Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture 9781442674431

The Carpatho-Rusyns are an East Central European people, numbering approximately 1.2 million, who live within the border

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Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture

Table of contents :
Technical Notes
Transliteration Tables
List of Entries

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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RUSYN HISTORY AND CULTURE Paul Robert Magocsi and Ivan Pop EDITORS Revised and Expanded Edition



© University of Toronto Press 2002, 2005 Toronto Buffalo London First edition 2002 Revised and expanded edition 2005 Printed in Canada ISBN 0-8020-3566-3

Printed on acid-free paper

National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data Main entry under title: Encyclopedia of Rusyn history and culture ISBN 0-8020-3566-3 1. Carpatho-Rusyns - Encyclopedias. I. Magocsi, Paul R. II. Pop, Ivan DJK28.R87E53 2002



The editors acknowledge that preparation of this volume was made possible by research grants from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Carpatho-Rusyn Research Center, Inc. in the United States. University of Toronto Press acknowledges the financial assistance to its publishing program of the Canada Council for the Arts and the Ontario Arts Council. University of Toronto Press acknowledges the financial support for its publishing activities of the Government of Canada through the Book Publishing Industry Development Program (BPIDP).

Contents Introduction vii Technical Notes x Transliteration Tables xi Authors xii Advisors xiii Maps xiv

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA 1 List of Entries 557

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Introduction This is the first encyclopedia to deal with the historical past and culture of Rusyns in all countries where they live. It is intended to serve as a reference tool for specialists in Carpatho-Rusyn studies and for those in need of introductory information about one of the many peoples who live in central and eastern Europe. But the encyclopedia can also serve as a guide to those interested in acquiring a fuller picture of the history of eastern regions in the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the various states that came to rule the Carpathian region in the twentieth century: Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, the Soviet Union, and Ukraine. The Rusyns—also known as Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Russians, Carpatho-Ukrainians, Lemkos, Rusnaks, Ruthenians, and Uhro-Rusyns—are a Slavic people living in central Europe. Their homeland, Carpathian Rus', is according to present-day boundaries located within the borders of four states: Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Romania. Carpathian Rus' forms a contiguous territorial unit whose numerically dominant population has traditionally been of Rusyn nationality. Other names have been used (and will be used in this encyclopedia) to designate Rusyn-inhabited territory in the various parts of Carpathian Rus'; namely, the Lemko Region in Poland, the Presov Region in Slovakia, Subcarpathian Rus' in Ukraine, and Maramure in Romania. There are also a few compact Rusyn settlements in present-day northeastern Hungary and in the Vojvodina region of Serbia, and communities of Rusyn immigrants and their descendants are found in the Czech Republic, Canada, and most significantly in the United States. Rusyns have never had their own state, and some of the governments which have ruled over them have ignored or actively tried to suppress the Rusyn historical past. For instance, in the second half of the twentieth century, Carpathian Rus' was ruled by Communist states (Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia) which banned the name Rusyn and refused to acknowledge that Rusyns comprise a distinct people, or nationality. During that period (1945-1989) state-imposed ideological guidelines in those countries actively discouraged research and tried to eliminate historical memory about much of Rusyn history and culture, where it did not conform to Communist ideology. Part of that ideology was the classification of Rusyns as Ukrainians. A similarly restrictive approach was adopted in scholarly and popular publications that appeared after World War II in countries where Rusyns lived, as well as elsewhere. In that regard, most writers in the West concurred with their counterparts in Communist-ruled Czechoslovakia, Poland,

Hungary, and the Soviet Union: Rusyns and their cultural heritage were described as Ukrainian, and those individuals, organizations, or publications that did not support the Ukrainian national orientation were, in general, disregarded. This encyclopedia represents in part an attempt to redress the loss of historical memory and knowledge experienced by Rusyns, lacunae that are reflected in most of the literature about the group produced during the last half century. Because Rusyns are and have been a stateless people—in the sense that they have never had their own nation-state with clearly-delineated political borders—the first problem faced by the editors of this encyclopedia was to define the subject and its parameters. As is evident from the entry, Carpathian Rus', this term appeared in the literature and was used by cultural and political activists from at least the mid-nineteenth century. Eventually, Carpathian Rus' came to mean those lands on both slopes of Carpathian Mountains where an East Slavic population known as Rusyns lived in the majority at the outset of the twentieth century. Since the term Rusyn was at times used by other East Slavs living beyond the Carpathian region, it became necessary to explain why Carpathian Rus' is defined the way it is in the encyclopedia. That explanation, which effectively serves as the conceptual underpining of the entire encyclopedia, is found in the entry, Ethnography. The reader who wants an introductory overview of the evolution of Carpathian Rus' is directed to the entry on History. The Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture contains 1,119 alphabetically arranged entries. More than half are biographies of individuals (665), followed by descriptions of religious and secular institutions (136), periodicals (105), definitions of historical terms (67), and political parties (10). Other types of entries deal with geographic regions, historical events, and peoples/nationalities who have interacted with Rusyns throughout their history. Finally, eighteen thematic entries with a more synthetic and interpretive approach address the following subjects: archeological settlements, architecture, art (painting and sculpture), cinema, Communism, ethnography, genealogy, geography and economy, historiography, history, the Internet, language, the language question, literature—early manuscripts, nationalism, printing and publishing, and radio and television. The encyclopedia attempts to provide balanced coverage for all the subdivisions of Carpathian Rus' as well as other countries where Rusyns live. Since in population and territory Subcarpathian Rus' is the largest Rusyn-inhabited territory, the highest percentage of entries concern individuals and events related to that part of Carvii

viii pathian Rus', followed in terms of number of entries by the Presov Region, the Lemko Region, the United States, the Vojvodina, and other lands. The criteria for inclusion was based on the conceptual premise that this encyclopedia is not about Rusyns per se, but rather about Rusyn history and culture. This distinction was, in particular, crucial in determining the choice of biographical entries. Hence, a person was chosen for inclusion on the basis of what he or she has contributed to Rusyn history and culture. Thus persons of Rusyn background who, although they have had distinguished careers in public service, the natural sciences, or other walks of life, but have not contributed anything to Carpathian Rus', are not included, while persons of non-Rusyn background who have contributed to Rusyn culture and scholarship, or who played a role in the civic and political life of Rusyn-inhabited lands, are included. That contribution may have been positive or negative. Consequently, individuals who have been critical or even denied the existence of Rusyns as a distinct people are also included because they figure in the historic record of Rusyns and Carpathian Rus'. Some basic guidelines were followed in determining questions of inclusion and exclusion. For instance, among persons who functioned solely as scholars, their inclusion might require the publication of at least one major monograph on a Rusyn-related topic. With regard to Rusyn newspapers and journals, all those published for ten or more years were included, as were many other periodicals which, although short-lived, were historically significant. In the end, it must be admitted that the definition of "contribution" is to a degree subjective. The editors have nevertheless tried their best to include as many individuals, organizations, publications, and events which figure in the extensive published literature and which seem relevant for a fuller understanding ofRusyn history and culture. The presentation of biographical data varies, depending on the subject's place of birth. For those persons born in Carpathian Rus' or in Rusyn communities elsewhere, data is provided about their educational background and career development. Some of these persons may have made contributions to fields unrelated to Rusyn developments; it is the aspect of their career dealing with Rusyns, however, that is emphasized here. For persons of nonRusyn background data about their education or activity not related directly to Carpathian Rus' is generally not provided. A few individuals of Rusyn background who have distinguished careers but who have made no specific contribution to Rusyn history or culture (Mykhafl Baludians'kyi, Ihor Hrabar, Andy Warhol immediately come to mind) also have entries, because their persona have subsequently been used by Rusyn activists and

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture coopted into their understanding of Rusyn history and culture. One last conceptual issue: this encyclopedia has no limits on chronology. Included, therefore, are persons, organizations, and events dating from earliest historic times to the present. Four-fifths of the entries were written in whole or in part by the editors Paul Robert Magocsi (524) and Ivan Pop (401). Most of the entries dealing with the Lemko Region and with Lemko Rusyns in the United States were written by Bogdan Horbal (193). The entries by Ivan Pop and Bogdan Horbal were edited and translated into English by Paul Robert Magocsi. The short unsigned entries defining currency, weights, and measures were written for the most part by Ivan Pop. Other contributors are indicated in the list of authors following this introduction. The thirteen maps were created by Paul Robert Magocsi, who also compiled or determined the final form of the further reading sections. These sections are not meant to include all references to a given subject, but rather to direct a reader to one or more published sources providing greater information than that found in the entry it follows. The encyclopedia has no index. Instead, there are over 1,500 cross-references interspersed alphabetically among the entries. These include pseudonyms, different spellings of personal names, and foreign-language names of organizations. There are as well internal cross-references indicated by an asterisk, alerting the reader that there is an entry on this person or subject elsewhere in the encyclopedia. The preparation of the Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture was an exciting and challenging task. The job was infinately more intellectually rewarding—and easier to complete—thanks to the efficient cooperation of all authors. Several specialists were asked to review parts or all of the manuscript and some helped in supplying difficult-to-obtain factual data. These persons are listed in the advisors section following the introduction. Among the advisors, special thanks are extended to} ubica Babotova, Catherine Chvany, Richard Custer, and Patricia A. Krafcik, who provided a careful proofread of virtually the entire manuscript. The final preparation of the text is the result of the inputting accuracy and linguistic skills of Natasha Papuga and Nadiya Kushko, and the technical skill and advice of Gabriele Scardellato in laying out the pages. The maps were drawn by Jane Davies at the University of Toronto's Office of Cartography. Finally, the staff at the University of Toronto Press has once again eased the editors' concerns by producing an elegant book. To all these individuals as well as to the others listed among the advisors the editors are deeply grateful. Despite the cumulative wealth of knowledge shared by

Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture all who contributed to the encyclopedia, whatever errors may remain are solely the responsibility of the editors. They are well aware that the decisions regarding overall content or the interpretations found in entries do not represent the last word on the subject. Future editions are likely to include other entries, emendations, and answers to factual data that were impossible to determine at this


time. One nevertheless hopes that this work will serve as a useful handbook for all those interested in and in need of information about the rich gamut of Rusyn history and culture.


Technical Notes rendered in the Roman alphabet (Czech, Polish, Slovak, Hungarian, etc.). Patronymics are given for persons of Russian or Ukrainian ethnonational origin, but not for Rusyns. While it is true that patronymics were used by Rusyns living in the former Soviet Union, they are not common in traditional Rusyn culture and thus are absent here. The spelling of Rusyn names poses yet further problems, as at least three variants of the Rusyn language have been codified. Three spelling variants of literary Rusyn are used in this encyclopedia: Lemko Rusyn for persons, organizations, and titles pertaining to the Lemko Region; Vojvodinian Rusyn for items related to the Vojvodina; and an amalgam for items related to Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region. The differences are quite evident in adjectival endings; for instance, the adjective for Rusyn would be rusynskii in Lemko Rusyn; rusinski in Vojvodinian Rusyn; rusyn skyi in Presov Region Rusyn; and rusyns 'kyi in Subcarpathian Rus'. Given names also vary in Rusyn depending on region or time period. For instance, Mykhal is the common form used in the Presov Region and Lemko Region; Mykhailo in Subcarpathian Rus'; and Mykhai'l in all regions for persons living in the nineteenth century and earlier periods. Analogously, some persons used themselves or were described in the literature as Vasylii instead of Vasyl', or loanykii instead of loan. For Rusyns active primarily in North America, the encyclopedia adopts the form in which persons spelled their names in English. The names of Rusyn-American and Rusyn-Canadian organizations and publications, if originally in Rusyn and using the Roman alphabet, retain their original form in this encyclopedia (with the exception of capitalization; that is, only the initial word of a title and proper nouns are capitalized). The reality of the Rusyn language, with its different literary variants and the historic experience of individuals living and functioning under differing state languages and national orientations, makes consistency of form for personal names extremely difficult if not impossible. The editor responsible for the final version of this English text, Paul Robert Magocsi, has tried to achieve what is at best "relative" consistency. One hopes readers will understand that this is the most that is possible at this stage in Rusyn cultural and linguistic development.

By their very nature, encyclopedias need to follow certain patterns of consistency. This was a particular challenge in dealing with Rusyns and Carpathian Rus', a people and territory which have always been ruled by different states employing varying forms of place names and personal names. A further complication arises in transliterating names, titles, or terms from Cyrillic letters to the Roman (Latin) alphabet. Place names for villages, towns, and cities appear in the dominant language of the state in which the place is located at present; hence, Slovak for places in Slovakia, Ukrainian for places in Ukraine, etc. The names of rivers and other geographic features, some of which may be located in more than one country, follow the main form given in Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed. (1997). Historic county names are given in Rusyn, often followed by their equivalent in Hungarian. Some towns or villages have entirely new names. In many cases, the present name is given first, followed by the older form. An exhaustive list of present and previous names of towns and villages is found in the index for the map by Paul Robert Magocsi, Carpatho-Rusyn Settlement at the Outset of the 20th Century, 2nd ed. (1998). The Library of Congress system is used for transliteration from the various Cyrillic alphabets. The transliterations reflect the original form (not modernized orthography) of a name or title, whether it is Russian, Rusyn, or Ukrainian. Texts in the uncodified iazychiie, or "traditional CarpathoRusyn language" are transliterated according to the system for Rusyn. The Rusyn transliteration system is similar to the Library of Congress system for Ukrainian, with the following additions: e = io; w = y; 6 = 6; t = i. In the Vojvodinian variant of Rusyn, the vowel H is rendered as i. One exception to the above principles is found in the entry Language, which uses the International system to transliterate Rusyn words and other linguistic examples. (See the Transliteration Tables at the end of this section). Forms for personal names are equally problematic. Because Rusyns lived and live in states with different official languages, an individual may have spelt his or her name in Rusyn and/or in one or more state languages. The encyclopedia's main entry for an individual of Rusyn background uses the transliterated Rusyn form of the name. This is usually followed by the form of the name commonly used in those states where the person generally resided or resides and whose official language is


Transliteration Tables A B B


r « E


E 3C 3 I I H bl H K JI M H O

n p c T

y y

—hard sign) adopted earlier in the century by the Soviet authorities just after the Bolshevik Revolution. Regardless of script, the Cyrillic alphabet has for many become a symbol of Rusyn identity, and its use is considered an important defense against national assimilation.


Further reading: Avhustyn Voloshyn, "Oborona kyrylyky," Naukovyizbirnyk Tovarystva 'Prosvita', XII (Uzhhorod, 1937), pp. 85-117; V.A. Istrin, 1100 let slavianskoi azbuki, 2nd rev. ed. (Moscow, 1988); Gorazd A. Timkovic, "Cyrilika je starsia ako glagolika," Krdsnobrodsky zbornik, III, 1-2 (Presov, 1998), pp. 5-208.

Curkanovic, Ilarion. See Tsurkanovich, Ilarion lurievich Custer, Richard. See New Rusyn Times


Cyril, Saint. See Constantine/Cyril Cyrkul. See District Cyril and Methodius Society. See Internet; Sydor, Dmytrii Cyrillic alphabet — generally considered the second oldest Slavic alphabet. Its creator is unknown, but may have been Clement of Ohrid. The name Cyrillic was given as an attribute of respect in recognition of *Constantine the Philosopher/St. Cyril, who had earlier created the first Slavic (*Glagolitic) alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet was in the main based on the Greek alphabet and is first attested in the late ninth century in the *Bulgarian Khanate. Because some Slavs in the Balkans were already familiar with the Greek alphabet, Cyrillic proved to be more accessible and quickly replaced Glagolitic; between the tenth and twelfth centuries Cyrillic became the dominant script in Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia, and Kievan Rus'. Some authors have argued that Cyrillic was the first Slavic alphabet created by Sts. Constantine/Cyril and Methodius during their mission to the Slavs of central Europe, and that Glagolitic came into being only later among the Slavs of Dalmatia. The Cyrillic alphabet is used by those peoples who have maintained a Byzantine-rite Christian tradition: Russians, Belarusans, Ukrainians, Serbs, Bulgarians, and Romanians (until the mid-nineteenth century). The earliest written documents and texts among the

Czajkowski, Jerzy (b. April 4,1931, Kolomyia [Poland], Ukraine) — Polish ethnographer, museum administrator, and professor. After nearly two decades as a researcher (19531972) at the Ethnographic Museum in Cracow, Czajkowski served as director (1973-1999) of the Museum of Folk Architecture/Muzeum Budownictwa Ludowego in Sanok. The museum includes several examples of traditional domestic architecture from the Lemko and neighboring regions in southeastern Poland, and Czajkowski published a major work, Wiejskie budownictwo mieszkalne w Beskidzie Niskim, Bieszczadach iprzylegfym Pogorzu (1969), on that architecture. He is also responsible for a two-volume collection of studies on the *Lemko Region (Lemkowie w historii i kulturze Karpat, 1992-94), for which he contributed an extensive survey of the earliest settlement patterns along the northern slopes of the *Carpathian Mountains. Czajkowski takes the view that the Lower Beskyd ranges of the Carpathians, encompassing what was later referred to as the Lemko Region, remained unsettled until the early thirteenth century, when the first Vlach pastoralists made their appearance. Vlach settlement continued sporadically on both slopes of the Carpathians during the next two centuries; although of Romanian background, the * Vlachs quickly as-


Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture

similated with Rusyn migrants from the east. Poland had built a few fortified settlements along the far western edge of the Lemko Region (Muszyna, Stary Sqcz) in the early thirteenth century, but it was not until the 1340s that Polish settlements (Iskrzynia, Rowne, Rogi, etc.) began to appear just north of the Lower Beskyd ranges. Czajkowski discusses the VlachRusyn settlement of the Lemko Region, providing detailed statistical and cartographic data, in Studia nad Lemkowszczyznq(1999).

wounded), the unit crossed Slovakia and Moravia, reaching Prague in early May 1945. It was soon thereafter disbanded. As a result of the *Czechoslovak-Soviet Treaty of 1945 and its clauses pertaining to choice of citizenship (*optatsiid), many Rusyn veterans of the Czechoslovak Army Corps opted not to remain in what was by then Soviet-ruled Subcarpathian Rus', but settled instead in postwar Czechoslovakia, where a certain number found employment in the military and Communist security services (secret police).


Further reading: Ivan Vanat, "Zakarpats'ki ukrai'ntsi v chekhoslovats'komu viis'ku v SRSR," in Shliakh do voli/Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu ukrains 'ko'i kul'tury u Svydnyku, II (Bratislava and Presov, 1966), pp. 183-202; Ludvik Svoboda, ZBuzuluku do Prahy, 6th ed. (Prague, 1970); Ludvik Svoboda, Cestami zivota, Vol. II (Prague, 1992); Karel Richter, Podkarpatsti Rusini v boji za svobodu (Prague, 1997); Omelian D. Dovhanych, Zakarpats'ki dobrovol'tsi (Uzhhorod, 1998); V. M. Kerechanyn, ed., U vyri kryvavoi viiny: urodzhentsi Zakarpattia—heneraly i ofitsery Chekhoslovats 'koiarmii u borot'bi zfashyzmom (Uzhhorod, 2000).

Czechoslovak Army Corps — military formation during World War II. The military unit was first established in February 1942 in the city of Buzuluk at the southern end of the Ural Mountains in the Soviet Union. At first called the Czechoslovak Brigade, it was comprised of citizens of Czechoslovakia who for various reasons found themselves on Soviet territory. Initially, 63 percent of the unit's 3,517 soldiers were Rusyns from *Subcarpathian Rus' who had fled from their homeland after it was annexed to Hungary (March 1939). Between the fall of Poland (September 1939) and June 1941, when the Soviet Union's borders extended to the crests of the *Carpathian Mountains, an estimated 7,500 mostly young Rusyn males crossed into Soviet territory. The refugees were immediately arrested for illegally entering the Soviet Union and imprisoned in various concentration camps of the Gulag. Since, according to international law, they still retained their Czechoslovak citizenship, General Heliodor Pika (1897-1949) of the Czechoslovak Military Mission in Moscow managed at the end of 1942 to obtain their release, on the understanding that they would serve in the newly formed military unit. In fact, not all Rusyns interned were allowed to join the brigade; those who did not were sent to work on Soviet state farms. The Czechoslovak military unit was headed by Brigadier General Ludvik Svoboda (1895-1979) and was popularly known as the Svoboda Battalion. In August 1944 the unit was transformed into the First Czechoslovak Army Corps in the Soviet Union. By that time it consisted of about 16,000 soldiers, of whom roughly 25 percent (3,177) were Rusyns. As the second largest nationality (after the Czechs), the Rusyns also had their own section in the unit's trilingual military newspaper, Nose vojsko v SSSR (1942-44). The Rusyn section was edited by lurko *Borolych, Illia Voloshchuk, and Fedor Ivanchov, among others. The Czechoslovak Army Corps fought alongside the Soviet forces in their campaign against the German Army. Although the corps participated in several battles across Ukraine and former Poland (Kiev, Bila Tserkva, Zhashkiv), it was not allowed to enter Subcarpathian Rus'. Instead, it was sent with the Soviet Army to fight at the Battle of the *Dukla Pass. Despite the corps' heavy losses (1,844 dead and 4,700


Czechoslovak-Soviet Treaty of 1945—treaty signed in Moscow concerning Transcarpathian Ukraine/Subcarpathian Rus'. Underpressure from the Soviet leader, losif *Stalin, this treaty needed to be signed in order to obviate any discussion of the Subcarpathian problem within the framework of the eventual post-World War II peace conference (1947). On the recommendation of Czechoslovakia's president Edvard *Benes, the treaty (prepared in Russian, Czech, and Slovak) was signed by that country's prime minister, Zdenek Fierlinger, and its minister of foreign affairs, Vladimir Clementis; the Soviet signatory on the recommendation of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR was the vice-chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and the Soviet minister of foreign affairs, Viacheslav Molotov. The Czechoslovak-Soviet Treaty signed on June 29, 1945 consisted of two articles. According to article 1, "*Transcarpathian Ukraine (called * Subcarpathian Rus' according to the Czechoslovak constitution), which on the basis of the *Treaty of St. Germain (September 10, 1919) formed an autonomous component of the Czechoslovak republic, is, in accordance with the wishes of the inhabitants of Transcarpathian Ukraine and the fraternal agreement between the above-mentioned parties, being united with its age-old fatherland—Ukraine—and thereby being incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic." Article 2 stated that the treaty was confirmed (ratified) by the Czechoslovak National Council (Parliament) and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On November 22, 1945, Czechoslovakia's Provisional National Council ratified the treaty. This was in violation of the Czechoslovak constitution, which allowed for decisions

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture of a constitutional nature, including changes in the country's borders, to be taken only by a parliament composed of deputies chosen through general elections, not the designated deputies who comprised the Provisional National Council. Hence, according to Czechoslovakia's constitution, the ratification of the 1945 treaty was not juridically valid. It was, in effect, a political act carried out under pressure from Stalin. From the standpoint of international law the political act carried out in 1945 between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union was discriminatory against the subject of the treaty, Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathian Ukraine, which had no representatives, even with observer status, during the negotiations. Nor did the treaty carry the signature of a representative from the Soviet Ukraine, the entity to which Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathian Ukraine was being united, although the Soviet Ukraine was at the time a founding member of the United Nations and therefore legally an active party in international relations. Stalin had delegated Soviet Ukraine's right to act to the Soviet Union's minister of foreign affairs, V. Molotov. Consequently, the Czechoslovak-Soviet Treaty of 1945 was in violation of a whole series of international legal norms as well as of the Czechoslovak constitution; in other words, it had no legal force from its inception. With the demise of the Soviet Union (1991) and Czechoslovakia (1993) the states which had signed the 1945 treaty themselves disappeared. Their legal successors—Russia, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia—did not express any view regarding their relationship to the 1945 treaty, with the result that Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathian Rus' found itself in a juridical vacuum. In other words, the Czechoslovak-Soviet treaty only confirmed a process that had already begun in the fall of 1944, namely the annexation of Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathian Ukraine by the Soviet Union. The treaty included an addendum (protokol) guaranteeing to *Czechs and *Slovaks living in Subcarpathian Rus' the right to claim (*optatsiid) Czechoslovak citizenship, and to *Ukrainians and *Russians living in Czechoslovakia the right to claim Soviet citizenship. The addendum also established the principle of compensation for the property of Czechs and Slovaks who decided to leave Subcarpathian Rus'. The above procedures were to be carried out within 18 months of the signing of the treaty. Property owned by the Czechoslovak state in Subcarpathian Rus' was transferred outright to the Soviet Union without any compensation. The railroad hub at Chop and the immediately surrounding area, which had been a part of Slovakia before 1945, was likewise transferred to the Soviet Union. As compensation Slovakia received some territory along the western edge of the Uzhhorod district as well as the village of Lekarovce/Lekart, whose inhabitants had petitioned successfully for the transfer. Further reading: Sovetsko-chekhoslovatskie otnosheniia 1945-1960 rr.: dokumenty i materialy (Moscow, 1971); N.M. Barinova et al.,

83 eds., Vostochnaia Evropa v dokumentakh rossiiskikh arkhivov 19441953 gg., Vol. I: 1944-48 (Moscow and Novosibirsk, 1997); Karel Kaplan and A. Spiritova, eds., CSR a SSSR 1945-1948: dokumenty mezivlddnichjedndni (Brno, 1997); Tomas Brod, Ceskoslovensko a Sovetsky svaz v letech 1939-1945: Moskva, objeti a pouto (Prague, 1992); Jaromir Hofec, Podkarpatskd Rus—zeme nezndmd (Prague, 1993); Ivan Pop, "lak nas viddavaly, abo troiandy dlia prysluzhnykiv Mekhlisa—Praha 1945 roku: uriadovi i parlaments'ki dyskusii dovkola pytannia pro peredachu Zakarpattia SRSR," Karpats 'kyi krai, V, 5-8 [111] (Uzhhorod, 1995), pp. 82-88. IVAN POP

Czechs — a West Slavic people living within the borders of the present-day Czech Republic. Czech relations with Rusyns were at best sporadic before the twentieth century. Both Czechs and Rusyns shared a common religious experience as disciples of the ninth-century Christianization mission led by *Constantine/Cyril and Methodius, while during the fifteenth century Hussite soldiers led by Jan Jiskra z Brandysa spent several decades in the *Presov Region and the western part of * Subcarpathian Rus'. Somewhat later Rusyn intellectuals became aware of the educational reforms and ideas of the Czech pedagogue, Jan A. Komensky/Comenius, who lived in the early 1650s near Rusyn-inhabited lands in the town of Sarospatak. During the beginning of the national awakening in the early nineteenth century the Czech intellectual, Josef Dobrovsky, corresponded with the bishop of Mukachevo, Andrii *Bachyns'kyi, and interacted with Rusyn seminarians and cultural activists (Mykhai'l *Luchkai, Ivan *Fogarashii) studying and working in Vienna. After 1848 Czech writers and publicists did not maintain ties with Carpatho-Rusyns as much as with the Rusyns of eastern Galicia, in particular the populists (narodovtsi) who subsequently formed the basis of the Ukrainian national movement in that region. There were, however, some direct contacts with Rusyns living in the Presov Region. In the 1850s a small group of Czechs settled in the village of Vysne Remety (*Ung county), where they established iron works, and a few Czech teachers were assigned by the Austrian imperial government to teach in the gymnasia in Presov and Uzhhorod. It was not until after World War I, however, that Czechs were to interact directly and have a strong impact on Rusyn society, especially among those living in Subcarpathian Rus'. Not only did Rusyns south of the Carpathians live with Czechs in the same state during the period of the first Czechoslovak republic (1919-1938), but several thousand Czechs came to live in Subcarpathian Rus'. During the 1920s, when the central government in Prague initiated a land reform in Subcarpathian Rus', it also organized settlements of Czech farmers along the borderland region with Hungary just east of the railroad junction at Chop, in particular the villages of Svoboda, Bakosh/ Svobodka, and Bat'ovo-Ujbatyu/Dvorce, where Czechs made


up the majority of the inhabitants. Most Czechs, however, settled in urban areas where they were employed in the government administration, health services, and schools. Of the estimated 27,000 Czechs living in Subcarpathian Rus' during the 1930s, nearly half lived in the province's largest cities and towns (Uzhhorod 6,500; Mukachevo 2,500; Berehovo 2,000; Khust 1,400). Czechs were associated with the dominant nationality in the Czechoslovak state, and because of that status they inevitably had an impact on Rusyn society. The relatively short (20-year) period of Czech rule during the interwar years of the twentieth century was to make a deep impression on the Rusyn historical consciousness, and traces of that experience are still felt today in many aspects of Subcarpathian life. Those experiences were both positive and negative. On the positive side it must be said that in 1919 Rusyns voluntarily joined the newly created democratic Slavic state, the Czechoslovak republic. Consequently, for the first time in their history Rusyns became an equal, co-founding people of a state in which they had their own administrative entity, the autonomous territory of Subcarpathian Rus'. In the context of these political changes the Czechoslovak Legionnaires, formed during World War I, were viewed by Rusyns as their liberators from the Hungarian Communist dictatorship and Romanian military occupation of their homeland in 1919 and 1920. Since the majority of Hungarian-appointed government civil servants boycotted the new state, many of the positions in the Subcarpathian administration were filled with Czechs. In the given situation this was a positive development, since these Czech civil servants (Jan Brejcha, Petr *Ehrenfeld, Ladislav *Kaigl, Viktor Klima, Jaroslav Meznik, Josef *Pesek, Josef Pesina, and Antonin *Rozsypal, among others) carried out the basic tasks in creating a new democratic governing structure in the country's far eastern province. They provided stability in a region torn apart by war, introduced agrarian reform, set up a modern health-care system, and reorganized the educational system so that there were schools at all levels of pre-university education with Czech, Slovak, Russian, and Ukrainian, as well as Rusyn, as languages of instruction. A whole gamut of Czech scholars undertook intensive research on Subcarpathian Rus', and beginning in the 1920s they published scholarly monographs, encyclopedic handbooks, and brochures in a wide variety of disciplines: ethnography and folklore (Jan *Husek, Amalie *Kozminova, Frantisek *Spala, Jan *Vondracek), traditional architecture (Bohumil Vavrousek, Florian *Zapletal), archeology (Jaroslav Bohm, Lubor *Niederle, Vojtech Ondrouch), history (Vaclav Chaloupecky, Frantisek *Gabriel, Kamil *Krofta), legal studies (Karel Kadlec, Zdenek Peska), geography (Vaclav Drahny, Jin *Kral, Karel Matousek), geology (Frantisek Drahny), and literary studies (Antonin *Hartl, Frantisek *Tichy). The highly developed Czech political culture also had

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture a positive impact on Rusyn society. The generally stable Czech political party structure, covering the entire spectrum from left to right, attempted to influence and gain the support of Subcarpathian voters. Several Czechs were dispatched to Subcarpathian Rus' as party organizers (Jan Brandejs, Emanuel Klima, Alois Rauser), of whom some were chosen to represent the province in the Czechoslovak parliament: the Social-Democrat Jaromir Necas (1924-1935) and the Agrarian Josef Zajic (1929-1938). Beginning in the mid-1920s, when the Subcarpathian electorate participated in its first electoral campaign and eventually chose deputies and senators to the Czechoslovak national parliament, the Rusyns learned the democratic process from their Czech mentors, actively participated in the work of legal political institutions, and created their own political parties. Czech engineers and technicians played a decisive role in creating a new infrastructure for Subcarpathian Rus', including roads and bridges and power lines for electrification. Czech agronomists taught Rusyns the techniques of intensive-style agricultural cultivation and mechanization, while Czech activists in the cooperative movement encouraged Rusyn peasants to create insurance organizations, markets to sell goods, and modern banking and credit systems. Rusyns from all levels of society, both in Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region, often expressed their appreciation of Czechoslovak rule through praise for "their" country's founding president, Tomas G. *Masaryk. Numerous publications and school books were filled with praise for Masaryk and a major statue in his honor was erected in the administrative center of Uzhhorod. Respect for the country's president continued after Masaryk's death, as many Rusyn parents named their children Eduard in honor of the new president, Edvard *Benes. In turn, Rusyn folk culture and the natural beauty of their homeland became a valuable source of inspiration for Czech creativity, whether among architects, art historians, artists, writers, or musicians. It would not be an exaggeration to say that Subcarpathian Rus' became a special phenomenon in twentieth-century Czech culture. Czech artists "uncovered" the *patriarchal nature of Carpatho-Rusyn society and the region's natural beauty, which, for them, was something unique in the framework of urbanized and industrialized Europe. As some Czech publicists wrote, the "Orient begins east of Kosice." For instance, the well-known painter and folklorist, Ludvik *Kuba, sought out and found in the world of CarpathoRusyns what he believed to be proto-Slavic archetypes and the remnants of prehistoric Slavic mythology. Graphic artists like Karel Vik, Josef Rericha, and Jaroslav Skrbek became enamoured with Rusyn wooden churches, which inspired images that became classics in twentieth-century Czech graphic art, as did the works of Vaclav Fiala, which were also inspired by Rusyn themes. The leading Czech expressionist painter of the twentieth century, Frantisek Foltyn, found his "Tahiti" in

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture the countryside around Presov, Mukachevo, and Uzhhorod, which was reflected in a series of his canvases. Czech belletrists and publicists developed a deep understanding of traditional Rusyn culture, which inspired the poetry of Jaroslav *Zatloukal and Jaromir *Hofec; the short stories and feuilletons of Jaroslav *Durych and Jaromir *Tomecek; the reportages of Vasek Kana, Stanislav K. *Neumann, and Frantisek Tovarek; and several novels by Karel Capek(//orcMa/, 1933), Jan Drozd(Dhuhdnoc, 1961), Amalie Kozminova (Olenina Idska, 1935), Zdenek Mate] Kudej (Horalskd republika, 1932), Jifi Marek (LidezPoljany, 1937), Vladislav *Vancura (Posledni soud, 1929), Jan Vrba (Duse na hordch, 1931), and Jindra Zoder (Petro, 1935). But the most famous of all works in the Czech literary repertoire was Ivan *Olbracht's novel, Nikola Suhaj loupeznik, which poeticized the fate of the last Carpathian Robin Hood-like bandit. The *Shuhai theme was destined to have a long life in Czech artistic circles: it served as the basis of two films, a play by the present-day dramatist and political activist Milan Uhde (Baladapro banditu), and it has inspired rock songs, ballads, and a Broadway-style musical (Kolocavd). Olbracht immortalized as well the patriarchal life-style of Subcarpathia's Hasidic *Jews in popular short stories ("Golet v udoli," "O smutnych ocich Hany Karadzicove"), which provided the scenarios for more recent Czech films (Hanele; Tak se stalo v Poliany). See Cinema. Avant-garde Czech architects were to leave their mark in Subcarpathian Rus'. Government officials working in the region commissioned Czech architects to construct entire urban complexes, which arose in Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, Khust, and Solotvyno. Elsewhere in smaller towns and villages a wide range of often monumental administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, and industrial enterprises were designed and built in the modern Czech functional style that derived from the country's leading architects (Jaroslav Fragner, Jifi Gocar, and Antonin Krupka, among others). On the other hand, some Czechs were so taken with Subcarpathian * architecture that between 1929 and 1936 they transferred six wooden churches, which still stand in small towns in Bohemia (Dobfikov from Kholmovets', Nova Paka from Obava, Hradec Kralove from Habura), in Moravia (Blansko from Nyzhnie Selyshche, Kuncice pod Ondfejnikem from Hlynianets'), and in the Kinsky Gardens in Prague (from Medvedivtsi). Hand in hand with the work of creative artists was tourism. Subcarpathian Rus' became a major destination for Czechs (nature lovers, boy scouts, hikers), who were attracted in everincreasing numbers to what for them was an exotic land within the borders of their own country. As early as 1922 branches of the Czechoslovak Tourist Club (KCST) were established in Mukachevo and Uzhhorod, and over the next two decades a network of hostels and other tourist facilities was set up throughout Subcarpathian Rus'. The interwar years of Czechoslovak rule also had their


negative side. In fulfilling the clauses of the Paris Peace Conference's *Treaty of St. Germain (September 10, 1919) the Czechoslovak government formally created "an autonomous region for Rusyns living on the southern slopes of the Carpathians"; however, the "autonomous" province of Subcarpathian Rus' included only four of the eight historic counties in which Rusyns lived. Left out were *Spish, *Abov, *Sharysh, *Zemplyn, and the western part of *Uzh county, whose Rusyns became residents of Slovakia. The result for those Rusyns was their gradual adaptation and, for many, total assimilation into Slovak society. During the postwar political negotiations, Czechoslovak diplomatic circles categorically rejected any idea of allowing the Rusyns of Slovakia to unite with those in Subcarpathian Rus', just as they rejected the demands put forth by *Lemko Rusyns living on the northern slopes of the Carpathians for unification with Czechoslovakia. The tendency toward sociocultural unity that had characterized Rusyn society in all areas where they lived (Lemko Region, Presov Region, Subcarpathian Rus') within the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was broken with the formation of new states in central Europe after World War I, so that only in Subcarpathian Rus' could a Rusyn sociopolitical and cultural environment come into being. Yet not even Subcarpathian Rus' enjoyed the * autonomy it was promised. The Czechoslovak government and president simply refused to fulfill the provisions of the Treaty of St. Germain. This led to anger and displeasure among leaders of all political parties in the province as well as the appearance of an autonomist movement that was frequently exploited by extremist elements. The Czechoslovak president and government in Prague as well as the state administration in Subcarpathian Rus' were at their wits' end with regard to the Rusyn nationality question. From the outset it was clear that the Czechoslovak authorities had no idea that there might exist in the heart of central Europe a distinct ethnocultural and ethnopolitical Rusyn entity. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries liberal-minded Czech politicians and cultural activists (Karel Zap, Karel Havlic'ek, Frantisek Rehof) had developed close ties with Ukrainian-oriented populists from Galicia, whom they met in Eviv, Chemivtsi, and Vienna. It was precisely from these people that the Czech public was informed that Carpatho-Rusyns were a part of a single Ukrainian ethnocultural mass that encompassed *Carpathian Rus', Galicia, and Bukovina, as well as large expanses of Dnieper Ukraine in the southern part of what was then the Russian Empire. For their part, conservative Czech politicians, who were favorably oriented toward Russia, received their information from Russian *neo-Slavists, who considered Carpatho-Rusyns to be "Carpatho-Russians" (karpatorossy), or "Little Russians" (malorosy), which in turn were considered part of a single Russian ethnocultural mass. The small group ofRusyn intellectuals who categorically rejected the view that their people


were either Ukrainian or Russian were initially treated by the Czechoslovak administration with deep distrust and suspected of being *Magyarones imbued with patriotic sympathies for the Hungarian Kingdom. The Czechoslovak government and the president's office thus dispatched to Subcarpathian Rus' emigres from the former Russian Empire and Austrian Galicia, who were given positions in the provincial administration, in schools, and in cultural institutions. Those emigres, aside from their official duties, also undertook national and political activity among the Rusyn population. The result was the creation of opposing Russophile and Ukrainophile national orientations, which created deep divisions within the still politically immature Rusyn environment. As early as 1922 Czechoslovak officials in Subcarpathian Rus' were reporting on the anti-state nature of Ukrainian as well as Russian emigre politicians, yet the central government in Prague did not react. It was not until 1929 that the first group of radical Ukrainian activists as well as a few Russians were expelled from Subcarpathian Rus' and Czechoslovakia. In the end, Subcarpathian political life came to be dominated by three mutually antagonistic orientations—*Russophile, *Ukrainophile, and *Rusynophile. Having created this situation themselves, Czechoslovak government circles then went on to argue that they could not grant autonomy because there was a lack of political unity in the province, provoking exasperation among all political orientations in the province. The presence of Czech specialists and civil servants in the administration and economic life of Subcarpathian Rus' was at first an acceptable and even welcome phenomenon. It was, therefore, not by chance that the foremost Ukrainophile Subcarpathian leader, Avhustyn *Voloshyn, concluded: "in Rusyn history, the Czechs will be gratefully remembered as the mentors of Subcarpathian Rus'." Whereas this situation was mutually beneficial to the existence of Rusyns and Czechs in a single state during the 1920s, by the next decade things had begun to change and quite radically. At the outset of the 1930s a wave ofRusyn graduates began to return home from Czech universities. The Czech administrators and specialists who had come as "mentors" on a temporary basis in the early days of Czechoslovak rule, however, did not want to leave their posts for the newly trained Rusyns. Many Czechs, especially directors of state-owned firms, forests, and mines, had financially lucrative positions, and some even developed a "colonial syndrome" toward Subcarpathian Rus'. This situation provoked sharp criticism and opposition among the younger generation of university-trained graduates, the very group of Rusyns who otherwise would have been supporters of Czechoslovak rule in their homeland. The disintegration of Czechoslovakia in late 1938 and the annexation of Subcarpathian Rus' by Hungary in March 1939 signalled the end of the Czech presence in the region. All government officials, civil servants, directors of enterprises,

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture and most teachers returned home to Bohemia and Moravia. Others who remained were, after World War II, repatriated from Subcarpathian Rus' as part of the *Czechoslovak-Soviet treaty of 1945, which effectively put an end to direct ties between Rusyns and Czechs. Despite the problems which arose from political shortsightedness, the period when Czechs ruled Subcarpathian Rus' (pod chekhamy) produced some exceptionally positive results for both sides. The Czechs taught Rusyns about participatory democracy in a parliamentary system and how to function in a highly developed market economy. The Rusyns, through the natural beauty of their Subcarpathian homeland and their own traditional culture, provided an unending source of inspiration for Czech artistic creativity. During the subsequent 40 years of Soviet rule in Subcarpathian Rus' the Communist authorities tried, with limited success, to eradicate the generally positive memories that Rusyns had of their previous life in Czechoslovakia. And after 1948, when territorially reduced Czechoslovakia became a Communist-ruled satellite of the Soviet Union, the country's former eastern province, Subcarpathian Rus', became a kind of taboo subject, about which little was written or taught in schools. Since 1989, however, with the fall of Communist rule and the collapse of the Soviet Union, Czech-Rusyn ties have in some measure been restored. As part of the euphoria in post-Communist Czechoslovakia, Czech journalists, publicists, and filmmakers, no longer under government-imposed censorship, "discovered" their country's former eastern province. Numerous reports about Rusyns and Subcarpathian Rus' appeared in the Czech press, several television programs and a few documentary films were aired, and at least one right-wing Czech political group active in the early 1990s (the Republican party led by Miroslav Sladek) openly called for the return of Subcarpathian Rus' to Czechoslovakia. More long-lasting has been the work of the *Society for the Friends of Subcarpathian Rus'/Spolecnost pfatel Podkarpatske Rusi. Founded in 1990, with branches in Prague, Brno, and a few other cities, this group is comprised mainly of the children of Czech officials and civil servants who served in Subcarpathian Rus' during the interwar years, as well as younger Czechs interested in this previously little-known province of former Czechoslovakia. The society informs the current Czech public about Rusyn culture, has re-established Czech tourism to Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia, and sends humanitarian aid to its inhabitants. In turn, enthusiasts of Czech culture in Ukraine's Transcarpathia have established in Uzhhorod the Comenius Society of Czech Culture/Spolecnost ceske kultury J.A. Komenskeho and the Masaryk Club/Klub T.G. Masaryka. Both organizations issue publications about Czech and Rusyn historical relations and they were instrumental in having erected in Uzhhorod (2002) a monument to former Czechoslovakia's founding president, Tomajs G. Masaryk.


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Further reading: Gustav Bianchi, ed., Publikace pro zem Podkarpatskd Rus (Banska Bystrica, 1932; repr. 2001); Jaromir Musil, ed., Technickd prdce v Zemi podkarpatoruske, 1919-1933 (Uzhhorod, 1933); A. Gartl' [Haiti], "Podkarpatskaia Rus' v sovremennoi cheskoi literature," Tsentral'naia Evropa, VI, 3 (Prague, 1933), pp. 187-196; Kamil Krofta, "Cechoslovaci a Podkarpatska Rus," in Jaroslav Zatloukal, ed., Podkarpatskd Rus (Bratislava, 1936), pp. 19-29; FrantisekTovarek, "Zakarpatsko v naSi literature," in idem, Hory a lide (Hradec Kralove, 1985), pp. 112-123; Jan Havranek, "Pohled ceskych odborniku na Rusiny na pocatku dvacatych let," in Rusini: otdzky dejin a kultiiry (Presov, 1994), pp. 117-121; Viktor Budin, Podkarpatskd Rus ocima Cechu (Prague, 1996); Jaromir Hofec, ed., Stfedni Evropa a Podkarpatskd Rus (Prague, 1997); Petr Skala, "Turistika na Podkarpatske Rusi v mezivale6nem ob-

dobi," in Nds cesko-rusinsky kdlendaf/Nash ches'ko-rusyns'kyi kalendar 2000 (Uzhhorod, 1999), pp. 40-45; Ivan Latko, ed., Tomds Garrigue Masaryk a Podkarpatskd Rus/T.G. Masaryk ta Zakarpattia (Uzhhorod, 2000); Ivan Pop, "Podkarpatska Rus v Ceskoslovenske republice," mNdrodnostnimensiny: historicke souvislosti nekterych aktudlnich problemu v Evrope av CR (Prague, 2000), pp. 35-46. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Cziple, Sandor. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region Czlowiek zwany Nikiforem. See Cinema

D Dajbkowski, Przemyslaw (b. February 23, 1877, Eviv [Austrian Galicia], Ukraine; d. December 18, 1950, Eviv [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — Polish legal historian. DaJ)kowski taught the history of law and the state at Eviv University under post-World War I Polish and later Soviet rule. He undertook research on the history of Galicia, in particular the Sanok region during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Several of his publications contain extensive data on social, ethnic, and legal relations between Lemko-Rusyn peasants and Polish landlords in the eastern part of the *Lemko Region: Stosunki koscielne ziemi sanockiej w XVwieku (1922); Stosunki narodowsciowe ziemi sanockiej w XVstuleciu (1922); Ziemia sanocka w XV \vieku: stosunki gospodarcze, 2 vols. (1931). BOGDAN HORBAL

Dacia — a territory in central Europe controlled by a tribe of northern Thracians called Dacians. Dacia reached its largest extent during the reign of the chieftain Burebista (82-44 BCE), when in the west it extended as far as the middle Danubian River valley (present-day Hungary), in the east and north to the Carpathians (in Slovakia), and in the south to the lower Dniester valley (southwestern Ukraine) and western coast of the Black Sea as far as Apollonia (modern-day Sozopol in Bulgaria). Around 60 BCE, following the defeat of two Celtic tribes, the Boii and Taurisci, the Dacians appeared in the Upper Tisza/Tysa Region, including *Subcarpathian Rus', where they built a series of hill-forts (horodyshche) at Zemplin, Mala Kopania, Oncesti, and Solotvyno. After the death of Burebista (44 BCE) and an agreement among various tribal leaders, Dacia was divided into three and later into five parts. Dacia's power was revived in the third quarter of the first century CE, when, in the years 85-86, the Dacians under Diurpaneus and Decebal led successful military campaigns against the Roman Empire, completely destroying the Fifth Roman Legion. However, during the last stages of the DacoRoman Wars (105-106 CE) Decebel's forces suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Emperor Trajan's army. In the year 107 Rome created a new province of Dacia centered in present-day Romania, and whose northern boundary (limes) was just about 70 kilometers south of Subcarpathian Rus'. As a result the entire Upper Tisza/Tysa Region found itself within a transitional zone in contact with the Roman Empire. Further reading: Vasile Parvan, Dacia: An Outline of the Civilizations of the Carpatho-Danubian Countries (Cambridge, 1928); Jordan, Oproiskhozhdenii i deianiiakh getov (Moscow, 1960); The Geography of Strabo, 8 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 1917-32); Ion Horafiu Crisan, Burebista and His Time (Bucharest, 1978); V.G.

Kotigorosko, "Antichitati dacice pe lisa superioara," Thraco-Dacia, XII, 1-2 (Bucharest, 1991), pp. 115-132; Sever Dumitrascu, Dacia apuseana (Oradea, 1993); Viacheslav G. Kotigoroshko, Frakiitsy Verkhnego Potis'ia: III v. do n.e.- IVv.n.e. (Uzhhorod, 1995). VIACHESLAV KOTIGOROSHKO

Dacia Society. See Romanians Damaskin (Grdanicki). See Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachevo-Uzhhorod Dami, Aldo (b. March 23, 1898, Geneva, Switzerland; d. October 9, 1977, Geneva) — Swiss-Italian professor of historical geography and ethnic studies at the University of Geneva (1944-1968). Dami published several works on national minorities in central Europe, and among his early interests was * Subcarpathian Rus'. While recognizing the achievements of the Czechoslovak regime during the interwar years, Dami also emphasized that Hungary's claims for border revision needed to be addressed. He published a major monograph, La Ruthenie subcarpathique (1944), describing the geographical setting, demography, and history of Rusyn-inhabited lands. Rusyns also figure prominently in his Les nouveaux martyrs: le destin des minorites (1936). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dancak, Frantisek. See Blahovistnyk Danilak, Michal. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region Danilovics, Janos. See Danylovych-Korytnians'kyi, Ivan Danko, Joseph/Osyp. See Historiography: United States Danyliuk, Dmytro (b. September 19,1941, Teresva [Karpatalja, Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — professor and historian of Ukrainian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. Danyliuk completed the middle-level school in Teresva (1957) and the historical faculty at Uzhhorod State University (19601965); he was subsequently awarded the degrees ofkandidat nauk from Eviv University (1975) and doctor of historical


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture sciences from Uzhhorod State University (1994). He taught in elementary schools (1965-1971) in far southern Ukraine, then in his native Subcarpathia in ViFkhivtsi-Lazivs'kyi and at the middle school in Teresva. Since 1971, Danyliuk has taught history at Uzhhorod State University, initially at its preparatory branch in Vynohradovo and from 1975 at its main campus in Uzhhorod (docent/associate professor, 1984; professor 1996). Danyliuk has published widely on aspects of CarpathoRusyn *historiography, in particular on the manner in which *Subcarpathian Rus' has been treated in Soviet-Marxist writings (Istoriia Zakarpattia v novitnii chas 1917-1985, 1987). He has also compiled several volumes on pre-Soviet historians of Subcarpathian Rus': Rozvytok istorychnoinauky na Zakarpatti: kinets' XVIII do seredyny XIX st. (1994), Istoriia Zakarpattia v biohrafiiakh i portretakh (1997), and Istorychna nauka na Zakarpatti (1999). Danyliuk's writings consist primarily of descriptive biographies with limited historiographical analysis; they are almost exclusively limited to scholars who have written in East Slavic languages and show little awareness of the rich heritage of historical literature about Rusyns by authors outside Subcarpathian Rus'. Further reading: Hanna Danyliuk, ed., Dmytro Danyliuk: bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk (Uzhhorod, 2001); "Dmytro Danyliuk," in Mykola M. Vegesh and L. V. Horvat, Karpats 'ka Ukraina 1938-1939 rokivv portretakh (Uzhhorod, 2000), pp. 137-150. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Danylovych-Korytnians'kyi, Ivan/Danilovics, Janos (pseudonyms: I.I. Korytnians'kyi, Lopukh Maksymovych, Dr. Lopuchius) (b. 1834, Strazske [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. October 21, 1895) — church official and dramatist in Subcarpathian Rus'. After completing his religious formation at the Uzhhorod Theological Seminary, Danylovych-Korytnians'kyi was ordained a Greek Catholic priest (1862) and from that year served in the chancellery office of bishop of Mukachevo, Vasylii *Popovych, who encouraged the cultural activity of Rusyn national awakeners. Danylovych-Korytnians'kyi contributed to the literary activity of the newly established *St. Basil the Great Society (1866) and its newspaper *Svit (1867-71). In the tradition of Aleksander *Dukhnovych, Danylovych-Korytnians'kyi published a play, Semeinoeprazdnestvo (1867), whose performance at the Uzhhorod orphanage under the direction of the gymnasium teacher Kyryl *Sabov proved to be an important event in Subcarpathian cultural life. Following the appointment in 1867 of Shtefan Pankovych as Greek Catholic bishop of Mukachevo, DanylovychKorytnians'kyi was appointed episcopal secretary and raised to the rank of a canon (1871). He followed the ideological lead of Bishop Pankovych, became a staunch *Magyarone, and spearheaded the new bishop's drive to remove the

Russophile leadership from the St. Basil Society. DanylovychKorytnians'kyi proceeded to publish a series of articles in the newspaper *Novyi svit that were critical of his former colleagues in Rusyn literary and cultural circles. On the other hand, he did oppose Bishop Pankovych's efforts to replace the Julian with the Gregorian church calendar, and for this act of insubordination he was dismissed as episcopal secretary and eventually taught for a while at the Uzhhorod Theological Seminary. Under Pankovych's successor, Bishop loann Pastelii (r. 1874-1891), Danylovych-Korytnians'kyi became vicar general of the newly established Hungarian-oriented Greek Catholic Vicariate of Hajdudorog and from that time had no further contact with Rusyn cultural life. During his last years at Hajdudorog he translated several religious texts from Church Slavonic into Hungarian. Further reading: Vasyl' Mykytas', Haluzka mohutn'oho dereva (Uzhhorod, 1971), esp. pp. 186-195. IVAN POP

Datsko, lurii. See Nove zhyttia De Camelis, Joseph (b. 1641, Chios [Ottoman Empire], Greece; d. 1706, Presov [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia) — church official and cultural activist in Subcarpathian Rus'. De Camelis was a *Basilian monk of Greek origin from the Aegean island of Chios. He lived in the Basilian monastery of Grotta-ferrata outside Rome and worked for a while in the Vatican Library. In 1690, he was the first bishop-archimandrite of the *Eparchy of Mukachevo to be appointed by Rome instead of being elected by a monastic council (sobor). Rome hoped that De Camelis would strengthen the *Unia/Church Union among Rusyns. He achieved this in part through cultural activity, arranging for the printshop in the Roman Catholic center of Trnava in western Slovakia to obtain Slavonic typefaces and to publish the first books for Rusyns: a catechism (Katekhizis dlia naouki Ouhrorouskim liudem, 1698) and an elementary reader (Boukvar' iazyka sloven 'skapisanii chteniia ouchitisia khotiashchim poleznoe rukovozhenie, 1699). During the anti-*Habsburg revolt of Prince Ferenc II *Rakoczy, De Camelis was forced to flee (1703) westward to Presov, where he died three years later and was buried, at his request, in the local Roman-rite Franciscan (Minorite) church. Further reading: lurii Zhatkovych, "loann losyf de Kamelys," in Misiatsoslov na 1893-yi obyknovennyi hod (Uzhhorod, 1893), pp. 111-119; Paul Robert Magocsi and Bohdan Strumins'kyj, "The First Carpatho-Ruthenian Printed Book," Harvard Library Bulletin, XXV, 3 (Cambridge, Mass., 1977), pp. 292-309. IVAN POP

Decsy, Antal. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Dee, Sandra. See Cinema Deerhunter, The. See Cinema; Lemko Hall Dekhterov, Aleksii. See Ladomirova Monastery; Russians Dem"ian, Luka (b. June 6, 1894, Verkhni Vorota [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. May 16, 1968, Mukachevo [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — folklorist and writer in Subcarpathian Rus'. Dem"ian was a self-educated cultural activist who, with his brother, compiled throughout his lifetime 25 handwritten volumes ofRusyn folktales, legends, kolomyika songs, proverbs, historical songs, ballads, Christmas stories, and anecdotes. During the years 1936-1938 he also collected material for the *Ethnographic Museum of Subcarpathian Rus' in Uzhhorod. In the 1920s Dem"ian began publishing his own tales and short stories written exclusively in Rusyn; some of these were published separately: Chart na vesilliu (1920), Vid'ma (1924), and Yzsela (1943). Several more volumes of his tales and short stories appeared during the Soviet era— Vesillia bez zhenykha (1956), Zustrich (1961), Opovidannia synikh Karpat (1964), Holodnyi pokhid (1977), Krutohory Verkhovyny (1984), De hory Karpaty (1985)—although the texts were significantly ukrainianized by editors during publication. Several folk texts Dem"ian had been compiling since the interwar years have subsequently been published. Again the Rusyn originals have been significantly ukrainianized in the collectionsZacharovanapidkova(\959), Charivnesertse (1964), Kazky (1969), Lehendy Karpat (1968), and Lehendy nashoho kraiu (1972). Further reading: A.M., "Luka Demian 50 rochnyi," in Velykyi sel'sko-hospodarskyi kalendar' Podkarpatskoho obshchestva nauk na rok 1944 (Uzhhorod, 1944), pp. 60-66. IVAN POP

Demko, Mykhai'l (b. September 13, 1894, Novosad/ Bodzaujlak [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. 1946, Uzhhorod [Soviet Ukraine], Ukraine) — teacher, journalist, and pro-Hungarian political activist ofRusyn national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. Demko completed his studies at the *Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College (1913), then taught elementary school for a year in the village of Pistrialovo before being mobilized into the Austro-Hungarian Army (1914). After the close of World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary he remained a loyal Hungarian patriot and refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the new state of Czechoslovakia. He was therefore released from his job as a teacher. Interested in journalism, Demko founded and edited in Mukachevo the Hungarian-language daily newspaper, Karpdtifutdr (1920-1924). In 1920 he co-founded and became

party secretary of the Subcarpathian (later *Autonomous) Agricultural Union, for whom he published the annual almanac, Zemledil'skii kalendar' (1934-43). His publications were consistently critical of Czechoslovakia, and during the 1920s and 1930s he spoke out against Prague's rule in * Subcarpathian Rus' at various congresses of "Russian minorities" held in Riga, Warsaw, and Belgrade as well as at the congress of European national minorities in Geneva. In an attempt to promote his views among young people, he became head in 1936 of the cultural and sports organization, the Carpatho-Russian Eagle/Obshchestvo "Karpatorusskii orel." During Czechoslovakia's political crisis in 1938 Demko openly called for the return of Subcarpathian Rus' to Hungary. When Hungary annexed Uzhhorod in November 1938 Demko was appointed an advisor to the government for the city's economic affairs and a deputy to the lower house of the Hungarian parliament. In early 1945 he was arrested by the SMERSH counter-espionage unit of the Soviet Army, found guilty of collaboration, and executed sometime the following year. Since Demko always considered himself a Hungarian patriot his wartime activity in the Hungarian parliament can in no way be considered collaboration. Further reading: Antonii Yvanchov, "Mykhayl Demko," in Zemledil'skii kalendar' na hod 1939 (Uzhhorod, 1938), pp. 97-100. IVAN POP

Demjanovics, Emil. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Hajdudorog Demko, Kalman. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Hajdudorog; Nedilia Den '/Den — the only Rusyn-language daily newspaper ever published in the United States. It was published and edited by Michael *Hanchin in New York City from 1922 to 1926. Articles were written in Rusyn (Roman alphabet) and carried a wide body of information about the Rusyn homeland in interwar Czechoslovakia. Den' also functioned as the official organ of the Carpatho-Russian Cultural League/ Karpato-russka kulturna liga, established (1923) in Hazleton, Pennsylvania, and it also published a few issues of an annual almanac, Kalendar "Dna ". Further reading: Georgij Sabov, "Jak voznikla perva karpatorusska jezednevna gazeta v Ameriki," in 1973 Calendar of the Greek Catholic Union of the U.S.A. (Homestead, Pa., 1972), pp. 78-82. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Department of Rusyn Language and Literature. See University departments

Department of Ukrainian and Rusyn Philology. See University departments


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Derzhavna koedukatsiina uchytel'ska

Diadia, Petro. See Riznich-Diadia, Petro

semynariia v Mukachevi. See Mukachevo State

Teachers' College

Derzhavnoe samouriadovania menshyny rusynuv. See State Administration for Rusyn SelfGovernment Deshko, Andrei. See Carpathian Rus' De-Vollan, Grigorii Aleksandrovich (b. 1847; d. 1916) — Russian diplomat, folklorist, and ethnographer. While serving in Vienna as the tsarist Russian consul to Austria-Hungary, Devollan traveled to *Subcarpathian Rus', where he collected a wide body of folkloric and ethnographic material. This material, together with that collected by other folklorists, comprised the 525 texts of Rusyn folksongs he published in Russia under the title Ugro-russkiia narodnyia piesni (1885), a volume which also included an essay by Devollan on the material culture of Hungary's Rusyns as well as an ethnographic map of the Hungarian Kingdom. He also published in the journal Russkii arkhiv an introductory survey about Subcarpathian Rus', "Ugorskaia Rus'" (1878), and a description of the impact of magyarization and national assimilation among Rusyns, "Ocherk istorii ugorskikh russkikh i ikh noveishei bor'by s mad'iarami" (1879). IVAN POP

Deutsch-ruthenische-Freundschaft. See German-

Rusyn Friendship Society

Diadia Rusyn National Theater/Ruski narodni teatr "Diadia" — theater company among the Vojvodinian Rusyns of Serbia. The theater began in 1969 within the framework of the first annual Festival of Drama, named after the early twentieth-century promoter of Vojvodinian Rusyn theater, Petro *Riznich-Diadia (Dramski memoriial Petra Riznicha Diad'i). By the time of the second festival in 1970 the Diadia Rusyn Amateur Theater was formally established, with stages in Ruski Kerestur and Novi Sad. In 2003, part of the company was transformed into the professional Petro Riznich Diadia Rusyn National Theater/Ruski narodni teatr "Petro Riznich Diadia." The amateur theater continues to exist as a separate institution, although there are plans to unite the two theaters, both of which are based in Ruski Kerestur. During its first quarter of a century (1969-1995) the theater performed works by local Voj vodinian Rusyn playwrights and classic works from the world repertory under the direction of Diura *Papharhai, lovgen Medieshi, and Dragen *Koliesar, among others. All plays are performed in the Voj vodinian variant of the Rusyn language. Of the 460 actors who performed between 1969 and 1995 those who appeared most frequently include: Mikola *Skuban, Vitomir Bodianets, Ana Rats, luliian Striber, lanko G. Rats, Mikhailo *Varga, and Mikhailo Zazuliak. Further reading: Diura Latiak, Dvatsetspeits rokiART—RNT "Diadia" (Novi Sad, 1995); Mikhailo Bodianets, ed., Tritsets Dramski memoriali Petra Riznicha Diadi (1969-1998)—khronologiia (Ruski Kerestur, 1998). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dezso, Armin. See Communist party; Jews Did Marko. See Markush, Aleksander Dezso, Laszlo (b. October 26, 1927, Budapest, Hungary) — Hungarian linguist, Slavist, and professor at the Lajos Kossuth University in Debrecen (1975-1985) and the University of Padua in Italy (1988- ). Dezso has published widely on the history of Subcarpathian Rusyn dialects, with particular emphasis on developments between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries: Ocherki po istorii zakarpatskikh govorov (1967). He has also analyzed manuscripts from this period, in particular the Niagovo postilla, chancellery correspondence, and urbarial documents, for which he has compiled three dictionaries ofRusyn words—Materialy kslovariu Zakarpatskoi literatury XVI - XVII vv. (1965), Ukrainskaia leksika ser. XVI veka: Niagovskie poucheniia (1985), Delovaia pis 'mennost' rusinov vXVII - XVIII vekakh (1996)—as well as a dictionary and analysis of Hungarian loanwords found in early Rusyn texts: A XVI - XVIII szdzadi kdrpdtukrdn nyelvemlekek magyar jovevenyszavai (1989). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dido Mykula. See Bobul's'kyi, Antonii Dido Zagradkav. See Kovach, Mikhal Dietstvo i iunost' vo Khristie. See Pravoslavnaia karpatskaia Rus' Diky za kdzde nove ratio. See Cinema Dilets'.&eTelek Directorate/Directorium — short-lived advisory body appointed by the Czechoslovak government for "autonomous * Subcarpathian Rus'." Created in November 1919, the five-member Directorate headed by Gregory *Zhatkovych was established in response to the proposals outlined in the


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

*General Statute for the Organization and Administration of Subcarpathian Rus' (September 18, 1919). Its five members, aside from Zhatkovych, included lulii *Brashchaiko, lulii *Hadzhega, Emilii Torons'kyi, and Avhustyn *Voloshyn. Neither Zhatkovych's recommendation of his brother Teofil Zhatkovych nor the candidacy of levhen Puza was accepted by the Czechoslovak government, although Puza was invited to participate in the Directorate's meetings, which began on December 18, 1919. The Directorate had six sections: (1) external affairs; (2) culture and schools; (3) religion, industry, and commerce; (4) agriculture and food-processing; (5) internal matters; and (6) finance. The body made several demands on the Czechoslovak government, including the implementation of *autonomy, delimitation of the boundaries of Subcarpathian Rus', its intervention to remove Romanian troops from the province's eastern regions, the abolition of church dues (*koblyna and *rokovynd), the regulation of the monetary system, and the implementation of an effective land reform. The Directorate ceased functioning on February 19, 1920, when its members resigned in protest over the failure of the Czechoslovak government to implement autonomy in Subcarpathian Rus'. IVAN POP

District (German: Kreis, Bezirk; Polish: cyrkul, powiai) — territorial and administrative unit of the imperial Austrian province of Galicia. In 1772 Galicia, including the *Lemko Region, was annexed from the Polish Kingdom by the Habsburg-ruled Austrian Empire. By the end of the eighteenth century the *Habsburgs had abolished Poland's former *palatinates/wojewodztwa and replaced them with districts, initially called Kreise. Three of these districts covered the Lemko Region: Nowy Sacz (11 percent Lemko Rusyn inhabitants), Jaslo (16 percent), and Sanok (ca. 30 percent). In 1867 the Habsburgs introduced an administrative reform that redivided Austrian Galicia into a smaller district unit called Bezirk in German and powiat in Polish. The Lemko Region was divided into eight districts named after their administrative centers. In each district the Lemkos were a minority, usually living in the southern, mountainous parts of these administrative units. The districts from west to east, with their percentage of Lemko Rusyn inhabitants in 1910, were: Nowy Targ (3 percent), Nowy Sa^cz (2 percent), Grybow (17 percent), Gorlice (23 percent), Jaslo (9 percent), Krosno (15 percent), Sanok (ca. 40 percent), and Lesko (2 percent)—see Map 9. The districts were administered by a prefect/starosta. Each district also had a form of self-government with a district council/radapowiatowa (to which Lemkos managed to elect representatives) and an executive committee/wydzial powiatowy. After the collapse of Habsburg-ruled Austria-Hungary in 1918 the new Polish state retained the district system,

although the degree of local self-government was largely restricted (see Palatinate). BOGDAN HORBAL

Diul. See Latiak, Diura Diurych, Igor. See Kercha, Igor Dmytryk, Ivan. See Historiography: Lemko Region Dni lemkivskoi kul'tury. See Lemko Society Do peremohy. See Revai, luliian Dobosh, Andrew. See United Societies of Greek Catholic Religion Dobosh, Andrii. See Art Dobosh, Shtefan/Dobo§, Stefan (b. Decembers, 1912, Obava [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. February 23,1978, Presov [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — professor and literary scholar of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region. Dobosh studied at the Russianlanguage gymnasium in Mukachevo (1923-1931), where he developed a strong affinity for Russian literature and considered himself and all Rusyns to be a branch of the Russian nationality. He studied history and the Russian language at Charles University in Prague (1932-1937). He began teaching at the gymnasium in Berehovo (1937-1938) and then, after Hungary annexed Subcarpathian Rus', at the gymnasium in Mukachevo (1939-1945). Dobosh adapted to the Hungarian regime and its tolerance of the Rusyn national orientation, and he wrote (but did not sign) a history of Rusyn literature that stressed its evolution as distinct from both Russian and Ukrainian literary developments: Ystoriiapodkarpatorus 'koi lyteratury (1942). When Subcarpathian Rus' was annexed to the Soviet Union it seemed as if Dobosh might be able to function under the new regime, which appointed him the first rector of Uzhhorod State University (1945). But even before the school year began he was persuaded by the Soviet authorities to give up his new post. Dobosh joined his wife (a Czechoslovak citizen) in Slovakia, where he began a long career teaching at the Russian gymnasium in Presov (1945-1949), at the Medical Institute in Kosice (1951-1953), and at the Advanced School of Education in Presov (1954-1959). For nearly two decades (1959-1977) he served as chairman of the Department of Russian Language and Literature at Safarik University (associate professor/docent, 1961). Despite the introduction of the Ukrainian language and a Ukrainian national identity in the Presov Region in the early 1950s, Dobosh continued to

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture publish in Russian, including the first book-length biography of the nineteenth-century Rusyn political activist, Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi (1956), and a biography and literary analysis of the Rusyn writer, lulii *Stavrovs'kyi-Popradov (1975). Further reading: Illia Halaida, "Siiach na nyvi narodnii: do 85richchia S.V. Dobosha," Duklia, XLV, 6 (PreSov, 1997), pp. 70-74; Il'ia Galaida, lurii Bacha, Miron Sisak in Zbornik venovany nedozitym 85. narodeninam doc. PhDr. Stefana Dobosa, CSc./Acta Facultatis Philosophicae Universitatis Presoviensis: Rossica Slovaca, Vol. VI (Presov, 1998), pp. 7-14, 102-108, and 142-146. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dobosh, Vasyl'. See Nashi stremleniia

Dobrians'ka, Iryna (b. September 11, 1892, Sanok [Austrian Galicia], Poland; d. March 14, 1982, Eviv [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — pedagogue, ethnographer, and cultural activist of Ukrainian national orientation in the Lemko Region. After completing her studies at the gymnasium in Eviv (1911) and the Teachers' Seminary in Przemysl (1921) Dobrians'ka began teaching in various schools throughout the *Lemko Region, where she consistently promoted the view that Lemkos are a branch of the Ukrainian nationality. She was a co-founder (1930) and the vice-director of the *Museum of the Lemko Region in Sanok, for which she amassed, mostly from the eastern Lemko Region, over 300 embroideries, 100 examples of domestic painted wall designs (in particular from the village of Komancza and its environs), and Easter egg designs. Before the outbreak of World War II she managed to write an ethnographic survey of the Lemko Region and created a map of archeological sites, both of which remained unpublished. In 1945 Dobrians'ka was resettled to the Soviet Ukraine, where she worked at the Museum of Ethnography and Industrial Arts in Eviv and continued to publish articles on Lemko folklore for scholarly journals in Ukraine and for the Ukrainian-language newspaper in Poland, Nashe slovo. BOGDAN HORBAL

Dobrians'ka, Ol'ga. See Hrabar, Ol'ga

Dobrians'kyi, AdoFf/Dobrzansky, Adolf (pseudonyms: Aidin, Slaven, Sriemets) (b. December 19, 1817, Rudlov [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. March 18, 1901, Innsbruck [Austrian Tyrol], Austria) — Carpatho-Rusyn political theorist and activist of Russian national orientation in Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus'. The son of a Greek Catholic priest, Dobrians'kyi attended gymnasia in Levoca, Roznava, and Miskolc (1827-1831) and then studied philosophy in Kosice (1833), law in Eger (1834-1836), and mining at the Academy for Mines and Forests in Banska Bystrica. His

93 education, completed in Vienna (1846), provided him with fluency in a wide variety of languages, including German, Hungarian, English, French, Italian, and Greek. While working as a mining engineer he visited Bohemia and met with the Czech political and cultural activists Frantisek Palacky, Frantisek Rieger, and Karel Havlicek-Borovsky. Dobrians'kyi initially welcomed the revolution of 1848 in Hungary, expecting that its liberal government under Lajos Kossuth would accord civil rights to Rusyns. It was because of a sense of loyalty to Hungary that Dobrians'kyi did not participate in the Slavic Congress that met in Prague (June 1848). When, however, Dobrians'kyi was elected that same year to the Hungarian Parliament from the Slovak district of Banska Bystrica, his mandate was not accepted and he was accused of being a pan-Slavist. Barred from the Hungarian Parliament, Dobrians'kyi moved to Presov, where he headed a group of activists that formulated a political program calling for the union of Rusyns in the Hungarian Kingdom with those in Austrian Galicia (that is, eastern Galicia as well as the *Lemko Region). At the end of January 1849 he submitted to the new Austrian emperor, Franz Joseph I (r. 1848-1916), a petition "Concerning the Union of Rusyn Crown Lands into a Single Political and Administrative Unit" and then travelled to Eviv to coordinate his efforts with the Supreme Ruthenian Council, which had become the representative body of Galicia's Rusyns. In April 1849 the Austrian government appointed Dobrians'kyi its civilian commissioner and liaison with the tsarist Russian Army of General Paskevich, which Emperor Franz Joseph invited to help crush the Hungarian Revolution. After the defeat of the Hungarian forces (August 1849) Dobrians'kyi led a delegation of Rusyns (including his brother Viktor Dobrians'kyi, Vikentii Aleksovych, Mykhailo Vysianyk, losyf Sholtes, and Aleksander lanyts'kyi) that held talks with high governmental officials in Vienna (October) and submitted another petition to the emperor. Among the petition's 12 points were demands for the recognition of the Rusyn nationality in Hungary, the demarcation of Rusyninhabited territory, the introduction of the Rusyn language in schools and the local administration, the appearance of a Rusyn press, the appointment of Rusyn officials and civil servants, and fellowships for students from the Hungarian Kingdom to attend the University of Eviv. The demand for union with Galicia, which had figured in the previous January 1849 petition, was dropped in recognition of Vienna's displeasure with the idea. When Austria imposed martial law in Hungary and reorganized the kingdom's administrative structure Dobrians'kyi was appointed advisor (October 1849) to assist the head of the Uzhhorod Civil District (comprising *Ung, *Bereg, *Ugocha, and *Maramorosh counties). Dobrians'kyi considered the civil district to be the first step toward the creation of an autonomous *Rusyn District/Rus'kyi okruh. He issued the Uzhhorod District's official documents and proclamations in Rusyn, had


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Rusyn introduced in schools, and appointed Rusyns to governmental posts. After the Uzhhorod Civil District was abolished in March 1850 Dobrians'kyi moved to Kosice, where in 1861 he was again elected to the Hungarian Parliament and where again his mandate was rejected. It was at this time that he formulated a proposal to have the Hungarian Kingdom administratively divided into five national districts: German-Magyar, Serbian, Romanian, Rusyn, and Slovak. In 1865 Dobrians'kyi was elected for a third time to the Hungarian Parliament and was finally allowed to take up his seat. He was particularly active in promoting cultural activity among both Rusyns and Slovaks, serving as first co-chairman of the *St. Basil the Great Society in Uzhhorod (1866) and as a co-founder of the Slovak Cultural Foundation/Matica slovenska (1867) in Turciansky Sv. Martin. Such "pan-Slavic" activity was frowned upon by Hungarian leaders, who in 1869 succeeded in having him removed from his parliamentary seat. Dobrians'kyi retired to his property in the Rusyn village of Certizne in northeastern Slovakia, but displeased with increasing surveillance by the Hungarian authorities, he decided in 1875 to emigrate to Russia. He returned to Austria-Hungary in 1881, settling this time in Galicia's administrative center of Eviv, but within a year Hungary's Prime Minister Kalman Tisza succeeded in convincing the Austrian authorities to organize a trial (June 12-July 29,1882) accusing Dobrians'kyi, his daughter Ol'ga *Hrabar (living at the time in Eviv), and a group of Galician *Russophiles of state treason. Although acquitted for lack of evidence, Dobrians'kyi was forced to move to Vienna and from there to Innsbruck in Austria's far western province of Tyrol, where he was to spend the last two decades of his life. During that time he continued to publish essays that outlined his belief in the idea of a federalized Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Programm zur Durchftihrung der nationalen Autonomie in Oesterreich, 1885) as well as the Russophile view that Rusyns are a branch of the Russian nationality (O sovremennom religiozno-politicheskom polozheniiu avstro-ugorskoi Rusi, 1885). Whereas he maintained contacts with political and cultural activists in the Russian Empire, his ties with Subcarpathian Rus' during his Innsbruck years were basically non-existent. Dobrians'kyi was buried in the Greek Catholic cemetery in Certizne. In recognition of his achievements, the *Dukhnovych Society in Uzhhorod erected memorial busts of him by the sculptor Olena Mandych in Michalovce (1928) and Uzhhorod (1929). Further reading: Anton Budilovich, Ob osnovnykh vozzreniiakh A. I. Dobrianskago (St. Petersburg, 1901); Fedor F. Aristov, Karpatorusskiepisateli, Vol. I (Moscow, 1916), pp. 145-223; Pavel S. Fedor, Kratkii ocherkdieiatel'nostiA.I. Dobrianskago (Uzhhorod, 1926); Florian Zapletal, A.I. Dobrjanskij a nasi Rusini r. 1848-1851 (Prague, 1927); Stepan Dobosh, Adol'flvanovich Dobrianskii: ocherk zhizni i deiatel'nosti (Bratislava and PreSov, 1956). IVAN POP

Dobrians'kyi Carpatho-Russian Student Society/ Obshchestvo karpatorusskikh studentov "Dobrianskii" — organization for Rusyn university students of Russian national orientation in Bratislava. The Dobrians'kyi Student Society was established in 1932 by Rusyns, mostly from the *Presov Region, studying at Comenius University in Bratislava. Aside from its social functions, the society was concerned with reinforcing in its members the view that they are part of the Russian nationality. To this end it established a balalaika ensemble; sponsored a series of lectures, for the most part on Russian literature; and published the Russian-language literary and cultural magazines, Studencheskii zhurnal (1942) andIar'(\ 943), edited by Mykhail Zarichniak/Michael Zarechnak. After World War II, in response to the new political situation, the organization was renamed the Dobrians'kyi Society of Russian and Ukrainian Students/Obshchestvo russkikh i ukrainskikh studentov "Dobrianskii," headed by Emilian *Stavrovs'kyi, but after the onset of Communist rule it was merged in 1949 with the Union of Czechoslovak Youth. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dobrians'kyi Society of Russian and Ukrainian Students. See Dobrians'kyi Carpatho-Russian Student Society; Stavrovs'kyi, Emilian Dobrians'kyi, Viktor. See Presov Literary Society; Stadtkonvikt Dobrodiev, M. See Transcarpathian Folk Choir Dobryipastyr. See Il'nyts'kyi, Aleksander Dobryk, VasyP. See Markus, Vasyl Dobrzansky, Adolf. See Dobrians'kyi, Adol'f Dohovics, Bazil. See Dovhovych, Vasyl' Doklia/Dokla, Teodor (b. November 11,1931, Jasionka, Poland; d. December 31, 1982, Yonkers, New York, USA) — Lemko journalist, poet, and civic activist ofRusyn national orientation in Poland and the United States. Because of the absence of specifically Lemko organizations in Communist Poland, Doklia worked on behalf of his native culture during the post-World War II decades within the framework of the Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society based in Warsaw. In 1961 he emigrated to the United States, where he published a series of articles in the Lemko newspaper, *Karpatska Rus', which outlined the recent tragic fate of *Lemkos in Poland. In 1967 Doklia became supreme secretary/chairman of the

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture *Lemko Association/Lemko Soiuz of the USA and Canada and with Stephen *Kitchura he broke the organization's longstanding sympathies toward Communist rule in the homeland, so that for the first time the Lemko Association openly condemned the resettlement (1945-1946) and forced deportation (1947) of Lemkos and demanded their right to return home. Two years later, at the Lemko Association's 25th congress (1969), pro-Communist elements reasserted their influence, removed Doklia, and banned him from the organization. Together with Kitchura he established a new publication, Biuletyn Lemkovyny, renamed Lemkovyna (1971-1982), which criticized both Communist Poland and Czechoslovakia for their denationalization and assimilationist policies toward Lemkos/Rusyns living within those countries. Doklia was also co-founder (1971) of the Lemkovyna Association/Soiuz Lemkovyny, a short-lived organization which in 1973-1974 joined the World Federation of Lemkos but then dropped out in protest against its pro-Ukrainian orientation. Doklia wrote in Lemko-Rusyn vernacular, and aside from poetry he published a booklet on three Lemko villages: Nasha hromada: mynule sil lasiunka, Kryva y Banytsia na Lemkovyni (1969). Further reading: Petro Trokhanovskii, "Teodor Doklia," in Lemkivskii richnyk 2002 (Krynica and Legnica, 2002), pp. 108113. BOGDAN HORBAL

Dolhosh, Ivan. See Karpats 'kyi krai Dolynai, Mykola (b. July 22, 1894, Cimpulung la Tisa [Hungarian Kingdom], Romania; d. March 29, 1970, Prague [Czechoslovakia], Czech Republic) — physician and cultural and political activist of Ukrainian national orientation in Subcarpamian Rus'. Dolynai completed the gymnasium in Uzhhorod (1904-1912) and the Faculty of Medicine at Budapest University (1912-1918). At the end of World War I he returned to *Subcarpathian Rus', where during the interwar years of Czechoslovak rule he worked as a doctor and later hospital director in Uzhhorod and played an active role in the province's cultural and political life. He initially supported the Ukrainian-oriented * Social-Democratic party, but after 1926 became a leading activist in the *Christian People's party headed by Avhustyn *Voloshyn. Dolynai was also a founding member (1920) of the Ukrainophile *Prosvita Society. During the period of Subcarpathian autonomy, he was elected deputy to the diet of *Carpatho-Ukraine (February 1939) and appointed minister of health and welfare in the last cabinet of Avhustyn * Voloshyn (March 9,1939). After the Hungarian annexation and fall of Carpatho-Ukraine (March 1939) Dolynai emigrated to Prague, where he spent the World War II years in Nazi Germany's Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia. In June 1945 he was arrested by the Soviet Army's counter-espionage unit, SMERSH, brought to the Soviet Union, and sentenced to


a Gulag forced labor camp (1945-1950) and internal exile. He was amnestied in 1950 on condition that he leave the Soviet Union. Dolynai went back to Prague and spent the rest of his days in relative seclusion. Further reading: Omelian D. Dovhanych, "Mykola Dolynai: dolia ministra," in idem, V tenetakh "SMERSHu": represovani diiachi Karpats 'koi Ukrainy (Uzhhorod, 2002), pp. 42-45. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Dolyniane/Dolyshniany/Lowlanders — the numerically largest Carpatho-Rusyn ethnographic group. Dolyniane Rusyns inhabit * Subcarpathian Rus' from the Teresva River valley in the east to the present-day boundary of Ukraine and Slovakia, and still farther west to the Laborec river below the Vihorlat ridge in southeastern Slovakia. The southern extent of Dolyniane-inhabited territory coincides with the Rusyn-Magyar ethnographic boundary. Its northern extent coincides with a line of settlements that begins in the west near the town of Michalovce on the Laborec river, skirts along the southern edge of the Vihorlat ridge through the villages of Klokocov, Poruba, Hlivistia, and Benatina, and from there eastward into present-day Ukraine along a line that includes Zavosyno—Zabrid'—Sil'—Stavne—Liuta—Rodnykova Huta—Han'kovytsia—Mizhhiria—Synevyrs'ka Poliana to the crest of the Carpathians. The eastern boundary of Dolyniane-inhabited territory falls between the Shopurka and Chorna Tysa rivers from the mountain crests in the north to a few villages (Craciunesti/Krachunovo, Tisa/Mikovo, Rona de Sus/Vyshnia Runa) along the southern bank of the Tisza/Tisa River in Romania. Within this territory there are just over 400 villages (see Map 3). Based on local differences, the Dolyniane may be divided into several sub-groups determined largely by the river valleys they inhabit: the Teresva, Tereblia, Rika, Borzhava, and Tuna. More or less homogeneous in terms of their ethnolinguistic characteristics are the Dolyniane who live below the Vihorlat ridge, and along the lower valley of the Uzh and central valley of the Latorytsia rivers, including the villages southeast of Mukachevo. Among the various Carpathian ethnographic groups, the Dolyniane are the primary representatives of Rusyn distinctiveness. As early as the ninth and tenth centuries this group of Rusyns, owing to geographic and political factors, had become separated from the rest of the East Slavic world and became a part of the socioeconomic and cultural sphere shared by those peoples living in central Europe, in particular in the Danubian Basin. Beginning in the late eleventh century, Rusyn-inhabited territory became an integral part of the Hungarian Kingdom which, in terms of political and cultural life, had definitively separated the Dolyniane from other East Slavs, who were part of Kievan Rus'. The differences between the political


institutions and historical-cultural processes of Kievan Rus' and those of the Hungarian Kingdom were a crucial factor in the distinct ethno-cultural evolution of the Dolyniane Rusyns. They acquired cultural characteristics, historical experiences, and a life-style—norms of conduct in family and economic relations—similar to those of neighboring peoples in central Europe, with whom they lived in the same state structures in the Hungarian Kingdom until the early sixteenth century, and from then until 1918 in the Habsburg Monarchy. The Dolyniane continue to earn their livelihood through agriculture. In most cases, livestock raising at best only supplements the growing of crops. Dolyniane settlement patterns consist generally of large villages with as many as a hundred homes clustered along one main street and, in some cases, along other, parallel streets. In contrast to *Boiko and *Hutsul homesteads, Dolyniane houses and farm buildings are laid out in an unstructured fashion and are not connected to each other. Until the end of the nineteenth century all structures were built with wood. Since the early twentieth century, however, as timber became less available and more expensive for dwellers in the lowlands and foothills, the Dolyniane increasingly used for building material unbaked bricks made from blocks of dried earth, whose production became the specialty of local *Gypsies. Only in the upper mountain valleys did the Dolyniane continue to build wooden structures. Among the Dolyniane there are several local or sub-regional differences. These are most evident in the Maramorosh region, where Dolyniane live in the lowlands around the town of Khust and in the Teresva, Tereblia, Rika, and Tisza/Tysa river valleys. To a certain degree residents in this region have been influenced by the cultures of neighboring Transylvania and by cultures in the Balkans, which in earlier times had been the source of the so-called *Vlach colonization. The distinctiveness of the Maramorosh Dolyniane is evident in their building techniques (largely in wood), the layout of their courtyards, their ornamental traditional dress, their folk music and food, and the relatively higher degree of livestock raising, in particular of what for Rusyns is a relatively exotic animal, the buffalo. Among Dolyniane west of Khust, that is, between the Borzhava and Latorytsia valleys, intensive agriculture, orchards, and vineyards are the norm and livestock raising is less common. The Dolyniane life-style is heavily influenced by that of their *Magyar neighbors, so much so that both cultures have blended and are basically indistinguishable from one other. The same applies to Dolyniane Rusyns still farther west and northwest of Mukachevo as far as Uzhhorod. Farther north, however, in the upper valleys of the Borzhava, Latorytsia, and Uzh rivers, livestock becomes important among the Dolyniane, whose life-style and work patterns are similar to those of neighboring Boikos farther north. Finally, among the Dolyniane along the lower valley of

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture the Uzh River and in Rusyn villages in Slovakia below the Vihorlat ridge as far west as the Laborec River the influence of neighboring Slovaks is evident. Intensive agricultural practices are typical for this region. Farther north, in the mountainous areas along the Slovak-Polish border, livestock raising has long been the predominant form of livelihood, and the techniques employed, moreover, reflect those brought during the period of Vlach colonization. When, in the nineteenth century, national awakenings spread among the peoples of central Europe, it was among the Dolyniane that a distinct Rusyn identity developed, one which was clearly differentiated from neighboring Rusyns (Ukrainians) in eastern Galicia. Gradually, the ethnographic differences of the Dolyniane Rusyns were transformed into national differences. These differences found political expression in national programs based in large part on the repeated demand of Rusyns for self-government or *autonomy, which began in 1848 and were to continue throughout the rest of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Further reading: Hryhorii Kupchanko, Uhorska Rus'y ey russky zhytely (Vienna, 1897), esp. pp. 46-62; Sandor Bonkalo, A Rutenek (Ruszinok) (Budapest, 1940; 2nd ed. Basel and Budapest, 1996)— English ed.: Alexander Bonkalo, The Rusyns (New York, 1990); Th. Beregiensis [Hiiador Stryps'kyi], "lak narod dilyt' sebe," Lyteraturna nedilia, II, 18 (Uzhhorod, 1942), pp. 185-188; Mykhailo Tyvodar, "Etnoistorychnyi ta etnokul'turnyi rozvytok ukrai'ntsiv Zakarpattia," in Carpatica/Karpatyka, No. 6 (Uzhhorod, 1999), esp. pp. 32-44. IVAN POP

Dom "Prosvita." See Prosvita Society Dominium/Latifundium — an estate or domain including agricultural lands, forests, villages, and towns that belonged to the king (royal estate/kameral'na dominiid) or to a powerful landlord (manorial estate). Among the larger dominia/latifundia were, in *Subcarpathian Rus', the royal estates of *Ung/ Uzhhorod (initially owned by the *Drugeth family), Velykyi Bychkiv, Maramorosh, and Mukachevo-Chynadiievo (eventually owned by the *Schonborn family) and, in the *Presov Region, the manorial estates of Makovytsia/Zborov, Stropkov, and Humenne (initially owned by the Drugeth family). In the *Lemko Region, among the few dominia, *Muszyna held a special place. It functioned as a semi-autonomous territorial entity with its own courts and military units. Other dominia which included some villages in the Lemko Region were: the Nawojowa estate (later owned by the Lubomirski, Sanguszko, and finally the Stadnicki family); an estate owned by the Gladysz family, with holdings in the central Lemko Region; and the estates centered on the town of Jasliska owned by the Roman Catholic bishop of Przemysl, which encompassed some villages in the eastern Lemko Region. Further reading: Antoni Prohaska, "Jasliska i klucz biskupow


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture przemyskich," Przewodnik Naukowy i Literacki, XVII (Eviv, 1889), pp.58-77, 181-188, 263-270, 368-375,464-473, 563-572, 650-662; Oleksander Mytsiuk, Narysy z sotsial'no-hospodars 'ko'i istori'i b. Uhors 'koi nyni Pidkarpats 'koi Rusy, 2 vols. (Uzhhorod, 1936-38), Vol. I, esp. pp. 39-50 and Vol. II, pp. 70-78; A. Wqjcik, Gladysze: pionierzy osadnictwa na Pogorzu (Gorlice, 1948); Maria Marcinkowska, Lubomirscy: starostowie sqdeccy i spiscy (Nowy Sa^cz, 1998). BOGDAN HORBAL PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Donskii, Ivan. See Rusyn Sector Donskii, Mykhal/Donski, Michal (b. March 15,1919, Wola Cieklinska, Poland; d. March 2,2001, Gorlice, Poland) — Lemko partisan and political activist in Poland of Ukrainian national orientation. During World War II, in Nazi German-occupied Poland, Donskii participated in the Polish Communist underground movement. He was a co-founder of branches of the Polish Workers' (Communist) party in the *Lemko Region and an organizer of its military wing, the People's Guard/Gwardia Ludowa. Arrested by the Gestapo (1943), he was freed by a unit of the Home Army/Armja Krajowa, the Polish non-Communist underground movement. Until the end of the war he served as commander-in-chief of the People's Guard for the Subcarpathian district (which included the Lemko Region). He led as well a Lemko partisan unit, which carried out several successful operations against the Nazi German authorities and the Ukrainian police serving that regime. Following the arrival of the Soviet Army in late 1944 Donskii headed the Lemko Region *Peasants' and Workers' Committee/Seliansko-robitnychyi komitet Lemkovyny, which supported Poland's Communist government. The initial success of this cooperation, which gave Lemkos national rights, was soon overshadowed by Communist plans to create a Polish state without national minorities. These plans resulted in the removal of the Lemkos from their Carpathian homeland, whether eastward to the Soviet Ukraine (1944-1946), or later to the western regions of postwar Poland (1947). Donskii himself moved in October 1946 to the Soviet Ukraine. He returned to Poland in 1958, however, and in the following year he became head of the Section for the Development of Lemko Culture, the so-called *Lemko Section/Lemkivs'ka sektsiia of the Communist government's minority organization, the Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society (USKT). Under Donskii's leadership the section shifted toward more independent Lemko activity, which Ukrainian activists and the Polish Communist authorities condemned as "Lemko separatism." Donskii and his supporters were dismissed from the Lemko section in 1965. Eventually, he was removed from the USKT executive board and completely ousted from the organization in 1970.

Dismayed at this turn of events, Donskii emigrated to the United States (1975), settling in Yonkers, New York, where he maintained contact with the *Lemko Association/Lemko Soiuz of the USA and Canada. When, in the late 1980s, Communist Poland entered a more liberal phase Donskii, after 12 years abroad, returned home. Once critical of what during the Communist era was described as "Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism," Donskii returned to Poland as a self-declared Ukrainian and soon joined the pro-Ukrainian *Union of Lemkos/Ob"iednannia Lemkiv. His skepticism of the new Lemko-Rusyn national revival and comments on his own complex career were published in an extensive interview in Poland's Ukrainian-language journal Zustrichi (1989). Further reading: Andrzej Daszkiewicz, Ruch Oporu w Regionu Beskidu Niskiego 1939-1945 (Warsaw, 1975); Myroslav Trukhan, Ukraintsi v Pol'shchi pislia druhoi svitovoi viiny 1944-1984, Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, Vol. CCVIII (New York, Paris, Sydney, and Toronto, 1990), esp. pp. 303-312. BOGDAN HORBAL

Doroshenko, Dmytro. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region Dositei (Vasic). See Orthodox Eparchy of MukachevoUzhhorod Dovhanych, Omelian (b. May 8, 1930, Nyzhnie Selyshche [Czechoslovakia], Ukraine) — journalist, editor, professor, and historian of Ukrainian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. After completing the gymnasium, later middle school/desiatyrichka, at Khust (1942-1949), Dovhanych studied at the Advanced [Communist] Party School for Journalism in Kiev (1953-1956). He began his career as a journalist for a district newspaper in * Subcarpathian Rus' and as a *Communist party propagandist (1961-1968), then served as director (1968-1972) of Karpaty Publishers in Uzhhorod. For over two decades (1972-1995) he worked as researcher and later assistant professoT/docent (1975) at Uzhhorod State University. Since the onset of the post-Communist era, Dovhanych has published extensively on the World War II period, in particular on Subcarpathians who fought with the *Czechoslovak Army Corps or as "volunteers" in the Red Army (Zakarpats 'ki dobrovol'tsi, 1998) and on the fate of soldiers and civilians persecuted on political grounds by the Hungarian and Soviet regimes (Roky lykholittia: nevidomi storinky i trahichni doli, 1995). He is also the main compiler for a collection of documents, most of which were previously published, dealing with the annexation of * Subcarpathian Rus' to the Soviet Union at the close of World War II (Vozz"iednannia, 2000). Whereas Dovhanych is not reluctant to show the darker sides of Soviet totalitarian rule, he nevertheless is convinced that the "*re-


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

unification" of "Ukrainians" in Subcarpathian Rus' with their "Ukrainian motherland" was a historically justified act. Further reading: Ivan Khlanta, Omelian Dovhanych: bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk (Uzhhorod, 1995)

Further reading: Volodymyr Birchak, "Vasyl' Dovhovych-


S. Hrushevs'koho, Vol. II (Kiev, 1928), pp. 455-460; P.P. [Fedor

Dovhanych," in Misiatsoslov na 1922 hod (Uzhhorod, 1921), pp. 68-74; Volodymyr Birchak, "Ukrai'ns'kyi filosof VasyF Dovhovych," in lubileinyi zbirnyk naposhanu akademyka Mykhaila Potushniak], "Korotkyi narys fylozofii Podkarpatia," Lyteraturna

Dovhanych, Vasyl'. See Dovhovych, Vasyl'

nedilia, III, 4 and 5 (Uzhhorod, 1943), pp. 43-47 and 54-56; Ivan Matsyns'kyi, "Kinets' XVIII—persha polovyna XIX st. ta zhyttia i diial'nist' Vasylia Dovhovycha," Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu

Dovhovych, Vasyl'/Dohovics, Bazil (b. Vasyl' Dovhanych, March 1783, Zolotar'ovo [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. December 13, 1849, Khust [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — priest, philosopher, and poet. Dovhanych completed the Latin school (classical gymnasium) in Sighet (1800-1805), studied philosophy at the academy in Oradea/ Nagyvarad (1805-1807), and received his theological formation at the seminaries in Trnava (1807-1809) and Uzhhorod (1809-1811). After ordination as a Greek Catholic priest (1811) he served in four parishes: Dovhe (1811-1824), Velyki Luchky (to 1844), and Khust (to 1849). At Velyki Luchky he took up the cause of the so-called free peasants (*libertinilsabodashi/slobodnyky), that is, peasants who had been absolved of their feudal duties but whose privileges were revoked and whose best lands taken by the *Schonborn family landlords in the 1730s. He assisted the free peasants in their century-old legal suits by writing on their behalf to the highest courts in Vienna and to the emperor himself. Aside from priestly and social concerns Dovhovych was a student of philosophy, in particular of the German philosophers Kant, Fichte, and Schelling. He wrote several works in Latin on God the Creator (1823), on a visible world more perfect than that of Descartes and Newton (1825-30), and on philosophic principles that prove the existence of God (1829). As a disciple but critic of Kantian idealistic philosophy Dovhovych's sympathies lay closer to Positivism. For his philosophical achievements he was elected a corresponding member (1831) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In the history ofRusyn culture Dovhovych is best known as a poet. In 1832 he compiled a manuscript collection, "Poemata Basilii Dohovits," consisting of 190 poems in Latin (131), Hungarian (41), and Rusyn (18). The Latin and Hungarian poems were written primarily during his student years, the Rusyn poems while he was a priest in Dovhe and Velyki Luchky. Dovhovych was the last Rusyn poet to use Latin, writing in a classical style heavily influenced by the late Baroque. His Hungarian-language poetry was influenced by Romanticism, while his Rusyn works were characterized by the abandonment of archaic *Church Slavonic forms in favor of the spoken vernacular. His poetic corpus did not influence subsequent Rusyn writers, since they remained unaware of the existence of Dovhovych's 1832 manuscript, which was not published until a century and a half later (1982).

ukrains 'koi kul'tury u Svydnyku, X (Bratislava and Presov, 1982), pp. 23-110; Nataliia Vyhodovanets', Vasyl'Dovhovych: liudyna Baroko (Uzhhorod, 2000). IVAN POP

Dragula, Nykolai. See Dukhnovych Society

Drahomanov, Mykhailo Petrovych (pseudonyms: M. Halyts'kyi, P. Kuz"mychevs'kyi, M. Petryk, M. Tolmachov, Ukrai'nets) (b. September 18/30,1841, Hadiach [Russian Empire], Ukraine; d. July 2, 1895, Sofia, Bulgaria) — Ukrainian political theorist, historian, philosopher, economist, literary scholar, and publicist. Drahomanov was a leading proponent of political and socioeconomic reform in the Russian Empire and a supporter of the fledgling Ukrainophile movement that was periodically weakened by restrictions imposed by the tsarist government. In the early 1870s he was dismissed from his university post and urged by Kiev's Ukrainophile movement to promote their cause abroad. Among Drahomanov's first stops was * Subcarpathian Rus', where in 1875-1876 he met with the Rusyn writer, Anatolii *Kralyts'kyi, and the editor of the newspaper *Karpat, Nykolai *Homichkov. Drahomanov was deeply struck by the low level of Rusyn national life and he called on young Galician *Ukrainophiles to study and eventually assist the Rusyns of Subcarpathia. Among those who heeded his call were Ivan *Franko and Volodymyr *Hnatiuk. Drahomanov elaborated his "program" for Subcarpathian Rus'. In two works, Austro-rus'ki spomyny (1867-77) and Spravy Uhors 'koiRusy (1895), he provided an objective analysis of the *Russophile movement in the region, which he viewed as the only means for the local Rusyn intelligentsia to defend itself against the reactionary magyarization policies of the Hungarian government. He also included folkloric material from Subcarpathian Rus' in his two collections of "Little Russian" (Ukrainian) folksongs and tales: Istoricheskiepiesni malorusskago naroda, 2 vols. (1874-75) and Malorusskie narodnyepriedaniia i rasskazy (1876). Further reading: O.S. Mazurok, "Drahomanov i Zakarpattia," Novyny Zakarpattia (Uzhhorod), September 18, 1991. IVAN POP

Drohobets'kyi, lulii. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Krizevci; Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College Dronov, Mikhail. See Aristov Society of Friends of Carpathian Rus'

Druzhno vpered. See Cultural Union of Ukrainian Workers; Grendzha-Dons'kyi, Vasyl'

Druzhtvo za ruski iazik, literaturu i kulturu. See Society for Rusyn Language, Literature, and Culture

Drovniak, Epifanii. See Nykyfor Krynytskii Drozd, M. See Halas, Kyrylo Drugeth family (Drugeth de Homonna) — a ducal family of Hungarian magnates of French-Italian origin. The founders of the family line in the Hungarian Kingdom were Jean/Ioann and Philippe Drugeth, who were in the service of Charles II, the king of Naples (r. 1285-1309) and count of Anjou and Provence. The Drugeths came to Hungary at the outset of the fourteenth century during the reign of the Hungarian king, Charles I/Karoly (Charles of Anjou, r. 1308-1342). To assist the latter in consolidating his rule, Jean/Ioann Drugeth was appointed the royal palatine (1329) and the following year the royal sheriff (*zhupan/ispdri) of *Ung and *Zemplyn counties, and temporarily of Tolna, Somod, and Feher counties. The Drugeth family held the hereditary post of royal lord sheriff in Ung and Zemplyn counties until the end of the seventeenth century. They were also granted the hereditary manorial estates of the Humenne and Uzhhorod *dominia. By the fifteenth century the Drugeth estates were the largest in all of Hungary, encompassing 106 villages with 3,200 households comprised of Rusyn, Magyar, and Slovak inhabitants. After the defeat of the Hungarian Kingdom at the hands of the Ottomans (1526) and the subsequent struggle for succession to Hungary's throne, the Drugeths supported the *Habsburg claimants. During the religious struggles of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation they remained loyal to Catholic Rome. For instance, at the outset of the seventeenth century Count Gyorgy III Drugeth (r. 1583-1620) invited the Jesuit Order to establish missions throughout his estates and he was behind the first attempt (1614) at introducing the *Unia/Church Union among the Orthodox Rusyns. While this attempt failed, more successful was the wife of Janos X Drugeth (r. 1610-1645), Anna Jakusich de Orbova. Together with her brother (the Roman Catholic Bishop of *Eger Gyorgy Jakusich) she was instrumental in convening the 63 Orthodox priests who, in 1646, proclaimed the Union of Uzhhorod and the creation of the Uniate/Greek Catholic Church, which initially survived only in those territories controlled by the Drugeths. The male line of the Drugeth family died out in 1691 with the passing of Bishop Valentin Drugeth. The property remained briefly with the bishop's sister, Kristina Drugeth, but after her own death (also in 1691) her husband, Count Miklos Bercsenyi, administered the estate until he was driven from Hungary in 1711. IVAN POP

Dubai, Mykhail/Dubaj, Michal (b. June 4, 1910, Hacava [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. October 4,1993, Presov, Slovakia) — painter, pedagogue, and cultural activist in the Presov Region. After spending his youth in Rusyn villages in northeastern Slovakia Dubai went to *Subcarpathian Rus', where he completed the Russian gymnasium at Mukachevo (1929), and then went on to Comenius University in Bratislava, where he studied history and geography as well as painting. He taught history, geography, and drawing at the Russian gymnasium in Presov (1939-1948) and edited a Russian-language collection of studies on Rusyn history and culture: Obrazovanie—sbornikpouchitel'nykh stat'ei (1942). After World War II, he served as educational administrator in the Commission/Referat for Ukrainian Schools in the * Presov Region (1948-1949) and in the East Slovak regional office for secondary schools (1949-1952). He gradually adapted to the Ukrainian national orientation, was a long-term executive member of the *Cultural Union of Ukrainian Workers, and served as editor-in-chief (1964-1975) of the Division for Ukrainian Publications of the Slovak Pedagogical Publishing House based in Presov. Throughout his life Dubai continued to paint. Most of his works were in the Cubist style and based on themes and landscapes from the Rusyn countryside as well as sacred subjects. Among his best-known canvases in these genres are Smereky (Pine Trees, 1939) and Khrystos (Christ, 1940). Dubai also played an active role in promoting Rusyn art. His paintings dominated the first exhibit of Rusyn painters held in Presov in 1940, and after World War II he played an active role in the establishment of the Gallery of Art in Presov and the *Museum of Ukrainian-Rus' Culture in Svidnik. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dubai/Dubay, Orest (b. August 15, 1919, Vel'ka Pol'ana [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — graphic artist, painter, and professor in Slovakia. After completing his gymnasium studies in Presov (1930-1936) and Mukachevo (1936-1939) Dubai studied at the Department of Drawing and Art of the Advanced Technical School in Bratislava (1939-1943). He remained in Bratislava, where he did illustrations for newspapers and became a member of the Hollar and Ales group of artists. Dubai developed a distinct graphic style using wood and was particularly fond of creating small-scale works in relief made from wood, ceramics, and stone. Among his compositions is a cycle of graphics entitled In memoriam Tokajik (1949), dedicated to the Rusyn village in eastern


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Slovakia destroyed by Nazi German forces in 1944. By the 1960s Dubai was working in the Op-Art style. He was commissioned to do several decorative sculptural pieces for the interiors of public buildings in Slovakia, for which he used metal, glass, and industrial materials. Among his best-known works is a series of five tapestries in relief (a combination of kilim and Gobelin styles) for the state reception room at the Castle of Bratislava (1983). Beginning in 1949 Dubai taught at the Advanced School of Fine Arts in Bratislava (associate professor/docent, 1962; professor, 1967), where he also served as rector (1968-1971). For his contributions he was named a Merited Artist (1969) and State Artist (1977) of Czechoslovakia and an honorary member of art academies in Florence (1964) and Rome (1972). Further reading: Ivan Matsyns'kyi, "65 rokiv Oresta Dubaia ta soniachnyi svit ioho hrafichnoi' tvorchosti," Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu ukrains 'koi kul'tury u Svydnyku, XII (Bratislava and PreSov, 1985), pp. 347-409; Ladyslav Pushkar, "Kamerna hrafika Oresta Dubaia v 1945-1985 rokakh," ibid., XXII (2001), pp. 358-371. IVAN POP

Dubets'/Dubec, Adam — (b. Aleksander Dubets', August 14, 1926, Florynka, Poland) — priest and church hierarch in the Lemko Region of Ukrainian national orientation. Dubets' was deported from the *Lemko Region in 1947, after which he completed his religious formation at the Orthodox Theological Academy in Warsaw. Following ordination as an Orthodox priest in 1965, he returned to his native Lemko Region, where the following year he was appointed dean at Rzeszow and also served in several parishes: Wysowa, Gorlice, and Sanok. In early 1983 Dubets' became a monk (taking the name Adam), was soon consecrated bishop, and later in the year he became the first bishop of the restored Orthodox Eparchy of Przemysl-Nowy Sa^cz with a residence in Sanok. In 1996 he was raised to the rank of archbishop within the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Although Ukrainophile in orientation, Bishop Dubets' is somewhat tolerant of the Lemko-Rusyn national revival within his eparchy. Further reading: am, "Wladyka Adam Arcybiskupem," Przeglqd Prawosiawny, XI, 6 (Biafystok, 1996). BOGDAN HORBAL

Duc-Fajfer, Helena. See Duts'-Faifer, Olena Duchnovic, Alexander. See Dukhnovych, Aleksander Duda, Tadeusz. See Historiography: Lemko Region Dudash, Ernest. See Russkii narodnyi golos Dudash, Nataliia (b. December 15, 1958, Ruski Kerestur [Yugoslavia], Serbia) — belletrist, critic, dramatist, translator,

publisher, and civic and cultural activist of Rusyn national orientation among the Vojvodinian Rusyns. After graduating from the gymnasium in Ruski Kerestur (1977) Dudash studied general literature and the theory of literature at the University of Belgrade (1977-1982). She worked as editor (1981-1989) of Literaturne slovo (the supplement to the Rusyn weekly newspaper *Ruske slovo) and as the Rusyn correspondent (1983-1984) for Radio Novi Sad and Ruske slovo. After 1984 she wrote plays for Radio Novi Sad and was director (1993-2000) of the *Ruske Slovo Press and Publishing House in Novi Sad. She also served as deputy minister of culture in Serbia (1998-2000). Dudash published her first work while still a gymnasium student (1973). A collection of poetry appeared in 1980 (Dzivi taniets), followed by several others: the dual-language RusynSerbian Naradzovanie muzikilRadjanje muzike (1985), O literaturnim (1987), Hadvab (1989), O melangolichnikh remeslokh (1996), and a collection of critical essays, Shkarupina (1991). As a poet she is affiliated with the Belgrade school of post-modernists. Her writing attempts to unite the "rhythm of Rusyn verse with elements not otherwise characteristic to it," and it therefore contributes to the creative potential of world literature. Her poetry has met with praise among Rusyn and Serbian critics and has been translated into several languages, including Serbo-Croatian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Hungarian, and Macedonian. Since the early 1990s Dudash has been an active participant in the Rusyn national revival. She has served as chairman of the Vojvodinian *Rusyn Cultural Foundation/Ruska Matka (2000), has actively participated in several *World Congresses of Rusyns since 1991, and has compiled a large anthology of Rusyn poetry from all countries where Rusyns live, in Europe as well as in North America, Rusinski/ruskipisn'i (1997). ALEKSANDR D. DULICHENKO

Dudick, Michael J. (b. February 23,1916, St. Clair, Pennsylvania, USA) — priest and church hierarch among Rusyns in the United States. Upon completion of his theological studies at St. Procopius Seminary in Lisle, Illinois (1945), Dudick was ordained a Byzantine (Greek) Catholic priest. He served in several parishes in the northeast United States until 1968, when he was appointed bishop of the Byzantine Ruthenian Eparchy of Passaic, a post he held until his retirement in 1995. During that time he created the Heritage Institute Museum and Library (1972) in Passaic, later West Paterson, New Jersey, an institution with a wide range of materials related to CarpathoRusyn culture, including icons, paintings by twentieth-century Subcarpathian artists, ethnographic materials brought to the United States by Rusyn immigrants, antimensia and vestments of Rusyn bishops in Europe and United States, and *Church Slavonic old printed and other Rusyn-related books and newspapers. Dudick also provided financial support to establish (1978) the quarterly *Carpatho-Rusyn American as

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture well as several publications dealing with Rusyns in Europe and the United States. Further reading: E. Kasinec and R.A. Karlowich, "The Shepherd as Collector," Diakonia, XXVIII, I (Scranton, Pa., 1995), pp. 30-36.

101 Further reading: Michael Lucas, 50th Anniversary, 1929-1979: Society of Carpatho-Russian Canadians/Obshchestvo karpatorusskykh kanadtsev (Toronto, 1979). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI


Dudra, lakov (b. November 3, 1894, Losie [Austrian Galicia], Poland; d. November 6,1974, Losie, Poland) — folk poet in the Lemko Region. Despite completing only four classes of elementary school, Dudra began writing poetry in his native Lemko vernacular at an early age. In 1947 he was deported from the *Lemko Region during the *Visrula Operation, although he managed to return from western Poland to his native Carpathian village in the early 1960s. His poems are didactic in character and began to appear in the late 1950s and 1960s in the Lemko section ("Lemkivske slovo," *"Lemkivska storinka") of Poland's Ukrainian-language newspaper, Nashe slovo, and in the publications of the *Lemko Association/Lemko Soiuz of the USA and Canada. Some of Dudra's poetry was published in a separate volume, Urodyvsia ia khlopom (1982). Further reading: Olena Duts'-Faifer, "lakov Dudra 1894-1974," in Lemkivskii kalendar 1994 (Legnica and Krynica, 1994), pp. 96-102. BOGDAN HORBAL

Dudra, Mykhailo. See Organization for the Defence of Lemko Western Ukraine Dudra, Stefan. See Historiography: Lemko Region Dukhnovich Society of Carpatho-Russian Canadians/Obshchestvo karpatorusskikh Kanadtsev im. Aleksandra Dukhnovicha — cultural and civic organization founded in Toronto in 1940 to serve the interests of the Carpatho-Rusyn community in Canada, particularly in southern Ontario. It was first known as the Carpatho-Russian Society for the Struggle Against Fascism/Karpatorusske obshchestvo bor'by s fashyzmom, and after World War II was renamed the Carpatho-Russian Society of Canada/Karpatorusske obshchestvo Kanady. Its present name was adopted during the 1970s. In Toronto, the society had its own Carpatho-Russian Choir, dance group, and dramatic circle which performed during the 1940s and helped to raise funds to assist the Red Army during World War II. The organization's pro-Soviet orientation has been promoted by its leading activist and later president, Michael Lucas (b. 1926), a native of the *Presov Region, whose views were expressed in two magazines published in Rusyn vernacular: Club 280 (1943-60) and Nash holos (1964-70).

Dukhnovych, Aleksander (b. April 24, 1803, Topol'a [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. March 29, 1865, Presov [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia) — priest, belletrist, historian, ethnographer, publicist, and publisher in the Presov Region and Subcarpathian Rus'. Known as the "national awakener of the Carpatho-Rusyn people," Dukhnovych was born into a family of priests; he was educated at the gymnasium in Uzhhorod (1813-1821), the academy in Kosice (1821-1823), and the Theological Seminary in Uzhhorod (1824-1827). After ordination as a Greek Catholic priest (1827) he was assigned to work in the chancery office of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov. But his conduct clashed with the conservative views of Bishop Hryhorii *Tarkovych, who in 1833 sent him to serve as a parish priest in the remote *Presov Region Rusyn villages of Chmel'ova/Komlosa and Beloveza. In 1838 he was transferred to the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo and worked for the next five years in the eparchial administration in Uzhhorod. After the death of Bishop Tarkovych Dukhnovych's relationship with the Eparchy of Presov improved and in 1843 he was appointed eparchial *canon; the following year he returned to the city of Presov, with which he was to remain closely associated for the rest of his life. There he was to become the central figure in the Rusyn national awakening (see also Literature). During his younger years Dukhnovych's poetic works, whether odes or intimate lyrical verse, were written in Hungarian and characterized by a sentimentalism influenced by Hungarian Romanticism. His later literary works were determined more by practical than aesthetic concerns. Because these writings were basically intended to enlighten and educate the population at large, they have value only in the context of the Rusyn national awakening. Of particular importance in this regard is a series of school texts written in Rusyn (Knyzhytsia chytalnaia dlia nachynaiushchykh, 1847—repr. 1850, 1852, 1967, 2003; Kratkyi zemlepys dlia molodykh Rusynov, 1851—repr. 1967), a russified grammar (Sokrashchennaia grammatika pis 'mennago russkago iazyka, 1853; repr. 1967), a pedagogical guide for teachers (Narodnaia pedagogiia vpol'zu uchilishch i uchitelei sel'skikh, 1857; repr. 1967), and several Rusyn-language prayerbooks and liturgical texts Liturgycheskii katekhyzys, 1851,1854; Molytvennyk dlia russkykh ditei, 1854), including the most popular of all: Khlib dushyyly nabozhnyia molytvy y pisny dlia vostochnyia tserkvy pravoslavnykh-khristiian (1851; 9th ed., 1889; further ten varied editions, 1892-1937). In 1850 Dukhnovych established the first Rusyn cultural association, the *Presov Literary Society, which published a


series of books, including the first Rusyn literary *anthologies, issued annually and entitled Pozdravlenie Rusynov. The anthology for 1851 included his poem "Vruchanie," whose opening lines, "I Was, Am, and Will Remain a Rusyn/ la Rusyn byl, esm 'y budu" were to become the national credo of all Rusyns. Dukhnovych is also traditionally credited with having written the text which later became the Rusyn national *anthem, "Subcarpathian Rusyns, Arise From Your Deep Slumber," although recent scholarship suggests he was not its real author. Among his scholarly works were a history of the Eparchy of Presov, originally written in Latin and published posthumously in Russian (Istoriia Priashevskoi eparkhii, \ 877; repr. 1967) and in English (The History of the Eparchy ofPrjasev, 1971), and a general history of Carpatho-Rusyns, completed in 1853 and published posthumously in the Russian original, Istinnaia istoriia Karpato-Rossov Hi Ugorskikh Rusinov (1914; repr. 1967,2003) and in a Vojvodinian Rusyn translation (1981). Dukhnovych considered that his main task was to enlighten or raise the educational and cultural standards of the Rusyn people, which first required the codification of a literary language. He did not, however, opt to create a literary language on the basis of the most widespread spoken dialects, as his contemporary friends and colleagues, the Slovak national awakeners, had done for their language. Instead, Dukhnovych accepted the principle of two styles. He used the "low style," or Rusyn vernacular, for works intended for mass consumption, including school texts, patriotic poetry, and plays like the very popular Dobroditel'prevyshaet bohatstvo (Virtue is more Important than Riches, 1850,1921,1923; English translation 1994). For scholarly and other more "serious" texts he used the "high style," that is, the Slaveno-Rusyn language. This was an amalgam of Russian, *Church Slavonic, and Rusyn, which his later disciples called the "traditional Carpatho-Rusyn language" but critics derided as the *iazychiie (macaronic jargon). Dukhnovych categorically rejected the language used by the *Ukrainophiles and the idea that Ukrainians form a distinct nationality. While he did maintain contacts with brethren "beyond the mountains who were not foreign to him," those contacts were exclusively with *Old Ruthenian and *Russophile activists (Bohdan Didyts'kyi, lakiv *Holovats'kyi) and with cultural organizations in I!viv, such as the Rus' National Center/Narodnyi Dom, the Stauropegial Institute, and the Galician-Rus' Cultural Foundation/Matitsia, all of which rejected the view that Ukrainians formed a distinct nationality. Dukhnovych also maintained close contacts and learned from the experience of Slovak national awakeners (Jonas *Zaborsky, Jan Andrascik, Jan Francisci-Rimavsky, Andrej Radlinsky, Viliam Pauliny-Toth) and Russian scholars (Izmail *Sreznevskii, Mikhail *Raevskii). Responding to the political crisis in the Habsburg Empire and the increase in magyarization during the late 1850s and early 1860s, Dukhnovych, together with the political activist

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi, attempted to consolidate Rusyn national forces by creating new cultural organizations, such as the *St. John the Baptist Society in Presov (1862) and the *St. Basil the Great Society in Uzhhorod (1866). Their efforts met with only limited success, however, because the traditional Rusyn *patriarchal society, whose educated elite, for the most part Greek Catholic clerics, were becoming increasingly favorably inclined toward the Hungarian state and the idea of belonging to a single Hungarian political nation. Some of Dukhnovych's correspondence with Galician Russophiles has been published by Mykhailo *Demko (1927); his autobiography first appeared in 1928. Since then, many of his other writings have been republished in general anthologies as well as in volumes devoted specifically to him; the most important among the latter is the planned four-volume Tvory (Works) edited by Mykhailo *Rychalka and Olena *Rudlovchak, of which three volumes have already appeared (1967-89). Soon after his death Dukhnovych was considered by an albeit gradually decreasing number of national patriots as the "father" and national symbol of the Rusyn people. During these same pre-World War I decades scholars in the Russian Empire (Konstantin *Kustodiev, Fedor * Aristov) saw Dukhnovych as the preserver of a "Russian identity" in what they described as the so-called Rus'Abroad (Zagranichnaia Rus'). After World War I and during the "second" Rusyn national renaissance, which took place under Czechoslovak rule, numerous books and articles were dedicated to Dukhnovych. Statues or busts were erected to him in Sevliush (1925), Kolochava (1930), Khust (1932), Presov (1933), Poliana (1991) near Svaliava, and in his native village of Topol'a (1965), and one of Subcarpathia's leading cultural societies was named after him: the *Dukhnovych Society/Obshchestvo im. Aleksandra Dukhnovicha (1923). His name also served as a catalyst and symbol of national unity among Rusyn immigrants in North America; a statue of him was erected in Cleveland, Ohio (1952), and in the 1970s a society in Toronto, Canada was renamed in his honor, the *Duchnovich Society of Carpatho-Russian Canadians. During the four decades of Communist rule following World War II Marxist scholars were allowed to treat Dukhnovych as an acceptable, "progressive" national awakener from the past. His career as a Greek Catholic priest went virtually unmentioned, however, as was his open rejection of the Ukrainophile movement. Instead, literary scholars in both the Soviet Union (Vasyl' *Mykytas', Oleksa *Myshanych) and Czechoslovakia (lurii *Bacha, Olena Rudlovchak, Mykhailo Rychalka) transformed Dukhnovych into a "Ukrainian writer" and a "national awakener of the Transcarpathian Ukrainians." This view continues to be espoused by Ukrainophiles in the post-Communist era. The years since the Revolution of 1989 have also seen


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Dukhnovych become the primary symbol for the "third" Rusyn national revival, not only in the Presov Region and *Subcarpathian Rus', but also for Rusyns in the *Lemko Region, Hungary, and Yugoslavia. In Presov, the professional Ukrainian National Theater was renamed the Aleksander *Dukhnovych Theater (1990); in Uzhhorod, the Dukhnovych Society (banned by the Soviet regime) was revived (1994) and a monumental statue to him was erected (1997); and an annual international Dukhnovych Prize for the best work in Rusyn literature was established by the Canadian-Rusyn philanthropist Steven *Chepa (1997). Further reading: Oleksander Dukhnovych (1803-1865): bibliohrafichnyi pokazchyk (Uzhhorod, 1996); Fedor F. Aristov, "Aleksandr Vasil'evich Dukhnovich," in idem, Karpato-russkie pisateli, Vol. I (Moscow, 1916; repr. Trumbull, Conn., 1977), pp. 49-61—3rd rev. ed. (Uzhhorod, 1929); Kyrylo Studyns'kyi, "Aleksander Dukhnovych i Halychyna," Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva "Prosvita, " III (Uzhhorod, 1924), pp. 28-94; Aleksandr V. Popov, Aleksandr Vasil'evich Dukhnovich: kritiko biograficheskii ocherk (Mukachevo, 1929); Nikolai A. Beskid, A. V. Dukhnovich i egopoeziia (Uzhhorod, 1930); Nikolai A. Beskid, Dukhnovichi (Homestead, Pa., 1934); Vasyl' L. Mykytas', O. V. Dukhnovych (Uzhhorod, 1959); Mykhailo Rychalka, O. V. Dukhnovych: pedahoh i osvitnii diiach (Presov, 1959); lurii Bacha, Literaturnyi rukh na Zakarpatti seredyny XIX stolittia (Bratislava and Presov, 1961); Fedir I. Naumenko, Osnovy pedahohiky O.V. Dukhnovycha (Eviv, 1964); Literaturna i pedahohichna spadshchyna O. Dukhnovycha (Uzhhorod, 1965); Mykhailo Rychalka, ed., Oleksandr Dukhnovych: zbirnyk materialiv naukovo'i konferentsi'i prysviacheno'i 100-richchiu z dnia smerti (Presov, 1965); Olena Rudlovchak, "Priashivs'ka literaturna spilka Dukhnovycha i literaturni problemy," Duklia, XIII, 1,2,3,4 (Presov, 1965), pp. 88-93, 56-68, 79-88, and 76-87; Oleksii V. Mashtaler, Pedahohichna i osvitnia diial'nist' O. V. Dukhnovycha (Kiev, 1966); Olena Rudlovchak, "Oleksandr Dukhnovych: zhyttia i diial'nist'," in Oleksandr Dukhnovych, Tvory, Vol. I (Bratislava and Presov, 1968), pp. 15-168; Aleksander Dukhnovich i rusinskepitanie/Studia Ruthenica, Vol. II (Novi Sad, 1990-91); Elaine Rusinko, "Aleksander Dukhnovych and the Origin of Modern Drama in Subcarpathian Rus'," in Aleksander Dukhnovych, Virtue is More Important than Riches (New York, 1994), pp. xi-xiii; Elaine Rusinko, "The National Awakening in Subcarpathian Rus': Aleksander Duchnovyc's Reconfiguration of Cultural Identity," Canadian Slavonic Papers, XLI, 1 (Edmonton, 1999), pp. 1-18; Dmytro D. Danyliuk, ed., O. Dukhnovych: z naukovo'i spadshchyny budytelia (Uzhhorod, 2003); Oleksandr Dukhnovych—vyznachnyi pedahoh, myslytel'i hromads 'ko-politychnyi diiach Zakarpattia (Uzhhorod, 2003). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Dukhnovych Festival of Drama and Literary Recitation. See Cultural Union of Ukrainian Workers Dukhnovych Literary Circle. See Presov Greek

Catholic Teachers' College Dukhnovych Society/Obshchestvo im. Aleksandra Dukhnovicha — cultural organization of Russophile orientation in Subcarpathian Rus' and later in the Presov Region. Formally called the Aleksander Dukhnovich Russian Cultural and Enlightenment Society/Russkoe kul'turnoprosvietitel'noe obshchestvo imeni Aleksandra Dukhnovicha, it came into being on March 23, 1923, at a meeting in Mukachevo of 163 cultural activists in * Subcarpathian Rus' of both Rusyn and Russian national orientations, including the province's governor, Antonii *Beskyd; the Greek Catholic bishop of Mukachevo, Petro *Gebei; levmenii *Sabov; losyf *Kamins'kyi; Konstantyn *Nevyts'kyi; Nykolai Dragula; Petro Petrigala; Nykolai *Beskyd; and lulii *Hadzhega. The society was based in Uzhhorod; its first chairman (1923-1934) was levmenii Sabov, although its actual administrator was Shtefan *Fentsyk. The Russophile orientation of the Dukhnovych Society and its clear anti-Ukrainian stance was in large part a reaction to the intense activity of Ukrainian emigres in Subcarpathian Rus', where three years earlier they had established the *Prosvita Society, and since that time published numerous Ukrainian-language or Ukrainian-oriented newspapers, journals, and brochures, and took up several positions in newly established *gymnasia and the Czechoslovak school system in general. Ukrainian activists provoked among many members of the local Rusyn intelligentsia a fear of ukrainianization and loss of a distinct Rusyn ethnic identity. In response, the Dukhnovych Society's symbol became the "common-Russian (obshcherusskii) tri-colored [red, white, and blue] national flag..., an external badge showing that we are Russians (russkie) and that we are a part of the Great Russian nation." Its organizers also stressed their affinity with the Russophile *Kachkovs'kyi Society in Galicia and with Russian emigre organizations in Prague, Sofia, Belgrade, Paris, Berlin, and the United States. At the same time, the society expressed full loyalty to the Czechoslovak state. The Dukhnovych Society was divided into 12 sections: popular enlightenment; scholarship and literature; publications; theater; music; choral ensembles; sports; Russian scouting movement; national center; national archive; women's affairs; and hygiene. Among the society's activities was the annual Russian Day festival, which became a generally recognized national holiday among Rusyns. It also organized the erection of statues and busts of nineteenth-century Rusyn national activists in Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, Khust, Michalovce, and in several villages. A major achievement was the building in Uzhhorod of the Russian National Center/Russkii narodnii dom (1932) as the society's headquarters. The publications section issued two journals, *Karpatskii krai (1923-24) and *Karpatskii sviet (1928-38); an annual almanac, Russkii


narodnyi kalendar' (1927-42); and 115 brochures in a series called "Izdanie" (1924-37), which included historical and literary works by well-known Russian emigres as well as by local Subcarpathian *Russophiles. In Subcarpathian circles, however, these publications proved to be elitist. The Russian language used was decidedly less accessible to the average Rusyn reader than was the language employed by the Ukrainophile Prosvita Society (based largely on the more vernacular-oriented Galician-Ukrainian grammar of Ivan *Pan'kevych), which issued many more practical booklets appropriate for peasant needs. The Dukhnovych Society was active in the creation of reading rooms, which during the interwar years served as centers of civic and cultural activity both in villages and in towns. By 1937/1938 the society had established nearly 300 reading rooms throughout Subcarpathian Rus', in comparison to the Prosvita Society's 260. The Dukhnovych Society was particularly well represented in the areas around Mukachevo and Svaliava, as well as in the Latorytsia valley as far north as the Carpathian crests. In the Uzhhorod district the Dukhnovych Society had twice as many reading rooms as Prosvita which, for its part, was much more influential in the far southeast (former *Maramorosh county). By the late 1930s, however, the Dukhnovych Society grew weaker in comparison with its rival: whereas the Prosvita Society maintained a clear focus and systematically worked with young people, Dukhnovych Society activists often got caught up in short-term problems of secondary importance. This was particularly the case following the death of levmenii Sabov in 1934, after which Shtefan Fentsyk effectively transformed the society into an instrument of his own political interests. For a brief period in 1936, Edmund *Bachyns'kyi was elected chairman and tried to change the situation, but he was unable to do so and resigned. The Dukhnovych Society was greatly damaged by reports in 1937 that its actual administrator, Fentsyk, was cooperating with the anti-Czechoslovak Polish and Hungarian secret services and that he was personally sympathetic to fascist movements throughout much of Europe, especially of the Italian variety. Consequently, the last Russian Day sponsored by the Dukhnovych Society during the period of Czechoslovakian rule was a fiasco. On that day in Mukachevo (September 12,1938), the society managed to turn out a mere 190 participants. After Subcarpathian Rus' was annexed in two stages to Hungary (November 1938 and March 1939) the Dukhnovych Society managed to survive but basically carried out little activity until it was formally abolished by the pro-Soviet authorities of *Transcarpathian Ukraine in early 1945. In the wake of the collapse of Communist rule and the fall of the Soviet Union the Dukhnovych Society was revived in Subcarpathian Rus'. Since 1994 it has functioned as a regional (oblast)-wide organization based in Uzhhorod, with independent branches in several towns. The branches

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture in Mukachevo and Svaliava are particularly active; each has acquired its own center and sponsors annual cultural festivals and lectures. The regional and various local branches of the renewed Dukhnovych Society basically support the Rusyn national orientation and have sponsored a few publications in that language, including a grammar (1999) and dictionary (2001) of Rusyn. The Dukhnovych Society also exists among Rusyns in the *Presov Region of eastern Slovakia. Its first branch was established in Presov in 1925, and in 1930 it became an independent organization in Slovakia. Aside from cultural activity and celebration of the annual Russian Day festival, the major achievement of the Dukhnovych Society in Slovakia was the erection (1933) of a large statue to Aleksander *Dukhnovych on the main square in Presov (it still stands today but in another location in the city). The Dukhnovych Society was banned in 1939 by the Slovak state, revived after World War II, banned again in 1948 by the Czechoslovak Communist regime for its alleged "bourgeois nationalist" activity, and after the fall of *Communism revived once more in Presov (1991) initally under the direction of Mykhailo *Rychalka and Shtefan *Krushko. Although the present organization in Presov includes members of various national viewpoints it has basically adopted the Russian national orientation. It publishes in Ukrainian on an irregular basis the newspaper Holos Karpat (1992- ) and the scholarly journal Karpats 'kyi svit (\991- ). Further reading: Stepan A. Fentsik, ed., Dieiatel'nost' Obshchestva im. A. Dukhnovicha, 1922-1926 (Uzhhorod, 1926); Stepan A. Fentsik, "Russkoe kurturno-prosvietitel'noe obshchestvo imeni Aleksandra V. Dukhnovicha v Uzhgorodie na Podkarpatskoi Rusi," in A.V. Popov, ed., Karpatomsskiia dostizheniia (Mukachevo, 1930), pp. 89-116; Vasylii Sochka-Borzhavyn, Ystoryia Obshchestva ym. A. Dukhnovycha y narodnikh domov Rusynov (Uzhhorod, 1997); Vasylii Sochka-Borzhavyn and Liudvih Filip-Radvans'kyi, Ystoriia Obshchestva ym. Aleksandra Dukhnovycha, 1923-2003 (Uzhhorod, 2003). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Dukhnovych Theater/Teater Aleksandra Dukhnovicha (TAD) — professional theater based in Presov, Slovakia. Established in 1946 as the Ukrainian National Theater (Ukrai'ns'kyi natsional'nyi teatr—UNT), the institution was intended to be a touring company to serve the cultural needs of Rusyn-inhabited villages in the *Presov Region of northeastern Slovakia. During its early years, the theater performed plays in both Ukrainian and Russian, but by the 1950s it accepted Czechoslovakia's policy of Ukrainianization and for over three decades gave performances only in literary Ukrainian. During the 1960s and 1970s, many of its actors were sent to the Soviet Ukraine for training. In 1956, a separate


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture company within the theater was created for song and dance known as the Dukla Ukrainian Folk Ensemble—*PULS. The UNT/TAD has performed over 400 plays by local authors (both Ukrainian- and Rusyn-language writers), by classical Ukrainian dramatists, by Czech and Slovak authors, and by world classical dramatists. Beginning in late 1960s, there was criticism that the theater was unpopular because Rusyn villagers could not understand literary Ukrainian. By 1986, the first plays were performed in Rusyn, and in 1990, under the direction of laroslav *Sysak, the theater changed its national orientation. Renamed that year the Aleksander Dukhnovych Theater/Teater Aleksandra Dukhnovicha, its repertory since then has been entirely in the Rusyn language. During the 1990s the Dukhnovych Theater worked closely with the *Rusyn Renaissance Society in Slovakia and since then has become a kind of all-Rusyn national theater, staging plays by Rusyns from countries other than Slovakia and performing with some frequency for Rusyns in Poland, Ukraine, Hungary, and Serbia. The company also operates an experimental theater, translates dramatic works from other languages into Rusyn, and has participated with its Rusynlanguage repertory at theater festivals in Britain, Sweden, Spain, and Italy. Among the directors of individual plays have been: lurii *Sheregii, lurii Zagrebel'skii (1897-1957), losyf Fel'baba (1921-1995), Ivan Ivancho (1935-1994), and laroslav *Sysak. Most of its post-1989 Rusyn-language repertoire has been staged by Vasyl' *Turok-Hetesh. Popular actors have included losyf Korba (1921-1988), Mykola Symko (1921-1982), Pavlo Symko (1926-1981), Tamara SymkoPazdernyk (1930-1993), Anna Symko-Klets' (b. 1931), Ivan Stropkovs'kyi (b. 1942), Aleksander Kucherenko (b. 1945), and, during the Rusyn-language phase of the theater, Igor Latta (b. 1947), Vasyl' Rusyniak (b. 1953), Osyf Tkach (b. 1950), and Mariian Marko. Further reading: Ivan Matsyns'kyi, ed., lOrokiv UNT(Bratislava, 1958); losyf Fel'baba, ed., 25 [/AT (Presov and Bratislava, 1971); lurii Datsko, ed., Pionery ukrains'koho profesional'noho teatru v ChSSR (Presov, 1981); lurii Datsko, ed., Sorok rokiv £/AT (Presov, 1985). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Originally planned to last a week, the battle for the Dukla Pass took a month and resulted in great loss of life. The Soviet Army alone lost 95,000 dead or wounded; German casualties were estimated at some 52,000. The Czechoslovak Army Corps incurred 1,844 dead and 4,700 wounded, a high percentage of whom were Rusyns from *Subcarpathian Rus'. The Dukla Battle caused as well numerous casualties among the Lemko/Rusyn civilian population living on both slopes of the Carpathians. Several of their villages were totally destroyed or severely damaged, a situation which prompted many surviving *Lemkos to opt for emigration to the Soviet Union. The campaign also had a secret political aspect. Dragging out the military operations reduced the possibility of any effective assistance to the Slovak army revolt (Slovak National Uprising) with the result that its participants were thereby doomed to isolation and defeat. The Soviet Army had a few weeks earlier reacted in the same way to the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944. Quite simply, *Stalin did not want either the Polish or Slovak uprisings to be successful. The Rusyn soldiers in the Czechoslovak Army Corps were not permitted to participate in the liberation of their Subcarpathian homeland. As early as summer of 1944, the Czechoslovak Corps was on the threshhold of the eastern Carpathian passes, yet despite the request of the corps commander to include his forces with Soviet troops crossing into Subcarpathian Rus' (the 18th Army), they were instead sent to southern Poland to participate in the Dukla Campaign, where most were killed. The Soviet security service (NKVD), in particular Lev I. Meklis, who had already arranged for the '^reunification of Transcarpathia with Mother Ukraine," could not allow Rusyn troops, who had previously experienced Soviet reality in the prison camps of the Gulag (1939-1942), to return to their homeland. Thus, they were dispatched and destined to be laid to rest in the fields of the Dukla "human meat-grinder." Further reading: Daniil M. Proektor, Cherez Duklinskii pereval (Moscow, 1960); Ludvik Svoboda, Z Buzuluku do Prahy, 6th ed. (Prague, 1970; Ukrainian ed., 1964, 1968); K.S. Moskalenko, Na iugo-zapadnom napravlenii (Moscow, 1975); O. Kvapil, Boufe v Karpatech (Prague, 1989); V. Sacher, Pod rozstfilenym praporem (Prague, 1990); Ludvik Svoboda, Cestami zivota, Vol. II (Prague, 1992). BOGDAN HORBAL

Dukla, Battle of/Carpathian-Dukla Campaign — World War II Soviet military campaign against the German Army and its allies for control of the Dukla/Dukl'a pass connecting Poland and Slovakia, lasting from September 8 to the end of October 1944. The campaign was led by Soviet forces of the First Ukrainian Front, including the 38th Army under General Kirill S. Moskalenko and the Czechoslovak Army Corps under Brigadier General Ludvik Svoboda. The official goal of the Soviet campaign was to take control of the Dukla Pass and then to link up with troops in revolt within the Slovak Army and with partisans in eastern Slovakia.


Dukla Printshop. See Printing and Publishing Dukla Ukrainian Folk Ensemble. See PULS Duklia —journal of literature, art, and civic affairs, published in Presov from 1953 for the Rusyns of eastern Slovakia. It began as a quarterly publication, but since 1965 has appeared bimonthly; among its long-time editors have been


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Fedir *Kovach (1972-1989) and Ivan latskanyn (1992- ). The pages of Duklia have reflected the complex nature of the Rusyn nationality question in eastern Slovakia during the decades following World War II. The journal was published first by the Group of Ukrainian Writers in Czechoslovakia (1953-71), then by the *Cultural Union of Ukrainian Workers (1972-89), the *Union of Rusyn-Ukrainians in Slovakia (1990-92), and the Union of Ukrainian Writers of Slovakia (1993-). Its first issues were written in Russian and Ukrainian, but by the 1960s they were entirely in Ukrainian. The primary goal of Duklia has been to function as an organ for Ukrainian-language writers in Slovakia. It has also consistently promoted the view that the Rusyns in eastern Slovakia and in neighboring countries are part of the Ukrainian nationality. Aside from poetry and prose by local Ukrainian-language authors, the journal publishes literary criticism and studies on Rusyn history, ethnography, and art. With the exception of a few years (1966-1969) Duklia supported the ideology of Communist Czechoslovakia, with its call for "fraternal relations" with the Soviet Union. Since the fall of Communist rule in 1989 the journal has maintained its Ukrainian orientation and is strongly critical of the Rusyn national revival, which is dismissed as a "separatist" and "anti-Ukrainian" phenomenon. Further reading: Articles by Fedir Kovach, Mykhailo Roman, Olena Rudlovchak, lurii Kundrat, and Zuzana Osavchuk in Naukovi zapysky,No. 11 (Presov, 1985), pp. 13-102. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dulichenko, Aleksandr Dmitrievich (b. October 31, 1941, Novoalekseevskaia stanitsia, Krasnodar region [Soviet Union], Russia) — Slavic philologist, linguist, and professor. Dulichenko completed his studies at the University of Turkmen in Ashkhabad, Turkmenia (1966), at the Institute of Slavic and Balkan Studies in Moscow (kandidat nauk, 1974), and at the Institute of Linguistics of the Belarusan Academy of Sciences in Minsk (Ph.D., 1981). He has taught at the University of Samarkand in Uzbekistan (1968-1970) and since 1976 at the University of Tartu in Estonia (professor, 1982). A specialist in general linguistics and Slavic languages, Dulichenko published a comparative study of what he called Slavic "literary micro-languages" (Slavianskie literaturnye mikroiazyki, 1981), among which are Vojvodinian Rusyn and the Carpatho-Rusyn written language in the United States. Since 1972 he has published, in particular, numerous studies on Vojvodinian Rusyn, many of which were republished in Jugoslavo-Ruthenica(\995). Through his extensive publications, lectures, and teaching, Dulichenko has promoted awareness of the Vojvodinian Rusyn language within the larger Slavic scholarly community. He has also compiled an anthology of texts from all Rusyninhabited regions to illustrate the historical development of

the Carpatho-Rusyn literary language from the seventeenth century to the present. Further reading: Vasil Mudri, "Ruska besheda odhukovala i na Moskovskim univerzitetu," Shvetlosts, XXVI, 5 (Novi Sad, 1988), pp. 551-564. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dulishkovych, Arnold. See Gerovskii, Aleksei lulianovich; Maramorosh Sighet Trial; Uhro-Rusyn party Dulishkovych, Ivan/Ioann (b. November 14,1815, Holiatyn [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. February 21, 1883, Chynadiievo [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — priest and historian in Subcarpathian Rus'. After completing the gymnasium and Theological Seminary in Uzhhorod, Dulishkovych studied philosophy at the Kosice Academy. Ordained a Greek Catholic priest (1841), he served in the Rusyn-inhabited villages of Skotars'ke, in Verkhni and Nyzhni Verets'ky/Vorota, and from 1869 until his death in Chynadiievo. Responding to a challenge put forth by the poet Aleksander *Pavlovych, Dulishkovych undertook to write a history of Rusyns. The result was the three-volume Istoricheskie cherty Ugro-Russkikh (1874-77), covering the period to the end of the eighteenth century. A fourth volume was written but never published and has subsequently been lost. In this work Dulishkovych concentrated on the history of the early settlement of the Slavic peoples, their first appearance in * Subcarpathian Rus', and the region's church history. He accepted the view that the Slavs were the autochthonous population of central and eastern Europe, that their very presence among the Indo-European inhabitants of the continent dates back to the first millennium before Christ, and that Slavic peoples were present in Subcarpathian Rus' long before the arrival of the Magyar tribes in the Danubian Basin. Dulishkovych was also one of the first Rusyn historians to question what he considered the fantastic nature of the story about Prince *Koriatovych having allegedly come to Subcarpathia with 40,000 peasants from Podolia. He argued that if Koriatovych had had that many people at his disposal, the prince could easily have defended his landed estates in Podolia and would not have to had to flee to Hungary for protection. Dulishkovych's history is basically a compilation of facts, and despite its size it had no real impact on the evolution of Carpatho-Rusyn *historiography. Further reading: Dmytro D. Danyliuk, "Ivan Dulishkovych iak istoryk," Carpatica/Karpatyka, III (Uzhhorod, 1995), pp. 50-60; Dmytro Danyliuk, Istoriia Zakarpattia v biohrafiiakh i portretakh (Uzhhorod, 1997), esp. pp. 183-193. IVAN POP

Dumen — an internment camp in Subcarpathian Rus' located in a former exercise field of the Czechoslovak Army


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture near the town of Rakhiv. The camp was established through a decree issued on November 20,1938 by Avhustyn *Voloshyn, the prime minister of the Ukrainian-oriented autonomous government of *Subcarpathian Rus'/*Carpatho-Ukraine. The purpose of the Dumen camp was to intern: "deserters and refugees from abroad; political offenders from our own region; and persons who act against the interests of our state [Carpatho-Ukraine] and republic [Czechoslovakia], but who cannot be detained through judicial means." From the very outset Dumen became less a destination for terrorists sent by Hungary and Poland to infiltrate Subcarpathian Rus'/Carpatho-Ukraine than it did a camp for Rusyns of both *Rusynophile and *Russophile orientation opposed to Voloshyn's *Ukrainophile regime. During its few months of existence (December 1938 to March 1939) Dumen held anywhere from 15 to 30 internees under guard by members of the *Carpathian Sich. Although the existence of an internment camp at Dumen suggests authoritarian tendencies in Carpatho-Ukraine's government, it should be noted that control was lax and internees were even allowed to leave the camp for social visits to nearby Rakhiv. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Dumki z Dunaiu. See Kostelnik, Vlado; Union of Rusyns and Ukrainians in Croatia

creation of cooperatives throughout the Lemko Region, but in the wake of the economic crisis and agrarian famine after 1929 he began to support the view that in order to improve their economic situation *Lemkos should emigrate en masse to Siberia. To promote his plan Durkot published in Eviv under the pseudonym Sergei Zynin the propaganda booklet, Lemkovyna-Sybyr' (1934), and he established at the village of Labowa a committee which gathered over 4,000 signatures from Lemkos in the surrounding area who petitioned both the Polish and Soviet governments to allow them to emigrate. The *Lemko Association/Lemko Soiuz in the USA and Canada supported Durkot's activity and lobbied the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C., on his behalf. The Polish government was initially receptive to the idea of emigration but in 1937 arrested Durkot, who was accused of anti-state activity and spreading Bolshevik ideas in Poland. After Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany (September 1939) Durkot moved to eastern Galicia, and during the period of Soviet rule in that part of former Poland (1939-1941) he served as a director of a coal mine. When, in 1944, Ukrainian nationalist armed bands (perhaps associated with the *Ukrainian Insurgent Army [UPA]) began a campaign of attacks on local *Russophiles and Poles, Durkot was shot, together with his wife and young children. Further reading: V.R. Vavryk, "Serhei Ivanovych Durkot," in Karpatorusskyi kalendar' Lemko Soiuza 1961 (Yonkers, N.Y., 1961), pp. 67-74. BOGDAN HORBAL

Dumnych, lurii. See Podkarpats 'ka Rus' Durnovo, Nikolai. See Language Duplak, Maria. See Organization for the Defense of Lemko Western Ukraine Duplak, Nicholas. See Ukrainian Lemko Museum Durdynets', Vasyl'. See Communism Durkot, Serhii (pseudonym: Sergei Zynin) (b. 1901, Szlachtowa [Austrian Galicia], Poland; d. 1944, Monastyrok [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — civic and cultural activist of Russian national orientation in the Lemko Region. The son of a Greek Catholic priest, Durkot was sent to study at the Mining Academy in Loeben, Austria. There he came under the influence of leftist student circles, interrupted his studies, and left for the Russian Empire to witness the Russian Revolution and eventually to join the Bolshevik forces during their efforts to regain Siberia from the Whites. At the end of Russia's Civil War, Durkot returned to Austria and finished his studies at Loeben (1925). As a hydrotechnical engineer, he returned to his native *Lemko Region, where after 1928 he assisted in improving agricultural lands in the village of Hanczowa. He was also an active member in the local *Kachkovs'kyi Society, where he organized a choir and dramatic circle. He campaigned for the

Durych, Jaroslav (b. December 2,1886, Hradec Kralove [Austrian Bohemia], Czech Republic; d. April 7,1962, Prague [Czechoslovakia], Czech Republic) — Czech belletrist, publicist, dramatist, and editor of Roman Catholic orientation. Durych worked as a medical doctor (1921-1922) in Uzhhorod, and while there he wrote several essays for the Prague newspaper, Lidove listy, on various aspects of life in * Subcarpathian Rus'. Several of these were published in the collection Toulky po domove (1938), and after his death in Duse Podkarpatske Rusi (1993). Further reading: Vaclav Durych, "Jaroslav Durych a Podkarpatska Rus," in Jaromir Hofec, ed., Stfedni Europa a Podkarpatska Rus (Prague, 1997), pp. 12-16; Jin Kudrna£ and Karel Komarek, Jaroslav Durych: zivot, ohlasy, soupis dila a literatury o nem (Prague, 2000). IVAN POP

Dushpastyr' — monthly magazine and official organ of the *Greek Catholic Eparchies of Mukachevo and Presov that appeared between 1924 and 1941 in Uzhhorod. From 1924 it was edited by Aleksander *Il'nyts'kyi on behalf of the Soci-


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

ety of Cathechists of the Eparchy of Mukachevo/Tovarystvo katekhytov Mukachevskoi eparkhii. Dushpastyr' appeared in Rusyn and carried articles of religious and theological content and texts of sermons, as well as official statements by each eparchy and reports on activities in individual parishes. Further reading: M. M. Romaniuk, ed., Periodyka Zakhidnoi Ukrainy 20-30-kh rr. XXSt.: materialy do bibliohrqfii'(L'viv, 2001), pp. 76-82. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Duts'-Faifer, Olena/Duc-Fajfer, Helena (b. August 9, 1960, Udanin-Ujazd Gorny, Poland) — poet, literary scholar, pedagogue, and cultural and civic activist ofRusyn national orientation in the *Lemko Region. Duts'-Faifer's family was deported from the Lemko Region during the * Vistula Operation. Although born "abroad" in Poland's southwestern region of Silesia, the Duts' family returned in 1961 to the Lemko Region, where Olena was raised and received her elementary education. She studied at Jagiellonian University in Cracow (1979-1985), where she earned advanced degrees in Slavic philology (M.A., 1985), psychology (M.A., 1987), art history (M.A., 1992), and East Slavic literature (Ph.D., 1997). In all these fields she has published on Lemko-related topics. Of greatest significance is her revised doctoral thesis, which is the first substantive history of Lemko-Rusyn literature covering the decades before World War I: Literatura temkowska w drugiejpolowie XIX i na poczqtku XX wieku (2001). Duts'-Faifer is one of the leading figures in the Rusyn-oriented Lemko national revival that began in Poland during the mid-1980s. She was the co-organizer of the first few annual "homeland" *Vatra festivals and is the author of a modernist bilingual Rusyn and Polish collection of poetry: Wmodlitewnym bluznierstwie (1985). Since 2001 she teaches language, literature, and ethnography at the newly-established program in Lemko-Rusyn studies at the Advanced School of Education/ Akademia Pedagogiczna in Cracow. Further reading: Petro Trokhanovskii, "Z lemkivskym iazykom pershyraz do akademichnykh sal': na 40. litia narodzhynia Dr Oleny Duts'-Faifer," in Lemkivskii kalendar 2000 (Krynica and Legnica, 2000), pp. 138-146. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dux Ruizorum. See Marchia Ruthenorum

1947). Since 1951 he has taught Ukrainian dialectology at Uzhhorod State University (associate professor/docent, 1952; doctor of philological science, 1961; professor, 1963). There he developed a detailed plan for creating regional linguistic atlases, implemented in a three-volume atlas ofRusyn dialects in Subcarpathian Rus': Linhvistychnyi atlas ukra'ins'kykh narodnykh hovoriv Zakarpats'koi oblasti URSR (1958-93). All of Dzendzelivs'kyi's writings are based on the assumption that Rusyn dialects are part of the Ukrainian language. He has also transcribed for publication and analyzed two previously inaccessible eighteenth-century Rusyn grammars of Arsenii *Kotsak (1990); he has described in some detail the unpublished dialectal dictionary of Mykola *Hrytsak (1993); and he has helped to rehabilitate the scholarly reputation of Ivan *Haraida (1993), except for what Dzendzelivs'kyi calls his "odious" 1941 Rusyn grammar. Further reading: Oleksander D. Kizlyk, losyp Oleksiiovych Dzendzelivs'kyi: bibliohrafichnyipokazchyk (L'viv, 1981); Zuzana Hanudel', "luvilei doslidnyka: do 70-richchia vid dnia narodzhennia I.O. Dzendzelivs'koho," Duklia, XXXIX, 2 (Presov, 1991), pp. 58-60; Oleh Kupchyns'kyi, "losyp Dzendzelivs'kyi—nevtomnyi pratsivnykh nauky ta pedahoh" and "Bibliohrafiia prats' profesora losypa Dzendzelivs'koho za 1951-2000 r.," in Ukrains'ke i slovians'ke movoznavstvo: mizhnarodna konferentsiia na chest'... losypa Dzendzelivs'koho (Uzhhorod, 2001), pp. 13-48. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Dzindz'o, Mykhailo (b. July 19, 1925, Krasna, Poland; d. August 8, 1993, Boryslav, Ukraine) — Lemko poet and journalist in Ukraine. In 1945 Dzindz'o was resettled from the *Lemko Region to the Soviet Ukraine, where he completed studies at a technical school for petroleum in Drohobych (1962). Ever since youth he wrote poetry in Lemko Rusyn, and during the 1950s he began to collect examples of folklore from among *Lemkos resettled in Ukraine. Beginning in 1971, the folkloric texts compiled by Dzindz'o as well as his own tales, short stories, and humorous sketches appeared in the Lemko section/*"Lemkivska storinka" of Poland's Ukrainianlanguage newspaper, Nashe slovo. Among the manuscripts left unpublished at his death are descriptions of traditional Lemko wedding practices in the Gorlice region and in his native village of Krasna. BOGDAN HORBAL

Dvan-Sharpotokii, VasyP. SeeArt

Dzendzelivs'kyi, losyp Oleksiiovych (b. February 17, 1921, Mazurove [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — linguist and professor in Subcarpathian Rus'. A native of the Mykolai'v region in southern Ukraine, Dzendzelivs'kyi completed his education at the University of Odessa (1939-1941, 1945-

Dyma. See Vakarov, Dmytrii Dyrud, Keith. See Historiography: United States Dzhudzhar, Diura. See Bachka/Backa Apostolic Administration


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Dzhugashvili, losif. See Stalin, losif Vissarionovich Dzhunia, Mikhailo. See Literature: Vojvodina Dzielnica Ruska. See Rusyn Sector Dziiak, Aleksander. See Presov Greek Catholic Teachers' College Dzubay, Alexander (b. February 27,1857, Kal'nyk [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. April 2, 1933, Garrison, New York, USA) — priest, church hierarch, and community activist among Rusyns in the United States. After graduating from the Theological Seminary in Uzhhorod (1880) Dzubay was ordained a Greek Catholic priest (1881) and served in several Rusyn parishes throughout *Subcarpathian Rus'. In 1889 he was sent as the first priest from Hungary (Subcarpathian Rus') to minister to Rusyn Greek Catholics in the United States. He organized several Greek Catholic parishes, he convened in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania the first "congress" of American Greek Catholic priests (1890), and he served as vicar-general (1913-1916) under Bishop Soter Ortynsky. Angered at not being appointed the successor to Ortynsky, Dzubay left the Greek Catholic Church and was consecrated Bishop Stephen (1916) of the Russian Orthodox Church, under whose jurisdiction he headed the "Carpatho-Russian

Sub-Diocese of Pittsburgh." Dzubay was able to convince several Greek Catholic parishes to join the Russian Orthodox Church but he failed to establish a distinct Carpatho-Russian Orthodox diocese. In 1922 he proclaimed himself acting head of the entire Russian Orthodox Church in the United States but two years later he renounced Orthodoxy and returned to the Greek Catholic Church, spending the rest of his life in monastic seclusion. Dzubay represented that faction ofRusyn Americans who welcomed the "return to Orthodoxy" but who wanted to maintain their distinct Rusyn (Carpatho-Russian) religious traditions and national identity instead of adopting a Russian one. Further reading: "Vladyka Stefan, pervyi karpatoruskii pravoslavnyi episkop v Amerike—osnovatel' Pittsburgskoi karpatorusskoi eparkhii," in D.O. Seniuk, Andrei Stepanovich Shlepetskii (Presov, 1967), pp. 96-110. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Dzvinochok. See Grendzha-Dons'kyi, Vasyl' Dzvonchok. See Varga, Mikhailo Dzvoni. See Miz, Roman Dzvony Lemkivshchyny. See Lemko Region Society in Ukraine; Vatra

E Ea Semper — papal decree concerning the status of Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholics in the United States. From the very beginning of large-scale Carpatho-Rusyn immigration to the United States in the 1880s, friction arose between the immigrant Greek Catholic clergy and the Roman Catholic Church. In an effort to regulate those relations, the Vatican appointed in 1907 a bishop, Soter *Ortynsky, for America's Greek Catholics, and in June of the same year the pope issued the Ea Semper decree. The decree's 35 articles effectively subordinated the Greek Catholic clergy and its new bishop to local Roman Catholic bishops in the United States. Ortynsky was not an ordinary bishop in his own right but essentially an auxiliary to the Roman-rite bishops where Rusyn Greek Catholics resided. He could not even visit his own Greek Catholic parishes without prior written permission of the Roman-rite bishop. Other provisions of the Ea Semper decree instructed that: married men could not be ordained to the priesthood; new Greek Catholic priests were not to be sent to the United States without the advance approval of the American Catholic hierarchy; and all title to church property (in almost all cases the immigrant churches were legally owned by lay parish councils) was to be turned over to the bishop. The Ea Semper caused great displeasure among Rusyn Greek Catholic priests and the lay faithful. Protests to Rome were coordinated by the influential lay fraternal organization, the *Greek Catholic Union of Rusyn Brotherhoods. Ortynsky himself urged the Vatican to repeal the decree, but to no avail. In practice, however, the basic provisions of the Ea Semper decree were ignored: the laity did not turn over church property to the bishop; married priests continued to arrive from Europe; and the ordination of married men to serve in the *Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church likewise continued. The Vatican essentially turned a blind idea to these "infringements" until 1929, when it issued a new decree, the *Cum Data Fuerit. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

The East. See Vostok Eastern Catholic Life. See Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA Economy. See Geography and Economy Education. See Barbareum; Greek Catholic Central Seminary; Gymnasium; Horozhans 'ka shkola; Mukachevo State Teachers' College; Mukachevo Theological School; Presov

Greek Catholic Teachers' College; Ruska Bursa; Shkol'naia pomoshch'; Stadtkonvikt; Trnava Albertine College; University Departments; Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College

Egan, Ede/Edmund (b. July 13, 1841, Csaktorna [Hungarian Kingdom], Hungary; d. September 20,1901, Uzhhorod [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — Hungarian economist and government functionnary of Scottish descent. Educated at the School of Economics in Halle, Germany, Egan also studied law in Vienna. For over a decade (1883-1896) he worked for Hungary's Ministry of Agriculture as a supervisor for the kingdom's milk production and he wrote a series of studies on economic questions and the history of agriculture in Hungary, including an essay on the Carpathian region (Karpdtaink kozgazdasdgi hivastdsa, 1890), in which he first put forth his views on improving production in the high mountain pastures (polonyny). In the history of Subcarpathian Rus' Egan's name is connected with the *Highlands Program of 1897, outlined in a memorandum he submitted to the Hungarian government. The second part of Egan's program was later published in a somewhat abridged form in Ukrainian (1901) and in a bilingual Czech and Ukrainian edition, Hospoddfsky stav msinskych venkovanu v UhrdchlEkonomichne polozhenie rus 'kykh selian v Uhorshchyni (1922; repr. 2001). Egan was appointed head of the *Highlands Office, established in Mukachevo to implement the Highlands Program. In 1898, he submitted a memorandum to the Ministry of Agriculture outlining the means "to improve the moral and material condition of the Rusyn-speaking inhabitants in the *Carpathian Mountains and foothills." The memorandum proposed a system to protect peasant agriculturalists from exploitative money lenders, including state aid for peasants to recover lands lost because of indebtedness. It also called for the creation of cooperatives, an effective credit system, and the transformation of subsistence-level agriculture into a profitable business. Not surprisingly, Egan's activity and proposals met with negative reaction on the part of local money lenders, and in 1901 he was found murdered on the road between Uzhhorod and Mukachevo near the village of Dravtsi. No less than 12,000 Rusyn peasants attended his funeral, and with funds that they collected a monument was erected in the form of a stone cross at the place of his death. The monument was dismantled in the 1960s on orders from the Communist authorities but restored in 1996. Further reading: Vikentii Shandor, "Edvard Egan i ioho


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture 'Verkhovyns'ka aktsiia'," Ukrains 'kyi istoryk, XIV, 1-2 (New York, Toronto, and Munich, 1977), pp. 109-117; Maria Mayer, The Rusyns of Hungary: Political and Social Developments, 1860-1910 (New York, 1997), pp. 111-123. IVAN POP

Eger — seat of one of the oldest Roman Catholic dioceses in Hungary, created in the year 1009. The Eger diocese had jurisdiction over the Catholic Church in the northeastern part of the Hungarian Kingdom, which before World War I included the Rusyn-inhabited *Presov Region and *Subcarpathian Rus'. After 1646, when the Byzantine-rite *Eparchy of Mukachevo accepted the *Unia/Church Union with Rome, its bishops were formally reduced to the status of vicars (auxiliary bishops) jurisdictionally subordinate to the Roman Catholic bishop of Eger. This was justified on the grounds of Roman practice, outlined in the 9th constitution of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), according to which there cannot be two bishops in one diocesan territory. Since precedence was given to Roman Catholic dioceses in the Hungarian Kingdom, the bishops of Byzantine-rite (Uniate) eparchies (dioceses) were made subordinate to a Roman Catholic bishop. Responding to his new responsibilities, the Roman Catholic bishop provided places at the seminary in Eger to train priests for the Mukachevo Eparchy. The seminary also included a rich library of *Church Slavonic religious books gathered by the Byzantine-rite theologian and seminary professor of Rusyn origin, Luka Habina/Habina Lukacs. The eighteenth century also witnessed efforts on the part of the Uniate bishops of Mukachevo to attain full episcopal authority and recognition for a self-governing eparchy that would not be subordinate to Roman Catholic Eger. The bishops of Eger opposed these efforts, and in the polemical debates and writings that ensued, Eger became for defenders of the Eastern Byzantine rite a symbol of opposition to the "struggle" (borbd) launched by the bishops of Mukachevo for their "independence." These debates had a direct impact on Rusyn *historiography, since the defenders of the Mukachevo Eparchy tried to justify their arguments by turning to the past: the first published and unpublished histories of Rusyns and their church came into being as a direct by-product of the conflict with Eger. Eventually, the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa intervened, creating in 1771 a jurisdictionally independent Eparchy of Mukachevo. The Vatican approved the Habsburg decision, so that the Uniate (soon-to-be renamed Greek Catholic) Eparchy of Mukachevo was finally "liberated" from the "bonds" of Eger. Further reading: Mykhailo Luchkai, Istoriia karpats 'kych rusyniv, Vol. IV (1843) (Uzhhorod, 2003); Kalman Zsatkovics, "Az egri befolyas es az ez ellen vivott harcz a munkacsi gorog szertatasu egyhazmegye tortenelmeben," Szdzadok, XVIII (Budapest, 1884), pp. 680-696, 766-786, and 839-877—Russian translation in Latin

alphabet: Koloman Zatkovic, Jagerskoje vl'ijanije: bor 'ba protiv toho v istorii mukacevskoje greceskoho obrjada diocezii (Homestead, Pa., 193?); Sandor Foldvari, "Eger szerepe a karpataljai ruszin gorog katolikus kulturaban," in Margit Beke and Istvan Bardos, eds., Magyarok kelet es nyugat metszesvonaldn (Esztergom, 1994), pp. 297-308; Shandor Fel'dvari, "Staropechatnye knigi kirillovskogo i glagolicheskogo shriftov Egerskoi arkhiepiskopskoi biblioteki," Slavica, XXVII (Debrecen, 1995), pp. 83-95. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Egry, Ferenc. See Magyars

Ehrenfeld, Petr (b. 1866, Brno [Austrian Moravia], Czech Republic; d. 1936) — Czech official in Subcarpathian Rus'. Ehrenfeld was appointed the first vice-governor of * Subcarpathian Rus', a position which in fact carried more authority than that of the governor, who was chosen from among the local Rusyn population. During his nearly three years in office (1921-1923) he succeeded in consolidating the economic and political situation in Czechoslovakia's far eastern province. He established in Uzhhorod the short-lived Rusyn-language newspaper *Rusyn (1923), which also published a weekly illustrated supplement, *Nedilia Rusyna, and a series of pamphlets, "Knyzhky Rusyna." Ehrenfeld was the first to identify the anti-state character of activity carried out by Russian and especially Ukrainian emigres in Subcarpathian Rus'. He tried to limit their immigration to the province, but the Czechoslovak government ignored his warnings. Following a financial scandal involving Jewish merchants, Ehrenfeld was forced to resign in 1923. IVAN POP

Ekspozytura hirs'kykh raioniv. See Highlands Office Ekzekutsiia — a term used during the period before 1944 in Rusyn-inhabited lands to describe the foreclosure or confiscation of property, usually from peasants who were unable to pay their feudal dues or who defaulted on loans. Elko, Nicholas. See Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA Endredy, Gyorgy. See Art

Enlightenment. See Prosvita/The Enlightenment Eparchy of Hajdudorog. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Hajdudorog Eparchy of Khust-Vynohradovo. See Orthodox


Eparchy of Mukachevo-Uzhhorod Eparchy of Krizevci. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Krizevci Eparchy of Mukachevo. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo; Orthodox Eparchy of MukachevoUzhhorod Eparchy of Mukachevo-Presov. See Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachevo-Uzhhorod Eparchy of Parma. See Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA Eparchy of Passaic. See Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA Eparchy of Pittsburgh. See Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA Eparchy of Presov. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov Eparchy of Przemysl. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Przemysl; Orthodox Eparchy of Przemysl Eparchy of Van Nuys. See Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA Erdeli, Adal'bert/Erdelyi, Bela (b. Ivan Hryts'/Hrz, May 25, 1891, Zahattia [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. September 19, 1955, Uzhhorod [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — painter, pedagogue, and cultural activist of part German (Swabian) background in *Subcarpathian Rus'. Educated at the Academy of Art in Budapest (1911-1915), Erdeli was one of the founders of the *Subcarpathian School of Painting. After returning home from study in Budapest Erdeli spent the rest of the World War I years living in Mukachevo, where in 1921 he became a member of the short-lived union of painters created by lulii *Virag. Between 1922 and 1926 Erdeli worked in Munich, where his first personal exhibition abroad was held in the Glass Palace (1923). With the knowledge and experience he had gained, Erdeli decided to apply his talents to help carry out the moral and cultural regeneration of his homeland and its people. Returning to Subcarpathian Rus', Erdeli together with losyf *Bokshai founded in Uzhhorod the Public School for Painting (1927), but within two years he left home again, this time for Paris, where he worked (1929-1931) among a circle of artists that included the post-Impressionists Henri Matisse, Max Vlaminck, and Andre Derain. The greatest influence on

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Erdeli, however, was the artistic legacy of Paul Cezanne. It was his experience in Paris that transformed Erdeli into a European artist of post-Impressionism. He became a master of portraiture (^v/o/?or/re//Self-Portrait, 1930; For tret Anders a Osterlanda/Portrait of Anders Osterland, 1930; Dvatsiatyi v/A/The 20th Century, 1931; Portret A.S./A Portrait of A.S., 1930s), of landscapes (Mukachivs 'kyi zamok/The Mukachevo Castle, 1930s; Litnyi kraievydlA. Summer Landscape, 1930s), and of still lifes (Natiurmortz pliashkoiu ifruktamy/Still-Life with a Bottle and Fruit, 1930s). Upon his return to Uzhhorod, Erdeli took an active part in the establishment (1931) of the Society of Fine Arts in Subcarpathian Rus'/Obshchestvo dieiatelei izobrazitel'nykh iskusstv na Podkarpatskii Rusi, which became in effect the organizational basis of the Subcarpathian School of Painting. For many years he served as the society's chairman, organizing for its members numerous exhibitions throughout Subcarpathian Rus' and other parts of Czechoslovakia (Presov, Brno, Bratislava, Prague). His own works during the interwar decades were exhibited in Paris, Rome, Florence, Venice, Naples, Milan, Brussels, Vienna, Munich, Warsaw, Eviv, and Budapest. Erdeli was also a pedagogue who, during the 1920s and 1930s, when he was not abroad, taught painting and the history of art at the gymnasium in Mukachevo and at the *Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College and the Public School of Painting. World War II had a negative as well as a positive impact on Erdeli. On the one hand, the wartime disruptions in communication greatly restricted the contacts he had previously enjoyed with centers of world culture in other parts of Europe. On the other hand, the enforced isolation gave him the opportunity to become more deeply familiar with life in his native Subcarpathian Rus'. As a result it was during the war years that he created some of his best paintings, in particular portraitures (Verkhovynky/The Highlanders, 1940; Rusyns 'ha para/'A Rusyn Couple, 1942; Selianky/Villagers, 1942; Staryi hutsull The Old Hutsul, 1942; Staryi koniukh/The Old Stable-Hand, 1942) and a series of landscapes (Karpaty/The Carpathians, 1940; Rakhiv, 1940; Hirs 'kyipeizazhi'A Mountain Landscape, 1942; Pidradvans'kym lisom/ln the Radvanyi Forest, 1942; and Karpats 'kyi osin 7A Carpathian Autumn, 1943). Under the new post-World War II Soviet regime Erdeli taught at Uzhhorod's School of Applied Art (1945-1955), but these last ten years of his life in "reunited Transcarpathia" became a time of personal tragedy. Erdeli was mocked for wanting to transform Uzhhorod's Public School of Painting into an academy of arts on the model of those in western and central Europe. The voluntary association of Subcarpathian artists he had created and headed just after the war was abolished and replaced by a standard Soviet-style Transcarpathian Branch of the Union of Artists of Soviet Ukraine. This Communistinspired body immediately began a sharp propagandistic campaign against "formalism," "cosmopolitanism," and "kowtowing before the West" that allegedly were character-


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture istic of Erdeli's corpus, and it set out to educate this European artist about the "principles of Socialist Realism." Pressured by the Union of Artists and the Soviet authorities, Erdeli painted a few canvases in the spirit of Socialist Realism, but these must be considered works that were forced from his brush and that carried banal titles like Liknep (The End of Illiteracy, 1947), Komsomolka (The Girl in the Communist Youth League, 1949), Molot'ba (Threshing in the Fields, 1950), and Zarucheni molodi kolhospnyky (The Betrothed Young Collective Farmers, 1954). Typical of the Soviet regime, these works marked a deliberate effort to camouflage his artistic originality, which at the time could only be expressed in his still-lifes and genre scenes (Peizazh z n&om/Landscape with a River, 1947; Okolytsia UzhhorodafNear Uzhhorod, 1948; Khata v Stavnomu/A Peasant Hut in Stavne, 1951; Osin'v horakh/Autumn in the Mountains, 1954). In effect, Erdeli remained alienated from the Soviet system, as it was alienated from him. As evident from several self-portraits completed during the 1950s, Erdeli was completely isolated from the world around him and was to remain so until his death in 1955 at the height of his creative power. Further reading: Grigorii Ostrovskii, Adalbert Mikhailovich Erdeli (Moscow, 1966); V. Pavlov, Adalbert Erdeli (Kiev, 1972); Hryhorii Ostrovs'kyi, Tvorets' nezbahnennoho prekrasnoho svita: do storichchia z dnia narodzhennia A.M. Erdeli (Uzhhorod, 1992); Laszlo Balla, Erdelyi Bela es kortdrsai: Kdrpdtalja kepzomiiveszeinek hdrom nemzedeke (Uzhhorod and Budapest, 1994). IVAN POP

Erdeli, Ivan. See Art

Ethnographic Museum of Subcarpathian Rus'. See Ethnographic Society of Subcarpathian Rus'

Ethnographic Society of Subcarpathian Rus'/ Etnohrafichne tovarystvo Pidkarpats'ko'i Rusi — scholarly association established in Mukachevo at the end of 1934. Among its co-founders were Avhustyn *Voloshyn, Oleksa *Prykhod'ko, Adalbert Balazh, Ivan *Pan'kevych, Luka *Dem"ian, Aleksander *Markush, and Mykhailo Obidnyi (1889-1938); by 1936 it had 88 members. The main goal of the Ethnographic Society was to collect examples of traditional material culture in * Subcarpathian Rus' for deposit in a future regional ethnographic museum; in the interim it sponsored research and public lectures on ethnographic themes. The society's goals were outlined in a statute that was supported by the Subcarpathian provincial government, and it reported on its work in Vlsti Etnografichnoho tovarystva Pidk. Rusy (1935-37), which from its second issue appeared as a supplement to the Ukrainophile teachers'journal, *Uchytel's'kyi holos. In 1937 the society managed to open in Mukachevo the Ethnographic Museum of Subcarpathian Rus'/Etnohrafichnyi muzei Pidkarpats'ko'i Rusi. Because

the Ethnographic Society was founded primarily by local *Ukrainophiles, it was forced to end its activity after Hungary annexed Subcarpathian Rus' in March 1939. Further reading: Hanna Posysen', "Palaiucha hlyna mynuvshyny: pro Etnohrafichne Tovarystvo Pidkarpats'ko'i Rusi," Tysa, I, 1-2 (Uzhhorod, 1993), pp. 120-128. IVAN POP

Ethnography. The Eastern Carpathian mountain ranges and adjacent foothills where Rusyns live form a complex ethnographic setting. This territory, known in its totality as *Carpathian Rus', has from earliest historic times been a contact zone between Europe's eastern, central, and southeastern (Balkan) cultural spheres. Since about 500 CE, it has been inhabited by Slavs who, in terms of their eventual linguistic affiliation, belong to the East Slavic world. The geographical configuration of Carpathian Rus', with its high mountain crests, river valleys, and isolated mountain basins, has contributed to the formation and preservation of specific ethnographic characteristics among several peoples within this otherwise Rusyn-inhabited Slavic realm. Not only have the Carpatho-Rusyns contributed their own experiences to other peoples within this zone of contact, they have also acquired certain characteristics from their neighbors. The result has been the formation of a highly specific Carpatho-Rusyn cultural entity. By the same token, the Rusyns living in the lowlands and Carpathian foothills have always interacted with neighboring peoples: the *Ukrainians in the east; the West Slavic *Poles and *Slovaks in the north and west; the Finno-Ugric *Magyars in the southwest; and the *Romanians in the southeast. With the exception of the Rusyn-Romanian cultural border, the boundary between Rusyns and other neighboring peoples has never been static. In their relations with Carpatho-Rusyns the Magyars, Poles, Ukrainians, and Slovaks have each functioned, and still function, as the numerically dominant and at times ruling people. Consequently, each of these peoples represents an assimilationist force that works to the disadvantage of Rusyns, whose ethnolinguistic territory continues to decrease in size. Somewhat beyond this general pattern, and therefore rather unique, is the experience of the few enclaves of Rusyns living in the *Vojvodina and Srem (present-day Serbia and Croatia). These communities represent Rusyns who emigrated beginning in the eighteenth century from lands now within eastern Slovakia, northeastern Hungary, and the *Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine. The indigenous Slavic inhabitants in Carpathian Rus' have traditionally designated themselves by several ethnonyms: *Rusyns or Rusnaks throughout virtually the entire area and Subcarpathian Rusyns, Lemkos, or Hutsuls in certain regions. The first ethnographic descriptions of the Rusyns in the Carpathians, or Carpatho-Rusyns, date from the first half

114 of the nineteenth century. Toward the end of that century ethnographic scholarship came to be dominated by the view that the Carpatho-Rusyns are divided into three ethnographic subgroupings—*Lemkos, *Boikos, and *Hutsuls. This tripartite schema arose among the Galician-Ukrainian (populist) intelligentsia before World War I and was subsequently adopted by Soviet scholars, in particular after 1945, when the entire East Slavic Carpathian region had become part of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries. The schema was, in turn, adopted uncritically by ethnographers outside the region. The tripartite Lemko-Boiko-Hutsul schema does not, however, reflect actual ethnographic distinctions within Carpathian Rus'. First of all, the inhabitants throughout much of the region do not themselves recognize these distinctions. Traditionally, they have called themselves Rusyns, or Rusnaks; only in the far southeastern corner of Carpathian Rus' (within presentday Ukraine and Romania) has another ethnonym been used. There the inhabitants call themselves Hutsuls. With regard to the rest of Carpathian Rus' it would seem more apropriate to divide the Rusyn/Rusnak inhabitants into two ethnographic categories: (1) the *Dolyniane, who inhabit the vast part of Subcarpathian Rus'; and (2) the Lemkos, or more precisely the Lemkos/Rusnaks who inhabit the *Lemko Region and the *Presov Region. The Dolyniane and Lemkos/Rusnaks account for the vast majority (81 percent) of the population and territory in Carpathian Rus' (861 out of a total of 1062 villages). Aside from the 24 Hutsul villages in the far southeast, there are also 149 villages in the high mountain area of Subcarpathian Rus' (*Verkhovyna) and southeastern Poland that are generally classified as Boiko. (See Map 3). The most serious mistake committed by virtually all ethnographers, and for that matter most linguists, was to exclude from their research the numerically largest of all Rusyn ethnographic groups, the *Dolyniane, that is, the Lowlanders living in both the foothills and lowland plain drained by the Tisza/Tysa River and its tributaries from the Laborec and Uzh Rivers in the west to the Shopurka River in the east. In the tripartite schema the Dolyniane were designated as Boikos and in general not given much attention. Their exclusion may be explained by the fact that ethnographers in the second half of the nineteenth and, even more so, in the first half of the twentieth century, were interested primarily in peoples characterized by a so-called *patriarchal culture or, at the very least, by the remnants of such a culture that could still be observed. Inspired by "populist" notions, these ethnographers believed that only patriarchal societies—or their remnants—preserved the elements of a "true national culture" (istynno narodnoi kul'tury). By the late nineteenth century, Dolyniane/Lowlander culture had lost completely whatever patriarchal characteristics it may once have had. Aside from language, the Rusyn Dolyniane did not culturally differ very much from their immediate neighbors, the Magyars, Slovaks, and Romanians.

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture In many ways, the Dolyniane epitomize Rusyn distinctiveness. It is in their territory that archeologists have uncovered the oldest Slavic settlements (see Slavs, Early settlement patterns) inhabited by people who inherited the agricultural culture established by the previous Celtic inhabitants. And it was this part of the Rusyn population (numerically the most substantive part of the entire group), which, as a result of geographic and political conditions, had by the ninth and tenth centuries distanced itself from the rest of the East Slavic world. In fact, the Rusyn Dolyniane became integrated into the nexus of social and cultural influences among the peoples of central Europe, in particular those living within the Danubian Basin. With the fall of the tribal union associated with *White Croats in the seventh century CE, several new political centers arose: the Baltic-Dnieper axis of Novgorod and Kiev among the East Slavs; the Morava River basin and southern slopes of the Western Carpathian Mountains among the Slavs of Central Europe; and territory south of the Danube detached from the Byzantine Empire among the South Slavs. The invasion of the * Avars into central Europe and their plunderous raids hastened the formation of states among the South Slavs (seventh century). Some accepted within their midst another Turkic tribe, the Bulgars, to help organize a defense system against the Avars. In general, however, the Avar presence caused for nearly two centuries a delay in the development of state formations among the Slavs of the Danubian-Carpathian Basin. It was only after the fall of the Avar Kaganate, which took place in the early ninth century at the hands of the Prankish emperor Charlemagne (aided by Slavic auxiliary troops), that the Slavic state of *Greater Moravia came into being. As for the Slavs living in the Upper Tisza valley and Carpathian foothills, that is, the ancestors of the Rusyn Dolyniane, they found themselves within a contact zone where the cultural influences and political interests of two Slavic states interacted: the *Bulgarian Khanate and the Greater Moravian Empire. It is also possible that as part of this cultural and political nexus the Dolyniane Rusyns accepted Christianity via missionaries from Byzantium sometime in the ninth century. After the fall of Greater Moravia at the hands of invading Magyar tribes (906), the Dolyniane Rusyns became the first among the Slavs living in the Carpathians to come under the political control of Hungary's princes (and from the eleventh century its kings). Beginning in the late eleventh century, the territory inhabited by Rusyn Dolyniane became an integral part of the Hungarian Kingdom, which by that time had extended its borders to the crests of the Carpathian Mountains. As a result, the Rusyns living on the southern slopes of the Carpathians were politically and culturally separated from the rest of the East Slavic population, which was united under the rule of Kievan Rus'. Even religious ties between the Eastern Christian Rusyn Dolyniane and the Slavic Orthodox center of Kiev declined during the period of the medieval Hungarian

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture state (tenth to mid-sixteenth centuries). As a result of these weak ties with the east, religious life among the Rusyns of Hungary was instead oriented southward toward the neighboring Balkan Orthodox peoples. Only among the far western Rusyns (the Rusnaks and Lemkos in present-day eastern Slovakia and southeastern Poland) did contacts continue with the eastern Rus' church, specifically with the geographically closer *Orthodox Eparchy of Przemysl, north of the Carpathians. The point is that by the early middle ages the Rusyn Dolyniane were culturally, politically, and economically distanced not only from the main East Slavic center of Kiev but even from their nearest eastern neighbor, the principality of Galicia-Volhynia. While it is true that there were sporadic political relations between Hungarian Rus' and Galician Rus', cultural ties between the two were virtually non-existent. Despite the fact that the inhabitants of both lands called themselves by the same name, Rusyn, each territory followed its own distinct spiritual, political, and economic life. In the absence of political institutions and of any impact of historical and cultural factors from Kievan Rus', the Galician-Volhynian Principality and the Hungarian Kingdom became the dominant factors in the autonomous evolution of, respectively, the Galician Rusyns (later Ukrainians) and the Rusyn Dolyniane living south of the Carpathians. A sense of political and cultural unity among the various peoples of the Carpathian-Danubian Basin was, until the early twentieth century, made possible by the existence of the Habsburg Monarchy. Within this sphere, whose existence lasted uninterrupted for nearly a thousand years, there developed among Magyars, Slovaks, Rusyns, Croats, Romanians, *Germans, *Jews, Slovenes, and Serbs (north of the Sava River) a common cultural framework or, better still, a political culture common to all inhabitants of the Carpathian-Danubian Basin. It is precisely this mentality—characterized by several factors such as historical tradition, norms of conduct in family and economic life, and the acceptance of various ethnic and confessional differences among the groups living in the region—that clearly differentiates the Rusyn Dolyniane from the Ukrainians of Galicia and from the inhabitants of eastern, Dnieper Ukraine. Marxist and Ukrainian nationalist historians and ethnographers have written of a "national struggle" among the Rusyns of Hungary that began as early as the fourteenth century, and in so doing have deliberately ignored the evidently positive relations that Rusyn Dolyniane had had with the Hungarian Kingdom as a state. In fact, the Dolyniane Rusyns considered the Hungarian Kingdom their own homeland at least until the revolutionary era of 1848-1849. It is not surprising, therefore, that they joined in large numbers the anti-Habsburg wars of the *kurucz during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. For instance, it was during the last of these wars that the revolutionary leader, Prince Ferenc II *Rakoczy, dubbed


Rusyns with the epithet gens fidelissima—the people most loyal [to the fatherland]. Even the first Rusyn national awakener, Aleksander *Dukhnovych, admitted that during his youth in the 1830s and 1840s he had been a believer in the principle that "beyond Hungary there is no life" (extra Hungarian non est vitae). The eventual separation between Rusyn interests and the Hungarian state came only after the appearance of *nationalism during the second half of the nineteenth century. This was a time when the nationalist views of the Habsburg Monarchy's dominant nationalities, the Magyars and AustroGermans, clashed with the nationalist views of the stateless peoples, including the Rusyns. The appearance and growth of Rusyn nationalism, in particular among the Dolyniane, evolved as a reaction to the nationalism of the dominant peoples. Although slowly at first, nationalist feelings strengthened among Rusyns an awareness of their own historical traditions and the formation of a Carpatho-Rusyn identity distinct from the identity of Rusyns in eastern Galicia (many of whom were at the same time beginning to take on a Ukrainian national identity). Such differentiation had effectively existed by the middle of the nineteenth century, even though initially it was not understood by the leading Rusyn political activist of the day, Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi. Hence, he formulated a plan to unite politically the Rusyns of Galicia, Bukovina, and Hungary (Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region), not realizing that there was no real basis for unity among them. Whatever linguistic and religious affinities may have existed between the inhabitants of eastern Galicia and Rusyns of northern Hungary, they were insufficient to overcome the differences between these two societies, which had, in the course of several centuries, evolved into absolutely different cultural, political, and geopolitical spheres. The appearance of the Ukrainian national movement in the second half of the nineteenth century and the subsequent development of a Ukrainian national identity among the East Slavs of Galicia and eastern Ukraine, combined with the rejection by Ukrainians of the idea of a common heritage among all the Rus' peoples (Russians, Belarusans, and Ukrainians), only served to strengthen a sense of distinctiveness between the Rusyns of Carpathian Rus' and their neighbors to the east. The specific political and historical conditions within which the Rusyns of Hungary and the Ukrainians of Galicia and eastern Dnieper Ukraine developed had an even greater impact on the distinctiveness of the groups than did the geographical barriers created by the crests of the Carpathian Mountains. Ethnographic differences between Rusyns living south of the Carpathians (in particular the Dolyniane) and the Galician Ukrainians living to the north of the Carpathian crests were, in the course of the nineteenth century, transformed into national distinctions. Carpatho-Rusyn identity was expressed concretely in efforts to attain political *autonomy. In fact, this has been a constant theme in Rusyn political thought

116 and political life during the last 150 years, and has been realized in the form of several autonomous entities—the *Rusyn District (1849-1850), *Rus'ka Kraina (1918-1919), *Subcarpathian Rus' (1919-1938), *Carpatho-Ukraine (1938-1939), *Transcarpathian Ukraine (1944-1945)—as well as in the 1991 referendum and the resultant unresolved problem of "self-rule" (samovriadnist'). It is significant that the territorial extent of each of the above-mentioned entities was always the same, encompassing the historic countries of *Ung, *Bereg, *Ugocha, and *Maramorosh. It should also be mentioned that at least until 1945 political activists among the Dolyniane repeatedly expressed the hope that their own Rusyn core lands would be united with the Rusyn-inhabited regions in the Presov Region of northeastern Slovakia and the *Maramures region of the lower Viseu/Vyshova and Ruscova valleys of Romania. Whereas the Rusyns/Rusnaks in the Presov Region shared from earliest times a common historical destiny with the Dolyniane of Subcarpathian Rus', the relationship of the latter to the Lemko Rusyns along the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains may at first glance seem tenuous. It is necessary to recall two factors, however. First, all branches of the Rusyn people had, until the year 1918, lived and developed within the framework of a single state, the Habsburg Monarchy. Second, geographical factors did not hinder communication between Lemko Rusyns and Rusyns on the southern slopes most particularly in the Presov Region. In that westernmost Rusyn area communication was easily maintained through the lowest and most accessible of all the Carpathian passes—Tylicz/Tylic, Dukla/Dukl'a, and Lupkow/ Lupkov. It is, therefore, not surprising that during the epochmaking years of 1918-1919 in central European history, Rusyn political activists on both sides of the mountains called for their lands to be amalgamated with the new state entity within Czechoslovakia known as Subcarpathian Rus'. It was the negative reaction to such goals on the part of the Czechoslovak government and diplomats at the Paris Peace Conference that prompted Rusyns living north of the Carpathians to proclaim their own *Lemko Republic of Florynka. In the southeastern corner of Subcarpathian Rus' live the Hutsuls, a Carpathian ethnographic group whose ethnic identity differs from that of the Rusyn Dolyniane and Lemkos/ Rusnaks. The relatively few Hutsuls found on the southern slopes of the Carpathians inhabit the narrow Chorna and Bila Tysa valleys near the towns of lasynia and Rakhiv. They inhabit 24 villages, 15 in present-day Ukraine, the remainder in neighboring Romania. It was only relatively recently, in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that this population settled there. With regard to their ethnocultural characteristics, Subcarpathia's Hutsuls are most closely related to the inhabitants of the Hutsul Region on the other side of the mountains in both Galicia and Bukovina (present-day Ivano-Frankivs'k and Chernivtsi oblasts of Ukraine), where they originated.

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture With the rise of nationalism in Galicia and Bukovina toward the end of the nineteenth century, the Ukrainian orientation grew in strength through contacts and mutual influences among Hutsuls on both the northern and southern slopes of the Carpathians. The Ukrainian political orientation among those in Subcarpathian Rus' was most evident during the period of the Hutsul Republic, based in lasynia (1918-1919), and during the period of autonomous *Carpatho-Ukraine (1938-1939), which encompassed all of Subcarpathian Rus'. The evolution of ethnic self-identity among the various branches of the Rusyn people throughout Carpathian Rus' was negatively affected by the activity of Ukrainian and Russian emigres during the 1920s and 1930s. But the most destructive impact upon Rusyn self-identity came as a result of the ukrainianization policies carried out by the dictatorial Communist regimes of the Soviet Union in Subcarpathian Rus' (1945-1991), of Czechoslovakia in the Presov Region (1948-1989), and of Poland, where the entire Lemko-Rusyn population was deported (1945-1947). Most of the Rusyns in the Presov Region of northeastern Slovakia reacted against forced ukrainianization by adopting what seemed to them a much closer Slovak ethnopolitical orientation. As a result of strong pressure by the Communist regime, including a ban on the very use of the terms Rusyn and Rusnak, there developed among the Rusyn Dolyniane of Subcarpathian Rus' (the Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine) a passive effort to preserve and to demonstrate their distinctiveness from Ukrainians in neighboring Galicia and the rest of Ukraine. This took the form of adopting the regional term TranscarpathianlZakarpatets' as a self-identifier raised almost to the level of an ethnonym. Since the fall of Communist regimes in central and eastern Europe the revival and development of a Rusyn identity has taken only partial root, in particular among the Lemko Rusyns of Poland and Rusyns of Slovakia and Hungary. Meanwhile, the largest concentration of Rusyns, those who live on the territory of Subcarpathian Rus' (Ukraine's Transcarpathian oblast), have because of certain political and economic factors been unable to promote effectively the development of their national self-identity. The very term Rusyn is not recognized by the government of independent Ukraine as an ethnonym to indicate a distinct nationality, but rather as an antiquated term to designate a "sub-ethnos" of the Ukrainian people. The Rusyns living in the *Vojvodina (Serbia) and the Srem (Croatia) continue to preserve their distinct Rusyn identity. Despite their small numbers at the outset of the twentieth century (ca. 12,000 in 1900) the Vojvodinian-Srem Rusyns succeeded in becoming a distinct national minority in the multinational regions they inhabited. Their distinct evolution was enhanced by the fact of their physical distance from the homeland of Ukrainians and the East Slavs in general. Consequently, a pro-Ukrainian orientation among the Vojvodinian-Srem Rusyns has existed in the twentieth century but has had only minimal impact on their community

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture life. Finally, the Vojvodinian-Srem Rusyns were completely spared the ukrainianization policy imposed by Moscow on other Rusyn lands during the decades after World War II. That Vojvodina's Rusyns did not experience forced ukrainianization was in large part due to the 1948 political rift in the Communist world between the Soviet leader * Stalin and Yugoslavia's Tito. The ethnocultural development among the Rusyn-inhabited enclaves in the Balkans was interrupted during the mid-1990s war in former Yugoslavia, but it has gradually been renewed. Further reading: Hermann Ign. Bidermann, Die ungarischen Ruthenen: ihr Wohngebiet, ihr Erwerb und ihre Geschichte,Vo\. I (Innsbruck, 1862), esp. pp. 71-100; lakov Golovatskii, "Karpatskaia Rus': geografichesko-statisticheskie i istorichesko-etnograficheskie ocherki Galichiny, sievero-vostochnoi Ugrii i Bukoviny," Slavianskii sbornik, I (St. Petersburg, 1875), pp. 1-30 and II (1877), pp. 55-84; Aleksei L. Petrov, "Zamietki po etnografii i statistikie Ugorskoi Rusi," Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosvieshcheniia, CLXXIX, 2 (St. Petersburg, 1892), pp. 439-458—repr. in idem, Stat'i ob Ugorskoi Rusi, Zapiski istoriko-filologicheskago fakul'teta imp. S. Peterburgskago universiteta, LXXXI (St. Petersburg, 1906), pp. 1-18; Hryhorii Kupchanko, Uhorska Rus'y ey russky zhytely (Vienna, 1897), esp. pp. 46-62; Volodymyr Hnatiuk, "Rusyny Priashivs'koi eparkhi'i i i'kh hovory," Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, XXXV-XXXVI, 3-4 (Eviv, 1900), pp. 1-70; idem, "Slovaky chy rusyny?: prychynok do vyiasnenia sporu pro natsional'nisf zakhidnykh rusyniv,"/'6/t/.,XLII, 4 (1901), pp. 1-81; Stepan Tomashivs'kyi, "Uhors'ki rusyny v svitli madiars'koi uriadovoi' statystyky," Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, LXI (Eviv, 1903), pp. 1-46; idem, "Prychynky do piznannia etnografichnoT teritorii' Uhors'koi Rusy, teper i davni'ishe," ibid, LIX (1905), pp. 1 -8; idem, "Etnohrafichna karta Uhors'koi' Rusy," in Vladimir Lamanskii, ed., Stat'i po slavianoviedieniiu, Vol. Ill (St. Petersburg, 1910), pp. 178-269; Oleksandr Nazarii'v, "Etnohrafichna terytoriia uhors'kykh ukrai'ntsiv-rusyniv," Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, CII (Eviv, 1911), pp. 164-191; Aleksei L. Petrov, Ob etnograficheskoi granitsie russkago naroda v Avstro-Ugrii: o somnitel'noi 'vengerskoi' natsii i o nedielimosti Ugrii (Petrograd, 1915); Jan Husek, Ndrodopisnd hranice mezi Slovaky a Karpatorusy (Bratislava, 1925); Roman Reinfuss, "Lemkowie jako grupa etnograficzna," in Prace i materiafy etnograficzne, Vol. VII (Lublin, 1948-49), pp. 77-210;

117 Olena Rudlovchak, "Do istorii' vyvchennia zakarpatoukrai'ns'koho forkloru i etnohrafii v XIX ta na pochatku XX St.," Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu ukrdins 'ko'ikul'tury v Svydnyku, VII (Bratislava and Presov, 1976), pp. 337-387; lurii H. Hoshko, ed., Boikivshchyna: istorykoetnohrafichne doslidzhennia (Kiev, 1983); idem, Hutsul'shchyna: istoryko-etnohraflchne doslidzhennia (Kiev, 1987); Bohdan O. Strumins'kyi, ed., Lemkivshchyna: zemlia—liudy—istoriia—kul'tura, 2 vols. (New York, Paris, Sydney, and Toronto, 1988); Eudovit Haraksim, "K problematike rusinskej narodnosti," in Ndrod, ndrodnosti a etnicke skupiny v demokratickej spolocnosti (Bratislava and Prague, 1991), pp. 185-190; Roman Reinfuss, "Zwiajzki kulrurowe po obu stronach Karpat w rejonie Lemkowszczyzny," in Jerzy Czajkowski, Lemkowie w historii i kulturze Karpat, Vol. I (Rzeszow, 1992), pp. 167-182; Olena Duc'-Fajfer, "The Lemkos in Poland," and Ljubomir Medjesi, "The Problem of Cultural Borders in the History of Ethnic Groups: The Yugoslav Rusyns," in Paul Robert Magocsi, ed., The Persistence of Regional Cultures (New York, 1993), pp. 83-103 and 139-162; Ivan Pop and Volodymyr Halas, "Stanii sa Zakarpatci statotvornym narodom?," Medzindrodne otdzky, III, 2 (Bratislava, 1994), pp. 33-42; Ivan Pop, "Homo totalitaricus?: istoriia Zakarpattia: krytychni rozdumy, Karpats 'kyi krai, VI, 5-7 [114] (Uzhhorod, 1996), pp. 4-22; Alexander Duleba, "'Rusinska' otazka a jej hrany," OS: Forum obcianskej spolocnosti, No. 2 (Bratislava, 1997), pp. 46-51; Paul Robert Magocsi, "Mapping Stateless Peoples: The East Slavs of the Carpathians," Canadian Slavonic Papers, XXXIX, 3-4 (Edmonton, 1997), pp. 301-331; Mykhailo Tyvodar, "Etnoistorychnyi ta etnokul'turnyi rozvytok ukrai'ntsiv Zakarpattia," Carpatica—Karpatyka, VI (Uzhhorod, 1999), p. 4-64. IVAN POP

Etnohrafichne tovarystvo Podkarpats'koi Rusi. See Ethnographic Society of Subcarpathian Rus' Evlogii (Georgiievskii). See lablochyn Monastery of St. Onufrius Evseev, Ivan F. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region Executive Committee of Emigrant Ruthenians. See Illes-Illyasevits, Jozsef

F Falkowski, Jan. See Historiography: Lemko Region Fall, Endre. See Magyars/Hungarians Farebne kamienky. See Cinema Farinic, Aleksej. See Farynych, Aleksei Farkas, Lajos. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Hajdudorog Farynych, Aleksei/Farinic, Aleksej (pseudonyms: Alesha Makovichanin, Leshko Makovichanin, Kum Leshko Makovichanin) (b. June 20,1911, Becherov [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. July 1, 1991, Presov [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — pedagogue, belletrist, journalist, and cultural activist of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region. Farynych studied at the Russian gymnasium in Mukachevo (1922-1929) and at Charles University in Prague (1929-1934). In the 1930s he taught philosophy and the Russian language at the Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, and Khust gymnasia. He also edited for the *Renaissance Carpatho-Russian Student Society in Prague the Russianlanguage journal Molodaia Rus' (1930-1931) and two literary anthologies, Almanakh Vozrozhdentsev (1933 and 1936). His own Russian-language works appeared in Russophile newspapers and journals and in separate editions, including the short story Stal'naia roza (1934) and the collection of poetry Snopik (1939). After Hungary annexed * Subcarpathian Rus' (March 1939) Farynych returned to his native *Presov Region, where he remained and later served as director (1945-1953) of the Russian gymnasium in Presov. He did not accept the ukrainianization of schools introduced in the Presov Region by the Communist regime of Czechoslovakia in the early 1950s and was removed as director of the Presov gymnasium (1953). Two years later he was arrested by Czechoslovakia's secret police on charges of being a "bourgeois nationalist." He spent over a year in prison (1955-1956) until his sentence was annulled by the Czechoslovak Supreme Court. He returned to teaching Russian language and literature at the Orthodox Theological Seminary in Presov, but after one year (1957-1958) was forced by the Communist authorities to leave that post as well. Until being pensioned (1976) he served as a tutor in student dormitories. Further reading: Ivan Halaida, "Nezakinchenyi literaturnyi portret Oleksiia Farynycha," Duklia, XXXIX, 5-6 (PreSov, 1991), pp. 50-55. IVAN POP

Fastnacht, Adam (b. July 27, 1913, Sanok [Austrian Galicia], Poland; d. February 16, 1987, Wroclaw, Poland) — Polish historian and archivist. Fastnacht worked for many years as head of the Manuscript Division of the Ossolineum Library in Wroclaw. Ever since his student days in the 1930s at the University of Eviv he had had an interest in the history of the Sanok district, which included the eastern *Lemko Region. The results of his detailed research on settlement patterns and the historical geography of this district from the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries appeared in several scholarly monographs during his lifetime and posthumously: Osadnictwo ziemi sanockiej w latach 1340-1650 (1962); Stownik historyczno-geograficzny Ziemi Sanockiej w sredniowieczu (1991); and Materiafy do his tor ii Sanoka do XVII wieku (1992). Further reading: Anna Fastnacht-Szczepaniak, Doc.dr Adam Fastnacht—historyk dawnej Ziemi Sanockiej (Brzozow, 1987). BOGDAN HORBAL

Faustina Galichanka. See Polianskii, Petro Fedak, Vasyl'. See Rus' Sports' Club

Fedaka, Pavlo (b. March 3,1945, Kal'nyk [Transcarpathian Ukraine], Ukraine) — ethnographer, museum administrator, publicist, and cultural activist of Ukrainian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. Since completing his studies at Uzhhorod State University (1968) Fedaka has worked at the Transcarpathian Regional Museum in Uzhhorod as researcher/curator and associate director (1981). He has published several short stories focusing on traditional domestic dwellings in * Subcarpathian Rus' in the second half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. After the fall of the Soviet Union Fedaka became a leading Ukrainian national activist and chairman of the restored *Prosvita Society (1990). His goal is to repeat in post-Soviet Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia the popular educational and enlightenment experience of Prosvita during the 1920s and 1930s. Since 1993 he has edited the society's revived annual almanac, Kalendar "Prosvita ", which is filled with praise for past and present *Ukrainophiles in Subcarpathian Rus', and he has published a short history of the Prosvita Society during the interwar years: Narys istorii tovarystva "Prosvita" Karpats'ko'i Rusi-Ukrainy, 1920-1939 (1991). Fedaka's organizational activity has been welcomed by a small circle of Ukrainophiles in the region as well as among emigres in North America. He has frequently criticized the recent Rusyn national revival, which he describes as "ethno-


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture political engineering." Further reading: Pavlo Mykhailovych Fedaka: bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk (Uzhhorod, 1995); "Pavlo Fedaka," in Mykola M. Vegesh and L. V. Horvat, Karpats 'ka Ukraina 1938-1939 rokiv vportretakh (Uzhhorod, 2000), pp. 151-159. IVAN POP

Fedelesh, Vira (b. January 24, 1879, Topol'a [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. February 26, 1967, Prague [Czechoslovakia], Czech Republic) — pedagogue and historian of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. Fedelesh completed her studies at the gymnasium in Debrecen and at the Advanced School of Pedagogy in Satu Mare. She began a teaching career in 1903 and until 1939 helped to train several generations of Rusyn elementary school teachers at the *Mukachevo State Teachers' College, at that city's Russian gymnasium, and at the gymnasium in Berehovo. During the period of Czechoslovak rule after World War I she wrote several history textbooks that were approved for use in Subcarpathia's schools, including Uchebnik istorii Podkarpatskoi Rusi (1924), Kratkaia istoriia Chekhoslovakii (1924), and, with Aleksandr *Popov, Podkarpatska Rus'—Chekhoslovakii (1925). In these and in textbooks she translated from Czech Fedelesh used the Russian literary language, which she believed was the most appropriate linguistic medium for Rusyns. As a loyal citizen of Czechoslovakia, she left * Subcarpathian Rus' when its southern cities were annexed by Hungary in November 1938 and spent her remaining years in Prague. Further reading: Yvan Shlepetskyi, "Vira Yvanovna Fedelesh," Karpatorusskyi kalendar Lemko-Soiuza na hod 1968 (Yonkers, N.Y., 1968), pp. 142-144. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Federated Russian Orthodox Clubs. See Russian Orthodox Church in North America

Fedinec, Vasilij V. See Council of Free Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia in Exile Fedor, Michal. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region Fedor, Pavel (pseudonym: Tsirokhin) (b. January 14, 1884, Slanske Nove Mesto [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. March 2, 1952, Presov [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — pedagogue, belletrist, and cultural and civic activist of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region. After completing his studies at the *Presov Greek Catholic Teachers' College (1899-1903) Fedor taught in several elementary schools throughout the *Presov Region. Under the new Czechoslovak regime he moved to Uzhhorod,

where he worked in the office of the district school inspector (1920-1922), then as the department heady'referent for education (1922-1939) in the governmental administration of Subcarpathian Rus'. He co-authored a popular Russianlanguage primer (Karpatorusskii bukvar', 1925), which went through four editions. He was also among the co-founders and officers of the Russophile-oriented Teachers' Society of SubCarpathian Rus'/Uchitel'skoe tovarishchestvo Podkarpatskoi Rusi (1920) and on the editorial board of its youth journal, *Narodna shkola, where he continually stressed the need for maintaining high standards for teachers. Fedor was particularly active in the Russophile-oriented * Dukhnovych Society as head of its choral section, editorial board member of its journal *Karpatskii sviet, and organizer of numerous reading rooms and dramatic circles, for whom he wrote several plays (Neshchastnaia sud'ba, 1927; Skromnost' pobiezhdaet, 1929; Verkhovinets', 1935; Lishnii student, unpublished). He also published a collection of poetry (Mysli, 1929) and completed a novel, "Tsar'—muzhyk," whose unpublished text was subsequently lost. Fedor was strongly influenced by the Russian specialist on Rusyn literature living in Moscow, Fedor F. *Aristov, about whom he wrote a biography (1931). Agreeing with Aristov's call for more research into Rusyn literature and history, Fedor published a general survey of Rusyn literature since the nineteenth century (Ocherki karpatorusskoi literatury so vtoroi poloviny XIX stoletiia, 1929), a short biography of Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi (1926), and a historical survey of the Dukhnovych Society (1941). Fedor was a long-time activist in the pro-government Czechoslovak * Agrarian/Republican party, and he later helped to establish with Shtefan *Fentsyk the oppositional *Russian National Autonomist party (1935) as an alternative to Andrii Brodii's * Autonomous Agricultural Union. At the time of the political crisis in Czechoslovakia (1938) he broke with Fentsyk over the latter's pro-Hungarian machinations, and along with other Subcarpathian *Russophiles he remained loyal to Czechoslovakia, helping to establish in November 1938 the *Central Russian National Council in order to defend Russophile interests in the face of restrictions imposed by the pro-Ukrainian government under Avhustyn *Voloshyn. Fedor stayed in Subcarpathian Rus' after Hungary annexed the province (1939). He was retired from the school administration soon after but remained an active participant in the Dukhnovych Society and editor-in-chief (until 1941) of the teacher's journal *Narodna shkola. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Fedorenko, Szymon. See Orthodox Eparchy of Przemysl Fedorinko, lulii. See Fel'deshii, lulii


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Fedoronko, Joseph (b. March 5,1884, Czertez [Austrian Galicia], Poland; d. March 31, 1971, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA) — priest, editor, and political activist of Russian national orientation among Rusyn immigrants in the United States. Fedoronko was ordained a Greek Catholic priest (1909) and during his brief service in parishes throughout Galicia (1909-1913) he frequently spoke out against what he described as the latinization of the Greek Catholic Church. He emigrated to the United States (1913), where he joined the Russian Orthodox Church; he was to serve in Terryville, Connecticut, and other parishes for over half a century (1914-1971). Aside from priestly duties, Fedoronko played an active role in immigrant political life as founding head (1914-1917) of the Russian National Organization and editor of its official organ, Novaia Rus' (1915-1917). Anticipating that the end of World War I would bring about great political changes in Europe, he organized in 1917 the *League for the Liberation of Carpatho-Russia/Soiuz osvobozhdeniia Prikarpatskoi Rusi, for whom he authored or co-authored several memoranda, declarations, and protests in defense of Rusyn political interests in the homeland. Fedoronko supported the view that Lemkos, together with other Rusyns, were part of the Russian nationality and that their Carpathian homeland should be united with a democratic (non-Bolshevik) Russia. If this were not possible, they should be granted *autonomy within a neighboring, friendly Slavic state such as Czechoslovakia. He expressed these opinions in various forums, as a delegate to all three *Carpatho-Russian Congresses held in New York City (1917, 1919, 1920), at the Lemko Congress (1920), and during World War II as a member of the American League of Russians and Carpatho-Russians/Amerikanskii russkii i karpatorusskii soiuz. The latter nominated Fedoronko as its delegate to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union, but those countries refused to grant him an entry visa. After World War II he helped to raise funds for the * Lemko Relief Committee/Lemkovskyi relifovyi komytet and participated in its discussions regarding the Lemko problem with diplomatic representatives of Poland and the Soviet Union (1957). Further reading: Bohdan Herbal', "losyf Fedoronko," inLemkivskii richnyk 2001 (Krynica and Legnica, 2001), pp. 137-139. BOGDAN HORBAL

Fedynets', Atanasii/Fedinecz, Atanaz (pseudonym: Fuci) (b. December 2, 1936, Uzhhorod [Czechoslovakia], Ukraine) — physician and painter. Like his father Aleksander Fedynets', the renowned Uzhhorod surgeon, Atanasii Fedynets' is by profession a physician (M.D., Uzhhorod State University, 1960). In 1980 he emigrated to Hungary, where he continues to practice medicine in the town of Azsod. Before leaving his native *Subcarpathian Rus' Fedynets' had become an accomplished painter of landscapes, portraits, and stilllifes. He works primarily in a variant of the Expressionist style

and virtually all his subjects are based on scenes, characters, and symbolic images from his Subcarpathian homeland. Further reading: Miklos Losonci, Fedinecz Atanazfestoi latomdsai (Aszod, 1991). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Fedynyshynets', Volodymyr (pseudonym: Volodymyr Tarakhonych) (b. May 9, 1943, Repynne [Karpatalja, Hungary], Ukraine) — belletrist, pedagogue, journalist, publicist, literary theorist, and cultural activist ofRusyn national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. After completing studies at the Pedagogical School in Mukachevo (1961) and the philological faculty of Uzhhorod State University (1966) Fedynyshynets' taught at a school for special students in eastern Ukraine, then worked as a journalist for the *Transcarpathian Regional Museum and various newspapers in Uzhhorod. He is a prolific writer who has published in various genres and mostly in the Ukrainian language. His publications include several individual volumes of poetry as well as a two-volume anthology, Sribni syluety (1994); two historical novels based on the Rusyn past (Brantsi lisu, 1993; Otets'Dukhnovych, 1994); and extended biographical essays on contemporary scholars Paul Robert *Magocsi (1995) and Petro Lyzanets' (1996) and on the nineteenth-century historian of Uzhhorod, Karoly *Meszaros (1994, 1996). He has also published essays on local history, musicology, ethnography, folklore, literary criticism, and he has completed several literary translations. Fedynyshynets' can be considered the initiator of the Rusyn movement in Subcarpathian Rus' during the last years of Soviet rule. Among his goals for the movement is the creation of a Rusyn literary language, which he has argued for in a series of passionate essays, some of which were republished in a Rusyn-Slovak-English collection, Myrna nasha rusyns 'kaput'/Our Peaceful Rusyn Way (1992), and in four other collections: la esm 'vechnyi Rusyn (1995); Sud'ba Karpat (1996); Karpato-ruteny u XXI storochi (1999); and Kraiovi literaturni zdvyhy (2000). He was among the founders of the *Society of Carpatho-Rusyns (1990) and founding editor (1992) of its newspaper, *Podkarpats'ka Rus'. In recent years he has established the literary and public affairs journal Aino (1997- ), is vice-chairman (1997- ) of the Rusyn Scholarly and Enlightenment Society, and has begun to publish in Rusyn: My—slyzynka nazemly (1999), Ruteniio moia, Ruteniio (2001), and Avante, avangarde! (2002). Fedynyshynets's writings are frequently controversial in nature and have thus elicited a wide range of praise or criticism by Rusyns and non-Rusyns alike. In 2004 Fedynyshynets' was awarded the Aleksander Dukhnovych Prize for the best work in Rusyn literature. IVAN POP

Feher/Fejer, Herman. See Communist party; Jews


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Feisa, lanko/Fejsa, Janko (b. August 13,1904, Kucura [Hungarian Kingdom], Serbia; d. October 3, 1983, Kucura [Yugoslavia], Serbia) — pedagogue, belletrist, and translator among the Vojvodinian Rusyns. Feisa completed the teachers' training school in Krizevci, Croatia, then taught school for several years in his native Kucura and other villages in the *Vojvodina. His first literary works (1921) appeared in Croatian, but from 1925 he published in his native Vojvodinian Rusyn. He was the first Vojvodinian Rusyn writer to publish a separate volume of verse for children (Pupche: pisrii za dzetsi, 1929; repr. 1999). This was followed much later by a collection of poetry (Klashe sushchatse, 1970), another volume of verse for children (Zhelieni listochka, 1964), and, posthumously, sketches and poems for children (Zarenka shchiroho serden 'ka, 1995). Much of Feisa's poetry is traditional in character, full of pathos and sentimentality as well as motifs of love for the homeland and friendship between nations and peoples. He also translated poetry from other South Slavic and Ukrainian authors into Vojvodinian Rusyn, and in the year of his death published a short autobiography in the journal *Shvetlosts (1983). Further reading: luliian Tamash, "Poetichni status lanka Feisi," Shvetlosts, XII, 3 (Novi Sad, 1974), pp. 236-239; luliian Tamash, "Poeziia lanki Feisi," Shvetlosts, XVIII, 1 (Novi Sad, 1980), pp. 7-13. ALEKSANDR D. DULICHENKO

Feisa, Mikhailo/Fejsa, Mihajlo (b. October 5, 1957, Kucura [Yugoslavia], Serbia) — professor, translator, linguist, and cultural activist ofRusyn national orientation in the Vojvodina. After graduating from the Rusyn-language gymnasium in Ruski Kerestur (1972-1976), Feisa studied English language and literature at the University of Novi Sad (1976-1980; Ph.D., 2000). Since 1984 he has taught at the Department of Rusyn Language and Literature at the University of Novi Sad (docentl'associate professor, 2000). He has published a linguistic analysis of English loanwords in the Vojvodinian variant ofRusyn, Angliiski elementi u ruskim iaziku (1990), as well as the first translations into that language of two classics: Shakespeare's Hamlet (1985) and Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland (Alisa u zhemi chudokh, 1988). He is also co-editor of the monumental two-volume Serbian-Rusyn dictionary (1995-97), has prepared a Vojvodinian Rusyn version of Paul Robert *Magocsi's popular phrasebook, Let's Speak Rusyn and English/Besheduime po angliiski ipo ruski (1997), and since 2001 serves as chairman of the *Society for Rusyn Language, Literature, and Culture/Druzhtvo za ruski iazik, literaturu i kulturu. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Fejer, Herman. See Communist party; Jews

Fekula, VasyP. See Pravdal The Truth Fel'baba, losyf. See Dukhnovych Theater

Fel'deshii, lulii/Foldesi, Julius/Foldessy, Gyula (b. lulii Fedorinko, September 7, 1875, Sobrance [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. 1947, Sambir [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — printer, publisher, and political activist ofRusyn national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. After completing the Uzhhorod gymnasium and the *Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College Fel'deshii learned the printing trade in that city while working in the Bartolemy Jager printshop. He then managed the printshop of the *St. Basil the Great Society (1899) and its successor, *Unio (1902). In 1907 Fel'deshii bought out the Jager shop and he operated his own Fel'deshii Printing Company for almost four decades, until it was nationalized by the Soviet regime in 1945. His shop printed a wide variety of publications, including brochures in Rusyn for the popular reading public. During the interwar years of Czechoslovak rule Fel'deshii consistently supported the autonomist movement and published for the * Subcarpathian Agricultural Union its official party organ, *Karpatorusskii viestnik (1921-1923). As a member of the *Autonomous Agricultural Union, he represented that party as senator (1935-1938) in the Czechoslovak parliament. A pro-Hungarian activist, Fel'deshii remained in Uzhhorod after it was annexed to Hungary (November 2, 1938); when the rest of * Subcarpathian Rus' was annexed as well (March 1939), he was named an advisor to the regent's commissar for Subcarpathia and appointed a deputy (19391944) to the Hungarian parliament. With the arrival of the Soviet Army in Subcarpathian Rus' in late 1944, Fel'deshii was arrested on charges of collaboration. He died three years later during interrogation in a prison in Sambir before final sentencing. IVAN POP

Felvidek. See Irredentism; Treaty of Trianon Fencik, Stepan. See Fentsyk, Shtefan Fenczik, Edmundus. See Fentsyk, levhenii Fenczik, Istvan. See Fentsyk, Shtefan Fenczik, Jeno. See Fentsyk, levhenii

Fentsyk, levhenii/Fenczik, Edmundus/Jeno (pseudonym: Vladimir) (b. October 5, 1844, Mala Martynka [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. December 5,1903, Horinchovo [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — priest, journalist,

122 belletrist, and publicist of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. After studying at the gymnasium in Uzhhorod and Satu Mare, Fentsyk completed his theological formation at the *Greek Catholic Central Seminary at the University of Vienna (1865-1868). His student years coincided with the transformation of Austria into a constitutional and dual monarchy, marked initially by a period of liberalism. It was in such an environment that he participated in patriotic Slavic student groups active in the imperial capital. After ordination as a Greek Catholic priest (1869) he served for the rest of his life in the Rusyn villages of Liuta, Boharevytsia, Bukovets', Dusyno, Poroshkovo, Velykyi Rakovets', and Horinchovo. Fentsyk was a follower of Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi and Ivan *Rakovs'kyi, the co-founders of the *St. Basil the Great Society, and he helped to revive the organization in their spirit during the 1890s. In terms of his literary works, Fentsyk may be considered the last of the generation of nineteenth-century Rusyn national awakeners. None of his plays, poetry, short tales, and historical/ethnographic sketches were ever published in a separate volume, but rather appeared in the first Subcarpathian newspapers (*Svit,*Novyisvif)\ the Russophile newspaper in Galicia, Slovo (at a time when magyarization was on the increase at home); and later in his own journal *Listok. Fentsyk always wrote in Russian and he adopted an idealized view of Russian culture and the Russian state, viewing it as the Messiah-like savior of the Slavic peoples. In 1885 Fentsyk began to publish a literary and public affairs journal, Listok; because it was written in Russian and thus not easily understood by village readers, in 1891 he began to issue a supplement, Dodatok, written in Rusyn vernacular. Like other national awakeners Fentsyk tried his hand at writing about all aspects of contemporary Rusyn society, even though many of his views, as in a proposed historical project ("Mysli 0 sostavlenii istorii Ugorskoi Rusi," 1886), were based on a limited knowledge of the given subject. He also published serially in Listok an extensive outline history ofRusyn literature ("Ocherk ugro-russkoi pis'mennosti," 1892-96), the texts of over 200 sermons covering the entire church year, and in the Dodatok supplement articles for peasants with practical advice about fanning. Finally, Fentsyk compiled pedagogical tools, including language, mathematics, physics, geography, and history textbooks for Rusyn schools, and religious texts (Liturgika, 1878; Molitvennik, 1892) for the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo. Further reading: Fedor F. Aristov and Nikolai A. Beskid, "Khronologicheskii perechen' napechatannykh sochinenii Evgeniia Andreevicha Fentsika," Karpatskii sviet, V, 4 (Uzhhorod, 1932), pp. 1282-1294; Dmitrii N. Vergun, Evgenii Andreevich Fentsik 1 ego miesto v russkoi literaturie (Uzhhorod, 1926); Petro Lintur, "Publitsystyka Evheniia Fentsyka," in Tezy dopovidei i povidomlennia do XIX naukovo'i konferentsi'i: Seriia literaturoznavstva (Uzhhorod, 1965), pp. 79-84; Petr Lintur, "Khudozhestvennaia proza E. Fentsika," in Tezy dopovidei do XXnaukovo'i konferentsi'i:

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Seriia literaturoznavstva (Uzhhorod, 1966), pp. 47-55; Andrei Shlepetskii, "K nekotorym problemam izucheniia literaturnogo nasledstva Evgeniia Andreevicha Fentsika (Vladimira)," in Zbornik Pedagogickej fakulty v Presove Univerzity P.J. Safdrika XVII, 3: Slavistika (Bratislava, 1983), pp. 293-322; Vasyl' Mykytas', Haluzka mohutn'oho dereva: literaturnyi narys (Uzhhorod, 1971), pp. 111123, 160-170, 195-201; Liubytsia Babota, Zakarpatoukrains'ka proza druhoi polovyny XIX stolittia (Bratislava and PreSov, 1994), pp. 179-193. IVAN POP

Fenych, Volodymyr. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region

Fentsyk, Shtefan/Fencik, Stepan/Fenczik, Istvan (b. October 13, 1892, Velyki Luchky [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. March 30, 1946, Uzhhorod [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — priest, pedagogue, musical director, publicist, and cultural and political activist of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. A relative of the nineteenth-century cultural activist, levhenii *Fentsyk, Shtefan Fentsyk attended the gymnasia in Uzhhorod and Berehovo, then studied theology and philosophy at the University of Budapest (1910-1914, Ph.D., 1918) and the University ofVienna (1914-1916, Th.D., 1916). He also studied the French language and law in Paris, music at the academies in Vienna and Budapest (1918), and finally law at the academy in Sarospatak (1918) and at the University of Debrecen (1922). In the interim, Fentsyk was ordained a Greek Catholic priest (1918), and while still doing post-graduate studies he began a pedagogical career in Uzhhorod at the *Greek Catholic Teachers' College (19161918), the Theological Seminary (1918-1922), and the classic gymnasium (1922-1926). It was during this period that he directed the Uzhhorod cathedral church choir, Harmoniia (1917-1920), the chorus of the Boian' Society (1920-1933), the Philarmonia Orchestra and Chorus/Filarmonia (1920s), and published a two-part collection of Rusyn songs (Pisny podkarpatskykh rusynov, 1921-1923), which included his music for the Rusyn *national anthem based on the poem, "Subcarpathian Rusyns, Arise from Your Deep Slumber," erroneously attributed to Aleksander *Dukhnovych. Fentsyk was the most ambitious ofRusyn political leaders during the interwar years of the twentieth century. He began this activity within the framework of the Russophile-oriented *Dukhnovych Society, of which he was a co-founder (1923) and actual administrator. He also served as chairman (1920s) of a coalition of cultural organizations, the Subcarpathian Rusyn Popular Enlightenment Union/ Podkarpatorusskii narodoprosvietitel'nyi soiuz, and as founding head (19301944) of the Dukhnovych Russian Scout movement which he represented at numerous meetings of Russophile and other international organizations throughout Europe (Belgrade,


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture 1923; Paris, 1926; Eviv, 1928,1929; Riga, 1929; Sofia, 1930; Bucharest, 1930; Rome, 1931). He frequently published accounts of these visits, including an extended one among Rusyn immigrants in the United States (1934-1935) described in the book Uzhgorod-Amerika (1936). Fentsyk also attempted, without success, to be named in 1931 bishop of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo. In 1934 he was defrocked by the new bishop for conduct "unbecoming a priest." By that time Fentsyk had become fully engaged in Subcarpathian political life, maintaining since the first of his many "engagements" at international conferences a position strongly critical of Czechoslovakia for not having fulfilled those provisions of the *Treaty of St.Germain (1919) that had called for * autonomy to be granted to * Subcarpathian Rus'. Accused of anti-state activity, he was arrested by the Czechoslovak authorities upon his return from the United States (1935). In the same year, however, he was chosen to serve as deputy (1935-1938) in the Czechoslovak parliament representing the *Russian National Autonomist party he had recently founded, and was therefore released from custody. To promote his autonomist and Russophile views Fentsyk published several newspapers: *Karpatorusskiigolos (193234), Nash put'(\935-18), and Molodaia Rus' (1938). Most of the funding for these ventures came from Russophile-oriented immigrant organizations in the United States and from the Polish government via its consulate in Uzhhorod. Impressed by the Italian variety of fascism, Fentsyk even tried to create a single "Carpatho-Russian party" for which he would be the "supreme leader" (vozhd'\ During Czechoslovakia's political crisis (1938) Fentsyk reached an accord with his rival Russophile autonomist leader Andrii *Brodii and accepted a post in the latter's government (October 1938), with specific responsibility for determining Subcarpathia's final boundary with Slovakia. In the course of these negotiations Fentsyk embarked on an intense irredentist campaign directed at uniting the Rusyn-inhabited *Presov Region with Subcarpathian Rus'. While unsuccessful in this goal, Fentsyk's activity resulted in strained relations between the new autonomous governments of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus'. On October 26, 1938, Fentsyk, together with the Subcarpathian prime minister Brodii, was accused by the Czechoslovak government of political agitation on behalf of Hungary. Fearing arrest, he fled to Budapest, where he was named a deputy to the Hungarian parliament and entrusted with organizing a paramilitary youth organization, the socalled chornorubashechniki (Black Shirts). Working from the southern part of Subcarpathian Rus' annexed by Hungary on November 2, 1938, the Black Shirts were to enter what remained of Czechoslovakia's autonomous eastern province (the Voloshyn-led Carpatho-Ukraine) in order to provoke political destabilization. After Hungary annexed the rest of Subcarpathian Rus' (March 1939) Fentsyk was appointed a member (1939-1944)

of the upper house of the Hungarian parliament, but in stark contrast to what he was able to do under Czechoslovak rule, he and other pro-Hungarian Rusyn activists were effectively barred from any serious role in political life. Fentsyk continued to publicize the need for Subcarpathian *autonomy in Hungarian publications (A Kdrpdtaljai autonomia es a kisebbsegi kerdes, 1941), but to no avail. When the Soviet Army reached Subcarpathian Rus' in late 1944, Fentsyk decided not to flee. He was arrested by the Soviet military counter-intelligence force SMERSH on March 31,1945, and placed on trial by the "people's court" of *Transcarpathian Ukraine. Sentenced to death, he was shot on March 30,1946, in the Uzhhorod prison. Nearly half a century later the sentence was overturned by the post-Communist Transcarpathian Regional Court of Ukraine and Fentsyk was posthumously rehabilitated (February 24, 1992). IVAN POP

Feodul, Mykhai'l. See Orosvygovs'kyi-Andrella, Mykhai'l Ferdinand II. See Habsburg family

Festival of Culture of the Rusyn-Ukrainians of Slovakia. See Svidnik Folk Festival Festival of Culture/Song and Dance of the Ukrainian Inhabitants/Workers of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. See Svidnik Folk Festival Filevich, Ivan Porfir'evich (b. August 20,1856 [Lublin province, Russian Empire], Poland; d. January 7, 1913, St. Petersburg [Russian Empire], Russia) — Russian historian, professor, and publicist. Filevich was the son of a Greek Catholic priest who served in what is today the borderland region between Poland and Ukraine. A graduate of St. Petersburg University, Filevich taught for nearly two decades until his retirement in 1908 at the University of Warsaw, which at the time was in the western part of the Russian Empire. Aside from the history of Kievan Rus' and relations between Poland-Lithuania and Muscovy/Russia, Filevich was interested in the peoples of the Danubian Basin and the Carpathian region. He undertook three tours to Austria-Hungary (1884, 1892, 1895), as a result of which he completed a study on the *historiography of Carpatho-Rusyns (Ugorskaia Rus' i sviazannye s neiu voprosy i zadachi russkoi istoricheskoi nauki, 1894) and a detailed description of the physical and human geography of *Carpathian Rus' ("Ocherk karpatskoi territorii i naseleniia," 1895). Filevich argued not only that Rusyn-inhabited lands "represented the farthest [western] extent of the Russian world," he also adduced toponymic


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

evidence (names of mountains, rivers, and villages) for his claims that the original East Slavic population, which later formed Kievan Rus', had come from the Carpathians. Further reading: K. Grot, "Ivan Filevich," Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosvieshcheniia, No. 45 (St. Petersburg, 1913), pp. 2646 — separately (St. Petersburg, 1913). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Filharmoniia. See Fentsyk, Shtefan Film. See Cinema Finciczky, Mihaly (b. September 22, 1842, Ungcsepely, now part of Vel'ke Kapusany [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. January 27, 1916, Uzhhorod [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — lawyer, civic activist, folklorist, and translator in the Hungarian Kingdom. Finciczky studied at the gymnasia in Uzhhorod, Eger, and Pest, where he was exposed to nineteenth-century Russian literature. After completing the juridical faculty of the University of Pest (1867) he worked in a law firm in Uzhhorod. Aside from legal work, he translated into Hungarian a wide range of Russian poetry and prose (Pushkin, Turgenev, Gogol', Lermontov). He also turned to his local surroundings and published a short historical survey of *Ung county ("Das Unger Comitat," 1900) for the illustrated encyclopedia of Austria-Hungary. He served as mayor of Uzhhorod (1890-1894, 1904-1916) and compiled three volumes of reports on the status of the city (Polgdrmesteri jelentesek Ungvdr vdros kozallapotdrol, 1907-1912; repr. 2001). Finciczky is best remembered, however, for his collections ofRusyn folk songs and tales. He published over 300 songs in Hungarian translation (Magyarorosz nepdalok, 1870). A century later Finciczky's collection ofRusyn tales appeared in his original Hungarian translation (A vasorru Indzibdba, 1970) and then in a Ukrainian translation by lurii Shkrobynets' (Taiemnytsia skliano'i hory, 1974). Further reading: Hiador Sztripszky, "Finciczky Mihaly (184219\6\"Ethnografia, XXVII, 1-3 (Budapest, 1926), pp. 140-142; losif V. Kaminskii, "Mikhail Ivanovich Fintsitskii," inNauchnyisbornikv pamiat'Evmeniia Ivanovicha Sabova (Uzhhorod, 1935), pp. 27-30; lurii Shkrobynets', "Vidnaideni skarby," in Mykhailo Fintsyts'kyi, Taiemnytsia skliano'i hory (Uzhhorod, 1974), pp. 178-188. MYKHAILO ALMASHII PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Fine Arts. See Art Firak, Mykhailo. See Ruski novini Firtsak, Georgii/ Firczak, Gheorghe. See Cultural Society of Rusyns in Romania

Firtsak, luIii/Firczak, Gyula (b. August 22, 1836, Khudl'ovo [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. June 1, 1912, Uzhhorod [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — priest, pedagogue, church hierarch, and civic and political activist in Subcarpathian Rus'. After studying at the Theological Seminary in Uzhhorod, Firtsak completed the *Central Theological Seminary at the University of Vienna (1856-1859) and in 1861 was ordained a Greek Catholic priest. He taught at the Uzhhorod Theological Seminary (1861-1876) and served as its rector (1876-1887), then was elected a deputy (1887-1890) to the lower house of the Hungarian parliament. Well-known in Hungarian ruling circles, Firtsak was consecrated bishop of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo in 1891. During his over two decades as bishop Firtsak tried to convince the Hungarian government to address what he described in a memorandum (1896) as the catastrophic social conditions among Rusyn peasants, many of whom were forced to seek relief by emigrating en masse to the United States. He reached a secret agreement with the government, promising his political support in return for social assistance. The bishop submitted a project that outlined concrete terms of assistance for Rusyn peasants (1897). It was in the main approved by the government in the form of the *Highlands Program/Hegyvideki akcio administered by Ede *Egan. At the parish level Firtsak called on his eparchial priests to create "sobriety (anti-alcoholic) brotherhoods" and credit associations. He also directed eparchial funds to build or refurbish nearly 200 schools, to revive the orphanage in Uzhhorod for priests' daughters (subsequently transformed into the Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College for Women/Uzhhorodska hreko-katolytska zhenska uchytel'ska semynariia, 1902), to open a dormitory for priests' sons in Sighet and for orphans in Uzhhorod, and to create scholarships for talented peasant children. Firtsak was particularly concerned with preserving *Church Slavonic in the liturgy and using Rusyn in sermons. IVAN POP

Firtsak, Vasyl'. See Nova Svoboda Florynka Lemko Republic. See Lemko Republic of Florynka Fogarashii, loann/Fogorashii, Ivan (pseudonym: Ivan *Berezhanyn) (b. March 25, 1786, Velyki Kom"iaty [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. December 11, 1834, Vienna [Habsburg Empire], Austria) — priest, linguist, and ethnographer in Subcarpathian Rus' and Austria. Fogarashii studied at the theological seminaries in Uzhhorod (1808-1810) and Trnava (1811-1912). After ordination as a Greek Catholic priest (1813) he served briefly in the village of Rokosovo until his appointment as rector (1814-1818) of the Uzhhorod


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Theological Seminary. In 1818 he was transferred to Vienna and became the parish priest at the Greek Catholic Church of St. Barbara—the *Barbareum, a post he held until his death. In Vienna he was an active member of a group of Slavists under the leadership of the Slovenian scholar, Jernej Kopitar, which met at the St. Barbara parish. Moved by his reading of Ivan *Orlai's history of CarpathoRusyns, Fogarashii decided to write a study of the language of his Carpatho-Rusyn people. He sent a manuscript ("V obshche o razlichii Slavianskikh nariechii, sobstvenno zhe o malo i karpato ili Ugrorusskikh") to Orlai in St. Petersburg, where it remained until published in Eviv (1906) by Ilarion *Svientsits'kyi. In this work Fogarashii supported the idea of unity among the "Carpathian or Hungarian Russians" (karpato ili ugro-rossiany), the "Little Russians'YUkrainians (malorossy), and the Russians (rossiany). In the spirit of *pan-Slavism, he called upon all Slavic peoples to use the Church Slavonic language for literary purposes. He repeated these views in his grammar for Rusyns (Rus 'ko-ouhorska 'ili madiarska hrammatyka, 1833) and in other works. Fogarashii also wrote an extensive ethnographic description of Hungary's Carpatho-Rusyns ("Istorichesko-topograficheskoe Karpato ili Ugrorussiian opisanie"), although the manuscript was never published and its whereabouts remain unknown. Most of the ethnographic material about Rusyns in Jan Caplovic's unpublished study, "Etnografia Rumenorum," came from Fogarashii's research. In one of his last works, dealing with the origins of the Hungarian language ("Origo et formatio Linguae Ugoricae, rectius Magyaricae...," 1833), Fogarashii emphasized how extensively the Hungarian language was influenced by the indigenous Slavs living in the Danubian Basin, a view that elicited displeasure in Hungarian ruling circles as well as among the hierarchy of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo, which subsequently distanced itself from the Rusyn scholar working in Vienna. Further reading: Vasylii Hadzhega, "loan Fogarashii," Podkarpatska Rus', V, 10 (Uzhhorod, 1928), pp. 207-224; Ivan Pan'kevych, "Khto buv Ivan Berezhanyn—Mykhailo Luchkai chy Ivan Fogarashii?," Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva 'Prosvita', VII-VIII (Uzhhorod, 1931), pp. 168-188. IVAN POP

Foispan. See Zhupan/Ishpan Foldesi, Julius/Foldessy, Gyula. See Fel'deshii, lulii Folklore Festival of Slovakia's Ukrainians. See Cultural Union of Ukrainian Workers Fontahski, Henryk (b. January 30, 1947, Cz?stochowa, Poland) — Polish linguist and university professor. Fontariski

has taught Russian philology at the Advanced School of Education in Opole (1971-1978) and the University of Silesia in Katowice (1978- ; professor, 2000). Since the early 1990s he has actively consulted with Lemko Rusyns in Poland regarding language codification and published several studies on Lemko Rusyn. He is also the co-author (with Myroslava *Khomiak) of the standard grammar for the Lemko variant of the Rusyn literary language (Gramatyka lemkivskoho iazyka, 2000). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Forced deportations/population resettlement. See Lemko population resettlement; Vistula Operation Franko, Ivan lakovych (b. August 27,1856, Nahuievychi [Austrian Galicia], Ukraine; d. May 28, 1916, Lviv [Austrian Galicia], Ukraine) — Ukrainian belletrist, literary scholar, editor, publicist, and cultural and political activist in Austrian Galicia. Franko was one of the major Ukrainian writers of the nineteenth century and a leading figure in the Ukrainian national movement in Galicia. He was among a small group of younger activists who, in the 1870s, heeded the call of the Ukrainian political theorist from the Russian Empire, Mykhailo *Drahomanov, challenging Galician Ukrainians to take an interest in their "brother Rusyns" south of the Carpathians in the Hungarian Kingdom. Franko took up Drahomanov's challenge and devoted extensive attention to the social and cultural life of *Subcarpathian Rus' and, in particular, to Rusyn literature. In response to the upcoming millennial celebrations commemorating the arrival of the *Magyars in the Danubian Basin, Franko co-authored with fellow Galician *Ukrainophiles a protest against the magyarization and national assimilation of Rusyns ("I my v levropi: protest halyts'kykh rusyniv proty mad'iars'koho tysiacholittia," 1896). He devoted much of his research to the study of early literary manuscripts from the Subcarpathian and *Lemko regions, publishing the original texts as well as a critical analysis in the scholarly journal of the Ukrainophile Shevchenko Scientific Society in Eviv: "Karpatorus'ka li'teratura XVII-XVIII vikiv" (1900) and "StudyT na poll karpatorus'koho pys'menstva XVII-XVIII v." (1901). He also studied Carpatho-Rusyn folklore, contributing to Volodymyr *Hnatiuk's multi-volume collection of folk texts, Etnohrafichni materialy z Uhors 'ko'i Rusi, and publishing in various Galician Ukrainian journals the Rusyn folk texts transcribed by Anatolii *Kralyts'kyi and Hiiador *Stryps'kyi. As with his native Galicia, Franko was critical of the Russophile movement in Subcarpathian society, in particular of those writers who scorned the Rusyn vernacular in favor of the uncodified Russian/Church Slavonic amalgam known as the *iazychiie. Further reading: Ivan Pankevych, "Ivan Franko i zakarpats'ki

126 ukrai'ntsi," Duklia, V, 3 (Presov, 1957), pp. 76-82; lurii Bacha and I. Ivan'o, "I. la Franko v borofbi za rozvytok literatury na Zakarpatti," Duklia, VII, 2 (Presov, 1959), pp. 120-131; Vasyl' I. Netochaiev and lurii lu. Kachii, comps., Ivan Franko i Zakarpattia: korotkyi bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk (Uzhhorod, 1966); lurii Kachii, "Ivan Franko na Zakarpatti," Arkhivy Ukrainy, VIII, 1 (Kiev, 1967), pp. 34-38; Petro Lisovyi, "Ivan Franko v oboroni interesiv trudiashchykh Zakarpattia," Ukrains'ke literaturoznavstvo, No. 5 (Eviv, 1968), pp. 49-55; Roman A. Ofitsyns'kyi, "Etnopsykholohichna model' Zakarpattia u pratsiakh Ivana Franka ta ioho poslidovnykiv," in Ukrains 'ka mova na Zakarpatti u mynulomu i suchasnomu (Uzhhorod, 1993), pp. 129-133. IVAN POP

Front molodezhy. See Shereghy, Basil Frantsev, Vladimir Andreevich (pseudonym: Putnik) (b. April 4, 1867, Modlin/Nowy Dwor Mazowiecki [Novogeorgievsk, Warsaw province, Russian Empire], Poland; d. March 19, 1942, Prague [Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia, Germany], Czech Republic) — Russian professor, historian, and Slavic philologist. Frantsev taught at the Russian Empire's University of Warsaw (1900-1915) until he was evacuated during World War I. He continued teaching at the University of Rostov-na-Donu (1916-1921) until he left Bolshevik Russia (1921) and settled in Prague, where he taught at Charles University. While still a student at the University of Warsaw, Frantsev became interested in *Subcarpathian (Uhors'ka) Rus'. He traveled to the region (1899) and met with the local Rusyn activists levmenii *Sabov, levhenii *Fentsyk, and lulii Chuchka, among others. His first publications about Subcarpathian Rus' were written for journals in the Russian Empire and included a description of contemporary conditions in the region ("Sovremennoe sostoianie Ugorskoi Rusi," 1900, under the pseudonym Putnik), a historiographic study ("Obzor vazhniei-

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture shikh izuchenii Ugorskoi Rusi," 1901), and correspondence with commentary from the time of the Rusyn national revival ("Iz epokhi vozrozhdeniia Ugorskoi Rusi," 1902). After emigrating to Czechoslovakia, Frantsev published a short study on the Rusyn student poet, Andrii Val'kovs'kyi ("Iz istorii pis'mennosti Podkarpatskoi Rusi," 1929) and an extensive discussion of the language question in the writings of loann *Rakovs'kyi ("Iz istorii bor'by za russkii literaturnyi iazyk v Podkarpatskoi Rusi v polovine XIX St.," 1930). Like most other Russian Slavists from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Frantsev supported the view that Rusyns were a branch of the Russian people; not only did they have no ties with Ukrainians, but Ukrainians themselves allegedly did not exist as a distinct nationality. Further reading: luliian lavorskii, "Vladimir A. Frantsev," in idem, Iz istorii izsliedovaniia Zakarpatskoi Rusi (Prague, 1928), pp. 1926; Theodor Syllaba, V.A. Francev: bibliograficky soupis vedeckych pracisprehledemjeho cinnosti (Prague, 1977); L.P. Lapteva, "V.A. Frantsev: biograficheskii ocherk i klassifikatsiia trudov," Slavia, XXXV, 1 (Prague, 1966), pp. 79-95. IVAN POP

Franz Joseph I. See Habsburg family Fuci. See Fedynets', Atanas

Fundatsiia doslidzhennia Lemkivshcyny. See Lemko Research Foundation Fundatsiia 'Karpaty'. See Printing and Publishing

Fundatsiia doslidzhennia Lemkivshchyny u Evovi. See Lemko Research Foundation in Eviv Fushchych, Vasyl' See Communist party Fushchych, Vil'hel'm. See Communism


Gabriel, Frantisek (b. May 3, 1901, Prague [Austrian Bohemia], Czech Republic; d. January 19, 1975, Prague [Czechoslovakia], Czech Republic) — Czech pedagogue, historian, and civil servant in Subcarpathian Rus'. Gabriel came to * Subcarpathian Rus' in 1927, where he worked for the provincial school administration and taught (1930-1938) at the Czech-language gymnasium in Uzhhorod. After Hungary took over the city in late 1938 he returned to Prague. While in Uzhhorod, Gabriel published several studies dealing with Subcarpathian Rus'. His major concerns were socioeconomic and demographic developments on the *Ung/Uzhhorod estate (dominium) during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ("Vyvoj kolonisace drugetovskeho panstvi uzhorodskeho," 1932; "Selsky stav v uzhorodskem komornim panstvi na sklonku XVIII St.," 1932; "Poddanske pomery na uzhorodskem panstvi ke konci XVIII St.," 1935; "Pohyb obyvatelstva v byvale uzske zupe v prvni polovici XVIII st.," 1935). These and his other scholarly works were based on a close familiarity with documentary sources and a solid knowledge of the economic history of central Europe as well as the specific conditions in Rusyn-inhabited lands. Czech publishers frequently turned to Gabriel for information about Subcarpathian Rus'. Consequently, he wrote historical surveys about the province for Czech encyclopedias and handbooks, including a detailed description for the extended section on Subcarpathian Rus' in volume three of the most comprehensive guidebook on interwar Czechoslovakia (Pruvodce po Ceskoslovenske republice,\931). Gabriel's last work on the region was an anthology of Rusyn tales on historic themes translated into Czech (Povesti ze Zakarpatske Ukrajiny, with Jan Dusanek, 1946). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Gaganets', losyf (b. April 10, 1793, Vysny Tvarozec [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. December 22, 1875, Presov [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia) — priest and church hierarch in the Presov Region. Gaganets' attended gymnasia in Satoraljujhely (1804-1809) and Levoca (1809-1810) and studied philosophy at Oradea before receiving his theological formation at the "Trnava Albertine Roman Catholic Seminary (1812-1816). Following his ordination as a Greek Catholic priest (1817) Gaganets' spent the subsequent two decades as a parish priest in several Rusyn villages: Ruske Pekl'any (1817-1820) near Presov, and in Viszlo (1820-1828) and Hejokerezstur (1828-1835) in what is today northeastern Hungary. In 1835 he was appointed eparchial canon by the ailing

Bishop *Tarkovych, whom he succeeded in July 1842. Gaganets' was formally consecrated in Vienna (June 25, 1843) as bishop of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov. During the early years of his episcopate he was sympathetic to the cultural work of one of his priests, the Rusyn national awakener and founder of the *Presov Literary Society, Aleksander *Dukhnovych. Under pressure from Hungarian patriots in Budapest, however, Gaganets' forced Dukhnovych to close his Rusyn cultural society in 1853. Nevertheless, in contrast to Mukachevo's Bishop Shtefan *Pankovych, Gaganets' did not after 1868 implement the official policy of magyarization among Rusyns in the Eparchy of Presov. In 1997 a memorial to Gaganets' inscribed in Rusyn was erected in his native village. Further reading: A. Pekar, "Priashivs'kyi vladyka losyf Gaganets', vizytator oo. Vasyliian," Analecta Ordinis S. Basilii Magni, Series II, SectioII, Vol. X, 1-4 (Rome, 1971), pp. 379-393; Olena Rudlovchak, "losyf Hahanets' i chotyry tovarystva zakarpats'kykh ukrai'ntsiv," Duklia, XLIV, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 (Pre§ov, 1996), pp. 41-51, 40-50, 40-46, 43-52, and 47-55. IVAN POP

Gagatko, Andrei Mikhailovich (b. August 24, 1884, Andrushkivtsi [Austrian Galicia], Ukraine; d. 1944) — Galician Russophile lawyer and political activist in Subcarpathian Rus'. After the Bolshevik Revolution (November 1917) Gagatko lost hope in the possibility of Galicia's unification with Russia, and at the same time opposed the short-lived West Ukrainian National Republic established in eastern Galicia (1918-1919). In early 1919 he emigrated to Subcarpathian Rus', where he promoted the idea of unification of both * Subcarpathian Rus' and the *Lemko Region with Czechoslovakia. His proposal to include Lemko-Rusyn territory north of the Carpathians within the new state was blocked, however, by the Czechoslovak diplomatic delegation led by Edvard *Benes at the Paris Peace Conference. Gagatko was elected secretary of the *Central Rusyn National Council in Uzhhorod, which proclaimed the unification of Rusyns with Czechoslovakia (May 1919) and he was one of the initiators of the subsequent division of that council between Russophile and Ukrainophile factions, with Gagatko defending a strict "Russian" line. Gagatko served briefly as director (1919-1920) of the Uzhhorod gymnasium, then concentrated his energies in Subcarpathian political life. In the summer of 1920 together with the Bukovinian Russophile Ilarion *Tsurkanovich, Gagatko founded the *Carpatho-Russian Workers' party. The new party maintained


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

ties with the Socialist-Revolutionaries among Russian emigres and with the Czechoslovak National-Democratic party. Gagatko and his party demanded that the boundaries of Subcarpathian Rus' be extended westward to include Rusyns in the *Presov Region, that the Russian language be introduced as the official language in Subcarpathia's schools and in its government administration, and that the Czechoslovak government cease its alleged anti-Russian, anti-Orthodox, and pro-Ukrainian policies. In the course of his anti-government political agitation Gagatko did not hesitate to cooperate with Hungarian irredentists and Communists, if necessary. He was chosen by the Carpatho-Russian Workers' party to serve as its deputy (1924-1929) in the Czechoslovak parliament, and was active in the educational foundation, *Shkol'naia Pomoshch', which built a few student dormitories and assisted financially needy students. By the 1930s Gagatko was pushed into the political background by the ambitious Subcarpathian-born Rusynophile-Russophile politicians, Andrii *Brodii and Shtefan *Fentsyk. IVAN POP

Gai, Andrii/Gaj, Andrej (b. January 29, 1932, Sukov [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — painter, illustrator, and professor in the Presov Region. After completing the Russian gymnasium in Humenne (1952) Gai studied at the Advanced School of Fine Art in Bratislava (1952-1958). He returned permanently to eastern Slovakia, where he taught fine art at Safarik University in Presov (1960-1973). Gai's works are primarily landscapes, still-lifes, portraits, and figurative compositions characterized by bright colors and decisively heavy contours. He has also completed largescale works, mostly in mosaic, for public buildings in several towns and cities throughout eastern Slovakia. Initially, Gai exhibited his works at home and abroad as a Slovak or as a Ukrainian artist; after 1989 he joined with other Presov-based artists in their exhibits ofRusyn art. His national orientation remains unclear. Further reading: Martin Gabani, Andrej Gaj (Presov, 1987). ALEXANDER ZOZUL'AK

Gaidosh, Nykolai. See Art Gajdos, Marian (b. June 30, 1948, Smolnik [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — Slovak historian (kandidat historickych vied, 1987) and specialist on the history of Rusyns of Slovakia during the second half of the twentieth century. Since 1975 Gajdos has worked at the Institute of Social Sciences/Spolocenskovedny ustav of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Kosice. As head of its historical section (1992) he has helped to promote several research projects and scholarly conferences dealing with the social and national status of

Rusyns in Slovakia during and after the era of Communist rule. His writings are noted for their impartiality regarding the Rusyn-Ukrainian identity controversy; among these are two monographs (co-authored with Stanislav *Konecny), K politickemu a socidlnoekonomickemu postaveniu RusinovUkrajincov na Slovensku v povojnovych rokoch (1991) and Postavenie Rusinov-Ukrajincov na Slovensku v rokoch 19481953 (1994). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Galician-Russian Benevolent Society. See lablochyn Monastery of St. Onufrius Galloway, Julian. See Magocsi, Paul Robert GambaF, Mytrofan. See Lubov Russian Orthodox Fraternity Gardos, Julius. See American National Council of Uhro-Rusyns

Garianski, Vladimir (b. July 2, 1959, Osijek [Yugoslavia], Croatia; d. July 3, 1996, Presov, Slovakia) — belletrist, literary critic, and professor among the Vojvodinian Rusyns. After completing his secondary education (Vrbas), Garianski studied Rusyn, Serbo-Croatian, and other Yugoslav literatures at the University of Novi Sad (1987). He then taught in the Department of Rusyn Language and Literature at the University of Novi Sad (1988-1992) before moving to Slovakia, where he taught the languages and literatures of Yugoslavia at the University of Presov (1992-1995). Garianski began publishing his first literary works in 1979, and during the next decade they appeared in Vojvodinian periodicals in both Rusyn and Serbian. His first volume of poetry, Risunok slunka, appeared in 1982, followed by five more, including two in Rusyn, Tsverchok u kotski liadu (1987) and Kurniava (1990). His work consists of poems in prose with philosophical reflections on the fragility of life. Considered among the best Vojvodinian Rusyn poets at the end of the twentieth century, Garianski's works have been translated into Slovak, Hungarian, Ukrainian, Macedonian, and Romanian. In 1995 he was awarded the Mikola M. *Kochish prize by the literary journal *Shvetlosts. Further reading: Mikola M. Tsap, "Hradza za bibliografiiu Vladimira Garianskoho," Shvetlosts, XXXV, 1-2 (Novi Sad, 1997), pp. 60-70. ALEKSANDR D. DULICHENKO

Gati, Joszef. See Communist party; Jews Gbur, luliian. See Greek Catholic Eparchy of Przemysl


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture GCU Messenger. See Amerikansky russky viestnik

Gebei, Petro/Gebej, Petr (b. July 20, 1864, Kal'nyk [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. April 26,1931, Uzhhorod [Czechoslovakia], Ukraine) — priest, pedagogue, church hierarch, and political and cultural activist in Subcarpathian Rus'. Gebei was educated at the Uzhhorod gymnasium and the Central Theological Seminary in Budapest. Before ordination as a Greek Catholic priest (1892) he was appointed professor of church history and canon law at the Theological Seminary in Uzhhorod, where he was also the prefect (1899-1906). Other posts in Uzhhorod included spiritual advisor to the gymnasium for girls (1892), professor at the gymnasium for boys (1905-1912), director of the Alumneum boarding school (1906), and resident priest at the Greek Catholic cathedral church (1912-1924). Gebei played an active role in Rusyn cultural life as a member (1895-1902) of the executive board of the *St. Basil the Great Society, as one of the founders (1902) and later director of the *Unio Book Publishing Company, and as editor of its annual almanac (Misiatsoslov). As a member (1915) of the Central Commission for Hungary's Greek Catholic Eparchies, he protested against the government's magyarization policies. He nonetheless remained a Hungarian state patriot and, after Austria-Hungary collapsed, urged the creation of the pro-Hungarian Uzhhorod National Council (November 1918) and participated in the Rusyn Congress in Budapest (December), which worked to keep Subcarpathia's Rusyns under Hungarian rule. After the Communists came to power in Hungary (March 1919), however, Gebei switched his political allegiance to Czechoslovakia and was elected to the executive board of the *Central Rusyn National Council which, in May 1919, called for the unification of * Subcarpathian Rus' with Czechoslovakia. Gebei rose further through the ranks of the Greek Catholic Church; he was appointed vicar-general (1922) and then consecrated bishop (1924) of the *Eparchy of Mukachevo. As bishop, he encouraged a *Rusynophile cultural policy. Even though he considered Rusyns to be a people distinct from both Ukrainians and Russians, he was able to cooperate with both *Ukrainophiles and *Russophiles and their respective cultural organizations, the *Prosvita Society and *Dukhnovych Society. He allowed the Galician *Basilian monks to reform the Basilian monasteries in Subcarpathian Rus', and as the influence of the order increased he did not see the need to distinguish the Rusyn patriotic movement from Ukrainophile populism. He also attempted to stem the tide of Orthodoxy, which had reached its height during the last years of his episcopacy (1924-1931). Supported from the outset by the Czechoslovak regime, Gebei tried to overcome the pro-Hungarian tendencies of many of his clergy and to convince the government in Prague of the loyalty of the Greek

Catholic Church toward Czechoslovakia. Further reading: Athanasius B. Pekar, "Bishop Peter Gebey— Champion of the Holy Union," Analecta OSBM, Series II, Sectio II, Vol. IV, 1-2 (Rome, 1963), pp. 293-326. IVAN POP

Gebei, Viktor. See Novyi svit

GeL See Latiak, Diura Gemer/Gomor. See County Genealogy—the study of the origins and descent of families. Genealogy is the written history of the descent of a person or family from an earlier ancestor, which links each successive generation using documented facts. Genealogical research among Carpatho-Rusyns is at times practiced in Europe, but it is limited to scholars who are interested in knowing the family history of a particular individual of some historical prominence. It is in the United States and Canada where immigrants, and in particular their descendants, are anxious to learn about their origins, that the practice of genealogy has attracted widespread interest. Two events were pivotal in promoting an interest in genealogy among the descendants of Rusyns in North America. The first was the television mini-series based upon the epic novel, Roots: Saga of an American Family, by Alex Haley (1976). The enormously popular television broadcasts encouraged persons of every possible ethnic origin to discover their place in history. The second pivotal event was the fall of * Communism in central and eastern Europe in the early 1990s. This development made it possible for Americans and Canadians to visit their ancestral homeland (basically off-limits since the onset of Communist rule after World War II), in order to find relatives and reestablish familial connections. There is a wide body of genealogical sources in the United States and the European homeland. Within the first category are the exceedingly important Rusyn-American church records that contain baptism, marriage, and burial information about individual Rusyn immigrants and their families. These records are found in the *Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic and Ukrainian Catholic churches and in the various Orthodox Church jurisdictions, particularly in the *American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese and the *Russian Orthodox Church in North America among others. They document the immigrant's ancestral village of origin as well as his or her date of birth, baptism, marriage, and death. Individual families may also have important sources of genealogical information, such as naturalization papers, military records, Bible records, United States and foreign passports, family photographs, birth certificates from the homeland, and newspaper obituaries. One source in a class by itself is the


family burial plot, often with genealogical information from the grave marker or from interment records maintained by the cemetery. United States government resources include decennial federal censuses, military records, naturalization records, passenger arrival manifests, and civil vital records of birth, marriage, and death. Many of these can be accessed using the resources of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS—the Mormons). The Mormon Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah is the largest genealogical resource in the world and is accessible to the general public. The collection contains over 2.2 million rolls of microfilmed genealogical records from all over the world and some 300,000 books on genealogy and related topics. The records can be accessed at the library in Salt Lake City or at one of the church's many LDS Family History Centers located throughout the world. The library's * Internet website (www.familysearch.org) provides information on holdings, databases, and locations of the various LDS Family History Centers. The Mormon Family History Library holdings of American, Canadian, Hungarian, Polish, and Ukrainian records are of the utmost importance to Carpatho-Rusyn genealogical research on persons of Carpatho-Rusyn origin. In the European homeland, the primary genealogical source are Greek Catholic parish records (matriky) generated within the ancestral village of birth or a larger nearby village of a given individual. Parish registers originating on the northern side of the ""Carpathian Mountains (the *Lemko Region) usually begin in 1784. On the southern slopes of the mountains in the former Hungarian Kingdom (*Subcarpathian Rus' and the *Presov Region) most registers begin about 1800, although some may date as early as 1735 (Lukov). Access to Greek Catholic parish records for the Lemko Region are held for the most part in the branch of the Polish State Archive/Archiwum Panstwowe in Przemysl, Poland. Other branches of the Polish State archival system may also hold Greek Catholic registers, which are indicated on the system's website (http://baza. archiwa.gov.pl/sezam). The Mormon Family History Library holds microfilm of a small portion of the Greek Catholic parish records held by the Polish State Archive in Przemysl. The Greek Catholic parish records for the Presov Region are held by the State Archive in Slovakia/Statny slovensky archiv. They have been microfilmed for the Mormon Family History Library and can be easily accessed via that institution's LDS Family History Centers. The original records are housed in the regional branches of the State Archive located in the eastern Slovak cities of Presov, Levoca, and Kosice. Parish records for Subcarpathian Rus' (present-day Transcarpathian oblast in Ukraine) are located in local civil registry offices and various regional archives, but are not yet available for public perusal. Census records are another good source of information. For example, the 1869 census of Hungary enumerates entire

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture households with the following information: house number, surname, given name and status of the individual within the household, sex, year of birth, religion, marital status, occupation, birthplace, status as native or foreigner, literacy, and other remarks by the enumerator. The earlier Hungarian land census of 1828 lists the heads of households with their status (farmers, citizens, tenants, subtenants, etc.), grain production, vineyards, ownership of large and small farm animals, forest lands, and occasional notes by the enumerator. The 1828 census is especially important for those whose ancestry lies in Subcarpathian Rus', since it can be used to determine whether a particular surname is found within a given locale. Both the 1869 and 1828 Hungarian censuses are available on microfilm at the Mormon Family History Library and at regional LDS Family History Centers. The closing decade of the twentieth century witnessed a marked interest in genealogy among second-, third- and fourth-generation Americans and Canadians of CarpathoRusyn descent. Such interest manifests itself in many ways: the desire of an individual to locate his or her ancestral village on a modern map; relating stories about growing up in a poor immigrant household; and discussions regarding the various Byzantine-rite church rituals and holydays that were often totally foreign to their American neighbors. This knowledge now induces pride in one's newly discovered (or rediscovered) Carpatho-Rusyn identity. Others pursue their lineage as far back as written records will allow. Some will locate all the descendants of a Rusyn immigrant ancestor in the North America and organize family reunions for extended families on a regular basis. There are even reunions of descendants of particular Rusyn villages. Such events were unheard of twenty years ago, before the rise of interest in genealogy. Genealogy for descendants of Carpatho-Rusyns becomes particularly meaningful because it allows them to carve out an identifiable place in the context of present-day multicultural North America. As a minority people who were often forced to assume ethnic identities at odds with their own choice, Carpatho-Rusyns use genealogy to reinforce a distinct ethnic identity and cultural heritage. All these factors have fostered in the last quarter of the twentieth century the reestablishment of Carpatho-Rusyn cultural and historical societies in North America, which have helped re-awaken an ethnic pride that had been lying dormant since the immigrant generation came to America. It is an axiom of genealogy that you understand yourself only by studying those who came before you. Genealogical studies do indeed foster pride in the Rusyn heritage, which in turn assures the continued existence of Carpatho-Rusyns as a distinct people. Further reading: John-Paul Himka and Frances A. Swyripa, Sources for Researching Ukrainian Family History, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Research Report No. 6 (Edmonton, 1984); Daniel M. Schlyter, Czechoslovakia: A Handbook of Czechoslovak


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Genealogical Research (Orem, Utah, 1985); John-Paul Himka, Galicia and Bukovina: A Research Handbook about Western Ukraine, Late I9th-20th Centuries (Edmonton, 1990); Brian J. Lenius, Genealogical Gazetter of Galicia, 2nd ed. (Anola, Manitoba, 1994); Thomas A. Peters, "How To Find Your Roots," CarpathoRusyn American, XVIII, 2, (Fairfax, Va., 1995), pp. 4-6; Richard D. Custer, "Rusyn Testaments Etched in Granite: The Genealogical Treasure ofRusyn Immigrant Gravestones," The New Rusyn Times, IX, 3 (Pittsburgh, 2002), pp. 1, 6-9; Joe Palmo, "Great-Great-GreatGrandpap Was a Serf: Researching Your Rusyn Ancestors Through Urbarial Census Records," The New Rusyn Times, IX, 4 (Pittsburgh, 2002), pp. 1, 8-9, 13-14; Bill Tarkulich, "Fact Versus Perception: Confidently Drawing Conclusions From Ancestral Records," The New Rusyn Times, IX, 5 (Pittsburgh, 2002), pp. 1,8-10; Bill Tarkulich, "Searching for Surnames (Last Names) and Village Names," The New Rusyn Times, X, 3 (Pittsburgh, 2003), pp. 1, 8-11. THOMAS A. PETERS

General Statute/General'nyi statut — Czechoslovak government decree announced in Uzhhorod on September 18, 1919, that created an administration for Subcarpathian Rus'. The General Statute was proclaimed in the government's name by the French general Edmond Hennocque (1860-1933), who represented the victorious Allied and Associated Powers in the province, and by the Czechoslovak civil servant Jan Brejcha (1867-1924). The statute was divided into four parts. The first reiterated the basic provisions of the *Treaty of St. Germain (September 10, 1919) as they pertained to * Subcarpathian Rus'. The second part provided for a provisional boundary (demarcation line) between Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus'. The third part stipulated Subcarpathian Rus' (Czech: Podkarpatska Rus) as the name of the territory and the Rusyn vernacular as the language for school instruction and general official use. The fourth part gave the Czechoslovak government the right to appoint a provisional administrator and to create "a provisional Rusyn autonomous *Directorate," which would serve as an advisory body for legislation and administration concerning linguistic, educational, and religious matters; local self-rule; elections; and the appointment of civil servants in the Subcarpathian administration. The General Statute remained in effect until April 26, 1920. Further reading: Ihor Lichtej, "Podkarpatska Rus v Ceskoslovensku: formovani systemu statniho zfizeni," in Frank Boldt, ed., Velke dejiny, maly ndrod (Prague, 1995), pp. 175-184. IVAN POP

gensfidelissima. See Dolyniane; Rakoczy, Ferenc II Georgiievskii, Evlogii. See lablochyn Monastery of St. Onufrius Geography and Economy. *Carpathian Rus', the terri-

tory inhabited by Carpatho-Rusyns, is located in the far eastern portion of central Europe; its geographical coordinates are 20.5°E to 24.38°E and 47.53°N to 49.35°N. The land mass covered by Carpathian Rus' extends about 375 kilometers from the Poprad river valley of Slovakia and Poland in the northwest to the Viseu (Rusyn: Vyshova) river valley of Romania in the southeast. This area, which ranges from only 50 to 100 kilometers in width, encompasses the foothills and mountainous regions of the Eastern Carpathians. Among the rivers flowing through Rusyn-inhabited lands are, on the northern slopes of the mountains, the Biala, Ropa, and Wisloka, which are tributaries of the Vistula river, and the Wislok, Oslawa, and Solinka tributaries of the San River. On the southern slopes are the Torysa, Topl'a, Ondava, Laborec, Cirocha, Uzh, Latorytsia, Vicha, Borzhava, Rika, Tereblia, Teresva, Shopurka, Chorna Tysa, Bila Tysa, Ruscova (Rusyn: Rus'kova), and Vis. eu, all of which flow directly or via tributaries into the Tisza (Rusyn: Tysa) river. (See Map 5). According to present-day political boundaries, most of Carpathian Rus' lies within Ukraine (the *Transcarpathian oblast). To the west it extends into Slovakia and, on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, into Poland; to the east it encompasses a small part of Romania along the lower Vis.eu river and its tributary, the Ruscova. Rusyn-inhabited territory in each of these countries has its own local name: the *Lemko Region (Rusyn: Lemkovyna) in southeastern Poland; the *Presov Region (Rusyn: Priashevshchyna or Priashivs'ka Rus') in northeastern Slovakia; * Subcarpathian Rus' (Rusyn: Podkarpats'ka Rus') in far western Ukraine; and the *Maramure§ Region in northcentral Romania. For the most part, Carpathian Rus' is a mountainous region. With the exception of the Western Beskyds, all other ranges in Carpathian Rus' are classified as part of the Eastern Carpathians (also known as the Forested, or Ukrainian Carpathians). The Eastern Carpathians comprise two distinct geological formations: the sedimentary Beskyds and the Volcanic Carpathians (see Map 4). These are subdivided into several ranges which generally form parallel longitudinal belts that stretch from the northwest to the southeast. The outermost belt, which is the highest in altitude, is located just beyond Carpathian Rus' in southern Galicia and consists of the Middle Beskyds and the High Beskyds (which together in Polish are called the Bieszczady) and the Gorgany. The next belt is a mountain syncline known as the Mid-Carpathian Depression which in the far west forms a flat basin between the towns of Sanok and Gorlice. The main belt within Carpathian Rus' proper is that of the Beskyds subdivided into the Western Beskyds (Polish: Beskid Sajdecki) from the Upper Dunajec to the Topl'a rivers; the Lower Beskyds (Polish: Beskid Niski) to the Oslawa and Laborec rivers; and the Polonyna Beskyds, which stretch eastward from Poland and Slovakia through the length of Subcarpathian Rus' and beyond. This range derives its name from the Carpathian upper mountain pastures known

132 as the polonyna; the part of the range located in Poland is referred to as the Western Bieszczady/Bieszczady Zachodnie. The Polonyna Beskyds become progressively higher toward the east and are characterized by several high massifs: Rivna, Borzhava, Krasna, Svydovets', and Chornohora. Along the eastern edges of the Polonyna Beskyds are the Gorgany and Hutsul Alps. South of the Polonyna Beskyds is a long inner Carpathian valley that begins at the mouth of the Cirocha River in the west and continues southeastward to the large basin along the upper Tisza/Tysa River between Khust and Sighet. Along this valley's southern flank are the Volcanic Carpathians, a belt that begins in the west with the Slanske Ridge and Zemplyn Highlands (Tokaj Hills) and continues with interruptions eastward through Subcarpathian Rus' into the Maramures Region of northern Romania. The Volcanic Carpathians are crossed by several transverse river valleys which define several mountain clusters or massifs: Vihorlat in eastern Slovakia and Makovytsia, Syniak, Velykyi Dil, and Tupyi in Ukraine's Transcarpathia. From the Slanske mountain ridge in Slovakia, along the far western edge of the Volcanic Carpathians, begins the Tysa Lowland. Known in Slovakia as the East Slovak plain (Vychodoslovenska rovina), it stretches eastward to encompass the southwestern corner of Ukraine's Transcarpathia from Uzhhorod to Vynohradovo. The several long, tonguelike valleys that cut through the Volcanic Carpathians from the north find their outlet in the Tysa Lowland. This plain is dotted with knolls and isolated cones, the highest of which is Chorna Hora (568 m.) near Vynohradovo. The lowland itself has its own massifs such as the Zemplyn hills (400 m.) between the lower Hernad and Bodrog river valleys in northeastern Hungary and several others in Transcarpathia: Palanok (275 m.) on which Mukachevo castle sits just south of the city and Muzhiievo (367 m.) and Kosyny (224 m.) respectively east and west of Berehovo. These hillocks in southwestern Transcarpathia represent the volcanic remains of the old Pannonian Highland Massif, most of which was depressed during the Pliocene Epoch to form the Great Hungarian Basin. A part of the lowland is composed of alluvial sediment and remains of Neocene Epoch sandstone. The gently sloping and only moderately deep river valleys slow down the flow of the mountain water, resulting in the presence of lowland marshes. The largest of these is the Chornyi Mochar (Black Wetland) near Berehovo. The high upper river valleys and narrow gorges are filled with water from innumerable brooks, creeks, and riverlets. The water from all these eventually reaches the Tisza/Tysa River on the southern slopes of the Carpathians or the San and Vistula Rivers on the northern slopes. The uniquely beautiful Carpathian lakes were formed by ancient glaciers or by massive mountain floods. The best known are the Vihorlat and Synevyr lakes, each about 1000 meters above sea-level and

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture each popularly referred to as Morske/Morskoe oko. Since the 1970s several dams have been built to create reservoirs, most especially in the upper river valleys of northeastern Slovakia (Cirocha, Domasa along the Ondava) and southeastern Poland (Solinka Lake where the Solinka River meets the San), as well as the large artificial Zemplinska Sirava lake south of the Vihorlat slopes in eastern Slovakia. As a result of these projects several Rusyn villages were displaced or destroyed. Several passes cut through the watershed crests of the Eastern Carpathians, and from time immemorial they have connected central Europe to eastern Europe. They include the Tylicz/Tylic (Rusyn: Tylych, 688 m.), Dukla/Dukl'a (Rusyn: Duklia, 502 m.), Lupkow/Lupkov (Rusyn: Lupkiv, 657 m.), Rus/Rusz (Rusyn: Rus', 797 m.), Uzhok (889 m.), Verets'kyi (841 m.), Serednii/Middle Verets'kyi or Vorits'kyi (839 m.), Volovets' or Skotars'kyi (1014 m.), Vyshkiv or Torun' (988 m.), and lablunets' or Tatar (931 m.) passes. The highest mountain peaks are just over 2000 meters and are all located in the far eastern part of the Polonyna Beskyds: Hoverla (2061 m.), Brebeneskul (2035 m.) Pop Ivan-Chornahora (2022 m.), Petros (2020 m.), Hutyn-Tomnatyk (2018 m.), and Rebra (2007 m.). The next highest peaks are in the Hutsul Alps in Ukraine (Pop Ivan, 1940 m.) and in Romania (Farcau, 1962 m.). The climate in Rusyn-inhabited territory is temperate and moderated by warm and moist winds from both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. There is rarely any extreme temperature variation, although the higher the elevations, the more severe the climate. The warm summer in the mountains lasts only two months and is much shorter than in the lowlands. Hence, when in the lowland plain orchards are already in bloom, in the oak forests and mountain slopes only the first buds are beginning to appear, while in the higher mountains the peaks are still covered with snow. Winter temperatures can fall to as low as -34°C in the mountains, while in the lowlands and foothills the temperature in January can be as high as +10°C. The vegetation in Carpathian Rus' is part of the central European geobotanical sphere and is divided into basically west-east horizontal zones, whose differences are determined by changes in elevation and microclimatic local landscape conditions. Intense human economic activity has over the centuries changed the territory's flora. On the lowland plains and foothills, where oak and elm forests once existed, all that remain are small islets of trees surrounded by agricultural land. The nearby foothills and lower mountain zones are covered with mixed beech and oak forests; most of the Beskyd ranges and Gorgany are covered with oak. The central and upper mountain zones (600 to 1300 m.) are covered by fir and spruce forests, which beyond the river valleys can grow at elevations reaching 1500 meters. Near the village of Ubl'a (on the Slovak side of the border with Ukraine) are remnants of ancient yew forests. Few extensive contiguous forest zones remain. The

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture largest of these, near the high mountain meadows (polonyny), are covered with pine, Siberian spruce, and Eastern Carpathian rhododendron. Sub-alpine and alpine meadows (polonyny) cover most of the High Beskyds, Gorgany, and Polonyna Carpathian ranges. The fauna in Carpathian Rus' includes a wide variety of mammals (63), birds (267), reptiles (10), and fish (50), many of which are not found in the neighboring lowlands or plateaus. Cut off from the forest zones of eastern Europe by the intermediary western Ukrainian mixed forest-steppe zone, the Eastern Carpathians consequently form a kind of mountain taiga zone that is home to Carpathian deer, forest wild-cats, Carpathian woodcocks, black crones, Carpathian whitebacked woodpeckers, Carpathian black adders, mountain and Carpathian Triton salamanders, and river and rainbow trout, among others. As a result, the Carpathian mountain region is considered to form a distinct zoological zone. The Rusyn population has traditionally lived in rural villages. Throughout Carpathian Rus', there are nearly 1,100 villages, most of which contain between 600 and 800 inhabitants. The settlement pattern as well as natural and man-made transportation networks have generally followed the north-south direction of the several valleys that cut across of the Carpathian ranges. The earliest towns and cities are virtually all on the periphery of Rusyn-inhabited territory. These include on the northern slopes of the Carpathian crests, Nowy Sa^cz, Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo, Krosno, and Sanok, and on the southeastern slopes, Stara Eubovna, Bardejov, Presov, Humenne, Snina, Michalovce, Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, and Sighet. These places have traditionally been inhabited by peoples other than Rusyns, including * Slovaks, *Poles, *Jews`, *Magyars, *Germans, and, in the case of Subcarpathian Rus'/ Transcarpathia since the second half of the twentieth century, *Russians. Rusyns have also lived in these towns and cities, but almost always as a minority. Out-migration from villages has increased the number of Rusyns in all of these cities, especially after World War II. Nevertheless, even in Uzhhorod and Mukachevo, the cities with the highest number of Rusyns, they represent only 67-68 percent of the inhabitants. Because of their location along valleys from which descend river routes and roads, the cities and towns have become the natural economic, political, educational, and cultural centers for the Rusyn population. Consequently, these "foreign" urban areas have functioned as "Rusyn centers," even though Rusyns themselves have been numerically in the minority. The few towns located within Rusyn-inhabited areas—Svidnik, Medzilaborce, Velykyi Bereznyi, Svaliava, Irshava, Khust— have never had more than a few thousand inhabitants and have not been able to replace the "historic" Rusyn centers. The economy of Rusyn-inhabited lands is basically agricultural, and nearly 70 percent of the working population is still engaged in farming or in farm-related activity. The region, however, has traditionally been characterized by a shortage


of arable land, so that on average only two-tenths of a hectare of land per person is available. The high population density in the lowland plains and foothills (110 persons per square kilometer), together with the lack of intensive agricultural practices, has resulted in what might be called an "agrarian famine," and chronic rural overpopulation has led to extensive out-migration. Rusyns first emigrated to the Backa and Srem regions of southern Hungary (the *Vojvodina in today's Serbia) in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, then abroad to the United States and Canada during the four decades before World War I. The low level of industrialization in Rusyn-inhabited territory, a result of its marginal location in various states, has created large-scale unemployment, which in turn has led to large-scale migrant labor, whereby men are forced to seek seasonal employment. This was common during the decades before World War I, when Rusyns from all parts of Carpathian Rus', including from the Lemko Region north of the mountain crests, worked on the fields during harvest season on Hungary's lowland plains. This occurred even during the Communist era of "full employment," when Rusyns from eastern Slovakia sought work in the Czech lands (Bohemia and Moravia), and Rusyns from Transcarpathia/Subcarpathian Rus' went eastward to other parts of the Soviet Union. In the post-Communist era the unemployed from Subcarpathian Rus' look for work in all neighboring countries, in particular Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. While it is true that during the final decades of Communist rule the Soviet and Czechoslovak regimes built factories in or near Rusyninhabited lands as part of their military-industrial complex, the collapse of those regimes and their command economies has resulted in numerous factory closings. At the same time, the workforce that had been imported from other parts of Ukraine and the Soviet Union has remained in Subcarpathian Rus', thereby increasing local unemployment rates. The resolution of such problems depends on the implementation of changes in property law, restructuring the agricultural sector, and in promoting the creation of finishing and light industries. The geological evolution of the Eastern Carpathians and their present structure has allowed for the formation of more than 30 varieties of minerals, although less than half are being exploited. The band of Volcanic ranges is rich in several mineral ores applicable for industrial use, including zinc, lead, zeolite, and gold. The discovery in the 1990s of gold deposits at Muzhiievo in Subcarpathian Rus' resulted in the beginning of gold production, although the region itself has yet to see any financial gain or even new employment opportunities, since the miners used to extract the mineral are brought from eastern Ukraine. These same Volcanic ranges have an inexhaustible supply of building materials, such as andesite rock, sand, limestone, various sandstones, and clay. In the upper Tisza valley there are large veins of variously colored industrial marble, whose

134 purity approaches that of carrara marble from Italy. The marble is extracted, however, in a most primitive and rapacious manner, that is, by using dynamite to blast it free. As a result, the marble is shattered and can only be used as crushed rock in the building of roads and as a mixture for cement. Subcarpathian Rus' in particular has large coal reserves of the lignite variety, but it is not used sufficiently for industrial purposes, even though the region is weak in energy resources. The Rusyn-inhabited Carpathian foothills are rich in domestic salt. Salt veins stretch from as far as Presov (Solivar) in Slovakia through Khust in Subcarpathian Rus' and further eastward, culminating in what for Europe are the unique salt deposits at Solotvyno. According to geological data, the Solotvyno salt field is in the form of an unevenly cut cone that measures 200 to 300 meters in height, 2,160 meters in length, and 1,700 meters in width. The vast majority of extracted salt is unprocessed and exported beyond the region. Solotvyno's salt lake has medicinal properties similar in quality to the Dead Sea, while specially fitted rooms within the mine are used as centers for treating patients afflicted with asthma. Despite the natural beauty of Rusyn-inhabited lands in the Eastern Carpathians, the potential for recreation and tourism remains largely untapped. A few spas were established already in the nineteenth century, such as at Krynica-Zdroj, Zlockie, and Wysowa in the Lemko Region; at Bardejovske Kupele in the Presov Region; and at Nelipyno, Poliana, Vyshkovo (Shaian), and Solotvyno in Subcarpathian Rus'. During the Soviet period after World War II, a large number of spas with sanatoria were expanded or newly developed. Among the most popular were the sanatoria with facilities for medical treatment at Karpaty (based in the former *Schonborn family manor house), Syniak, Poliana, Shaian, and Soimy. Nevertheless, of the estimated 400 mineral springs of various kinds throughout Carpathian Rus', no more than a quarter of them are exploited. Some have been able to ship bottled mineral water abroad, including from Krynica-Zdroj in the Lemko Region, Sulin in the Presov Region, and Luzhans'ka, Poliana, and Soimy in Subcarpathian Rus'. Forests remain the most important natural resource in Carpathian Rus'. Traditionally, however, the various states which have ruled the area have exploited the forests without any positive value or profit accruing to the local Rusyn inhabitants. In the Lemko Region, the forests were nationalized in the wake of the 1947 * Vistula Operation; to this day, they have not been returned to their original Lemko owners. A large portion of the forested area in the Lemko Region has been declared by Poland to be off limits because it is now a national park. In Subcarpathian Rus', forest use has been and is still characterized by rapacious stripping and uncontrolled exploitation. For instance, in the five-year period 1921-1925, a total of 514,000 cubic meters of wood were cut, while during 1991 alone as much as 1.7 million and in 1992 over 1.8 million cubic meters were cut. Since Ukraine's independence

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture in 1991, even forests that had been designated specifically to prevent erosion or to regulate the water balance, or that are located within "protected" zones and sanatoria, are being cut down. One result of such "economic practices" has been periodic flooding (1947, 1993,1998,2001), a phenomenon that before Soviet rule had rarely occurred on such large scale in Subcarpathian Rus'. For instance, in the fall of 1998 several mountain slopes collapsed, causing widespread suffering and damage to the lives and property of nearly one-third of Transcarpathia's population. Another potentially valuable economic resource are vineyards located in Subcarpathian Rus' on the slopes of low hills around Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, Seredne, Vynohradovo, and Berehovo. As early as 1720, these areas had nearly 4,000 hectares of vineyards; by the mid-nineteenth century that number had more than doubled. Since that time Subcarpathia's wine industry has suffered two major disasters. After the 1870s nearly all the vineyards were destroyed by phylloxera. They slowly recovered and expanded, and under Soviet rule after 1945 over 12,000 hectares made possible the production of 150 varieties of wine, mostly whites. Then in the 1980s nearly three-quarters of the vineyards were deliberately destroyed in the course of Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign. In post-Communist Ukraine, Subcarpathia's vineyards have been restored, and with the help of foreign investment an increasingly successful wine industry produces a wide range of red and most especially white wines, some of which are beginning to be exported. Further reading: Jifi Krai, Geografickd bibliografie Podkarpatske Rusi (Prague, 1923); Jifi Krai, Geografickd bibliografie Podkarpatske Rusi za rok 1923-1926 (Prague, 1928); Jin Krai, Podkarpatskd Rus (Prague, 1924); Karel Matousek, Podkarpatskd Rus: vseobecny zemepis se zvlastnim zfetelem k zivotu lidu (Prague, 1924); Vadim Vladykov, Ryby Podkarpatskoi Rusi i ikh glavnieishie sposoby lovli (Uzhhorod, 1926); Aleksander Hrabar, "Ptatstvo Podkarpatskoi Rusy," Podkarpatska Rus', VIII, 7, 8, 9-10 (Uzhhorod, 1931), pp. 153-162, 181-188, and 198-212; Stepan Rudnyts'kyi, "Osnovy morfol'ogii i geologii Pidkarpats'koi Rusy i Zakarpattia vzahali," Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva 'Prosvita', IV and V (Uzhhorod, 192527), pp. 17-116 and 63-124; Jifi Krai et al., Borzava v Podkarpatske Rusi, 3 vols. (Bratislava, 1932-36); FrantiSek Wiesner, Vodstvo a minerdlni prameny Zeme podkarpatoruske (Uzhhorod, 1935); Aleksander Hrabar', "Khyzhoe ptatstvo Podkarpatia," Zoria/Hajnal, I, 1-2 and II, 1-2 (Uzhhorod, 1941-42), pp. 114-146 and 145-186; Vsevolod A. Anuchin, Geografiia Sovetskoho Zakarpat'ia (Moscow, 1956); S.M. Bradis, Polonyny Zakarpats'koi oblasti (Kiev, 1961); E.K. Lazarenko et al., Mineralogiia Zakarpat'ia (Eviv, 1963); O.T. Dibrova, Zakarpats'ka oblast': heohrafichnyi narys (Kiev, 1967); E.A. Lazarenko, Po Vulkanicheskim Karpatam (Uzhhorod, 1979); Kalynyk I. Herenchuk, ed., Pryroda Zakarpats'koi oblasti (Kiev, 1981); Jerzy Wrona, W Bieszczadach (Warsaw, 1985); V.L. Bodnar, ed., Pryrodni bahatstva Zakarpattia (Uzhhorod, 1987); Bohdan Strumins'kyi and Ihor Stebel's'kyi, "Heohrafiia," in Bohdan


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Strumins'kyi, ed., Lemkivshchyna: zemlia, liudy, istoriia, kul'tura, Vol. I (New York, 1988), pp. 25-146; Mikhail A. Golubets et al., Ukrainskie Karpaty: priroda (Kiev, 1988); Jadwiga Warszynska, ed., Karpaty Polskie:przyroda, czlowiek ijego dzialalnosc (Cracow, 1995); Robert Istok and Rene Matlovic, "Geografia Zakarpatska," in Zakarpatsko (Bratislava, 1995), pp. 15-80; Janusz Gudowski, Ukrainskie Beskidy Wschodnie, 2 vols. (Warsaw, 1997); Laszlo Boros, ed., Kdrpdtalja (Nyiregyhaza, 1999); I. Lemko and M. Petrovtsi, eds., Krashchi mineral 'ni vody Zakarpattia: putivnyk (Uzhhorod, 2002); Peter Jordan and Mladen Klemencic, eds., Transcarpathia—Bridgehead or Periphery? Geopolitical and Economic Perspectives of a Ukrainian Region (Frankfurt am Main, 2004), esp. pp. 97-194. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Gerbery, Sandor. See Presov Greek Catholic Teachers' College Gerlakhov Interpretive Epistle. See Literature: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region

German-Rusyn Friendship Society/Rusnaci (Ruthenen) Deutsch-Ruthenische-Freundschaft — the first Rusyn organization in western Europe. Founded in 1995 in Munich, Germany, the German-Rusyn Friendship Society has a membership of about 50 families, and another 150 participate in its activities. Most of its members are post-World War II Vojvodinian Rusyn immigrants and their descendants from former Yugoslavia who settled in Germany. The society also serves Vojvodinian Rusyn communities in neighboring Switzerland, Austria, and France. The organization's main goals are to maintain the cultural traditions and language of Vojvodinian Rusyns and to keep the German public and government circles informed about the minority status of Carpatho-Rusyns throughout Europe. It sponsors two major annual cultural events (the Kirbai in October and a midwinter ball), interacts with Rusyns in the Carpathians and Vojvodinian homeland (including participation in the *World Congress of Rusyns), and plans to support students studying Rusyn topics in German universities. The founding chairman (1995-2001) of the German-Rusyn Friendship Society was Silvester *Kukhar. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Germans — peoples from German and Austrian lands who have lived among Rusyns since the early medieval period. Individual Germans were attested in the Spish region as early as the tenth and early eleventh centuries. In subsequent centuries Hungary's kings invited German settlers not only to * Spish (in German: Zips) but also farther east to * Subcarpathian

Rus' as artisans, agriculturalists, and salt miners. The influx of German settlers rose sharply following the Mongolo-Tatar invasions of Hungary in the early 1240s. At that time colonists from Saxony (in Rusyn: Sasy) and other German states settled in the Subcarpathian foothills and Tisza/Tysa River valley, where they revived villages and towns plundered by the Mongolo-Tatar invaders. They also founded several new towns: Levoca, Kezmarok, Presov, Bardejov, Mukachevo-Palanok, Berehovo-Lamprechtsas, Vynohradovo/Sevliush, Khust, Vyshkovo, Tiachovo/Teutsch-Au, Sighet, and Solotvyno. The presence of German colonists initiated a body of legal relationships between the royal authority and free settlers on the basis of self-government and a system of privileges that resulted in a new system of urban law, such as the Sevliush Law. It was not long before Germans came to dominate the artisan trades, while German miners, who brought with them the newest technologies available at the time, controlled the salt industry. German colonization continued during the first decades of the sixteenth century, as the Reformation and peasant wars throughout German lands drove many people from their homeland. This was followed by a long lull in further colonization following the subsequent collapse of the Hungarian Kingdom after 1526 and the subsequent threeway struggle between the *Habsburgs, the Ottoman Empire, and Transylvania's Protestant Hungarian princes, during which Subcarpathian Rus' and the *Presov Region became the scene of numerous military conflicts. It was not until the eighteenth century, under Hungary's new rulers (by then the Habsburg dynasty based in Austria) that German colonization was renewed. The new owners of destroyed and often depopulated landed estates, in particular the *Schonborn magnate family, invited German colonists from their properties in Franconia. Between 1730 and 1750 they were settled on the Schonbora's Subcarpathian estates in villages around Mukachevo, including Verkhnii Koropets'/Ober-Schonborn, Shenborn/Unter-Schonborn, Pavshyn/Pausching, Kuchava/ Deutsch-Kutschowa, Berezynka/Birkendorf, Lialovo/ Madchendorf, and Barbovo/Barthaus. During the 1770s and 1780s, the Austrian imperial government took the initiative to develop a fledgling forest industry by settling Austro-German lumbermen from Upper Austria (the Salzkammergut) in the mountainous areas of *Maramorosh county, in particular to the villages of Komsomol's'k/Deutsch-Mokra and Ust'Chorna/Konigsfeld in the upper Teresva River valley. The last wave of settlement took place during the first half of the nineteenth century, again under the direction of the Schonborn landlords, who brought Austro-German colonists from Bohemia and Upper Austria to the area around Mukachevo at Sofiia/Sophiendorf and mostly north of the city along the Latorytsia valley toward Svaliava, at Suskovo Nove Selo/Erwinsdorf, Drachyny/Dorndorf, Klenovets'/UnterHrabowitz, and Syniak/Blaubad. Although the German colo-

136 nists in Subcarpathian Rus' were not from Swabia, the local Rusyns referred to them as Shvaby, perhaps because many German colonists in other parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were Danube Swabians. By 1910, in the six most heavily inhabited Rusyn counties (*Sharysh, *Zemplyn, *Ung, *Bereg, *Ugocha, and Maramarosh), 18,500 Germans lived in towns and another 94,000 lived in the countryside. In four villages in Bereg and Maramarosh counties (Komsomol's'k/Nimets'ka Mokra, Suskovo Nove Selo, Sofiia, and Syniak) Germans comprised over 90 percent of the inhabitants, while in another seven (Shenborn, Berezynka, Dubov/Dubi, Kuchava, Drachyny, Palianok/Plankendorf, and Pavshyn) they constituted over 70 percent of the population. Spish county had the highest number of Germans—38,500 (22 percent)—with particularly large concentrations in the towns of Kezmarok/Kasmark (51 percent) and Levoca (18 percent). The magyarization process at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries also had an impact on the Germans. As a result of the *Apponyi Law (1907) all German-language schools were replaced by Hungarian schools, and during World War I even privately operated German schools were closed. Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary in late 1918 a portion of Germans, especially those living in Subcarpathia's towns, left for Austria or Germany. Within the new Czechoslovak state German cultural life was gradually revived in the country's far eastern regions. Particularly important in this regard was the work of the German Cultural Union/Deutsche Kulturverband founded in 1921. By 1936,24 German-language schools were operating in Subcarpathian Rus', with a total of 2,021 students. The vast majority of the German population in Subcarpathian Rus' and eastern Slovakia did not welcome or support pro-Nazi fascist movements during the 1930s. Nevertheless, a significant number of Germans left their homes and fled westward with the German Army as it retreated before the advancing Soviet Army during the last months of World War II. Those who remained were stripped of their legal and civil rights by the post-World War II regimes in the Carpathian region. In Czechoslovakia the Spish Germans (Zipserdeutsche) were forcibly deported along with the Sudeten Germans to the eastern and western zones of Germany. In Soviet-ruled Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia German men were mobilized into work brigades and, on the basis of an order issued on January 1, 1946, by the Soviet secret police (NKVD), deported to the Donbas region of eastern Ukraine or to prison camps in the Gulag in Siberia. It should be noted that in Subcarpathian Rus' (as well as in the Presov Region) there was never any nationality conflict between Rusyns and Germans. Those Subcarpathian Germans who survived the rigors of deportation and internment in Siberia's Gulag began slowly to return semi-legally to their native villages in 1955. It was not until 1959, however, that they were legally permitted to return, and by that time there

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture were 4,230 living in Subcarpathian Rus'. Considering their unenviable fate in the Soviet Union after 1945, it is not surprising that many Germans took advantage of the Khrushchev political thaw to return to their ancestral homeland. By 2001 there were only about 3,600 Germans in Subcarpathian Rus'. In the post-Communist era they have established organizations (Wiedergeburt/Rebirth and Palanok) that sponsor German cultural events and promote the revival of German-language instruction in elementary schools. The economic crisis in independent Ukraine, however, has had a negative impact on the efforts of these cultural organizations and the exodus of Germans from Subcarpathian Rus' continues. In Slovakia only a few thousand Germans managed to survive the post-war deportations. Since the fall of Communism German cultural life has been revived in the Spish region, including the establishment of cultural organizations and German-language radio broadcasts from the studio for minority languages in Kosice. Further reading: Raimund Kaindl, Geschichte der Deutschen in den Karpathenldndern, 3 vols. (Gotha, 1907-11); Eduard Winter, Die Deutschen in der Slowakei und in Karpathorussland (Munster, 1926); Nikolaus G. Kozauer, Die Karpaten-Ukraine zwischen den beiden Weltkriegen unter besonderer Berticksichtigung der deutschen Bevolkerung (Esslingen am Neckas, 1979); Peter Svorc, ed., Spis v kontinuite casu/Zips in der Kontinuitdt der Zeit (Presov, Bratislava, and Vienna, 1995); Hryhorii V. Pavlenko, Nimtsi na Zakarpatti (Uzhhorod, 1995); Mykola Makara and Roman Ofitsyns'kyi, eds., Nimtsi na Zakarpatti, X-XX St., in Carpatica-Karpatyka, Vol. IV (Uzhhorod, 1995); Fedir Kulia/Kulja, Nimets 'kishkoly na Zakarpatti/ Deutsche Schulen in Transkarpatien (Uzhhorod, 1998); Georg Melika, Die Deutschen der Transkarpatien-Ukraine: Entstehung, Entwicklung ihrer Siedlungen und Lebensweise im multietnischen Raum (Marburg, 2002). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Gerovskii, Aleksei lulianovich (b. August 31, 1883, Eviv [Austrian Galicia], Ukraine; d. April 17,1972, New York, New York, USA) —journalist and political activist of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus' and the United States. Gerovskii's grandfather was the renowned nineteenthcentury Rusyn political leader, Adolf Dobrians'kyi, his father, the Galician Russophile cultural activist and politician, luliian Gerovskii. Together with his younger brothers *Georgii and Roman, Aleksei Gerovskii received his basic education from his grandfather Dobrians'kyi, who at the time was living in internal exile at Innsbruck in the Austrian province of Tyrol. Gerovskii received his entire formal education in German, first at the gymnasium in Innsbruck, which he completed in Chernivtsi, the administrative center of Austrian Bukovina, where he also attended university. In 1903, Aleksei, together with his brother Georgii, trav-

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture eled to Subcarpathian Rus', in particular to the village of Iza, which at the time was a center of the Orthodox revival. The brothers were arrested by the Hungarian authorities and held in prisons in Sighet and Budapest until released through the intervention of a Slovak member of the Hungarian Parliament (and future prime minister of Czechoslovakia), Milan Hodza. Aleksei eventually returned to Chernivtsi, where he published the Russian-language newspaper, Russkaia pravda (19101913). A Hungarian secret police agent ofRusyn background, Arnold Dulishkovych, got Aleksei and his brothers involved in the Orthodox movement in Subcarpathian Rus', encouraging them to attend the anti-Orthodox *Maramorosh Sighet trial (1913-1914), where they were again arrested by the AustroHungarian authorities and accused of Russophile agitation and anti-state activity. The brothers managed to escape to Russia; within a few months, Aleksei returned with the tsarist army when in September 1914 it invaded Austrian Galicia and Bukovina at the outset of World War I. This allowed Gerovskii to return to Chernivtsi, this time as the new tsarist Russian administration's "senior official for special matters." When the tsarist Russian Army was forced to retreat eastward during the spring of 1915 Gerovskii went as well; he served for the next two years as an advisor to Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs office for Austria-Hungary and the Balkans. Following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (November 1917) the pro-tsarist Gerovskii joined the White movement, publishing in lekaterynodar (present-day Krasnodar) the newspaper Edinaia Rus' (1918) and participating in General Denikin's Volunteer Army, then operating in Ukraine. The collapse of the anti-Bolshevik White movement and the annexation of Galicia by Poland and Bukovina by Romania left only one place for Gerovskii's political activity: Subcarpathian Rus'. In the 1920s he attempted to unite the various Russophile and Orthodox factions in the province. He became noted for his extremist views and harsh criticism of the Czechoslovak regime for not having fulfilled its treaty obligations (*St. Germain) concerning *autonomy for Subcarpathian Rus'. Gerovskii took part in the international minority congresses held in Geneva, Switzerland, where he spoke out against Czechoslovakia and its minister of foreign affairs, Edvard *Benes. Consequently, in 1927, he was expelled from Czechoslovakia. He then went to Yugoslavia, where he promptly established the Carpatho-Russian Committee/ Karpatorusskii komitet (1927-1929). In search of financing for his political activity, he emigrated to the United States. There he founded the Carpatho-Russian Union/Karpatorusskii soiuz (1935-1938), and with the funds received from Rusyn Americans he financed Russophile activity in Subcarpathian Rus'. He also established in New York City the ICARUS press agency (1936) to inform Rusyn Americans about the situation in Subcarpathian Rus' and Carpatho-Rusyns in Europe about the life of Rusyn Americans. Documents from Czechoslovakia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs seem to prove


that the KARUS press agency was financed by Nazi Germany and Hungary. At Gerovskii's initiative a *Carpatho-Russian Congress was held in New York City (February 12-13,1937); it submitted an ultimatum to the Czechoslovak government demanding that autonomy for Subcarpathian Rus' be implemented within 60 days. This move prompted further discussion in the Czechoslovak Parliament, which led to a law (1937) creating the first phase of Subcarpathian autonomy. During the critical months leading up to the Munich Pact of September 1938 Gerovskii actively supported Subcarpathia's autonomous movement. He led a delegation of Rusyn Americans that met with Czechoslovak government officials in Prague and then tried to unite *Russophiles and *Ukrainophiles in Subcarpathian Rus' behind a joint anti-Czechoslovak platform. As a result of this activity Gerovskii was again expelled from Czechoslovakia. He went this time to Budapest, where he held talks (October 1938) with government officials about their possible support of the Russophile orientation should Subcarpathian Rus' be annexed to Hungary. Following the failure of these talks he left for Yugoslavia. After Subcarpathian Rus'/Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary (March 1939), Gerovskii traveled once more to the region (June) to support Andrii *Brodii's campaign for autonomy. When it became clear that the autonomy promised by Hungary was not to be granted, Gerovskii returned to the United States. During the course of World War II he began to believe that the Soviet Union might be transformed. Hence he criticized the intention of the Czechoslovak governmentin-exile to include Subcarpathian Rus' once again within its borders after the war, and he wrote a letter to Stalin calling on him to annex the province to the Soviet Union. Once more Gerovskii's plans proved to be illusory, for while Stalin annexed Subcarpathian Rus', the Soviet Union declared all Rusyns to be Ukrainians. This was something that Gerovskii had always opposed. He spent his last years writing numerous articles for the Russophile American magazine, Svobodnoe slovo Karpatskoi Rusi, criticizing Soviet Communist rule in his homeland, in particular its Ukrainianization policies, as well as the papacy and what he derisively called the "Uniate" Church in exile. Further reading: A. Verkhovinets, "Aleksei lulianovich Gerovskii," in Oleg A. Grabar, ed., Putiami istorii, Vol. II (New York, 1979), pp. 246-260. IVAN POP

Gerovskii, Georgii lulianovich (b. October 6, 1886, Eviv [Austrian Galicia], Ukraine; d. February 5,1959, Presov [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — pedagogue and linguist of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region. Like his older brother, *Aleksei Gerovskii, Georgii began his gymnasium studies in the Austrian town

138 of Innsbruck where his parents (and grandfather *Adol'f Dobrians'kyi) were living. In 1895 the family moved to Chernivtsi, the administrative center of Austrian Bukovina; here Gerovskii completed the German gymnasium and then studied Slavic philology at the University of Chernivtsi (1907-1909). He continued work in Slavic and Indo-European linguistics at the University of Leipzig in Germany (1909-1911). During visits to Subcarpathian Rus' (1903 and 19131914) Georgii was twice arrested with his brother Aleksei by the Austro-Hungarian authorities, who accused them of Russophile and anti-state activity. The second time he fled with Aleksei to the Russian Empire (early 1914), where during World War I he served in the tsarist army on the southwestern front. Following the Bolshevik Revolution he taught Russian and German at the gymnasium in Saratov (1918-1922) and then worked at the University of Saratov library (1922-1924). In 1924 Georgii was invited by his brother to come to Czechoslovakia and to settle in *Subcarpathian Rus'. Georgii's efforts to establish a scholarly career there were blocked by local *Ukrainophiles; nevertheless, he published an extensive analysis of Mykha'il *Luchkai's *Church-Slavonic grammar (1930) and he was invited by the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences to undertake a study ofRusyn dialects. The result was a major article for the new Czechoslovak thematic encyclopedia, "Jazyk Podkarpatske Rusi" (1934; Russian trans., 1995). In this work and in a book-length critique of Volodymyr *Birchak's history of Rusyn literature (1943) Gerovskii rejected the view that Rusyn dialects and literature should be considered within the framework of Ukrainian. He was the first to create a cartographic framework for Subcarpathian Rusyn dialects, which he classified according to eight basic groups—Southern Maramorosh, Northern Maramorosh, Bereg, Uzh, Eastern Zemplyn, Western Zemplyn, Sharysh, and Spish—plus a few transitional dialects and the Verkhovyna dialects in northern Subcarpathian Rus', which he considered to be of "foreign (Galician) origin." In 1938 Gerovskii organized in Subcarpathian Rus' the short-lived Society of Scholarship and the Arts/Obshchestvo nauk i iskusstv. He remained in Uzhhorod after the return of Hungarian rule and published an elementary school grammar of the Russian language (1939) in the hope that it would be adopted for use in Subcarpathia's schools. When it was not accepted, he organized a publication that was critical of the government-sponsored grammar, Razbor grammatiki ugrorusskogo iazyka (1941). After the arrival of the Soviet Army Gerovskii was appointed a department head (referent) in the pro-Soviet National Council of Transcarpathian Ukraine (March 1945) but he soon came under the surveillance of the Soviet secret services, which seized his personal library and archive. Fearing the worst, he emigrated to Presov in Slovakia, where he taught the Russian language at Safarik

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture University and continued to publish (in Russian) on Rusyn themes. His publications included surveys of Rusyn history, dialects, and folk culture in northeastern Slovakia for a onevolume encyclopedia of the Presov Region (Priashevshchina: istoriko-literaturnyi sbornik, 1948). Further reading: P. Shima, "G.Iu. Gerovskii," Duklia, VII, 2 (Presov, 1959), pp. 65-66; I.S. Shlepetskyi, "Georgii lulianovich Gerovskii," Karpatorusskyi kalendar' Lemko-Soiuza na 1964 (Yonkers, N.Y., 1964), pp. 101-113. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

GertS, lurii. See Herts, lurii Gesta Hungarorum. See Anonymous Gets, Lev/Getz, Leon (b. April 13, 1896, Eviv [Austrian Galicia], Ukraine; d. December 16, 1971, Cracow, Poland) — artist, pedagogue, and cultural activist in the Lemko Region. After completing his training at the Academy of Art in Cracow (1925) Gets taught at the gymnasium in Sanok. There he became a co-founder and was director of the *Museum of the Lemko Region/Muzei Lemkivshchyna during its entire period of existence (1930-1944). After World War II Gets was under the constant surveillance of Poland's Communist authorities (provoking a suicide attempt in 1953), although by the 1960s he received several state awards for his art work. Many of his 3,500 paintings and drawings, depict scenes of Lemko life. Further reading: Leon Getz and Bronislaw Jaskiewicz, "Dzialahiosc artystyczno-malarska i muzealna Leona Getza ze szczegolnym uwzgl^dnieniem Ziemi Sanockiej," Materiafy Muzeum Budownictwa Ludowego w Sanoku, No. 15 (Sanok, 1972), pp. 49-56; Oleh Sydor, "Lev Gets i Muzei Lemkivshchyna v Sianotsi," Pamiatky Ukrainy, XXVII [110] (Kiev, 1995), pp. 153-158. BOGDAN HORBAL

GiritS, Vira. See Rusyn Minority Self-Government Glagolitic alphabet/Glagolitsa — generally considered the first alphabet for the Slavs. Created by *Constantine the Philosopher/St. Cyril, its name derives from the Slavonic glagol, which means "the word". Scholars disagree as to the source of Glagolitic letters, although the most widely accepted theory considers that they were derived from Greek cursive writing. The alphabet was used in Greater Moravia until the death in 885 of Constantine's brother and fellow missionary, Methodius; thereafter, it was used for a while in Bulgaria and Macedonia. It was from the Bulgarian Empire, which extended far north into the middle Danubian Basin, that the Glagolitic alphabet reached the Slavs living in the Upper Tisza/Tysa Region and as far east north as Novgorod (Kievan Rus'). Because


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture it was a complicated script (39 letters) the Glagolitic alphabet was gradually replaced by the *Cyrillic alternative. Virtually all manuscripts written in Glagolitic (with the exception of the so-called Kiev Folios) were destroyed in * Greater Moravia by Roman-rite monks and priests following the death of Methodius and the banishment of his disciples to the Balkans. There were short-lived attempts in the late fourteenth century to revive Glagolitic at the Emmaus Monastery in Prague and to introduce it in the Benedictine monastery at Kleparz near Cracow in Poland. It survived, however, only in a few Roman Catholic parishes in northwestern Croatia, particularly on the islands off the Dalmatian coast, where it was still being used in the early twentieth century. There has been much controversy concerning the Glagolitic alphabet, with some scholars (including the Rusyn Basilian monk Gorazd A. Tymkovych) arguing that Constantine/St. Cyril and Methodius created instead Cyrillic as the first alphabet for the Slavs. Beginning in the early tenth century, when the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was being pushed out of central Europe, persecution was especially strong in Roman-rite Dalmatia. There the local Slavic (Croatian) priests, wanting to preserve the cultural heritage brought to them by the Byzantine missionaries, deformed the Cyrillic letters into angular forms that did not resemble Greek. The result was Glagolitic, a new Slavic (Croatian) alphabet. Wherever the Cyril and Methodian tradition was persecuted, including in Greater Moravia and at times in the *Bulgarian Khanate, the visually non-Greek and therefore more acceptable (from the standpoint of the Roman Church) angular script was introduced, which allegedly explains the appearance of Glagolitic texts in those areas. When persecution ended, the Cyrillic alphabet was used widely once again, most especially in lands under the political hegemony of Bulgaria. Further reading: Vatroslav Jagic, "Glagolicheskoe pis'mo," in Entsiklopediia slavianskoifilologii, Vol. Ill (St. Petersburg, 1911), pp. 53-262; Alexander M. Schenker, The Dawn of Slavic (New Haven and London, 1995), pp. 165-182; Gorazd A. Timkovic, "Cyrilika je starsia ako glagolika," Krdsnobrodsky zbornik, III, 1-2 (Presov, 1998), pp. 5-207. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Glas Soiuzu. See Union of Rusyns and Ukrainians in Serbia and Montenegro Gliuk, Havrylo (b. May 19, 1912, Sighet [Hungarian Kingdom], Romania; d. November 2,1983, Uzhhorod [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — painter of Jewish heritage in Subcarpathian Rus'. After completing his training (1931-1933) at the Advanced School of Fine Arts in Budapest Gliuk moved to Romania, living in his native town of Sighet as well as in Bucharest and Chisinau/Kishenev in Bessarabia. After the

annexation of Bessarabia by the Soviet Union in 1940 Gliuk served in the Soviet Army during World War II. Following the war, he initially stayed in Chisinau and participated in several exhibitions of Moldavian painters, but in 1947 he moved to Uzhhorod in what was by then Soviet Transcarpathia. Gliuk was best known for his genre scenes and landscapes, which were within the style of the *Subcarpathian School of Painting. The work that brought him the most renown was the monumental Socialist Realist canvas, Lisoruby (The Wood Cutters, 1954), which was exhibited in Eviv, Kiev, Moscow, Warsaw, and Venice and at the 1958 World's Fair in Brussels. In the 1960s and 1970s Gliuk discontinued his Socialist Realist themes and painted neo-Impressionistic landscapes and still-lifes. His genre scenes, like Divchata vyishly vpole (Girls on Their Way to the Fields, 1960) and Vechir v pole (An Evening in the Fields, 1969), attest to the artistic crisis he was experiencing at that time. Further reading: Laslo Shandor, Havrylo Martynovych Hliuk (Kiev, 1959). IVAN POP

Glova, Ivan. See Rusyn National Union Goch, Fedor/Gocz, Teodor (b. June 28, 1929, Zyndranowa, Poland) — Lemko civic and cultural activist in Poland. Goch's elementary education begun in his native village was disrupted by the outbreak of World War II and the fall of Poland. He was never able to return to school, but did military service, first in the Soviet Army during the last year of the war and then in the Polish Army (1948). By then both his parents had settled permanently in Canada: his father had left before the war; his mother followed in 1945, as the entire Lemko population was beginning to be resettled and deported from their homes. Zyndranowa had become bereft of its inhabitants during the * Vistula Operation (1947), although as early as 1954 Goch was the first Lemko to return and live there. That same year he founded the first postwar cultural organization for *Lemkos, the *Zyndranova Amateur Artistic Ensemble. By the 1960s Goch had become one of the leading activists in the *Lemko Section of the government-supported Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society, for which he helped to establish the *Lemkovyna Song and Dance Ensemble (of which he was a member) and several smaller ensembles in villages where Lemkos were beginning to return (Bielanka, Komancza, Grab, Olchowiec, Tylawa, Polany, and others). He was also able to encourage relations with Lemkos living abroad, including the *Lemko Association of the USA and Canada (during several visits to his parents) and the *Lemko Region Society in Ukraine. In 1968 Goch established the *Museum of Lemko Culture in the original house of his parents in Zyndranowa. It was initially opposed by Poland's Communist authorities, which at one point had even destroyed


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

some of its outdoor displays. Goch managed, however, to restore and expand the museum, so that by the late 1980s it had become an important center of the Lemko revival and, at his initiative, the site of an annual cultural festival, Od Rusal' do lana (1992- ), and the editorial office of a new Lemkolanguage quarterly magazine, *Zahoroda (1994- ). Goch is the author of several one-act plays; the scenario to a film, Lemkivske vesillia (Lemko Wedding, 1956); a collection of satirical and humorous poems, Kume Hnate (1997); an autobiography, ZhytiaLemka (1999); and numerous articles and reports on Lemko life published in the Lemko and Ukrainian press in North America and Europe. Goch has consistently attempted to work with all Lemkos, regardless of their national orientation. While emphasizing the specificity of Lemko culture and language, he has never taken a definitive stance on Lemko national identity. Such a conciliatory and "ecumenical" approach has not always met with success. For instance, he was one of the founding executive board members (1990) of the *Union of Lemkos in Poland/Ob"iednannia Lemkiv v Pol'shchi, but soon after that organization adopted an uncompromising Ukrainian national orientation Goch was removed. He has since cooperated with the *Lemko Society/Stovaryshynia Lemkiv and other Rusynoriented Lemko organizations in Poland. Further reading: "Fedir Goch: in Honor of his 60th Birthday," in A Lemko People's Calendar, 1988-1991 (Yonkers, N.Y., 1991), pp. 40-42; laroslav Zvolin'skii, "Z dida-pradida," in Lemkivskii kalendar 1999 (Krynica and Legnica, 1999), pp. 102-104. BOGDAN HORBAL PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Goer, Mikhail. See Anthems Goga, Lawrence A. (b. July 25, 1932, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) — community activist of Rusyn descent in the United States. Goga worked for many years in law enforcement as a detective in his native city. In the 1980s he became interested in the Rusyn revival in the United States and in 1983 founded with John Haluska the *Rusin Association based in the state of Minnesota. Goga served as the association's first president (1983-2001) and founding editor (1987-2001) of its magazine, Trembita. He was also instrumental in establishing a distinct Carpatho-Rusyn section in the Immigrant History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Goida, Georgii/Hoida, lurii (pseudonym: G. Karpatskii) (b. March 15, 1919, Zniatsevo [Rus'ka Krai'na, Hungarian Soviet Republic], Ukraine; d. June 2,1955, Uzhhorod [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — poet and publicist in Subcarpathian Rus'. Goida studied at the Uzhhorod gymnasium, then at the faculty

of science and geography at the University of Debrecen in Hungary. While still a gymnasium student he began to write poetry in Russian, and his first collection in that language, filled with social themes and lyric romanticism, appeared during World War II, Zhivaia sin' (1943). Under the new post-1945 Soviet regime Goida began to write in Ukrainian (1947) and was appointed the head (1947-1954) of the Transcarpathian regional branch of the Union of Writers in Ukraine. As the official representative of Socialist Realism he sang the praises of his homeland "reborn" under Soviet auspices and of the joy over "reunification" with Ukraine. These themes were repeated each year in a new volume of his poetry and in several re-editions after his death. The only works of literary value in Goida's corpus are some of his lyric poems, his verses for children, and translations of Hungarian poetry. Further reading: Vasyl' Pop, lurii Hoida: literaturno-krytychnyi narys(Kiev, 1963). IVAN POP

Goidych, Pavel/Gojdic, Pavel (b. Petro Goidych, July 17, 1888, Ruske Pekl'any [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. July 17, 1960, Leopoldov [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — priest, theologian, and church hierarch of Rusyn national orientation in the Presov Region. After completing his gymnasium studies in PreSov (1907) Goidych received his theological formation at the Greek Catholic Seminary in Presov (1907-1908) and at the Central Theological Seminary in Budapest (1909-1911). Following his ordination as a Greek Catholic priest (1911) he served a short time in Rusyn parishes in the *Presov Region until he was appointed prefect (1912) of the Alumneum boarding school for boys in Presov and then secretary (1918-1922) of the episcopal office in Presov. In 1922 Goidych joined the *Basilian order at the *Mukachevo Monastery of St. Nicholas in * Subcarpathian Rus'. He then served as vice-superior of the Basilian Monastery in Uzhhorod (1924-1926) until being summoned back to Presov to serve as apostolic administrator of the eparchy. Early in 1927 he was consecrated bishop of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov. Goidych was particularly concerned with maintaining Rusyn as the language of instruction in Greek Catholic elementary schools throughout the *Presov Region, a policy which often angered patriotic Slovak publicists and local officials. He gradually became convinced that the only way for local Rusyns to avoid slovakization was if the Presov Region were united with Subcarpathian Rus', a position he emphasized during the critical months of 1938. Such attitudes, and his continuing defense of Rusyn national interests, did not endear him to the government of the World War II Slovak state. He even submitted his resignation; it was not, however, accepted by the pope, who instead raised him to the rank of eparch (ruling bishop) of the Eparchy of Presov (1940).


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture It was also during those years that Goidych helped to save hundreds of * Jews living in the territory within his eparchy from deportation to death camps in 1944. After the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in February 1948 Goidych refused to compromise his church's relations with the new government. When, following the Soviet model, the Czechoslovak Communist authorities organized a Church Council/Sobor at Presov (April 28, 1950) to abolish Greek Catholicism, Goidych remained intransigent in defending the Eparchy of Presov. In 1951 he was arrested, accused of anti-state activity (including support for Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists), and sentenced in a trial broadcast on Czechoslovak radio to life imprisonment. He died a decade later in Slovakia's political prison at Leopoldov. The canonization process urging the Vatican to declare Bishop Goidych a saint was begun by the *Byzantine Ruthenian Catholic Church in the United States in 1986 and has continued in Slovakia in 1995. In 2001, Goidych was beatified by Pope John-Paul II. Further reading: K. Barriova and E. Blaskova, Pavel Gojdic, OSBM, greckokatolicky biskup, 1888-1960: personalna bibliografia (Kosice, 1998); J.E. Pavel Gojdic, CSWJepiskopPrjasevskij, 19271947 (Presov, 1947); Athanasius B. Pekar, Bishop Paul P. Gojdich, O.S.B.M.: Confessor of Our Times (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1980); Mar"ian Potash, Zhyttia, viddane Bohovi: zhyttiepys preosviashchennoho Pavla Hoidycha, 2 vols. (Eviv, 1994-95); Marian Potas, Dar lasky: spomienky na biskupa Pavla Gojdica, OSBM (Presov, 1999).

based on the text of one of his literary works. Although he taught Russian literature and language Goidych wrote his own works in the traditional "CarpathoRusyn language" of *Dukhnovych and among hundreds of new teachers in the Presov Region promoted the view that Carpatho-Rusyns form a distinct nationality. Such views were most evident in the official newspaper of the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov, *Russkoe slovo, of which he was founding editor (1924-1928). When the post-World War II Communist regime came to power in Czechoslovakia it abolished the Greek Catholic Church (1950) and imprisoned Goidych's brother, Bishop Pavel *Goidych. In turn, Shtefan Goidych was forced with his family to leave the Presov Region. He spent the last years of his life living off charity in old people's homes in various parts of Slovakia. Further Reading: Mykhailo Roman, "Dyrektor 'Nashoi shkoly'," Druzhno vpered, XLII, 6 (Presov, 1992), pp. 17-18; Mykhailo Rychalka, "luvilei nashoi kul'tury: D-r Stepan Goidych," Nove zhyttia (Presov), August, 19, 1995, p. 3. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Golos russkago naroda. See Beskyd, Nykolai; Pryslopskii, Roman; Vyslotskii, Dymytrii Golovatskii, lakov. See Holovats'kyi, lakiv Fedorovych


Gomichkov, Aleksander. See Homichkov, Aleksander Goidych, Shtefan/Gojdic, Stefan (b. January 9,1889, Ruske Pekl'any [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. July 11, 1968, Modra [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — priest, pedagogue, and cultural activist of Rusyn national orientation in the Presov Region. After graduating from the gymnasium in Presov (1905) Goidych studied at the Central Theological Seminary (1906-1909) and the Advanced School of Education/Pedagogium (1909-1913) in Budapest. He completed his doctoral studies in Budapest in 1917 but was unable to publish his thesis until 1920, when under the changed political circumstances of the new state of Czechoslovakia he was awarded a Th.D. degree that was confirmed by Charles University in Prague. Goidych was ordained a Greek Catholic priest (1915) and appointed to the staff of the *Presov Greek Catholic Teachers' College, where for nearly four decades (1912-1939) he taught several subjects, in particular Russian language and literature, pedagogical thought, and psychology. He also served as director of the *Presov Teachers' College (1931-1939) and of its successor, the Rusyn State Teachers' Academy/Rus'ka derzhavna uchytel's'ka akademiia (19461949). During the interwar years, Goidych encouraged the formation at the Teachers' College of the student-run Dukhnovych Literary Circle, which performed several plays in Rusyn throughout the *Presov Region, including an operetta

Gomichkov, Nikolai. See Homichkov, Nykolai Goremyka, Vania. See Kercha, Ivan Gorgany. See Geography Gor'kust. See Kercha, Ivan Gorlice. See District Gorlice, Battle of— major battle during World War I (May 2-5,1915) near the Lemko Region in present-day southeastern Poland. In September 1914 the tsarist Russian Army invaded Austria-Hungary, occupied eastern Galicia and the *Lemko Region, and gained control of the Carpathian passes into Hungary. By the winter of 1914-1915 the Russian Army drove back the Austro-Hungarian Army from the southern side of the passes and threatened to enter the Danubian Basin. A turning point came in May 1915 when the Austro-Hungarian Army, together with its German allies, achieved a breakthrough between Gorlice and Tarnow resulting in what became known as the Battle of Gorlice (May 2-5). The battle also marked the beginning of the "great retreat" eastward of the tsarist


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

army, which led to the Russian Empire's loss of its Polish, Belarusan, Lithuanian, and in part Latvian provinces as well Galicia and Bukovina, which it had only recently occupied. After its defeat at Gorlice, the Russian Army lost the strategic initiative in World War I. During the Battle of Gorlice several Lemko villages were partially destroyed (Tylawa, Bartne, Bodaki, SwiajJcowa Wielka, Ropica Gorna, Krempna, Nieznajowa, and Rozstajne, among others). In those villages taken back by the Austro-Hungarian forces on the eve of the battle (Gladyszow, Wysowa, Blechnarka) the Lemko population was evacuated to the *Presov Region on the southern slopes of the mountains. The villages themselves were destroyed during the fighting. In villages held by the Russian Army the Lemko inhabitants were encouraged to join the Russians in their retreat eastward. Perhaps as many as 10,000 did so. Some managed to return home after the war, others remained in Russia permanently. Further reading: Leonhard Alfred Graf von Rothkirch, Gorlice— Tarnow: Unter Benutzung amtlicher Quellen, Der Grosse Krieg in Einzeldarstellungen, Vol. XXI (Oldenburg, 1918); M. Klimecki, Gorlice 1915 (Warsaw, 1991); Niel M. Heyman, "Gorlice—Tarnow: the Eastern Front in 1915," Army Quarterly and Defense Journal, CIX, 1 (Tavistock, England, 1979). BOGDAN HORBAL

Gorog katolikus szemle — a Hungarian-language newspaper and magazine serving the Greek Catholic Eparchies of Mukachevo and Hajdudorog at various times in the twentieth century. The Gorog katolikus szemle first appeared in Uzhhorod (1899-1918) as a weekly newspaper and official organ of the *St. Basil the Great Society; it continued to be published after 1902 by that organization's successor, the *Unio Book Publishing Company. For virtually its entire existence the newspaper was edited by Viktor *Kamins'kyi. The Gorog katolikus szemle reflected the views of that group of Greek Catholic clergy who, while remaining loyal to the Hungarian state and *Habsburg imperial throne, were nevertheless Rusyn patriots opposed to assimilation (magyarization) and in favor of Greek Catholic liturgical traditions and the use of *Church Slavonic and the *Cyrillic alphabet as a symbolic badge of their national identity. Among the newspaper's most important contributors were levmenii *Sabov, Vasylii *Hadzhega, Avhustyn *Voloshyn, and losyf *Kamins'kyi. Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary, the newspaper ceased publication in December 1918 and was replaced by the short-lived Hungarian-language Kdrpdt (1919). In the new post-World War I political conditions, Greek Catholics in post-Trianon Hungary established the National Union of Magyar Greek Catholics/Magyar Gorog Katolikusok Orszagos Szovetsege, which published a bi-weekly newspaper also called Gorog katolikus szemle (Budapest and Nyiregyhaza, 1929-44). Edited by Istvan Groh, it served the

*Greek Catholic Eparchy of Hajdudorog. The newspaper was not published during the period of Communist rule in Hungary, but was restored in 1990 in a magazine format; it is still published in Nyiregyhaza by the Greek Catholic Seminary of the Eparchy of Hajdudorog. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Gorogkatolikus hirlap. See Kutkafalvy, Miklos Gorzo, Valentine (b. 1869, Bilky [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. October 22, 1943, McKeesport, Pennsylvania, USA)—priest, community activist, and writer among Carpatho-Rusyns in the United States. After completing his high school (gymnasium) studies in Uzhhorod and Mukachevo, Gorzo attended the Greek Catholic Theological Seminary in Uzhhorod. In 1892 he was ordained a priest in the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo and assigned to the parish at Samudovce, in that part of the eparchy now in eastern Slovakia. In 1905, he emigrated to the United States and three years later was appointed priest to the large Ruthenian Greek Catholic parish in the Pittsburgh suburb of McKeesport, Pennsylvania, a post he was to hold nearly four decades until his death in 1943. Gorzo played an active role in Rusyn-American community life as spiritual advisor (1908-1943) to the *United Societies /Sobranije fraternal society and as editor (1917-1931) of its newspaper, *Prosvita/The Enlightenment. From this position as well as that of legal prosecutor for the Pittsburgh Greek Catholic Exarchate, Gorzo remained a loyal defender of the bishop during the celibacy controversy of the late 1920s and 1930s. He also maintained an on-going concern about the fate of his European homeland. He was a founding member of the * American National Council of Uhro-Rusyns, part of the delegation that met with President Woodrow Wilson to gain support for the Carpatho-Rusyn homeland, and a patron of the Subcarpathian Bank in Uzhhorod. Gorzo was a prolific writer and translator of liturgical books. Among his best known works is a didactic threeact "drama about the life of American Rusyns" entitled Fedorisinovy (1925), frequently performed by church-affiliated amateur theatrical groups, and a Rusyn-language history of the United States, Osnovna amerikanska istorija (1924), written as a textbook for use in parochial schools offering courses about the Carpatho-Rusyn heritage. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Gotval'd, Ivan. See Nashi stremleniia Goverla, I. See Nedzel'skii, Evgenii Graban, Wladyslaw. See Hraban, Volodyslav Grabar', Emmanuil Ivanovich. See Hrabar, Emanuil

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Grabar', Igor Emmanuilovich. See Hrabar, Ihor Grabar', Ol'ga Adol'fovna. See Hrabar, Ol'ga Grabets, Miroslav. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region Graitsar. See Kreitsar Grammaticus, J. See Haraida, Ivan Grazhdanka. See Cyrillic Alphabet Grdanicki, Damaskin. See Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachevo-Uzhhorod Grease. See Cinema Greater Bulgaria. See Bulgarian Khanate Greater Croatia. See White Croats Greater Moravian Empire — an early medieval West Slavic state based along the Morava River in what is the present-day eastern Czech Republic and western Slovakia. Following the disintegration of the *Avar Kaganate in the early ninth century a political vacuum opened up along the middle Danube River and the eastern fringes of the Prankish Empire. This vacuum was in large part filled by a Moravian state founded by the West Slavic leader Mojmir (r. 833-836). From its core in Moravia and western Slovakia the state's political influence rapidly expanded during the ninth century, so that during the reign of prince Svatopluk (870-894) it came to control much of Pannonia (the former center of Avar rule) toward the south and Bohemia and Lusatia in the northwest, as well as what is present-day southern Poland and eastern Slovakia, including part of * Subcarpathian Rus'. This larger entity, which came to be known as the Greater Moravian Empire, was destroyed by Magyar tribes at the outset of the tenth century. The cultural significance of Greater Moravia was to last long after the state ceased to exist. This is largely due to the fact that the second of Moravia's rulers, Rastislav (846869), had invited in 862-863 the Byzantine missionaries *Constantine/Cyril and Methodius to convert his people to Christianity and provide them with a written language. Subsequent Rusyn historical tradition attributes the establishment of the * Eparchy of MukachevO either to Constantine/ Cyril and Methodius themselves or to their disciples. The establishment of the Byzantine-rite *Eparchy of Przemysl in the 890s, which eventually had jurisdiction over Slavs and their Rusyn descendants living in the *Lemko Region,


was also connected with the eastward expansion of Greater Moravia. Over a millennium later, when at the close of World War I an entirely new political configuration was being formed in central Europe, ideologists in Czechoslovakia argued that their recently created state marked the resurrection of a political unity among Czechs, Slovaks, and Carpatho-Rusyns that had supposedly existed in Greater Moravia. Such views were acceptable to most Rusyn intellectuals, who claimed as their own the heritage of St. Cyril and Methodius and, by extension, that of Greater Moravia. Further reading: Francis Dvornik, Les Slaves, Byzance et Rome au IXsiecle (Paris, 1526); Francis Dvornik, The Slavs: Their Early History and Civilization (Boston, 1956); esp. pp. 80-102; Lubomir E. Havlik, Velka Morava a stfedoevropsti Slovane (Prague, 1964); Imre Boba, Moravia's History Reconsidered (The Hague, 1971); Josef Poulik and Bohuslav Chropovsky, eds., Velka Morava a pocdtky ceskoslovenske stdtnosti (Prague, 1985); Martin Eggers, Das "Grossmahrische Reich": Realitat oderFiktion? (Stuttgart, 1995); Dusan Tfestik, Vznik Velke Moravy (Prague, 2001). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA/Amerikanska greko-katoliceska russka cerkov vostocnoho obrjada — the oldest church serving Rusyn immigrants and their descendants in the United States. The first Greek Catholic parishes were established in the 1880s in eastern Pennsylvania; by World War I there were 152 parishes with about 500,000 members concentrated primarily in the northeast and northcentral United States. The churches not only provided a place of worship according to the Eastern Byzantine rite, they also became centers for Rusyn-American social, educational, and cultural activity. All Greek Catholic East Slavic immigrants from AustriaHungary were initially united in one jurisdiction under Bishop Soter *Ortynsky (reigned 1907-1916). In 1916, the Vatican established separate jurisdictions for Greek Catholics from Hungary (Rusyns, Magyars, Croats) and Greek Catholics from Galicia (Ukrainians as well as Lemkos). In 1924 Bishop Basil *Takach (r. 1924-1948) was appointed to head the newly established Ruthenian Catholic Exarchate of Pittsburgh under the jurisdiction of the Holy See in Rome. At the time it comprised 155 parishes with over 288,000 members. Subsequently, the exarchate became the Eparchy of Pittsburgh and new eparchies were established in Passaic, New Jersey, and Parma, Ohio (and later a third eparchy in Van Nuys, California), which in 1969 became part of an independent Metropolitan See of Munhall, later renamed the Metropolitan Province of Pittsburgh. By the late 1980s the four eparchies of the Pittsburgh Metropolitanate had about 284,000 members in 227 parishes. Throughout its early history the Greek (Byzantine


Ruthenian) Catholic Church suffered discrimination from the American Roman Catholic bishops and it was required by Vatican decrees (*Ea Semper, 1907; * Cum Data Fuerit, 1929) to adapt to American Catholic norms, including celibacy for priests and the transfer of legal ownership of church property to the bishop. Such restrictions provoked protests from both priests and the laity, many of whom abandoned Greek Catholicism for the *Russian Orthodox Church of America (especially before World War I) and subsequently for the newly established *American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Diocese (especially during the 1930s). In the second half of the twentieth century the Byzantine Ruthenian Catholic Church, particularly during the espiscopates of Bishops Daniel Ivancho (r. 1948-1954) and Nicholas Elko (r. 1955-1967), embarked on a policy of americanization, which meant adoption of English in the liturgical services, acceptance of Americans of non-Rusyn background into the church, and abandonment of some Byzantine-rite traditions, including removal of iconostases. Despite this trend toward de-ethnicization there were always priests and lay members who strove to preserve the Eastern traditions and the original Rusyn national character of the church. Among these have been priests such as Nicholas Chopey (1876-1961) and Valentine *Gorzo, who after World War I took an active part in the *American National Council of Uhro-Rusyns. During the interwar years priest-writers, including Joseph *Hanulya, Emilij A. *Kubek, George/Jurion Thegze (1883-1962), and Stefan *Varzaly and laypersons Peter *Zeedick and Adalbert Smor promoted Rusyn cultural identity while defending the Eastern Christian traditions of the church. Even during the americanization period following World War II priest-historians such as Stephen Gulovich (1910-1957), John *Slivka, Basil *Shereghy, and Athanasius *Pekar published widely on Rusyn themes in the church's official newspapers, the * Byzantine Catholic World and Eastern Catholic Life (1965- ). Efforts to restore the traditional Eastern practices and to revise an interest in the Rusyn heritage were particularly noticeable during the episcopates of Metropolitan Stephen *Kocisko of Pittsburgh (1969-1991) and Bishop Michael J.*Dudick of Passaic (1968-1995). Aside from the establishment of heritage museums for the Archeparchy of Pittsburgh (1971) and the Eparchy of Passaic (1972), the Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA has also provided assistance to Rusyn Greek Catholics in the eparchies of *Presov (Slovakia), *Nyiregyhaza (Hungary), and *Mukachevo (Ukraine). The Greek Catholic seminaries in each of those eparchies have received financial support from Rusyn-American Greek Catholics both in the interwar years and in the postCommunist 1990s. Further reading: Stephen C. Gulovich, "The Rusin Exarchate in the United States," Eastern Churches Quarterly, VI (London, 1946), pp. 459-485; Walter C. Warzeski, Byzantine Rite Rusins in Carpatho-

Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture Ruthenia and America (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1971); and John Slivka, Historical Mirror: Sources of the Rusin and Hungarian Greek Rite Catholics in the United States of America, 1884-1963 (Brooklyn, N.Y., 1978); Paul Robert Magocsi, "Rusyn Catholics in America," in The Encyclopedia of American Catholic History (Collegeville, Minn., 1997), pp. 1221-1224. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greek Catholic Carpatho-Russian Benevolent Association Liberty. See Liberty Association Greek Catholic Central Seminary — institution connected to the University of Vienna for the training of Rusyn and other Greek Catholic seminarians from all parts of Austria-Hungary. After the *Stadtkonvikt Seminary was closed in 1848 the Greek Catholic bishops from Galicia and Hungary petitioned the emperor to establish a new institution. They argued that a seminary in Vienna would allow students access to better educational facilities and libraries, help them learn German, and in general promote greater unity among the various nationalities of the Habsburg Empire. In 1852 the new institution was opened in the building of the former Stadtkonvikt, where it was to function until 1893. The number of students ranged from 30 to 50, and their geographical (eparchial) composition changed often. Whereas seminarians from Galicia (including the *Przemysl Eparchy covering the *Lemko Region) were always present, those from Hungary (the *Eparchies of Mukachevo and Presov) were enrolled only until 1873. After that year, seminarians from the Eparchies of Mukachevo, Presov, and Krizevci were sent to seminaries in the Hungarian Kingdom, including the Central Seminary in Budapest. Of the 368 students who attended the Greek Catholic Central Seminary in Vienna during its entire existence, 28 were from the Eparchy of Presov, 25 from Mukachevo, 13 from *Krizevci, and 40 were of Lemko origin. Several were to rise to prominent rank, including the future Greek Catholic bishops lulii *Firtsak of Mukachevo and luliian Pelesh of Przemysl. Other alumni—Kyryl *Sabov, Aleksii *Toronskii, and levhenii *Fentsyk—became leading Rusyn and Lemko cultural activists. Further reading: Dmytro Blazejovskyj, Byzantine Kyivan Rite Students, Analecta OSBM, Series II, Sctio I, Vol. 43 (Rome, 1984), pp. 236-272. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greek Catholic Eparchy of Hajdudorog — eparchy serving Byzantine-rite Christians in union with Rome living within the current boundaries of Hungary. The idea for the creation of the Hajdudorog Eparchy was connected with the

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture increasing demands put forth by priests and the laity in the second half of the nineteenth century for the use of the Hungarian language in Greek Catholic parishes located for the most part in what is currently northeastern Hungary. This came to be known as the Hajdudorog Movement and was headed by the military officer Lajos Farkas (1821-1884). From the outset (1866), the Vatican made it clear that it forbade the use of the Hungarian language in the Divine Liturgy. In 1873 the Hungarian government created the Vicariate of Hajdudorog (33 parishes with nearly 50,000 faithful) for "Greek Catholic Hungarians" in the southwest corner of the *Eparchy of Mukachevo. The entire Byzantine-rite liturgy was translated into Hungarian (1879), and despite Vatican restrictions the language was used in homilies and in several parts of the Divine Liturgy. When, in 1896, this situation came to the attention of Rome, the pope issued a decree prohibiting the use of Hungarian liturgical books and ordering the clergy of the Hajdudorog Vicariate to restore Church Slavonic in the Divine Liturgy. For the next 15 years pro-Hungarian Greek Catholic activists sent several petitions to the Vatican and participated in a large-scale pilgrimage to Rome (1900) calling for recognition of Hungarian as a legitimate liturgical language. When this tactic failed they proposed the creation of a separate Greek Catholic eparchy to encompass all parishes where Hungarian was spoken. The leading activists behind this movement were the magyarized Rusyn banker and member of the upper house of the Hungarian Parliament, Jeno Szabo (1843-1921), and his son-in-law, Emil Melles (1857-1932), the priest at the Greek Catholic parish in Budapest, who, despite the Vatican's restrictions, continued to celebrate the liturgy in Hungarian. To mobilize fellow assimilated Rusyns in support of their goals, Szabo and Melles established in 1898 the National Committee of Magyars of the Greek Catholic Faith/Gorogkatolikus szertartasu magyarok orszagos bizottsaga. In short, the drive to create a new Greek Catholic eparchy came from the Hajdudorog Movement and from priests (Emil Melles, Aladar Romanecz, and Andor Hodobay) and secular professionals living in Budapest (Jeno Szabo, Endre Rabar, Kalman Demko, Emil Demjanovics, Ignac Roskovics, and Jozsef *Illes) of Rusyn heritage who had assimilated to Hungarian culture and who wanted to promote Hungarian state patriotism and a Magyar national identity among the largest number of their co-religionists, regardless of whether they were of Rusyn or Magyar nationality. For its part, the Hungarian government's support for a new eparchy was motivated by two concerns: (1) it was responding to the demands of Greek Catholic *Magyars and magyarized Rusyns who felt alienated from a church structure (the Eparchy of Mukachevo) headed by a different nationality (Rusyns); and (2) it was trying to strengthen the number of Magyars vis-a-vis other nationalities as part of its general magyarization policy throughout the kingdom.


While the Vatican upheld its 1896 decree and repeatedly rejected requests for recognition of Hungarian as a liturgical language, it eventually accepted the Hungarian government's proposal (spearheaded by the lobbying efforts of Jeno Szabo and others) for the creation in June 1912 of the Eparchy of Hajdudorog. In contrast to the Hajdudorog vicariate created in 1873, the new eparchy was much larger, consisting of 162 parishes (70 from the Eparchy of Mukachevo, 8 from Presov, 44 from Oradea/Nagyvarad, and 4 from Gherla/Szamosujvar —see Map 6). To these were added another 35 parishes (mostly Hungarian-speaking Szekelys) from the Fagaras/Fogaras Eparchy in southeastern Transylvania and the Greek Catholic parish in Hungary's capital of Budapest. Of the 215,000 faithful in the Hajdudorog Eparchy, an estimated 87 percent were Hungarian-speaking (including magyarized Rusyns), 10 percent Romanian, and 3 percent "Slavic." Included within the eparchy's boundaries was the Basilian Monastery and popular pilgrimage site at *Mariapocs. The first bishop was Istvan Miklosy (1857-1937, consecrated 1913), who in 1914 made Nyiregyhaza the episcopal residence, which it remains to this day. With regard to the controversial *language question, Rome agreed that the new eparchy could be created, provided that Greek (the alleged original liturgical language of Eastern Christians in that part of Hungary) would be used in the liturgy. A papal decree required that the Hajdudorog clergy learn Greek within three years but this never happened: the Hungarian language was simply used in direct violation of the Vatican's proscription against "living" languages (vernaculars). In the end, the Eparchy of Hajdudorog effectively became an instrument of magyarization within the remaining Rusyn villages located in *Borshod/Borsod county and in the southern parts of *Abov-Turna/Abauj-Torna and *Zemplyn/ Zemplen counties. After World War I the parishes that came under Romanian rule were returned to the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Oradea, so that Hajdudorog's eparchial boundaries coincided with the new international borders of Hungary. Hajdudorog has approximately 279,000 faithful (1995) in 126 parishes located primarily in the northeastern part of Hungary as well as in its capital Budapest. Further reading: Jeno Szabo, A gorog-katolikus magyarsdg utolso kdlvdria-utja, 1896-1912 (Budapest, 1913); Jeno Szabo and Emil Melles, eds., Emlekkonyv a gorog szertartasu magyarok romai zarandoklatdrol (Budapest, 1901; repr. 2000); Gyula Grigassy, A magyar gorog katolikusok legujabb tortenete (Uzhhorod, 1913); Cyril Korolevsky, Living Languages in Catholic Worship (London, New York, and Toronto, 1957), pp. 23-45; Gabriel Adrianyi, "Die Bestrebungen der ungarischen Katholiken des byzantinischen Ritus um eigene Liturgie und Kirchenorganisation um 1900," Ostkirchliche Studien, XXI (Wurzburg, 1972), pp. 116-131; Imre Timko,ed.,Jubileumiemlekkdnyve, 1912-1987 (Nyiregyhaza, 1987); Istvan Pirigyi, A magyarorszdgi gorogkatolikusok tortenete, 2 vols.


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

(Nyiregyhaza, 1990); Istvan Pirigyi, A gorogkatolikus magyarsag tortenete (Budapest, 1991); James Niessen, "Hungarians and Romanians in Habsburg and Vatican Diplomacy: The Creation of the Diocese of Hajdudorog in 1912," The Catholic Historical Review, LXXX, 2 (Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 238-257; Maria Mayer, The Rusyns of Hungary: Political and Social Developments, 1860-1910 (New York, 1997), pp. 153-189. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greek Catholic Eparchy of Krizevci — administrative entity for Byzantine-rite Christians in union with Rome residing throughout the former Yugoslavia. The eparchy traces its origins to the first half of the seventeenth century, when Rome formed the Marca, or Vratanija Eparchy. It was intended for Orthodox Serbs and Croats (known as uskoky and zumbercany}, who fled from Ottoman Turkish rule, settled in the Austrian Empire, and accepted the *Unia/Church Union with Rome. The bishops of Marca/Vratanija were initially subordinate to the Roman Catholic bishops of Zagreb until 1777, when Rome created the independent Eparchy of Krizevci for all Greek Catholics living at the time under Austrian Habsburg rule, that is, in the territories of Croatia-Slavonia and the Bachka (i.e., the present-day *Vojvodina region west of the Danube River) within the Hungarian Kingdom. Of the approximately 5,000 faithful in the new eparchy, about four-fifths were zumbercany (Croats) living in the Slavonia region of Croatia, the remainder were Rusyns, who since 1745 had begun settling in the *Bachka from where some moved to the neighboring eastern Slavonia and Srem regions. For these three regions (Bachka, Srem, eastern Slavonia) the Krizevci Eparchy established the so-called Osijek Vicariate. After World War I Rome extended the authority of the Eparchy of Krizevci to the entire territory of the new state of Yugoslavia. Consequently, the eparchy came to include among its faithful Ukrainians and some *Lemkos from Galicia, who had migrated to Bosnia during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as well as some Orthodox adherents in Macedonia who, in 1860, had accepted the union with Rome. By the mid-twentieth century the nationality composition of the eparchy had changed; of the 50,000 faithful at the time, over half were Vojvodinian Rusyns with the remainder divided among Croats, Ukrainians, and Macedonians. From its beginnings the seat of the eparchy has been in the small town of Krizevci in Croatia (western Slavonia); its priests are trained in the Greek Catholic Seminary in Zagreb, which dates from 1690. Beginning with its first bishop, Vasilije Bozickovic (r. 1777-1785), until 1891 all the eparchy's bishops were of Croatian background. lulii Drohobets'kyi (r. 1891-1920) was the first bishop ofRusyn background and after him all have been Rusyn natives of the *Vojvodina: Dionisii *Niaradii (r. 1920-1940), Havrii'l Bukatko (r. 1952-1981), loakim Segedi (r. 1981-1984), and Slavomir Miklovsh (r. 1983- ).

Although some of these bishops may have received advanced theological training in Ukrainian Greek Catholic seminaries and equally might have become sympathetic to the Ukrainian national orientation, they have remained strong supporters of the local Vojvodinian Rusyn culture and language. Religious publications intended for Vojvodinian Rusyns have always been published in their own language; *Church Slavonic is used in the Divine Liturgy, and Rusyn is used in homilies and other church celebrations. Bishop Niaradii was a strong financial supporter of the group's first cultural organization, the *Rusyn National Enlightenment Society, whose only two chairmen, Mikhailo *Mudri and Diura *Bindas, were Greek Catholic priests in the Krizevci Eparchy. The Rusyn Enlightenment Society's clerical leaders were instrumental in the decision to adopt the vernacular Rusyn language spoken in the Vojvodina for use in publications and education, and it was another Greek Catholic priest from the region, Havrii'l *Kostel'nik, who codified the language and became the "father" of its literature. Subsequently, Bishop Bukatko translated the Gospels into Vojvodinian Rusyn (1985). The post-1989 Rusyn national revival has also had its supporters among the Greek Catholic clergy, including the Vojvodinian priest loakim *Kholoshniai. The boundaries of the Eparchy of Krizevci have changed several times in the course of the twentieth century, depending on the political fortunes of Yugoslavia. They expanded from Croatia-Slavonia and the Bachka-Srem to include all of Yugoslavia when that state first came into being in late 1918. But when Yugoslavia was dismantled in 1941 the Krizevci Eparchy was limited to the territory of the Croatian state while the Vojvodina west of the Danube River (by then again ruled by Hungary) was detached and formed into a separate *Bachka/Backa Apostolic Administration headed by the Roman Catholic archbishopric of Kalocsa. With the restoration of Yugoslavia in 1945 the unity of the Krizevci Eparchy was restored to cover all the republics of the federal state. After 1978 the areas where Rusyns lived (Vojvodina, Srem, and eastern Slavonia) became part of the eparchy's Vojvodina Vicariate, consisting of 18 parishes with its seat in Ruski Kerestur. When after 1992-1993 Yugoslavia was radically reduced in size, the Eparchy of Krizevci (whose bishop moved his residence to Zagreb since the 1980s) remain a single unit responsible for administering to Greek Catholics in four countries: Yugoslavia (including the Vojvodina), Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Slovenia. At the time the eparchy had 50 parishes with approximately 49,000 faithful (1995), of whom 50 percent were Rusyns. In 2003, the eparchy of Krizevci was reduced in size so that its boundaries now coincide with the state borders of Croatia. As a result, the number of faithful is about 10,000, of whom only a small number are Rusyns who live in the far eastern part of the country—the Srem. Further reading: Havrii'l Kostel'nyk, "Kryzhivs'ka eparkhiia," Nyva,

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture XXVI (Eviv, 1932), pp. 134-139, 168-179, 209-215 and XXVII (1933), pp. 143-147 and 175-181; loakim Segedi, "200-rochni iuvilej Krizhevskei eparkhii'," in Khristiianskii kalendar 1978 (Ruski Kerestur, 1977), pp. 33-85); loakim Segedi, "Parokhi'i Osetskoho vikariiata," in Khristiianskii kalendar 1980, 1981, 1982 (Ruski Kerestur, 1979-81), pp. 109-150, 76-110, and 49-90. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo — the oldest eparchy among Byzantine-rite Christians in the Hungarian Kingdom. Until the early nineteenth century it included over 800 parishes in *Abov, *Bereg, *Borshod, Gemer, Hajdu, *Maramorosh,*Sharysh, Sotmar (Hungarian: Szatmar), Sobolch (Szabolcs), *Spish, Turna,*Ugocha, *Ung, and *Zemplyn counties. The origins of the eparchy are in dispute. Some scholars have argued that the eparchy was created by Sts. *Cyril and Methodius or by their disciples in the second half of the ninth century (863 is given as the symbolic founding date). Others suggest it was created either in 1360 at the time that Fedor *Koriatovych allegedly founded the *Mukachevo Monastery of St. Nicholas, or in the first half of the fifteenth century (between 1439 and 1445), when the archimandrite Luka administered the monastery. The earliest surviving written evidence about the eparchy, however, dates from the year 1491, when there is clear reference to loann as the first bishop (r. 1491-1498). Mukachevo was a monastic eparchy, that is, its seat was the Monastery of St. Nicholas on Chernecha Hora near Mukachevo, whose superiors/archimandrites were simultaneously bishops. The eparchy's archimandrites/bishops were until the end of the seventeenth century elected by a monastic council (sobor), then consecrated by archimandrites/bishops from the surrounding area, all of whom were in communion with the Orthodox ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople. As a result of the movement on behalf of the *Unia, or Church Union, the eparchy became Uniate (only later renamed Greek Catholic) following the signing of the Union of Uzhhorod in April 1646. Nevertheless, its first bishops, Vasylii *Tarasovych (r. 1634-1648) and *Parfenii Petrovych (r. 16491665), who were in office during the crises of the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and the revolts of Transylvania against *Habsburg rule, remained caught in the middle of conflicting religious and political factions. For instance, following the episcopate of Bishop Parfenii, who was a strong proponent of the Unia/Union, various parts of the Mukachevo eparchy were still being administered by Orthodox bishops—loanykii *Zeikan (r. 1658-1687, intermittently), the wandering losyf Voloshynovs'kyi (r. 1670-1673), Porfirii Kul'chyts'kyi/Ardan (r. 1681-1686)—as well as by Uniate/Greek Catholic bishops—Dymytrii Monastelli (r. 1685-ca. 1688) and Mefodii Rakovets'kyi (r. 1687-1689). In an attempt to bring some order into the Mukachevo Eparchy the Catholic Primate of Hungary, Leopold Kollonich, was able to convince Rome to appoint the Basilian monk


from Italy of Greek origin, Joseph *De Camelis, as bishop (r. 1690-1706). In keeping with Roman practice (Fourth Lateran Council of 1215) that there cannot be two bishops within one diocese, De Camelis and his immediate successors—loann Hodermars'kyi (r. 1707-1715), Georgii Genadii *Bizantsi (r. 1716-1733), Symeon Ol'shavs'kyi (r. 1734-1738), Havriil *Blazhovs'kyi (r. 1738-1742), Mykhail Manuil *Ol'shavs'kyi (r. 1743-1767), and loann *Bradach (r. 1767-1772)—were only vicars (auxiliary bishops), jurisdictionally subordinate to the Roman Catholic bishop of *Eger. After several efforts made by these bishops, the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa finally issued a decree in 1771, subsequently approved by Rome, that created a jurisdictionally independent Mukachevo Eparchy no longer subordinate to Eger. It was also at this time that the eparchy was formally renamed Greek Catholic. Until 1766, all bishops of the Mukachevo Eparchy had their residence at the Basilian monastery on Chernecha Hora just outside Mukachevo, then from 1766 within the city of Mukachevo itself. During the episcopate of Bishop Andrii *Bachyns'kyi (r. 1772-1809), the eparchy retained its historic name but its seat was moved to Uzhhorod (1780), where it remains to this day. Following the death of Bachyns'kyi the Mukachevo Eparchy experienced its first division: 192 parishes were removed from its western counties (Abov, Borshod, Gemer, Spish, Sharysh, and part of Zemplyn) to create in 1818 the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov. Five years later 72 parishes from Sotmar/Szatmar county in the south were transferred to the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Oradea/Nagyvarad, and in 1853 another 94 parishes were transferred to the Eparchy of Gherla/Szamosujvar. Finally, in 1912, 68 parishes from the southwestern part of the Mukachevo Eparchy were transferred to the newly created *Eparchy of Hajdudorog. Thus by the outbreak of World War I the Eparchy of Mukachevo was basically limited to the territory of *Subcarpathian Rus' and far eastern Slovakia, which after the conflict was to become part of the new state of Czechoslovakia (see Map 6). During the period of Czechoslovak rule the Mukachevo Greek Catholic Eparchy faced a serious challenge, as nearly one-third of its parishioners left to join the Orthodox Church. This movement, called "the return to the old faith," was particularly strong during the 1920s. Relations with the Czechoslovak government were also initially strained. Many of the eparchy's priests were accused of being *magyarones, and Bishop Antonii *Papp left his seat in Uzhhorod and settled permanently in Hungary after refusing to swear the required oath of allegiance to the new Czechoslovak state. Other problems concerned church dues and priests' salaries, which remained unregulated until the passage of special laws in 1926. It was the post-World War II era, however, that brought the greatest challenges. In 1949 the Soviet regime in Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia declared the 1646 Union

148 null and void and formally abolished the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo. The reigning bishop, Teodor *Romzha, was murdered (1947) and those priests who refused to renounce Catholicism and join the Orthodox Church were arrested and imprisoned. Greek Catholic churches were turned over to the *Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachevo for its use; other Greek Catholic property (episcopal palace in Uzhhorod, seminary, schools, landed estates) was confiscated by the state. Despite such repression, the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo continued to survive during the Soviet era as an "underground" church with a secret hierarchy. In the late 1980s, as a result of the political changes that rocked the Soviet Union, the hierarchy came "out from the underground," and in 1989 the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo was allowed to function as a legal entity with 209 registered parishes (in comparison to 289 at the time of its liquidation in 1949). With the help of the *Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the United States a new Greek Catholic Seminary was opened in Uzhhorod (1995). In terms of jurisdiction, the eparchy was restored on the basis of historic tradition and canon law, whereby it retains its status as a distinct church community (ecclesia sui juris) directly under the authority of the Holy See in Rome. This status was criticized by Ukrainian nationalists within and beyond the church, and it has resulted in internal division among the hierarchs. A portion of the priests, who are pro-Ukrainian and led by the auxiliary bishop of Khust, Ivan Margitych (r. 1989-2003), demanded that the Eparchy of Mukachevo become part of the jurisdiction of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Metropolitanate of Eviv, based in neighboring historic Galicia. The other and larger portion of priests led by Bishop Ivan Semedi (r.19892003) argued against changing the traditional jurisdictional status of the eparchy. After investigating this problem the Vatican declared (1993) that the jurisdictional status of the Eparchy of Mukachevo shall remain unchanged and that the auxiliary bishops existing at the time be given specific responsibility for the faithful ofRusyn and Hungarian background (Holovach) and of Ukrainian orientation (Margitych). Recognizing the multinational composition of the eparchy, the Holy Liturgy may be conducted in *Church Slavonic, Ukrainian, or Hungarian. Traditionally, the Eparchy of Mukachevo has been associated with the Rusyn people. This became the case especially after the territorial restructuring in the nineteenth century; by 1912 the eparchy had been reduced primarily to Rusyninhabited villages. In terms of its relationship to the Rusyn nationality, however, the eparchy has at different times adopted a positive, a negative, or a contradictory position. By the second half of the nineteenth century several of its bishops (Shtefan *Pankovych, Antonii *Papp) and their close associates in the eparchial administration were Hungarian state patriots and supporters of magyarization. At the same time, virtually all the leading Rusyn national awakeners and the

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture strongest opponents of magyarization were Greek Catholic priests (Aleksander *Dukhnovych, Aleksander *Pavlovych, Ivan *Sil'vai, levhenii *Fentsyk, and Avhustyn *Voloshyn, among others). Until World War I, Rusyn newspapers, organizations, and the widely read annual almanacs/*misiatsoslov were all either operated by or closely linked to the Eparchy of Mukachevo. In the interwar period of Czechoslovak rule, as well as during the World War II period under Hungary, the eparchy's hierarchs (Petro *Gebei, Aleksander *Stoika) and many of its priests (Emilian *Bokshai, Ivan *Muranii) were among the strongest supporters of the view that Rusyns form a distinct nationality. Since the restoration of the Eparchy of Mukachevo in 1989 opinion with respect to the Rusyn national idea among its hierarchs and priests has continued in the tradition of either a positive, negative, or contradictory position regarding the Rusyn national idea. Further reading: Mykhailo Luchkai, Istoriia karpats 'kykh Rusyniv, 6 vols. (1843, Uzhhorod, 1999-2005); Antal Hodinka, A munkacsi gorog-katholikus puspokseg tortenete (Budapest, 1910); Antal Hodinka, ed.,^4 munkacsi gorog-szertatdsupuspokseg okmdnytdra, Vol. I: 1458-1715 (Uzhhorod, 1911); Vasylii Hadzhega, "Dodatky k istorii Rusynov y rus'kykh tserkvei: v Maramoroshi," Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva "Prosvita," I (Uzhhorod, 1922), pp. 140-228, "... vUzhanskoizhupi,"II(1923),pp. 1-64 and III (1924), pp. 155239, "... v zhupi Ugocha," IV (1925), pp. 117-176 and V (1927), pp. 1-62, "... v zhupi Zemplynskoi," VII-VIII (1931), pp. 1-167, IX (1932), pp. 1-67, X (1934), pp. 17-120, XI (1935), pp. 17-182, XII (1937), pp. 37-83; Aleksander Baran, "Podil mukachivs'koi eparkhii v XIX storichchi,",4«a/ecta OSBM, IV, 3-4 (Rome, 1963), pp. 534-569; Atanasii Pekar, Narysy istorii tserkvy Zakarpattia, 2 vols. (Rome, 1967-97)—English-language revised ed. of Vol. I: A History of the Church in Carpathian Rus' (New York, 1992); Uzhhords'kii Uni'i—350 rokiv: materialy mizhnarodnykh naukovykh konferetsii (Uzhhorod, 1997); Jozsef Botlik, Hdrmas kereszt alatt: gorog katolikusok Kdrpdtaljdn az ungvdri uniotol napjainkig, 1646-1997 (Budapest, 1997); Ivan M. Hranchak, ed., Vazhlyvi vikhy v istorii Mukachivs 'koi hreko-katolyts 'koi ieparkhii (Uzhhorod, 1998); Paul Robert Magocsi, "Adaptation Without Assimilation: The Genius of the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo," in idem, Of the Making of Nationalities There is No End, Vol. II (New York, 1999), pp. 194204; Istvan Bendasz, Reszletek a Munkacsi Gorog Katolikus Egyhazmegye tortenetebol (Uzhhorod, 1999); Omelian D. Dovhanych and Oleksii V. Khlanta, Uzhornach stalins 'kykh represii (Uzhhorod, 1999); Volodymyr Fenych, "Tserkovna polityka uhors'koho uriadu ta natsional'no-polirychna zaanhazhovanist' hreko-katolyts'koho i pravoslavnoho dukhovenstva Zakarpattia (berezen' 1939-zhovten' 1944 rr.)," Carpatica-Karpatyka, Vol. XX (Uzhhorod, 2002), pp. 61103; Volodymyr Fenych, "Konfesiino-natsional'nyi portret suchasnoho hreko-katolyts'koho sviashchenyka Mukachivs 'koi' ieparkhii," Carpatica-Karpatyka, Vol. XXI (Uzhhorod, 2003), pp. 238-259. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov — eparchy serving Byzantine-rite Christians in union with Rome (primarily Rusyns and Slovaks) within the current boundaries of Slovakia. The eparchy traces its origins to 1787, when the Vicariate of Kosice was created as an administrative division of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo. The vicariate was headed by canons from the Mukachevo Eparchy: loann *Pastelii (1787-1788), Mykhail Bradach (1790-1812, consecrated bishop), and Hryhorii *Tarkovych (1813-1816). Although the vicariate was initially based in the city of Kosice, in 1790 its headquarters were moved to nearby Presov, where it was given the Minorite Monastery and church on the city's main street. In the wake of discussions and proposals regarding jurisdictional restructuring of the Greek Catholic Church in Austria-Hungary, in early 1816 the Habsburg emperor raised the Kosice Vicariate to the status of an independent eparchy. The vicar Tarkovych was nominated as bishop (1816), approved by Rome (1818), and finally consecrated (1821). The new Eparchy of Presov consisted of 194 parishes with 158,000 faithful detached from the Eparchy of Mukachevo, most of which were in the counties of *Abov, *Spish, *Sharysh, and northern *Zemplyn, with smaller numbers in *Borshod, Turna, and Gemer (see Map 6). According to the eparchy's first official statistics (1821), 65 percent of the parishes were comprised of Rusyns, 14 percent mixed Rusyns and Magyars, 1.7 percent Poles, and 1.2 percent Slovaks. By the end of the century (1891) the figures had changed somewhat: of the 166,000 faithful at that time, 59 percent were Rusyns, 26 percent "Slovjaks" (a transitional identity between Rusyns and Slovaks), 12 percent Magyars, and 3 percent Slovaks. Bishop Tarkovych was best remembered for his scholarly activity, and with the assistance of a Hungarian benefactor, Janos Kovats (1764-1834), he created in Presov an eparchial library that became known as the Bibliotheca Kovacsiana. During the episcopate of his successor, losyf *Gaganets' (r. 1843-1875), the eparchy's cathedral church was restored and its interior redecorated in the Eastern style it more or less retains today, and a residence for needy students, the Alumneum (1864), was established. Subsequent eparchial institutions, all in Presov, included the Greek Catholic Seminary (1880) and the * Presov Greek Catholic Teachers' College/Preparandium (1895). During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule, which lasted until 1918, the bishops heading the Eparchy of Presov responded to the needs of the Hungarian government, which by the second half of the nineteenth century actively supported a policy of denationalization and magyarization of Rusyns. In contrast to Bishop Gaganets', who had supported the first Rusyn cultural and educational institutions, such as the *Presov Literary Society (1850) founded by the eparchial canon, Aleksander *Dukhnovych, and the *St. John the Baptist Society (1862), led by the lay political leader


Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi, subsequent bishops—Nykolai Tovt (r. 1876-1882), loann Valyi (r. 1883-1911), and Shtefan/Istvan Novak (r. 1913-1918)—assisted the magyarization process. By the 1890s an increasing number of Rusyn-language Greek Catholic elementary schools switched to Hungarian as the language of instruction, and during World War I the last Rusyn-language schools were closed as the Eparchy of Presov banned the use of the *Cyrillic alphabet and adopted the western, Gregorian calendar for liturgical use. At the close of World War I the Eparchy of Presov together with Rusyn-inhabited lands farther east in *Subcarpathian Rus' were incorporated into the new state of Czechoslovakia. In the new political circumstances the pressure to continue magyarization was alleviated, but the eparchy faced new problems. The pro-Hungarian Bishop Novak opposed Czechoslovak rule and left for Hungary; in the subsequent two decades the eparchy did not have its own ordinary (ruling bishop), but rather apostolic administrators: Nykolai Russnak (1918-1922), the Bishop of Krizevci Dionysii *Niaradii (1922-1926), and from September 1926 the soon-to-be Bishop Pavel *Goidych, who was not raised to the status of eparch (ordinary) bishop of Presov until 1940. Aside from administrative problems the eparchy was faced with a growing Orthodox movement: by 1935 an estimated 9,000 faithful left the Greek Catholic Church "to return" to Orthodoxy. Most of the converts were Rusyns, whose departure decreased the percentage of that nationality within the Presov Eparchy. Thanks to the policies of Bishops Niaradii and Goidych, the Greek Catholic elementary school system again offered instruction in Rusyn, and in 1936 the eparchy supported the establishment of the Russian-language gymnasium in Presov. The eparchy also sponsored the publication of an influential Rusyn newspaper, *Russkoe slovo (1924-38), and welcomed *Basilian Sisters from Galicia, who opened a convent and boarding school in Presov (1922) and later schools and/or orphanages in Medzilaborce (1938), Secovce, Stropkov, and Svidnik(1945). The defense of Rusyn national interests, especially by Bishop Goidych, provoked displeasure on the part of Slovak national activists. During the period of the World War II government officials in the Slovak state hoped that Goidych would resign and be replaced by someone of Slovak nationality. This did not happen (Goidych submited his resignation but it was not accepted by the pope), and the eparchy was for a few more years able to continue to fulfill the cultural as well as spiritual needs of its parishioners, maintaining the traditional Church Slavonic language for the liturgy, Rusyn in homilies, and Rusyn or Russian-language instruction in its school system and publications. The new Communist regime that came to power in Czechoslovakia in February 1948 was determined to follow the example of its protector, the Soviet Union. Just as the church union with Rome was abolished in western Ukraine (Eviv,


1946) and neighboring Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia (Mukachevo, 1949), the Czechoslovak Communist authorities, in cooperation with the local Orthodox church, organized the so-called Operation "P'VAkcia "P", which at a sobor in Presov (April 1950) outlawed the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov. Of the 300 priests in the eparchy at the time, about one-third accepted the offer to join the Orthodox Church. On the other hand, Bishop Goidych and the 120 Greek Catholic priests who refused, were arrested. To justify their actions against the Greek Catholic Church the Czechoslovak government arranged a show trial (1951) at which Bishop Goidych was sentenced to life imprisonment on the false accusation that he and his clergy had assisted the Slovak "fascist" government during World War II and the anti-Soviet Ukrainian underground movement at the close of the war. All Greek Catholic Church property was confiscated by the state, while most of the churches were given to the Orthodox for their use. During the period of political liberalization connected with the Prague Spring of 1968, legal status was restored to the Greek Catholic eparchy and many of its churches—including the cathedral in Presov, although not other property—were returned. Goidych's auxiliary bishop and successor, Vasyl' *Hopko (who survived imprisonment by the Communists), was not, however, given episcopal authority. Instead, in December 1968, the Vatican appointed an administrator, Jan Hirka (b. 1923). This was the first time the Eparchy of Presov was to be headed by someone of Slovak nationality, and under Hirka's direction (until his retirement in 2002) the church took on an increasingly Slovak hue. After the fall of Communist rule the Greek Catholic Church was fully restored in Slovakia: Hirka was consecrated bishop (1990), priests unjustly imprisoned after 1950 were legally rehabilitated, and the eparchy's property (other than church buildings) was returned. Not unexpectedly, the property issue led to conflicts with the Orthodox Church. Whereas the Eparchy of Presov continued to grow in the last decades of the twentieth century—208,000 faithful in 259 parishes (1990)—this was also a period of increasing slovakization. Church Slavonic has increasingly been replaced by Slovak, homilies are generally given in Slovak (even in Rusyn villages), and church publications appear almost exclusively in Slovak. In essence, the Greek Catholic Church in the Eparchy of Presov presents itself as a Slovak institution. The eparchy does, however, contain within its ranks a few priests who from the mid-1980s began to restore the Rusyn element in their pastoral work, at first clandestinely and later openly. This has taken the form of translations of catechisms and other religious texts into the Rusyn vernacular (mostly under the direction of Frantishek *Krainiak) and the publication of magazines and scholarly journals in a Rusyn spirit (mostly by the Basilian monks, Gorazd and losafat Tymkovych). The Eparchy of Presov remains under the direct jurisdiction of the Holy See, and as part of the current discussions regard-

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture ing jurisdictional change the idea of creating a new eparchy specifically for Rusyns has been discussed. Further reading: Aleksander V. Dukhnovich, Istoriia Priashevskoi eparkhii (St. Petersburg, 1877)—English trans.: Alexander Duchnovic, The History of the Eparchy of Prjasev (Rome, 1971); Volodymyr Hnatiuk, "Rusyny Priashivs'koi eparkhii i i'kh hovory," Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, XXXV (Eviv, 1900), pp. 1-70; Athanasius Pekar, Historic Background of the Eparchy of Prjashev (Pittsburgh, 1968); Julius Kubinyi, The History ofPrjasiv Eparchy (Rome, 1970); The Tragedy of the Greek Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia (New York, 1971); Michael Lacko, "The ReEstablishment of the Greek Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia," Slovak Studies, XI (Cleveland and Rome, 1976), pp. 159-189; Andrea Rebichini, " I Greco-Cattolici della Slovachia Orientale: storia e attualita," Slovak Studies, XXIII (Cleveland and Rome, 1983), pp. 75111; Michal Fedor, Z dejin greckokatolickej cirkvi v Ceskoslovensku 1945-mdj 1950 (Kosice, 1993); Marian Gajdos, "Political Aspects of 'Action P' in East Slovakia in the Year 1950," Urbs—Provincia— Orbis: Contributiones ... in honorem O.R. Malaga (Kosice, 1993), pp. 177-186; Paul Robert Magocsi, "Religion and Identity in the Carpathians," in Boris Gasparov and Olga Raevsky-Hughes, eds., Christianity and the Eastern Slavs, Vol. I (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford, 1993), pp. 118-138; Robert Letz, "Postavenie greckokatolickej cirkvi v Cesko-Slovensku v rokoch 1945-1968," Historicky casopis, XLIV, 2 (Bratislava, 1996), pp. 262-280; Jan Seman, A znovazijeme (Presov, 1997); Jozef Pavlovic, "The Byzantine Catholic Church in Slovakia," Eastern Churches Journal, V, 3 (Fairfax, Virginia, 1998), pp. 61-84; Peter Sturak, Dejiny greckokatolickej cirkvi v Ceskoslovensku v rokoch 1945-1989 (PreSov, 1999); Michal Oleksa, Neklamte protipravde (Presov, 2000). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greek Catholic Eparchy of Przemysl — Byzantinerite church jurisdiction that before 1945 existed in the historic province of Galicia, on territory that is today in southeastern Poland and western Ukraine. The eparchy was formed as a result of the Union of Brest (1596), at which several Orthodox bishops and their followers accepted the *Unia/ Church Union that brought into being the Uniate (later renamed Greek Catholic) Church. Przemysl's first Uniate bishop, Atanasii Krupets'kyi (r. 1610-1652), claimed jurisdiction over the entire ""Orthodox Eparchy of Przemysl, but his authority was challenged by rival Orthodox bishops and the reluctance of local parishes (some 800 out of 1,200), who refused to recognize the *Unia/Church Union. Even after the formal liquidation of the Orthodox Eparchy of Przemysl in 1691, it took another two decades before all parishes were brought fully under the Uniate jurisdiction. The Uniate Eparchy of Przemysl was part of the Uniate Metropolitanate of Kiev, which existed within the borders of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Its prestige was enhanced when Bishop lurii Vynnyts'kyi (r. 1700-1713),

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture who in 1710 was appointed Uniate Metropolitan of Kiev, was because of political difficulties forced to administer that entire jurisdiction from Przemysl. Serious improvements did not come, however, until 1772, when Galicia was annexed to the Austrian Empire. The *Habsburg Austrian authorities provided full equality between the various rites of the Catholic Church and approved a change in name from Uniate to Greek Catholic for jurisdictions of the Byzantine-Slavonic rite in union with Rome. In 1808, the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Przemysl became one of two and later three divisions of the restored Metropolitanate of Galicia. The Austrians also provided substantial financial support to the Greek Catholic Church which in the Przemysl eparchy allowed for the establishment of a seminary (1780-1783, permanently after 1845), parochial schools (201 by 1818), an institute for "'cantors/parochial teachers (1817), and an eparchial printshop (1840). At the outset of Austrian rule in 1772, the eparchy had 1,254 parishes, but as a result of consolidation that number decreased to 688 on the eve of World War I. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Przemysl was headed by several bishops of *Lemko origin: Toma *Polianskii (r. 1860-1869), losyf *Sembratovych (r. 1867-1872), and luliian Pelesh (r. 18911896). This was also a period of growing friction among various factions of the nationalist intelligentsia in Galicia—*Old Ruthenians, *Ukrainophiles, *Russophiles—and of attempts by the Polish-dominated provincial administration to interfere in the internal affairs of the eparchy. Most bishops, whether or not of Lemko origin, tried to remain neutral on the nationality question and they urged the eparchy's priests (with varying success) to adopt the same attitude. Things changed, however, at the outset of the twentieth century, from which time the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Przemysl was headed by bishops Konstantyn Chekhovych (r. 1897-1915) and the Lemko-born losafat *Kotsylovs'kyi (r. 1916-1946), who were openly sympathetic to the Ukrainian orientation. Their policies led to alienation on the part of Old Ruthenian and Russophile priests and parishioners. The adoption of a pro-Ukrainian orientation and the increasing influence of Roman Catholic latinizing practices (celibacy was introduced into the eparchy in 1924) contributed to further internal divisions and to the loss of thousands of faithful, especially in the *Lemko Region, who were attracted to the "return to Orthodoxy movement" heralded by the *Tyliava schism in 1926. In an effort to stem further decline, in 1934 the Vatican detached from the far western part of the Przemysl Eparchy 121 parishes to create the *Lemko Apostolic Administration. As a result, on the eve of World War II the Przemysl Eparchy was reduced to 578 parishes with about 1.1 million members (see Map 6). At the close of World War II in 1945, the new Communist rulers of Poland adopted the Soviet view that the Greek Catholic Church was a tool of foreign powers and, therefore, the Unia/Church Union should be outlawed, following


its abolition at the L'viv Sobor (Church council) of 1946. Whereas Communist Poland never formally outlawed that part of the Eparchy of Przemysl remaining on its territory (west of the San River), it did nationalize all Greek Catholic church property (1947 and 1949) on the grounds that such property "lost its purpose as a result of the resettlement" of church members. Also, Bishop Kotsylovs'kyi and his auxiliary were deported to the Soviet Union (where they died soon after); the 115 priests left in postwar Poland were dispersed throughout the country; and Greek Catholic churches were either destroyed (267 between 1939 and 1980), turned over to the Orthodox (15 by 1966), or taken over by the Roman Catholic Church (167 by 1985). After the political thaw that began in Communist Poland in 1956, Greek Catholics were allowed to form parishes, but only if they were attached to existing Roman Catholic ones. Eventually, 68 Greek Catholic parishes were formed and after 1964 were headed by a vicar general subordinate to Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski, the primate of Poland's Roman Catholic Church and a special delegate of the Apostolic See for the Eastern rites. On the eve of the collapse of Communist rule in 1989, the Greek Catholic Church in Poland (with 82 parishes and 46 priests) was divided into a northern vicariate (Koszalin and Olsztyn deaneries) and southern vicariate (Przemysl and Wroclaw deaneries). In the 1990s the jurisdictional status of the church was regularized in post-Communist Poland with the creation of the Greek Catholic Metropolia of PrzemyslWarsaw comprised of the Archeparchy of Przemysl-Warsaw (70,000 members) and the Eparchy of Wroclaw-Gdansk. Przemysl once again became the seat of a Greek Catholic jurisdiction, although its first years were clouded by an intense and highly publicized struggle with local Roman Catholic Poles for control of the former cathedral church. The building, which served as the Greek Catholic cathedral from 1784 to 1946, was to remain in Roman Catholic hands. At present, the Greek Catholic Church in Poland takes a clear stand on its national orientation. It is also known as the Byzantine-Ukrainian Catholic Church and participates prominently in Ukrainian community life throughout Poland, including support for the work of Ukrainian-oriented Lemko organizations such as the *Union of Lemkos in Poland and the *World Federation of Ukrainian Lemko Organizations. In those parts of the pre-World War II Eparchy of Przemysl located in Ukraine, two new Greek Catholic eparchies have been created, Sambir-Drohobych and Stryi (headed by Lemko-bom Bishop luliian Gbur); both are jurisdictionally and nationally integrated with the Greek Catholic Archeparchy of L'viv in Ukraine. Further reading: Antonii Dobrianskyi, Ystoriia Epyskopov trekh soedynennykh eparkhii Peremyshl'skoi, Samborskoiy Sanotskoi ot naidavnieishykh vremen do 1794 (L'viv, 1893); Petro Isai'v, Istoriia Peremys 'koho iepyskopstva skh. obriadu (Philadelphia, 1970); Oleh Volodymyr Ivanusiv, Tserkva v mini/ Church in Ruins: the Demise


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of Ukrainian Churches in the Eparchy ofPeremyshl (St. Catharine's, Ont, 1987); Stanistaw Nabywaniec, "Organizacja Greckokatoliciej Diecezji Przemyskiej przy kohcu lat siedemdziesi^tych XIX w.," Nasza Przeszlosc, LXX (Cracow, 1988), pp. 75-127; A.Nalecz, Cerkwie greckokatolickie w Diecezji Przemyskiejpo roku 1945: zarys problematyki (Przemysl, 1988); J.Musial, "Stan prawny i sytuacja faktyczna swiqtyri unickich na terenie diecezji przemyskiej w latach 1945-1985" and Mieczyslaw Jabionski, "Greckokatolicka diecezja przemyska w latach 1918-1939," in Stanisiaw Stej)ieii, ed., PolskaUkraina:1000 lat sqsiedztwa, Vol. I (Przemysl, 1990), pp. 257-262 and 229-250; Zdzislaw Budzynski, "Struktura terytorialna i stan wiernych Kosciola unickiego na Lemkowszczyznie w XVIII wieku," in Jerzy Czajkowski, ed., Lemkowie w historii i kulturze Karpat, Vol. I (Rzeszow, 1992), pp. 267-284; Dmytro Blazejovskyj, Historical Sematism of the Eparchy of Peremysl including the Apostolic Administration ofLemkivscyna (1828-1939) (L'viv, 1995); Stanislaw Stepieri, ed., Polska-Ukraina: 1000 lat sqsiedztwa, Vol. Ill (Przemysl, 1996); Witold Kolbuk, "Kosciol Unicki na Lemkowszczyznie w XVIII wieku: problem odre_bnosci," and Anna Krochmal, "Specyfika stosunkow wyznaniowych na Lemkowszczyznie w XX wieku," in Andrzej Zi^ba, ed., Lemkowie i lemkoznawstwo w Polsce (Cracow, 1997), pp. 115-123 and 135-143; Chris Hann, "Postsocialist Nationalism: Rediscovering the Past in Southeast Poland," Slavic Review, LVII, 4 (Champaign, 111., 1998), pp. 840-863; Bogdan Stepan, ed., Archidiecezja Przemysko- Warszawska obrzqdku greckokatolickiego w roku wielkiego jubileuszu (Przemysl, 2000). BOGDAN HORBAL PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greek Catholic Lemko Apostolic Administration. See Lemko Apostolic Administration Greek Catholic Pravoslavny Brotherhood. See United Russian Orthodox Brotherhood of America

Greek Catholic Teachers' College. See Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College

Greek Catholic Union Messenger. See Amerikansky russky viestnik Greek Catholic Union of Rusyn Brotherhoods in the USA/Sojedinenije greko-kaftolic'eskich russkich bratstv v S.S.A. — the oldest still functioning Rusyn-American fraternal organization, established in WilkesBarre, Pennsylvania, on February 14, 1892. The basic goals of the Greek Catholic Union were to unite "Greek Catholics who speak Rusyn"; to provide insurance against work-related accidents for its members; to encourage education by supporting the construction of schools and churches; and to protect the widows and children of members. Its founding president (1892-1899) was the businessman John Smith (Ivan Zhinchak,

1864-1942). Among long-term chairmen were John Uhrin (1906-1912), Michael Yuhasz, Sr. (1901-1906, 1920-1936), John P. Sekerak (1936-1944), Stephen M. Tkatch (1944-1968), and George Batyko (1968-1997). The Greek Catholic Union operated an orphanage, which opened in Elmhurst, Pennsylvania (1921-1948); it helped construct many Greek Catholic churches and financed the construction of the Byzantine Catholic Seminary (1951). It had a very active youth branch and an athletic (gymnastic) society called *Sokol. It published Rusyn-language school books and Rusyn- and English-language newspapers for its adult members, the *Amerikansky russky viestnik (1892-1952) and the GCU Messenger (1952-93), and for its youth Sokol Sojedinenija/American Russian Falcon (1914-36) and Svit D'itej/Children's World(1917-38, 1946-75). Despite its support of the *Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church, the Greek Catholic Union established the Committee for the Defense of the Eastern Rite/Komitet Oborony Vostocnoho Obrjada—KOVO (1932-1940), which campaigned against Bishop Takach and his decision to enforce Vatican policies pertaining to the Greek Catholic Church in the United States (including enforcement of the rule of celibacy for newlyordained priests). The Greek Catholic Union also took an active role in homeland politics, first supporting the call for unification of Rusyn-inhabited lands with Czechoslovakia (1918-1919), then criticizing that country for its refusal to grant *autonomy to *Subcarpathian Rus' (1920s and 1930s), and finally opposing the Soviet annexation of the province (1945). The Greek Catholic Union has always rejected the idea that Rusyns should be considered Ukrainians; instead, its leaders have argued that Rusyns are either a distinct nationality or (especially during the 1930s) a branch of the Russian nationality. After 1945 and the imposition of Communist rule in central Europe the Greek Catholic Union was unable to maintain further contact with the homeland and eventually lost interest in Rusyns living in Europe. At its height in 1929 the Greek Catholic Union had 133,000 members in 1,328 lodges. When it celebrated its centenary in 2002, it had 40,000 members in 96 lodges with total assets of $530,000,000. By the outset of the twentieth century the Greek Catholic Union had moved its headquarters from eastern to western Pennsylvania and was based in Homestead and Pittsburgh; since 1987 it has been based in a large landed estate near Beaver, Pennsylvania. Further reading: Michael Roman, ed., Zoloto-jubilejnyj kalendar' GrekoKaft. Sojedinenija vS.S.A. (Munhall, Pa., 1942); Opportunity Realized: The Greek Catholic Union s First One Hundred Years, 1892-1992 (Beaver, Pa., 1994). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Greko-kaftolic'eskoje russkoe pravoslavnoje

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture sojedinenije. See United Russsian Orthodox Brotherhood of America Grendzha-Dons'kyi, VasyF (b. Vasyl' Grendzha, April 23, 1897, Mizhhir"ia/Volovoe [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. November 25,1974, Bratislava [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — belletrist, publicist, and cultural and political activist of Ukrainian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus' and Slovakia. After completing elementary school in his native village, Grendzha-Dons'kyi worked in the postal service until, as a loyal patriot of Hungary, he joined the Hungarian military (Honveds) in 1915. He was wounded on the Eastern front, and while recuperating in Budapest he took classes at the Commercial Academy and the Academy of Art. Grendzha-Dons'kyi returned to the army (1918) and fought on the Romanian and Italian fronts; after demobilization he was arrested in Budapest (early 1919) as a suspected Communist agitator. When a Communist government was established in Hungary (March 1919) he joined the Hungarian Red Army, remaining until the demise of Hungary's Communist regime in the summer of 1919. His earliest poetry from these years was written in Hungarian and his first wife was a staunch Hungarian patriot. In 1921 Grendzha-Dons'kyi returned home to what was by then Czechoslovak-ruled * Subcarpathian Rus', where he found work in Uzhhorod as a bank clerk. By 1923 he had changed his national orientation and had become a populist *Ukrainophile, as evidenced by his active participation in the *Prosvita Society; by the contents of the short-lived daily newspaper, *Rusyn (1923), for which he wrote; and by his collections of poetry, first in Rusyn (Kvityztern 'om, 1923) and then in Ukrainian (Zoloti kliuchi, 1923; Shliakhom ternovym, 1924). His Ukrainian and pro-Communist sympathies were further emphasized in the journal *Nasha zemlia (1927-28), which he founded and edited; because of its radicalism it was eventually closed down by the Czechoslovak authorities. He was, moreover, the first Subcarpathian Ukrainophile to have a collection of poetry published in Soviet Ukraine: Ternovi kvity polonyn (1928). In the early 1930s Grendzha-Dons'kyi did another political about-face, abandoning the Communist movement and allying with anti-Soviet Ukrainian radical nationalists as a frequent contributor to the newspaper *Ukrains 'ke slovo. At this time he turned to writing epic poems, plays, and prose works in a late Romantic style, based on themes from medieval Subcarpathian history (Chervona skala, 1931; Sotnia Mocharenka: piesa, 1932; Petro Petrovych, 1937) or on contemporary developments, such as the adventures of the last Robin Hood-like Carpathian bandit Il'ko Lypei: karpats 'kyi rozbiinyk (1936). Patriotic *nationalism also inspired him to publish a collection ofRusyn folktales: Pidkarpats 'ki kazky (1937). The height of Grendzha-Dons'kyi's nationalist phase came during the period of autonomous Carpatho-Ukraine


(1938-1939), when he was the editor of the government's official organ, Uriadovyi visnyk, and one of the editors of the pro-government newspaper, *Nova svoboda, as well as a member of the executive of the authoritarian pro-government party, the Ukrainian National Union/Ukrai'ns'ke natsional'ne ob"iednannia (UNO). After the occupation of CarpathoUkraine by Hungary (March 1939) he was arrested and sent to an internment camp, where he was tortured and thought to have been killed. Released in June 1939, he eventually went to the Slovak state and settled in its capital Bratislava, where he was to remain for the rest of his life. During World War II he directed the Ukrainian program on Slovak State Radio. At the close of the war Grendzha-Dons'kyi joined (1945) the Communist party of Czechoslovakia, and when Ukrainianization was implemented among Rusyns in the *Presov Region he assisted several new Ukrainian-language publications, including the children's journal Dzvinochok, the youth newspaper Pioners 'ka hazeta, the monthly magazine Druzhno vpered, and the literary quarterly *Duklia. During the era of political repression that characterized Communist Czechoslovakia in the mid-1950s, the authorities recalled Grendzha-Dons'kyi's "bourgeois nationalist" past and had him cut off from literary life in the Presov Region. By the outset of the 1960s, however, the same government began proclaiming him as the leading Ukrainian-language writer in Communist Czechoslovakia, for which he was given high state awards: Artist of Merit (1970) and For [Communist] Socialist Reconstruction. During the last decades of his life GrendzhaDons'kyi revised many of his earlier publications, in particular replacing Rusyn vernacular vocabulary with literary Ukrainian forms. Collections of his writings were published by Mykhailo *Mol'nar (1964), Oleksa *Myshanych (1991), and Vasyl' Il'nyts'kyi (2003), although the most complete edition was prepared under the auspices of his daughter, Zirka GrendzhaDons'kyi, and published in 12 volumes (1981-92). Further reading: Mykhailo Mol'nar, "Dolia spivtsia polonyn: prychynok do tvorchoi biohrafii V. Hrendzha-Dons'koho," in idem, Zustrichi kul'tur: z chekhoslovats 'ko-ukrains 'kykh vzaiemovidnosyn (Bratislava and Preiov, 1980), pp. 388-447; Oleksa Myshanych, "Vasyl' Hrendzha-Dons'kyi," in Vasyl' Grendzha Dons'kyi, Tvory (Uzhhorod, 1991), pp. 5-21; Vasyl' Khoma, "Vnesok Vasylia Hrendzhi-Dons'koho u literaturnu spadshchynu rusyniv Priashivshchyny," in idem, Rozvytok rusyns 'koipoeziivSlovachchyni vid20-kh do 90-kh rokiv XXstolittia (Bratislava, 2000), pp. 46-62; Mykola M. Vegesh and L. V. Horvat, Hromads'ko-politychna i kul'turno-osvitnia diial'nist' Vasylia Grendzhi-Dons'koho, 18971974 (Uzhhorod, 2000). IVAN POP

Greshlyk, Vladyslav/ Greslik, Vladislav (b. November 11, 1953, Svidnik [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia)—pedagogue and art historian in the Presov Region. After completing


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

the gymnasium (middle school) in Svidnik (1973), Greshlyk studied at the historical faculty of Lomonosov State University in Moscow (1973-1978), where he specialized in the theory and history of art. He was subsequently awarded a Ph.D. from the Academy of Art in L'viv, Ukraine (1996). Greshlyk worked as a historian and curator of art at the *Museum of UkrainianRus' Culture in his hometown of Svidnik (1978-1987) and since 1987 has taught art history at the Safarik, now Presov University (associate professor/docent, 2000). Greshlyk is a specialist on the folk icons of the Presov Region. He is always careful to emphasize that they are representative of the Eastern Christian cultural environment of the "Rusyn (Ukrainian) population of eastern Slovakia." Among his publications are Ikony Sariskeho muzea v Bardejove/Icons of the Saris Museum at Bardejov (1994) and Ikony 17. storocia na vychodnom Slovensku (2002). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Gressa, Greg. See Internet

— physician, publicist, and cultural activist of Russian national orientation among the Vojvodinian Rusyns. After completing the gymnasium in Novi Sad Gubash studied medicine in Budapest and Prague. He was among a group of Vojvodinian Rusyns who, dissatisfied with the *Ukrainophile and clerical orientation of the *Rusyn National Enlightenment Society (est. 1919), established in 1933 the *Zaria Cultural and Enlightenment (National) Union of Yugoslav Rusyns/Kulturno-prosvitni (natsionalni) soiuz iugoslavianskikh rusinokh "Zaria." Gubash was elected the first chairman (1933-1936) of the new organization, and during his tenure he became the founding editor (1934-1936) of its newspaper, Zaria (later renamed Russki batoh and *Russka zaria), and first editor (1935-1936) of its annual almanac, Russki narodni kalendar' Zaria. Although Gubash used the Vojvodinian Rusyn vernacular language in these publications, he believed in the unity of all the "Russian" peoples. He was particularly critical of the Ukrainian national movement among Rusyns in the Carpathian homeland. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Grigor'ev, Aleksandr. See Language question Gubyk, Ivan. See Lubov Russian Orthodox Fraternity Groh, Istvan. See Gorog katolikus szemle Gulovich, Stephen. See Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church in the USA; Historiography: United States

Gromosiak, T. See Lemko Grybow. See District Gryga, Mykhail. See Anthologies Gubash, Emilian/Gubas, Emiljan (b. February 25, 1875, Kucura [Hungarian Kingdom], Serbia; d. September 3, 1919, Kucura [Yugoslavia], Serbia) — teacher, cantor, and cultural activist among the Vojvodinian Rusyns. Gubash completed his studies at the gymnasium in Novi Sad and at the *Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College. He taught elementary school in his native village of Kucura (1894-1900) and then at the Greek Catholic "Rusyn" elementary school in Novi Sad (1900-1912) before returning to Kucura, where he worked as a teacher and cantor for the rest of his life. Gubash is best known for organizing the first public theatrical performance in Rusyn, with a presentation in 1913 in Kucura of two one-act plays by the Galician Russophile author, leronim la. Lutsyk. He was also among the founding members of the *Rusyn National Enlightenment Society and was elected one of its two vice-chairmen (1919), but died soon thereafter. Further reading: Diura Varga, "Uchitelie—dziiatsi—'narodni predniatsi'," Shvetlosts, XXVI, 1 (Novi Sad, 1988), pp. 39-63. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Gubash/Gubas, Milutin (b. 1893, Djurdjevo [Hungarian Kingdom], Serbia; d. 1974, Novi Sad [Yugoslavia], Serbia)

Gustavsson, Sven (b. June 1, 1938, Mosjo, Sweden) — Swedish linguist, South Slavist, and professor. Gustavsson studied Slavic philology at Stockholm University (Ph. D., 1969) and has taught at Uppsala University (professor, 1977- ). In 1970 he became one of the first scholars in the West to describe the language of the Vojvodinian Rusyns. Since that time he has published essays in several languages on that subject, including an extensive description in Swedish, Rusinerna i Jugoslavien, deras kultur och sprak (1975). Gustavsson considers Vojvodinian Rusyn to be a distinct Slavic language, and he is sympathetic to the group's efforts to maintain its own national identity. Further reading: "Rusnatsi maiu pravo samoopredzelienia: interviu zoz dr Svenom R. Gustavssonom," Shvetlosts, XXVII, 2 (Novi Sad, 1989), pp. 277-282. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Guzley, Peter. See Carpatho-Russian Congress Gymnasium — a middle-level school whose graduates are qualified to enter university. A full gymnasium program is eight years, beginning with the equivalent of grade six and continuing through grade thirteen. The gymnasium has had particular importance among stateless peoples, since it was often the setting where students developed a strong sense of

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture national consciousness, which might be the identity of their family and ancestors, the national identity of a particularly influential teacher, or the state nationality to which they were assimilated. The first gymnasium for Carpatho-Rusyns dates from the early seventeenth century, when in 1615 the lord sheriff (*zhupan) of *Ung and *Zemplyn counties, Gyorgy III *Drugeth, founded a Jesuit college (collegium} at Humenne. Sometime between 1640 and 1646 that institution was transferred to Uzhhorod, where it functioned as a Jesuit-run gymnasium until 1773, when the Jesuit order was abolished in the Austrian Empire. Under the Jesuits the quality of education at the Uzhhorod gymnasium, with its approximately 170 students, was for its time quite high. By the early nineteenth century the gymnasium operated only six classes; students finished their last two years (classes 7 and 8) at the so-called philosophy schools in Kosice or in Oradea/Nagyvarad/Varadyn. Except for a short period when German was the language of instruction (1785-1790), Latin was used in the Uzhhorod gymnasium from its beginnings until the mid-nineteenth century. Thereafter, Hungarian became the language of instruction, although for Greek Catholic students Rusyn was used in some classes and for various subjects during the 1850s. The introduction of Rusyn in the Uzhhorod gymnasium was largely the result of the political activity of Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi and for a short period (1862-1869) the institution had two departments, one for the Rusyn language and one for geography and history. Depending on the orientation of the instructor, either Rusyn vernacular or Russian was used in teaching these subjects. Beginning in the 1870s, Hungary's magyarization policies led to the gradual removal ofRusyn, so that by the end of the nineteenth century Hungarian was the language of instruction in virtually all courses. In 1856 the Uzhhorod gymnasium became a full eightyear institution. Meanwhile, in Mukachevo, which had had a private four-year gymnasium since 1837, a full eight-year state gymnasium was opened in 1868. Some Rusyn students, especially from the eastern regions of *Subcarpathian Rus', attended in Sighet the six-year gymnasium operated by the Reformed Church or the three-year gymnasium operated by the Roman Catholic Piarist Fathers. In 1890 a Hungarianlanguage state gymnasium was opened in Berehovo. There was also a Roman Catholic gymnasium in Presov attended by Rusyns from the *Presov Region and where, in 1849, a course in Rusyn language (first taught by Aleksander *Dukhnovych) was offered. The attempts in the 1860s to create at that institution a department of Rusyn language failed, and in the following decades, as elsewhere in the Hungarian Kingdom, Hungarian became the dominant and eventually the sole language of instruction at the Presov gymnasium. Moreover, the gymnasia in Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, Presov, and Berehovo were all expected to promote a sense of Hungarian state patriotism, and as a result many Rusyn students not only be-


came loyal Hungarian citizens but also adopted a Hungarian (Magyar) national identity. The situation changed radically after World War I, when Rusyn-inhabited lands south of the Carpathians were annexed to Czechoslovakia (1919). The official language of instruction in the school system took into consideration not only the needs of the indigenous East Slavic (Rusyn) population. For instance, there were Jewish gymnasia with Hebrew as the language of instruction in Mukachevo (1924) and Uzhhorod (1934), and during the 1920s parallel Czech-language classes were established at Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, and the newly established gymnasium in Khust (1921). Rusyn activists in the Presov Region had long wanted their own institution, and finally in 1936 a Russian-language gymnasium was opened in Presov. In Czechoslovakia there developed what came to be known as "Russian" (Mukachevo, Khust, Presov) and "Ukrainian" (Uzhhorod, Berehovo) gymnasia, epithets which reflected the language of instruction and the national orientation of the instructors. Each institution's orientation was largely dependent on the policy of its director and was related to how many Russian or Ukrainian teachers were hired from among recently arrived emigres. While it is true that the quality of education notably improved during the Czechoslovak era, there was also a down-side: students often adopted a Russian or a Ukrainian national identity, with the result that a significant number did not contribute to their own specifically Rusyn cultural evolution. During the short-lived autonomous government (19381939) under Avhustyn *Voloshyn, the gymnasia that remained within, or were transferred to, territory still part of Subcarpathian Rus'/*Carpatho-Ukraine were ukrainianized. After March 1939, when the rest of Subcarpathian Rus' and a small part of the Presov Region were annexed to Hungary, Ukrainian-language teaching was eliminated entirely, Russian was significantly diminished, and education in the Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, and Khust gymnasia was officially of Rusyn (Uhro-Rusyn) orientation. In neighboring Slovakia throughout the World War II years the state gymnasium in Presov continued to teach in Russian and to promote among its students a Russian national identity. After the onset of Soviet rule in Subcarpathian Rus' (1945), the gymnasium was abolished as an institution and replaced by the 10-year middle school (desiatyrichka). Meanwhile, the Russian gymnasium continued to exist in Presov and other Russian gymnasia were established in Medzilaborce in 1945 (that same year transferred to Humenne) and in Svidnik. During the early 1950s, however, Czechoslovakia's Communist authorities replaced Russian with Ukrainian as the language of instruction in those institutions (as part of that country's administrative decision proclaiming that the Presov Region Rusyns were Ukrainians). As a result of the school reform implemented in Czechoslovakia in 1953, the

156 gymnasium was replaced by the eleven-year middle (strednd) school, which combined upper elementary grades, junior high, and high school. That same year the Humenne gymnasium was abolished; the Presov Russian gymnasium was transformed into the Ukrainian middle school which continues to exist to this day. The *Lemko Region has not had any gymnasia, so that Lemko Rusyns have attended secondary schools elsewhere. Initially they favored gymnasia south of the Carpathians, particularly those in Uzhhorod and Presov. Some also attended schools in the *Spish region town of Podolinec, where starting from the seventeenth century numerous Lemkos received their education. In the second half of the nineteenth century Lemkos started enrolling in newly created Polish gymnasia in Nowy Sa^cz, Gorlice, and Sanok located on the northern edge of the Lemko Region. To assist students attending these institutions, boarding schools called *Ruska Bursa were created in each of these cities. A Ruska Bursa was also established in Przemysl, where Lemkos attended the local Polish gymnasia, which for almost two decades during the second half of the nineteenth century was directed by the Lemko Greek Catholic priest, Foma Polianskii. A smaller but steady number of Lemkos began to attend PrzemysTs Ukrainian gym/7u, as in des'at', s'atyj, zub, budut'. Exceptions in some dialects occur in the mutation for e_, for instance, in piet', and mn 'eso in the Hutsul dialects; meso in the Lemko dialects, and certain others. Among the morphological features which link CarpathoRusyn dialects with East Slavic languages are the ending -u in first person singular present tense verbs nesu, stoju, pysu (but citam, spivam, hram—more about this below); the ending -t' in third person plural present tense verbs nesut'/nesut, pysut'/pysut, stojat'/stojat; the ending of present active verbal adjectives in -cyj/-cij, -ca/-coje, as in spivajucij ftach, chraml'ucyj zajac', nechot'aca baba, kypjaca voda, nevyd'ace d'ivca, as well as the ending of present active verbal adverbs in -cy/-ci, as in chodytplacuci, ide spivajuci, bih revucy; and the unification of case endings of nouns of all three genders in the dative, locative, and instrumental plurals, as in vovkam, vovkach, vovkamy; d'ivkam, d'ivkach, d'ivkamy; slovam, slovach, slovamy, and others. Carpatho-Rusyn dialects have preserved a pan-Slavic and East Slavic lexical inheritance, including items characteristic of Ukrainian. But they have also absorbed a number of items from Slovak and Polish, as well as Hungarian, German, and Romanian, as a result of lengthy contact with these non-East Slavic and non-Slavic languages and cultures. Southern Lemko Rusyn dialects in the Presov Region illustrate precisely this situation since they share with eastern Slovak or Slovak dialects in general nomenclature for things and phenomena which are well known or widespread in the Slavic world in historically recent times. The oldest Rusyn vocabulary from a Proto-Slavic base, however, is identical with Ukrainian, that is, with an East Slavic lexicon. One of the most typical syntactical properties of CarpathoRusyn dialects is the absence of the pronoun subject, including those instances when the verbal predicate is in the past tense: Robyljem tarn calyj den' (Ukrainian: Ja tarn pracjuvav cilyj den'). Among other common syntactical features is the expression of possession by means of conjugated forms of the verb maty; Mam korovu; Mam dobru zenu (Ukrainian: Umene ko-


rova; Umene dobrazinkd), as well as the use of constructions such as Bolyt'n 'a holova; Fkral mu kon 'a (literary Ukrainian: Umene bolyt'holova; Vin u n 'oho vkrav kon 'a). Another group of linguistic phenomena characteristic of all Carpatho-Rusyn dialects consists of certain elements of linguistic structure which within the East Slavic language family occur only in Ukrainian. These elements include: (1) the replacement of the Proto-Slavic o and e in new closed syllables most often with /, as in kin', sil', viz (other mutations, however, are known: u [iu], u, bi, y, as in kun', kiun', kun', spoza hyr, and vezu—viuz, vtiz, viz); (2) the reflex / for the Proto-Slavic e (jaf), as in s 'ino, I'ito; (3) the middle vowel>> for the originally Proto-Slavic /, as in myska, vyty, robyty, prynesty. To these phenomena may also be added a combination of hard (depalatalized) syllables de, te, ne, le, and soft (palatalized) syllables d'i, t'i, n'i, I'i (de, tebe, ned'il'a, let'ity, n'igda, pot'im, I'ito). These features have persisted in the Rusyn language in the Presov Region in spite of centuries of isolation from Ukrainian and in spite of long-term contact with Slovak dialects and the Slovak literary language. This can be regarded as further proof of the well-known linguistic fact that a language's most rigid characteristics are its phonological features, which are immutable and resist the influence of neighboring languages.

WESTERN (LEMKO) RUSYN DIALECTS The most characteristic features of Western or Lemko dialects are listed below: (1) There is a fixed stress on the penultimate syllable of a word. (2) Third person singular and plural present tense verb endings have a hard -/: chodyt, robyt, sydyt/chod'at, robjat, syd'at (in the Eastern group of dialects: chodyt', robyt', syd'at'). (3) The ending -/ is found in the masculine third person singular past tense verb: chodyl, robyl, spal (in the Eastern group the ending -v predominates: chodyv, robyv, spav). (4) Verbs with the suffix -uva in the infinitive (kupuvaty, chosnuvaty) have forms of the suffix -iju- in their conjugation: kupiju, kupijes, kupije, kupijut (in the Eastern group are forms with the suffix -uju-: kupuju, kupujes). (5) The nominative plural adjective has the ending -y, as in stary baby, velyky Inky. (6) The ending -om is found in instrumental singular feminine nouns, adjectives, and pronouns (from the Ondava River westward to the Rusyn ethnographic border just beyond the Poprad River): s torn dobrom susidom (along the Laborec River and further to the east this ending is -ou, as in s tou dobrou susidou). (7) The same forms are used for the locative and instrumen-tal singular masculine and neuter adjectives and pronouns: o tym dobrym chlopovy/d'ivcatu and s tym dobrym chlopom/d 'ivcatom. (8) Dual forms of instrumental plural adjectives and

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture pronouns are used in -yma: s tyma dobryma chlopamy, babamy. (9) The genitive singular feminine adjective has the form -oj: staroj baby, sumnoj d'ivky (the Eastern group has noncontracted forms of the type staroji). (10) The first person singular present tense of the verb uses the endings -u and -m. The ending -u in the first person is used in these instances: a. after a present tense stem ending in a consonant in which there is no contraction: yty—ydu, nesty—nesu, vesty—vedu, vezty—vezu. Here, Rusyn dialects conform to literary Ukrainian: idu, nesu, vedu. This applies also to verbs with an infinitive stem ending in -y, hence without the intervocalic/: nosyty—nos 'u, robyty—robju/robl'u, kosyty—kos 'u\ b. after non-contracted verb stems with the groups -oja, -ija: stojaty—stoju, bojaty s 'a—boju s 'a, smijaty s 'a—smiju s 'a; c. when the infinitive stem has the suffix -uva-/-ova-, which in the conjugation changes to -uj-: kupuvaty/kupovaty—kupuju/kupiju, studuvaty—studuju/stud'iju, holoduvaty—holoduju/holod 'iju. The ending -m, on the other hand, is used in the first person singular in those instances where the verbal stem ends in -a, and in which a contraction occurs in the group -aju-, -aje-: citaty—citam, citas, citat; citame, citate; padaty—padam; sluchaty—slucham. The contraction in this group is typical for West and South Slavic languages. In contrast, literary Ukrainian and the other East Slavic languages have preserved the group -aje-: cytaju, padaju, sluchaju. (11) The use of the ending -u and -m in the first person singular corresponds with the use of two parallel endings in the third person singular; these are -t'/-t and a zero ending: a. the ending -t'/-t is used after contracted verb stems or after non-contracted verb stems if they do not have a group containing the intervocalic j: citaty—citat, padaty—padat, sluchaty—sluchat; syd'ity—sydyt'/sydyt, robyty—robyt'/robyt (Ukrainian: cytaty—cytaju, cytaje; padaty—padaju, padaje; sluchaty—sluchaju, sluchaje, because the contraction of the group -aje- does not occur, but sydity—sydyt', robyty—robyt', because the verb stems do not contain a group with the intervocalic/; the ending -t'/-t is also used after non-contracted verb stems with the groups -oja: stojaty—stojit'/stojit, bojaty s 'a—bojit's 'a/bojit s 'a (cf. Ukrainian: stojit', bojit'sja); b. the zero ending is used when the stem ends in -e: nese, vede, place. Compare the first person plural: nes-e-me, vede-me. The same ending is used in this instance in Ukrainian, as in nese, vede, place. (12) There are two analytic forms of imperfective future verbs: a. a conjugated form of the auxiliary verb byty plus the infinitive of the main verb: budu chodyty, budu robyty, budu spaty (this form is characteristic largely of the dialects in the Laborec region); b. a conjugated form of the auxiliary verb byty plus the

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture 1-participle: budurobyl, buduchodyl, budu spal (mainly west of the Laborec River). (13) The epenthetical / is absent after labials: robju, spju, kupju (but zeml'a). (14) The original / disappears in the imperative form: chad', yd'/id', rob, voz'. (15) There is a second palatalization in nominative plural masculine nouns whose stems end in k, g, h, ch, and also other masculine nouns (proper nouns) from the original ostem: borsug—borsudzy, vovcy, volosy, chrobacy, cerkivnycy, Rusnacy. (16) The short (enclitic) form of the personal pronouns mi, t'i, si, mu,ji (as in daj mi, povidzji, kupju t'i)\ n 'a, t'a, sa/s 'a, ho, ju/jej (as in vydyt n 'a, cuje t'a, sluchat ho, bojit sajej} is used. The enclitic in the dative for the pronoun ja is only in one form, mi (the long form as in the Ukrainian meni does not occur here), as in prysol gu mi. (17) The following pattern is found for numerical morphology: dvomy/dvome, tr 'omy/tr 'ome, stir 'me/stirme, pjat'me, sest'me, devjat'me, des'at'me, used with masculine animate nouns: dvomy chlopy, tr'omy princove, pjat'me sandare. Numbers from five up, however, are also used in their basic form—that is, pjaf, sisf, devjat'—with nouns in the genetive plural: pjaf chlopiv. Some researchers also include among the characteristic features of Western (Lemko) Rusyn dialects contracted forms of neuter adjectives, such as zelene lyst'a, which differs from the Eastern group with its non-contracted groups -oj, -oje, -o/7. Contracted forms, however, are typical not only of Lemko dialects but also appear in the Eastern, Subcarpathian group, especially east of the Rika River and in the majority of Ukrainian dialects on Ukrainian territory, as well as in literary Ukrainian. Likewise, the suffix -me in the first person plural of present tense verbs (chodyme, robyme) appears in Eastern (Subcarpathian and Boiko) Rusyn dialects, as well as in Western (Lemko) dialects. Other features specific to Western (Lemko) Rusyn dialects include, for example, the palatal -f'before / in infinitive endings (chodyfi, robyt'i, spat'i); palatalization of the sibilants s and z before / originating from e or before aK (z), m (5% e.g., aceni (zern), IUCHO (seno); the clusters dl, tl are preserved, e.g., cafljio (sadlo); tort, toll give trat, flat, e.g., Kpaaa (kravd), rnaa (hlad); 6. the clusters kv, gv are preserved except for spirantization in the latter, e.g., KBHUC (kvice), rBH3fla (hvizdd). Morphological features include the following: 1. soft-stem neuter nouns have the ending -o in the nominative singular, e.g., Mopfio (morjo); 2. the genitive and dative plural of nouns ends in -ox (och), e.g., ncox (psoch); 3. the first person singular and plural of the present tense end in -M and -Me, respectively, e.g., 3HaM (znarn), 3HaMe (zname); 4. the reflexive particle me (se) has no fixed position relative to its verb; 5. the past tense has in two forms: a snaji (ja znal) or snaji COM (znal sow). In effect, Vojvodinian-Srem Rusyn has alternating East Slavic (Carpatho-Rusyn) and West Slavic (East Slovak, i.e., Zemplen, Saris') characteristics, although the latter are dominant. This is explained as the result of language change or long-term mutual linguistic interference. Consequently, Vojvodinian-Srem Rusyn can be considered a clear case of a dual reflexive language. Further reading: Franti§ek Pastmek, "Rusini jazyka slovenskeho," in Vladimir I. Lamanskii, ed., Stat'ipo slavianoviedieniiu, Vol. I (St. Petersburg, 1904), pp. 60-78; Charles E. Bidwell, "The Language of the Badka Ruthenians in Yugoslavia," Slavic and East European Journal, X, 1 (Madison, Wise., 1966), pp. 32-45; Oleksa Horbach, "Leksyka hovirky bachvans'ko-srims'kykh ukrai'ntsiv," Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu ukrains 'ko'ikul'tury v Svydnyku, IV, pt. 1 (Bratislava and PreSov, 1969), pp. 309-349; Mikola M. Kochish, Lingvistichni roboti (Novi Sad, 1978); Zuzana Hanudel', Linhvistychnyi atlas ukrains 'kykh hovoriv Skhidnoi Slovachchyny, 3 vols. (Bratislava and Presov, 1981-2001); Henrik Birnbaum, "Language Families, Linguistic Types, and the Position of the Rusin Microlanguage Within Slavic," Die Welt der Slaven, XXVIII [N.F., VII] (Munich, 1983), pp. 1-23; Aleksandr D. Dulicenko, "Das Russinische," in Peter Rehder, ed., Einjuhrung in die slavischen Sprachen, 2nd rev. ed. (Darmstadt, 1991), pp. 126-140; Aleksander D. Dulichenko, Jugoslavo-Ruthenica: roboti z ruskei filologi'i (Novi Sad, 1995); Horace G. Lunt, "Notes on the Rusin Language of Yugoslavia and Its East Slovak Origins," International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and Poetics, XLII (Columbus, Ohio, 1998), pp. 43-84; Aleksandr Dulichenko, "lazyk rusin Serbii i Khorvatii (iugoslavo-rusinskii)," in Osnovy balkanskogo iazykoznaniia, Vol. II: slavianskie iazyki


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

(St. Petersburg, 1998), pp. 247-272; luliian Ramach, Primenovnitski konstruktsii u ruskim literaturnim iaziku (Belgrade, 1998).

Ruthenian Publications in America (Pittsburgh, 1971). ALEKSANDR D. DULICHENKO


Language question. The language question among Carpatho-Rusyns, together with related ethnolinguistic and cultural matters, has a long history. The question has been dealt with at varying times in different ways; nevertheless, an adequate solution remains to be found. It should be clear from the outset that we are not dealing here with the "natural" spoken language (see Language), but rather with the written language of culture, education, etc. The history of Rusyn literature seems to have begun in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, perhaps even earlier. At this time the first religious texts appeared in *Carpathian Rus', although they were not written in the region itself (see Literature, Early manuscripts). The genre included prayerbooks, minei (monthly readings), prology (miscellanies and interpretive epistles), and gospels, as well as texts from other religious literature (the Mukachevo and Imstychovo fragments, the *Uzhhorod polustav), all written in the Russian variant of *Church Slavonic. In one of the oldest extant documents written in Carpathian Rus' itself, from the Rusyn-Romanian border region at the *Hrushovo Monastery and dating from 1404, vernacular Rusyn linguistic elements (ses', mlyn, ouryk) appear in the text. Such vernacular elements also appear in the sixteenth-century *Tereblia prolog and in a whole range of other religious texts. Beginning in the early seventeenth century, a portion of the population in Carpathian Rus' accepted the *Unia/Church Union with Rome, so that by the eighteenth century the Uniate or Greek Catholic Church had become the dominant religion in the region. Aside from texts in Church Slavonic several in Rusyn vernacular are also found in this period: religiousdidactic tracts, tales, polemics, and collections of verse. An original work in Carpatho-Rusyn literature was the *Niagovo gospel, or postilla (literally: interpretive gospel). Its extant copies date from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, although the paleography seems to be from the sixteenth century. The Niagovo postilla was written "in a language which the people speak so that the faithful poor might understand." The same spirit infuses the Uhlia poucheniia (interpretive gospel) and the Skotars'ke and other gospel books, whose vocabulary is influenced by Polish. On the other hand, the linguistic peculiarities of the Ladomirov levanheliia (Gospel Book) suggest it was written in the *Presov Region (in either Sharysh or Zemplyn county). During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries several sbornyky (didactic miscellanies) containing prose in the vernacular appeared, including the Uhlia miscellany (the so-called Kliuch), the miscellany of S. Teslovych, the historical song "Pisn' ob obrazi klokochevskom," the belletristic work Aleksandriia, the Huklyvyi Chronicle, and others.


The vast majority of Rusyn immigrants who arrived in North America between 1880 and 1914 brought to the New World not only their vernacular speech but also certain preconceptions about their literary language or language of culture. Those preconceptions were preserved and even institutionalized by Rusyn immigrants in the New World. Various factors influenced the choice of language, including geography (place of residence before emigrating); religious orientation (Greek Catholic, Orthodox, Roman Catholic); and historical, cultural, and political orientation (dependant largely on level of education). In any case, the literary language the immigrants favored was more or less dependent on and influenced by their vernacular speech. It is difficult to describe the Carpatho-Rusyn language in the United States and Canada, given its extreme diversity and the wide degree of subjectivity found in use of various linguistic elements. From Carpathian Rus' the immigrants brought with them language variants based on the Church Slavonic, Ukrainian, and Russian literary languages as well as on their own spoken vernaculars of East Slavic (Ukrainian) or West Slavic (East Slovak) origin. To these were added new borrowings from the Anglo-American linguistic sphere, such as lexicon related to domestic life (bojsik, stora, susy) and the public sphere (bos, cerman, stejt, sif) as well as idiomatic expressions (imiti honor, to have the honor; tebe nic ne badrujet: nothing bothers you). At the same time, immigrant Rusyn speakers experienced a gradual loss of the feeling of their language, which was reflected in a simplification of the semantic structure of their vocabulary and its morphology, in confusion over the choice of one or another word, and in the continual movement between speaking Rusyn and English, more often than not with preference for the latter. The written language produced by the immigrants could, in most cases, be read using a Rusyn, Ukrainian, or Russian "pronunciation." Functioning in geographic isolation from the European homeland and surrounded by an English-language environment, Rusyn immigrant speech became steadily americanized or canadianized and in most places in both the United States and Canada it tended to disappear, especially with the death of the early immigrants in the decades after World War II. The only exceptions are found among newer immigrants, in particular Lemkos who arrived from Poland in the 1970s and Vojvodinian Rusyns who have been migrating from Yugoslavia since the 1980s. Both groups continue to preserve their native speech, although they are being subjected to the same assimilatory pressures experienced by earlier waves of immigrants. Further reading: Charles E. Bidwell, The Language ofCarpatho-

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Exceedingly important for the further use of the Rusyn vernacular language was the development of official *curia/ chancery and other documents in which the spoken language was strongly reflected. Among such documents were those connected to the *urbarial reform of Empress Maria Theresa during the second half of the eighteenth century. Other genres included the polemical writings by the Orthodox spokesperson Mykhai'l *Orosvygovs'kyi-Andrella and the correspondence of the first native-born Greek Catholic bishop, Mykhai'l Manui'l *Ol'shavs'kyi, both of whom used Rusyn vernacular strongly influenced by Church Slavonic. Especially popular were verses, including those by students, and practical manuals translated from Hungarian into vernacular Rusyn for use in farming (Pomoshchnyk u domovstvi, compiled by Nykolai Teodorovych) and home medical care (Vrach domashnii). It was also during the eighteenth century that Arsenii *Kotsak completed several versions of his unpublished grammar ("Grammatika russkaia," 1770s). Despite its title this work was in fact a grammar of the Church Slavonic language (as implied by the author's subtitle, slavenskii Hi mssfcz/'/Slavonic or Rusyn) and was closely modelled after the well-known grammar by Meletii Smotryts'kyi. Kotsak did, however, use the Rusyn vernacular language in his grammar, especially in the section on morphology. The Church Slavonic language, with varying degrees of vernacular Rusyn influence, was also used in the first published primers, beginning with the Bukvar iazyka slaven'ska (1699) attributed to Bishop Joseph *De Camelis, followed by Bishop Ivan *Bradach's primer (1770), whose copies were confiscated and destroyed by order of the church, and by the unsigned Bukvar' iazyka ruskaho by loann *Kutka, which appeared in 1797 and was later reprinted (1799, 1815, 1846). The nineteenth century ushered in a new period in the evolution of a literary language for Carpathian Rus'. This period has also been called the era of enlightenment for Rusyns, because it was a time when the region produced its own intelligentsia, some of whom established successful careers in scholarship and civic life in the neighboring Austrian province of Galicia as well as in the Russian Empire. At home the Rusyn intelligentsia continued to use the Church Slavonic language; for Greek Catholic clergy educated in Latin, Church Slavonic became a kind of symbolic mark in defense of the Slavic character of their own people. Andrii *Bachyns'kyi introduced the formal study of Church Slavonic in schools during his reign as bishop (1773-1809) of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo. The Church Slavonic language used at the time and referred to as Slaveno-Rusyn commonly employed an increasing number of vernacular elements. In fact, it is possible to speak of a Carpatho-Rusyn variant of Church Slavonic. This was the language used in the writings of loanykii *Bazylovych and loann Kutka. About the same time, the first bishop (1818-1841) of the newly created *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov, Hryhorii *Tarkovych, intro-


duced a new style into Carpatho-Rusyn literature. Strongly influenced by the eighteenth-century Russian writers Mikhail Lomonosov and Aleksandr Sumarokov, Tarkovych wrote an ode in Slaveno-Rusyn that included elements from the Rusyn vernacular. It should be noted that the tendency to favor an antiquated book language for literary communication also worked in favor of Latin, which was actively used by the Rusyn intelligentsia during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. For instance, Latin was used in the historical works about Subcarpathian Rus' by loanykii Bazylovych, Mykhai'l *Luchkai, and loann *Pastelii, although Pastelii used vernacular Rusyn in his poems. Luchkai's 1830 Slaveno-Rusyn grammar of Church Slavonic (with Rusyn vernacular elements) was published in Latin, as were some of the philosophical essays by his contemporary, Vasyl' *Dovhovych. A native of *Maramorosh county, Dovhovych wrote verse in Rusyn vernacular as well as in Latin and Hungarian, although none of these works were published until the second half of the twentieth century. The tendency to write in vernacular Rusyn was not continued by subsequent writers. Hence the author ofRus'ko uhorskaia ilimadiarska hrammatika (1833), Ivan *Fogarashii-Berezhanyn, while noting the genetic relationship of Carpatho-Rusyn dialects with the spoken language of neighboring Galicia and other East Slavic dialects in southern Rus' (Ukraine), wrote in Slaveno-Rusyn, i.e., the CarpathoRusyn variant of Church Slavonic. During the era of the national awakening, which began with the Revolution of 1848 and continued during the second half of the nineteenth century, the language question might have been resolved by adopting one of the following options: (1) adaptation toward and eventual acceptance of the Galician variant of what was to become the Ukrainian literary language; or (2) the creation of a distinct literary language based on local Carpatho-Rusyn dialects. Neither of these options was chosen. Instead, the "national awakener of the Carpatho-Rusyns," Aleksander *Dukhnovych (in contrast to his Slovak neighbors, who based their literary language on central Slovak dialects and thereby assured its further development), proposed using the Russian literary language. Dukhnovych published a short grammar of the Russian language (Sokrashchennaia grammatika pis 'mennago russkago iazyka, 1853), most likely written with the assistance of a fellow Rusyn, loann *Rakovs'kyi. The Russophile orientation was also supported by Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi, Kyryl *Sabov (the author of another Russian grammar, 1865, as well as an anthology of Russian literature, 1868), and subsequently by the writers Aleksander *Pavlovych, levhenii *Fentsyk, Aleksander *Mytrak, Anatolii *Kralyts'kyi, Ivan *Sil'vai, and lulii *Stavrovs'kyi-Popradov, among others. The first Rusyn cultural organizations, the *Presov Literary Society (1850) and the *St. Basil the Great Society (1866), also supported the use of Russian in their publications.

278 At the same time, Dukhnovych, Pavlovych, and a few other authors were writing in Rusyn vernacular, thereby setting the foundations for an orientation that could have led to the creation of a separate Carpatho-Rusyn literary language. For instance, the popular play by Dukhnovych, Dobroditel' prevyshaet bohatstvo (Virtue is More Important Than Riches, 1850), was written in a language based on the Rusyn dialects of *Zemplyn county, while Pavlovych wrote a series of works in the Rusyn dialect of *Sharysh (*Makovytsia). Generally, however, these two writers as well as their contemporaries wrote poetry, prose, and essays in a language that was oriented toward literary Russian, albeit with varying degrees of local Rusyn vernacular. The result was an uncodified literary language, which was later referred to as the "traditional Carpatho-Rusyn language" by its supporters and as the *iazychiie (macaronic jargon) by its detractors. This language, in its various forms, was used in the first newspapers and journals intended for Rusyns (* Vistnyk Rusynov, *Svit, *Novyi svit, *Karpat, and the annual almanac *Misiatsoslov) as well as in the historical works of Andrii *Baludians'kyi and Ivan *Dulishkovych. The language question during this time was also reflected in the approach adopted by authors in their codification of lexical and grammatical norms. Hence, Aleksander *Mytrak's large-scale Russian-Hungarian dictionary (1881) was oriented toward the Russian literary language, while Laslov *Chopei's Rusyn-Hungarian dictionary (1883) and the several textbooks he translated from Hungarian were based on local Rusyn vernacular speech. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the magyarization of Rusyns increased in intensity, and the Hungarian government attempted to replace the traditional *Cyrillic alphabet with a Latin (Roman) alphabet using Hungarian orthography. A proposal to introduce the Latin (Roman) alphabet was issued in 1894; then, in 1916, the popular Rusyn-language newspaper *Nedilia, published since 1898 in Budapest with support from the Hungarian government, began to appear in the Latin (Roman) alphabet as Negyilya. The Russophile orientation gradually declined, while among younger cultural activists (Avhustyn *Voloshyn, lurii *Zhatkovych, Hiiador *Stryps'kyi) there arose the idea of writing in a vernacular-based language that was more accessible to the Rusyn populace. It was also during this time that on the northern slopes of the Carpathians a newspaper for Lemko Rusyns began to appear, *Lemko (1911-1913), which was written in the local Rusyn vernacular. In 1919, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Rusyns living on the southern slopes of the Carpathians (in *Subcarpathian Rus' and the *Presov Region) were united with Czechoslovakia, while those on the northern slopes living in the *Lemko Region were incorporated into Poland without any special administrative or cultural rights. The language situation of this period proved to be most com-

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture plex. The Russophile orientation was once again revived, in large part because of the arrival of emigres from the Russian Empire and *Russophile activists from Galicia and Bukovina. A *Ukrainophile orientation also emerged, aided in large part by emigres from the Dnieper Ukraine (Russian Empire) and especially Galicia. Each orientation had its own newspapers, journals, and cultural organizations, the most important of which were the Russophile *Dukhnovych Society and the Ukrainophile *Prosvita Society. Grammars written in the "traditional Carpatho-Rusyn" iazychiie, literary Russian, and literary Ukrainian (basically using the Galician variant of that language) appeared. Regardless of orientation, all of these grammars used the old orthography, retaining the iat (t) and, in the case of Russophile publications, the final hard sign/iery (?>). Typical of this era was linguistic evolution, as evident in the writings of Avhustyn Voloshyn. In 1901 Voloshyn published what was essentially a Carpatho-Rusyn variant of the Russian literary language (Metodicheskaia grammatika ugro-russkogo literaturnogo iazyka dlia narodnykh shkol). By 1907, however, in a grammar published in Hungarian (Gyakorlati kisorosz/ruten nyelvtari), he was using almost exclusively the vernacular language from the eastern part of Subcarpathian Rus'. Then, in a grammar published in 1926 (Praktychna hramatyka rus 'koho iazyka dlia narodnykh shkol), he employed the Ukrainian literary language, albeit written in the old etymological script. By contrast, Ivan *Pan'kevych, a postwar emigre from Galicia, used from the beginning the Galician variant of Ukrainian, which he codified in three editions of his Hramatyka rus 'koho iazyka (1922, 1927, 1936). In response to the Ukrainophile orientation the Russophiles supported the introduction of the Russian language through use of a grammar for "middle-level educational institutions in Subcarpathian Rus'" (Grammatika russkago iazyka dlia srednikh uchebnykh zavedenii, 1924). This textbook, published over the name of the local Rusyn cultural activist levmenii *Sabov, was in fact authored by the Russian emigre, Aleksandr Grigor'ev (1874-1945). As early as 1919 the provincial administration in Subcarpathian Rus', on the recommendation of Czech scholars, decreed what seemed to be a contradictory position regarding the language question. The local authorities rejected any proposals to create a separate Rusyn literary language and, following the recommendation of the Czech academics, considered the speech of the local inhabitants to be "indisputably Little Russian [ndreci maloruske, i.e., Ukrainian] dialects." But the decree also stated that because Rusyns were allegedly Ukrainians, they were simultaneously "part of the Great Russian people"; hence, the Russian literary language was recommended for use in secondary schools. In practice, however, the local school administration recognized only the Galician variant of Ukrainian (according to the Pan'kevych standard). Not until 1936 was the Russian language (according to the Sabov grammar) recommended for

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture use in schools. The 1936 government decision led to protests on the part of the local Ukrainophile orientation, but it was upheld following the results of a "language plebiscite" held a year later, in which the parents in 75 percent of Subcarpathian schools voted for the Sabov "Russian" grammar (the respondents probably confused mw&n/Russian with rus '£yz'/Rusyn) instead of the Pan'kevych "Ukrainian" grammar. The phenomenon of language dualism in Subcarpathian Rus' was clearly delineated in literary works, which were written either in Ukrainian (Vasyl' *Grendzha-Dons'kyi, lulii *Borshosh-Kum"iats'kyi, among others) or in Russian (Andrii *Karabelesh, Mykhail *Popovych, among others). By contrast, the third, Rusyn orientation remained weak. It had no grammar to compare with those of Pan'kevych and Sabov, and only a few authors wrote poetry, prose, and plays in a variant of Rusyn vernacular that was clearly neither literary Russian nor Ukrainian. Throughout the entire Czechoslovak period (1919-1938) the official languages in Subcarpathian Rus' were Czech and Carpatho-Rusyn (in effect, the iazychiie). The latter was created in the 1920s for use in signs on government buildings, documents, and for other public or official functions. In schools Russian, Ukrainian, and the "traditional CarpathoRusyn" were used as languages of instruction, depending on the national conviction of individual teachers. During the last months of Czechoslovak rule (October 1938-March 1939), when Subcarpathian Rus' finally attained autonomy, the pro-Ukrainian government renamed the province *CarpathoUkraine and declared Ukrainian its official language. In the neighboring Presov Region of Slovakia during the interwar years, the "traditional Carpatho-Rusyn language" was taught in schools using a reader (1920) and primer (1921) by loann *Kyzak and a grammar (1920) by Aleksander Sedlak. A Ukrainian-language orientation for all intents and purposes did not exist among the Rusyns of eastern Slovakia at this time. In the Lemko Region ruled by Poland the government allowed instruction during the 1930s in the local LemkoRusyn vernacular using textbooks compiled by Metodii *Trokhanovskii (1933, 1934). After 1939, in connection with annexation of Subcarpathian Rus' by Hungary, the language situation changed. Aside from Hungarian, the new authorities began to promote the "UhroRusyn language," that is, the local vernacular. At the same time, the position of the Ukrainian and Russian languages was substantially weakened. It is useful to note that as early as 1907 Hiiador *Stryps'kyi had proposed a "third" solution to Subcarpathia's language question: the creation of a Uhro-Rusyn language, in other words, a distinct CarpathoRusyn literary language. Picking up on Stryps'kyi's earlier proposal, a local Rusyn-bora linguist, Ivan *Haraida, was appointed director of a newly created * Subcarpathian Scholarly Society. He proceeded to publish a grammar (Hrammatyka rus'koho iazyka, 1941), whose purpose was "to establish

279 standard grammatical forms used in the vernacular language so that it will be possible to publish books and newspapers for the people in an easily understandable language." The author described the language of his grammar as a kind of "compromise on several issues that divide the opposing factions in our language question." Haraida's language became the standard for a wide variety of scholarly, literary, and children's publications that appeared in Subcarpathian Rus' during World War II. Although discouraged by the Hungarian regime, several authors, including a new generation of gymnasium students, continued to publish their literary works in Russian. Grammars by Georgii *Gerovskii for elementary schools (1939) and by a language commission for gymnasia (1940) favored the Russophile orientation. It was Haraida's version of literary Rusyn, however, that was most widely used in Subcarpathia's school system. After World War II, when Subcarpathian Rus' was annexed to the Soviet Union as the *Transcarpathian oblast of the Soviet Ukraine (1945), the Rusyn population was declared to be Ukrainian and the Ukrainian literary language, according to the Soviet norm, was introduced into schools and public life. In the neighboring Presov Region, which remained within postwar Czechoslovakia, the Russian language according to the Soviet norm was initially used in schools, newspapers, and theatrical performances. In 1952, when the Presov Region's Rusyn population was declared by the Czechoslovak Communist government to be Ukrainian, the Russian language was replaced by Ukrainian as the language of culture and education. Owing to significant differences between local Rusyn dialects of the Presov Region and literary Ukrainian (not to mention the involuntary administrative manner in which the population's national orientation and language were changed), use of the new linguistic medium in the educational system and cultural organizations was fraught with difficulties. Somewhat later (1969), in an attempt to smooth the transition to Ukrainian, Ivan *Matsyns'kyi proposed a series of about 60 Rusyn "dialectal" elements which might be used in Ukrainian publications. The basic problem remained unresolved, however. The resultant language dualism in the Presov Region, in which the Ukrainian literary language was being used alongside local Rusyn dialects, created a situation in which it was not uncommon in the 1950s and 1960s for a significant portion of the Rusyn population to reject Ukrainian and adopt for school instruction and general use literary Slovak (and a Slovak national identity). The late 1980s and early 1990s marked a new phase in the language question in Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia, the Presov Region, the Lemko Region (where a few thousand Lemko Rusyns returned following their deportation in 19451947), and in the scattered Rusyn communities in northeastern Hungary. This period witnessed a national revival, which included a call for a return to use of the ethnonym *Rusyn and for the creation of a distinct literary language. As a result, the

280 language question once again became a controversial issue. The so-called third way, that is, the creation of a Rusyn literary language on the basis of spoken dialects—an orientation that goes back to the beginning of the twentieth century—has since 1989 been steadily realized in the new political conditions of post-Communist Europe. In Transcarpathia, Rusyn-oriented cultural and civic organizations (*Society of Carpatho-Rusyns, the renewed Dukhnovych Society) have been established and Rusyn-language newspapers (*Podkarpats 'ka Rus') and a few almanacs/*kalendary have appeared. In Slovakia, the *Rusyn Renaissance Society publishes the weekly newspaper *Narodny novynky, the magazine *Rusyn, and a wide variety of literary, historical, and other publications. In Poland, the *Lemko Society produces the magazine *Besida, annual almanacs, and books. In Hungary, the Organization of Rusyns published the magazine *Rusynskyi zhyvot in Rusyn. The ministries of education in Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary have also adopted formal guidelines that allow for the teaching ofRusyn in elementary schools since the late 1990s. This activity has provoked a harsh negative reaction from that part of the intelligentsia (and in the case of Ukraine the government as well), which considers Rusyns to be a branch of Ukrainians. Despite opposition and confrontation, the Rusyn movements in these various countries have achieved the first steps in codifying their literary language. In the Presov Region a rule-book (1994), an orthographic dictionary (1994), a multilanguage dictionary of linguistic terminology (1994)—all prepared by Vasyl' *Iabur, lurii *Pan'ko, or both—and a series of textbooks by Ian *Hryb have appeared. There was a brief discussion in the press about the possibility of using the Latin (Roman) instead of Cyrillic alphabet for Rusyn publications, but this idea was dropped. In 1995 an official ceremony took place in Bratislava announcing the codification of a Rusyn literary language in Slovakia on the basis of Zemplyn Rusyn dialects in both their western and eastern variants. In Ukraine's Transcarpathia/Subcarpathian Rus', the codified form as outlined in the grammar Materyns 'kyi iazyk (1999) is based on the Southern Maramorosh dialects, balanced with elements from the Eastern Zemplyn, Uzh, Bereg, and Northern Maramorosh dialects (according to the classification of Gerovskii). In Poland, a grammar of literary Lemko was published by Henryk *Fontanski and Myroslava *Khomiak, Gramatyka lemkivskoho iazyka (2000). The Rusyns of Hungary do not yet have their own codified literary form, although Rusyn is taught in a few elementary schools. The initiators of these various codifications expressed at the first (1992) and second (1999) "congresses" of the Rusyn language the hope that after the above-mentioned variants are codified, used in practice, and gradually stabilized, steps can then be taken toward the creation of a single CarpathoRusyn literary standard. As for the Rusyns living in Serbia (Vojvodina) and

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Croatia (eastern Slavonia), their literary language, known as Vojvodinian-Srem Rusyn, or South Slav Rusyn, continued to evolve in an independent manner. It had been codified as early as 1923 in the grammar of Havrii'l *Kostel'nik and was subsequently modified in the rule-book (1971) and grammar (1974) of Mikola *Kochish. The norms of the VojvodinianSrem Rusyn language are stable and have been tested through wide-ranging functional use over a long period of time in education, the press, literary and scholarly publications, administration and government, and in radio and television. The Carpatho-Rusyn literary language in the United States and Canada has traditionally appeared in several different variants. These reflect the specific spoken language that immigrants brought with them from the "old country" beginning in the 1880s. Until the 1950s, newspapers (such as the weekly *Amerikansky russky viestnik and daily *Den'), almanacs, and books appeared in a form of language that was understood by Rusyn immigrants. Some authors/editors used their native dialect; thus the newspaper *Karpatska Rus' appeared in Lemko, the writings of Emilij *Kubek in the Sharysh Rusyn dialect. Other author/editors, such as Joseph *Hanulia or Michael *Roman, tried to write in Russian. Influenced by the English-language environment in which they were produced, many Rusyn-American publications gradually adopted the Latin (Roman) alphabet. By the end of the twentieth century the language question in North America had become moot, since virtually all publications intended for Rusyn immigrants and their descendants appeared in English. Further reading: Evmenii Sabov, "Ocherk literaturnoi dieiatel'nosti i obrazovaniia ugro-russkikh," in idem, ed., Khristomatiia tserkovnoslavianskikh i ugro-russkikh literaturnykh pamiatnikov (Uzhhorod, 1893), pp. 183-210; Hiiador Stryps'kyi, "Z starshoi' pys'mennosty Uhors'koii Rusy," Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, CXVII-CXVIII (Eviv, 1901), pp. 179-195; Avhustyn Voloshyn, O pys'mennom iazytsi podkarpatskykh rusynov (Uzhhorod, 1921); Igor Iv. Gusnai, lazykovyi vopros v Podkarpatskoi Rusi (Presov, 1921); Ivan Pankevic', "Jazykova otazka v Podkarpatske Rusi," in Josef Chme\afeta.\.,PodkarpatskaRus (Prague, 1923), pp. 130-150; Evmenii I. Sabov, Russkii literaturnyi iazyk Podkarpatskoi Rusi i novaia grammatika russkago iazyka dlia srednikh uchebnykh zavedenii (Uzhhorod, 1925); N. Zorskii, Spor o iazykie v Podkarpatskoi Rusi i Cheshskaia akademiia nauk (Uzhhorod, 1926); luliian Revai, "Rus'ki hramatyky i slovari na Podkarpatiu," Uchytel', X (Uzhhorod, 1929), pp. 2-12, 103-113, 151-168, 239-242; Konstantin Stripskii, "Iazyk literaturnoi traditsii Podkarpatskoi Rusi," Karpatskii sviet, III, 9-10 (Uzhhorod, 1930), pp. 1083-1093; Vladimir A. Frantsev, "Iz istorii bor'by za russkii literaturnyi iazyk v Podkarpatskoi Rusi v polovinie XIX St.," in Karpatorusskii sbornik (Uzhhorod, 1930), pp. 1-49 and separately (Prague, 1931); Georgij Gerovskij, "Literarni jazyk Podkarpatske Rusi," in Ceskoslovenska vlastiveda, Vol. Ill: Jazyk (Prague, 1934), pp. 480-517—Russian ed.: Iazyk Podkarpatskoi Rusi (Moscow, 1995); Za ridne slovo: polemika z rusofilamy (Mukachevo,


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture 1937; repr. 1990); Antonin Hartl, "K jazykovym sporum na Podkarpatske Rusi," Slovo a slovesnost, IV (Prague, 1938), pp. 160-173; Frantisek Tichy, Vyvoj soucasneho spisovneho jazyka na Podkarpatske Rusi (Prague, 1938); Aleksander Bonkalo, "Rus'kyi lyteraturnyi iazyk," Zoria/Hajnal, 1,1-2 (Uzhhorod, 1941), pp. 54-71; G.I. Gerovskii and V. Krainianitsa, eds., Razbor grammatiki ugrorusskogo iazyka (Uzhhorod, 1941); Ivan Pan'kevych, "Zakarpats'kyi dialektnyi variant ukrai'ns'koT literaturnoi movy XVII-XVIII vv.," Slavia, XXVII, 2 (Prague, 1958), pp. 171-181; Mykola Shtets', Literaturna mova ukra'intsiv Zakarpattia i Skhidnoi Slovachchyny (Bratislava, 1969); Charles E. Bidwell, The Language of CarpathoRuthenian Publications in America (Pittsburgh, 1971); Aleksandr D. Dulichenko, Slavianskie literaturnye mikroiazyki (Tallin, 1981); Paul R. Magocsi, "The Language Question Among the Subcarpathian Rusyns," in Riccardo Picchio and Harvey Goldblatt, eds., Aspects of the Slavic Language Question, Vol. II: East Slavic (New Haven, 1984), pp. 65-86—Vojvodinian Rusyn ed.: Pavlo Magochi, "Pitanie iazika medzi podkarpatskima Rusinami," Tvorchosts, X (Novi Sad, 1984), pp. 6-22; Mikulas Stec, K otdzke 'rusinskeho' spisovneho jazyka (Presov, 1991); Serhii Pan'ko, "Zhurnal 'Rusyn' i pytannia rusyns'koi' literaturnoi movy," Acta Academiae Paedagogicae Nyiregyhdziensis, XIII/C (Nyiregyhaza, 1992), pp. 257-266; B.K. Halas, ed., Ukrains 'ka mova na Zakarpatti u mynulomu i s 'ohodni (Uzhhorod, 1993); Istvan Udvari, Ruszin (kdrpdtukrdn) hivatalos irdsbeliseg a XVII szdzadi Magyarorszdgon (Budapest, 1995); Mykola Shtets', Ukrains 'ka mova vSlovachchyni: sotsiolinhvistychne ta interlinhvistychne doslidzhennia (Bratislava and Presov, 1996); Aleksandr D. Dulichenko, "Predistoriia literaturnogo iazyka rusin lugoslavii," in Rusnatsi-Rusini, 1745-1995 (Belgrade and Novi Sad, 1996), pp. 21-40; Paul Robert Magocsi, ed., A New Slavic Language is Born: The Rusyn Literary Language ofSlovakia/Zrodil sa novy slovansky jazyk: Rusinsky spisovny jazyk na Slovensku (New York, 1996); Vasil Jabur, "Das Rusinische in der Slowakei: zu Stand und Entwicklungsperspektiwen nach der Kodifikation," in Baldur Panzer, ed., Die sprachliche Situation in der Slavia zehn Jahre nach der Wende (Frankfurt/Main, 2000), pp. 117-132; Maria Brzezina, "Lemkowski w Polsce: aspekcie sociolingwistycznym," Sociolingwistyka, XVI (Cracow, 2000), pp. 51 -83; Alexander Teutsch, Das Rusinische der Ostslowakei im Kontext seiner Nachbarsprachen (Frankfurt am Main, 2001); Aleksandr D. Dulichenko Knl'zhka o ruskim iazyku: uvoddo ruskieifilologiiudokumentokh ikomentarokh (Novi Sad, 2002); Marc Stegherr, Das Russinische: Kulturhistorische und soziolinguistische Aspekte (Munich, 2003).

then worked as a journalist for the Rusyn program at Radio Novi Sad (1951-1954) and for the *Ruske Slovo Publishing House in Ruski Kerestur (1956-1960). Before he could advance further, he attended the Vojvodina Communist party school (1960-1961) and the Advanced School of Social and Political Science in Novi Sad (1961-1962). This provided him with the credentials to play a leading role in Communist Yugoslavia's state-run media and publishing enterprises. For nearly three more decades he was associated with the Ruske Slovo Publishing House as editor-in-chief (1963-1965) and director (1965-1970) of the newspaper * Ruske slovo, and as editor-in-chief of the book division (1970-1989). Aside from his dominant role in the production of Vojvodinian Rusyn print media and books, Latiak was an amateur actor who performed in several productions of the *Diadia Rusyn Amateur/National Theater (1971-1995). He was also largely responsible for establishing contacts with Ukrainian-oriented cultural institutions and scholars in eastern Slovakia, which encouraged his own views that Rusyns are a branch of the Ukrainian nationality. Since the 1960s Latiak has written several cycles of poems, most of which appeared in the journal *Shvetlosts. His short stories from the same period were eventually published in the collection Tal i druhipripovedki (1982). He has also written numerous critical essays on Vojvodinian Rusyn authors, edited a collection of folksongs transcribed by the GalicianUkrainian ethnographer Volodymyr *Hnatiuk (1972), and completed histories of the most important post-World War II cultural institutions: the Ruske Slovo Publishing House (1985), the *Chervena Ruzha Folk Festival (1991), and the Diadia Rusyn Amateur/National Theater (1995). Further reading: luliian Tamash, "Literaturna tvorchosts Diuri Latiaka," Shvetlosts, XVII, 5 (Novi Sad, 1979), pp. 539-551.


Latta, VasyP (b. December 29, 1921, Pcoline [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia; d. June 27, 1965, Bratislava [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — professor and linguist in Slovakia. Latta studied at the gymnasium in Mukachevo (to 1938), the Russian gymnasium in Prague (1939-1942), the Polytechnical Institute in Vienna (1942-1944), and Leningrad State University (1948-1952). He completed his graduate studies at Comenius University in Bratislava (kandidat nauk, 1957), where he taught Russian and Ukrainian (19541965) and was appointed associate professor (decent, 1963).


Latiak, Diura/Latjak, Dura (pseudonyms: Gel, Diul) (b. October 31, 1933, Ruski Kerestur [Yugoslavia], Serbia) —journalist, publisher, writer, and civic and cultural activist among the Vojvodinian Rusyns of Ukrainian national orientation. Latiak interrupted his gymnasium studies in Ruski Kerestur (1944-1948), spent a year studying journalism,


Latifundium. See Dominium Latorica Company. See Mukachevo-Chynadiievo estate Latta, Igor. See Dukhnovych Theater


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Latta was a specialist on the phonology of Rusyn dialects in eastern Slovakia and is best known for his large-scale dialectal atlas (392 maps), which attracted much attention among Slovak and Ukrainian linguists until it was finally published long after his death, Atlas ukrains'kykh hovoriv Skhidno'iSlovachchyny (1991). Further reading: Zuzana Hanudel' et al.,"Naukova spadshchyna Vasylia Latty i doslidzhennia hovoriv karpats'koho movnoho arealu: zbirnyk materialiv," in Naukovi zapysky KSUT, No. 18 (Presov, 1993). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Lastochkin, Evgeniia. See Russians Laurus/Lavrii (Shkurla). See Ladomirova Monastery Lavryshyn, Avhustyn. See Rus Sports Club Lazho, lurii/Lazo, Juraj (b. May 3, 1867, Svidnik [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. May 28, 1929, Svidnik [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — political and cultural activist among the Rusyns in the Presov Region. Sometime before World War I, Lazho worked in the United States. He used that experience upon his return home to establish a construction firm in Svidnik. He was an outspoken critic of the magyarization policies of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov and during the 1920s became an active supporter of Orthodoxy. Lazho made his views known as a senator for the *Social-Democratic party (1920-1924) in the Czechoslovak parliament. In 1924 he established a printshop in Svidnik to publish books in support of his Rusyn people and the Orthodox church. He was particularly critical of slovakization among the Rusyns of the *Presov Region during the early post-World War I years, views he expressed in the brochure Russkomu narodu na Slovensku (1925). Two years later he donated the printing press to the nearby *Ladomirova Monastery which became the center of the "return to Orthodoxy" movement among the Rusyns of eastern Czechoslovakia. Further reading: losyf Shelepets', "Do istorii' svydnyts'koi' drukarni," Nove zhyttia (Presov), No. 22, June 2, 1989, p. 5. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Lazor, Theodosius. See Russian Orthodox Church in North America Lazoryk, Fedor/Lazorik, Fedor (b. April 1, 1913, Becherov [Hungarian Kingdom], Slovakia; d. July 4, 1969, Presov [Czechoslovakia], Slovakia) — pedagogue, belletrist, editor, and cultural activist in the Presov Region of Ukrainian national orientation. After completing studies at the Teachers' Seminary in Presov (1928-1932) Lazoryk taught in Rusyn

elementary schools both in *Subcarpathian Rus' (Rus'kyi Mochar', 1933-1940) and the *Presov Region (Mlynarovce, 1940-1945). After World War II he began to play an active role in the cultural life of the Presov Region as editor-in-chief of the newspaper *Priashevshchina (1948-1950), the magazine Druzhno vpered(\ 951-1956), and the literary journal *Duklia (1956-1957). He also compiled several anthologies of literature by Presov Region authors as well as Ukrainian-language elementary school textbooks. Lazoryk was the first postwar writer in the Presov Region to publish a collection of poetry in literary Ukrainian, Slovo hnanykh i holodnykh (1949). This collection, in the words of one literary critic from the Communist era, "set the standard for a new socialist Ukrainian literature in Czechoslovakia." Lazoryk's poetry was inspired by nineteenth-century Rusyn national awakeners as well as by classic Russian and Ukrainian writers. His own literary works were compiled in Vybrane (1963), edited by Vasyl' Datsei, and in separate volumes of poetry and prose, Tvory (1985-88), edited by Mykhailo *Roman. Lazoryk's diary covering the years 19361954 was published posthumously by Stepan *Hostyniak (1983). Further reading: Mykhailo Roman, Fedir Lazoryk: zhyttia i tvorchisf (Presov, 1974); Vasyl' Koman, Makovyts'ki mrii: slovo pro Fedora Lazoryka (Bratislava and Presov, 1978); Stepan Hostyniak, "Shchodennyk Fedora Lazoryka," Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu ukrains 'koikul'tury u Svydnyku, XI (Bratislava and Prestov, 1983), pp. 495-580; "Materialy z naukovoi' konferentsii' z nahody 70-richchia z dnia narodzhennia Fedora Lazoryka," in Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva,No. 12 (Presov, 1985); Vasyl'Khoma, "Fedir Lazoryk—spivets' liuds'koho shchastia i krasy ridnoho kraiu," in idem, Rozvytok rusyns 'koipoeziivSlovachchyni vid20-kh do 90-kh rokiv XX stolittia (Bratislava, 2000), pp. 63-86. ANNA PLISKOVA

League for the Liberation of Carpatho-Russia/ Soiuz osvobozhdeniia Prikarpatskoi Rusi—apolitical organization founded in 1917 by Russophile immigrant leaders in the United States from Galicia and Subcarpathian Rus'. The goal of the organization was to unite ""Carpathian Rus' (understood to be the Austrian provinces of eastern Galicia and Bukovina as well as Rusyn-inhabited lands in Hungary) with Russia, or, failing that, to have Carpathian Rus' become an independent state. The League was a successor to the Russian National Organization/Russko-narodnaia organizatsiia, which was established in the United States in 1914 and which published a bi-monthly newspaper, Novaia Rus '(1915-18). The League's first *Carpatho-Russian Congress took place in New York City (July 13, 1917), at which 130 delegates and 41 guests took part under the leadership of Joseph *Fedoronko. Its second congress was held in Philadelphia (July 4,1918). The League

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture sent a delegation (Victor *Hladick, Dmitrii Markov, Peter *Hatalak, loann Dzvonchik) to the Paris Peace Conference; it also campaigned in London and Geneva for the union of Carpathian Rus' with Russia, but its efforts were unsuccessful. The League continued its work through the publication of Prikarpatskaia Rus '(1917-25), which evolved from a monthly to a weekly and eventually twice-weekly newspaper. The League's largest congress was its third and last, which like the first took place in New York City (December 28, 1919-January 1, 1920); 245 delegates and more than 50 guests took part under the direction of Dmitrii Markov, Joseph Fedoronko, Peter *Kohanik, Dmitrii *Vergun, and Antonii *Beskyd. The congress elected a Carpatho-Russian Council/ Karpatorusskii soviet (25 members, more than half of whom were Lemkos), which was charged with creating a CarpathoRussian Organization in the United States/Karpatorusskaia organizatsiia v SShA. Further reading: Tretii Vseobshchii Karpatorusskii Kongress v Amerikie (New York, 1920); losif P. Fedoronko, "Karpatorusskaia Organizatsiia v Amerikie," in luvileinyi sbornik vpamiat' 150-lietiia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi v Sievernoi Amerikie, Vol. I (New York, 1944), pp. 278-279. BOGDAN HORBAL

Legeza, Irynei (pseudonyms: Ivan Lotsuha, Karpatskii) (b. April 1,1861, Turia Bystra [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. September 8,1929, Turia Pasika [Czechoslovakia], Ukraine) — priest, belletrist, and publicist in Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region. After completing his studies at the gymnasium and Theological Seminary in Uzhhorod Legeza was ordained a Greek Catholic priest (1885). He began as an assistant to the parish of his father in Turia Pasika, then served for nearly three decades (1892-1920) in the *Presov Region Rusyn village of Klenova before returning to Turia Pasika for the last decade of his life. Aside from priestly duties, Legeza helped villagers to establish cooperatives and credit associations and to purchase land from the large landed estates. His social activism and writings, all of which appeared in Rusyn vernacular, raised suspicion in official circles, so that during World War I the Hungarian government considered putting him on trial on charges of being a pan-Slavic agitator and danger to the state. Legeza was among the most prolific Rusyn writers during the first two decades of the twentieth century. His literary works were never published in a separate volume but appeared primarily in the decade before World War I in the Rusyn newspaper *Nauka and the annual almanacs (*misiatsoslov). He was best known for his critical essays on contemporary social and cultural problems, which took the form of letters to the editor ("Dopysy" signed by Ivan Lotsuha), and for articles on agricultural and economic themes of practical help to peasant farmers ("Prosti besidy"). An accomplished

283 short-story writer, Legeza based his tales on Rusyn village life and almost all of them ended with a didactic-moralistic message. Among the themes he treated in his best stories was the prodigal son ("Andrei, bludnyi syn," 1906), the negative impact of alcoholism ("lak prodav Onduliak Tarchunu," 1913), and the psychological transformation of an individual ("Zhebrak," 1913). Even more popular were his several short humorous tales based on characters from village life. Further reading: Nykolai Lelekach, "Podkarpatskoe pys'mensrvo na pochatku XX vika," Zoria-Hajnal, III, 1-4 (Uzhhorod, 1943), esp. pp. 242-246. MARIA PETRUSOVA

Lehoczky, Tivadar (b. October 5, 1830, Fuzine [Hungarian Kingdom], Croatia; d. December 25, 1915, Mukachevo [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine) — Hungarian lawyer, archeologist, ethnographer, and historian in Subcarpathian Rus', After completing his legal studies at the Kosice Academy (1851) Lehoczky worked as a court lawyer, eventually in Mukachevo (1855-1865), and then as chief legal consultant for the *Mukachevo-Chyniadiievo estate of Count *Schonborn. In the early 1860s Lehoczky became interested in *archeology and in 1863 he conducted the first of several archeological digs that were to continue over the subsequent decades. In effect, Lehoczky began the discipline of archeology in * Subcarpathian Rus' and before long he had amassed one of the largest private collections of archeological materials in Austria-Hungary, some of which were exhibited at the Vienna World's Exhibit (1873) and at the VHIth International Archeological Congress held in Budapest (1876). He described many of his archeological findings in 80 articles and a two-volume monograph, Adatok hazdnk drcheologiajdkoz (1892-1912; repr. 2001). Lehoczky also developed an avid interest in Rusyn ethnography and folklore, about which he published over 50 articles as well as collections of Rusyn folksongs (Magyarorosz nepdalak, 1864) and folk proverbs (A magyar-orosz nep kozmondasai es peldabeszedei, 1877). As a result of a careful study of regional archival material, he published over 70 studies on the history of *Bereg county, including a detailed three-volume description (Bereg vdrmegye monogrdfidja, 1881-83, repr. 1994), a study of the Mukachevo castle during the Hungarian Revolution (Beregmegye es a Munkdcsi vdr 1848-1849-ben, 1889; repr. 2000), and historical surveys of the city of Mukachevo (Munkdcs vdros uj monogrdfidja, 1907; repr. 1998) and the Greek Catholic Church (A beregmegyei gorogszertartdsu katholikus lelkeszsegek tortenete a XIX. szdzadvegeig, 1904; repr. 1999). In recognition of his scholarly work, Lehoczky was elected to the Archeological Commission of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, to the Rusyn branch of the Hungarian Ethnographic Society, and full member of the Hungarian Historical Society.


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

To preserve his life-long collecting activity, Lehoczky and his supporters formed in 1909 the Lehoczky Museum Society, which eventually formed the basis of the *Lehoczky Provincial Museum, until 1945 the only collection of archeological material in Subcarpathian Rus'. On the eve of his death, he began to compile a diary-chronicle of events in Subcarpathian Rus' during the first months of World War I. Entitled "Our War," it covers the period June 28, 1914, to October 31, 1915, and remains unpublished in four manuscript volumes held in the Transcarpathian State Regional Archive. A collection of Lehoczky's essays on archeology, history, ethnography, and folklore was published under the title Bereg vdrmegye (1995). Further reading: losyf Kobal', Bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk prats' Tyvodara Lehots'koho (Uzhhorod, 1990); losyp Kobal', "Pisliamova," in Tivadar Lehoczky, Bereg vdrmegye/Berez'kyi komitat (Uzhhorod, 1995), pp. 291-299; O.V. Tkachuk, "Zakarpattia periodu seredn'ovichchia u vysvitlenni Tyvodara Lehots'koho," in Molod'-Ukrami, Vol. VIII (Uzhhorod, 1995), pp. 19-33; Gyorgy Csatary, A Lehoczky-hagyatek (Uzhhorod, 2001). IVAN POP

Lehoczky Provincial Museum/Zems'kyi Muzei im. Lehots'koho — archeological museum in Subcarpathian Rus'. The museum was based on the collection of the amateur archeologist and historian, Tivadar *Lehoczky. After his death (1915) control over Lehoczky's collection was disrupted between his family and the Lehoczky Museum Society, which in 1922 renewed its activity. Finally, in 1929 the Czechoslovak government purchased the collection, which formed the basis of the Lehoczky Provincial Museum established the same year in Mukachevo. Under its founding director, Josef Jankovich (1978-19??), the museum set up a permanent exhibit and added new holdings to its collection as a result of archeological excavations conducted at 15 sites throughout * Subcarpathian Rus' during the 1930s. After World War II the Soviet authorities closed the Lehoczky Museum and in 1950 transferred its holdings to the Transcarpathian Regional Museum in Uzhhorod. Further reading: Jozsef Jankovich, "Amunkacsi Lehoczky-muzeum regeszeti asatasai a cseh megszallas alatt," Zoria-Hajnal, II, 3-4 (Uzhhorod, 1942), pp. 290-303; Valerii Razgulov, Muzei Legotskoho (Uzhhorod, 1997). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Lehots'kyi, lulius. See Gypsies/Roma Lektsiia. See Shereghy, Basil Lelekach, Mykola (pseudonym: Lemy Myshylko) (b. December 19, 1907, Korytniany [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine;

d. September 6, 1975, Uzhhorod [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — historian, activist, and professor in Subcarpathian Rus' of Ukrainian national orientation. Lelekach completed his studies at the gymnasium in Uzhhorod (1929) and the philosophical faculty of Charles University in Prague (1929-1934). While still a student, he served on the editorial board of the Prague journal of young radical Ukrainian nationalists, Proboiem. He also published at this time his first studies on Rusyn culture and literature, specifically on a collection of religious and secular songs from Korytniany (1929), the autobiography of the eighteenth-century writer Nykolai Teodorovych (1934), and the ideological development of Subcarpathian literature (1934). After graduation from university and military service Lelekach was employed by the provincial archive of Subcarpathian Rus' in Uzhhorod (1936-1939), whose material he used to publish a series of studies, including documents on Adol'f *Dobrians'kyi's political activity (1938) and a study of the Rusyn gentry during the early modern era ("Rus'ka shliakhta na Pidkarpats'kii Rusy: shliakhta Uzhhorods'koi' Krayni"(1936). Because of his *Ukrainophile sympathies, Lelekach was initially unable to find employment after the Hungarian annexation of *Subcarpathian Rus'in 1938-1939. By mid-1941, however, he had been hired as the secretary to assist the director, Ivan *Haraida, in the operations of the * Subcarpathian Scholarly Society/Podkarpatskoe obshchestvo nauk in Uzhhorod, a post he held until the very end of the following year. Lelekach completed qualifying exams at the University of Debrecen and for two school years (1942-1944) taught history and the Russian language at the *Uzhhorod Greek Catholic Teachers' College. These years marked the apogee of Lelekach's scholarly achievements. Together with Haraida he published wide-ranging bibliographies that retain their research value to this day: "Bybliohrafiia podkarpatskoi ystorii lyteratury" (1942), "Bybliohrafiia podkarpatskoi rus'koi lyteratury" (1943), and Zahal'na bybliohrafiia Podkarpatia (1944; repr. 2000). His own writings dealt with Rusyn literature at the outset of the twentieth century ("Podkarpatskoe pys'menstvo na pochatku XX vika," 1943), the eighteenth-century Zeikan family (1943), and the *Mukachevo Theological School (1943). In late 1944 Lelekach was drafted into the Hungarian Army. Captured on the eastern front, he was impressed into the service of the Soviet Army as a Hungarian and Czech translator (August 1944—September 1945), a post which later spared him from arrest (as happened to his colleague Haraida and other Subcarpathian cultural and political activists under Hungarian rule) by the Soviet security forces SMERSH. After demobilization Lelekach was appointed director (1945) of the archives of *Transcarpathian Ukraine, but by the outset of 1946 he had joined the staff of the recently created Uzhhorod State University (docent/associate professor, 1947), where he taught ancient and medieval history. He was also called


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture upon by the new Soviet Marxist historical establishment "to document" the "age-old" ties between Subcarpathian Rus' and Eastern Slavdom, a task he carried out in two extensive surveys that appeared in the university's journal, Naukovi zapysky: "Pro prynalezhnist' Zakarpattia do Kyivs'koi Rusi v X-XI st." (1949) and "Kul'turni zviazky z Ukrainoiu i Rosiieiu v XVII-XVIII st." (1954). These were the last studies of any substance that Lelekach wrote during the Communist era of his career. Even his kandidat nauk dissertation (1959) was little more than a collection of his scholarly articles from the 1930s and early 1940s, to which he added the required "scientific" vocabulary of Marxism.

lated the grammatical rules of the Lemko dialect in an effort to diminish its status. The section's articles promote the view that *Lemkos are a branch of the Ukrainian nationality, and for the longest time they were particularly critical of the Russophile orientation of the *Lemko Association/Lemko Soiuz in the US A and Canada. Since 1989, the "Lemkivska storinka" has also been critical of the Rusyn national revival, which is accused of being linked to secret Polish plans to undermine and assimilate the Ukrainian minority in Poland.

Further reading: Omelian Dovhanych and L. Antalovtsi, "Mykola Lelekach," in Vasyl' V. Turianytsia, ed., Pedahohy-naukovtsi, Vol. I (Uzhhorod, 1997), pp. 65-70; Hennadii Pavlenko, "M.M. Lelekach iak istorii kul'tury Zakarpattia doby feodalizmu" and Volodymyr Zadorozhnyi, "M.M. Lelekach pro istorychnyi zv"iazky Zakarpattia z inshymy ukrai'ns'kymy zemliamy i Rosiieiu," Naukovyi visnyk Uzhhorods 'koho univerystetu: Seriia istoriia, No. 2 (Uzhhorod, 1998), pp. 9-14.

Lemkivs'ka komisiia. See Nash Lemko; Prosvita Society


Lemkivshchyna — quarterly magazine published in Clifton, New Jersey (1979- ) by the *Lemko Research Foundation, and since 1992 by the *Organization for the Defense of Lemko Western Ukraine. Published in Ukrainian (with some articles in English), Lemkivshchyna contains information on current affairs among Lemkos in North America and Poland, literary works, memoirs, documents, as well as articles in praise of the Greek Catholic Church and the post-World War II activity of the "Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) in the *Lemko Region. The editors have consistently argued that *Lemkos are a branch of the Ukrainian nationality and are critical of both Poland's national assimilationist policies and the Rusyn national revival in the United States since the mid-1970s and in the European homeland after 1989.


Lemkivska lastyvochka. See Besida

Lemkivska tvorcha osin'. See Ruska Bursa Lemkivs'ki visti. See Organization for the Defense of Lemko Western Ukraine; Union of Lemkos in Canada; World Lemkos Federation Lemkvs 'kyi dzvin. See Organization for the Defense of Lemko Western Ukraine Lemko — the first newspaper published in Lemko Rusyn. It began to appear in Eviv in 1911 as a bi-monthly supplement to the Galician-Russophile newspaper Prikarpatskaia Rus'. Beginning with the seventh issue Lemko was published separately in Nowy Sajcz and subsequently Gorlice until 1913. Among its editors were Hryhorii *Hanuliak, Aleksander Hassai, Dymytrii *Vyslotskii, Illia Hoiniak, and Ivan Andreiko. It was generally Russophile in orientation, included articles about current affairs among Lemkos, and was strongly critical of the Ukrainian national movement in Galicia and its attempts to infiltrate the *Lemko Region. BOGDAN HORBAL


"Lemkivska storinka" — Lemko section in Poland's Ukrainian-language weekly newspaper, Nashe slovo, the organ of the Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society (USKT) and, since 1990, of the Union of the Ukrainians in Poland/ Ob"iednannia ukraintsiv Pol'shchi. The section began to appear in 1957 under the title "Lemkivske slovo" (The Lemko Word), but in 1964 its title was changed to "Lemkivska storinka" (The Lemko Page). Its texts have appeared in both Lemko-Rusyn dialect and Ukrainian, and the section contains folkloric material as well as information on current affairs among Lemkos in Poland, Ukraine, and the United States. The editors of "Lemkivska storinka" have consistently manipu-

Lemko — newspaper published in Lemko Rusyn vernacular for immigrants in the United States (1928-39). It initially appeared monthly in a journal format (1928), then as a weekly newspaper (1929), and finally twice a week (1934). At first associated with the *Lemko Committee of the USA, it was a successor to that organization's magazine *Lemkovshchyna, but after 1929 Lemko became the official organ of the *Lemko Association/Lemko-Soiuz of the USA and Canada. Its editors were Dymytrii *Vyslotskii and Simeon *Pysh, who moved the paper's place of publication from Philadelphia to Cleveland, Ohio (1931), and finally to New York City (1936). In 1939 Lemko merged with the newspaper *Karpatska Rus'. BOGDAN HORBAL


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

Lemko — weekly newspaper published in Krynica, Poland (1934-39) as the official organ of the *Lemko Association/ Lemko-Soiuz. The first two issues appeared in Nowy Sa^cz, and from late 1936 to 1939 the newspaper was printed in Eviv. It appeared in the Lemko-Rusyn vernacular and was under the editorship of Vasyl' Tylishchak (1934) and T. Gromosiak (1934-1939). The editors also produced an annual almanac, Kalendar "Lemka " (1935-39). Both the newspaper and almanac opposed the Ukrainian national orientation and promoted the view that *Lemkos are a distinct people with close ties to a larger East Slavic Rus' culture. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Lemko: pismo dla naroda — weekly newspaper published by the Polish government in Cracow (1928-30) under the editorship of Stefan Koss. Although published in Lemko Rusyn, it appeared in the Latin alphabet, using Polish orthography. Its basic goal was to encourage pro-Polish attitudes among the *Lemkos which, it was hoped, would eventually lead to their polonization. BOGDAN HORBAL

West in the face of advancing Soviet troops the Lemko Apostolic Administration continued for two more years under the successive leadership of three general vicars: Andrii Zlupko, Ivan Pidharbii, and Shtefan ladlovskii. All three were limited in their effectiveness as a result of the systematic deportation of the Lemkos from their homeland between 1945 and 1947. Further reading: Boguslaw Prach, "Apostolska Administracja Lemkowszczyny," in Jerzy Czajkowski, ed., Lemkowie w historii i kulturze Karpat, Vol. I (Rzeszow, 1992), pp. 299-311; Stanistaw Nabywaniec, "Administratura Apostolska Lemkowszczyzny w swietle schematyzmu na rok 1936: zagadnienia wstejme," Roczniki Teologiczne, No. 4 (Lublin, 1995), pp. 105-128; Krzysztof Z. Nowakowski, "Administracja Apostolska Lemkowszczyzny w latach 1939-1947," in Stanislaw Ste_pien, ed., Polska—Ukraina 1000 lot sqsiedztwa, Vol. Ill (Przemysl, 1996), pp. 131-145; Mariusz Ryrica, Administratura Apostolska Lemkowszczyzny w latach 1945-1947 (Cracow, 2001); Stanislaw Stepien, "The Greek Catholic Church in the Lemko Region in World War II and its Liquidation (1939-1947), and Mariusz Rynca, "The Liquidation of the Structure of the Greek Catholic Church in the Lemko Region," in Paul Best and Jaroslaw Moklak eds., The Lemko Region, 1939-1947: War, Occupation and Deportation (Cracow and New Haven, Conn., 2002), pp. 183-206. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko. See Khyliak, Vladymir Lemko Apostolic Administration/Apostol'ska administratsiia Lemkovshchyny/Apostolica Administratio pro Lemkis — a Greek Catholic Church jurisdiction created for the Lemko Region by papal decree on September 17, 1934. It consisted of nine deaneries detached from the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of PrzemysT (see Map 6) and was headed by an apostolic administrator first based in Rymanow (until 1938), then Sanok (1939-1943), and finally Krynica (1943-1945); the administrator was under the direct authority of the pope. The basic task of the Lemko Apostolic Administration was to halt the spread of Orthodoxy in the *Lemko Region. It was supported by the *Lemko Association/Lemko-Soiuz as well as by the Polish government, which saw it as a counterfoil to the influence of Ukrainians (in particular Ukrainian-oriented priests from the Eparchy of Przemysl) upon the *Lemkos. Only the first administrator, Vasyl' *Mastsiukh (1934-1936), together with the head of the administrator's office, loann *Polianskii were able to carry out successfully the *Rusynophile orientation of the Lemko Apostolic Administration. During the tenure of the second administrator, lakiv Medvetskii (1936-1941), who was unfamiliar with the Lemko Region, the Lemko Administration fell under the influence of Polish and later Nazi German government circles. The last administrator, Aleksander Malynovs'kyi (1941-1945), adopted a clear pro-Ukrainian orientation. After Malynovs'kyi fled to the

Lemko Association/Lemko-Soiuz/Zwi^zek lemkowski — civic and cultural organization ofRusyn national orientation among the Lemkos of Poland. The Lemko Association was established in Sanok in December 1933; among its co-founders and leading activists were Metodii *Trokhanovskii, Orest *Hnatyshak, laroslav S'okalo, Ivan Perelom, levhen Shatynskii, Semen Vozniak, Teofil' *Kuryllo, and I. Hukevych. The organization's primary goals were to create a separate Greek Catholic episcopate for the *Lemko Region, to introduce Lemko Rusyn as a language of instruction in schools, to remove Ukrainophile priests and teachers from the region's churches and schools, and in general to support Lemko national development and economic welfare. The first two goals were achieved with the creation of the *Lemko Apostolic Administration (1934) and the introduction of Lemko language into elementary schools (1933). The views of the Lemko Association, which included loyalty to the Polish state, were propagated in its bi-weekly newspaper * Lemko (193439), an annual almanac (1935-39), and other publications. The organization was initially funded by the Polish government which, however, began to change its policy: it gradually removed Lemko teachers from schools (1936-1937), banned the use of Lemko-language textbooks (1938), and finally ended all financial support for the Lemko Association, which ceased its activity with the outbreak of World War II and the fall of Poland in September 1939. BOGDAN HORBAL


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Lemko Association of the USA and Canada/ Lemko-Soiuz v SShA y Kanadi — the largest social and cultural organization among Lemko immigrants and their descendants in North America. The first branch of the Lemko Association was founded in 1929 in Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); its first congress was held in 1931 in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1935 the Canadian branches held their own congress and elected a central committee for what became known as the Lemko Association of Canada. At the height of its strength (1945) the association had 5,000 members in 100 branches (88 in the United States and 12 in Canada). Its first president was Theodore Kochan (1929-1931) and among others who have served in that office were Michael Bavoliak (19311933), George Shuflat (1935-1939), John Holowach (19391944), John Adamiak (1944-1948, 1959-1961, 1971-1981, 1983-1989), William Varholiak (1948-1956), and Alexander Herenchak(1989-). From 1939 until 1999 the main headquarters of the Lemko Association were in Yonkers, a suburb of New York City, where it rented space at the *Carpatho-Russian American Center. It also operated a cultural center, the *Lemko Hall/ Narodnyi dom in Cleveland, Ohio, and buildings for clubs in Ansonia and Bridgeport, Connecticut. The official organs of the Lemko Association have been the newspapers published in Lemko Rusyn and, in part, in English: * Lemko (1929-39) and *Karpatska Rus 7Carpatho-Rus (1939- ). The association has also published, mostly in English, several short-lived magazines and newspapers for young people (Lemko-Journal, \913;Lemko-Youth, 1936-39; Lemko Youth Journal, 1960-64; Carpatho-Russian American, 1968-69; Karpaty, 1978-79), as well as annual almanacs (1926-71, 1984, 1987-91), a series of 27 short plays (Dramatychna Biblioteka), and several other publicistic and popular historical works. After 1934, under the influence of Simeon *Pysh and Dymytrii *Vyslotskii, the Lemko Association became proCommunist in orientation. It supported a plan to resettle *Lemkos from their Carpathian homeland (as well as immigrants from North America) to the Soviet Union as a means of resolving the group's national and socioeconomic difficulties; it adopted an anti-fascist platform; and it favored the creation of a Carpatho-Rusyn Section within the International Workers' Order. During World War II the Lemko Association was the most important leftist organization among all Slavic immigrant groups in the United States, and it provided significant material and financial support for the Soviet Union. Much of its fund-raising efforts were the result of a Carpatho-Rusyn Radio Program (1943-1947), hosted by Nicholas *Cislak, that the Lemko Association sponsored in the New York CityNew Jersey area. At the close of World War II the association supported the resettlement of Lemkos to the Soviet Union, and to assist this process it set up in 1946 the *Lemko Relief Committee. In the late 1960s the editors of Karpatska Rus', Stephen

*Kitchura and Teodor *Doklia, began to question the Lemko Association's pro-Communist orientation and to criticize Communist Poland's policy of national assimilation toward the Lemkos, the forced ukrainianization policy against Rusyns in the *Presov Region, and the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia. By 1970 the "revisionists" had been pushed out of the Lemko Association, which returned to its pro-Soviet orientation, at least until the collapse of Communist rule in central and eastern Europe in 1989. By this time, however, the organization had declined to only about 400 members. In recent years, it has tried with difficulty to survive under the leadership of Alexander Herenchak. With regard to its national orientation, the Lemko Association has never adopted a clear position. Rejecting the Ukrainian orientation, it has at times supported the view that Lemkos are part of a distinct Carpatho-Rusyn people but more often sees them as the "Carpatho-Russian" branch of a single "Rus'/Russian" people that encompasses all the East Slavs. Further reading: Pamiatna knyzhka 10-lityiaLemko-SoiuzavSoied Shtatakhy Kanadi (Yonkers, N.Y., 1939); 50th Anniversary Almanac of Lemko Association of USA and Canada (Yonkers, N.Y, 1979). BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Civic Circle. See Hospodar Rusyn Democratic Circle of Lemkos in Poland; Stefanovskii, Pavel Lemko Commission. See Nash Lemko; Prosvita Society

Lemko Committee. See Pysh, Simeon

Lemko Committee/Lemkovskii komitet of the USA — Lemko-American immigrant organization to assist the European homeland. The Lemko Committee was founded in New York City in 1922 by Victor *Hladick. During its short period of existence the committee promoted the Russian national orientation among Lemko immigrants through its magazine, *Lemkovshchyna (1922-26), and it raised some funds to help elementary schools in the *Lemko Region. Further reading: Bohdan Herbal', "Osnovania pershoi lemkivskoi organizatsyyi—Lemkivskoho komitetu," in Lemkivskii richnyk 2002 (Krynica and Legnica, 2002), pp. 56-61. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Creative Autumn. See Ruska Bursa Lemko Cultural Days. See Lemko Society Lemko Festival. See Lemko Park Lemko Hall — social and cultural center for RusynAmerican immigrants in Cleveland, Ohio. The building was


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

constructed in 1910 by Andrii Korenyi from the *Presov Region (*Sharysh county) and was known as Koreny's Hall. After his death (1945), the building was bought by the *Lemko Association/Lemko-Soiuz of the USA and Canada, which within two years transformed it into a cultural center (Narodnyi dom). The Lemko Hall became a center for Rusyn theatrical performances (50,000 viewers between 1947 and 1957), musical concerts and competitions, weddings, classes for teaching children the "Carpatho-Russian" language, public lectures, and annual congresses (1947, 1951, 1961) of the Lemko Association. In 1978 its main hall was used to film the wedding scene in the academy-award winning American film about the Vietnam War, The Deer Hunter. By the 1980s the Lemko Hall had fallen into disuse; it was sold by the Lemko Association (1986) and eventually transformed into a modern condominium apartment bloc that still carries the name "Lemko." See also Carpatho-Russian American Center. Further reading: "Nash narodnyi tsentr," Karpatorusskyi kalendar' Lemko-Soiuza na hod 1956 (Yonkers, N.Y., 1956), pp. 55-61. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Journal. See Lemko Association of the USA and Canada Lemko Library. See Ukrainian Lemko Museum Lemko Museum. See Lemko Research Foundation in Lviv; Museum of Lemko Culture in Zyndranowa; Museum of the Lemko Region; Ukrainian Lemko Museum Lemko Park — recreational retreat in Monroe, New York, for Lemko and other Rusyn-American immigrants and their descendants, especially in the New York City-New Jersey metropolitan area. Based on a decision taken by the *Lemko Association/Lemko Soiuz of the USA and Canada at its XHIth National Convention (1947), the Lemko Park was created in 1958 (126 acres at the cost of $175,000); it was not owned by the organization, however, but rather by a group of individual shareholders. The park became the site of largescale gatherings of Lemko immigrants, including an annual Rusalia festival, Youth Days (Dni molodi), and after 1964, in connection with a memorial chapel built to honor *Lemkos who died at the World War I internment camp, a *Talerhof Day. The chapel included a small museum housing documents, books, and photographs connected with the Lemko experience in North America and the homeland. From 1969 the Lemko Park also sponsored an annual Lemko Festival at which folk ensembles from the United States, Czechoslovakia, and Ukraine performed, and which also included ethnographic exhibits, lectures, and sports competitions. By the early 1990s the Lemko Park had declined because of fiscal

mismanagement. It was eventually (1997) confiscated by the United States government for failure to pay back taxes. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko population resettlement—the transfer of Lemkos from the Carpathian homeland in the years 1944 to 1946. The resettlement was carried out on the basis of an agreement (September 9,1944) between the governments of Poland and the Soviet Union that provided for a mutual exchange of populations. Poles from the Soviet Ukraine were to be voluntarily resettled in Poland, while Ukrainians, Russians, and Rusyns living within the boundaries of post-World War II Poland were to be resettled to the Soviet Ukraine. Four resettlement (evacuation) commissions operated in the *Lemko Region, based in the towns of Sanok, Jaslo, Gorlice, and Nowy Sa^cz. The resettlement process, which lasted from November 1944 to September 1946, was carried out with the assistance of the Polish military. A certain number of *Russophile-oriented *Lemkos supported the resettlement program, as did those who had lost their property during the war. Resettlement was in particular encouraged by local Communist activists and Soviet emissaries. Most Lemkos, however, left their homes under threat from Polish officials, military personnel, and terrorists. Both Ukrainian activists and the *Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UFA) opposed what they considered forced deportation. Those who were resettled were permitted to take with them up to two tons (2,000 kilograms) of personal property per family, although this proved to be unrealistic given the general lack of transportation facilities. When the transports stopped in 1946 about 100,000 Lemkos (between 60 and 80 percent of the total number at the time) had been resettled, mostly in the Eviv, Ternopil', and Ivano-Frankivs'k oblasts of western Ukraine. The Lemkos who did not go to the Soviet Ukraine were forcibly deported the following year to various parts of Poland in the so-called * Vistula Operation. Further reading: Bohdan Kordan, "Making Borders Stick: Population Transfer and Resettlement in the Trans-Curzon Territories, 1944-1949," International Migration Review, XXXI, 3 (Staten Island, N.Y., 1997), pp. 704-720; Julian Kwiek, "Przesiedlenie ludnosci lemkowskiej z wojewodztwa krakowskiego na Ukraine^ (19451946)," Studio Historyczne, XLI, 2 (Cracow, 1998), pp. 237-258; studies by Eugeniusz Misilo, Roman Drozd, and Yurii Kramar in Paul Best and Jaroslaw Moklak eds., The Lemko Region, 1939-1947: War, Occupation and Deportation (Cracow and New Haven, Conn., 2002), pp. 75-108. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko od Pradida. See Cislak, Nicholas Lemko Region — name for Rusyn-inhabited territory in present-day southeastern Poland. It refers to an area en-


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture compassing about 250 villages, at least 50 percent of whose inhabitants (and usually much more) were Rusyns at the outset of the twentieth century. The territory itself is only about 25 to 50 kilometers wide and is bordered along its entire length in the south by the crests of the *Carpathian Mountains, which coincide with the present-day Polish-Slovak border. In the west, the Lemko Region begins near the Tatra mountain range and stretches eastward for about 140 kilometers. There is no concensus regarding its eastern boundary: according to linguistic and ethnographic criteria that boundary lies somewhere between the Oslawa and Solinka rivers; according to criteria put forth by political activists, the boundary is the upper San River, i.e., the present-day Polish-Ukrainian border (see Ethnography; Language). The Lemko Region was until 1918 part of the Austrian Habsburg province of Galicia, specifically the southern parts of the *districts of Nowy Sa^cz, Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo, Krosno, Sanok, Lesko, and a very small portion (four villages) of Nowy Targ (see Map 9). Presently, this area falls within two palatinates in Poland: the southeastern corner of Malopolskie (parts of the Nowy Targ, Nowy Sa^cz, and Gorlice districts/pow/a/y) and far southern Podkarpackie (parts of the Jaslo, Krasno, Sanok, and Ustrzyki Dolne districts). The term Lemko Region (Rusyn: Lemkovyna/Lemkovshchyna) has never had official status in whatever state has ruled the area. Of recent origin, it began to be used only at the outset of the twentieth century, when the local Rusyn population first began to refer to itself as Lemkos. The entire Lemko population was resettled and forcibly deported between 1945 and 1947, so that at present only about 20,000 returnees and their descendants live in villages scattered throughout the area. Nevertheless, the term Lemko Region, in the sense of all the villages where Lemko Rusyns had lived before 1945, continues to be used in publications and by organizations that promote historical and civic Lemko interests. Ukrainian popular and scholarly writings also refer to the Lemko Region (Ukrainian: Lemkivshchyna), although they include as well what they consider to be the "southern" Lemko Region, that is, the Rusyn-inhabited *Presov Region in Slovakia. Further reading: Walery Goetl, ed., O Lemkowszczyznie (Cracow, 1935); Bohdan Struminsky, "The Name of the Lemkos and of their Territory," in Jacob P. Hursky, ed., Studies in Ukrainian Linguistics in Honor of George Y. Shevelov/Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences, XV (New York, 1981-83), pp. 301-307; Bohdan Strumins'kyi, "Nazva liudei i kraiu," in idem, Lemkivshchyna: zemlia—liudy—istoriia—kul'tura, Vol. I (New York, Paris, Sydney, and Toronto, 1988), pp. 11-86; Jerzy Czajkowski, Studia nad Lemkowszczyznq (Sanok, 1999). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Lemko Region Affairs Committee/Komitet do

spraw Lemkowszczyzny — a division of Poland's

Committee for National Minority Affairs. The Lemko Region Affairs Committee was established in 1934 and included representatives of Poland's ministries of internal affairs and defense, school inspectors, representatives of state administrators in the *Lemko Region, and scholars. The committee's task was to formulate Polish government policy toward its Lemko inhabitants and to encourage those elements among *Lemkos who were willing to support the government. Initially, the committee recommended support for the Rusyn movement as a counterweight to Ukrainian influence, but by the end of the 1930s the Polish government tried to undermine both orientations in favor of a policy of rapid polonization of the Lemkos. Further reading: Jaroslaw Moklak, "Asymilacja pahstwowa czy narodowa: wybrane aspekty polityki narodowosciowej Drugiej Rzeczpospolitej wobec Lemkowszczyzny," Studia Historyczne, XXXIX, 3 (Cracow, 1996), pp. 327-340. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Region Peasant and Workers' Committee. See Donskii, Mykhal

Lemko Region Society in Ukraine/Tovarystvo "Lemkivshchyna" v Ukrai'ni — the name of several organizations established since 1988 to promote the Ukrainian national orientation and preserve and popularize what it describes as Lemko "regional" culture in Ukraine. Three oblasts in western Ukraine—Lviv, Ternopil', and IvanoFrankivs'k—have their own Lemko Region Society, each of which comprises an oblast organization with several district (raion) branches. Most of the members are *Lemkos who were resettled to the Soviet Ukraine from the *Lemko Region after World War II. The organization based in Lviv organized a World Festival of Lemko Song (1991) and the First World Congress of Lemkos (1993). The organization in Ivano-Frankivs'k broadcasts the radio program "Otchyi svityl'nyk." Perhaps the most active oblast organization is based in Ternopil'. It has sponsored the First Congress of Lemkos in Ukraine and the Festival of Lemko Culture (1992) and it also publishes a monthly newspaper in Ukrainian, Dzvony Lemkivshchyny (1994- ). All three regional Lemko Region Societies in western Ukraine as well as a branch in Kiev work closely with Ukrainian-oriented Lemko organizations in other countries. In their programs and publications they frequently speak out against the forced deportation of *Lemkos from their homeland connected with the 1947 *Vistula Operation and they call for the return of property in the Carpathian homeland to Lemkos still living in Poland. The three regional societies are also very critical of the post-1989 Rusyn national revival which they describe as an "artificial movement" created by "enemies of Ukraine" to divide the rest of the Ukrainian people from one of its


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

"integral" branches, the Lemkos. Further reading: Anatoli! ladlovs'kyi, "Tovarystvo 'Lemkivshyna' v Ivano-Frankivs'ku 10-t' rokiv," Lemkivshchyna, XXII, 2 (Clifton, N.J., 2001), pp. 23-25. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Lemko Relief Committee. See Pysh, Simeon Lemko Relief Committee/Lemkovskyi relyfovyi komytet — organization among Lemko-American immigrants to provide economic assistance to Lemkos/Rusyns in the European homeland (both in Poland and northeastern Slovakia). The Lemko Relief Committee was established in Yonkers, New York on May 18, 1946, at the initiative of a well-to-do industrialist from Connecticut, Peter S. *Hardy, and in cooperation with other Lemko activists, including Nicholas *Cislak, Simeon *Pysh, Victor *Hladick, Joseph *Fedoronko. Initially, the committee functioned within the framework of the *Lemko Association/Lemko Soiuz of the USA and Canada. It raised $4,000 (US), sought assistance from the United Nations Recovery and Relief Administration (UNRRA), and began to send material assistance to the *Lemko Region. Its activity ended following the final deportation of Lemkos from their homeland during the * Vistula Operation (1947). The Lemko Relief Committee was revived in 1957, this time largely at the initiative of Peter Hardy and the Orthodox priest, Joseph Fedoronko. In March 1957 the committee reached an agreement with the Polish Embassy in the United States and before the end of the year Hardy was able to visit Poland, where he signed an agreement to supply assistance to the Lemko Region. After 1959 the Lemko Relief Committee functioned as an independent organization based in Seymour, Connecticut. It managed to collect $12,000 (US) to buy farm machinery for four Lemko villages, but after that it was only able to supply minor economic assistance. Further reading: Petro S. Hardyi, Korotkaystoryia Lemkovskoho Relyfovoho Komyteta v SShA (Yonkers, N.Y., 1958). BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Republic of Florynka/Ruska narodna respublika Lemkiv — self-governing entity formed in the Lemko Region following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On December 5, 1918, a congress of 500 delegates representing 130 Lemko villages met in Florynka. The congress established an Executive Council of the Lemko Region/ Nachal'nyi soviet Lemkovshchyny under the chairmanship of the Greek Catholic priest Mykhai'l lurchakevych. The Executive Council in turn set up a self-governing administrative structure that included district-level councils, a police force, and courts. The Executive Council's main goal was to unite

Carpatho-Rusyns on both sides of the mountains into a single state, *Carpathian Rus'. Since most of its members were of *Russophile national orientation, initially they hoped to unite Carpathian Rus' with a democratic Russia, but it quickly became clear that this was not possible. The council then adopted a pro-Czechoslovak orientation and before the end of December sent a delegation to Prague to request unification with that new country. Lemko delegates were also dispatched to Presov, where, on December 21, 1918, they joined with local Rusyns to form a Carpatho-Rusyn National Council. For its part, the Polish government sent troops to take control of the *Lemko Region and in February 1919 arrested the "republic's" leaders. Toward the end of that year the Executive Council managed to renew its existence, with the express purpose of blocking the mobilization of *Lemkos into the Polish army. It sent a delegation to Warsaw and received promises from the government that mobilization would cease, although in fact it continued. Disturbed by Poland's intransigence, Lemko leaders responded by convening in Florynka on March 20, 1920, a Supreme Council of the Lemko Rus' Region/ Verkhovnyi soviet Lemkovskoi Rusi (26 members) and an Executive Committee/Isporniternyi komitet (5 members) under the chairmanship of laroslav *Karchmarchyk that took on the characteristics of a Lemko government. That same month the Polish authorities responded by sending an armed force to implement mobilization. By the spring of 1920 all of the Lemko Region was firmly under Polish rule. One year later, in early 1921 the leading members of the "republic" (laroslav Kachmarchyk, Dymytrii *Khyliak, Nikolai *Hromosiak) were arrested and put on trial (June 10, 1921) for anti-Polish agitation. All were acquitted, since the court found they had acted in response to "the will of the people." During its more than two years of existence (December 1918—January 1921), the various organs of what later came to be known as the Lemko Rusyn Republic of Florynka succeeded for the first time in representing Lemko political interests before Poland and the international community. For Lemkos the Florynka republic remains a symbol of their struggle for national recognition and sense of unity with other Carpatho-Rusyns south of the mountains. Further reading: Bogdan Horbal, Dziatalnoscpolityczna Lemkow net Lemkowszczyznie, 1918-1921 (Wroclaw, 1997); Paul Robert Magocsi, "The Lemko Rusyn Republic, 1918-1920 and Political Thought in Western Rus'-Ukraine," in idem, Of the Making of Nationalities There is No £W(New York, 1999), pp. 306-315. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Republic of Komancha/Komanchans'ka respublika — short-lived state formation proclaimed after the collapse of Austria-Hungary in the eastern part of the Lemko Region. Over 70 delegates from 35 Lemko villages met in Wistok Dolny on November 4, 1918. There they es-

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture tablished a Ukrainian National Council of the Sanok district headed by the Greek Catholic priest Panteleimon *Shpyflca. The council was based in Wislok Dolny and the government's executive, which was entrusted to the commissariat of the Sanok district, resided in Wislok Wielki. Nevertheless, in subsequent literature the movement has been named after the nearby village of Komancza (Rusyn: Komancha). The republic had its own Lemko police force comprised of between 800 and 1,000 members under the command of A. Kir. The Lemko Republic of Komancha intended to join the West Ukrainian National Republic founded in Eviv on November 1,1918. By the end of November, however, Polish troops arrived in the eastern part of the Lemko Region and on January 23, 1919, they liquidated the Komancha Republic. During this action several Lemkos were killed and serious damage was done to nearby Lemko villages. Further reading: Tadeusz Andrzej Olszanski, "Republika komariczanska: nieznana karta ukrainskiego zrywu niepodleglosciowego listopad 1918-styczen 1919 r.," in Ukraina i Polska po 1 wojnie swiatowego/Religie II Rzeczypospolitej (Gdansk, 1987), pp. 3446—in Ukrainian: "Komanchans'ka respublika: nevidoma storinka ukrai'ns'koho vyzvol'noho poryvu, listopad 1918—sichen' 1919," in Annaly Lemkivshcyny, Vol. V (New York, 1993), pp. 58-69; Jaroslaw Moklak,"Republikitemkowskie 1918-1919," Wierchy LIX (Cracow, 1994), pp. 63-76; Bogdan Horbal, DziaMnosc polityczna Lemkow na Lemkowszczyznie, 1918-1921 (Wroclaw, 1997), esp. pp. 114-131. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Research Foundation/Fundatsiia doslidzhennia Lemkivshchyny — scholarly organization of Ukrainophile orientation in the United States. Established in 1977 in New York City, the main goals of the Lemko Research Foundation are: (1) to preserve Lemko cultural achievements and traditions; (2) to provide financial and moral support for scholars and students studying Lemko problems; (3) to publish works about *Lemkos; and (4) to secure funding to achieve these goals. The foundation has supported existing *Ukrainophile serial publications, including the popular magazine *Lemkivshchyna (1979-1992) and the journal Annaly Lemkivshchyny, Vols. 3-5 (1982-95), and it has published two books on Lemko architecture. It also sends publications to Ukrainophile Lemko organizations and scholars in Poland and Ukraine, and in the post-Communist era the foundation has provided financial support for the Ukrainian-oriented "homeland"*Vatra folk festival in Poland and for the "*Lemkivska storinka'YLemko section of Poland's Ukrainian-language newspaper, Nashe slovo. The Lemko Research Foundation frequently denounces the post-1989 Rusyn national revival, describing it as a threat to the integrity of the Ukrainian state and people. Among the foundation's long-time chairmen (1977-1994) was Myron Myts'o, BOGDAN HORBAL

291 Lemko Research Foundation in Eviv/Fundatsiia doslidzhennia Lemkivshchyny u Evovi — cultural and popular-educational organization for the study of Lemkos in Ukraine. Established in Lviv in 1991 under the direction of Ivan *Krasovs'kyi, the Lemko Research Foundation is concerned with preserving examples of traditional Lemko culture and ethnography. It has created a Lemko Museum within the framework of the permanent outdoor (skansen) exhibit in Eviv (1992), which includes historical and ethnographic materials and a full-scale replica of the church in Kwiaton, a classic example of Lemko-style wooden church *architecture. The foundation organizes art exhibits and cultural programs honoring Lemko cultural figures, and it publishes a series of books entitled "Biblioteka Lemkivshchyny." Ukrainophile in orientation, its publications and public programs frequently denounce the post-1989 Rusyn national revival. Further reading: Ivan Krasovs'kyi, "Fundatsiia Doslidzhennia Lemkivshchyny u Evovi," in Lemkivs'kyi kalendar 1994 (Eviv, 1994), pp. 53-72. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Section of the Commission for Scholarly Research on the Eastern Lands/Sekcja lemkowska Komisji badan naukowych ziem wschodnich — state-funded scholarly committee to advise the government of Poland on questions related to the Lemko Region. The Lemko Section was established in 1934 under the direction of Jerzy Smolenski, who engaged fellow Polish scholars from Jagiellonian University in Cracow and the Polish Academy of Sciences to carry out research projects on various aspects of the *Lemko Region and its inhabitants. Among the section's participants were Roman *Reinfuss, Zdzislaw *Stieber, Stanislaw Leszczycki, and Krystyna Pieradzka, who published studies on Lemko ethnography, language, and anthropology. It seems that the Polish government's decision in the 1930s to support the idea that *Lemkos are a nationality distinct from Ukrainians was, in part, the result of recommendations from the Lemko Section. Further reading: Stanislaw Leszczycki, "Prace Oddzialu Lemkowskiego Badah Naukowych Ziem Wschodnich," Wierchy, No. 13 (Cracow, 1935), pp. 186-187; Jaroslaw Moklak, "Asymilacja pahstwowa czy narodowe: wybrane aspekty polityki narodowosciowej Drugiej Rzeczpospolitej wobec Lemkowszczyzny," Studio Historyczne, XXXIX, 3 (Cracow, 1996), pp. 327-340. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Section of the Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society — Lemko organization in Poland. During the period of Communist rule (1945-1989) *Lemkos in Poland were not permitted to have their own organizations, since they were considered a branch of the Ukrainian nationality.


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

When, in 1957, a government-sponsored Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society/Ukrai'ns'ke sotsio-kul'turne tovarystvo (USKT) was established, with a base in Warsaw, Lemko cultural groups participated in the new organization. Their activity was more intensely coordinated following the establishment in December 1959 of the Section for the Development of Lemko Culture/Sektsiia dlia rozvytku regional'noi lemkivs'ko! kul'tury, popularly known as the Lemko Section of the Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society. Headed by Mykhal *Donskii and Pavel *Stefanovskii, the Lemko Section organized concerts, lectures, and other cultural events. It also encouraged the formation of other Lemko ensembles. Although all were within the framework of the Lemko Section, they often included people who were not members of the Ukrainian Civic and Culture Society. From its very foundation the Lemko Section was suspected of having non-Ukrainian "separatist tendencies." These suspicious seemed to be confirmed when Donskii and Stefanovskii requested that the Lemko Section be transferred from the Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society to the authority of Poland's Regional Division of Culture. The authorities did not allow this; hence, Donskii and Stefanovskii formulated a statute for a new organization, the Society for Admirers of Lemko Culture/Tovarystvo liubyteliv lemkivskoi kul'tury. Immediately thereafter the two activists together with all the personnel of the Lemko Section were dismissed. In late 1965 the Ukrainian Civic and Cultural Society appointed a new eight-member board, all loyal to the Ukrainian national orientation, to direct the Lemko Section. Among its members were laroslav *Polianskii, Fedor *Goch, and Hryhorii *Petsukh. Since the fall of Communist rule in Poland in 1989 Ukrainian-oriented Lemko activities have been taken up by the newly created *Union of Lemkos in Poland. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko Society/Stovaryshynia Lemkiv/Stowarzyszenie Lemkow — Lemko civic and cultural organization of Rusyn national orientation established in Legnica, Poland, in 1989. Its primary goals are to have Lemko Rusyns recognized as a distinct nationality in Poland and to have the Lemko vernacular taught in schools. The society has published several textbooks, mostly written by Myroslava *Khomiak, and literary works by contemporary Lemko authors; its official organ is the bi-monthly magazine *Besida (1989- ). It has established an amateur theatrical group under the direction of Andrii *Kopcha, who is also the founding chairman (1989- ) of the society, and it sponsors several annual festivals: the *Vatra "abroad" at Michalow in Silesia for Lemkos living in southwestern Poland since the 1947 deportations; the Lemko Cultural Days/Dni lemkivskoi kul'tury at Gorzow Wielkopolski in far-western Poland; and the International Celebration of Lemko-Rusyn Culture/Medzhenarodne Biienale lemkivs-

koi/rusyn'skoi kul'tury in Krynica. The Lemko Society is a founding member (1991) of the * World Congress of Rusyns and a permanent member of its Executive Council/Svitova rada. In 1993 the Lemko Society sponsored the Second World Congress of Rusyns in Krynica, Poland, and since its foundation the society has held three organizational congresses. Further reading: Janusz Albin and Jan Chudy, "Z genezy Stowarzyszenia Lemkow," in Czeslaw Lewandowski and Marian S. Wo\anski,eds.,Studianadwsp6iczesnqpolskqmyslqpolitycznq,Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis: Politologia, XIII (Wroclaw, 1994), pp. 123-144; "Stovaryshynia Lemkiv: X-litia v datakh," Besida, XI, 3 and 4 (Krynica and Legnica, 1999), pp. 1-2, 5-12, and 2, 5-6. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemko-Semko. See Khyliak, Vladymir Lemko-Soiuz. See Lemko Association of the USA and Canada; Lemko Association/Zwia^zek Lemkowski

Lemkos — the farthest western ethnographic group of Carpatho-Rusyns. The territory they inhabit consists of a triangular wedge jutting into West Slavic settlement, with *Poles to the north and *Slovaks to the south. The base of the triangular wedge is formed by the valleys of the Oslawa and Laborec rivers, while its apex reaches as far as the Poprad river valley. Some authors extend the eastern boundary of Lemkos almost as far as the San River and the upper Uzh River and its Turia tributary in Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia (see Map 3). The farthest western Lemko-Rusyn village is Osturna, at the foot of the Tatra Mountains on the southern flank of the Carpathian crests. The triangular wedge is about 150 kilometers long on its west-east axis and about 60 kilometers long at its north-south base. In terms of present-day administrative borders, the lands traditionally inhabited by Lemko Rusyns comprise the southern part of the Podkarpackie and the southeastern corner of the Malopolskie palatinates (wojewodztwa) in Poland, and the northern parts of the Stara Eubovna, Bardejov, Svidnik, Stropkov, Medzilaborce, Humenne, and Snina districts (okresy) in Slovakia. Elsewhere in this encyclopedia Rusyn-inhabited lands in present-day Poland are referred to as the *Lemko Region, and in Slovakia as the *Presov Region. The northern flank of the triangle follows a line just below of the towns of Grybow, Gorlice, Zmigrod, Dukla, and Rymanow in Poland. This invisible line has traditionally functioned as a sharply delineated ethnocultural boundary between Lemko Rusyns and Poles. Completely different is the situation along the southern flank of the triangular wedge, where traditionally the boundary has not only been invisible, but also quite uneven and permeable. One reason for this difference has to do with language and religious factors. For instance, on the southern slopes of the Carpathians the "Rus'

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture faith" is common to inhabitants who still speak Rusyn as well as those who adopted Slovak or Hungarian. The ethnonym Lemko is externally ascriptive in character. That is to say, because the population uses the word lem (meaning only) in their speech—a word not used by nearby ethnographic groups—their neighbors ascribed to them the nickname Lemko. This name was first mentioned in the scholarly literature in 1820 and gradually became accepted by many authors. By the early twentieth century the Rusyns living on the northern slopes of the Carpathians had given up their traditional ethnonym, Rusnak, for the name Lemko. South of the Carpathians, however, they retained the ethnonym Rusnak, or its variant, Rusyn. As the Rusnaks north of the mountains adopted the new name Lemko, they also evolved from an ethnographic to an ethnonational group. In this entry, the Rusyn inhabitants north of the Carpathians (in the Lemko Region proper) will be referred to as Lemkos, those on the southern slopes (in the Presov Region) as Rusnaks. As a whole, the population will be referred to as Lemkos/Rusnaks, their territory as the Lemko/Presov Region. During the interwar years of the twentieth century there were in the Lemko Region of Poland about 180 villages inhabited exclusively by Lemkos and a few dozen others of mixed Lemko and Polish habitation, for a total Lemko-Rusyn population of about 130,000 (1931). On the southern slopes of the Carpathians in Slovakia there were at the outset of the period (1919) 269 villages in the mountainous regions and another 149 villages in the immediately adjacent areas to the south and southwest. Of this total of 418 villages, 103 were inhabited primarily by Rusnaks, 54 by Rusnaks with a Slovak minority, and 7 by Slovaks with a Rusnak minority. In absolute numbers, 85,000 persons in eastern Slovakia declared their nationality as Rusyn (1930), although it is likely that several thousand more identified themselves as "Czechoslovak." By the 1930s the majority of the Lemko/Rusnak population was of the Greek Catholic faith, with about 15 percent (20,000) Orthodox in Poland and 9 percent (9,000) in Slovakia. There is still controversy about the ethnogenesis of this farthest western Rusyn ethnographic group. Some authors consider Lemkos/Rusnaks the autochthonous inhabitants in the Carpathians, living in the region (once much larger in extent than it became in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries) since proto-Slavic times. Other authors argue that Lemkos/Rusnaks made their appearance only in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, as when Vlach shepherds migrated from the Balkans and settled in the Beskyd ranges of the Carpathians, where for the most part they were rusynized (see Vlach colonization). Traditionally, Lemkos/Rusnaks earned their livelihood primarily through agriculture, but also through raising goats, sheep, and cows. Agricultural productivity always remained underdeveloped, however, owing in large part to the harsh mountain climate, poor soil, and antiquated farming tech-


niques. Aside from the main crops, oats and barley, potatoes, kohlrabi, cabbage, beans, and flax were also sown. Livestock breeding was not very well developed; most households had only from two to at most a dozen cows that grazed all year long in the common pasture land (tolokd). Other means of livelihood were limited. A few villages specialized in small-scale crafts, while some Lemkos/Rusnaks worked in the forests and may have tried their hand at retail commerce. The products they made were based on accessible materials such as wood and stone. The forest was particularly important. Women picked mushrooms and berries, which they sold in the nearby small towns, while men felled trees, sold as uncut logs or cut into lumber. Some villages were noted for crafts such as wagon-making, metal-repairing, barrel-making, embroidery, stone-cutting, and tar-making. The village of Losie near Gorlice was particularly renowned for the production of grease. Losie's grease merchants were the most mobile element among the Lemkos, in some cases traveling on their wagons as far as Lithuania, Russia, Silesia, Moravia, and Transylvania. Lemkos/Rusnaks also found employment as seasonal workers in the more agriculturally developed lands to the south, especially the Hungarian Plain. Beginning in the 1870s, increasing numbers emigrated abroad, in particular to the United States but also to Canada and Brazil. The phenomenon of emigration resulted in improved economic conditions for Lemko/Rusnak villages; it also had a positive impact on national self-identity and changes in cultural and civic life. Lemko/Rusnak culture has been heavily influenced by Poles and Slovaks, although at the same time it has retained archaic elements that have disappeared among neighboring groups. In comparison to other Rusyn ethnographic groups (*Dolyniane and in part *Boikos/Verkhovyntsi), and in particular to their neighbors to the north and south, a number of cultural characteristics allow Lemkos/Rusnaks to differentiate "their own" from "the others." Among the most important of these differentiating factors is the manner of laying out villages and the spatial plan for domestic dwellings and property. Village houses were arranged in the form of a long chain along a river or brook. Also part of this spatial plan were the so-called arable lands in the forest, located halfway down the valley from the village. The Lemko/Rusnak homestead more often than not consisted of a single dwelling built in wood and divided into two parts. Roofs initially had four slopes, but subsequently only two slopes with eaves covered with straw or shingles. The living quarters had walls of wooden planks. Villages inhabited by Lemkos/Rusnaks were also distinguishable by the presence of Lemko-style wooden churches (see Architecture). Another important element differentiating Lemkos/ Rusnaks from other groups and contributing to their selfidentification as a distinct group was their language (see Language). Clothing too was distinctive. Male dress consisted

294 of a white linen shirt, linen (summer) or woolen (winter) pants, a white or light blue vest, and a short jacket made of homespun wool. Of particular importance was the heavy mantle or cloak (chttha), swung over the shoulders, which was worn by the gazda (peasant landowner) as a distinguishing badge from other people in the village. All men wore a black hat (kalap) with a short brim. Female dress consisted of an undershirt (oplichd), a blouse (koshelid) decorated with beads in an embroidery-like design, over which was worn a black velvet (or more likely linen) corset-like vest decorated with silver-threaded embroidery patterns resembling plants, a pleated skirt with decorated base, and an apron with horizontal decorative strips sewn on. In the winter women wore a coarse woolen vest (serdakllaibyk) or a heavy white sheepskin coat. Married women covered their heads with a small close-fitting cap (chepets) over which was worn a shawl (khustkd) or simply a kerchief (khustkalfatselyk) directly on the head. Unmarried girls wore a necklace with small beads. Male and female footwear consisted of leather moccasins and in the winter high boots. Lemko/Rusnak spiritual culture, with its religious beliefs, customs, and rituals, continues to reflect archaic and pagan elements mixed with later features from both Eastern and Western Christianity. Still evident are traces of primitive cults based on belief in the forces of nature, according to which the world is filled with supernatural beings that take the dreaded form of forest spirits and spirits to punish wrongdoers, as well as the unbaptised, masked demons, devils, and vampires. These beings were thought likely to be encountered at crossroads, in cemeteries, and in old mills. Shepherds usually knew how to neutralize their evil powers. The unity and integrity of Lemko/Rusnak ethnographic territory was destroyed during the twentieth century. After World War I the establishment of an international border between the new states of Poland and Czechoslovakia reduced the ease with which Lemkos and Rusnaks on both sides of the mountain crests had interacted when the entire region lay within one state, the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the close of World War II the Lemkos on the northern slopes of the Carpathians were, between 1945 and 1947, deported from their homeland. About 70 percent went to the Soviet Ukraine, the remaining 30 percent to those parts of Poland inhabited by Germans (also deported after the war), in particular Silesia in the southwestern part of the country. A smaller number of Rusnaks from south of the Carpathians (about 8,500) opted voluntarily to leave northeastern Slovakia and were also resettled in the Soviet Ukraine. After 1956 an estimated 10 percent of the deportees from "the West" (i.e., western Poland) returned to their native Carpathian region, while nearly all the Rusnaks from the southern slopes who had opted for the Soviet Ukraine returned to Czechoslovakia (see Lemko population resettlement; Optanty). As a result of population resettlement and the nationality

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture policies of the Communist regimes that ruled Poland and Czechoslovakia after World War II, a high percentage of Lemkos/Rusnaks assimilated to Polish or to Slovak culture and identity. By the 1990s there were an estimated 60,000 Lemkos spread throughout Poland and about 130,000 Rusnaks concentrated in northeastern Slovakia. However, according to the most recent census data (2001-2002), in Poland less than 5,900 persons declared themselves of Lemko-Rusyn nationality (1,700 of whom resided in the Lemko Region); in Slovakia, 24,000 persons declared themselves ofRusyn nationality and nearly 55,000 ofRusyn mother tongue. Despite the historical and cultural changes that have occurred over the centuries, most Lemkos in Poland and Rusnaks in Slovakia continue to be aware of the ethnographic and ethno-national unity of their homeland on the northern (Lemko Region) and southern (Presov Region) slopes of the Carpathians. Further reading: Jan Husek, Ndrodopisnd hranice mezi Slovdky a Karpatorusy (Bratislava, 1925); Krystyna Pieradzka, Na szlakach Lemkowszczyzny (Cracow, 1939; repr. 1990, 2003); Ivan Bugera, Zvychai ta viruvannia na Lemkivshchyni (Lviv, 1939); luliian Tarnovych, Lemkivshchyna: material'na kul'tura (Cracow, 1941; repr. under the pseudonym luliian Beskyd: Toronto, 1972); Roman Reinfuss, "Lemkowie jako grupa etnograficzna," Prace i materiafy etnograficzne, VII (Lublin, 1948-49), pp. 77-210—and separately (Sanok, 1998); Roman Reinfuss, "Ze studiow nad kultura. Lemkowszczyzny po obu stronach Karpat," Polska Sztuka Ludowa, XX, 1 (Warsaw, 1966); pp. 3-22; Andrzej Kwilecki, Lemkowie: zagadnienie migracji i asymilacji (Warsaw, 1974); Myroslav Sopolyha, Narodne zhytlo ukraintsiv Skhidnoi Slovachchyny (Bratislava and Presov, 1983); Jan Podolak et al., Horna Cirocha (Kosice and Humenne, 1985); Jerzy W. Gajewski, ed., Lemkowie: kultura — sztuka —jejzyk (Warsaw and Cracow, 1987); Bohdan Strumins'kyi, ed., Lemkivshchyna: zemlia—liudy—istoriia—kul'tura, 2 vols. (New York, Paris, Sydney, and Toronto, 1988); Roman Reinfuss, Sladami Lemkow (Warsaw, 1990); Jerzy Czajkowski, ed., Lemkowie w historii i kulturze Karpat, 2 vols. (Sanok, 1992-94); Ewa Michna, Lemkowie: grupa etniczna czy narod (Cracow, 1995); Jerzy Czajkowski, Studia nad Lemkowszczyznq (Sanok, 1999); lurii Hoshko, ed., Lemkivshchyna: istoryko-etnohrafichnedoslidzhennia, 2 vols. (L'viv, 1999-2002); Jacek Nowak, Zaginiony swiat?: nazywajq ich Lemkami (Cracow, 2000); Helena Duc-Fajfer, "Bye Lemkiem w PRL-u," Zeszyty Naukowe Universytetu Jagellonskiego, MCCXLVII: Prace Etnograficzne, No. 36 (Cracow, 1995), pp. 141-172; Marian Gajdos, Maria Homis'inova, Stanislav Konedny et al., Rusini/Ukrajinci na Slovensku na konci 20. storocia: k vybranym vysledkom historicko-sociologickeho vyskumu v roku 2000 (PreSov, 2001); Stanislav Konecny et al., Sebareflexiapostavenia a vyvoja Rusinov na Slovensku (PreSov, 2002); Ivan Madzik and Vladek Maksymovych, Lemkivske vesilia (Krynica, 2002); Myroslav Sopolyha, Ukrajinci na Slovensku: etnokulturne tradicie z aspektu osidlenia I'udovej architektury a byvania (Komarno-Dunajska Streda, 2002). HELENA DUC-FAJFER


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Lemko Youth Journal. See Lemko Association of the USA and Canada Lemkovshchyna — the first Lemko periodical published in North America. Founded by Victor *Hladick, Lemkovshchyna was published in New York City (1922-1926) in the Lemko variant of the Rusyn language. As the organ of the *Lemko Committee of the USA, it appeared irregularly. Thirty-three issues were published during its first two years; thereafter it appeared less frequently, until it ceased publication sometime in 1926. Two years later it was succeeded by the magazine * Lemko.

Ensemble toured the United States and Canada, where it gave 25 concerts (1987); in Poland it performed a series of concerts of religious music in connection with the millennium celebrations of Christianity in Kievan Rus' (1988). For internal reasons the ensemble ceased activity in 1991, but was revived again two years later. Throughout its history the Lemkovyna Ensemble has given nearly 300 performances, appeared on Polish radio and television, and produced several records and cassettes. Further reading: Petro Trokhanovskii, "25 rokiv ansambliu Lemkovyna," in Lemkivskii kalendar 1994 (Legnica and Krynica, 1994), pp. 110-119. BOGDAN HORBAL


Lemkyn, Ivan F. See Polianskii, loann Lend'el, VasyP. See Renaissance Carpatho-Russian Student Society

Lemkovshchyna. See Lemko Region Lemkovskii komitet. See Pysh, Simeon Lemkovskii spasytel'nyi komitet. See Pysh, Simeon Lemkovyna. See Lemko Region

Lenert, Maria. See Pidhirianka, Mariika Lenin, Vladimir. See Communism Leopold I. See Habsburg family

Lemkovyna. See Doklia, Teodor; Kitchura, Stephen Lemkovyna Association. See Doklia, Teodor; Kitchura, Stephen Lemkovyna Choir — choral ensemble among resettled Lemkos and their descendants in Ukraine. The Lemkovyna Choir was founded in 1969 by Pavlo lurkovskii in the village of Rudne near Eviv in western Ukraine. For over 20 years it has been under the direction of Ivan Kushnir. The ensemble has approximately 65 members, and its repertory includes over 80 Lemko folk songs. It has performed in over 950 concerts in Ukraine, Estonia, Poland, and Germany, as well as on radio and television programs. Further reading: Mariia Baiko, "Evivs'ki narodnii khorovii kapeli 'Lemkovyna' 25 lit," Lemkivshchyna, XVII, 2 (Clifton, N.J., 1995), pp. 14-16. BOGDAN HORBAL

Lemkovyna Song and Dance Ensemble/AnsambF pisni i tantsiu "Lemkovyna" — the longest-lasting ensemble in post-World War II Poland to perform authentic Lemko songs and dances. The Lemkovyna Ensemble was formed in 1969 by Fedor *Goch, Mykhal *Donskii, and Pavel *Stefanovskii, under the artistic direction of laroslav *Trokhanovskii. As a result of restrictions imposed by the Polish government, the ensemble was unable to perform between 1973 and 1980. Revived in the 1980s, the Lemkovyna

Lesko. See District Leszczynski, Stanislaw. See Historiography: Lemko Region; Poles Levchyk, VasyP. See Organization for the Defense of Lemko Western Ukraine Lex Apponyi. See Apponyi School Law Libertash — a coin of small monetary value that was minted at the castle of Mukachevo during the uprising (1703-1711) of Prince Ferenc II *Rakoczy against Habsburg rule over Hungary. Libertini — free peasants who as a result of service to the Hungarian king were exempted from feudal duties and were given land. As the king's power waned, the libertini gradually lost their free status and they were enserfed by the magnates at the end of the fifteenth and in the early sixteenth century. IVAN POP

Liberty Association/Svoboda — fraternal society for Rusyn Americans. At the initiative of the Greek Catholic priest, Peter Kushtan, the Greek Catholic Carpatho-Russian Benevolent Association Liberty/Organizacija greko


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

kaftoliceskich karpatorusskich spomahajuscich bratstv Svobody was established in Perth Amboy, New Jersey on July 8, 1918. Its goal was to provide insurance benefits for Rusyn immigrants living primarily in the northeastern part of the United States. It operated a printshop and published in Rusyn (Roman alphabet) a weekly newspaper, *Vostok/The East (1919-50), and an annual almanac, Kalendar' Organizacii "Svobody " (1925-41), which included information about the Carpatho-Rusyn heritage and current developments in the European homeland. In the late 1930s the Liberty Association broke with the *Greek (Byzantine Ruthenian) Catholic Church and became affiliated with the *American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church. Faced with declining membership, in 1992 the Liberty Association merged with the * United Russian Orthodox Brotherhood of America based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which in turn changed its name (1992) to the Orthodox Society of America. PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI

Liprandi, A. P. See Historiography: Subcarpathian Rus' and the Presov Region

Lintur, Petro (b. May 4, 1909, Horonda [Hungarian Kingdom], Ukraine; d. February 2, 1969, Uzhhorod [Soviet Union], Ukraine) — folklorist, literary scholar, professor, and civic and cultural activist of Russian national orientation in Subcarpathian Rus'. After graduating from the Russian gymnasium in Mukachevo (1930) Lintur completed the historical and philological faculty of Charles University in Prague (1930-1935) and then studied Serbian language and folklore at the University of Belgrade in Yugoslavia (1935-1936). In 1938 he began teaching history and literature at the gymnasium in Khust, where he organized a Russian literary circle and published an anthology of poetry by his students (Budet' den', 1941). For such "Russophile" activity he was fired from teaching (May 1941) by the Hungarian authorities which at the time ruled * Subcarpathian Rus', and he spent the rest of the war years under police surveillance. Lintur continued his scholarly work, however, publishing an analysis and anthology of Christmas carols, Uhro-russkiia koliadky (1942), and three essays (1941) about the positive depiction of Hungarian and Austrian rulers (King Matyas Corvinus, Prince Ferenc II *Rakoczy, Emperor Joseph II) in Rusyn folklore. When the Soviet Army arrived in Subcarpathian Rus' at the end of 1944, Lintur's *Russophile views allowed him to take an active part in civic life. He was a delegate to the First Congress of People's Committees of *Transcarpathian Ukraine (November 26, 1944), where he was elected vicechairman of the National Council of Transcarpathian Ukraine, a post he held until the dissolution of the council in January 1946. He was not, however, enamoured of the new administration's Ukrainian orientation, and whenever he spoke in

public he always emphasized the Rus'/Russian orientation that traditionally characterized Subcarpathian cultural life. Such views were to be criticized by local Soviet functionaries. In December 1944 Lintur participated in the delegation sent by Subcarpathia's Orthodox Church to Moscow, where he tried to convince the Soviet authorities to adopt a lenient attitude toward an institution which he argued "from time immemorial" had been oriented toward Rus'. He also cosigned with Subcarpathian Orthodox Church leaders an earlier letter (November 18) sent to the Soviet leader, losif *Stalin, requesting that Subcarpathian Rus' be included in the Soviet Union as a distinct entity, the Carpatho-Russian Soviet Republic/Karpatorusskaia Sovetskaia Respublika. Lintur did not realize that the Ukrainian orientation adopted by the Soviet military in Subcarpathian Rus' from the fall of 1944 was little more than camouflage for Stalin's intention to annex this strategic region of central Europe. During the early postwar years Lintur played an active role in Subcarpathian civic life as departmental head (1946-1953) responsible for the arts in the regional (oblast) government administration and as deputy (1948-1953) to the Uzhhorod city council. He also wrote a doctoral thesis on the Subcarpathian story-teller, Andrii Kalyn, which was accepted by Moscow University for the degree ofkandidat nauk (1953). From 1953 until his death Lintur taught at Uzhhorod State University (decent/associate professor, 1955), where he researched Subcarpathian literature and journalism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His main interest, however, was in Rusyn folklore. He made available for scholarship transcriptions from the rich repertory of several Subcarpathian storytellers (Andrii Kalyn, Mykhailo Halytsia, Vasyl' Korolovych, lurii Revt', and Ivan Il't'o, among others), on the basis of which he published several anthologies of Rusyn ballads and tales: Zakarpats 'ki kazky Andriia Kalyna (1955), Narodni balady Zakarpattia (1959), Kazky zelenykh hir (1965), Narodni balady Zakarpattia (1966), lak cholovik vid 'mupidkuvav a kishku vchyvpratsiuvaty (1967), Try zoloti slova (1968), Dido vsevido (1969), and Zacharovani kazkoiu (1984). Lintur also wrote theoretical studies on Rusyn folklore, including its relationship to that of other Slavic peoples (Narodnye ballady Zakarpat'ia i ikh slavianskie sviazi, 1963), as well as several essays on the impact of Russian classical literature on nineteenth-century Rusyn literary developments, particularly on writers like levhenii *Fentsyk and Aleksander *Mytrak. One of Lintur's first scholarly studies was a biography and analysis of Mytrak's works (A.A. Mitrak: ocherk zhizni i dieiatel'nosti, 1937). Further reading: Ivan Khlanta and Ivan Sen'ko, Petro Lintur: biobibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk (Uzhhorod, 1999); Ivan Sen'ko, Zapovnena anketa, abo zhyttiepys Petra Lintura (Uzhhorod, 1999). PAUL ROBERT MAGOCSI IVAN POP


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture Lipinsky, Jan. See Society ofRusyn Intelligentsia in Slovakia Listok — religious and literary journal published in Uzhhorod (1885-1903) by levhenii *Fentsyk. Like its publisher, Listok's readers were primarily Greek Catholic priests in *Subcarpathian Rus'; most of the material thus consisted of sermons, religious studies, articles on the history of the church and monasteries, and biographies of religious leaders. Fentsyk did, however, include "secular" material by contemporary authors like Anatolii *Kralyts'kyi, lurii *Zhatkovych, Ivan *Sil'vai, Aleksander *Pavlovych, and Aleksander *Mytrak that dealt with Rusyn history, ethnography, and folklore. The journal also encouraged its readers to collect tales, legends, songs, and descriptions of traditional life among Rusyns, and it published some of the early writings about Subcarpathian Rus' by the Russian scholar Aleksei L.*Petrov. Listok was published in Russian and, therefore, was difficult to understand for Rusyns. In an effort to correct this problem Fentsyk issued after 1891 a supplement, Dodatok, written in the Rusyn vernacular. Nevertheless, Listok never managed to attract more than a few dozen subscribers and consequently it had limited influence on cultural life in Subcarpathian Rus'. Further reading: Petro Lintur, "Znachenie 'Listka' v razvitii zhurnalistiki i literaturnykh stremlenii Zakarpat'ia XIX St.," in Mykhailo Rychalka, ed., Zhovten i ukrains 'ka kul'tura (Presov, 1968), pp. 619621; Pavlo M. Fedaka, "Dvotyzhnevyk 'Listok'," in idem, Narodna kul'tura ukraintsiv Zakarpattia (Uzhhorod, 2002), pp. 10-29. IVAN POP

Literary Society of Subcarpathian Sons of the Eastern Catholic Church. See St. Basil the Great Society Literature. The artistic literature of the Rusyns reflects the diverse historical, political, and linguistic circumstances under which it developed. Sharing its common beginnings in religious texts dating from the sixteenth century, Rusyn literary development gradually assumed distinct patterns along the northern (*Lemko Region) and southern (*Subcarpathian Rus' and the *Presov Region) slopes of the Carpathians. In the *Vojvodina, Rusyn literature followed its own path from the end of the nineteenth century. Despite its many styles and linguistic forms, Rusyn literature embodies a consistent historical tradition that has stressed adaptation and survival. Rusyn writers have fashioned a unique national narrative which, on the one hand, has affirmed and kept faith with native values, while on the other it has accentuated stratagems of survival and compromise with surrounding cultures.

SUBCARPATHIAN Rus' AND THE PRESOV REGION The earliest extant Subcarpathian manuscripts (see also

Literature, Early manuscripts), which date from the fourteenth century, are copies of medieval Kievan texts written in *Church Slavonic. However, in Rusyn versions of religious literature there is evidence of a distinct national character. The oldest popular literary document, the Gerlakhovskii tolkovyi Apostol (The Gerlachov Interpretive Epistle), contains the Church Slavonic texts of epistles, accompanied by didactic interpretations written in the Subcarpathian vernacular. This linguistic compromise reflected the need to preserve the dignity of Church Slavonic at the same time that it recognized the benefits of adapting the texts to the linguistic needs of the local audience. Subcarpathian scribes freely modified the original texts, adding material from various sources, including folklore, and using a language rich in local dialectalisms and popular sayings. In didactic miscellanies (sbornyky), there appeared alongside the words of the Holy Fathers of the Church secular tales and even superstitious materials, which asserted the local tradition within the authoritative religious culture. Such stylistic heterogeneity is also apparent in the sixteenth-century anti-Uniate polemics of Mykhai'l *Orosvygovs'kyi-Andrella of Rosvygovo. In his polemical tracts Andrella blends languages and employs discursive strategies of intertextuality, allusion, and linguistic play that reflect a creative use of language variance. His multiform texts, which straddle the borders of religions and languages, illustrate the realities ofRusyn life of the time. The written poetry (virshi) and spiritual songs of anonymous authors collected in manuscript songbooks from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries provide another indication of the syncretism in Rusyn literature that resulted from intersecting influences. Works such as "The Song of Terrible Years" and "The Icon of Klokochevo" lament the destruction of the land and the suffering of the people during the anti-*Habsburg wars and uprisings of the seventeenth century. These songs preserve indigenous oral forms, such as the kolomyika structure, within the imported tradition of bookish verse. The result is a unique national expression, in which Rusyn authors attempt to find a meaningful identity within an oppressive and unstable world by turning images of powerlessness into endurance and social oppression into moral virtue. The "Song about Rusyns" and the "Song about Evil Landlords," among others, establish a Rusyn self-image that is stoic, rather than passive, in which Rusyn resistance emerges as ironic cynicism. As Rusyns from Subcarpathia began to attend Western institutions of higher education (in Trnava, Vienna, Budapest) during the second half of the eighteenth century, they were inevitably exposed to assimilationist pressures from the dominant Roman Catholic culture of Hungary and Austria. If a cultural representative from Subcarpathian Rus' or the Presov Region wished to articulate his experience in literary form, it usually had to be within the terms established by the dominant discourse. Consequently, Subcarpathian writers

298 adapted their own literary expression to established European literary norms. Rusyn historians and grammarians, for example, produced works in Latin (the recognized language of European scholarship and until 1844 the official language of the Hungarian Kingdom) or in Hungarian. Thus, when he died in 1849, Vasyl' *Dovhovych left an unpublished manuscript of 190 poems, of which 131 were in Latin, 41 were in Hungarian, and 18 were in Rusyn vernacular. Nevertheless, most of the churchmen who founded a written Rusyn literature turned for inspiration not to Latin-Magyar culture, but rather to Russian literature and the Church Slavonic language. At the outset of the nineteenth century, Andrii *Val'kovs'kyi and Aleksander Baizam wrote formal odes in Church Slavonic addressed to the Greek Catholic Rusyn bishop Andrii *Bachyns'kyi. Their praises for the bishop's promotion of the Rus' spirit were filled with overt references to the language and culture of Russia. In 1804 Hryhorii *Tarkovych, later to become the first Greek Catholic bishop of Presov, addressed celebratory verses to Joseph, the Palatine of Hungary. What may appear on the surface to be an obsequious imitation of Hungarian and Russian cultural authority is, by postmodern reading strategies, a subversive discourse that expresses political pragmatism and contains the seeds of cultural resistance. While imitation was a means of gaining a voice for the oppressed Rusyn culture, it did little to promote the development of a local, national culture. The beginning of a truly Rusyn literature came with the national awakening of the mid-nineteenth century. Aleksander *Dukhnovych, "the national awakener of the CarpathoRusyns," put literature firmly in the service of the national cause as it directly addressed the Rusyn people about the realities of their existence. Dukhnovych was the author of the first primer for Rusyns, Knyzhytsia chytal'naia dlia nachynaiushchykh (1847), which contained a long didactic poem in the Rusyn vernacular. Addressed to children, the poem challenges negative stereotypes while advocating educational enlightenment and national regeneration. Also included in the Knyzhytsia is Dukhnovych's lyrical poem "Zhizn' Rusyna" (Life of a Rusyn), which extols earthy reality in the spirit of romanticism and reveals a deep sympathy for the innate nobility of the downtrodden and unappreciated Rusyn peasant. Dukhnovych's primer, his poem "Life of a Rusyn," and his play Virtue is More Important than Riches (1850), with its depiction ofRusyn vices, together constitute his creative formulation of the Rusyn national character. He also celebrated Rusyn national feeling in the poem "Vruchanie" (Dedication), which subsequently became an *anthem, sung by Rusyns wherever they live. Dukhnovych was the motivating force behind the first organized Rusyn literary circle, the *Presov Literary Society. Before it was banned by the government, the society published 12 books and the first Rusyn literary *anthology, Pozdravlenie Rusynov (Greetings to the Rusyns). The anthology, which ap-

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture peared three times (1850, 1851, 1852), presented the work of 20 local authors, whose writings represented the first deliberate artistic efforts of a people in the process of constructing a cultural tradition and a national identity. The contents of the anthologies are diverse in style and language, and include solemn odes in lofty Church Slavonic as well as folk lyrics in the local vernacular. The themes reflect those popular traits of romanticism that dovetail with Dukhnovych's national goals: an interest in history and prehistory; the expression of edifying emotions ranging from patriotism to religious sentiment; the evocation of the native landscape as a living entity; a Romantic idealization of the people; and an overall celebration of freedom. Finally, the anthologies outlined a broad subversive stance that would become the basic stance ofRusyn literature for the remainder of the nineteenth century; that is, a Slavophile identification and affiliation with Russian culture which would serve as antidotes to the cultural denigration Rusyns were to suffer from an increasingly nationalist Magyar center. The basic challenge to the founders of Rusyn literature at this stage in its development was to assert and maintain a unique national identity, while still claiming an affiliation with the greater Slavic cultural world and while attempting to secure a position for Rusyn culture within a Hungarian political context. Rusyn literature from its foundation thus reflected seemingly contradictory aims and a coexistence of diverse styles and languages. The three literary anthologies of the Presov Literary Society demonstrate the existence at mid-century of two parallel streams in Rusyn literature, one striving toward the expression of universal themes on the sophisticated level of established European culture, the other looking to more local sources of inspiration and voicing indigenous concerns in a more popular idiom. One of the authors represented in the anthologies, Aleksander *Pavlovych, was to become second only to Dukhnovych as a poet of his people. His verses included in the anthologies sought to identify the Rusyn spirit in history and folklore at the same time that he hoped to place it in the broader context of *pan-Slavic solidarity. Pavlovych's other poems, written in the Rusyn vernacular, dealt directly with social conditions and articulated the experiences of a people suffering under cultural and political domination. Before the initiatives of Dukhnovych and Pavlovych could flourish a new period of oppression ensued, following the implementation of government-inspired denationalization and magyarization programs after 1867. The Hungarian government's policy provoked among some cultural activists subversive strategies that took the form of affiliation with the fraternal culture of Russia. Hence, Subcarpathian literature of the second half of the nineteenth century was in both theme and language characterized by resistance to magayarization. Most Subcarpathian writers chose to use a literary language based on Russian rather than any of their own Subcarpathian

Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture dialects, believing that the use of the language of the powerful empire to the east would help keep alive cultural specificity and serve as a defense against national assimilation. The Russian-based literary language used by Rusyn writers came to be known as the "traditional Carpatho-Rusyn language." It contained a range of transitional forms, with deviations in grammar and spelling as well as admixtures of dialectalisms and neighboring languages. Because of its inconsistencies, it was disparaged by critics as a macaronic jargon (*iazychiie). While the iazychiie did not permit writers to create an authentic Rusyn literature that would satisfy nineteenth-century purist standards, modern linguistic and literary theories suggest reading strategies that recognize and appreciate the creative potential of intersecting languages. Put another way, the very essence of Rusyn literature lies in its ability to straddle discourses. The major writers honored as the second generation of Rusyn "awakeners" included Aleksander *Mytrak, Anatolii *Kralyts'kyi, Ivan *Sil'vai, levhenii *Fentsyk, and lulii *Stavrovs'kyi-Popradov. Like Dukhnovych and Pavlovych, all were Greek Catholic priests who favored an emotional, didactic lyricism, as well as some prose realism. Still struggling to create a national identity and to achieve social development and educational progress, Rusyn literature continued to stress social over aesthetic values. Its major themes—Carpathian nature, Rusyn history, social injustice, love for the Rusyn people, and indignation directed at the denationalized and increasingly magyarized intelligentsia—are expressed in somber tones that reflect the oppressive and pessimistic political atmosphere of the time. By the turn of the twentieth century a group of younger writers, including Avhustyn *Voloshyn, lurii *Zhatkovych, and Ivan Vas'ko, began to treat themes from Subcarpathian village life in their native dialects. After Subcarpathian Rus' became a part of Czechoslovakia in 1919 Rusyn literature enjoyed a renaissance. For the subsequent two decades, the Rusyn intelligentsia was for the first time left to work out its own cultural identity in relative freedom. The effects of centuries of colonial domination, however, quickly became apparent in the internal disputes over the appropriate cultural and national orientation. *Russophiles, *Rusynophiles, and *Ukrainophiles debated issues of national identity and language as they sought to find the best defense against denationalization. While all sides looked to local tradition and expressed a sense of Rusyn patriotism, the body of literature they produced was diverse in language and content. Vasyl' *Grendzha-Dons'kyi was the first Subcarpathian author to use literary Ukrainian. His lyric poetry and novels of social protest celebrated the heroic Rusyn past and lamented the misery of the still downtrodden Rusyn people, lulii *Borshosh-Kum"iats'kyi and Sevastiian *Sabol (pseud. Zoreslav) also believed that Rusyns were part of the Ukrainian nationality and that, therefore, they could best survive by


adapting to Ukrainian culture. By contrast, Russophile poets such as Andrii *Karabelesh, Mykhai'l *Popovych, Vasyl' *Dobosh, and Andrii *Patrus-Karpats'kyi sought psychological security for the Rusyn people by stressing their cultural connection to Russia. Using literary Russian, these authors expressed similar themes and emotions as the Ukrainophiles but appealed to the concept of a common-Russian (obshcherusskii) culture for identification and support. Russianlanguage authors were most prolific after the Hungarian regime returned to Subcarpathian Rus' during World War II. During those years writers such as Emilian *Balets'kyi, Ivan *Kercha, lurii *Goida, Vasylii *Sochka-Borzhavyn, and Dymytrii *Vakarov invoked the eastward-looking Slavophile sentiments of earlier Rusyn writers and opposed Ukrainophile tendencies with appeals to Slavic brotherhood. After the establishment of the Soviet regime in Subcarpathian Rus' (renamed the Transcarpathian oblast') in 1945, Ukrainian was declared the only acceptable literary language and many Russian-language Rusyn writers adopted the new linguistic medium. During the Stalinist years, and again in the 1970s, Subcarpathian writers who tried to adapt to the obligatory optimism required by Socialist Realism overlaid their traditional themes with Soviet cliches. All national feeling and loyalties were replaced by Communist ideals. In their historic novels and short stories Fedor *Potushniak, Mykhailo *Tomchanii, and Ivan *Chendei rewrote the Rusyn past and created a reality consistent with the imposed political ideology. Ideological injunctions were in the long run more damaging to the integrity ofRusyn literature than any restrictions on language. In the Presov Region, which remained part of Czechoslovakia, Fedor *Lazoryk and Ivan *Matsyns'kyi, who also switched from Russian to Ukrainian, were among the first poets to relate the Rusyn experience of the post-war years. In prose, Vasyl' *Zozuliak, Fedor Ivanchov, Mykhailo *Shmaida, and others described the local problems of the Presov Region Rusyns, who after 1948 were experiencing collectivization and forced change from a Russian to a Ukrainian national orientation. A younger generation of prose writers, such as Vasyl' Datsei, Stepan *Hostyniak, and Mykhailo Drobniak, used Ukrainian consistently to treat subject matter from everyday life with some satire and psychological realism. Only a few authors, mostly amateur writers living in the countryside (Anna *Halchak, Nykolai Hvozda, Ivan Kyndia, lurko Kolynchak, Andrii Tsaptsara, Ivan Zhak) were allowed to publish in their native Rusyn dialect lyrical poetry and stories that dealt with nature, village life, traditions, and national consciousness in the Presov Region. When the Communist regimes fell throughout central Europe and the Soviet Union after 1989, Rusyn writers responded quickly. Many who had previously made a career using Ukrainian now turned to some form of the Rusyn language and applied their talent and expertise to rejuvenating a Rusyn


Encyclopedia ofRusyn History and Culture

national identity. In the Presov Region, where a Rusyn literary language was codified in 1995, sophisticated prose on Rusyn themes is being written by Mania *Mal'tsovs'ka. In addition to short stories, Shtefan *Sukhyi writes poetry with a postmodern flavor, ranging in theme from traditionally poetic subjects to specifically national topics, anecdotes, and comic commentary on modem life. Sukhyi's poetry achieves a balance between the local and the universal, yet it is imbued with a Rusyn spirit. In Subcarpathian Rus' (Transcarpathia), the new Rusyn literature is still characterized by linguistic diversity. Ivan *Petrovtsii writes poetry in a specific dialectical version ofRusyn that deals provocatively with nationality issues and Rusyn relations with Ukraine. Vasylii Sochka-Borzhavyn produces lyrical verse in both Russian and Rusyn, while Volodymyr *Fedynyshynets' writes nationally conscious poetry in literary Ukrainian and more recently in Rusyn. Like their predecessors, contemporary writers continue the Rusyn literary tradition of hybridity as they adapt to current linguistic and political conditions. Further reading: Petr Feerchak, Ocherk literaturnago dvizheniia ugorskikh russkikh (Odessa, 1888); Volodymyr Birchak, Literaturni stremlinnia Pidkarpats'ko'i Rusy, 2nd rev. ed. (Uzhhorod, 1937; repr., 1993); Evmenii Sabov, Ocherk literaturnoi dieiatel'nosti i obrazovaniia karpatorossov (Uzhhorod, 1925); F.F. Aristov, Literaturnoe razvitie Podkarpatskoi (Ugorskoi) Rusi (Moscow 1928/1995); Evgenii Nedziel'skii, Ocherk karpatorusskoi literatury (Uzhhorod, 1932); Antonin Hartl, "Pisemnictvi podkarpatskych Rusinu," in Ceskoslovenska vlastiveda, Vol. VII: Pisemnictvi (Prague, 1933), pp. 273-290; [Stepan Dobosh], Ystoriia podkarpatorus 'koi lyteratury (Uzhhorod, 1942); Oleg Grabar, Poeziia Zakarpat'ia 1939-1944 (Bratislava, 1957); lurii Baleha, Literatura Zakarpattia dvadtsiatykh— trydtsiatykh rokiv XX stolittia (Kiev, 1962); Oleksa V. Myshanych, Literatura Zakarpattia XVIl-XVlll stolit' (Kiev, 1964); VasyF L. Mykytas', Davnia literatura Zakarpattia (Eviv, 1968); Vasyl' Mykytas', Haluzka mohutn'oho dereva (Uzhhorod, 1971); Vasyl' Mykytas', Z nochiprobyvalysia . . . (Uzhhorod, 1977); Josef Sirka, The Development of Ukrainian Literature in Czechoslovakia 1945-1975 (Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, and Las Vegas, 1978); Liubytsia Babota, Zakarpatoukraim 'ka proza druho'ipolovyny XIX stolittia (Bratislava and PreSov, 1994); Vasyl' Khoma, Rozvytok rusyns 'ko'ipoeziivSlovachchyni vid20-kh do 90-kh rokiv XX stolittia (Bratislava, 2000); Mykhilo Almashii, "Pohliad na rusyns'ku literaturu zachatku XXI stolitia," in Kalendar '-al'manakh na 2003 hod (Budapest, 2003), pp. 43-57; Elaine Rusinko, Straddling Borders: Literature and Identity in Subca