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AMCP706329
AMC PAMPHLET
AMCP 706329
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ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK FIRE CONTROL SERIES REDSTONE SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION CENTER
SECTION 3
5 0510 00078463 4
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FIRE CONTROL COMPUTING SYSTEMS >.''■'■ V , ;'r>
io m m HEADQUARTERS, U.S. ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND PJS3P
OCTOBER 1970
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tiEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND WASHINGTON, D. C. 20315 AMC PAMPHLET No. 706329
13
°ctober
1970
ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK SECTION 3, FIRE CONTROL COMPUTING SYSTEMS
Paragraph
Page UST OF ILLUSTRATIONS UST OF TABLES LIST OF EXAMPLES UST OF INFORMATION SUMMARIES LIST OF DERIVATIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOREWORD PREFACE INTRODUCTION
x xvii xviii xix xx xxi xxii xxiv I 1
PART I. MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR FIRE CONTROL COMPUTING SYSTEMS CHAPTER 1. THE ROLE OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL IN THE DESIGN PROCESS 11 12 13
DEFINITION AND IILIFORTANCE OF A MATHEMATICAL MODE! MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR PHYSICAL SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS AND LIMITATIONS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS. APPENDIX: PHYSICAL CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION F\CTORS ... REFERENCES
11 11 17 111 115
CHAPTER 2. DETERMINATION OF THE ACCURACY AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A SYSTEM FROM STUDIES OF ITS MATHEMATICAL MODEL 21 22 22.1 22.2 22 3 22.3.1 22.3.2 22.3.3 22.4 22.5 22.5.1 22.5.2 22.6 22.7 22.7.1 22.7.2 22.7.2.1 22.7.2 .2 22.7.2.3 22.7.2.4 22.7.2.5 22.7.2.6 22.7.2.7 22.7.3 22.7.3.1 22.7.3.2 22.7.3.3
INTRODUCTION MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES GENERAI LINEARDIFFERENTIALEQiiATTON THEORY FREQUENCYIX)MAIN ANALYSIS Laplace and Fourier Transforms Useful Theorems Solution Procedure FREQUENCYRESPONSE. TECHNIQUES BLOCK DIAGRAMS AX I) SIGNALFLOW GRAPHS Block Diagrams SignalFlow Graphs •. STATISTICAL, THEORY NONLINEAR ANALYSIS General Nonlinearities Eound In Many Control Systems Limiting Dry Friction Hysteresis Relays • Diodes Orifices Products and Transcendental Functions Classification of Nonlinear Systems Continuous and Discontinuous Nonlinearities Incidental and Essential Nonlinearities ZeroMemory and NonzeroMemory Nonlinearities
21 21 21 22 22 , . 22 23 2ö 210 211 211 215 220 224 224 227 227 22 7 227 228 228 228 228 220 , 22!' 229 229
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont) p aragraph 2■2.7.3.4 23 23.1 23.2 233 24 24.1 24.2 24.2.1 24.2.2 24.2.3 24.2.4 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6
Page Phenomena Peculiar to Nonlinear Systems SIMULATION TECHNIQUES GENERA! ANALOG TECHNIQUES DIGITAL TECHNIQUES NUMEKICAT. TECHNIQUES GENERAL REPRESENTATION OE MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS Iteration Series Approximation Interpolation Curve Fitting NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS FOR SOLVING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS METHODS FOR SOLVING SYSTEMS OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS REFERENCES GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS AND PAPPUS RELATING TO NONLINEAR SYSTEMS Describing Functions Nonlinear Differential Equations
230 230 230 230 231 232 232 233 233 234 234 237 244 245 246 263 266 268 268 268
PART II. COMPUTING DEVICES USEFUL IN FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS CHAPTER 3. THE CLASSIFICATIONS OF COMPUTING DEVICES USED IN FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS 3_1 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 32 32.1 32.2 33 34 35 36 37
INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRE CONTROL COMPUTERS CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES BASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTS USER CLASSIFICATIONS. DESIGNER CT ASSI[ TCATIONS MANUAL COMPUTING DEVICES FIRING TABLES NOMOGRAMS MANUALLY OPERATED AUTOMATIC COMPUTERS AUTOMATIC COMPETING DEVICES DIGITAL, DIGITAL DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZER, AND ANALOG COMPUTING DEVICES TYPES OF PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED IX COMPUTERS . . . SPECIAL PURPOSE AND MULTIPURPOSE COMPUTING DEVICES. . . REFERENCES
31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 37 37
CHAPTER 4. DIGITAL COMPUTERS 41 41.1 41.2 41.3 ii
INTRODUCTION „ DEFINITION OF A DIGITAL COMPUTER NUMBER SYSTEMS FUNCTIONAL FARTS OF A DIGITAL MACHINE
41 41 42 42
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont) Paragraph 42 42.1 42.2 42.3 42.4 43 43.1 43.2 44 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 45 45.1 45.2 45.3 46 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.3 47 48 3i) 4!).l 49.2 49.2.1 49.2.2 49.2.3 410 .311 411.1 411.2 411.3 411.3.1 411.3.2 4 11.3.3 411.3.4 411.3.5 411. i.6 411.4 411.5 411.6 411.7 412 412.1
Page SYSTEM DESIGN EQUATIONS TO BE SOLVED USE OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND OTHER MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES ACCURACY AN!) RESPONSE TIME USE OF SAMPLEDDATA THEORY THE GENERAL CON1 FIGURATION OF A FIRE CONTROL DIGITAL COMPUTER INPUT AND OUTPUT CONSIDERATIONS COMPUTER SPEEDS DETERMINATION OF COMPUTER STORAGE CONFIGURATION . ... SIZE OF COMPUTER PROGRAM CODING SYSTEM AND WORD LENGTH SUBROUTINES. REQUIREMENTS FOR TEMPORARY STORAGE. . . DATA STORAGE REQUIRE MFNTS EXAMPLE OF FA DAC MEMORY FLEXIBILITY REQUIREMENTS SPECIALPURPOSE VERSES GENERAL PURPOSH COMPUTERS . . CHOICII OF BUILTIN COMPUTER OPERATIONS CHOICE OF PROGRAMMING SYSTEMS COMF1 TER T\PFS S\ NCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS WIJOLETRANSITR AND INCREMENTAL COMPUTERS OPERATIONAL COMPUTERS COMPUTERS AS SERVO ELEMENTS TYPICAL DIGITAL COMPUTER T. OGICAI DESIGN COMPUTER NUMBER SYSTEMS BINAEO SYSTEM BINARY CODES Reflected Binary (Gray) Code Decimal Codes Errordetecting and Correcting Codes CLASSES OF COMPUTER LOGIC PRE1XYMINANT LOGICAL COMBISATIONS GATES FLIPFLOPS. ADDERS AND SUBTRACTERS Halfadder. Fulladder Accumulator Serial and Parallel Adders Simultaneous Carry Techniques Subtracters MULTIPLIERS AND DIVIDERS MATRLX MEMORIES COUNTERS ARITHMETIC UNITS CIRCUIT COMPONENTS VACUUM TUBES
48 48 48 411 412 413 414 419 420 420 42 5 429 42? 429 430 430 430 431 432 432 437 437 437 438 441 446 446 446 446 446 448 449 451 45t 453 453 453 453 45 3 457 457 457 457 459 45 9 459 459 459
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont) Paragraph 412.2 412.3 412.4 413 413.1 413.1.1 413.1.1.1 413.1.1.2 413.1.1.3 413.1.2 413.1.3 4 13.1.4 413.2 413.2.1 413.2.2 413.2.3 413.2.4 413.2.5 414 414.1 414.2 414.3
Page SEMICONDUCTORS . MAGNETIC DEVICES NEW DEVELOPMENTS STORAGE SEQUENTIALACCESS STORAGE_______________ Magnetic Sequential Storage Magnetic Drums Magnetic Discs . . , Magnetic Tape Delayline Storage Punched Paper Tape and Cards Photoelectric Storage. . « > , RANDOMACCESS STORAGE , , , , , , , , . . , Magnetic Core and Other Coincidentcurrent Devices»™™—————— Diodecapacitor Storage Cathoderaytube Electrostaticmosaic Storage Photoelectric Storage Ferroelectric Storage  _ _ __—. — > > CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES . . „ , _ __ __ , , , «=, COMPONENT SELECTION PACKAGING TECHNIQUES (MINIATURIZATION) MICROMINIATURIZATION REFERENCES
460 467 467 468 468 468 468 468 468 470 472 472 472 472 474 475 475 475 475 475 475 476 477
CHAPTER 5. DIGITAL DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZERS 5_1 5_2 53 5_4 55 56
INTRODUCTION LOGICAL CIRCUITRY SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIA I EQUATIONS SCALING ERRORS IN THE DDA DDA COMPONENTS, CIRCUITS, AND HARDWARE REFERENCES
51 53 58 510 512 515 518
CHAPTER 6. ANALOG COMPUTERS 61 51.1 61.2 61.3 61.4 61.5 61.6 61.7 61.8 61.9 61.10 61.11 62 62.1 iv
1\'PRODUCTION. SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS PA ANA FOG MEANS . Common Mechanical and Elect rical Analogs. . Block Diagrams Analog Computer Diagrams Analog Solution of Differential Equations TYPES OF ANALOG COMPUTERS Electromechanical and Electronic Analog Computers AC Type DC Type Electrical Analog Computers Mechanical Analog Computers ANALOG SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS . , . . . BASIC SOLUTION METHODS
6
.
,
,
"! 62 62 64 69 611 613 613 614 615 615 616 616 616
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont) Paragraph 62.2 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.6 62.7 62.8 62.9 62.10 62.11 62.12 62.13 62.14 62.15 62.16 62.17 63 63.1 63.2 63.3 53.4 63.5 63.6 63.7 63.8 63.9 63.10 63.11 S4 64.1 64.2 64.3 64.4 64.5 64.6 64.7 64.8 64.9 64.10 64.11 64.12 64.13 64.14 64.15 64.16 64.17 64.18 64.19 65
Page Ordinary Differential Equations Simultaneous Linear Equations Nonlinear Algebraic Equations Partial Differential Equal ions SCALE FACTORS A N I) TIME SCALES LINEAR OPERATIONS Scale Changing Summation Integration Synthesis of Rational Transfer Functions NONLINEAR OPERATIONS Multiplication and Division Vector Resolution Direction Cosines Euler Angles Generation of Arbitrary Nonlinear Functions ELECTRONIC DIFFER ENTIAl. ANAI.ZZER S OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS MULTIPLIERS Timedivision Multiplier Quartersquare Multiplier FUNCTION GENERATORS DECISION UNITS 1NPUTOUTPI T EQUIPMENT Input Equipment Reference Voltage Supplies Noise Generators Output Equipment MECHANICAL AND ELECTROMECHANICAL DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZERS SUMMATION DE\ ICES INTEGRATORS MULTIPLIERS ANI) DIVIDERS rileehanieal Multipliers Servomultipliers Mechanical Dividers Electromechanical Dividers COORDINATESYSTEM CON\ ERTERS Mechanical Converters Electromechanical Converters Threedimensional \ cctor Resolution by Computers FUNCTION GENERATORS Mechanical Trigonometric Generators Electrical Trigonometric Generators Arbitrary Function Generators Cams and Noncircular Gears Linkage Mechanisms Special Potentiometers Electromechanical Curve Readers COMPLETE COMPUTERS
616 618 619 620 621 624 624 625 625 627 632 632 633 634 635 640 643 643 645 647 648 648 649 652 652 652 652 655 655 655 655 657 657 658 659 660 660 661 661 662 667 667 667 669 670 670 671 671 671
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont) Paragraph 65.1 65.2 65.3 65.4 65.5 65.6 65.7 65.8 65.9 65.10 65.11 65.12 65.13 65.14 65.15 65.16 65.17 65.18 65.19 65.20 65.2 1 65.22
Page POWER SUPPLIES Filament Power Supplies Highvoltage DC Supplies Relay Supplies AC Supplies Grounding Systems PATCHING AND PROGRAMMING EQUIPMENT Patching Equipment Programming Equipment OUTPUT AND OVERLOAD EQUIPMENT Strip Recorders Plotting Tables Oscilloscopes Servo and Digital Voltmeters Overload Indication Circuits CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES ANI) MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS Maintenance and Checking Maintenance Checking ENVIRONMENTAL EEE'ECTs Size, Weight, and Power Considerations Temperature. Humidity, Altitude. Shock, and Vibration APPENDIX: THE BASIC OPERATIONS OF MATRIX ALGEERA .... REFERENCES GENERAL DTBLIOGRAPTIY FOR ANALOG COMPUTERS
672 672 673 678 678 680 680 681 682 685 685 687 688 689 690 690 691 691 692 692 692 693 694 698 699
CHAPTER 7. ANALOGDIGITAL CONVERSION TECHNIQUES
7_1 72 72.1 72.1.1 72.1.2 72.2 72.3 72.4 73 73.1 73.2 7_3.3 73.4 74 75
PURPOSE OK CONVERSIONS CONVERSION OF AN ANALOG VOLTAGE TO A DIGITAL OUTPUT . . COMPARISON CIRCUITS Levelatatime Voltagetodigital Encoders Digitatatime Voltagetodigital Encoders THE LOGIC USE D TO OPTIMIZE THE SPEED OF CONVERSION . . TJIE USE OF SERVOS WITH SHAFT ENCODERS STEPPIiNG SWITCHES, RELAYS, AND TRANSISTOR SWITCFIES FOR A D CONVERSION CONVERSION OF MECHANICAL MOTION TO A DIGITAL OUTPUT . . COMMUTATORTYPE ENCODING DISCS ANI) DRUMS MAGNETIC ENCODERS PHOTOELECTRIC ENCODERS CODES ANI) ERUSTT (READING HEAD) ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYED CONVERSION OF' A DIGITAL SIGNAL TO AN ANALOG VOLTAGE ... CONVERSION OF A DIGITAL SIGNAL TO MECTTANICAL MOTION ... REFERENCES
71 71 71 71 75 77 78 78 78 78 79 711 711 711 716 717
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont) Paragraph
Page CHAPTER 8. ANALOGDIGITAL COMPARISONS
81 82 83 84 85 86 87
BASIS OF COMPARISON. . . '. COMPARISONS BASED ON THE SPEED WITH WIIICTT SOLUTIONS ARE OBTAINED COMPARISONS BASE]; ON THE ACCURACY OF THE SOLUTIONS OBTAINED COMPARISONS BASED ON THE COMPLEXITY OF TITE COMPUTING DEVICES INVOLVE11 COMPARISONS BASED ON TITE RELIABILITY OBTAINABLE COMPARISONS BASED OK TITE NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS COMPARISONS BASED ON COST. SIZE. WEIGHT. AND POWER CONSIDERATIONS
REFERENCES
81 81 83 84 84 86 86
87
CHAPTER 9. RELIABILITY AND CHECKOUT PROCEDURES 91 92 93 94 94.1 94.2 95 95.1 95.2 95.3 95.4 96 97
INTRODUCTION EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON RELIABILITY LOGICAL DESIGN OF COMPUTERS TO OBTAIN TILE DESIRED DEGREE OF RELIABILITY COMPUTER CHECKOUT PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE MARGINAL CHECKING SPECIALPURPOSE CHECKOUT EQUIPMENT GENERAL DESCRIPTION DETAILED DATA BASIC ELEMENTS GENERAL. METHOD OF OPERATION MICANS AND FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN VERIFYING THE DESIGN OF REALTIME FIRE CONTROL COMPUTERS CONCLUSION REFERENCES •.
91 92 93 98 98 98 99 99 910 913 915 915 916 917
PART III. THE REALIZATION OF A PROTOTYPE FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM BASED UPON A MATHEMATICAL MODEL CHAPTER 10. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MECHANIZATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS 101 102
KINDS OF PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH MECHANIZATION COVERAGE OF REMAINDER OF PART III
101 102
CHAPTER 11. CHARACTERISTICS PECULIAR TO COMPUTERS USED FOR FIRE CONTROL APPLICATIONS 111 111.1 111.2 111.3
OVERALL DESIGN. MECHANICAL ANALOG COMPUTERS ELECTROMECHANICAL ANAL.OG COMPUTERS OTHER COMPUTER TYPES
111 H_l ii_2 ii_3
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TABLE OF CONTENTS(cont) Paragra ph 112 112.1 112.2 11 3 11■3.1 113.2
113.3 114 114.1 114.2 114.3 115
Page INPUTOUTPUT CONSIDERATIONS SOURCESOF DATA TRANSMISSION OF DATA TIMERESPONSE CONSIDERATIONS REALTIME COMPUTATION CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DESIGN O F ANALOG COMPUTERS FOR REALTIME OPERATION CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DESIGN OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS FOR REALTIME OPERATION ACCURACY CONSIDERATIONS GENERAL CONCEPTS THE ACCURACY OF SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM ANALOG COMPUTERS THE ACCURACY OF SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM DIGITAL COMPUTERS OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS REFERENCES
113 113 114 115 115 119 1112 1113 1113 1116 1119 1121 1122
CHAPTER 12 . EXAMPLES OF MEANS USED TO MEET PARTICULAR TYPES OF DESIGN PROBLEMS
121 122 123 124 125 125.1 125.2 125.3 125.4 125.5 126 126.1 126.2 126.3 126.4
INTRODUCTION 121 GUN DATA COMPUTER T29E2 ■ 121 LIGHTWEIGHT FIRE CONTROL EQUIPMENT FOR ROCKET LAUNCHERS. . 125 VIGILANTE COMPUTER GYRO/PLATFORM SYSTEM 127 MARK 20 GYRO COMPUTING SIGHT 1212 COMPUTATION OF LEAD 1217 TIME OF FLIGHT AND MAGNET CURRENT 1218 COMPUTATION OF STJPERELEVATION 1218 DISPLACEMENT OF THE LINE OF SIGHT 1220 FUNCTIONS OF THE SIGMA FACTOR 1222 CANTCORRECTION SYSTEM OF BALLISTIC COMPUTER XM17 . . . .1223 BACKGROUND OF BALLISTIC COMPUTER XM17 1223 THE DESIGN USED FOR THE CANTCORRECTION SYSTEM 1224 ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF THE CANTCORRECTION SYSTEM . . . .1229 FACTORS TOBE CONSIDERED BEFORE UNDERTAKING AN IMPROVED DESIGN 1237
Appendix 121 122
THE MATHEMATICS OF LEAD COMPUTATION CALIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF GUN SIGHT MARK 20 MOD 6 AND DATA ON LEAD ANGLE AND TIME OF FLIGHT FOR 20 MM BALLISTICS REFERENCES
1238 1241 1249
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont) Paragraph
rage CHAPTER 13. EXAMPLE OF A PROBLEM INVOLVING THE INTERCONNECTION OF A COMPLEX SYSTEM
13 1 132 133 134
INTRODUCTION TRAJECTORY COMPUTATIONS COMPUTER DESIGN CONCLUSIONS INDEX
131 • . . . 132 134 139 IN1
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fig. No.
Title
Page
I1
The Computer Tree €or Electronic Digital Computers
15
11
Equivalent, or l}ual, Electrical Networks
1 _7
21 22 23
210 212
220
Locations of the Roots of Eq. 245 in the splane Blockdiagram Manipulation and Reduction "Rules" Mechanical Schematic Diagram of a Servomotor Coupled to an Inertial Load by Means of a Flexible Shaft Blockdiagram Examples Signalflow Graph in Three Variables Signalflow Graph of Order One Signal€lowGraph of Order Two Signalflow Graph Showing Addition of Parallel Branches Signalflow Graph Showing Multiplication of Cascaded Branches .... Signalflow Graph Showing Termination Shifted One Node Forward . . Signalflow Graph Showing Origin Shifted One Node Backward Signalflow Graph Showing Elimination of a Selfloop Signalflow Graph Showing Reduction of Secondorder Graph A Simple Circuit and i I s Associated Inputoutput Relationship Plot Depicting the Limiting Type of Nonlinearity Graphical Representation of Coulomb Friction Graphical Representation of Hysteresis Graphical Representation of a Relay with Deadspace but no Hysteresis The Difference Between the Derivative of a Given Function and the Derivative of its Approximating Polynomial Integration by Means of Simpson's Rule
3 1 32
The Computing Process Basic Nomogram
33 34
4 1 42 43
Computation Flow Diagrams Fourthdegree Polynomial. All Roots Real and Positive Flow Diagram Depicting the Steps Involved in Computing the Roots of a Polynomial Functional Diagram of a Hypothetical Fire Control System that Contains All of the Functional Elements Associated with Fire Control Equipment Organization of the Computer in Pictorial Form Relation of the Input/Output to the Computer Computer Input/Output Configuration for Multiple Inputs Derivation of a Smoothed Signal From an Asynchronous Signal Device. Flow Chart for Computation of Missile Trajectory Flow Chart of Generalized Loop Flow Chart for Instruction Mcdification Flow Chart of Loops Within Loops Flow Chart for Setting Up Initial Conditions and Different Exits of a Subroutine Memory and Computing Unit Arithmetic Unit and Control Instruction Decoder and Control Generator
41 49
24 25 26 27 28 29 2 10 211 212 213 214 2 15 2 16 217 218 2 19
44 45 46 47 48 49 4 10 411 4 12 413 4 14 4 15 4 16 x
215 215 218 218 218 219 219 219 220 220 221 225 227 227 228 228 245 246
410 415 417 417 418 4 19 421 422 423 423 424 425 425 426
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont) Fig. No. 4_ 17 4_18 4_ 19 4_20 4_21 4_22 423 4_24 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 IS49.1 IS4 9.2 IS4 9.3 IS4 9.4 IS4 9.5 IS4 9.6 TS4 9.7 5 1 52 53 54 55 56 57 58
Title
Page
Input and Output Functional Units 426 Accumulator. Instruction Register, and Currentaddress Register . . . 427 Functional Diagram of FADAC System 429 The Basic Programming Process 432 An Illustrative FORTRAN Program 433 Typical Digital Servo 438 Typical Arrangement for a Storedprogram Computer 439 Representation of Relay Contacts 442 Three Simple Contact Networks 444 Simplification Resulting From Application of Theorems 445 Serial vs Parallel Computer 450 Logical Symbols for Invert ers. Tnhibiters. and Twoinput ANDOR Gates 452 Logical Symbols for Twoinput NANDNOR Gates 452 The Basic Flipflop 454 A Typical Binary Counter 454 Forms of Halfadder Logic 455 Fulladder Using Two Halfadders 455 Serial Binary Accumulator 457 Ferroelectric Storage 467 Arrangement of a Hypothetical, Sixteenword Serial Memory on the Surface of a Drum 469 Typical Reel System for Magnetic Tape 469 Method of Providing an Endless Tape 469 Acoustic Delay Line 470 A Typical Serial Memory Utilizing a Magnetostrictive Delay Line . . . 471 Reading of Punched Paper Tape 472 Typical Arrangement for Reading Punched Paper Tape 473 Punch Cards 473 Corner of a Core Matrix 474 Simplified Diagram. Truth Table, and Karnaugh Map for an nstage Identity Comparator An n stage Identity Comparator Based on the Use of ANDOR Logic . . Schematic Representation of a Single DTpL 930 Gate Physical Structure ard Actual Pin Connections of the DTpL 930 Monolithic Chip Logic Symbols for the DTpL &30 Gate A Twobit Identity Comparator (A~B) A Sixbit Identity Comparator (A=B) Concept of the Digital Differential Analyzer The DDA Computing Unit An Illustrative Combination of Two ÜDA Computing Units The Computation of y3 =7^7 The Computation of y  x Simplified Representation of DDA Operation Conventional and Sharedintegrator DDA Implementations of l/u . . . . Connections Employed for the solution of (d2w/dt2) _w(dw/dt) _sinw= 0
461 461 462 463 464 465 466 5_4 55 55 56 56 57 58 510 xi
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont) F ig. No 5■9 5•10 5 11 5• 12 5•13
6 1 6 2 6 3 6■4 6■5 6 6 6■7 6 8 6■9 6 10 6■11 6 12 6 13 6 14 6 15 6 16 6 17
618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 529 630 631 632
Title Truncation Errors Associated with Rectangular and Trapezoidal Integration The Stability of a Continuous (Analog) Solution of the Equations for Sine and Cosine Functions A DDAintegrator Solution of the Sine and Cosine Equations; Parallel Implementation A DDAintegrator Solution of the Sine and Cosine Equations; Serial Implementation Interconnection Diagram of DDA and Shiftregister Integratedcircuit Elements (MOS) to Solve the Equation y = Unix) Classification of Various Analog Devices Analogous Mechanical and Electrical Systems Block Diagrams of Ohm's Law and Newton's Second Law Blockdiagram Operations Symbol for a Summing Point Seriesparallel Circuit and its Block Diagram Block Diagram of the System of Fig. 66 Given in the Laplace Domain Equivalent Configurations Based upon Superposition Combination of Cascaded Elements Movement of an Element Forward Past a Summation Point Movement of an Element Backward Past a Summation Point Movement of an Element Forward Past a Pickoff Point Movement of an Element Backward Past a Pickoff Point Combination of Parallel Paths Removal of a Feedback Loop Steps in the Reduction of the Block Diagram of Fig. 67 Basic Diagrams Associated with the Analog Solution of the Differential Equation (dx/dt) + x2 = 1 Diagram Combining Figs. 617(/\) and 617(g) to Give the Solution of the Differential Equation (dx/dt) + x2 = 1 Simplification of Fig. 618 Setup for the Solution of a Linear Thirdorder Differential Equation . Transformer Summing Circuit Simple Resistive Summing Circuit Differentiating Circuits Analogcomputer Setup for a Simple Linear Differential Equation . . Alternative Analogcomputer Setup for a Simple Linear Differential Equation Analogcomputer Setup for a Simple Linear, Timevarying Differential Equation Analogcomputer Setup for a Simple Nonlinear Differential Equation . Circuit for a Closedloop Solution of a Pair of Simultaneous Equations Block Diagram for a Generalized Computing Component Multiplication by a Dimensionless Constant Computer Equivalent of a Sine Function Determination of a Component of a Force
Page 513 515 515 516 517 62 53 65 66 66 66 67 68 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 611 612 612 613 614 614 615 6 .16 617 617 618 6 18 519 621 622 622 623
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont) Fig. No. 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 6 64 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672
Title Operation of an Electronic Integrator Amplifier with Resistive Feedback Use of a Potentiometer for Continuous Gain Adjustment Representative Circuit for the Summation of n Voltages Basic Circuit for Integration Electronic Integrator with Initialcondition Circuit Integrator Realization Block Diagram for Oneamplifier Realization with Twoterminal Networks Resulting Form of Synthesis Network Block Diagram for Oneamplifier Realization with Threeterminal Networks Definition of Admittances Block Diagram for Threeamplifier Realization Representation of a Vector in a Rectangular Coordinate System and in a Polar Coordinate System Rotation of a Rectangular Coordinate System Example of a Bodyaxis System Orientation of a Bodyaxis System with Respect to an Inertial System Direction Cosines Defining the Orientation of an Axis in Inertial Space Eulerangle Definitions Plots of ex and its Approximations, where e is the Error in the Function y = f(x) Straightline Approximation of an Arbitrary Function A Typical Operational Amplifier Basic Waveform of a Timedivision Multiplier Diode Networks Used for Generating Three Simple Nonlinear Functions Approximation of an Arbitrary Function by Means of a Diode Function Generator Simple Bivariable Function Basic Form of the Photoformer Function Generator Block Diagram of a Randomsignal Generator Block Diagram of a Noise Monitor Rectangular Power Spectrum NcnGaussian Random Signals Typical Mechanical Differentials Geometry of the Diskdisk Integrator Block Diagram of a Rateservo Integrator Schematic Representation of Multiplication by Means of a Pair of Integrators Plus a Differential Linkage multiplier Schematic Representation of a Quartersquares Multiplier Schematic Representaticn of a Servomultiplie r Block Diagram of a Divider Employing a Servodriven Multiplier . . . Block Diagram of a Position Servo Used for Division Block Diagram of a Gaincompensated Divider Servo
Page 623 624 625 625 627 627 628 629 629 630 630 631 634 634 635 636 636 637 642 642 645 647 648 650 650 651 653 654 655 655 656 657 657 658 658 659 659 660 661 661
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont) Fig. No. 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680
681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 6 96
6 97 6 98 6666
99 100 101 102
7 1 72 73 74 75 76 77
xiv
Title Division Circuit Eased on a Single. Tapped. Linear Potentiometer. Mechanical Coordinate Converter Simplified Diagram of a Rectangulartopolar Converter Geometry of the Coordinateconversion System Block Diagram of a System for Generating Direction Cosines Block Diagram of a System for Converting from Aircraft Coordinates to Inertial Coordinates Block Diagram of a System for the Direct Solution of Euler Angles Block Diagrams of Systems for Converting from Bodyaxis Coordinates to Inertialaxis Coordinates and Vice Versa by the Use of Resolvers Double Scotch Yoke Mechanism Geartype Sinecosine Generator Modification of the Scotch Yoke for Generating a Tangent Function Shapedcard Sinecosine Potentiometer Circuit for the Generation of the Tangent Function Circuit for Approximating the Secant Function Schematic Diagram of an Induction Resolver Typical Cams Typical Function Gears Function Generation with a Tapped Potentiometer Rectifier Section of a Typical Power Supply Block Diagram Showing the Basic Form of the Series Regulators Employed in Most Electronic Voltageregulator Units Schematic Diagram of a Typical +300V, 800ma Voltage Regulator Block Diagram of the Basic Shunt Regulator Schematic Diagram of a Typical Shunt Regulator Designed for Negative Operation Typical Analogcomputer Installation in which Patching is Accomplished by the Use of Cabling Between Components A Removable Metal Patch Board A Generalpurpose Analog Computer with its Metal Patch Board in Place A Typical Strip Recorder Graph Made from a Typical Strip Recorder A Typical Plotting Table A Typical Tabletop Plotting Table
Page . .
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. .
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Simplified Block Diagram and Associated Wave Forms for a Levelatatime Type of Voltagetodigital Encoder Schematic Diagram of a Rampvoltage Generator Simplified Block Diagram and Associated Wave Forms for a Digitatatime Type of Voltagetodigital Encoder The Logic Diagram and Matrix Diagram for a Natural Binary Coded Decimal Encoder A Typical Binary Coding Disc Directdrive Angularshaftposition Analogtodigital Converter Block Diagram of the Engineering Research Associates Shaft Monitor.
661 662 662 663 664 665 666
666 667 667 667 668 668 669 669 670 670 672 675 675 676 678 679 681 683 684 686 686 658 689
72 75 76 78 79 1
710
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont) Fig. No. 78 79 7 10 7777
11 12 13 14
9 1
o 2 9 3 9 4 9 5
Title
Pa e
§
Operation Sequence of the Engineering Research Associates Shaft Monitor Arrangement of Sectored Discs and Photodetectors for Readout of Shaft Motion A Typical Cyclic Coding Disc Schematic Diagram of a Serialtovoltage Converter Schematic Diagrams of Typical Digitaltovoltage Converters A Servomechanism €or Digitaltoanalog Conversion A Servomechanism for Incremental Digitaltoanalog Conversion ■ ■ ■
712 714 714 715 716 716
Equipmentlife Characteristics Typical Portion of a FALT Tape Listing FALT Operating Controls The REDSTONE Missile Firing Data Computer Block Diagram of the Basic Computer System
93 96 97 99 914
710
Functional Diagram of a Typical ITighperformance Instrument Servo . Functional Diagram of a Typical Rateservo Integrator Effect of Computer Time Lag with a Maneuvering Target The Standard Configuration of a Fire Control System Settling Time for a Typical Computer Response to a Step Function. . . Essential Elements of a Singleaxis Integrating Gyro Unit Formation of Unityfeedback Equivalent Treatment of Minor Loops Comparison of the Response Characteristics of Analog and Digital Computers Functional Diagram of a Summing Component Functional Diagram of a Typical System Element Functional Representation of a System Element in the Frequency Domain
112 113 118 118 119 1110 1112 1112
Dl 1 1.1
Basic Geometry
117
13113.1
Logic Diagram for a Radar Range Converter
1114
121
Simplified Functional Diagram Depicting the Generation of Gunorder Computations by the T29E2 Computer Equations of a Projectile Trajectory in a Vacuum Schematic Diagram of the Quadrantelevation Loop of the T29E2 Computer Sight Unit M34A2; Left Rear View Launcher and Sight Axes Systems Functional Diagram of the Trackinggyro/Platform System Schematic Diagram of the Trackinggyro/Platform System Computation of Rate about the Tracking Line Gun Sight Mk 20 Mod 6 Mounted on a Twin 20 mm Gun Gun Sight Mk 20 Mod 7. with Adapter Equipment, Mounted on Gun Director Mk 51 Mod 11. for Use with 40 mm Guns The Fire Control Problem Solved by Gun Sight Mk 20
11 1 112 113 114 115 11 6 117 11 8 11 9 1110 11 11 11 12
122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 1210 1211
1113 1115 1117 1118
122 124 125 126 127 1210 1211 1213 1214 1215 1216
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (cont) Fig. No. 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 123C 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236
Title The Gyro and Gimbal Used in Gun Sight Mk 20 The Range Magnet and Eddycurrent Disk The Manner ifi Which the Gyro Follows the Magnet Geometrical Relationships between Lead and Superelevation Operation of the Superelevation Computer Effect of the Superelevation Computer on the Position of the Gyro Spin Axis The Linkage between the Reflector Glass and the Gyro in Traverse and Elevation The Line of Sight With Zero Gyroaxis Displacement The Line of Sight With 120 Mils Gyroaxis Displacement The Geometry Associated With the Superelevation Correction The Mechanics of Introducing the Superelevation Correction The Geometry Associated With the Azimuth and Elevation Corrections The Application of the Elevation Correction The Weapon Positioned on a Slope Movements of a Weapon Positioned on a Slope Two Methods of Defining Cant Mounting of a Cantmeasuring Unit Relation of the Gun and the Directfire Telescope The Geometry Associated With Cant Correction The Geometry Associated With a Pendulum The Arrangement of the Reticle Drive The Movement of the Gun from Pj to P3 The Theoretical Azimuth Error Produced by the XM17 Computer When it is Operating under Condition No. 1 The Theoretical Azimuth and Elevation Errors Produced by the XM17 Computer When It Is Operating under Condition No . 2 The Azimuth Errors That Result under Condition No. 2 from Excluding the sec2 E, Term Alone and Also the cos a and sec2 E, Terms Simultaneously
Page 1216 1216 1217 1218 1220 1220 1221 1221 1222 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1228 1229 1229 1230 1231 1232 1232 1234 1235 1235 1236
A12 1.1 A12 2.1 A12 2.2 A12 2.3 A12■2.4 A12•2.5 A12 2.6 A12 2.7 A12■2.8 A12•2.9 A12 2.10 A 122.11
Diagram of the Leadangle Problem Solved by Gun Sight Mk 20 . . . . Typical Target Approaches T. vs Range for a Target Speed of 300 mph Tn vs Range for a Target Speed of 600 mph Superelevation vs Tn for a Target Speed of 300 mph Superelevation vs T. for a Target Speed of 600 mph T vs Present Range for an Incoming Target Superelevation vs Range T. vs Present Range for an Outgoing Target Lead Angle vs Time Lead Angle vs Range Maximum Lead Angle vs Crossover
1238 1242 1242 1243 1244 1244 1245 1246 1246 1247 1247 1248
131 132 133 134 135
Coordinates Used in Solving Artillery Problems Computer Physical Characteristics Functional Diagram of the FADAC System Magnetic Memory Detail Typical Recirculating Loop Register
132 136 137 137 139
■
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LIST OF TABLES Table No.
Title
Page
11 12
Symbols and Units Summary of Analogies
14 15
21 22 23
Commonly Used Laplace Transform Pairs Blockdiagram Symbols Array of Tabular Differences
26 211 238
41 42 43 44 45 46 47
420 428 435 443 445 447
48 49 410
Computation of the Traj ectory of a Missile Order of Magnitude of Memory Access Time Interpretation of the FORTRAN Compiler Statements in Fig. 421. . . Postulates and Theorems of Switching Algebra Truth Table for Fig. 426 Gray Codes Listing of TJiree of the 4bit Weighted Binarycodeddecimal Systems Excess 3 Code Logical Truth Tables Truth Table for NANDNOR Logic
61 62
Symbols for Electronic Analog Computing Elements Typical Operationalamplifier Specifications
610 646
71 72
Values for the Characteristics of a Typical Highspeed Transistor Operational Amplifier A Cyclic Code and Its Decimal and Binary Equivalents
74 713
81
A Comparison of Seven Types of Digital Machines
83
121
Nominal Time of Flight vs Range Data
131 132
FADAC Specifications Memory Contents
448 448 453 453
1219 135 138
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LIST OF EXAMPLES No. 21 22 23 24 25 26
Title Iterative Procedure for the Evaluation ofvN Computation of Sin x by Means of a Power Series Sample Application of Lagrange's Interpolation Formula Application of the Leastsquares Curvefitting Technique to Rangevstimeofflight Data Sample Application of Simpson's Rule The Numerical Solution of £pL = yx by the Exact Method and by Four Approximate Methods
Page 235 236 239 240 247 249
61
Numerical Illustration of a Coordinate Transformation
111 112
Sample Calculation of the Maximum Allowable Computation Time. . . .116 The Response Improvement That Can be Obtained by Means of a Closed Loop 1111 Radar Range Converter 1114
113
639
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LIST OF INFORMATION SUMMARIES No. 4 1 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
Title The Decimal Number System The Binary Number System Any Number System Conversion Rules Decimal to Binary Conversion Rules Binary to Decimal Binary Equivalent of Decimal Numbers The Rules of Binary arithmetic Addition and an Example of Their Application The Rules of Binary arithmetic Multiplication and an Example of Their Application The Logical Design of Identity Comparators
Page 43 44 45 46 46 47 456 458 460
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LIST OF DERIVATIONS No. 111
Title Derivation of the Relationship for Calculating the Maximum Allowable Computation Time
Page 117
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The followmy figures ;ir.'l ladles of llns handbook are based wholly of 1 fie publi shei i'cn u Tables 11 and 12 figs. 64, 6fi. and fi V
From.I. Furore Alcamder and,h Uil'or, 1?;, lie y , S3 'JA: MS I '.\< d M 0! Ji f \ I', MATHi:\l\UCS, Copyrigid ;e; 1962. lie] >r in! (a j I .y permission of J Vent i IT I la 11, Ina.. Fnglrwood ( 'lild's. New .IITSCV.
Table 23
I roni .lohn M. MrCormiek y Mario G. Sa 1 ■> ador i , N F M L1UCA F Al 1 OF 11< >1 )s 1 N FOIL! K AN, Copvrmht © 1964. Reprinted '.>\ permission of IVont ire I lalf, Tin .. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Tahl< ■14
fiimi SWITCHING CIRCUl'S AND 1 .(>( ;H'A I. l)i:SU;\ b> Samuel II. Caldwoll. Convright © 1938 l;y John Wiley N Sons. Ina. Used hv permission of John Wilev and Sons, lie'.
I igs.
From SYSTFM KNG1M .1 OK I \( 1 liv 1 larry 11. (doode .ami Kobe r* If. Mnchol, Copyright © 1937 by MrGrawIIill, Inr. Fsed by permission of McC! ra v. 1 lil 1 linnf Company.
1 1. 12, and 4.'J
iMtirf. 43.49.432.438. 4 34. 442. 444. and 74
From Ivan Florrs, C(AMI "I F M K LOCK': The Fund jonal I le.Mgn ot i light al Compmers, Copyright ©1960. Keprmlrd by perrmss ion of Prentice ] lall, [tie., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Idas. 438
From LOGICAL D10SIGN OF DIGITAL COllI'UT 10US by Montgomery 1'hister, dr., Copyright © 1938 by John Wiley ^ Sons, Inc. tjsed by permission of John WJley & Sons, Ine.
48. 4HR, 437. and
Kirs. 43, 41(1, 411, 412, 413,414,413,416,417, 413, 427, 31, fi 3, 34, 33, and 76
1 Torn DICF1 A I, CO M FI T 1 d! AN I) COVI'KO 1, 1ONGTN i OFUINf; by Robert S. I.edley, Copyright © 1960 by MeGrnw Hill. Ine. Fsed by permission of MeGrawIIill Book Company.
Figs.
From A RITIIMFdJC OPERATION'S IK DIGITAL COMPUTERS by R. K. Richards, Copyright © 1 9.33, by Litton fOducational Publishing, Inc. Fsed by permission of Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
423 and 38
Fig.
433
From MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTERS by George R. Stibitz and Jules A. Larrivee, Copyright © 19.37 by McGrawHill, Ine. Used by permission of McGrawHill Hook Company.
Fig.
620
From an article by William W. Seifert, titled "Differential Analyzer" in Vol.4 of McGRAWHILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Copyright © 1960 by McGrawHill, Inc. Fsed by permission of McGrawHill Hook Cornpan y.
Figs. 624. 625, 626, 627. 639, 640, 641, 642, 643, 644, 659, 660, 661, and 662
From CONTROL SYSTIOMS ENGINEERING, edited by William W. Seifert and Carl W. Steeg, Jr., Copyright © I960 by McGrawHill, Inc. Used by permission of McGrawHill Hook Company.
bigs. 628, 658, 663, 664, 665,666,667,668,669, 670, 671, 672, 674, 681, 682, 683, 684, 685, 6 and 689
From an article by William W. Seifert titled "Analog Computer" in Vol. 1 of McGRAWHILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF' SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Copyright © 1960 by McGrawHill, Inc. Used by permission of McGrawHill Rook Company.
Fig. 79
From Ivan Flores, "Digital, Analog, Hybrid ShaftAngle Indicator with Frictionless'Optical Gearing' , Electromechanical Design, May 1958, Copyright @ 1958. Used by permission of Benwill Publishing Corp.
Fig.
From NOTES ON ANA1 ,OGDIGITAL CONVERSION TECHNIQUES, edited byAlfred K. Susskind, by permission of the M.I.T. Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Copyright © 1957 by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
712
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FOREWORD INTRODUCTION The Fire Control Series fornis part of the Engineering Design Handbook Series which presents engineering information antl quantitative data for the design and construction of Army equipment. In particular, the handbooks of the Fire Control Series have been prepared to aid the designers of Army fire control equipment and systems, and to serve as a reference guide for all military and civilian personnel who may be interested in the design aspects of such material. The handbooks of the Fire Control Series are based on the fundamental parameters of the fire control problem antl its solution. In all problems of control over the accuracy of weapon fire, some method or system of fire control is employed that derives its intelligence from the acquisition and tracking of a target; evaluates this systeminput intelligence by computation; and, finally, applies the output information to the positioning of a weapon along the line of fire. Primary emphasis islaid on the systematic approach required in the design of presentday fire control equipment and systems. This approach involves (l)thorough analysis of the particularfire controlproblem at hand, ^establishment of the most suitable mathematical model, and (3) mechanization of this mathematical model. ORGANIZATIONAL BREAKDOWN To accomplish the aforenoted objectives, the Fire Control Series will'consistprimarily of the following fourmain sections, each pub lished as a separate handbook: a. Section 1, Fire Control Systems General (AMCP 706327) b. Section2, Target Acquisition, Location and Tracking Systems (AMCP 706328) c. Section 3, Fire Control Computing Systems (AMCP 706329) d. Section 4, Weapon Pointing Systems (AMCP 706330)
An additional handbook of the Fire Control Series is AMC Pamphlet AMCP 706331, Compensating Elements. The following paragraphs summarize the content of each of these five handbooks. Section 1 introduces the subject of fire control systems, discloses the basic fire control problem and its solution (in functional terms), delineates systemdesign philosophy, and discusses the application of maintenance antl human engineering principles and standard design practices to fire control system design. Section2 is devoted tothe first aspect of fire control, i.e., gathering intelligence on target position and motion. Section 3, because of the complexity of the subject of computing systems, is divided into three parts that are preceded by an introductory discussion of the roles of computing systems in Army fire control and by a description of specific roles played in particular firecontrol applications. Part I discusses the first step in system design, i.e., the establishment of a mathematical model for the solution of a fire control problem. Emphasis is given to the basis, derivation, and manipulation of mathematical models. Part II discusses the various computing devices that perform useful functions in fire control computing systems. The discussion ranges from simple mechanical linkages to complex digital computers. Types of devices in each classification are briefly described; external sources are referenced for detailed information where practical. Part III discusses the various ways in which the computing devices described in Part II can be applied to the mechanization of the mathematical models described in Part I. It stresses that a fire control computing system designer needs to apply his talents in three special ways: (l)to improvise and innovate as needed to meet particular problems that may arise, (2) to use ingenuity in obtaining the simplest and most economical devices for the particular requirement at hand, and (3) to master the many problems that result from intrasystem interactions when individually satis
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factory components are combined in complex computing systems. Examples culled from actual firecontrolsystem design work illustrate the concepts given. Section 4 of the Fire Control Series discusses weaponpointing systemswith respect to (1) input intelligence and its derivation, (2) the means of implementing weaponpointing for the two basic types of weaponpointing systems from the standpoint of system stability, (3) general design considerations, and (4) the integration of components that form a complete fire control system. AJV1CP 706331 presents information on: (1) the effects of outoflevel conditions anti a displacement between a weapon and its aiming device, and (2)the instrumentation necessary to correct the resulting errors. It also presents general reference information on compensating elements that pertains to accuracy considerations , standard design practices; and considerations of general design, manufacture, field use, maintenance, and storaee .
PREPARATION The handbooks of the bire Control Series have been prepared under the di rection of the Engineering Handbook Office, Duke University, under contract to the Army Research OfficeDurham. With the exception of the handbook titled Compensating Elements, the material for the Fire Control Series  Sections 1 and 3 was prepared by the Jackson & TVloreland Division of United Engineers and Constructors Inc., Eoston, Massachusetts, under subcontract to the Engineering Handbook Office. The Jackson &• iVIoreland Division was assisted in its work by consultants who are recognized authorities in various aspects of fire control. Specific authorship is indicated where appropriate. Overall technical guidance and assistance were rendered by Frankford Arsenal; coordination and direction of this effort were provided by Mr. Eeon G. Pancoast of the hire Control Development ^Engineering Laboratories at Frankford Arsenal.
xxin
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PREFACE The Engineering DesignHandbook Series of the Army Materiel Commandis a coordinated series of handbooks containing basic informationand fundamental data useful inthe design and development of Army materiel and systems. The handbooks are authoritative reference books ofpractical informationand quantitative facts helpful in the design and development of Army materiel so that it will meet the tactical and the technical needs of the Armed Forces. The Handbooks are readily available to all elements of AMC, including personneland contractors having a need and/or requirement. The Army Materiel Command policy isto releasethese Engineering Design Handbooks toother DOD activities and their contractors and to other Government agencies in accordance with current Army Regulation 7031, dated 9 September 1966. Procedures for acquiring these Handbooks follow: a. Activities within AMC and other DOD agencies order direct on an official form from: Commanding Officer Letterkenny Army Depot ATTN: AMXLEATD Chambersburg, Pennsylvania 17201 b. Contractors who have Department of Defense contracts should submit their requests through their contracting officer with
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proper justification to the address listed in par. a. c. Government agencies otherthanDOD having need for the Handbooks may submit their request directly to the address listed in par. a o r to: Commanding General U. S. Army Materiel Command ATTN: AMCAMABS Washington, Ü. C. 20315 d. Industries not having Government contracts (this includes colleges and universities) must forward their requests to: Commanding General U. S. Army Materiel Command ATTN: AMCRDTV Washington, D. C. 20315 e. All foreign requests must be submitted through the Washington, D. C. Embassy to: Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence ATTN: Foreign Liaison Office Department of the Army Washington, D. C. 20310 All requests, other than those originating within DOD, must be accompanied by a valid justification. Comments and suggestions onthis handbook are welcome and should be addressed to Army Research OfficeDurham,Box CM, Duke Station, Durham, North Carolina 27706.
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INTRODUCTION As pointed out in Section 1 ' of the Fire Control Series, computers play a very significant role during the designphase for a fire control system, and a computeris an integral part of every complete modern fire control system. The function of the computer in a fire control system can be illustrated by considering for amoment the case of an individual attempting to hit a moving target with a rifle. If he is to be successful, he must estimate tlie distancetothe target and the rate at which the lineofsightto the target is rotating and must have aknowledge of the projectile characteristics, such as velocity and gravity drop. He must then compute the direction in which to point the weapon to achieve a hit, and so point the weapon. If a strong wind is blowing, he must also take this into account for longrange shots. Obviously, if the individual attempted to carry out detailed conscious calculations, his target would have disappeared before he was ready to pull the trigger. The expert marksman has, through considerable experience, learned to include each of these factors in a rapid mental appraisal of the situationat hand. As the target velocity is increased and the range extended, however, the ability of the individual to apply the required correction factors is exceeded and successful shots can be achieved only if rapid, accurate assistance is provided for gathering the required data, carrying out the necessary computations, and pointing the weapon as required. In the provision of this assistance, modern fire control systems have evolved (seeChapter lof Section 1 of the Fire Control Series). In each of these systems, the computer serves as a vital element. Until approximately 1950 to 1955, analog computers were used almost exclusively in firecontrol systemsbecause the digitalcomputer art had not yet progressed to the stage where tlie required operating speeds could be
achieved. Now, the demands of many fire control problems can be met by either an analog or a digital computer, with the choice frequentlybasedupon such considerations as the desire to use the same computer design in several different systems or tlie background of the particular group of designers responsible forthe fire control system. (Suchbasic factors as cost, size, weight, power requirements, complexity, reliability, solution speed, solution accuracy, and the nature of environmental effects must, of course, always continue to receive careful attention in relationship to the particular circumstances under which a given computer is destined for use.) Worthy of special note is the recognition during recent years of the promising potential for firecontrolsystem applications of the digital differential analyzer  an incremental computer consisting of a collection of digital integrators interconnected in such a wayasto solve integrodifferentialequations. In addition to the use of computers in the design phase of a fire control system and as an integral part of every complete modern firecontrol system, computers have come to serve mankind increasingly in everyday technology. As a matter of fact, the development of highspeed electronic digitalcomputing equipment has created a revolution in technology. Because of the pioneer role played by the U.S. Army in the development of highspeed electronic digital computers, it is particularly appropriate to briefly discuss this development here. Army activity in this field started after the outbreak of World War II, when the need for rapid computational equipment for use in connection with the massive computing problems involved in the preparation of firing tables and related ballistic data became increasingly apparent. At that time, some of the computations werebeing made by the Bush
* Prepared by W. W. Seifert, this Introduction incorporates information from various U.S. Army documentsin particular, "Historical Monograph, Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps", by Karl Kempf, Historical Officer, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland; published by APG in November 1961.  Fire Control Systems—General (AMCP 706327).
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Differential Analyzer. With considerable improvements inperformance resulting from designmodificationsprovided during the early 1940's by the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, this machine proved tobe of tremendous value during World War 11. Used primarily to compute trajectories forfiring tables and to prepare trajectory chartsforuse with VT fuzes, this machine could compute a 60second trajectory in about 15 minutes. In contrast, a human operator using a desk calculator required about 20 hours to perform the same computation. As a result of the urgent need for some means to provide accurate computation at considerably higher speeds than those obtainable with the Bush Differential Analyzer, niuch thought went into the solution of this problem. It became apparent at the University of Pennsylvania that use could be made of the fast reaction time of electron tubes in an extensive array to add or subtract impulses, and thus make possible the design of a machine that would deal with numbers in amanner that would far surpass the speed and accuracy ofthe Bush machine. Accordingly, in 1943 the U.S. Army awarded a research and development contract to the University of Pennsylvania forthe design and construction of ENIAC (for Electronic Numerical integrator And Computer). This contract was based specifitally on technical concepts underlying the design of an electronic computer that were contained in an outline prepared by Dr. John Mauchly and Dr. J. Presper Eckert, Jr. of the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. Completed in 1945, ENIAC was the world's first electronic automatic computer, t Its subsequentinstallation inthe Ballistic Research Laboratories (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground marked the beginning ofthe widespread use of electronic computing machines. ENIAC was a decimal machine in which ten decade ring counters  one per decimal
place  and one P M (plus or minus) counter formed the basic arithmetic and storage unit. Itutilized 19,000vacuum tubes (of 16 different types), 1500relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. It consumed nearly 200 kilowatts of power. Its thirty separate units weighed more than 30 tons. This huge collection of circuits could calculate a 60second trajectory in less than the actual time of flight of the projectile from the gun to the target. Even before the development of ENIAC had been completed, however, it was realized that a serial binary machine with delayline storage (an early type of memory device) would have additional advantages. A binary machine would utilize numbers to the base two instead ofthe traditional base ten. Numbers would be translated into a series of ONES and ZEROS, values that could be easily handled by electron tubes arranged either to conduct a signal or block it  a switching function that could be handled at high speed. Nonetheless, ENIAC remained a solid computational workhorse forthe tenyear period of 194655, during which it was in constant operation. It was the major instrument for computation for all ballistic tables for the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force  dominating the computer field during the period 194952. It was also used for calculations relevant to other fields  weather prediction, atomic energy, cosmicray studies, thermal ignition, randomnumber studies, and windtunnel design problems, to mention a few. (Electronic computers were not yet available from commercial sources.) ENIAC was the prototype from which most other modern computers have evolved (see the computer tree of Fig. 11). It embodiedalmost all of the components and concepts of laterhighspeed storage and control devices. Although built primarily for integration of the equations of external ballistics by a stepbystep process, it was sufficiently
This was an electromechanical analog device utilizing mechanical integrators of the wheelanddisc type that was developed by Dr. Vannevar Bush and his associates at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the late 1920's. Incorporating improvements made in the early 1930's, a Bush Differential Analyzer was installed at Aberdeen Proving Ground in 1935. It should be noted that the Mark I Relay Computer (also called the Automatic SequenceControlled Calculator), completed in 1944 at Harvard University by Howard Aiken in cooperation with IBM engineers and Harvard graduate students, was the first automatic computer ever completed. The operation of this machine was based on electromechanical principles. Although the machine was efficient, fast, and capable of solving a wide variety of problems, its speed could not approach that of the electronic type of automatic computer.
12
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flexible to be applied to a wide range of largescale computations otherthan numerical integration of differential equations. The urgent need for an operational computer had made it imperative to freeze the engineering design of ENLAC during the early stages of development. As work on ENIAC permitted, however, the design and construction of an improved computer for RRL having much smaller size, greater flexibility, and bettermathematical performance were pushed forward under U.S. Army sponsorship at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania. The design for this computer, named EDVAC (forElectronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator), was proposed in 1945 by Dr. John von Neumann, one of the world's leading mathematicians, who had been attracted by the problems of computer design. The major features of this computer were the use of the binary system ratherthan the decimal system of numeration, a serial arithmetic mode, a fouraddress command structure, a total of 16 possible operations that couldbe performedby the computer, and duplicate circuitry for check purposes. EDVAC was also the first computer with an internallystored program and was thus a major improvement over ENLAC, which required considerable human effort to change the different programs. With ENIAC, the different sections ofthe computerwere connected together via plugin cables that had to be changed for each particular type of problem. If the computationshad to be interrupted for a few days, to permit someotherproblem of high priority to be run on the computer, the complex tangle of plugin cables had tobe rearranged manually. Also, when the run was completed, the machine had to be "rewired" for the first problem. With an internallystored program device, the instructions are stored, each storage location is queried, and each
instruction is interpreted and executed as a matter of formality until all the instructions comprising a givenprogram are carried out. Mork on EDVAC stimulated design and constructionby othergroups of a large family of similar computers, including SEAC, FLAC, DYSEAC, MIDAC," and the later commercial types, such as the UNIVAC's (see Fig. 11). Computer development was further encouraged by the Army via a research contract with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey (later supported also by the Air Force and Navy). From this support of computer research came the ORDVAC (for Ordnance Variable Computer), the BRL's third electronic computing machine. This was a parallel binary computer that belongs to the group of computers whose basic logic was developed by the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey. The ORDVAC family of computers includes suchmachines astheAVIDAC, MANIAC, ILLIAC, ORACLE, JOHNNIAC, and CYCLONE, t These different designs constituted little if anything new in innate computer design, but carried out existing design principles using the fruits ofthe everadvancing technology of electronics  such things as improved memory techniques, smallervacuum tubes, improved diodes, and the like. During the early 1950's, a major part of the scientific computational workload of the Western world was accomplished on these machines. The rapid, competitive evolution of computers made it apparent at an early stage that prospective users and designers of computers in industry and in government would benefit from a comprehensive survey of designs in being. BRL accordingly made a nationwide survey in 1955. This showed that at thattime approximately 87 different types of commercial and scientific digital computers were operational in this country. A second
SEAC  Standards Eastern Automatic Computer FLAC  Florida Automatic Computer DYSEAC_  Second SEAC MIDAC Michigan Digital Automatic Computer AVIDAC  Argonne Version ofthe Institute's Digital Automatic Computer MANIAC  Mathematical Analyzer Numerical Integrator and Computer ILLIAC  Illinois Automatic Computer ORACLE  Oak Ridge Automatic Computer and Logical Engine JOHNNIAC  John (von Neumann) Integrator and Automatic Computer CYCLONE  (an arbitrary name indicating high speed) Iowa State University
13
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survey by BRL>, made in 1957, showed that this total had risen to 103. A third survey in 1961 indicated the existence of over 222 different types of electronic digital computing systems, involving tens of thousands of units throughoutthe United States. Fig. I lindicates there are approximately 500 different types in operation today. These computers are committed to the solution of almost every conceivable type of computingand dataprocessingproblem  in defense, industry, science, commerce, service operation, and manufacturing. A vital element in almost every defense system, the computer has become even more significant in industry and commerce. The overall discussion of electronic digital computers given thus far has covered the historical development of serial computers (representedby EDVAC)and of parallel computers (represented by ORDVAC). Both of these computers are shown in Fig. 11 at the lower ends of two separate limbs of a computertree whose trunk represents the development of ENLAC. As noted in Fig. 11, this separation tends to distinguish the business computers on the left limb from the scientific computers on the right limb. The electronic digital computers that have been developed specificallyto meet military needs are identified on the center limb of the computertree. Among those indicated is FADAC (for Field Artillery Digital Automatic Computer). This computer was developed under the direction of Frankford Arsenal in the late 1950's as a sequel to Field Artillery Fire Control System, M35, which employed an electromechanical computer whose accuracywas adequate forthe shorterrange weapons  such as the 105 mm and 155 mm howitzers  but was not adequate
14
for guns and free rockets. FADAC represents the latest development in connection with the everpresent need to solve fieldartillery fire control problems with greater accuracy and speed. FADAC is a solidstate electronic digital computer whose background is discussed in Chapter 1 of Section 1 of the Fire Control Series and whose technical aspects are discussed in Chapter 4 of the present section. Its overall capabilities, however, merit summation here: 1. FADAC canprovide firing data for d battery of weapons. On a onebatteryatatimebasis, it canprovide firing datafor mortars, howitzers, guns, and free rockets  with complete applicability to any kind of ammunition these weapons maybe using. In emergencies, it canprovide data forup to five similartype batteries on a rotating basis. By using the FADAC s memory loading unit, authorized field personnel can make program changes that permit switching from the solution of one type of fire control problem to another within just a few minutes. 2. FADAC could be used with the PURSUING, SERGEANT, LACROSSE, and NIKEHERCULES weapon systems. 3. Inaddition to use in fire control systems and missile systems, FADAC can also be employed in fire planning, survey computations, counterbattery computation, reduction of meteorological data, and as universal automatic checkout equipment A universal computer capable of solving all fieldartillery fire control problems has always seemed to lie in the future. However, continuous study at Frankford Arsenal on increasing the application of FADAC has yielded results that make this computer a candidate for the title "Universal Artillery Computer".
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AMCP 706329
PART I MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR FIRE CONTROL COMPUTING SYSTEMS CHAPTER 1* THE ROLE OF THE MATHEMATICAL, MODEL IN THE DESIGN PROCESS 11 DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL
In Section it of the Fire Control Series, a mathematical model is defined as any scheme for the manipulation of ideas in a group wherein the individual ideas are identified by means of more orless abstract symbols and wherein manipulations are conducted in accordance with precise rules of logic. Mathematical models take on a variety of forms, depending upon the particular system they are being used to study. Such models provide the system designer with a powerful tool that enables him to develop a system not merely by intuition and trial and errorwith the physical system but by bringing to bear on his problem a considerable body of mathematical techniques, and thereby raises his design process from an art to a science. The first requirement and advantage that the system designer faces in using mathematical models is that of deriving an accurate model for the physical system being considered. If the designer is to carry out this step in a satisfactory manner, he must understand the system and the interrelationships between its parts in considerablymore detail than he might otherwise be forced to employ. Formulation of the model is thus of value in itself, but usually is taken as the first step in a mathematical study aimed at optimizing certain parameters in the system. This optimization may be carried out using purely analytical techniques, graphical techniques, or by studying the model on either an analog or a digital computer. Chapter 2 outlines a number of these techniques. As back
ground for this discussion, par. 12 summarizes some of the more important mathematical expressions used for describing important natural laws that relate to physical systems, and par. 13 summarizes the characteristics and limitations of mathematical models. 12 MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR PHYSICAL SYSTEMS
If one is to establish a mathematical model or description for a physical system, he must be able to express causes and effects in mathematical terms for each individual element of the system and be able to describe mathematically the manner in which these elements interact. Depending on the purpose of the specific analysis, the individual elements may be single components such as resistors, capacitors, and vacuum tubes  or complete amplifiers or even a complete radar set. Instead of electriccircuit elements, the system may be composed of mechanical components suchas springs, dampersand inertial elements  or of fluid elements  such as valves, orifices, and fluid pumps and motors. Some systems likewise contain magnetic, acoustic, or thermal elements. Frequently, a complex system includes a mixture of elements of several of these types. Fortunately, the modern analyst is able to draw on the work of Newton: Kirchoff, d'Alembert, Coulomb, and many others who were able to formulate mathematical relationships to express their experimental observations on particular physical systems.
By W. W. Seifert, t Fire Control Systems—General (AMCP 706327).
11
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Basic requirements for the analyst who desires to formulate a mathematical description for a system are (l)that he understand thoroughly the laws relating to the types of elements from which his system is composed and (2) that he understand the range of variables for which the elements of his physical system behave as ideal elements by obeying the ideal laws, and the manner in which their performance departs from the ideal outside this range. It is impossible in a single chapter to outline all the relationships that an analyst would require in analyzing the various systems with which he might be confronted. However, a brief discussion of several illustrative mathematical descriptions for physical systems is provided, and a number of other relationships are tabulated. In order to develop and utilize mathematical descriptions for physical systems, it is first necessary to define the symbols that are to be used in writing these descriptions. Although agreement on symbols is far from unanimous, the discussion which follows uses symbolsthat have received wide usage. As an illustration of a basic mathematical description of a physical phenomenon, consider one of the fundamental laws of electrostatics. Out of some of the earliest work on static electricity grew the concept of electric charge, which gradually has come to be represented symbolically by the letter q. Early experimenters found that if two point charges of electricity of opposite kind are in the neighborhood of each other, they exert attractive forces on each other. If they are of the same kind, however, they exert repulsive forces on eachother. Furthermore, the force that one exerts on the other is determined by the distance between the charges and the magnitude of the charges. The work of Cavendish and Coulomb in the late 1780's established the inversesquare law of electrostatic force, which states that the force between two point charges of electricity is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Mathematically, this statement, which has come to be called Coulomb's law, takes the form F =K
12
qA%
(11)
where Frepresents the force between the two point charges, qA and qB represent the two charges, r represents the distance by which the charges are separated, andK is the proportionality constant. This constant depends upon theunits usedto measure the force, the distance, and the charges and also upon the medium in which the experiment is conducted. The force found when this experiment is performed in ahighquality insulating oil differs fromthat found when the experiment is performed in air. For such an experiment, the pertinent parameter of the medium is its dielectric constant k. In terms of this constant, Eq. 11 can be rewritten in the form
F =K
(12) kr2
where Kj depends only on the units in which the quantities are measured. As man's understanding of electricity grew, he discovered ways to produce steady flows of current I which he then associated with the rate at which charge was moving through a system, i.e.,
i .ss dt
(13)
lie also discovered that when a battery (voltaic cell) was connected in a closed circuit the current that flowed was determined by the voltage E of the cell and a property of the circuit determined by the length, crosssectional area, and composition of the conductors. This property of the circuit came to be known as its resistance R and Ohm deduced the following relationship which now bears his name:
H? = E
(14)
Beginning with Oersted's discovery in 1820 that a magnetic needle tends to set itself at right angles to a wire through which an electric current is flowing, Faraday and others began to experiment with, and attempt to discover the laws that govern, phenomena of
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electromagnetic induction. Their efforts led to the definition of such new quantities as inductance L and to new laws such as e = L —
dt
(15)
which relates the instantaneous voltage e across an inductance to the rate at which the instantaneous current i through the inductance is changing. As knowledge of the behavior of electrical systems grew, so did the knowledge of other types of systems, such as mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal systems. Furthermore, certain similarities were found to exist between the ways in which entirely different types of systems performed. For example, the flow of current through a conductor was likened to the flow of water through a pipe. In each case, it was observed that the flow increased as the forcing function (voltage or pressure)increased. Table 11 lists the principal elements and parameters used to describe physical systems, and gives symbols and units that are comnionly used in describing these systems, it should be understood, of course, that other systems of units also find wide usage. In particular, the MKS (meter, kilogram, second)system of units is rapidly becoming the standard for all educational systems and governments. Accordingly, pertinent information concerning physical constants and conversion factors in terms of the MKS system is presented in the appendix to this chapter. Table 12 furtherdevelops the similarity between different physical systems by summarizing the expressions for power dissipation and energy storage, and giving the differential equation that describes a simple system containingone of each of the types of elements belonging to a particular family. It shouldbe notedthat two rows of entries appear for each system and that the associated differential equations are of the same form. The reason for this similarity can be illustrated by examination of the two equivalent electrical networks shown in i'ig. 1J. The top network represents a parallel combination ofa conductance (reciprocalresistance), an inductance, arid a capacitance driven by a current generator. The lower network repre
sents a series combination of these same elements (withresistance shown in place of conductance) driven by a voltage generator. In the first case, it is desired to set up an expression for the instantaneous voltage e(t) across the network, while in the second the instantaneous current i(t) flowing in thenetwork is desired. For the first case, the differential equation from which e(t) can be computed is found by summing the currents through the three elements, i.e., i(t) = ic(t) +iG(t) ^iL(t)
(16)
Substitution of expressions for these element currents in terms of voltage shows that i(t) =C3e + Ge i^ fedt dt
L
(17)
For the second case, the differential equation is formed by equating the applied voltage to the sum of the voltages across the individual elements, i.e., 2(t)
= eL(t) +eR(t) i ec(t)
(18)
When these element voltages are expressed in terms of the loop current i(t), the resultant equation becomes
o(t)
L Ri
»"/id»
(19)
dt
Comparison of h'qs. 17 and 10 shows that one could be derived from tin? other if the following substitutions were made:
G * R 1
 ■
L
1 ~+
—
C
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TABLE 11. SYMBOLS AND UNITS.
System 1. Electrical
2.
3.
4.
5.
C.
14
Parameter or1 element Voltage Current Charge Power Angular velocity Energy Resistance
Conductance Inductance Capacitance Mechanical Force rectilineal Velocity Displacement Acceleration Acceleration of gravity Power Energy Viscous friction Mass Spring constant Mechanical Torque rotational Angular velocity Angular displacement Power Energy Rotational friction Inertia Rotational spring constant Hydraulic Pressure Flow rate Volume Power Energy Resistance, Inertance Capacitance Bulk modulus Density Pneumatic Pressure Flow rate Volume Power Energy Resistance Inertance capacitance Thermodynamic Temperature Heat flow Heat Resistance Capacitance
Symbol
Unit
W It
volt ampere coulomb watt radians/second j oule ohm
G
Irdmy
C
farad pounds feet/second feet feet/second*
Q
power
power W R m k T «, e
32.2 feet/second2 footpound/second footpound poundsecond/foot poundsecond2 /foot pound/foot poundsfeet radians/second
e power W B J
radians footpound/second footpound poundfootsecond poundfootsecond2
c V 1 V power W R M C B _p p 1 V power ]V R M C 6 ? // R C
Pictorial symbol
C
—nm^
'¥r —gl/». iCm^',g",B, f mo'
g g u
g pm",g",mo' * cm,"g",s,mo1 erg»
t
erg»
em'^g"* * rm"^"»»' f cm",g"'s« * cm"1!1" t cm
io» IO""
cm
io'«
cm
cm
s
10 10'
io" io» io«
m' m« rads'T' Hz T"1 rad d'r1 HITI
J T« J T' J T>
m'T' J °K'mol'
io'
rn' mol'
1(1° 10'" E' io' 10' io"
J °K ' W m' m °K IM °K W m»
OK
N m" kg"'
4
10« 10» ICH 10" 10" 10" 10" 10» 10« io' IO"5 107 10« IO" io» 10° 10' 10J
io»
cm*
cm'
rad S'G' ' »'G' • r.d B'G' * B'G' • erg G' • erg G ' erg O} '
cm'G' * erg °K_I mol1 cm' mol"' erg °K' erg nil1 a'
em °K rm °K erg cni~s i»^1 °K"4 dyn cm* R"1
?B«»ed on 3 atd. devj applied to lost digit* in preceding coUninn. fEleetrottatk ryrtem. *Electromagnctic eyntem, C—coulomb J—joule Ha—hert2 W—watt N ■  newton T—tesla G—gauss
113
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Table AIV. Miscellaneous Conversion Factors = 9.80005 m sec"2 = 1.013250X105 newtons nr2 106 dynes cm2 2 Thermodynamic calorie calc =4.1840 joules I T calorie 3 cnl, =4.1808 joules liter 1 = 1.000028 X103 m3 Angstrom unit A = 10'° in Bur = 10' newtons m' 10* dynes cm2 Gal = 10~2 in sec"2 1 cm sec2 Astronomical unit a.u. = 1.495X10" m Light year = 9.4GX1016 m Parsec = 3.08X10'" in = 3.20 light years Curie, the quantity of radioactive material undergoing 3.700X1010 disintegrations see1. Roentgen, the exposure of x or gamma radiation which produces together with its secondaries 2.082X10° electronion pairs in 0.001293 gin dry air.
Standard gravity g0 Standard atmospheric pressure P0 1 \ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Formula for index of refraction of atmosphere for radio waves (/
' Y
can interpretthe function of various elements in a systemmuchmore rapidlythan would be possible from an inspection of the differential equations. Example. A servomotor drives an inertialload coupled to the motor through a flexible shaft as shown schematically in Fig. 23. The transformed equations of this system are T
=(J s2 +f s) 0
+K(0
a
(254)
and K(0m3.)
where T
K*X
(255)
motorgenerated torque motor moment of inertia motor damping angular displacement of the motor end of the shaft K = shaft stiffness (spring constant) = angular displacement of the load end of the shaft = load moment of inertia J, j~ = externally applied load torque and s Irs the complex frequency variable. The damping of the flexible shaft is assumed to be negligible. Drawthe block diagram of the system and reduce the diagram, keeping the J f
= = = =
211
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RULE
1
ORIGINAL DIAGRAM
^
EQUIVALENT DIAGRAM
A
B
AB
A
A + B
2
+ g the force reverses sign. The differential equation that describes the motion of a constant mass Mattachedto a spring described by Eq. 297 is given by the equation d2x M
dt2
t k (1 +a2x2) x
0
(298)
where it is assumed that no friction exists. For nonzero values of a, Eq. 298 involves the cube of the dependent variable and is thus a nonlinear differentialequation. However, this particular type of differential equation has been studied extensively and its solution can be obtained in the form of elliptic functions. 22.7.3
Classification of Nonlinear Systems
The definition of anonlinear system given in par. 22.7.1 was negative in that it did not describe a nonlinear system but, instead, relegated all systems that did not meet the very specific test for linearity to the category of nonlinear systems. This rather unsatisfactory approach is taken because no really
good scheme has been devisedfor classifying nonlinear systems. The present discussion has followed the plan of merely cataloging typical systems without trying to classify them. Examination of the nonlinearities described, however, indicates several schemes of classification that might be employed. 22.7.3.1 Continuous and Discontinuous Nonlinearities From a mathematical point of view, itis sometimes desirable to distinguish between nonlinearities that can be described by continuous curves and those in which the outputvsinput relationship exhibits jumps. This method, then, would distinguish between a limiting type of nonlinearity and a relay. 22.7.3.2
Incidental earities
and Essential Nonlin
A different scheme of classification might distinguish between (1) those nonlinearities that are introduced because the performance of supposedly linear physical devices deviates from the ideal as a result of mechanical tolerances or the characteristics of materials, and (2) thosenonlinearitiesthat the designer deliberately introduces into the system. This scheme, for example, would distinguish between (1) a systemthat is driven into the saturation region for very large signals but that normally operates in the linear region, and (2) a relay, which does not behave as a linear element for any amplitude of input signal. 22.7.3.3 ZeroMemory and NonzeroMemory Nonlinearities Another important characteristic of a nonlinearity is whether its instantaneous output is determined uniquely by the instantaneous input, in which case it wouldbe termed a zeromemory or amnesic nonlinearity, or whether its instantaneous output is determined by the history of its inputs, in which case it would be called a nonzeromemory or nonamriesic nonlinearity. A relay with 22!
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AMCP 706329 hysteresis is a typical example of anonzeromemory nonlinearity since, over a region, the output of the relay depends not only on the instantaneous value of the input but also upon the manner in which the input arrived at its present value. 22.7.3.4
Phenomena Peculiar to Nonlinear Systems 3740
Nonlinear systems lead to several special problems because they may exhibit phenomena that never occur in apurely linear system. One of the most frequently observed phenomena of this type is the limit cycle, an oscillation of fixed amplitude and period but arbitrary wave shape that may be excited under certain conditions. The motion of the escapement in a watch and the voltage in a vacuumtube oscillator are typical examples of limit cycles. It is basically thenonlinearities in these systems that determine the amplitude of oscillations for, if the systems were actually linear in the ideal sense, the oscillations would grow to unlimited amplitude. Obviously, this would be physically impossible. Another phenomenon observed in some nonlinear systems is that of selfexcitation. This phenomenon cantake either of two forms. Systems that break into oscillations when subjected to a very small input signal or disturbance are said to exhibit soft selfexcitations. Such systems may become stable when the amplitude of the input signal is increased sufficiently. Hard selfexcitation, on the other hand, is exhibited by a systemthat must be excited with signals of at least some minimum amplitude before it becomes unstable. Systems with quantizers may exhibit either of these types of selfexcitation. Still another peculiarity of nonlinear systems isthat the frequencies of the output signal and of intermediate signals in the system are not necessarily the same as the frequency of the input signal. Thus, some nonlinear control systems exhibit subharmonic oscillations with the output oscillating at some oddorder subharmonic of the input frequency. Another phenomenon that cannot occur in a strictly linear system is the appearance of 230
discontinuous jumps in amplitude as the system excitation is continuously increased in amplitude. When this effect occurs, it is usually accompanied by ahysteresis, with the result that the jump occurs at a different amplitude for increasing signals than it does for decreasing signals. 23 SIMULATION TECHNIQUES 23.1 GENERAL Later chapters of this handbook describe both digital and analog computing components, and the combination of such components into digital, analog, or hybrid computers. The paragraphs which follow outline the application of analog and digital simulation techniques for determiningthe performance characteristics of complex mathematical models. 23.2 ANALOG TECHNIQUES In the process of arrivingat amathematical model for a system, the designer normally utilizes block diagrams as discussed earlier in this chapter (seepar. 22.5 through par. 22.5.2) and again in Chapter 6. Fortunately, the programming of an analog computer follows quite simply as a detailed expansion of the blockdiagram representation of a system. To make this expansion, the analyst must represent all operations indicated on the block diagram in terms of those operations that can be performedby the computer, namely: integration, addition, multiplication, and generation of arbitrary functions. Each transfer function in the block diagram must be expanded to showin detail its realization in terms of the basic analog elements. Fortunately, this is a straightforward task and represents no real problem. After a complete representation has been developed in terms of computing components, appropriate scale factors mustbe worked out. Scaling involves two distinct problems. The first is concerned with the magnitudes of the variables in the problem and the second with the time the computer takes to obtain a solution. The computer will produce accurate results only if the variables inthe computer are
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substantially larger than the variations represented by noise in the computing elements. This noise may be broadband thermal noise generated in resistors, shot noise generated in vacuum tubes, lowfrequency noise related to slowly varying offsets in the output of amplifiers, or noise that arises from moving contactssuch as a potentiometer wiper moving over the resistance element of the potentiometer. Other sources of noise are ripple from the power supplies and noise picked up from disturbing sources completely external to the computer. In a welldesigned computer, noise from these sources is usually small, with varying amplifier offsets representing tlie major limitation on accuracy. At tlie other end of the scale, the accuracy of the computation suffers if the magnitude of any computer variable attempts to rise above a maximum set by the design of the element. For example, an amplifier may saturate and thus cease to follow the linear relationship desired between the voltage at its input and that at its output; or the input applied to a function generator may exceed the maximum value for which it was set up, with the result thatthe desired functional relationship is lost. The maximum operating voltage used in the majority of the analog computers employing vacuum tube amplifiers is ± 100 volts. In order to achieve the maximum accuracy, the voltages appearing at all points inthe computer should be as closeto lOOvolts as possible without ever exceeding this value. However, since the very nature of solutions usuallyinvolves large changes inthe variables, someof them will usually approach zero during some parts of a solution. The value of very small variables cannot be determined with high accuracy and, if additional accuracy is required, it may be necessary to rescale the problem and rerun a portion of it. The question of solution running time must also be considered before the task of programming the computer is completed. Some problems to be studied on the computer may represent physical situations in which the actions of interest take place in microseconds, while in others the time is measured in decades.
Depending on whether the computer is designed for socalled "realtime operation"' or "highspeed repetitive operation", the most satisfactory solution time will be inthe range of 10 seconds to ond minute for realtime computers or Tf, to —— second forhighspeed computers. In an analog machine, all elements operate in parallel, so the running time does not increase with the complexity of the problem being studied. The running time depends solely on the gatn of the integrators and may be changed by a factor such as 10 merely by changing the gain of each and every integrator employed by that factor. Before one can obtain a solution on which to base the selection of scale factors in the computer, he must arrive at some tentative estimates and run a trialbaseduponthese. If any of the signals exceedthe maximum allowable or appear to be too small, new scale factors can be chosen and the solution rerun until an acceptable result is achieved. 23.3 DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 41 The effectiveness with which digital computers can be utilized in the study of scientific problems depends as much upon the ease with which the analyst can communicate with the computer as upon the actual characteristics of the computing components of which the computer is made up. These two aspects of a digital computer are generally referred to as its software and its hardware. In the early stages of digital computer technology, the only programming method available was what has now come to be referred to as machinelanguage programming. Under this system, the programmer was forced to keep a detailed bookkeeping record of the contents of each memory location and of each transfer of data from a memory location, to the arithmetic unit of the machine, and finally back into another storage location for later use if desired. As more experience was gained with programming and as appropriate machine hardware changesbecame possible, symbolicprogramming techniques were developed. Under these, the programmer was required only to 231
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identify each operation to be performed and each piece of data, but not to make detailed assignments of data to specific storage locations. The first step in obtainingthe solution for a problem written in such a language is to have the machine analyze the symbolic program and by means of a compiler program translate the symbolic program into a machine language program. The development of more and more sophisticated programming languages has received a great deal of attention over the past ten years andvery powerful languages suchas the FORTRAN series are now available. Nevertheless, the conventional approach to the use of the generalpurpose computer is still to develop a library of programs, each program solving a specific or standardproblem type. Yet, the variety of problem types and engineering situations is sogreat that the freedom of the engineeris severely restricted by the fixed program library. Ideally, one would like the ease of communication with the computer to be such that the engineer could quickly and economically write a unique program for each engineering situation as it occurs. For this to be feasible, the language for stating the solution must be very efficient, allowing the engineer to describe a solution in the same technical terms he would use in instructing a colleague of his own professional competence. The development of such problemoriented languages is now receiving a great deal of attention. One example is COGO (forCoordinate Geometry) a system for use in civil engineering problems. 24
NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES
24.1 GENERAL Digital computers deal with numbers and are capable of performing simple arithmetic operations at high speed and storing the results. Accordingly, the branch of mathematics known as numerical analysis, which is concerned with the numerical evaluation of mathematical functions and equations, has in recent years seen a great revival of interest and a considerable expansion of techniques. 232
The methods used for evaluating functions and solvingequations in a digital computer may be generally classified as methods of successive approximations, ormethods of substitution of an approximate expression for an exact expression. Such approximate expressions may be either power series or sets of tabular differences. In the methods of successive approximations, or iteration, an approximate solution is substituted in the equation so as to yield a better approximation, and so on. Since the computation involves a closed loop, the possibility of instability exists. Iteration, when stable, is useful in the solution of equations and sets of equations, and in the evaluation of certain functions expressed as equations. The impetus given to the field of numerical analysis by the computational capacity of the high speed digital computer has led to the investigation of mathematical fields formerly neglected because of the computational difficulties involved. This, in turn, has led to the application of mathematical tools in new areas of engineering, science, and management. A typical example is the solution of large sets of linear algebraic equations. As is discussed in par. 24.6, such sets of equations can frequently be solved by iterative methods. Since such equation sets are usually expressed in the shorthand matrix notation, the method is commonly known as " matrix inversion". The inversion of very large matrices is now practicable with the aid of highspeed digital computers. Certain logistics problems of the armed services and of large corporations can be expressed mathematically by an operations research technique known as "linear programming" . Suchfactors as the size and location of warehouses, the production capacity of suppliers, and the cost/time characteristics of alternative transportation systems are expressible in terms of sets of linear algebraic equations. These sets of equations can be manipulated by a digital computer so as to achieve an optimum solution in terms including cost or delivery time. Similar methods applied to the solution of sets of simultaneous linear differential equations have proved equally powerful in the investigation of engineering problems. The problem of the flutter of an aircraft wing is
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AMCP 706329 atypical example. Here, the structural dynamics are expressible by a set of differential equations with many coupling terms and with excitation at numerous points of the set. The ability of the digital computer to store or compute rapidly the values of a function provides a capability of particular value to the fire control field. Except for trigonometric functions where ageometrical analog is available, generation of functions in an analog computer has been principally accomplished by such inflexible methods as mechanical cams and function potentiometers. Methods to be outlined in par. 24.2 offer means of generating analytical or empirical functions, and can readily be extended to functions of two or more variables. The science of statistics has also been a beneficiary of digitalcomputer techniques. One of thebasic problems of statisticsis that of decidingbetweentwo (or more)hypotheses on the basis of experimental data (decision theory or tests of significance). Such decisions arebased on computations that involve the consecutive multiplication of large numbers of probability distribution functions. The digital computer has so enhanced the facility of performing such computations that they are sometimes carried out "online"; for example, the production output of a manufacturing plant can be continuously monitored and evaluated statistically to provide decisions to adjust or shut down the production machinery if the deviation of the product from the set standard exceeds certain statistical limits. The following paragraphs of Chapter 2 discuss themain aspects of numerical techniques in terms of (a) the representation of mathematical functions, (b) numerical differentation, (c) numerical integration, (d) methods forsolving differential equations, and (e) methods for solving systems of linear algebraic equations. It should be observed that numerical analysis is partially a science and partially an art. As a result, short of writing a textbookon the subject it would be impossible to indicate the particular circumstances in which even a selected sampling from the vast stock of numerical interpolation, differentation, and integration formulas available would be useful or accurate, or to elucidate the numerical difficulties to which
one might be led by uncritical use. Accordingly, the formulas associated with numerical analysis should never be applied blindly. 24.2
REPRESENTATION OF MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS
One might expect, intuitively, that mathematical functions would be represented in a digital computer by the storage of tabular data, inamanner analogous to the tablelookup procedure employed inhand computations. However, while the storage of functional tables in a digital computer is certainly possible, the high speed of computation and the relatively limited memory capacity that are typical of modern computers make the computation of functions a very attractive procedure. Some functions may be computed from their defining equations (which, in many cases, are differential equations)by iterative techniques. Certain functions, on the other hand, may be readily computed by the use of series approximations. If a stored table is employed in a digital computer to represent a mathematical function, the storage requirements can be greatly reduced by storing only a few points and using an interpolation formula to approximate the function between these points. Interpolation is also used with input data to reduce the number of points that must be entered. A related process called curve fitting is employed whenever it is known from theoretical considerations that a set of data points should approximate a chosen mathematical function. The best fit between this chosen function and the data can be determined, and the function then used in lieu of the data points. The paragraphs which followsummarize the pertinent aspects of the aforenoted techniques for representing mathematical functions. 24.2.1
Iteration
Iterative or recursive processes are fundamental to numerical methods of analysis. Inthe applicationof iterationtothe evaluation of a function specified by its defining equation (or equations), one starts with a rough estimate of the value of the function 233
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and then computes successivelybetter approximations. In general, if it is desired to evaluate a function (299)
f (x) =0
and this equation canbe rewritten in the form (2100)
F(x
the procedure is as follows. Given an estimate x^ where x (k) represents the kth approximation to the value of the given function P(x), compute F(x^). Set F(x(k)) equal to x(k+i) an(j repeat the processcomputing F(x' 4I) ), and soon. The computation is terminated when the difference betweentwo successive approximations is equal to or less than the allowable computational error. The evaluation ofVN presented in Example 2 1 illustrates the iterative technique. This example was chosen for its simplicity; it should be noted, however, that most defining equations are differential equations. 24.2.2
tion, the series is truncated after a number of terms, say m terms. The sum of the remaining terms, the remainder, constitutes the error in the approximation. For the special case of a convergent Taylor's series with decreasing terms and alternating signs, the remainder cannot exceed the magnitude of the (m+l)th term, i.e.,
Series Approximation
The representation of functionsby series approximations is particularly useful in digitalcomputer calculations because the function can be generated by a relatively few additions and multiplications. Example 22 shows the ease of computing the sine function from a power series. The Taylor's series expansion isthe general expression for a power series expansion. If a function f(x) is differentiable atapointx = x„ then f(x) canbe replaced in the neighborhood of x() by the power series
f(")(x)
(2103) where Rm is the truncation error after the mth term. An expression that may be used to determine the truncation error in the general case is 1
/x x fU)(x_t) tm_1 dt
_
(2104) By determiningthe remainder or some bound on the remainder, the maximum error for a given number of terms is known. The computer program maybe written to determine this error and to stop adding terms as soon as the error decreases below a desired amount. 24.2.3
Interpolation
(2102)
The preceding paragraph discussed the approximation of functions by means of power series. Another technique, useful when a table of values of a function is available, is interpolation. With this technique, the value of the function at some point intermediate between two known points is approximated bya series ofpolynominals. In hand computation, only a firstorder, or linear, interpolation is normally employed. The greater computational capacity of the digital computer, however, permits the use of higherorder polynomials. For the same accuracy, the higherorder interpolation requires fewer data points in storage.
where f^ (x0) isthe nth derivative of f(x), evaluated at the point x = x,. For computa
If the tabular data are given for values of x spaced at equal intervals h, various formulas based on tabular differences can be employed. Newton's formulas are given as
f (x) =f(xJ + (x xjf'(x) +
(x  x)2 '— f" (x ) + . . 2!
(2101) or, in compact form,
f i
234
E
X )" (n)
xj
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Example 21.
Iterative procedure for the evaluation of yj N
An iterativeprocedure forthe evaluation ofy[W can be obtained if the solution is considered to be the intersectionof the curve xy = N and the straightline x = y, as shown by Fig. 1. Start at the point (x (°) , y^01) wherex'0' =N andy® = 1. Successive values ofx are taken as the arithmetic mean of the preceding values ofx and y, i. e., x(i)
+ y,(i)
,
It can be readily seen that the solution follows the arrowed path shown in Fig. 1. A sample calculation for N = 7 is shownin Table 1. For the sixplaces carried, y[N = 2.64575. The error is 7 X 10~6. Table 1. Sample Calculation of \J~N for the Case When N = 7. i
x(i)
0
7.00000
1.00000
1
4.00000
1.75000
2
2.87500
2.434.78
3
2.65480
2.63664
4
2.64577
2.64573
5
2.64575
2.64575
•
•
y(i)
c^
+—! ... t ( l)n 3! 5!
+1

(2nl)!
(1)
n = 1, 2, 3, ... Ifx = 0.5 radian, the approximations for sin x employing one, two, and three terms of the series are, respectively, f(,) = 0.500000 f(2> = 0.479167 (3)
f
= 0.479427
J > \
The error is already quite small; inclusion of the fourth term reduces the least significant figure by one unit. 236
(2)
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AMCP 706329
typical. Otherformulas of Stirling and Bessel will be found in the literature 4fi> 47. If a function f(x) is known at points xi5 evenly spaced by the interval h along the xaxis, then ih
It is also possible to work backwards from f0, using Newton's backwarddifference formula; this procedure yields , (m + 1) f (m) = f + m & f
(2105)
(i =0, 1, 2, 3,
S2f
2! m (m + 1) (m + 2)
The values of the function at x; are denoted ,byf =f(x). The firstcentraldifference between f j and f0 is denoted 6fi/, and is defined (m + n  1)
+ 1)
bv
(l/2)n
Sf,
f.  f.
(2106)
Similarly, Sf,
f, f,
(2107)
and so on. The second, third, etc., central differences are denoted ö f, 6 f, etc., respectively. The second differences are the differences between adjacent first differenences, the third differences are the differences between adjacent second differences, and so on. Table 23 illustrates the method. If a new variable m is introduced such that x =x o + hm,' Newton's forward difference formula can be expressed as*
(2109) When the tabulated datapoints x; are not equally spaced, Lagrangian interpolation by polynomials of any desired degree canbe employed. The general form of the Lagrangian interpolation is (x  xj (*  x )
f(x>=
f(m)fo
+
m»f1/2
(m  IHn
fc
S3f 3/2
m (m  1 ). . . (m  n t 1) ; £n f
(l/2)n
(2108)
(x  x
) (x  x
)
...
(x  X )
i.
(2110) where f: = f(x:). See Example 23 for an illustrative application of this relationship. 24.2.4
m (m  1) t— 8U
...
T
Curve Fitting
Where interpolation assumes no knowledge of a functional relationship between data points, curve fitting is the process by which a chosen function is adjusted to best fit a set of data points. The function may be chosen because it appears to fit the data well or, more commonly, because physical reasoning indicates that the data should fit some particular function. While many methods of curve fitting are usedsome quite elaborate—only the most commonly used technique, that of the leastsquares fit, will be described here.
It should be noted that, in place of the generalized difference symbol 6 used here, some references employ specific difference operators for particular usage, as follows: A i x) ." y [x ' A x)  y (*) ~ forwarddifference operator y x)  !y ■ Ax)  backwarddifference operator ax AX h 1 (x)  y (x . —)  y (x  —) " centraldifference oper
V y (x)
See Section 20.42 of Ref. SO for example.
237
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AMCP 706329
TABLE 23. i
x
i
0
x
o
i
63f.
62f.
ef.i
f
ARRAY OF TABULAR DIFFERENCES
1
1
0
ifo
x
l
f
6f
l
Öf
3/2~
l/2 62f2  5%
h h
3/2 2
x
2
h
5f
5f
5/2 "
3/2
53f
5/2 "
3
X
3
h
7/2
6f
6f
7/2 "
7/2 
2
4
h
5f
5
x
5
f
11/2
4
ö5f
5/2
4
9/2 
fi3f
7/2
ll/2"
Sf
9/2
f
6"f5
6
x
6
f
6
Let y = g(x) be a curve fitted by a functional relationship between x and y having the generalized form
value of y will differ from its functional representation by the "residual" error 6 i where s.
y = c,f, (x) + c2f2 (x) + . . . + cnfn (x)
where the functions f^x), f2(x), ..., f„(x) are known. It is desiredto satisfy the set of equations = c,f, (x,) + c2f2 (x,)
+ c f (x,
I 2,
=
c f
i i (*m)
+ c
A (*J
+
■ ■ ■
+ cUx2
+ c f
n „ K
(2112) forthe m sets of data points (x1,y1) (x2,y2), .... (x ,y ). However, in general, each
m)
(2113)
In orderto minimize the sum of the squares of the residuals, solutions of the following set of "normal equations" are obtained. c, E v (*,'
*c! E fi '2 (*>i+ ■ ■ ■
+ c
. E'. (x.> f.(*.>" EY^ w
••■
+