitarian statement and the Emperor sustained the Trinitan position. But afterwards, when Athanasius sins bore too hardly upon the Arians, he had him banished from Alexandria; and when the church at Alexandria would have excommunicated Arius, he obliged it to readmit him to communion. 1. Read the text and make a summary. 95

 

THE FIRST MESSAGE FROM ISLAM It Was while Heraclius was engaged in restoring order in this already desolated Syria after the death of Chosroes II, and before the final peace with Persia, that a strange message was brought to him. The bearer had ridden over to the imperial outpost at Bostra in the wilderness south of Damascus. The letter was in Arabic, the obscure Semitic language of the nomadic peoples of the southern desert; and probably only an interpretation reached him"presumably with deprecatory notes by the interpreter. It was an odd, florid challenge from someone who called himself Muhammad, the Prophet of God. This Muhammad, it appeared, called upon Heraclius to acknowledge the one true God and to serve him. Nothing else was definite in the document. There is no record of the reception of this missive, and presumably it went unanswered. The emperor probably shrugged his shoulders, and was faintly amused at the incident. But at Ctesiphon they knew more about this Muhammad. He was said to be a tiresome false prophet, who had incited Yemen, the rich province of Southern Arabia, to rebel against the King of Kings. Kavadh was much occupied with affairs he had deposed and murdered his father Chosroes II, and he was attempting to reorganize the Persian military forces. To him also came a message identical with that sent to Heraclius. The thing angered them. He tore up the letter, flung the fragments at the envoy, and bade him begone. When this was told to the sender far away in the squalid little town of Medina, he was very angry. Even so, 0 Lord! he cried; rend Thou his kingdom from him. (A.D. 628.) But before we go on to tell of the rise of Islam in the world, it will be well to complete our survey of the condition of Asia in the dawn of the seventh century. And a word or so is due to religious developments in the Persian community during the Sassanid period. From the days of Cyrus onward Zoroastrianism had prevailed over the ancient gods of Nineveh and Babylon. Zoroaster (the Greek spelling of the Iranian Zarathustra), like Buddha, was an Aryan. We know nothing of the age in which he lived; some authorities make him as early as 1000 B.C., others make him contemporary with Buddha or Confucius; and as little do we know of his place of birth 96

 

or his exact nationality. His teachings are preserved to us in the Zend Avesta, but here, since they no longer play any great part in the world's affairs, we cannot deal with them in any detail. The opposition of a good god, Ormuzd, the god of light, truth, frankness, and the sun, and a bad god, Ahriman, god of secrecy, cunning, diplomacy, darkness, and night, formed a very central part of his religion. As we find it in history, it is already surrounded by a ceremonial and sacerdotal system; it has no images, but it has priests, temples, and altars, on which burn a sacred fire and at which sacrificial ceremonies are performed. Among other distinctive features is its prohibition of either the burning or the burial of the dead. The Parsees of India, the last surviving Zoroastrians, still lay their dead out within certain open towers, the Towers of Silence, to which the vultures come. Under the Sassanid kings from Ardashir onward (227), this religion was the official religion; its head was the second person in the state next to the king, and the king in quite the ancient fashion was supposed to be divine or semi-divine and upon terms of peculiar intimacy with Ormuzd. But the religious fermentation of the world did not leave the supremacy of Zoroastrianism undisputed in the Persian Empire. Not only was there a great eastward diffusion of Christianity, to which we have already given notice, but new sects arose in Persia, incorporating the novel ideas of the time. One early variant or branch of Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, we have already named. It had spread into Europe by the first century B.C. after the eastern campaigns of Pompey the Great. It became enormously popular with the soldiers and common people, and until the time of Constantine the Great, continued to be a serious rival to Christianity. Indeed one of his successors, the Emperor Julian (361-363), known in Christian history as Julian the Apostate, made a belated attempt to substitute it for the accepted faith. Mithras was a god of light, proceeding from Ormuzd and miraculously born, in much the same way that the third person in the Christian Trinity proceeds from the first. Of this branch of the Zoroastrian stem we need say no more. In the third century A.D., however, another religion, Manichaeism, arose, which deserves some notice now. 97

 

Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was born the son of a good family of Ecbatana, the old Median capital (A.D. 216). He was educated at Ctesiphon. His father was some sort of religious sectary, and be was brought up in an atmosphere of religious discussion. There came to him that persuasion that he at last had the complete light, which is the moving power of all religious initiators. He was impelled to proclaim his doctrine. In A.D. 242, at the accession of Sapor I, the second Sassanid monarch, he began his teaching. It is characteristic of the way in which men's minds were moving in those days that his teaching included a sort of theocrasia. He was not, he declared, proclaiming anything new. The great religious founders before him had all been right: Moses, Zoroaster, Buddha, Jesus Christ"all had been true prophets, but to him it was appointed to clarify and crown their imperfect and confused teaching. This he did in Zoroastrian language. He explains the perplexities and contradictions of life as a conflict of light and darkness, Ormuzd was God and Ahriman Satan. But how man was created, how he fell from light into darkness, how he is being disentangled and redeemed from the darkness, and of the part played by Jesus in this strange mixture of religions we cannot explain here even if we would. Our interest with the system is historical and not theological. But of the utmost historical interest is the fact that Mani not only went about Iran preaching these new and to him these finally satisfying ideas of his, but into Turkestan, into India, and over the passes into China. This freedom of travel is to be noted. It is interesting also because it brings before us the fact that Turkestan was no longer a country of dangerous nomads, but a country in which cities were flourishing and men had the education and leisure for theological argument. The ideas of Mani spread eastward and westward with great rapidity, and they were a most fruitful rootstock of heresies throughout the entire Christian world for nearly a thousand years. Somewhere about A.D. 270 Mani came back to Ctesiphon and made many converts. This brought him into conflict with the official religion and the priesthood. In 277 the reigning monarch had him 1. Read the text and make a summary. 98

 

ARABIA BEFORE MUHAMMAD From time immemorial Arabia, except for the fertile strip of the Yemen to the south, had been a land of nomads, the headquarters and land of origin of the Semitic peoples. From Arabia at various times waves of these nomads had drifted north, east, and west into the early civilizations of Egypt, in Mediterranean coast, and Mesopotamia. We have noted in this history how the Sumerians were swamped and overcome by such Semitic waves, how the Semitic Phoenicians and Canaanites established themselves along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, how the Babylonians and Assyrians were settled Semitic peoples, how the Hyksos conquered Egypt, how the Arameans established themselves in Syria with Damascus as their capital, and how the Hebrews partially conquered their Promised Land. At some unknown date the Chaldeans drifted in from Eastern Arabia and settled in the old southern Sumerian lands. With each invasion first this and then that section of the Semitic peoples comes into history. But each of such swarming still leaves a tribal nucleus behind to supply fresh invasions in the future. The history of the more highly organized empires of the horse and iron period, the empires of roads and writing, shows Arabia thrust like a wedge between Egypt, Palestine, and the EuphratesTigris country, and still a reservoir of nomadic tribes who raid and trade and exact tribute for the immunity and protection of caravans. There are temporary and flimsy subjugations. Egypt, Persia, Macedonia, Rome, Syria, Constantinople, and again Persia claim some unreal suzerainty in turn over Arabia, profess some unsubstantial protection. Under Trajan there was a Roman province of Arabia, which included the then fertile region of the Hauran and extended as far as Petra. Now and then some Arab chief and his trading city rises to temporary splendour. Such was that Odenathus of Palmyra, whose brief career we have noted and another such transitory desert city whose ruins still astonish the traveler was Baalbek. After the destruction of Palmyra, the desert Arabs began to be spoken of in the Roman and Persian records as Saracens. 99

 

In the time of Chosroes II, Persia claimed a certain ascendancy over Arabia, and maintained officials and tax collectors in the Yemen. Before that time the Yemen had been under the rule of the Abyssinian Christians for some years, and before that for seven centuries it had had native princes professing, be it noted, the Jewish faith. Until the opening of the seventh century A.D. there were no signs of any unwanted or dangerous energy in the Arabian deserts, the life of the country was going on as it had gone on for long generations. Wherever there were fertile patches, wherever, that is, there was a spring or a well, a scanty agricultural population subsisted, living in walled towns because of the Bedouin who wandered with their sheep, cattle, and horses over the desert. Upon the main caravan routes the chief towns rose to a certain second-rate prosperity, and foremost among them were Medina and Mecca. In the beginning of the seventh century Medina was a town of about 15,000 inhabitants all told; Mecca may have had twenty or twenty-five thousand. Medina was a comparatively wellwatered town, and possessed abundant date groves; its inhabitants were Yemenites, from the fertile land to the south. Mecca was a town of a different character, built about a spring of water with a bitter taste, and inhabited by recently settled Bedouin. Mecca was not merely nor primarily a trading centre; it was a place of pilgrimage. Among the Arab tribes there had long existed a sort of Amphictyony centering upon Mecca and certain other sanctuaries; there were months of truce to war and blood, feuds, and customs of protection and hospitality for the pilgrim. In addition there had grown up an Olympic element in these gatherings; the Arabs were discovering possibilities of beauty in their language, and there were recitations of war poetry and love songs. The sheiks of the tribes, under a king of the poets, sat in judgment and awarded prizes; the prize songs were sung through all Arabia. The Kaaba, the sanctuary at Mecca, was of very ancient date. It was a small square temple of black stones, which had for its corner stone a meteorite. This meteorite was regarded as a god, and all the little tribal gods of Arabia were under his protection. The permanent inhabitants of Mecca were a tribe of Bedouin who had seized this temple and constituted themselves its guardians. To them there came 100

 

in the months of truce a great in course of people, who marched about the Kaaba ceremonially, bowed themselves, and kissed the, stone, and also engaged in trade and poetical recitations. The Meccans profited much from these visitors. All of this is very reminiscent of the religious and political state of affairs in Greece fourteen centuries earlier. But the paganism of these more primitive Arabs was already being assailed from several directions. There had been a great proselytizing of Arabs during the period of the Maccabaeans and Herods in Judea; and, as we have already noted, the Yemen had been in succession under the rule of Jews (Arab proselytes to Judaism, i.e.), Christians, and Zoroastrians. It is evident that there must have been plenty of religious discussion during the pilgrimage fairs at Mecca and the like centres. Naturally enough Mecca was a stronghold of the old pagan cult, which gave it its importance and prosperity; Medina, on the other hand, had Jewish proclivities, and there were Jewish settlements near by. It was inevitable that Mecca and Medina should be in a state of rivalry and bickering feud. 1. Read the text and make a summary. 

ASIA AT THE END OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY The nomad was not simply an uncivilized man, he was a man specialized and specializing along his own line. From the very beginning of history the nomad and the settled people have been in reaction. We have told of the Semitic and Elamite, raids upon Sumeria; we have seen the Western empire smashed by the nomads of the great plains and Persia conquered and Byzantium shaken by the nomads of Arabia. Whenever civilization seems to be choking amidst its weeds of wealth and debt and servitude, when its faiths seem rotting into cynicism and its powers of further growth are hopelessly entangled in effete formula, the nomad drives in like a plough to break up the festering stagnation and release the world to new beginnings. The Mongol aggression, which began with the 101

 

thirteenth century, was the greatest, and so far it has been the last, of all these destructive reploughings of human association. From entire obscurity the Mongols came very suddenly into history towards the close of the twelfth century. They appeared in the country to the north of China, in the land of origin of the Huns and Turks, and they, were manifestly of the same strain as these peoples. They were gathered together under a chief, with whose name we will not tax the memory of the reader; under his son Jengis Khan their power grew with extraordinary swiftness. The reader will already have an idea of the gradual breaking up of the original unity of Islam. In the beginning of the thirteenth century there were a number of separate and discordant Moslem states in Western Asia. There was Egypt (with Palestine and much of Syria) under the successors of Saladin, there was the Seljuk power in Asia Minor there was still an Abbasid caliphate in Bagdad, and to the east of this again there had grown up a very considerable empire, the Kharismian empire, that of the Turkish princes from Khiva who had conquered a number of fragmentary Seljuk principalities and reigned from the Ganges valley to the Tigris. They had but an insecure hold on the Persian and Indian populations. The state of the Chinese civilization was equally inviting to an enterprising invader. One last glimpse of China in this history was in the seventh century during the opening years of the Tang dynasty, when that shrewd and able emperor Tai-tsung was weighing the respective merits of Nestorian Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and the teachings of Lao Tse, and on the whole inclining to the opinion that Lao Tse was as good a teacher as any. We have described his reception of the traveler Yuan Chwang. Tai-tsung tolerated all religions, but several of his successors conducted a pitiless persecution of the Buddhist faith; it flourished in spite of these persecutions, and its monasteries played a somewhat analogous part in at first sustaining learning and afterwards retarding it, that the Christian monastic organization did in the West. By the tenth century the great Tang dynasty was in an extreme state of decay; the usual degenerative process through a series Of voluptuaries and incapables had gone on, and China broke up again politically into a variable number of contending states, The age of the Ten States, an age of confusion that lasted through the first half of the tenth century. 102

 

Then arose a, dynasty, the Northern Sung (960-1127), which established a sort of unity, but which was in constant struggle with a number of Hunnish peoples from the north who were pressing down the eastern coast. For a time one of these peoples, the Khitan, prevailed. In the twelfth century these people had been subjugated and had given place to another Hunnish empire, the empire of the Kin, with its capital at Pekin and its southern boundary south of Hwangho. The Sung Empire shrank before this Kin Empire. In 1138 the capital was shifted from Nankin, which was now too close to the northern frontier, to the city of Han Chan on the coast. From 1127 onward to 1295, the Sung dynasty is known as the Southern Sung. To the northwest of its territories there was now the Tartar Empire of the Asia; to the north, the Kin Empire, both states in which the Chinese population was under rulers in whom nomadic traditions were still strong. So that here on the east also the main masses of Asiatic mankind were under uncongenial rulers and ready to accept, if not to welcome, the arrival of a conqueror. Northern India we have already noted was also a conquered country at the opening of the thirteenth century. It was at first a part of the Chive empire, but in 1206 an adventurous ruler, Kutub who had been a slave and who had risen as a slave to be governor of the Indian province, set up a separate Moslem state of Hindustan in Delhi. Brahminism had long since Buddhism from India but the converts to Islam were still but a small ruling minority in the land. Such was the political state of Asia when Jengis Khan began to consolidate his power among the nomads in the country between Lakes Balkash and Baikal in the beginning of the thirteenth century. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

THE RISE AND VICTORIES OF THE MONGOLS The career of conquest of Jengis Khan and his immediate successors astounded the world, and probably astounded no one more than these Mongol Khans themselves. The Mongols were in the twelfth century a tribe subject to those Kin who had conquered North-east China. They were a horde of 103

 

nomadic horsemen living in tents, and subsisting mainly upon mare's milk products and meat. Their occupations were pasturage and hunting, varied by war. They drifted northward as the snows melted for summer pasture, and southward to winter pasture after the custom of the steppes. Their military education began with a successful insurrection against the Kin. The empire of Kin had the resources of half China behind it, and in the struggle the Mongols learnt very much of the military science of the Chinese. By the end of the twelfth century they were already a fighting tribe of exceptional quality. The opening years of the career of Jengis were spent in developing his military machine, in assimilating the Mongols and the associated tribes about them into one organized army. His first considerable extension of power was westward, when the Tartar Kirghis and the Uigurs (who were the Tartar people of the Tarim basin) were not so much conquered as induced to join his organization. He then attacked the Kin Empire and took Pekin (1214). The Khitan people, who had been so recently subdued by the Kin, threw in their fortunes with his, and were of very great help to him. The settled Chinese population went on sowing and reaping and trading during this change of masters without lending its weight to either side. We have already mentioned the very recent Kharismian Empire of Turkestan, Persia, and North India. This empire extended eastward to Kashgar, and it must have seemed one of the most progressive and hopeful empires of the time. Jengis Khan, while still engaged in this war with the Kin Empire, sent envoys to Kharismia. They were put to death, an almost incredible stupidity. The Kharismian government, to use the political jargon of today, had decided not to recognize Jengis Khan, and took this spirited course with him. There upon (1218) the great host of horsemen that Jengis Khan had consolidated and disciplined swept over the Pamirs and down into Turkestan. It was well armed, and probably it had some guns and gunpowder for siege work for the Chinese were certainly using gunpowder at this time, and the Mongols learnt its use from them. Kashgar, Khokand, Bokhara fell and then Samarkand, the capital of the Kharismian empire. There after nothing held the Mongols in the Kharismian territories. They swept westward to the Caspian, and southward as 104

 

far as Lahore. To the north of the Caspian a Mongol army encountered a Russian force from Kieff. There was a series of battles, in which the Russian armies were finally defeated and the Grand Duke of Kieff taken prisoner. So it was the Mongols appeared on the northern shores of the Black Sea. A panic swept Constantinople, which set itself to reconstruct its fortifications. Meanwhile other armies were engaged in the conquest of the empire of the Asia in China. This was annexed, and only the southern part of the Kin Empire remained unsubdued. In 1227 Jengis Khan died in the midst of a career of triumph. His empire reached already from the Pacific to the Dnieper. And it was an empire still vigorously expanding. Like all the empires founded by nomads, it was, to begin with, purely a military and administrative empire, a framework rather than a rule. It centered on the personality of the monarch, and its relations with the mass of the populations over which it ruled was simply one of taxation for the maintenance of the horde. But Jengis Khan had called to his aid a very able and experienced administrator of the Kin Empire, who was learned in all the traditions an science of the Chinese. This statesman, Yeliu Chutsai, was able to carry on the affairs of the Mongols long after the death of Jengis Khan, and there can be little doubt that he is one of the great political heroes of history. He tempered the barbaric ferocity of his masters, and saved innumerable cities and works of art from destruction. He collected archives and inscriptions, and when he was accused of corruption, his sole wealth was found to consist of documents and a few musical instruments. To him perhaps quite as much as to Jengis is the efficiency of the Mongol military machine to be ascribed. Under Jengis, we may note further, we find the completest religious toleration established across the entire breadth of Asia. At the death of Jengis the capital of the new empire was still in the great an assembly of Mongol leaders elected Ogdai Khan, the son of Jengis, as his successor. The war against the vestiges of the Kin Empire was prosecuted until Kin was altogether subdued (1234). The Chinese empire to the south under the Sung dynasty helped the Mongols in this task, so destroying their own bulwark against the universal conquerors. The Mongol hosts then swept right across Asia to Russia (1235), an amazing march. Kieff was destroyed in 1240, 105

 

and nearly all Russia became tributary to the Mongols. Poland was ravaged, and a mixed army of Poles and Germans was annihilated at the battle of Liegnitz in Lower Silesia in 1241. The Emperor Frederick II does not seem to have made any great efforts to stay the advancing tide. It is only recently, says Bury in his notes to Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, that European history has begun to understand that the successes of the Mongol army which overran Poland and occupied Hungary in the spring of A.D. 1241 were won by consummate strategy and were not due to a mere overwhelming superiority of numbers. But this fact has not yet become a matter of common knowledge; the vulgar opinion which represents the Tartars as a wild horde carrying all before them solely by their multitude, and galloping through Eastern Europe without a strategic plan, rushing at all obstacles and overcoming them by mere weight, still prevails... It was wonderful how punctually and effectually the arrangements of the commander were carried out in operations extending from the Lower Vistula to Transylvania. Such a campaign was quite beyond the power of any European army of the time, and it was beyond the vision of any European commander. There was no general in Europe, from Frederick II downward, who was not a tyro in strategy compared to Subutai. It should also be noticed that the Mongols embarked upon the enterprise with full knowledge of the political situation of Hungary and the condition of Poland they had taken care to inform themselves by a well organized system of spies; on the other hand, the Hungarians and Christian powers, like childish barbarians, knew hardly anything about their enemies. But though the Mongols were victorious at Liegnitz, they did not continue their drive westward. They were getting into woodlands and hilly country, which did not suit their tactics; and so they turned southward and prepared to settle in Hungary, massacring or assimilating the kindred Magyar, even as these had previously massacred and assimilated the mixed Scythians and Avars and Huns before them. From the Hungarian plain they would probably have made raids west and south as the Hungarians had done in the ninth century, the Avars in the seventh and eighth, and the Huns in the fifth. But in Asia the Mongols were fighting a stiff war of conquest against the Sung, and, they were also raiding Persia and Asia Minor; Ogdai died suddenly, and in 1242 there was trouble about the 106

 

succession, and recalled by this, the undefeated hosts of Mongols began to pour back across Hungary and Rumania towards the east.To the great relief of Europe the dynastic troubles at Karakorum lasted for some years, and this vast new empire showed signs of splitting up. Mangu Khan became the Great Khan in 1251, and he nominated his brother Kublai Khan as Governor General of China. Slowly but surely the entire Sung empire was subjugated, and as it was subjugated the eastern Mongols became more and more Chinese in their culture and methods. Tibet was invaded and devastated by Mangu, and Persia and Syria invaded in good earnest. Another brother of Maugu, Hulagu, was in command of this latter war; He turned his arms against the caliphate and captured Bagdad, in which city he perpetrated a massacre of the entire population. Bagdad was still the religious capital of Islam, and the Mongols had become bitterly hostile to the Moslems. This hostility exacerbated the natural discord of nomad and townsman. In 1259 Mangu died, and in 1260for it took the best part of a year for the Mongol leaders to gather from the extremities of this vast empire, from Hungary and Syria and Seind and ChinaKublai was elected Great Khan. He was already deeply interested in Chinese affairs; he made his capital Pekin instead of Karakorum, and Persia, Syria, and Asia Minor became virtually independent under his brother Hulagu, while the hordes of Mongols in Russia and Asia next to Russia, and various smaller Mongol groups in Turkestan became also practically separate. Kublai died in 1294, and with his death even the titular supremacy of the Great Khan disappeared. At the death of Kublai there was a main Mongol empire, with Pekin as its capital, including all China and Mongolia; there was a second great Mongol empire, that of Kipchak in Russia; there was a third in Persia, that founded by Hulagu, the Ilkhan empire, to which the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor were tributary; there was a Siberian state, between Kipchak and Mongolia; and another separate state Great Turkey in Turkestan. It is particularly remarkable that India beyond the Punjab was never invaded by the Mongols during this period, and that an army under the Sultan of Egypt completely defeated Ketboga, Hulagu's general, in Palestine (1260), and stopped them from entering Africa. By 1260 the impulse of Mongol conquest had already passed its zenith. Thereafter the Mongol story is one of 107

 

division and decay. The Mongol dynasty that Kublai Khan had founded in China, the Yuan dynasty lasted from 1280 until 1368. Later on a recrudescence of Mongolian energy in Western Asia was destined, to create a still more enduring monarchy in India. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

THE TRAVELS OF MARCO POLO Now this story of Mongolian conquests is surely the most remarkable in all history. The conquests of Alexander the Great cannot compare with them in extent. And their effect in diffusing and broadening men’s ideas, though such things are more difficult to estimate, is at least comparable to the spread of the Hellenic civilization which is associated with Alexander's adventure. For a time all Asia and Western Europe enjoyed an open intercourse; all the roads were temporarily open, and representatives of every nation appeared at the court of Karakorum. The barriers between Europe and Asia set up by the religious feud of Christianity and Islam were lowered. Great hopes were entertained by the papacy for the conversion of the Mongols to Christianity. Their only religion so far had been Shamanism, a primitive paganism. Envoys of the Pope, Buddhist priests from India, Parisian and Italian and Chinese artificers, Byzantine and Armenian merchants, mingled with Arab officials and Persian and Indian astronomers and mathematicians at the Mongol court. We hear too much in history of the campaigns and massacres of the Mongols, and not enough of their indubitable curiosity and zest for learning. Not perhaps as an originative people, but as transmitters of knowledge and method their influence upon the world's history has been enormous. And everything one can learn of the vague and romantic personalities of Jengis or Kublai tends to confirm the impression that these men were built upon a larger scale, and were at least as understanding and creative monarchs as either that flamboyant but egotistical figure Alexander the Great, or that raiser of political ghosts, that energetic but illiterate theologian, Charlemagne. The missionary enterprises of the papacy in Mongolia 108

 

ended in failure. Christianity was losing its persuasive power. The Mongols had no prejudice against Christianity; they evidently preferred it at first to Islam; but the missions that came to them were manifestly using the power in the great teachings of Jesus to advance the vast claims of the Pope to world dominion. Christianity so vitiated was not good enough for the Mongol mind. To make the empire of the Mongols part of the kingdom of God might have appealed to them; but not to make it a fief of a group of French and Italian priests, whose claims were as gigantic as their powers and outlook were feeble, who, were now the creatures of the Emperor of Germany, now the nominees of the King of France, and now the victims of their own petty spites and vanities. In 1269 Kublai Khan sent a mission to the Pope with the evident intention of finding some common mode of action with Western Christendom. He asked that a hundred men of learning and ability should be sent to his court to establish an understanding. His mission found the Western world popeless, and engaged in one of those disputes about the succession that are so frequent in the history of the papacy. For two years there was no pope at all. When at last a pope was appointed, he dispatched two Dominican friars to convert the greatest power in Asia to his rule those worthy men were appalled by the length and hardship of the journey before them, and found an early excuse for abandoning the expedition. But this abortive mission was only one of a number of attempts to communicate, and always they were feeble and feeble spirited attempts, with nothing of the conquering fire of the earlier Christian missions. Innocent IV had already sent some Dominicans to Karakorum, and St. Louis of France had also dispatched missionaries and relies by way of Persia; Mangu Khan had numerous Nestorian Christians at his court, and subsequent papal envoys actually reached Pekin. We hear of the appointment of various legates, and bishops to the East, but many of these seem to, have lost themselves and perhaps their lives before they reached China. There was a papal legate in Pekin in 1346, but he seems to have been a mere papal diplomatist. With the downfall of the Mongolian (Yuan) dynasty (1368), the dwindling opportunity of the Christian missions passed altogether. The house of Yuan was followed by that of Ming, a strongly nationalist Chinese dynasty, at first very hostile to all 109

 

foreigners. There may have been a massacre of the Christian missions. Until the later days of the Mings (1644) little more is heard of Christianity, whether Nestorian or Catholic, in China. Then a fresh and rather more successful attempt to propagate Catholic Christianity in China was made by the Jesuits, but this second missionary wave reached China by the sea.In the year 1298 a naval battle occurred between the Genoese and the Venetians, in which the latter were defeated. Among the 7,000 prisoners taken by the Genoese was a Venetian gentleman named Marco Polo, who had been a great traveler, and who was very generally believed by his neighbours to, be given to exaggeration. He had taken part in that first mission to Kublai Khan, and had gone on when the two Dominicans turned back. While this Marco Polo was a prisoner in Genoa, he beguiled his tedium by talking ofn his travels to a certain writer named Rusticiano, who wrote them down. We will not enter here into the vexed question of the exact authenticity of Rusticiano's storywe do not certainly know in what language it was writtenbut there can be no doubt of the general truth of this remarkable narrative, which became enormously popular in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries with all men of active intelligence. The Travels of Marco Polo is one of the great books of history. It o pens this world of the thirteenth century, this century, which saw the reign of Frederick II and the beginnings of the Inquisition, to our imaginations as no mere historian's chronicle can do. It led directly to the discovery of America. It begins by telling of the journey of Marco's father, Nicolo Polo, and uncle, Maffeo. Polo, to China. These two were Venetian merchants of standing, living in Constantinople, and some when about 1260 they went to the Crimea and thence to Kazan; from that place they journeyed to Bokhara, and at Bokhara they fell in with a party of envoys from Kublai Khan in China to his brother Hulagu in Persia. These envoys pressed them to come on to the Great Khan, who at that time had never seen men of the Latin peoples. They went on; and it is clear they made a very favourable impression upon Kublai, and interested him greatly in the civilization of Christendom. They were made the bearers of that request for a hundred teachers and learned men, intelligent men acquainted with the Seven Arts, able to enter into controversy and able clearly to prove to idolators and other kinds of folk that the Law of Christ was best, to which we 110

 

have just alluded. But when they returned Christendom was in a phase of confusion, and it was only after a delay of two years that they got their authorization to start for China again in the company of those two faint-hearted Dominicans. They took with them Young Marco, and it is due to his presence and the boredom of his subsequent captivity at Genoa that this most interesting experience has been preserved to us. The three Polos started by way of Palestine and not by the Crimea, as in the previous expedition. They had with them a gold tablet and other indications from the Great Khan that must have greatly facilitated their journey. The Great Kahn had asked for some oil from the lamp that burns in the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem; and so thither they first went, and then by way of Cilicia into Armenia. They went thus far north because the Sultan of Egypt was raiding the Ilkhan domains at this time. Thence they came by way of Mesopotamia to Ormuz on the Persian Gulf, as if they contemplated a sea voyage. At Ormuz they met merchants from India. For some reason they did not take ship, but instead turned northward through the Persian deserts, and so by way of Balkh over the Pamir to Kashgar, and by way of Kotan and the Lob Nor (so, following in the footsteps of Yuan Chwang) into the Hwangho, valley and on to Pekin. Pekin, Polo calls Cambaluc; Northern China, Cathay (Khitan); and Southern China of the former Sung dynasty, Manzi. At Pekin was the Great Khan, and they were hospitably entertained. Marco particularly pleased Kublai; he was young and clever, and it is clear he had mastered the Tartar language very thoroughly. He was given an official position and sent on several missions, chiefly in South-west China. The tale he had to tell of vast stretches of smiling and prosperous country, all the way excellent hostelries for travellers, and fine vineyards, fields and gardens, of many abbeys of Buddhist monks, of manufactures of cloth of silk and gold and many fine taffetas, a constant succession of cities and boroughs, and so on, first roused the incredulity and then fired the imagination of all Europe. He told of Burmah, and of its great armies with hundreds of elephants, and how these animals were defeated by the Mongol bowmen, and also of the Mongol conquest of Pegu. He told of Japan, and greatly exaggerated the amount of gold in that country. And, still more wonderful, he told of Christians and Christian rulers in China, and of a certain Prester John, John the Priest, who was 111

 

the king of a Christian people. Those people he had not seen. Apparently they were a tribe of Nestorian Tartars in Mongolia. An understandable excitement probably made Rusticiano over emphasize what must have seemed to him the greatest marvel of the whole story, and Prester John became one of the most stimulating legends of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. It encouraged European enterprise enormously to think that far away in China was a community of their co-religionists, presumably ready to welcome and assist them. For three years Marco ruled the city of Yang-chow as governor, and he probably impressed the Chinese inhabitants as being very little more of a foreigner than any Tartar would have been. He may also have been sent on a mission to India. Chinese records mention a certain Polo attached to the imperial council in 1277, a very valuable confirmation of the general truth of the Polo story. The Polos had taken about three and a half years to get to China. They stayed there upwards of sixteen then they began to feel homesick. They were protgs of Kublai, and possibly they felt that his favours roused a certain envy that might have disagreeable results after his death. They sought his permission to return. For a time he refused it, and then an opportunity occurred. Argon, the Ilkhan monarch of Persia, the grandson of Hulagu, Kublai's brother, had lost his Mongol wife, and on her deathbed had promised not to wed any other woman but a Mongol of her own tribe. He sent ambassadors to Pekin, and a suitable princess was selected, a girl of seventeen. To spare her the fatigues of the caravan route, it was decided to send her by sea with a suitable escort. The Barons in charge of her asked for the company of the Polos because these latter were experienced travellers and sage men, and the Polos snatched at this opportunity of getting homeward. The expedition sailed from some port on the east of South China; they stayed long in Sumatra and South India, and they reached Persia after a voyage of two years. They delivered the young lady safely to Argon's successor for Argon was dead and she married Argon's son. The Polos then went by Tabriz to Trebizond, sailed to Constantinople, and got back to Venice about 1295. It is related that the returned travellers, dressed in Tartar garb, were refused admission to their own house. It was some time before they could establish their identity. Many people who admitted that, were still inclined to look askance at them as shabby wanderers; and, in 112

 

order to dispel such doubts, they gave a great feast, and when it was at its height they had their old padded suits brought to them, dismissed the servants, and then ripped open these garments, whereupon an incredible display of rubies, sapphires, carbuncles, emeralds, and diamonds poured out before the dazzled company. Even after this, Marco's accounts of the size and population of China were received with much furtive mockery. The wits nicknamed him Il Milione, because he was always talking of millions of people and millions of ducats. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

THE KIPCHAK EMPIRE AND THE TSAR OF MUSCOVY The Mongols of the great realm of Kipchak remained nomadic and grazed their stock across the wide plains of South Russia and Western Asia adjacent to Russia. They became not very devout Moslems, retaining many traces of their earlier barbaric Shamanism. Their chief Khan was the Khan of the Golden Horde. To the west, over large tracts of open country, and more particularly in what is now known as Ukrainia, the old Scythian population, Slavs with a Mongol admixture, reverted to a similar nomadic life. These Christian nomads, the Cossacks, formed a sort of frontier screen against the Tartars, and their free and adventurous life was so attractive to the peasants of Poland and Lithuania that severe laws had to be passed to prevent a vast migration from the plough-lands to the steppes. The serf-owning landlords of Poland regarded the Cossacks with considerable hostility on this account, and war was as frequent between the Polish chivalry and the Cossacks as it was between the latter and the Tartars. In the empire of Kipchak, as in Turkestan almost up to the present time, while the nomads roamed over wide areas, a number of towns and cultivated regions sustained a settled population which usually paid tribute to the nomad Khan. In such towns as Kieff, Moscow, and the like, the pre-Mongol, Christian town life went on under Russian dukes or Tartar governors, who collected the tribute for the Khan of the Golden Horde. The Grand Duke of Moscow gained the confidence of the Khan, and 113

 

gradually, under his authority, obtained an ascendancy over many of his fellow tributaries. In the fifteenth century. Under its grand duke, Ivan III, Ivan the Great (1462-1505) Moscow threw off its Mongol allegiance and refused to pay tribute any longer (1480). The successors of Constantine no longer reigned in Constantinople and Ivan took possession of the Byzantine double-headed eagle for his arms. He claimed to be the heir to Byzantium because of his marriage (1472) with Zoe Pahaeologus of the imperial line. This ambitious grand dukedom of Moscow assailed and subjugated the ancient Northman trading republic of Novgorod to the north and so the foundations of the modern Russian mercantile life of the Baltic established. Ivan III did not, however, carry his claim to be the heir of the Christian rulers of Constantinople to the extent of assuming the imperial title. This step was taken by his grandson, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible, because of his insane cruelties; 1533-1584). Although the ruler of Moscow thus came to be called Tsar (Csars) his tradition was in many respects Tartar rather than European; he was autocratic after the unlimited Asiatic pattern, and the form of Christianity he affected was the Eastern, court-ruled, orthodox form, which had reached Russia long before the Mongol conquest, by means of Bulgarian missionaries from Constantinople. To the west of the domains of Kipchak, outside the range of Mongol rule, a second centre of Slav consolidation had been set up during the tenth and eleventh centuries in Poland. The Mongol wave had washed over Poland, but had never subjugated it. Poland was not orthodox, but Roman Catholic in religion; it used the Latin alphabet instead of the strange Russian letters, and its monarch never assumed an absolute independence of the Emperor. Poland was in fact in its origins an outlying part of Christendom and of the Holy Empire; Russia never was anything of the sort. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

TIMURLANE The nature and development of the empire of the Ilkhans in Persia, Mesopotamia, and Syria is perhaps the most interesting of all the stories of these Mongol powers, because in this region nomadism 114

 

really did attempt, and really did to a very considerable degree succeed in its attempt to stamp a settled civilized system out of existence. When Jengis Kahn first invaded China, we are told that there was a serious discussion among the Mongol chiefs whether all the towns and settled populations should not be destroyed. To these simple practitioners of the open-air life the settled populations seemed corrupt, crowded, vicious, effeminate, dangerous, and incomprehensible; a detestable human efflorescence upon what would otherwise have been good pasture. They had no use whatever for the towns. The early Franks and the Anglo-Saxon conquerors of South Britain seem to have had much the same feeling towards townsmen. But it was only under Hulagu in Mesopotamia that these ideas, seem to have been embodied in a deliberate policy. The Mongols here did not only burn and massacre; they destroyed the irrigation system that had endured for at least eight thousand years, and with that the mother civilization of all the Western world came to an end. Since the days of the priest-kings of Sumeria there had been a continuous cultivation in these fertile regions, an accumulation of tradition, a great population, a succession of busy cities, Eridu, Nippur, Babylon, Nineveh, Ctesiphon, Bagdad. Now the fertility ceased. Mesopotamia became a land of ruins and desolation, through which great waters ran to waste, or overflowed their banks to make malarious swamps. Later, on Mosul and Bagdad revived, feebly as second-rate towns. . . But for the defeat and death of Hulagu's general Kitboga in Palestine (1260), the same fate might have overtaken Egypt. But Egypt was now a Turkish sultanate; it was dominated by a body of soldiers, the Mamelukes, whose ranks, like those of their imitators, the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, were recruited and kept vigorous by the purchase and training of boy slaves. A capable Sultan such would obey; a weak or evil one they would replace. Under this ascendancy Egypt remained an independent power until 1517, when it fell to the Ottoman Turks. The first destructive vigor of Hulagu's Mongols soon subsided, but in the fifteenth century a last tornado of nomadism arose in Western Turkestan under the leadership of a certain Timur the Lime, or Timurlane. He was descended in the female line from Jengis Khan. He established himself in Samarkand, and spread his authority over Kipchak (Turkestan to South Russia), Siberia, and southward as far as the 115

 

Indus. He assumed the title of Great Khan in 1369. He was a nomad of the savage school, and he created an empire of desolation from North India to Syria. Pyramids of skulls were his particular architectural fancy; after the storming of Ispahan he made one of 70,000. His ambition was to restore the empire of Jengis Kahn as he conceived it, a project in which he completely failed. He spread destruction far and wide; the Ottoman Turks it was before the taking of Constantinople and their days of greatness and Egypt paid him tribute; the Punjab he devastated; and Delhi surrendered to him. After Delhi had surrendered, however, he made a frightful massacre of its inhabitants. At the time of his death (1405) very little remained to witness to his power but a name of horror, ruins and desolated countries, and a shrunken and impoverished domain in Persia. The dynasty founded by Timur in Persia was extinguished by another Turkoman horde fifty years later. 1. Read the text and make a summary.

THE MONGOL EMPIRE OF INDIA In 1505 a small Turkoman chieftain, Baber, a descendant of Timur and therefore of Jengis, was forced after some years of warfare and some temporary successesfor a time he held Satmarkandto fly with a few followers over the Hindu Kush to Afghanistan. There his band increased, and he made himself master of Cabul. He assembled an army, accumulated guns, and then laid claim to the Punjab, because Timur had conquered it a hundred and seven years before. He pushed his successes beyond the Punjab. India was in a state of division, and quite ready to welcome any capable invader who promised peace and order. After various fluctuations of fortune Baber met the Sultan of Delhi at Panipat (1525), ten miles north of that town, and though he had but 25,000 men, provided, however, with guns, against a thousand elephants and four times as many menthe numbers, by the by, are his own estimate he gained a complete victory. He ceased to call himself King of Cabul, and assumed the title of Emperor of Hindustan. This, he wrote, is quite a different world from our countries. It was finer, more fertile, and altogether 116

 

richer. He conquered as far as Bengal, but his untimely death in 1930 checked the tide of Mongol conquest for a quarter of a century, and it was only after the accession of his grandson Akbar that it flowed again. Akbar subjugated all India as far as Berar, and his greatgrandson Aurungzeb(1658-1707) was practically master of the entire peninsula. This great dynasty of Baber(1526-1530), Humayun (15301556), Akbar (1556-1605), Jehangir (1605-1628), Shah Jehan (16281658), and Aurungzeb (1658-1707), in which son succeeded father for six generations, this Mogul (Mongol) dynasty, [2] marks the most splendid age that had hitherto dawned upon India. Akbar, next perhaps to Asoka, was one of the greatest of Indian monarchs, and one of the few royal figures that approach the stature of great men. To Akbar it is necessary to give the same distinctive attention that we have shown to Charlemagne or Constantine the Great. He is one of the hinges of history. Much of his work of consolidation and organization in India survives to this day. It was taken over and continued by the British when they became the successors of the Mogul emperors. The British monarch, indeed, now uses as his Indian title the title of the Mogul emperors, Kaisar-i-Hind. All the other great administrations of the descendants of Jengis Khan, in Russia, throughout Western and Central Asia and in China, have long since dissolved away and given place to other forms of government. Their governments were indeed little more than taxing governments; a system of revenue collecting to feed the central establishment of the ruler, like the Golden Horde in South Russia or the imperial city at Karakorum or Pekin. The life and ideas of the people they left alone, careless bow they lived-so long as they paid. So it was that after centuries of subjugation, a Christian Moscow and Kieff, a Shiite Persia, and a thoroughly Chinese China rose again from their Mongol submergence. But Akbar made a new India. He gave the princes and ruling classes of India some inklings at least of a common interest. If India is now anything more than a sort of ragbag of incoherent states and races, a prey to every casual raider from the north, it is very largely due to him. His distinctive quality was his openness of mind. He set himself to make every sort of able man in India, whatever his race or religion, available for the public work of Indian life. His instinct was the true statesman's instinct for synthesis. His empire was to be neither a Moslem nor a 117

 

Mongol one, nor was it to be Rajput or Aryan, or Dravidian, or Hindu, or high or low caste; it was to be Indian. During the years of his training he enjoyed many opportunities of noting the good qualities, the fidelity, the devotion, often the nobility of soul, of those Hindu princes, whom, because they were followers of Brahma, his Moslem courtiers devoted mentally to eternal torments. He noted that these men, and 'Men who thought like them, constituted the vast majority of his subjects. He noted, further, of many of them, and those the most trustworthy, that though they had apparently much to gain from a worldly point of view by embracing the religion of the court, they held fast to their own. His reflective mind, therefore, was unwilling from the outset to accept the theory that because he, the conqueror, the ruler, happened to be born a Muhammadan, therefore, Muhammadanism was true for all mankind. Gradually his thoughts found words in the utterance: 'Why should I claim to guide men before I myself am guided?' and, as he listened to other doctrines and other creeds, his honest doubts became confirmed, and, noting daily the bitter narrowness of sectarianism, no matter of what form of religion, he became more and more wedded to the principle of toleration for all. The son of a fugitive emperor, says Dr. Emil Schmit, born in the desert, brought up in nominal confinement, he had known the bitter side of life from his youth up. Fortune had given him a powerful frame, which he trained to support the extremities of exertion. Physical exercise was with him a passion; he was devoted to the chase and especially to the fierce excitement of catching the wild horse or elephant or slaying the dangerous tiger. On one occasion, when it was necessary to dissuade the Raja of Jodhpore to abandon his intention of forcing the widow of his deceased son to mount the funeral pyre, Akbar rode two hundred and twenty miles in two days. In battle he displayed the utmost bravery. He led his troops in person during the dangerous part of a campaign, leaving to his generals the lighter task of finishing the war. In every victory he displayed humanity to the conquered, and decisively opposed any exhibition of cruelty. Free from all those prejudices which separate society and create dissension, tolerant to men of other beliefs, impartial to men of other races, whether Hindu or Dravidian, he was a man obviously marked out to weld the conflicting elements of his kingdom into a strong and prosperous whole. In all seriousness 118

 

he devoted himself to the work of peace. Moderate in all pleasures, needing but little sleep and accustomed to divide his time with the utmost accuracy, he found leisure to devote himself to science and art after the completion of his State duties. The famous personages and scholars who adorned the capital he had built for himself at Fatepur-Sikri were at the same time his friends; every Thursday evening a circle of these was collected for intellectual conversation and philosophical discussion. His closest friends were two highly talented brothers, Faizi and Abul Fazl, the sons of a learned freethinker. The elder of these was a famous scholar in Hindu literature; with his help, and under his direction, Akbar had the most important of the Sanskrit works translated into Persian. Fazl, on the other hand, who was an especially close friend of Akbar, was a general, a statesman, and an organizer, and to his activity Akbar's kingdom chiefly owed the solidarity of its internal organization. (Such was the quality of the circle that used to meet in the palaces of FatehpurSikri, buildings which still stand in the Indian sunlightbut empty now and desolate. Fatehpur-Sikri, like the city of Ambar, is now a dead city. A few years ago the child of a British official was killed by a panther in one of its silent streets.) All this that we have quoted reveals a pre-eminent monarch. But Akbar, like all men, great or petty, lived within the limitations of his period and its circle of ideas. And a Turkoman, ruling in India, was necessarily ignorant of much that Europe had been painfully learning for a thousand years. He knew nothing of the growth of a popular consciousness in Europe, and little or nothing of the wide educational possibilities that the church had been working out in the West. His upbringing in Islam and his native genius made it plain to him that a great nation in India could only be cemented by common ideas upon a religious basis, but the knowledge of how such a solidarity could be created and sustained by universal schools, cheap books, and a university system at once organized and free to think, to which the modern state is still feeling its way, was as impossible to him as a knowledge of steamboats or aeroplanes. The form of Islam he knew best was the narrow and fiercely intolerant form of the Turkish Sunnites. The Moslems were only a minority of the population. The problem he faced was indeed very parallel to the problem of Constantine the Great. But it had peculiar difficulties of its own. He never got beyond 119

 

an attempt to adapt Islam to a wider appeal by substituting for There is one God, and Muhammad is his prophet, the declaration, There is one God, and the Emperor is his vice-regent. This he thought might form a common plat form for every variety of faith in India, that kaleidoscope of religions. With this faith he associated a simple ritual borrowed from the Persian Zoroastrians (the Parsees) who still survived, and survive today, in India. This now state religion, however, died with him, because it had no roots in the minds of the people about him. The essential factor in the organization of a living state, the world is coming to realize, is the organization of an education. This Akbar never understood. And he had no class of men available who would suggest such an idea to him or help him to carry it out. The Moslem teachers in India were not so much teachers as conservators of an intense bigotry; they did not want a common mind in India, but only a common intolerance in Islam. The Brahmins, who had the monopoly of teaching among the Hindus, had all the conceit and slackness of hereditary privilege. Yet though Akbar made no general educational scheme for India, he set up a number of Moslem, and Hindu schools. He knew less and he did more for India in these matters than the British who succeeded him. Some of the British viceroys have aped his magnificence, his costly tents and awnings, his palatial buildings and his elephants of state, but none have gone far enough beyond the political outlook of this mediaeval Turkoman to attempt that popular education which is an absolute necessity to India before she can play her fitting part in the commonweal of mankind.

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS OF A NOMADIC Culture is an eye-opening surprise

Kazakh man on a horse with golden eagle

Charyn Canyon, Kazakhstan 121

 

The steppes of central Kazakshtan (Aqmola Province)

Round Tray on Conical Stand with Figures of the Man and Standing Horse

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Bronze, 5th – 3rd century B.C.E.. Central State Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty Belt Terminus with Granulation and Argali Decoration. Gold, Zalauli (Kegen District, Almaty Region), 7th – 6th century B.C.E. Central State Museum of the RK, Almaty

Diadem, Gold, Turquoise, Carnelian, Coral. 2nd century B.C.E – 1st century C.E. Central State Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty

Cauldron Fragment Depicting Saiga Antelope in Relief. Copper Alloy, Almaty, 5th – 3rd century B.C.E. Central State Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty 123

 

Cauldron Protome of Winged Ibexes. Bronze, Almaty Region, 5th – 3rd century B.C.E Central State Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty

Plaque of Argali Head Suspended from Ribbed Bar from Horse Tack. Wood, Gold Foil, Berel, Kurgan 11, late 4th – early 3rd century B.C.E. The Presidential Center of Culture of Kazakhstan, Astana. 124

 

Plaque of Facing Elk-Griffin Heads. Horn (Siberian Red Deer), Berel, Kurgan 36, late 4th – early 3rd century B.C.E. A.Kh. Margulan Institute of Archaeology, Almaty

U-Shaped Element with Scale Pattern from Bridle Throat Latch. (Siberian Red Deer), Gold Foil. Berel, Kurgan 36, late 4th – early 3rd century B.C.E. A.Kh. Margulan Institute of Archaeology, Almaty 125

 

Horse Tack as Shown on a Reconstruction of the Horse from Kurgan 36 at Berel

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Feline Face and Stylized Ornaments from Horse Tack. Wood, and Tin and Gold Foil. Berel, Kurgan 11, late 4th – early 3rd century B.C.E. The Presidential Center of Culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/december-2011/article/archaeologicalremains-of-a-nomadic-culture-is-an-eye-opening-surprise

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SOURCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

www. nepa. kz archaeology. kz www. savromat. kz http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/december 2011 / article / archaeological - remains-of-a-nomadic - culture-is-an-eye-opening-surprise www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=conquest_roman www. oxfordreference. com/.../authority. 2011080310044835... https://books.google.kz/books?isbn=075249726X https://books.google.kz/books?isbn=1317866274 www.fforestfawrgeopark.org.uk/.../the-norman-conquest-of-... https://books.google.kz/books?isbn=0195220005 www.ebay.com/bhp/the-outline-of-history-h-g-wells

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DICTIONARIES

1. Dictionary Longman of English Language and Culture. – Longman Group UK limited, 1999. 2. The Oxford Russian Dictionary. English-Russian. – Oxford – Moscow, 2000. 3. The Oxford Russian Dictionary. Russian-English. – Oxford – Moscow, 2000. 4. Webster’s New World Dictionary. Third College Edition. – Webster’s New World Cleveland & New York, 1998. 5. Cambridge International Dictionary of English. – Cambridge University Press, 2001.

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CONTENTS

Предисловие ............................................................................................. 3 Introduction into Archaeology ................................................................... 4 History of Kazakhstan Archaeology .......................................................... 4 Steppe Andronovo Сulture ........................................................................ 7 Botai Archaeological Culture .................................................................... 9 Begazy-Dandybai Culture ......................................................................... 11 The Expeditions Of The Institute Of Archaeology After A.Kh. Margulan ......................................................................................... 14 Tamgaly-Tas .............................................................................................. 18 Golden Man ............................................................................................... 19 Archaeological Collection ......................................................................... 23 Sairam’s Treasure ...................................................................................... 26 Scientific Achievements of Kazakhstan Archaeology ............................... 28 History of Pre-Roman And Roman Britain ................................................ 36 Romans and Barbarians ............................................................................. 40 England, Scotland and Wales .................................................................... 45 Тнe Rise of Large Kingdoms ..................................................................... 47 Viking Invaders ......................................................................................... 50 The Subsequent History ............................................................................. 53 The Norman Conquest in Wales ................................................................ 58 The Normans and Wales ............................................................................ 62 The Hundred Years War ............................................................................ 66 Scotland, Ireland and Wales ...................................................................... 73 The Role of Reading in our Life ................................................................ 76 The British Museum Library ..................................................................... 77 History of Libraries.................................................................................... 78 Classical Period ......................................................................................... 81 130

 

Philip of Macedonia ................................................................................... 84 Alexander's First Conquests....................................................................... 87 Judea at the Christian Era .......................................................................... 91 Constantine the Great................................................................................. 93 The First Message from Islam ................................................................... 96 Arabia before Muhammad ......................................................................... 99 Asia at the End of the Twelfth Century ..................................................... 101 The Rise and Victories of the Mongols...................................................... 103 The Travels of Marco Polo ........................................................................ 108 The Kipchak Empire and the Tsar of Muscovy ......................................... 113 Timurlane .................................................................................................. 114 The Mongol Empire of India ..................................................................... 116 Archaeological Remains of a Nomadic...................................................... 121 Culture is an Eye-Opening Surprise........................................................... 121 Sources ...................................................................................................... 128 Dictionaries................................................................................................ 129

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Educational issue

ENGLISH FOR HISTORY STUDENTS Methodical development Compilers: Aisultanova Karlygash Abdykalykovna Aliyarova Laura Madibekovna Makhazhanova Leila Madibekovna Tleugabylova Zeinegul Anapiyaevna Khalenova Ainagul Ryskeldievna Computer page makeup and cover designer: U. Abdikaimova

IS No.10245 Signed for publishing 07.12.16. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 8.37 printer’s sheet. Edition 100. Order No.5719 Publishing house «Qazaq university» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq university» publishing house

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