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Encyclopedia of Christian Education

Table of contents :
Editors, Prologue and Foreword Contributors, Editorial Advisory Board,
and Editorial Consultants ix
Prologue by J. I. Packer xiii
Foreword by Stanley Hauerwas xv
Foreword by Richard J. Mouw xvii
Foreword by Ronald J. Sider xix
Foreword by Will Willimon xxi
Preface xxiii
Acknowledgments xxvii
Introduction xxix
Volume 1: A–F 1
Volume 2: G–R 529
Volume 3: S–Z 1089
Lead-in Introductions 1427
Appendix A: World Statistics on Christian Populations 1519
Appendix B: World Listing of Christian Universities by Continent 1539
Appendix C: Entries Listed by Author 1553
Index of Names 1569
Index of Entries 1591
Contributing Authors 1603

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Edited by George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport

ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD Lanham • Boulder • New York • London

Published by Rowman & Littlefield A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 www.rowman.com Unit A, Whitacre Mews, 26-34 Stannary Street, London SE11 4AB Copyright © 2015 by George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote passages in a review. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of Christian education / edited by George Thomas Kurian, Mark A. Lamport. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8108-8492-2 (cloth : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-8108-8493-9 (ebook) 1. Christian education—Encyclopedias. I. Kurian, George Thomas, editor. II. Lamport, Mark A., editor. BV1471.3.E53 2015 268.03—dc23 2014021410

™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992. Printed in the United States of America

From George: To my wife, Annie, beloved and faithful companion, wise counselor, dedicated Christian, and doughty intercessor.

From Mark: To my wife, Therese, who so beautifully examples to what extent a Christian can be educated in faith.


Editors, Prologue and Foreword Contributors, Editorial Advisory Board, and Editorial Consultants Prologue by J. I. Packer

ix xiii

Foreword by Stanley Hauerwas


Foreword by Richard J. Mouw


Foreword by Ronald J. Sider


Foreword by Will Willimon








Volume 1: A–F


Volume 2: G–R


Volume 3: S–Z


Lead-in Introductions


Appendix A: World Statistics on Christian Populations


Appendix B: World Listing of Christian Universities by Continent


Appendix C: Entries Listed by Author


Index of Names


Index of Entries


Contributing Authors


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Editors, Prologue and Foreword Contributors, Editorial Advisory Board, and Editorial Consultants

Editors George Thomas Kurian is president of the Encyclopedia Society and the editor of 61 books, including 27 encyclopedias, 15 of them multivolume. His Christian encyclopedias include the World Christian Encyclopedia (2 vols., Oxford University Press), Dictionary of Christianity (Thomas Nelson Books), Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization (4 vols., Wiley-Blackwell Publishing), Encyclopedia of Christian Literature (2 vols., Scarecrow Press), Baker Handbook of Denominations and Ministries (Baker Books, 2013), and Visual Timelines of Christian History (Harvest House, 2014). Mark A. Lamport (PhD, curriculum and instruction, Michigan State University) is professor of practical theology/educational ministry at graduate schools in Colorado, Arizona, Virginia, California, Indiana, Belgium, Wales, and Portugal. He has master’s degrees in biblical studies from Wheaton Graduate School (Illinois), in church history from Evangelical Theological Seminary (Pennsylvania), and in Christian education from Princeton Theological Seminary (New Jersey), and has published for 30 consecutive years in the discipline of Christian education.

Prologue and Foreword Contributors Stanley Hauerwas seeks to recover the significance of the virtues for understanding the nature of the Christian life. His work cuts across disciplinary lines in conversation with systematic theology, philosophical theology and ethics, political theory, as well as the philosophy of social science and medical ethics. He earned a BA from Southwestern University and BD, MA, MPhil, and PhD from

Yale University. He was named “America’s Best Theologian” by Time magazine in 2001. His book, A Community of Character: Toward a Constructive Christian Social Ethic, was selected as one of the 100 most important books on religion of the 20th century. Hauerwas recently authored Matthew: Theological Commentary on the Bible (Brazos, 2006) and The State of the University: Academic Knowledges and the Knowledge of God (Blackwell, 2007). Richard J. Mouw is distinguished professor of faith and public life after 20 years as president of Fuller Theological Seminary (1993–2013). He also served FTS as provost, senior vice president, and professor of Christian philosophy and ethics beginning in 1985. Mouw served for 17 years as professor of philosophy at Calvin College (Michigan). A graduate of Houghton College, he studied at Western Theological Seminary and earned a master’s degree in philosophy at the University of Alberta. His PhD in philosophy is from the University of Chicago. He is the author of 19 books, including The Smell of Sawdust; Calvinism in the Las Vegas Airport; Praying at Burger King; Uncommon Decency; and most recently, Abraham Kuyper: A Short and Personal Introduction, The Challenges of Cultural Discipleship, and Talking with Mormons. J. I. Packer was born in Gloucester, England and became professor of systematic and historical theology at Regent College (Vancouver, British Columbia) in 1979. Time named him one of the 25 most influential evangelicals in 2005. Packer earned an MA and a DPhil from Oxford University and has lectured widely in Great Britain and North America. He is a member of the editorial council of Christianity Today and was general editor of the English Standard Version of the Bible. He is a prolific writer, but is best known for Knowing God. His Collected Shorter

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Editors, Contributors, Advisory Board, and Consultants

Writings are available in four volumes, and a selection of his articles is published as The J.I. Packer Collection. Packer is associated with St. John’s Vancouver Anglican Church, which in February 2008 voted to leave the Anglican Church of Canada. Ronald J. Sider is senior distinguished professor of theology, holistic ministry, and public policy at Palmer Theological Seminary of Eastern University (Pennsylvania). An ordained minister in the Mennonite and Brethren in Christ Churches, his BD, MA, and PhD (history) degrees are from Yale University. Sider has provided leadership to those who recognize not just the spiritual, but also the social and political implications of a high view of scripture. Among more than 30 published books, his Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger was lauded by Christianity Today as among the top 100 books on religion in the 20th century and the seventh most influential in the evangelical world in the last 50 years. He is the founder and president of Evangelicals for Social Action (ESA). Will Willimon served as the dean of Duke Chapel and professor of Christian ministry at Duke University for 20 years. He returned to Duke after serving as the United Methodist Church Bishop of the North Alabama Conference (2004–2012). He earned a BA from Wofford College, an MDiv at Yale Divinity School, and an STD from Emory University. Willimon is the author of 60 books. His Worship as Pastoral Care was selected as one of the 10 most useful books for pastors by the Academy of Parish Clergy. More than a million copies of his books have been sold. He is editor-at-large for The Christian Century. His book Pastor: The Theology and Practice of Ordained Leadership is used in dozens of seminaries.

and editor of Didache: Faithful Teaching, a journal for Wesleyan Higher Education. Joel Carpenter (PhD, history, Johns Hopkins University) is director of the Nagel Institute for the Study of World Christianity of Calvin College. He has a long-standing interest in American religious and cultural history, the history of Christianity in Africa and Asia, and Christianity in higher education. Carpenter is coeditor of The Changing Face of Christianity: Africa, the West, and the World (2005) and author of Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism (1997). Ralph Enlow serves as president of the Association for Biblical Higher Education (abhe.org), whose 200 North American member and affiliate institutions engage students in education that is distinctively biblical, transformational, experiential, and missional. Enlow is also a founding member of Global Associates for Transformational Education and author of The Leader’s Palette: Seven Primary Colors (2013). James Riley Estep Jr. (DMin, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary; PhD Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) is dean of the School of Undergraduate Studies at Lincoln Christian University (Illinois) and teaches Christian education at its seminary. Charles R. Foster is professor of religion and education emeritus at the Candler School of Theology, Emory University. He is the author of From Generation to Generation and Educating Congregations; project director and lead author of Educating Clergy: Teaching Practices and Pastoral Imagination; and coauthor of We Are the Church Together, Working with Black Youth, and The Church in the Education of the Public.

Editorial Advisory Board Jeff Astley is honorary professor in the Department of Theology and Religion at Durham University (United Kingdom) and was director of the North of England Institute for Christian Education (1981–2013). His 35 books on Christian education, practical theology, or religious faith include The Philosophy of Christian Religious Education and Ordinary Theology. Dean G. Blevins (PhD, personality and theology/religious education, Claremont School of Theology) serves as professor of practical theology and Christian discipleship at Nazarene Theological Seminary (Missouri). Past president of the Religious Education Association and USA/Canada regional education coordinator for the Church of the Nazarene, Blevins is coauthor of Discovering Discipleship

Bryan Froehle directs the PhD program in practical theology in the School of Theology and Ministry, St. Thomas University (Miami). Froehle has also been associated with Dominican University (River Forest, Illinois), the Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA) at Georgetown University, the University of South Carolina Upstate (Spartanburg, South Carolina), and the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello (Venezuela). His PhD and MA are in sociology (University of Michigan). Perry L. Glanzer (PhD) is professor of educational foundations at Baylor University. His most recent book, coauthored with Todd Ream, is The Idea of a Christian College: A Reexamination for Today’s University. He has also published three other books and more than 40 journal articles and book chapters on topics related to education.

Editors, Contributors, Advisory Board, and Consultants

Thomas Groome (PhD) is professor of theology and religious education at Boston College and chair of the Department of Religious Education and Pastoral Ministry in Boston College’s School of Theology and Ministry. His publications include Christian Religious Education (Harper, 1980), Sharing Faith (Harper, 1991), Educating for Life (Crossroads, 2000), What Makes Us Catholic (Harper, 2002), and Will There Be Faith? (Harper, 2012). S. Steve Kang (PhD, Northwestern University) serves as professor of educational ministries and interdisciplinary studies at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Massachusetts. Kevin E. Lawson (EdD, University of Maine) served on a church staff for 11 years and in higher education for 22 years. He serves as professor of Christian education and director of PhD and EdD programs in educational studies at Talbot School of Theology, and as editor of Christian Education Journal. John R. Lillis (BS, MS, MRE, MDiv, PhD) is currently dean/executive officer of Bethel Seminary San Diego and senior associate of Global Associates for Transformational Education (GATE). He was previously professor of educational ministry, executive vice president/provost, Cornerstone University, and president, Asia Baptist Theological Seminary. Mark A. Maddix (PhD, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) is professor of practical theology and Christian discipleship and dean of the School of Theology and Christian Ministries at Northwest Nazarene University (Idaho). He has published academic articles in the areas of Christian education, spiritual formation, and Wesleyan theology. He has coauthored four books, including Discovering Discipleship (2010) and Spiritual Formation (2011). Robert W. Pazmiño is the Valeria Stone Professor of Christian Education at Andover Newton Theological School in Newton Centre, Massachusetts, serving since 1986. He holds a BA from Bucknell University, an MDiv from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, and an EdD from Teachers College, Columbia University in cooperation with Union Seminary. Bob is the author of a dozen Christian education books and is ordained by the American Baptist Churches. Jane E. Regan (PhD, religious education, Catholic University of America) is associate professor of theology and religious education at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. Her areas of research and writing


focus on modes of faith formation both for those engaged in ministry and for believers committed to growing in their faith and its expression in their lives. Philip Graham Ryken (PhD) is the eighth president of Wheaton College, having served previously as the senior minister of Philadelphia’s Tenth Presbyterian Church. He was educated at Wheaton College (Illinois), Westminster Theological Seminary (Pennsylvania), and the University of Oxford (UK), and has authored or edited more than 40 Bible commentaries and other books. Jack L. Seymour is professor of religious education at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary in Evanston, Illinois. He is the editor of Religious Education and the author or editor of nine books, including Teaching the Way of Jesus (Abingdon, 2014); Yearning for God, with Margaret Ann Crain; and Mapping Christian Education. James D. Smith III (ThD, Harvard) is professor of church history at Bethel Seminary, San Diego, and has lectured at the University of San Diego. An ordained Baptist General Conference/Converge minister, he has served churches in Massachusetts, Minnesota, and California. Recently he was consulting editor for the award-winning Dictionary of Christian Spirituality. Catherine Stonehouse (PhD, Michigan State University) served as professor of Christian discipleship and dean in the School of Practical Theology at Asbury Theological Seminary from 1987 to 2011. She is the author of several books focusing on the spiritual formation of children. Before joining the Asbury faculty, she provided leadership for the Christian education ministries of the Free Methodist Church in North America. John Westerhoff, (STB, Harvard; EdD, Columbia; DD, Ursinus) is a retired Episcopal priest and one-time professor of theology and Christian nurture at the Duke University Divinity School (North Carolina). He is the author of more than 30 books, including Will Our Children Have Faith?

Consulting Editors Beverly Johnson-Miller (PhD) is professor of Christian discipleship and director of the MA program in aging and spirituality at Asbury Theological Seminary (Kentucky). Her research is focused on spiritual formation and transformative pedagogy. She serves as archivist for the Religious Education Association and is a member of the Society of Professors in Christian Education.


Editors, Contributors, Advisory Board, and Consultants

David Setran (PhD, Indiana University) is associate Pofessor of Christian formation and ministry at Wheaton College, where he teaches courses in the history and philosophy of Christian education and college and young adult ministry. He is the author of The College “Y”: Student Religion in the Era of Secularization (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2007) and coauthor with Chris Kiesling of Spiritual Formation in Emerging Adulthood: A Practical Theology for College and Young Adult Ministry (Baker Academic, 2013). David I. Smith (PhD) is director of the Kuyers Institute for Christian Teaching and Learning and director of graduate studies in education at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He serves as senior editor of the Journal of Education and Christian Belief and is a former editor of the Journal of Christianity and Foreign Languages.

Donald Tinder (BA, PhD, Yale University; MDiv, Fuller Theological Seminary) is dean and professor of historical theology, Olivet Theological College & Seminary (San Francisco). He is professor emeritus, Evangelical Theological Faculty (Belgium) and formerly dean, Tyndale Theological Seminary (Netherlands). Tinder was associate editor of Christianity Today and is a Commended worker with the Plymouth Brethren (Open). Mai-Anh Le Tran (PhD) is associate professor of Christian education at Eden Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri. She is current vice president and 2014 program chair of the Religious Education Association (REA:APRRE), with research and teaching focus on local/global intersections of race, gender, and class in religious identity formation and practices.

Prologue J. I. Packer

When education is casually defined as imparting knowwhat along with know-how, or as telling people where to look things up, it hardly sounds important. In truth, however, education is serious business. It is a process that solidifies society, as old and universal as the human race itself. Informally, parents have always taught their children, and chiefs their clans, things that need to be known in the family and the community, respectively. Schools of various sorts codifying and extending such instruction existed long before Christianity arrived, establishing standards of competence and expectation simply by doing their job. The Athenian academy of Plato and Aristotle, and other Greek schools derived thence, explored questions of truth, goodness, and beauty at a level of critical and analytical thought matching that which modern universities maintain. Over the centuries, most notably where Western Europe’s Renaissance made its strongest impact, the idea of an educated person as one who can exercise good judgment on theoretical, practical, and moral issues across the board has taken firm root. All of this, be it said, is significant background for what is presented in these volumes. Christianity has from the start understood itself as gospel. Gospel is a key word, almost a technical term, in the New Testament. The gospel that the apostles preached appears as a divinely authored good-news message that shows the way to a restorative transformation of our flawed humanity. Through all cultural variations and changes this gospel remains essentially unchanged, in every generation, calling on those in the grip of the antiGod evil called sin, as we all initially are, to recognize their plight and embrace God’s remedy. Christianity may properly call itself a humanism, indeed the only true humanism, because it tells how, under God and by God’s power in loving action, twisted human nature may be put straight and so become all that human nature was

meant to be. The process, fueled by faith, begins by making us face the facts and learn the truths to which faith is a response, so it is hardly surprising that education is Christian belief and its application to life has always been central in Christian strategy, both for strengthening the church’s existing adherents and for engaging outsiders, who, it is hoped, will become insiders through a God-given change of heart. Not for nothing were the first Christians called disciples, a Greek word meaning, precisely, learning, and the content of the Christian communication was called doctrine, a Latin word with which its Greek counterpart (didche) means something taught. There have been times when the primacy of education in Christianity has been better understood than at others; it is encouraging that we seem to be moving into such a time once more, after a century of drift. Generically, the Christian education curriculum has always consisted of authoritative intellectual and moral material drawn from God’s own self-revelation in the history recorded, the thinking embedded, and the ethic delineated in the canonical Holy Scriptures, a reality that reaches its climax in the space-time, word-anddeed, provincial-Jewish, historical-redemptive ministry of Jesus Christ, whom Christians adore as the Son of God incarnate and risen, the perfection of humanness, the ultimate authority on all aspects of the relational knowledge, sovereign love, and saving action of God, himself the personal transformer of all who truly trust him. Catechetical schools covering this ground in a threeyear course that all candidates for baptism were required to take seem to have been up and running in churches from early in the second century, if not before. Sermons in mainline churches were understood as, precisely, times for teaching and learning, at least until the First World War; they are now slowly but steadily becoming so again, while structured catechesis, long neglected, is also reviv-

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ing. These facts, too, form significant background to this present encyclopedia. Christianity, for the most part, has in the past sought to Christianize the communities within which it has been planted; that is, to make Christian values and behavioral standards culturally normative within them. Out of this purpose came the Western school system, until recently, when humanistic scientism took over, and the same purpose has yielded the plethora of independent Christian educational institutions—universities, colleges, schools, academic communities—that confront us today. The educational path that these bodies have followed has mainly been some sort of blend of Christian and Platonic perspectives, and scholars working within this frame produce material critiquing non-, sub-, and anti-Christian views and reaffirming their own stance in face of them. Throughout the Christian world today—Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant evangelical—intellectual vitality is clearly renewing itself, vigorous profes-

sionalism among all who teach is called for, the discipling significance of Christian education is appreciated, and debate in all directions is encouraged. All of this seems likely to continue for the foreseeable future. At the outset I hinted that there is more to education than knowing where to look things up, and so there is: more, but not less. In an era such as ours, in which knowledge has exploded to the point of information overload almost everywhere, encyclopedias—comprehensive printed resources compiled directly for the purpose of enabling us to look things up—are necessary aids to intellectual life. It is an unhappy anomaly that the Encyclopedia of Christian Education should be the first encyclopedia covering the whole range of Christian education, past and present, but its emergence now is a very happy step forward. The thoroughness with which it has been put together merits applause, and for its existence we should most profoundly thank George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, and Almighty God.

Foreword Stanley Hauerwas, Duke Divinity School

Let me begin by answering the question many will ask about anyone who is bold enough to write a “foreword” to this ambitious project. My answer is: “I have not read the 1,200 articles that these volumes contain.” I have, however, read the preface and introduction to the Encyclopedia of Christian Education, which has given me some confidence that I might have something worth saying to commend this extraordinary book. Let me try to explain. I went to Yale Divinity School in 1962. There were courses in Christian education offered in the Divinity School, but they were not thought to be of high priority by most of us at the time. Some would take those courses, but they did so because they were taught by Professor Randolph Crump Miller. Professor Miller was an urbane and attractive person (his lectures on jazz were very compelling), who made Christian education as a discipline seem more intellectually interesting than in fact it was. That Christian education was not that interesting had everything to do with the assumption that the education of Christians was a parallel curriculum to public education. As a result Christian education became associated with various theories about what a child could and could not comprehend at different ages. Not everything done in the name of educational theory was without value for the formation of Christians, but the theology that was often associated with Christian educational theory was at the best “thin.” This is why I think the Encyclopedia of Christian Education is such an important endeavor. Christianity is a faith that must be passed from one generation to the next by the transmission of a story. Stories cannot be known without tellers. As the editors of this book make clear, education is an activity that is constitutive of the Gospel. One does not become a Christian and then receive an education, but to become a Christian is to be educated.

The language of formation may be more basic to describe what becoming Christian entails, but formation is but a form of education. Moreover, as the table of contents makes clear, the education that is constitutive of being Christian is not only about what is necessary to ensure the transmission of Christianity. It cannot be so limited, because Christianity is about all that is. So it is extremely important that the Encyclopedia contain articles on subjects that may not seem central to the Christian faith. Christians are a people to whom nothing human is foreign. Accordingly Christian education cannot help but be an attempt, often quite frustrating, to comprehend all that is. That the subject of Christian education is not only about how to educate younger children in the faith of the church is evident by the very fact that Christians founded and have sustained universities. The sheer fact that universities are the result of the Christian imagination I think has not been appropriately acknowledged by many of the cultural despisers of Christianity. Christianity is a faith that often painfully but necessarily develops from within its own life the severest criticisms of itself. That universities, even in their most secular form, exist is not a matter of indifference for the church. The historical perspective that the Encyclopedia takes on these developments in Christian education is very important, because it cannot help but spur our imaginations to be free from what is considered to be education in the present. That many of the articles, moreover, are about education in contexts other than the West is extremely important. I assume, therefore, that the Encyclopedia is meant to be a reforming document carrying a normative perspective that will help us better do what we must do as Christians; that is, pass on what we have learned and what we have often had to unlearn from one generation to the next.

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I cannot imagine how the editors envisioned this book and the various articles they commissioned. I have had some experience in planning as well as commissioning articles, for the Encyclopedia of Bioethics. I know how hard it is to identify and then organize articles on particular subjects, as well as to commission the appropriate author to write the article on each topic in which he or she is assumed to have competence. I stand in awe of George Kurian’s and Mark Lamport’s extraordinary organizational structure of this book as well as the authors chosen to write the assigned articles. This book cannot

help but become a classic reference, not only in Christian education but also for Christian theology and history. I should like to think this publication of the Encyclopedia of Christian Education might occasion the reintroduction of courses in Christian education in seminary curriculums. Indeed, the Encyclopedia might well become the resource that such courses have so desperately needed. We shall have to wait and see what the broader impact will be. But I certainly look forward to having these volumes available to help me think about how Christian education ought to be thought about.

Foreword Richard J. Mouw, Fuller Theological Seminary

A Pentecostal friend with excellent scholarly credentials was preaching in his home church. His sermon, based on a text from the Epistles, was moving along well, with many an “Amen!” from the congregation. But when he offered a few comments about what one of the words in his biblical text meant in the original Greek, the congregation went silent. Afterward, one of the church stalwarts shook my friend’s hand at the door and thanked him for the sermon, but added this word of mild reprimand regarding the preacher’s excursion into Greek meanings: “Don’t try to educate us, brother. Just bless us!” That church member was clearly working with a false dichotomy: “educating” versus “blessing.” Education can itself be a mode of blessing people. And as this marvelously comprehensive Encyclopedia of Christian Education makes clear, there is abundant evidence that the educational efforts initiated and supported and sustained by Christians over the centuries have brought enrichment not only to the churches, but to the larger human community as well. Even apart from the contents of this encyclopedia, the very fact of its appearance carries a significant message for our present-day context. In a time when deeply held religious convictions are often seen as fostering incivility, intolerance, hostility toward science as such, and a “culture wars” crusading spirit, we all need to be reminded that a profound commitment to Christian belief has made a major contribution to Western culture, with a

strong emphasis on the need for careful thinking, rigorous scholarship, and well-conceived teaching methods. Not only were many of the great universities in Europe and North America founded by Christian communities as arenas for the cultivation of scholarly habits of thought and action, but the ideals embedded in those institutions inspired missionaries to extend the educational enterprise to the Southern Hemisphere. In addition to that general—and extremely important—reminder regarding the positive impact of Christianity on global education, there is also the actual content of this encyclopedia. The results of the editors, George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport, are surely impressive—bringing together 1,200 articles written by 400 authors, covering an astounding range of topics: what we owe to diverse theological and confessional communities; the various levels of educational institutions; diverse “audiences” for Christian pedagogy; philosophies of Christian education; national contexts; formative educational leaders; specific fields of scholarship; and much, much more. The publication of the Encyclopedia of Christian Education has to be seen as an exciting event in the Christian community and regions beyond. It deserves to be received as a blessing in what it teaches us. It might even be appropriate to greet its appearance with a few appropriately dignified shouts of “Amen!”

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Foreword Ronald J. Sider, Palmer Seminary at Eastern University

My personal experience underlines for me the importance of Christian education. My devout mother and father and the biblical Sunday school and church to which they regularly took me provided my initial understanding of Christian faith. Four years at a Christian high school deepened my knowledge. Three years of theological education plus a doctoral dissertation on the Reformation greatly expanded my understanding of the Bible, Christian teaching, and history. And for the last 45 years, I have been a professor, first in an evangelical college and then in an evangelical seminary. For almost my entire life, I have been immersed in Christian education. One essential part of Christian education—the passing on of Christian faith—can be see in St. Paul. In 1 Corinthians 15:3ff., Paul introduces his citation of the evidence for Jesus’s resurrection with the words, “For what I received I passed on to you.” The words “received” and “passed on” are the translation of the technical words used to refer to the finely honed Jewish oral tradition, which carefully and accurately passed on important teaching orally. Paul uses the same technical term in 1 Corinthians 11:23 when he cites the words of institution for the Lord’s Supper. Clearly St. Paul believed that it was very important to carefully pass on core parts of Christian truth to the next generation of Christians. One criterion of faithful Christian education is whether it carefully and successfully transmits to the next generation God’s special revelation in Christ and the scriptures. Christian education, of course, is far more than merely passing on revealed truth. The Psalmist expressed his longing to “dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to inquire in his temple” (Psalm 27:4). St. Augustine’s wonderful phrase fides quaereus intellectum (“faith seeking understanding”) captures, I believe, an important part of what the Psalmist intended. It is as we locate ourselves within

Christian revelation (within the “house of the Lord”) that we can then most powerfully and effectively pursue and understand all truth. If Jesus, the Incarnate Son, is the truth, then all truth fits together with God’s special revelation. Therefore Christian education boldly embraces all truth and explores how truth—whether scientific, historical, sociological, etc.—fits together. Christian educators start with their commitment to the One who is the way, the truth, and the life and then seek to understand everything we can about how God’s astoundingly complex creation fits together with that basic Christian truth. Christian educators have a great stake in the claim that truth exists—as Pope John Paul II said so well in his great encyclical, Veritatis Splendor (The Splendor of Truth, 1993). If truth does not exist, then Christian education is mere propaganda and brainwashing. But if truth exists, then Christian education involves an exciting search for the ways that all truth fits together. That is not to say that we dare claim that we have the truth. Postmodernists are right to remind us of all the ways that we all are profoundly limited in our understanding by our finitude and sinfulness. We should never claim that our understanding of anything (whether theology, biblical revelation, or contemporary knowledge) is “the truth.” We all see through a glass darkly. But we know that truth exists, that God is truth, and that biblical revelation is true (even though our understanding of it is always dreadfully imperfect). Christian educators largely search for a more faithful understanding of truth even as they remember their own finitude and imperfection. In addition to handing on the core of Christian faith and engaging in an exciting search for how all truth fits together, Christian education also nurtures more faithful discipleship and more mature Christian living. That is not to say with Plato that knowledge is virtue. Knowing the truth does not guarantee that persons will live in

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conformity to the truth. But knowledge of Christian truth does contribute to more faithful Christian living. Paul urges Christians not to conform to this world’s standards, but to “be transformed by the renewing of your mind” (Romans 12:2). Knowledge of Christian truth transforms us, helping us to live a lifestyle conformed to Christ. When they are faithful and effective, Christian educators contribute to nurturing more faithful Christian living. In my life, I have had the great privilege of serving with and learning from Christian leaders from the global South—where the majority of Christian now live.1 This 1. Among other things, I served on the Theological Commission of the World Evangelical Fellowship (now the WEA), the International Fellow-

first-ever Encyclopedia of Christian Education, edited by George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport, will enable all Christians everywhere to have a similar experience. Rightly, contributors from all parts of the world have written for this important publication. My prayer is that just as I have been taught—educated in Christian faith—by Christians from every continent, so too this publication will enable the next generation of Christians to learn from their sisters and brothers in all parts of the global body of Christ. ship of Evangelical Mission Theologians, and the board of the Oxford Center for Mission Studies and became a founding coeditor of Transformation: An International Dialogue on Evangelical Social Ethics.

Foreword Will Willimon, Duke Divinity School; Duke Memorial United Methodist Church, Durham, North Carolina

My parents never worried about whether or not I would grow up Christian. It was the only game in town, religiously speaking. Greenville, South Carolina, we had been led to believe, was the buckle of the Bible Belt, the epicenter of Christendom, North America. Church, state, and southern culture joined forces in an alliance to undergird goodness, respectability, and the American way. Christianity, as we practiced it, was a willing and eager enlistee in this project. Being Christian was roughly synonymous with being a thinking, sensitive, compassionate American. The town closed on Sunday. There was a traffic jam at 9:30 Sunday morning as people flocked to Sunday school. Christian education, such as it was, endeavored to bring out the best in already good Christian people, appealing to our allegedly innate inclinations and most charitable, natural dispositions. The Gospel was reduced to conventional, American common sense. Whether or not my parents were justified in thinking that I would quite naturally, unavoidably embrace the Christian faith, I find it remarkable that no one thinks that today. No North American Christian—no matter the denomination or geographic location—believes that our children will grow up Christian simply by being born in the United States. Being Christian is no longer (if it ever really was) normal, natural, innate, or typical. I find it remarkable that this seismic shift in the church’s self-consciousness has occurred during my adult lifetime. Christianity, having once thought of itself as the majority, established faith of our culture, is no longer dominant, not completely disestablished in some places but definitely moving toward the margins everywhere. There is a widespread realization that Christians are made, not born (Tertullian), that baptism is initiation into a countercultural community of theological indoctrination and moral formation named church. Stanley Hauerwas and I no longer must mount an argument that

Christians are resident aliens in a society we Christians once thought we owned. In a sense, my church didn’t need an Encyclopedia of Christian Education 50 years ago when I began ministry. Who needs cultivation and instruction into a way of life that is already embraced by nine out of ten average people? As I read through the articles in this vast and comprehensive encyclopedia, while I learned much new information, I also came to a fresh conviction that • the center of world Christianity is shifting eastward and southward from North America and Europe; • Christians are once again thinking our way into a new world that is now postmodern; • Pentecostals are being brought into the discussion with an awareness of Pentecostalism as a rich, different, fruitful way of construing the world; • the truth who is Jesus Christ is amazingly adaptive, supple, and relevant to a world of emerging economies, new democracies, non-Western peoples, and an exploding global Christianity; • the Christian faith has rich resources for thinking our way through the new challenges for discipleship; • the Body of Christ is a body in motion and service to a living Lord that demands we be ready to think our way through new demands upon faithfulness; and • education, inculcation, indoctrination, formation, and catechesis are essential aspects of conversion into the way of the Gospel, a way that is neither innate nor natural. In our changed situation God gives us a new connection with sisters and brothers in young churches who have never known the presumption of establishment. Some may lament that the world of the presumed Christian hegemony over North American culture, if it ever really existed,

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is now over. But there is also a sense in which the changing world, at least our North American world, has restored the necessity and the adventure of Christian education. In Christian education the church graciously gives us the skills we need to resist, to equip the saints, and then to march to the beat of a different drummer who never owned a drum. One cannot be born into the Christian faith. Christ who is the way, the truth, and the life is accessed only through his own self-giving, not through our astute spiritual rumination. The Gospel is not to be discovered through long walks in the woods or by rummaging about in our own egos. Someone has to tell you this odd story that is the Gospel. Someone must lead you step by step down the narrow way that leads to life eternal. We must submit ourselves to faithful educators. Christian education is thus training in how to be receivers, receiving a story so strange and so true that we cannot tell it to ourselves. Some time ago I predicted that more of pastors’ time in my church would be spent engaged in the role of doctor ecclesiae. My prediction of the coming centrality of Christian education for Christian congregational

leadership has been fulfilled by the Encyclopedia. It is our joyous pastoral task to patiently, confidently, and beguilingly share the riches of the faith with new generations of Christians. A primary designation for Jesus is “rabbi.” He promised the Holy Spirit would come and teach us everything we needed to know to be his disciples. That is fortunate, because in this faith we never become so adept at believing that we no longer have need for additional information. We never lose our amateur status in regard to handling the truth who is Jesus Christ. Rather than trying to evoke something that is already within people, in Christian education we have the joy of offering people a new way of life, a different world than they could have had if we had left them to their own devices. Jesus always equips those whom he calls. Conversion is a lifelong process of letting go of the ideas and devices that are inappropriate for truthful living now that Jesus Christ is Lord—even if the world has yet fully to get the news. This exuberant, fecund, global Encyclopedia edited by George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport is thus a great gift to the church and to those of us who teach in Christ’s name.

Preface George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport



Encyclopedia of Christian Education is an ambitious and panoptic survey of the history, traditions, methodologies, institutions, curricula, and rubrics of Christian education for the last 2,000 years. Christianity is a magisterial religion in which teaching and learning are integral to the growth and maturity of believers. Teaching is one of the great ministries of the church, and the great apostles and prophets were also teachers, as was Jesus Himself. Encyclopedia of Christian Education is the first encyclopedia in publishing history dedicated to the history of Christian education in all countries of the world and through the past 20 centuries. Christian education is one of the oldest educational systems in the world, continuously functioning alongside the church for 2,000 years. It is also perhaps the largest in the modern world, with schools, colleges, and universities in more than 140 countries. Christian educators were also pioneers in many areas, such as literacy, homeschooling, Sunday schools, women’s education, graded schools, compulsory education, education of the deaf and blind, and kindergarten.

The goal of Christian education is different from that of secular education. It lies in the sanctification of knowledge and using knowledge itself as a tool of salvation. Christian education does not merely instruct, it empowers and transmutes and transforms; it does not merely inform, it edifies. It transmits not merely skills but also values and character. Christian knowledge is not merely the fulfillment of curiosity and the resolution of problems, but also the yoking of the human mind to the mind of God. Christian knowledge is not ephemeral or circular; it is permanent and teleological. Christian education is part of the church’s engagement with the world, and its focus is to nurture faith in the context of shared values, beliefs, and attitudes. Christian education is primarily of two kinds. First are formal day schools. Many missionary orders and groups are engaged in the running of secular schools, colleges, and universities throughout the world, at which they often excel. There are more than 300,000 Christian schools in the educational systems of more than 140 countries of the world (all but 60 countries in the world). See appendix C for country-by-country statistics related to Christian universities. Their syllabi may include compulsory or noncompulsory religious instruction. The Jesuits in particular are celebrated for their schools as well as their pedagogical system. There are millions of Christian scholars in every conceivable discipline, even the hard sciences, which are traditionally perceived as being outside the ambit of religion. In almost every country where there are secular schools, they have a Christian origin. This is particularly true in the Western world, where universities such as

Rationale and Mission The mission of the Encyclopedia of Christian Education is (1) to fill a gap in the reference shelf on education, (2) to explore the legacy and heritage of Christian education in the history of Christianity, (3) to restore a study of Christian education to the curricula of teachers’ colleges, and (4) to foster further research on Christian education at all levels by providing a flagship resource.

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Oxford, Harvard, and Sorbonne were originally schools for the training of clergy. In the Middle Ages the first schools were cathedral schools, where the teachers were monks or nuns. The structure of education in Europe was determined in the Carolingian era and began with a biblical component. The goal was to provide bedrock that could withstand the heavy load of secular learning that followed later in life. Learning and faith were inseparable until the 18th century. Another more formal class of Christian education is theological, conducted in seminaries for the training of priests, pastors, missionaries, evangelists, nuns, monks, and parachurch professionals, who make up the ground troops of the Christian army. This education is heavily denominational in nature and thus varied in its doctrinal texture. The second basic kind of Christian education takes place in informal faith community settings. This began on the day of the Pentecost when, as Luke says, “they never stopped teaching . . . that Jesus is the Christ” (Acts 5:34ff.). Shortly before His ascension, Jesus asked His disciples to “make disciples of all nations . . . teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you” (Matthew 28:19–20). One of the qualifications for a bishop was the ability to teach (1 Timothy 3:2; 2 Timothy 2:24). Catechetical instruction led to the founding of catechetical schools. Around AD 150 Justin Martyr established one on Ephesus and one in Rome. Origen (“the Prince of Christian Learning”) established a celebrated school in Alexandria. Other great schools were established at Edessa, Ephesus, and Caesarea in Palestine.

The Gifts of Christian Education The contributions of Christianity to the world are nothing less than remarkable, especially in numerous initiatives pertaining to education.1 While to some this statement may seem like nothing more than self-congratulatory verbiage, the evidence of such an observation follows:2 • The printing press, invented by Johannes Gutenberg, was instrumental in the spread of the Christian faith. The first book printed was the Bible. • Christianity has been a major force for promoting literacy worldwide. Many of the world’s languages were first set to writing by missionaries. 1. For a more detailed analysis, see Alvin Schmidt, Under the Influence: How Christianity Transformed Civilization (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001). 2. Some of these thoughts were stirred by the observations of Peter Hammond and can be found at http://www.christianaction.org.za/contact.htm.

• The missionary movement beginning in the 19th century pioneered thousands of schools throughout Africa and Asia, providing education even in the remotest jungles. • Christianity revolutionized education by making it available to all classes and both genders. Previously, only boys from the privileged classes obtained an education. • Graded levels of education were first introduced in the 16th century by a German Lutheran layman, Johann Sturm, who believed that this system would motivate students to study. • Kindergartens were first established in the 19th century by Frederick Froebel, the son of a German Lutheran pastor, who developed the idea of a school that would allow young children to grow under the care of an expert gardener (teacher). • Education for the deaf was pioneered by Charles L’Epee, who in 1775 developed a sign language for formally teaching the deaf. Thomas Gallaudet, an American Congregational clergyman, opened the first school for the deaf in 1817. He taught not only the three Rs, but also the fourth R, religion, so deaf people could read, write, and grow in faith. • Education for the blind was advanced in the 19th century by Louis Braille, a Christian, who gave to the blind a method of reading with their fingers. • The invention of the Sunday school, during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, helped boys and girls from some of the poorest English homes, who worked six days a week, learn the skill of reading and the stories of the Bible. • Christianity also was responsible for the founding and growth of universities and higher education, which grew out of monastic missionary centers. The first universities—Oxford, Paris, Cambridge, Heidelberg, and Basel—were all founded by Christians starting in the 13th century and taught theology, law, and medicine. In the United States every collegiate institution founded in the colonies prior to the Revolutionary War, save one, was established by some branch of the Christian church.

Editorial Organization Encyclopedia of Christian Education is on the one hand a diachronic encyclopedia that traces the history of Christian education, schools, and training over the past 2,000 years. On the other, it is a synchronic encyclopedia that profiles the state of contemporary Christian education. It is a strict alphabetical encyclopedia, but


the headwords are also organized in topical sections, each with a lead-in introduction to describe various aspects of each specific theme. The main classes of entries are lead-in introductions to each of the 20 sections, overview entries, interpretive essays, and continental and specific country glimpses to highlight the state of educating Christians in the historically Christian countries of the world. Overview entries survey the subject comprehensively, define the field, and include historical commentary and background and reviews of literature. Breakout entries are shorter, descriptive entries that explore in greater detail some facets of a core article. Interpretive essays deal with ideas and trends. The select bibliography suggests the most significant resources for each of the 20 sections within the very recent past. Most of the more than 1,200 articles are bylined and carry reference lists. Biographies of our more than 400 contributors appear in a separate section in the backmatter.

Audience and Market Encyclopedia of Christian Education is directed primarily to the more than 21,000 Christian educational institutions in English-speaking countries, including schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries. Further, it is geared to local churches, denominational leadership, and parachurch organizations.

Contributors An experienced and prolific, talented, and influential group of scholars, professors, and Christian educators has joined us in the composition of this landmark project, the first-ever global encyclopedia of Christian education. This unprecedented collaboration has benefited from broad conversations across the bounds of Christian tradition and produced a work that addresses historical perspectives, theological themes, crucial issues, and significant contributions that resonate with various stripes within the Anglican, Orthodox, Protestant, and Roman Catholic quarters of the faith. Specifically, we pay tribute to 400 authors from more than 75 countries who have written these 1,200 entries.3 In addition, we are most grateful to our stellar consult3. One might rightly ask why this global encyclopedia is published in English and in the United States, especially with an increasing amount of data becoming available from almost every part of the world. To be clear, this is decidedly not designed as an encyclopedia about Christian education in the United States. Indeed, authors from over 75 countries have contributed to these pages and represent even more language groups and dozens of Christian faith traditions. Yet to be fair, based on a number factors, we ac-


ing editors: Beverly Johnson-Miller, David Setran, David Smith, Donald Tinder, and Mai-Anh Le Tran. Further, we are profoundly beholden to our world-class editorial advisory board: Jeff Astley, Dean Blevins, Joel Carpenter, Ralph Enlow, James Estep, Charles Foster, Bryan Froehle, Perry Glanzer, Thomas Groome, Steven Kang, Kevin Lawson, John R. Lillis, Mark Maddix, Robert Pazmiño, Jane Regan, Philip Ryken, Jack Seymour, James D. Smith III, Cathy Stonehouse, and John Westerhoff III. Finally, our vision for these ideas was more than ably managed and creatively brought to fruition by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, in particular by Bennett Graff, Monica Savaglia, assistant editor, and Sharon Langworthy, copyeditor. While the project was produced over a laborious, knowledge a disproportionate percentage of space is contributed by North American authors about North American institutions and initiatives. Is it presumptive for a global volume on Christian education to emanate from the United States? A central question in Mark Noll’s The New Shape of World Christianity: How American Experience Reflects Global Faith (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009) ponders what U.S. Christianity means for the worldwide Christian community. One view is that U.S. Christians control events; a second view is one of influence (not manipulation); and a third view describes the relationship of U.S. and world Christianity as merely shared historical experience. Which of these is most accurate in the case of the influence of the United States on global Christian education? Of course, it is a matter of interpretation. To what extent is Christian education in the United States (or Christianity, for that matter) qualitatively different from world Christianity? Well, U.S. Christian education has been described as biblically oriented, pragmatically driven, creatively entrepreneurial, economically prosperous, and denominationally expansive. Some experience it as rather aggressive and therefore abusive. Rather baldly, Noll opines: “No body of Christians has been as capable at exercising power as American believers, though few have been more reluctant to address questions of power face-on” (ibid., 59). Noll’s operating thesis is that Christianity in its U.S. form is important for the world, but not primarily because of direct influence. Money and prestigious educational institutions still carry a good deal of weight on the world Christian scene. And while the majority of Christians reside elsewhere, the U.S. minority has a loud presence. In his diplomatic way, Noll calls the phenomenon “adolescent exuberance” (ibid., 191). Some find U.S. Christianity off-putting, to say the least. The reasoning goes that to ignore the traditions of the Christian centuries and boldly introduce business and marketing can be alienating, even if noticeably successful. Of course, while U.S. Christians tend to see their contributions as nothing other than offering help in extending the faith, others view this with more suspicion and as intrusive. With global mission advancement and evangelistic zeal comes education in faith, and often with missionary church-planting come U.S. cultural values, practices, and systems. In sum, then, we submit that it is plausible that a project of this global magnitude can be produced by a U.S. publisher and with a substantial proportion of North American authors and yet contribute a worldwide sensitivity to the concerns and practices of Christian education without borders. We celebrate the world mosaic of Christians and what they uniquely bring to the enterprise of educating Christians. And while we freely concede that from a historical, cultural perspective every encyclopedia is limited, nevertheless we delight in it in spite of its parameters, because it illumines the truth in past and future attempts to expand the knowledge of these important subjects. We can still therefore advance the importance of a historicist-cultural perspective that is revelatory even when it is biased and fractional. In other words, to understand a piece of the truth is important for discovering a greater truth. In revealing the present situation we uncover the past and the future. Continuity and similarity are as constant as change. We hope that after reading these volumes our readers and evaluators will likewise agree and revel in the monumental opportunity for a Christian world in this generation!



nearly three-year period, each of those mentioned above contributed in a wonderfully responsive and highly congenial manner, making our task quite pleasant. Our aim is to faithfully represent a snapshot of educating Christians of this generation while acknowledging our historically orthodox heritage. We concede, as

others attempt a similar project in the next generation, that evolving cultural circumstances, continuing sound scholarship, and educationally innovative practice will certainly see requisite nuanced revisions to our emphases. May the Church be diligent in such activity!


We (George and Mark) would like to thank Rowman & Littlefield for allowing latitude in the selection and design of the front and back covers. In addition, the following individuals were instrumental in offering their advice for the image concept: Daniel J. Baker, Ronald J. Bigalke, Jr., Mark Lou Branson, Sarita Gallagher, Amy K. Grubbs, Aaron K. Lamport, Therese C. Lamport, Debra Dean Murphy, Emily Peck-McClain, Emily J. Reisert, Susan Willhauck, and Darrell Yoder. I (Mark) am thankful to my parents, D. Keith (†1997) and Norma J. Lamport, and my grandparents, V.H. (†1996) and Virginia Lamport (†1999), who explicitly and implicitly, consistently and patiently, propelled me in a vibrant way into my Christian education. I would also like to consecrate these volumes to my grandchildren—Gweneth (2007), Alayna (2007), Addison (2008), Makenna (2010),

and Wyatt (2011)—who joyfully are the recipients of godly nurture and faith-affirming experiences in their induction of the Christian faith. May they contribute in like ways to their own children and grandchildren. Further, I (Mark) wish to take the liberty of personal privilege in honoring four of my graduate school professors, whose biographies are rightly included in these volumes—Larry Richards, Cam Wyckoff (†2005), Jim Loder (†2001), Ted Ward—and one of my heroes—John Stott (†2011), who have influenced my thinking in innumerable ways about the educational enterprise with Christians. Finally, I have made peace with the fact that one of those featured in the biographies—Huldreich Zwingli (†1531)—was an Anabaptist tormentor, specifically of my thirteenth-great grandparents named Aebi who lived in Sumiswald, Berne, Switzerland in the 1520s.

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Introduction George Thomas Kurian and Mark A. Lamport

We will not hide them from their children; we will tell the next generation the praiseworthy deeds of the Lord, which He commanded our forefathers to teach their children, so that the next generation would know them, even the children yet to be born, and they in turn would tell their children. Then they would put their trust in God and would not forget His deeds but would keep His commands. —Psalm 78:4–7

The World Mosaic of Christian Education In 1900, over 80 percent of the world’s Christian population was Caucasian and over 70 percent resided in Europe.1 But while the World Christian Encyclopedia estimates the percentage of Christians worldwide to have been 33 to 34 percent of the world’s population for the last several generations and projects the same proportion in the coming half century,2 the European Caucasians are no longer the majority at the start of the 21st century. Philip Jenkins, in The Next Christendom, compellingly articulates (at least one thesis, among others) why global Christianity is decisively shifting from North and West to South and East: as societies gain wealth, the practice of

We wish to thank Jeff Astley, Peter Osborn, Robert Pazmiño, Jane Regan, Lawrence O. Richards, Jack Seymour, and John Westerhoff for their insightful comments on the original draft of this introduction. However, we alone bear the responsibility for the contents. 1. David B. Barrett, Todd M. Johnson, and Peter F. Crossing, “Status of Global Mission, Presence, and Activities, AD 1800–2025,” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 32 (January 2008): 30. 2. David Barrett, George T. Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Survey of Churches and Religions in the Modern World. 2 vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Christianity diminishes.3 There is a seismic oscillation, in fact. Thus, some contend that European Christianity has become archaeology, while North American Christianity hangs on as sociology. Half of all the Christians who have ever lived are living now! Perhaps two billion. This is a remarkable, unprecedented opportunity for Christian education. With a Christian population of over 250 million, there are more Christians in the United States than in any other country in the history of the world.4 What can be said about the world condition in which these Anglican, Protestant, Orthodox, and Roman Catholic adherents are being educated in faith?5

Challenges of and Opportunities for Christian Education in the st Century While many optimistic initiatives for effectively educating Christian adherents infuse current practices around the world, many of which are colorfully advanced in the volumes of this encyclopedia, we propose five substantial, imposing conditions and suggest resultant opportunities for the educational mission of the Church (see table intro.1).

3. Philip Jenkins, The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). 4. The number of Christians in China is an unknowable mystery and no doubt a spectacular number, but in all likelihood there are still fewer than in the United States. 5. These volumes include those major Christian bodies that acknowledge the historic, orthodox Trinitarian doctrine: Anglican, Orthodox, Protestant, and Roman Catholic. For more, see Donald Tinder’s superb overview of these faith families, “Christian Education in the Modern World: Denominational Profiles in Christian Education,” in appendix A.

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Introduction TABLE INTRO.1 Contextual Circumstances in Educating Christians

Encroaching Challenges to Christian Education

Engaging Opportunities for Christian Education

Disorienting amnesia Suppressed thinking Redoubtable postmodernism Divisive interpretation Muddled approaches

Meaningful commemorations Shared community Irresistible citizenship Generous humility Faithful gestures

The first encroaching challenge is disorienting amnesia. Some observe a discontinuity between the historical faith and the current lived experience of Christianity. When the biblical and historical roots of the Christian belief system become estranged, serious consequences emerge. Stephen Prothero, citing E. D. Hirsch’s classic Cultural Literacy, chides our current state of affairs as “a gradual disintegration of cultural memory,”6 which has led to an inability to communicate in an articulate way. This applies not only to societies in general but also to the religious components of them. Granted, this condition may be more of a Western phenomenon. French sociologist Daniele Hervieu-Leger describes Europe’s loss of faith as amnesia, not so much rooted in doubt, but forgetting. Certainly much of this can be observed in American Christianity in the United States.7 The “chain of memory” has been broken.8 It is not just Protestants who lament this loss of religious understanding; Catholics and Jews observe the same basic ignorance of their traditions and sacred articles.9 But some, primarily Protestants, still seethe about banned school prayer and Bible reading in the United States from the early 1960s—Engel v. Vitale (1962) and Abington v. Schempp (1963)—and correlate problems with illiteracy and wayward civility to those U.S. Supreme Court decisions, as contributors to this lack of memory.10 Perhaps—who can know for sure? 6. Stephen Prothero, Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know—and Doesn’t (San Francisco: Harper SanFrancisco, 2007), 3. 7. We have sought to be specific in our use of “United States” in these volumes as distinct from “America” or “American,” as the former is one entity of several in the composition of several nations on the continent with their own histories, cultures, and contextual expressions of Christianity. 8. Danièle Hervieu-Léger, Religion as a Chain of Memory (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1993/2000). 9. While Pew Research Center published results of a Fall 2013 survey that found Jews in the United States overwhelmingly proud to be Jewish, yet nearly one in five of them described themselves as having “no religion.” The gap is generational, with 32 percent of Jewish millennials identifying as Jewish on the basis of ancestry, ethnicity, or culture—compared with 93 percent of Jews born in 1914–1927, who identified on the basis of their faith. “This shift in Jewish self-identification reflects broader changes in the US public,” stated Pew’s Religion and Public Life Project. “Americans as a whole—not just Jews—increasingly eschew any religious affiliation,” with 22 percent of all Americans identifying with no particular faith. See http:// news.yahoo.com/survey-finds-us-jews-losing-religion-043636382.html. 10. Although the second author went to midwestern U.S. elementary public schools in the 1960s, there was never homework assigned on Wednesdays—almost shocking to think of now and recently confirmed by

The first engaging opportunity is meaningful commemorations. The main cause of this disconnect between faith and life (and as a consequence, a loss of memory) may be an improperly constructed process of merely acquiring information or skills. However, education for Christians is something much broader and richer, because it deals with transforming an entire person from a depraved sinner characterized by self-love into a pristine image of Christ characterized by love for God and neighbor. The Church must make conspicuous campaigns that rejoice in “remembering” the heritage and truth given it. To be sure, it is not the revelation of God as witnessed in scripture that is forgettable or wearisome, but the inability of those who teach to coax relevant connections with those studying. As Craig Dykstra reminds, education in faith must be at once an investigative process that guides people in the exploration of our experience with God; a critical process that liberates us from the patterns of thinking, feeling, valuing, and behaving that make it difficult for us to participate in this experience; and a caring process through which we graciously invite one another to enter freely and ever more deeply into this experience.11 To be memorable, Christian education must move beyond mere history and engage fervidly at the intersection of faith and life. The second encroaching challenge is suppressed thinking. In sectors of the Christian family, some educational practices frustrate spiritual growth—whether intentionally or unintentionally—by devaluing, even belittling, the role of reason and critical reflection.12 In provocative interview-based research, Ruth Tucker deduces two traits of a typical “walk away” from Christian faith: (1) one’s association with a fundamentalist or highly conservative religious background and (2) one’s inability to grapple with philosophical, theological, and/or scientific challenges to scripture’s reliability.13 What does truth, we confidently invite, have to fear from engagement on any topic in the world? Whether out of fear or control or poor educational modeling or ignorance, his parents to validate possibly faulty childhood reasoning—because that was the night for midweek church services! 11. See Craig Dykstra, Growing in the Life of Faith: Education and Christian Practices (Louisville, NY: Geneva Press, 1999), xiii. 12. We are enthusiastic about the synergetic relationship of John Wesley’s so-called quadrilateral for interpreting and living the Christian faith: scripture, tradition, reason, and experience. While some might accede to only the former, God is operative, and faith is enhanced, by the dynamic interaction of all. 13. Ruth Tucker, Walking Away from Faith: Unraveling the Mystery of Belief and Unbelief (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002). A third factor is deduced—difficult circumstances in life—and while significant, it is omitted here as it does not coalesce with our main point. See also Martin Marty’s classic, Varieties of Unbelief: From Nihilism to Atheism; From Agnosticism to Apathy: Explorations in American Religion (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964) for a more theoretical model of this topic.


some assume for the sake of unity (or uniformity?) that Christians should merely accept (in a mentally passive way) teaching in church and not question the authority of those who teach. Critical engagement with other Christians can only enhance one’s understanding of faith and practice. A conception of educating that plays upon acquiescence and uncritical reasoning is a standard practice of cults and other mind-control initiatives. So why is “thinking” to be eschewed in churches, small groups, missions, parachurch ministries, and even, in some cases, theological schools?14 Perhaps there is a fundamental misunderstanding of the role of “knowledge” in educating Christians. In our view, one’s ability to think, to analyze, to critique, and then to adapt to contextual Christian practice is critical and ultimately a great deal more important than merely knowing facts, stories, and trivial minutiae even of the Bible. Consider, for example, Jesus’s educational intentions in the so-called Sermon on the Mount as a template for guiding how a Christian should live as a faithful sojourner.15 It is important that believers learn information about the kingdom of God, develop life skills for living in the kingdom, pursue motivating interests in the kingdom, and commit to altering society toward kingdom values. Nevertheless, it is perhaps more consequential to teach the faithful principles that can be applied to changing societal conditions; that is, learn to think critically, to think theologically. The most desired educational result might be a changed society, but the most effective means to achieve that is fostered by a Christian educational philosophy that nurtures theological thinking and application.16 In sum, a flawed understanding exists wherein teachers of Christian education cater more to the passive acquisition of content knowledge over the more critical ability of teaching students to think theologically with an eye to applying the Christian faith and mission to the changing conditions of the world.

14. For more on this idea, see Mark A. Lamport, “The Most Indispensable Habits of Effective Theological Educators: Recalibrating Educational Philosophy, Psychology, and Practice,” Asbury Journal (Fall 2010): 36–54. 15. It is also interesting to note that Jesus asked more than 100 questions, as recorded in the Gospels, which would appear to be an intentional and significant teaching strategy. Since we can assume He knew the answers to these questions, His strategy was one of engaging learners in thinking, evaluating assumptions, and having meaningful dialogue. 16. It is a remarkable phenomenon to observe the correlation of how prevailing societal customs and educational philosophies in a given region of the world mimic the same stances in Christian education practices in those same geographic regions. It is not surprising then—and the second author has observed it firsthand in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe—that a teacher-dominated, content-centered, student-dependent, pedagogical model is more common than not in Christian education, much like the more rigid political environments in these regions. Conversely, in many cases Christian education, at least in theory, in North America and Western Europe more often leans toward a more egalitarian-based, learner-focused style, much like the democratic political arenas in these regions.


The second engaging opportunity is probing reflection. Christian theology means reflecting on and articulating beliefs about God and the world that Christians share as followers of Jesus. By “reflecting,” Stanley Grenz and Roger Olson claim, We use our minds to organize our thoughts and beliefs, bring them into coherence with one another by attempting to identify and expunge blatant contradictions, and make sure that there are good reasons for interpreting Christian faith in the way we do. Reflection, then, involves a certain amount of critical thinking—questioning the ways we think and why we believe and behave the way we do.17

Christian education should promote learning cultures wherein people confront intriguing sociocultural issues. The routine quest for Christian education, we propose, is to explore authentic tasks that challenge students to grapple with ideas, rethink their assumptions, and examine their mental models of reality. While teaching methods vary, these conditions are best fostered to the degree that learners feel a sense of control over their learning, work collaboratively with others, believe that their contributions will be considered fairly and honestly, and receive substantial feedback. These thoughtful exercises give Christians perspective on the meaning of scripture and the world’s issues. With the ability to reflect theologically on the questions of life, a believer’s faith in and relationship with God will be most meaningful. “Engagement in these practices, with other people, over time, can give rise to new knowledge and new capacities for perception that are not accessible otherwise.” Through theological reflection, Christians actively grasp God’s perspective in the cosmos.18 The third encroaching challenge is redoubtable postmodernism. Granted, contemporary society, with its waning forgetfulness, has diminished the impact of Christian education. Have social secularization and religious pluralism severely diminished the Christian consciousness and education in faith? Postmodernism is not a culture, but rather the fatigue of culture. It is a sign of the end of modernity, and for that reason its critique of modernity is telling. But it is not a new age, nor the sign of a new kind of culture. It despairs of culture.19 Does this spell doom for the teaching nature of the church and its version of truth, life, and virtue? 17. Stanley Grenz and Roger Olson, Who Needs Theology? An Invitation to the Study of God (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994), 25. 18. Amy Plantinga Pauw, “Attending to the Gaps between Beliefs and Practices,” in Practicing Theology: Beliefs and Practices in Christian Life, ed. Craig Dykstra and Dorothy Bass (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002), 41. 19. A. J. Conyers, “Can Postmodernism Be Used as a Template for Christian Theology?” Christian Scholar’s Review (Spring 2004): 308–309.



Sociologist Peter Berger, reflecting on a generation of theorizing about the correlation of modernity and secularization, admits he and his colleagues were wrong: most of the world today is not secular, but very religious.20 A 1997 Gallup World Poll administered in 160 nations (representing 97 percent of the world’s population, though China was excluded from the religion questions) revealed that 53 percent had attended a religious place of worship within the last seven days, and 76 percent confirmed that religion was an important part of their lives.21 In fact, a significant thesis of Rodney Stark asserts that vigorous religiosity arises along with pluralism.22 Upsurges of Christianity coexist with—and are even due to—postmodernity. But what are the consequences of such identifications and divergent values? Despite these flashes of global spiritual arousal, unintended outcomes, curious inventions, and misshapen creatures have sometimes been produced by socially compromising attempts to shape faith.23 The Christian flirtation with culture has been (and continues to be) an uneasy dance. Culture is the collection of practices, beliefs, and stories that carve out a sense of distinctiveness and pride or failure and shame. To be observers is fascinating; to engage culture is titillating. In fact the people who most carefully study cultures tend to stress how much they are transformed by this study. So, we ask with Andy Crouch, what does it mean to be more than cultural consumers but instead be culture makers? What does it mean to be not just culturally aware but culturally responsible? What is our calling in this or any culture? If we are to be culture makers, where in the world do we begin? And how does this affect how we effectively educate Christians?24 The third engaging opportunity is irresistible citizenship. In spite of the pervasive anti-God spirit of the times, the church rejoices in the sovereignty of God in this world. The countercultural nature of the Christian kingdom, manifested without geopolitical borders, has its own ethic (in the Sermon on the Mount), its own language (loving kindness), its own epistemology (the20. From an interview in Christian Century, October 29, 1997, 972–978. 21. Reported in Rodney Stark, The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World’s Largest Religion (San Francisco: HarperOne Publishing, 2011). 22. Ibid., 410–412. 23. See Mark A. Lamport, “Unintended Outcomes, Curious Inventions, and Misshapen Creatures: Juxtapositions of Religious Belief and FaithFormed Practice and the Renewed Case of the Educational Mission of the Church,” Asbury Theological Journal (April 2008): 95–113; Mark A. Lamport, “Excellent Belief, Congruent Practice: Juxtapositions of Promise and Peril in the Educational Mission of the Church,” in Thy Brother’s Keeper (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2010), 237–257. 24. Andy Crouch, Culture Making: Recovering Our Creative Calling (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2008).

istic revelation), and its own agenda (worship of God by service to the world). As postmodernism cannot ultimately satisfy the quests of the humans who search for happiness, the uncompromising beauty of the Christian life irresistibly attracts previously exhausted and unfulfilled devotees to a newfound peace. And so the Church does not shrink from engagement with the world and is not paralyzed by postmodern tendencies; instead, such interactions are found to enliven faith and commitment to its fitting citizenship. To be properly oriented amid a wayward postmodern culture, Christian education emphasizes the true-north guidance of the Holy Spirit to negotiate our place in the world. The fourth encroaching challenge is divisive interpretation. The fundamental themes of Luther’s reforms locate the Bible as the ultimate foundation of all Christian belief and practice. The text of the Bible, and all teaching based on it, should be in the vernacular. But the problem that emerged (and is still flourishing) is how one can speak of the Bible as having any authority when it is so clearly at the mercy of its interpreters.25 The fundamental problem of Protestant theological identity, as other branches within Christianity perceived, was primarily about a certain way of doing theology that could lead to an uncontrollable diversity of outcomes. And who would have the definitive prerogative to decide what is orthodox and what is heretical? This was “a dangerous idea,” as Alister McGrath extrapolates, that opened the floodgates to “a torrent of distortion, misunderstanding, and confusion.”26 A current example, which dominates the Church where it is growing with the most global gusto, is Pentecostalism’s resonance with postmodernism. Pentecostals, while affirming the traditional Protestant notion of the accessibility of the Bible and the right of every believer to interpret this text, stress the multiple dimensions of the meaning that arise—not on account of the indeterminate nature of the text, but on account of “leading of the Spirit” into the true meaning of the text, which that same Spirit originally inspired.27 Of course the underlying issue is the source of authority for interpreting the text and practicing the faith. The fourth engaging opportunity is generous humility. While divergent ways of interpreting scripture manifest themselves within faith traditions, the Church rejoices 25. Alister McGrath, Christianity’s Dangerous Idea: The Protestant Revolution—A History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First (San Francisco: HarperOne Publishing, 2007), 93. 26. Ibid., 208–209. 27. Robert Plummer, ed., Journeys of Faith: Evangelicalism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism, and Anglicanism (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012). To be sure, this is not a book on biblical interpretation, but on how various traditions of Christianity interpret and practice scripture in community, as exemplified in representative journeys.


in the unity and charity offered through revelation. One of the primary descriptors of Christian education is its emphasis on studying the Bible. Children are taught Bible verses and stories at a very young age, which has instilled in many a deep respect for God’s Word. However, at the same time, it seems many of these same people struggle as adults to have meaningful conversations about the most basic of biblical concepts. They know snippets of biblical content but lack the ability to deal with the overarching themes, which restricts their ability to intelligently critique the culture around them and develop their faith. Many Christians manifest a greater need not only for biblical instruction but also theology, church history, ethics, and philosophy. However, just as it is important that believers learn the Bible and theology, it is also important how they learn it. Educators need to teach the Bible and theology not merely as additional subjects but as the central and pervasive focus of all education. Students need to learn to think theologically in every area of life. This includes developing a biblical perspective and engaging in the struggle to apply that worldview to one’s daily walk. Such an integrated approach will provide a much-needed depth of meaning and significance to the learning experience. However, the overarching posture must model a gracious, generous humility as the church makes its way to faithful means of encountering both the Word and the world. The fifth encroaching challenge is muddled approaches. While Christianity has been affected by memory problems and mixed results due to postmodern sympathies, a pronounced misunderstanding continues to plague how the Church best educates Christians.28 What, in its most basic form, is Christian education, and how is effective Christian education to transpire? One pattern that emerges from the development of Protestantism, especially as it may be influenced by Western individualism, is what seems to be an endless cycle of birth, maturing, aging, and death, leading to

28. In October 2013, during a pilgrimage to the saint’s Italian hometown, Pope Francis called for the Catholic Church and its faithful to rid themselves of earthly concerns like St. Francis of Assisi. Speaking in the hall where the medieval saint is said to have taken off his robes in a gesture of humility, Francis said the Church should also “divest” itself and return to spiritual basics. “The Church, all of us should divest ourselves of worldliness,” a visibly emotional pope said, adding: “Worldliness is a murderer because it kills souls, kills people, kills the Church.” “Without divesting ourselves, we would become pastry-shop Christians, like beautiful cakes and sweet things but not real Christians,” he said. Francis has called for a “poor Church for the poor” and has said he wants to overhaul the 2,000-year-old institution, making it less “Vatican-centric” and closer to ordinary people. The Pope seeks to “refresh” Roman Catholic Church Christian education in an age of postmodernism and focus on the saint’s message of poverty rather than on inter-religious peace. See http://news.yahoo.com/pope-says -church-rid-itself-worldliness-131008936.html.


renewal and reformulation.29 The relentless energy and creativity of one generation gives rise to a new movement; a later generation, anxious because the original dynamism and energy of the movement appears to be dissipating, tries to preserve it by petrification—that is, by freezing the original vision in the hope that its energy will thus be preserved. Yet all too often, petrification leads to the conservation of only a structure, not the life-giving vision itself. These trends have affected the structures, strategies, and methods of Christian education to a tremendous degree. “Being Christian educated” has a fluid meaning and has through the Christian centuries eventuated in less than ideal results. Religious literacy is not just the accumulation of facts or memorizing and regurgitating dogma. To what extent does its meaning in previous generations or centuries relate what would be acceptable in the 21st century? What is the proper balance between an intellectual and experiential knowledge of faith? Christian education, we aver, is the cultivation of wisdom and virtue by nourishing the soul on truth, goodness, and beauty, so that in Christ, the learner is enabled to better know, glorify, and enjoy God. As Irenaeus declares, “The glory of God is the one fully alive.” The central concepts to grasp regarding our Christian expressions are irreducible: faith that requires obedience in submission to God and in mission to the world, hope that sees a transcendent story of this life and the next, and love that binds us into a nurturing community and extends to despairing humanity (1 Corinthians 13:13). The fifth engaging opportunity is faithful gestures. Despite some bungled schemes to educate Christians, the Church rejoices in the faithful expression of celebrating the gifts of God. To be clear, what it means to be Christian is that we are a people who affirm that we have come to find our true destiny only by locating our lives within the story of God. Hauerwas says, “The Church is but God’s gesture on behalf of the world to create a space and time in which we might have a foretaste of the Kingdom. It is through gestures that we learn the nature of the story that is the very content and constitution of that Kingdom. The way we learn a story, after all, is not just by hearing it. It must be acted out.”30 Simply put, Christian education is the training in those gestures through which we learn the story of God and God’s will for our lives. The primary task of being educated Christianly is not the achievement of better understanding, but faithfulness. Indeed, we can

29. McGrath, Christianity’s Dangerous Idea, 463. 30. Stanley Hauerwas, “The Gesture of a Truthful Story,” Theology Today (July 1985): 186.



only come to understand through faithfulness, as the story asks for nothing less than our lives.31

Distinctive Features of and Gifts for Christian Education Education is the creation, acquisition, transmission, and preservation of knowledge. Christian education is concerned not with the simple exchange of facts and information, but with their epistemological dimensions. It is different from secular knowledge because it is also concerned with the ultimate purpose of human life. For a Christian, education is not an otiose exercise of mental faculties, as in learning for learning’s sake. It is purposedriven by the urge to find meaning in existence. But unlike in Buddhism and Gnosticism, knowledge itself has no salvific value in Christianity. Knowledge and education in themselves are not pathways to spiritual wisdom, nor do they provide students with a moral compass or sense of existential direction. Christian education is not different from secular education in its pedagogy or methodology, but it is deeper in function and more varied in origin. Education is multifunctional. First, education develops professional skills and talents, provides book learning from manuals, transfers ideas from teachers to students, and adapts the mind to be receptive to new experiences. Christian education goes one step further and transforms the mind, or as Paul says, endows the students with a new mind— the mind of Christ. Thus the goal of Christian education is metanoia, or transformation or transmutation. Similarly, human knowledge is a blend. First, there is genetic knowledge or what is called the wisdom of the body. Although educational theorists describe the mind of a newborn as a tabula rasa or an empty slate, it knows far more than we realize. Second, knowledge comes through scientific study, analysis, observation, analogy, and logical reconstruction of facts. Third, knowledge comes through books and artifacts and the wisdom of the past. It is said that all of us stand on the shoulders of giants. But in the case of Christian education, there is an additional factor: revelation or revealed knowledge that comes through meditation, prayer, and direct communication with the divine. Without revealed knowledge, human experience remains one-dimensional. Revealed knowledge is not merely a state of knowing, but a state of being. Education thus has profound theological significance, and even the early Apostolic Fathers realized it. Justin 31. For more, see Mark A. Lamport and Darrell Yoder, “Faithful Gestures: Rebooting the Educational Mission of the Church,” Christian Education Journal (Spring 2006): 58–78.

Martyr founded the first Christian school in the first century. For him as well as the great Christian educators who followed him, education was the principal conduit for the transmission of knowledge and the most powerful instrument for Christian growth and maturity. Faith and knowledge are intimately connected. The metaphor most used in the scriptures to represent knowledge is Light, because light illuminates the world and dispels darkness. In Proverbs the Lord is the beginning of knowledge, and Samuel uses the term “the God of Knowledge.” Hosea laments that people are perishing for lack of knowledge. In the New Testament Christ calls Himself the Light of the World. Thus Christian education, ultimately, is unlike any other educational venture in the cosmos. No other curricular enterprise has equivalent content (revealed scripture), goals (Christocentric transformation), and dynamic (power of the Holy Spirit). It is distinct in what it attempts, and it dispatches extraordinary gifts to accomplish the task (see table intro.2). The Christian faith is outrageously astonishing in that the God of the universe wants to know us and wants us to know him. The task of Christian education, then, is nothing less than seizing a most inconceivable, even implausible, idea: humans become intimate with divinity . . . and vice versa! Here is how J. I. Packer spins it: Why has God spoken? . . . The truly staggering answer which the Bible gives to this question is that God’s purpose in revelation is to make friends with us. It was to this end that He created us rational beings, bearing His image, able to think and hear and speak and love; He wanted there to be genuine personal affection and friendship, two-sided, between Himself and us. . . . He speaks to us simply to fulfill the purpose for which we were made; that is, to bring into being a relationship in which He is a friend to us, and we to Him, He finding His joy in giving us gifts and we finding ours in giving Him thanks.32

Herein we chronicle encroaching factors that impede this unlikely friendship from occurring as completely as intended. However, the Christian education enterprise supplies ammunition to overcome these five factors (and others) with five supernatural resources and to accomplish the reality of Psalm 78:4–7 in the “epilogue”: hope, freedom, faith, grace, and love: • While loss of Christian memory diminishes effectiveness in the educational task, the Bible is the only source of revealed truth for living. This alone, and the story it tells, provides a transforming hope that casts out fear and extends eternity to Earth. 32. J. I. Packer, God Has Spoken (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2005), 43.



TABLE INTRO.2 Contextual Circumstances and Counteractive Remedies for Educating Christians Encroaching Challenges to Christian Education

Engaging Opportunities for Christian Education

Exclusive Uniquenesses of Christian Education

Extraordinary Gifts for Christian Education

Disorienting amnesia Suppressed thinking Redoubtable postmodernism Divisive interpretation Muddled approaches

Meaningful commemorations Probing reflection Irresistible citizenship Generous humility Faithful gestures

Penetrating scripture Discerning community Supernatural guidance Resurrected image Focused proclamation

Transformative hope Principled freedom Countercultural faith Restorative grace Fortifying love


education is as much about engendering intimacy in human relationships nurtured by faith as articulated parsing or indoctrinating systems of belief. Although the inspired truth of the Gospel is persuasive, the beckoning love, unremitting concern, and personal involvement in the lives of people are also extremely forceful. Hear the poetic elocution in which Michael Warren expresses this truth: “Faith can be elaborated, explained, and systematized in books, but it shouts, it dances, it lives and takes flesh in people.”33 In a similar vein, Jewish theologian Abraham Joshua Heschel has keenly observed: “What we need more than anything else is not textbooks but text-people. It is the personality of the teacher which is the text that the students read; the text they will never forget.”34 Whereas postmodern culture and other factors may impact the spiritual dimensions of the mission of the Church, we seek wisdom to apply human development research, theological scholarship, and educational theory and practice for the creative and faithful application of biblical truth to permeate the values of children, adolescents, and adults, as well as families, faith communities, institutions, voluntary associations, and societal structures recognizing dimensions of our communal and corporate lives in the deeply meaningful, life-affirming, radicalizing Christian way. Gloria in excelsis Deo

We celebrate people in the volumes of this encyclopedia: people who embark upon the opportunity for teaching and learning the historical and vibrant faith. Christian

33. Michael Warren, Youth and the Future of the Church (Minneapolis, MN: Seabury Press, 1990), 20. 34. Cited in Marvin R. Wilson, Our Father Abraham: Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989), 280.

• While critical thinking seems undervalued in educating Christians, the nature of the Church is collectively a discerning community who together reason with godliness. The result is a principled freedom to experience reality as God intended humans to abide. • While the creeping tendencies of postmodernism steer civilizations in godless ways, Christian education relies on the supernatural guidance of the spirit of holiness to keep the church grounded. This posture takes a countercultural faith that lives both within and beyond human understanding. • While some branches of the Christian education over- or underemphasize various interpretations of scripture and in some cases bow to postmodern patterns of subjectivism, the church is being transformed into the image of Jesus, which nevertheless may have a spectrum of perspectives. We are comforted by God’s resurrection miracle of restorative grace in our lives. • While practices of Christian education sometimes falter in focused integration of the story of God, the infusion of relentless, gracious, fortifying love is the most powerful educator in faithful compassion to each other and the world.

A A Foundation for Theological Education A Foundation for Theological Education (AFTE) is a nonprofit organization that seeks to revitalize theological education according to the standards of the evangelical Wesleyan tradition, and in so doing, to bring renewal to the United Methodist Church. AFTE was established in 1977, by a clergyman with a passion for spiritual revival, Dr. Edmund Robb, and the renowned Methodist scholar Dr. Albert Outler. The differences in their professional contexts lie at the core of AFTE mission: to support excellence in academic scholarship and education that is rooted in the life of faithful discipleship. AFTE’s impact on theological education can be seen on two levels: its engagement with current seminarians and its nurture of prospective seminary faculty. To reach the current seminarians, AFTE sponsors the publication of Catalyst, a scholarly newsletter that shares information about new resources in theology and offers stimulating reflections on Christian life and action. To support and nurture the prospective seminary faculty, AFTE sponsors The John Wesley Fellowship Program. Each year up to five United Methodists in their doctoral studies at esteemed universities are invited to become John Wesley Fellows. The program is unique, because it offers not only adequate scholarship for doctoral studies but also ongoing fellowship in the community of mentoring and professional development. AFTE’s commitment to intentional formation of the new generation of scholars and theological educators enables it to reach future generations of the Methodist clergy. Today, more than 30 years since its establishment and with $3 million in grants awarded, there are 145 John

Wesley Fellows serving as faculty members, administrators, deans, and presidents in theological schools, colleges, universities, and larger denominational structures, both in the United States and abroad, within and beyond the borders of the United Methodist Church. Yet important as its influence is on contemporary Methodism, AFTE also holds a lesson for the theological education enterprise at large. It offers a small but remarkable example of imagining theological education that is thoroughly connected to its ecclesial base, respectful of the institutional realities of graduate education, and successful in uniting “the pair long disjoined, knowledge and vital piety.” References and Suggested Readings Glass Turner, Elizabeth, and Steve Beard. 2011. “Theological Renewal: The AFTE Effect.” Good News Magazine (January/ February): 10–15. Robb, Edmund. 1975. “The Crisis of Theological Education in the United Methodist Church.” An address delivered at The Sixth Annual Good News Convocation. Lake Junaluska, NC: http://aftesite.org/wordpress1/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/ AFTEEdRobbSermon1975.pdf. Wesley, John, Franz Hildebrandt, Oliver A. Beckerlegge, and James Dale. 1989. A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People Called Methodists. The Bicentennial Edition of the Works of John Wesley. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Catalyst is sent to every Methodist seminarian in the United States four times a year and is available online at www.catalyst resources.org. The John Wesley Fellowship Program, www.johnwesleyfellows .org.


—Natalya Shulgina


Abelard, Peter

Abelard, Peter Early Background and Education Peter Abelard (1079–1142) was born into an aristocratic family in Le Pallet, near Nantes, France. While he was the elder son, and thus first in line in terms of inheritance, he renounced his claim to inherited wealth. Little is known of his early education, though it is possible he studied under Marbod, master of the cathedral school in Angers, and later, at Loches, studied under the dialectician Roscelin of Campiegne. We are more confident that in 1100 he studied with William of Champeaux. The intellectual climate of his day was fraught with debate in metaphysics and about the roles of philosophy and theology. Throughout his education and in his early career, Abelard distinguished himself as a master dialectician and polemicist. He challenged his master, William of Champeaux, in debate, and eventually, after leaving Paris, compelled William to renounce his position on universals. William initially defended an abstract, Platonic conception of universals (the universal “human being”), according to which they are independent of language and ideas. Abelard took a middle position, locating universals as concepts we identify linguistically, avoiding both the Platonism of William and the nominalism of Roscelin, according to which universals are groupings of objects that we invent through words. Taking the middle path between opposite positions came to be the mark of many of his contributions to the history of ideas. This was the case when he went to Laon to study theology under the biblical scholar Anselm (known later as Anselm of Laon). He rejected the scholastic project of smoothing over the apparent contradictions in scripture and what he saw as the uncritical appeal to authority, later publishing a book, Sic et Non (Yes and no), which brought to light the paradoxes found in scripture. He thought each of these paradoxes resolvable, but not without painstaking, subtle analysis. Significant Contributions to Christian Education We may learn at least three insights about Christian education from the study of the life and work of Peter Abelard. Not all of these are insights that Abelard himself set out to convey to future Christian educators. First and foremost, we may learn from the life of Peter Abelard the danger of a teacher or, in his case, a tutor, trying to seduce and be sexually intimate with his or her students! Despite the brilliance of Abelard’s dialectical skills, he is perhaps best known for his affair with a student, Heloise, and the tragic course of events that followed, which Abelard narrates in the book The Story of My Misfortunes. When the guardian and uncle

of Heloise discovered their affair, he had Abelard gravely punished by mutilation. The relationship between Abelard and Heloise is preserved (albeit with some redaction and editing of original sources that have not survived) in their correspondence, which reveals the tension between amorousness and lust and romantic love and honor, the possibility of chaste love after carnal usury, and the roles of faith and passion. Second, without putting on exhibit Abelard’s specific views on the atonement, the interpretation of scripture, the Trinity, and the assessment of the role of intention in ethics, Abelard stands as a foremost proponent of the view that theological teaching should not be accepted based only on appeal to the authority of the past, whether in the form of the authority of a saint or a philosophical theologian such as Augustine. Abelard relentlessly insisted on the importance of creative and novel ways of addressing perennial positions in Christian orthodoxy. So, the spirit of Abelard is very much in keeping with the ways in which Christian philosophical theologians today are working out new, alternative ways of understanding the Trinity, the Incarnation, and more. Third, there is some reason to believe that debate between Christian theologians and philosophers needs to be conducted with greater charity than Abelard showed. Abelard’s ferocious and inextinguishable drive to best his opponents in debate is a cautionary tale for contemporary debaters of matters of faith and reason. As all extant biographies of Abelard reveal, his life was often marked by uncharitable lines of reasoning on his part that were met with similarly uncharitable responses form his critics, even from St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who (except for his endorsement of the Crusades) developed a deeply amorous, capacious theology of love. Most Notable Publications The Story of My Misfortunes Letters Yes and No (Sic et Non) Ethica Theologia

—Charles Taliaferro

Abuse, Clergy There is no trust more sacred than that of parents who entrust their children to religious educators in the church. The church should be a place where every child is safe—emotionally, spiritually, and physically. Most of the time this trust is honored, and our children grow in “age and wisdom and grace” (Luke 2:52) within our religious institutions. When this trust is broken, however, the ef-

Abuse, Clergy

fects are devastating: first and primarily, for the victim himself or herself, then rippling out to the family, the congregation, and the wider community. Clergy abuse of children is one of the most important legal and ethical issues of the contemporary church. This shattered sacred trust extends to inappropriate adult relationships with clergy as well, especially with those who are particularly vulnerable and who have placed their trust in the clergyperson. While there has been a great deal of media attention on incidents of clergy abuse in the Catholic Church, it is not limited by marital status, sexual orientation, denomination, or geographic location. In the end, clergy abuse is a terrible abuse of power that leaves a wake of destruction for the victim, the congregation, the wider community, and the clergy person. It is always the responsibility of the clergyperson to appropriately establish and maintain the boundaries of his or her ministerial position.1 While clergypersons may personally feel an absence of power, they often have a great deal of power that they may not acknowledge or realize. “Ministers have at their disposal not only the power of their own presence as persons but also the power others associate with moral, religious or spiritual authority. They embody the authority of the church and even the authority of God.”2 This authority may add to a level of disbelief on the part of the congregation, or church staff or volunteers, that the clergyperson is capable of the reported or observed abuse and can lead to blaming the victim for any abuse that is revealed. Whether the accused is a beloved pastor or famous coach, power can blind those in a position of authority from seeing what is right in front of them. All religious educators, regardless of level or scope of position, should be aware of three critical issues: how to best protect those who are vulnerable, how to identify warning signs of abuse, and the responsibility to report abuse. Protection for Children and Vulnerable Adults Most congregations and polities have guidelines in place regarding the protection of young people. Some common elements of these guidelines and policies are background checks and fingerprinting for all those who have contact with children, including volunteers, and ongoing training in the prevention, recognition, and reporting of abuse. Background and fingerprint checks serve to identify those individuals who have been found guilty of child endangerment or other relevant actions, using a national database of sexual predators. The training dimension includes learning warning signs of possible abuse, breaking 1. Liberty (2006). 2. Grenz and Bell (1995).


down myths about sexual predators, reporting regulations, and personal ethical standards and behaviors when working with children or vulnerable persons that are meant to secure the safety of all children. Recognition of situations that are more likely to enable the abuse of children, such as grooming, gives religious educators the power to intervene and interrupt potentially abusive situations. “Although not all child sexual abuse involves grooming, it is a common process used by offenders. It usually begins with subtle behavior that may not initially appear to be inappropriate, such as paying a lot of attention to the child or being very affectionate. Many victims of grooming and sexual abuse do not recognize they are being manipulated, nor do they realize how grooming is a part of the abuse process.”3 Other behaviors that might be observed that should raise a warning flag include an adult always wanting to be alone with children; an adult preferring to be with children rather than adults; an adult discouraging other adults from supervision or monitoring, often done as a “favor” to the other adults; touching, including tickling and wrestling, that is inappropriate or overboard; and an adult indicating that the rules do not apply to him or her.4 Warning Signs of Possible Abuse The identification of children or adults who have been or are being sexually abused is not always simple. Symptoms of abuse do not necessarily indicate abuse and may point to other issues in life. The role of guilt and shame, particularly in abuse that takes place in the context of a religious institution, may be particularly strong and may prevent reporting of the abuse by the child, the adult, or other adults who suspect inappropriate behavior. General symptoms of child sexual abuse include eating disorders, repeated headaches, sleep problems, stomachaches, disruptive behaviors, high-risk sexual behaviors (including sexual talk), poor academic achievement, excessive fear, and withdrawal from group activities.5 Legal Responsibility for Reporting Abuse— State and Federal Not only is protecting children and vulnerable adults from abuse our moral responsibility, it is also a legal responsibility. In most states in the United States, clergy are not exempt from the legal responsibility to report child abuse under clergy privileged communications. Christian educators are required under law in almost every state to report child abuse or be held legally responsible for nonreporting.6 All educators should be aware of these 3. 4. 5. 6.

U.S. Department of Justice (2013). Doty (2013). New York Times (2011). Child Welfare Information Gateway (2012a).


Academic Giftedness

obligations from both a moral and legal perspective, and ongoing training should help to ensure the safety of children in the care of the church. The legal and financial ramifications of not reporting suspected abuse can be substantial, in addition to the spiritual and personal destruction for the victim/survivor and the congregation. There is often a group of people within congregations where clergy abuse has been reported who doubt the veracity of the accusations, especially when there has been a long gap in time between the incidents of abuse and the reporting. There appear to be many impediments to reporting on the part of the victim/survivor: loyalty developed by the perpetrator with the victim; guilt that somehow the abuse has been his or her fault; sensing that he or she will not be believed by members of the church and/or family; and overwhelming fear or denial that the events happened, in order to survive the abuse.7 It is often an event or series of events later in life that bring the victim/survivor to the realization that the abuse was real and should be reported as such; this does not indicate that the trauma was fabricated at some later date. One of the difficulties is the conflict between the legal requirements for reporting and the moral and ethical responsibilities as defined and outlined by individual judicatories, including conflicting definitions of what constitutes abuse.8 In addition, there are differences between denominations in regard to how and who intervenes. The bottom line for all religious educators must be the protection of our children and the most vulnerable members of our congregations. Keeping silent or looking the other way when you suspect that a child is in danger in any way is what allows such clergy abuse to exist and persist. Religious educators might legitimately be concerned about their liability should a report turn out to be false. “All States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, . . . and the U.S. Virgin Islands provide some form of immunity from liability for persons who in good faith report suspected instances of child abuse or neglect under the reporting laws.”9 We must take the obligation to protect our children and those most vulnerable as a sacred responsibility and do everything in our power to keep others safe. References and Resources Ashbry, Homer, and David Verner. 2010. “Do Pastoral Counselors Have a Duty to Report Clergy Sexual Abuse Done by Their Clergy Clients?” Journal of Pastoral Care and Counseling: 64, 1–11. Benyei, Candace R. 1998. Understanding Clergy Misconduct in Religious Systems. New York: Haworth Press.

7. Benyei (1998). 8. Ashbry and Verner (2010). 9. Child Welfare Information Gateway (2012b).

Child Welfare Information Gateway. 2012a. Clergy as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect. August. Accessed 1 June 2013. https://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/ laws_policies/statutes/clergymandated.cfm. ———. 2012b. Immunity for Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect. Accessed 1 June 2013. https://www.childwel fare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/immunity .pdf#Page=2&view=Fit. Doty, Sharon, JD, MHR. 2013. “.” The Signs are There, but Few Can See, VIRTUS Online. The National Catholic Risk Retention Group, Inc. Accessed 1 June 2013. https:// www.virtusonline.org/mytraining/display_mtb.cfm?mtb _id=1305&mtb_type_id=2. http://www.virtus.org/virtus/ index.cfm?free_articles_id=618&scheddate=03-10-2008 Grenz, Stanley, and Roy Bell. 1995. Betrayal of Trust: Confronting and Preventing Clergy Sexual Misconduct. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. Liberty, Patricia L. 2006. “Victims/Survivors: The Healing Journey.” In When a Congregation Is Betrayed: Responding to Clergy Misconduct, edited by Beth Ann Gaede, 74–80. Durham, NC: Alban Institute. New York Times. 2011. “Health Guide.” 24 January. Accessed 1 June 2013. http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/ child-abuse-sexual/overview.html. U.S. Department of Justice. 2013. Common Questions about Sexual Abuse and Associated Risks. Accessed 1 June 2013. http://www.nsopw.gov/en-us/Education/CommonQuestion s?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1#answer-05.

—Mary Carter Waren

Academic Giftedness Although there is debate among educational psychologists regarding the nature of giftedness, secular theories tend to focus on two factors: intelligence and creativity. Intelligence is generally objectively measured on the basis of IQ (the ratio of intellectual age to chronological age, multiplied by 100), while creativity is typically subjectively assessed. The general consensus in contemporary theories of giftedness is that intelligence and creativity are not mutually exclusive, but complementary, and both are necessary for the identification of gifted and talented students (Piirto 1992, 2011). Contemporary theories of giftedness are broadening to include a more holistic picture of what it means to be gifted or talented, beyond the results of cognitive assessments alone. While students with above-average IQs and high degrees of creativity are typically identified as gifted and talented, theories such as Howard Gardner’s “multiple intelligences” ([1983] 1993) have questioned the level of accuracy, objectivity, and potential for bias of typical IQ tests. Multiple intelligences theory, for example,

Academic Giftedness

suggests that intelligence can be expressed in many ways, including visual-spatial, body-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, linguistic, and logicalmathematical. Students who are “gifted twice-exceptional” have both above-average talent or abilities and a diagnosed disability; these students tend to use their intellectual abilities to “ameliorate the effects of the disability” (Robinson, Shore, and Enersen 2007, 25). Often, gifted twiceexceptional students are identified with autism, ADHD, or another disability, which can obfuscate the “hidden abilities” in students who would otherwise be readily identified as gifted, talented, or creative. Giftedness in Christian Perspective Secular educational psychologists argue that giftedness is not an acquired skill attained by personal effort, but an innate or “natural” ability. Talent, on the other hand, can be an acquired skill. Sternberg and Davidson (2005, 99) differentiated gifts and talents as follows: 1. Gifted: possession and use of outstanding natural abilities (aptitudes or gifts) in at least one ability domain, to a degree that places the individual at least among the top 10 percent of peers. 2. Talented: outstanding mastery of developed abilities or knowledge in at least one ability domain, to a degree that places the individual in the top 10 percent of peers in the given field. Christian educators should immediately recognize that if giftedness is indeed a “gift,” then there must be a Giver. From a Christian perspective, giftedness is just that: a gift from God given to individuals for the purpose of serving others and bringing glory to God. A theologically integrated view of giftedness takes into account the best data available from psychology and neuroscience, but also recognizes that “every good and perfect gift” comes from God (James 1:27) and not by human effort (Gal. 3:3). All giftedness is part of the “givenness” of human beings as created by God (Tirri 2007, 21). Similarly, spiritual gifts are “mysterious differences” freely given to an individual by God (Tirri 2007). While there are many different views concerning the nature and operation of spiritual gifts, most Christians agree that any gift given freely by God operates according to charis, or grace (Grudem et al. 1996, 9). These gifts are for the benefit of the whole community of believers. Thus, from a Christian perspective, all gifts, creativity, and even developed talents are not for the benefit of oneself, but for the benefit of others (Welker 2004, 241). Christian educators should emphasize that all giftedness reflects the “otheroriented nature of God’s love” (Oord 2012, 25).


Christian Implications In light of the “other-orientedness” of a Christian perspective on giftedness, research suggests that gifted children have a tendency toward a strong sense of compassion (Strip 2000, 173). Gifted children have a heightened sense of moral sensitivity and tend to care about the needs of others (Lovecky 1997). Through faith communities, gifted children can learn the practice of caring for others (Strip and Hirsch 2000, 173). Such faith integration permits gifted children to practice the spiritual discipline of selfless service outside of themselves. Gifted children are often identified to be spiritually sensitive from a young age and express concern for spirituality (Lovecky 1998). Moreover, Ellen Winner (2000) has argued that a “rich inner life” sustains gifted children. In Christian education, spiritual development, along with academic enrichment, can foster this aspect of the lives of gifted and talented children. Christian educators should work to identify not only the intellectual strengths of gifted children, but also their moral and spiritual interests. Thus, Christian educators can help facilitate spiritual growth and moral activation in cognitive, academic, and faith development. References and Resources Gardner, H. (1983) 1993. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Grudem, W., R. B. Gaffin, S. N. Gundry, S. Storms, and D. Oss. 1996. Are Miraculous Gifts for Today? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Lovecky, D. V. 1997. “Identity Development in Gifted Children: Moral Sensitivity.” Roeper Review 20 (2): 90–94. doi:10.1080/02783199709553862. ———. 1998. “Spiritual Sensitivity in Gifted Children.” Roeper Review 20 (3): 178–183. doi:10.1080/02783199809553887. Oord, T. 2012. “Relational Love.” In Relational Theology: A Contemporary Introduction, edited by Brint Montgomery, Thomas J. Oord, and Karen Strand Winslow, 24–27. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. Piirto, J. 1992. “The Existence of Writing Prodigy: Children with Extraordinary Writing Talent.” In Talent Development, edited by N. Colangelo, S. Assouline, and D. Ambroson, I:387–389. Unionville, WA: Trillium. ———. 2011. “Talent and Creativity.” In Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2nd ed., edited by M. Runco and S. Pritzker, 2. London: Elsevier Publications. Robinson, A., B. Shore, and D. Enersen. 2007. Best Practices in Gifted Education: An Evidence-Based Guide. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press. Sternberg, R. J., and J. E. Davidson. 2005. Conceptions of Giftedness. New York: Cambridge University Press. Strip, C. A., and G. Hirsch. 2000. Helping Gifted Children Soar: A Practical Guide for Parents and Teachers. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.


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Tirri, K. 2007. Values and Foundations in Gifted Education: Protestant and Catholic Perspectives. New York: Peter Lang. Welker, M. 2004. God the Spirit. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Publishers. Winner, E. 2000. “The Origin and Ends of Giftedness.” American Psychologist 55: 159–169.

—Joshua D. Reichard and Sara M. Reichard

Academics, Biblical Theology of Christian Comparing Biblically Based and Secular Views of Academics A valid question much discussed by Christians who serve in academic or ecclesial contexts is: What is a valid theological perspective concerning academic pursuits? The Heidelberg Catechism, a confessional document from the Reformed tradition approved by the Synod of Heidelberg, Germany, in 1563, maintains “that all things must be subservient to my salvation, and therefore, by His Holy Spirit, He also assures me of eternal life, and makes me sincerely willing and ready, henceforth, to live unto Him.” The catechism asserts that every aspect of the Christian’s individual and corporate existence is holistic in the sense that every aspect of existence is meant to encompass a lived theology derived from the teachings of scripture. Historically and contemporarily in secular world cultures, education is equated with the pursuit, reception, and retention of information. In the context of academia, one gains cognitive and intellectual advancement through the discipline of academic study. Although academic study does not preclude learning for the joy of discovery, primarily the student engages in a program of study for the purpose of acquiring knowledge and/or practical skills in a specific academic discipline or field, ultimately applying that knowledge for engagement and service in a profession or other field of employment. Relationality as Essential to Authentic Learning The biblical perspective of education views the process of learning as primarily and essentially relational, not initially for the purpose of gaining information and knowledge toward the pursuit of a life vocation or employment. From a biblical perspective, one is not wise because he or she intellectually possesses certain facts or information and can practically apply what is learned to contexts of professional endeavor or employment. The learned or wise person is identified not as one who merely possesses intellectual abilities and knowledge, but rather as one who reverences God: “The fear [reverence] of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom; a good understanding have all

those who do His commandments” (Ps. 110:11, NASB). The psalmist refers to a specific genre of learning, not possible to attain through intellectual study alone, but requiring the process of spiritual formation. Psalm 119:99 explains that the acquisition of authentic knowledge and wisdom requires a commitment to the process of meditative study of the scriptures: “I have more insight than all my teachers, for Your testimonies are my meditation” (NASB). The meaning indicates that intensive, meditative study of the scriptures inculcates spiritual knowledge and principles of moral behavior, therefore leading to progressive obedience in following God’s teachings. This process of formation results in the attainment of authentic knowledge and wisdom, based on maintaining a relationship with God that is centered in the active pursuit of keeping God’s commandments. The biblical perspective of the Psalms and Proverbs indicates that one is competent, equipped, or able in a particular area not primarily due to possessing informational knowledge, but by attaining the wisdom resulting from a committed relationship with God. Wisdom results from communion with God: seeking God, loving God, and obeying God’s commands. In the English language, “to hear” refers to the auditory reception of sound or words. The ancient Hebrew concept of “hear” did not refer primarily to a physical, cognitive process of the auditory senses. To declare “I have heard your Word, Lord” meant “I have obeyed your commands.” One “heard” God only if there was evidence that one had obeyed God’s commandments. Psalm 119 presents the attainment of knowledge and wisdom as a process of formation that begins with hearing. The person of wisdom is one who is first attentive to hear God’s commands auditorily, then receives God’s Word into his or her spirit, believes the Word, loves the Word, and ultimately obeys the Word of God. Education, in biblical perspective, is not primarily an academic exercise indicating the mere reception and comprehension of certain knowledge, but an inner moral reception of truth and commitment to truth that results in active obedience to the demands of truth. The Moral Qualities of Knowledge and Wisdom Academic excellence alone, in biblical understanding, is not equated with authentic knowledge and wisdom. In Judeo-Christian writings, integrity and morality cannot be separated from knowledge and wisdom; the latter cannot be present without the former. The wise person expresses, in thought and action, an integration of intellectual understanding with moral action. From the perspective of Judeo-Christian faith, cognitively attained knowledge does not necessarily equate with transformation of character. It is in the context of one’s obedient relationship with God and with one’s community of faith

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that one becomes learned and wise. The wise person is not the mere possessor of knowledge. The wise person is one who knows God and acts righteously based on a commitment to God and the motivation to love and serve God. Biblical wisdom literature, particularly the Psalms and Proverbs, indicates that academic study alone has no power to create a learned or wise person. Becoming an accomplished scholar or academician does not necessarily equate with possessing wisdom that results in the expression of moral actions. The biblical understanding of wisdom was defined by an individual’s possession of moral excellence and spiritual discernment. The dominant Old Testament concepts of knowledge (d’ath) and wisdom (hokmah) contain a depth of meaning that exceeds contemporarily defined concepts of knowledge and wisdom. A biblical theology of education views knowledge and wisdom as qualities of moral character attained through obedience to God’s commandments. The learned and wise understand that avoidance of evil thoughts and actions is essential in maintaining moral integrity: “Discretion will guard you, understanding will watch over you, to deliver you from the way of evil” (Prov. 2:11–12, NASB). Jesus emphasized the importance of loving God with the entirety of one’s being, including the mind: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all your strength, and with all your mind” (Luke10:27, NASB). The Epistle of James defines wisdom as a gift of God that possesses moral qualities: “But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, unwavering, without hypocrisy” (James 3:17, NASB). The Ultimate Purposes of Education Overarchingly, the Judeo-Christian scriptures view the discipline of study as valid and honorable before God if the knowledge and skills acquired are gained through righteous pursuit of God’s truth, applied according to God’s guidance, and employed for the purposes of the Kingdom of God. The person possessing authentic knowledge and wisdom is one who practically applies the teaching of scripture to every aspect of life. The wise are not motivated by intellectual knowledge alone; they know the spiritual realities of human times and seasons. They are faithful in active obedience to God’s truth and are motivated to apply knowledge and wisdom to everyday situations in all contexts of life. The godly person does not dichotomize contemplation and action, but prays so that he or she may then act within the boundaries of God-given knowledge and wisdom. Learning as Essential to a Worshipful Life Authentic knowledge and wisdom are understood in biblical context as derived from a worshipful life, one in


which God is the source and center of an individual’s life; of one’s motivations and actions in the service of God and others. Biblically, the process of learning is understood as essential to a worshipful life. One’s commitment to the process of learning is not other than worship, but expresses worshipful reverence, praise, and thanksgiving for God’s gifts of knowledge and wisdom. John’s Gospel indicates the need for spiritual attentiveness as one approaches and engages in study, mindful that the Holy Spirit, “the Spirit of truth,” guides the worshipful learner in the paths of authentic knowledge and wisdom, a path that includes prophetic awareness: “But when He, the Spirit of truth, comes, He will guide you into all the truth; for He will not speak on His own initiative, but whatever He hears, He will speak; and He will disclose to you what is to come” (John 16:13, NASB). A Christian theology of academics accepts the Holy Spirit as the Teacher, Guide, and Counselor who transforms those committed to Christ to become people of knowledge and wisdom who, by their example of integrity in thought, motivation, and actions, bear witness to the distinctive qualities of Christ-centered academic study. Engagement in study also requires the discipline of prayer, which is the Christian’s communion with God. In the act of communing with God through worship and prayer, the learner remains in the transforming presence of God. Paul’s Letter to the Colossians indicates the learner’s source of all truth: “Christ Himself, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” (2:2–3, NASB). Paul emphasizes that knowledge and wisdom are not independently attained, but dependent on one’s relationship with Christ, in whom all truth, knowledge, wisdom, and moral integrity reside and through whom those faithful to Him are transformed into people of knowledge and wisdom. References and Resources Anderson, David W. 2012. Toward a Theology of Special Education: Integrating Faith and Practice. Bloomington, IN: WestBow Press. Bass, Dorothy, and Craig Dykstra. 2008. For Life Abundant: Practical Theology, Theological Education and Christian Ministry. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Cetuk, Virginia Samuel. 1998. What to Expect in Seminary: Theological Education as Spiritual Formation. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Crabtree, Mara Lief. 2013. “A Theology of Christian Academics: A Paradigm for Learning.” Presentation for SFRM 501, Spiritual Formation 1, Regent University School of Divinity, Virginia Beach, VA, 22 January. Estep, James R., Michael Anthony, and Greg Allison. 2008. A Theology for Christian Education. Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing.



Garrigan, Siobhan, and Todd E. Johnson. 2010. Common Worship in Theological Education. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications. Higton, Mike. 2012. A Theology of Higher Education. New York: Oxford University Press. Hill, Kenneth H. 2007. Religious Education in the African American Tradition. Atlanta, GA: Chalice Press. Pazmino, Robert W. 2001. God Our Teacher: Theological Basics in Christian Education. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Richards, Lawrence O. 1980. A Theology of Christian Education. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Spears, Paul D., and Steven R. Loomis. 2009. Education for Human Flourishing: A Christian Perspective. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Webb, Stephen H. 2000. Taking Religion to School: Christian Theology and Secular Education. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press. Werner, Dietrich, and David Esterline. 2010. Handbook of Theological Education: Theological Perspectives, Ecumenical Trends and Regional Survey. Eugene OR: Wipf & Stock.

—Mara Lief Crabtree

Administration Someone or something must be in charge of any organization. Order arises out of the person or group giving orders. Orders or directives create an accountability structure through which any organization can effectively function. Planning, providing, and protecting people and programs is the essence of what it means to practice administration. Biblical Theology of Administration Christian administration should pattern itself after the working Trinity. Each person in the Godhead has His proper role, committed to the same mission. In salvation, for instance, the Father plans, the Son provides, and the Spirit protects (Eph. 1:3–14). The Trinity gives the basis for the unity within the plurality of the universe (2 Cor. 13:14; 1 Pet. 1:2). Christian administration follows this pattern: persons creating community, subordinating themselves for the good of the organization. Trinitarian teaching produces the following guidelines for administration in the Christian community. (1) Persons define relationship: knowing who the community is establishes what the community does (Rom. 12:3–8). (2) Organization defines roles: order in any system is best established by how people fit into an organizational mission (Paul knew his role; Rom. 15:14–33). (3) Function defines responsibility: working together, a staff complements each other within the framework of training an-

other generation for Christ (2 Tim. 2:1–8). (4) Purpose defines direction: people are asked to join a team committed to the same goal (Eph. 4:1–6). (5) Unity defines commitment: the operational unity of a Christian staff should mirror the commitment of Father, Son, and Spirit to each other (John 17:20–23). (6) Oversight defines direction: Each person’s role dictates responsibility in an area (1 Cor. 12:4–12; Rom. 12:3–8; 1 Pet. 4:10–11). Biblical Philosophy of Administration Like the Trinity, people subordinate themselves to others to accomplish a task. Administration is born of an authority outside of themselves. Theology creates philosophy, which establishes mission; members accede to policies, which provide oversight to any Christian community. Administrators are given authority within the structure of the organization. However, they must not be abusive in motive or action. Those persons holding positions in the organization must respect the authority of those to whom they answer (1 Thess. 5: 11–12; Heb. 13:17). Stewardship of people, programs, policies, and procedures is given as a task to those who administrate. Administrators bear the greatest responsibility to care for people. Caring for people should include discipleship, training, evaluation, and direction. Administrators should also carefully steward the resources within the organization to enact the mission and enable the people. People are not resources to be used; resources are to be used for people (Acts 6). Administrators are given a charge to be “in charge.” Management, however, should not be dictates from the top down but service from the bottom up. Christian organizational charts should indicate responsible parties at the base of any diagram. Christian administrators bear the weight of lifting others up, encouraging their giftedness, preparing them for vocation, and helping their abilities to benefit the organization (Gen. 2:22–25; Mark 10:45; 1 Pet. 5:1–4). Administrative decisions may not always be understood or appreciated. But the ruler has more information, the need to balance all interests, while keeping the long-term perspective of the organization in view (Prov. 16:10–15, 25:3). Administrators are custodians of Godgiven responsibilities within Christian groups. Boundaries established for administrative roles prevent abuse (Deut. 17:14–20; 1 Sam. 8:10–18). Christian Practice of Administration Human corruption necessitates accountability among leaders. The monarch must adhere to the dictate; “the law is king.” Oligarchies and republics should adhere to uniform standards for their representatives. Leaderless

Adolescent Religious Identity

cultures succumb to anarchy and dictatorship. National leadership must be tempered by equal branches of government and regulations that curtail immoral activity among the privileged few (Prov. 28, 29). Governance systems may differ within Christian organizations. Respect and compliance to standards must be clearly stated so that all know the boundaries. Fairness is based on a standard of righteousness. Favoritism, nepotism, or extortion should be eschewed. Protection of the weaker party is always scripture’s concern (Deut. 16). Christians should be careful to baptize non-Christian concepts for use in Christian organizations. Management, assessment, styles, psychology, decision making, and a plethora of resources are consistently offered. Administrators should ask questions about the use of pagan thinking: (1) What is the source of authority for any resource? (2) What journals, seminars, or motivational leaders should provide influence? (3) What biblical grid is in place that filters truth from error? (4) Is the disjunction between Christian and non-Christian practice clearly identified? (5) Does the information obtained cohere with the Christian responsibilities, mission, and role of the organization? Scripture is clear that correction, instruction, and accountability are part and parcel of any institution, especially the church (Gal. 6:1–5; 2 John.; 3 John.). Correction suggests a criterion whereby evaluation will take place. There is need for validation based on objective standards. Instruction is the opportunity for feedback for teaching that will both exhort and encourage. Accountability necessitates an overseer, because fallen natures often cannot attest to truth about themselves. Since everyone is susceptible to error, mistake, and sin, human corroboration is helpful to arrest one’s flaws. While there is no perfect system for evaluation, nonetheless, the church’s mandate is to keep account of its members (cf. 1 Thess. 4:9–12; 1 Tim. 4:11–16; Titus 2:1–10). Growth in Christ is the goal (Col. 1:28–29) for all believers. Grace should be given as much as is possible as it has been given to each Christian (Eph. 4:32). The Trinity establishes the practical application of roles in ministry, the affective goals of “grace, love and fellowship” together (2 Cor. 13:11–14). References and Resources Anthony, Michael, and James R. Estep, eds. 2005. Management Essentials for Christian Ministries. Louisville, KY: Broadman & Holman. Heie, Harold, and Mark Sargent. 2012. Soul Care: Christian Faith and Academic Administration. Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University Press, 2012.

—Mark Eckel


Adolescent Religious Identity Overview The study of identity has been approached from numerous academic and applied disciplines, each bringing its own assumptions about and variations of the word identity. One might assume identity to be a simple label with which a person easily identifies, yet psychologists have shown how identity operates as an aspect of autobiographical memory in both explicit (fully conscious) and implicit (sub- or unconscious) means. It functions as a grounding aspect in all social cognition and as a primary method in organizing experiences into meaningful schemas (Bell 2009). Moving beyond the understanding of identity as a simple association, in this deeper approach, identity is a core aspect of being human and being in community with others. For Christian educators, identity, as it relates to religion, is one of the most important and relatively unexamined components of spiritual formation and religious development. Identity Development and Formation Identity research was first popularized by the developmental psychologist Erik Erikson (1902–1994). As part of a stage approach to development, Erikson defined eight psychosocial stages, in which the fifth stage, identity vs. role confusion, is located in adolescence (1950, 1968). During this time, adolescents are faced with the difficult tasks of negotiating their rapidly changing bodies and a felt need to separate from parental attachments. Erikson theorized that the primary goal in adolescence is to develop ego identity (“ego” comes from the Latin nominative pronoun “I”), in which simple identifications made during childhood are integrated into a coherent sense of self in adolescence. For Erikson, this task is necessary before one enters into the next stage of psychosocial development, intimacy vs. isolation, in early adulthood. To be able to truly know someone else in an intimate relationship requires that you first know your own self. Again, for the next stage, generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood), an individual must have a solid, integrated sense of self-identity before being able to offer real care and guidance to future generations. Erikson described each psychosocial stage as a favorable balance of the positive element (i.e., identity) over the negative element (i.e., role confusion). If a young person has more role confusion than identity, that person faces an identity crisis, which may encumber each of the consecutive aspects of human development. The term identity crisis became Erikson’s most popular concept and gave many teenagers and young adults a structure through which to understand their own experiences. Erikson also described


Adolescent Religious Identity

virtues that are achieved at each stage. At identity vs. role confusion, the individual achieves the virtue of fidelity, in which young adults begin to display a consistent level of commitment and faithfulness (fidelity) to how they know and understand their own selves. Much of Erikson’s work has been adapted and reworked over the last few decades due to sharper understandings of cognition and neurology as well as the changing experiences of adolescents in the modern world. For instance, Erikson’s uncomplicated understanding of identity as a negotiation of the self in relation to others has now been expanded to include both the integration of the consciously expressed self (autobiographical memory that is presented and acknowledged by others) and the unconscious pattern of an individual’s identity-beliefs and identity-behaviors (cognitive patterns of attention and attribution) (Fivush and Haden 2003). Likewise, adolescence in the middle of the 20th century (Erikson’s period) was a much shorter experience, in which there were only a few years between childhood and early adulthood (i.e., vocation, raising a family), whereas in the 21st century, adolescence is commonly seen to last over a decade, well into the twenties, during which time individuals deal with identity crises and attachments throughout traditional college years and beyond (Arnett 2006). Religious Identity in Adolescence James Marcia (1966) used Erikson’s work in identity to formulate an overall measure of identity, separating identity into statuses of identity diffusion, moratorium, commitment, and achievement. The research measure asks questions in several different domains, including vocation, gender, and religion, among others. His measurement paradigm was well received by researchers and clinical therapists and has generated hundreds of research articles and an academic society dedicated to identity formation (Society for Research in Identity Formation, SRIF). Both in this field of identity formation and other areas of cognitive psychology, there is a widening divergence over whether individuals typically operate within one global identity or use many different identities depending on social contexts. Recent studies have shown that identity is developed separately across several identity domains. Simply stated, a teenager may have a strong sense of an achieved gender identity, but may have a crisis in religious identity (Bell 2008). These identity domains may move higher and lower in salience on a daily basis for adolescents. Thus, cognitively, a teenager is commonly processing multiple areas of identity and is likely to be unaware of how the domains implicitly move from the foreground of consciousness into the background. Parents’ descriptions of the typical dramatic flair of adolescence are partly explained by this

movement of identity concerns and the overwhelming experience in many modern societies that have endless identity choices. Religious identity, in particular, is one of the most important forms of identity attachments for young adults. Teenagers with religious experiences from childhood often seek to construct maximal religious experiences in their affiliations as a form of identity play. But this is often conventional (Marcia’s identity foreclosure), in that adolescents are displaying attachments and not identity integration. Christian Education and Adolescent Religious Identity Helping develop educational programs that facilitate religious identity in adolescence may be one of the most important aspects of Christian education. It has been shown that identity attachments (more simple forms of nonreflective acceptance), even when formed/experienced with strong emotions, do not have the staying power of identity integration. A typical pattern of Christian education in America is one in which a vibrant program in adolescence is unmatched during early adult years—the precise time that real identity crises arise (differing from Erikson’s original location of the crisis in adolescence). Those who are seeking to assist individuals in religious identity formation are ultimately trying to help adolescents and young adults to move from identity attachments into a deeper (explicit and implicit) form of religious identity integration. Many theorists argue that this requires a reflective time in an individual’s life, in which the person breaks loyalties and allegiances of childhood and adolescent peer groups in an effort to integrate narrative and meaning into his or her identity without the force of outside groups (Fowler 1995). For the most part, there has not been much practical research specific to religion in studying how to help adolescents and young adults during any identity crisis oriented around faith. Work in the related area of narrative theory suggests that prompted activities for spiritual autobiography, intergenerational experiences, and group identity reflections might be promising areas to study. Practical theologians also need to speak to whether the role of Christian educators is to simply keep religious individuals in the church after an identity crisis, or whether the church itself should be impacted and open to change by individuals who have formed, after some reflection and growth, an integrated sense of religious identity. References and Resources Arnett, J. 2006. Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens through the Twenties. New York: Oxford University Press. Bell, D. 2008. “Development of the Religious Self: A Theoretical Foundation for Measuring Religious Identity.” In Religion

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and the Individual: Belief, Practice, and Identity, edited by Abby Day, 127–142. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ———. 2009. “Religious Identity: Conceptualization and Measurement of the Religious Self.” PhD diss. Available at https://etd.library.emory.edu/. Erikson, E. 1950. Childhood and Society. New York: W. W. Norton. ———. 1968. Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: W. W. Norton. Fivush, R., and C. Haden. 2003. Autobiographical Memory and the Construction of a Narrative Self: Developmental and Cultural Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Fowler, J. 1995. Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning. New York: HarperCollins. Marcia, J. 1966. “Development and Validation of Ego Identity Status.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3: 551–558.

—David M. Bell

Adolescent Spirituality Describing the Inexplicable It is challenging to discuss the spiritual life of youth, chiefly because of two very difficult terms that call for careful exploration. First, ponder the concept of faith— slippery to explain the nature and depth of this invisible, nonempirical phenomenon. Christians have tried for centuries to explain the significance of their faith pilgrimage in sermons, books, and hymns. Christians say that they have “grown” in their faith, but how can one tell? “Growth” as a spiritual metaphor is an allusion to the realm of development. A person’s physical growth can be measured by a ruler; spiritual growth, however, cannot be quantified. The author of Hebrews understands this elusive term and likens faith to “being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see” (11:1). Even this helpful, yet nonspecific, attempt at a definition can only compare the nonmaterial and nonempirical with the material and empirical. Second, consider adolescent spirituality. Because of the cognitive, social, physical, moral, and emotional aspects of youth’s development, the unique nature of adolescence must be considered. Ministry to the spiritual needs of youth requires an altogether different perspective than ministry to children and adults. Certainly youth’s spiritual life is related to their overall development. But to what degree? Some Christian educators mistakenly lump faith, moral, and spiritual development together as if they were synonymous.


The Nature of Spiritual Development A prevalent misconception regarding the religious life concerns the nature of spiritual development. Some confuse Lawrence Kohlberg’s theories of moral development, James Fowler’s theories of faith development, and the Bible’s notion of spiritual development. Yet they are not interchangeable. These three terms have distinct and separate meanings.10 In their attempts to utilize modern psychological and educational theories, some Christians have unthinkingly made long leaps from one realm of human development to another. For although one’s capacity for spiritual development can be influenced to varying degrees by cognitive, moral, social, sexual, or physical development, it is not dependent on these factors. Spiritual development occurs as the Holy Spirit gains increasing lordship in one’s life. Spiritual growth cannot be correlated with one’s chronological age; it does not depend on innate abilities, although those natural phenomena can play a role. In fact, to attribute one’s spiritual development solely to natural growth (e.g., mental or social maturity) is to limit the capacity of the Holy Spirit and the nature of faith. The biblical approach to spiritual development of the adolescent is holistic. Just as Christ became incarnate so that He could identify with all dimensions of humanity, those who minister to youth must meet adolescents at their various levels of development. A strategy to foster spirituality in youth does not ignore the natural changes of puberty, but anticipates them and seeks to help young people understand and respond to them. For example, adolescence brings the ability to think abstractly. The cognitive change causes youth to think more critically about the teachings and practices of the Christian faith. One appropriate means to encourage their spiritual growth is to structure exercises that help them rethink and defend their Christian ideas. The bottom line is this: teach adolescents that spiritual life concerns itself with yielding every dimension of one’s being to God’s rule, and that becoming fully human is what God intends. Spiritual development, then, is a process of restoring our full humanity through Christ and full fellowship with God. It is both the pursuit of God and a pursuit to become like God, or, as A. W. Tozer termed it, “the pursuit of holiness.” Aspects of Spiritual Development and Adolescent Spirituality Five main aspects of spiritual development are identified in scripture. First, as a gradual process, it requires 10. For more information, see Mark A. Lamport, “A Critical Look at Faith Development,” Youthworker Journal (Summer 1986): 64–69.


Adolescent Spirituality

perseverance. Paul writes, “straining toward what is ahead, I press on toward the goal to win the prize for which God has called me” (Phil. 3:13–14). The road to spiritual maturity requires gritty striving. Christian educators of youth must not emphasize the free gift of salvation at the expense of the high cost of discipleship. Biblical writers encourage believers to persist and to complete the process for which God created them (cf. 1 Tim. 4:15; James 1:4; 2 Pet. 1:5–8; Heb. 10:36). Second, spiritual development is effected by the Holy Spirit. Schaeffer says: “The how (of spiritual growth) is that the glorified Christ will do it through us. The Spirit is an active ingredient: He will be the doer.”11 The Holy Spirit brings about spiritual development by convicting, encouraging, and guiding the believer. Christians are transformed from the inside out. The Christian education of youth must not impose the trappings of an exterior-based or legalistic code of religiosity. Rather, youth should be inspired with the interior motivation to live by the freedom of the Spirit (cf. Rom. 6:15–23; Gal. 5). Third, spiritual development is the result of choices— an act of the will. Maturity is stunted or enhanced according to the choices one makes or fails to make. Luis Palau writes, “People are confronted by choices. Lives hinge on decisions forged in the heat of crisis. Some lives break loose from the moorings of mediocrity and sail new seas for the honor of Christ. Other lives bog down on sandbars and never make it out of the harbor.”12 The Bible contains many exhortations to choose the right (cf. Gal. 5:13; Rom. 7:14–25; Phil. 1:27). Christian educators of youth must challenge them to choose rightly by giving nonthreatening forums in which life’s tough questions may be asked. Mentors may share their experiences as more mature Christians and perhaps counteract negative peer pressure by modeling holiness. Fourth, although spiritual development is an inward process, one’s growth is evidenced by outward manifestations. The Holy Spirit’s work is seen in behavioral and attitudinal changes occurring in the life of the believer: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control (Gal. 5:22–23). The growing Christian is to be a visible expression of love to the world. It is important for those who educate youth to give practical and concrete ways of expressing their faith and to help them exchange their family’s religion for a living, firsthand faith. Finally, the only judge of an individual’s spirituality is God. The Pharisees measure spirituality relative to one’s outward acts of obedience to the Law. Jesus denounces 11. Francis Schaeffer, True Spirituality (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale Press, 1971), 86. 12. Luis Palau, A Commentary of David (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1982), 45.

this “scoring” system. Spirituality is often measured by Christian activity, yet those things do not necessarily indicate the true tenor of our hearts. Spiritual development, which may lead to acts of service, is hidden. Teachers of youth should communicate that they may indeed fool us with a Christian facade, but God knows the depth and sincerity of the commitment. Challenges of Adolescent Spirituality Pollster George Gallup summarizes the challenge for those endeavoring in the Christian education of youth in the home and in the church. It is important to establish religious values with youth before they go to college, because the college years have a pronounced effect on value formation. With each succeeding grade, students become less religious.13 Several dynamic, powerful, and virtually inescapable trends affect adolescent spirituality: First, the disintegration of the family. A plethora of studies emphasize the influence of parents in developing the religious values of their children. If one parent is removed from the home by divorce, the influence will obviously not be as pervasive. A significant percentage of children come from oneparent homes. Sensitive care from youth leaders can augment this adult role model when it is missing from the home; the church youth group can be a rallying force to develop close relationships and a sense of belonging. Second, the abnegation of morality. Postmodern culture looks with disfavor on absolute truth systems and prescribed ethics. To this “enlightened” mindset, Christianity, with its revealed Word from a supernatural God, appears nothing more than a deluded fable, old-fashioned wishful thinking, and indeed ludicrous. The chief virtue of contemporary society is an openness that accepts all points of view as of equal value. The lines between right and wrong become fuzzy and then disappear. Adolescents receive a confused message. Christian educators of youth have the responsibility to teach teenagers to think from a theistic worldview. Third, the rise of consumerism. Possessions become an obsession, so much so that people are viewed as means to get things. Consumerism, coupled (in some cases) with large disposable income of youth, 13. Cited in Charles Shelton, Adolescent Spirituality (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1983), 7 and confirmed by Christian Smith, Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), and Mark Regnerus, Christian Smith, and Melissa Fritsch, Religion in the Lives of Adolescents: A Review of the Literature, A Research Report of the National Study of Youth and Religion, (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, 2003).

Adolescents, Spiritual Dimensions of

creates greed and premature affluence. Adolescents must be taught a Christian view of humanity, to love people and use things rather than the reverse. The Christian education of youth professes the invisible realities of faith over materialistic notions. Fourth, a developmental tendency toward egotism. While we acknowledge self-centeredness is inherent to natural development, adolescents, given abstract reasoning not available to children, have the capacity to see beyond themselves. Christianity cannot wallow in self, but always locates itself in others. In much of the Western world, the value of individuals trumps groups or communities. Jesus turned this thinking upside-down when he told his followers to consider others before themselves. Fifth, loss of meaning. Every culture seeks meaning for its existence and works hard to embrace happiness. Postmodernism offers despair, cynicism, bitterness, and loss of hope. Youth, products of this societal mantra, also desperately try to make sense of life. The Christian education with youth celebrates life, abundant life, which is what Christians proclaim to the world (John 14:6). Hope, not despair, anchors the Christian reality. Sixth, misconstrued theories of religion. While adolescents may think religion is a discrete and functioning part of their lives, in reality it often operates as a background operation, especially as compared to many other aspects of their lives, which they can articulate, such as, music and relationships. Sadly, for some adolescents, a mixture of pluralism and democracy has hijacked their grasp of Christianity, where “god” becomes a nice but distant being who wants us to be happy, good, realize our potential, and live healthy lives. This notion—coined in the term “moralistic therapeutic deism”14—is the centrally located basis of American religion, encompassing the whole of the religious landscape, including adolescents. References and Resources Bass, Dorothy, and Don Richter. 2002. Way to Live: Christian Practices for Teens. Nashville, TN: Upper Room Books. Beaudoin, Tom. 1998. The Irreverent Spiritual Quest of Generation X. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Lynch, Carol. 2004. Choosing Church: What Makes a Difference for Teens. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. Rabey, Steve. 2001. In Search of Authentic Faith: How Emerging Generations Are Transforming the Church. Colorado Springs, CO: Waterbrook Press.

—Mark A. Lamport

14. This phenomenon is aptly detailed in Smith, Soul Searching, 129ff.


Adolescents, Spiritual Dimensions of Traditionally, in a Western culture, the word spirituality belonged to the religious and private spheres of people’s lives, and it was concerned with human interiority (Harris and Moran 1998). Usually, the spiritual search encouraged the individual to retreat from the world into contemplation and solitude. However, contemporary spirituality is both personal and communal (Harris and Moran 1998). Research studies have indicated that many young people today identify spirituality as distinct from religion and may claim to be spiritual but not religious (e.g., Collins-Mayo et al. 2010; de Souza, 2003; de Souza, Cartwright, and McGilp 2004; Hughes 2007). These views highlight the fact that in today’s world, while religion may be an aspect of spirituality, spirituality incorporates a much broader facet of human existence. Also, while many young people appear to have distanced themselves from organized religion, they remain a deeply spiritual people. Their involvement, passion, and insightfulness into issues that concern themselves, their community, and the environment should not be underestimated or overlooked. Writing in the late 1990s, Harris (Harris and Moran 1998) pointed out that the spirituality of young people was alive and well and asserted that the vital element in the spirituality of young people was its connectedness—that is, its relational and communal character—which was a contrast to a previous privatized and individualistic spirituality: The impulse towards connectedness places the practice of justice in a special and privileged place, with justice understood as “fidelity to the demands of all our relations.” Such justice includes not only our relations to other human beings; it includes our relations to the nonhuman universe as well: to the other animals, the trees, the ocean, the earth, and the ozone layer. (Harris and Moran 1998, 46)

Writing at the same time as Harris, Ó Murchú (1997) also recognized the relational aspect of spirituality and wrote about the need to reclaim spirituality. He argued that the spiritual consciousness evident at the turn of the century was a deep yearning to outgrow, transcend, and evolve toward the new that beckoned (1997, ix). Ó Murchú identified spirituality as our “natural birthright” (ix) and supported the contention that contemporary spirituality is a communal thing: We are being carried along by a new surge for meaning, which, contrary to many religious beliefs, is not drawing us away from the world but plunging us more profoundly into it, not alienating us from the divine but re-connecting us with God who co-creates at the heart of creation. (Ó Murchú 1997, 13)


Adolescents, Spiritual Dimensions of

Likewise, Groome identified a relational dimension to spirituality and claimed: This spiritual awakening is significant and reflects people’s abiding desire for something more than possessions or personal success. It hints at renewed consciousness of the hunger of the human heart that only Transcendence can satisfy . . . our spiritual propensity arises from the deepest core of human being. (Groome 1998, 323)

Armstrong, in her examination of historical evidence indicating that human spirituality was the search for a transcendent reality, emphasized that “religion was not something tacked on to the human condition, an optional extra imposed on people by unscrupulous priests. The desire to cultivate a sense of the transcendent may be the defining human characteristic” (Armstrong 2009, 19). In explaining the emergence of religious traditions, Armstrong argued that faith communities developed rituals in an effort to transcend their ordinary lives, and that the ultimate reality was not a personalized god. Rather, it was a transcendent mystery, which was aligned with the deepest level of Being. This ultimate reality, Armstrong asserted, has been named God, Dao, Brahman, Nirvana (2009, 5), and so on, according to different traditions. She also identified the fact that, while different faith traditions have their own “unique genius and distinctive vision: each its peculiar flaws,” there are some fundamental principles common to most faith traditions “when one loses all sense of duality and is “oblivious to everything within or without’” (2009, 31). Thus, Armstrong recognized and articulated the concept of oneness or unity that encompasses everything. A common thread that becomes apparent in discussions about spirituality is captured by Nye’s concept of relational consciousness (Hay and Nye 1998)—that is, the connectedness the individual experiences to Self, Other,15 the world, and God. This was supported by my own early research with young people, which clearly pointed to relationality or connectedness as being the essence of their spirituality (de Souza 2003; de Souza, Cartwright, and McGilp 2004). I described a relational continuum to reflect the spiritual journey where, at one end, individuals are quite separate from Other. As they move along, they grow closer to and feel connectedness and empathy with others who are the same as themselves, in other words with their families and communities. Further along, their life experiences may take them forward to feel connected to others who are different from themselves, and they may develop some feelings of empathy with them. Logically then, at the other end of the 15. I use Other with a capital “O” to identify collectively and to personify all others.

continuum, the movement takes the individual to a point where she or he becomes one with Other; Self becomes part of the whole, which comprises Other; and the individual has entered a realm of Ultimate Unity. This is the realm that Armstrong (2009) refers to as a transcendent mystery or Ultimate Reality, Nirvana, Dao, or Brahman, and for Christians this is known as the Kingdom of God. To translate this understanding into practice requires that one lives one’s life with an awareness of one’s connectedness to everything other than self, which means living one’s life as a relational Being. There are many elements pertinent to the lives of adolescents that are generated by this understanding. For instance, experiences of connectedness promote a sense of self-esteem and belonging, which are likely to promote both individual and community well-being. Belonging to a community provides young people with a framework of meaning. Recognizing their connectedness to Other also has the potential to overcome problems related to diversity, which are symptomatic of many pluralistic societies today. It is also important to acknowledge that not all young people reach a point where they recognize or experience a transcendent reality; they may only feel a connectedness to Other in their physical world. Nevertheless, they remain spiritual beings. It is important to note that with higher levels of awareness, a higher level of consciousness is reached by the individual that generates a movement from a focus on the outer self to a focus on the inner self. This may lead to the experience of “letting go” and living in the present moment. These are elements that may release a sense of freedom in young people, thereby helping them to experience transcendence and, arguably, spiritual growth. This contemporary understanding of adolescent spirituality has implications for spiritual nurturing. Since many young people are indifferent to religious traditions and don’t have close associations with faith communities, it is important to develop other avenues through which they can explore spiritual ideas, become familiar with wisdom literature, and find ways in which they can express their spirituality. What has become clear is that in this postsecular world (Habermas 2008), contemporary spirituality has a distinct role to play in enhancing the lives of adolescents and therefore their communities, so that spiritual well-being and social cohesion become attainable features, both of which are desirable elements in a plural divided world, References and Resources Armstrong, K. 2009. The Case for God. London: The Bodley Head. Collins-Mayo, S., B. Mayo, S. Nash, and C. Cocksworth. 2010. The Faith of Generation Y. London: Church House Publishing.

Adult Learning

de Souza, M. 2003. “Contemporary Influences on the Spirituality of Young People: Implications for Education.” International Journal of Children’s Spirituality 8 (3): 269–279. de Souza, M., P. Cartwright, and E. J. McGilp. 2004. “The Perceptions of Young People Who Live in a Regional City in Australia of Their Spiritual Wellbeing: Implications for Education.” Journal of Youth Studies 7 (2): 155–172. Groome, T. H. 1998. Educating for Life. Chicago, IL: Thomas Moore Association. Habermas, J. 2008. Notes on a Post-secular Society. June 18. Retrieved 28 March 2013. http://www.signandsight.com/ features/1714.html. Harris, M., and G. Moran. 1998. Reshaping Religious Education. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. Hay, D., and R. Nye. 1998. The Spirit of the Child. London: Fount Paperbacks. Hughes, P. 2007. Putting Life Together: Findings from Australian Youth Spirituality Research. Nunawading, Australia: Christian Research Association. Ó Murchú, D. 1997. Reclaiming Spirituality. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company.

—Marian de Souza

Adult Learning Because adult learning is a multidisciplinary,16 everevolving field, there is an abundance of scholarship and literature on the topic. Research reports, books, journals, and articles have been written on everything from what it is, to how it intersects with other disciplines, to methodological approaches. Most, however, conclude that Malcolm Knowles17 laid the seminal foundation of androgogy18 (“the art and science of helping adults learn”)19 that others later used for their contributions, and now the andragogical method informs training in business, industry, government, colleges, universities, professional institutions, continuing education, etc. From the 1940s to the 1960s, education in Western societies was shaped by a modernist agenda. There was 16. Adult learning theory and methodology flows from educationists, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, developmental psychologists social psychologists, sociologists, etc. Malcolm S. Knowles, Andragogy in Action: Applying Modern Principles of Adult Learning (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984), 7. 17. While studying in graduate school, Knowles was inspired by Eduard C. Lindeman, The Meaning of Adult Education (New York: New Republic. Republished in a new edition in 1989 by The Oklahoma Research Center for Continuing Professional and Higher Education) and Dorothy Hewitt and Kirtley Mather, Adult Education: A Dynamic for Democracy (New York: London, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937); Knowles, Andragogy in Action, 3. 18. Sharan B. Merriam, Rosemary S. Caffarella, and Lisa M. Baumgartner, Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide, 3rd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007), 79. 19. Knowles, Andragogy in Action, 6.


“one right form of education.”20 In the 1960s, however, educators rejected the modernist agenda in adult education, because it led to inequality. Thereafter, educational systems pursued a more “heterodox set of ideologies” in order to subvert racial, religious, and gender inequality.21 By the 1980s, however, adult educators, particularly under the influence of Knowles, “were seeking for every student to create their own learning in their own way, to ‘celebrate the other’ rather than to colonise the other.”22 This quest for diversity led to the current approaches to adult learning. Alan Rogers and Naomi Horrocks define learning as “the interaction of the learner, the context, the kind of learning task and the processes involved.”23 In these interactions, change occurs in one’s thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and/or actions, and these changes (“learning”) take place throughout one’s lifetime. According to Knowles and his andragogical model, five principles inform effective adult learning. (1) Adults are self-directed and capable, taking responsibility for their learning. (2) Adults enter the learning process with a lifetime of experience. This experience offers resources that should be brought to bear in the learning process. (3) Adults learn best when they have a need. (4) Learning most effectively happens when there is immediate application to the adult’s context. Therefore, there must be a connection to the adult’s life circumstances. Finally, (5) internal drive is the most compelling motivator for adults.24 Others have built on Knowles’s principles and contributed their own. For example, Jane Vella, another pioneer in adult learning, offers 12 principles.25 Principles of adult learning ensure program design that focuses on processes and procedures for learning rather than delivery of content. In Paulo Freire’s words, the “professor” must die;26 that is, adult educators are facilitators who create the context of learning. Distinctives of this learning environment include safety, equality—between facilitator and students and between students—mutuality, and respect. Educators criticize adult learning theory as Westerncentric. However, Vella replicated her approach to the theory and trained the trainers in hundreds of contexts, on every continent around the world. Through these ex-

20. Alan Rogers and Naomi Horrocks, Teaching Adults, 4th ed. (New York: Open University Press, 2010), 2. 21. Ibid. 22. Ibid. 23. Ibid., 95. 24. Knowles, Andragogy in Action, 10–12. 25. See Jane Vella, Learning to Listen, Learning to Teach: The Power of Dialogue in Educating Adults, rev. ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002), 4–25. 26. Referred to in Vella, Learning to Listen, 20.


Adventist Church Christian Education

periences, she globalized the theory and methodology.27 Nonetheless, new developments in adult learning explore non-Western methods, as well as critical and postmodern theories and feminist perspectives.28 Comprehending the ways adults learn has profound implications for faith and spiritual formation. Likened to spiritual formation, learning in and of its self is transformational. Adults learn in informal, nonjudgmental, safe environments of mutuality, respect, and deepening relationships. Adults learn when they are engaged, not passive, when learning connects with their context, life circumstances, problems, and the issues they truly care about, not through platitudes and prosaicisms. Therefore, spiritual formation for adults must move beyond fill-in-the-blank and three-step formulae to authentic, adventurous, motivational pursuit of God. —Shelley Trebesch

Adventist Church Christian Education Adventist Education: Schools, Seminaries, and Colleges Between the Great Disappointment in 1844 and 1872, sabbatarian Adventists educated their children in public schools, homeschools, or local congregation-formed schools, as well as by means of the Sabbath school, in which those attending were divided into classes where they were “thoroughly quizzed and drilled on the assigned lesson.”29 In 1872, the General Conference committee assumed administrative and financial responsibility for a school and in 1873 passed resolutions approving formation of a denominational school.30 Thus, within 10 years of legal incorporation in May 1863 as the “General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists,” the formal work of education began as part of the mission of proclaiming the good news of a God who created us, lived among us, died for us, and redeems us. The unincorporated group of advent believers from across the northern United States had already agreed to “take the name Seventh-day Adventist” on 1 October 1860. Even today, the belief in the imminent return of Christ and the desire to dedicate resources for proclamation of the third angel’s message of Revelation 14 significantly impact the mission and philosophy of Adventist education. 27. In addition to Learning to Listen, see Jane Vella: Training through Dialogue: Promoting Effective Learning and Change with Adults (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), Taking Learning to the Task: Creative Strategies for Teaching Adults (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000), and On Teaching and Learning: Putting the Principles and Practices of Dialogue Education into Action (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007). 28. Merriam, Caffarella, and Baungartner, Learning in Adulthood, 241. 29. Richard W. Schwarz and Floyd Greenleaf, Light Bearers: A History of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1995), 24. 30. Ibid., 117–122.

The “blueprint” for Seventh-day Adventist education grew out of educational reforms in Europe and America in the 1800s, such as selecting a rural location for schools and promoting the benefits of manual labor in connection with formal education. But this blueprint was especially informed by “Proper Education,” a 30page “testimony” written by Ellen White after receiving her first detailed vision on proper principles of education. A foundational principle of Seventh-day Adventist education is that redemption and restoration to the image of God is achieved through a knowledge of and personal relationship with God, and by balanced, harmonious development of the physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual life. The purpose of this type of education is to prepare “the student for the joy of service in this world and for the higher joy of wider service in the world to come.”31 Other core features include development of biblical literacy, skills for practical duties of everyday life, and the capacity for right thought and action. Students should become “thinkers, and not mere reflectors of other men’s thought.”32 In 1874, Battle Creek College (now relocated to Berrien Springs, Michigan, as Andrews University, which includes the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary) was established on property adjacent to the Health Reform Institute (later Battle Creek Sanitarium). W. K. Kellogg developed cereals for the sanitarium, while his brother, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, expanded the work of health reform and established the American Medical Missionary College in 1895. With this historical and theological emphasis on education and health reform, many Seventh-day Adventist colleges and universities prepare students for careers in the health professions and work with Seventh-day Adventist hospitals and clinics to extend the teaching and healing ministry of Christ. “Service learning” includes other areas such as business and benefits both the student and the local and global community. Teacher education is another area with large enrollments. Physical exercise, “temperance,” and a vegetarian diet are parts of a positive hidden curriculum by which students learn the habits of a healthy lifestyle. Matters for student discipline include consumption of alcohol, use of recreational drugs and tobacco, and engaging in other high-risk behaviors, such as sexual promiscuity.33 Such discipline is intended to be redemptive and is directed at developing self-control in students. The health benefits of a Seventh-day Adventist lifestyle have been thoroughly 31. Ellen G. White, Education (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1952), 13. 32. Ibid., 17. 33. Institute for Prevention of Addictions, http://www.andrews.edu/ services/ipa/ (accessed 31 July 2013).

Advocacy as Christian Practice

documented through longitudinal research.34 There is also research indicating cumulative academic benefits for students who attend Adventist schools.35 As of 31 December 2011, the Seventh-day Adventist education system consisted of 7,883 schools, colleges, and universities; employed 89,481 teachers; and educated 1,758,737 students around the world.36 The church’s schools are overseen by division, union, and conference directors of education, with boards of trustees that include denominational employees and lay church members. Schools are accredited by the Accrediting Association of Seventh-day Adventist Schools, Colleges and Universities (AAA)37 for up to five years. Most of these schools also hold regional or national, and for professional degrees, specialty accreditation. The church operates 112 colleges and universities, including five medical schools, three dental schools, and five regional seminaries that offer graduate theological and ministerial degrees. Undergraduate ministerial and theological education is offered at nearly all Seventh-day Adventist colleges and universities, while graduate theological degrees are primarily offered at the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary at Andrews University (Michigan), Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies (Philippines), Inter-American Adventist Theological Seminary (Miami/Puerto Rico), Latin-American Adventist Theological Seminary (Brazil), and Adventist University of Africa (Kenya). Most of these seminaries also offer graduate theological and ministerial education by means of extension programs located on a Seventhday Adventist college or university campus and delivered in a format and on a schedule suitable for working clergy and adult learners. —Lisa M. Beardsley-Hardy

Advocacy as Christian Practice Advocacy is the practice of supporting the well-being of any person or groups whose agency or voice has in any way been subdued by society, or speaking out on a particular moral issue. It may include taking a public stand aiming to influence public policy to benefit such groups, as well as educating people about their needs and offer34. “Adventist Health Studies,” http://www.llu.edu/public-health/ health/index.page? (accessed 31 July 2013). 35. Jerome Thayer and Elissa Kido, “Cognitive Genesis (CG): Assessing Academic Achievement and Cognitive Ability in Adventist Schools,” Journal of Research on Christian Education 21, no. 2 (2012): 99–115. 36. 2013 “Annual Statistical Report: 149th Report of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventist for Year Ending December 31, 2011,” http://docs.adventistarchives.org/docs/ASR/ASR2013.pdf#view=fit (accessed 31 July 2013). 37. Adventist Accrediting Association, http://adventistaccrediting association.org (accessed 31 July 2013).


ing direct service. Advocacy has a long tradition within the Judeo-Christian tradition stemming from the biblical imperative to honor the widows and the orphans (Deut. 24:19–22), to care for the poor and needy (Prov. 31:8–9), and to offer hospitality to the stranger (Lev. 19:34). The prophetic call to justice, such as in Micah 6:8, also inspires advocacy. Jesus was a strong advocate for those outside the temple: women, children, Samaritans, tax collectors, lepers, the sick or disabled. Christians are called to love their neighbors as themselves and are encouraged to live in solidarity with the poor and those on the edges of society. In the gospel of Matthew, Jesus says that to provide for the hungry and clothe the naked is “to do these things to me.” Jesus preached and taught about the kingdom (or reign) of God, a rich and complex theological concept of God’s vision of justice that included both a future, eschatological aspect and a present, achievable reality. The Epistle of James asks, “What good is it my brothers and sisters, if you say you have faith but do not have works?” The New Testament identifies a form of ministry, the diakonia, which was dedicated to serving as a go-between between the church and the world. Deacons around the world continue to be immersed in advocacy work. Advocacy is both part of the content of and a means of Christian education. The church teaches Christians why they should engage in advocating for others and how to do it. In practicing advocacy, Christians learn by doing, and faith is formed and increased by helping others and exemplifying Christ’s compassion. Olson and Friedrich (2008, 16) note: “Advocacy is as integral to discipleship as prayer and worship.” Advocacy includes service and giving to others. For example, church-related agencies associated with the World Council of Churches spend over $1 billion annually for disaster relief and development (Ferris 2005). Yet advocacy differs somewhat from charity or giving money to the poor, in that there is more direct involvement and more intention to change systems that create injustice. Some Christian advocates attempt to influence voting, lobby for changes in resource allocations, and join in protest marches. Faith-based advocacy is most effective when believers from across the faith communities unite to speak on behalf of others, “speaking truth to power” on behalf of marginalized groups (www.changethestory.net). Coalition building, or working with others to address community problems and propose solutions, is crucial to the Christian practice of advocacy. Some advocacy organizations work directly with and are supported by or aligned with Christian churches, such as Bread for the World, World Vision, Children’s Defense Fund, and Catholic Charities. The National Council of Churches brings together Christians to cooperate in programs of


Aelred of Rievaulx

education, service, and advocacy on such issues as ecojustice, racial justice, child poverty, gun control, living wage, and health care, among others. Churches work with more than 26,000 international nongovernmental organizations (Ferris 2005, 313). Recent U.S. presidents have encouraged the work of faith-based action groups. Poverty and hunger are of particular concern for Christians because of the moral responsibility given to the faithful. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation brought increased concern and renewed vigor in combating rampant poverty. Reformers like Luther, Calvin, and Wesley evangelized among the poor and entreated Christians to engage in good works on behalf of the poor. Catholic catechisms and papal encyclicals through the ages have fostered love and care for the poor in keeping with the social teachings of the Catholic Church. The Social Gospel movement of the early 20th century sought to apply Christian ethical teachings to social problems. Approximately 925 million people in the world are hungry on any given day. There are about 50 million people living in poverty in the United States, as reported by U.S. Census Bureau data (Center for Research on Globalization, http://www.globalresearch.ca/nearly-50–million-living -in-poverty-in-us/5312028). Poverty has been called the single greatest deterrent to full and healthy lives, and many advocates believe it can be eliminated (Sachs 2006). Since Christians disagree about political issues, it is natural that advocacy groups are formed to support causes associated with both the political Right and Left. Both sides might agree that advocacy for Christians is a response to faith, an attempt to faithfully live out the gospel, not simply jumping on the bandwagon of the latest cause. Evangelical leaders such as Ronald Sider (founder of Evangelicals for Social Action) and Jim Wallis (founder of the Sojourners community and magazine) represent a turn toward advocacy among evangelicals. Churches in the United States with tax-exempt status engage in nonpartisan advocacy, but individual Christians often work on political campaigns that align with their understanding of how best to fulfill God’s vision for the world. Many advocacy groups even provide educational and liturgical resources for Christians (and other faiths) to assist them in advocating for various groups and issues. A notable example is the Children’s Defense Fund’s National Observance of Children’s Sabbaths, an annual event in which congregations are encouraged to educate and advocate on concerns related to the well-being of children. References and Resources Children’s Defense Fund. n.d. http://www.childrensdefense.org/ programs-campaigns/faith-based-action/childrens-sabbaths. Evans, C. H., ed. 2001. The Social Gospel Today. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Ferris, E. 2005. “Faith-Based and Secular Humanitarian Organizations. International Review of the Red Cross 87 (858): 311–325. Massaro, T. 2012. Living Justice: Catholic Social Teaching in Action. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Olson, D. C., and L. D. Friedrich. 2008. Weaving a Just Future for Our Children: An Advocacy Guide. Nashville, TN: Discipleship Resources. Sachs, J. D. 2006. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time. New York: Penguin Press. Swartz, H. 2008. Organizing Urban America: Secular and FaithBased Progressive Movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Wuthnow, R., and J. Evans, eds. 2002. The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activism and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

—Susan Willhauck

Aelred of Rievaulx Early Background and Education Aelred of Rievaulx was born in Hexham, Northumberland, England, in 1109.38 He was the son of a married priest, was educated in the Scottish court, and served King David I of Scotland until the age of 24. He gave up the promise of nobility and power when he became a Cistercian monk in the abbey of Rievaulx in Yorkshire (1143).39 After a short time as abbot of a new house of monks at Revesby, he was promoted to the position of abbot of Rievaulx in 1147, overseeing as many as 300 monks and giving leadership to all the Cistercian abbots of England.40 His diplomatic and administrative skills added clout to the already successful and growing order of Cistercian monks.41 He was best known, though, for the great love he had for his spiritual brothers in his community of friends. A contemporary of Bernard of Clairvaux, Aelred followed Bernard’s encouragement to write his first book on spirituality, titled Speculum caritatis (The Mirror of Charity), a treatise on following Christ.42 His most influential work, De spirituali amicitia (Spiritual Friendship) explored the importance of developing preferential friendship in spiritual community, even though this was not common practice in the mo38. Some sources date his birth at 1110. 39. James Kiefer, “Aelred of Rievaulx,” in Biographical Sketches of Memorable Christians of the Past, http://www.justus_anglican.org/resources/ bio/30_html (accessed 23 May 2013). 40. Kevin Knight, “St. Aelred,” in Catholic Encyclopedia, www.newadvent .org/cathen/01172b.htm (accessed 23 May 2013). 41. Brian Noell, “Aelred of Rievaulx’s Appropriation of Augustine. A Window on Two Views of Friendship and the Monastic Life,” Cistercian Studies Quarterly 37 (2002): 123–144. 42. Kiefer, “Aelred of Rievaulx.”

Aesthetics (Beauty)

nastic tradition. Aelred earned the title “Bernard of the north” because of his widespread influence, attributed to his personal spirituality, sophisticated writings, and Christocentric doctrine.43 Aelred was abbot of Rievaulx for 20 years, until his death in 1167. Significant Contributions to Christian Education While Aelred of Rievaulx is not a common name in evangelical circles, his influence is nonetheless felt. His book, Spiritual Friendship, addresses the complexity of interpersonal dynamics that exist in spiritual community and the importance of friendship for the unity that Christ said would characterize his community of followers.44 While many Christians tend to operate interpersonally with an Augustinian underpinning of charitable detachment, Aelred provides an alternative approach to the self-protected life.45 Aelred defined and elevated the role of spiritual friendship, deeming it a noble pursuit in the Christian life and philosophizing that it “cure(s) and endure(s)” the defects that are seen in each person.46 “Friendship, therefore, is that virtue by which spirits are bound by ties of love and sweetness, and out of many are made one.”47 Affirming the need to love others in a general sense, he gave dignity to the notion that spiritual friendship and preferential love is also a divine calling.


people and invited them into His confidence at different levels. In defense of his unconventional approach to leadership that sought out friendship with those lower in status, Aelred advised: “Therefore, in friendship . . . let the lofty descend, the lowly ascend; . . . and thus let each communicate his condition to the other so that equality may be the result. . . . For they do not rightly develop friendship who do not preserve equality.”51 He was a trailblazer in taking the risk of entrusting himself to others in spiritual friendship; writing about the virtues of mutually loving and preferential relationships; and defending a biblical view of God’s love, which needs to be seen not only as charitable love, but as friendship love. Aelred of Rievaulx contributed much to the field of Christian education by addressing the need for intimate, Christ-centered relationships in spiritual formation. “For what more sublime can be said of friendship, what more true, what more profitable, than that it ought to, and is proved to, begin in Christ, continue in Christ, and be perfected in Christ?”52 Without human friendship, one would never know the level of intimacy of relationship that God offers those He not only calls his children, but also friends. Aelred purports that spiritual friendships are not only good, but necessary in the pursuit of friendship with God. Most Notable Publications

Divine authority approves that more are to be received into the bosom of charity than into the embrace of friendship. For we are compelled by the law of charity to receive in the embrace of love not only our friends but also our enemies. But only those do we call friends to whom we can fearlessly entrust our heart and all its secrets; those, too, who, in turn, are bound to us by the same law of faith and security.48

This type of interpersonal reciprocity caused some tension in his own abbey, due to the appearance of favoritism and the sense of impropriety in associating with those of lower rank.49 In defense of his philosophy that preferential friendship is spiritually edifying, he pointed to the example of Jesus’s having had mutually loving relationships with John, Lazarus, Mary, and Martha.50 He suggested that while Jesus loved everyone, He enjoyed particular 43. “Saint Aelred of Rievaulx (Cistercian Monk),” in Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/7095/Saint -Aelred-of-Rievaulx (accessed 29 May 2013). 44. John 17:21. 45. Noell, “Aelred of Rievaulx’s Appropriation of Augustine.” 46. Aelred of Rievaulx, “Spiritual Friendship,” in Other Selves: Philosophers on Friendship, ed. Michael Pakaluk (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 1991), 135. 47. Ibid., 135. 48. Ibid., 137. 49. Noell, “Aelred of Rievaulx’s Appropriation of Augustine.” 50. Kiefer, “Aelred of Rievaulx.”

Speculum caritatis (The Mirror of Charity), 1142 Oratio pastoralis (Pastoral Prayer), c. 1163–1167 De spiritali amicitia (Spiritual Friendship), c. 1164. De anima (On the Soul), c. 1164–1167

—Christy Hill

Aesthetics (Beauty) Truth, goodness, and beauty are generally accepted indications of human creativity. Pleasure in life suggests outside standards, which allow for innovation within life’s margins. Architecture, theater, painting, poetry, music, and artwork of all kinds by all people everywhere suggest humans were made to express and enjoy aesthetics. Biblical Theology of Aesthetics God is Truth; all truth is His, and truth reflects Himself (1 Kings 17:24; Ps. 25:5; Isa. 45:18, 19). God is Beauty; equality, harmony, symmetry, and proportion have their source in Him (Gen. 1:3, “He separated,” meaning all things are given their exact place; Ps. 27:4, 90:16, 51. Aelred of Rievaulx, Spiritual Friendship, trans. M. E. Laker (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1977), 115–117. 52. Aelred of Rievaulx, “Spiritual Friendship,” 133.


Aesthetics (Beauty)

17, 96:6–9). God is Good; He sets the standard for both expression and evaluation (Gen 1:3, “He saw that it was good”; Matt. 19:17; Mark 10:17–18). All good things come from God (1 Chron. 29:14, 15; James 1:17; 1 Tim. 6:17). Creative skills come from God, including intelligence, knowledge, and craftsmanship (Exod. 28:3, 31:1–11, 35:30, 31, 36:2; Isa. 28:23–28). The Creator created creatures who creatively create from creation. Humans are made in God’s image (Gen. 1:27). People represent God and are God’s representatives on Earth (Ps. 8). God’s likeness in humanity imbues creativity, intelligence, willfulness, design, purpose, planning, imagination, and appreciation of the creation (Ps. 111:2, 145:3–13). Creation was intentionally made to entwine utility (trees made good for food) and aesthetics (trees made pleasing to the eye, Gen 2.9). God combined strength, balance, function, and beauty in His creation, as do His creatures (Gen. 1, 2:5, 8, 15). Artists used their God-given gifts (Exod. 26:2) of artistic design (35:32) and abilities of intelligence, knowledge, and craftsmanship (35:31); they could also teach (35:34) and were stirred to do the work (36:2). Songs were rehearsed in Israel (1 Chron. 15:19–22). Order, arrangement, preparation, skill, creativity, and professionalism are important. 1 Chronicles 15:16–16:6 records a full choir, orchestra, and a dance troupe punctuated with “shouts” and percussion (vv. 25, 28). In the Old Testament, the Holy Spirit dwelled in people for leadership purposes, including proclamation (1 Sam. 10:5–6), which was also an art form (Exod. 35:21). The instructions for the tabernacle were given through language as written revelation (Exod. 39:42–43)—not the personal, inner experience of the prophet-artist. So the creation of the tabernacle was dependent on outside revelation, not an internal, artistic “voice.” This observation suggests that a biblical view of artistry begins with God rather than humans. Unbelievers contribute excellence in their artwork (1 Kings 5:6; 2 Chron. 2:17–18), which pleases God (2 Chron. 7:12–16). Biblical Philosophy of Aesthetics For the Christian, all of life is worship: the total response of the total person to the Lord Jesus (Acts 24:14; Phil. 3:3). Christian purpose is to give God glory, whatever the task. God’s glory (literally, “weight”) resides within His creation (1 Chron. 16:28). The responsibility to “throw God’s weight around” falls to Christians in their Godgiven giftedness, through their God-given vocations (1 Cor. 10:31; Col. 3:23). Talent, time, money, and possessions all come from God (Lev. 25:23; 1 Chron. 29:14–15). Believers give back what has been given (1 Tim. 6:17–19). 1 Chronicles 15 and 16 kept the beauty of Israel’s history alive through the aesthetics of song. Three major

statements are made about art through music. First, singing was artistically responsive (1 Chron. 15:16, 25, 28). Art can be a human response to God’s world, His Word, and His works. Old Testament stories are punctuated with song and dance, for instance (Exod. 15). The greatest Israelite kings were musicians (David and Solomon). The Psalms were Israel’s hymnal. Second, the song was rehearsed (1 Chron. 15:19–22). Order, arrangement, preparation, skill, creativity, and excellence are important in aesthetics. 1 Chronicles 15:16–16:6 records a full choir, orchestra, and a dance troupe punctuated with “shouts” and percussion (vv. 25, 28). Third, singing was a regular, repeated remembrance (1 Chron. 16:6, 37). Music is “sacred” (1 Chron. 16:42). The event of celebration was over, but the story lived on in the song. One cannot remove music from the “story” without losing meaning (2 Chron. 20:21; Ps. 45; 137:4–6). Hymnology teaches Truth (Eph. 5:19–20; Col. 3:16). Healing (1 Sam. 16:23), hope (Isa. 35:5–8), and celebration (2 Sam. 6:14–15) are all themes contained in biblical song. Aesthetics are God-given expressions for community and remembrance. Court songs, battle songs, harvest songs, work songs, songs of loss and victory—all of life was worship to God’s people. Aesthetics—value judgments about creation—depend on personal interpretation of reality through the lens of Christian thought (“and God saw,” Gen. 1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, etc.). While the culture maintains personal and experiential parameters outside of others’ authority, the One who made humanity demands certain standards (Gen. 2:16–17). Truth is grounded in eternal verities (Ps. 119:160). Beauty is not in the eye of the beholder; rather, appreciation of creation is based on the Creator (Gen. 2:9). Goodness is not relative; rather, within a fallen world, both method and message can coincide with a biblical framework of creative expression (Gen. 2:19–20). Christian Practice of Aesthetics Appraise the relationship between human creativity and purpose in life. Persuade students that value, meaning, and order find their source in God. Approve that pleasure and enjoyment is integral in a Christ-centered view of living. Recommend imagination as a reflection of God’s image. Affirm that taste, inspiration, vision, beauty, and appreciation have a source in a biblical-revelation controlled environment. Research an artist, go on a field trip to an art museum, or discuss the artwork of a specific sculptor, painter, and so forth. Discuss the problem of idolatry in artistic communities. Develop a biblical view of worship that corresponds directly to the arts. Explain that art in any form rehearses the struggles and joys of life. Exhibit aesthetics as a display of truth versus falsehood; the latter necessitating redemption. Display the battle between right and wrong through drama. Propose

Affections, Christian

solutions to corruption through artists who display redemptive exhibitions. Harmonize artistic expressions to reflect God’s intention of wholeness. Express joy in the Creator and His good creation through beauty. Rehearsal and repetition is the discipline of the artist, overcoming creation’s corruption and the creature’s laziness. Aesthetics can remind the Christian of God’s Word and works.


evaluation for or against, the object of the emotion in relation to oneself. Emotions may therefore be influenced by cognitive learning. 3. Christian beliefs-in, including faith and trust in God, salvation, baptism, and so forth; and also, perhaps, Christian beliefs-that and understanding, insofar as certain attitudes and emotions are part of the meaning of Christian concepts (see below).

References and Resources Brand, Hillary, and Adrienne Chaplin. 2002. Art and Soul: Signposts for Christians in the Arts. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Ryken, Leland. 2002. The Christian Imagination: Essays on Literature and the Arts. Colorado Springs, CO: Waterbrook Press. Turner, Steve. 2000. Imagine: A Vision for Christians in the Arts. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

—Mark Eckel

Affections, Christian The classic defense of the claim that religious feeling is a constitutive element of religion may be found in Jonathan Edwards’s 1746 treatise, The Religious Affections. Edwards infers that “true religion lies much in the affections” from the assertions that true religion “is of a practical nature,” that God has so constituted human nature that the affections are “very much the spring” of human action, and that “the things of religion” take hold of human souls “no further than they affect them.” He draws attention to the place given in the Bible to “fear, hope, love, hatred, desire, joy, sorrow, gratitude, compassion, and zeal.”53 The content of Christian education includes three main areas of affect (or feeling): 1. Christian attitudes and values and dispositions to act and experience in Christian ways, a category that includes Christian spiritual and moral virtues, and the positive valuing of God, Jesus, the Spirit, and the church. Attitudes are primarily affective orientations, internal states that influence a person’s action responses; values are the objects of positive evaluative attitudes. 2. Christian emotions and feelings (or subjective religious experiences), such as awe, thankfulness, pity, and joy. Simple feelings are usually transitory; emotion is a more complex category in which feelingstates result from a cognitive belief about, and an 53. Jonathan Edwards, Select Works, Volume III: Treatise Concerning the Religious Affections (London: Banner of Truth, 1961), 27–53.

Education and the Christian Affections Anything that abstracts out the affective dimension of religion leaves us with only a partial description: “We entirely fail to capture what is involved in someone’s adoption or rejection of a religious worldview if we suppose we can extract a pure cognitive juice from the mush of emotional or figurative coloration, and then establish whether or not the subject is prepared to swallow it.”54 Much Christian education limits itself to cognitive learning. By contrast, “the early catechists showed in their pastoral activity that the Christian teachings demanded the life of the affections. . . . The fear, remorse, zeal and joy of the paschal season were marks of religious understanding.”55 Learning to be Christian must therefore include the evocation and direction of the affections: “God is genuinely known only when God’s identity is established in a manner that includes one’s passions.”56 Ludwig Wittgenstein argued that this involves some sort of passionate embrace: Instruction in a religious faith . . . would have to take the form of a portrayal, a description, of that system of reference, while at the same time being an appeal to conscience. And this combination would have the result in the pupil himself, of his own accord, passionately taking hold of the system of reference.57

It is with this embrace that the learner moves to a beliefin that encompasses both beliefs-that about God’s nature and existence and affective states such as trust and other positive attitudes toward God. Even learning about Christianity is inadequate unless it includes learning about these Christian affections. Students can only empathetically understand feeling54. John Cottingham, The Spiritual Dimension: Religion, Philosophy and Human Vocation (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 80. 55. John A. Berntsen, “Christian Affections and the Catechumenate,” reprinted in Theological Perspectives on Christian Formation: A Reader in Theology and Christian Education, ed. Jeff Astley, Leslie J. Francis, and Colin Crowder (Leominster, UK: Gracewing Fowler Wright and Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996), 239. 56. Dean M. Martin, “Learning to Become a Christian,” reprinted in Critical Perspectives on Christian Education: A Reader on the Aims, Principles and Philosophy of Christian Education, ed. Jeff Astley and Leslie J. Francis (Leominster, UK: Gracewing Fowler Wright, 1994), 190. 57. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Culture and Value, ed. G. H. von Wright, trans. Peter Winch (Oxford: Blackwell, 1980), 64.



states insofar as they have them, or something very like them, themselves. And “the fuller the understanding of Christianity being aimed at, the ‘wider’ and ‘deeper’ these feelings need to be.”58 Hence, the learning outcomes that constitute successful learning about the affective component of Christianity overlap with those of learning Christianity, and this may encourage the transformative, passionate embrace to which Wittgenstein refers. Learning about Christianity can thus provoke the affective conversion-change that characterizes full Christian learning. References and Resources Astley, Jeff. 2002. Ordinary Theology: Looking, Listening and Learning in Theology. Aldershot and Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ———. 2007. “Crossing the Divide?” In Inspiring Faith in Schools: Studies in Religious Education, edited by Marius Felderhof, Penny Thompson, and David Torevell, 175–186. Aldershot and Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ———. 2012. “A Theological Reflection on the Nature of Religious Truth.” In Teaching Religion, Teaching Truth: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, edited by Jeff Astley, Leslie J. Francis, Mandy Robbins, and Mualla Selçuk, 241–262. Bern: Peter Lang. Wainwright, William J. 1995. Reason and the Heart: A Prolegomenon to a Critique of Passional Reason. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Wilson, John. 1971. Education in Religion and the Emotions. London, Heinemann.

—Jeff Astley

Affectivity Much of the praxis on teaching tends to bypass the affective and emotion realms, tending toward study designs more influenced by structure and measurement. The affective domain looks at the values, attitudes, and emotions in the student. For this reason, it is crucial to supply the reference frameworks and methodological guidelines that provide the background to this dimension of professional training of teachers and their praxis. This discussion flows from the conviction that, as well as other dimensions of the pedagogical relationship, it is necessary to recognize the relevant affective dimension of the lives of pupils in the process of teaching/learning. It is well known that learning outcomes are influenced profoundly by personal interactions between teachers and students. 58. Jeff Astley, “The Place of Understanding in Christian Education and Education about Christianity,” reprinted in Critical Perspectives, ed. Astley and Francis, 112.

Affectivity is a concept that has multiple meanings. The dictionary definitions suggest sentiments of affection and tenderness, a relation of mutual caring and support, as well as empathy, friendliness, warmth, love, and compassion. Espinosa59 and other authors60 proposed that affectivity has five components: motivation, confidence in oneself, attitudes, emotions, and causal attribution. These five components have “a hugely important role in learning and teaching.”61 Research into the topic, reflecting the presuppositions of each author, has been deepening the understanding of some components and adding new ones, such as beliefs, feelings, interests, and values, which shows the complexity and amplitude of the topic under analysis. Here, the emphasis is placed on the attitudes of respect, empathy, openness toward the other, and the aspects linked to feelings (subjective well-being) and emotions like joy, satisfaction, confidence—one’s own feelings—deriving from the pedagogical interaction in which these attitudes remain. Affective pedagogy is defined as being “as much about feelings and emotions as it is about learning outcomes. Indeed the feelings and emotions are inseparable from the learning outcomes.”62 Carbalho presents a table listing the emotional status of the pupil resulting from good or poor teaching (see table A.1).63 The affective pedagogy is evident in teachers who64 • value a discipline and its associated practices, • value imparting them to students, • challenge students’ learning achievements while respecting their developing intellects, • assess students’ academic progress transparently and constructively, • encourage students to move beyond their knowledge comfort zones, and • engage students in a friendship relationship in the classroom. 59. Gaëlle Espinosa, L’Affectivité à l’École (Paris: Presses Universitaires of France, 2003). This author maintains that apparently student difficulties in school place greater emphasis on the emotional relationship with the teacher, and the student who succeeds favors a more professional relationship. 60. Barbara Martin and Leslie Briggs, The Affective and Cognitive Domains: Integration for Instruction and Research (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technologies Publications, 1986). 61. Espinosa, L’Affectivité à l’École, 37. 62. Allan Patience, “The Art of Loving in the Classroom: A Defence of Affective Pedagogy,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 33, no. 2 (2008): 57. 63. Elsa de Carvalho, Aprendizagem e satisfação: Perspectivas de alunos do 2º e 3º ciclo do Ensinobásico. (Lisboa: Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Lisbon, 2007), 163. 64. Patience, “Art of Loving in the Classroom,” 55.

Affectivity TABLE A.1 Emotional Status of Pupils In the case of good teaching Satisfaction Confidence Motivation

Pride Self-esteem Happiness

In the case of poor teaching Dissatisfaction Guilt Rebellion Fear Lack of motivation

Sadness Discouragement Impatience Boredom Unhappiness

Suggested approaches to working with in affective domain with students in the classroom are presented in six major categories:65 1. Establishing and continuing positive relationships. The students describe good/bad educational experiences, whether the teacher “cared.” In this context, care does not mean the teacher has to form intimate attachments with students, but that they know that the teacher sees them and is concerned about their learning, lives, fears, and concerns, and that it is safe to ask questions and admit when they are struggling. 2. Providing students sufficient class time to process content and practice skills. Activities help them learn a skill, so that they are more confident and likely to persist in their independent class work, such as writing a paper, studying for a test, or doing a project. 3. Providing regular opportunities for students to reflect on their own thoughts and the factors that influence their thinking. Students learn more deeply, and are more likely to be successful, when they are conscious of what helps them learn and what slips them up. 4. Providing incentives and accountability for coming to class and doing the work. Not all students arrive in class fully self‐motivated, and they need teachers to build structures into the classes that help them stay on top of things. 5. Intrusively intervening when students show signs of struggle or disengagement. They need to be mentored by their teachers. 6. Maintaining a “growth‐mind-set” approach to feedback and grading. This involves being intentional about how teachers grade and give feedback on their assignments. 65. Katie Hern and Myra Snell, “Attending to the Affective Domain” (paper prepared for discussion at Summer Institute, June 2011), 4–8, http:// cap.3csn.org/files/2012/02/Attending-to-the-Affective-Domain-outline -v21.pdf (accessed 9 July 2013).


And the writer suggests another category: 7. Before starting a class, the teacher should lead a time of prayers with the students, asking them for prayer requests. Together, they will bring before God’s throne all their concerns, doubts, anxiety, fears, and all kinds of emotions that they could be facing. These storms of emotions could be obstacles for students’ learning experiences; therefore, if they could trust God in their affective domain, then they would be ready for the learning process. Good teaching and learning methodologies contribute profoundly to the making of good Christians. In this sense, to attain this, students need to embrace the human experience in all its complexities and possibilities at the intellectual and emotional levels. This requires the cultivation of purposeful, mature relationships between teachers and students. Education involves interacting with strongly complex dynamics, and these involve emotional, social, and communicative interactions, not only giving information. The teacher has to take into account the students as a whole as God created them. Affective pedagogues know how the “art of love” will grace the students with the capacity to recognize valuable things within themselves: things students can trust, that will help them grow personally, emotionally, spiritually, culturally, and socially. In a congress on education, “it was highlighted how love is ‘inscribed in the DNA of every man and woman on earth’ and for this reason, ‘it responds to the needs of all times and of all human societies.’”66 It is agape at the heart of affective pedagogy.67 When students discover that you care about them, that you want them to succeed and grow and share with you, they will not only listen better, but will receive, absorb, and treasure the teaching that you share with them. Then the goal of learning, which is the transformation of life, 66. E. Fondi, “‘DioAmorenell’ esperienza di Chiara Lubich” (presented at the Congress on Education, Rome, 2000). Presented in the first Congress on Education, “Education as Love.” Also, Jesus offers an even more stringent formulation of the law of love in John 15:12 when He says, “This is my commandment, that ye love one another as I have loved you,” challenging what is most difficult: to overcome the natural human inclination toward rationalization and self-love in favor of a love for others, in this case, the students, attempting to model itself on Christ’s love for humanity. 67. Timothy Jackson, Love Disconsoled: Meditations on Christian Charity (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 11–15. Agape is a Greek word used in the New Testament, characterized by three interpersonal features: (a) unconditional commitment to the good of others, (b) equal regard for the well-being of others, and (c) passionate service open to self-sacrifice for the sake of others. These three are essential to the task of teaching, especially if we are including the affective domain in the teaching/ learning process.


Africa and Christian Education

will take place, especially if you realize that as a Christian teacher, you are teaching for eternity. References and Resources Carvalho, Elsa de. 2007. Aprendizagem e satisfação: Perspectivas de alunos do 2º e 3º ciclo do ensinobásico. Lisboa: Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Lisbon. Espinosa, Gaëlle. 2003. L’Affectivité à l’École. Paris: Presses Universitaires of France. Fondi, E. 2000. Dio Amorenell’ esperienza di ChiaraLubich. Rome: Congress on Education. Hern, Katie, and Myra Snell. 2011. “Attending to the Affective Domain.” Paper prepared for discussion at California Acceleration Project: Community of Practice in Accelerated Curriculum & Pedagogy Summer Institute, June. Accessed 9 July 2013. http://cap.3csn.org/files/2012/02/Attending-to -the-Affective-Domain-outline-v21.pdf. Jackson, Timothy. 1999. Love Disconsoled: Meditations on Christian Charity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Martin, Barbara, and Leslie Briggs. 1986. The Affective and Cognitive Domains: Integration for Instruction and Research. Edgewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technologies Publications, 1986. Patience, Allan. 2008. “The Art of Loving in the Classroom: A Defence of Affective Pedagogy.” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 33 (2): 55–67.

—Ana María E. Campos

Africa and Christian Education Early Christian Education in Africa Fifteenth-century Spanish and Portuguese Catholic attempts at evangelizing coastal Africa had a very limited impact because of their sporadic and imperialist trade motivations. In the middle of the 19th century, European missionaries began the earliest lasting and penetrating work of evangelization from the coastal areas. In West Africa, freed slaves from Sierra Leone were a major part of this missionary thrust. Apart from Ethiopia, an early “Christian nation,” this is how Christianity came to subSaharan Africa. The missions typically included a church, a school, and sometimes a hospital. The missionary approach to Christian education (CE) consisted of literacy, Bible translation, and catechetical training. The mission schools were a critical part of the evangelistic enterprise and gave prominence to the Bible, because education was “for the propagation of the gospel—to win African souls for Christ” (Fafunwa and Aisiku 1982, 21). The mission schools laid the foundation for formal education and served as forerunners to the

present-day national school systems in most of Africa. The missionaries also founded teacher training and ministerial training colleges. Christian education has thus left a strong legacy in sub-Saharan Africa. A prominent example is Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone, the oldest university in sub-Saharan Africa, founded in 1827 by the Church Missionary Society (CMS) for the training of African nationals as teachers, catechists, and clergymen. However, despite the immense contributions of the European missionaries, the content of their teaching was often not contextually relevant, the (cognitive) Western educational methods did not fit the (relational) African worldview, and the education was consciously aimed at educating the Africans away from their culture (Fafunwa and Aisiku 1982; Ntamushobora 2012, 31). These factors placed a limitation on the transformational nature of the educational enterprise. Furthermore, colonialism had both positive and negative impacts on the missions. The close association of the foreign missionaries with colonial authorities by Africans, as well as a growing self-conscious sense of identity among African Christians, led to the growth of African independent/ initiate churches (AICs) by the mid-20th century. Some seceded from the mission churches in protest against perceived missionary domination, while others spontaneously arose around a prophetic-charismatic character and gradually became so distinct from the other church members that they formed another church. Examples are the Zionist Spirit churches in South Africa and the Aladura (people of prayer) in Nigeria. Similar cases were simultaneously unfolding in Belgian Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe (Baur 1994; Isichei 1995). These prophet-healing AICs attracted and cared for the needy, and culturally Africanized their theology and practice in ways that some considered heretical. This inevitably engendered tense relationships with the historic mission churches (Baur 1994, 355–358). While the AICs are frequently explained in sociological and political terms, Bediako (1995) suggests a Christian reason for them. The Gospel had set the African man “free from fear, fear of witches and the power of darkness, but above all conferring a freedom from an inner dependence on European tokens of grace or favor, to aim for higher things” (204). In other words, the AIC trend in itself was an unanticipated indication of success in the missionary task of discipling and educating indigenous African believers! Independence and Growth The wave of political independence in Africa in the 1960s coincided with an explosion in numbers, both in the independent churches and among the mission churches, many of which now had indigenous leaders.

Africa and Christian Education

With independence came the nationalization and takeover of mission schools in the 1960s and 1970s. Consequently, the Bible is no longer central in the curriculum, but “Christian religious knowledge/studies” is taught as a formal subject in public schools in many countries. In Kenya, the syllabus and textbooks for this subject are products of ecumenical cooperation among the different churches in order to retain religious and moral influence in the education of youth. Many churches and Christian entrepreneurs have also established primary, secondary, and lately tertiary institutions with a distinctive Christian identity. Judging numerically, the propagation of the Christian faith has been a phenomenal success in sub-Saharan Africa. This region has had the fastest growth rate of professing Christians over the past century, a roughly sixtyfold increase, from fewer than 9 million in 1910 to more than 516 million in 2010, accounting for about a quarter (24 percent) of the global Christian population. The percentage of the population that is Christian in subSaharan Africa also climbed, from 9 percent in 1910 to 63 percent in 2010 (Hackett and Grim 2011). Distinctives Unfortunately, societal transformation has not matched the oft-cited numerical growth, putting pressure on Christian educators to find effective contextual ways of bridging the theology-practice gap. Christian education can no longer be limited to the usual new believers/ members catechetical or Bible study/Sunday school classes for different age groups. Storytelling, rural cornthreshing activities in northern Nigeria (Ango 2008), and rites of passage in Kenya are methods/avenues used for CE. Bible translation has continued as more people can read and hear God’s word in Africa’s myriad tribal tongues. Africa is a “young” continent: 60 percent of the African population is under the age of 25 (Greene, Joshi, and Robles 2012). It is therefore not surprising that parachurch ministries such as Scripture Union, and national student movements associated with the International Fellowship of Evangelical Students (IFES) play an important role in Christian education. Theological and Christian Higher Education The rapid growth of the church, a significant part of which has been among Pentecostals and charismatics, has also produced an acute challenge for pastoral and leadership training, as many pastors have neither theological training nor advanced formal education. Informal theological education by extension (TEE) thrived in the past but declined because of the desire for formal academic credentials. Most theological seminaries in Africa face the sustainability challenges of being self-governing (instead


of having expatriate institutional heads), self-supporting (instead of completely relying on Western funds), or self-theologizing (instead of merely transmitting Western theological scholarship). Yet there are innovative collaborative models, such as that of the graduate-level Mekana Yesus Theological College in Ethiopia. It serves 4 lower-level regional colleges, which, in turn, serve 12 lower-level local schools. The demand for university education has led several seminaries in East Africa to transition into private Christian schools in hopes that these programs would adequately fund the institutions. In Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, and Nigeria, many churches and individuals have recently founded private Christian universities. The expectation is that these institutions will contribute solutions to the many challenges facing CE in Africa (Nwosu 2012). Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa officially promote religious tolerance, and the states do not limit Christian education, even though they try to regulate its incursion into government run public schools. Nevertheless, in the specific local regions where radical Muslims are in the majority, CE efforts are restricted by violent attacks on churches and Christians. In northern Nigeria for instance, where more than 10 states have adopted Sharia (Islamic) law, the radical jihadist group Boko Haram (“Western education is sin”), seeking to create a pure Islamic state ruled by Sharia law, has since 2011 bombed churches and burned schools. Other challenges to CE in Africa include war and political instability, illiteracy, HIV/AIDS, and ebola. The Western reader might wonder what these have to do with Christian education, but in the holistic worldview of the African milieu, education is bound to these urgent realities. The culture, metaphors, and symbols of the Bible are shared by many African cultures, and the world in which the apostles first propagated the Christian faith shares the religious pluralism of traditional African society. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the African Christian educator and scholar would be to look at the Bible and the Christian faith with African eyes and not European eyes, and interpret, then teach, it in ways that no European scholar can (Bediako 1995, 252). References and Resources Ango, S. P. 2008. “Opportunities for Christian Education in the Corn-Threshing Activities of the Lelna of Nigeria: A Case Study in Contextualization.” Christian Education Journal 5 (1): 154–170. Baur, J. 1994. Two Thousand Years of Christianiy in Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Paulines. Bediako, K. 1995. Christianity in Africa: The Renewal of a NonWestern Religion. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.



Fafunwa, A. B., and J. U. Aisiku, eds. 1982. Education in Africa: A Comparative Survey. London: George Allen & Unwin. Greene, M., S. Joshi, and O. Robles. 2012. State of World Population 2012. New York: UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). Hackett, C., and B. J. Grim. 2011. Global Christianity: A report on the size and distribution of the world’s Christian population. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Isichei, E. 1995. A History of Christianity in Africa: From Antiquity to the Present. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Ntamushobora, F. 2012. “From Transmission to Transformation: An Exploration of Education for Holistic Transformation in Selected Christian and Public Universities in Kenya.” PhD diss., Biola University, La Mirada, CA. Nwosu, C. C. 2012. “The Role of Christian Educational Institutions in Improving Economic Self-Reliance.” Journal of Research on Christian Education 21: 24–45.

—Agametochukwu Iheanyi-Igwe

Aging Aging is a reality of all species. It is the process of growing old, understood as the gradual change in an organism that leads to increased risk of weakness, disease, and death. For humans, the experience of aging includes psychosocial dimensions lived out in cultural and economic contexts. In the field of Christian education, aging has largely been associated with the needs and life situations of older adults, typically those approaching the end of life. Aging is often associated with “old” and therefore ascribed to individuals identified for reasons of health or lifestyle as less than fully independent and/or beyond the age of performing routine “work” (understood as full-time employment or responsibility for the care of others in a household). “Aging” often carries a wistful meaning, an implied sense of loss, and may communicate a pejorative judgment in dominant cultures that revere being young. Aging can, wrongly, be reduced to mean diminished capacity. The human maturation process is an extension of the lifelong developmental process. It is ordained by God and therefore good. Viewing aging through the lens of the life course rather than exclusively as a stage in the life cycle invites a greater appreciation of this complex process. In the second decade of the 21st century, according to the United Nations (UN) Population Division, increased life expectancies and energetic life styles enable people to live 20 to 25 percent of their lives in active retirement— on average healthier, better educated, and more culturally literate than ever before. In developed countries, aging adults have improved access to financial and material

resources. The UN estimates that one in five people will be 65 or older by 2035. As baby boomers (born 1946–1964) reach conventional retirement ages in historically large numbers, global attention is focused on aging in every domain of their lives. The church is no exception. The interdisciplinary field of gerontology has expanded to include spiritual development and to differentiate the needs of adults who are 55 from those who are 85. All older adults are no more alike than are all children from 5 to 18 years old. Aging adults have unique, God-given capacities in the third chapter (Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot) or second half (Richard Rohr) of their lives. Research shows that many older adults experience less stress (Centers for Disease Control) and demonstrate more wisdom than younger cohorts (University of Michigan Ann Arbor and University of Texas, Dallas). According to Swedish sociologist Lars Tornstam, a developmental stage occurs when an individual who is living into very old age shifts perspective from a materialistic and rational view of the world to a more cosmic and transcendent one, normally accompanied by an increase in life satisfaction. Tornstam describes this experience as gerotranscendence, when individuals are less self-occupied and more altruistic. They have an increased feeling of affinity with past generations and decreased interest in superfluous social interaction, characteristics also described by Erik Erikson in his eighth and final stage of human psychosocial development, late adulthood. According to Erikson, old adults encounter the existential crisis between integrity and despair, and a healthy resolution brings the individual satisfaction with a life well-lived and the virtue of wisdom. According to pastoral theologian Carol Saussy, “Faithful aging is not simply aging; it is growing old. It is embracing not only the challenges of a long life, but engaging the possibilities of creativity and depth of soul available to those who have acquired a wealth of experience” (1998, 181). Christian education continues throughout the aging process. To nurture faithful aging, it is wise to ask the following: • How do we recognize, honor, and utilize the experience, wisdom, and gifts of “older” adults? • How do we develop ministries that integrate and weave multiple generations together spiritually? • How do we cultivate Christ’s message of hope and service for older adults, families, and their caregivers? • How do we examine, explore, and create innovative and contemporary liturgical, spiritual, and service ministries by, with, and for all generations in the Body of Christ?


References and Resources Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. 2009. The Third Chapter: Passion, Risk, and Adventure in the 25 Years after 50. New York: Sarah Crichton Books. Rohr, R. 2011. Falling Upward: A Spirituality for the Two Halves of Life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Saussy, C. 1998. The Art of Growing Old. A Guide to Faithful Living. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress. Tornstam, L. 2005. Gerotranscendence: A Developmental Theory of Positive Aging. New York: Springer. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division. n.d. http://www.un.org/en/develop ment/desa/population/theme/ageing/index.shtml.

—Elisabeth M. (Lisa) Kimball

Albania and Christian Education After the communist takeover in 1945, the Albanian educational system and policy were a faithful copy of the Soviet atheistic model, and most of the textbooks were translated from Russian. Later Soviet-Albanian tensions led the country into isolation and even more aggressive imposition of atheism in all spheres of life, especially in the completely controlled educational system and media. Albania strictly outlawed all forms of religion, treating Christianity as an obsolete, prescientific, obscurantist, and harmful hindrance to the free development of human potential and building of a new society. With an extremely rigid application of the exclusively antireligious worldview aiming at eradication of all religion, Albania claimed from 1967 to be the first “totally atheistic state in the world.” Since the democratic changes of the early 1990s and strict separation of state and religion, public schools in the country are secular, and religious indoctrination is prohibited by law. The Ministry of Education has the right to approve private religious schools, while the implementation of their curricula is overseen by the State Committee on Cults. Although Albania was radically secularized under communist rule, today it is the only European country with a Muslim majority (70 percent of the population), with significant Catholic (10 percent, in the North) and Orthodox (7 percent, mostly in the South) minorities. According to 2008 statistics there are, in addition to 638 mosques, 694 Catholic churches, 425 Orthodox churches, and around 100 smaller and younger evangelical congregations established by foreign missionaries. There are around 70 vocational training centers administered by religious communities and several smaller religious schools, mostly established by Western denominations. This includes several small seminary-type


Bible schools established for training for ministry. The Catholic Church has established a university, provides some Christian education through online courses, and has a well-developed program for religious instruction of children and youth. Evangelical congregations train the younger generation through Sunday schools modeled after their Western sponsors. —Peter Kuzmic

Alcuin Alcuin (Lat. Albinus, also Flaccus) was born c. 735 of noble Northumbrian parentage, in or near York, Yorkshire, England; he died 19 May 804. Alcuin was educated at a young age at the famous Cathedral School at York under the tutelage of Archbishop Egbert, who was a student of the Venerable Bede. Consequently, he achieved the finest ethos of his time and became familiar with both the Latin classics and the writings of the church fathers. Alcuin became a teacher in 766 and, in 778, eventually became headmaster of the renowned Cathedral School at York. Perhaps shortly before his departure from York, he wrote a lengthy poem that commemorated the historically renowned men in that city. Alcuin was in Italy when he met the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne in 781; at the time, the emperor was seeking leading English, Irish, and Italian scholars of the era. Consequently, when the emperor desired someone to assist him in developing an educational system in his domain, he invited Alcuin to assume the leadership of the famous Schola Palatina (School of the Palace), which consisted of the royal family and the leading nobles (in addition to being frequently attended by Charlemagne). The school generally remained at Aachen; however, it was moved periodically in accordance with the needs of the royal residence. Alcuin was thus an intimate friend of Charlemagne and an advisor on the ecclesiastical and political policy of the empire. Assisting him in his work were Einhard, Paul the Deacon, and other adept scholars. Alcuin and others developed Carolingian minuscule script (or cursive writing) during this time. The script was written with a pen held at an angle, and employed open, rounded forms as opposed to the older nonspaced uncial script. Alcuin’s script was formative for the typeface of the modern Roman alphabet; the Carolingian script formalized the notion of a nonpaired (twin) alphabet, which is the basis for the modern upper and lower cases. The development of the minuscule script somewhat indirectly influenced the history of mathematics, because it was easier to read than the uncial script; consequently, most ancient and extant works by Greek mathematicians were rewritten in the minuscule script.


Alexandria, School of

Education was kept vibrant throughout this era as a result of the scholarship of Alcuin, Bede, Einhard, and others. Alcuin was instrumental in reviving the late Roman liberal arts in the school and thus led the revival of learning known as the Carolingian Renaissance. He introduced western Europe to the methodology of AngloSaxon humanism. Although he was the foremost teacher of his era, Alcuin was not particularly innovative (unlike his inspired calligraphy); nevertheless, the influence of Alcuin and his school was foundational for the intellectual development of the modern world. Alcuin returned to England in 786 as a consequence of significant ecclesiastical matters, and returned again in 790, on a delegation from Charlemagne. He attended the Synod of Frankfort in 794 and was influential in structuring the decrees that condemned adoptionism (a secondcentury heresy that Jesus lived as an ordinary man until His baptism, and was then adopted by God as His Son, and thus was conferred with supernatural powers as an exalted man), in addition to the subsequent efforts that affected the submission of recalcitrant Spanish prelates. Charlemagne appointed Alcuin as abbot of St. Martin at Tours in 796, where he retired in 801 and taught until his death. Alcuin was probably a monk and member of the Benedictine Order; however, it is possible that he was merely a member of the secular clergy. In his declining years, Alcuin remained zealous and sought to establish a model monastic school. He gathered books and received students, as he had done previously at Aachen and York, from both nearby locales and afar. In his writings, Alcuin’s favorite appellation for himself was “Albinus, humilus Levita.” Alcuin appears to have served as a deacon; however, it is possible that he became a priest in his later years. Alcuin introduced noteworthy reforms within Roman Catholicism in western Europe, particularly in revising the liturgy of the Frankish church. He introduced the Irish Northumbrian custom of singing creeds and arranged series of festal and votive masses. Alcuin reedited the Latin Vulgate Bible and was a persistent writer, who produced poems, schoolbooks (arithmetic, astronomy, and geometry texts, and lessons written in question and answer format), and theological treatises (on education, philosophy, and theology). Alcuin also wrote more than 300 letters in Latin, which remain valuable resources for the history of Charlemagne’s reign. References and Resources The first edition of Alcuin’s works appeared in 1617, in Paris, published by Quercetanus (Duchesne), and then subsequently by Frobenius Forster as Alcuini Opera, in two volumes (Regensburg, 1777). With the exception of 63 epistles, a complete edition of Alcuin’s works may be found in volumes 100–101

of Jacques-Paul Migne’s Partrologia Latina (Paris: apud J.-P. Migne editorem, 1844–1855), which is a reproduction of Frobenius, with the addition of Alcuin’s commentary on the Apocalypse (found in 1837). A total of 293 epistles (with the inclusion of poems) of Alcuin may be found in the fourth volume of the edited work by Philipp Jaffé, Wilhelm Wattenbach, and Ernst Ludwig Dümmler, “Monumenta Alcuiniana,” in Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum (Berlin: apud Weidmannos, 1873), 132–897. Dümmler edited Alcuin’s poems as “Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini” (1881) in volume 1 of Monumenta Germaniae Historica and published “Epistolae Aevi Carolini” (1895) in volume 2 of the same compilation. Important works for the study of Alcuin include the following: Allott, Stephen. 1974. Alcuin of York, c. A.D. 732 to 804. York, UK: William Sessions. Browne, George F. 1908. Alcuin of York. London: SPCK, 1908. Duckett, Eleanor S. 1951. Alcuin, Friend of Charlemagne. New York: Macmillan. Ellard, Gerald. 1940. “Alcuin and Some Favored Votive Masses.” Theological Studies 1: 37–61. Gaskoin, C. J. B. 1904. Alcuin: His Life and His Work. London: C. J. Clay and Sons. Lorentz, Friedrich. 1829. Alcuin’s Leben. Halle: Pöltz. Marenborn, John. 1981. From the Circle of Alcuin to the School of Auxerre. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Monnier, M. Francis. 1863. Alcuin et Charlemagne. Paris: Henri Plon. Mullinger, James B. 1877. The Schools of Charles the Great and the Restoration of Education in the Ninth Century. London: Cambridge. Werner, Karl. 1876. Alcuin und sein Jahrhundert. Paderborn: Schöningh. West, Andrew Fleming. 1892. Alcuin and the Rise of the Christian Schools. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons.

—Ron J. Bigalke

Alexandria, School of Ancient “schools,” such as Aristotle’s lyceum and Plato’s academy, should not be confused with modern institutions, for ancient schools revolved around one teacher (e.g., a philosopher or rhetorician) and the gathering of his students. The use of the term “school” tends to emphasize continuity in perspective from one teacher to the next in a particular region. Thus, the School of Alexandria refers to a series of teachers whose perspective was shaped by the importance of allegorical readings of scripture, whereas the School of Antioch refers to a series of teachers whose perspective was shaped by a rejection of allegory and an emphasis on historical and “plain” read-

Alexandria, The Importance of

ings of scripture. The School of Alexandria is perhaps the first “school” within the Christian perspective. Alexandria, with its famous Musaeum and library, offered the greatest academic resources and attracted the greatest scholars of the day. Two elements in particular prepared the way for Christian scholarship here: the translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Greek (the Septuagint) and the extensive writings of Philo (20 BC–AD 50), which exemplify an allegorical approach to the scriptures. Alexandrian scholars had developed an allegorical method of reading ancient Greek classics (e.g., Homer) that enabled those texts to continue speaking to contemporary readers, and Philo ingeniously applied that method to his Jewish texts. A Christian “school,” utilizing allegorical insight into biblical texts, emerged in the second century with Pantaenus (d. c. AD 180), who is known to us through his student and successor, Clement of Alexandria (c. AD 160–215), and achieved it heights with the prolific Origen (c. AD 185–254). Clement’s theological teachings were motivated by the need to respond to the increasing prevalence of Gnostic views among Christians in Alexandria. His interpretive approach reveals four levels of meaning in biblical texts: historical, ethical, priestly, and theological (Strom. I.23.176.1f.). The last two levels open up increasingly deeper meaning in the mysteries of God’s revelation. Origen’s writings are more systematic and thoroughgoing than Clement’s apologetic approach. Using the analogy of the human body, soul, and spirit, Origen viewed the scriptures as having literal, moral, and spiritual senses (De Prin. 4.2.4). The theory did not demand that every text have a threefold sense, but that any text might suggest any of these approaches. Problems arising from a literal reading suggested an alternative sense. Since Christians were not bound by Old Testament covenant law, these texts should be read in a spiritual way. Jewish history might offer moral and/or spiritual lessons, such as in Paul’s reading of the Hagar narrative in Galatians 4:21–24. Later exegetes in this school include Didymus the Blind and Cyril of Alexandria. References and Resources Hansen, Richard P. C. 2003. Allegory and Event: A Study of the Sources and Significance of Origen’s Interpretation of Scripture. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. Wiles, Maurice. 1970. “Origen as Biblical Scholar.” In The Cambridge History of the Bible, volume 1, edited by P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans, 454–589. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Young, Frances M. 1997. Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—Robert Keay


Alexandria, The Importance of Alexandria is a port city located on the northern coast of Egypt and the western portion of the Nile River delta. It was a leading city in the Roman Empire of the New Testament era, second only to Rome. It became the center of learning in the Mediterranean world and the home of one of the leading churches and its catechetical school, an early model for Christian higher education. The City of Alexandria The already extant Egyptian city Rhacotis was renamed Alexandria in 331 BC by Alexander the Great. Alexander appointed the architect Dinocrates of Rhodes to redesign the city, laying out streets, planning the sewer system and buildings, and so forth. Alexander’s intention was that the new city be a center of Greek culture as well as the port to connect upper Egypt with the Mediterranean Sea. The transformation included building projects such as the Pharos Lighthouse, the Temple of Serapis, and an academic complex the ancients referred to as a temple or house of Muses. This, the Museum, included an extensive library, lecture halls, and so forth. The library rose to prominence under Alexander’s successors, the Ptolemies. After the first of several fires that would consume the library over its several centuries of existence, it was replaced by a library in the Temple of Serapis. This academic center attracted scholars and teachers from around the Mediterranean, who would teach in the lectures halls, and so became the core of a university that would not close until the sixth century AD. By the New Testament era, Alexandria was already a center of the Jewish diaspora. The Jewish community there descended from refugees from Judah during the Babylonian exile of the sixth century BC, The Septuagint, a third-century BC translation of Jewish scripture into koine, or “common,” Greek, is widely believed to have been the scripture for most of the earliest Christians. Among this community was Philo (Judaeus) of Alexander, a Jewish philosopher who lived and taught in Alexandria during the New Testament era. His blend of Judaism and Greek philosophy—especially his teaching regarding the logos principle—would influence Christian doctrine and hermeneutics as well as the later Christian Alexandrian teachers. The Alexandrian Church Though the origins of the Alexandrian church are uncertain, Jewish converts returning from journeys to Jerusalem almost certainly had a role in its founding. One of its early bishops, Demetrius, claimed to have traced the establishment of the church to the apostle John Mark. As did many of the early churches, the Alexandrian church


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taught its catechumens, new converts who were being trained in preparation for baptism. This catechumenal school was for religious instruction only. The Alexandrian Catechetical School Many in the second-century Christian church questioned the efficacy of secular education—especially the various Greek philosophies. Representative of these attitudes is Tertullian of Carthage, who doubted any truth was knowable apart from God. Moreover, Tertullian saw philosophy as the source of heresies. However, to Alexandria came Pantaenus, a converted stoic from Sicily. Already a teacher, around 179 Pantaenus became head of the Alexandrian church’s catechumenal school. He refashioned the school’s curriculum to include Greek academic disciplines in addition to the training in apostolic tradition. This catechetical (as opposed to catechumenal, for it went beyond basic instruction for new converts) school became an important place of and prototype for Christian higher education. Clement (of Alexandria) succeeded his teacher Pantaenus as master of the Alexandrian catechetical school. Clement regarded Plato as a Greek Moses and suggested that God had used philosophy to prepare the Greeks for the Gospel much as the Law did for Jews. Clement was important in leading the church to not fear Greek learning and to understand that there was but one truth, and finding that truth was the joint venture of philosophy and Christian scholarship. At the age of 18, Origen (184–254), one of Clement’s students, was appointed by Bishop Demetrius as leader of the catechetical school. Origen’s writings had a broad impact on Christian doctrine and hermeneutics. He continued the educational approaches of Pantaenus and Clement and taught that philosophy and matters of faith can be reasoned. However, Origen insisted that faith must be based on scripture. Under the leadership of Pantaenus, Clement, and Origen, the Alexandrian catechetical school became a school the quality of which was widely seen as equal to that of the secular universities. (Ironically, the Christian persecution of non-Christian teachers led to the closure of the Alexandrian Greek university in AD 517.) References and Resources Elias, John L. 2002. A History of Christian Education: Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Perspectives. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Co. Niehoff, Maren. 2011. Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pollard, Justin, and Howard Reid. 2007. The Rise and Fall of Alexandria: Birthplace of the Modern World. New York: Penguin Books.

Reed, James E., and Ronnie Prevost. 1993. A History of Christian Education. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman. Ulich, Robert. 1968. A History of Religious Education: Documents and Interpretations from the Judeo-Christian Tradition. New York: New York University Press.

—Ronnie Prevost

Alpha Course The Alpha course (www.alpha.org) is probably the most popular course in “evangelistic adult education” worldwide, and since its inception in the early 1990s, millions of people have participated in it. Originating in charismatic evangelical Anglicanism, it is used across a wide spectrum of churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. It is self-identified as an “introduction to the Christian faith,” although there is debate about whether it is primarily and best used for evangelism with the unchurched or for those with some prior knowledge of or commitment to the Christian faith. Now translated into several languages, it is available in most countries of the world. The course normally consists of 15 sessions, which take 12 weeks to complete, with a residential weekend that covers three sessions on the work of the Holy Spirit and where charismatic experiences are introduced and expected. The usual format for each session is a meal for the participants, a talk based on specific prepackaged material, and then an “open” discussion of the material in small groups. It is in this latter space that, one suspects, good learning can potentially take place, with an experienced facilitator who can allow a variety of different viewpoints (and even perhaps “heresy’) to be aired freely. Because the content of the material is fixed by copyright, the course fits into a linear model of educational practice that begins in theory (propositional theology such as substitutionary atonement as the “answer” to the problem posed by human sin and fallenness) and ends in action (e.g., conversion and reception of the gifts the Spirit). This is in contrast to the action/reflection model, which is a cyclical process, and questioning or imaginative approaches, which begin in other places than propositional truth (see, e.g., http://www.livingtheques tions.com). Such a traditional approach might lead to the question: Why is Alpha so successful? The answer generally offered by commentators is the overt strategy of the course’s founder, Rev. Nicky Gumbel, to mold the process of the course to particular sociological contexts. This is why there are student/youth/seniors/Catholic/forces/ prisons/workplace versions of the material available. The course is packaged and branded with a corporate image, logo, and “strapline.” Brian (2003, 8) describes the process by which this branding came about through

Amalorpavadass, D. S.

key marketing people in the source church, Holy Trinity, Brompton, London. It utilizes the branding, group dynamics, and the meal to welcome and hold participants. The course has attracted writers and researchers ranging from the sympathetic to the highly critical. An ecumenical set of analytical essays includes dialogue with Gumbel himself (Brookes 2007). Hunt (2001, 2004) takes a sociological approach based on interview data. Brian (2003), who uses an educational paradigm, shows how the course might de-Christianize those with an embryonic or nominal faith. They can take a dislike to the faith as presented in Alpha and therefore give up on any prior faith they had, assuming now that Alpha equals Christianity. Rooms (2005) examines the course in three different cultural contexts and finds a best fit in a prison, where the sin/salvation message can be easily received. His findings about the lack of any attempt at true enculturation in the material resonate with the most comprehensive work done so far, by James Heard (2009). Heard researches as an “insider” in the Alpha world, but nevertheless has trong criticism from many perspectives, including the theological and the ecclesiological; for example, he believes that, like Evangelicalism as a whole, Alpha represents a piety rather than an ecclesiology (2009, 228). Most of the research on Alpha has been UK based; it is debatable, however, whether much new knowledge would be generated by examining the course elsewhere, except perhaps by looking at what effect, if any, translating the material into other languages would have. References and Resources Brian, Stephen. 2003. “The Alpha Course: An Analysis of its Claim to Offer an Educational Course on the Meaning of Life.” PhD thesis, University of Surrey. Brookes, Andrew, ed. 2007. The Alpha Phenomenon: Theology, Praxis and Challenges for Mission and Church Today. London: Churches Together in Britain and Ireland. Heard, James. 2009. Inside Alpha: Explorations in Evangelism. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. Hunt, Stephen. 2001. Anyone for Alpha? Evangelism in a PostChristian Society. London: DLT. ———. 2004. The Alpha Enterprise: Evangelism in a PostChristian Era. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. Rooms, Nigel. 2005. “‘Nice Process, Shame about the Content’: The Alpha Course in Three Different Cultural Contexts.” Journal of Adult Theological Education 2 (2): 129–141.

—Nigel Rooms

Amalorpavadass, D. S. Duraisamy Simon Amalorpavadass (1932–1990) was a leader and catechist of the Indian Catholic renewal after


the Second Vatican Council. After ordination and assignment at a regional catechetical center, Amalorpavadass wrote two studies of the postcolonial Indian church situation at the Institut Catholique de Paris. In 1966, he was appointed to lead the new National Biblical, Catechetical and Liturgical Centre (NBCLC) at Bangalore. The NBCLC produced the first non-Western catechetical materials for children and youth in Catholic schools and parishes; ran residential and offsite teaching programs that trained more than 10,000 catechists; and published the proceedings of regular consultations with Indian Catholic theologians. Besides speaking widely, Amalorpavadass edited the NBCLC journal Word and Worship. A bibliography of his work lists 38 edited volumes and more than two hundred articles. Amalorpavadass later served as the first professor of Christianity at the University of Madras and founded an ashram where his conception of indigenous Christianity was practiced. He died in an automobile accident at the age of 58. Amalorpavadass became widely recognized after his keynote address at the International Catechetical Congress in Rome in 1971. To him, renewing worship required a catechesis that would “give a new world view, set up a different hierarchy of values, cause a change of attitudes, form a whole person, educate his or her liberty, guide him or her toward Christian maturity, integrate the person in the church community, guide that person to commit himself or herself to the tasks of society and integral development of humanity.” Catechesis is a ministry of the word that comes after responsible adherence, aiming to awaken, nourish, and educate faith. Being able to recite answers is not evidence of faith. The pattern that God used to establish the church as a new humanity awaiting consummation must be the pattern for teaching. Thus catechesis must take account of the personal and social situation of the one to whom the faith is being passed on. The development in his theology can be seen by comparing his master’s and doctoral theses. The first relies on a biblical history of salvation, influenced by Josef Jungmann, whose ideas had been presented in south Asia through catechetical study weeks in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Jungmann contrasted catechesis that is like a theology compendium with the teaching of the earliest churches, where details never obscure the joyful message. Jungmann urged priests to rely on scripture and liturgy when catechizing. Historical approaches are vulnerable to relativization, and the hierarchy restrained them. However, Jungmann’s view of salvation history as encompassing the present enabled catechumens to be not just subjects for propositions but persons in time. Amalorpavadass’s first study applies the salvation-history approach to an India working out its identity after


Amalorpavadass, D. S.

colonialism. He argues that though culture and religion are distinct, they are interwoven: “Hinduism . . . has predominantly, though not exclusively, shaped the Indian culture . . . therefore (Catholic) [e]nculturation in India involves incarnation chiefly in Hindu culture.” The Vatican council seemed to authorize the approach when in Ad Gentes it asked the church to “realize its insufficiency and to borrow from other religions with the least possible hesitation, shame and complex.” Amalorpavadass’s doctoral dissertation differs from the earlier study by an expanded idea of biblical theology. Borrowing from Hans Urs von Balthasar’s Theology of History, it posits that world history is set up to promote salvation. Amalorpavadass radicalizes Balthasar by drawing on Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: “The essence of Christianity is . . . belief in the whole unification of the world, through the Incarnation. The whole history of the world is . . . one vast phenomenon of Christification.”68 Teilhard’s influence is plain when Amalorpavadass later writes that because the spirit of Christ “fills the universe. . . . We have no right to exclude anything—especially religions—from the object of salvation and [e]nculturation. . . . They should be recognized as the inheritance of Christ.”69 Shared recognition of “God-experience” can help to start dialogue with Indians. Amalorpavadass’s master’s thesis had seen that India was prepared for the gospel in its own fashion—via the Upanishads, for instance—where he maintained that “India wants union with god but what is offered in the New Testament is participation in the life of God.” The master’s thesis thus holds up New Testament revelation as the hermeneutical key of non-Christian expressions. Amalorpavadass seems to maintain the same stance more than a decade later, in 1978: “One should not indiscriminately admit . . . everything from . . . the religions . . . as they are. They should be . . . subjected to a Christian critique. . . . Nothing can be adopted unless . . . it acquires a Christian meaning through a Christian interpretation.”70 Less emphatic is the statement by the NBCLC’s Research Seminar on Non-Biblical Scriptures (1974): “The Spirit of God is mysteriously leading all these religions to an ever growing realization of their inner dynamism and their inter-relationship. Or, ‘Life with believers of other (r)eligions invites us time and again to recognize the striking resonance of the same ineffable mystery which their (r) eligions embodied.’” 68. De Souza located two sources of the combined Teilhard quote: Cyril de Souza, “The Catechetical Proposal of Fr. DS Amalorpavadass: A Study of His Publications” (PhD thesis, no. 310, Salesian Pontifical University, Rome, 1993), 5.3.2, 31 n113. 69. D. S. Amalorpavadass, Approaches in Our Apostolate Among Followers of Other Religions (Bangalore: National Biblical, Catechetical and Liturgical Centre, 1970), 67. 70. Ibid., 69, citing Ad Gentes 8.

The “Four Point Programme” of Catholic schools in Melbourne, Australia, still in use, relied on Amalorpavadass’s theology. Amalorpavadass’s 1971 address outlined three stages of catechesis: “Evocation of a human experience, with reflection on it and interpretation of its significance at the human level; then interpretation and discovery of its fuller meaning and ultimate fulfillment in the light of God’s Word proclaimed; lastly, with the discovery of the relevance of the Word to life, reviewing and reliving the human experience in full consonance with faith.”71 The diocese elaborated four stages: experience shared, reflection deepened, faith expressed, and insights reinforced. Note that “[t]he intention of the four-point plan is to ‘unveil’ for students the presence and action of God in life.” From the “evocation” stage onward, catechesis is situated and personalized so that historical and social context is taken seriously. God is the milieu of every life. The meaning of secular experience is to be augmented by theological reflection in the stages to follow. Amalorpavadass’s innovations met resistance. The contents of the “God-with-Us” curriculum raised a “hue and cry,” according to van Leeuwen (1990). The NBCLC’s proposal that nonbiblical scriptures be used in the opening portions of worship services had support from the Indian hierarchy, but seems to have been opposed by laypeople and by Rome: Dupuis mentions the concern of the Archbishop of Cochin that “the faithful are not yet prepared for such an innovation.”72 Van Leeuwen speaks of a notorious ban on liturgical use of non-Christian scriptures. The Hinduized architecture of the new NBCLC buildings raised comment. Amalorpavadass was motivated by concern for the future of Christianity in a vibrant, plural, yet troubled society. He epitomizes a flowering of theology in the former colonial centers. He drew on Vatican II’s understanding of revelation and religions to promote a serious Catholic engagement with Hindu culture. The result was a contextualized catechesis with a radical openness toward other religions. References and Resources Works by Amalorpavadass Amalorpavadass, D. S. 1982. “Biblical World-View and a Renewed Holistic Spirituality.” In Indian Christian Spirituality, edited by D. S. Amalorpavadass, 47–63. Bangalore: NBCLC. 71. D. S. Amalorpavadass, “Catechesis as a Pastoral Task of the Church,” in Sourcebook for Modern Catechetics, ed. Michael Warren (Winona, MN: St. Mary’s Press, 1983), 357. 72. Jacques Dupuis, “Inculturation and Interreligious Dialogue in India Today,” in A Universal Faith, ed. Catherine Cornille, V. Neckebrouck, and Frank De Graeve (Louvain and Grand Rapids, MI: Peeters Press and W. B. Eerdmans, 1992), 33.


———. 1983. “Catechesis as a Pastoral Task of the Church.” In Sourcebook for Modern Catechetics, edited by Michael Warren, 339–360. Winona, MN: St. Mary’s Press.

Works about Amalorpavadass Barla, John Berchmans. 1999. “Christian Theological Understanding of Other Religions According to D. S. Amalorpavadass.” In Documenta Missionalia, 26. Rome: Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. De Souza, C. 1994. Catechesis for India Today. Bangalore: Kristu Jyoti. De Souza, Cyril. 1993. “The Catechetical Proposal of Fr. DS Amalorpavadass: A Study of His Publications.” PhD thesis, no. 310, Salesian Pontifical University, Rome. Gaillardetz, Richard R. 1997. Teaching with Authority: A Theology of the Magisterium in the Church. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press. Ganeri, Martin. 2007. “Catholic Encounter with Hindus in the Twentieth Century: In Search of an Indian Christianity.” New Blackfriars 88 (1016): 410–432. Gibbs, Philip. 1996. The Word in the Third World: Divine Revelation in the Theology of Jean-Marc Éla, Aloysius Pieris and Gustavo Gutiérrez. Rome: Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. Jungmann, Josef A. 1962. The Good News Yesterday and Today. Translated by W. A. Huesman. New York: W. H. Sadlier. van Leeuwen, J. A. G. Gerwin. 1990. Fully Indian—Authentically Christian: A Study of the First Fifteen Years of the NBCLC, 1967–1982. Kerk en Theologie in Context. Kampen: J. H. Kok.

—Ted Newell

Ambrose Ambrose of Milan, who is remembered as one of the four “doctors” of the Western Church (with Augustine, Gregory the Great, and Leo the Great), was born in AD 339 into a life of privilege and power. His father was the Roman governor of Gaul (southern France), so Ambrose was educated in the best of the ancient Roman system of learning. He attended the grammar school in Rome, where he studied the liberal arts and developed the important skills of oratory. He also attended the school of rhetoric, where he studied the works of Cicero and Quintillian, masters of Roman rhetoric and the art of persuasion. Five more years of training in law concluded his educational preparation for a career in civil service. Joined to the moral excellence provided by the ancient educational system were the formative influences of a Christian family and the life of the church. Ambrose distinguished himself as a skilled orator and legal mind and was soon appointed to the position of governor over


the provinces of Aemilia and Ligurin in northern Italy, an area that included Milan as its capital city. While serving in this capacity, Ambrose was surprisingly elected to the episcopacy during a time of intense conflict between orthodox Christians and their Arian opponents, who held that the Son of God was fully divine and was subordinated to the Father. The qualities of character, or ethos, displayed by Ambrose in attempting to mediate this conflict contributed to his nomination for the priesthood and immediate election to the office of bishop of Milan. The ongoing conflict with the Arian party, civil officials, and even the emperor would do much to shape his episcopacy. His leadership of the church through a difficult time of doctrinal challenges and political turmoil is a primary reason Ambrose is remembered as a saint and doctor of the church. There is little doubt that the benefits of a classical education served Ambrose well in his ministry as bishop of Milan. He described what had happened to him as being snatched into the priesthood, a position that required him to learn as he taught, to be led as he led, and to listen as he spoke. He is remembered as a gifted and moving preacher and teacher whose manner of simple yet eloquent speech was pressed into the service of his congregation. In keeping with his classical training in rhetoric, he lived a life of moral virtue that was transformed and filled by a deep faith and love for God. One of the most significant events of his ministry in Milan was the baptism of Augustine, who under the direction of Ambrose offered himself for the church’s catechetical preparation and training. In the Confessions, Augustine would later remember Ambrose for the quality of his Christian character and the illuminating power of his preaching. Ambrose is an exemplar of pastoral leadership during the patristic period. He was most concerned with the character, knowing that a life of deep faith and virtue would shape and direct all these leaders said and did in their ministries. To this end, Ambrose wrote his best known work, De Officiis Ministrorum (On the Ministerial Office), a handbook that followed the structure of Cicero’s De Officiis for public servants. This work was significant, providing one of the first Christian treatises dealing with the person and work of the pastor. Drawing primarily from biblical examples, De Officiis is an instructive and compelling portrait of pastoral character, wisdom, and devotion to God in service of the church. Pointing to leaders in both the Old and New Testaments, Ambrose intentionally held up the priesthood as an exemplary calling for the sake of others, a human witness to God’s holiness, which is the way that leads to the fullness of salvation through participation in the life of the Triune God. We may yet learn from the godly wisdom displayed by Ambrose of Milan, in that technique and skill in


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ministry may be necessary but will never be sufficient in light of God’s self-giving in Jesus Christ. References and Resources Frend, W. H. C. 1984. The Rise of Christianity. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. Ramsey, Boniface. 1997. Ambrose (The Early Christian Fathers). London: Routledge. Williams, D. H. 1995. Ambrose of Milan and the End of the Arian Nicene Conflicts. Gloucester, England: Clarendon Press.

—Michael Pasquarello III

American Baptist Church Christian Education The Baptist movement began in Amsterdam in 1609 with a group of exiled English Separatist Puritans led by John Smyth and Thomas Helwys. They formed a believer’s church, predicated on the idea that all who claimed membership should testify to an experience of grace through Jesus Christ, followed by believer’s baptism. Helwys and a remnant of the group returned to England in 1612, where their more Arminian-oriented theology led to the formation of the General Baptists. By the 1630s other more reform-oriented churches were founded, ultimately known as Particular Baptists due to their belief that Christ’s atonement applied only to the elect. By the 1640s, both General and Particular Baptists made immersion the normative mode of baptism. The earliest Baptists in the American colonies were often persecuted by Puritan and Anglican establishments in New England and Virginia. Roger Williams (1603–1683), exiled from Massachusetts for advocating fair treatment of Native Americans and religious liberty for both heretic and atheist, helped found the First Baptist Church of Providence around 1638. Although Williams’s Baptist sojourn was brief, his opposition to religious establishments became a hallmark of historic Baptist identity. Williams and Dr. John Clarke, founder of the First Baptist Church of Newport, worked to secure a charter for the Rhode Island colony, the first to grant complete freedom of religion for its citizens. Baptist identity centered in the concept of a believer’s church, believer’s baptism, congregational polity (Christ’s authority mediated through the community of believers), biblical authority, freedom of conscience, the priesthood of all believers, the ordaining of ministers, interchurch fellowship through congregational “associations,” and the significance of religious liberty. Amid these common ideals, Baptists originated at both ends of the theological spectrum, with advocates of both Calvinist and Arminian approaches to the faith. Early Baptists declared their

views and instructed the faithful through confessions of faith that set forth the particular theological emphasis of specific congregations. In America, Baptist churches were often constituted around three documents: a confession of faith that said what they believed, a church covenant that committed members to particular behavior, and “rules of decorum” that delineated how they conducted business. These documents were also sources of instruction for church members. Some Baptist leaders even wrote catechisms for instructing the young in the rudiments of the faith. Like other colonial Protestants, Baptists disagreed over the revivalistic methods that blossomed during the Great Awakening. While many required a testimony of faith before administering baptism, they differed over the “enthusiastical” outbursts that characterized some revival services. Regular Baptists generally opposed revival enthusiasms, while Separate Baptists affirmed them. Regular Baptist preachers were often known for writing out their sermons, rather than demonstrating the spontaneity of the Separates. Following the American Revolution, Baptists lobbied hard for religious liberty through advocates such as Massachusetts minister Isaac Backus (1724–1806), appointed by the Warren Association of Baptists to encourage the Continental Congress to confront the issue, and John Leland (1754– 1841), a Virginia preacher who pressured Thomas Jefferson and James Madison for what became the First Amendment to the Constitution. Baptists thrived on the American frontier, organizing churches and participating in revivals and camp meetings, many led by Baptist farmer-preachers, individuals with limited formal education who worked the land weekly and preached on Sundays. Baptist congregationalism made it possible to found churches quickly when believers chose to constitute a congregation. The conversionism of the Second Great Awakening of the 19th century led Baptists to found their first missionary agency, the General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States, in 1814. The Triennial Convention (meeting every three years) spawned various “societies” aimed at such collective needs of the churches as foreign and home missions, education, benevolence, and publications. Schools, literacy, and biblical translation were each sources of instruction used by the missionaries across the denominations. Sunday schools were founded in the late 18th century as a means for teaching “slum-children” to read using the Bible as primary text. Divisions occurred over issues of theology and practice, often generating new Baptist churches and denominations, many related to educational concerns. Primitive and Old Regular Baptists promoted a staunch Calvinism that rejected revivals and missionary activity as a form

Amish Christian Education

of “works righteousness” that contradicted the idea that God alone facilitated the salvation of the elect. They denounced mission societies, church-related colleges and schools, Sunday schools, and an educated ministry. (God-called preachers were given gifts of ministry and interpretation by the Holy Spirit.) At the other end of the theological spectrum, Free Will Baptists asserted that all persons were potentially elected, actualizing salvation through repentance and faith. Missionary Baptists formed mission societies and reflected a more modified Calvinism, preaching as if all could be saved while asserting that God would use preaching to awaken the elect. Baptist influence and membership grew rapidly, and by the 1830s it was one of the largest Protestant denominations in the United States. Many 19th-century Baptists, North and South, founded educational institutions, such as Brown University (1764), Newton Theological Seminary (1826), Bates College (1855), Colgate (1819), Richmond (1832), Wake Forest (1834), Furman (1826), William Jewell (1849), and Baylor (1846). A major division occurred in 1845 when the Southern Baptist Convention was formed after the Baptist Missionary Society refused to appoint a known slave owner as a missionary to Native Americans. The northern societies eventually became the Northern Baptist Convention, now American Baptist Churches, USA. The American Baptist Home Missionary Society was instrumental in founding churches and schools for African Americans, aimed at the education of former slaves. African American Christians in the North and South had long been drawn to Baptist polity, and with the end of the Civil War they founded their own churches and Baptist denominations. The Northern Baptist Convention was formed in 1895, developing publication and education programs early in its history. In 1915, a new National Baptist Convention, Unincorporated, was founded after a schism over ownership of the publishing house. Divisions over denominational leadership led to the formation of the Progressive National Baptist Convention in 1961. Baptist denominations provided educational programs and publications for Baptist churches that offered instruction in scripture, doctrine, ethics, and Baptist identity. Biblical education curriculum through Sunday schools and Bible studies contributed to a significant biblical literacy among active Baptists in multiple subgroups. Denominations shaped Baptist identity through networks of churches, schools, seminaries, and collective practices. As denominational resources have become more diverse or declined in the 21st century, and as Sunday school has become a less consistent weekly observance in many families, Baptists across the theological spectrum are having difficulty providing basic biblical, theological, and historical instruction for a new generation.


References and Resources Leonard, Bill J. 2003. Baptist Ways: A History. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press. ———. 2005. Baptists in America. New York: Columbia University Press. Washington, James Melvin. 1986. Frustrated Fellowship: Black Baptist Quest for Social Power. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.

—Bill J. Leonard

Amish Christian Education History The Amish grew out of 16th-century European Anabaptists roots. Menno Simmons, after whom the Mennonites are named, was a prominent leader of the Anabaptists. It was from within the early Mennonites that the Amish emerged as a separate group, following the leadership of Jacob Ammann. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Amish and the Mennonites began immigrating to the United States. From the time of their immigration until the mid20th century, the majority of Amish families sent their children to one-room, rural public schools. In the 20th century, school districts began to consolidate, and states began to mandate longer school years and additional years of compulsory attendance. As a result, the Amish began to create parochial schools for their children. Oneroom schoolhouses were often bought from the state after public schools consolidated into larger buildings. Often school would continue as it had been before consolidation, using the same textbooks and curriculum, but with an Amish instructor. However, the inception of Amish parochial schools came at great cost. When parents refused to send children to school past the eighth grade, many were fined or imprisoned. At times, when parents refused to pay fines, the state would confiscate Amish property, or even remove Amish children from their homes. These sorts of actions by various state governments incited a long legal battle on behalf of the Amish. William Lindholm, a Lutheran minister, founded the National Committee for Amish Religious Freedom (NCARF) in 1967 to defend the Amish’s right to parochial schooling. The goal was to bring the plight of the Amish before the U.S. Supreme Court and solidify the right of the Amish to educate their children as they saw fit. This opportunity would come in Wisconsin v. Yoder (1971). Jonas Yoder was one of three Amish fathers in New Glarus, Wisconsin, who refused to send his children to school through age 16, which was the standing Wisconsin law. The state won trials in lower state courts, but the


Amish Christian Education

Amish appealed to the Wisconsin Supreme Court, which ruled in their favor. The state of Wisconsin then appealed the case directly to the Supreme Court in 1971. In the landmark case Wisconsin v. Yoder, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Amish parochial schools that end at the eighth grade. The court cited that such schools were a part of the Amish religious beliefs of separatism and simplicity. The question of Amish education went beyond schooling, reaching into the fundamental right of religious liberty. Common Characteristics of Amish Parochial Schools Amish schools are traditionally one-room neighborhood schoolhouses that have 20 to 30 pupils in eight grades. Teachers are often young women with no formal training, who themselves are only a year or two out of school. Amish teachers have local meetings, regional conferences, and a regular teachers’ publication, The Blackboard Bulletin, to provide a host of informal training. Schools are operated by a school board, usually consisting of three to five fathers of children attending the school. The board sets the teacher’s wages, hires the teacher, collects the school tax, orders books and supplies, and maintains the school. The Amish speak a dialect of German commonly known as Pennsylvania Dutch. School instruction takes place in English, and school is often where children receive their first introduction to and regular use of the English language. Amish schools generally use older curriculum or Amish-produced curriculum from a handful of Old Order publishers. Parents and teachers alike desire curriculum that reinforces Amish values. The Old Order Book Society has bought the rights to reproduce many older book series, including the Dick and Jane series. Some Amish-produced materials are the Pathway Readers, the Study Time Arithmetic Series, and textbooks by the Rod and Staff Publishers. Interestingly, it is not uncommon for Amish children to score higher in standardized testing than their non-Amish counterparts. A typical Amish school day will begin at 8:15 or 8:30 and end between 3:15 and 3:30. Children will have a short morning recess, a longer, midday lunch and recess, and a short afternoon recess. Children are taught to have a strong work ethic and high level of self-direction. While the teacher works with one grade on a subject, all the other children are expected to be completing assignments. Older students are asked to assist younger students who are struggling in a subject. Students know to work quietly and complete the day’s assigned tasks while the teacher is working with other grades. There is a surprising amount of diversity in education among Amish groups, ranging from traditional, “low” Amish to more progressive, “high” Amish. Educational

goals and methods are shaped by each group’s beliefs and level of interaction with the non-Amish world. The following descriptions come from Karen JohnsonWeiner’s book Train Up a Child: Old Order Amish and Mennonite Schools, which is a thorough ethnographic study of Old Order schools. Low The schools of the “lowest” Amish groups serve to reinforce the differences between the Amish community and the outside world. They help solidify the identity of the Amish community as distinctly separate from the nonAmish world. These groups have minimal interaction with the non-Amish and consider themselves “strangers and pilgrims” in this world. Schools are unadorned, have only rudimentary amenities, and focus primarily on function. Posters on the walls are purely functional with no decoration, the school yard has no play equipment, and the school building has no electricity or running water. The purpose of the school is to prepare children for a life within the Amish community and equip them to complete only the most necessary and basic interactions with the outside world. Teachers are expected to transmit a knowledge of fundamental subjects—English language, spelling, penmanship, mathematics, and German—in addition to teaching children the basic character traits the Amish value: hard work, integrity, and humility. There may be a daily Bible passage reading and the recitation of the Lord’s Prayer, but the school is not the appropriate place to teach the Bible. Bible teaching is done in the home by parents and during the church services by church leaders. “Low” Amish schools operate as a necessary, but isolated, part of the community. These schools rarely have visitors, parental involvement in the school is minimal, and no community events are focused on the school. Mainstream Schools of “mainstream” Amish groups are more progressive, are more externally focused, and have a greater presence in the community. These schools must build a bridge for children from the Amish world to the secular world, as many children in these communities will grow up to have a great deal of interaction with non-Amish people. “Mainstream” Amish schools will have decorative teaching elements, such as illustrated alphabet posters, charts to track children’s progress, and children’s artwork displayed on the walls. Generally, these will still be one-room schoolhouses without electricity or running water. Some schools will have play equipment such as swings, tetherballs, volleyball nets, basketball courts, or baseball fields. The basic subjects of math, English, spelling, penmanship, and German are sometimes supplemented with

Anabaptist Christian Education

health, art, geography, or history. There often will be Bible passage reading, recitation of the Lord’s Prayer, and even scripture memorization, but little Bible teaching will be done. Parents and visitors are not only welcomed, but expected at these schools. Mothers will take turns bringing hot meals for the children, and parents of both genders will sit in on classes occasionally. The school has a high level of community involvement, with annual picnics, Christmas programs, and special activities for children and families.


Hostetler, J. 1993. Amish Society. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Johnson-Weiner, K. 2007. Train Up a Child: Old Order Amish and Mennonite Schools. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Peters, S. 2003. The Yoder Case. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

—Virginia Gray

Anabaptist Christian Education High The most progressive Amish schools are often found in Amish groups that allow the greatest amount of interaction with the outside world. Such Amish schools consider themselves to be “Christian” schools in a much broader sense than their “lower” counterparts. In many ways beyond educational practices, these groups are more progressive than their “lower” counterparts. “High” schools must prepare children for a significant possibility of entering into the secular workforce and having regular interactions with non-Amish society. These schools may have two or a maximum of three classrooms in one building, with up to six instructors and sixty students. Some of these schools may even have indoor plumbing and gas lighting. “High” schools have playgrounds and decorated classrooms, and will even take children on field trips. These schools also have Bible teaching in the classroom. They teach the broadest range of subjects, including English, German, math, spelling, penmanship, art, history, geography, and Bible classes. Unlike “lower” schools, Bible is considered a necessary subject for pupils. These schools also have a strong community presence and welcome parents and visitors. Special Education Like other American schools, Amish parochial schools have responded to the need for special education. Some areas with a large Amish population have opened a separate school for special needs students. In other Amish schools, a second teacher may be hired to work with two to four special needs students, and in small Amish communities, a single special-needs student may be integrated into the classroom, with extra attention given by the teacher and other students. Some Amish parents choose to send special needs children to public schooling, rather than Amish parochial schools.

The traditions identified as Anabaptist (Mennonite, Brethren, Amish, and Hutterite) have a long history of following and living for Jesus Christ. The Anabaptists’ insistence on living the teachings of Jesus has often put them at odds with other Christians throughout history. Despite persecution and martyrdom, Anabaptism survived, bringing with it a message of peace, love, and service. Anabaptists form strong communal bonds and are committed to living for God above all else. Frequently described as a “third way,” Anabaptism remains a strong voice for a just and peaceful world in service to Jesus Christ. Early History Anabaptism predates Luther’s Reformation, yet 25 January 1525 marks the formal beginning of the Anabaptist story. In Zurich, Switzerland, young radicals, upset that Ulrich Zwingli’s reforms did not go far enough, took matters into their own hands. Convinced that following Jesus was a voluntary decision, these radicals baptized one another, and from that action a new movement was born (Kraybill and Hostetter 2001, 21). Anabaptists’ refusal to baptize infants, support governments, and follow what was then considered “normal” Christian behavior resulted in much persecution. Anabaptists were accused of subverting the social order because of their desire to establish separate volunteer communities unattached to any government. Anabaptists’ egalitarianism also put them at odds with the larger society (Gonzalez 1985, 56). The word “Anabaptist” originated as a derogatory term meaning “rebaptizers.” Despite severe persecution from both Catholics and Protestants, Anabaptism grew across Europe and eventually made its way to the New World. As a diverse movement with no single leader, Anabaptists would form a variety of groups, including the four main forms of Anabaptism today: Mennonites, Brethren, Amish, and Hutterites.

References and Resources Dewalt, M. 2006. Amish Education in the United States and Canada. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Fisher, S., and R. Stahl. 1997. The Amish School. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.

Beliefs Common to Anabaptists Today Anabaptists consider all of life an opportunity to worship God. Believing in Jesus is intimately tied to living for Jesus in service and humility. The primary founda-


Anabaptist Curriculum Outcomes

tion for Anabaptist belief and practice is scripture. The story of Jesus is particularly important for Anabaptists, and the rest of scripture is read through a Christocentric viewpoint. Anabaptists believe that all of Christ’s teachings, particularly the Sermon on the Mount, must be followed by all Christians. Biblical interpretation is a communal activity meant to be shared, studied, and applied by all in Anabaptist communities. Scripture is studied in order to know how to be disciples for Christ in the world (Roth 2005, 43–47). Therefore, the stories of scripture are embedded at an early age with the goal of molding and shaping young Christians into disciples for Christ. The community is integral in Anabaptist life. The church is a community in which members share in daily activities and tasks in love and fellowship. Community life is also a spiritual experience that involves the work of the Holy Spirit in the daily life of believers. Anabaptists have a counterculture model of being church. The church should develop its own culture, in opposition to the surrounding culture, that models the teachings of Jesus (Kraybill and Hostetter 2001, 50). As a counterculture community, Anabaptists serve as a visible witness of Jesus’s teachings. Anabaptists are also countercultural in their strict adherence to nonresistance, peacemaking, and love. Belief in the importance of peace has led to a commitment to nonviolence and service ministry (Shenk 2003, 135–136). In addition, Anabaptist communities remain committed to the authority of Jesus Christ above all else, including governments. Anabaptist communities embrace simplicity and good work. These communities typically employ some standard of behavior and discipline for their members. Anabaptist communities can vary from traditional to progressive (Kraybill and Hostetter 2001, 56). Certain groups continue to shun technology, use horse-drawn carriages, and wear plain clothing. Other groups embrace technology, have traditional careers, and are involved in higher education. Despite the differences over what it means to be countercultural, Anabaptists share the commitment that the church should be a visible witness of Christ in the world. More progressive communities are committed to missions, while traditional groups are less so. All in all, Anabaptists remain a diverse, albeit small, countercultural voice in contemporary Christianity. Implications for Christian Education Anabaptists remain committed to the same principles of those first radical reformers of the 16th century. Their core belief is still the importance of a voluntary acceptance of Jesus Christ that influences one’s daily practice. Scripture remains the foundation and source for how to live, work, and be a Christian in visible community.

The Anabaptist experience reminds Christian educators that knowledge is meant to be practiced. The mission and purpose of Christian education should be oriented toward the practical needs of communities both local and global. The counterculture model of Anabaptists demonstrates the uniqueness of Christian education. Christian educators are called to train young men and women to be disciples of Jesus Christ. Becoming disciples of Jesus is never easy, or popular, but it is what makes Christian education unique and special. The Anabaptist commitment to serve one another in community, treat every person equally and fairly, and remain faithful to the way of peace and nonresistance exemplifies the mission of Jesus. It is a commitment that Christian educators should share and impart to others. References and Resources Estep, W. R. 1996. The Anabaptist Story: An Introduction to Sixteenth-Century Anabaptist. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Finger, T. N. 2004. A Contemporary Anabaptist Theology: Biblical, Historical, Constructive. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Gonzalez, J. L. 1985. The Story of Christianity. Vol. 2, The Reformation to the Present Day. New York: HarperCollins. Klaasen, W. 1981. Anabaptism in Outline: Selected Primary Sources. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Kraybill, D. B., and C. N. Hostetter. 2001. Anabaptist World USA. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Roth, J. D. 2005. Beliefs: Mennonite Faith and Practice. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Shenk, S. W. 2003. Anabaptist Ways of Knowing: A Conversation about Tradition-Based Critical Education. Telford, PA: Cascadia Publishing House. Weaver, J. D. 2000. Anabaptist Theology in Face of Postmodernity: A Proposal for the Third Millennium. Telford, PA: Pandora Press.

—Jonathan L. Best

Anabaptist Curriculum Outcomes The core principle of the Anabaptist tradition is embedding the life and teaching of Jesus in everyday life. Anabaptist educational outcomes model this principle through critical reflection, interpretation, and discernment on how to best do this individually and communally on a daily basis. Children are brought up in a family-based community culture in order to give them foundational precepts for living practically for Christ. Education is centered on imparting habitual practices that inform, shape, and mold Anabaptist students for life. Starting at an early age, scripture is used to shape the decision-making process of children. The community

Analytic Philosophy and Theology

immerses or indwells children and adults in an educational system founded on scripture through the use of stories, songs, and symbols (Shenk 2003, 155). Scripture is therefore the primary means of engaging the life of Jesus, morally discerning what is right and wrong, and serving the community and outside world. Anabaptists have an incarnational approach to education, by which the goal of education is making Jesus visible in the world (Roth 2011, 86–87). Teaching on how to be Christ in the local community and the world is as important as doctrinal teachings. Anabaptists take seriously the idea that what one knows has a direct impact on what one does. It is a faith-based education founded on the life of Jesus as presented in scripture. Knowing about Jesus can never be done abstractly; instead, what is known is embedded, shared, and brought to others through practice. The most visible fruits of the educational system are the relationships that are formed. Anabaptists accomplish an incarnational approach through several pedagogical techniques. They value relationship in teaching and instructing; therefore students are treated as unique individuals with special gifts to give to the community. Students receive special attention in a family-like environment that models the qualities of respect and love. Learning how to be a disciple is especially important in Anabaptist education. Discipleship is tied to a life of ethical practices, service to others, and loyalty to God above all else. Anabaptist education is also passionate about shaping students who will be peacemakers and freely serve others throughout the world (Roth 2011, 90–92). The curriculum outcomes of Anabaptist education are many. Education is designed to help students understand and see what God is doing and has done throughout history. Anabaptist educators also find it important to get students involved and active in the community by being attentive to the needs of others. Discovering how one may embody Christ to others also requires Anabaptist educators to help students discover their own unique gifts and talents. Through the use of scripture, Anabaptists also help to pass on the skill of discernment to young students. Students are taught to discern what is right and wrong, and what they can do to better impart the Kingdom of God to others (Roth 2011, 131–156). In conclusion, Anabaptist education is built on embodying the life of Christ. Scripture is the foundation of Anabaptist education and is applied to the daily practices of the community. Education is never an individual endeavor, but rather a communal act joining the young and old together in service for those inside and outside Anabaptist communities. Education helps Anabaptists discover how they can give Christ to others in practice and service.


References and Resources Kraybill, D. B., and C. N. Hostetter. 2001. Anabaptist World USA. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Roth, J. D. 2005. Beliefs: Mennonite Faith and Practice. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. ———. 2011. Teaching That Transforms: Why AnabaptistMennonite Education Matters. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Shenk, S. W. 2003. Anabaptist Ways of Knowing: A Conversation about Tradition-Based Critical Education. Telford, PA: Cascadia Publishing House.

—Jonathan L. Best

Analytic Philosophy and Theology Like many descriptive terms in the history of ideas, “analytic philosophy” is now used retrospectively to embrace a range of philosophical positions that possess family resemblances rather than a single unifying idea. In its primary sense, analytic philosophy is used to describe philosophy that focuses on the analysis of different types of propositions and concepts, as well as the nature of language and language use. It typically proceeds in a piecemeal way, focusing on particular ideas and breaking them into their constituent parts in order to clarify their nature and character; indeed, the task of clarification is central to analytic philosophy. In a secondary sense, analytic philosophy is used to distinguish 20th-century Englishlanguage philosophy from modern continental philosophy, which tends to focus more on the human condition and attempts to make sense of reality conceived as a connected whole. Influential representatives of analytic philosophy are G. E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Gilbert Ryle, John Austin, Willard van Orman Quine, Donald Davidson, and Samuel Kripe. In the last decade or so, the term analytic theology has come to be used for theology that is self-consciously influenced by and indebted to the orientations, methods, and broad epistemic commitments of analytic philosophy. Theology’s interaction with analytic philosophy can be broadly divided into three historical periods. The first, which lasted from the 1930s until the 1960s, chiefly concerns the responses of theologians and Christian philosophers to the challenge of logical positivism and the accusation that religious propositions and “God talk” are literally meaningless. A. J. Ayer, the British philosophical popularizer of logical positivism, stipulated that a proposition is literally meaningful if and only if it is either analytic or empirically verifiable. Religious propositions are obviously not analytic, which in this context means “true by definition,” and also, according to the logical positivists, not empirically verifiable—for example, what sense experience confirms the reality of God and the afterlife? The


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debate gradually evolved from verification to falsification and the challenge, posed by Anthony Flew and others, that religious claims “die the death of a thousand qualifications,” by which is meant that nothing that happens in the world is allowed to count as evidence against the existence of God; in other words, the claim that God exists is actually unfalsifiable and therefore not cognitively meaningful. Increasing familiarity with the “later” philosophy of Wittgenstein in the late 1950s and early 1960s, coupled with recognition that all empiricist criteria of meaning fail to fulfil their own requirement to be confirmable or falsifiable by reference to sense experience, signaled the death of philosophical attempts to show that religious language is without cognitive meaning. The embarrassing aspect of this period is that there were Christian theologians who proclaimed the “death of God” on the basis that all talk of God failed to meet the required empiricist standard. On reflection, it is now seen how philosophically naive and mistaken such a position was. The two decades that followed the collapse of logical positivism in the 1960s heralded the second period in analytic philosophy’s dialogue with religion and theology. Much of the discussion of this period focused on the issue of the coherence of theistic beliefs and on what justification can be given for the existence of God. The accusation of incoherence takes two forms: either that the doctrine of God is internally incoherent, because certain properties essential to the nature of God are incompatible with each other, or that the existence of God is logically incompatible with the existence of evil. A focus on the reasons for the existence of God saw a revival of natural theology and the emergence of new versions of the traditional arguments for the existence of God or the revival of old versions, as in the Kalam cosmological argument, associated with William Lane Craig. Two of the most influential Christian analytic philosophers of this period, Alvin Plantinga and Richard Swinburne, responded to both these challenges in different ways. In a series of philosophical articles and books, most notably God and Other Minds (1967) and an essay entitled “Reason and Belief in God” (1983), Plantinga defended the coherence of a traditional doctrine of God; showed to the satisfaction of most philosophers that the existence of God is logically compatible with the existence of evil; and presented a novel case for the rationality of belief in God, which concludes that for the Christian (or theist), belief in God is properly basic, a belief that does not appeal, nor need to appeal, to evidence for its warrant (this position is now referred to as “Reformed epistemology” and is chiefly associated with Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff). Swinburne also defended the coherence of theism and argued that the existence of God can be justified by an appeal to the canons of scientific reason and use of prob-

ability theory, in particular Bayes’s theorem. Swinburne complemented his philosophical justification of theism with a series of philosophical studies of central Christian doctrines: revelation, providence, the incarnation of God in Christ, and atonement. In this way, he anticipated the third period of the encounter of philosophy with religion and theology, which increasingly includes philosophical expositions and analyses of specific Christian doctrines and their relationship to other areas of knowledge and experience alongside the usual themes of the philosophy of religion. The late 1980s up to the present have witnessed a broadening of philosophical interest in theology and religion that incorporates not just philosophical accounts of Christian doctrine but also efforts to rethink the relationship of theology and religious truth claims to other disciples, such as science (Plantinga) and psychology (Jeeves). Underlying this is recognition by analytic philosophers that many of our most important beliefs and commitments cannot be proved by an appeal to reason or on the basis of premises that everyone accepts. Another way of stating this is to say that philosophical arguments about important issues are often “person-relative,” a point originally made by George Mavrodes in 1970. This represents some vindication of Plantinga’s position that religious beliefs are rational for those with the relevant orientation and requisite experience. This broadening of interest is reflected in important philosophical studies that bring a Christian perspective to bear on a range of issues, such as religious pluralism (Griffiths, Netland), ethics (Adams, Alston, Wainwright, Quinn), revelation (Abraham, Mavrodes), justice (Audi, Wolterstorff), the problem of evil (van Inwagen), and providence (Helm). References and Resources Abraham, William J. 2012. Analytic Theology: A Bibliography. Dallas, TX: Highland Loch Press. Plantinga, Alvin. 2000 Warranted Christian Belief. New York: Oxford University Press. Swinburne, Richard. 1977. The Coherence of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ———. 1979. The Existence of God. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Taliaferro, Charles, and Chad Meister, eds. 2009. The Cambridge Companion to Christian Philosophical Theology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

—L. Philip Barnes

Ancient World, Christian Education in the Christian education in the ancient world was a synthesis of distinctive heritages. First, Christianity derived from

Ancient World, Christian Education in the

Judaic roots in the Levant. These New Testament roots are at the core of Christian identity. They would help shape its ideals regarding education in later centuries. Christian education also borrowed heavily from the classical Greek heritage. Greek learning deeply shaped virtually all elite education during the Hellenistic and Roman imperial periods. The famous “schools of Athens” were especially important in this regard. As Christianity moved out of its original setting in the Levant, it inevitably came into contact with these “philosophical” Greek approaches to knowledge. By the early fourth century, Christian leaders were articulating their beliefs in lucid theological treatises and creeds that showed the strong influence of ancient Athens. Finally, Christian education in the ancient world also gained from its presence in the Roman Empire, especially during the centuries of later antiquity. In particular, Christian learning benefited enormously from the urban public infrastructure that was a legacy of Roman imperialism. Thanks to the Roman Empire, Christian teaching and belief disseminated to an ever-increasing geographical base. The Romans’ imperial presence accommodated travel, as well as the mailing of letters and the distribution of Christian writings. Roman urban infrastructure also proved very advantageous to learning in Christianity’s formative years. Ancient Judaism: Patterns of Learning and Training Both versions of the “Great Commission,” recorded in Matthew (28:20) and Mark (16:15), contain admonitions to teach. This established teaching and instruction as essential components of the missionary outreach of Christianity. Henceforth, teaching and education would always constitute a key aspect of any vital Christian faith community or evangelical outreach. Nonetheless, in the early centuries of Christianity’s existence, what education occurred borrowed heavily from the ancient world’s existing models: Hebrew, Greek, and, later, Roman. The distinctively Christian educational patterns grew seamlessly from Christianity’s roots in both Jewish and classical heritages. In the ancient Hebrew culture of the Old Testament, institutionalized education was rare, if not unknown. Most male children learned the trades or skills of their fathers, serving for their formative years as virtual apprentices, while learning the rudiments of the family occupation. Girls were taught to excel in the arts of maintaining hearth and home. Knowing a trade or artisanal craft was an extremely important component of an ancient Hebrew upbringing. This was the famous model provided by Christ, who was taught carpentry by his father, Joseph, also a carpenter (Mark 13:55). Indeed, Jesus’s status as the son of a carpenter is cited by the crowd in the Nazareth synagogue as


highlighting the inappropriateness of Christ’s taking on a rabbinical role of religious leadership. The many other dramatis personae of the New Testament community are also invariably known by their occupations, which included livelihoods such as fishermen, tentmakers, carpenters, and various types of smiths (Acts 19:27). In the Second Epistle to Timothy, the writer encourages diligent study and preparation for life, both in matters spiritual and in terms of earning a living (2 Tim. 2:15). Today, the idea that every child should have a “useful” occupation remains an important teaching in many elements of Conservative Judaism, as well as the more practical forms of Protestantism, especially Calvinism. In many Jewish traditions, even rabbis are expected to have some practical livelihood, beyond their roles as spiritual and moral authorities. The ancient but timeless economic admonitions made famous in the Proverbs attributed to Solomon reflect an industrious culture, one enriched by thoughtful frugality and common sense. Famous passages like Proverbs 1:8–9 and 22:6 are especially famous admonitions for education in this famous book, but there are many others as well. This has also been the case in certain forms of historical Protestantism. As demonstrated in Max Weber’s classic book The Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904), Protestantism’s—especially Calvinism’s—emphasis on a “calling” blended the notion of divine favor with economic and vocational life. This made Protestantism especially attractive to those whose lives were organized around business and industry. At the same time, New Testament training and education was not always limited to blue-collar trades and handicrafts. Many famous occupations in the Bible reflected higher levels of literary and numeracy. Levy, son of Alpheus—usually equated with the disciple Matthew—was a tax collector (Mark 2:13–14). However unpopular this position might have been, it required facility with complex counting skills, as well as a degree of public trust. In the Gospel of Matthew, Matthew is described as sitting in the tax office, reflecting a position of higher official rank than the other disciples. Similarly, Luke 5:29 depicts Matthew as a man of great wealth. The Gospel writer Luke—author of both Luke and Acts—is usually equated with the physician referenced in Colossians 4:14. Still, while jobs such as accountant or medical doctor today usually connote higher education at quite elite levels, it is important to remember that in the time of Luke or Matthew, much of the training for these livelihoods was based on the apprenticeship system and indeed, generally followed patrilineal patterns. The apostle Paul probably best reflects ancient Judaism’s emphasis on scholarly learning, and practical training. A rabbi, Paul possessed, as he himself boasted, the


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most respectable and proper of Jewish backgrounds, and was a member of the most legally fastidious party of the Pharisees (Phil. 3:5). Moreover, Paul had been trained by one of ancient Judaism’s finest teachers, the great rabbi Gamaliel (Acts 22:3). Famed for his learning and wisdom, Gamaliel famously argued in the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Senate of ancient times) for relative tolerance and a passive posture regarding the apostles in the church’s early days (Acts 5:24–39). Nonetheless, despite his elite theological training as a Jew, Paul still maintained a foothold in his trained profession as a tentmaker. Acts 8:3 implies that he, along with Aquila and Priscilla, used the proceeds of their livelihood to support and nurture the growing faith. The famous “house-church” Aquila and Priscilla began with Paul in Ephesus reflected a prosperous couple with ample resources for travel and supporting ministries (Rom. 16:3). These house-churches not only provided havens for worship and fellowship, but also served as centers of teaching and instruction in the rudiments of the new faith (1 Cor. 14:16)—the first Christian schools, as it were. By the time of Christ, learning and education in Judaism reflected this rich blend of traditions. A literate class dominated cultural as well as political life. Several distinct groups emerged, reflecting differing beliefs and approaches to intellectual and religious life. These groups also somewhat resembled modern political factions. The Pharisees are the most famous. The New Testament vilifies the Pharisees as legalistic and inhumane. In point of fact, they were the keepers of the law and dominated the Sanhedrin. Also important were the Sadducees, a group somewhat comparable to the Pharisees, except for their disavowal of the doctrine of eternal life and heaven (Acts 23:6–8). Another important group were the Essenes, a monastic group of scholars whose reverence for the scriptures led them to preserve old copies of the Bible in jars, as opposed to destroying them. In 1947, vast numbers of these scroll-filled jars—the Dead Sea Scrolls—were discovered at Qumran. These groups not only represented cultural and political subgroups within Judaism, but also generally reflected the finest scholarship of their time and place. Christ Himself was apparently learned, to some degree. While his common, humble origins are often emphasized, the New Testament also depicts Christ as being called “Teacher” by the people (Matt. 26:55; John 7:14–16). Proving his general literacy, Christ writes letters on the ground while confronting the scribes and Pharisees (John 7:53–8:11) during the story of the woman caught in adultery. Christ also read from the scripture upon His ill-fated return to Nazareth, selecting passages from the prophet Isaiah (Luke 4:16–19). Perhaps most famously, Christ is depicted as a learned and precocious younger who taught

the learned elders at the Temple, while still Himself a boy (Luke 2:41–51). In general, Christ is invariably depicted as possessing great knowledge of the scripture, both for teaching and for quotation purposes. In popular thinking, the Gospel’s model of Christ the “Master” and 12 “disciples,” enshrined in the story of Jesus and His 12 core followers, often seems to have the exclusive connotation of a group of spiritual followers, but it also quite literally referenced the ancient model of a great teacher and his coterie of devoted students. Indeed, the word “disciple” usually meant “student” in both Latin and Greek and also is the etymological basis of the word “discipline.” Hellenism and Higher Education The ancient Jewish traditions of learning mingled with the classical/Hellenic traditions that emerged during the years of cultural integration and synthesis following the conquests of Alexander the Great. Christian education, to the extent it even existed in the first, second, and third centuries, increasingly absorbed Greek influences. Indeed, by the fourth century AD, Christianity had emerged as the dominant perspective within the venerated traditions of classical learning. It is therefore worth briefly considering Greek education proper. No networks of publicly sponsored, or even privately supported, schools existed during the heyday of the classical Greek world. Admittedly, the oligarchy that controlled the polis of Sparta exhibited some sense of public education, with male Spartan citizens taken from their mothers at young ages and educated by the state. But while the Spartan model does correspond somewhat to a rudimentary notion of public education, it must also be remembered that male Spartan citizens constituted a very small percentage of the population of the city, probably less than 5 percent. The children of slaves, or the resident aliens who conducted what business the city permitted, were not included in the Spartan education model. The more prototypical Greek model of education was probably that of Athens, where “private” models of education prevailed. Ancient Greek “private” education, for lack of a better term, was based on traditions of free association and collegial organizations. Traditional Greek upbringings featured many such associations. The phratry (cf. fraternity) was a group to which youth were assigned for religious and moral instruction in their formative years. The gymnasia—which emphasized physical activity— and the symposia—where youth met in private homes for relaxed fun and intellectual debates—also played an important role. Collectively, these sorts of practices were key elements of educational traditions that would emerge later. A holistic model of education seems emphasized by the Greeks: mind, body, and spirit. Education also had

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a social component, with learning happening in various communities and associations of like-minded adherents. There were no formally chartered universities in ancient Greece that resembled modern or even medieval universities. Nonetheless, the Greek heritage of learning and training is a core component of Western education’s evolution over time. In particular, the Greek tradition of free associations of scholars grouped into guild-like professional and social structures was highly influential. Greek education also featured a strong emphasis on the student-teacher relationship. In the ancient Greek sense, a school was literally a “school of people,” or a “school of thought,” not a building or a campus per se. Some schools were closely tied to occupations. The Hippocratic school of medicine, for example, refers not to a physical medical school campus, but to the body of students trained in the methods and perspectives of the great physician Hippocrates (460–370 BC). Not only was there a Hippocratic school in antiquity, in the sense of there being a Hippocratic “school of thought,” there was also a ceremonial quality to the school. Students of the school swore a sacred oath—the famous Hippocratic oath—affirming the outlook, values, and practices of their teacher Hippocrates. The Hippocratic oath presaged the oaths sworn in many professions, ranging from lawyers and doctors to public officials. It also borrowed from the initiation rites common in many ancient religions and fraternal orders. In the context of learning and education, the Hippocratic oath gives some vague sense of matriculation into the profession and has the feel of graduation ceremony rhetoric. Greek learning developed important “schools” destined to play a vital role in higher learning in the West. Among the scores of schools of philosophers and thinkers in the Greek world, Plato and Aristotle loom largest in terms of their lasting legacy and influence on virtually all subsequent Western philosophy. Indeed, with the great Athenian philosophical schools, education even acquired a sense of place. Plato’s school “the Academy” referred not only to his students collectively, the academics; it also referred to the famous grove of trees where Plato (427–347 BC) met his students for lessons, discourse, and banter. Another Athenian location, the Lyceum, hosted the famous school equated with Aristotle (384–22 BC). Classical learning in Greece was geared toward the “free man.” The “scholar” was, literally, a “man of leisure.” The liberal arts, as they came to be called, were best pursued by those whose economic or social standing had liberated them from the daily grind of earning a livelihood in common trades or business. In this sense, the elite Greek learning epitomized in many of the most prominent philosophical schools all but specifically disavowed vocational or “practical” learning. Of course, the


senior philosophers who were members of the various schools could go on to teach themselves, presumably receiving payment from their students. Nonetheless, the ivory tower notion of higher learning as divorced from the pursuit of economic gain or vocation owes much to the Greeks. Perhaps paradoxically, the lack of a vocational emphasis gave Greek philosophical learning a prestigious quality, since its was usually reserved for those who didn’t need to work for a living. In this sense, classical Greek education reinforced social elites. Social mobility, a concern in most modern education, seems to have been less emphasized. Though the Greeks excelled in many of the arts and sciences, it was probably the development of “philosophy” that became their most enduring legacy. In terms of the development of Christian thought and Christian learning, philosophy is an especially important legacy of the Greek influence. It proved influential in early Christian thinking, especially as the early church fathers sought to defend Christian beliefs from critics who had Greek backgrounds in philosophy. The careful systematic theology that developed over time was, in actuality, a type of philosophical approach. The philosophical heritage from ancient Athens is a key element of the liberal arts tradition that developed in later centuries. It especially embodied the ideas of the “examined life.” Such examination was especially suited to the rich elites, who generally followed the philosophers. Freed from the pursuit of a trade or working with his hands, the philosopher—or “lover of wisdom”—devoted his life to the pursuit of truth. Only then could the scholar focus on the larger epistemological questions that made Greek philosophy famous: How does one really know anything to be the case? What is the relationship of humankind to the cosmos? What moral and ethical principles exist, and how can human beings come to understand them? Such questions came to play a foundational role in virtually all subsequent Western thinking—even in periods when Greek philosophy was not specifically or consciously referenced. Jewish, Greek, and Christian Synthesis In many ways, the Greek traditions of learning are by no means unique to the ancient world. They reflect community-based learning across many peoples, times, and places, including the Judaic traditions of the ancient Levant. Nonetheless, there are reasons for the traditional distinction between the classical and pagan worlds when it comes to education. First, the ancient Greeks were pagans, whereas the Hebrew faith espoused the ideals of monotheism. The idea of a singular, eternal Yahweh (God) with unchanging moral values and principles markedly distinguished Judaic traditions from the more heterogeneous and arguably open-ended traditions of the


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broader pagan world. Rightly or wrongly, Greek learning has traditionally been linked to important liberal arts heritages such as humanism and rationalism, more so than its counterparts in Judaism, or, indeed, the ancient Near East as a whole. Jewish learning was deeply affected by contact with classical traditions in learning and scholarship. The Hellenistic world that emerged in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great made an indelible albeit often controversial mark on Jewish scholarship. This was true both in terms of the Jewish diaspora community now inhabiting much of the ancient Near East and the Jewish homeland of Judea/Israel. The tension between Greek and Jewish culture is vividly remembered in such nationalistic struggles as the Maccabees’ revolt. But the tension between the two cultures was equally strong in terms of learning and scholarship. In the mid-third century BC, the famous Septuagint version of the Bible was produced, reflecting the rising influence of the Greek language in traditional Hebrew culture. Like the New Testament, the Septuagint was written in koine Greek—the “common” Greek that became an important lingua franca in varying degrees for most of the ancient Near East. Important Jewish writers of the period also wrote in Greek and blended fine Greek educations with their Jewish backgrounds. Philo Judaeus (c. 20 BC–AD 50) and Josephus, both of whom were first-century AD writers, wrote in Greek in order to reach a wider audience. The writings of Philo Judaeus, in particular, are often described as reflecting Greek influence, particularly his use of the word logos (word), so reminiscent of the famous introduction to the Gospel of John. Early Christianity reflected its common origins in the lower classes of Judean society. Nonetheless, the New Testament bespeaks a well-educated base of Christian leadership. The quality of Greek found in the New Testament is uneven at best. A few New Testament books, such as the Revelation of John on the Isle of Patmos, reflect Greek no doubt written by a non-native speaker. Gospels like Mark feature clipped, rudimentary sentence structure and relatively basic vocabulary. But overall, the writers of the New Testament certainly demonstrated generally high levels of literacy and educational background, including familiarity with the Greek language. Luke’s Gospel and Acts are generally good Greek and also reflect a sense of historical documentation and perspective not always found in ancient writings. The First Epistle to John is often cited as especially refined late first-century Greek. Christianity Moves out of the Levant Christianity’s adaptation of the Greek language, and its geographical expansion out of the Holy Land into the

broader arena of the Hellenistic and Roman worlds, is one of the most important aspects—historically speaking—of its amazing record of growth and development in this crucial formative period. While the church would remain largely Jewish during its first two centuries, the growing blend of Jewish and Greek heritage in terms of learning and outlook established patterns that would endure into the present. Paul’s decision to spread Christianity to the gentiles of the classical world was a milestone in the history of Christianity’s early spread out of the Levant. In his famous sermon on Mars Hill, he challenged the Athenians to encounter the “unknown god” (Acts 17:16–34). Paul’s challenge to the Athenians reflected a very self-conscious, and ultimately quite successful, attempt to present the Christian faith in a way that embraced the Athenian heritage of philosophical disputation and rhetoric. While in Athens, Paul also reportedly argued with Stoics and Epicureans, again evidencing his familiarity with the great schools of thought that were dominant at the time. Paul’s metaphors and imagery are also often said to show the influence of the classical philosophers. His comparison of faith to seeing through a darkened mirror, in particular, has often been cited as containing Platonic overtones (1 Cor. 13:2). By the second and third centuries, Christianity had developed intellectually sophisticated elites. A class of Christian “apologists” emerged, trained in the Greek traditions of philosophy and reason, and used their background to argue the tenets of their faith with Christianity’s many competitors and/or denigrators. Apologetics is derived from the Greek term apo-logia (to reason away; refute or defend), and the development of this important heritage reflected an enormously influential blending. Clement of Alexandria (150–216) and Origen (185–254) were among the most significant figures in this regard. Both steeped in the best traditions of rhetoric and logic produced by the ancient pagan philosophers, Clement and Origen defended and promoted Christian teaching to the elites of the literate pagan classes. Another important early apologist was Irenaeus (AD 130–202), the famous bishop of Lyon, who used the approach of apologetics to refute the Gnostic heresies in his famous Against Heresies. The core message of the Gospels had emphasized simplicity, humility, and maintaining childlike faith in the face of unknowable truths. Therefore the rise of “apologetics,” with its withering and systematic methods of argumentation and discourse, might seem a bittersweet form of “progress” to some. Nonetheless, it seems inarguable that the development of a Christian intelligentsia, increasingly on a par with the best the ancient pagan world could muster, was an essential and invaluable stage in the growth and maturation of the Christian religion.

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Another important development in terms of ancient education relating to early Christianity was the development of the codex. The codex appeared sometime around the time of the birth of Christ. Originally designed as parchments pressed and folded, then bound between two covers (generally wood), the codex was a clear forerunner of the book, one of literacy and learning’s most important ancient innovations. While scrolls continued to serve for many years as a primary means of preserving written texts, the codex—with its advantages in terms of storage, filing, and ease of reading—steadily gained in popularity. Even today, faiths like Judaism maintain the heritage of the scroll, keeping sacred copies of the Torah in scroll form, for example. By the late third century, Christian education and training had largely developed the patterns and rhythms that would characterize it for many centuries to come. It retained the core moral and theological principles derived from its roots in the movement coming out of first-century Jerusalem. At the same time, it had moved into classical culture and society. It had adopted many of the powerful outlooks and approaches equated with the great pagan philosophers—especially Plato—putting them to use in the service of the Gospel. Ultimately, the brilliance and refinement of the new Christian thought would help shape the great “creeds” that defined, forever, orthodox Christian beliefs. The greatest and most important of these creeds was the definitive Nicene Creed, published in 325. Itself the product of the Arian heresy struggle, which forced the church into existential and disruptive debates about the nature of Christ’s divinity, the Nicene Creed established the doctrine of the Trinity. It also laid the foundation for many other core Christian teachings, including the historicity of Christ’s birth, suffering, and resurrection. Roman Learning Of course, Christian learning and education also developed in the larger context of the Roman Empire. Christ was born in the Roman Empire, and the entire New Testament is a product of the days of the Roman Empire. Rome itself was something of a Hellenistic state, having been enormously influenced by the learning of the Greeks in a range of areas—not only medicine and philosophy, but also in the arts and fine literature. But even on their own terms, the Romans were great builders and administrators. Roman infrastructure facilitated cultural assimilation and the diffusion of ideas. It also helped provide suitable physical locations and amenities for learning. Although Rome did not exactly possess a “school system” per se, entities resembling schools existed in most of the great Roman cities. As was the case with Judaism, early Roman education stands in stark contrast to the Hellenic educational models


developed in fifth- and fourth-century BC Athens. Old Roman learning reflected the practical and simple virtues of a farming people oriented around family and community. Probably a lot of education still occurred within the close-knit confines of family in these early days. As one might imagine, there is a fair amount of romanticized mythology and imagery surrounding the idyllic learning of the patricians in those Roman times. Plutarch relates that the saint-like mother of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus was the primary educator of her two sons, who both would become renowned for their skills in eloquence and reason (Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus, 1). Similarly, the colorful and folksy legacy of old-style Romans like Cato the Elder, sometimes called the “Ben Franklin of the Roman Republic,” recall this early quality of Roman learning—one that could perhaps also be compared to some of the frugal and time-tested Proverbs and wisdom of Old Testament Hebrews. Cato’s distaste for the disingenuous sophistry of Greek intellectuals and the self-serving, oath-driven professional exclusivity of the increasingly influential Greek physicians was popularized in ancient writings such as Plutarch’s famous biography of Cato (Plutarch, Cato, 23). Nonetheless, the influence of Hellenic culture and intellectual life proved an unstoppable force. By the end of the first century BC, Rome had become perhaps the last and largest of the Hellenistic states: a world now transformed by the relentless influence, and presence, of Greece in such critical areas as the arts, medicine, law, and philosophy. Many Roman elites welcomed Greek teachers into their homes, like the famous Polybius (c. 200–118 BC). For several centuries to come, intellectual elites in the West would generally know both Latin, and Greek. Many traditional elements of Roman culture adopted the influence of the great philosophical schools of the East—some perhaps even imitated them. Hence, the Roman orator Cicero (106–43 BC) is described as having attended excellent schools in Rome, where fathers seemed to supervise and observe, and where he obtained a classical education in both Greek and Latin, including a strong emphasis on Platonism and the Academic schools (Plutarch, Cicero, 1–3). This blend of strong Hellenic and Roman traditions would become the new gold standard in education for the next several centuries in the Mediterranean world. Not everybody possessed it. The famous Roman general Marius—champion of the common soldiers—had an educational background that was dismissed by Plutarch as of a lower nature, particularly for not having had exposure to Greek. At the same time, Plutarch writes that Marius’s education was in accordance with the ancient Roman traditions in the days before the influence of Hellenism (Plutarch, Marius, 15). His primarily traditional Roman background seemed to suit Marius just fine.


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In the first century, the Spaniard Quintilian penned the most complete treatise on Roman education in the empire’s heyday, the famous Education of the Orator, published in AD 94. Greek influences like the emphasis on rhetoric had made marked inroads in Roman culture ever since the second century BC, but Quintilian’s work is one of the clearest and most helpful descriptions of Roman education. Its embrace of Hellenic approaches to learning heavily influenced Latin readers during the empire’s heyday. Quintilian acknowledged that much of the finest learning was owed to the Greeks. He emphasized, among other things, that children be taught to read Greek first, then Latin. For children living in the Western half of the empire, this would ensure the acquisition of a refined bilingualism at a relatively early age. Quintilian also described a remarkably coherent curriculum with regard to education in rhetoric. He advocated strict lessons in grammar at the beginning of study, followed by rigorous reading in the great epics, poems, and philosophical texts of both Greece and Rome. Quintilian also provided an extremely worthwhile discussion on whether it is best to remove children from their parents for training in the larger schools that tended to characterize the great states of later antiquity, or to leave them in the home to learn privately, paying tuition to tutors or other mentors. More generally, Quintilian favored ample time for play during childhood; he viewed rigorous physical activity as a critical component of educational training. Later Roman Antiquity By the heyday of the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean’s Western Latin and Eastern Hellenistic halves had evolved into a loosely knit “Greco-Roman” culture. And while the Western half of the Mediterranean generally maintained Latin, as opposed to the koine Greek prevailing in the East, in other ways the cultures blended almost seamlessly. From its humble, localized roots in first century Judaism, Christianity quickly moved into the open geographical framework of the Roman emperors. As it adopted a more classical veneer, it moved into not only Greek literature and language, but also Latin. Along with secondand third-century Greek “apologists” like Origen and Clement of Alexandria, Latin writers like Irenaeus and Tertullian reflected this rise in Latin Christianity. One of the most important developments in terms of the future of the Latin language was the translation of the Bible into Latin by St. Jerome—the Vulgate. Produced during the latter years of the fourth century, the Vulgate Bible laid the foundation of the Latin Occident by providing a common sacred and canonical text in the Latin tongue, establishing Latin as a sacred language—as holy to a

Roman Catholic as Hebrew was to a Jew, or as Arabic would be to a Muslim. In the coming years, the Greco-Latin bilingualism that typified the empire’s intellectual elites gradually diminished—a drifting apart that very much mirrored the growing cultural, and even military, separation between the empire’s eastern and western halves. For many centuries to come, a linguistic divide, as well as a political one, separated the empire’s old halves. Recollections of Education by Augustine of Hippo St. Augustine of Hippo (354–430) provides a window into the education of later antiquity—one that clearly also shaped patterns going forward into the Middle Ages. In Confessions, his autobiography written early in the fifth century, Augustine recounts his formative years. His book provides one of later antiquity’s most fascinating and telling views of the social and intellectual culture of the late fourth century, including schools. Augustine’s Confessions provide a relatively rare firsthand glimpse at what passed for educational institutions in later antiquity. Much of the text of the Confessions deals with Augustine’s educational background: his education as a youth and his career as a young academic in “university” settings like Carthage, Rome, and Milan. In later antiquity, there were schools for young boys. Born in what is now Algeria, Augustine relates that his devoted mother Monica enrolled him in a “school” in Tagaste, where he was taught with other children. The 15thcentury artist Benezzo Gozzoli’s frescoes in the Church of Sant’Agostino in San Gimignano, Tuscany—produced in 1464–1465—depict in cyclical format the main events of Augustine’s life, many of which revolve around his schooling. The cycle of frescoes is worth considering not only for their depictions of Augustine’s experiences in the later days of the Roman Empire, but also because they no doubt reflect at least somewhat Renaissance patterns of education, as well as Renaissance understandings of later education. Gozzoli’s art characterizes the images of Augustine’s boyhood that have entered the popular imagination: a young boy whose mother is bringing him to nursery school. While the other young children are rude and mischievous, young Augustine is depicted as polite and studious. Augustine himself was originally a student training for the law, a profession his father had encouraged, and which was deemed a lucrative career (Augustine, Confessions, III. 3). While Augustine would later loathe such men, equating them with the Greek sophists of ancient Athens (Augustine, Confessions, I. 16), the training he received in this regard was in many ways reminiscent of those ancient models, so it must have had at least some

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redeeming qualities. With the collapse of the empire in AD 476, the legal career—in the sense of a public official or lawyer—would largely vanish, replaced by, if anything, the various forms of ecclesiastical clerics. As his writings such as Confessions and The City of God gained in popularity and influence during coming generations, Augustine would be linked with many attitudes and teachings that seemed hostile to the humanism, rationalism, and non-Christian perspective of the ancient teachers and scholars. His emphasis on such themes as original sin and the depravity and fatally flawed nature of human institutions such as the state would prove enormously influential and shape many attitudes in the Middle Ages that scholars commonly equate with monastic asceticism or even obscurantism. But the simple fact is that however much Augustine may have criticized his own education, and however much of a transitional figure he might be in terms of changes reshaping education during the waning years of the Roman Empire, Augustine actually had an excellent education that borrowed heavily from the humanist heritage of the ancient world’s finest thinkers. During Augustine’s boyhood, Greek language and literature was still an emphasis. Nonetheless, his recollections about his educational upbringing seem to reflect the lessening presence of Greek language and culture in western Mediterranean education. Augustine seems to have struggled with the Greek language (Augustine, Confessions, I. 20). Though he was exposed to it as a boy, he seems to have lacked the fluency with Greek that scholars of his caliber would have exhibited only a few generations before. He showed a clear preference for Latin, which was apparently all but his native tongue, even though he had been raised in provincial North Africa. Not only did Augustine chafe at learning alien Greek syntax and grammar; he also evidenced a general distaste for the immoral and often seemingly frivolous nature of Greek pagan mythologies. Along with questioning the importance of Dido’s and Aeneas’s love affair in the overall scheme of things, Augustine also railed against the sexual dalliances of Zeus/Jupiter, seeing in them a wholly inappropriate model of deity (Augustine, Confessions, I. 16). Of perhaps even greater interest in Augustine’s Confessions is his fascinating window on higher education as it was understood and experienced in the late fourth century. Augustine writes fairly extensively about his experiences at schools in Carthage, Rome, and Milan. Although none of these schools would much resemble the modern images of a college or a university, they do clearly show practices that would evoke later traditions of higher education and will no doubt resonate with modern students and learners. While modern fixtures such


as campus-provided dorms, cafeterias, student centers, or even classroom buildings seem unlikely—meetings between teachers and their students probably occurred in private homes or in available public spaces—we do get a distinct sense of a university community in Augustine’s writings. There is also something of a formal university governance structure. Augustine’s experiences at the universities of Carthage and Rome have an uncanny resemblance to those of many modern students. Augustine relates that when it was time for him to leave home and attend the University of Carthage, his father had to save money to pay for him to attend there, indicating some sense of painful tuition fees. Augustine also relates that the parents of many other youths in his hometown also sacrificed for their children to attend school, though he noted that the payments were particularly difficult for his father Patricius, due to the family’s relatively humble circumstances (Augustine, Confessions, II. 3). These “tuition” payments Augustine describes raise some interesting questions. While they seem to be like modern fees and tuition payments to modern readers, they more probably were paid directly to Augustine’s instructors on an individual basis. In this sense, late ancient schools still probably corresponded more closely to private, guild-like associations of the earlier Greek and Roman days than to the chartered universities that appeared in the High Middle Ages. Students were more akin to apprentices or the association, or even the individual teachers. Indeed, the nature of these fees for learning is still more clearly evidenced when Augustine moves on to Rome as a teacher. Here, he writes that his students would learn in his classes, then switch to another teacher when it was time to pay Augustine his fees (Confessions, V. 12). This requirement of the teacher to solicit and collect his own payments differs markedly from modern models. Coupled with Augustine’s reference to gathering his students for classes in his own home, these anecdotes connote “schools” largely bereft of physical or bureaucratic infrastructure. Nonetheless, there does seem to be some sense of educational incorporation/association, as well as selectivity in terms of the school’s members. Augustine writes that he moved to Rome because he had heard the students in Rome were smarter, more studious, and more professionally ambitious. Since Augustine’s own move to Rome in order to teach school there can be regarded as at least somewhat typical, it follows that Roman education was more prestigious. Augustine writes that he had to build his reputation in order to attract better students. When he had improved his reputation, he could charge higher teaching fees.


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While Augustine would come to regard the Roman model of education as driven by greed and vainglory, it does reflect on ideas of academic excellence and status and their link to specific places of learning. In a similar vein, Augustine recalled his student chums at Carthage as drunken, mischief-making hooligans for whom serious study was at best an afterthought. Augustine admits that he lived with a group of such students for a time, and for better or worse, even found their boisterous and vulgar antics amusing. Alas, reckless and drunken behavior has remained a notable aspect of student behavior. For better or worse, such antics as those described by Augustine remain a readily recognizable behavior of many students, perhaps resembling something like a fraternity. Overall, the school at Carthage foreshadows the modern notion of the “party-school” (Augustine, Confessions, III. 3). Certainly the schools of later antiquity remained rooted in the ancient classical models of guild-like associations. Nonetheless, there does seem to have been some sense, however murky, of academic rank and processes. The Gozzoli frescoes in San Gimignano, Tuscany, depicting the life of Augustine show Augustine literally sitting in a throne-like chair surrounded by Roman students— a rather literal depiction of the “chair” or, in modern usage, the “endowed chair.” While this is perhaps a Renaissance-era anachronism, it does reflect Augustine’s writings somewhat, which seem to outline something resembling an academic career and trajectories with regard to hiring and promotion. As a teacher in Carthage, Augustine writes of his growing eminence and position in the School of Rhetoric, giving at least some sense of academic rank or promotion (Augustine, Confessions, III, 3). Augustine also writes that while he was teaching in Rome, the “prefect” of Rome received a request from Milan for a public speaker and teacher of rhetoric for the city, a job Augustine ultimately accepted. The passage almost eerily reflects more modern ideas of a search and hiring process. Moreover, the transportation from Rome to Carthage, Augustine reports, was to be paid for by public funds (Augustine, Confessions, V. 13). Roman Public Infrastructure and Education Centers of education and learning in late antiquity maintained the classical amenities commonly associated with higher culture. The famed public works of the Roman emperors no doubt facilitated great learning in this regard. If it did not necessarily support clearly defined “state universities” in the modern sense, Rome’s contributions in the way of public infrastructure—roads for communication, along with attractive public amenities found in the city centers—should be considered an important part of the educational heritage of later antiquity.

The idea of state support for learning had antecedents, of course. The Hellenistic world was notable in this regard. The powerful monarchies who ruled the ancient Near East following the conquests of Alexander the Great often used their royal wealth to support cultural and intellectual life. During the reign of the Ptolemies in Egypt, the great library of Alexandria was founded. This became an iconic institution of ancient learning, one that was apparently widely imitated. During the heyday of the Roman Empire, the Roman rulers followed suit. While few ancient libraries were on the grandiose scale of the famous Hellenistic library in Alexandria, public funds during the days of the Roman Empire supported various libraries in numerous cities. Such libraries, even if not directly attached to the various learning guilds and associations, provided an essential ingredient for higher learning during the empire’s waning years. The Imperial Forum at Rome housed both a Greek library and a Latin library, for example. They were situated comfortably in Trajan’s Imperial Forum, between the Basilica Ulpia and the Temple of Divine Trajan. Libraries were also found in private homes of elite figures, like the famous Greek and Latin libraries found in Hadrian’s villa in Tivoli, on the outskirts of Rome. Besides libraries, other cultural amenities publicly supported during the empire’s heyday also bespeak a general commitment to supporting and fostering refined tastes. Theaters were invariably built at public expense in virtually all of the empire’s major cities. These facilitated higher culture and learning, as well as public entertainment. Today, a theater is an essential facility at virtually any liberal arts college or university. Similarly, the charming, inviting public green spaces of the empire’s downtown districts foreshadowed many amenities today commonly equated with college and university living. Even baths can be considered part of the support of physical well-being that today would readily be found in most university or college settings: spaces devoted to exercise, bathing, and relaxation. Security provided by Roman power can also be considered a key supporting factor in ancient education—one that especially benefited the growth of Christian intellectual endeavors. Education cannot flourish in an insecure or violent environment. The empire’s famous infrastructure of roads—and the relatively safe travel by sea in the well-policed Mediterranean—greatly aided education. As was the case with missionaries like Paul, who spread the Gospel through travel and letter-writing, education benefited enormously from the security provided by Rome’s relative success at policing both land and sea. Transportation and communication between intellectual vital population centers was a crucial dimension of ancient education in its Roman heyday, just as it was with the


spread of the Gospel. Writers like Augustine tell of “public speakers” and debates featuring traveling scholars, like the famous Manichaean Faustus, who visited Carthage during Augustine’s time there as a teacher (Augustine, Confessions, V. 3). With the fall of the western Roman Empire in AD 476, the infrastructure of Rome that had provided an often unsung basis for learning during the years of later antiquity also disappeared. It would be many centuries before city centers again featured anything comparable to the pleasant cultural and intellectual ambiance provided by the Roman emperors. Many of the comforts and amenities of public life all but disappeared. Some things, such as theaters, would largely vanish until the Renaissance, nearly a thousand years later. In addition, the security provided by public officialdom largely disappeared. Education would continue in the early Middle Ages. But for years to come, much learning would be housed in private and often reclusive spaces, especially the monasteries that arose beginning in the sixth century. References and Resources Bickerman, Elias. 1990. The Jews in the Greek Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Brown, Peter, and Geoffrey, Barraclough. 1971. The World of Late Antiquity, AD 150–750. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Chadwick, Henry. 1967. The Early Church. New York: Penguin Books. Dupon, Florence. 1994. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford, England: Wiley Blackwell. Harris, William. 1989. Ancient Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Pelikan, Jaroslav. 1987. The Excellent Empire: The Fall of Rome and the Triumph of the Church. San Francisco: Harper & Row.


simply accepting that the learning with have some potential value in the future. Similarly, they are more likely to respond to internal motivations rather than extrinsic motivators. Given this need for internal motivations, a common adult learning strategy is to design opportunities for learners to engage in self-reflection, affording them the chance to learn by previous and new experiences, building on their prior knowledge as a means of developing new knowledge. Given that adults have more life experience, the proponent of andragogy points out that an effective strategy is to help leverage the adults’ significant life experience as a foundation upon which they learn new things.74 While andragogy is focused on the study of adult learning strategies, some argue that the distinction between andragogy and pedagogy is not primarily one of age.75 Instead, it is a distinction between learner-centered and teacher-centered strategies. Learner-centered strategies focus on the learner engaging in frequent reflection, problem solving, learning by experiences, and applying knowledge to real-world circumstances. Teachercentered strategies, on the other hand, focus instead on the behaviors and practices of the teacher that produce possible results in the learner. Andragogical principles inform many current efforts in Christian education that focus on helping learners to be more involved in the educational process, everything from establishing their own learning goals and engaging in ongoing journaling and reflection about the learning process to learning through direct experiences (servant events, mission trips, acts of service in the community, evangelism calls, etc.). At the same time, some note that many adult Christian education texts fail to provide a consistent application of andragogy to the teaching of adults in a Christian environment.76

—David Leinweber References and Resources

Andragogy Andragogy, in the broadest sense, is the field of study that focuses on methods and strategies for teaching adults. This term is often used in contrast to pedagogy, which focuses on the education of young people, whereas andragogy focuses on that which is distinct to the education of the adult learner.73 Malcolm Knowles, an early proponent of the term, argued that there are a number of factors that are distinct to the education of adults. For example, adults most often need a rationale for learning something, rather than 73. Malcolm Knowles, The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy (New York: Association Press, 1970), 17.

Christian, Randy. 1989. “Andragogical Assumptions and Christian Education.” Christian Education Journal 9: 51–58. Knowles, Malcolm S. 1970. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy. New York: Association Press. ———. 1984. Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Knowles, Malcolm S., Elwood F. Holton, and Richard A. Swanson. 2005. The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 74. Malcolm Knowles, Andragogy in Action (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984), 284. 75. Sharan Merriam and Ralph Grover Brockett, The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: An Introduction (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997), 35–36. 76. Randy Christian, “Andragogical Assumptions and Christian Education,” Christian Education Journal 9 (1989): 57–58.


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Merriam, Sharan B., and Ralph Grover Brockett. 1997. The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: An Introduction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Merriam, Sharan B., and Rosemary S. Caffarella. 1991. Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

—Bernard Bull

over the Viking Guthrum at the Battle of Eddington was a milestone in encouraging Christian learning. However, widespread education was not to take place until after the Norman Conquest, when Christianity finally took root in new building projects, with stone churches being available for use as schools as well as markets and places of worship. Alongside the churches, monasteries grew up as centers of Christian learning; these were to remain until the time of the Reformation.

Anglican Church Christian Education Anglican churches are part of the Anglican Communion (which is an international association of national and regional Anglican churches and a few other episcopal churches). These churches are all in full communion with the mother church for the worldwide communion, the Church of England. This means that there is a particular relationship with its principal primate, the archbishop of Canterbury (who has no formal authority outside that jurisdiction, but is recognized as the symbolic head of the worldwide communion. Among the other primates, he is considered primus inter pares). There is no single “Anglican Church” with universal juridical authority, as each national or regional church has full autonomy. The status of full communion means, ideally, that there is mutual agreement on essential doctrines and that full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant Anglicans. Historical Overview In terms of the Church in England, educational literacy grew as a direct result of the spread of Christianity in England. Initially, Christianity was one cult among many arriving on British shores with Roman artisans and traders, but when Constantine became a Christian in the fourth century, the faith became more visible, even surviving the departure of the Romans, until Augustine arrived in AD 597. The immediate result of the conversion of King Ethelbert was for land to be offered on which Augustine built a monastery and subsequently a school for training Anglo-Saxon priests. Christianity then rose from being a minor cult to demonstrate its potential as a major religion, but it was curtailed by Viking invaders. Particularly tragic was the plundering of Lindisfarne in AD 871, exemplifying the destruction of the church, which was both the learning center and the focus of power. King Alfred the Great (r. 871–899) noted that education and faith literacy declined after the initial conversion of the Anglo-Saxons. In his preface to his translation of Gregory I’s “Cura Pastoralis,” he set out his intention to educate the people of England, not only by making them literate but by getting the Bible translated. His victory

Academic Programs for Education More recently, the churches in England may claim to have made an even greater contribution to “education for all” children by their establishment of societies with the aim of widespread schooling, beginning with the foundation of the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) in 1698. Nineteenth-century societies contributed to the development of a wide curriculum, including religious education and the work of church colleges in training teachers. The Church of England’s society to develop schooling in England was The National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church throughout England and Wales. Summary of Christian Philosophy With a membership currently estimated at over 85 million members worldwide, the Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches. Some of these churches are known as Anglican, due to their historical link to England (Ecclesia Anglicana means “English church”). Each church has its own doctrine and liturgy, based in most cases on that of the Church of England, and each has its own legislative process and overall episcopal polity, under the leadership of a local primate. The Anglican Communion considers itself to be part of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church and to be both Catholic and Reformed. For some adherents, it represents a nonpapal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism. For others, their self-identity represents some combination of the two. The communion encompasses a wide spectrum of belief and practice, including evangelical, liberal, and Catholic. References and Resources Chadwick, P. 1997. Shifting Alliances: Church and State in English Education. London: Cassell. Worsley, H. J., ed. 2012. Anglican Church School Education: Moving Beyond the First Two Hundred Years. London: Continuum.

—Howard Worsley



Anglican Curricular Outcomes

Angola and Christian Education

The Church of England came into existence in 1534, breaking with the Roman Church under the leadership of King Henry VIII. With the birth of the Church of England, many ecclesial changes quickly emerged. The most well-known changes involved the authority structures and the rejection of the pope as head of the Church of England. But there were curricular changes being set in place as long as 500 years ago. As the Church of England broke from the Roman Church, both scripture and prayer were brought into the language of the common people. In 1549, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer completed the Book of Common Prayer, a guidebook to prayer and worship. Cranmer also developed the lectionary, a weekly schedule for Bible reading, which was used in homes and churches alike. People flocked to the churches to hear the scripture read in a language that they used on a daily basis. The lectionary and the Book of Common Prayer continue to guide Anglican religious education today. The liturgy, or “the work of the people,” actively involves parishioners in every service of Holy Communion. Through common worship of morning and evening prayer, Anglican belief is shaped. The regular recitation of the words in the prayers and creeds (Nicene, Athanasian, and Apostle’s) have a way of shaping the believer’s faith and changing the heart. Anglicans view baptism and Holy Communion as the sacraments of the church. Infant baptism is celebrated, as children are “sealed by the Holy Spirit in baptism and marked as Christ’s own forever.” When children reach an age of responsibility, they are expected to undergo confirmation classes. Confirmation, a rite in the Anglican tradition, is seen as an avenue to firm up the promises made at the time of baptism. Confirmation classes are held for adolescents and adults alike. At baptism, classes are required for the parents of the children, since the responsibility truly lies with the parents and godparents. At confirmation, the adult is given the opportunity to profess his or her faith and connect with the historical church, as a bishop lays hands on the confirmant and anoints him or her with oil. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, adopted by the church in 1563, contain a summary of Reformation theology and remain the basis for standard doctrinal belief among churches in the Anglican Communion. The themes of the authority of the Bible, justification by faith, and the nature of the sacraments guide religious education in many confirmation classes to this day. —Kelly Langdoc

Angola could be a wealthy nation, with rich agricultural land, oil, diamonds, and other minerals. However, the country suffered deeply from the 1962–2002 civil war, an African reflection of the Cold War. The Soviet Union and Cuba supported the MPLA, while the United States and white-ruled South Africa supported the anticommunist UNITA. When the fighting finally ended, there were reported to be more land mines in Angola than people. During the colonial period, Protestant education conflicted with the Portuguese colonial government and the privileged Catholic schools. In fact, the leaders of the independence movement were mostly products of Protestant schools, which contributed to the closing of many Protestant missions. Opposition to church-based education continued in postindependence Marxist days, as the government hoped to do away with all Christianity within 20 years. The church in Angola has grown significantly, especially since 1990. However, it faces huge challenges. The civil war divided denominations, and forgiveness, reconciliation, and unity are needed among leaders and denominations. Wisdom is needed in developing a right relationship between church and state. For too many leaders, right “doctrine” is little more than petty legalism. Only a small percentage of churches have trained leadership. There are approximately 25 Bible schools functioning in Angola, along with various discipleship and TEE programs. There is a Catholic seminary in Malanje and two Protestant seminaries: ISTEL, in Lubango, sponsored by the Angola Evangelical Alliance (AEA), and Emanuel United Seminary in Huambo, serving denominations connected to the Council of Christian Churches in Angola (CICA). —Steve Hardy

Anselm Early Background and Education Anselm (1033–1109) was born into a noble family in the Kingdom of Burgundy in Aosta. While we know little of his early education, we know that in his early twenties he arrived at the Benedictine Abbey at Bec, where he would have studied under Lanfranc, who had a considerable reputation as a teacher of dialectic and a scholar. Lanfranc was very much exercised by the role of reason and faith, resisting the antiphilosophical scruples of Peter Damian, but not ready to fully endorse the adequacy of philosophical reason in exploring the mysteries of faith.


Anthropology, Christian Contributions to

Anselm became a novice of the abbey in 1060 and was elected as abbot in 1078. He was elected archbishop of Canterbury in 1093 and served this high office during a time of great conflict between the church and the crown over jurisdiction and privileges.

Most Notable Publications Monologium Proslogion De Veritate Cur Deus Homo

—Charles Taliaferro Significant Contributions to Christian Education Three of Anselm’s contributions to Christian education are worth noting. First, if Anselm is right, religious and philosophical education can be carried out in a devotional context. Anselm articulated, explored, and refined the understanding of God as unsurpassable excellence in the context of prayerful devotion, with which Anselm beseeched God for illumination in his two best-known works, the Monologion and the Proslogion. Anselm’s devotional approach to God is captured in his commending “faith seeking understanding” (fides quarens intellectum). While subject to different interpretations, that precept may plausibly be read as the claim that our approach to God should be motivated by the love (or the willing to have love) of God and the desire to be in communion with God. Second, if Anselm is right, then religious education should be centered on values. Our coming to know of God should be guided by our grasp of great values, even values that are so great that none greater can be conceived. So, in thinking about God’s knowledge of the creation, for example, we should not think of God’s knowledge in terrestrial or bodily terms, in which God would need to rely on sense organs. God’s cognition is so perfect that it requires no mediation. Third, Anselm calls on us to reflect on the reasons and purposes of God in salvation history. In Cur Deus homo? (Why did God become man?), Anselm sets forth reasons for the necessity of a God-man’s redeeming life and death as a means of restoring an atonement with God for those who sin against God and their neighbors. The central argument is that if there is a God of unsurpassable excellence and goodness, yet creatures whom God creates and sustains sin against Him, then certain steps must be taken by God and sinful creatures for there to be atonement. This is an argument that is not based on historical inquiry, evidence, or special revelation, but on a series of premises that give us reason to look for what Christian scripture offers testimony has actually occurred: Jesus Christ as God incarnate, fully human and fully divine, has offered His life as a means to redeem sinners and bring about atonement (or at-onement) with God. Whether Anselm’s own philosophical argument is successful, he stands as an example of someone who boldly seeks to use reason in the philosophy of God and thus someone who invites a Christian education of questioning and reason in the formation of one’s relationship with God.

Anthropology, Christian Contributions to A Living Paradox Secular anthropology is necessarily incomplete, because man makes sense only in relation to God. As the great Christian philosopher Blaise Pascal declared, man is a riddle, a paradox, a “monster” that does not fit into the world.77 Like a dispossessed king, he is wretched because he falls short of standards he knows are meant for him.78 And yet he is also great, because he is aware of his wretchedness79 and thus discerns the “infinite abyss” in himself which can only be filled by an “infinite and immutable object . . . by God himself.”80 Pascal argues that the only solution to this riddle is the scriptural one: that man was made like God and yet fell into sin.81 This dual nature of man has profound implications for Christian education. The Image of God and Education Citizens of the World Man is specially made in the triune image of God (Gen. 1:26–27). Humans are nothing less than God’s representatives on Earth,82 appointed as stewards of the rest of creation. In the beginning, man, like everything else God made, was made good. Yet even before the fall, he was incomplete, finding wholeness only in community with others (Gen. 2:18). So humans are by nature social beings, and the ideas of family, society, and culture are all part of God’s design for human flourishing. One goal of Christian education is therefore to produce worthy parents, citizens, and workers who uphold this design. As sin has turned people in on themselves, it has broken their relationships with God and others. Christian educators should therefore seek to build strong characters that counteract self-centered habits and behavior (e.g., through role models, heroic stories, and virtue ethics).83 77. Blaise Pascal, Pensées, trans. A. J. Krailsheimer (New York: Penguin Books, 1966), #131, 64. 78. Ibid., #116, 59. 79. Ibid., #114, 59. 80. Ibid., #148, 75. 81. Ibid., #131, 66. 82. Luther called them larvae dei or masks of God: his eyes, ears, hands, and feet. 83. This is an important theme in C. S. Lewis’s The Abolition of Man (New York: Macmillan, 1955).

Anthropology, Christian Contributions to

Disciples of Christ Humans are also creatures: they live in complete dependence on God for their existence, all of their faculties, and every gift and opportunity that makes their lives possible. Yet as Reinhold Niebuhr argued, the primal sin of fallen humanity is denial of this fact: “The evil in man is a consequence of his . . . unwillingness to acknowledge his dependence, to accept his finiteness and to admit his insecurity.”84 So another goal of Christian education is precisely to reveal humanity’s dependence on God. Prideful self-assertion must be broken to make room for the new person in Christ that can walk in humble obedience. Holism Scripture tells us we are complex beings (1 Thess. 5:23; Heb. 4:12), consisting of body (soma), soul (psyche), and spirit (pneuma). Yet we are made whole persons, and these faculties are designed to interact. God made the human body good and reaffirmed this by becoming a physical incarnation and bodily resurrection. The soul is our active side, the seat of our reason and emotion, while the spirit is the passive recipient of the Holy Spirit. Christian education should be mindful of the way the spiritual, intellectual, emotional, and physical dimensions interact, and its approach should be holistic, so that the whole person grows up in Christ.85 Equipped to Be Stewards As image bearers, humans are given the unique privilege and responsibility of caring for the rest of creation. Yet God equips those He calls, and despite the Fall, we retain remarkable powers of stewardship.86 Creativity Humans image God through their amazing creativity in art, music, and literature. They are even capable of what Tolkien called “sub-creation”:87 while they cannot create a world ex nihilo like God, they can make secondary worlds accessible to the imagination (e.g., Tolkien’s own Middle-Earth and the worlds of literature, movies, video games, and virtual reality).88 While escapism and self-deception are risks, Christian education should exalt 84. Reinhold Niebuhr, “Man as Image of God and as Creature,” in The Nature and Destiny of Man, vol. I: Human Nature (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1943), 150. 85. For a discussion of the implications of holism for Christian education, see Joel D. Heck and Angus Menuge, eds., Learning at the Foot of the Cross (Austin, TX: Concordia University Press, 2011). 86. For a brilliant philosophical defense of this claim, see J. P. Moreland, The Recalcitrant Imago Dei (London: SCM Press, 2009). 87. J. R. R. Tolkien, “On Fairy Stories,” in The Tolkien Reader (New York: Del Rey, 1986). 88. See Mark J. P. Wolf, Building Imaginary Worlds: The Theory and History of Subcreation (New York: Routledge, 2012).


creativity as a powerful witness to the divine: Soli Deo Gloria, as Bach and Handel said of their compositions. Science The idea that man is like God is one of many Christian teachings that promoted the rise of modern science.89 It affirms that the human mind and the laws of nature reflect the same divine logos. This gives scientists confidence that they can discover how the cosmos works, and stewardship is a powerful motivation: science helps us develop nature to serve our neighbor. With the advent of Darwinism, science became dominated by materialistic assumptions, and today the new atheists90 use it as a weapon against the Christian faith. Christian education should combat this trend by showing how congenial Christian assumptions are to good science. For example, while Aristotle thought one could discern how nature must operate by intuiting essences, the Christian assumption of divine voluntarism (God creates as He wills) supported the modern empirical method (we must look and see what God has written in the book of nature).91 The crucial ideas of scientific fallibility and bias depended on a frank recognition of creaturely limitations (Isa. 55:8–9) and the effect of sin on our cognitive faculties.92 Morality The world belongs to God, not humanity (Ps. 24:1), and God cares about all creatures, not just humans (Gen. 9:8–11). So contrary to popular belief, humans are called to care for the world as a trust, not to exploit it as a disposable gift.93 Environmental stewardship should be an important emphasis in Christian education, not only because of our dependence on the natural environment, but because it was made good by God (Gen. 1). While humans have limited authority over the nonhuman environment, they do not have godlike authority over one another. We may farm the land, eat meat, and develop nature into culture for human ends. Yet we are not to treat other image bearers like those without that image (Gen. 9:6). As Kant put it, we should never use a 89. See, e.g., Nancy Pearcey and Charles Thaxton, The Soul of Science (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1994); Peter Harrison, The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998); and Stanley Jaki, The Savior of Science (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000). 90. These include Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Same Harris, and the late Christopher Hitchens. 91. For an in-depth study of the idea of the scientist as reader of God’s other book, see my edited collection, Reading God’s World: The Scientific Vocation (St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 2004). 92. Francis Bacon provided an early analysis of scientific bias, distinguishing four idols of the mind. See Francis Bacon, The New Organon, ed. Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000). 93. See Richard J. Bauckham, The Bible and Ecology: Rediscovering the Community of Creation (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2010).


Antioch, Church of

person as a mere means (as a thing). The doctrine of the imago dei provides a basis for distinctively human rights, since the divine image is reflected in all people, regardless of their physical or mental condition.94 His teaching is reinforced by Christ Himself, who called Christians to care “for the least of these” (Matt. 25:35–45). As Alvin Schmidt has shown, the ancient pagan world featured widespread abortion, infanticide, and child abandonment, but no hospitals. Christ’s example and teaching were critical in humanitarian reforms.95 A vital component of Christian education is the promotion of a high view of the value of human life, one that combats the secular notion that humans are valuable only if they are “useful.” Politics Political leaders are also God’s representatives (Rom. 13), but their authority comes from God (John 19:11). Government is a noble calling to serve the needs of the people, as Luther emphasized.96 Politicians sin against their vocation if they oppress the people for their own ends, and they cannot replace Christ’s role as savior (Ps. 146:3). Christians can encourage policies that support the common good of humanity, while opposing utopian ideologies as a denial of original sin. Christian education should aim to form citizens with a realistic sense of the opportunities and dangers of public life and a strong sense of servant leadership. References and Resources Bacon, Francis. 2000. The New Organon. Edited by Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bauckham, Richard J. 2010. The Bible and Ecology: Rediscovering the Community of Creation. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press. Harrison, Peter. 1998. The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science. New York: Cambridge University Press. Heck, Joel D., and Angus Menuge, eds. 2011. Learning at the Foot of the Cross. Austin, TX: Concordia University Press. Jaki, Stanley. 2000. The Savior of Science. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Jastram, Nathan. 2004. “Man as Male and Female: Created in the Image of God.” Concordia Theological Quarterly 68 (1): 5–96. Lewis, C. S. 1955. The Abolition of Man. New York: Macmillan. Menuge, Angus, ed. 2004. Reading God’s World: The Scientific Vocation. St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. 94. For a defense of Christian theism as the foundation of human rights, see John Warwick Montgomery, Human Rights and Human Dignity (Dallas, TX: Probe Books, 1986). 95. Alvin J. Schmidt, How Christianity Changed the World (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2004). 96. See Gustaf Wingren’s discussion of the vocation of the prince in Luther on Vocation (Evansville, IN: Ballast Press, 1999), 98.

Montgomery, John Warwick. 1986. Human Rights and Human Dignity. Dallas, TX: Probe Books. Moreland, J. P. 2009. The Recalcitrant Imago Dei. London: SCM Press. Niebuhr, Reinhold. 1943. The Nature and Destiny of Man. Vol. I, Human Nature. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Pascal, Blaise. 1966. Pensées. Translated by A. J. Krailsheimer. New York: Penguin Books. Pearcey, Nancy, and Charles Thaxton. 1994. The Soul of Science. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books. Schmidt, Alvin J. 2004. How Christianity Changed the World. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Tolkien, J. R. R. 1986. “On Fairy Stories.” In The Tolkien Reader, 362–397. New York: Del Rey. Wingren, Gustaf. 1999. Luther on Vocation. Evansville, IN: Ballast Press. Wolf, Mark, J. P. 2012. Building Imaginary Worlds: The Theory and History of Subcreation. New York: Routledge.

—Angus Menuge

Antioch, Church of Antioch in first-century Syria (currently Antakya, Turkey), as distinguished from Antioch of Pisidia, was once a major center of Christian faith and formation of Jesus’s disciples. The church of Antioch is described in Acts 11:19–30 and 13:1–12: “It was in Antioch that the disciples were first called Christians (Acts 11:26). What constituted Christian education in Antioch that sets a distinct pattern for consideration as a model for the expansion of the Christian faith? In a significant way, the Church of Antioch departed from the pattern set by the Church of Jerusalem in relation to the makeup and functioning of the Christian community following the persecution of followers of the way set by Jesus and his apostles in the first century. Acts 11:19 notes: “Now those who were scattered because of the persecution that took place over Stephen traveled as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus, and Antioch, and they spoke the word to no one except Jews.” Jewish followers of Jesus came to Antioch fleeing persecution and became forced immigrants, who shared with fellow Jews their faith. The Acts account continues: “But among them were some of the men of Cyprus and Cyrene who, on coming to Antioch, spoke to the Hellenists (or Greeks) also, proclaiming the Lord Jesus. The hand of the Lord was with them, and a great number became believers and turned to the Lord” (vv. 20–21). Here was a first-century encounter with cultural and ethnic diversity that warranted the church in Jerusalem sending Barnabas, a “good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith” to investigate. More people became Christians, and Barnabas went and recruited

Antioch, School of

Saul of Tarsus, who worked along with him for a year teaching in Antioch. Growth through diversity resulted in Christians sharing relief with those struggling in Judea under persecution. The formation of disciples resulted in mission and service to others, affirming the importance of service learning for Christian education. The leadership team at the Antioch Church described in Acts 13:1–3 is noteworthy for its multicultural makeup. Thom Hopler, himself a missionary in Africa and innercity Newark, noted that Simeon was black, Lucius was Greek, and Manaen was Jewish. Here were an African, an Asian, and a Palestinian serving as coequals and providing leadership as prophets and teachers. Saul, later named Paul (Acts 13:9), was a Hellenized Jew and Pharisee from Tarsus in Asia Minor (Phil. 3:5), and Barnabas was a Jewish Levite and native of Cyprus (Acts 4:36). All of these leaders crossed cultural borders in serving together the ethnic diversity of the Antiochian community as it broke out of a Jewish-only stance as represented by Jerusalem. For effective multicultural Christian education, it is essential that this model be studied. With all the differences noted, the structures of the church supported a unity and bond of love. From such a foundation, the church at Antioch became an intentionally missionary-sending congregation with the commissioning of Barnabas and Saul on their first missionary journey. By supporting diversity and forging unity, educational structures can incarnate the love God intends for all of humanity. It is noteworthy that to this day there exists at Antioch an Orthodox Christian church. References and Resources Brown, Raymond E. 1983. Antioch and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Catholic Christianity. New York: Paulist. Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth, and Robert W. Pazmiño. 2007. “Antioch Revisited: Educational Implications.” In The Antioch Agenda: Essays on the Restorative Church in honor of Orlando E. Costas, edited by Daniel Jeyaraj, Robert W. Pazmiño, and Rodney Petersen, 54–81. New Delhi: Indian Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge for Andover Newton Theological School and the Boston Theological Institute. Hill, Craig. C. 1992. Hellenists and Hebrews: Reappraising Division within the Earliest Church. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. Hopler, Thom. 1981. A World of Difference: Following Christ beyond Your Cultural Wall. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1981. Slee, Michelle. 2003. The Church in Antioch in the First Century CE: Communion and Conflict. New York: Sheffield Academic Press.

—Robert W. Pazmiño


Antioch, School of The School of Antioch arose in the fourth century AD as a reaction to the allegorical approach to the scriptures as practiced in the School of Alexandria. One of the earliest treatises from this school is On the Witch of Endor and Against Allegory by Eustathius of Antioch. The point of this work, highlighting the inconsistency in the interpretive practices of Origen, is to emphasize the importance of contextual readings of scripture for maintaining consistency and faithfulness in interpretation. Antiochene scholars emphasized literal and historical interpretation and criticized allegorical excess, arguing that a text could not mean or suggest anything more than what it explicitly stated. The leading teachers include Diodore of Tarsus and two of his students: the exegete and commentator Theodore of Mopsuestia and the great expository preacher John Chrysostom. The literal emphasis is seen in Theodore’s straightforward exegesis of the Song of Songs as a hymn for marriage, in contrast to the interpretation that viewed the poem as revealing Christ’s love for His bride, the church. The historical emphasis is seen in Theodore’s reduction of messianic prophecy in the Psalms and Prophets; in his reading, there was almost none to be found. For example, Psalm 22 was not prophetic of Christ or His death, despite Christ’s use of it as revealed in the Gospel narratives. Nevertheless, the Davidic Psalms do contain some hints of the messiah, for Theodore believed that David did actually see his own life as foreshadowing some aspects of the messiah. But in general, Theodore understood scripture to be revealed through prophets in various discrete historical periods, and therefore their interpretation must be rooted in those historical contexts. To read truths revealed later in time (e.g., in the New Testament) back into earlier periods (e.g., in the Old Testament) through allegory removes the chronological and developmental features of the text, thereby flattening the text and deemphasizing the newness of the Gospel. The reputation of the Antiochene School and its interpretive matrix was greatly damaged later by its relation to Nestorianism, which was condemned in the fifth century at Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451). References and Resources Greer, Rowan. 1961. Theodore of Mopsuestia: Exegete and Theologian. London: Faith Press. McLeod, Frederick. 2008. Theodore of Mopsuestia. London: Routledge. Wiles, Maurice. 1970. “Theodore of Mopsuestia as Representative of the Antiochene School.” In The Cambridge History of



the Bible, edited by P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans, 1:489–510. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Young, Frances M. 1997. Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—Robert Keay

Apologetics Derived from a Greek word meaning a speech given in defense, apologetics is both the academic discipline of defending the faith and the work of defending the faith. A goal of apologetics is to challenge the worldview of the unbeliever while demonstrating the credibility of Christianity. Apologetics serves to strengthen the worldview of the believer. Apologetics in the Early Church Justin Martyr (c. 100–c. 165) defended Christianity as an all-encompassing worldview with veracity in his two Apologies. Athenagoras (second century) addressed A Plea for Christians to Marcus Aurelius around AD 177. Iranaeus (c. 130–c. 200) opposed the Gnostics in Against Heresies. Tertullian (c. 155–220) defended the faith in Apologeticus, among other writings. Origen’s (c. 185– c. 254) Contra Celsum is an apologetic classic. Augustine (354–430) is recognized as the most influential theologian of the early church and influenced apologetics through his City of God and other writings. Systems of Apologetics Three main systems have been identified: classical, evidential, and presuppositional. Classical apologetics, the primary approach throughout church history, contains two steps: rational arguments for a theistic God, followed by evidential support for Christianity (with an emphasis on miracles). Classical apologists trace their system back to the New Testament. In the Middle Ages, Anselm developed the ontological argument. Some classical apologists have gone on to reject Anselm’s ontological argument, but most accept some variation of the teleological argument, cosmological argument, or moral argument. Proponents include Anselm, Thomas Aquinas, William Paley, John Locke, C. S. Lewis, B. B. Warfield, R. C. Sproul, William Craig, J. P. Moreland, Norman Geisler, and Peter Kreeft. Evidential apologetics, the dominant modern approach, emphasizes the need for evidence to support the truth claims of Christianity. Unlike classical apologetics, proof for a theistic God is not a required first step, but frequently just one part of the eclectic evidentialist approach. It began as a reaction to deism, and one of the seminal works was Joseph Butler’s Analogy of Religion. Evidentialists often use five types of evidence: rational, historical, archaeological,

experiential, and prophetic. A common motif is a courtroom, first seen in Thomas Sherlock’s The Tryal of the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus in 1729. Proponents include Butler, Sherlock, James Orr, William Paley, Bernard Ramm, Clark Pinnock, John Warwick Montgomery, Richard Swinburne, and Josh McDowell. Presuppositional apologetics (sometimes referred to as reformed apologetics) defends Christianity by presupposing the truth of Christianity. There are three main streams of presuppositional apologetics: revelational, rational, and systematic consistency. Revelational is a two-step argument: non-Christian worldviews are unable to account for rationality and morality, and the Christian worldview is shown to be the only presupposition that leads to rationality and morality. This is called the transcendental argument. Proponents include Herman Dooyeweerd, Cornelius Van Til, Greg Bahnsen, and John Frame. Rational is based on the law of noncontradiction. It argues that all other worldviews have internal contradictions and cannot be true; only Christianity is internally consistent. Proponents include Gordon Clark, Carl F. H. Henry, and Ronald Nash. Systematic consistency is similar to rational, with two tests added: worldviews must comprehensively account for all other facts of life and must be existentially relevant. Proponents include Edward John Carnell and Gordon Lewis. Other systems are fideism, experientialism, historical apologetics, and integrative approaches (including the apologetics practiced by Francis Schaeffer). These may overlap other approaches. Apologetics in Modern Christian Education Defending the faith has played a large role in Christian education. The Princeton School of Apologetics exerted influence on CE at the turn of the 20th century. Westminster Seminary was formed as a reaction to the modernist direction of Princeton and added a ThM in apologetics in 1954. There has been a rise in graduate programs in apologetics since 1990, with Southeastern Evangelical Seminary founded for apologetics in 1992. The Oxford Centre for Christian Apologetics was formed in 2004 and added an MTh in 2012. An MA in apologetics was added at Biola University (1997), Luther Rice Seminary (2009), and Denver Seminary (2012). The MDiv in apologetics was added at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary in 2004. Southern Baptist Theological Seminary added a PhD (2001) and an MDiv (2007) in apologetics. Liberty University added a PhD in apologetics in 2008. References and Resources Boa, Kenneth D., and Robert M. Bowman Jr. 2005. Faith Has Its Reasons: An Integrative Approach to Defending Christianity. Waynesboro, PA: Authentic Publishing.


Bush, L. Russ, ed. 1993. Classical Readings in Christian Apologetics A.D. 100–1800. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Elwell, Walter A., ed. 2006. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Geisler, Norman L. 2007. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

—Stephen G. Lewis

Apologists Apologists refer to Christian writers (second–fifth centuries) and their works whose aim was to defend Christianity against pagan, Jewish, as well as heretical accusations and persecutions. The second and third centuries are considered the classic period of apologetic literature; however, apologetics continued even after the official recognition of Christianity by Emperor Constantine in AD 312 as religio licita (the admitted religion). The first document of Christian apologetic literature was Apology, addressed by Quadratus to the Emperor Hadrian circa AD 125. Among the early Christian apologists (writing in Greek) were Aristides of Athens, with Apology; Aristo of Pella, with Discussion between Jason and Papiscus Concerning Christ from circa AD 140; St. Justin the Martyr, with Apologies and Dialogue with the Jew Trypho; Tatian the Syrian, with The Discourse to the Greeks; Miltiades, with Apology of Christian Philosophy and Against the Greeks; Apollinaris of Hierapolis, with Against the Greeks, On the Truth, and Against the Jews; Athenagoras of Athens, with The Supplication for the Christians from circa AD 177; Theophilus of Antioch, with Ad Autolycum; Melito of Sardis’s Apology; Hermias, with Satire on the Profane Philosophers; and the unknown author of The Epistle to Diognetus. Among the apologists in later periods were (also writing in Greek) Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius the Great, and Theodoret of Cyrus; writing in Latin were Minucius Felix, Tertullian, Cyprian, Arnobius of Sicca, and Lactantius. The majority of the apologists were well-educated converts. The novelty of a religious experience of the Christian faith impelled them to confront it with pagan philosophy, especially because the previously circulating oral rumors and accusations concerning Christians (of their presumed atheism and immoral life) assumed a written slander in the second century (e.g., Lucian of Samosata’s De morte peregrini, Fronto of Cirta’s Oration, Celsus’s The True Discourse). Thus, in the second century AD, Christians faced a much harsher confrontation with the vaguely comprehended pagan culture, in addition to their resistance during the time of persecutions and establishing the model of a religious life inspired by the Commandments and the


Gospel. This took place on two planes: on the one hand, Christian writers responded to the allegations against the new religion; on the other hand, they often began, on their own initiative, a critique of polytheism and the cultural institutions of the pagan world. Apologists refuted unjust accusations and unmasked the Gentiles’ immorality and the absurdity of polytheism, counterpointing with Christian monotheism and the doctrine of the resurrection of the body. They pointed out that pagan philosophy contains barely a part of the truth, unlike Christianity, which encompasses its fullness and thus is the religion of truth. The church was presented as a neither new nor a recent institution. The New Testament is bound up with the Old by a close inner union, an inherent relationship constituted by the prophecies of the Redeemer to come, and since Moses lived long before the Greek thinkers and philosophers, Christianity is the oldest and most venerable of religions and philosophies. The works of the apologists took the form of speech or dialogue, in accordance with the rules of ancient rhetoric. They had to find a common ground with the Gentiles, if they wanted to convey their arguments; this forced them to take a more reasonable position, in order to allow others to join the academic discussion. The writers in their apologies did not attempt to speak to the uneducated masses, rather to address those who could comprehend them; they turned to them as the people of high culture (paideia), who wanted to approach the issues in a spirit of philosophy. Early Christian apologists did not seek to construct a coherent theological system, nor to interpret the entire Revelation; their aim was to validate the rationality and reasonableness of the Christian faith, with the aid of the logical belief systems developed by pagan religion, yet basing their notions not on pagan mythology, but on their own philosophical idea of God as a transcendent Being, which consequently determined their specific cosmology, anthropology, and ethics. Apologists and their apologies exemplify the search for a possible meeting of the man of the epoch with the Gospel message and illustrate the necessity for an invariable interpretation of the original, evangelical faith experience in the new language of successive epochs, adapted to the mentality of the people of each epoch. Despite the fact that after the Edict of Milan the interest in apologetics declined, the apologetic literature still produced treatises, mostly fending off heresies and concerning the Church’s dogmas (e.g., Augustine). References and Resources Danielou, J. 1974. Message évangélique et culture hellénistique aux IIe et IIIe siècles. Paris: Desclée et Cie. Edwards, M. J. 2008. “Apologetics.” In The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Studies, edited by S. Ashbrook Harvey and D. G. Hunter, 549–564. New York: Oxford University Press.


Apostles’ Creed

Edwards, M. J., M. Goodman, and S. R. F. Price, eds. 1999. Apologetics in the Roman Empire: Pagans, Christians, and Jews. New York: Oxford University Press. Ferguson, E., ed. 1993. The Early Church and Greco-Roman Thought. Studies in Early Christianity no. 8. New York: Garland Publishing. Grant, R. M. 1988. The Greek Apologists of the Second Century. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Grecco, M. 1974. Metodologia e fonti della prima apologetica cristiana. Lecce, Italy: Università del Salento Press. Wysocki, M. 2010. Early Christian Apologists’ Arguments in Favour of Christian Supremacy over Other Religions (Aristides, Justin, Athenagoras, Theophilus of Antioch, The Epistle to Diognetus). Lublin, Poland: Wydawnictwo KUL.

—Marcin Wysocki

Apostles’ Creed The antecedents of the Apostles’ Creed (from the Latin credo, “I believe”) are rooted in informal Christian confessions from the first 150 years of Christianity, centering on the person and work of Jesus Christ. As early as the New Testament, creedal statements are found on Christ’s death and resurrection (1 Cor. 15:3–6), His exaltation to the right hand of God (Rom. 8:34), and His final judgment of the living and the dead (2 Tim. 4:1–2). Later, through the influence of the baptismal formula “Father, Son and Holy Spirit” (Matt. 28:19), confessions began to take a more Trinitarian pattern. Beginning with concise and balanced statements on the Triune persons, each article developed as the church reflected on the Christian narrative and confronted internal and external theological challenges. The Apostles’ Creed arose directly from a tripartite set of questions given to baptismal candidates in Rome at the beginning of the third century. Catechumens were asked individually at baptism, “Do you believe in God the Father Almighty?” Then, “Do you believe in Jesus Christ, the only Son of God?” And finally, “Do you believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy church and the bodily resurrection of the dead?” To each question the person answered, “I believe.” In the next two centuries, this Roman symbol expanded and developed, transitioning from its early interrogatory form to become a baptismal confession. The creed’s present language was standardized by the early eighth century, appearing in a handbook for priests compiled by Pirminius of Reichenau. Through the efforts of the Roman Catholic Church and Protestant reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Heinrich Bullinger, it became the universal creed of the Western church and remains the unifying doctrinal standard in Christian ecumenical bodies.

The Apostles’ Creed summarizes all the fundamental articles of the Christian faith in simple scriptural language, following the biblical narrative from the Book of Genesis, with its portrayal of God and creation, to the Book of Revelation, with it description of “life everlasting, amen.” The creed begins with the declaration “I believe,” not the Nicene Creed’s corporate confession “We believe,” because of baptism’s individual nature. Personal faith and commitment is expressed “in” God the Father, Maker of heaven and earth, and “in” Jesus Christ, God’s only Son, and “in” the Holy Spirit. Following the earliest creedal patterns in the church, emphasis is placed on Christ as “our Lord”—“conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate,” raised on the third day, exalted to “the right hand of God” in heaven, and coming again as judge. It concludes by stating other key teachings Christians believe: “the holy catholic church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting.” Historically, the Apostles’ Creed has functioned liturgically as a personal declaration of allegiance to the Triune God in baptism and as a corporate confession of faith in worship, enabling the church member, regardless of culture, age, social rank, and education, to profess concisely what all Christians believe. It has also played a chief role in teaching Christian doctrine to new believers. Whether preparing for baptism, confirmation, or local church membership, the creed has been used by Roman Catholic and Protestant churches as the principal way to educate believers in the basics of Christian theology. Notable examples of the creed’s use in catechetical instruction are The Catechism of the Council of Trent, The Baltimore Catechism, and the Catechism of the Catholic Church (Roman Catholic); Luther’s Small Catechism and The Large Catechism (Lutheran); Catechism of The Church of Geneva and The Heidelberg Catechism (Reformed); and The Anglican Catechism (Anglican). In each instance, these catechisms move methodically, article by article, explaining the meaning of the creed and providing a firm grounding in Christian doctrine. References and Resources Barr, O. Sydney. 1964. From the Apostles Faith to the Apostles’ Creed. New York: Oxford University Press. Kelly, J. N. D. 1972. Early Christian Creeds. London: Longmans. Pelikan, Jaroslav. 2005. Credo: Historical and Theological Guide to the Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Young, Frances. 1991. The Making of the Creeds. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International.

—Chris Bounds

Archaeology, Christian Contributions to

Aquinas, Thomas Early Background and Education Born in Roccasecca in the kingdom of Naples on the Italian peninsula, Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274) was educated by Benedictines and Dominicans. When he joined the Dominican order, his family sought to overturn his vocation by kidnapping him, but after keeping him confined briefly, they relented. At the University of Paris, Aquinas studied under Albertus Magnus, a philosophical theologian who translated into Latin work by Aristotle and the Islamic philosophers Avicenna and Averrooes. Aquinas’s own education included the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, logic) and quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music), as well as the study of Aristotle and Islamic philosophers. Aquinas went on to teach in Paris, Orvieto, Rome, and Naples.


self-revelation in history. Aquinas’s work on evil, natural law, virtues and vices, the sacraments, and other domains is of enduring significance. Aquinas’s method of inquiry has educational significance as well. In the Summa Theologica, a question is raised (e.g., is God composed of form and matter?) and Aquinas’s preferred reply is not given without first offering reasons for thinking the opposite is true. This method reflects a high water mark of the art of debate (ars disputandi). Most Notable Publications Great works by Aquinas include Summa Theologica, Summa contra gentiles, De Veritate, and De Anima.

—Charles Taliaferro

Archaeology, Christian Contributions to Significant Contributions to Christian Education Aquinas is of special interest for educators addressing religious pluralism, for he lived at a time when reasons were needed to choose between religious traditions. The West was confronted by a powerful challenge from Arab and Persian philosophy that was profoundly shaped by Greek philosophy. Can a Christian or Muslim who is a follower of Aristotle believe in an afterlife for individuals? Aquinas is the preeminent defender of the integrity and cogency of how one can know God and for there to be coherence between reason and faith. According to Aquinas, reasonable, impartial inquirers can know God without the aid of appealing to special revelation. What has come to be called “the five ways” are five arguments, from our knowledge of this world and values to knowledge of God. In the Anglophone world today, these arguments are rarely treated with the historical background necessary to appreciate their cogency. The best contemporary defense of Aquinas’s case for theism can be found in work by Brian Davies, OP (see his Thomas Aquinas on God and Evil). Aquinas’s view of natural theology has implications for education insofar as he supports the ways in which the sciences and the study of values can be religiously significant vehicles of knowing God. (Although it is impossible to know, Aquinas’s experience of being kidnapped might have contributed to his commitment to inquiry that is free and not subject to brute force.) Far from disparaging revelation, Aquinas argued that revelation is a bona fide way of knowing more about God and values than can be achieved by reason alone. He defended the reasonability of divine revelation and believing that God is Triune, supremely good, and eternal, and that God became incarnate as Jesus Christ and is manifested in the miracle of God’s

Introduction It is no secret that archaeology in the Near East began as a Christian enterprise. The academic communities—biblical scholars and theologians among them—of Europe and America viewed the late 19th-century rise of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and Levantine archaeology as a means of illuminating the biblical text as never before. While New Testament scholars had always had the benefit of GrecoRoman classical studies as a backdrop, students of the Old Testament found themselves analyzing the Hebrew scriptures virtually in a vacuum. Although the OT itself spoke with familiarity of kingdoms and empires across the Fertile Crescent, in the centuries leading up to and including most of the 19th century, the cultures of the ancient Near East lay hidden behind an impenetrable, dark mist of mystery and ignorance. Napoleon’s exploits in Egypt around the turn of the 19th century cracked open the door to this previously unseen world, so that Christian scholarship and public alike were, with the unfettered optimism typical of the era, attracted en masse to an irresistible illumination of biblical narratives. Indeed, the Bible was the focus of the emerging biblical archaeology. In the ensuing tidal wave of discoveries, conservative Christian scholars found seemingly innumerable proofs of the Bible’s historical accuracy. However, the last 20 years of the 20th century were not so agreeable to the biblical archaeologists. By the turn of the new millennium, a host of scholars were pontificating that biblical archaeology was now dead, and that the Bible had been justifiably removed from the archaeological tool bag. Seemingly discredited as a viable discipline, biblical archaeology became SyroPalestinian archaeology (also referred to as Levantine


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archaeology). Those who persisted as biblical archaeologists were relegated to the margins of Ancient Near East scholarship. It was—and mostly remains—archaeology for archaeology’s sake. On the positive side, what for a brief historical moment appeared as biblical archaeology’s dark tomb has now a glowing light at the end of a tunnel opening toward a resurgence of the discipline. As a result of the Bible’s now-rising status within the archaeological community, scholars and the public should now recognize that the OT, in particular, remains the best-preserved and most reliable collection of ancient geographical and historical material at our disposal. However viewed, the OT is in fact a collection of documents from the ancient Near East itself and belongs to that world. The archaeological backdrop of the New Testament was not so controversial, as the NT covers only a relatively few decades of the early Roman period, and with generally recognized fidelity. While Christian contributions to NT archaeology are considerable, the issue of archaeology and the OT, particularly of the Pentateuch, dominates the history of ANE archaeology. This is the focus of this article. The Foundations of ANE and Biblical Archaeology The early history of Near Eastern archaeology has a distinctly Christian flavor. This is not true of ANE— principally Levantine—archaeology’s last half century, in which Israeli archaeologists began to dominate in Israel. Certainly, both secular and faith-based individuals have contributed significantly to ANE, Levantine, and even biblical archaeology. Unfortunately, space does not permit the introduction of every player on the archaeological stage; however, the inclusion of names such as Botta, Layard, Petrie, Garstang, Albright, and Wright—Christians all—is proper because of their position as foundational figures not merely of biblical archaeology, but also of ancient Near Eastern studies in general. It is also appropriate to add to these names those of significant individuals who rose from this foundation—Glueck, Kenyon, B. Mazar, Yadin, Callaway, Biran—but who were not Christians, or left the Christian faith along the pathway of their careers. An overview of this historical sequence would be incomplete without mentioning the recent and ongoing contributions of Dever, Ben-Tor, A. Mazar, Finkelstein, Ortiz, Wood, Ritmeyer, E. Mazar, Mullins, Kitchen, and Collins, who run the gamut from biblical minimalism (antibiblical bias) to maximalism (the Bible is historically credible) and represent diverse views within both the liberal and conservative camps. (I must emphasize that I have been highly selective, because there are literally hundreds of individuals who have contributed significantly to ANE archaeology and biblical archaeology. My selec-

tions are based on one or both of the following criteria: (1) intrinsic importance to the development of archaeology as a scientific discipline and (2) contributions to ANE and/or Levantine archaeology representative of various approaches and perspectives.) Once the door to the ancient Near Eastern world—indeed, the biblical world—began to open by the mid-19th century, what had been the ancient Fertile Crescent was overrun by professional scholars and amateur explorers. Unfortunately, most of the early devotees of this new field of inquiry, whether scholars or laypeople, were little more than treasure hunters—some of them glorified, well-funded treasure hunters who sent back to their respective countries vast quantities of ancient artifacts boxed in massive crates bound for the great museums of Europe. Paul-Émile Botta (1802–1870), of Italian and French background, and Englishman Austin Henry Layard (1817–1894), both from Christian families, did most of the early work in Mesopotamia. Like many of the most influential 19th-century explorer-scholars, they lacked formal education in archaeology and ANE history, for both disciplines were practically nonexistent during their careers. But like most of their similarly minded contemporaries, Botta and Layard were passive with regard to the Bible in their archaeological pursuits. While they generally took its history at face value, they made no overt attempts to prove the Bible with their discoveries. In reality, there was no pressing reason to do so, as most of the 19th-century European populace and scholarly community accepted the Bible as authentic history. With the entrance of Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853–1942), impeccable scholar and Christian (Plymouth Brethren), early archaeology took a decidedly scientific turn. Self-trained in Egyptology, philology, and survey methods, Petrie arrived in the Near East with a critical eye. Seemingly unmoved by the lust for treasure that characterized so many of his predecessors and contemporaries, he brought rhyme and reason to the excavation process. Two important concepts formalized by Petrie remain valid to this day: stratigraphy and ceramic typology. While he did not pursue his archaeological career with the Bible specifically in mind, he believed it to be historically reliable and saw his work as a backdrop for biblical stories. Thus, scientific archaeology had begun on a substantial, pro-Bible footing. John Garstang (1876–1956), professor of archaeology at the University of Liverpool from 1907 to 1941, was more aggressive when it came to the historicity of the OT narratives and his own archaeological pursuits. As a result of his 1920s excavations at Jericho, he announced that he had discovered the walls of the city that had fallen outward during its conquest by Moses’s succes-

Archaeology, Christian Contributions to

sor, Joshua. Garstang was unabashed in his claim that this find proved the factuality of the biblical story of Joshua’s conquest of the city. In this positive light, the respectability of biblical archaeology took a substantial leap forward. It is safe to say that the careers of archaeological scholars prior to and contemporary with William Foxwell Albright (1891–1971) pale in comparison to his genius. Born to Christian (evangelical Methodist) missionary parents, Albright maintained a healthy appreciation for the historical authenticity of OT narratives—including the Pentateuchal stories—throughout his illustrious career. With a PhD from Johns Hopkins University and a subsequent, enduring professorship there, he positioned himself as the pontiff of both ANE and biblical archaeology—and not illegitimately. His then-unequaled acumen in field archaeology (Gibeah, Tell Beit Mirsim, and Bethel were among his excavations), ancient Semitic languages, ancient Levantine ceramics, and ancient Near Eastern studies made Albright a giant among his peers. He also gave rise to a host of world-class ANE and biblical scholars who either studied under him, studied with him, or were signally influenced by him—G. Ernest Wright, Frank Moore Cross, David Noel Freedman, Kathleen Kenyon, and Kenneth Kitchen among them. At the center of Albright’s biblical assuredness was his insistence that the stories of the OT Torah—including the patriarchal stories in Genesis—were historical at their core. In support of this, he marshalled what appeared to be incontrovertible evidence—much from Mesopotamian cuneiform archives as well as excavations in the southern Levant—that the narratives surrounding biblical characters such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, and Joshua contained authentic Bronze Age cultural elements and social practices. The sum of this, both for Albright and eager-to-believe evangelical Bible scholars who hung on his every word, provided reasonable proof that the biblical record was patently historical on its face. Albright’s doctrinal idiosyncrasies—for example, he was not entirely averse to OT higher critical theories and was certainly not an evangelical himself—that proved distasteful to more conservative evangelical Bible students and scholars were tempered by his protégé, George Earnest Wright (1909–1974). A considerable ANE scholar and archaeologist in his own right, Wright became the archaeological “darling” of evangelical Bible commentators; Bible atlas, dictionary, and encyclopedia editors; and professors at Christian seminaries and Bible colleges. Almost single-handedly, he brought biblical archaeology into a short-lived golden era. After his death, biblical archaeology as a distinct discipline began to fall out of favor with the next generation of archaeologists.


Biblical versus Syro-Palestinian Archaeology: Important Players Although many influential ANE and Levantine archaeologists from the 19th century through the 1970s happened to be, at least in a general sense, Christians, other personalities also played important roles. Not a few Jewish and Israeli scholars were active in the field during the era in which the Bible was still held in considerable respect as historically authentic. Some of these individuals held the Bible in high regard. Others used it in their work, but cautiously or with reservations. Nelson Glueck (1900–1971)—American archaeologist, Jewish rabbi, and president of the Hebrew Union College—was hugely influential in holding up the Bible as a crucial set of documents in the study of ancient history. Christian scholars viewed Glueck as a friendly ally in this regard, although he emphasized that he did not take the Bible literally in the traditional sense. His was a positive—perhaps neutral—influence in the growing discussion vis-à-vis biblical historicity. Dame Kathleen M. Kenyon (1906–1978), daughter of the renowned Sir Frederic Kenyon, became one of the pivotal archaeologists of the 20th century in scientific, systematic field methods. However, from the perspective of Christian interpreters of the Bible, she represents a distinctly negative turn in the debate over OT historical credibility. In particular, Kenyon, armed with better archaeological methods in her 1950s excavations at Jericho, found Garstang’s previous “evidence” of Joshua’s conquest to be in error. The stratum Garstang had assigned to the time of Joshua (c. 1400 BC), she insisted belonged to the end of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1550 BC). The word quickly spread that Kenyon’s evidence demonstrated that the Joshua story of Jericho’s destruction was, likely, an etiological legend. In relatively short order, this became the conventional wisdom in the archaeological literature—and for most it constituted a major blow to biblical historicity. Renowned Israeli archaeologists Benjamin Mazar (1906–1995), Yigael Yadin (1917–1984), and Avriham Biran (1909–2008) all made incalculably valuable contributions to Levantine archaeology over their careers, and each had a healthy appreciation for the general historical character of the OT narratives. From a Christian, particularly evangelical, point of view, however, many Israeli archaeologists came up short in terms of the historicity of the patriarchal narratives preserved in the Pentateuch. Even now, in the 21st century, most Israeli, American, and European archaeologists working in the Levant do not believe in what they call the “traditional Albrightian view” that biblical characters such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, and Joshua were, at the very least, based on kernels of historical truth. This difference of


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opinion forged the current divide separating conservative Christian archaeologists and their more liberal (higher critical) counterparts, who comprise the vast majority of the archaeological community. The career of Joseph Callaway (1920–1988) is instructive, for he was personally caught in the middle of the biblical historicity debate as a result of his excavations at et-Tell, the traditional site of Ai. His Southern Baptist background supplied him with a substantial belief in the historical reliability of the Pentateuchal narratives. Since the book of Joshua included a detailed account of the Israelite conquest of Ai sometime during the second half of the Late Bronze Age (c. 1400–1200 BC), he expected to find evidence of this event in an LBA destruction layer at et-Tell. That was a logical expectation for Callaway if, in fact, the biblical account of the battle of Ai was accurate. In his many years excavating at et-Tell/Ai, it became clear that there was not a scintilla of LBA material there. The site had collapsed into ruins toward the end of the Early Bronze Age (c. 2350 BC) and remained unoccupied until a small town sprang up during the Iron Age. According to the archaeological evidence, there was no city at et-Tell/Ai for Joshua to conquer. To what extent his personal faith suffered in the process is debatable, but it is certain that he jettisoned his belief in the historical authenticity of the Torah narratives. The Current Scene in Levantine Archaeology To say that by the 1980s, the historicity of the Hexateuch (Gen–Josh) was hanging by a thread in the minds of most ANE and Levantine archaeologists, is an understatement. Generally steeped in German higher criticism, the community of Syro-Palestinian (Levantine) archaeologists had become convinced that the collective verdict of field discoveries had categorically discredited the views of Albright—and certainly the evangelicals—regarding the existence of the Hebrew patriarchs, including Moses and Joshua. Indeed, during the first decade of the 21st century, it seemed that even the concept of “biblical” archaeology was on the ropes and threatened with imminent demise. Within the minimalist versus maximalist debate, the positions and opinions of William G. Dever (1933–), often considered the dean of Syro-Palestinian archaeologists in the United States, have been significant. While Dever himself denies presiding over the “death of biblical archaeology,” he does take full credit for “writing its obituary.” He has stated on more than one occasion, “No responsible scholar goes out with a trowel in one hand and a Bible in the other.” In fairness, Dever has most often taken a centrist position on the historical authenticity of the OT, but would categorically deny it for the Torah books. (It is interesting that Dever came from an

evangelical background and pursued theological education early in his career.) Amnon Ben-Tor (1935–), professor in the archaeology of Eretz Israel at Hebrew University, remains another strong centrist in the debate over biblical historicity. A giant of Israeli archaeology, Ben-Tor has directed the excavations at Tel Hazor for more than 20 years. Conservative archaeologists certainly appreciate the fact that he attributes the terminal Late Bronze Age destruction of Hazor to Joshua, likely due to the residual influence of Albright. The archaeological career of Amihai Mazar (1942–) has been nothing short of stellar. His excavations include Timnah, Bet She’an, and Rehov in Israel, and he is presently professor in the Institute of Archaeology at Hebrew University. Certainly a centrist in the minimalist/maximalist controversy, he maintains excellent rapport among Christian and evangelical scholars. His willingness to pursue dialogue with more conservative colleagues has positioned him as a pivotal figure in the debate over the use of the Bible in an archaeological context. Since the 1990s, Israel Finkelstein (1949–) has, by default at least, served as the figurehead of biblical minimalism among Israeli archaeologists. He is currently professor of the archaeology of Israel at Tel Aviv University and codirector of the Megiddo excavations. Since the Bible—he believes—provides virtually no factual history regarding the evolution of ancient Israel, it is now incumbent upon the emerging technologies to seek out a more accurate picture of Israelite origins. Finkelstein’s views, considered radical by not a few of his Israeli colleagues, have served as a wake-up call for more conservative scholars—including archaeologists of Christian persuasion. Reactions against Finkelstein and the minimalists have motivated an avalanche of data from across the spectrum of ancient Near Eastern studies and archaeology supporting the historical nature of the Pentateuch plus Joshua (Hexateuch). This wealth of recently assembled information is even demonstrating the historical foundations of the patriarchal narratives, not in the manner of Albright’s failed attempts in this regard, but with substantive historical synchronisms and period-specific cultural elements. Leading this resurgent charge is inimitable ANE scholar Kenneth A. Kitchen (1932–), emeritus professor at the University of Liverpool and an Anglican Christian. With rigorous logic and weighty documentation, he continues to demonstrate that the world of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob did not reside in the imaginations of late Iron Age Judahite priests, but authentically belongs to the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1900–1600 BC). Steven Ortiz, who presently heads the archaeology program at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, represents not only sound archaeological scholarship,

Archaeology, Christian Contributions to

but also a vibrant evangelical faith. A protégé of Dever, he currently directs the excavations at Tel Gezer in Israel. His career demonstrates that academic rigor and conservative biblical beliefs can, in fact, exist side by side without conflict. This is also true in the remarkable work of Leen Ritmeyer (1945–), widely recognized as the world’s leading authority on the archaeology and architecture of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. During two decades working for B. Mazar, he became the chief archaeological architect for the south Temple Mount excavations in Jerusalem. The historical reality of the Israelite/Jewish Temple through time is manifestly present in the ancient architectural features examined in Ritmeyer’s work. Israeli archaeologist Eilat Mazar (1956–), granddaughter of B. Mazar, exhibits a solid commitment to the historical underpinnings of the OT. Although criticized in some quarters for her insistence that she has found the remnants of King David’s palace by using information from relevant biblical texts, she continues to make a reasonable case for her discoveries. She stands in stark contrast to the minimalists and demonstrates that the reports of the death of biblical archaeology do not reflect the reality of the situation “on the ground.” American archaeologist Bryant G. Wood (1936–), chief archaeologist for the Associates for Biblical Research, is held in high esteem among Christianity’s most conservative evangelicals. With a doctorate in SyroPalestinian archaeology from the University of Toronto, Wood has deftly carried the banner of biblical literalism throughout his career. His excavations at Khirbet elMaqatir have challenged the traditional location of the site of Ai destroyed by Joshua. The contrast between Wood and other scholars within the Christian community—like Kitchen, Ortiz, Mullins, and Collins—represents the fact that there is little consensus among even conservative archaeologists and ANE scholars on issues like the date of the Exodus and the nature of biblical chronology (whether literal or figurative). For example, Wood is intractable on the literal, base-10, arithmetic value of the patriarchal life-span numbers and holds to an early date for the Exodus (c. mid-15th century BC). Kitchen, Ortiz, and Mullins posit an Exodus date in the 13th century BC (following Albright and Wright) and are flexible in their interpretation of the patriarchal numbers. Collins (this writer) opts for an honorific, formulaic, and/or symbolic understanding of the patriarchal numbers and argues for a middle date for the Exodus (c. 1400 BC). Thus, there remains a wide range of approaches to biblical chronology among Christian archaeologists. The dialogue remains vigorous but friendly. The career of Robert A. Mullins (1952–), professor of archaeology and Old Testament at Azusa Pacific University, demonstrates that an archaeologist, who also


happens to be a Christian, can make remarkable contributions to Levantine archaeology. His acumen in the typology of ancient ceramics and field archaeology shows the ability of a faith-oriented individual to accomplish impeccable, objective scientific work. Mullins’s current excavation at the biblical site of Abel Beth Maacah in northern Israel shows how the Bible can be used responsibly in an archaeological context, particularly in terms of ancient geography. Steven Collins (1950–; this writer)—dean of the College of Archaeology and Biblical History, Trinity Southwest University— has spent more than a decade exploring the southern Jordan Valley north of the Dead Sea and directing the Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project in Jordan, which (at the time of writing) is in its ninth dig season. The identification of Tall el-Hammam as biblical Sodom has opened up a historic discussion concerning the factuality of the Abrahamic narratives in Genesis. Archaeology and Biblical Studies: A Dialogical Approach The Christian contribution to archaeology, even biblical archaeology, has been a mixed bag. Although scholars with Christian roots and/or active personal faith have greatly advanced the discipline of ANE archaeology from its 19th-century beginnings to the present day, unfortunate examples of false leads, disproved theories, and even outright hoaxes abound. During the 1980s and 1990s, early interpretations of texts from the cuneiform archives of Ebla in northern Syria excited the world of biblical scholarship with claims of “map lists” with the names of Sodom and Gomorrah, other biblical cities, and a host of “authentications” of biblical characters and stories. By the turn of the 21st century, virtually every such link had evaporated in the light of advancing research. Sadly, Bible educators had filled their literature with these now-failed connections—embarrassing, to be sure—and some are still touted today. With little or no familiarity with legitimate archaeology, the bulk of the Christian community remains naïve in such matters and vulnerable to all manner of far-out claims and out-and-out hoaxes. When the science of archaeology began to turn away from the Bible, rather than answering back with rigorous archaeological research, much of the Christian community responded by seeing what they wanted to see and believing what they wanted to believe from pseudo-archaeology and junk science. However, this is an avoidable result. Thankfully, as a result of responsible biblical archaeology, the tide is turning in favor of the historical authenticity of the Bible, and Christian educators would be welladvised to keep up with the pace of discovery in the legitimate archaeological arena.



If biblical archaeology is defined as the pursuit of archaeology with a view to illuminating the cultural context of biblical texts, then it certainly has a proper place within the larger scope of ANA archaeology. In order for this relationship to be successful, the extremes of minimalism and maximalism must be avoided in favor of more productive discussion. Those on the left extreme have disallowed the Bible a voice in the pursuit of archaeology. Those on the right extreme have turned a deaf ear to archaeology in the pursuit of biblical interpretation. Both of these mutually exclusive positions must give way to a more productive dialogue in which both text and ground are available to each other in substantive ways. Archaeology and Christian Apologetics Archaeologists must pursue their discipline without an apologetic agenda; that is, as far as possible it must be objective and scientific. Archaeology does not exist to prove or disprove the Bible. However, because both archaeological data and the biblical text originate from the same foundation in reality, their common ground is certainly fair game in demonstrating the historical worth of both archaeological and biblical data. If the geographical or cultural or sociopolitical or artifactual shoe fits, then the Bible has the right to wear it. Such evidences of historical authenticity, when reasonably confirmed by rigorous scholarship, have a place in building a case for the historical credibility of scripture in support of the Christian message. Archaeology and Christian Education If Christianity hopes to pass on a historically reliable Bible to the next generation, then by all means it must make a substantive connection between that collection of ancient books and the real, physical world. Rightly associated with the biblical text, archaeology can link biblical characters and events to physical, space-time reality, a tangible world in which growing minds learn to distinguish between fact and fiction; indeed, fact-faith versus fiction-faith.

hands of educators who influence the minds of emerging generations regarding the nature of Christian scripture and the importance of keeping the Bible connected to the ground of reality. References and Resources Ben-Tor, Amnon. 1992. The Archaeology of Ancient Israel. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Cline, Eric H. 2009. Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. Collins, Steven. 2005. Let My People Go: Using Historical Synchronisms to Identify the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Albuquerque, NM: Trinity Southwest University Press. ———. 2013. Discovering the City of Sodom. New York: Howard Books/Simon and Schuster. Davies, Thomas W. 2004. Shifting Sands: The Rise and Fall of Biblical Archaeology. New York: Oxford University Press. Feinman, Peter D. 2004. William Foxwell Albright and the Origins of Biblical Archaeology. Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press. Finkelstein, Israel, and Nadav Na’aman, eds. 1994. From Nomadism to Monarchy. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society. Finkelstein, Israel, and Neil A. Silberman. 2001. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origins of Its Sacred Texts. New York: Free Press. Hoerth, Alfred J. 1998. Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. Hoffmeier, James, K. 2008. The Archaeology of the Bible. Oxford: Lion Hudson. Holden, Joseph M., and Norman Geisler. 2013. The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible. Eugene, OR: Harvest House. Kitchen, Kenneth A. 2003. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Lemche, Niels P. 1998. Prelude to Israel’s Past. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. Mazar, Amihai. 1990. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. New York: Doubleday. Ritmeyer, Leen. 2006. The Quest: Revealing the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Jerusalem: Carta and the Lamb Foundation.

—Steven Collins The Future of Christian Involvement in Archaeology To be realistic, given the history of Christianity’s minuscule investment in things archaeological, it remains to be seen whether or not it can become, once again, a major player in the field. It is no secret that Christian archaeologists who make use of the Bible in their work have taken more than their fair share of attacks and criticism from scholars who are not so oriented. There are bright spots for Christian archaeologists, to be sure, with evangelical scholars like Ortiz, Mullins, and Collins directing biblically significant excavations in the Holy Land. But the future of biblical archaeology, in particular, lies in the

Architecture The synagogue and the Temple were the two primary institutions of Judaism from 586 BC until AD 70. The synagogue has endured as an institution of Judaism; however, Christians were expelled from the synagogues throughout Palestine and the lands of the dispersion. Consequently, the church either gathered in private homes or met in the catacombs of Rome (often used for burial of the deceased). The catacombs could have miles


of various levels of underground passages. Archaeological excavations have found various Christian symbols in these catacombs, such as a dove or fish. The Greek word for “fish” (ichthus) had an acrostic meaning Iēsous Christos Theou Huios Sōtēr (“Jesus Christ, God’s Son, Savior”), thus a graffito of a fish was a code sign for Christians. A profound change in the history of the Christian faith occurred in the fourth century with Emperor Constantine’s “acceptance” of Christianity in AD 312. While the early church was being persecuted, it anticipated the imminent coming of Christ in power and glory at the end of the age. As apocalyptic expectancy waned, the church still longed for the second coming of Christ but not a glorious earthly millennium. As Christianity became doctrinally and organizationally institutionalized, Christians were no longer forced to worship in catacombs and homes. Christian architecture began with dissent toward apocalyptic millennialism. The church members were free to worship in elegant basilicas and majestic houses of worship. Early church architecture prior to Constantine can be divided generally into three stages of development. During the first stage (AD 50–150), Christians assembled in private homes (house-church). During the second stage (AD 150–250), private homes were remodeled for the exclusive needs of the assembled Christian community. The gathering places were called domus ecclesiae (a “community center” or “meeting house”). During the third stage (AD 250–312), private and public buildings and halls were employed for Christian assemblies. When the early church could begin erecting buildings, they were modeled after the Roman basilica, which were developed as public buildings and used for either business or pleasure. The typical basilica for the church was an oblong building with a narthex (porch) at the west end where catechumens worshipped, a semicircular apse at the east end where the altar was situated (and bishop’s seat if the building was a cathedral), and a long central nave with north and south aisles on earth side. The early basilica style building was fairly simple, eventually becoming rather ornate after AD 312 (since the church was able to obtain favor with the state). The three major styles of medieval architecture that developed during this period were Byzantine, Gothic, and Romanesque architecture (although it was not a primary style, Moorish architecture was used predominantly in southern Spain). Large domes supported by pendentives and decorative mosaics characterized Byzantine architecture. The Gothic cathedrals were expressions of belief in the supernatural and manifested the otherworldly outlook of the era. The university towers of the medieval period (representative of scholasticism) had their counterpart in the spires of the Gothic cathedrals, which were often regarded as a “Bible in stone.” Domed


ceilings, rounded arches, and a cruciform shape characterized later Romanesque architecture. Romanesque structures retained the predominant form of the basilica and remained massive until buttresses were introduced (this change allowed the walls to be lightened). Architecture during the 15th and early 16th centuries was (in terms of formal analysis) a veritable rebirth of the vocabulary and partly the compositional forms of classical antiquity. The significance of these achievements cannot be exaggerated, because the renaissance of rationality and modularized building anticipated the prominence of rationality and the scientific method that are such distinctive aspects of the contemporary age. The decline of the medieval church and empire and the weakening of the feudal system (with the rise of cities, nation-states, and languages) were ubiquitous changes occurring in the 14th and 15th centuries, combined with a further individualistic and naturalistic conception of life. In terms of this conception, Renaissance architects inspired ideas and principles of self-awareness for a new style of architecture. If classical in character, post-Renaissance architecture is correctly identified within any period succeeding the movement known as Renaissance proper. Neoclassic architecture was a movement that would include any style of a later time than the limitations of the Renaissance identified by custom in France and Italy (and may be properly classified as post-Renaissance style). Ancient Greece and Rome, which were regarded as ideal cultures, were the inspiration for the architecture of this period. Neoclassical buildings had domed roofs, symmetrical forms, tall columns rising the entire height, and triangular pediments. Neoclassicism was a reaction against the rococo style, and a desire for antique simplicity. Rococo architecture originally began in the French decorative arts of the early 18th century and extended later throughout other countries (primarily Austria and Germany). Architecture in the 19th century was more diverse than it had ever previously been. The freedoms in architecture that neoclassicism and romanticism introduced stimulated renewals of diverse historical styles. Numerous architects employed historical styles (due to their associations) that were suggestive of the desire for traditional continuity and stability during the height of the innovatory changes of the industrial age. Architects had to devise plans for buildings, such as asylums, charities, hospitals, public markets, and worker housing, which had never previously existed. Moreover, architects were offered iron, glass, and steel as new building materials. Postmodern architecture is generally associated with the late 1970s. Although it represents an allusion to historicism, postmodernism abstracts meaning in a subjectively expressive manner, which reflects the spiritual


Argentina and Christian Education

nature of the age. Postmodern architecture employs a variety of historic styles, but simplifies and amalgamates the historic forms. Architecture is an expression of a life attitude (particularly the human relation to the cosmos, divine, and others); thus it is a fundamental representation of the nature and spirit of an era. References and Resources

After Argentina achieved independence in 1816, its political leaders adopted the ideas of the Enlightenment and promoted mixed elementary, technical, and university education. Because of the lack of professionals in education, the government appointed the British Schools Society agent, Diego Thompson, as the general director of schools. He implemented the Lancastrian system of education, using mentor students, and Bible excerpts as the only teaching materials. In 1823, Protestant churches began to appear, and Protestant schools flourished. By 1916, about 700 elementary schools had been opened, with biblical study as an essential part of the curriculum. By 1930 the situation had changed, and general education passed into the hands of the laity. Regarding Christian education, from the conquest through the present day, the Catholic Church has been committed to formal and informal education. On their part, since 1884 Protestants of diverse denominations have founded several institutions of theological and pastoral education. Since 1916, Sunday schools have been the main method of Christian education of the population at large.

Bigalke, Ron J., Jr. 2011. “Architecture.” In The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization, edited by George Thomas Kurian, 1:103–108. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Curl, James Stevens. 2003. Classical Architecture. New York: Norton. Fergusson, James. 1874–1893. A History of Architecture in All Countries. 5 vols. London: John Murray. Jordan, R. Furneaux. 1969. A Concise History of Western Architecture. London: Great Britain: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Kimball, Fiske, and George Harold Edgell. 1918. A History of Architecture. New York: Harper & Brothers. Krautheimer, Richard. 1986. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. 4th ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Long, Marshall. 2006. Architectural Acoustics. London: Elsevier Academic Press. MacDonald, William. 1962. Early Christian & Byzantine Architecture. New York: George Braziller. Moffett, Marian, Michael Fazio, and Lawrence Wodehose. 2004. A World History of Architecture. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Roth, Leland M. 1993. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Summerson, John. 1963. Heavenly Mansions: And Other Essays on Architecture. New York: Norton. Sutton, Ian. 1999. Western Architecture. New York: Thames and Hudson. Vasari, Giorgio. 1998. The Lives of the Artists. Translated by Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella. New York: Oxford University Press. Watkin, David. 1996. A History of Western Architecture. 2nd ed. New York: Barnes & Noble.

Bastian, Jean-Pierre. 1986. Historia del protestantismo en América Latina. México City: Casa Unida de Publicaciones. Deiros, Pablo Alberto. 1992. Historia del cristianismo en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Fraternidad Teológica Latinoamericana. Dussel, Enrique. 1972. Historia de la iglesia en América Latina. Barcelona: Nova Terra. Fletcher, John y Alfonso Ropero. 2008. Historia general del cristianismo. Barcelona: Clie. Hurlbut, Jesse Lyman. 1940. La historia de la iglesia cristiana. San Antonio, TX: Casa Evangélica de Publicaciones. Prien, Hans-Jürgen. 1985. La historia del cristianismo en América Latina. Salamanca: Sígueme.

—Ron J. Bigalke

—Karina Casanova

References and Resources

Argentina and Christian Education


Roman Catholicism was brought to Argentina with the Spanish Conquest of the 16th century. Since then, Roman Catholicism has been the official religion, although religious freedom exists. In 2008, about 76 percent of the population was Catholic, 9 percent Protestant/evangelicals, and 11 percent indifferent. During the first years of settlement, education was centered on elementary school under Catholic religious orders. In 1613, the Universidad de Cordoba was founded.

Aristotle (384–322 BC) was born in Stagerios in Thrace, the son of Nichomachus, court physician of King Amyntas II. His father died when he was young, and he was raised by a guardian, Proxenus. In 367 BC, he entered Plato’s academy as a student, remaining there for 20 years. After studying with Plato, Aristotle went to Macedonia as the tutor of Alexander, who was destined to become historically famous as the “Great.” In 335 BC, Aristotle founded a philosophical school in Athens, called the Ly-


ceum, which was one of the most prestigious institutions of higher learning of its time.97 He authored books on a variety of subjects, including physics, biology, ethics, psychology, logic, and metaphysics. He wrote more than 200 treatises, of which only 31 survived. His most influential works include Nicomachean Ethics, which reflects the highest ideas of Hellenistic life by emphasizing reason, moderation, and harmony. In Politics, he examined the human being’s social nature, the purpose of government, and the most desirable kind of social order.98 After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, anti-Macedonian sentiment overtook Athens, and the Lyceum fell into disfavor. Aristotle fled the city, taking refuge in Chalcis on the island of Euboea, where he died at age 62. Educational Philosophy Aristotle was the founder of Western philosophical realism. He believed that all substances are composed of form and matter, and that they exist independently of human knowledge of them. Humans have the capacity to know these objects by observing the patterns of regular interaction with these natural objects. He believed that humans, as rational beings, inhabit a rational and purposeful universe.99According to Aristotle, ideas (or forms), such as the idea of God, can exist without matter, but there can be no matter without forms. Each piece of matter has universal and particular properties. He argued that the forms of things, the universal properties of objects, remain constant and never change, whereas particular components do change. For example, in terms of people, though individual persons die, humanness remains. Another example is the way a child develops. Children have particular characteristics; their bodies change and they grow into adults, but their humanness (essence) remains constant even though matter changes.100 Thus, there is a difference between essential and accidental properties. The properties themselves don’t change, but the substance changes that forms its instantiates. Aristotle distinguishes between intellectual virtues and moral virtues. A moral virtue has to do with feeling, choosing, and acting well. For Aristotle virtue belongs to the soul, and his notion of the soul is closer to the notion of the mind. The soul is not viewed as some nonmaterial thing that exists independently from the body, but includes our passions, faculties, and states of character. Aristotle rejected Platonic dualism, which held 97. Gerald L. Gutek, A History of the Western Educational Experience, 2nd ed. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 1995), 48. 98. Ibid., 48. 99. Ibid., 49. 100. Howard Ozmon, and Samuel Craver, Philosophical Foundations of Education, 5th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill Publishing Company, 1995), 40.


that persons are endowed with form, defined as soul and body. His monistic view unites the body and soul. He held that the acquisition of knowledge comes from the five senses instead of empirical observation. Since knowledge is outside the person, knowledge can be known through the senses. He placed trust in the careful observation and analysis of nature as our best hope of arriving at truth.101 For Aristotle, the supreme good was happiness, but he knew that people disagree on what constitutes happiness. He believed that the chief end of humanity is not merely to live, but to live a good life that manifests the rational nature of humanity. The pursuit of happiness is a search for the good life, which is virtuous. That life that actualized the distinct human capacity, rationality, was for Aristotle the ultimate good. However, most people were not morally and intellectually trained for such a virtuous life, so he concluded that few would or could pursue it. Character Formation: Habituation Aristotle argued that there are two kinds of virtues. First is virtues of thinking, which includes such virtues as wisdom. Virtues of thinking need time and experience to be cultivated and can be taught to a person simply by study. Second is virtues of character, things like temperance and courage. Virtues of character require habituation to be cultivated and cannot be taught to a person simply by study. One must actually habituate oneself to doing the right acts to have any chance of acquiring these virtues. Thus, by the process of habituation, a person can come to possess a virtue that he or she lacks. Through the process of habit, people can be formed as good or bad. As people develop habits, they become a part of those people and result in virtues. Aristotle believed that education (paideia) should cultivate those right habits that would develop moral and rational virtues. This ethical and intellectual training, or character development, could only be achieved by daily practice (for moral virtue) and a liberal education (for intellectual virtue).102 Education was for character development a means to become a certain kind of person and citizen, and a pathway to a healthy society. Aristotle suggested that an educated person unites morality and reason in virtuous action. While the potential for such virtuous being is present at birth, that potential must be nurtured through education if it is to be actualized. Humans achieve moral excellence by performing 101. Ronald F. Reed and Tony W. Johnson, eds., Philosophical Documents in Education, 2nd ed. (New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2000), 17. 102. Glenn L. Smith and Joan K. Smith, eds., Live in Education: A Narrative of People and Ideas, 2nd ed. (New York: Saint Martin’s Press, 1994), 28.


Armenia and Christian Education

good acts and the development of good habits, which is a critical part of education. The ultimate goal of education is to assist human beings in developing their unique capacity to contemplate the world and their role in it. Thus, human beings become ideal citizens ready and able to perform their duties as rational members of society.103 Like Plato, Aristotle recognized that education directly related to both the healthy individual and the harmoniously integrated society, or polis, and recommended compulsory public education. This is reflected in Politics, in which he drew attention to the good of the individual and the good state. If the legislator neglects education, then the constitution suffers. For proper social functioning, Aristotle believed that education should be in the hands of the city-state. Members of the large middle class should govern the city-state, because they were the least likely to suffer from the extremes of poverty and wealth.104

Irwin, Terence, trans. 1999. Aristotle: Nicomachen Ethics. 2nd ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing. Ozmon, Howard, and Samuel Craver. 1995. Philosophical Foundations of Education. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill Publishing. Peterson, Michael L. 2001. With All Your Mind: A Christian Philosophy of Education. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press. Reed, James E., and Ronnie Prevost. 1993. A History of Christian Education. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman. Reed, Ronald F., and Tony W. Johnson, eds. 2000. Philosophical Documents in Education. 2nd ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Rorty, Amélie Oksenberg, ed. 1998. Philosophers on Education: New Historical Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge. Smith, Glenn L., and Joan K. Smith, eds. 1994. Live in Education: A Narrative of People and Ideas. 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Influence on Christian Education The Christian tradition has relied heavily on Aristotle’s ethical philosophy to provide a conceptual basis for the articulation of its own ethical doctrines. He influenced the development of Christian doctrines such as medieval scholastic theology, including the proofs for the existence of God, theory of the Eucharist, ecclesiology, and natural law. Aristotle greatly influenced Thomas Aquinas, a Roman Catholic theologian. Through Aquinas, realism became basic to Western Catholic educational thought and the “classic” approach to general education. Christian education that stresses basic knowledge of scripture and doctrine has its roots in Aristotelian thought. Aristotle’s view of character formation and virtue ethics is significant for Christian educators because it places value on the role of Christian practice in developing habits that lead to virtues. Through continual engagement in Christian practice, by God’s grace, in the context of Christian community, people internalize beliefs and values that enable them to reflect the image and nature of Christ.

—Mark Maddix

References and Resources Curren, Randall R. 2000. Aristotle on the Necessity of Public Education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Everson, Stephen, ed. 1996. Aristotle: The Politics and the Constitution of Athens. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Gutek, Gerald L. 1995. A History of the Western Educational Experience. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

103. James E. Reed and Ronnie Prevost, A History of Christian Education (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1993), 32. 104. Smith and Smith, Live in Education, 28.

Armenia and Christian Education In the fourth century, Armenia became the first nation to adopt Christianity as its official religion, tracing its Christian heritage to St. Thaddeus in the first century. Saint Gregory the Illuminator converted King Tiridates III in AD 301, resulting in the adoption of national Christianity. Operating semiautonomously until the fifth century, the Armenian Church eventually severed its ties with Rome and Constantinople in 554 over doctrinal differences. When Armenia was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1922, religious freedom was forcefully discouraged; seminaries and churches were closed down, and priests were arrested, exiled, or shot. In 1991, a year after Armenia’s declaration of independence, the Armenian Apostolic Church was reestablished as the official national church. Historically, Armenian religious affiliation has been associated with ethnicity. The ethnically Armenian population primarily identifies as Armenian Apostolic (94.7 percent), the Kurdish population as Yezidi (1.3 percent), and the remaining population as Catholic and Protestant (4 percent). Legal proselytization is limited to the Apostolic Church. All other religious organizations are required to register with the government and to acquire additional permission to hold public meetings, travel, and invite foreign guests. Religious education classes are taught in schools by instructors approved by the Armenian Apostolic Church or Apostolic priests and are optional. If registered with the government, other religious organizations can instruct their congregants’ children in private homes.

Armenian Orthodox Church Christian Education

References and Resources Kurkjian, Vahan M. 2012. A History of Armenia. Stanford, CA: Bibliotech. Panossian, Razmik. 2006. The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. London: Hurst and Company.

—Sarita D. Gallagher

Armenian Orthodox Church Christian Education A Brief History of the Armenian Church The Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church traces its roots to the evangelistic missions of Jesus’s two apostles, St. Thaddeus and St. Bartholomew, who according to tradition preached the Gospel to Armenians in the first century AD. These apostles together are considered the first illuminators of Armenia. Saint Gregory the Illuminator is considered the second illuminator, during whose time King Tiridates III became Christian and was baptized. Tiridates declared Christianity the state religion in AD 301. Armenia hence became the first nation with Christianity as its national religion. In 406 St. Mesrob Mashdotz created the Armenian alphabet for the sole purpose of translating the Bible into Armenian so as to make it possible for the Armenians to hear and read the Bible in their mother tongue. Throughout the following centuries, Armenia became a battleground for many invading nations and armies, who persecuted Armenians because of their Christian faith. The Armenian Church since its establishment has aimed to help keep the Christian faith of its people through teaching and preaching, as well as diakonal and evangelistic activities. The Armenian Church today has two Catholicosate seats and two patriarchates: a. The Catholicosate of All Armenians, Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, Armenia (established in the fourth century by St. Gregory the Illuminator). b. The Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, Lebanon (established originally in Cilicia in the 13th century, but after the Armenian genocide during World War I moved to Lebanon and was reestablished in 1930). c. The Patriarchate of Jerusalem (established by the St. James Brotherhood in the 14th century). d. The Patriarchate of Constantinople (established in 1461 by Sultan Mehmet to organize the affairs of the Armenian people living under the Ottoman Empire).


Christian Education in the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church Today The Catholicosate of All Armenians, Mother See of Holy Echmidzin, Armenia His Holiness Vasken I conceived the need for a Christian Education Center (CEC) in 1991, which became a reality in 1996, while His Holiness Karekin I was Catholicos. From its start the mission of the CEC was to preach the Gospel message and educate Armenian society by organizing religious education in schools, opening Sunday schools, training Sunday school teachers, and publishing religious literature. In 1995, the Shoghagat television station was established to spread the light of faith and knowledge through broadcasting preaching and the production of spiritual and cultural programs and films. The Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, Lebanon In 1929, a conference was organized by the International Sunday Schools American Society in Lebanon, to which representatives of the Catholicosate of Cilcia were invited. During that conference, they came to a decision to start Sunday school within the Apostolic churches. Deacon Levon Zenian was appointed as the first director of Sunday schools, to organize and train teachers as well as work on curricula, and in the fall of 1929 the first Sunday school started in Aleppo, Syria. In 1930, in a pastoral encyclical, His Holiness Sahag I introduced Sunday schools to all the churches in the Catholicosate. He was a strong advocator for Christian education, as he saw it as an essential need both in churches through establishing Sunday schools, as well as in Armenian schools, where through religious education classes students were to both receive biblical knowledge and learn about the church’s traditions and history. In 1977 another milestone occurred: the establishment of the Christian Education Department under the patronage of His Holiness Karekin II Sarkissian, coadjuster Catholicos, and under the chairmanship of His Holiness Catholicos Khoren I. The main goal of the Christian Education Department was to bring the people to understand more of the church’s spiritual and cultural inheritance and to educate the youth in the faith. The first director was Rev. Fr. Gaurun Babian. In January 2008, His Holiness Catholicos Aram I, in his pontifical message, declared the year 2008 the “Year of Christian Education.” He wrote, “Religious education means instilling individuals or communities with the truths and principles, values and traditions of the religion to which they adhere. All these must be integrated into the modus Vivendi, modus operandi and thinking of those individuals or communities. In other words, the purpose of religious education is to make religion, with its beliefs and


Armenian Orthodox Church Christian Education

teachings, its history and mission, a total, permanent and living presence in the life of an individual or community following it through a process of spiritual and intellectual development and formation” (Aram I 2008, 9). The Armenian Catholic Church Both the Roman and Byzantine churches tried to convince the Armenian Apostolic Church to reunite with them, to no avail. However, there were some conversions to Catholicism, and there were a number of Armenian Catholics living in Constantinople, Mardin, Aleppo, Jerusalem, Ispahan, Baghdad, Nakhitchévan, Crimea, Poland, Transylvania, and Italy. In 1740, a Catholic patriarchate was established in Lebanon. And in 1830 another one was established in Constantinople when Sultan Mahmoud recognized the Catholics as a sect. After World War I, the patriarchate of Lebanon became the sole church authority for all Armenian Catholics. An important factor in the educational ministries of the Armenian Catholic Church is the Mekhitarist Fathers’ monastic order, established in 1717 in St. Lazar, Venice. Through their many publications on Armenian spirituality, culture, and history, Armenia’s Christian heritage has been preserved. The Mekhitarists also opened many schools around the world to instill within students both Christian and Armenian values, educating the mind and heart. The Armenian Catholic Church, through its many schools and scout movements, provides Catholic religious education as part of school curricula and programs. The Armenian Evangelical Church In the 19th century, there was an intellectual and spiritual awakening in Constantinople. In 1829, under the patronage of the Armenian patriarchate, a school was opened, headed by Krikor Peshdimaljian, who was one of the leading intellectuals of the time. The principal aim of this school was to train qualified clergy to serve in the Armenian Apostolic Church. Within this school a society was formed called the Pietistical Union, whose members held Bible study meetings, during which questions were raised about church practices and traditions that seemed to conflict with biblical truths. Patriarch Matteos Chouhajian excommunicated these reformists, and this separation led to the formation of the Armenian Evangelical Church in 1846. Also in the early 19th century, missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners arrived in Turkey. Their most important contributions were William Goodell’s Bible translation for Turkish-speaking Armenians, which was published in 1842, and Elias Riggs’s Modern Armenian Bible translation, published

in 1853. The missionaries were also pioneers in opening schools for girls. As more churches and schools were opened, a need arose for ministers and educators, and many colleges and theological schools were established throughout Turkey. However, as a result of the Armenian genocide, Armenians were forced out of Turkey into Syria, Lebanon, and other Middle Eastern countries, and many emigrated later to Europe, the United States, and elsewhere. In the Middle East, the headquarters of the Armenian Evangelical churches is called the Union of the Armenian Evangelical Churches in the Near East. The Armenian Evangelical churches have established numerous churches and schools in the Levant region, where Christian education is an essential part of the educational endeavor. There are also Armenian Evangelical churches and schools in Armenia, Europe, and the Americas. References and Resources Aram I, Catholicos of Cilicia. 2008. “Pontifical Message, Hask.” In Revue Mansuelle Armenienne Catholicosat Armenien. Antelias: Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia. (In Armenian). ———. 2011. Taking the Church to the People. Antelias: Armenian Catholicosate of Cilcia. Arpee, Leon. 1946a. A Century of Armenian Protestantism 1846–1946. New York: The Armenian Missionary Association. ———. 1946b. A History of Armenian Christianity from the Beginning to Our Time. New York: The Armenian Missionary Association. Dadoyan, Seta. 2003. The Armenian Catholicosate from Cilicia to Antelias. Antelias: The Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia. Lang, David Marshal. 1981. The Armenians: A People in Exile. London: George Allen & Unwin. Nersoyan, Hagop. 1963. A History of the Armenian Church, with Thirty-Five Stories. New York: Delphic Press. Nersoyan, Tiran, Archbishop. 1996. Armenian Church Historical Studies: Matters of Doctrine and Administration. New York: St. Vartan. Ormanian, Malachia. 1955. The Church of Armenia: Her History, Doctrine, Rule, Discipline, Liturgy, Literature, and Existing Condition. London: A. R. Mowbray & Co. Stone, Michael E., Roberta R. Ervin, and Nira Stone, eds. 2002. The Armenians in Jerusalem and the Holy Land. Hebrew University Armenian Studies no. 4. Leuven: Peeters. Tchilingirian, Hratch. 1994. A Brief Historical and Theological Introduction to the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church. Montreal: Diocese of the Armenian Church of Canada. www.armenianorthodoxchruch.org www.armenianchurch.org www.armeniancatholic.org www.mekhitar.org

—Shake’ Geotcherian

Art and Architecture, Instructional Use of

Art and Architecture, Early Church Instructional Use of During the time of the apostles, and for the next 200 years, there was very little use of art or architecture by Christians for instruction. In the early third century, as the church grew and took in more Gentile converts, Christian visual art began to develop. Given the church’s roots within Judaism and the commandments to not make images of God, early Christian art employed symbols, or pictograms, to convey ideas and remind people of what God had done. One example, a fish, conveyed the ideas of Christians being fish that Jesus had caught and the call for Christians to be fishers of men—that is, to share the Gospel with others to save their souls. In addition, ichthys, the common Greek word for fish, was used as an anagram of the first letters of the Greek words “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior.” Another symbol, the dove, was used as a symbol of peace, as a reminder of God’s salvation of Noah and his family and all animal life through the flood, and as a symbol of the coming of the Holy Spirit. Images of anchors, used by Romans as symbols of naval victories, were used to convey Christ’s victory over death on the cross. So too were images of crosses themselves. In all of these examples, and more, common images in Roman art were filled with new meaning and used to proclaim and remind believers of important truths of the faith. Tombs and catacombs used by Christians in this early period were often decorated not only with symbols, but also with artwork that reminded viewers of important Old Testament stories that connected with themes in the church’s teaching. Pictures of the story of Jonah conveyed God’s grace and mercy in forgiving those who repented. It also recalled Jesus’s own death and resurrection after three days, similar to Jonah’s time inside the great fish, and may also have connected with the importance of baptism, in the same way that Jonah came forth from the water with new life. Art was used to help people recall the teachings of scripture, pointing out their fulfillment in Christ’s life, death, and resurrection, and emphasizing key themes that were important for their lives of obedience to God in the present. Up through the third century, there was no distinctive Christian architecture. Christians met primarily in homes for worship, instruction, and fellowship. Only after the conversion of Constantine and his legalization and support of the church were buildings constructed specifically for the gathering of the church community. One form of the new church building was the basilica, a large rectangular building with a raised central space.


These new worship spaces were decorated in various ways (paintings, mosaics, sculpture) with images of the majesty of God, enthroned on a seat of judgment, and perhaps representing His teaching of His people. From the fifth century on, as church building expanded, other biblical narratives, both Old Testament and New, were displayed on the walls, ceilings, and floors and in sculptures as reminders of God’s salvation story. In addition to artwork incorporated into the architecture of the church buildings, from the fifth century on illustrations began to be employed in biblical manuscripts, providing visual images of key events and ideas in the scriptures, helping readers imagine and recall the events they were reading about. References and Resources Jensen, R. M. 2000. Understanding Early Christian Art. Oxford: Routledge. Nees, L. 2002. Early Medieval Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Spier, J., ed. 2009. Picturing the Bible: The Earliest Christian Art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

—Kevin E. Lawson

Art and Architecture, Instructional Use of In European history, the Middle Ages date from the collapse of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century to the fall of Constantinople in the 15th century; they merged into the early modern period, which ended around the end of the 18th century and the French Revolution. The early Middle Ages were marked by unsettled conditions as invaders from the north and Far East spread fear and confusion among the inhabitants of the former Roman empire. Later during this period, famines, plagues, and wars continued to create difficult living conditions for the general populations. In this climate, the Christian church, which had experienced sustained and phenomenal growth especially after its formal acceptance by Emperor Constantine in AD 312, emerged as a center for refuge and learning throughout Europe. As the church emerged into the open as an official organization, it began to build places of public assembly that represented its theological development and awareness of its place within the wider culture of the time. In the west, the church adopted the form of the basilica, or “hall of the king,” which was a rectangular building with side arcades that subdivided the interior; in the east, the church favored a more square form with an


Art and Architecture, Instructional Use of

open and spacious central interior.105 In line with Winston Churchill’s view that, “We shape our buildings, and afterwards they shape us,”106 these early building forms both reflected and shaped different approaches to the Christian assembly: the east retained a more communal understanding of the Christian community at worship, while the west developed a more hierarchical understanding.107 Over time, in the west, the separation of a professional clergy from the laity became reified in stone, as interior church design increasingly created physical barriers between the clergy and the rest of the worshipping community, thereby communicating a particular doctrine of the Eucharist to the faithful. As construction techniques (e.g., flying buttresses) developed over the centuries, the era of the Gothic cathedral emerged during the High Middle Ages. Sermons in stone, these magnificent edifices were deliberately intended to give people a taste of heaven through the extravagant use of light, height, and the decorative arts. They served not only to draw people toward heaven, but also to draw the divine down among people.108 Both intuitively and intentionally, these structures taught that God deserved the best that humans could offer, and in return God would indwell such places. When planning to renovate the Abbey Church of St. Denis, Abbot Suger argued that “everything that is most precious should be used above all to celebrate the Holy Mass.”109 Not only did the art and architecture of the Middle Ages reflect a theology of the nature of God, they were also used more didactically to instruct the populace in the stories and doctrines of the faith. While scholars continue to research and debate the definition, use, and extent of literacy (vernacular or Latin, reading and/or writing) during the Middle Ages in Europe,110 it can be asserted that large portions of the populations throughout Europe were unable to read and write. Furthermore, during the early Middle Ages many theological works continued to be written in Latin, the language of the former Roman empire, which would have made those treatises inaccessible to many with only rudimentary education. The church’s buildings provided an immediate and invaluable visual aid in religious instruction. Through carvings and statuary, stained glass windows, textiles, and paintings, 105. Richard Giles, Re-Pitching the Tent; Re-ordering the Church Building for Worship and Mission, 3rd ed. (Norwich, UK: Canterbury Press, 2004), 35–40. 106. Winston Churchill, Address to the House of Commons (meeting in the House of Lords), 28 October 1943, http://www.winstonchurchill.org/ learn/speeches/quotations (accessed 22 July 2013). 107. Giles, Re-Pitching the Tent, 40. 108. Robert A. Scott, The Gothic Enterprise: A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 153. 109. Ibid., 155. 110. See Rosamond McKitterick, ed., The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

the biblical story and the history of the church were made visible. These visual aids (both explicitly pictorial or symbolic111) were used to emphasize the spoken and the read word. Although ecclesiastical art and architecture could be and were used for self-serving purposes by both patrons and church bureaucracy, they nevertheless communicated the biblical story. The Protestant Reformation (the early modern period) inaugurated a sea change in the approach to and use of art and architecture in the religious life of Europe. A revolt against the more excessive forms of church ornamentation, including imagery depicting saints, resulted in widespread destruction of ecclesiastical art (iconoclasm) in those areas where the Reformation took hold (England, Scotland, parts of Germany, and the Low Countries). Among various Anabaptist groups, church architecture in the form of the simple unadorned “meeting house” taught a theology of Christian life that emphasized a simple lifestyle. However, this period also led to a burst of new artistic endeavor as “poet, artist, musician, printer and pamphleteer allied with preacher so that, in Luther’s words, the Gospel was not only preached, but painted, sung, and . . . rhymed.”112 An example of religious art that was intended to inspire devotion to costly discipleship was found in the Martyrs Mirror, a 17th-century compendium of Christian martyrs, especially Anabaptist, from the time of Christ to 1660; the second edition contained outstanding woodcuts by the iconographer Jan Luyken.113 The era from the fifth century to the end of the 18th century saw a great diversity of styles of art and architecture, which the Christian church employed to reflect on and to teach the theological perspectives current at the time. References and Resources Churchill, Winston. 1943. Address to the House of Commons (Meeting in the House of Lords), October 28. Accessed 22 July 2013. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/ quotations. Giles, Richard. 2004. Re-Pitching the Tent: Re-ordering the Church Building for Worship and Mission. 3rd ed. Norwich, UK: Canterbury Press. Matheson, Peter. 2001. The Imaginative World of the Reformation. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Publishers. 111. See Richard Taylor, How to Read a Church; A Guide to Symbols and Images in Churches and Cathedrals (Mahwah, NJ: Hidden Spring/Paulist Press, 2005). 112. Peter Matheson, The Imaginative World of the Reformation (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2001), 25. 113. John D. Roth, “Dying to Live: The Martyrs Mirror and Its Complicated Legacy in the Free Church Tradition” (lecture presented at the Acadia Centre for Baptist and Anabaptist Studies, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, 1 October 2012).

Art and Mission

McKitterick, Rosamond, ed. 1990. The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Roth, John D. 2012. “Dying to Live: The Martyrs Mirror and Its Complicated Legacy in the Free Church Tradition.” Lecture presented at the Acadia Centre for Baptist and Anabaptist Studies, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, 1 October. Scott, Robert A. 2003. The Gothic Enterprise; A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral. Berkeley: University of California Press. Taylor, Richard. 2005. How to Read a Church: A Guide to Symbols and Images in Churches and Cathedrals. Mahwah, NJ: Hidden Spring/Paulist Press.

—Carol Anne Janzen

Art and Mission European missionaries set off to evangelize the New World, sub-Saharan Africa, and the East beginning in the 1520s. At first they didn’t speak the languages of the indigenous peoples of these places, so they brought with them artworks depicting the fundamentals of Christianity. Europeans at the time understood art to be a universal language. The practice of evangelizing with art did not end with the colonial era; it continues. One notable example from recent years is the Jesus Mafa project, which began in West Cameroon, where villagers acted out Bible stories, photographs were taken, and a French artist painted the scenes. Prints of the paintings then were used to spread the good news in other villages in West Africa. Art and Worldview Art is similar to language, in that it contributes to and reflects the construction of worldview. The visual idiom of a culture reflects its understanding of space, time, nature, eternity, human purpose, relationships, and so forth. To introduce a new way of visualizing the world necessarily challenges aspects of a culture’s self- and worldunderstanding. For example, while Christians affirm the power of Christianity to reframe Dalit self-understanding in contemporary India, unintended consequences of cultural reframing have not always been so well received. Margaret Miles (1985), for example, asserts that whitewashing hierarchical depictions of heavenly and ecclesiastical scenes in newly Protestant churches in the 16th century contributed to the German Peasant War. In any context in which Christianity presents a countercultural worldview, Christian educators have to attend to the visual structures that support the dominant culture (whether it is a secular or faith-based culture) and discern


how Christian visual culture can be used to transform the local worldview to encompass Christianity. Hybrid Styles of Christian Art The indigenous peoples of the various places Europeans evangelized already had their own art forms and styles. Usually, the European missionary would have a local artist create a likeness of an artwork brought from Europe, and that likeness would contain some elements of the indigenous art forms or styles. Over time, local Christian art style tends to settle into a hybrid of European Christian art and local styles. Most parts of the world now are comfortable depicting Jesus as looking like the people of that culture. This is a way of making the art attractive and familiar to local people, thus inviting imitation of the Christian stories and concepts. As postcolonial Christianity grows in various parts of the world, Christian artists are exploring more deeply the local art traditions as vehicles for Christian expression. These contemporary expressions of Christianity can in turn be used to educate others in the local community and in communities around the world. Art Schools Many missionary groups established art schools in the countries being evangelized as a way of spreading the gospel. In the 16th through 19th centuries, easy, affordable forms of mass production of images were not widely available in mission territory, so local artists and artisans were the only means of production. Well-regarded art schools were created in Cuzco, Peru, and in Japan. In central South America, a network of artisan camps, reductions in English or reducciones in Spanish, were established by the Jesuits in the 17th and 18th centuries. Smaller efforts are still common today, often as a way to create an income stream for poor communities in the developing world. References and Resources Association pour la diffusion de l’Evangelie. “Why Images?” Vie de Jesus Mafa. Accessed 8 May 2013. http://www.jesus mafa.com/?page_id=317&lang=en. Bailey, Gauvin A. 2001. Art on the Jesuit Missions in Asia and Latin America, 1542–1773. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Lara, Jaime. 2004. City, Temple, Stage: Eschatological Architecture and Liturgical Theatrics in New Spain. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Miles, Margaret R. 1985. Image as Insight: Visual Understanding in Western Christianity and Secular Culture. Boston: Beacon Press.

—Eileen M. Daily


Art as Christian Practice

Art as Christian Practice Art, preceding written language, has existed since the beginning of ancient human civilization. Ancient art appears to express and to communicate human activities and is assumed to have provided religious symbols. As Bailey notes, “While it is not true today as it once was that all art is religious, it is always true that religion creates art” (1922, 13). Art, as symbols and images, has been used as an effective communication tool in Christian education. Art includes many forms of expression, such as music, dance, drama, and visual arts. This article focuses on visual arts, including painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and video. Outside of specific instructions for artistic images for the Tabernacles, ancient Hebrews were prohibited from making images in connection with their faith due to idol worship, described in Exodus 20:22, 32 and other parts of the Old Testament. However, it is evident that the use of art for religious expression and education is prevalent among Hebrew traditions, although only a few of them are in existence today: for example, the tabernacle, the two temples in Jerusalem, frescoes on the walls of Jewish synagogues (Dura Europas Synagogue in Syria), and the Jewish catacombs in Rome (Brockman n.d.). During the early development of the Christian faith, when Christianity was undergoing persecution by the Roman Empire, drawn images were used to communicate followers’ identity as Christian through symbols such as a fish, a grapevine, or a shepherd with a lamb on his shoulder. From the period when Christianity was adopted by Constantine, in the fourth century, through the medieval period, art became one of the primary means for Christian education; paintings, sculptures, mosaics, and other symbolic figures were used to teach Christian stories (Bailey 1922, 17). Christian art became the subject of theological dispute during the Middle Ages. In the Byzantine Empire this became known as the “iconoclastic dispute.” The Eastern Orthodox Church incorporated icons (images and arts) into the sacramental life of the church. A theologian who supported the use of icons in the church and engaged in the theological debate was John of Damascus (AD 675–749), a Syrian monk and a priest, who was also considered one of “the last of the fathers” of the Eastern Orthodox Church. He argued that the proper veneration of religious images of Christ, the Virgin, or the saints was a useful and important aspect of a living faith that took the fact of the material incarnation of the divine Word seriously. His teachings heavily influenced the Eastern Orthodox world, where icons still play a far greater role than in Western Christianity (McGuckin 2001, 145).

On the other hand, the theologians of the Protestant Reformation, especially Calvin and Zwingli, discouraged the use of art (icons and images) in the church (Calvin’s Institute). Protestant theology focuses on the individual’s personal relationship with God, primarily through the Word. It emphasizes hearing the Word more than visual arts for Christian education. Also, Luther encouraged all believers, including children, to learn the Bible. He translated the Bible into German, which was made available to the common people by means of the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. Consequently, the use of art for educational purposes was drastically reduced during the Middle Ages under the Reformation (Michalski 1993, 43–75). In response to the Protestants’ iconoclasm, the Catholic Church in the 16th century deliberately used the arts for its worship and theology and decreed in the Council of Trent that the arts should serve the church as direct and compelling in their narrative presentation. The Catholic Church also decreed that art was to provide an accurate presentation of the biblical narrative or a saint’s life, rather than adding incidental and imaginary moments. This was part of the Counter-Reformation and led to the baroque period of art, which was adopted because of the Roman Catholic Church’s renewed interest in attracting the public to its worship centers and to embody the arts in its sacramental and pedagogical goals (Paoletti and Radke 2005, 514). Rembrandt’s The Prodigal Son is representative of the art of this period. During the 17th to 19th centuries, the use of art was discouraged in the church for educational purposes because of an emphasis on intellectualism. On the other hand, the use of art and images was revived with Schleiermacher’s theological emphasis on personal experiences, feelings, and intuition (Thiessen 2004, 159). During the 20th century, the response to incorporating arts in theological education was divided between those who supported it (Paul Tillich, John Cobb Jr., and Mark C. Taylor) and those who rejected it (Bultmann, Barth, Ogden, and Kaufman) (Dillenberger 1985, 601–608). Among contemporary theologians, major consideration of the subject of incorporating art in Christian theological education emerged and developed along the following lines: “how art can function as a source of and in theology” (Tillich, Rahner, Dillenberger); “the art work as a shaper of meaning in today’s culture” (Brown, Cox, Kung); “the essential role of imagination in theology” (Lynch, McIntyre, Green), and the beauty of God (Van der Leeuw, Barth, Von Balthasar) (Thiessen 2004, 204–205). Today, art is widely integrated in Christian education due to the development of educational psychology as well as the availability of high-tech media. Christian educators

Art, Painting


Art, Painting

limited or not available. Painting has often provided a visual depiction of historic events in Christianity and continues to be utilized in both religious and secular educational contexts to provide a visual sense of reality or as symbolic representations of actual historical or eschatological events and to teach students the meaning and value of artistic expression. Material forms of visual expression through painting are evident throughout the historical development of Christianity and continue to flourish in contemporary contexts of the Christian faith. Although painting is not common to all historical and contemporary denominations and groups, the church has used painting and other art forms as a means to mediate the Gospel’s message in the ministry of evangelism and for the purposes of religious catechesis and continuing education, through visual means, for students in every level of both formal and informal learning. Painting transcends certain learning limitations. For individuals too young to read and for the hearing impaired, artistic presentations serve as educational resources and have the capacity to affect them at intellectual, emotional, and spiritual levels of learning. Individuals who are sight-impaired may also learn from painting through the sense of touch. As a painting’s visual content is explained through verbal narration, an individual, by feeling the texture of an artistic work, gains real and immediate contact with the meaning and value of the artistic work. Paintings as expressions of religious faith were first found on Roman sarcophagi, with the earliest depiction apparently at Megiddo, circa AD 70. When Emperor Constantine adopted the Christian faith, he initiated an era of wider acceptance and use of paintings as expressions to depict religious subjects. The creation of artworks in the medium of painting continues to provide a full-time vocation or bivocational ministry in which the artistically gifted serve God and the community through the creation of meaningful works of art. Often these works are created with educational purposes in mind.

Development in Christian History Beginning with the period of early Christianity, from the time of the original 12 apostles until the fifth century; through the medieval period, from the fifth through the 15th centuries; through the early modern and Reformation period in the 16th and 17th centuries, and into the modern period, including the 21st century, art forms, including painting, have continued to function as visual mediators of the Bible’s message. Paintings, throughout the history of the church, have served as a way of teaching biblical truth. Artistic mediation of the biblical message has been an essential tool in the context of religious education, in particular when the written scriptures were

Educational Contexts and Uses for Art as Painting Certain schools and programs in Christian educational contexts provide training to prepare the artist for diverse art-related vocations in the church, in religious or secular media, in business, in architecture, and in other art-related vocations. A stellar example of artistic vocation through painting is the Italian master Michelangelo (1475–1564), well-known for his frescoes depicting biblical themes from Genesis and the Last Judgment, as painted on the ceiling and altar wall, respectively, of the Vatican’s Sistine Chapel. Art is a powerful visual aid in teaching history, religion, and many other subjects. Historically, various forms of

must discern how best to use forms and images for those flooded by art. Art, as an expressive tool in the teaching and learning processes, is integrated in Christian education in various ways. Art is often used as a visual aid, which helps illustrate ideas. Art can also be used for an instructive function, just as it was used to teach Bible stories during the Middle Ages. Art, through the functions of emotion, can inspire and motivate people to experience and act toward the goals of Christian education and living. Art encourages people, especially children and youth, to participate in learning processes by allowing them to express their ideas about God and the Word. References and Resources Bailey, A. E. 1922. The Use of Art in Religious Education. New York, Cincinnati: Abingdon Press. Brockman, J. S. n.d. A Brief History of Jewish Art. http://www .myjewishlearning.com/culture/2/Art/History_and_Theory/ Jewish_Art_History.shtml. Dillenberger, J. 1985. “Contemporary Theologians and the Visual Arts.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 53 (4): 599–615. Institutes of the Christian Religion. 2007. Book 1, Chapter 11, Section 7. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers. http:// www.vor.org/rbdisk/html/institutes/1_11.htm. McGuckin, J. 2001. The Eastern Christian Tradition. Edited by G. Mursell. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press Michalski, S. 1993. Reformation and the Visual Arts: The Protestant Image Question in Western and Eastern Europe. London, New York: Routledge. Paoletti, John T., and Gary M. Radke. 2005. Art in Renaissance Italy. 3rd ed. London: Laurence King Publishing. Thiessen, G. E. 2004. Theological Aesthetics: A Reader. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

—Mariana Hwang


Art, Sculpture

artistic expression in the medium of painting have provided a visually powerful way to teach the Bible, including Judeo-Christian ethics, morality, theology, spiritual formation, and other subjects. In great cathedrals and churches worldwide, as well as in the humblest houses built for Christian worship, painting is often evident in the sanctuaries and other areas. Paintings are included in ecclesial contexts to inspire worship, devotion, reflection, contemplative reflection on various biblical themes, and to meaningful educational resources to visually teach, inform, and encourage the Christian’s knowledge and faith. Certain existing Christian colleges and seminaries provide academic departments offering specific programs and courses for training artists in painting and other artistic media. Study in the visual language of painting provides a process for the inculcation of knowledge and understanding that both supplements and enriches the essential learning tools of reading and writing. The use of painting as an art form in educational contexts results in students’ development of various skills and abilities, including visual, intellectual, and spiritual perception, as well as increasing their knowledge and understanding of God, the Bible, others, and the broader context of the world. Personal artistic expression through painting using acrylic, oil, or other types of pigment, usually applied by brush on paper, canvas, or other materials, is commonly found in art classes at all levels of formal and informal education. For the student, painting personal works of art assists in the development of creativity, understanding of spatial perspective, color, texture, and other values. Personal expression through painting also provides a means to express emotions and spirituality. Appropriate engagement with the artistic form of painting integrates both intellectual and spiritual development, bringing balance to the processes of learning and spiritual formation. Art is essential to understanding Christian worship, since biblically and historically, worship has included many outward visual symbols of biblical truth: crosses, candles, liturgical vessels for Holy Communion, clerical vestments, baptismal fonts, and other items meaningful to the practice of worship. These symbols are concrete items that increase and deepen the knowledge of Christian faith through visual means. Education in art, including painting, is needed for seminarians who are training to lead congregations in the discipline of worship. Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper (1498); El Greco’s The Miracle of Christ Healing the Blind (c. 1570); Mattia Preti’s John the Baptist Preaching (c. 1650), Bartolomé Murillo’s Adoration of the Magi (1660), and numerous other classic works, as well as the plethora of contemporary paintings with Christian themes, continue to be used in diverse educational contexts in both the church and the academy.

References and Resources Barbe-Gall, Françoise. 2011. How to Look at a Painting. London: Francis Lincoln Limited. Brown, Michelle P. 2008. The Lion Companion to Christian Art. Oxford: Lion. Drury, John. 2002. Painting the Word: Christian Pictures and Their Meanings. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Dyrness, William. 2008. Senses of the Soul: Art and the Visual in Christian Worship. Eugene, OR: Cascade. L’Engle, Madeleine. 1980. Walking on Water: Reflections on Faith and Art. Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw. Lubbock, Jules. 2006. Storytelling in Christian Art from Giotto to Donatello. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Ryken, Philip Graham. 2006. Art for God’s Sake: A Call to Recover the Arts. Philipsburg, NJ: P & R Publishing. Schaeffer, Francis A. 2006. Art and the Bible. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Valescchi, Marco, and R. Taylor, ill. 1962. Art of the Western World: Early Christian to Medieval Painting. New York: Golden Press.

—Mara Lief Crabtree

Art, Sculpture Meaning and Use Sculpture as an art form provides a concrete visual, tactile, and three-dimensional context to evoke expressions of faith, thoughts, and emotions related to biblical, theological, and historical concepts and events. Sculptural works often serve as icons to inspire reflection on the possible literal and symbolic meanings of an artistic piece and to encourage deeper levels of prayer, contemplation, and worship of God. In the context of Christian belief and practice, a sculpture itself is never the object of reverence, adoration, or worship, but always points the viewer beyond the sculpted object to the greater reality symbolized by the artistic work. Sculpture provides options for contextual placement of a work not possible with one-dimensional art forms. Sculptural works provide ample opportunities for use as learning resources in diverse educational settings, from childhood education to graduate work. One benefit of using sculpture in educational settings is its ease of use by individuals at various levels of intellectual and physical ability and training. Early childhood education in art often includes students’ practice in creating simple clay forms of humans, animals, or inanimate objects. The opportunity to sculpt even simple forms encourages creativity, knowledge of dimension and scale, and practice in visual-tactile coordination. Learning to sculpt at any level of artistic knowledge and proficiency provides the sculptor with practice in translating ideas into concrete

Asbury Theological Seminary

representations through the use of various sculpting media and the tactile or tool-based manipulation of any medium for expressing an idea, object, or symbol. A biblical example of sculpting, not for artistic expression, but as a symbolic means to convey truth in an instructive, visual manner, is the Ark of the Covenant (Exod. 25:1–20) as used in the religious life of God’s people. Representations of the angelic cherubim, two figures with wings spread and facing one another on opposite sides of the ark, with faces turned downward toward the cover of the ark (vv. 17–20), were described as being created through “hammered work” (v. 18, NASB), a type of sculpture. Sarcophagi, above-ground stone coffins of the early Christian centuries, often contained basrelief sculptures or carvings conveying certain meanings through artistic forms. As Christianity continued to increase in number of adherents, broadening its influence throughout many countries and diverse cultures, free-standing sculptures, often of biblical figures, were included in various cathedrals and schools for higher learning. Although the use of sculpture was not without its critics, who cited the commandment forbidding creation of representative images or idols (Exod. 20:4), sculpture was viewed by many Christians not merely as a form of ecclesial art, but as an educational resource to represent biblical truths in visual, three-dimensional forms. These representations were considered especially important in eras when biblical texts were generally not available for the masses. The artistic medium of sculpture lends itself to a broad range of materials, among them various kinds of stone, including marble and granite; precious and other metals, including silver, gold, and bronze; many kinds of wood; and numerous types of modern synthetic materials. Sculptural forms are also used in diverse types of ceramic creations, jewelry, cemetery headstones, ecclesial art, historical monuments, and ornamentation for gardens. The creation of each diverse type may be taught in specific educational settings and designed with an emphasis on various themes relevant to the Christian faith. For example, Michelangelo Buonarroti Simoni’s The Pieta (1499) and Andrea del Verrocchio’s Christ and St. Thomas (1467– 1483) have continued to serve as concrete educational resources in sculpture, encouraging people’s connection with the reality and meaning of biblical events. Sculpture in Educational Contexts Sculpture as a resource for education allows the learner to experience both visual and kinesthetic or tactile styles of learning. Sculpture’s three-dimensional qualities allow works to be experienced through touch, which is especially meaningful in educational settings for the sightimpaired. The art of sculpture may be studied at many


levels, from early childhood education, with students forming simple clay sculptures, to the creation of sophisticated sculptural forms in colleges, universities, seminaries, and schools for art education and training. Education and training in the meaning, creation, and uses of sculpture are important to the Christian community because of the demand for various three-dimensional and basrelief pieces used in sanctuaries, other ecclesial spaces, and educational settings, including indoor and outdoor environments. In these contexts, sculptural pieces become part of the architectural and artistic ambience used to convey truth through object and symbol. References and Resources Christian, Kathleen Wren, and David J. Drogan. 2010. Patronage and Italian Renaissance Sculpture. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Debidour, Victor, Henry. 1968. Christian Sculpture. Translated by Robert Cunningham. Portsmouth, NH: Hawthorn. Jung, Jacqueline E. 2013. The Gothic Screen: Space, Sculpture and Community in the Cathedrals of France and Germany. New York: Cambridge University Press. McClinton, Katharine Morrison. 1962. Christian Church Art Through the Ages. New York: Macmillan. McCollough, C. R., and M. C. Tirabassi. 2000. Faith Made Visible: Shaping the Human Spirit in Sculpture and Word. Cleveland, OH: United Church Press. Spier, Jeffrey. 2009. Picturing the Bible: Earliest Christian Art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Van Zeller, Hubert. 1959. Approach to Christian Sculpture. Lanham, MD: Sheed & Ward.

—Mara Lief Crabtree

Asbury Theological Seminary Introduction Asbury Theological Seminary is a multidenominational evangelical seminary in the Wesleyan tradition located in Wilmore, Kentucky. Currently, Asbury Seminary enrolls almost 1,600 students per year at its campuses in Wilmore, Kentucky, and Orlando, Florida, and its extended learning (online) community. The seminary remains committed to producing leaders for ministry in primarily Wesleyan denominations (though nonWesleyan students number among its population) and forming students spiritually through rich community formation experiences. History Rooted in the evangelical Wesleyan tradition, Asbury Theological Seminary was founded in 1923 in Wilmore, Kentucky, by Henry Clay Morrison, sitting president


Asbury Theological Seminary

of Asbury College. Morrison had received an abundance of correspondence from Asbury College graduates that made him concerned that many seminaries in the United States were straying away from historic Christian teaching, notably the divine inspiration of the Bible, the atonement of Christ, and the second coming of Christ. In 1920, Morrison announced plans for creating a graduate theological school that would hold tightly to orthodox theology. This announcement was met with significant support in the form of endorsements and financial contributions. Morrison enlisted the help of several of his friends in higher education and recruited faculty members from reputable seminaries and divinity schools. The seminary soon expanded in size and repute, and Morrison resigned his position as president of Asbury College to assume the full-time presidency of Asbury Theological Seminary. It became apparent to Morrison that for Asbury Theological Seminary to fully flourish, it must separate itself from Asbury College. As a result of financial blessing, a growing student body, and the college’s concern over its accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), Asbury Seminary became an independent institution in 1940. After Morrison passed away, Dr. Julius McPheeters assumed the presidency of Asbury Seminary in 1942. Under his leadership, the seminary rapidly expanded, adding the Henry Clay Morrison Administration Building, Estes Chapel, the B. L. Fischer Library, and new academic chairs. The seminary continued to enroll students at a pace faster than student housing could hold, leading to the construction of new apartments for students. Asbury Seminary was fully accredited through the Association of Theological Schools (ATS) in 1946 after remarkable growth in faculty, students, and resources. The seminary temporarily lost accreditation in 1951 as a result of academic controversy, but soon regained it, in 1960. In 1962, Dr. Frank Bateman Stanger assumed the presidency. Stanger expanded Asbury in unprecedented ways, adding endowed lectureships and new degree programs, expanding academic services, increasing enrollment, embarking on building projects, and implementing overall restructuring. Stanger laid the groundwork for the presidency of Dr. David McKenna, who helmed the seminary from 1982 to 1994. McKenna’s presidency oversaw advances in educational technology, the founding of the E. Stanley Jones School for World Mission and Evangelism, and the doctor of ministry program, made possible by the financial gift of Ralph Waldo Beeson. In 1994, Maxie Dunnam became president of Asbury, overseeing the establishment of two new seminary campuses, a campus in Orlando, Florida, and the extended learning (online) campus. The campus in Orlando was

renamed Dunnam campus in his honor. Dunnam also oversaw the expansion of the Beeson International Center, devoted to the training of global ministry leaders. From 2004 to 2006, Dr. Jeff Greenway presided over Asbury Seminary, founding a new PhD program in biblical studies from a generous gift by Dan Amos. In 2006, Greenway resigned his presidency due to tensions with the board of trustees. Dr. J. Ellsworth Kalas, a professor of preaching at the seminary as well as a former United Methodist pastor, became interim president and was then named president in 2008. Kalas oversaw new building projects and led the seminary with his rich wisdom and preaching acumen. In 2009, Dr. Timothy C. Tennent, a professor of missions at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, was appointed president of Asbury Seminary. Tennent’s experience as a missionary and scholar of global Christianity brought issues of missions and evangelism in the 21st century to the forefront of Asbury’s mission and focus. Under Tennent, the seminary has added several new degree programs, buildings, and numerous faculty and staff members. As of 2013, Asbury Seminary enrolls approximately 1,600 students from more than 29 countries and nearly 90 denominations. Notable Academic Programs Asbury Theological Seminary currently offers several master’s and doctoral level programs. At the graduate level, the seminary offers a master of divinity (MDiv) degree and a host of master of arts programs, with concentrations in aging and spirituality, biblical studies, theological studies, Christian education, Christian leadership, church planting, counseling, intercultural studies, spiritual formation, and youth ministry. The curriculum for graduate programs is broad, and students have the opportunity to take courses in exegetical method, church history, Christian education, philosophy of religion, ethics, preaching, and leadership. At the postgraduate level, the institution offers ThM and PhD programs in biblical studies and intercultural studies, as well as a doctor of ministry (DMin) program with several concentrations. Mission and Philosophy The mission statement of Asbury Theological Seminary reads: “Asbury Seminary is a community called to prepare theologically educated, sanctified, Spirit-filled men and women to evangelize and to spread scriptural holiness throughout the world through the love of Jesus Christ, in the power of the Holy Spirit and to the glory of God the Father.” The defining values of Asbury Seminary are tenfold: (1) service to the global church, (2) providing theological education faithful to God’s Word, (3) personal and community formation, (4) pursuing a diverse and missional student body, (5) lifelong learning for min-

Asia and Christian Education

istry leaders, (6) equipping pastors for engagement with the global church, (7) serving emerging ethnic churches, (8) developing new constituencies, (9) serving the laity, and (10) strengthening the budget and developing a network of support. These defining values align with the seminary’s Wesleyan heritage, as well as its commitment to global Christianity. Students and faculty are required to sign an ethos statement, which binds the community together in principles of service, seeking the good, avoiding evil, and practicing the means of grace. The statement is inspired by the seminary’s Wesleyan heritage. References and Resources Asbury Theological Seminary. n.d. “Our Defining Values and Strategic Vision.” Accessed 30 March 2013. http://www .asburyseminary.edu/about/our-theological-orientation/ten -core-values-of strategic-vision/. Kinghorn, Kenneth C. 2010. The Story of Asbury Theological Seminary. Lexington, KY: Emeth Press.

—Benjamin Espinoza

Asceticism Asceticism has at its root the Greek word askesis, which initially referred to the training of athletes and later came to refer to the spiritual training of Christians. Ascetics leveraged the training of the body to influence the sanctification of the soul, seeking holiness and freedom through disciplines of the body such as fasting, continuous prayer, voluntary poverty, and humble dress. Ascetics exist in many religious traditions, including Buddhism and the group of traditions broadly categorized under the name Hinduism, but Christianity in the Middle Ages and modern period was particularly marked by ascetic practices. As religious studies scholar Gavin Flood notes, the goal of ascetical practice has at its heart a formational outcome: “The ascetic conforms to the discipline of the tradition, shapes his or her body into particular cultural forms over time, and thereby appropriates the tradition.”114 Rather than the post-Reformation emphasis on catechetical instruction of doctrine as the primary way for people to learn the Christian tradition, medieval and modern ascetics came to take on the tradition through the intentional practices of the body. When we imagine ascetics in the Middle Ages, we often conjure up images of extreme bodily deprivation, such as medieval mystics who subsisted on only the Eucharist for long periods of time, or monks who engaged in self-flagellation, the wearing of hair shirts, or other 114. Gavin Flood, The Ascetic Self: Subjectivity, Memory and Tradition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004).


practices of mortifying the body. Indeed, many modern interpreters of the medieval ascetics have pathologized these practices, linking them to contemporary diagnoses of anorexia or practices of self-harm such as cutting or compulsive exercising. Hollywood movies often use the visual shock value of these practices to point to the warped nature of the institutional church and those who dedicated their lives to God in this period. To the contemporary mind, the denial of desires as natural as eating and sleeping evokes a troubling hatred of the body and its desires, rather than a reorientation of those desires toward holiness. However, early Christian ascetical texts both advocated moderation in practices of abstinence and self-restraint and often understood the body in a markedly positive light.115 Before we join the dismissal of ascetics as self- and body-haters, we should take another look at the wisdom they embody. Ascetics took seriously the notion that mind, body, and soul are inextricably linked, and therefore they were not haters of the body, but rather understood its importance as an instrument in the life of the soul. The bodily formation of engagement in ascetic practices made possible new forms of knowing one’s self and God. In addition, ascetic practitioners understood their practices of prayer through bodily self-discipline to benefit not only their personal salvation but also that of the broader community, through defining a shared identity. This identity was not grounded in the social practices and bodily trappings of the world, but attempted to free itself from this formation to be put into God’s service more fully. —Katherine Turpin

Asia and Christian Education Christianity began in Asia and soon spread across much of the continent. Thriving Christian churches (Orthodox, Nestorian, and Monophysite) spread throughout the Middle East to India (the Mar Thoma Christians) and China before the rise of Islam. Some of those churches still survive, albeit under reduced circumstances. A second wave of Christianity came to eastern Asia during the 16th century as Catholic missionaries worked in India, Indonesia, Japan, China, and most successfully in the Philippines. Yet another wave accompanied European trade and military expansion during the late 19th and early 20th centuries (though the missionaries were often at odds with their own governments on local matters, and the mission expansion can by no means be reduced to an 115. Kallistos Ware, “The Way of the Ascetics: Negative or Affirmative?” in Asceticism, ed. Vincent L. Wimbush and Richard Valantasis (Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1995).


Asia and Christian Education

aspect of colonialism). It is thus impossible to speak of a single process by which Christianity came to the continent or its several parts. It is also impossible to generalize about the many forms in which Christianity exists currently across the continent. One can say, however, that today about 300 million Christians live on the continent, and demographers expect that number to double by 2050. The spread of the religion is now in the hands of Asians working in their own lands and others: for example, more than 15,000 Korean missionaries work across the continent, while 40,000–80,000 Indians work with ethnic groups other than their own. The largest Christian community resides in the Philippines (86 million), and China, India, Indonesia, and South Korea each have at least 10 million adherents. The next wave of growth, then, promises to be from Asians to Asians. At present, Christianity plays a range of roles in different regions of Asia. South Korea, for example, has a very large Christian minority, and a significant Christian movement (both legally recognized and underground) exists in China. Small Christian minorities exist in Japan, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, all in relative political freedom. In the Middle East, Malaysia, and some central Asian countries, one or another version of the medieval millet system, in which Christianity and Judaism exist with recognized, if limited rights, still prevails. In short, the variations of legal and social restrictions (or their absence) on Christian practice across the continent mean that one must study Christianity on regional or national bases rather than continent-wide. However, in most parts of Asia, Christianity remains the fastest growing religion. Educational Structures To prepare leaders for these fast-growing churches, theological education in Asia takes several forms. First, seminaries on the Western model began with Serampore College in India (1818), and postsecondary institutions for the training of clergy now exist in many Asian countries. These include Nanjing Union Theological Seminary, reopened in China in 1981, as well as at least 19 regional seminaries (as well as an unknown number of illegal schools) in the same country. The ecumenical Association of Theological Schools in South East Asia counts 102 member institutions in 16 countries (including Australia and New Zealand), while the Pentecostal Asia Pacific Theological Association has more than 50 schools in Asia and dozens more in Oceania. Organizations such as the United Board for Higher Christian Education in Asia provide extensive financial support and technical expertise to a range of schools. While the theologies, curricula, faculty qualifications, educational prerequisites,

and internal cultures of these schools vary widely, they share both an interest in the formation of clergy and lay leaders and, in many cases, significant relationships to the worldwide church. The World Council of Churches, along with other organizations, is working toward consistent educational standards that will allow for greater international cooperation and shared learning. Second, within the congregational context, Christian education occurs in many ways conditioned by local traditions, the influence of pre-Christian religious practices, and societies’ social and economic needs. Frequently, the methods of Western missionaries coexist with more traditional practices emphasizing memorization and recitation. The centuries-old educational traditions in many Asian countries emphasize rote memorization of content through recitation as a way of honoring the role of the teacher and the centrality of the collected wisdom of the past. This learning style has emphasized factual knowledge, recall of data, and respect for educators. In at least some Asian countries, notably Korea, the culturally sanctioned group orientation leads to high levels of commitment to building up the local church or denomination. Education thus includes orientation to the group and learning how to work for it. Asian Theologies Just as the structures supporting Christian education both draw on Western models and seek to reflect local conditions, so too does the theological content. The spread of Pentecostalism in many parts of Asia, often side by side with very ancient forms of Christianity, reflects a region-wide interest in versions of the faith that reflect a robust sense of the presence—and accessibility—of the spiritual in everyday life. For example, Korean minjung theology, a liberationist movement emphasizing the validity of the people’s collective view of God and self, has influenced thinkers across the continent as they seek a postcolonial Christianity that can speak to the deep poverty and political oppression or corruption of many countries while also respecting the dignity of their peoples and traditions. Similarly, water buffalo theology in Thailand, Karma Marga in India, and Pain of God theology in Japan are all ways of taking seriously indigenous Asian religious traditions while thinking about the world in Christian terms. Truly indigenous Christian theological work is underway across the continent, reshaping not only the content of theology but also the ways in which it is done. Asian theologians dialogue with the Western traditions, but often transform the older work into something distinctive to their own setting. indicating that, just as Christianity began in Asia, it has returned there with worldwide ramifications. Or rather, it never left.

Asia Graduate School of Theology

References and Resources Evers, G. 2005. The Churches in Asia. Delhi: ISPCK. Griffith, S. H. 2007. The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Johnson, T. M., and K. Ross. 2009. Atlas of Global Christianity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Jongeneel, J. A. B., et al., eds. 2010. Christian Mission and Education in Modern China, Japan, and Korea. Studies in the Intercultural History of Christianity no. 148. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Moffett, S. H. 1998. A History of Christianity in Asia. Vol. I, Beginning to 1500. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. ———. 2005. A History of Christianity in Asia. Vol. II, 1500 to 1900. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion and Public Life. 2011. Global Christianity 2011. http://www.pewforum.org/2011/12/ 19/global-christianity-event-transcript/. Phan, P. ed. 2010. Christianities in Asia. London: Blackwell Publishers. Sanneh, L. 2007. Disciples of all Nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Werner, D., et al. 2009. “Challenges and Opportunities in Theological Education in the 21st Century.” Joint Information Service of ETE/WCC and WOCATI.

—Samjung Kang-Hamilton

Asia Graduate School of Theology Brief Historical Introduction “Train Asians in Asia” was the mantra of the Asia Theological Association (ATA) in the 1980s. “The Asian Church had depended on western seminaries and churches for too long, and the time had come for us to be independent from the West in theological education; otherwise we ourselves would not be able to grow.”116 Instead of having many individual postgraduate degree programs that did not meet academic standards, a joint cooperative program among evangelical seminaries in different countries was proposed by the ATA Executive Committee. On 28 December 1983, Dr. Bong Rin Ro, the first ATA general secretary, called a meeting of nine representatives from Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, and India at the China Evangelical Seminary in Taipei. In this historic meeting, the ATA decided to establish its own postgraduate theological school. The Asia Graduate School of Theology (AGST) was officially inaugurated as 19 delegates from 15 countries met at the China Graduate School of Theology on 21–22 June 1984.117 116. Bong Rin Ro, “History of ATA, 1970–1990,” in New Era, New Vision: Celebrating 40 Years of the Asia Theological Association, ed. Bruce Nicholls, Theresa Roco Lua, and Julie Belding (Manila: ATA, 2010), 49. 117. Ibid., 52–53.


The AGST was established with the following objectives:118 • • • •

To supply teachers for theological schools in Asia. To curtail the “brain drain” to the West. To provide economical training for Asians. To encourage cultural adaptation of theological education.

It was initially established in five countries: Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and India.119 Currently, there are three regional AGSTs: AGST Philippines, AGST Japan, and AGST Alliance. AGST Philippines is a consortium of nine schools; different consortium members host different programs. AGST Japan has nine member schools with two study centers, in Tokyo and the Kobe area. AGST Alliance is made up of 10 schools from Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Module courses rotate around the campuses of member schools. Most Notable Academic Programs The AGST offers postgraduate programs. First to be offered by AGST Philippines in 1987 was the doctor of religious education (now doctor of education). In 2005, AGST Alliance started offering a PhD in education. All three AGSTs offer PhD programs in Bible, theology, and church history. AGST Philippines also offers a PhD in holistic child development and peace studies. Some key Asian leaders today have received their degrees from AGST. They are serving as seminary presidents, academic deans, faculty members, and leaders of denominations and Christian organizations. AGST programs are gaining wider acceptance and drawing students from around the globe. Currently, students in AGST Philippines come from 16 countries in Asia, Africa, and North America. Christian Philosophy and Mission of Education Contextualization is at the heart of the AGST, as expressed in its philosophy of theological education: An AGST education seeks to contextualize learning in terms of communication, organization, theology and education. First, it focuses upon shaping message and ministry informed by the contextual needs of the Asian people. Second, AGST develops educational forms and structures appropriate to the specific needs of Asia, including its spiritual, socioeconomic, and political situation. Third, AGST emphasizes doing theology in ways appropriate

118. AGST Philippines, 1987–1989 Doctoral Program in Religious Education Catalog, 2–3. 119. For a comprehensive account of these regional AGSTs, see Ro, “History of ATA,” 53–59.


Asia Theological Association

and authentic to the Asian situation. We seek to relate the timeless Gospel more directly to urgent issues of ministry and service in Asia. Finally, AGST develops types of theological training that are liberating and creative, avoiding elitism and authoritarianism in our teaching. We seek to bridge the widespread gap between academic study and practical application in the Asian context. To this end we seek to utilize more fully Asian resources, especially faculty, research materials and texts. We seek to interact with Asian thinkers, theologians and practitioners from a variety of perspectives.120

The AGST provides students with the opportunity to be equipped in their own context of ministry. An added advantage is that students educated in Asia tend to stay in Asia. Brain drain is an ever-present threat for those students who go to Europe and North America for further studies. The AGST “is a sterling example of cooperation among evangelical groups.”121 The collaboration of seminaries from a wide spectrum of denominations is a powerful demonstration of unity in the Body of Christ. By working together and sharing resources such as faculty, finances, facilities, and library materials, AGST is able to offer quality advanced theological degrees, making it possible to “train Asians in Asia.” —Theresa Roco Lua

Asia Theological Association Brief Historical Introduction, Including Christian Tradition The Asia Theological Association (ATA) was founded in 1970 as a direct outcome of the Asia-Pacific Congress on Evangelism, held in Singapore in 1968 with 5,000 participants. “During the congress some 50 evangelical church leaders and theologians discussed how to promote evangelical theological education and to formulate an evangelical theology in Asia.”122 It was first known as TAP-Asia (Theological Assistance Program), the theological arm of World Evangelical Fellowship (now World Evangelical Alliance). TAP aimed to “support the development of national theological commissions and societies, and the interchange of faculty between theological schools.”123 TAP’s first consultation was held in Singapore on 5–7 July 1970. At the third consultation, in Hong Kong from 27 December 1973 to 4 January 1974, TAP120. AGST Philippines, Student Handbook (2012), 2. 121. Floyd Cunningham, “Laying the Foundation for the Asia Graduate School of Theology-Philippines” (unpublished manuscript, 2004), 1. 122. Ro, “History of ATA,” 28. 123. Ibid., 13.

Asia was renamed Asia Theological Association.124 Now it is the region’s largest association of theological institutions, with 264 members in 32 nations.125 This movement was pioneered by outstanding theologians Dr. Saphir Athyal, Dr. Bong Rin Ro, and Dr. Bruce Nicholls, along with other Asian and Western missionary educators. The ATA has been an influential movement for transforming the training of Christian leaders in Asia. It has helped pioneer theological education by extension (TEE), has conducted TEE consultations, and has helped develop TEE textbooks and materials.126 It also provided leadership to the Christian education (CE) movement in Asia. ATA’s Coordination of Christian Education in Asia The ATA has coordinated Asia-wide CE seminars. The first seminar, held in Singapore in 1978, focused on the theme, “Asian Church: Called to Teach.” The second seminar, in 1987, focused on “Asian Church: Called to Ministry.” Another seminar was held in Korea in 1990, which focused on “Christian Education and Current Trends in Asia.”127 In 1978, the ATA formed a CE committee for the promotion of CE in Asia. It published Directory of Christian Education in Asia and Christian Education Bulletin. Dr. Edith Woods, a missionary to Taiwan, was appointed as ATA CE coordinator. She traveled to seminaries in several countries to give lectures and to acquire information on CE activities. She also became the first director of the doctor of education program at the Asia Graduate School of Theology (AGST) in Manila.128 Most Notable Academic Programs The ATA’s major services are accreditation, consultancy, theological consultations, publications, and postgraduate training through the AGST. Accreditation Accreditation is a key function of the ATA through its Commission on Accreditation and Educational Development (CAED). The accreditation process promotes excellence in theological education and enables institutions to achieve their own training objectives.129 124. Bruce Nicholls, Theresa Roco Lua, and Julie Belding, eds., New Era, New Vision: Celebrating 40 Years of the Asia Theological Association (Manila: ATA, 2010), 18. 125. Joseph Shao, “ATA and New Zealand Connection,” ATA News (October–December 2012): 1. 126. Bong Rin Ro describes ATA’s work in this area in “History of ATA,” 36–37, 61–66. 127. Ibid., 66–69. 128. Ibid., 69. 129. Narendra John, “Message from the Accreditation Secretary” in ATA Manual for Accreditation (Manila, Philippines: Asia Theological As-

Assemblies of God Church Christian Education

Consultancy The ATA conducts seminars and provides consultancy services in areas such as organizational structure, curricula and program development, vision, library development, faculty development, governance, finance, leadership development, and teaching methodologies.130 Theological Consultations The ATA has been organizing consultations to discuss issues in theological education and Asian contextual theology. Papers in these consultations were later published in textbooks such as The Bible and Theology in Asian Contexts: An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology,131 and The Church in a Changing World: An Asian Response.132 Publications The ATA seeks to develop Asian resources and enhance scholarship through publication and research. It publishes books, journals (Journal of Asian Evangelical Theology, Journal of Asian Mission), monographs, and the Asia Bible Commentary series, specifically designed for readers in Asia. Asia Graduate School of Theology To “train Asians in Asia,” the ATA formed the Asia Graduate School of Theology, a consortium of member institutions that offers postgraduate theological degrees. Summary of Christian Philosophy and Mission of Education “ATA is a body of theological institutions, committed to evangelical faith and scholarship, networking together, to serve the Church in equipping the people of God for the mission of the Lord Jesus Christ.”133 During its 40th anniversary celebration in Hong Kong in 2011, the ATA reaffirmed its founding vision and mission for the new era: a. contextualizing the Gospel as a missiological necessity in Asia in response to the critical, urgent, contemporary issues of the day; b. championing an evangelical theology in Asia in response to other theologies of the day;

sociation, 2010), 12. http://www.ataasia.com/sites/default/files/resources/ accreditation%20manual.pdf 130. “ATA Consultancy Services,” in ATA Manual for Accreditation, 78–79. 131. Bong Rin Ro and Ruth Eshenaur, eds. The Bible and Theology in Asian Contexts (Bangalore: ATA\AETEI, 1984). 132. Bruce Nicholls, Theresa Roco Lua, and Julie Belding, eds., New Era, New Vision: Celebrating 40 Years of the Asia Theological Association (Manila: ATA, 2010). 133. ATA Manual for Accreditation, 3.


c. charting the way for local theological ministries in Asia; d. creating platforms to promote fellowship and cooperation among evangelical theologians and theological schools in Asia.134

—Theresa Roco Lua

Assemblies of God Church Christian Education Assemblies of God in the United States is part of an international denomination/ movement called the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, which is the largest, most well-known Pentecostal denomination in the world.135 In the early 20th century, there was a climate of revival in America, and many Pentecostal groups formed. The Assemblies of God was organized in 1914 by Pentecostal church leaders who recognized the need to provide accountability on doctrine, morals, and finances and also establish institutions such as schools, a publishing house, and a mission agency.136 Assemblies of God churches adhere to a conservative, evangelical theological position, which they formally describe in their 16-point “Statement of Fundamental Truths,” written in 1916.137 The core beliefs of the Assemblies of God include salvation through Jesus Christ, healing for the sick, the imminent return of Jesus Christ, and baptism in the Holy Spirit as evidenced by speaking in tongues.138 Christian Education and Assemblies of God Within the wider Pentecostal community as well as in the Assemblies of God, there is a unique emphasis on spiritual gifts. Although there is great variation from one group to another, the spiritual gift focus has often led to unwillingness to adhere to “creeds and other man made positions.”139 It has also led to a general reluctance to discuss issues such as religious education.140 134. Benjamin Pwee, “Reaffirming Our Founding Vision for a New Era,” in New Era, New Vision, ed. Nicholls, Lua, and Belding, 61. 135. Assemblies of God (USA), “The Assemblies of God,” http://ag.org/ top/Press/organization.cfm. 136. Lois Olena, Stanley E. Horton: Shaper of Pentecostal Theology (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 2009), 7. 137. Vinson Synan, The Century of the Holy Spirit: 100 Years of Pentecostal and Charismatic Renewal (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001), 129. 138. Assemblies of God (USA), “Our Core Doctrines,” http://ag.org/ top/beliefs/our_core_doctrines. 139. John R. Belcher, “Religious Education and Pastoral Counseling: The Classical Pentecostal Experience,” Pastoral Psychology 53, no. 2 (November 2004): 97. 140. Edith L. Blumhofer, Restoring the Fatih: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism and American Culture (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 114.


Assessment/Evaluation in Education

However, Christian education has always been a priority in Assemblies of God philosophy and church life. The founders of the Assemblies of God recognized from the beginning that youth and education were the church’s biggest challenges. One of the reasons for convening the first General Council in 1914 was to discuss establishing a general bible training school to prepare the next generation for Christian service.141 In the 1940s, efforts began to expand the Assemblies of God perspective on education to include the training of young people in the churches who did not have a call to professional ministry. Leaders recognized many new ministry opportunities during this tumultuous time period and “as a result of the mass mobilization of World War II, educators in the Assemblies of God began to devise ways for the denomination to minister to servicemen.”142 This led ultimately to the development of the Department of Chaplaincy Ministries, which currently serves not only the military, but also the police/fire, health-care, and correctional fields. With a continued focus on higher education, a General Council resolution in 1953 authorized the establishment of Evangel College, the first liberal arts college in the Assemblies of God.143 When Evangel College (now University) opened its doors in 1955, there were 87 students. Since that day, Evangel’s student body has grown to more than 2,000, and more than 20,000 have graduated over the years. Evangelism, missions, and education have been central to the identity of the Assemblies of God and have resulted in continuing denominational growth at home and abroad. The highly focused mission programs of the church are designed to establish self-supporting and self-propagating church bodies in every country. Ministers and leaders are trained in 2,000 training institutions across the world with 100,000 students. The Assemblies of God in the United States has 16 endorsed Bible colleges, universities, and a seminary.144 Sunday school has also played a significant role in formal Christian education in churches in the Assemblies of God family. In the early days of the denomination, founders recognized that churches needed “full gospel literature and teaching helps.”145 The leaders saw Sunday school as an ideal tool for evangelizing their communities, discipling converts, and indoctrinating

141. Olena, Stanley E. Horton, 7. 142. Edith L. Blumhofer, Pentecost in My Soul: Explorations in the Meaning of Pentecostal Experience in the Early Assemblies of God (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1989), 114. 143. Olena, Stanley E. Horton, 7. 144. Assemblies of God (USA), “Assemblies of God Colleges and Universities,” http://colleges.ag.org/resources/annual_stats.cfm. 145. Sylvia Lee, “Marcus Grable ‘Mr. Sunday School’ for the Assemblies of God,” Assemblies of God Heritage (Winter 2001–2002): 4.

their youth.146 Sunday school continues to be the most popular forum for a systematic study of God’s Word in the church. Sunday school has proven its effectiveness by teaching biblical principles and godly living to people at every age and state of life.147 Christian education is an integral part of the overall philosophy of the Assemblies of God. The mission for Assemblies of God higher education is to educate, nurture, and disciple men and women for effective service to Christ, His church, and the world. The Assemblies of God seeks “to build bridges to succeeding generations and pass on the truths, values, and commitment that compelled our Pentecostal forefathers.”148 References and Resources The Assemblies of God. n.d. Assemblies of God (USA) Official Website. http://ag.org/top/Press/organization.cfm. Belcher, J. R. 2004. “Religious Education and Pastoral Counseling: The Classical Pentecostal Experience.” Pastoral Psychology 53 (2): 97–106. Blumhofer, Edith L. 1989. Pentecost in My Soul: Explorations in the Meaning of Pentecostal Experience in the Early Assemblies of God. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House. ———. 1993. Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism and American Culture. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Champion, Richard. 1989. “Sunday School Department— Teaching and Evangelizing.” In The Assemblies of God at 75, 11–19. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House. Lee, Sylvia. 2001–2002. “Marcus Grable ‘Mr. Sunday School’ for the Assemblies of God.” Assemblies of God Heritage (Winter): 4–11. Olena, Lois. 2009. Stanley E. Horton: Shaper of Pentecostal Theology. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House. Synan, Vinson. 2001. The Century of the Holy Spirit: 100 Years of Pentecostal and Charismatic Renewal. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers. Wood, George. 2007. Core Values: Serving Christ’s Cause with Effectiveness and Excellence. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House.

—Stacie Reck and Marilyn Abplanalp

Assessment/Evaluation in Education Assessment and evaluation in education, while sometimes considered an administrative activity related to sat146. Richard G. Champion, “Sunday School Department—Teaching and Evangelizing,” in The Assemblies of God at 75 (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1989), 48. 147. AG Discipleship Ministries, “Sunday School,” http://discipleship .ag.org/PROCESS/Methods/Sunday_School/index.cfm. 148. George Wood, Core Values: Serving Christ’s Cause with Effectiveness and Excellence (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 2007), 6.

Assessment/Evaluation in Education

isfying the requirements of external auditors, are in fact vitally necessary components of the teaching and learning process. Within the domain of education, assessment and evaluation are learning, informing, and reforming activities, the goal of which is to improve the quality and accomplishment of specific student learning goals. A systematic, documented, and sustained assessment process provides an invaluable decision-making mechanism aimed at increasing the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process and identifying areas of instructional and curricular improvement. Of primary importance is the assessment of student learning outcomes related to gains in knowledge, skills, and abilities. Over the past 10 years, there has been an ever-increasing shift toward emphasizing the need to define in clear and measurable terms both student learning objectives (instructional goals) and student learning outcomes (what the student should know or be able to do at the completion of the course of instruction). In the context of formal education, the assessment of student learning outcomes is of two basic types: (1) classroom or course-level assessment and (2) program-level assessment. At the course level, assessment and evaluation are vital dimensions of effective teaching and learning. The basic framework for instructional design consists of (1) writing the instructional objectives in clear and measurable terms, (2) defining the scope and sequence of the content (the breadth of concepts covered and the logical sequence of how they should be taught incrementally throughout the course), (3) determining the appropriate course activities and assignments, and (4) evaluating the actual student learning outcomes based primarily on direct evidence of student work. For effective assessment to take place, clear alignment is necessary throughout the course design. The course activities and assignments need to directly support the instructional objectives, and the instructional objectives should be directly related to and evaluated by specific course assignments, providing a clear evaluation of student learning outcomes. Course assignments can be either formative or summative in design. Formative assessments measure student learning outcomes at specific checkpoints, indicating learning progression along the course of instruction. Summative assessments are used to evaluate the level of student learning outcomes at the conclusion of the course. Selected course assignments, capstone projects, and student portfolios can all serve as representative samples of direct summative student learning outcomes. At the program level, specific course-level learning objectives should map back to the corresponding objectives of the program (curriculum mapping). These programlevel learning outcomes are then assessed through an


evaluation of selected formative and summative course assignments. Suitable summative assignments would include such student work as capstone course projects, selected term papers from core courses, student portfolios, and supervisor evaluation reports. Selected faculty serve as the primary participants in the evaluation of a representative sample of student work. The samples should be sanitized from student identity and scored by a rubric designed to measure learning outcomes on a programmatic level. Assessment findings are presented in summary form, indicating the aggregate and percentage scores of student learning outcomes related to the program learning outcomes, and demonstrate the extent to which students have achieved the goals of the educational program, providing indicators of educational effectiveness. The findings are then utilized by faculty and other academic leaders to identify goals and determine steps to make improvements in course instruction and curriculum revisions. In the context of Christian pedagogy, assessment and evaluation seek to strengthen and improve the effectiveness of faith development throughout the curriculum and the teaching/learning process. Christian education is not focused solely on the quality of content and instruction, but also on the transformational outcomes of the learning as demonstrated in the lives of the students. This requires an intentional integration of biblical knowledge and understanding, personal growth and faith development, and the relevant application of biblical concepts and principles in the writing of instructional objectives, the design of assignments, and the utilization of assessment findings at both the course and program levels. A comprehensive approach to academic assessment in Christian education should attend to, support, and measure all of these dimensions as part of the assessment and evaluation process, in order to effectively promote the development of a vital Christian worldview. References and Resources Banta, Trudy W. 2011. A Bird’s-Eye View of Assessment: Selections from Editor’s Notes. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Banta, Trudy W., Elizabeth A. Jones, and Karen E. Black. 2009. Designing Effective Assessment: Principles and Profiles of Good Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Diamond, Robert M. 2008. Designing and Assessing Courses and Curricula: A Practical Guide. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gronlund, Norman E., and Susan M. Brookhart. 2009. Gronlund’s Writing Instructional Objectives. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Suskie, Linda. 2009. Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Association for Biblical Higher Education

Walvoord, Barbara E. 2010. Assessment Clear and Simple: A Practical Guide for Institutions, Departments, and General Education. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

—Gino Pasquariello

Association for Biblical Higher Education

Experiential—facilitating hands-on ministry, service learning, and intercultural study opportunities with an aim to help students discover and develop their unique God-given gifts, passions, and sense of calling. Missional—maintaining that an authentically biblical worldview compels all believers, regardless of present or future occupation, to understand their personal vocation within the context of the Gospel mandate.

The Association for Biblical Higher Education in Canada and the United States (ABHE; www.abhe.org) comprises a network of approximately 200 North American private postsecondary institutions specializing in education for ministry and marketplace professions. Founded in 1947 as the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges, the association adopted its current name in 2004 to reflect more accurately its expansion in scope to encompass graduate degrees and to emphasize that, although accreditation remains a primary activity of the Commission on Accreditation, the association’s purposes are more extensive and varied. The ABHE Constitution states its mission as follows: “to enhance the quality and credibility of postsecondary educational institutions that distinctively engage students in biblical, transformational, experiential, and missional higher education.” The ABHE’s oldest member institutions formed during America’s post–Civil War Reconstruction era and the pietistic/revival movements of the Third Great Awakening. Over the ensuing decades, others arose out of concern over diminishing doctrinal purity and spiritual vitality of traditional theological schools during the fundamentalist/ modernist controversy. Biblical higher education institutions continue to emerge in surprising numbers across North America, flowing from various revival, restoration, church renewal, and church growth currents. For all its diversity, the movement coheres around a common educational philosophy and distinctives. ABHE accreditation standards, peer review practices, and organizational culture affirm mutual commitment to education that is legitimately postsecondary and academically rigorous, challenging students to develop critical thinking skills and leading them in the formation of a biblically grounded Christian worldview. Biblical higher education is distinctive in its intentional and pervasive fourfold emphasis:

The ABHE’s Commission on Accreditation is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as a Title IV federal student financial aid gatekeeper agency (see http://www.ed.gov/admins/finaid/accred/accreditation _pg10.html) and as a faith-related institutional accreditor by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA; http://www.chea.org/Directories/faith.asp). The association is governed by a 12-member board of directors elected to rotating four-year terms by an annual Delegate Assembly. The chief executive of Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC; www.checcanada.ca) also serves as an ex officio member of the ABHE board. The Delegate Assembly ratifies the appointments of the president and Commission on Accreditation director and adopts standards and major policies governing the accreditation process. The association has been headquartered in Orlando, Florida, since 1998. In addition to its professional and support staff, the ABHE is served by scores of volunteers trained to conduct peer reviews, upon which the accreditation process is inherently dependent. In recent years, the ABHE has directed its efforts toward delivering an extensive array of member services and resources, including institutional leadership development and training, student leadership development, member networking, computer software and web platforms, and vendor product and service agreements. The association publishes annually the peer-reviewed Biblical Higher Education Journal, a scholarly research and professional practice publication. It also developed and distributes a series of psychometrically validated, normed Bible content examinations for use in individual student assessment and institutional benchmarking by member colleges, churches, and ministry organizations.

Biblical—requiring extensive and serious study of the text of scripture in a posture that honors it as the Word of God. Transformational—cultivating a life orientation toward moral purity and self-denying discipleship in which students are called to live out Kingdom values and Gospel priorities.

Eagen, John L. 1981. The Bible College in American Higher Education. Fayetteville, AR: American Association of Bible Colleges. McKinney. Larry J. 1997. Equipping for Service: A Historical Account of the Bible College Movement in North America. Fayetteville, AR: Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges.

References and Resources

Association for Hispanic Theological Education

Mostert, John. 1986. The AABC Story: Forty Years with the American Association of Bible Colleges. Fayetteville, AR: American Association of Bible Colleges. Witmer, S. A. 1962. Education with Dimension: The Bible College Story. Manhasset, NY: Channel.

—Ralph E. Enlow Jr.

Association for Evangelical Theological Education in Latin America The Association for Evangelical Theological Education in Latin America (AETAL) is one of eight regional associations affiliated with ICETE, the International Council for Evangelical Theological Education. The association was founded in 1992 to serve continental Latin America, including Brazil and the Spanish-speaking countries. AETAL is incorporated in Brazil. It functions under a board that is elected at the General Assembly every three years, along with the general secretary. Board chairs have been Paulo Bronzelli, Josue de Campos, Dionisio Oliveira, and Márcio Matta, the current president. The first general secretary was Izes Calheiros (1992–1998); she was followed by Vera Brock (1998–2007) and Pablo Sywulka (2007–). A continental conference is held every three years along with the General Assembly. Venues have been Águas de Lindóia near Sao Paulo, Brazil (1992 and 2007); Valinhos, SP, Brazil (1995); Campinas, Brazil (1998); Belo Horizonte, Brazil (2001); Lima, Peru (2004); and Medellín, Colombia (2010). The 2013 conference was held in Brazil. In 2012, nearly 160 schools in 13 countries were affiliated with AETAL—over 100 in Brazil and over 50 in most of the Spanish-speaking countries, from Mexico to Argentina. The purpose of AETAL is threefold: to provide a platform for schools to relate to each other for mutual enrichment, to provide services in support of theological education, and to offer academic accreditation. The accreditation program of AETAL is designed to help schools reach a high level of excellence in every area. Two institutions have received full accreditation from AETAL: Seminario Teológico Centroamericano in Guatemala and Seminário Bíblico Palavra de Vida in Brazil. Two seminaries in Bolivia were completing the process of accreditation in 2013, and several others throughout the region have expressed interest in beginning the process. One the services offered by AETAL has been a program (PDB ) to provide books at a discount to libraries, professors, and students of affiliated schools in Brazil. Books have also been provided to Spanish-speaking schools through the Theological Book Network.


The ICETE Program for Academic Leadership (IPAL) has been successfully implemented in Latin America through AETAL. The three-year series of seminars for leaders of theological institutions has been completed in Joao Pessoa, Brazil; Guatemala City, Guatemala; and Lima, Peru. Seminars for academic leaders have also been held in Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Manaus, Brazil. Since 2013 the program is offered in Mexico, Costa Rica, and Bolivia. AETAL has been able to make available consultancy services in areas such as library development and institutional administration. It publishes a news bulletin twice a year and also sends out occasional communications on topics of interest. More information is available at www.aetal.com. —Pablo Sywulka

Association for Hispanic Theological Education Historical Introduction The creation of the Association for Hispanic Theological Education (AETH) is in many ways the response of a group of Hispanic American pastors and theological educators to the 1988 report by Dr. Justo L. González, “The Theological Education of Hispanics.” This report resulted from a study undertaken on behalf of The Fund of Theological Education (FTE) and funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts. After a comprehensive analysis of the demographic, religious, and historical background of the growing Hispanic population in the United States in particular, the report looked at the status of the theological education of Hispanics near the end of the 20th century. That status very much reflected a lack of recognition of Hispanic leadership by either Catholic or Protestant church authorities, a lack of cooperation among church agencies and ministries, absence of opportunities for sound theological formation of Hispanic leadership at the seminary level, and a range of mostly inadequate programs at the Bible institute level. Thus, in 1991 and with the support once again of the Pew Charitable Trusts, those pastors and theological educators met with the main purpose of finding ways to foster communication and cooperation among those involved in Hispanic theological education, including church-based Bible institutes as well as institutions of higher education. Under the theme Derramaré mi Espíritu (I shall pour my Spirit), the AETH held its first Assembly in Decatur, Georgia, on 21–23 August 1992. The governing body of the AETH is the Assembly, which is made up of all its individual and institutional members. The Assembly convenes every other year and has the power to establish policy, guide-


Association for Hispanic Theological Education

lines, and programs. Its executive council is composed of distinguished personalities in the field of Hispanic theological education or ministry. Although the AETH was conceived in terms of responding to specific needs and goals in Protestant theological education, membership and participation is open to all Christians who share its goals and aims. The AETH’s geographically, politically, culturally, and educationally diverse membership represents and supports the full spectrum of churches, denominations, and educational institutions. Programmatic Areas Since its creation, the AETH has been at the forefront of the discussion on the impact of the growth of the Latino population and the Latino church on theological education. Its main concern has been with the theological formation of Hispanic/Latino pastors and church leaders in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Until recently, most of its work focused on providing them with biblical, theological, and pastoral resources (printed and electronic materials) and with training and reflection opportunities (regional workshops) as they minister to their congregations. Through its three book series in Spanish (Conozca su Biblia, Introducciones, Ministerios) and other books it distributes, the AETH has provided to and promoted among Bible institutes invaluable resources for a more sound biblical, theological, and pastoral training of Hispanic leaders. Through its regional workshops (named Tertulias Pastorales), the AETH has connected pastors across denominational lines around the country to dialogue about critical issues for the Hispanic church and community. Beginning in 2010, the AETH undertook three concrete initiatives to connect what happens in theological education at the seminary level with the growing needs for ministerial formation of leaders serving the growing number of Hispanic congregations in the United States in particular. First, in a joint effort with the Association of Theological Schools (ATS), the AETH embarked on the creation of certification standards for interested and eligible Bible institutes so that they may improve the quality of the pastoral training they offer and so that their graduates can be admitted at ATS schools to further their theological formation. In February 2013 the Board of Commissioners of the Association of Theological Schools (ATS) recognized AETH certification standards as meeting the baccalaureate equivalency for admission in master’s programs at ATS schools. The AETH’s efforts to implement the approved certification standards will allow graduates from Bible institutes certified by AETH to continue in theological studies at the graduate level, at the discretion of individual ATS member schools.

The second initiative has been the development of online courses written by Hispanic scholars and from a Latino perspective. These courses are available to seminaries, Bible institutes, and denominations that may want to use them as part of the curriculum for the theological, biblical, and pastoral formation of Hispanic pastors and church leaders. They are also available to individuals who want to improve their preparation for ministry. Courses and webinars targeted to churches can be used in programs for the formation of leaders in local congregations. Also, they can be used in training events of a general interest organized by Bible institutes. Courses offered for Bible institutes are designed for two types of audiences: denominational programs that have established alternate routes of ordination for pastoral leaders in local congregations who, for different reasons, cannot register in theological programs at seminary level, and programs of theological formation that work under academic standards at the baccalaureate level. These programs may function at Bible institutes or colleges. Finally, there are courses being designed to be used for studies at the graduate level in seminaries accredited by ATS. The third initiative was the creation and development of the Justo González Center for Latino/a Ministries. The Justo Center was inaugurated in October 2011 and is named in honor of Dr. Justo González for his many contributions to the AETH, to the theological formation of Hispanic leaders, and to the Hispanic/Latino and worldwide theological enterprise. The center offers consultation services on issues of diversity, cultural training, and Hispanic/Latino theology and history as well as educational services related to curriculum development from a Hispanic perspective. Through its annual lecture series it gathers denominational leaders, seminary professors, directors of Bible institutes, and pastors for reflection on topics relevant to the Hispanic church and community. In addition, it offers opportunities for academic and pastoral research through its database of Hispanic churches in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico as well as through the hundreds of books and thousands of articles and sermons by Dr. Justo Gonzalez, which are available at the center. Summary of Mission Through its well-established and newer programmatic initiatives, the mission of AETH is to develop leaders to radically transform the Latino church and community contributing to their vibrancy, health and growth. The AETH exists to stimulate dialogue and collaboration among theological educators, administrators of institutions for ministerial formation, and Christian ministerial students in the United States, Puerto Rico, Canada, and

Association of Christian Theological Education in Africa

beyond. Its distinct positioning, reputation, intellectual resources, and breadth of reach will continue to be needed within the Latino church and community. The AETH’s contribution to the development of Hispanic church leadership has already been significant, and its full potential is yet to be fulfilled. References and Resources González, Justo. 1988. The Theological Education of Hispanics. New York: FTE, Inc. ww.aeth.org www.thejustocenter.org www.aeth.org/mission-aeth-bylaws-part-1/

—Fernando Cascante

Association of Christian Schools International The Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) is a Protestant association with a membership of 23,000 schools in more than 100 countries. Its stated mission is “to strengthen Christian schools and equip Christian educators worldwide as they prepare students academically and inspire students to become devoted followers of Jesus Christ.”149 Begun in 1978, when several associations of Christian schools merged, ACSI was originally headquartered in La Habra, California. Since 1994, its headquarters have been in Colorado Springs, Colorado, with another 28 regional offices around the world. Ten regional offices in the United States serve 3,000 preschool to grade 12 schools. Another 18 regional offices assist 20,000 member schools internationally in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Baltic States and former Soviet Union. In addition to assisting national schools in these global regions, ACSI provides services for international schools that are distinct from the schools of their host countries. Many of the families represented by these schools include Christian workers, business families, and diplomatic families living abroad. ACSI has three kinds of institutional members for preschool to grade 12 schools: U.S., international, and early education. Membership includes opportunities for professional development, accreditation, teacher certification, school testing, and legal advocacy. Students in member schools participate in a variety of associationsponsored sports, fine arts, and academic activities, such as speech meets, Bible quizzing, music festivals, and 149. ACSI, “Vision and Mission,” www.acsiglobal.org/about-acsi/vision -and-mission.


athletic tournaments. ACSI also has individual members, administrators of member schools who use the association for professional development and networking. Although ACSI is not an accrediting agency for colleges and universities, it does offer membership and benefits to them. These benefits include ACSI approval and certification for teacher education departments and graduate administration programs, lists of ACSI Distinguished Christian High School Students, and opportunities to network with ACSI member schools. ACSI publishes several newsletters and magazines, and its publishing division, Purposeful Design Publications, produces textbooks, trade books, and other educational resources. In addition to publishing its own materials, Purposeful Design Publications offers Christian materials to ACSI members at discounted prices. In 2011–2012, the think tank Cardus surveyed graduates and administrators of North American Christian schools to measure the relationship between the schools’ objectives and the student outcomes in areas of spiritual formation, academic excellence, and cultural engagement. ACSI responded to the generally positive survey and disseminated data specific to ACSI in a 2012 paper by Philip Scott. References and Resources Association of Christian Schools International. n.d. www.acsi global.org. Cardus. 2011a. “ACSI Accredited/Non-accredited Comparison. Report Breaking Out ACSI-specific Data from the Cardus Education Survey.” Hamilton, ON: Cardus. ———. 2011b. Cardus Education Survey: Phase 1 Report. Hamilton, ON: Cardus. Learning Things. n.d. “Purposeful Design Publications.” www .learningthings.com/articles/purposeful-design-publications .aspx. Purposeful Design Publications. n.d. safe.acsi.org/eWeb/Start Page.aspx?Site=PD. Scott, Philip. 2012. Upon a Solid Foundation: The ACSI Response to and Expansion on the Cardus Education Survey. Colorado Springs, CO: ACSI. from www.acsiglobal.org/ about-acsi/why-acsi-schools.

—Wendy Widder

Association of Christian Theological Education in Africa The Association of Christian Theological Education in Africa (formerly Accrediting Council for Theological Education in Africa) is a network and support service that promotes quality evangelical theological education in Africa. The council does this by facilitating academic


Association of Christian Theological Education in Africa

recognition for schools and programs, providing support services to them, as well as fostering contact and collaboration among them. ACTEA is an agency of the Theological and Christian Education Commission (TCEC) of the Association of Evangelicals in Africa (AEA). It was constituted in March 1976 by the executive council of the AEA at the instance of Dr. Byang Kato, the AEA’s first African general secretary. Dr. Paul Bowers, a missionary with Sudan Interior Mission (SIM) then teaching at a seminary in Igbaja, Nigeria, was appointed the first chair of ACTEA, while Dr. George Foxhall, another SIM missionary, was the first ACTEA administrator. Structure The governing body of the organization is the council, which consists of 12–20 church and theological education leaders in the evangelical tradition, drawn from all over Africa. The Theological and Christian Education Commission (TCEC) of the AEA originally appointed the council members (Breman 1996), but since the constitution was revised in 2006, the council now comprises the heads (or designates) of institutions with ACTEA accredited programs. The general secretary of the AEA and the executive secretary of the TCEC are both ex officio members of the council. A director, supported by administrative secretaries for accreditation, networking, and administration, runs ACTEA’s operations as an agency. The director and other senior officers are ex officio members of the council if not already members appointed by their various schools. The council conducts most of its business long distance, either by mail or electronically, through official council business letters. It also convenes at meetings every 3–5 years, in Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire (1977); Miango, Nigeria (1978); Chongoni, Malawi (1981); Ndola, Zambia (1987); Limuru, Kenya (1990); Harare, Zimbabwe (1995); Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (2003); Johannesburg, South Africa (2006); and Nairobi, Kenya (November 2011). Between council meetings, the ACTEA Executive Committee, comprising the ACTEA council chair, the vice chair, select council members, and the director, meets regularly, and is delegated to oversee the work of the ACTEA staff on behalf of the council. Officers Dr. Paul Bowers (United States), 1979–1980; Dr. Tite Tiénou (Burkina Faso), 1981–1992; Dr. Titus Kivunzi (Kenya); Dr. Cornelius Olowola (Nigeria); Dr. Jacob Kibor (Kenya); and Dr. Douglas Carew (Sierra Leone) have chaired the ACTEA council. Administrators/directors of the organization have included Dr. George Foxhall, 1979–1993 (Canada); Dr.

Tite Tiénou, 1993–1994 (Burkina Faso); Dr. Jacob Kibor (Kenya); and Rev Joe Simfukwe, 2004– (Zambia). Purpose and Programs While ACTEA’s original emphasis was mainly on accreditation, that focus is now only a part of ACTEA’s mission. According to ACTEA’s 2006 constitution, its fourfold purpose is to promote quality evangelical theological education in Africa by 1. providing supporting services for theological education in Africa; 2. facilitating academic recognition for theological education in Africa by providing accreditation; 3. fostering continental and intercontinental cooperation for theological education in Africa; and 4. gathering, analyzing, and publishing information about theological education in Africa. Support Services ACTEA support services throughout its existence have included (1) regional and continental conferences; (2) staff training seminars, workshops, and consultations; (3) library development programs; (4) ACTEA Tools and Studies series, which publishes research on various subjects concerning theological education in Africa; (5) bulletins and newsletters such as ACTEA eNews and ACTEA Librarians eNews; and (6) the ACTEA international lectureships, at which evangelical leaders such as Drs. Carl F. H. Henry (1982), John R. W. Stott (1984), and Tokunboh Adeyemo (1987) were invited to lecture at member institutions to have some exposure to students and faculty. Accreditation ACTEA initially provided accreditation for primary, secondary, and postsecondary programs, including theological education by extension (TEE) programs. However, as many denominations and schools phased out TEE programs and secondary level Bible schools, ACTEA discontinued these forms of accreditation. Currently, ACTEA provides accreditation for postsecondary (typically DipTh, BTh, BRE), postgraduate (PGD, MA, MDiv, MTh), and doctoral programs offered in both traditional residential and nontraditional formats. Available on the ACTEA website is the ACTEA Standards & Guide to SelfEvaluation (ACTEA 2011), which specifies requirements for programs at each academic level. ACTEA’s accreditation focuses on the institution as a whole, and allows it, based on its own stated objectives, to improve its quality. The focus of accreditation is not on the individual student but on the institution, and specifically the program. In the words of Tite Tiénou (1991), a

Association of Christian Theological Education in Africa


former council chair, “ACTEA is not in the business of distributing credibility to graduates. Credibility must be earned by the graduates as they perform their Christian ministries.” ACTEA accreditation proceeds in four steps with the institution, or theology and Bible departments of universities, relating to ACTEA as the following:

before the institution is approved to host an ACTEA visitation team. The visitation team’s report and recommendations are again peer reviewed, and on the recommendation of the visitation team and peer reviewers, the ACTEA council (or the executive committee acting on its behalf) grants accreditation to qualifying institutions.

1. Correspondent: Institutions are listed as correspondents when they submit an application, institutional prospectus, and fee, currently US$60, which grants the institution a three-year renewable membership. Correspondents receive nonaccreditation services from ACTEA. Associations or similar networks of theological institutions may also relate to ACTEA under this category. 2. Affiliate: These institutions meet core academic standards in the areas of admissions, teaching staff qualification, and length of program. Affiliates also make a commitment to pursue ACTEA accreditation. Affiliates receive full (but provisional) ACTEA academic recognition for up to four years. 3. Candidate: When it is determined that the institution can meet ACTEA standards within a four-year period, the school is designated a candidate for accreditation. This status carries forward the provisional recognition of the named programs for up to four additional years while the institution carries out its self-evaluation in preparation for ACTEA’s final assessment of these programs for full accreditation (ACTEA eNews, 27 November 2011). 4. Accredited or Associate: ACTEA accreditation lasts 10 years, and by the eighth year, the institution begins the renewal process by going through another self-evaluation and visitation. ACTEA recently began offering “associate” status to certain institutions with an evangelical ethos that hold other academic recognition such as a government charter or have undergone credible assessment by an independent accrediting agency (ACTEA 2012).

Networking ACTEA’s third mandate is to facilitate continental and intercontinental networking. It has promoted linkage through the Consortium of Theological Colleges. Some of the services in this initiative included placement services between member schools and expatriate theological educators seeking opportunities in Africa, as well as staff exchange services. The cross-pollination of ACTEA institutions is strengthened in the accreditation process by the fact that members of the visitation teams and peer review panels are drawn from other ACTEA-accredited schools. ACTEA is also engaged in international collaboration. In 1980, ACTEA was a founding member of the International Council for Evangelical Theological Education (ICETE), which connects ACTEA with seven other regional accrediting bodies around the world, including the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) in North America.150 ACTEA also collaborates with other international organizations committed to the development of theological education in Africa, for the stewardship and maximizing of resources. These include Overseas Council International (OCI), Langham Partnership International (LPI), Scholar Leaders International (SLI), and Global Associates for Transformational Education (GATE).

The major part of ACTEA accreditation is the institutional self-evaluation, outlined in the ACTEA Standards & Guide to Self-Evaluation. Candidate institutions (and institutions seeking to renew their accreditation) conduct a comprehensive self-evaluation, which covers administration, teaching staff, facilities, educational program, and students, after which the institution submits a selfevaluation report (SER) to ACTEA. This is “a process (not a document or a single event); critical (not defensive), evaluative (not merely reflective), self-inquiry (not externally determined), comprehensive (not limited to the ACTEA Guide); and corrective (not merely descriptive)” (Emedi 2012, 20–21). The SER is peer reviewed

Research and Publication ACTEA’s fourth mandate involves research and publication. This is the least developed of its four purposes (Emedi 2012, 14). In the past, it has published extensive directories of theological institutions and TEE providers. The ACTEA Tools and Studies Series publishes research on various subjects concerning theological education in Africa. Distinctives ACTEA champions the contextualization of theological education to the African context and promotes this in African institutions. It promotes and espouses contextual relevance of theological education programs in African 150. The other six bodies are Asia Theological Association (ATA), Association for Evangelical Theological Education in Latin America (AETAL), Caribbean Evangelical Theological Association (CETA), European Evangelical Accrediting Association (EEAA) for Western Europe, Euro-Asia Accrediting Association (E-AAA) for Eastern Europe, and South Pacific Association of Bible Colleges (SPABC).


Association of Classical and Christian Schools

institutions. The ACTEA Standards & Guide to SelfEvaluation (ACTEA 2011) specifies not only that Africans must constitute more than half of the teaching staff, but that for non-African staff, institutions must show evidence of adequate orientation in the African setting. One uniqueness of ACTEA is its stated desire to be “not only a service TO the evangelical theological colleges of Africa, but also a service OF and BY these colleges, operated by and answerable to its constituency” (ACTEA website). The composition of the council by scholars and leaders from all over Africa, mostly from the very institutions served by ACTEA, makes this possible. Tiénou makes this goal clear: “ACTEA should cease to be seen as an all-powerful external monitoring body. It must instead come to be seen, and welcomed, as a constructive internal catalyst, fully owned by our churches in Africa and by their individual theological colleges” (1991, 4). However, this laudable philosophy may contribute to the challenges facing ACTEA and its programs. These challenges include financial difficulties and infrastructural limitation of office space (Emedi 2012). Another challenge is a lack of personnel, since ACTEA leadership frequently consists of people still occupying leadership positions in their churches or institutions. For example, Dr. Tiénou stepped down because the responsibilities at the young institution he was heading became demanding (Breman 1996). However, Dr. Olowola, also heading another institution, succeeded Tiénou. Another challenge is that ACTEA’s influence is perceived as limited to Anglophone Africa. Because of the differences between the educational systems in anglophone and francophone Africa, the Bangui Evangelical School of Theology (founded by the AEA in the Central African Republic), in collaboration with other francophone theological schools, started a parallel agency, CITAF (Conseil des Initiatives Théologiques en Afrique Francophone) as the accrediting body for francophone Africa. ACTEA is currently in collaboration with CITAF. In its three decades, ACTEA has played a significant role in the movement from no graduate level evangelical theological training to several solid doctoral level programs in Africa. It has stimulated renewal and growth in African evangelical theological education. Its process of accreditation has prepared several Kenyan theological institutions seeking a government charter as private Christian universities. These include the former Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology, Nairobi International School of Theology, and Scott Theological College (Emedi 2012). ACTEA has received broad recognition for its accredited programs in evangelical North American seminaries and liberal arts colleges. It has also gained further inter-

national recognition through the formal statements of recognition of ACTEA-accredited degrees issued by the London School of Theology, the University of Stellenbosch, and the University of South Africa (Breman 1996). References and Resources ACTEA. 2011. ACTEA Standards and Guide to Self-Evaluation. 2011. Theological Education in Africa. http://www .theoledafrica.org/ACTEA/Standards/ACTEAStandards GuideToSelfevaluation.pdf. ———. 2012. “Steps to Accreditation.” http://academic.sun.ac.za/ tsv/netact/nigerie-2012/pdfs/ACTEA%20introduction.pdf. Breman, C. M. 1996. The Association of Evangelicals in Africa: Its History, Organization, Members, Projects, External Relations, and Message. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum. Emedi, P. 2012. ACTEA and Quality Assurance in Evangelical Theological Education in Africa. Ndola, Zambia: ACTEA. “Joining.” n.d. Theological Education in Africa. Accessed 1 March 2013. http://www.theoledafrica.org/ACTEA/Joining .asp. Tiénou, T. 1991. The Future of Africa. ACTEA Tools and Studies no. 10. http://www.theoledafrica.org/ACTEA/ToolsAnd Studies/Tools%20and%20Studies%2010.pdf

—Agametochukwu Iheanyi-Igwe

Association of Classical and Christian Schools The Association of Classical and Christian Schools (ACCS) arose through interest generated by the publication of Douglas Wilson’s Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning (1991). According to the organization’s website, “The primary mission of this association is to promote, establish, and equip schools committed to a classical approach to education in light of a Christian worldview grounded in the Old and New Testament Scriptures” (2012). Its membership includes more than 220 schools, with over two dozen meeting ACCS accreditation standards; they educate more than 35,000 students. The key characteristics of ACCS schools are adherence to the ACCS Confession of Faith and practice of classical pedagogy in the form of the trivium. The ACCS Confession of Faith incorporates a form of the Apostles’ Creed, a “general evangelical confession of faith, . . . [and] an abridged version of the first two chapters of the Westminster Confession of Faith” (ACCS 2012). Member schools must subscribe to the ACCS Confession of Faith. Classical pedagogy is expressed through the trivium of grammar, logic (or dialectic), and rhetoric. Inspired by Dorothy Sayers’s (1947) address “The Lost Tools of Learning,” and reaching back into the Middle Ages, this pedagogical practice takes “advantage of natural inclina-

Association of Theological Schools

tions of children at different stages of their development to maximize learning” (ACCS 2012). The grammar stage, corresponding roughly with the elementary years, takes advantage of young children’s fascination with facts and the ease and enjoyment they seem to experience when memorizing facts in every subject area, including such things as addition facts, states and capitals, Bible verses, and Latin. The logic stage corresponds roughly with the middle school years. It capitalizes on the students’ interest in questioning everything. For Sayers, that meant “how to use language: how to define his terms and make accurate statements; how to construct an argument and how to detect fallacies in argument (his own arguments and other people’s)” (1947). The rhetoric stage corresponds roughly with the high school years. It capitalizes on students’ growing maturity and desire to express their ideas articulately: “how to say what he had to say elegantly and persuasively” (Sayers 1947). The study of classical language is also an integral component of ACCS schools. Accreditation standard B.3.b. requires “at least four years of Latin or Greek instruction, with at least two years in the dialectic or rhetoric stages” (ACCS 2011). ACCS provides multiple reasons for instruction in Latin, and empirical evidence supports it: In the 1970s and ’80s, the U.S. government funded Latin classes in underperforming urban school districts. The results were dramatic. Children who were given a full year of Latin performed five months to a year ahead of control groups in reading comprehension and vocabulary. The Latin students also showed outsize gains in math, history and geography. (Eskenazi 2009)

As Sayers (1947) notes, “the whole of the Trivium was in fact intended to teach the pupil the proper use of the tools of learning, before he began to apply them to ‘subjects’ at all.” ACCS exists to promote such learning in light of a Christian worldview. References and Resources Association of Classical & Christian Schools (ACCS). 2011. “Accreditation Standards.” 31 March. Moscow, ID: Association of Classical & Christian Schools. Accessed 28 January 2013. http://accsedu.org/files/Documents/Accreditation%20 Standards%20%283–11%29.pdf. ———. 2012. http://accsedu.org/about/confession_of_faith Accessed 17 December 2012. www.accsedu.org. Eskenazi, M. 2009. “The New Case for Latin.” Time, 2 December. Accessed 28 January 2013. from http://www.http://www .time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,90457,00.html. Sayers, D. L. 1947. “The Lost Tools of Learning.” Accessed 13 October 2004. http://www.gbt.org/text/sayers/html.


Wilson, D. 1991. Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning: An Approach to Distinctly Christian Education. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.

—Katherine G. Schultz

Association of Theological Schools The Association of Theological Schools (ATS) was founded in 1918 and serves as the premier accrediting agency for graduate theological schools in the United States and Canada. ATS represents institutions that provide professional and academic degree programs to prepare individuals for service in local churches, religious nonprofit ministries, and research in biblical and theological disciplines. More than 250 institutions hold membership in one of three categories (accredited, associate, or candidate). Member schools include Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Orthodox graduate schools from a diverse constituency of doctrinal, ecclesiastical, and theological backgrounds. The board of commissioners serves on behalf of the Commission on Accrediting, which approves schools for either candidate or accredited membership. The commission oversees accreditation, a practice of peer review and accountability to mutually agreed-upon standards of quality for ATS. Standards are broken down into general institutional standards, educational standards, and degree program standards. Both the Council for Higher Education Accreditation and the U.S. Department of Education list the Commission on Accrediting as a recognized accrediting body. The mission of ATS is “to promote the improvement and enhancement of theological schools to the benefit of communities of faith and the broader public” (ATS 2010). The organization seeks to accomplish its mission by (1) providing professional development opportunities for administrative officers and faculty, (2) conducting applied research and consultations in critical topics of theological education, and (3) disseminating information about trends and the current state of theological education. The association is committed to four core values: diversity, quality and improvement, collegiality, and leadership. Diversity is embraced by the various expressions of theology, polity, social commitments, and historical traditions of member schools. ATS models quality and improvement by a strong commitment to best practices and standards in graduate theological education. It promotes collegiality by bringing schools of varied theological traditions together to collaborate on common issues and challenges facing graduate theological education. Finally, ATS values leadership as a core means for schools to accomplish their missions and provides educational opportunities for administrators and faculty. Additional


Assyrian Orthodox Church

information may be found at www.ats.edu or by contacting the main office in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Reference The Association of Theological Schools (ATS). 2010. Bulletin 49. http://www.bostontheological.org/assets/files/trustees/10 _ATS_MembershipList.pdf.

—Peter Osborn

Assyrian Orthodox Church It is well established that Christianity flourished in Mesopotamia—a land that marks the eastern borders of the Roman Empire—around the end of the first or the beginning of the second century AD. By AD 225, a revolution in Mesopotamia had replaced the Arsacids of Parthia with the Sassanids of Persia. When this new kingdom started to establish itself in the country, the Christian Church already existed and was organized on apostolic lines.151 The church was governed by more than 20 bishops. It ran from the mountains of Kurdistan down to the Persian/Arabian gulf and had many sees distributed throughout the country.152 The land of Mesopotamia and Adiabene (modern-day Arbil, Iraq) received the Gospel through teachers whose headquarters was at Edessa (modern-day Turkey).153 Scholars agree that Christianity in Mesopotamia was founded through the evangelistic efforts of Mar Addai, one of the 70 disciples Jesus sent to preach the good news, and by his disciple, Mar Mari. 154 Others add Toma, one of the 12 apostles, to the story.155 Distinctiveness and the Two Early Branches of the Church of the East Two main distinctions signal the Church of the East. First, it is a missionary church. Second, it is an educational church that has a wealth of literature in Syriac. Tatian, an Assyrian Christian born between AD 110 and 120 in Arbela, who was also a follower of Justin Martyr,156 produced around AD 170 a harmonized edition of the Gospels called the Diatessaron, which means “through

151. W. A. Wigram, An Introduction to the History of the Assyrian Church or the Church of the Sassanid Persian Empire 100–640 A.D. (n.p.: Assyrian International News Agency, 1909), 6–8. 152. Ibid., 8. 153. Ibid. 154. Suheil Qasha, Pages from the History of Arab Christians before Islam [‫( ] اﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﺮب ﻗﺒﻞ اﻹﺳﻼم ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬Beirut: Manshorat Al Maktaba Al Bolesiyah, 2005), 11. 155. Alber Abona, History of the Eastern Syriac Church: From the Spread of Christianity until the Rise of Islam [‫اﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﺠﻲء اﻹﺳﻼم‬ ‫]ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬, Part 1 (Beirut; Dar Al-Mashreq, 1999), 6. 156. Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, rev. and exp. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 514.

the four.”157 It contained the four Gospels and was carried out with great care. Two principles governed this work: the elimination of repeated pericopes and reconciliation of divergences and contradictions in the words and order of deeds performed by Jesus.158 This was the first known product in the Syriac language and was the Gospel text of the Orthodox Christians of Edess.159 The Diatessaron, also known as Evangelion Da-Mehallete (meaning “mixed Gospels”), continued to be used in the Eastern churches until the fifth century, when Rabbula, bishop of Edessa (AD 411–435),160 and Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus in upper Syria (AD 423–457) decided to put an end to the use of this edition and replaced it with the separate Gospels.161 Around the same period when the Diatessaron was produced, the Old Testament was already translated into the Peshitta, a text that no doubt stems from the period between the mid-second and early third centuries. During this time, two main schools flourished, Edissa and the center in Arbela, east of the Tigris, in modern Iraq. Ephrem, born circa 306 at Nisibis on the borders of the Roman and Persian empires, was the most prominent theologian and poet of that period. He is still the most celebrated father of the Syrian Church.162 He used the text of the Diatessaron to write a commentary on the Gospels. He died in 373.163 The large community of Jews in Arbela motivated Christian missions in the region, as well as the translation of scripture into Syriac.164 It was around this time that the Peshitta of the New Testament, or Syriac version, was produced.165 It is known that the Peshitta was used by the two branches of Syriac Christianity in the Middle East and Asia, the Nestorians and the Jacobites.166 Nestorians where called after Nestorius, the patriarch of Constantinople in 428. He held a powerful position in the early church. He studied under the famous Theodore of Mopsuestia.167 However, in 431 at the Council of 157. Carmel McCarthy, Saint Ephrem’s Commentary on Tatian’s Diatessaron (Oxford: Oxford University Press on behalf of the University of Manchester, 1993), 3. 158. Ibid, 7. 159. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament, rev. and enl., trans. Erroll F. Rhodes (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1995), 193. 160. McCarthy, Saint Ephrem’s Commentary, 4–8. 161. Ibid., 8. More than 200 copies of the Diatessaron were destroyed as a result of this endeavor. 162. Ibid., 9. 163. Ibid., 12. 164. Geisler and Nix, General Introduction to the Bible, 514. 165. The date and origin of the Peshitta remain a controversial subject. Aland ascribes it with no doubts to Rabbula, among others; see Aland and Aland, Text of the New Testament, 197. Others, however, take the other extreme, rejecting the Greek text as the base of the Peshitta; see George Lamsa, New Testament Origin (Los Gatos, CA: The Aramaic Bible Society, 1947), 1–5. 166. This indicates a use of the Peshitta long before the split. 167. J. D. Douglas, “Nestorius,” In Who’s Who in Christian History, ed. J. D. Douglas and Philip W. Comfort (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1992), 502.


Ephesus, Nestorius was condemned of heresy because his reluctance to accord the virgin Mary the title “Theotokos,” meaning “Mother of God,” was taken as evidence of believing in two separate persons within Christ. He died in 451. In the decrees of the council, Nestorius was called impious and his doctrines impious doctrines.168 By rejecting the decrees of the council, Christians supporting Nestorius expanded to the east and thus were called Nestorians. Their main Christological doctrine stresses the reality of the humanity of Jesus, which distinguishes his human nature from his divine nature. Nestorians were among the first missionaries to take the Gospel to Central Asia, to India,169 China,170 and even Mongolia.171 The modern Eastern Assyrians172 are scattered throughout the world, in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Turkey Russia, India, China, Australia, Europe, and the United States. The Chaldean Catholic Church arose when Mar Shimun IV Basidi (1437–1493) was appointed patriarch and established a new hereditary line of succession. Dissent grew in the church’s hierarchy when a group of bishops from the northern regions of Amid (modern Iraq) selected Mar Yohannan Sulaqa as a rival patriarch. Sulaqa traveled to Rome in 1553, took the name Mar Shimun VIII, and was granted the title of Patriarch of Mosul and Athur-Assyria.173 The other branch of the Syriac-speaking church is the Jacobite, known also as the Syrian Orthodox. The name comes from Jacob Baradaeus, who was the bishop of Edessa from 543 until his death in 578. He rejected the teachings of Nestorius, believing that Christ’s human nature was insignificant and in fact was absorbed into His divinity.174 The Jacobites were also called Miaphysitism (meaning one nature) as a response to Nestorianism. The Jacobites include the Armenian Church, the Syrian Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Church of India, the Coptic Orthodox Church, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. References and Resources Abona, Alber. 1999. ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻳﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﺠﻲء‬ ‫[ اﻹﺳﻼم ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬History of the Eastern Syriac Church: From

168. “Decree of the Council Against Nestorius,” in A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol. XIV: The Seven Ecumenical Councils, trans. Henry R. Percival (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1900), 218. 169. Geisler and Nix, General Introduction to the Bible, 512. 170. Douglas, “Nestorius,” 503. 171. Stephen Andrew Missick, “The Assyrian Church in the Mongolian Empire,” Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 13, no. 2 (1999): 85. 172. Nowadays most of the Assyrian Christians object to being referred to as Nestorians. 173. George V. Yana (Bebla), “Myth vs. Reality,” Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies XIV, no. 1 (2000): 80. 174. Missick, “Assyrian Church in the Mongolian Empire,” 87.


the spread of Christianity until the rise of Islam]. Part 1. Beirut: Dar Al-Mashreq. Aland, Kurt, and Barbar Aland. 1995. The Text of the New Testament. Rev. and enl. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. “Decree of the Council Against Nestorius.” 1900. In A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series. Vol. XIV, The Seven Ecumenical Councils. Translated by Henry R. Percival. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Douglas, J. D. 1992. “Nestorius.” In Who’s Who in Christian History, edited by J. D. Douglas and Philip W. Comfort, 383–384. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House. Geisler, Norman L., and William E. Nix. 1986. A General Introduction to the Bible. Rev. and exp. Chicago: Moody Press. McCarthy, Carmel. 2000. Saint Ephrem’s Commentary on Tatian’s Diatessaron. New York: Oxford University Press. Michael, E., and Sharon Rusten. 2005. The Complete Book of When & Where in the Bible and Throughout History. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers. Missick, Stephen Andrew. 1999. “The Assyrian Church in the Mongolian Empire.” Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 13 (2): 1999. Qasha, Suheil. 2005. ‫[ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻤﺴﻴﺤﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﺮب ﻗﺒﻞ اﻹﺳﻼم‬Pages from the history of Arab Christians before Islam]. Beirut: Manshorat Al Maktaba Al Bolesiyah. Wigram, W. A. 1909. An Introduction to the History of the Assyrian Church or the Church of the Sassanid Persian Empire 100–640 A.D. Chicago, IL: Assyrian International News Agency. Yana, George V. 2000. “Myth vs. Reality.” Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies XIV (1): 78–82.

—Habil Yousif

Atonement Standard introductions to the atonement, drawing on the work of Gustaf Aulén, suggest that there are three main theories: Christus victor, satisfaction, and exemplarism. This way of mapping the terrain suffers from significant weaknesses (cf. Johnson 2012), but for our purposes it suffices to note that exemplarism was not a distinct theory of the atonement until the modern period (cf. McGrath 1985), and that the church has always robustly affirmed the exemplarist insight that Christ’s atoning work is significant for that which it teaches and inspires, alongside other implications of His death and resurrection. In short, the church has consistently appreciated the profound relationship between education and atonement: that Christ overcomes our culpable ignorance through His life, death, and resurrection, restoring us thereby to a saving knowledge of the Father and all things in Him.



Athanasius, for instance, states: “Since . . . human beings had become so irrational and demonic deceit was thus . . . hiding the knowledge of the true God,” Christ “was both born and appeared as a human being, and died, and rose again . . . so that from wherever human beings were predisposed . . . he might raise them and teach them of his own true Father” (De Incarnatione, §§13–15). Calvin connects this knowledge of the Father to the spectrum of heavenly benefits, noting that when “Paul says that He was given to us as our wisdom [1 Cor. 1:30; cf. Col. 2:3],” he means that “outside Christ there is nothing worth knowing, and all who by faith perceive what he is like have grasped the whole immensity of heavenly benefits” (Institutes, II.xv.2). This saving knowledge of the Creator in turn provides the key for learning from and fully appreciating creation generally (see Creation, Doctrine of), for atonement is best understood as an act of re-creation by the same Creator. Underlying these reflections on the work of Christ is a vision of the Gospel revolving around epistemic categories. The Bible regularly defines sin as ignorance, darkness, foolishness, and exchanging the truth for a lie. Christ himself is spoken of as “the Word,” wisdom and truth. Particularly interesting is John’s description of salvation: “And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent” (John 17:3). Christ’s reconciling work draws on these themes in two ways. First, in His death Christ takes upon Himself our sin and its consequences, thereby bearing and freeing us from the full consequences of ignorance, foolishness, and the like. Second, Christ’s life, death, and resurrection are the revelation of the Father and are therefore both the means to and beginning of our salvation. This aspect of Christ’s atoning work explains both the significance of education within the Christian faith, and, by derivation, the significance and dangers of education generally. Regarding the former, education is central to the Christian faith because it is by means of education that we witness to Christ’s role as the revelation of the Father and anticipate the reality of our salvation, which is knowing the triune God. For the church to deny this vocation is for it to reject its salvation (a shamefully frequent occurrence). Regarding the latter, the power of education generally lies in the fact that it more or less directly partakes of the benefits of knowing the triune God, and in Him knowing all things. That is to say, at its best, education gains some knowledge of the Creator and His creation, freeing, equipping, and otherwise offering a real but limited glimpse of salvation itself. Therein lies its danger, for inasmuch as salvation and its benefits are divorced from the Savior, they are all the more prone to perversion and corruption. Educa-

tion is salvation inasmuch as it is a matter of knowing God and in Him all things. References and Resources Athanasius. 2011. On the Incarnation. Translated by John Behr. Yonkers, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press. Aulén, Gustaf. 1951. Christus Victor: An Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement. Translated by A. G. Hebert. New York: Macmillan. Calvin, John. 1960. Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Library of Christian Classics, V. 20–21. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Johnson, Adam. 2012. God’s Being in Reconciliation: The Theological Basis of the Unity and Diversity of the Atonement in the Theology of Karl Barth. New York: T & T Clark. McGrath, Alister E. 1985. “The Moral Theory of the Atonement: An Historical and Theological Critique.” Scottish Journal of Theology 38 (2): 205–220.

—Adam J. Johnson

Attitudes Belief and behavior influence a person’s being. Often neglected, building the interiority of one’s inner life is imperative. Character development is important in all educational opportunities. Attitudes are affected over time, within community, by means of truth, through story. Ethical standards that transform are considered imperative worldwide. Since character and virtue are invisible, immaterial qualities, it seems the emphasis in Christian education settings should be developing that which is unseen. Biblical Theology of Attitudes The role of the Spirit in connecting truth with how people live is dependent on their internal focus. The change agent is not up to the person, but the Spirit; transformation is impossible by oneself (Eph. 2:1–9). The Holy Spirit initiates the ongoing sanctification process through His indwelling and creates the possibility for change in the Christian (Rom. 8:5–9). The interior life of the learner is built with the help of the Spirit, under authority of the Word of God, walking in God’s way (Gal. 5:13–6:5). Faulty desires are restrained and redirected through control of God’s law—literally “teaching”—which directs wise choices for living (Ps. 119:97; Prov. 3:1, 13:14). Jesus changes Christians (1 Cor. 1:30) through the work of the Holy Spirit at regeneration (Tim. 3:5). Sanctification begins at one’s conversion; the process is life long (2 Cor. 3:18) and is completed “at His coming” (1 Cor. 15:23; Phil. 3:21). Sanctification is progressive: a continuous, ongoing development of being conformed

Attitudes toward Christianity

to the image of God’s Son (Rom. 8:29). God is at work in the lives of believers (Phil. 2:13) to wholly sanctify them (1 Thess. 5:23). He equips (Heb. 13:20–21) through the Spirit, who indwells saved people (2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:2), who are said to “walk in The Spirit” (Gal. 5:16–18). The internal development of conformity to Christ looks forward (Phil. 3:13–14) but presently affects thinking (Col. 1:10), emotions (1 John 2:15), will (Phil. 2:12), body (2 Cor. 7:1), and spirit (1 Cor. 7:34). But believers will not continue to struggle against sin (1 John 3:6, 9). Believers are to yield (Rom. 6:13), present (Rom. 12:1), strive (Heb. 12:14), purify (1 John 3:3), and make every effort (2 Pet. 1:5) to work out the sanctification process before God. Self-disciplined effort on the part of believers (Gal. 5:23; Tim. 1:8) is “keeping in step with The Spirit” (Gal. 5:25). Motivation for pursuing righteousness comes from love for God (John 14:15, 21), fear of God (1 Pet. 1:17, 2:17), clear conscience (1 Tim. 1:5, 19), and increased effectiveness in the use of Godgiven gifts (2 Tim. 2:20–21). Biblical Philosophy of Attitudes Habits born of walking with the Spirit are developed, directed toward a Christian way of life properly lived. Virtue is the proper ordering of one’s life after Godordained ends. Virtue is the development of these good habits. Virtue is creating a disposition toward the good. To do good is first to think and be good. Since Christians are new creations in Christ (2 Cor. 5:17), good works should result (Gal. 6:9–10; Eph. 2:10) based on virtuous characteristics (2 Pet. 1:3–11). Character intention and motivation are internally controlled by the governor of a life habitually connected to deliberation over what is good. A sanctified “conscience,” then, is the brake or gas pedal properly applied in loving God by loving others (Acts 23:1, 24:16; 2 Cor. 1:12, 4:2; 1 Pet. 3:16, 21). In every case cited, one’s internal character is directly tied to one’s external commendation before other people. A person’s attitude is changed—at times, through adverse circumstances (Rom. 5:4). Preparation of mind coupled with self-control and knowing one’s eternal destiny should cause a person to live a life of obedience (1 Pet. 1:13–14, 4:1–2). Motivations and intentions can be self-centered (Prov. 16:2; Heb. 4:12–13; James 4:1–3). The thoughts of one’s inner life will be measured by God and seen in life. (Num. 32:23; 1 Chron. 28:9; Ps. 44:21). The thoughts and intentions of a God-shaped attitude would include a heart tested with integrity, willingness, honest intent, joy, loyalty, and wholehearted devotion (1 Chron. 29:14–19). The habits of one’s heart come from attitudes producing actions, proved by deeds (Acts 26:20; James 1:22–25, 2:14–26; Tim. 3:1, 9, 14).


Christian Practice of Attitudes A Christian life changed through salvation in Christ, a renewed spirit by His Spirit, and attitudes formed through virtuous habits is intentional. Memorization of scripture creates joy (Ps. 119:103; Jer. 15:13). Reading the histories and biographies of Christian leaders moves the reader to action. Internalization occurs in the study before the teacher teaches in the classroom (Ezek. 2:9–3:3). The Christian teacher must teach as if the Christian viewpoint has already changed him (2 Cor. 3:2). The source of goodness focuses attention on God, whose Spirit is transplanted within us. A person becomes that which he loves—an affective directive. Human beings are resistant to order. If there is a resistance to internal control, external controls will be necessary. All would like to have their own way, go their own way, and be their own person. Because people are resistant to order and just laws that proceed from it, they look for distractions and fulfill selfish vices. Children are incapable of developing good attitudes by themselves. There is a need for discipline of mind and appetite. To build virtuous attitudes, virtuous habits must be created through the virtue of manners. Virtue is the ordering of the person toward what is good in life based on God’s goodness. If pleasure is the end, goal, or focal point, the individual is robbed of a complete life. Right attitudes are helped by the Christian community. Christian teaching helps attitude change by instilling virtuous stories. Ultimately, Christian attitudes show love for God as Christians love people. References and Resources Boa, Kenneth. 2001. Conformed to His Image: Biblical and Practical Approaches to Spiritual Formation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Scorgie, Glen G., et al. 2011. Dictionary of Christian Spirituality. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

—Mark Eckel

Attitudes toward Christianity The social scientific study of religion has helped to clarify the dimensional nature of religion and the ways in which these different dimensions of religion predict individual difference in personal and social values. The three dimensions most commonly employed in social scientific research are self-assigned religious affiliation, religious practice, and religious belief. Self-assigned religious affiliation is the dimension of religion that is most frequently accessed in a national census. It is considered to be a component of individual identity, like ethnicity. Self-assigned religious affiliation



is, however, a poor proxy for other dimensions of religion. In England, for example, to self-identify as Church of England does not necessarily imply religious practice or even religious belief. Self-assigned religious affiliation may predict some personal or social values, but it fails to get to the heart of an individual’s religion. Religious practice is most often accessed in terms of frequency of worship attendance. Worship attendance is a better predictor of personal and social values than selfassigned religious affiliation, but worship attendance itself can be subject to a range of social and contextual constraints, rather than a reflection of religious commitment. Religious belief is most often accessed in terms of tests of religious orthodoxy, including belief in the virgin birth, the physical resurrection, heaven, and hell. Religious belief is also a better predictor of personal and social values than self-assigned religious affiliation, but religious belief (and the expression of religious belief) is subject to cultural and developmental influences. In light of these constraints, in the mid-1970s Leslie J. Francis identified the attitudinal dimension of religion as the dimension that gets closest to the heart of the matter. According to Francis (1978), attitudes are concerned wholly with the affective dimension. It is the affective dimension that serves as the clearest predictor of personal and social values. In order to build up a secure body of empirical research concerning the personal and social correlates of attitudes toward Christianity, Francis (1978) developed and published the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and invited colleagues to collaborate in developing a tapestry of interrelated studies united through the common instrument. By the mid-1990s, Kay and Francis (1996) had identified over a hundred studies in this series and began the task of distilling a coherent pattern of findings. The number of independent studies has grown considerably since then, and the emergence of an international and cross-cultural body of knowledge concerning the correlates, consequences, and antecedents of positive attitudes toward Christianity has been facilitated through the translation of the Francis Scale into a range of languages, including Arabic, Czech, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Croat, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, and Welsh. Two examples of the body of knowledge built up by this research program are rooted in personality psychology and in positive psychology. Within personality psychology, Hans Eysenck’s model of personality has been employed to test the association between attitude toward Christianity and mental health, drawing on Eysenck’s measures of neuroticism and psychoticism. The data consistently show no connection between attitude toward

Christianity and neuroticism, and an inverse relation between attitude toward Christianity and psychoticism. In other words, a positive attitude toward Christianity is associated with better mental health in terms of lower levels of psychoticism. Within positive psychology, Michael Argyle’s Oxford Happiness Inventory has been employed to test the association between attitude toward Christianity and happiness. The data consistently show a positive connection between the two variables. In other words, a positive attitude toward Christianity is associated with higher levels of personal happiness. References and Resources Francis, L. J. 1978. “Measurement Reapplied: Research into the Child’s Attitude Towards Religion.” British Journal of Religious Education 1: 45–51. Kay, W. K., and L. J. Francis. 1996. Drift from the Churches: Attitude toward Christianity During Childhood and Adolescence. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

—Leslie J. Francis

Augustine Aurelius Augustine was born of middle-class parents on AD 13 November 354 in the Numidian town of Thagaste in the Roman province of Africa (modern Souk Ahras, eastern Algeria). He had an older brother (Navigius) and (at least) one sister. His father, Patrick (Lat. Patricius), and mother, Monica (Monnica), were meager landowners. They made personal sacrifices to get the funds to provide Augustine with a classical education at an early age, and he received a Christian upbringing from his mother. His father eventually converted to Christianity before his death in 371, and that same year, Augustine departed for Carthage to pursue education in rhetoric. Augustine arrived at Carthage as a pagan, and despite his Christian rearing, he acquired an unnamed concubine, with whom he lived faithfully for many years and who in 372 bore him a son named Adeodatus. At the age of 19, he was inculcated with a passion for philosophy (“wisdom”) upon reading Cicero’s Hortensius, and later, for a period of nine years, he joined the Manichaeans (a sect that taught a form of dualistic Gnosticism and thus offered salvation by reason; their absolute cosmic dualism also seemed to satisfactorily explain the problem of evil). In 375, Augustine returned to Thagaste to teach rhetoric; within a year, he returned to Carthage after the death of an unnamed friend. In 383, he decided to leave Africa and sailed for Rome to seek advancement by means of a career in oratory and public office. In 384, Augustine was able to secure a professorship of rhetoric in Milan with the assistance of the Manichaeans and the pagan prefect

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of Rome, Symmachus. Augustine met Bishop Ambrose at Milan and initially was interested only in his allegoricism, modesty, and oratory; during this time in 384, he was becoming progressively disenchanted with Manichaeanism and became convinced that the Old Testament could be maintained by use of reason. In 385, Monica joined Augustine in Milan; she arranged a socially advantageous marriage for Augustine and forced Augustine to dismiss his concubine to become engaged. Augustine read Neoplatonic philosophy in Milan, which helped resolve certain significant intellectual difficulties, and resolved to devote himself to studying and writing. In August 386, he retired from teaching and withdrew to a villa at Cassiciacum (beyond Milan); from there, he began his career as a writer with the dialogues Against the Academics (Contra Academicos), On the Happy Life (De Beata Vita), On Order (De Ordine), and the Soliloquies (Soliloquia). Augustine returned to Milan in early 387 and was baptized by Ambrose on Easter Sunday, along with his friend Alypius and his son Adeodatus. His mother died that same year and was buried in Ostia; Adeodatus died the next year. Augustine resided in Rome for the majority of 388 and eventually returned to Thagaste to establish a monastic community with Alypius and other friends. While visiting the port city of Hippo in 391, he was ordained against his will as a presbyter (priest). In 395, he was consecrated bishop of Hippo. Augustine remained in Hippo until his death on 28 August 430; while he lay dying, Augustine could hear the Vandals besieging the city gates. Augustine began writing Confessions in approximately 397 (completed in 401), in addition to the majority of the treatise On Christian Doctrine, and within a couple of years he began writing On the Trinity (which would be an almost 20-year endeavor). Augustine was instrumental in the official suppression of the Donatists at the Council at Carthage in 411 (a public debate between Donatist and Catholic bishops with regard to the legality of the Donatists as a parochial church). In 412, Augustine began writing against Pelagianism with the treatises On the Spirit and Letter and On Merit and the Forgiveness of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants, which began a prominent controversy that would engage him for the duration of his life. In 413, he began writing the City of God; he completed the work in 427. It is a cultural and political response to the crisis associated with the fall of Rome, in 410, to Alaric the Visigoth. In 427, he also began writing a final series of treatises against Pelagianism, which included On Grace and Free Will and On the Predestination of the Saints (the works addressed the relationship between free will, grace, and predestination). Augustine’s philosophical and theological thought made significant contributions to Christian education.


In particular, he emphasized the primacy of the will (action) as opposed to the intellect. (An example of the latter is his famous statement [Tractates on the Gospel of John 29.6.], “Therefore, seek not to understand so that you may believe, but believe so that you may understand.”) Philosophically, he maintained that knowledge (truth) is illumination from God. Educationally, he affirmed the soul as one of two constituents that compose the human being, and thus the rational soul (anima rationalis), as “mind” or “intellect” (animus), distinguishes humanity from the animals. Augustine believed that the effects of the Fall are pervasive, and that to refuse God is nonbeing (or evil), so that evil pervades the world as a consequence of humanity’s rejection of God. The ultimate purpose, then, of education is directed toward God by investigating within oneself with regard to truth, and by strenuously testing one’s own interior truth, which is when the student truly learns. Consequently, he distinguished between knowledge (cogitare) and understanding (scire). Teaching is mere preparation for understanding, which is an illumination of the “inward teacher” (magister interior), who is Christ. References and Resources Augustine: Later Works (trans. John Burnaby) is part of the Library of Christian Classics series (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1955); it contains a selection of Augustine’s later writings, including On the Spirit and the Letter, sermons on the First Epistle of John, and books 7–10 and 14–15 of On the Trinity. Philip Schaffs’s Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers contains eight volumes of Augustine’s works in English. One of the best translations of Confessions is by Henry Chadwick (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991). Bonner, Gerald. 1986. St. Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies. Rev. ed. Norwich, England: Canterbury. Brown, Peter. 1967. Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press. O’Donnell, James. 1985. Augustine. Boston: Twayne. TeSelle, Eugene. 1970. Augustine the Theologian. New York: Herder and Herder. Tilley, Maureen A. 1991. “Dilatory Donatists or Procrastinating Catholics.” Church History 60 (March): 7–19.

—Ron J. Bigalke

Augustine, Educational Contributions of Saint Augustine (AD 354–430), North African bishop of Hippo, prolific writer, and theologian, is one of the icons of Christian theology. However, Augustine also provides a powerful model of the teaching bishop through both his publications and his practice. Augustine was born into a


Augustine, Educational Contributions of

Christian household, was schooled as a rhetorician, and embraced Manichaeism in his youth. Augustine’s own writings, the Confessions and the Testimony,175 detail his personal journey, including his conversion in 386 to a robust Christian life; one that would ultimately see him in ministry and Christian leadership on his native, North African, soil. While Augustine’s governance as a bishop might not normally warrant specific notice (in light of other bishops who shepherded their respective churches within their cities), his writings deserve particular note. As historian Garry Willis notes, Augustine employed stenographers and copyists to record and disseminate his sermons, letters, and books. His own incomplete review of his publications numbered 93 books, 300 letters, and 400 sermons, forming an extensive library.176 Significant Contributions to Christian Education Augustine’s contributions to Christian education could best be summarized in his written guidelines for catechesis, including the content he provided, and his personal emphasis on the teaching office through sermons and instruction. Augustine embodied his teaching and communicated observations and precepts that mirrored his rhetorical style, as well as his passion for scripture and patience with new students. Written Guidelines Perhaps one of the strongest representative documents for Augustine’s own approach to catechetical instruction is his letter (or treatise) De Catechizandis rudibus (known as “On the Instruction of Beginners or on Catechizing/ Teaching the Uninstructed”).177 In this text, Augustine addresses both the challenges of teaching for the instructor as well as approaches and resources for teaching. Augustine recommended varying teaching methods according to student interest and capability as well as concentrating on key aspects of the biblical narrative as part of the teaching corpus. Other written theological treatises provided a wellspring for later Christian education. Augustine’s autobiographical work, the Confessions, provides a notable view of personal identity and selfhood reflective of the later Enlightenment. The rhetorical skill demonstrated in this “testimony” to life reflects the goal of ancient philosophy to read and to live, providing a series of spiritual exercises to his reading audience as

175. Garry Wills, Saint Augustine (New York: Penguin Books, 1999), xiv–xvii. 176. Ibid., xii. 177. Boniface Ramsey, “Catechizandus rudibus, De,” in Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia, gen. ed. Allan D. Fitzgerald (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1999), 144–145.

they progress through the account.178 Augustine’s treatise On Christian Teaching (known also as On Christian Doctrine) is a comprehensive treatment of Christian doctrine via a baptismal creed, the nature of biblical interpretation based on factual and theological frameworks, and the teaching of Christianity primarily through the pulpit.179 Augustine includes a treatment on the nature of knowledge and its acquisition through a treatise of semiotics and hermeneutics, providing insight into the teaching of scripture and doctrine alike. In addition, Augustine provides a theology of rhetoric for teaching bishops, using rhetoric, or eloquence, “to teach, to delight, to sway.”180 Embodied Education Though Augustine thought little of his own childhood education, his early career included periods as a tutor and teacher of rhetoric, often with mixed results. However, following his conversion and rise in leadership, Augustine modeled the role of pastor as teacher. His most notable skill was preaching and biblical interpretation, providing a rich resource of sermons focused on church members, candidates (catechumens), and the pressing needs of the community.181 Augustine’s teaching involved a three-step process: (1) a longer evangelizing of the catechumenate (prospective members); (2) the focused catechesis of initiates at Lent prior to baptism; and (3) mystagogy, or teachings about the realities of the sacraments and other church matters following baptism. During the earliest periods Augustine employed a broad array of biblical sermons, some exegetical and others imaginative, to reach the diverse range of nonmembers within his congregation. When people took a deliberate step of being initiated into the church, Augustine took personal direction. Even during busy times, Augustine devoted his personal attention to the yearly catechesis of Christian initiates to his church in Hippo. These initiates, or competentes, would embrace an ascetical lifestyle during the Lenten journey, not as a Gnostic rejection of the flesh, but as a disciplining of misplaced desire.182 This intense period of self-examination, biblical exhortation, and ritual practice integrated theology, spirituality, and moral action to provoke a deep conversion.

178. Debra Romanick Baldwin, “Models of Teaching and Models of Learning in the Confessions,” in Augustine and Liberal Education, ed. Kim Paffenroth and Kevin L. Hughes (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2000), 15–24. 179. James J. O’Donnell, “Docrina Christiana, De,” in Augustine Through the Ages, gen. ed. Fitzgerald, 278–280. 180. Augustine, Teaching Christianity (De Doctrina Christiana): The Works of Saint Augustine—A Translation for the 21st Century, ed. John E. Rotelle, trans. Edmund Hill (Hyde Park, NY: New City Press, 1996), 215. 181. Daniel Doyle, “The Bishop as Teacher,” in Augustine and Liberal Education, ed. Paffenroth and Hughes, 81–94. 182. William Harmless, Augustine and the Catechumenate (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1995), 250–260.

Australasia and Christian Education

In the final phase, mystagogy, 183Augustine focused on leading initiates through their baptism through Easter vigil and Easter morning baptismal sermons as well as private instruction on the importance of the Eucharist. William Harmless notes that one of Augustine’s key themes for the catechetical process came from the theme of “baking bread” (for the sacrament of communion) during the period of mystagogy: This metaphor of baking bread served Augustine both pedagogically and theologically. Pedagogically, it enabled him to give the neophytes an insight into their long journey. Each stage had had its proper dynamic; each, its proper meaning. Yet the whole fit together. This extended metaphor integrated things much as the (Apostles) Creed did: that is, just as the Creed offered a way of surveying the horizon of Scripture in a single glimpse, so this bread-baking metaphor offered a way of surveying the journey of initiation in a single glimpse. It linked diverse threads—evangelization and catechesis, asceticism and liturgy—within a single overarching framework. Theologically, it enabled Augustine to hold together Paul’s dual image of the Body of Christ—at once the people of God and sanctified bread—to show that the whole dynamic moved one towards both a liturgical end—Eucharist— and an ecclesiological one—unity.184

Augustine’s approach to catechesis reminds Christian educators of the holistic use of preaching, teaching, disciplined instruction, imagination, and shared learning by teacher and student for the sake of the church. Collectively, Augustine’s contributions to Christian education provide a window into early church efforts to inspire, educate, and form the faithful into the Christian life. References and Resources Augustine. 1996. Teaching Christianity (De Doctrina Christiana): The Works of Saint Augustine—A Translation for the 21st Century. Edited by John E. Rotelle. Translation and notes by Edmund Hill. Hyde Park, NY: New City Press. Brown, Peter. (1967) 2000. Augustine of Hippo: A Biography. New ed. Berkley/Los Angeles: University of California Press. Harmless, William. 1995. Augustine and the Catechumenate. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press. Paffenroth, Kim, and Kevin L. Hughes, eds. 2000. Augustine and Liberal Education. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Ramsey, Boniface. 1999. “Catechizandus rudibus, De.” In Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Allan D. Fitzgerald, general ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Wills, Garry. 1999. Saint Augustine. New York: Penguin Books.

—Dean Blevins

183. Ibid., 300–336. 184. Ibid., 320–321.


Australasia and Christian Education Located in the southernmost region of Oceania, Australasia comprises the nations of Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand. Although close in proximity, both countries have distinct histories, peoples, and religious education systems. Introduction to Christianity During the 17th century European explorers began investigating the legendary southern continent of Terra Australis. Included on maps even before its discovery in 1606, the “South Land” soon drew explorers from the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, and Britain. When Australia was sequestered by Britain as a penal colony in 1788, clergy from the Church of England were given the task of enforcing morality, in addition to assisting with general health and education. This unfortunate marriage resulted in ministers such as the Reverend Samuel Marsden (1765–1838), known as the “flogging parson” due to his dual role as minister-disciplinarian. The indigenous Australians were eventually displaced, and their numbers greatly diminished after the European arrival. Although Roman Catholic, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches were later established, the Church of England maintained a position of power until the Church Act of 1836 officially enforced equality among the denominations. The first Catholic priests to arrive in Australia were convicts incarcerated for their participation in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. Father James Dixon, one of the priests, was the first priest to celebrate mass with the Catholic colonists, who constituted about 10 percent of the population. The first priest appointed to serve in the colony was Father Jeremiah Flynn (1788–1831). However, he arrived without official papers, and the Protestant governor, Lachlan Macquarie, eventually forced Flynn to return to England, in May 1818. Although the Catholic Church eventually prospered in Australia, alternating periods of persecution and partial toleration toward Catholics continued throughout the 19th century. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to encounter the islands of New Zealand. He faced a hostile reception from the local indigenous tribes, and it wasn’t until British Lieutenant James Cook returned to the islands in 1769 that Europeans began to peacefully communicate and trade with the Māori people. Christian missionaries followed in the early 19th century, led by Samuel Marsden under the auspices of the Anglican Church Mission Society. Soon afterward, missionaries and settlers to New Zealand founded Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches. As the British colony of New Zealand grew, many Christian missionaries actively advocated for Māori land rights


Australia and Christian Education

and tribal autonomy. The resulting Treaty of Waitangi was eventually signed in 1840, guaranteeing these rights. Largely due to the missionaries’ social activism and education system, Christianity was widely accepted by the Māori people. In addition to traditional Christianity, syncretistic expressions of Māori Christianity, Rātana and Ringatū, developed and still continue today. Main Denominations and Institutions Since the 18th century, the predominance of Christianity among the Australian population has slowly decreased. In the Census of 1911, 96 percent of the population identified as Christians, contrasted with 61 percent in the 2011 census. The most prominent Christian affiliations are Catholic (25 percent), Anglican (17 percent), Uniting Church (5 percent), Presbyterian and Reformed (3 percent), Eastern Orthodox (3 percent), Baptist (2 percent), Lutheran (1 percent), and Pentecostal (1 percent). While Christianity is still the primary religion of New Zealand, the nation as a whole is becoming increasingly secular. According to the 2006 Census, 56 percent of citizens identify as Christians, while 35 percent of the population is not religious. The largest denominations are Anglican (15 percent), Roman Catholic (13 percent), Presbyterian/Congregational/Reformed (11 percent), Methodist (3 percent), and Pentecostal (2 percent). Religious freedom is constitutionally supported and practiced in both Australia and New Zealand. Christian Education In the late 1770s, the Church of England in Australia founded the first Christian schools in the colony. Initially the entire colonial population, regardless of denominational background, was required to attend Anglican services and their children had to attend Anglican schools. During the subsequent decades, other denominations began establishing religious schools. Secular public education only became a reality in 1872, when the Education Act was passed in the state of Victoria and later in the remaining states. Despite initial governmental resistance, by 1833 there were also 10 Catholic schools in Australia. Although state financial assistance was fully retracted from all Christian schools by 1893, the Catholic Church chose to continue its educational endeavors. By 1871, the Sisters of St. Joseph were operating 35 schools in both rural and urban areas. In 1900, there were also 115 Christian Brothers teaching in schools around the nation. By 1910, more than 5,000 sisters from all the religious orders were teaching in Australian Catholic schools. Today the Catholic Church is second only to government public schools in providing primary, secondary, and tertiary education in Australia. In 2005, approxi-

mately 19 percent of all Australian elementary students and 21 percent of secondary students were enrolled in Catholic schools. The Anglican Church also continues to operate approximately 145 schools in Australia, including the well-respected Geelong Grammar School, Melbourne Grammar School, and King’s School in Sydney. In New Zealand, Anglican missionaries with the Church Mission Society founded the first schools during the early 19th century. Initially established to evangelize the Māori people, these schools were endorsed by the European colonizers and native communities alike. In 1840, the Roman Catholic Church launched its own Māori school, St. Peter’s School, starting its own missionary enterprise. By 1847, numerous Protestant and Catholic European-style schools existed among the Māori, teaching them English, Christianity, arithmetic, and industrial skills. In 1841, the first nonindigenous Catholic school was established in Auckland by laypeople for the children of free settlers. When the government passed the Education Act in 1877, providing a free and secular primary education system, the Catholic Church elected to start its own educational system to preserve its religious ideals. From 1877 to 1975, Catholic schools were financially independent and were run almost exclusively by religious clergy. Since 1983 all Catholic schools in New Zealand, along with state schools, are being fully funded by the national government. In 2012, more than 65,000 students in New Zealand attended a Catholic school. Of the 238 Catholic schools, 189 are primary schools and 49 are secondary schools. References and Resources Breward, Ian. 2001. A History of the Churches in Australasia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Clark, Manning. 2006. A Short History of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Penguin Books. Piggin, Stuart. 1996. Evangelical Christianity in Australia: Spirit, Word and World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Simon, Judith, and Linda Tuhiwai Smith, eds. 2001. A Civilizing Mission? Perceptions and Representations of the New Zealand Native Schools System. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press.

—Sarita D. Gallagher

Australia and Christian Education The first Australians have lived there for 40,000 years, making them the oldest continuous civilization on the planet. In 1788, their lives changed irrevocably with the arrival of the British First Fleet, which landed at an unnamed location in Sydney harbor on 26 January 1788 and raised the British flag over the country. Some 751 convicts and their families disembarked, along with 252 ma-

Australia and Christian Education


rines and their families. Among them were 17 children of convicts and 19 children of the marines. However, no instructions were given to Captain Arthur Phillip about the education of these children, for it was alien to the official mind to be interested in the welfare of children. “By 1809 the War Office had been persuaded to appoint regimental school masters, and by 1833 the Colonial Office was prepared to sanction an experiment in the reformation of child convicts in Van Diemen’s Land, but in 1788 the education of these children formed no part of the business of any department of State.”185 The Church of England (Anglican) was effectively the established religion, and its pastors, under the direction of the governor, controlled the first schools, although several other denominations established rudimentary schools in the early decades of the 19th century. The attempts of Governor Bourke in the late 1830s and Governor Gipps in the 1840s to establish a national system based on that introduced into Ireland in 1831 by Lord Stanley, secretary of state for the colonies, were thwarted by denominational rivalries. Governor FitzRoy was able to effect a compromise by appointing two boards, a denominational board and a national board. The first national school opened at Kempsey in 1848, and although development was slow, national schools coexisted with denominational schools. However, many of the schools lacked basic facilities, and the standard of education was generally poor. Despite vigorous opposition from many of the clergy, who complained about elements of the proposed public system, Henry Parkes was able to pass the Public Schools Act in New South Wales in 1866. The progress of a national system and the marginalization of denominational schools continued at different rates as the now separated states worked on their own educational systems. Victoria’s population expanded exponentially due to the discovery of gold in the 1850s, and the state’s 1872 Education Act provided for the establishment of a Ministry of Public Instruction and the cessation of government assistance for denominational schools. The law was known as the act for “free, compulsory and secular education,” and the Catholic bishops determined that they would develop their own independent education system, wherein religion would not be relegated to a time slot in the curriculum but would suffuse the culture of the school. It was a bold decision when they had few facilities and few teachers. Having made their decision, the bishops set about inviting religious orders to send personnel to the colony to staff their schools. Between 1872 and 1895, a succession of education acts in the six Australian colonies

ensured a national system of education, sustained by government funding and under ministerial control. The lack of state aid for denominational schools was a source of tension for decades, particularly in the Catholic community, whose numbers increased rapidly with the postwar migration from traditionally Catholic countries in Europe. In 1962, the issue came to a head in the New South Wales town of Goulburn. Government health inspectors demanded that three extra toilets be installed at a local Catholic primary school, Our Lady of Mercy. The school principal, Sister Celestine, and the bishop, John Cullinane, said that there was simply no money to make the required changes in the required time frame. Following a meeting with local Catholics, a decision was made to hold a strike. On Friday, 13 July 1962, six Catholic schools in the Goulburn area closed, and the following Monday morning some 2,000 Catholic pupils presented themselves for enrollment in the public school system, which had only 640 vacancies. The “strike” was well orchestrated and lasted for a week, during which time it gained national media coverage. The wheels were set in motion for the restoration of state aid to nongovernment schools, and in 1964 the Menzies Liberal government, determined to retain office, began funding in the form of grants to upgrade the teaching of science. By the end of the 1960s, the federal and state governments were offering recurrent funding to nongovernment schools. Government funding of nongovernment schools continues to the present, although the Howard government made two significant changes: abolishing the restrictive new schools policy in 1996 and in 2001 introducing a new funding system. These two decisions made it easier for new and independent nongovernment schools to be established in addition to making available significant increases in funding. These reforms have contributed to the diversification of nongovernment schools, which though still dominated by the traditional Christian religions, has seen the establishment of Islamic schools and schools associated with new Christian religions. While there is some disquiet about the standards of education and religious indoctrination in these schools, “there is little evidence that religious schools are the cause of any of the educational or social ills attributed to them.”186

185. A. G. Austin, Australian Education 1788–1988: Church, State and Public Education in Colonial Australia, 3rd ed. (Carlton, Vic: Sir Isaac Pitman (Aust) Pty. Ltd. 1972), 1.

186. Jennifer Buckingham, The Rise of Religious Schools, Policy Monographs, http://cis.org.au/images/stories/policy-monographs/pm-111.pdf (accessed 25 March 2013).

References and Resources Austin, A. G. 1972. Australian Education 1788–1900: Church, State and Public Education in Colonial Australia. 3rd ed. Carlton, Victoria: Pitman Pacific.


Australian Catholic University

Buckingham, Jennifer. 2010. The Rise of Religious Schools. Policy Monographs. http://cis.org.au/images/stories/policy -monographs/pm-111.pdf.

—Michael A. Kelly

Australian Catholic University The arrival of the First Fleet in 1788 brought not only European convicts to Australia, but also three distinct forms of Christianity: Catholic, Anglican, and evangelical Protestant. These “three grand divisions of Christianity” have maintained a major presence in Australian society up to the present (O’Farrell 1992). Because it was a British penal settlement, the Anglican Church inherited a preeminent place in the early colonial era due to its status as an established church in England, even though a significant number of the population were Catholic convicts (Dixon 2005). In the early 1800s, attempts were made to establish schools. Up until the mid-1800s, schooling systems across the settled parts of Australia were established by the various Christian denominational churches with the support of state aid (Ryan, 1997). By the 1870s, the push for free and secular schooling systems resulted in a wave of legislative enactments that secured their establishment (O’Farrell 1969). With the founding of the free and secular schooling systems in Australia state aid to Christian schools ceased and this lead to the closure of many Christian denominational schools. During the 19th century, teacher training colleges were established in various states to prepare teachers for Christian service in Catholic school. These institutions had their origins in the mid-1800s, when religious orders and institutes became involved in preparing teachers for Catholic schools and, later, nurses for Catholic hospitals. Over the following century and through a series of amalgamations, relocations, transfers of responsibility, and diocesan initiatives, Australian Catholic University (ACU) was established. It opened on 1 January 1991 following the amalgamation of four Catholic tertiary institutions in eastern Australia. The university is a member of the publicly funded national system of Australian universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, and the International Federation of Catholic Universities. The university’s vice chancellor is a member of Universities Australia. ACU has six campuses around Australia and aims to empower students to think critically and ethically and to bring about change in their communities and professions. ACU is supported by more than 2,000 years of Catholic intellectual tradition. It is Australia’s leading Catholic university and is devoted to communicating truth in every field of knowledge through teaching and

research, as well as promoting the dignity of all people and the common good. Australian Catholic University is a publicly funded university and welcomes staff and students of all beliefs and backgrounds. It is committed to providing equal access to education for all people. Community engagement is also a core part of every student’s experience at ACU, to the point where it is embedded within the courses. This allows students to give back to their communities and make a difference through opportunities such as volunteer experience programs. Students undertake professional placements and volunteer work throughout their studies, with many securing excellent jobs before they graduate. The university is founded on a long history of commitment to truth, in a spirit of freedom and service. It prizes such key values as • following the way of Christ and commitment to Christian values; • participating in the community and mission of the church; • a continuing dialogue between faith and reason— represented, for example, by the dialogue between philosophy and science; • respect for truth in all its forms and collaboration in seeking it through all the disciplines; • collaboration of all staff and students, whatever their beliefs, in the interests of a more decent and humane society; • the promotion of teaching and research in ways that best serve the ission of the university; and • respect for academic freedom. Australian Catholic University engages the Catholic intellectual tradition to bring a distinct perspective to higher education. It explores cultural, social, ethical, and religious issues through the lens of that tradition in is teaching, research, and service. ACU is committed to fostering and advancing knowledge in education, health, commerce, the humanities, the sciences and technology, law, and the creative arts. It contributes to its local, national, and international communities. Graduates are skilled in their chosen fields and ethical in their behavior, with a developed critical habit of mind, an appreciation of the sacred in life, and a commitment to serving the common good. Australian Catholic University has high hopes and great expectations of its graduates. An ACU education is about teaching students to think critically and ethically and to be guided by social justice principles. It’s about passing on the skills to bring about change in communities and in society. The university’s core curriculum lies


at the heart of this vision. The goal is not just to pass on knowledge, but to raise some of the most fundamental questions on human experience and meaning. The core units emphasize critical judgment, clear expression, ethical decision making, and concern for others, as individuals and as a community. Above all, they provide a common learning experience for students at ACU. Undergraduate students will together address the same topics and tackle the same problems—bringing their own views and experience to complex ideas and contemporary social issues. References and Resources ACU. n.d. “About ACU.” http://www.acu.edu.au/about_acu. Dixon, R. 2005. The Catholic Community in Australia. Adelaide: Openbook Publishers. O’Farrell, P. 1969. The Catholic Church in Australia: A Short History 1788–1967. London: Geoffrey Chapman. ———. 1992. The Catholic Church and Community: An Australian History. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. Ryan, M. 1997. Foundations of Religious Education in Catholic Schools: An Australian Perspective. NSW, Australia: Social Science Press.


education is organized by the evangelical churches and also by the orthodox churches. At present, two hours of religious education per week are generally stipulated by the state. The Roman Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church maintain kindergarten and schools through the secondary level. There are also some Roman Catholic educational institutions on the postsecondary level. A unique educational institution in Europe is the University College of Teacher Education of Christian Churches of Vienna/Krems (founded in 2007), maintained by five churches. In the area of education, the state covers the costs of five faculties of theology, which are part of state universities, the costs of denominational religious education, as well as the personnel costs for teachers in the denominational schools. The state and the churches—as well as other religious communities—are considered independent and autonomous partners of equal rank. Through legal recognition, they receive the status of a public body, allowing them to perform duties of public interest, including social, cultural, and political duties. —Martin Jäggle

—Michael T. Buchanan

Authority Austria and Christian Education During the second century Christianity was brought to the area of Austria by Roman soldiers, but the Völkerwanderung destroyed the first ecclesiastical establishments. In the seventh century Christianity came again, from the West. The oldest monastery, St. Peter in Salzburg, was founded in 696, and the oldest convent, Nonnberg in Salzburg, in 714. In the 2001 Census, 73.6 percent of the population were Roman Catholic, 4.7 percent were Protestant, 4.2 percent Muslim, and 2.3 percent Orthodox Christian (12.0 percent had no affiliation). Since then the number of Roman Catholics has decreased, and there are more Orthodox Christians and Muslims. Sixteen churches are members of the Ecumenical Council of Churches in Austria; the Roman Catholic Church is a full member. Twelve churches are recognized by the state. Religious education takes place in the public kindergarten (except in Vienna) and is a compulsory denominational subject in the public schools (with few exceptions) for those pupils who are members of a legally recognized church (or religious community). Others can take religious education as an optional subject. Every church (and religious community) is responsible for religious education at school, designates the teacher, determines the curriculum, and chooses the textbooks. A common religious

The source of authority matters. Experience, reason, culture, celebrity, tradition, self, and revelation—or some combination—may serve as the origin of authority for everyone. Human starting points, however, may leave authority in the hands of the few who wield control. Authority’s reliability must be based on Someone who is transcendent (separate from, outside of) and immutable (unchanging). God-given authority should be held onto lightly. Leaders must remain committed in thought, word, and deed to authority outside themselves. Rulers are not above the law. Everyone from presidents to people is held to the same standard. Biblical Theology of Authority One’s authority comes from one’s person known through one’s words. God’s initiative in communication should be mirrored through clear, honest, and forthright words, safeguarded for the future (2 Tim. 1:14); God’s Word must be clearly interpreted and honestly expounded so its message is clear to all (2 Thess. 2:15); All in the Christian community must admit their personal responsibility to know and understand scripture for themselves (Ps. 119:18; Acts 17:11). In the Old Testament, authority comes from the word “hand.” The metaphor indicated the source of authority, the action taken from one’s hand. Believers were to recognize that all abundance comes from God’s hand (1 Chron.



29:16), because His hands formed all things (Ps. 8:6, 95:5). Humans, on the other hand, were to remember that whatever they produced did not come from the strength of their hands (Deut. 8:17–18). God’s authority would not be compromised by any human authority. In the New Testament, authority meant freedom of choice, how much ability one has to determine the freedom of action one has over one’s life or the lives of others (as in giving orders; Matt. 8:9; Luke 7:8, 19:17). Jesus had authority to lay down His life of His own accord (John 10:17–18). Paul used his authority to build up others, not tear them down (2 Cor. 10:8, 13:10). Ultimately Jesus’s authority comes from the origin of all authority, the Father’s hand (Matt. 28:18), for others’ benefit (Matt. 5:17, 9:6, 8; Mark 1.22). Biblical Philosophy of Authority The Bible is God’s revelation of authority for all people, all places, and all time (Matt. 5:17; John 10:35; 2 Tim. 3:16–17; 2 Pet. 1:20–21). God’s Word is the absolute authority over human wisdom (1 Cor. 1:18–31). All knowledge, then, will be brought under the examination of the biblical lens (2 Cor. 10:3–5). Scripture declares that people should be responsive to change from the inside out by practicing truths found within it (James 1:19–27). Herein is the basis for virtuous living within the context of the Christian community. There is a consistent concern from the Pentateuch to Revelation that believers not be led astray by counterfeit authority systems witnessed through the allure of idolatry (Deut. 4:15–19, 23, 25, 28), the distraction of persuasive speech (Deut. 18:20–22), or the seduction of ideas with a semblance of truth wrapped around error (Deut. 13:1–5). Other authority structures are based on a temporal, material, human-centered viewpoint antithetic to the Personal Eternal Triune Creator. In a culture of individualism—“no one tells me what to do”—and relativism—“no standard of certainty exists outside myself”—it is necessary to establish the biblical basis for authority in the Christian classroom. God has placed authorities in life to which humans are accountable (Ps. 119:91; Rom. 13:1; 1 Pet. 2:13). Under governance from God, any Christian school board and administration, along with covenantal support from parents, teachers bear a mandate from God to exercise the sanction given to them in their classrooms (1 Pet. 5:1–4). Christian Practice of Authority The Christian teacher is God’s authority in the school’s sphere of influence (1 Thess. 5:11–12). Professors bear the responsibility of clear commitment to and communication of the “true Truth” of authority (Tim. 1:9). Students are under authority and accountable for the

privilege of learning and to the providers of that learning (Prov. 23:12). Respect for God, His Word, and His leader in the classroom demonstrates subservience to authority (1 Pet. 2:17). All parties (school, home, and church) share common, covenantal commitments. Resolved to honor those spheres of authority, each group—home, church, and school—will not overstep its response to any of the other groups. Parents, teachers, administrators, and students should all agree to follow clearly written philosophies, policies, and procedures based on a Christian authority structure. The church will maintain that God’s written revelation should be the final authority for evaluation of all other written or spoken communication in textbooks, in-services, meetings, chapels, community traditions, and classroom teaching (1 Cor. 10:3–5; Heb. 5:11–14). The source or origin of authority must always be known and always be based on biblical grounds. The words truthful, reliable, faithful, accurate, trustworthy, and committed should describe the Christian individual and institution (1 John 2:4, 3:18–19). People consciously or unconsciously accept authority (Matt. 7:13–14). Definitions for authority structures must be clearly established based on a Christian source (Neh. 13; Tim. 1:9–11). Ideas, institutions, or persons accepted as authority must be interpreted through scriptural grids. Complaints about authority must come from a source of authority other than itself. Faulty objections to biblical authority often can be traced to one source: rebellion through personal advantage (Gen. 4:23, 24; Jud. 21:25). Inherent human corruption should teach people to admit wrongdoing (1 John 1:6, 8), rectifying by reconciling problems with others (Matt. 5:23, 24). Tolerance of people (acceptance and respect) is different than tolerance of belief (Ps. 51:13; 2 Tim. 2:25, 3:1, 7–8). The correction of authority should be gentle, teaching the Truth in love (Eph. 4:15; 2 Tim. 2:25). References and Resources Hunter, James C. 2012. The Servant: A Simple Story About the True Essence of Leadership. 2nd ed. New York: Crown Publishing. Pazmiño, Robert. 2002. By What Authority Do We Teach? Sources for Empowering Christian Educators. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock.

—Mark Eckel

Autism The term “autism” was introduced in 1943 by Leo Kanner (Baltimore, MD). He called it “early infantile autism” (Greek autos, meaning “self”). He described these children as “immersed in their own world,” which, despite

Azusa Pacific University

extensive progress in research, is still a commonly used description. Autism is a vastly complicated, biologically conditioned development disorder that includes three basic areas: (1) qualitative impairment in social interactions; (2) qualitative impairment in communication; and (3) restricted, repeated, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Autism is currently diagnosed on the basis of the list of symptoms. However, indications vary because of the diversity of symptoms, their intensity, and the course of the disease. Moreover, clinical symptoms depend on the developmental age of the person with autism. The causes of autism have not yet been fully discovered. Today it is estimated that autistic disorders occur in at least 15–25 of every 10,000 children. Ewa Pisula (2010) identifies nine basic terms related to autism: 1. Classic autism/Kanner’s Syndrome: These are historical labels referring to Kanner’s descriptions or used to describe severe autism (significant difficulties with social development and inability to use spoken language). 2. Early infantile autism: This is also a historical term, which was eliminated by the World Health Organization (WHO) when it turned out that the symptoms of autism may appear slightly later than had been previously assumed. This term is still encountered in psychiatry textbooks and scientific articles. 3. Autistic features/tendencies/behaviours: These terms tend to be used by diagnosticians. They are related to the difficulties in diagnosing and the avoidance of clear definitions. In doubtful cases, the term “autistic behaviors,” referring to the observed behaviour and not to permanent features of a child, is much more appropriate. 4. Childhood autism: This is the term used in the ICD (International Classification of Diseases) WHO classification. It is criticized for suggesting that autism occurs only in children, whereas in reality it is a lifelong disorder in the majority of cases. 5. Autistic disorders: This was the term describing autism in the DSM classification of the American Psychiatric Association. 6. Atypical autism: This term is used in the ICD-10 classification to describe an atypical course of autism. The atypical nature refers to a lack of disorders in one of the three axis areas or to the age when symptoms occur. 7. High functioning autism: This term is used to describe individuals with well-developed intellectual abilities.


8. Low functioning autism: This term refers to individuals who experience autism together with intellectual disability. 9. Autistic spectrum disorders: This is the term commonly used nowadays; it includes childhood autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorders, and other development disorders. Christian education of individuals with autism means accompanying them in entering the Christian way of life. Applying a basic rule of being faithful to God and man, Christian educators may choose psychology and special pedagogical methods convenient for any individual and for themselves; however, they need to remember that making use of the achievements of didactics does not absolve them from taking into consideration God’s pedagogy. Contemporary Christian education of individuals with autism must focus on the attempt at integrating its actions with therapists, school, parish community, and—first and foremost—family. However, it must be highlighted that “integrated” does not mean “placed inside” (e.g., a school or a special center), but rather connected by a network of mutual relations reflecting love that makes it possible to recognize students of Jesus. God is not abstract but the Living, with whom we establish our relation. Individuals with autism cannot be perceived as strange and having no contact with reality. Their abilities should be appreciated as they are. This is evangelical service for the disabled so that they do not waste their talents but multiply them, since everyone, including a person with autism, received them from God. References and Resources Grandin, T. 1995. Thinking in Pictures. My Life with Autism. New York: Doubleday. Pisula, E. 2010. Autyzm—przyczyny, symptomy, terapia. Gdańsk: Harmonia. Volkmar, F. R., R. Paul, A. Klin, and D. J. Cohen. 2005. Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Diagnosis, Development, Neurobiology, and Behavior. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

—Andrzej Kiciński

Azusa Pacific University History Azusa Pacific University is located about 26 miles northeast of Los Angeles; other regional centers are located throughout Southern California. The school was founded by a group of Quakers in Whittier, California, as a training school that would prepare


Azusa Pacific University

young people for Christian service and missionary work. The first school of its kind on the Pacific Coast, its articles of incorporation were approved in March 1900, and the Training School for Christian Workers began with two students in the home of Mary Hill, the first president and teacher. The next three presidents were also women, reflecting the Quaker belief that women should have equal access to institutional and church offices. In 1907, the school moved to Huntington Park because it had outgrown its Whittier location. By the time the school celebrated its 30th anniversary, it had 112 alumni serving as foreign missionaries. During that decade—the 1930s—the school severed formal ties with the Quakers and operated without formal ties to any denomination, while representing many. The school became a college under the 36-year tenure of President Cornelius Haggard, which began in 1939, when the school’s name was changed to Pacific Bible College of Huntington Park. Due to the need for expansion, the college moved to its current location in Azusa in 1946; it was accredited for the first time the following year. Because the curriculum and faculty were evolving beyond the description of a Bible college to what was a liberal arts college, in 1957 the name of the school was again changed, to Azusa College, and it was regionally accredited in 1964. In part due to financial difficulties, a Free Methodist institution, Los Angeles Pacific College, left its campus the following year and merged with Azusa College to form Azusa Pacific College (APC). Another merger occurred in 1968, when the college added graduate programs and invited Arlington College, a small college associated with the Church of God, Anderson, Indiana, to join APC. In 1981, the college changed its status to that of a university and its name to Azusa Pacific University (APU). The School of Theology was formed in 1983. Foundational to the newly named university was a commitment to scripture, not just for information, but for application. All students were and are required to take three courses in Bible, one in doctrine, one in ministry, and a senior seminar in Christian ethics. Appropriate to the school’s beginnings, Christian service continues to be a requirement for graduation. Since 1981, the university’s enrollment has been on the increase; today the total count exceeds 9,000. Graduate programs were added, including master’s degrees and doctorates; in theology this includes an MDiv and a DMin. The school is intentional about its Wesleyan orientation, but also retains some identity with its Quaker (Friends) beginnings, such as a professorial chair that was at one time occupied by Richard Foster. In 1998,

five religious organizations were officially affiliated with the university: Brethren in Christ, Church of God, Free Methodist Church, Missionary Church, and the Salvation Army. Most Notable Academic Programs Offering liberal arts and professional degrees, APU has excelled in teacher education, nursing, and theology. Currently the university houses the College of Liberal Arts and Science, School of Behavioral and Applied Sciences, School of Business and Administration, School of Music, School of Nursing, School of Theology, Center for Adult and Professional Studies, an Honors College, and APOU (offering an AA online degree). There are also study abroad programs with more than 40 national and international venues. Christian Philosophy and Mission of Education As stated in its catalogs, APU’s mission statement identifies it as “an evangelical Christian community of disciples and scholars who seek to advance the work of God in the world through academic excellence in liberal arts and professional programs of higher education that encourage students to develop a Christian perspective of truth and life.” Toward that end, the university is also known for its Noel Academy for Strengths-Based Leadership and Education, which seeks to affect educational practices by providing faculty and staff with the resources to identify and nurture students’ strengths so that they can engage in the learning process more successfully. Significant catchphrases that capture the school’s ethos include its motto, “God First,” which appears to have been adopted during the mid-19th century in a U.S. culture that was less pluralistic. More recently, “Transforming Scholarship” succinctly identifies the university’s goal. Near its beginning the school was committed to being evangelical in faith, having a concern for application of what is learned to the spiritual life, maintaining interdenominational ties, and training students for practical service. From its “Essence Statement,” it now uses the descriptive nouns Christian, academic, developmental, and service; these seem to correspond to what it calls its four “cornerstones”: Christ, scholarship, sommunity, and service. Reference Jackson, Sheldon. 1999. “Azusa Pacific University: One Hundred Years of Christian Service and Scholarship, 1899–1999.” APU. Accessed 10 April 2013. http://www.apu.edu/provost/ catalog/downloads/apu_ugradcat1213.pdf.

—Dennis Okholm

B Bacon, Roger Roger Bacon (c. 1214–c. 1294) was an English philosopher, Franciscan friar, Oxford professor, and man of science. He was born near Ilchester in Somerset, England. As a celebrated theologian, scientist, and philosopher, the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, meaning “wonderful teacher,” was bestowed on him. Bacon was trained in the scholarly disciplines of logic and natural philosophy at Oxford and as a philosopher and scientist, he “helped to revolutionize the perception of man’s place in the physical world” (Reed and Prevost 1993, 171). Upon becoming a Franciscan friar (c. 1257), he anticipated becoming a teacher, but that did not come to pass, and he continued as an independent scholar (Hackett [2007] 2012). As an early witness to the revival of Aristotelian thought in European universities, Bacon is regarded as the originator of experimental research and often called the “father of experimental science.” In 1265, Pope Clement IV commissioned Bacon to write on scientific matters, and in a year and a half he completed a trilogy of works, the Opus Majus, the Opus Minus, and the Opus Tertium. In the Opus Majus, he emphasized the need for including the study of science and nature within the curriculum (Anthony and Benson 2003, 165). Furthermore, he noted that science should augment the study of theology, the queen of the sciences. He argued that both reason and authority could furnish valid knowledge only when supported by experimental research (Burns 1969, 377–378). Along with fellow Franciscans Duns Scotus and William of Occum, Bacon challenged the system of inquiry promoted by St. Thomas Aquinas. He believed that Aquinas did not allow for the knowledge of God to be discovered through direct human experience or what came to be known as the scientific method. In Bacon’s mind, Aquinas had developed a harmful or unhealthy

dependence on Aristotle regarding matters of science (Elias 2002, 63; Anthony and Benson 2003, 165; Butts 1947, 156–157). He proposed that neither reason nor authority could provide legitimate knowledge without the support of experimental research (Burns 1969, 377–378). Furthermore, Bacon condemned scholastic wrangling and arguing as an outmoded method of teaching (Reed and Prevost 1993, 186). In addition to his philosophical reflections on science, Bacon contributed to actual scientific accomplishments. His study and writings on optics served as an authoritative source for centuries, and in his experimental research, “He discovered much about magnifying lenses, and it seems more than probable that he invented the simple microscope. He demonstrated that light travels faster than sound, and he was apparently the first scientist to perceive the inaccuracy of the Julian calendar and to advocate its revision” (Butts 1947, 378). Bacon himself came under a certain amount of criticism. According to Jeremiah Hackett ([2007] 2012), it appears that his own Franciscan order condemned him in 1278 “on account of certain suspected novelties,” possibly due to his interests in astrology and alchemy. Bacon died at Oxford at the approximate age of 80. References and Resources Anthony, Michael, and Warren Benson. 2003. Exploring the History & Philosophy of Christian Education. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel. Burns, Edward M. 1969. Western Civilizations: Their History and Their Culture. 7th ed. New York: W. W. Norton. Butts, R. Freeman. 1947. A Cultural History of Education: Reassessing Our Educational Traditions. New York: McGraw-Hill. Elias, John L. 2002. A History of Christian Education: Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Perspectives. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing.

— 109 —


Baltimore Catechism

Hackett, Jeremiah. (2007) 2012. “Roger Bacon.” In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. http:// plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/roger-bacon/. Reed, James E., and Ronnie Prevost. 1993. A History of Christian Education. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman.

—Harley T. Atkinson

Baltimore Catechism The Baltimore Catechism, commissioned by the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884) and published in 1885, became the standard catechetical tool in the United States for more than 80 years. While immensely influential as an instructional text, it was not in itself novel, as it built on the catechism genre that took definitive shape in the Small and Large Catechisms (Der kleine Katechismus, and Deutsch Katechismus, which became known as Der grosser Katechismus) of Martin Luther, which appeared in 1529. The influence of Luther’s catechisms was enhanced by the fact that they were written in vernacular German, and due to the availability of the printing press, invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440, enjoyed a large distribution. In the preface to the Small Catechism, Luther states that his works were directed to pastors and preachers, notably bishops, so that they might instruct the uneducated laity and sometimes the lower ranks of the clergy. Once they had mastered the basics of this text, they were to take up the Large Catechism and “use it to give them a broader and richer understanding.”1 Another significant contribution of Luther was to reorder the sequence to begin with the Ten Commandments followed by the creed, and instead of dividing them into multiple articles he focused on three: the salvific work of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit under the rubrics of creation, redemption, and sanctification. Following treatments of the Lord’s Prayer, baptism, confession, and the Eucharist, as well as daily prayers and duties, were “Christian Questions with Their Answers,” establishing the nowfamiliar question and answer approach to basic catechesis. Numerous other catechisms appeared; influential among them were those of St. Peter Canisius, St. Robert Bellarmine, and the Council of Trent, which surprisingly did not have a reliable English translation until 1829, more than 250 years after the Roman catechism, and “was only published in the United States in 1905.”2 In the United States, repeated efforts to formulate a national catechism failed to meet with the approval of the bishops. 1. Martin Luther, Luther’s Small Catechism with Explanation (St. Louis, MO: Concordia, 1986), 246. 2. Berard Marthaler, “The Catechism of the Catholic Church in US Context,” in Source Book for Modern Catechetics, ed. Michael Warren (Winona, MI: Saint Mary’s Press, 1997), 2:279.

However, in the wake of Vatican I, they achieved their goal with the Catechism of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1885). The text had 421 questions in 37 chapters and the order of questions was as follows: creed (1–135), sacraments (136–302), prayer (303–309), commandments (310–407), Last Judgment and the Resurrection, Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven (408–421). A 1941 revision by the bishops’ Committee of the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine returned to the order of creed, commandments, sacraments, and prayer. In an insightful article, Mary Charles Bryce notes that there was less than unanimous enthusiasm for the Baltimore Catechism, and quite a deal of criticism because of the lack of a practical pedagogy, which could only lead to rote learning of the text.3 There was also criticism of the lack of adequate theological treatment of certain aspects of doctrine. The bishops’ meeting in 1896 resolved to revise the catechism, but no progress was made over the next six episcopal meetings. The reason for the lack of progress appears to be that the committee couldn’t recommend a suitable alternative, progress a revised text, or mandate it for use nationally. The result was a proliferation of texts carrying imprimaturs from a variety of bishops and censors. These new texts sought to adapt to the developments in pedagogy and the social sciences. Some provided developmentally sequenced learning texts; others abandoned the question and answer technique in favor of a more narrative approach; and still others sought to use catechisms suitable to the psychological development of young people, including illustrations, pictures, and stories that engaged the imagination of the young. Unfortunately, the 1941 revision of the Baltimore Catechism involved theologians who were not in dialogue with religious educators or the developments in learning, teaching, and the social sciences, especially psychology, so their new text was more of the same but with an expanded number of questions (515). The reception of the revised catechism was similar to that accorded the original: cool and unenthusiastic. One sympathizes with the desire of the bishops for a uniform national text, but this is not feasible in a society composed of people drawn from different cultures with their own languages and traditions. The Roman Catholic Church, however, still wants to have a compendium of doctrine, and the latest effort in that direction is The Catechism of the Catholic Church (1992), which is not written in the style of the Baltimore Catechism and is addressed not to children but to the bishops and leaders of the church. 3. Mary Charles Bryce, “The Baltimore Catechism—Origin and Reception,” in Source Book for Modern Catechetics, ed. Warren, 1:140–145.

Baptism, Theology of

There is no doubt that there was value in the question and answer approach of the catechism(s), but in the contemporary world, where everything is subject to scrutiny, answers without a deeper understanding of the theological complexity of issues are no longer adequate for an adult faith. However, such an approach does have some enduring value in terms of Christian apologetics. References and Resources Bryce, Mary Charles. 1983. “The Baltimore Catechism—Origin and Reception.” In Source Book for Modern Catechetics, edited by Michael Warren, 1:140–145. Winona, MI: St. Mary’s Press. Hennessy, J. 2002. “Baltimore, Councils Of.” In New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., 41–47. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Publishing. Luther, Martin. 1983. Luther’s Large Catechism. Anniversary translation and introductory essay by Friedmann Hebart. Adelaide, SA: Lutheran Publishing House. ———. 1986. Luther’s Small Catechism with Explanation. St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. Marthaler, Bernard. 1997. “The Catechism of the Catholic Church in US Context.” In Source Book for Modern Catechetics, edited by Michael Warren, 2:278–286. Winona, MI: St. Mary’s Press. Sloyan, G. S. 2002. “Catechisms.” In New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., 239–246. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Publishing.

—Michael A. Kelly

Bangui Evangelical School of Theology The Bangui Evangelical School of Theology (BEST), known in French as Faculté de Théologie Évangélique de Bangui (FATEB), was founded in 1977 by the Association of Evangelicals in Africa to train pastoral leadership for the French-speaking African church. The residential school is located on a 12-acre campus in the capital of the Central African Republic. The 20,000 volumes and 60 periodicals make its Byang Kato Library a significant resource center for French-speaking Africa. The vision of BEST is to “see healthy African churches, rooted in the Scriptures, engaged in biblical mission and in its consequent transformation of society through the ministry of well trained leaders.” Theology and Bible translation are offered at both the bachelor’s and master’s levels, with a variety of research and leadership programs at the master’s level. Doctoral study is available in systematic theology. The women’s school offers training in the Bible along with instruction in life skills. BEST hosts an elementary school, initially started by BEST students for training their own children, but now serving more than 800 children from the community.


More than 700 men and women from 21 Frenchspeaking nations have graduated from BEST. Graduates serve as pastors, missionaries, translators, teachers, directors of theological schools, and hospital and military chaplains. The faculty comes from countries served by BEST, enhanced by visiting professors from Europe and North America. All professors hold advanced degrees and bring practical pastoral experience to the classroom from a variety of evangelical denominations. Further information is available at http://best.fateb .net/index.html. —Steve Hardy

Baptism, Theology of The Bible and early church writings bear witness to the deep meanings and significance of baptism in antiquity. Readers of these texts should be aware of two interpretive keys in relation to baptism. First, their authors were steeped in poetic, metaphoric, and ritual/symbolic imagination. Baptismal waters could mean life, death, awe, peace, stillness, terror, power, judgment, and salvation all at once. Second, authors often layered water-related stories upon one another or used typological interpretations to discern new theological possibilities for baptism through their association. In Matthew’s account of Jesus’s baptism by John, for example, we learn that baptism is about repentance for sin (3:2, 6, 11), the coming Realm of God (3:2), and more. Three significant ingredients in this baptismal story—water, Spirit, voice of God (3:16–17)—hearken back to the opening verses of Genesis 1. Matthew is subtly signaling a link between God’s original act of creation and the baptismal “new creation” in Jesus. Strengthening this link, the Spirit’s descent “like a dove” (3:16) evokes memories of the dove’s return to Noah on the ark with the olive branch, “evidence of creation renewed.”4 This implicit reference to the Creation and Noah stories also connects baptism with God’s covenant-making. Jesus’s identity, and therefore the identities of His followers, is also revealed through baptism. Not only do we learn of Jesus’s relationship to Spirit in this account, we discover that He is the “Son” with whom the voice from heaven is “well pleased” (3:16–17). This pronouncement condenses and combines two verses from the Old Testament: one from a psalm of royal anointing (Ps. 2:7) and the other from a servant song (Isa. 42:1). That the messiah (king) shall be “suffering servant” confounded the messianic 4. Lawrence Stookey, Baptism: Christ’s Act in the Church (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1982), ch. 5.


Baptist Curricular Outcomes

expectations of the day. It also anticipates Jesus’s cruciform question to his disciples: “Are you able . . . to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?” (Mark 10:38). The same Spirit that empowers Jesus at his baptismal commissioning for ministry now drives Him to the wilderness to do battle over the shape of that ministry. Disciples, too, Mathew implies, must count the blessings and costs of their own baptismal identification with Jesus and of the ministries carried out in His name. John’s Gospel does not mention Jesus’s baptism but is nonetheless infused with baptismal theology. John links baptism with new birth and Spirit empowerment (3:1–7). By contrast, Paul views baptism as entry into the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus (Rom. 6). For Paul the baptized do not merely imitate Jesus’s crucifixion and resurrection through their baptisms; they are incorporated into Christ’s paschal mystery. Elsewhere in the Pauline Epistles those baptized (“in Christ” is code for this) are made members of Christ’s Body, the church, where sharing their spiritual gifts is essential to the health of the community (Rom. 12:4–8; 1 Cor. 12), past markers of social status are relativized (Gal. 3:26–30), and they are called to share in Jesus’s “ministry of reconciliation” (2 Cor. 5:17–20). Baptism in the pre-Nicene church was marked by both ritual elaboration around the water bath and theological consolidation. In the Christian East, where the paradigm for baptism was Jesus’s baptism by John and thus associated with Spirit birth and incorporation into messianic identity, anointing with oil appeared prominently.5 Submersion or immersion in water remained primary in the Roman West (though anointing was practiced as well), where the primacy of the bath heightened baptism’s association with entry into Christ’s paschal mystery.6 Ultimately, many Christian communities adopted a “both and” view of baptism that brought these two paradigms together. By the mid-fourth century, baptismal initiation had become an interwoven ecology of rites carried out over months or years. It often included the following: • The catechumenate: a period of preparation that included cleansings, exorcisms, vigils, scrutiny, and more, all intensified during a formalized Lenten season. • Baptismal rites: some variation of creedal recitations, water bath, anointing, laying on of hands, and first Eucharist, often staged at Easter Vigil or Pentecost. 5. Maxwell Johnson, The Rites of Christian Initiation, rev. and exp. ed. (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2007), 49–55. 6. Ibid., 112.

• Mystagogy: reflection or teaching upon the initiation experience, perhaps with a vocational emphasis. By the fifth century, however, this disciplined baptismal formation into salvation that had seemed necessary for a persecuted missional church proved too demanding for the religion of empire. The ecology fell apart. Emblematic of its decline, baptismal fonts shrank from large pools to smaller basins. Christian educators should bear in mind three insights with respect to early baptismal theology and practice. First, as imagined through the scriptures and early tradition described above, baptism carried within it a polyphony of meanings. The result, as Aiden Kavanagh observes so eloquently, was the recognition that the baptismal waters flow like a “fugal theme” through salvation history, ritual practice, and church theology.7 Second, knowing and doing were embedded in one another; hence performing ritual symbols was self-evidently a necessary dimension of formation into Christian life. Third, the ritual practices of baptism were perceived to be zones for both divine action toward human transformation and graced human response. Educators must decide whether these insights are anachronisms of a distant past or exceedingly relevant to their current ministerial tasks. —Fred P. Edie

Baptist Curricular Outcomes From their beginnings in the 17th century, Baptists have maintained a variety of formal and informal approaches to Christian education curricula. Christian education served to promote evangelism by setting out the process of salvation; it also provided church members with basic information about the nature of Christian discipleship and the basics of Christian/Baptist identity. Early instructional data were passed on through confessions of faith that said what Baptists believed; church covenants that set forth their commitments to God and one another; and “rules of decorum” that delineated how churches would conduct business. Churches looked to pastors as teachers who instructed the faithful in sermons, doctrine, and biblical studies. Many Baptist ministers published books of sermons and theological reflection for use by the membership. Some ministers wrote catechism books for teaching children and new converts the rubrics of the faith. “Associations” of Baptist churches often produced “Circular Letters” that were sent to member congrega7. Aidan Kavanagh, The Shape of Baptism: The Rite of Christian Initiation (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1991), 31 .

Barth, Karl

tions, dealing with specific questions of doctrine and polity. Members could add comments and questions for extended dialogue. By the 19th century, as Baptists began to send out missionaries at home and abroad, they developed strategies for presenting the gospel that involved translating scripture into native languages, printing scripture for use by native peoples, and establishing schools for the instruction of indigenous children. As Baptist denominations took shape in the 18th and 19th centuries, more formal efforts at developing curriculum got under way. Denominational publishing houses and tract societies became major sources of curriculum for clergy and laity, churches, and Baptist-related schools. As Sunday schools became a venue for providing basic biblical instruction, denominational publishing and educational societies began to make curriculum available to churches. Many followed the common curriculum of the Sunday School Union or the International Sunday School series utilized by numerous Protestant denominations. By the 20th century, many Baptists were using “graded curriculum” developed for various age groups from children to adults. The strong commitment to providing basic biblical studies served to inculcate significant knowledge of the Bible for generations of Baptists. Mission studies were aimed at energizing church members in the knowledge and support of missionary and evangelistic endeavors. In the 19th and 20th centuries, many Baptist congregations formed women’s missionary unions or laymen’s mission movements to raise financial support for missionary programs. Children’s programs such as summer vacation Bible schools served as conduits for evangelizing and instructing children in biblical content and Christian values. As Baptist-related colleges, universities, and seminaries were founded in the 19th and 20th centuries, professors became important resources for writing denominational curriculum. By the 20th century, churches affiliated with a variety of Baptist denominations began hiring staff members, who had primary responsibility for Christian education in the congregation. Baptist schools ultimately created courses in Christian education. This was particularly evident in institutions affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention, the American Baptist Churches, USA, the General Conference Baptists, and the National Baptist Convention, Incorporated. Not all Baptist groups approved of these more intentional approaches to educational curriculum. Primitive Baptists, for example, issued the Black Rock Address in 1832, denouncing Sunday schools, theological seminaries, revivals, and mission efforts as outside the purview of New Testament churches, which were called to proclaim the Gospel and rely on God to awaken sinners. Instruction was necessary, but only as a ministry of local


churches. Independent Baptists also rejected denominational organizations and boards, often insisting that the scriptures be studied without the aid of denominationally produced curricular materials. By the 21st century, as Baptist denominations lost influence and funding from congregations, and as Sunday school attendance plummeted in many churches, many Baptists sought new curricular methods, including online resources, PowerPoint presentations of sermons and lectures, and other forms of technology. Churches that once utilized denominational publications have learned to “shop the web” for multiple age-specific resources or to publish their own materials. References and Resources Baker, Robert A. 1954. The Story of the Sunday School Board. Nashville, TN: Convention Press. Leonard, Bill J. 2003. Baptist Ways: A History. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press. Maring, Norman H., and Winthrop S. Hudson. 1991. A Baptist Manual of Polity and Practice. rev. ed. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1991.

—Bill J. Leonard

Barth, Karl Karl Barth (1886–1968) was born in Basel, Switzerland. This Swiss-German pastor and professor is widely recognized as one of the most significant modern theologians, whose influence in church, theology, and social ethics continues to be paramount. The education Barth received in Bern, Berlin, Tubingen, and Marburg was primarily in the tradition of Protestant liberalism, which was still at its height in early 20th-century Germany. While serving as a pastor (1911–1921), Barth became increasingly disillusioned by not only the bourgeois religious ethos of his teachers, but also their unwavering support for and submission to the nation’s ideology of war and the ensuing World War I. Eventually Barth denounced the foundations and trajectory of German Protestant liberalism and its entire system of theological exegesis, ethics, dogmatics, and preaching. Instead, he returned to scripture, especially studying and publishing a commentary on the book of Romans. With the publication of his Romans commentary, Barth’s prominence grew, resulting in a teaching career at the universities of Gottingen, Munster, and Bonn in Germany until 1935, and then at the University of Basel until his retirement in 1962. After being expelled from Germany for his resistance to the Third Reich and his major role in the writing of the Barmen Declaration of 1934, Barth continued to be the


Barth, Karl

intellectual leader of the German Confessing Church. Among his enormous corpus of books, sermons, and essays, the multivolume Church Dogmatics (nearly 10,000 pages) distinguishes itself as Barth’s magnum opus. In this unfinished work, Barth painstakingly rehearses the doctrines of the Word of God, the Trinity, the incarnation, and the humanity of God. For Barth, the freedom of God was God Himself; thus no ideology, no pious postulate, and especially no theological concept should or could ever serve as prior knowledge toward understanding God. The genius of his theological method was that there was and ought to be none, in that God is who He is. He speaks for Himself. He reveals Himself. Thus, any anthropological abstraction or philosophical treatment of God contradicts the character of revelation as God’s grace. Speaking of the study of scripture, Barth insisted that Christians must not fall into the trap of trying to master the text, but allow the God of scripture to master them and claim their entire being. Yet the God of scripture, for Barth, does not derive from or appeal to isolated proof-texts, but rather from an understanding of the Gospel as a whole—that is, focused on God’s self-disclosure in Jesus Christ, which then becomes the prolegomenon for Barth’s theological reflections. Thus, the preliminary question should not be an epistemological or apologetic one, such as “How do we know God?” but an existential or ethical one, such as “Who is this God who effects knowledge of himself?” Theology, then, has a regulative function as it seeks to critically appropriate and access the church’s obedience to God’s own Word of self-communication. In this way, faith is described as an act of human decision corresponding to the act of divine decision. In Barth’s theology, the act of divine decision is closely aligned with divine election. Radically reshaping the Reformed theological notion of double predestination, Barth asserts that Jesus Christ is both electing and elected, where the former is God’s self-election and the latter God’s election of humanity, both actual in Jesus Christ. On this point, many have accused Barth as a universalist. However, Barth is clear about the enormity of sin and its consequences. For Barth, if to be human is to be united to Christ, then sin cannot be constitutive of human being, because it is a contradiction of what it means to be human. Sin then is an impossible possibility in which human beings decisively act against or contrary to the act of divine decision, thus choosing not to live by faith. Conversely, those who respond affirmatively to divine election by faith are those who acknowledge God’s covenant: the ordered mutuality of God and humanity in which God elects a people to have their being in obedient consent to their election. Because the divine covenant means “God with us,” it also means “we with God.”

On the one hand, this situates his redemptive history in a common history, and on the other hand, it situates God’s people in what Barth called the “strange new world within the Bible.” The church, then, is characterized as a community whose task is not that of making effective Jesus’s reality but of attesting to its inherent effectiveness. Barth is quick to point out that the divine imperative, God’s command, is ultimately rooted in the divine indicative, Jesus’s reality. Christian vocation, then, is to joyfully testify to Jesus’s reality and its inherent effectiveness by following divine imperative. Divine imperative is not merely a command, however, but is actually God’s permission—the granting of a very definite freedom—through which Christians can experience a genuine sense of integrity and find identity in Jesus’s reality. Barth’s contribution to religious education is primarily to the subsequent generations of practical theologians whose aim was to recover the nature and function of the church’s educational ministry. They were reacting against the paradigmatic influence of the foundational approach to scripture and to universal human experience in various social science disciplines. Ray Anderson (2001) underscores his indebtedness to Barth’s insistence on the dynamic interrelation between theory and praxis in his approach to practical theology. The understanding of Jesus Christ being the true witness of God—servant of God and Lord of humanity—can be understood only as a theory that has its origin and goal in praxis. The task of theology for Barth, then, is to clarify the presuppositions of church praxis, which is the grateful Christian response to God’s gracious election of God’s people. References and Resources Anderson, Ray. 2001. The Shape of Practical Theology. Downers Grove: IVP. Barth, Karl. (1932–1967) 2010. Church Dogmatics. Edited by G. W. Bromiley and T. F. Torrance. Translated by A. T. Mackay and T. H. L. Parker. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. Volume I.1 & 2: The Doctrine of the Word of God, Parts 1 & 2. Volume II.1 & 2: The Doctrine of God, Parts 1 & 2. Volume III.1, 2, 3 & 4: The Doctrine of Creation, Parts 1, 2, 3 & 4. Volume IV.1, 2, 3.1, 3.2 & 4: The Doctrine of Reconciliation, Parts 1, 2, 3 First Half, 3 Second Half & 4. Busch, Eberhard. 2004. The Great Passion: An Introduction to Karl Barth’s Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Webster, John. 2000a. Barth. New York: Continuum. ———. 2000b. The Cambridge Companion to Karl Barth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

—S. Steve Kang

Basil the Great

Basil the Great Basil the Great was born toward the end of AD 329 at Caesarea, the capital of Cappadocia, to a wealthy Christian family. His father, Basil, son of St. Macrina the Elder, was a renowned teacher of rhetoric, and his mother, St. Emilia, was the daughter of a martyr. She gave birth to 10 children, three of whom became bishops: St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Peter of Sebaste. Basil’s brother Naucratios became a monk and a saint. Macrina the Younger was famous for her ascetic lifestyle. Basil was educated first at Caesarea, then in Constantinople. From AD 352 to 356, he studied chiefly under the Sophists Himerius and Prohaeresius, in Athens, where he became friends with Gregory of Nazianzus. His time in Athens gave Basil the opportunity to encounter and build a bond with a fellow student, Julian, the nephew of the emperor Constantius. The future emperor developed a warm attachment for the young Cappadocian, with whom—as the latter remembered when their relations had so sadly changed—he not only studied best patterns of literature, but also meticulously analyzed the sacred scriptures. Basil’s Athenian reputation had preceded him, and he was received with much honor by the people of Caesarea, where he consented to settle as a rhetorics teacher. He practiced the profession of a rhetorician with great celebrity for a considerable period, but the warnings and counsels of Macrina guarded him from the seductions of the world and eventually induced him to abandon it altogether and devote himself to a religious life. Around AD 358, Basil was baptized and began leading a hermit’s life in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia; after returning to Cappadocia, he gave his wealth away and settled in the hermitage over the river Iris. Later he was joined by other monks and set up a monastic community, founding a monastery and a school for young people, in which the program combined Christian reflection with the integral humanist culture. Throughout Pontus and Cappadocia, Basil was the catalyst for the erection of numerous hospitals for the poor, houses of refuge for virgins, orphanages, and other homes of beneficence. His monasteries welcomed as their inmates children he had taken charge of, married persons who had mutually agreed to live asunder, slaves with the consent of their masters, and solitaries convinced of the danger of living alone. In 364 Basil was ordained a priest and became an advisor of the bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, succeeding him after his death in AD 370. Basil died on 1 January 379. He was an adamant fighter against Arianism, strove for the unity of the church, and is considered the founder of Eastern monasticism. Basil’s main works are Hexaemeron—Nine Homilies on the Six Days’ Work of Creation, the most celebrated; the 55 Greater Monastic Rules (taking the form of Basil’s


answers to questions from his monks), with a proem; and the 313 Lesser Rules, in the same form. Among his writings on education is Exhortation to Youths as to How They Shall Best Profit by the Writings of Pagan Authors, containing a positive judgment of Greek classical literature. Basil, talking about bringing up children, passed on his experience as a child growing up in a large Christian family. His first instructors in the religious life were his mother and his grandmother, Macrina the Elder, who instilled in him the primary moral principle: inclination to live in God and by the Christian model of life. A number of suggestions on education are found as well in his homilies, commentaries, letters, and moral rules. According to Basil, the purpose of education is to enable the pupil to achieve the ultimate goal: eternal life after death. The immediate purpose of education is to work out in the child’s soul virtues that will facilitate his return to the original nature, uncontaminated by sin, to restore the internal balance, to eradicate sin, and to establish a permanent relationship with God. The goal of education is achieved by mortification, self-denial, and self-control (apatheia). The obligation to educate children is primarily incumbent upon parents, who should create at home an atmosphere of love to achieve the best results. Basil encourages starting children’s education as early as possible, when the child is absorbent and easy to form. To achieve the goal of education, one should turn to science, which comes from the Holy Scriptures and secular works of the classics. According to Basil, a study of the classical pagan authors can be useful as a preparatory stage to accept the truth of the Gospel. The teacher is likened to a spiritual mother, who by transferring knowledge shapes the child’s spirit in her womb. Children’s upbringing should make use of punishment, even corporal. References and Resources Fedwick, P. J., ed. 1981. Basil of Caesarea: Christian, Humanist, Ascetic. 2 vols. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies. Garnett, S. 1981. “The Christian Young and the Secular World: St. Basil’s Letter on Pagan Literature.” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 26: 211–223. Hildenbrand, S. M. 2007. The Trinitarian Theology of Basil of Caesarea: A Synthesis of Greek Thought and Biblical Truth. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America. Jacks, L. V. 1922. St. Basil and Greek Literature. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America. Katz, P. B. 2007. “Educating Paula: A Proposed Curriculum for Raising a 4th-Century Christian Infant.” Hesperia Supplements 41: 115–127.

—Marcin Wysocki


Baxter, Edna

Baxter, Edna Early Background and Education Edna May Baxter (1890–1985) was born in Nichols Township, New York, on 30 June 1890, and moved to Athens, Pennsylvania, in 1899, where she graduated from Athens General High School in 1909.8 She attended Folts Mission Institute, a Methodist Bible college in New York (1912–1915), and received degrees from Boston University (BARE 1921), Northwestern University (MARE 1923), and Garrett Theological Seminary (BD 1926). She was granted PhD candidacy at Hartford Theological Seminary in 1929. Her dissertation was accepted, “but one or two colleagues felt that awarding the doctorate to a fellow professor was somehow unprofessional and that such a degree would lack academic credibility,”9 so she was denied her PhD at that time. Baxter pursued other graduate studies at a number of institutions, including the University of Chicago (1927), Yale (1928), Columbia University (1929), and the School of Drama and Speech in London, England (1937). She later received a master of divinity from Garrett Theological Seminary (1972) and was posthumously awarded a doctorate of divinity from Hartford Seminary in 2010.10 Significant Contributions to Christian Education Baxter devoted her life to teaching children. She attended the Methodist Episcopal Church as a child and took seriously her minister’s challenge to Christian service. She began leading youth ministry in her church and studying to be a teacher while in high school, and received her teaching certificate shortly after graduation (1909). For three years she taught at a public school, and she spent her summers volunteering with Fresh Air Children, a program that brought children from inner-city New York to experience God in nature (1909–1912). She was consecrated as a deaconess in religious education in the Methodist Episcopal Church (1916) and served as youth director at Boston’s Church of All Nations until 1921. Innovative Professor Baxter taught at Hartford Theological Seminary from 1926 to 1960 and was the first full-time female professor of Christian education in the United States. She had a strong concern for the professionalization of the field of children’s religious education, raising the standard 8. Unless otherwise noted, all biographical information was drawn from Edna M. Baxter, Ventures in Serving Mankind: An Autobiography (Allison Park, PA: Pickwick Publishing, 1984). 9. “Professor Edna Baxter Awarded Posthumous Doctor of Divinity Degree,” Praxis: Hartford Seminary Newsletter (August 2010), http://www .hartsem.edu/sites/default/files/about-us/ . . . /Praxis_August_2010.pdf. 10. Ibid.

through her teaching, service on national and international boards and committees, and writing and editing of professional journals. Baxter had a holistic and studentcentered philosophy of education; her teaching was characterized by innovative teaching approaches that included drama, storytelling, games, crafts, and creative worship in her classroom and written curriculum. “I have tried to connect Church education with all areas of life, especially where human relationships were concerned. . . . To me, the Christian faith is related to all of life.”11 In 1927, Baxter founded the Knight Hall Nursery School, the first nursery school in Connecticut, to help care for children of missionaries studying at Hartford Seminary, as well as to provide a laboratory for her students to learn creative teaching techniques. She later added the Saturday School of Religion as an extension of Knight Hall, which provided ministry to the children and their parents on weekends. Knight Hall Nursery School became a nationally known model for preschool and early childhood educational methods and is still in existence today. International and Social Justice Emphases Baxter had a deep compassion for children worldwide and felt it important to travel in order to better understand different cultures and develop educational strategies for their varied contexts.12 She traveled extensively throughout her life, lecturing in many countries in Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Australia, as well as studying archaeology, religious development, and interreligious relationships at the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem. She incorporated her experiences into her classroom that introduced children to social justice issues, including child labor practices and families living in poverty, through curriculum such as Children and Labor Problems13 and Living and Working in Our Country.14 She emphasized intercultural and interfaith concerns through such curriculum as Friendship Enterprise with Our Jewish Neighbors15 and developed a teachers’ guide to the Middle East.16 “She designed courses that brought together the best of biblical scholarship, archaeological research and sound educational methodology.”17 11. Helen Sheldrik, Pioneer Women Teachers of Connecticut, 1767–1970 (Hartford, CT: Alpha Kappa State, Delta Gamma Society International, 1971), 115. 12. Ibid. 13. Edna M. Baxter, Children and Labor Problems (Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1935a). 14. Edna M. Baxter, Living and Working in Our Country (Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1935c). 15. Edna M. Baxter, Friendship Enterprise with Our Jewish Neighbors (Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1935b). 16. Edna M. Baxter, Junior Teacher’s Guide in Bible Lands Today (New York: Friendship Press, 1951). 17. Boardman W. Kathan, “Edna M. Baxter,” Talbot School of Theology, http://www2.talbot.edu/ce20/educators/view.cfm?n=edna_baxter (accessed 16 March 2013).

Baxter, Richard

Baxter is credited with empowering hundreds of students at the lay and university level who went on to lead many significant ministries worldwide. She served on numerous national and international educational councils, was honored as one of the “Pioneer Women of Connecticut” by Delta Kappa Gamma Society International, and won numerous Who’s Who awards throughout her career. Hartford Seminary annually grants the Edna Baxter Award for proficiency in religious education. Most Notable Publications Baxter was a prolific writer of over 100 books, journal articles, reviews, and curriculum. Significant works include Ventures in Serving Mankind: An Autobiography,18 The Beginnings of Our Religion,19 Teaching the New Testament,20 and “The Place of Content in Christian Teaching.”21 Baxter also served many years on the editorial staff of the Journal of Bible and Religion and the Religious Education Journal. References and Resources Baxter, Edna M. 1935a. Children and Labor Problems. Boston: Pilgrim Press. ———. 1935b. Friendship Enterprise with Our Jewish Neighbors. Boston: Pilgrim Press. ———. 1935c. Living and Working in Our Country. Boston: Pilgrim Press. ———. 1951. Junior Teacher’s Guide in Bible Lands Today. New York: Friendship Press. ———. 1968. The Beginnings of Our Religion. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press. ———. 1984. Ventures in Serving Mankind: An Autobiography. Allison Park, PA: Pickwick Publishing. Kathan, Boardman W. n.d. “Edna M. Baxter.” Talbot School of Theology. Accessed 16 March 2013. http://www2.talbot.edu/ ce20/educators/view.cfm?n=edna_baxter. Sheldrik, Helen. 1971. Pioneer Women Teachers of Connecticut, 1767–1970. Hartford, CT: Alpha Kappa State, Delta Gamma Society International.

—Brenda Snailum

Baxter, Richard Richard Baxter (12 November 1615—8 December 1691) was an English Puritan pastor, theologian, poet, hymn writer, and polemicist. He was born in Rowton, Shrop18. Baxter, Ventures in Serving. 19. Edna M. Baxter, The Beginnings of Our Religion (Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1968). 20. Edna M. Baxter, Teaching the New Testament (Philadelphia: United Church Press, 1960). 21. Edna M. Baxter, “The Place of Content in Christian Teaching,” Religious Education 47, no. 5 (1952): 347–352.


shire, the only son of Beatrice Adeney and Richard Baxter Sr. Due to his father’s gambling addiction and debts and his mother’s poor health, Richard lived with his maternal grandparents until he was 10 years old. When his father was converted through “the bare reading of the Scriptures in private,” Richard returned to his parents’ home (Autobiography, 4). Richard admitted that God made his father “the instrument of my first convictions, and approbation of a holy life” (Autobiography, 4). After an earthquake in 1626, Richard’s father commanded him to read the “historical part of the Scripture” (Autobiography, 5). It was at this time that Richard acquired his great love for the Bible. From 1629 to 1632, he attended the Wroxeter grammar school and demonstrated intellectual promise. In 1633 he went to London, where he acquired Puritan, or Nonconformist, sympathies. He returned home in 1634 to care for his sick mother, who died in May 1635, and spent the next four years privately studying theology. In 1638, he became master of the free grammar school at Dudley and was ordained an Anglican deacon. In 1641, he was elected minister of Kidderminster. Only two years later, he was forced to flee to Coventry due to local unrest preceding the civil wars. He began service as a chaplain in the Parliamentary Army in 1645, and in 1647 he returned to Kidderminster after recovering from an illness that ended his army chaplain career. At Kidderminster, Baxter focused his main efforts on writing, and he considered preaching and preparing for it to be his recreation (Autobiography, 78). During this time, Baxter also set aside two days a week for catechizing families. In The Reformed Pastor (1974), Baxter outlines his motives and methods for catechizing. There he describes catechizing as “a most hopeful means of the conversion of souls; for it unites those great things which most further such an end.” As for the matter, catechesis should include “the most necessary things, the principles or essentials of the Christian faith.” He did this, with the help of an assistant, in private conferences with families. He and his assistant met with 14 families every week. The family members would first recite the Westminster Catechism. Baxter would then provide explanations. Next, he would inquire “modestly into the state of their souls,” and then exhort them. Each meeting took about an hour (Baxter 1696, 1.II, 41). He believed these private meetings were a marvelous help to the propagating of godliness among the families: “for thereby truth that slipped away were recalled, and the seriousness of the peoples minds were renewed; and good desires cherished; and hereby their knowledge was much increased; and here the younger sort learned to pray, by frequent hearing others . . . I was usually present


Baylor University

with them, answering their doubts, and silencing objections, and moderating them in all.” Family catechizing and writing consumed the bulk of his time. His successive assistants made his pastoral work easier, helping him in catechizing and relieving him of other duties (Nuttall 1965, 62–63). In 1660, Baxter was elected chaplain to Charles II and was forced to give up his position at Kidderminster. In the same year, he was offered a bishopric by Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde but declined. In 1661, he served as a member of a royal commission to advise upon and review the Book of Common Prayer. In 1662, he married Margaret Charlton, and in 1669 he was arrested under the Five Mile Act of 1665, an act of Parliament that sought to enforce conformity to the established Church of England and to expel any who did not conform, forbidding clergymen from living within five miles of the parish from which they had been expelled. Until his death in 1691, he lived a quiet life, in which he spent most of his time writing. He wrote more than 140 books, and Dean Arthur Stanley (1815—1881) has called him “the chief of English Protestant Schoolmen.” He was a leading writer in his own day and a pioneer in Protestant catechesis. References and Resources Baxter, Richard. 1696. Reliquiae Baxterianae. Edited by M. Sylvester. London. ———. 1825. A Call to the Unconverted to Turn and Live. New York: American Tract Society. ———. 1928. The Saints Everlasting Rest. London: Old Royalty Publishers. ———. 1974. The Reformed Pastor. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust. ———. 2008. A Christian Directory. Grand Rapids, MI: Soli Deo Gloria Publications. Beeke, Joel, and Randall J. Pederson. 2007. Meet the Puritans: With a Guide to Modern Reprints. Grand Rapids, MI: Reformation Heritage Books. Black, William J. 2004. Reformation Pastors: Richard Baxter and the Ideal of the Reformed Pastor. Carlisle, PA: Paternoster Press. Copper, Tim. 2001. Fear and Polemic in Seventeenth-Century England: Richard Baxter and Antinomianism. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Keeble, N. H. 1974. The Autobiography of Richard Baxter. Abridged and edited by J. M. Lloyd Thomas. Introduction by N. H. Keeble. London: England: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd. ———. 1982. Richard Baxter: Puritan Man of Letters. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Ladell, A. R. 1925. Richard Baxter: Puritan and Mystic. London: S.P.C.K. Nuttall, Geoffrey F. 1965. Richard Baxter. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons.

Packer, J. I. 2003. The Redemption and Restoration of Man in the Thought of Richard Baxter. Carlisle, PA: Paternoster Press. Schlatter, Richard. 1957. Richard Baxter and Puritan Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

—Kevin P. Emmert

Baylor University Baylor University is a private Christian university with historic ties to the Baptist General Convention of Texas in Waco. Baylor reported an enrollment of about 16,000 students in 2012, with approximately 12,575 students enrolled in undergraduate programs and another 2,620 enrolled in graduate programs. The university is a member of the Big 12 athletic conference. Historical Overview Baylor was founded in 1845 at Independence, Texas, by Baptist leaders who wanted to train young people for Christian service. It was named for Texas circuit court judge R. E. B. Baylor, one of the leaders who suggested its founding. The school was split into male and female institutes in 1851. The female institute would later become the foundation for the creation of the University of Mary-Hardin Baylor in Belton, Texas. Baylor’s campus was moved to Waco in 1885 and combined with Waco University. The school became coeducational again in 1887. In 1903, Baylor acquired a medical school in Dallas, which became the Baylor College of Medicine. It was eventually moved to Houston and became an independent entity in 1969, while still maintaining close ties with Baylor University. Baylor continued to select a small percentage of the Baylor College of Medicine’s governing board. Baylor University was granted accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1914. The university enjoyed a close working relationship with the Baptist General Convention of Texas for the first century of its existence. Until 1991, a majority of its trustees were appointed by the Baptist General Convention. President Herbert Reynolds moved to make Baylor’s board of trustees more autonomous in 1991 because of concerns about theological conflicts between moderates and conservatives in the Southern Baptist Convention, which had caused problems at other Baptists institutions. Reynolds led the Baylor board to create a self-perpetuating board of regents, which provided for the appointment of 75 percent of the regents by the board, while 25 percent continued to come from the Baptist General Convention. This structure enabled the university to maintain its relationship to the Baptist General Convention while also protecting the autonomy and academic freedom of the university.

Behavior Management

Baylor launched an ambitious plan in 2000 to become a major research university, in addition to maintaining an excellent undergraduate program. This plan, known as Baylor 2012, was conceived under the leadership of President Robert Sloan and adopted by the campus community. It sparked a great deal of opposition from some faculty and alumni, who felt that the historic emphasis of the school on undergraduate education was being undermined by the emphasis on hiring persons with research agendas rather than strong commitment to the classroom. Baylor’s visibility as a Christian research institution rose over the next decade, and the undergraduate program continued to expand. A number of research institutes, such as the Baylor Institute for the Study of Religion and the Baylor Institute for Faith and Learning, were established as a result of initiatives supported by Baylor 2012. The implementation of Baylor 2012 continued under the presidency of Dr. John Lilly, who succeeded Robert Sloan in 2005. Baylor’s board of regents recently adopted a new vision for Baylor’s future expansion, called Pro Futura or Baylor 2020. This vision statement calls for the further expansion of Baylor’s undergraduate and graduate offerings while also including plans for major campus expansion. The crafting and presentation of Pro Futura was initiated by current Baylor president Dr. Kenneth Starr. Significant Programs Baylor University boasts several programs that have earned national distinction. Several of its graduate programs are nationally ranked. Among Baylor’s nationally ranked programs is the Baylor School of Law, which also has excelled in debating competition. Baylor’s Hankamer School of Business and graduate program in social work have also achieved national ranking. Graduate programs in the sciences and education were among the top 100 graduate programs in their respective fields. The university has successfully launched a number of research institutes. These include the previously mentioned Institute for the Study of Religion and Institute for Faith and Learning. The J. M. Dawson Institute of Church State Studies supports the study of the interactions between religions and the public sphere around the world. The Department of Religion at Baylor has launched a number of initiatives intended to explore the Baptist heritage of Baylor, including a project to explore Baptist approaches to biblical interpretation. Philosophy of Education Baylor’s official motto is Pro Ecclessia Pro Texana (“For church, for Texas”). The motto emphasizes the university’s goal to train effective leaders to serve both the Christian church and the public sphere. A great deal of emphasis has been placed on the integration of Christian


faith and learning at Baylor, particularly since the adoption of Baylor 2012 in 2000. Baylor seeks to be a leader in innovative research done from a faith perspective. The teaching philosophy of the institution corresponds to its research goals by seeking to significantly explore the essential questions of human existence from a faith perspective within the expertise of each discipline. Professors at Baylor are encouraged to relate their teaching and scholarship to their faith in a substantial way. Students are encouraged to explore questions of faith in every discipline. Baylor embraces an integral model of Christian education wherein rigorous pursuit of intellectual and professional excellence is ideally coupled with a genuine and committed faith. These philosophical and theological commitments guide the curriculum and mission of the university. References and Resources Baylor University. n.d. Home page. Accessed 29 March 2013. www.baylor.edu. Hankins, Barry G., and Donald D. Schmeltikopf, eds. 2007. The Baylor Project: Taking Higher Education to the Next Level. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’s Press. Schmeltikopf, Donald D., Diana Vitanza, and Bradley Toben, eds. 2003. The Baptist and Christian Character of Baylor. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press. Smith-Murray, Lois. 1972. Baylor at Independence 1845–1886. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.

—Scott Culpepper

Behavior Management Introduction In a recent poll, 34 percent of teachers agreed or strongly agreed that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching. Student verbal abuse of teachers had increased 12 percent and nonverbal disrespect as much as 18 percent (U.S. Department of Education 2010). The problem is not as severe in Christian education settings, but classroom behavior is a concern in this setting as well (Demuth and Demuth 1995; Kennedy 2012). One answer to such challenges is better behavior management. Definitions Behavior management relates to how the classroom routines are structured to foster organization and smooth transitions from place and activities. There is usually a system of rules, rewards, and negative consequences for following or breaking the rules (Selig and Arroyo 1996). Zirpoli defines behavior management as “understanding why individuals behave the way they do and how behavior may be taught, changed, or modified” (2012, 3).


Behavior Management

Approaches and Schools of Thought There are several schools of thought and approaches concerning behavior management. One approach comes from the work of B. F. Skinner (1948) and the field of applied behavior analysis, also known as behaviorism. Behaviorism is the belief that an individual is controlled almost exclusively by his or her environment. This school of thought maintains that people must be taught and managed through rewarding positive behavior and applying negative consequences for undesirable behavior, as defined by those who manage the environment. Another common school of thought is humanism, in which the focus is on the emotions, attitudes, values, and choices of individual students (Yount 2010). Proponents of a humanistic approach are John Dewey (1916), and Carl Rogers (1982). The underlying principle is that humans, including children, have the innate ability to make the right decisions if given freedom to experiment and explore their environment with a minimum of adult supervision and imposed restraints. Christians have successfully used both behavioral and humanistic techniques, as well as other approaches, under various circumstances when applied to the right person, at the right time, and for the right reasons. Christian Perspective While behavioristic approaches to behavior management emphasize control over the individual’s environment, and humanistic approaches emphasize individuals’ control of themselves, biblical Christian approaches focus on the goal of behavior management: teaching people to be mature. The words disciple and discipline come from the same root word, which means to teach. Secular society has put discipline in a negative context, but to discipline or “ train up a child in the way he should go” (Prov. 22:6) will tend to have the result of the child making the right choices in life once he or she becomes an adult. The Bible, when read in its totality, strikes a balance between an authoritarian style for adults involved in education, which behaviorism seems to suggest, and a permissive style leaving individuals to their own devices, which humanistic approaches tend to fall into. The operative term from a Christian perspective is “love.” We are admonished: “Be patient, bearing with one another in love” (Eph. 4:2). A balanced, authoritative approach is needed wherein the adults guide the child through the maturation process, which begins with tight control by authority figures and ends with self-regulation. Sometimes more intrusive adult-administered behavior management strategies are needed, such as the administration of rules, rewards, and negative consequences. At other times, depending on the student’s maturity, less intrusive

techniques like walking around the room and using nonverbal cues are all that is needed to manage behavior. As children mature, they become more self-managed and controlled if adults prayerfully use the best behavior management approach for individuals and groups. Selig and Arroyo (1989, 1996) recommend that Christians utilize an array of behavior management techniques, depending on the individual child’s needs and level of development. Following are guidelines for behavior management based on research and biblical principles: 1. Make sure the individual or class knows the rules and consequences and is able to perform the desired behaviors. 2. Act quickly to stop misbehavior, but do so without anger or harshness. 3. Use the least intrusive method that is likely to work. For example, if a child talks out of turn, a simple redirection to an appropriate activity may be all he or she needs to return to a productive activity. Then if the behavior continues, more intrusive strategies such as removing the child temporarily from the classroom or consultation with the parents may be necessary. 4. Make redemption and restoration your goals in behavior management, as opposed to control and punishment being the main aims. 5. If correction is needed for student misbehavior, the episode should conclude with the teaching of the correct behavior. One approach is to solicit answers from the student, either orally or in writing, to the following questions: What did you do? Why was it a problem? What should you do the next time the same situation arises? 6. End the corrective episodes in prayer when the student is receptive. References and Resources Demuth, D. M., and C. M. Demuth. 1995. Christian Schools: How to Get a School Going and Keep It Going. Tulsa, OK: DEL Publications. Dewey, J. 1916. Democracy and Education. New York: Free Press. Kauffman, J. M., P. L. Pullen, M. P. Mostert, and S. C. Trent. 2011. Managing Classroom Behavior: A Reflective Case Approach. Boston: Pearson. Kennedy, S. 2012. “Sunday School Classroom Behavior Management Choices.” 10 December. http://www.ehow.com/ info_7855102_sunday-classroom-behavior-management -choices.html#ixzz2GI5AtWOZ. Rogers, C. 1982. A Personal Approach to Teaching: Beliefs That Make a Difference. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.


Selig, W. G., and A. A. Arroyo. 1989. Loving Our differences: Building Successful Family Relationships. Virginia Beach, VA: CBN Publishing. ———. 1996. Handbook of Individualized Strategies for Classroom Discipline. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Skinner, B. F. 1948. Walden Two. New York: Macmillan. U.S. Department of Education. 2010. National Center for Educational Statistics, Indicators of School Crime and Safety. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED512901. Yount, W. R. 2010. Created to Learn: A Christian Teacher’s Introduction to Educational Psychology. Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group. Zirpoli, T. J. 2012. Behavior Management: Positive Applications for Teachers. Boston: Pearson.

—Alan A. Arroyo and W. George Selig

Behaviorism Secular behaviorism is a branch of the discipline of psychology that states that human behavior, like that of animals, is influenced by the environment, mainly through systems of stimuli and responses (Berger 2009). John B. Watson (Behavorism, W.W. Norton, 1970) described behaviorism as a response to mentalism or psychoanalytical theory, which sought to explain human behavior through an examination of thoughts, memories, and psychological crises. Instead, behaviorism is concerned with defining humans—and animals—by virtue of their outward actions or responses. Two subcategories of behaviorism include Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning and B. F. Skinner’s operant conditioning. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning occurs, according to Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), when a formerly neutral stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus to become a conditioned stimulus. This conditioned stimulus, then, results in the same or similar response that the unconditioned stimulus evoked. Pavlov’s example with dogs epitomizes this theory. A ringing bell is the identified neutral stimulus, which does not cause any response in the dog, until it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus of food, which causes the response of salivation. Now, instead of being neutral, the ringing bell has been conditioned to evoke the salivation response in the same manner as the food. Pavlov claimed that this conditioning occurs not only with dogs but also with all animals, including people, with the response being involuntary and emotional and/ or physiological in nature. For example, an individual who feels fear of being near large bodies of water may


have been classically conditioned by a previous negative experience in a large body of water. Now, the previous neutral stimulus of water causes the same physiological/ emotional response of fear that the original, unconditioned, negative incident did. Operant Conditioning The subcategory operant conditioning is attributed to B.F. Skinner, who developed his theory while at Harvard, reading works by Watson and Pavlov. Operant conditioning is similar to classical conditioning, in that they both posit that human nature is conditioned by the environmental context, and that there is a stimulus-response association that causes the conditioning. However, operant conditioning involves a choice, which is the response and which precedes the stimulus. According to Skinner, humans choose to engage in behaviors that are reinforced, or rewarded, and that move the animal toward greater likelihood of survival and/or pleasure, and choose to avoid behaviors that are punished, or harmful to the survival and/or pleasure of the animal. For example, a reason that students submit homework assignments in a timely fashion (the response) might be that they believe they will receive a higher grade or teacher praise (reinforcement) or that they will avoid point deductions or parents’ or teachers’ disapproval or disappointment (punisher). Skinner also identified more specifically types of reinforcers (positive/negative) and punishers (presentation/removal) depending upon whether something is being added or subtracted from the environment. He also identified schedules of reinforcers for individuals to use who hoped to condition others to behave in specific ways that were dependent on either time (intervals) or behavior (ratio). However, it should be noted that reinforcers and punishers are defined, not by the addition to or subtraction from the environment, but by the resultant behavior of the animal. Those elements that increase the likelihood that a behavior will recur are defined as reinforcers, and those elements that decrease the likelihood that a behavior will recur are defined as punishers. Skinner claimed that the only difference between a thief and a lawyer was the environmental conditions, or systems of reinforcers and punishers, used to condition their behavioral choices and resultant human nature. Christian Perspective Early Christian response to behaviorism was on the whole strong and negative (Berman 1927; King 1930; Wicklam 1928).22 The main concerns have been the ap22. For a survey of responses to behaviorism in early religious literature, see Huckaby (1975), which articulates the lack of or negative early pastoral and Christian education responses to the behavioral sciences.


Belarus and Christian Education

parent disregard that behaviorism has for the dignity of human persons and the claim that human nature and behavior is solely a result of the environmental contexts and is aligned with the behaviors of all animals. In his text Beyond Freedom and Dignity, Skinner claimed that everything we were and became as humans was a result of the conditioning effects of the environment, either in terms of reinforcers or punishers; the Christian perspective denied this and claimed that our identity as humans was found in God’s creation, in the very likeness of the Godhead (Gen. 1:27), as well as with a specific place in the created hierarchical order (Gen. 1: 28–29). In addition to being created in the very image of God, mankind has been redeemed by the incarnate God, Jesus Christ, with the promise that we will be resurrected with Christ, receive spiritual bodies (1 Cor. 15), and reign with Christ (Rev. 20:6). The position of behaviorism, that humans are equal to animal, negates the claim of scripture. A second criticism of behaviorism is that it claims humans develop in response to environmental stimuli, not, as scripture states, in response to God’s work within us. Throughout the New Testament, we are told that God Himself offers the gift of the Spirit for those who will accept it and be filled (e.g., Luke 11:13; John 20:22; Acts 2:4). The Spirit Himself provides the power for humans to grow into Christlikeness and have communion with the Father. In the late 1970s and 1980s, behaviorism was reintroduced into the dialogue of Christian education and the Christian faith (Atkinson 1993; Bufford 1981; Evans 1977; Hasker 1983). Today, the conversation surrounding stimulus/response behavior and the existence and participation of the Christian soul has been moved from the psychological field of behaviorism into the developing psychological field of neuropsychology (Crick 1994; Green 2010; Marcus 2004). Among the questions Christian educators must ask themselves is whether they see behavioral science applied throughout scripture, such as in the rewards and punishments to the Israelites for following or not following the Lord, or the eternal reward of life everlasting for the acceptance of Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, or the reward of the verbal praise “Well done, good and faithful servant” (Matt. 25:21). Have the secular scientists simply uncovered a small part of the way that God is at work within His creation and in leading the Imago Dei? References and Resources Atkinson, H. T. 1993. “Reinforcement in Learning: Integrating Skinner and Scripture.” Christian Education Journal 14 (1): 58–72. Berger, K. S. 2009. The Developing Person: Through Childhood and Adolescence. 9th ed. New York: Worth. Berman, L. 1927. The Religion Called Behaviorism. New York: Boni and Liveright.

Bufford, R. K. 1981. The Human Reflex: Behavioral Psychology in Biblical Perspective. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Crick, F. 1994. The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul. New York: Scribner. Evans, C. S. 1977. Preserving the Person: A Look at the Human Sciences. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Green, J. B. 2010. In Search of the Soul: Perspectives on the Mind Body Problem. 2nd ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Hasker, W. 1983. Metaphysics: Constructing a World View. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Huckaby, P. 1975. “Survey of the Response to Behavioral Psychology in Recent Religious Literature.” Journal of Pastoral Care 29 (4): 262–270. King, W. P. 1930. Behaviorism: A Battle Line. Nashville, TN: Cokesbury. Marcus, G. F. 2004. The Birth of the Mind: How a Tiny Number of Genes Creates the Complexities of Human Thought. New York: Basic Books. Pavlov, I., W. A. H. Gantt, and G. V. Folbort. 1928–1941. Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes. New York: International Publishers. Pavlov, I. P., and G. V. Anrep. 1927. Conditioned Reflex: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex. London: Oxford University Press. Skinner, B. F. 1953. Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan. ———. 1969. Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ———. 1971. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. New York: Knopf. ———. 1974. About Behaviorism. New York: Knopf. ———. 1984. “The Operational Analysis of Psychological Terms.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4): 547–581. Wicklam, H. 1928. The Misbehaviorists: Pseudo-Science and the Modern Temper. New York: Dial Press.

—Laura Barwegen

Belarus and Christian Education Christianity was introduced to Belarus after the Christianization of Kievan Rus’ in 988 by Byzantine Christianity. In the 16th century, the Reformed Church, Catholic Church, and Uniate Church (Byzantine-rite Catholic Church) dominated. Evangelical Christianity arrived at the end of the 19th century. Today the dominant religion is Eastern Orthodoxy. Belarusians also belong to the Roman Catholic Church; are evangelical Baptists, evangelicals, Seventh-Day Adventists, and Jehovah’s Witnesses; and practice Judaism and Islam. Theological education is provided at Minsk Theological Academy, the Saints Methodius and Cyrill Institute of Theology at Belarusian State University, the Interdi-

Belgium and Christian Education

ocesan Higher Seminary of St. Thomas Aquinas in Pinsk, the Higher Seminary in Grodno, Christ for the Nations Bible College, and Minsk Theological Seminary. The constitution protects religious freedom, but the government restricts religious freedom through other laws. In 2002, the Belarusian Parliament adopted a law about freedom of conscience and divided the religious groups into traditional (primarily Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Judaism, Islam, and evangelical Lutheranism) and untraditional (others). This limits the activities of the theological institutions of “untraditional” faith. Theological institutions are registered as religious institutions and do not have a license to officially provide an education. The government does not accredit their diplomas and gives no guarantees of employment in churches. —Leonid Mikhovich

Belgium and Christian Education Historically the tribes living between the North Sea and the river Meuse (now referred to as Belgians) were converted to Christianity by missionaries from France (Aquitain). The evangelization (de kerstening) was started by Amandus (c. 675), a missionary bishop without a fixed diocese who brought the Christian God to the pagans living on the banks of the river Scheldt. Under his supervision, two important abbeys were erected at Ghent; they played an important role in the development of agriculture and culture. A native literary tradition to promote Christianity began in the 12th century with the mystic and didactic writings of the nun Hadewijch (Antwerp) and the chaplain John of Ruusbroec (Brussels). Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466–1536) came to Leuven, where the Catholic University (founded in 1425) taught theology. Erasmus supported a new institute separate from the university, the Collegium Trilingue (1518), dedicated to the study of three languages (Greek, Latin, and Hebrew) to permit a scientific investigation of biblical texts. His intention was to work as a humanist within the framework of the Catholic Church. Erasmus’s attempts to obtain reforms from the inside never spread widely. In the 16th century, the center of Protestantism was Antwerp because of its trade relations with Germany. In 1585, 45 percent of the population of 100,000 were Catholic, 15 percent Lutheran, 28 percent Calvinist or Anabaptist, and 12 percent unknown. Edicts against the Lutherans appeared in 1520. Charles V limited the freedom of printing, burned heretical books, and censored school curricula. Anyone settling in the Low Countries was expected to have a certificate of good Catholicism. In 1626, there were 1,574 Jesuits (2,962 in Spain) in the Low Countries; they established secondary schools


for boys from the nobility and upper-class families. This congregation focused on publishing and popularizing the catechism. Every parish had its schools, and teachers had to be examined about their religious convictions. Sunday school was compulsory. One of the practical effects of the Napoleonic Concordat (1801) was the recognition of the Roman Catholic religion. Cardinal Caprara, the papal legate, approved of the Imperial Catechism for use in all churches; however, only the dioceses of Mechelen and Gent (1807) adopted it. This gradually opened the way for state subsidies for other “recognized religions” in the second half of the 20th century. At present the Catholic, Anglican, Protestant, and (Greek) Orthodox churches; the Jewish community; the humanist movement; and the Muslim community are subsidized at the federal, regional, and municipal levels. The government pays for the construction, renovation, and upkeep of religious buildings. It supports religious broadcasts and schools and pays the salaries of the teachers provided by the recognized religions. The extent of church intervention in education split Belgian politics from the middle of the 19th century through 1959, when it was settled. Until then the sacraments had been refused to teachers in state schools and to parents who sent their children there. Many parish schools were founded, supported by the funds of the faithful. Each municipal borough was allowed to organize its own primary school, and teachers no longer needed a state diploma, which again allowed the church to draw on its large reserves of manpower. Each borough could decide on religious education, and if 20 fathers asked for an alternative, it had to be provided. In Flanders, church schools were immediately restarted by the boroughs. The big increase of grammar school pupils after 1944 caused a “school war.” State schools received higher subsidies than church schools. In 1954, the government dismissed more than 100 teachers who held Catholic diplomas from state schools—about half of them were later reinstated. Catholic children were to be sent before a jury rather than receiving their school-leaving diplomas from their own schools. The three political parties (Catholic, socialist, and liberal) agreed to sign an armistice, the “School Pact of 1958,” and the School Pact Law (1959) formed the legal basis for reform. It provided for free choice among several religious education subjects and an alternative subject at the community schools. Each single confession chooses its own RE teachers. The Ministry of Education employs and pays them. In 2003, the Flemish government decreed that only specifically trained RE teachers could teach RE in the community and municipal schools. In order to become a teacher of RE in primary (ages 6–12) and lower secondary (ages 13–15) grades, one must complete a three-year bachelor



training at a Catholic university college in combination with another subject. In order to teach Catholic RE in the upper secondary level (ages 16–18), long-term university studies (5 years) at the Catholic University of Leuven are required. To become a Protestant teacher, one must study with the faculty of theology in Brussels, the successor to the Reformed Academy founded in Gent (1578–1584). References and Resources Carson, Patricia. 2001. The Fair Face of Flanders. Tielt, Belgium: Lannoo. Nissen, Peter, ed. 2004. Geloven in de Lage Landen. Scharniermomenten in de geschiedenis van het christendom. Leuven, Belgium: Davidsfonds.

—Hugo Verkest

Belief Belief is assent to a proposition. Belief in the psychological sense is a representational mental state that takes the form of a propositional attitude. It is considered propositional in that it is an assertion, claim, or expectation about reality that is presumed to be either true or false, even if this cannot be practically determined, such as a belief in the existence of a particular deity. What are we to make of a certain belief in a supernatural God? The age of science has provoked equal and opposite reactions to notions beyond rational explanation. As Peter Berger warns, “the wonder of the supernatural is lost when science seeks to explain all phenomena in natural terms.”23 And as much as well-intentioned theists may wish to defend religious belief, all would do well to admit what Bavinck urges: “We must be aware of the depth of the mystery that confronts us. Man must hesitate when he is about to say something about God’s being.”24 Certainty tempered with ambiguity might make us all slightly more humble and a bit slower to speak about our most strongly held beliefs. Belief and Christian Education In the religious sense, belief refers to a part of a wider spiritual or moral foundation, generally called faith. Some philosophers hold the view that belief formation is to some extent spontaneous and involuntary. One can choose to investigate and research a matter, they say, but one cannot choose to believe. On the other hand, in some cases people do not believe things because they do not 23. See Peter Berger, A Far Glory: The Quest for Faith in an Age of Credulity (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 37. 24. J. H. Bavinck, Faith and Its Difficulties (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1959), 156.

want to believe, especially about a matter in which they are emotionally involved. All of this has tremendously important implications for educating in faith. For example, some believe something can be interpreted as assigning a higher than not probability that something is true. This is described from a school of epistemology called evidentialism, which says that certainty should be proportional to the corresponding evidence. This approach, of course, smacks only of human reason and eschews faith and the nonempirical realities of the Christian story.25 Is one’s belief in Christianity justifiable in as far as it can be proven by evidence? 26 Kierkegaard thought Christian education was the main obstacle to Christian belief. “A belief is a lever that, once pulled, moves almost everything else in a person’s life. Are you a scientist? A liberal? A racist? These are merely species of belief in action. Your beliefs decide your vision of the world; they dictate your behavior; they determine your emotional responses to other human beings.”27 Social psychologists have described why people believe and why they stop believing.28 Altemeyer and Hunsberger surveyed thousands of young adults for stories of conversion and apostasy.29 “Amazing believers” are those without a religious background who became strong Christians. They tended toward religion for emotional and psychological reasons; many reported very difficult pasts, including substance abuse, psychological problems, death of loved ones, dysfunctional families, and criminal behavior. Religion offered them comfort, security, friends, sympathy, a helping hand. Conversely, “amazing apostates” are those with strong religious backgrounds who abandon the faith. They left religion for primarily intellectual reasons. In the end, they simply could not believe the religion they had been taught, and turned instead to science and logic. Some Jews, Christians, and Muslims admit that whatever particular evidence or reason they may possess that God exists and is deserving of trust is still not ultimately 25. In Discovering God: The Origins of the Great Religions and the Evolution of Belief (San Francisco: HarperOne Publishing, 2007), 1, Rodney Stark charges: “Contempt is not a scholarly virtue, and most . . . scholars openly presume that gods exist only in the human imagination, that religion arises mainly from fear, and that faith is sustained only by ignorance and credulity. Richard Dawkins’ title tells it all: The God Delusion.” 26. William Sloane Coffin counters that faith is not acceptance without proof, but trust without reservation. 27. Sam Harris, The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason (New York: W.W. Norton, 2004), 12. This author has no theistic belief, but nicely grasps the implications of belief. 28. Robert Altemeyer and Bruce Hunsberger, Amazing Conversions: Why Some Turn to Faith and Others Abandon Religion (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997). 29. See also Ruth Tucker, Walking away from Faith: Unraveling the Mystery of Belief and Unbelief (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002).


the basis for their believing. Thus, in this sense faith refers to belief beyond evidence or logical arguments, sometimes called implicit faith. Another form of this kind of faith is fideism: one ought to believe that God exists, but one should not base that belief on any other beliefs; one should instead accept it without any reasons at all. Faith in this sense is grounded simply in the sincerity of faith, belief on the basis of believing.30 An inescapable correlation, to be sure, must be endorsed in Christian education for the seamless interaction of belief and action. But the tendency has been to observe the lockset sequence of a belief leading to an action. In other words, to know something must be in place prior to being and doing. While this may be legitimate, it is not definitive. In fact, human experience teaches that to do is also a powerful instructor in being and knowing. The Christian and Jewish faiths seem to have variant understandings of interaction of theological belief and religious practice. Consequently, Winner observes, “doing, action, sits at the center of Judaism. Practice is to Judaism what belief is to Christianity.”31 Practices shape religious beliefs, but religious beliefs also shape practices. It is a tensive relationship, which means beliefs influence, but are not reducible to, certain actions, attitudes, and interests.32 One might rightly ask which is more important in the spiritual life of an adherent: belief or practice. While Judaism may have adherents with much less theological acumen and a greater facility for proper practice, quite the opposite can be said to be the case for Christians. Belief and Practice Some religious believers use the term “faith” as the affirmation of belief without a test of evidence, and even despite evidence apparently to the contrary. Data from a study in Canada and the United States show that a Christian’s lifestyle is not discernibly different from that of non-Christians.33 William Hutchison, American church historian at Harvard, says in many Western societies there is a gap between profession of belief and committed Christian practice, but it is most striking in the United States.34 30. See Soren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling (London: Simon & Brown, 2013). 31. Lauren Winner, Mudhouse Sabbath (Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press, 2004), ix. 32. For an excellent discussion of this, see Amy Plantinga Pauw, “Attending to the Gaps between Beliefs and Practices,” in Practicing Theology: Beliefs and Practices in Christian Life, ed. Craig Dykstra and Dorothy Bass (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing, 2002), 33–48. 33. George G. Hunter III, “Can the West Be Won?” Christianity Today, 16 December 1991, 43–46. 34. Referenced in Robert Wuthrow, The Struggle for America’s Soul: Evangelicals, Liberals and Secularization (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989).


G. K. Chesterton is famously noted as having quipped, “Christianity has not so much been tried and found wanting, as it has been found difficult and left untried.” University of Southern California philosopher Dallas Willard agrees: For at last several decades the churches of the Western world have not made discipleship a condition of being a Christian. One is not required to be . . . a disciple in order to become a Christian, and one may remain a Christian without any signs of progress toward or in discipleship. . . . Discipleship is clearly optional.35

This phenomenon of “undiscipled disciples” is the reason for a post-Christian nation in which four of five adults believe they are Christian. The requirement for being a Christian has become that one believe the proper things about Jesus: merely a mental assent to orthodoxy. Christians have heard, especially from Dietrich Bonhoeffer, about the cost of discipleship, but consider the cost of nondiscipleship. Besides thwarting the teaching of Jesus, nondiscipleship lacks abiding peace, a life penetrated throughout by love, faith that sees everything in the light of God’s overriding good, hopefulness that stands firm in the most trying circumstances, and the power to do what is right. The only acceptable endgame of Christianity springs from the apt interplay of orthodox belief and faithfully executed practice. For the Gospel to seep into any society, believers must attentively act on the precepts of the historic faith. If the Christian religion overemphasizes belief without enough concern for practice, it becomes a verbally oriented dogma that focuses lopsidedly on cognitive understanding to the exclusion of its ethical dimension. It then sadly lacks the moral example to salt society. Correspondingly, if the Christian religion overemphasizes action-oriented practice without due concern for cogent theology, it becomes too experientially based and loses its groundedness. It then appears lamentably devoid of the requisite absolute truth and moral authority necessary to guide society.36 Three profound errors appear when belief and practice are wrongly related (see table B.1). The tragic results are manifested in unintended outcomes, curious inventions, and misshapen creatures, but most alarmingly, a repugnant distortion of the Christian message to the surrounding culture. 35. The Spirit of the Disciplines: Understanding How God Changes Lives (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1988), 258–259. 36. See Mark A. Lamport, “Excellent Belief, Congruent Practice: Juxtapositions of Promise and Peril in the Educational Mission of the Church,” in Thy Brother’s Keeper (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2010), 237–257.


Bellarmine, Robert TABLE B.1 Juxtapositions of Religious Belief and Practice

Common Tendencies

Characteristic Inferences

Corresponding Results

Right Belief/ Wrong Practice Wrong Belief/ Wrong Practice Wrong Belief/ Right Practice Right Belief/Right Practice

Betrays True Meaning of Gospel Seduces from True Meaning of Gospel Confuses True Meaning of Gospel Exposes True Meaning of Gospel

Unintended Outcomes Curious Inventions Misshapen Creatures Faithful Disciples

There is a demonstrable incongruence of stated belief and corresponding practice in the lives of many Christians. Are orthodox beliefs a satisfactory educational goal, or are faithful practices based on statements of belief? The most obvious lifestyle behavior related to unbelief is that of living as if there is no god, a common malady of materialistic Western society. The threat to Christian faith is not as much the way of atheism, but living independently from God. This rebellion, then, this sin, is tantamount to the anti-Christian mood. Blaise Pascal hauntingly asks and answers: “Why is it so hard to believe? Because it is so hard to obey.” References and Resources Allen, Diogenes. 1989. Christian Belief in a Postmodern World: The Full Wealth of Conviction. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. Grenz, Stanley J. 1996. A Primer on Postmodernism. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Kinnaman, David. 2011. You Lost Me: Why Young Christians Are Leaving Church . . . and Rethinking Faith. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. Plantinga, Alvin. 2000. Warranted Christian Belief. New York: Oxford University Press.

—Mark A. Lamport

Bellarmine, Robert Early Background and Education Robert Bellarmine was born to an Italian nobleman in Montepulciano in 1542. He was a professor, a theologian, and a Jesuit priest and cardinal who attracted both Catholics and Protestants with his preaching style. He died in Rome in 1621. Bellarmine studied at the Roman College after joining the Jesuit order and then studied Thomistic theology at the University of Padua. In 1569, Bellarmine taught theology at the University of Louvain, becoming the first Jesuit to do so. Pope Gregory XIII returned Bellarmine to

the Roman College as the chair of controversies and to teach theology. He remained there until 1588. Significant Contributions to Christian Education As spiritual director at the Roman College, Bellarmine taught the catechism to lay brothers and students. He wrote several popular catechisms for adults and children, including Dottrina Cristiani (Brief Christian doctrine, 1597) and Dichiarazione piX Copiosa della Dottrina Cristiani (a catechism for teachers, 1598) (Van Helden 1995). Notable Publications In addition to writing catechisms, Bellarmine was involved in untangling the various heresies and controversies that erupted as a result of the Protestant Reformation. His Disputantiones de Controversiis Christianae Fidei Adversus Hujus Temporis Haereticos (Disputations about the controversies of the Christian faith against the heretics of this time) was the seminal work on heresy of his age (Van Helden 1995). The church used Bellarmine’s work to return Catholics to the fold, with his effective arguments. The strength of De Controversis against Protestantism prompted German and English schools to found special chairs to refute Bellarmine. He engaged King James I in arguments over the power of the papacy. Bellarmine used pamphlets and books to support his theory of the primacy of the indirect power of the pope in temporal matters as well as spiritual ones. He is also reported to have initially admonished Galileo on his defense of Copernican theory, arguing that it should only be advanced as a hypothesis (Smith 1907). Bellarmine maintained an admirable simplicity of life in a time of auspicious ecclesial excesses. He was once under consideration for the papacy after the death of Pope Sixtus V in 1590, but a letter was written to King Phillip III of Spain warning that Bellarmine is beloved for his great goodness, but he is a scholar who lives only among books and not of much practical ability. . . . He would not do for Pope, for he is mindful only of the interests of the Church and is unresponsive to the reasons of princes. . . . He would scruple to accept gifts. . . . I suggest that we exert no action in his favor. (Van Helden 1995)

The king was persuaded against Bellarmine as a candidate for pope. In 1627, the process of canonization was begun for Bellarmine. His cause was delayed for over three centuries due to his association with the doctrine of papal authority, which was opposed by the politicians of the French court. He was finally canonized in 1930 by Pope Pius XI and later declared a doctor of the church. He is a patron saint of catechists.

Benedict, Educational Ideas of

References and Resources Smith, Sydney. 1907. Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Robert Bellarmine. Accessed 26 May 2013. http://www.newadvent.org/ cathen/02411d.htm. Van Helden, Al. 1995. Robert Cardinal Bellarmine (1542–1621). Accessed 26 May 2013. http://galileo.rice.edu/chr/bellar mine.html.

—Angelique Montgomery-Goodnough

Benedict, Educational Ideas of When he was about 50 years of age, Benedict of Nursia (c. 480–547) established a monastery at Monte Cassino in Italy, approximately 60 miles south of Rome. While spending the rest of his life there, he wrote the “Benedictine Rule” for the community: a practical guide for living the Christian gospel and for cultivating Christian virtue in the company of fellow monks. About the size of Matthew’s Gospel, it passed on a tradition of wisdom from the lived experience of monastic life, translating the gospel into daily communal Christian living, or, as he puts it in the prologue of the “Rule,” living in community “with the Gospel as our guide.” He describes this community in the prologue (v. 45) as “a school (schola) for the Lord’s service.” It was to be a community in which one could learn the trade or skill of discipleship as a Christian apprentice who desires to seek, know, and love God and to be conformed to the image of Christ. In the Benedictine tradition, there is no monastic life without the community. Benedict was part of the cenobitic tradition (cenobitic deriving from the Greek words koinos bios, meaning “common life,” and similar to koinonia), which others (such as Augustine) had developed before him. The tradition held that spiritual formation could occur only in communal living. Only in the coenobium can one grow into deeper awareness of God’s will for one’s life. Otherwise, we are left to our own fancy, or we do not experience transformation because there is no stable community that acts as a mirror to reflect our true identity and spiritual condition. Character traits such as obedience, charity, and humility are virtues that can only be formed in the constant presence of other people; it is impossible to obey someone, love others, and be humble when one is alone. This is probably one reason Benedict did not encourage eremitic monasticism (a way of life related to what we refer to as hermits, the word deriving from the Greek eremos topos, meaning “desert place”). Elsewhere in the “Rule” (4.78), Benedict describes the monastery as a “workshop” for the salvation of the whole person (not just for communicating ideas to the mind) using “tools,” which he lists in chapter 4. These “tools”


are imperatives drawn from scripture. They include admonitions to renounce self, to love Christ before all else, to refuse to repay evil with evil, to resist being called holy before one really is, and so forth. The bottom line is that spiritual maturity and personal transformation develop as we appropriate truths of scripture and live them out in a community that provides mutual accountability, opportunities for service, and the challenge of close relationships with others. Implied in what has been said, one of the vows the Benedictine monk takes is stability—the commitment to stay in the community, since conversion and growth in character happen when we remain, not when we run. Benedict despised gyrovagues—monks who roamed from monastery to monastery (not unlike Christians who shop from church to church). This conversion is referred to as conversatio—a daily “turning around” as one engages in the ongoing effort of a lifetime race toward God, propelled by the attraction of God’s love for us. As Benedict stated in the prologue, “as we progress in this way of life and in faith, we shall run on the path of God’s commandments, our hearts overflowing with the inexpressible delight of love.” In this “race” in the coenobium (i.e., the monastery), the monk practices a disciplined and balanced life of work, study, and prayer. Work usually entails manual labor to fight off sloth. Study especially entails lectio divinia, a practice of reading scripture that involves various stages of meditation on a short passage or phrase. Prayer is referred to as the opus dei or “work of God”—the most essential activity of the day, which takes place in community at certain intervals, referred to as the “divine office” or the “liturgy of the hours.” Benedict prescribed eight times of communal prayer each day, though most Benedictine monasteries today meet just three or four times each day. These practices and others (such as fasting, poverty, chastity) that Benedict prescribed are not wholly unique to him. They are part of a larger monastic tradition involving ascetic disciplines. Ascesis referred to the discipline an athlete engaged in to prepare for the Olympic games and to the training soldiers received in what would be the equivalent of “boot camp”; in the same way, asceticism in this monastic context refers to the training or exercise that a Christian disciple (or disciplined student of Christ) engages in, empowered by the Spirit of God, in order to win the contests against sin. In some respects, Benedict incorporated the ascetic outlook recommended in the writings of Evagrius Ponticus (of the fourth century) and John Cassian (of the fifth century). Ascetic disciplines were not an end in themselves. They were meant to lead to apatheia, the ordering and control of the passions, so that one might excel in agape,


Berryman, Jerome

the kind of self-giving love that Christians are commanded to practice. The monk who is controlled by his passions (such as gluttony, lust, anger, or avarice) is not free to be outwardly focused on love for others. References and Resources The Benedictine Handbook. 2003. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press. Fry, Timothy, ed. 1981. RB1980: In Latin and English with Notes. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1981. Kardong, Terrence. 1988. The Benedictines. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier. ———. 1996. Benedict’s Rule: A Translation and Commentary. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press. Okholm, Dennis. 2007. Monk Habits for Everyday People: Benedictine Spirituality for Protestants. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2007. Robinson, David. 2010. Ancient Paths: Discover Christian Formation the Benedictine Way. Orleans, MA: Paraclete Press.

—Dennis Okholm

Berryman, Jerome Jerome W. Berryman is an ordained American educationalist who has spent close to 40 years creating a methodology (constructed of pedagogy and supported by a theology) known as Godly Play. He has written numerous articles and books. He was born in 1937 and educated at the University of Kansas (BA, 1959), Princeton Theological Seminary (MDiv, 1962 and DMin, 1996), and University of Tulsa Law School (JD, 1969). He also read theology at Oxford University’s Mansfield College during the summer of 1966 (certificate, 1966), graduated from the year-long program at The Center for Advanced Montessori Studies in Bergamo, Italy (diploma, 1972), and was awarded three postdoctoral residencies in theology and medical ethics at the Institute of Religion in the Texas Medical Center in Houston (1973–1976). In 1991, he was awarded a Lilly Endowment grant for study in Italy related to the history of the Montessori approach to religious education, and in November 1997 he received the Kilgore Creative Ministry Award from Claremont School of Theology in Claremont, California. He has been awarded several honorary doctorates in divinity. From 1998 to 2007, Rev. Dr. Jerome Berryman was the executive director of the Center for the Theology of Childhood in Houston, Texas, and (from 1994) has been an active consultant in areas related to the moral and spiritual development of children and Godly Play. In 2007, he retired as director. At the time of writing, Dr. Berryman is senior fellow at the Center for the Theology of Childhood, which is part of the Godly Play Founda-

tion, established in late 2007. This is the research and development part of the foundation. Godly Play teaches children the art of using Christian language—parable, sacred story, silence, and liturgical action—helping them become more fully aware of the mystery of God’s presence in their lives. The educational theory of Godly Play is rooted in the prehistory of our species with respect to the use of ritual, story, and the creative process. Montessori’s approach to education has been adapted to Godly Play in order to stimulate children’s active participation in story and ritual and to awaken their creativity for the learning of the language, sacred stories, parables, liturgical action, and silence of the Christian tradition. When Christian language is learned by the Godly Play approach, it is as a means to know God and to make meaning of life. Inspired also by the work of Cavalletti, this approach aims to locate each lesson in the whole system of Christian language and to involve the creative process of discovering the depths of meaning in both Christian language and the creative process. Godly Play respects the innate spirituality of children and encourages curiosity and imagination in experiencing the mystery and joy of God. These factors enable children (and adults) to become “playfully orthodox.” They become rooted in their own tradition and at the same time open to others, new ideas, and the future, in creative ways. Encouraging participants to make meaning for themselves, Godly Play invites them into stories and provides the opportunity for them to connect the stories with their personal experience. It works from a curriculum of scripted stories with a given formula of storytelling. The participants (often children) are welcomed into the room. When everyone is ready, the storyteller begins, drawing objects from a bag or a box and wondering about each item that is revealed. Throughout the process of the telling, the storyteller continues to wonder about the meaning of the tale. At the end, the listeners are invited to respond through discussion and then by creative art. Godly Play is a noncoercive way to encourage people to move into larger dimensions of belief and faith through wondering questions and open-ended response time. It can be a means of preparing children to join in the worship and life of their congregations as they develop a deeper understanding of stories, symbols, and rites. Although it was originally developed as a resource for children, Godly Play is now being used with a wide range of age groups in a variety of settings. References and Resources Berryman has written a dozen books, including the following:

Children and the Theologians: Clearing the Way for Grace. 2009. Denver, CO: Morehouse Education Resources.

Beza, Theodore

The Complete Guide to Godly Play. 2012. Vol. 8. Denver, CO: Morehouse Education Resources. He has edited the following: Life Maps: Conversations on the Journey of Faith, James W. Fowler and Sam Keen, Nashville, TN: W Publishing Group His greatest written record is the many chapters and articles in the field of children’s nurture and education, including several publications especially for children.

—Howard Worsley

Beza, Theodore Born Théodore de Bèze, in Vézelay, France, Beza (1519– 1605) is most associated with the foundation of Swiss Protestant theological education, since he served as the first rector and chief curricular architect of John Calvin’s Genevan Academy. From this intellectual center, he influenced Christian theology and its academic transmission throughout France, Scotland, England, Hungary, Poland, Germany, and North America. When Protestant exiles fled Mary Tudor’s persecution (beginning in 1533) to Geneva, they drew from the Genevan tradition and later brought it back to England. Beza’s chief contribution was his formal expression of Calvin’s teaching in an academic setting, with philological acumen, and in a polemically defensible manner. His clearest explanation of his philosophy of education was in his inaugural address to the academy in 1559. In this speech, he defended the dignity and value of the liberal arts, arguing that it supports justice in society and provides an essential footing for further study in law, theology, and medicine. He believed that theologians ought to champion the value of other scholarly disciplines; one of his first acts as rector was to establish a program in law, and he worked hard to establish a chair in medicine. His treatise on the plague (De Peste, 1579) advocates an empirical approach to the science of contagious disease as opposed to the idea, found in some Roman Catholic tracts, that plague outbreaks indicated God’s direct chastisement for sin. He argued that naïve use of the Bible to understand infection was inappropriate, and instead advocated study of Hippocrates, Galen, and contemporary natural philosophy as the proper approach to medicine. He believed that the Christian academy should seek to understand God’s relationship with the natural world, but he did not keep science on a short theological leash. This was so important to him that, when a military siege negatively affected Geneva’s budget, he defended the importance of funding education; he even offered to forgo his own salary to keep faculty from other disciplines in place.


Trained as a humanist, he valued classical and biblical languages. In philosophy, he embraced Renaissance Aristotelianism, but focused on the original classical writings of Aristotle, rather than their medieval appropriation by Thomas Aquinas. The list of famous humanists and reformers in his Icones (1580) demonstrates his belief in the close relationship between Renaissance scholarship and Reformation theology. Nonetheless, he did not reject all elements of scholastic methodology; instead, he was a pivotal figure between Calvin’s rhetorical approach to theology and the Protestant scholasticism of 17thcentury Reformed Orthodoxy. Despite the assertions of some older scholarship, more recent studies show that he did not stray from the core content of Calvin’s original ideas, but rather consolidated these original teachings and set them forth in a technical manner. For Beza, good educational method depended on the context: with undereducated people, perplexing questions should be avoided; he only allowed advanced systematic discussions when the audience comprised advanced students. Even then, scholastic tools were not to devolve into useless speculation, but were meant to prepare students for polemic encounters with Roman Catholic, heretical, and Lutheran adversaries. Beza’s humanistic commitments remained important throughout his career. This is apparent in the careful attention he paid to his annotated New Testament, a major influence on the Geneva Bible. Moreover, he likely eliminated several medieval scholastic books from Calvin’s library after the reformer’s death. Some contend that Beza did a disservice to Christian theological training by separating biblical and theological curricula in pastoral training. At first, there was no distinct theology course at Geneva—only exegetical study—but a distinct doctrinal course eventually took shape as longer theological excurses on Romans became the basis for a topical theological course that resembled the structure of Philipp Melanchthon’s (1497–1560) Loci Communes (1521). Beza opened the door for future generations of Genevan students to venture into detailed scholastic work, but he never abandoned his humanistic commitment to understanding the biblical texts through solid training in languages and engagement with ancient authors. References and Resources Backus, Irena Dorota. 1980. The Reformed Roots of the English New Testament: The Influence of Theodore Beza on the English New Testament. Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series. Allison Park, PA: Pickwick. Baird, Henry. (1899) 1970. Theodore Beza: The Counselor of the French Reformation 1519–1605. New York: Burt Franklin. Beza, Theodore. 1986. A Little Book of Christian Questions and Responses. Translated by Kirk Summers. Allison Park, PA: Pickwick.


Bible as Literary Genre, Roots of the

Mallinson, Jeffrey. 2003. Faith, Reason, and Revelation in Theodore Beza 1519–1605. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wright, Shawn, and John Farthing. 2007. Our Sovereign Refuge: The Pastoral Theology of Theodore Beza. Studies in Christian History and Thought. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock.

—Jeff Mallinson

Bible as Literary Genre, Roots of the Critic Matthew Arnold (1822–1888) coined the phrase “Bible as literature” in the late 19th century, inviting a host of questions about the possibility of a systematic study of the Bible using methods in literary studies. Today, Leland Ryken (b. 1942) and Robert Alter (b. 1935) represent two major camps for interpreting the Bible as literature. Ryken, who insists the biblical writers were literary artists, is associated with literary-textual interpretation, in which he argues that reading the Bible in terms of its artful literary elements gets the reader closer to the intended meaning of the text.37 Alter, in Literary Guide to the Bible, claims that the value of analyzing the Bible as literature stems not from such a method’s ability to locate sacred truth as much as its ability to offer a deeply insightful interpretive lens. The modern academic study of the Bible as literature has transformed in relation to the evolution of techniques for literary analysis; however, the notion that one can read the Bible as literature has its roots in early Christianity. Though they often spurned the relevance of secular Greek and Roman education for Christian education, the early church fathers, including Tertullian, Jerome, and Augustine, relied on the classical techniques of literary analysis, including allegorical interpretation and grammatical and rhetorical analysis, to interpret the Bible. For Augustine, the Bible represented the highest form of literature, demonstrating eloquence only attributable to divine authorship and wisdom.38 Allegorical interpretation of the Bible continued throughout the Middle Ages, emphasizing multiple meanings of the text as presented through its metaphorical language and imagery. The highly figurative and even erotic language common to medieval secular literature opened multiple levels of imaginative possibilities for interpreting the biblical text, from the most literal to the most metaphorical. Such figurative interpretations of the biblical text that hailed the Bible’s literary prowess were reciprocated by a rise in biblical allegories in literature, including Dante’s Divine Comedy. 37. A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible, ed. Leland Ryken and Tremper Longman III (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1993), 50. 38. Ibid., 52.

During the 15th and 16th centuries, Christian humanists emphasized recovering original languages and applying classical principles of grammatical and rhetorical analysis to the Bible. Humanism inspired generations of reformers to insist that a literal meaning of biblical text was available to the faithful through the Holy Spirit’s guidance. Reformers’ emphasis on historical origins, language, grammar, and the techniques of interpretation was pushed to the extreme during the Enlightenment, with ironic consequences. For the Enlightenment of the 17th– 18th centuries, taking the Bible literally meant the biblical text was replete with events and accounts that were rationally implausible and therefore inaccurate. Subject to the specter of reason, literal interpretations presented flaws irreconcilable with a rational God, thereby casting doubt on divine authorship of the biblical text. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, the emphasis on human authorship and history of the biblical writings inspired biblical and literary critics to use pseudo-scientific interpretive methods of historical-criticism. Historicalcritical emphasis on authenticity stands in contrast to late 18th-century romanticism’s valorization of the aesthetic, literary value of the Bible. Romanticism, however, was uninterested in the Bible as a sacred text and culminated in an inherently secular approach to biblical interpretation. On the other hand, despite its disruption of divine authorship, historical-critical analysis continued to find favor in biblical scholarship’s search for the true meaning of the text. Modern literary-critical analysis, rooted in Ferdinand de Saussure’s (1857–1913) linguistics, at once designates a continuation of and challenge to the primacy of historical analysis. For theorists following Saussure’s theory of language as a system of meaning-making in which the relationship between signs and the things they are meant to signify is arbitrary, linguistic relationships could be studied with scientific precision to unveil the meaning of the text. Literary-critical theorists and critics, like their historical-critical counterparts, persisted in the search for certainty through systematic, “scientific” inquiry (see Literary Criticism). Saussure’s emphasis on the referential structure of language laid the foundation for Jacques Derrida’s (1930– 2004) famous assertion that linguistic relationships are infinitely variable, and therefore, the thing to which a sign refers is never static. An absolute or transcendental signified does not exist. Derrida’s works and the works of literary critics he inspired have demonstrated that language resists efforts to locate a singular meaning or truth of a text. Associated with the postmodern dismantling of absolute truth claims, Derridean currents in literary theory have harnessed shifting historical, social, and political contexts to reimagine biblical interpretation.

Bible as Literature, The

Despite concerns over postmodernity’s tendencies to relativize truth claims, many Christian educators see within these developments in literary theory, and their permutations in Marxist, feminist, and transcultural analyses, the opportunity for disinherited voices to illuminate truths from the biblical text that might otherwise have remained buried by traditional interpretations. In her article in the Christian Education Journal, Janet B. Sommers writes, “Utilizing all three contemporary methods of interpreting the Bible as literature—literary textual, literary-historical, and literary-critical—will help us interpret the Scriptures with greater skill and precision and to defend our interpretations from a broader, more informed perspectives.”39 As Sommers notes, the question facing Christian educators is not whether or not to acknowledge developments in literature and literary theory, but how to acknowledge these innovations as part of the larger dynamism of Christian history. References and Resources A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. 1993. Edited by Leland Ryken and Tremper Longman III. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. The Literary Guide to the Bible. 1987. Edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. Sommers, Janet B. 2007. “Interpreting the Bible as Literature: Historical and Contemporary Contexts with Implications for Christian Education.” Christian Education Journal, Series 3, 4 (1): 78–99.

—Wesley Nan Barker

Bible as Literature, The Theological and biblical education, especially in more conservative schools, has only in recent decades begun to stress the literary nature of the Bible as an essential component of the interpretation and application of scripture. Unfortunately, due to its traditional vertical versification, the Bible has often been read as a compendium of rules, like a laundry list. Approaching the Bible as literature means recognizing that the human authors, while guided by God in some manner, wrote with the creativity to employ literary genres according to their purposes. The medium is the message. All human communication relies on forms that inform the function of what is being written. For example, repair manuals, love letters, and legal documents use characteristic and 39. Janet B. Sommers, “Interpreting the Bible as Literature: Historical and Contemporary Contexts with Implications for Christian Education,” Christian Education Journal, Series 3, 4, no. 1 (2007): 92.


complementary words and ways that help the reader understand what is being said by the way it is being said. The Bible is God’s verbal revelation through human instrumentality. That means literary conventions are an essential aspect of how the Bible was crafted and should be a necessary component of accurate interpretation. Compared to the claimed origins of the sacred texts of the major non-Judeo-Christian religions, the Bible stands in stark contrast as scripture that unashamedly attributes its development to the confluence of human and divine activity. The defenders of the Koran and Book of Mormon, for example, proclaim divine superiority for their texts over the Bible due in part to the belief that their “Bible” came directly from Heaven, apart from human contamination. But the biblical authors were convinced their words were inspired, although they were consciously involved in a literary enterprise. Important to realize is that the Bible we know today is not a book, although it physically appears as many pages between two covers. The Bible is an anthology of sacred texts of various lengths and literature, spanning a thousand years and involving scores of authors. The literary genres of scripture, inter alia, are legal, epistolary, narrative, verse or poetry, prophecy, psalms or sacred songs/poems or hymns, apocalyptic, parables, proverbs, wisdom, perhaps legends, gospels, and salvation history. Even one so-called Bible book may contain several of these. How to understand and use the information contained in each is inseparable from its communicative character. For example, the person hearing a parable knows by its very nature its purpose is not to recount a historical event. A poem is more concerned with feelings or functional, rather than factual, knowledge. One would no more use a technical manual to communicate romantic feelings than poetry to explain how to repair a toaster. Proverbial speech does not present the absolute air of legal language. Biblical “books” were not written to modern people, but they certainly are intended for our edification. The authors of these ancient texts chose forms of communication familiar to their audiences and in their languages. A huge time and cultural gap exists between modern Bible believers and its original audiences. To read the Bible, we have to bridge that gap with knowledge about their literary and linguistic methods. Contemporary Christian educators should envision teaching Bible survey and book studies as a means not only to train students in biblical history and content, but also to enhance their understanding of the Bible’s ancient literary cultural context. The Bible was not composed in a literary vacuum. The authors made use of the styles and symbols with which their audience was familiar in a given historical period (just like we use


Bible College Movement, Evolution of the

conventional forms of communication or media and illustrations from classic or popular publications, poems, or plays with which our audiences can identify). So, for example, the Old Testament psalms employ poetic forms and expressions typical of the Canaanites while presenting a polemic against their theology. The New Testament addresses a Hellenized and Roman world in terms and texts it appreciates to proclaim an unknown and unexpected truth. Fully apprehending and applying biblical revelation requires literate Christians educated in ancient and modern literature. References and Resources Harwell, Charles W., and Daniel McDonald. 1975. The Bible: A Literary Survey. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill. Longman, Tremper. 1987. Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Ryken, Leland. 1984. How to Read the Bible as Literature: And Get More Out of It. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Ryken, Leland, and Tremper Longman. 1993. A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

—W. Creighton Marlowe

Bible College Movement, Evolution of the The Bible college movement in North America began with Bible institutes (also called Bible schools). The first, The New York Training School (later called The Missionary Training Institute), was founded in 1882 by A. B. Simpson to serve the needs of the Christian and Missionary Alliance. The most famous is Moody Bible Institute, which still bears the label “Bible institute,” even though it offers undergraduate and graduate-level theological degrees. More than 100 Bible schools had been founded in North America by 1945. Bible institutes were so called because of their commitment to the Bible as the inerrant Word of God. Most Bible institutes founded in the early 20th century were part of the fundamentalist movement in reaction to Protestant liberalism. However, their purpose was not just to teach the Bible as an academic subject, but also to use the Bible’s teaching in practical ministry. D. L. Moody referred to this as training for “gap-men,” who stand between the laity and the ministers. It should be noted that most early Bible institutes served both men and women. A core dimension of the curriculum was practical Christian work assignments. Accordingly, many Bible institutes developed correspondence, evening, and extension programs to make this practical ministry training more accessible to those who needed it. Even those who came to the residential campuses stayed only for limited periods of time to obtain specialized training, often for

ministry in which they were already involved. It wasn’t until the 1980s that Moody Bible Institute began awarding baccalaureate degrees. The Bible institute movement represents a distinct sector of theological education. Bible colleges were not trying to train professional clergy for mainline denominations, like seminaries and divinity schools. Rather, they were trying to train missionaries, pastors for nonmainline churches, and others who were active in the ministries of the churches and parachurch agencies. The movement transitioned into the Bible college movement as higher education developed in North America. As academic institutions became stronger and academic credentials became more meaningful in culture, Bible institutes gradually became Bible colleges that focused more on granting degrees. The main characteristic that distinguished a Bible college from a Christian college was the requirement of the equivalent of a Bible major for all students, even if they majored in some other area of ministry. An additional difference is that Bible colleges tend to limit themselves to Bible and ministry studies, whereas Christian colleges offer a wider array of programs, among which Bible and ministry studies are included. The Bible college movement became more formalized with the founding in 1947 of the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges (AABC, now known as the Association of Biblical Higher Education). As an accrediting agency, AABC provided a mechanism for establishing standards and granting recognition of quality in Bible colleges, provided collegiality and support for accredited and unaccredited Bible schools that sometimes struggled independently, and provided a significant link to the broader world of higher education. By 1960, there were 35,000 students enrolled on the campuses of 250 Bible schools. Some of the same cultural forces that brought AABC into existence, especially the growing role of higher education in North America, have continued to push Bible colleges to develop. As some Bible colleges have broadened their curriculum and have sought to facilitate transfer of credit between institutions and admission into graduate programs in nonministry areas, they have sought regional accreditation. The Bible college/institute movement also has manifestations not so closely identified with academic accreditation. Ethnic groups in urban centers often have Bible institutes for the training of their ministers and laypeople. These Bible institutes usually offer classes in the evening, provide an entire program of training, and award their own certificates in relation to recognition within their denominations and church networks. Bible institutes are found throughout the global South to train

Bible College Movement, Impetus for the

leaders for the new churches that are being planted. Training often takes place for a few months at a time in conjunction with active church planting ministry. These Bible institutes are focused on the same missionary priorities as the very first Bible institutes of North America, which trained missionaries for the global South more than 100 years ago. References and Resources Brereton, Virginia Lieson. 1990. Training God’s Army: The American Bible School, 1880–1940. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. McKinney, Larry J. 1997. Equipping for Service: A Historical Account of the Bible College Movement in North America. Fayetteville, AR: Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges. Ringenberg, William C. 2006. The Christian College: A History of Protestant Higher Education in America. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. Vincent, James. 2011. The MBI Story: The Vision and Worldwide Impact of Moody Bible Institute. Chicago: Moody Publishing.

—Steve Kemp

Bible College Movement, Impetus for the Bible colleges are institutions of postsecondary education that feature extensive study of the Bible, accompanied by curricular and cocurricular emphasis on personal devotion and consecrated service. The Bible college movement originated during the time of North America’s Third Great Awakening. Early Bible institutes emerged as both products of and catalysts for revival and missionary movements. The first such institutions include Nyack Missionary Training Institute, founded by A. B. Simpson in 1882, and Moody Bible Institute, founded by D. L. Moody in 1886. These earliest Bible institutes typify the character and origin of scores of other such institutions that proliferated across the North American continent during the latter two decades of the 19th century and the first three decades of the 20th century. Bible college founders were fueled by a variety of cultural and ecclesiastical currents responding to theological drift, spiritual malaise, and secularizing influence. By the late 19th century, North American theological schooling and theological scholarship had embraced European scholasticism and Enlightenment rationalism as exemplified by Wellhausen’s documentary hypothesis. Higher criticism and its accompanying a priori rejection of the miraculous, including the miraculous nature of divine revelation, became the new epistemological and methodological orthodoxy. The scientific community rushed to assert that Darwin’s theory of natural selection had ren-


dered a literal biblical understanding of immediate and recent divine creation intellectually untenable. Moreover, a growing number of evangelical churches and denominations have embraced dispensational premillennialism as popularized in the Schofield Reference Bible, resulting in greater emphasis on eschatological urgency and pragmatism in Gospel proclamation. Most Bible colleges began entrepreneurially. In form and function, they reacted to arid intellectualism and academic convention. Their curricula, typically developed by academy outsiders, emphasized devotional dispositions and development of practical ministry. They often had little in common other than a staunch commitment to make the Bible the central subject and object of study and to motivate and mobilize Christian witness. As a reactionary movement, their curricula typically varied greatly from the curricular conventions of their secular and Christian liberal arts college counterparts, most of which were rooted in scholastic European and colonial notions of intellectual breadth and liberal education. Beginning with Johnson Bible College (TN) and Columbia Bible College (SC), informal and noncollegiate Bible institutes gradually evolved into degree-granting postsecondary institutions. The establishment in 1947 of the American Association of Bible Colleges (see Association for Biblical Higher Education) further shaped the movement through collective adoption of curricular norms and conformity to external quality standards associated with postsecondary education. Beginning in the 1960s, Bible colleges began to earn regional accreditation. This achievement ironically marked the degree to which Bible colleges had earned academic legitimacy and launched evolutionary currents affecting the mission and curricula of many Bible colleges. By the 1980s, many notable Bible colleges had begun to disassociate themselves from the movement. Many of today’s North American Christian liberal arts institutions have roots in the Bible college movement. Research, although sporadic, has consistently found that Bible college graduates comprise a disproportional percentage of North American evangelical protestant missionaries and clergy. Moreover, a variety of student outcomes research has consistently disproven the perception that Bible colleges are academically inferior to other Christian and secular higher education sectors. Bible college graduates consistently gain admission to and excel in advanced degree studies. Although many perceive that the movement has waned, conservative estimates suggest that as many as 1,000 Bible colleges and Bible institutes currently operate in North America, enrolling more than 100,000 students. Jack Hayford, Francis Chan, Wayne Cordeiro, John Piper, and R. C. Sproul represent just a few of the notable contemporary instruments of biblical


Bible Conference Movement

revival, cultural renewal, and missional reorientation out of whose ministries a new wave of institutions of biblical higher education is emerging. References and Resources Brereton, Virginia L. 1991. Training God’s Army: The American Bible School, 1880–1940. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Eagen, John L. 1981. The Bible College in American Higher Education. Fayetteville, AR: American Association of Bible Colleges. Ferris, Robert W., and Ralph E. Enlow Jr. 1997. “Reassessing Bible College Distinctives.” Christian Education Journal 1NS (1): 5–19. McKinney. Larry J. 1997. Equipping for Service: A Historical Account of the Bible College Movement in North America. Fayetteville, AR: Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges. Witmer, S. A. 1962. Education with Dimension: The Bible College Story. Manhasset, NY: Channel.

—Ralph E. Enlow Jr.

Bible Conference Movement Influenced by the Keswick Conferences in England, the Bible conference movement began in the United States during the 1870s through the Niagara Bible Conference (1876–1897), American Bible and Prophetic Conferences (1878–1914), and the Northfield Conferences (1886). These annual conferences taught the Bible and provided a vacation experience for believers in a conference setting. In 1895, the Winona Lake Bible Conference became a regular part of the Bible conference movement. These conferences were influential in spreading dispensational theology to large and diverse groups of believers. The annual Niagara Bible Conference (Believers’ Meeting for Bible Study) began in 1876. In 1878, the Niagara Bible Conference Creed, a 14-point statement of faith, was adopted with a dispensational theological perspective and stated the verbal and plenary inspiration of the Bible, total depravity of man, necessity of a new birth, a premillennial return of Christ, and substitutionary atonement. After 1883, the conference was held at Queen’s Royal Hotel and Pavilion, located at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada. James H. Brookes, a Presbyterian pastor, spearheaded the conference and provided leadership in an organizational and program capacity. The weeklong conferences brought popular, influential speakers to teach, preach, and lead Bible studies, while men such as Charles Erdman, James H. Brookes, A. J. Gordon, and C. I. Scofield were regularly present. Messages were doctrinal in nature, emphasizing Jesus, the Holy Spirit, the Bible, prophecy, and missions. Although not designed

to promote dispensationalism, the invited speakers often preached from a dispensational perspective. The Northfield Conferences (1880s) were an outgrowth of the ministry of Dwight L. Moody and followed a format similar to that of other Bible conferences of that era. Northfield Conferences did not emphasize dispensational theology, as they were more devotional in character and stressed the doctrine of the Holy Spirit. Leading speakers of the day were Rev. G. H. C. MacGregor, Rev. G. Campbell Morgan, Rev. F. B. Meyer, and Rev. J. G. Cunningham. The gathering increased from 35 people in 1880, the first year, to more than 1,500 at the final annual meetings in the 1940s. The emphasis of each conference was Pentecostal in its power, and the spiritual refreshing, which came at that time to many believers, continued to display the impact of the conference in whatever they did. The spirit of the second conference was less devotional than the first, but was given more to doctrinal and practical study. The Winona Lake Bible Conference (1895) built on the foundation of the Niagara and Northfield conferences and was influential in attracting leading evangelical conservatives such as William Jennings Bryant, who served as president, and Billy Sunday, the popular and effective evangelist. Winona Lake was a very desirable vacation spot in northern Indiana and, in addition to the evangelical preaching, offered a wide variety of sightseeing locations. The Sea Cliff Bible Conference (1901–1906) was organized in Sea Cliff, New York, on land provided by John T. Pirie. Rev. C. I. Scofield attended this conference, which met in a tent seating 600. It was at Sea Cliff that work on the Scofield Reference Bible was begun, with the support of Alwyn Ball Jr., John Pirie, and Francis Fitch. Arno C. Gaebelein further encouraged Scofield to begin the process to produce the Scofield Bible in 1909. Most Notable Academic Programs The Bible conference movement was not primarily an academic program as such, but led to the establishment and growth of other evangelical academic institutions. Moody Bible Institute and Dallas Theological Seminary grew out of the dispensational theological positions preached and promoted during this movement. The Bible conference movement and the Chautauqua movement were contemporaries and used similar teaching methodologies for religious instruction. Summary of Christian Philosophy and Mission of Education The movement’s philosophical and theological base was early dispensational theology that stressed the need for believers’ total surrender to Christ. With its antecedents

Bible Stories

in the Keswick movement, an emphasis on personal holiness was taught. These conferences built on each other and contributed to new institutions. Overall, these conferences energized evangelism, created new missionary organizations, and encouraged the development of Bible institutes and colleges. Through these conferences, concentrated Bible study became the norm for fundamentalism, and literature-emphasized missions, the work of the Holy Spirit, the work and person of Christ, and prophecy were written and distributed through fundamental churches. Another outgrowth of the movement was an appreciation of the conference format to teach and train students and youth by Christian youth and student organizations. Ultimately, theological dissension, aging facilities, and changing tastes in both leisure time and worship styles among evangelicals contributed to the decline of the conference movement. With the advent of Christian radio, preachers once limited to annual conference attendees were able to reach a far broader audience with their message.


Abraham ready to slit Isaac’s throat, and Joseph sexually importuned by his master’s wife” (xii). Many Christian organizations have been committed to bringing the Bible into the hands of children, and foremost among these has been Scripture Union, an international organization that started in London in 1867 to nurture children into the Christian faith through encounters with the Bible. Earlier in the United Kingdom were the rise of the Sunday school movement (1780) and the birth of church schools (via the National Society in 1811), both of which relied heavily on using Bible stories to educate children. In the 1960s, influential research was carried out in UK schools by Ronald Goldman (1964, 1965), who concluded that many Bible texts should not be used with children under the age of 12 because their cognitive reasoning was inadequate. In his words, they required a greater readiness for learning, intellectualism, emotionalism, and physicalism. Goldman’s Readiness for Religion (1965) summarized his attitude to children and the Bible:

References and Resources Beale, David O. 1986. In Pursuit of Purity: American Fundamentalism Since 1850. Greenville, SC: BJU Publications. Sandeen, Ernest R. 1970. The Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism, 1800–1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Vlach, Michael J. 2008. Dispensationalism: Essential Beliefs and Common Myths. Los Angeles: Theological Studies Press.

—Stephen K. McCord

I have called attention to both the wasteful effort of teaching the Bible too early and also the difficulties this makes for children of limited development. I would like to correct the widespread misconception that I advocate no Bible teaching before the age of twelve. [This was a misunderstanding based on his earlier book, Religious Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence (1964)]. I do suggest a drastic reduction of Bible material in syllabuses before this age, but the difference does not lie so much in the quantity of Bible material used as the way in which we use it. (70)

Bible Stories As the key text for the Christian faith, the Bible has been crucial to the transmission of the Christian tradition to the next generation. Around 1000 BC, the psalmist wrote: God commanded our people who lived before us to teach His laws to their children. Then those born later would know his laws. Even their children yet to come would know them. And they in turn would tell their children. (Ps. 78:5–6)

Many attempts to make the Bible accessible to children have been made since the invention of the printing press, a study of which has been made by Ruth Bottigheimer. In the introduction to her detailed study of the hundreds of Children’s Bibles that have been printed since the 16th century, The Bible for Children (1996), she notes that not all the literature has been wise. She describes her shock when reviewing one 18th-century child’s Bible: “I could hardly believe my eyes. Here in a book for children, was lot offering his virgin daughter to a rapacious mob,

He suggested that the way in which the Bible was to be used was by “a severe pruning of Bible content in the early years,” so that children hear stories that relate to their experience and do not get confused by their literalism. Goldman was greatly influenced by the Swiss educationalist Jean Piaget (1886–1980), who was originally trained as a biologist, and became intrigued by the way young humans construct their understanding of the world. Piaget’s writings were based on his detailed observations of his own three children as they encountered reality and developed through various key stages of comprehension. His works include, The Moral Judgement of the Child (1948), The Origins of Intelligence in Children (1952), and The Construction of Reality in the Child (1954). It needs to be noted that Piaget’s insights give insufficient emphasis to the developmental role of language, that his notion of stage theory has the unfortunate effect of discouraging some education from stretching the gifted and talented child, and that his implication that young children lack logic does not take into account how they


Bible Study as Christian Practice

were affected by the nature of the tests. In short, Piaget fails to recognize the significance of the cultural context for the growing child, because he believed the development of the mind to be independent of the early environment. These assumptions flowed into Goldman’s research on children encountering the Bible. They need to be considered, as they have left an enduring mark on how the Bible has been used with children. More recent research (Worsley 2006, 2009) suggests that the Bible is in fact far more valuable as a text to be used with children than Goldman suggested. Since the 1960s, it has been acknowledged that the Bible has been increasingly neglected in most schools in the United Kingdom. Research by Lesley Francis (2000) detailed a high level of adolescent lack of interest. It is becoming increasingly acknowledged that despite its literary and cultural value, the Bible is being neglected in most state schools. This research shows that the Bible is never read by two-thirds of 13- to 15-year-olds in British secondary schools. This ambivalence was also noted by the Biblos Project, which researched the uses of the Bible in British schools from 1998 to 2004. Funded by the Bible Society and directed by Exeter researcher Terence Copley, the Biblos Project published three volumes: Echo of the Angels (1998), Where Angels Fear to Tread (2001), and On the Side of the Angels (2004). The reference to angels is to the “traces of God” that are perceived particularly by children, but which culture and society can succeed in oppressing. At the end of the final report in 2004, the Biblos Project noted: Despite the processes of secularisation which have resulted in the decline of institutional religion, UK society has not written off religious beliefs and values. The majority of people appear neither enthusiastically theistic nor atheistic. Therefore it was no surprise that the most common attitude among young people towards the Bible was ambivalence. Yet a challenge is presented to the faith communities, RE teachers and publishers by a demonstration that a more positive attitude toward the Bible is associated with greater knowledge of biblical characters, stories and theological meanings, and as well as the importance of the Bible for other faiths and for modern society. (Copley et al. 2004, 8)

Writing with a research background in how adolescents access previous literary genres, Pike (2000) has turned his attention to considering the Bible as an essential text for both understanding wider literature and educating in morally and spiritually significant encounters. However, Pike is careful to point out that although there is “a compelling case for encouraging children to read such an influential text to ensure cultural literacy,”

there is also evidence that the high status of the text can lead to “a too reverential attitude among readers,” who may become passive, feeling they need to hold the text’s meaning rather than interpret it. However, more recently there has been research into how the Bible is understood by the child and how it is used in the home context. Attempts have been made to identify a child’s hermeneutic of scripture, seen when a child encounters the Bible (e.g., Worsley 2006). This article comments on the meaning-making process used by children at different stages of development: “At one level, it seems that what the child brings to a story is at least as important as what the story brings to the child. At another level, it seems that the cognitive structure of a child’s developing mind, is only one strand to consider alongside the structure of the child’s nurturing home and personal, construing of reality.” References and Resources Bottigheimer, R. 1996. The Bible for Children. London: Yale University Press. Copley, T. 1998. Echo of the Angels. The First Report of the Biblos Project. Exeter, UK: School of Education, University of Exeter. Copley T., S. Lane, H. Savini, and K. Walshe. 2001. Where Angels Fear to Tread. The Second Report of the Biblos Project. Exeter, UK: School of Education, University of Exeter. Copley T., R. Freathy, S. Lane, and K. Walshe. 2004. On the Side of Angels. The Third Report of the Biblos Project. Exeter, UK: School of Education, University of Exeter. Francis, L. J. 2000. “Who Reads the Bible? A Study among 13–15 Year Olds.” British Journal of Religious Education 22 (3): 165–172. Gobbel, R., and G. Gobbel. 1986. The Bible: A Child’s Playground. London: SCM. Goldman, R. 1964. Religious Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ———. 1965. Readiness for Religion. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Pike, Jeffrey. 2000. Here Lies the Bible. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation. Worsley, H. 2006. “Insights from Children’s Perspectives in Interpreting the Wisdom of the Biblical Creation Narrative.” British Journal of Religious Education 28 (3): 249–259. ———. 2009. A Child Sees God. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

—Howard Worsley

Bible Study as Christian Practice Bible study generally refers to groups of people gathering together to read, or individuals reading, biblical texts

Bible Study as Christian Practice

with the goal of increased understanding of its content, meaning, and application to life. The biblical Word is central in the Jewish and Christian traditions, and for both, religious education entails a hearing of the Word. Bible study is primary among Christian practices and has been crucial in the task of faith formation. Christians participate in Bible study all over the world to learn about God and the story of God’s people and to gain wisdom for living a Christian life. Biblical study is also an academic discipline drawing on archaeology, history, philosophy, and social science. Pastors are trained in hermeneutics or biblical interpretation and in exegesis for teaching and preaching in the church. The Bible has also been studied outside religious settings, such as in courses on the Bible as literature. Early Background The Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek in the third century AD. St. Jerome produced the Vulgate, which was a Latin translation, the language of the educated classes in the fourth century. Church fathers such as Irenaeus, Clement, and Origen exegeted and interpreted the scriptures as a means of establishing the teachings of the church. Augustine sought to standardize a metaphorical understandings of scripture (Grant and Tracy 1984, 69, 71). The Bible was read liturgically in ancient times and depicted in art and drama. In the early centuries of the church, catechetical sermons were preached on biblical texts, such as those of Cyril of Jerusalem (Cully 1995, 2). Catechumens participated in the hearing of the Word and heard exhortation on the scripture and were dismissed before the Mass. Much of the population of the ancient world was not literate, so biblical understanding came from hearing the lection read and preached upon and from paintings, stained glass windows, and icons. Scholastic theologians such as Aquinas moved away from allegorical understandings of scripture (Grant and Tracy 1984, 87–90). Influence of the Reformation At the time of the Reformation, Catholics and Protestants disagreed about the role of scripture in the church. Luther argued for scripture alone (sola scriptura) as authoritative for the faith. The invention of the printing press made the Bible more available. There was a movement toward translating the Bible into vernacular languages (advocated by reformers like Martin Luther and John Wycliffe), and by the 1500s, the Bible had been printed in at least six languages (Wright 2001, 193–194). In early America, the Bible was part of school curriculum, including Bible stories and religious instruction. Roman Catholics set up their own schools to transmit their own religious tradition (Cully 1995, 3).


Historical Critical Methods and Recent Theologies The rise of rationalism and the Enlightenment brought about the development of the critical historical method of interpretation. This superseded the long-held traditional understanding of four modes of biblical interpretation: the literal, the allegorical, the moral, and the typological. The historical criticism of scholars like Hermann Samuel Reimarus (1694–1768) and Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965) changed the landscape of biblical interpretation. Twentieth-century scholars like Rudolph Bultmann and Karl Barth affirmed that theology and Bible study are closely related, with one impacting the other, and helped Christians understand the meaning of scripture in the context in which it was written. Theologies in the latter part of the 20th and 21st centuries, such as liberation and feminist theologies, emphasized human experience as an authority for understanding scripture and the Christian faith. The diverse standpoints from which people begin their study of scripture shape their understanding. Contextual study is the practice of African Americans, women, and persons who come from places on the margins of society to investigate the Bible out of the context of their experience. Methods of Study and Curricula Bible study has taken many forms and used a variety of methods. German educator Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841) emphasized a four-step approach of preparation, presentation, explanation, and application. The Uniform Lesson Plan series began in 1882 and was the foundation for Protestant Christian education for many years. The series provided themes that covered major portions of the Bible over a seven-year cycle (Cully 1995, 3–4). Inductive Bible study dates at least from the early 1900s; it involves looking at the whole of a text and then moving to individual words or phrases. Rather than beginning with principles to prove, the student looks to the text first. Bible study fellowship was begun in 1959 by Audrey Wetherell Johnson, a British missionary to China; it is an international parachurch movement initially started to provide Bible study to converts from a Billy Graham crusade. In the 1980s, Walter Wink introduced “Transforming Bible Study,” which used the brain research on left-brain/right-brain thinking to de-emphasize a cognitive approach to the Bible in favor of an affective or experiential approach. Robin Maas’s Church Bible Study Handbook taught church Bible study leaders basic exegetical and word study methods and advocated using a variety of translations and study resources, such as Bible dictionaries, concordances, atlases, and commentaries. Interest in child development in the 20th century, including the theory of Jean Piaget, was brought to


Bible Study Software

Christian education for helping children understand and experience the Bible. Theories on how people learn emerged in psychology, which were applied to Bible study. Recently, the multiple intelligence theory of Howard Gardner has been employed. This involves the use of seven forms of intelligence—visual, spatial, logicalmathematical, musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal—to illuminate biblical texts (Bruce 2000). The advent of computers has brought software such as BibleWorks, Bible Gateway, and Verse Search for biblical scholars and lay students. An increasing number of “apps” for mobile devices let people read and study the Bible on the go. Among some Christian Bible study groups, there has been a revival of the ancient Benedictine practice of lectio divina, a contemplative approach that involves meditation on the reading of scripture to promote communion with God. Bible study today also uses the arts and popular culture such as music and film, because these demonstrate the relevance of the biblical message and stimulate emotional involvement with the text (Roncace and Gray 2007, 8). References and Resources Boys, M. 1990. “Bible Study.” In Harper’s Encyclopedia of Religious Education, edited by I. V. Cully and K. B. Cully, 72–73. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Bracke, J. M., and K. Tye. 2003. Teaching the Bible in the Church. St. Louis, MO: Chalice Press. Bruce, B. 2000. 7 Ways of Teaching the Bible to Adults. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Brueggemann, W. 1982. The Creative Word: Canon as Model for Biblical Education. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. Cully, I. 1995. The Bible in Christian Education. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. Grant, R. M., and D. Tracy. 1984. A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. Hestenes, R. 1983. Using the Bible in Groups. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Maas, R. 1982. Church Bible Study Handbook. Nashville: Abingdon Press. Rogerson, J, ed. 2001. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. Roncace, M., and P. Gray, eds. 2007. Teaching the Bible Through Popular Culture and the Arts. Society of Biblical Literature, no. 53. Edited by S. Ackerman and J. R. Wagner. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. Wink, W. 1980. Transforming Bible Study. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Wright, D. 2001. “The Reformation to 1700.” In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible, 192–217. New York: Oxford University Press.

—Susan Willhauck

Bible Study Software Bible study software represents the latest blending of ancient revelation with modern technology. Just as the movable type was harnessed for the printing of Bibles, so too have computers been employed for the development of electronic Bibles and digital theological libraries. From Greek language software developed for mainframe computers in the 1970s, to searchable Bibles and theological libraries on personal computers in the 1980s and 1990s, to social and mobile Bible apps in the present, Bible software has kept pace with the changing technological times, to the benefit of Christian education. History of Computerized Bibles One of the earliest uses of computers for biblical study was Project GRAMCORD, founded in 1976 at Indiana State University.40 The intention was to develop a mechanism for computer-assisted analysis of biblical languages, in particular a tool to assist with grammatical and syntactical analysis. As James A. Boyer noted in a 1980 article about Project GRAMCORD, “For many years I have felt the need for a new tool for Greek exegesis, a concordance which will do for the study of syntactical constructions what a word concordance does for the study of word meanings.”41 Over time the GRAMCORD project expanded to include both Greek and Hebrew tools for personal computers. In the 1980s and 1990s, with the emergence and popularity of personal computers, Bible study software entered the mainstream. In particular, the availability of CD-ROMs (which could hold the equivalent of hundreds of floppy disks) as a means of distributing software meant that a Bible software package could move beyond merely a searchable Bible to include additional connected resources such as concordances, lexical codes, commentaries, parallel passages, and other resources. Although numerous Bible software applications, both commercial and public domain, were released for personal computers, a few milestones stand out. In 1988, Ellis Enterprises released The Bible Library CD-ROM, which contained 9 Bible versions and 21 reference sources.42 Around the same time, Parsons Technology released QuickVerse, a low-cost, floppy-disk based, searchable Bible program.43 40. The GRAMCORD Institute, “What Is The GRAMCORD Institute?” 2010, http://www.gramcord.org/whatis.htm. 41. James A. Boyer, “Project GRAMCORD: A Report,” Grace Theological Journal 1, no. 1 (1980): 97–99. 42. Ellis Bible Library, “About Us,” http://www.biblelibrary.com/ee _aboutus.htm. 43. Craig Rairdin, “QuickVerse/Parsons Technology History,” Craig’s World, 4 April 2013, http://www.craigr.com/2013/04/04/quickverseparsons -technology-history/.

Bible Translation

By 1993, IBM had entered the field and partnered with Ellis Enterprises to release The New Bible Library. In 1992, two major companies were founded to produce Bible software programs: BibleWorks and Logos Research Systems. BibleWorks was primarily focused on providing “a complete package containing the tools most essential for the task of interpreting the Scriptures in the original Greek and Hebrew, and to do it at a price that poor pastors and students can afford.”44 Accordingly, BibleWorks combined the graphical user interface of Microsoft Windows with a robust bundle of resources to enable users to engage with the original Greek and Hebrew texts in a powerful and accessible format. Logos Research Systems focused more on the development of a comprehensive biblical and theological library system, again on the Microsoft Windows platform. In 1995, Logos released version 2.0 of its software, which “introduces the ‘library’ concept to Bible software. The LLS is the first Bible software platform designed to support hundreds of electronic books delivered, or unlocked, as separate products.”45 Over time, many Bible software packages moved toward a model that combined Bible search, original language integration, and an interconnected resource library. The rise of the Internet and World Wide Web saw the release of online searchable Bibles and biblical resources. Perhaps the most significant of these was The Bible Gateway, started by Calvin College student Nick Hengeveld, which became the cornerstone of the Gospel Communication Network’s Gospelcom.net website.46 With the emergence of mobile and tablet computing, Bible study software was reborn as apps. In addition to mobile or app versions of existing computer-based programs, new apps written specifically for the mobile market emerged, including LifeChurch.tv’s Bible app, Bible+ by Olive Tree Bible Software, and the FaithLife Study Bible from Logos Bible Software. In addition to many resources and search features found in the computer and online Bible programs, many mobile Bible apps integrate social networking, so users can interact with one another in virtual Bible study communities, both public and private. Features of Bible Software The ability to search the full text of multiple versions of the Bible is the core but far from the only feature found in Bible study software. Contemporary computer-based, 44. BibleWorks, “What Is BibleWorks?” 2013, http://www.bibleworks .com/content/. 45. Logos Bible Software, “History of Logos Bible Software,” 2012, http://www.logos.com/about/history. 46. BibleGateway.com, “About the Bible Gateway Searchable Online Bible,” http://www.biblegateway.com/about/.


online, and mobile Bible software programs are robust theological research systems capable of academic research, original language translation, sermon preparation, or personal devotions. Users can search across multiple books (Bibles, commentaries, lexicons, etc.), often by keyword, phrase, topic, or complex query. Searches can be simple, like finding every use of “God” in the New International Version translation of the Bible; more complex, such as hunting down discussions of justification in not only the Bible but all of the reference books (dictionaries, commentaries, etc.) in your collection; or truly detailed, including locating all perfect indicative occurrences of τελεω (teleo, to finish) in the Greek text. Clicking on individual words often brings up relevant lexical definitions, morphological analysis, cross-references, or additional resources. Most Bible study applications also include graphics, maps, audio, and video related to the textual resources. Bible apps for mobile devices differ from their personal computer counterparts primarily in the social dimension. Both computer software and mobile app Bible products generally permit highlighting, bookmarking, note taking, and other such study activities; however, mobile Bible apps also enable users to view that content across a variety of devices, share their study materials with others, and engage in online social networking around their biblical studies. As mobile devices grow in popularity, it will be interesting to see whether Bible apps supplant their desktop competitors or are used in parallel to them. Given that it’s not unusual to see a pastor using an iPad as an alternative to sheaves of paper for sermon notes, digital Bibles will likely grow in popularity in seminaries and churches in the years to come. —Jason Baker

Bible Translation The authors of the Old and New Testaments wrote to communicate, so they used the mother tongues of their target audiences—Hebrew and Aramaic for the OT, and Greek for the NT. Today, most people read Bible translations rather than the ancient originals—in English alone, hundreds of translations exist. Why Translate? The first OT translation was the Septuagint (LXX), a Greek version of the third century BC. By Jesus’s day it was read aloud in Jewish synagogues around the Roman empire in Greek-speaking cities, such as Corinth and Rome, since many Jews primarily spoke Greek. NT authors mainly use the Septuagint when citing OT scripture.


Bible Translation

In Israel-Palestine, although Jewish teachers learned Hebrew, most people spoke Aramaic. Hence, the Targums were produced in Aramaic and were read aloud in Palestinian synagogues. They often paraphrase and expand the Hebrew quite freely. NT translation sprang from missionary motives: the early Christians expressed their faith in people’s mother tongues so that they too could learn to follow Jesus. By AD 300, versions existed in Latin (c. AD 150–200), Syriac (c. AD 160), and Coptic, the Egyptian language (c. third century AD). The number of translations grew rapidly in the following centuries. This Christian missionary motivation for Bible translation contrasts with Islam, since mainstream Muslims believe that the Qur’an should not be translated from Arabic. The Growth of Bible Translation By the 15th century in Europe, the main Bible was the Latin Vulgate, and church services were in Latin. However, only educated people understood Latin, so the desire to have the Bible and church services in people’s own language was a driver of the 16th-century Reformation. The Catholic Church hierarchy of the day opposed this, fearing they would lose control of what people believed. But those who translated the Bible into English, German, Dutch, French, and so forth wanted the Bible’s transforming message accessible to everyone. The Dutch scholar Erasmus wrote: Christ wishes his mysteries to be published as widely as possible. . . . I wish they were translated into all languages of all Christian people, that they might be read and known, not merely by the Scotch and the Irish, but even by the Turks and the Saracens. I wish that the husbandman may sing parts of them at his plough, that the weaver may warble them at his shuttle, that the traveler may with their narratives beguile the weariness of the way.

Thus the Bible is a major tool in Christian education today, for reading in public worship, group study, individual devotions, and theological study. United Bible Societies and Wycliffe Bible Translators make the Bible available in new languages. As of 2013, of the more than 6,800 languages known in the world, only 518 have the whole Bible. Other languages have the full OT or NT, or at least one Bible book, meaning that about 90 percent of the world’s population has at least some of the Bible in a language they know. About 209 million people still lack any scripture in their own language (the world population is about 7 billion); they are primarily located in Central Africa and Nigeria, mainland and Southeast Asia, and Indonesia and the Pacific islands.

Issues in Bible Translation Translations vary in style and content, because of their contrasting foci. Some focus on the original (or source) language, translating “word by word,” aiming to use the source language’s sentence structure as far as possible (e.g., in English, NASB, ESV). These are sometimes (wrongly) called “literal” versions, but all versions involve some changes to make the translations understood in the target language (Strauss 2005). Others focus on the target language, translating “thought by thought,” aiming to convey the original’s meaning using the structures of the target language. Strongly target-language-focused versions are paraphrases, sometimes offering striking phrasing (e.g., in English, The Message). Many versions use a mediating approach, aiming to convey the meaning clearly in the target language without distorting the original (e.g., in English, NIV, HCSB, NRSV). Another focus is the target audience: some versions aim at children (e.g., Living Bible), or second-language readers (e.g., Good News Bible). In some languages, “inclusive” language is important—for example, in English, when both women and men are included in the original, “people” and “humanity” are better than “men” and “man” (Carson 1998). Translating terms for people with disabilities sensitively is also important (Wynn 2001). Human language keeps changing, so Bible translation never ends, continuing to convey God’s Word in contemporary human words, to enable the church to learn and grow. See also Learning Biblical Languages References and Resources Beekman, J., and J. Callow. 1974. Translating the Word of God. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Carson, D. A. 1998. The Inclusive-Language Debate: A Plea for Realism. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. Fee, G. D., and M. L. Strauss. 2007. How to Choose a Translation for All Its Worth. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. France, R. T. 1997. Translating the Bible. Grove Biblical no. 3. Cambridge, UK: Grove. Sheeley S. M., and R. N. Nash Jr. 1997. The Bible in English Translation. Nashville, TN: Abingdon. Strauss, M. L. 2005. “Form, Function, and the ‘Literal Meaning’: Fallacy in English Bible Translation.” Bible Translator 56: 153–168. Wynn, K. H. 2001. “Disability in Biblical Translation.” Bible Translator 52: 402–414. United Bible Societies. http://www.unitedbiblesocieties.org/. Wycliffe Bible Translators. http://www.wycliffe.org/.

—Steve Walton

Bible, Early Vernacular Translations of the

Bible, Early Vernacular Translations of the Since the ordinary reader cannot read the Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek languages, there has long been a need to translate the scriptures into the languages of the world. While the Latin Bible, particularly the Latin Vulgate created by Jerome between AD 383 and 405, remained dominant through the early centuries of Christianity, other translations in the vernacular began to appear in England and continental Europe in the early part of the Middle Ages and went hand in hand with the Reformation. English Translations The first translation of the complete Bible into the English language was undertaken by John Wycliffe (c. 1330–1384) and his colleagues and was completed in 1382 (Metzger 2001, 56). A second version was made by Wycliffe’s secretary, John Purvey, a short time later. Both were literal renderings of the Latin Vulgate. It is unlikely that Wycliffe himself took part in the actual work of the translation. Rather, it was under his inspiration that his friends and coworkers completed the work (Bruce 1978, 12–15; Vos 1975, 575; Cairns 1996, 245–246). The first English translation of the New Testament to be printed was that of William Tyndale (c. 1494–1536). Translated from Erasmus’s Greek New Testament, it was published in two editions at Worms in 1525 and was significant because it had such a great influence on subsequent translations (Metzger 2001, 60). However, Myles Coverdale (1488–1569) is credited with publishing the complete Bible in English in 1535. Known as the Coverdale Bible, it was translated from the Latin Vulgate, rather than directly from Hebrew and Greek (Vos 1975, 576). In 1537, a volume by John Rogers (c. 1500–1555) appeared, known as Matthew’s Bible. About two-thirds of the translation is the work of Tyndale (Bruce 1978, 25; Cairns 1996, 321; Vos 1975, 576). With two versions being freely circulated and read in England, Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658), Lord Protector of the British Commonwealth, encouraged the revision of the Matthew Bible to make it more acceptable to the public. The task of the revision was entrusted to Coverdale and published in 1540. It became known as the Great Bible because of its size, the largest English Bible published to that point (Vos 1975, 576; Bruce 1978, 67–71). Roman Catholic persecution of Protestants in England in the mid-16th century made further translations impossible in that country; thus several Protestant scholars fled to Geneva, where they worked on another revision of the Bible. William Whittingham (1524–1579) began the work with the revision of the New Testament in 1557


and the completion of a revision of the complete Bible in 1560, a task taken on by several scholars. The Geneva Bible was based primarily on the Great Bible for the Old Testament and Tyndale’s translation of the New Testament (Vos 1975, 578; Bruce 1978, 86–92). Two lesser-known translations appeared between the publication of the Geneva Bible and the widely embraced and yet to come King James Version. The Bishop’s Bible (1568) was produced by the bishops of the Church of England and ceased printing in 1602. The authorities of the Roman Catholic Church approved the RheimsDouay Bible, made from the Latin Vulgate. The Old Testament (1610) was published at the University of Douay in northern France, and the New Testament was produced at Rheims, France (1582) (Vos 1975, 578; Bruce 1978, 113; Metzger 2001, 67–69). The most enduring English translation of the Bible from the Renaissance is the King James Version (1611). Unhappy with the existing translations, King James I called for a new version of the Bible, to be prepared by 47 of the best scholars in England. The translators used other translations (primarily the Bishop’s Bible) as a basis, but it was translated out of the original tongues. Commonly called the Authorized Version, the KJV is still the most popular and widely read English Bible (Vos 1975, 578; Bruce 1978, 96–100). Translations in the Languages of Continental Europe In Germany, Martin Luther (1483–1546) completed the translation of the New Testament in 1522, based on Erasmus’s edition of the Greek New Testament. The complete Bible, including the Apocrypha, was published in 1534 (Cairns 1996, 285; Green 1974, 127). The German Bible did not just put the scriptures into German; it began a critical epoch in the Reformation. J. H. Merle d’Aubigne noted, “It worked an entire change in society . . . . When the Bible began to be read in the families of Christendom, Christendom itself was changed” (1832, 78). In Switzerland Luther’s New Testament was adapted to the Swiss dialect in 1524; the whole Bible was published in 1530 (Schaff [1910] 1988, 63–64). In France, Jacques Lefevre (1455–1536) completed a translation of the Bible into French, based largely on the Latin Vulgate, in 1525 (Cairns 1996: 309); he also worked from an earlier version of a French Bible (Lindsay 1907,142). Lefevre’s version was disregarded by some Christians, and Pierre Olivetan (c. 1506–1538) wrote a new translation based on the Hebrew and Greek texts (Cairns 1996, 308–309). The first New Testament written in the Dutch language was published in 1523 (Cairns 1996, 315). The earliest version of the complete Dutch Bible was the Mennonite Bible (1558), later known as the Biestkens


Bible, Relationship of Education to the

Bible (Lane 1977, 372). The first complete Czech Bible translated from Hebrew and Greek was the Kralice Bible (1593), published by the Unity of the Brethren in six volumes (Evans 1996, 185–186). The Danish Bible was the Christian III Bible, translated by the Danish Reformed Church in 1550 (Lane 1977, 372); Juan Perez de Pineda (c. 1500–1568) completed translating the New Testament into Spanish in 1556, while the first complete Spanish Bible appeared in 1569 (Lane 1977, 372); the first Finnish Bible was completed in 1642 (Liechty 1996, 107). References and Resources Bruce, F. F. 1978. History of the Bible in English. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Cairns, Earle E. 1996. Christianity Through the Centuries. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. D’Aubigne, J. H. Merle. 1832. History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Vol. III. Translated by H. White. New York: American Tract Society. Evans, R. J. W. 1996. “Bohemian Brethren.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, Vol. 1, edited by Hans J. Hillerbrand, 185–186. New York: Oxford University Press. Green, V. H. H. 1974. Luther and the Reformation. n.p.: Mentor Books. Lane, Tony. 1977. “A Flood of Bibles.” In Eerdmans’ Handbook to the History of Christianity, edited by Tim Dowley, 368–372. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Liechty, Daniel. 1996. “Finland.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, vol. 2, edited by Hans J. Hillerbrand, 106–108. New York: Oxford University Press. Lindsay, Thomas M. 1907. A History of the Reformation. Vol II. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. May, Herbert Gordon. 1965. Our English Bible in the Making. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Metzger, Bruce M. 2001. The Bible in Translation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Schaff, Philip. (1910) 1988. History of the Christian Church. Vol. VIII. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Vos, J. G. 1975. “Bible, English Versions.” In The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, vol. 1, edited by Merrill C. Tenney, 571–582. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Wegner, Paul D. 1999. The Journey from Texts to Translations. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

—Harley T. Atkinson

Bible, Relationship of Education to the The Bible often functions as educational content—in both church and formal schooling settings, it has been an important part of what is taught, not only in theologically focused classes, but also, for example, as a literary text and source of literary allusions. Such use of the Bible

raises educational questions concerning adaptation to the needs and abilities of particular learners. The Bible has also acted as an impetus to education, for example, through its calls to believing parents to teach their children carefully, or through the emphasis on literacy that accompanies an emphasis on Bible study. The Bible may, however, also play a more directive role as a source of, or controlling framework for, particular educational approaches. This involves reflection on what it might mean for educational approaches to be biblically directed, rather than on the insertion of the Bible into existing educational approaches. Main Approaches In the history of interaction between the Bible and education, the Bible has been brought to bear on education in various ways. Prominent among these are the following. Character The Bible teaches a normative view of character, sometimes specifically in connection the teaching role (2 Tim. 2:22–25). This may be applied both to the character of the Christian teacher and to the character that educational efforts seek to encourage in learners, inviting biblically informed reflection on how character is formed and on moral aspects and effects of broader pedagogical choices. Doctrine/Worldview Approaches to education necessarily assume particular views of human nature and flourishing, the nature of knowledge and truth, the nature of reality, what knowledge is important, and the ends to which skills are to be applied. The Bible is a source of theological teaching on such topics, and biblical teaching in these areas can inform and critique education. This is approached sometimes through direct appeal to what the Bible is held to teach about education, and sometimes through the Bible’s shaping of a broader worldview that is then related to educational thinking. Narrative Narrative theology has pointed to the importance of narrative in the Bible, both its small stories and its overall narrative shape. Similarly, some educational theory has approached curriculum and the shaping of students’ worldviews in terms of both subject content stories and overarching narratives. This has suggested approaches to Christian education in terms of resonance with biblical narrative patterns and emphases. Imagination The Bible is rich in patterns of imagery that can inform not only theological, but also educational, imagination.

Bible, Use of the

The role of metaphors (e.g., learners as containers) in shaping educational thought and practice is generally acknowledged. Biblical imagery (including, e.g., gardens, light, pilgrimage, bread, foundations) used to think about teaching and learning has linked education to biblically informed patterns of seeing. Canon/Modeling The formation of the canon of scripture implies a process and a final arrangement of materials intended to serve the educational and intergenerational continuity of the faith community. Some have looked to the various pedagogical emphases modeled in the Bible and their canonical arrangement as offering a basis for approaching education biblically. A related approach looks to the pedagogy discernible in Jesus’s teaching, as represented in scripture, as a model for education. Practices The Bible is a source not only for Christian doctrine, but also for a range of Christian practices, such as Sabbath, hospitality, or intentional community. Some approaches to Christian education explore the formational intent and pedagogical insights of these practices against their biblical background and in relation to educational practice. These approaches may be adopted singly or in combination. The list is not exhaustive and is complicated further by questions of the degree to which the Bible is approached as an unproblematic authority or in light of its use to support stances seen as needing critique, as in some postcolonial and feminist contexts. Even this brief map may indicate some of the complexity of the relationship between the Bible and education. References and Resources Badley, Ken. 1996. “Two ‘Cop-outs’ in Faith-Learning Integration: Incarnational Integration and Worldviewish Integration.” Spectrum 28 (2): 105–118. Brueggemann, Walter. 1982. The Creative Word: Canon as a Model for Biblical Education. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. Melchert, Charles F. 1998. Wise Teaching: Biblical Wisdom and Educational Ministry. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International. Smith, David I., and John Shortt. 2002. The Bible and the Task of Teaching. Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre.

—David I. Smith

Bible, Use of the There is a range of ways in which the Bible can shape the life and thinking of Christian educators and thereby make a difference to how they fulfil their calling in the home,


church, school, or any other context in which teaching and learning take place. A very common approach to relating the Bible to education moves by deduction from the statements of scripture or from basic beliefs derived from the Bible to conclusions for educational practice. Our basic Christian beliefs about human nature and relationships and about the nature of reality can have a deep impact on our thinking about educational issues. However, it is important to note that pure deduction is not the only possible relationship between Christian beliefs and educational practices. For example, biblical presuppositions may commend or permit rather than require certain practices, and they may exclude others. They may function in the manner of a “filter” rather than as the “pump” of logical entailment. There may also be fewer formal relationships between beliefs and practice. Classroom methods and techniques may be patterned as a result of a teacher being shaped by a whole set of beliefs rather than by following a particular strand of biblical teaching. One way in which this patterning relationship can take effect is through metaphors. Metaphors can generate different patterns of belief and practice, and they therefore function far more centrally than would the mere literary adornments they are sometimes taken to be. Similar-sounding metaphors may have very different roots. The Christian educator John Amos Comenius saw teaching as gardening. He derived this from the biblical idea of a garden as being originally God’s good creation but corrupted by the Fall and in need of God’s redemptive activity. This differs quite radically from Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s later use of a similar-sounding metaphor, which saw the teacher’s role as a matter of bringing up the child in a natural state free from harmful adult influences. The Bible may shape us through metaphors that are drawn directly from the Bible (e.g., teacher as shepherd) or those that fit well with what it teaches. Parker Palmer, for example, proposes that in place of our Western view of knowing as power and mastery, we should see knowing in more biblical terms, as loving. The Bible comes to us mainly in narrative form and with an implicit meta-narrative of creation, fall, and redemption. It shapes us as we seek to live and to teach in that big ongoing story rather than in the alternative meta-narratives of consumerism, humanism, rationalism, and so forth. Both the big story and the little stories that we tell in our living and in our teaching will be biblical if there is a “fittingness” to the biblical meta-narrative. The Bible also provides us with models for teaching and learning, in the teachers that it portrays—especially Jesus—and in the ways of teaching that it exemplifies.


Biblical Education by Extension

Walter Brueggemann (1982) said that the three main divisions of the Old Testament exemplified three modes of teaching. The Torah gives us an orderly, trustworthy lifeworld, a framework of accepted meaning. The Prophets focus on the critiquing of received understandings and the imagining of alternatives. The Wisdom books explore the potential and limitations of everyday life relationships and communal experience. All of these can be seen as necessary and complementary dimensions of education. Jesus himself taught in all three of these modes. The lives and teaching of Christian educators can be shaped by the Bible through its principles, metaphors, grand narrative, and models of teaching. As a result, they become in their persons and actions “living letters” to be known and read by those they teach. References and Resources Badley, Ken, and Harro Van Brummelen, eds. 2012. Metaphors We Teach By: How Metaphors Shape What We Do in Classrooms. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. Brueggemann, Walter. 1982. The Creative Word: Canon as a Model for Biblical Education. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. Palmer, Parker J. 1983. To Know as We Are Known: A Spirituality of Education. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Smith, David I., and John Shortt. 2002. The Bible and the Task of Teaching. Nottingham, UK: The Stapleford Centre.

—John Shortt

Biblical Education by Extension Biblical Education by Extension (BEE) was originally founded in Vienna, Austria, in 1979 by five mission agencies working in Eastern Europe to train church leaders in creative access countries where formal theological education was restricted. Due to the oppression of the communist governments, Protestant denominations were unable to provide adequate theological training for their clergy or initiate new institutions for theological leadership development. BEE was a cooperative educational mission whose informal extension program offered biblical education to ecclesiastical leaders behind the Iron Curtain. The first general director was Joseph (Jody) C. Dillow (1979–2011), with Al Bridges as the managing director, and Lois McKinney and Fred Holland as educational advisors. The new organization worked with staff and resources from the following organizations: Campus Crusade for Christ, Church Resource Ministries, the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society, East European Bible Mission, European Christian Mission, Grace Community Church of Sun Valley California, International Teams, the Navigators, Open Doors, Operation

Mobilization, Slavic Gospel Association, and Taking Christ to the Millions. Before the political upheaval in the area that occurred from 1989 to 1991, BEE trained leaders across various denominations in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. The educational materials were produced in English and translated into seven languages of the geographic region. The instructional tools included textbooks and self-study guides, coupled with covert seminars to thwart government opposition. The focus of the training was studying the Bible, theological doctrine, and pastoral care. The overall purpose of BEE was to establish educational centers in churches that would train leaders to reproduce the program throughout their own nations. By the late 1980s, several thousand church leaders had connected with the BEE program. After the Cold War ended in 1992, denominational leaders in Eastern Europe established their own training institutions of theological learning. This became a catalyst for BEE in the mid-1990s to adopt strategies to meet the changing educational needs. BEE materials were incorporated in national training programs, and the institution moved toward educational consultancy and the supply of resource materials. By 1994, the BEE board of directors had authorized the formation of BEE World, a new ministry that would utilize the same philosophy, curriculum, and discipleship strategy to expand the BEE training model to other restricted access countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. BEE World, headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colorado, continued under the leadership of Jody Dillow to address the growing worldwide leadership crisis by providing biblical training to pastors and church leaders who otherwise would have no access to biblical education. BEE World follows the methodology of sending teachers to the various restricted access countries to start discipleship groups, which study BEE’s curriculum translated into the national language. The facilitation involves modeling the teaching method itself, so that each student can potentially multiply the process by having his or her own training group. BEE World partners with the Internet Biblical Seminary to publish seminary-level doctrinal curriculum that students can access via printed book, CD-ROM, or online study. These courses include studies of the Old and New Testaments, books of the Bible, and issues of Christian living such as marriage and parenting, business leadership, and church relations. Since 1979, more than 50,000 students in 15 countries have taken BEE courses, and at least half of them have completed the curriculum and continued on to train others. In 1998, the first BEE Women’s Ministry track was launched in several countries of southeastern Asia,

Biblical Models of Education

emphasizing the equipping of women in ministry to develop their roles as wives, mothers, and Christian leaders. This has resulted in more than a thousand women leaders being trained in East Asia, Myanmar, Nepal, northern India, and Vietnam. —Robert L. Gallagher

Biblical Models of Education In exploring their discipline, educators employ the terms theory and model to distinguish between why something works and how it works. In proffering an answer to the “Why?” question, a theory answers, “Because.” In proffering an answer to the “How?” question, a model responds, “Like this.” While the theoretical question “why” is a legitimate investigative concern, the focus of this article is on identifying biblical models that describe “how” education occurs. Distinguishing between Biblical Models “Biblical models of education” can refer to models that incorporate scripture or models that emanate from the text itself. Models That Incorporate Scripture There is no denying the value and validity of educational models that incorporate scripture to inform and inspire. Within this category, we find models such as Yount’s (2010) discipler’s model and Beechick’s (2004) model of learning. These, and others like them, are supported by scripture and have “proved quite workable for setting down a biblical theory of learning” (Beechick 2004, 47). Models That Emanate from Scripture It is when educators turn to the scriptures as the source of, not just a resource for, their models that the power and practicality of a Bible-based educational theory is fully experienced. A number of educational models emerge from scripture as instructional templates. Two popular and frequently utilized models for curricular development and design can be found in the Shema of Deuteronomy 6 and the early Church’s program, recorded in Acts 2:42ff. Paul’s prayers for the Philippian and Colossian congregations (see Phil. 1:9–11 and Col. 1:9–12) provide a model for teachers and leaders as they construct lesson plans and select methods of instruction for their charges. In addition to these popular biblical models, two other passages also provide a framework for a disciple-making ministry. The rest of this article focuses on the biblical “how” of education as it is identified in Philippians 4:9 and Proverbs 2.


Biblical Processes: Philippians 4:9 “Whatever you have learned or received or heard from me, or seen in me—put it into practice. And the God of peace will be with you” (Phil. 4:9). Concise yet comprehensive, this summary of the processes of education anticipated by the apostle suggests a three-phase strategic model for the education process. (1) The proclamation of pertinent information, (2) the provision of an appropriate model to imitate, and (3) the promotion of practical experience and life change provide a framework for an effective procedure upon which every educational endeavor and teaching-learning experience can be constructed and implemented. In essence, every educational experience must include these biblical processes: instruction, illustration, and implementation. Proverbs 2: A Teaching-Learning Process Metamodel If Philippians 4:9 provides a telescopic model of education, the metamodel of Proverbs 2 provides the microscopic model. Here we find the details of the teachinglearning process suggested by the wisest man who ever lived, thus providing ancient wisdom for contemporary education. Using Solomon’s advice on education in Proverbs 2, we find that first (v. 1), the pupil must choose to participate in the learning and “accept my words.” The tutor obtains the student’s attention and motivates the individual to learn. Second (v. 2a), the learner engages in “turning your ear”— the process of receiving the intended message. Utilizing a variety of methods and materials, the teacher stimulates the senses. Third (v. 2b), the student participates in critically reflective listening, thinking, emoting, and making choices by “applying your heart.” The instructor will inspire the individual to study intently and master the content. Fourth (vv. 5, 9), the scholar will “then . . . understand”—raising the learning levels beyond knowledge to understanding and wisdom (vv. 5, 6, 9, 10, 12). The mentor utilizes probing questions and stimulating exercises and experiences to encourage growth. Fifth (v. 20), the educated follower experiences life change and “walk[s] in the ways of good men.” Learning has occurred when the disciple is a “doer of the word,” which is affirmed by the prophet Isaiah in 6:8–10, confirmed by the apostle in John 12:37–41, and illustrated by the missionary in 1 Thessalonians 2:13, 14. These five stages constitute a biblical model of Christian education that can be implemented in any venue, at any age, and for any audience. References and Resources Beechick, R. 2004. Heart and mind: What the Bible Says about Learning. Fenton, MI: Mott Media. Groome, T. H. 1980. Christian Religious Education: Sharing Our Story and Vision. San Francisco: Harper & Row.


Biblical Theology

Mitchell, M. R. 2010. Leading, Teaching, and Making Disciples: World-class Christian Education in the Church, School, and Home. Bloomington, IN: CrossBooks. Richards, L. O. 1975. A Theology of Christian Education. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Westerhoff, J. 1994. Spiritual Life: The Foundation for Preaching and Teaching. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. Wilson, J. A., M. D. Robeck, and W. B. Michael. 1969. Psychological Foundations of Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. Yount, W. 2010. Created to Learn. Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing.

—Michael R. Mitchell and Benjamin K. Forrest

Biblical Theology The study of the Bible is essential to all Christian theology and a central activity in all Christian education, since the Bible is the only reliable source for understanding God and His world. Jesus testified (Luke 24:27; John 5:39) that the scriptures were centered on Himself and thus have a unified, purposeful theme. This is the focus of biblical theology. Biblical theology understands that the Bible is God’s self-revelation. He is the Author of the sacred scriptures, even as He used almost 40 writers over 15 centuries. The goal of biblical theology is to discover, describe, organize, and clarify distinctive theological themes from the Hebrew and Christian scriptures. Because biblical theologians recognize the Bible as presenting a divinely authoritative message, the biblical text and biblical terminology are essential to the enterprise. Biblical theology always reflects the diversity of the biblical material while also espousing the deeper truths and unity of the Bible, especially as being Christo-centric and salvific. Identifying the specific characteristics of biblical theology is not difficult, although it remains a subject of discussion and debate even among its practitioners. Biblical theology is a subcategory of Christian theology between exegetical theology and systematic theology. It grows out of exegetical theology and is foundational for systematic theology. Although its exclusive focus is on the Bible and its proper interpretation, biblical theology is (aside from practical theology) the most collaborative of theological approaches. Historical studies are used in seeking the Sitz im Leben (situation in life) of the biblical material. Systematic theology’s organizational classifications or structures are frequently followed, and dogmatic topics are often the thematic subjects of study. Only philosophical speculation and scientific (both natural and social) are eschewed for the most part, since

they can lead the reader away from a biblical text rather than into its spiritual depth. The term biblical theology has been attributed to an inaugural address by Johann Philipp Grabler in 1797. In his introductory oration as professor of theology at the University of Altdorf, De justo discrimine theologiae biblicae et dogmaticae regundisque recte utriusque finibus (On the Proper Distinction between Biblical and Dogmatic Theology and the Specific Objectives of Each), Grabler describes the uniqueness of this theological discipline. Thus, the designation of biblical theology as a distinct and specific approach to theological study is of relatively recent origin, yet biblical theology can claim to be as ancient as the New Testament. While most frequently associated with theologians from a Reformed tradition, who have maintained the most consistent usage of the term, some Catholic and many Lutheran theologians understand the term similarly. For example, Martin Luther taught biblical theology in Wittenberg, following his training at the Eremetic Augustinian monastery in Erfurt, Germany. As such, he followed the medieval practice of studying the sacred page (sacra pagina) of scripture. The ancient church fathers, such as Augustine and Bernard, followed a similar approach to the text of scripture as the object of historical and grammatical scrutiny. Methodologically, biblical theologians ask the simplest of questions: “What does the Bible say?” The historical context of the biblical passages is considered, yet there is a sense of continuity with all of scripture. Some specialists will focus on Old Testament or New Testament theology or the theology of St. Paul or the theology of the Gospel of John. However, even these special studies contribute to the larger field of biblical theology. Engaging in biblical theology is fairly easy, at least initially. After reading a passage of scripture in the original language or in a translation, questions may be addressed to the text: What does this passage say about God? What does it say about humanity and the world? What does this section of scripture say about God’s plan of salvation in Christ Jesus? A more focused question on a specific topic may also be asked, for example: What does Paul mean by “grace”? If the student desires a more topical study, a concordance may be used to determine where there are other references in the Bible to the same subject. Or, if the scholar wishes to limit study to one book or selected books or testament, thematic threads may be discovered, assembled, and synthesized into a coherent whole. Ultimately, biblical theology is a foundational exercise for both the expert scholar and the general Bible reader. The goal is to hear God speak a word that convicts the reader of sin, or assures the reader of God’s


gracious love in Christ, or directs the reader to Christ’s saving promises. References and Resources Childs, Brevard. 2002. Biblical Theology: A Proposal. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. Hafemann, Scott. 2002. Biblical Theology: Retrospect and Prospect. Wheaton, IL: InterVarsity Press. Mead, James K. 2007. Biblical Theology: Issues, Methods, and Themes. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. Scobie, Charles. H. H. 2003. The Ways of Our God: An Approach to Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Vos, Geerhardus. 1975. Biblical Theology: Old and New Testaments. Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth.

—Timothy Maschke

Biblicism Biblicism is a theory of scripture that understands the Bible to be exclusively authoritative, free from error, and comprehensively relevant to human life. Commonly, biblicism involves ideas of the Bible’s exclusive authority, infallibility, perspicuity, self-sufficiency, internal consistency, universal applicability, self-evident meaning, and other features understood to be corollaries of a doctrine of sola scriptura. In emphasizing a literal reading of the Bible and adopting a negative stance toward most versions of historical criticism, most modern forms of the view differ from ancient and medieval strategies of biblical interpretation, which saw the Bible as fundamentally cryptic and thus needing to be interpreted spiritually (often by means of allegory or typology). Although, as H. Richard Niebuhr (1956) pointed out, liberal Protestantism’s emphasis on a particular view of the historical Jesus was a form of biblicism, most instantiations of it function as an aspect of Protestant fundamentalism or conservative evangelicalism, often providing an intellectual basis for theological construction in those traditions. Biblicism usually involves a weak emphasis on the diversity of the forms and intentions of scripture or its uses in the church historically or in the present. Biblicists often claim to be reading the Bible inductively, simply to be drawing from it what it clearly states, without the interference of the reader’s prejudices. Yet the plurality of positions on major theological topics (e.g., free will and divine sovereignty, theories of atonement, creation and evolution, marriage and divorce, eschatology) among biblicists seems to belie this self-understanding. The limits of the viewpoint have informed recent attempts by evangelicals to engage in ecumenical dialogue


in the context of the World Council of Churches, leading to a reconsideration of biblicism that attempts to reframe the idea in ways that would more adequately respect the plurality of voices in the Bible and the hermeneutical assumptions and contextualization issues lying behind contemporary appropriations of the sacred text. Evangelical responses to the Edinburgh 2010 missions conference of the World Council of Churches, for example, have emphasized the role of the Bible as the leading theological resource for the church, not one among many, while seeking to eliminate literalism and disrespect for other religious traditions. Still other thinkers have sought to distance Evangelicalism from biblicism by arguing for a more robust role for the church and its traditions in the understanding of scripture. In many conservative churches, however, biblicism is a necessary underpinning for theological formation, because the doctrines of those churches draw upon a particular, allegedly literal, reading of the biblical text. Ideas such as creationism, as well as more theologically weighty topics such as notions of atonement or providence, often depend on a strategy of reading the Bible that denigrates knowledge from other sources. Biblicism is thus part of a larger network of ideas that function together to create a thought world and so cannot easily be separated from the experiences of communities espousing it. References and Resources Barr, J. 1978. Fundamentalism. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Malley, B. 2004. How the Bible Works: An Anthropological Study of Evangelical Biblicism. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Niebuhr, H. R. 1956. The Purpose of the Church and Its Ministry. New York: Harper & Bros. Noll, M. 1994. The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Smith, C. 2012. The Bible Made Impossible: Why Biblicism Is Not a Truly Evangelical Reading of Scripture. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press.

—Samjung Kang-Hamilton

Bibliodrama Bibliodrama is a role-playing, exegetical pedagogy in which the roles are taken from the biblical text. While it is often done in traditional educational settings, it can also be used with any group desirous of engaging a sacred text. Peter Pitzele, in his book Scripture Windows: Toward a Practice of Bibliodrama, is widely viewed as the authoritative voice in bibliodrama.



Goals The goal of bibliodrama is to interact with the text in ways that engage the entirety of the person. Bibliodrama instructors desire their participants to gain a deeper understanding of the original story or pericope through a more comprehensive examination of experiential and cognitive learning modalities. Whereas most exegetical methods are purely intellectual, bibliodrama requires participants to interact emotionally and physically in order to provide new insights into the text. According to Pitzele: There is a traditional Jewish commentary that talks about the Bible as having been composed in black and white fire. The black fire is seen in the form of the printed or handwritten words in the page or scroll; the white fire is found in the spaces between and around the black . . . . Bibliodrama takes place in the open spaces of the text for the black fire, the black letters, are the boundaries. (1998, 23–24)

These open, or white, spaces are areas that allow for interpretation of the text to occur. Bibliodrama thus moves beyond a literal reading of the biblical material and allows participants to think, act, and move as if they were part of the original story. Challenges Bibliodrama poses several challenges that are not commonly addressed in a typical academic classroom. Whereas traditional exegesis requires texts and desks, bibliodrama requires space to move. It may also require that participants be willing to engage in theatrical conventions that may be unfamiliar or uncomfortable to them, such as improvisation, stage movement, and emotional recall. Further, instructors using bibliodrama must be able to maintain order and prevent participants from moving too far afield from the biblical source text. From an exegetical standpoint, because of its interpretive nature bibliodrama can quickly move away from the actual biblical text and place extended attention on the “white” spaces of interpretation. It also runs the risk of devolving into an examination of motivations that may be impossible to verify. Finally, bibliodrama interpretations have the potential to merely mirror a preexisting hermeneutic. Through his own experiences, Alex Sinclair (2004) determined that there are four hermeneutical approaches to engaging in bibliodrama: conservative, which stays closest to the biblical text; moderate, which may seek to identify participant biases; radical, which denies meaning can come from the text; and critical, which seeks to release the reader from the ideologies of the text. These approaches, borrowed from S. Gallagher, seem to progress from conservative to critical through a bibliodrama

session unless proper care is taken by all involved. “Our hermeneutic analysis has indicated that it is a technique that is much more weighted towards relevance than authenticity” (Sinclair 2004, 71). Practice Even with the challenges mentioned above, bibliodrama can be an effective tool to explore biblical stories and find application and relevance for today’s Christian. The ways that bibliodrama can manifest are many. Participants traditionally take on the role of a biblical character in a specific portion of biblical text, but this is not always possible or necessary. Other options might be playing the part of objects, such as Moses’s staff, or the role of the author of a certain text in order to examine possible reasons for writing in a certain style; everyone may play the same character to examine different motivations or reactions; or participants may “sculpt” a human picture of an instant frozen in time. The intention of bibliodrama is to examine what is happening in the story around the text. Therefore there is no “right” way to do bibliodrama, as long as hermeneutical considerations are addressed throughout the exercise. A typical bibliodrama exercise may have the following structure: the director determines how a portion of biblical text is going to be played and what questions will be asked; the director then communicates the intention to the class, who then add additional goals or questions; this is followed by the acting phase, in which participants role-play the story; and finally the session is completed by a reviewing phase, which includes getting out of character, sharing about the experience of being a character, exegeting and comparing what was done with the biblical text, consulting other sources such as commentaries, and processing and talking about how the bibliodrama was conducted. References and Resources Erlenwein, Peter. 2002. “Bibliodrama: A Modern Mind-Body Hermeneutics.” Asia Journal of Theology 16 (2): 327–340. Krondorfer, Björn, ed. 1992. Body and the Bible: Interpreting and Experiencing Biblical Narratives. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International. Pitzele, Peter A. 1998. Scripture Windows: Toward a Practice of Bibliodrama. Los Angeles: Torah Aura Productions. Rogers, Frank. 2011. Finding God in the Graffiti: Empowering Teenagers Through Stories. Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press. Sinclair, Alex. 2004. “An Exercise in the Theory of Practice: The Hermeneutics of Bibliodrama in the Sinclair Classroom.” Journal of Jewish Education 70 (3): 61–73.

—Jeffrey Tirrell

Billy Graham Library

Billy Graham Center and Library The Billy Graham Center (Wheaton, IL) and The Billy Graham Library (Charlotte, NC) were both named for William Franklin “Billy” Graham Jr. (1918– ). Graham is an American Christian evangelist who was shaped by the fundamentalism of his southern upbringing and that of the institutions he attended: Bob Jones College in Cleveland, Tennessee; Florida Bible Institute in Temple Terrace; and Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois, where he graduated with a degree in anthropology (1943). Graham was the pastor of several congregations and served as president of Northwestern Bible College. However, unlike many evangelists, he had very little theological training and no advanced degree. He was famous for his crusades, student ministry, international ministry, and involvement outside the church serving as an advisor to various national and international leaders. He progressively shaped the evangelical movement of the 20th century in three ways. First was taking a stand against racial discrimination through his association and work with Martin Luther King Jr., by eliminating segregated seating for his own crusades, and through the hiring of a significant number of black Americans for his own staff. Second was when he crossed theological lines to work ecumenically with Roman Catholic, neoorthodox, and mainline Protestant movements. Third was taking the Gospel message internationally through his crusades. “Taking the gospel message to the world” has been the central focus of his lifelong ministry and mission. This focus continues to live on intentionally in both the Billy Graham Center and The Billy Graham Library. Billy Graham Center While the Billy Graham Center serves as the repository of many of Graham’s materials, its boarder purpose is to accelerate global evangelism. The center was dedicated in September 1980 and opened its doors in 1981. Since then, the vision and mission of the center have been fulfilled by providing strategic programming and resources through the work of 50 ministries that reach around the world and by housing program materials that benefit schools, churches, and the general public. The first floor of the center is dedicated to the history of Protestant evangelism in America and to the work of Billy Graham’s Evangelistic Association (BGEA). In keeping with Graham’s ministry, the center conveys the Gospel message in a simple graphic presentation. The Wheaton graduate school departments of theological studies, Christian ministries, psychological studies, and communications are all located on the second floor


of the center. The center’s library collection is housed on the third floor and includes books, periodicals, dissertations, microforms, and historical publications on missions and evangelism worldwide. The administrative offices for the center’s archives are located on the fourth floor. This floor also houses a collection of archives, the focus of the joint vision of Wheaton College and BGEA, which started in 1973 when Wheaton College offered to serve as the repository of Graham’s personal papers and BGEA records after it was determined that a center was needed to serve the combined roles of a historical society, training center, and research institute for the Protestant evangelical movement. The center has continued to serve churches, providing new resources concerning trends and needs of the present and future. These archives recognize the broader impact of the Protestant evangelical churches of America and house not only the work of Graham but also that of other 20th-century interdenominational, Protestant evangelical leaders, workers, and organizations, in this way providing a repository for documents that would otherwise be lost, as evangelicals have been more concerned with the advancement of the Gospel than with preserving the movement’s history.47 The center has a current website with up-to-date information at www.wheaton.edu/bgc. —Jeffrey Tirrell

Billy Graham Library The Billy Graham Library is located in Charlotte, North Carolina, near where Graham was raised. It is a crusade of its own as visitors tour the library, which is modeled after a dairy barn, and tour the restored family home, reminiscent of his family life and humble boyhood. The library was dedicated in 2007. In attendance with Billy Graham were former Presidents Carter, Clinton, and G. H. Bush. Following Graham’s wishes, the library’s core experience is the Gospel and the transforming power it has on a life that says “yes” to Jesus Christ. The entrance to the library is in the shape of a cross, a visual reminder to visitors that it is only through the Cross of Christ that we can be reconciled to God. The primary focus of the site is the delivery of the Gospel of Jesus Christ and an invitational call, which is delivered through a multimedia presentation. The library is organized around the themes of the man (Graham), the ministry, the message, and the mission, with the message (Gospel of Jesus Christ) being preeminent. Its Journey of Faith 47. R. Shuster, “Library and Archival Resources of the Billy Graham Center,” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 5, no. 3 (1981): 124–126.


Bioethics, Christian Contributions to

tour focuses on what God did in the life of a young farm boy who grew up in rural North Carolina, who ultimately committed his life to Jesus Christ at a local revival, and who then through God’s grace became America’s pastor and evangelist to the world. There is a year-round calendar of events for men, women, and children and group tours that are ministry oriented and supportive of the mission and vision of the library. Many events include special guest and speakers, especially those who have had an impact on Graham and have partnered with him in ministry. The site has a bookstore for visiting tourists, which often announces book signings by Christian authors. The library has its own website: www.billygrahamlibrary.org. References and Resources Hopkins, J. 2011. “The Legacy of Billy Graham: Critical Reflections on America’s Greatest Evangelist.” Fides Et Historia 43 (1): 113–114. Shuster, R. 1981. “Library and Archival Resources of the Billy Graham Center.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 5 (3): 124–126. Vajko, R. J. 2012. “The Surprising Work of God: Harold John Ockenga, Billy Graham and the Rebirth of Evangelicalism.” Mission Studies 29 (1): 132–133. The Billy Graham Center at Wheaton Center. www.wheaton .edu/bgc The Billy Graham Library. www.billygrahamlibrary.org

—Karen L. Estep

Bioethics, Christian Contributions to Gradually developing in the aftermath of World War II, bioethics is a relatively new discipline that originated in interdisciplinary discussions about medical issues. The first centers for the study and teaching of bioethics emerged in the United States in the 1970s. The Hastings Center was founded in 1970, and the Kennedy Institute at Georgetown University opened in 1971. Both have housed eminent theologians of different denominations. While basing their understandings on biblical teachings and a tradition dating back to the first centuries of Christianity, Christian theologians have, however, not spoken with one voice on the issues at the center of Christian bioethical dialogue and teaching. The Orthodox churches have taken a strong pro-life stand against abortion and euthanasia, as has the Roman Catholic Church, basing itself not only on Holy Scriptures and tradition, but also on natural reason. Strong pro-life positions have also been adopted by many of the evangelical churches. Other churches, while defending human life

and dignity, have often been less opposed to abortion, provided there are serious reasons. Voicing great concerns about many of the developments in medicine in this and the last century, the Roman Catholic Church has made significant statements about reproductive technologies, embryo research, and euthanasia, in addition to voicing its traditional objections to abortion in Declaration on Abortion, published by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) in 1974. Contraception was denounced by Pius XII in his 1930 encyclical Casti Connubi, following the Anglican Communion’s sanction of contraception that year. When Paul VI in 1968 repeated the condemnation in his encyclical Humanae Vitae, he declared that the unitive (relational) and procreative aspects of spousal sexual intercourse must never be separated. It was because of this declaration about the inseparable connection between spousal intercourse and procreation that the CDF was later, in Donum Vitae of 1987, to speak out against reproductive technologies bypassing spousal sexual intercourse. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was also condemned to the extent that it involves destruction of human embryos. This was on the understanding that human life must be protected from the time of conception, which likewise rules out research involving embryo destruction. The teaching of Donum Vitae was reiterated in the CDF’s instruction Dignitas Personae of 2008, in which the church cautioned against germ-line gene therapy and condemned human cloning as contrary to human dignity. Euthanasia was denounced by the CDF in its Declaration on Euthanasia of 1980. And in 1995, Pope John Paul II published his encyclical Evangelium Vitae, upholding the traditional doctrine of the sanctity of human life as a gift from God. While speaking out against euthanasia, as well as against destruction of embryonic and fetal human life, John Paul II distinguished euthanasia from “medical procedures which no longer correspond to the real situation of the patient, either because they are by now disproportionate to any expected results or because they impose an excessive burden on the patient and his family” (para. 65). Also taking also a strong pro-life stand, the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), the largest Protestant denomination in the United States, stated in its 2008 resolution directed against Planned Parenthood, America’s largest abortion provider, that “Scripture speaks to the sanctity of human life in the womb (Psalm 139:13–16).” And defending human life from the time of conception, the Resolution on Human Embryonic and Stem Cell Research of 1999 records the SBC’s “decades-long opposition to abortion except to save the physical life of the mother and their opposition to destructive human embryo research.” By implication, this statement also rules out IVF, inasmuch as it is linked to embryo wastage. In the Resolution

Bioethics, Christian Contributions to

on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide of 1992, the SBC also rejected any other action which of itself or by intention causes death. This declaration was followed in 1996 by another against assisted suicide. Organ donation after death is allowed provided the deceased or relatives have given their permission for the procedure. The Lutheran churches, however, have not presented a united front in the case of abortion. The Evangelical Lutheran Churches in America (ELCA), the largest Lutheran grouping in America, allows abortion in the case of threat to the woman’s life, rape, and “extreme fetal abnormality,” as explained in the teaching statement Abortion of 1991. There is no firm consensus on embryo research. And use of reproductive technologies is left to the conscience of couples. Euthanasia and assisted suicide are denounced in the social teaching statement End of Life Decisions, published by the Church Council of the ELCA in 1992. As explained in its earlier statement, Death and Dying (1982), however, ELCA allows withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment that is overly burdensome or disproportionate to expected benefits. The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A) (PCUSA), the biggest Presbyterian organization in America, also expresses divided opinions on abortion, as witness the Report of the Special Committee on Problem Pregnancies and Abortion of 1992. As regards euthanasia, it might be justifiable in extreme cases, according to the PCUSA document Life and Death Belong to God: Euthanasia, Assisted Suicide and End of Life Issues (1995). On the other hand, the more conservative Orthodox Presbyterian Church is opposed to abortion, as declared in its Report of the Committee to Study the Matter of Abortion (1971). The same position is taken in the 1987 Report of the Ad Interim Committee on Abortion, adopted by the Sixth General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of America. Having sanctioned responsible use of contraception at the Lambeth Conference of 1930, the churches of the Anglican Communion allow procreation to be separated from sexual intercourse. Speaking for the Anglican churches, the Church of England’s Board for Social Responsibility (BSR) has adopted a different approach to medically assisted conception than that of the Roman Catholic Church. In a report in 1984 the BSR welcomed IVF and artificial insemination, both with and without gametal donation. But “to promote good family relationships,” the BSR recommended openness with the donor child from the start. This report was a response to the work of the Warnock Committee, set up by the UK government; its recommendations led to the globally trendsetting Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act of 1990. Arguing that unborn life gradually deserves more respect as it grows, the BSR accepted the Warnock proposal to allow embryo research up to 14 days after fertilization or the appearance


of the primitive streak. While Anglicans take different views on abortion, most would allow it in case of rape or serious risk to the mother’s life or health. On the question of euthanasia, the Anglican churches take the same view as the Roman Catholic Church. The Lambeth Conference of 1998 declared that euthanasia is not compatible with Christian faith and should not be permitted in civil legislation. Futile treatment can, however, be withdrawn or withheld, allowing a person to die with dignity. The Orthodox churches, like the Roman Catholic Church, are conservative in their views, but generally tend to adopt a more pastoral approach. While not an official statement, the document Marriage, Family, Sexuality and the Sanctity of Life, published by the Holy Synod of Bishops of the Orthodox Church in America in 1992, provides a comprehensive account of Orthodox thinking on bioethical issues. Orthodox views on bioethics are also spelled out at length in the official statement Basis of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church, adopted at the Sacred Bishops’ Council of the Russian Orthodox Church in 2004. Declaring that life begins at conception, both documents describe abortion as an act of homicide and a grave sin. The Russian Orthodox document expresses, however, a forgiving view if the woman is repentant. And while not supporting the general use of contraception, the Orthodox churches may, it is explained in the 1992 OCA Synod document, allow it for the sake of the woman’s health. Moreover, the 2004 Russian Orthodox statement makes it clear that clergy should not coerce or induce couples to refuse conjugal relations. While denouncing gametal donation and surrogacy as violations of personal integrity and of the exclusiveness of marriage, both documents declare that the Orthodox churches accept artificial insemination by the husband. Since the Orthodox churches see conception as the beginning of life, they can, however, not allow embryo research or IVF if it involves destruction of human embryos. Cloning is also denounced in the Russian document, as are germ-line manipulations. Faithful to the commandment not to kill, the Orthodox churches also reject euthanasia and assisted suicide, as stated both in the 1992 OCA Synod document and in the 2004 document by the Russian Orthodox Church. Futile life-prolonging treatment may, on the other hand, be halted, the OCA Synod explains. And both documents sanction organ donation, provided the donor has given informed consent. References and Resources Board for Social Responsibility, Church of England (BSR). 1975a. Dying Well: An Anglican Contribution to the Debate on Euthanasia. London, UK: Church Information Office. Board for Social Responsibility, Church of England (BSR). 1975b. On Dying Well: An Anglican Contribution to the Debate on Euthanasia. London, UK: Church Information Office.


Biola University

Board for Social Responsibility, Church of England (BSR). 1984. Human Fertilisation and Embryology: The Response of the Board for Social Responsibility General Synod of the Church of England to the DHSS Report of the Committee of Inquiry. London, UK: Church Information Office. Board for Social Responsibility, Church of England (BSR). 1985. Personal Origins: The Report of a Working Party on Human Fertilisation and Embryology of the Board for Social Responsibility. London, UK: Church Information Office. Church Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Churches in America (ELCA). 1992. End of Life Decisions. Available at www.elca.org. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). 1974. Declaration on Abortion. Available at www.vatican.va. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). 1980. Declaration on Euthanasia. Available at www.vatican.va. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). 1988. Donum Vitae. Available at www.vatican.va. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). 2008. Dignitas Personae. Available at www.vatican.va. Evangelical Lutheran Churches in America (ELCA). 1982. Death and Dying. Available at www.elca.org. Evangelical Lutheran Churches in America (ELCA). 1991. Abortion. Available at www.elca.org. Holy Synod of Bishops of the Orthodox Church in America. 1992. Marriage, Sexuality and the Sanctity of Life. Available at www.oca.org. John Paul II. 1995. Evangelium Vitae. Available at www.vatican .va. Office of the General Assembly, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). 1992. Report of the Special Committee on Problem Pregnancies and Abortion. Available at www.pcuse.org. Paul VI. 1968. Encyclical Letter Humanae Vitae. Available at www.vatican.va. Pius XII. 1930. Encyclical Letter Casti Connubi. Available at www.vatican.va. Sacred Bishops’ Council of the Russian Orthodox Church. 2004. Basis of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church. Available at http://orthodoxeurope.org/page/3/14 .aspxSacred. Southern Baptist Convention (SBC). 1992. Resolution on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide. Available at www.sbc.net. Southern Baptist Convention (SBC). 1999. Resolution on Human Embryonic and Stem Cell Research. Available at www.sbc.net.

—Agneta Sutton

Biola University The Bible Institute of Los Angeles (Biola) was established in 1908 by Lyman Stewart and T. C. Horton to fulfill a specific need in Christian higher education. Its set objec-

tive reads: “for the teaching of the truths, for which the institute stands, its doors are to open every day of the year, and all people, without reference to race, color or class will ever be welcome to its privileges” (Biola, n.d., 90 Years of Following in His Steps, 49). Renowned Christian educator Dr. Reuben Archer Torrey pioneered the institution’s vision as the first dean. In response to changing societal needs over the past 106 years, the university has expanded its academic mission and programs, first from a Bible institute to a Bible college, then as a Christian college with an associated theological seminary, and most recently as a Christian university. The Bible Institute program eventually became a four-year course with degrees in theology, Christian education, and sacred music. In a bid to accommodate non-Bible courses, the Bible Institute was renamed Biola College. The Christian educational standard maintained by Biola opened the door for many students to choose the institution. Striving to accommodate the vast number of students and the vision of the institution toward a more broadened Christian teaching, Biola College became Biola University. Biola’s foundation has remained the same: commitment to Jesus Christ, the inerrancy of scripture, and biblical Christianity (within an evangelical Protestant framework), as well as the spiritual, academic, and holistic growth of those who are personally committed to Him (Biola, 21). As a Christian institution of higher education without any denominational affiliation, Biola’s terminal and preparatory programs lead to service in church-related vocations and the many other vocations and professions embraced by the present curricula. The university is composed of the following schools: Talbot School of Theology, Cook School of Intercultural Studies, Rosemead School of Psychology, Crowell School of Music, School of Arts and Sciences, School of Education, School of Professional Studies, and School of Business. Biola states its mission as “biblically centered education, scholarship and service, equipping men and women in mind and character to impact the world for the Lord Jesus Christ” (Biola, n.d., 90 Years of Following in His Steps, 11). The school exists for committed Christian students with a quest to graduate followers of the Lord Jesus Christ as competent professionals in their respective fields. With the mission of teaching and learning, all students invest at least 20 percent of their course hours in biblical studies and integration of their academic discipline with theology. The university seeks to nourish faculty and students alike in a Christian environment that prizes research of the highest quality, in addition to dialogue and critical thought within the context of common faith. The mission statement comes alive through the university’s annual conferences (the Missions Conference

Bishops, An Overview of the Teaching Role of

and Torrey Memorial Bible Conference), aimed at inspiring students toward missionary activity and providing information about missionary work. The Torrey Memorial Bible Conference is devoted to students’ spiritual growth, with specific topics aimed at their spiritual needs. Another conference is the Biola Media Conference, a one-day event that aims to advance the integration of faith and the arts, bringing together Christian media leaders and other Christians for education, inspiration, and networking. Biola’s high educational standards and desire to foster strong moral character require students to attend 8 conference sessions and 30 chapel services each semester or face a penalty. Undergraduate students at Biola are also required to take 30 units of Bible classes, irrespective of their major; this requirement constitutes a minor in theological and biblical studies. In meeting the four-year general education requirements of Biola University, the great book program of Torrey Honors Institute equips students to pursue truth, goodness, and beauty through intellectual and spiritual community, enabling them to become strong Christian leaders. The mission of Biola University is based on the assumption that God is truth, the beginning of wisdom is to know God, and the quest for knowledge and truth cannot be separated from our individual and collective quest to know God. The university recognizes the authority of the Bible as revealed in Holy Scripture and seeks to evaluate all human knowledge in light of the Bible’s teaching and authority. Biola’s education program for students is geared toward preparing them to become effective teachers in either the elementary or secondary classroom in a Christian or public school setting. The institution prepares prospective Christian teachers with a biblically centered teacher education program, providing integration seminars designed to allow students to search the Bible and literature of education. Students discover how the Word of God and the discipline of teaching are integrated. Upon completion of the teaching credential program, students gain satisfactory subject matter knowledge, ethical standards, and sound Christian philosophy of education (Biola, n.d., 90 Years of Following in His Steps, 126). The School of Intercultural Studies serves the mission of the university with the objective of providing educational opportunity at the graduate level, for mature, experienced students to reflect on their cross-cultural ministry. This is made possible through exposure to missiological concepts, social science methodologies, and the refinement of ministry-related research skills. Talbot School of Theology is a structural entity of Biola University. Its mission is to develop a community of colleagues who desire to make an impact through


commitment to evangelical orthodoxy. The objective is displayed through effective classroom teaching, student mentoring, world of ideas and scholarship, and interpersonal sensitivity and skill. The school provides discerning evangelical biblical/theological scholarship and instruction, as well as facilitating integration, in order to interpret orthodoxy in the pursuit of knowledge and to equip lay and vocational Christian leaders for the challenges of significant and meaningful ministry (Biola, n.d., 90 Years of Following in His Steps, 12). One of the objectives in the philosophy of general education for Biola University is “the enabling of students to become thinking Christians” (Biola, 1995, 36). To accomplish this objective, faculty members and programs engage students in dialogue and critical assessment of beliefs and practices prominent in the contemporary world. The faculty and administration of the school are committed to academic freedom within the framework of historical commitment to the Christian faith. References and Resources Biola University. n.d. 90 Years of Following in His Steps. La Mirada, CA: Biola University Publications. Biola University. 1995. Joint Self-Study and Joint-Visit. Biola University, Association of Theological Schools. La Mirada, CA: Biola University. Biola University Archives. n.d. Connections: The Institutional Magazine of Biola University. Vols. 1–11, 1990–. Henry, J. O. 1977. “A History of Biola University” (The manuscript of the historical account of Biola University since 1908). Talbot School of Theology. 1995. Self-Study Report of Talbot School of Theology, a Graduate School of Biola University. Biola University, Association of Theological Schools. La Mirada, CA: Biola University.

—Ogechukwu Ibem

Bishops, An Overview of the Teaching Role of The teaching ministry of bishops in the early church was a life-encompassing activity. As pastors charged with shepherding God’s people, their teaching was primarily rooted in the church and done for the sake of building it up. This wide range of teaching was characterized by both profound learning and deep devotion, with the words of scripture, or the language of faith, pervading everything that was done. Moreover, instruction in Christian faith and virtue was grounded in the liturgical life of the church, so that knowledge and devotion, prayer and learning, worship and ethics were united. Bishops presided at the rites of baptism and the Eucharist, which


Bishops, New Testament Foundations of the Teaching Role of

gave their teaching a spiritual, moral, and catechetical scope. They also gave catechetical lectures, talks that introduced both inquirers and those preparing for initiation into the body of Christ to the church’s teaching as confessed in the creed, the distinctive narrative of scripture, and the particular form of life received in the sacrament of baptism. In their teaching bishops sought to form Christian identity, grounded in the truth of reality, as revealed by God’s Word. This teaching engaged the whole person; the mind, affections, and will. The cultivation of human wisdom and virtue was inseparable from learning to worship God. Arguably, the most important means of teaching was preaching, as bishops offered biblical expositions in the Sunday liturgy and in services of the Word that were conducted during the week. Scripture served as more than a source book for sermons, providing a larger world, an intellectual and linguistic framework for unfolding the realities of Christian revelation and for instructing Christian assemblies about God, Christ, the world, the church, and the spiritual and moral life. Because those who were charged with elaborating technical theology were also preachers, their aim was to articulate and shape the experience of ordinary Christians. The church’s worship was not simply an appropriation of the past but a present, corporate experience of God articulated by the church’s faith. The preacher’s task was to put into words the wisdom of what the church was being given to apprehend and know: its present appropriation of the risen Lord and his saving work in the world.48 The intimate connection of theology and life in the early church was significant since, according to patristic wisdom, holy lives are the best apology for the truth and goodness of the Gospel. There was little room for the modern divisions that have contributed to a separation of theological convictions and the life of the church. Pastoral and church practice was tested by Christian wisdom that was the fruit of reading scripture, while the study of scripture was informed by the wisdom of pastoral and ecclesial practice. Faithful preaching of the Gospel requires and leads to a reconciliation of theology and practice grounded in, and demonstrated by, truthful witness to Christ, which is manifested by the concrete reality of the church. The Christian vision is meant to be translated into virtue: the faith that apprehends God’s gratuitous forgiveness in Christ must be translated into joyful obedience and sanctified living. Such teaching cultivates a form of life that is shaped by the Gospel and enlivened by the Spirit to participate in, and witness to, the restoration and 48. Rowan A. Greer, Broken Lights and Mended Lives: Theology and the Common Life in the Early Church (University Park: Pennsylvania State Press, 1986), 1–20.

renewal of humanity, on the way from Pentecost to the return of Christ. References and Resources Greer, Rowan A. 1986. Broken Lights and Mended Lives: Theology and Common Life in the Early Church. University Park: Penn State Press. Harmless, William. 1995. Augustine and the Catechumenate. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. Wilken, Robert Louis. 2003. The Spirit of Early Christian Thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Young, Frances M. 2003. Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers.

—Michael Pasquarello III

Bishops, New Testament Foundations of the Teaching Role of The Greek term episkopos, the root of our contemporary term for bishop, is generally translated as elder, overseer, or guardian, and it appears five times in the New Testament (Acts 20:28; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:2; Tit. 1:7; 1 Pet. 2:25). These references indicate a position of leadership within the early Christian community, and it is sometimes used interchangeably with the term presbyteros (See Tit. 1:5; 1 Pet. 5:1–3). New Testament evidence paints this leadership role in broad strokes, indicating general oversight of the community. This general oversight is frequently associated with guarding against false teaching or handing on the right teaching to the community. Acts 20:28–30 warns the episcopos to guard the community against those “speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them” (v. 30). First Timothy 3:1–7 and Titus 1:5–16 both list the ideal qualities of the episcopos, specifically naming teaching among these. First Timothy notes the “ability to teach” as a specific skill, inserted in what is otherwise a list of character traits (Tim. 3:2). Titus gives the most elaborate description for the role of episcopos, following a list of character traits with the specific skill of teaching: “holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, so that he will be able both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict” (v. 8). This description provides a glimpse of the New Testament period of parallel Christian communities emerging and seeking to appropriate and interpret the Gospel message, while sometimes being at odds with each other in doing so. In this context, those who preached or taught the Gospel message in multiple contexts had to be tested and found authentic. The Didache (first century) gives a similar impression, as it describes in detail how to spot a false

Blind, Current Trends in the Education of the

teacher or prophet (chapter 11), while also encouraging the community to appoint bishops and deacons to serve as prophets and teachers for them (chapter 15:2). In this early period, leaders who could authentically interpret and hand on the content of faith preserved the community’s association with the Christ event, and thus validated the identity of the community as Christian. The teaching role of the episcopos to hand on the faith thus protected the community against false or misleading teachings and preserved the authenticity of the community as rooted in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In this sense, the episcopos was a guardian of the identity of the community, a role that would remain manifest in teaching and administration, as well as in the concern for “apostolicity” in forming what constituted canonical scripture and orthodox doctrine during the first centuries of the Christian church. In a parallel fashion, the teaching role of bishops as guardians of communal identity would also emerge sacramentally as bishops presided over the initiation process of new Christians, from teaching the content of faith to administering the sacraments, to breaking open the word in mystagogical catechesis. References and Resources Sullivan, Francis. 2001. From Apostles to Bishops: The Development of the Episcopacy in the Early Church. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. Wood, Susan, ed. 2003. Ordering the Baptismal Priesthood: Theologies of Lay and Ordained Ministry. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press.

—Daniella Zsupan-Jerome

Blind, Current Trends in the Education of the Contemporary Christian education perceives blind and visually impaired people in the light of ecclesiology of the communion. Through baptism they become members of the church. By the sacrament of confirmation, they are more perfectly bound to the church and are enriched with a special strength of the Holy Spirit. Hence they are, as true witnesses of Christ, more strictly obliged to spread and defend the faith by word and deed. The Eucharist is the efficacious sign and sublime cause of that communion in the divine life and that unity of the people of God by which the church is kept in being. The sensory deficit does not lower their dignity as children of God. At present, the suffering of the blind is not idealized, denied, or underestimated. The consequences of the damaged sight are reliably studied in various sociopolitical contexts. In the pastoral work, various conse-


quences—physical and health, orientation and cognitive, psychosocial and ecclesial—are taken into consideration. Poverty of the blind is still a challenge for Christian communities. Both in poor and developed countries, poverty is manifested by an unequal access or no access to goods and values making it possible for an individual to participate fully in social life. This is also connected with economic poverty, namely the lack of access to necessary material goods. Blind people are to a greater or lesser extent touched by cultural poverty, which prevents them from fully making use of intellectual and spiritual values. These challenges shows the maturity of the church. Concern about the blind means recognizing in them the dignity of the children of God created in His image, after His likeness. Nowadays, pastoral service is not limited to giving alms or providing help, even in an organized manner. Pastoral care develops in the direction of creating interpersonal relations with blind people, and taking into consideration their distinctness and weakness, is manifested by accompanying them in everyday life. However, it is not only interpersonal relations that matter here. Pastoral care aims at helping a blind person to create a bond with Jesus Christ. Therefore, the Bible, the catechism, and other aids are continually printed in Braille, which makes it possible for the blind to prepare well for meeting Jesus in sacraments and to conduct a continuous dialogue. Contemporary Christian education takes into consideration a multidimensional formation of the family of a blind person. It supports parents from the beginning of a child’s life, when there may be doubts concerning defects in the fetus. The teaching of the church draws attention to the aim of the potential prenatal tests, which should always be favorable for a child and a mother and cannot lead to abortion. Nowadays, not only parents are educated about this, but also doctors, and other health-care employees are taught to provide information concerning the state of the fetus and support concerning the desire for a child as the only, unique human being. Also, later on parents are supported and formed in truth that a family is the most natural environment providing multidimensional development to a blind child. Nowadays, pastoral efforts go in the direction of integrating blind people into parish communities. Attempts have been made to overcome their confinement to specialist ministry, which is significant in itself because it has qualified staff and all the necessary facilities. Volunteers help the blind get to the Sunday Eucharist and participate in pilgrimages and other open religious meetings. Without doubt, contemporary media, such as the Internet, enable them to access religious literature and contact members of a big Christian community. Present centers for the blind make use of the most contemporary achievements of typhlopedagogy, but they


Blind, History of the Christian Education of the

do not forget that their main aim is redemptive teaching and compliance with the teaching of Christ. Therefore, it is more and more common that patronage is withdrawn when the centers founded by convents and congregations are taken over by private owners or by the state, and catholic teaching is endangered. Of course, blind people in these centers are not left without pastoral care, but it is a clear sign of being faithful to the Gospel in order not to become spiritually blind, which was mentioned by Jesus: “Woe to you, blind guides” (Matt. 23:16). The concept of disability and the way disabled people are perceived are being transformed in societies. These changes are accompanied by changes in the ministry for the blind and, in order to ensure pastoral activity adequate to their needs, many theological departments in the world carry out scientific research devoted to this topic. References and Resources Axelrod C. 2006. And the Journey Begins. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. Secretariato Nacional de Catequesis. 1995. Annunciar a los pobres la Buena Noticia. Magisterio de la Iglesia y minusvalías. Madrid: Edice. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 1989. Pastoral Statement of U.S. Catholic Bishops on Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: USCCB. Walthers R. 2003. Einführung in die Blinden- und Sehbehindertenpädagogik. München: Reinhardt Verlag.

—Andrzej Kiciński

Blind, History of the Christian Education of the When analyzing the history of the Christian education of the blind, one should get to know the Old Testament approach to the blind. Disability was then perceived as either God’s punishment for sins or a test. The first approach may be found in the words: “The Lord will strike you with madness, blindness and panic” (Deut. 28:28), while the second one can be found in the biblical story of Tobit, who was deprived of eyesight for four years (Tob. 2:10) and then regained his sight (Tob. 11), which carries a message that suffering is a temporary test sent by God, who rewards it with much bigger prosperity. The basis for various approaches in the OT is categorical prohibition of hurting the blind and the disabled in general, included in the words: “You shall not curse the deaf, or put a stumbling block in front of the blind” (Lev. 19:14). Jesus of Nazareth brought a radical change in the approach to blind people. He met them everywhere, like the two near Jericho whose sight was restored by Him (Matt. 9:27–31). Evangelists report frequents meetings of

Jesus with the blind, which may be summarized in the response Jesus gave to the question of the disciples of John the Baptist: “Go and tell John what you hear and see: the blind regain their sight . . . and the poor have the good news proclaimed to them” (Matt. 11:2–6). However, a very significant meaning for the history of the Christian education of the blind is carried by the story of a man blind since birth being healed by Jesus (John 9:1–41). The disciple’s question is still repeated all over the world, in different cultural contexts: “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?” What Jesus replied was and still is surprising: “It was not that this man sinned, or his parents, but that the works of God might be made manifest in him.” Jesus rejected a commonly accepted opinion that blindness is a punishment for sins and at the same time showed a mystical role of the disabled in the life and activity of the church. Disciples of Jesus shared brotherly love especially with the poor and the disabled. The first caring institutions created in Christian ancient times also took the blind under their roof. The first houses for the blind were founded as early as in the fourth century in the area of Jerusalem, Caesarea, and Damascus. According to Theodoret (†460), the hermit Limnaeus created a settlement for the blind where they could get education, pray, and work. Also, convents created hospitals and special caring homes for the blind. In the Middle Ages various places were founded by magnates. The most famous was the fund set up by King Louis IX of France. In 1256, he set up Hospice des Quinze-Vingts in Paris, where 300 blind people made their home. Smaller homes were set up by various fraternities for the blind. Juan Luis Vives (1492–1540)—the pioneer of social pedagogy and a devout believer—created the concept of the system of social pedagogy and working with disabled children. He based it on the conviction that God accepts the existence of both able and disabled people so that they enrich one another. He demanded education for visually impaired children, both boys and girls. However, it was not until the 18th century that education of the blind was developed. In 1749, Valentin Haüy set up Institution des Jeunes Aveugles in Paris, which became the model and inspiration for schools, workshops, and dormitories for the blind. At the same time, Abbé Charles Michel de l’Epée (†1789) organized education for the deaf and blind. In 1849, Pauline von Mallinckrodt (1817–1881) founded the Sisters of Christian Charity in Paderborn. This congregation still works with the blind in South and North America, Europe, and the Philippines. Father Yves Mollata (1896–1934) influenced the contemporary ministry for the blind. He emphasized the need for providing spiritual support to the blind and founded the Croisade des Aveugles (Crusade of the Blind). In

Board Governance

the United States, Father J. Stadelman founded Xavier Society for the Blind, which still helps the spiritual development of the blind. In the last few decades, specialist organizational structures of the ministry for the blind both in the Episcopal conferences and in particular dioceses have sprung up. Many convents and congregations in developed countries run their own education centers or support religious education of the blind in state structures. In poor countries, they often provide the only educational structures for the blind. References and Resources Brown, N. 1972. Pastoral Care of the Blind. Great Wakering Essex, England: Mayhew-McCrimmon. Paukowitsch, W., and E. Schmid. 1980. “Die Katechese bei Blinden.” Christlich-pädagogische Blätter 93: 240–243. Reynolds, T. 2008. Vulnerable Communion: A Theology of Disability and Hospitality. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press. Szagun, A. K. 1983. Behinderung: Ein gesellschaftliches, theologisches und pädagogisches Problem. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht.

—Andrzej Kiciński

Board Governance One of the most significant and frequently overlooked influences on institutional effectiveness for Christian education and other nonprofit organizations is the role and function of the group charged with the legal oversight of the organization: the governing board. When mission drift, operational dysfunction, or other crippling crises occur in organizations, it is not unusual to find the root causes to be with the board’s approach to governance. In the United States, there are about 1.6 million nonprofit organizations. An estimated 15 percent, or about 40,500, of these organizations are intentionally Christian in nature and motivation. The first educational enterprises in the United States were faith-motivated and sustained. The Council for Christian Colleges and Universities represents about 120 national and nearly 50 international institutions. Another organization that plays an important role in promoting Christian education is the Association of Christian Schools International. Founded in 1978, it has 28 regional offices worldwide, serving 23,400 member schools in more than 100 countries. In light of their growing influence, greater scrutiny by donors and government groups at the state and federal levels of these organizations is taking place—particularly in the areas of board governance. This makes it necessary for governing entities to be more proactive in supervision. While the administrative leadership


(presidents/head masters/principals and their executive teams) carries the primary responsibilities for implementing the mission, boards are strengthening their commitments to both the explicit duties (as defined by accrediting, certifying, best practices, and governmental requirements) and their implicit promises (holding in trust the mission and integrity of the organization on behalf of its stakeholders). Guarding and guiding the organization is the highest responsibility of a faith-based nonprofit board of trustees. Unfortunately, there is a tendency among some faith-based boards not to manage closely and hold accountable their CEOs. There are numerous reasons for this. In some cases, there is a theological resistance to touching God’s anointed, a feeling that the leader was brought to the organization by a divine call, so full support and trust is needed rather than close scrutiny and questioning. In some organizations, the boards consist of the close friends and confidants of the CEO, making it difficult to exercise the oversight required. Faith-based boards also recognize that their leaders are serving sacrificially, so they tend to make allowances for idiosyncrasies and inconsistencies. In addition, board members are busy with their own obligations and are only able to contribute limited attention and time. Finally, many CEOs discourage in-depth oversight, making it difficult for boards to fulfill their moral as well as fiduciary responsibilities as overseers. A Biblical Basis for Board Governance Accomplishing such an important task in guiding and governing the Lord’s mission of Christian education is a serious and demanding assignment for boards. Those who govern Christian schools and colleges have an obligation to ensure that the spiritual, moral, fiduciary, and legal requirements of their sacred calling are addressed. The early church recognized that organizing God’s people in ways that best deployed their gifts and guided their activities was essential to achieving their high callings in Christ Jesus. The apostle Paul (1 Tim. 3) highlighted two basic categories of workers, those we have come to call servant leaders. Elders carried the oversight responsibilities of the work, ensuring that the spiritual foundations were sound and the fundamental principles of Christ-centered life and work were practiced. These were the trustees charged with the effective governance of the mission and ministry. Deacons administrated and did the day-to-day work, using their abilities and resources to serve the people performing their functions under the oversight and within the nurturing of the governing/ruling elders. For many of today’s most effective faith-based institutions, similar patterns of governance and administration


Board Governance

are evident. While often relegated to local church or denominational formats, the model of elders who govern and deacons who administrate provides clarity of purpose and a connection to the history of the Christian movement. In Christ-centered education, the elders are the boards of trustees. The deacons in these institutions are the senior administration, led by the chief operating officer, who serves as the primary liaison between the trustees and the institution. Scripture uses other titles to describe these oversight functions, including bishops, overseers, and stewards. Here the concepts of overseer and steward are used, since Jesus highlighted these in His teachings. Our Lord used stories of responsible and irresponsible, faithful and unfaithful stewards, in His parables (Matt. 25:14– 30; Luke 19:11–27). Jesus referred to Himself as the Good Shepherd who gives His life for the sheep (John 10:10)—the ultimate illustration of someone who takes seriously the stewardship oversight of another’s flock, in this case His Heavenly Father’s. This Good Shepherd model contrasts with hirelings who, in difficult times, flee and abandon their trust because they are motivated only by that which benefited them (John 10:12–13). Jesus demonstrates the attitude and actions of the ideal steward-overseer, sacrificing what is necessary to protect and advance what has been entrusted to Him. A Profile of a Steward Overseer Trustee In light of these biblical principles and examples, what characteristics and commitments are needed for trustees to lead faith-based organizations in the most effective use of the people, resources, and opportunities God has entrusted to their governance? Robert Andringa identified five key qualities that characterize the most effective Board members: wisdom, work, wealth, witness, and wallop.49 While not every board member will possess every quality equally, those who understand that they have received a divine call to serve in such a capacity have a commitment to the full development of these qualities within the limits of their own potential. Good governance begins with good character, out of which grows good actions. Called board members demonstrate wisdom by helping formulate and monitor wise policies. They are available to advise staff when called upon and offer suggestions to the administrative leadership team. This wisdom comes out of a lifetime of professional experiences, as well as spiritual growth. The apostle James (3:17) suggests several hallmarks of the wisdom needed for effective 49. The Engstrom Institute, “Board Governance: A Downloadable Resource,” www.engstrominstitute.com, pg. 11 (2008).

governance that apply to the board member’s functions and attitudes. Purity of purpose and motivation guides the most reliable board members in their work. They avoid personal agendas and hobbyhorses that are not in keeping with the mission of the organization. These wise governors are gentle peacemakers who make decisions for the greater good in ways that promote and preserve unity. Deeply committed to the essential principles and practices of the organization, they yield to the collective wisdom of their colleagues and are merciful to those whose opinions and actions may conflict with their own. The decisions they make are without partiality and are consistent with their true character and convictions and thus without hypocrisy. In their dealings with one another, and with the staff, they model a servant’s heart and demonstrate the good fruit of the Spirit-filled life of love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, and faithfulness (Gal. 5:22, NIV). Board members who are called work, faithfully attending committee and board meetings. They come fully prepared to understand and contribute to the essential processes of governance. These board members understand that their position carries with it a duty to be well equipped and meaningfully involved. They study board meeting materials thoroughly, taking particular note of those aspects that address the mission of the organization, support the staff responsible for implementing the mission, and speak to their fiduciary responsibilities as overseers of a tax-exempt charity. Outside of board meetings, they work on behalf of the organization’s needs. They help with fund-raising campaigns and special public relations events and willingly mentor staff, deploying their talents and passions for the advancement of the organization’s vision and mission. Called board members share their wealth by being donors of record. They model sacrificial giving. Moreover, they willingly encourage others in their circles of influence to be financial contributors. Given challenging financial times, board members sacrificially give to motivate others to support. Their giving adds credibility to the organization’s requests for support. Such board members are witnesses, integrating precepts with practice in setting policies and monitoring processes that are consistent with the highest standards of the Christian faith. They recognize that since the organization represents a ministry of Christ, only the highest standards of ethics and performance are acceptable. They set an example for staff as well as students and supporters about following Christ in the marketplace, at home, and in the church. Finally, called Board members exercise wallop, bringing their knowledge and experience to bear on their work in ways that only they can do. They ask themselves,

Board Governance

What one thing could my position and network accomplish that others on this board could not? As serious Christians, they sense that God has a unique and distinctive contribution for them to make to the life, culture, and mission of the institution. Effective governance is anchored to the character and the quality of those who govern, particularly in faith-based institutions. Policy-Based Governance Recognizing that good governance begins with good people, we conclude this review with a focus on good practices. Is there a best approach to developing board governance that honors and exemplifies these principles? For many of the most effective institutions, a form of policy-based governance has been helpful. John Carver developed the policy governance model in 1990. Most who use the Carver model, however, adapt rather than adopt it. The key is for the board to understand the strategic differences between governing and managing the organization. What distinguishes governing from managing and administering is the board’s delegation of responsibility to the CEO and senior staff for operating the business of the organization within clearly established, approved, and monitored policies. Governing boards are policy focused, using clearly defined parameters to guide the operating and oversight of their own and the staff’s work. However, a full implementation of a policy versus the administration style of governance is often challenging in faith-based settings. It is not unusual for faith-based organizations to have boards that function more like working or managing boards than governing boards. Sometimes the lack of resources and sudden changes in leadership personnel require board members to be implementers—to both administer as well as govern. There is a significant potential for conflicts of interest without clearly defined policies and procedures. Policies protect as well as guide, clarifying the differences between the governance role and the implementer role for those who work across the two arenas of service. A well-documented and regularly updated board policy manual establishes the parameters that help navigate in both the best and worst of times with wisdom, grace, humility, and courage. But what policies are most important for effective governance? Robert Andringa has a helpful template for a board policy manual, available at www.TheAndringa Group.com/pages/bob_andringa. It is important that particular attention be paid to the following items needed for policy formulation and monitoring: • Clear, compelling statements of organizational vision and institutional mission.


• A description of the core values needed to guide the organization in fulfillment of its stated mission and implied promises. • A clarification of the moral owners to whom the organization feels accountable and responsible, along with a description of the organization’s beneficiaries. • An overview of the major functions as well as the primary strategies the organization uses to serve its beneficiaries, keep faith with its moral owners, and fulfill the promises implied in its declaration of mission. • A summary of both short- and long-term goals to achieve its stated objectives, along with the monitoring tools (key performance indicators) to measure success and validate results. • Clear delineation of executive parameters that guide the CEO and administration in the implementation of programs and services to fulfill the missional promises of the organization. Board members of faith-based organizations often feel unprepared personally, spiritually, and theologically to give direction, viewing the staff as superior in professional experience, spiritual condition, biblical knowledge, and vision. The fact that many who choose to lead these organizations do so at significant personal sacrifice causes the board to resist unnecessarily burdening or limiting their already overworked staff. Charismatic, visionary leaders may view a policy approach as restricting their ability to lead the organization aggressively and entrepreneurially. And some CEOs may view such a policy-guided direction as an expression of a lack of trust and confidence. In reality, however, policies that are thoughtfully developed and wisely administered free the CEO and staff to give more time to the ministries of the ministry, knowing that the important parameters that govern the business of the ministry are in place. The policy-guided approach minimizes confusion and limits conflicts, helping boards and CEOs understand their functions, responsibilities, and expected outcomes. The policy approach also allows the board to focus on the larger issues of strategic visioning, since many of the administrative necessities that too often consume board agendas are routinized. Effective board governance for faith-based schools and colleges requires that trustees be steward-overseers doing God’s work God’s way for His ultimate glory. Policy-based governance uses the scriptural concepts of collaboration, discernment, consensus, and responsible oversight to guide the effectiveness and guard the integrity of the important work these organizations do to advance Christ’s Kingdom through Christian education. When Christian character and clear policies join forces, good governance is the likely result.


Bolivia and Christian Education

References and Resources Andringa, R. C. 2007. The Nonprofit Board Answer Book: A Practical Guide for Board Members and Chief Executives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Laughlin, Fredrick L., and Robert C. Andringa. 2007. Good Governance for Nonprofits: Developing Principles and Policies for an Effective Board. New York: AMACOM Press American Management Association. www.policygovernance.com www.policygovernanceassociation.org http://www.christianleadershipalliance.org/?page=engstrom _institute http://www.ecfa.org/KnowledgeCenter.aspx http://www.cccu.org/ http://agb.org/knowledge-center http://www.ats.edu/Resources/Pages/default.aspx http://www.abhe.org/resources

—David Gyertson

primarily focus on missionary kids. Some MKs are homeschooled. Missionary kids schools include Carachipampa Christian School (Cochabamba), Santa Cruz Learning Center (Santa Cruz), and Highlands International School (La Paz). In recent years, five Christian universities have been founded. Religious Freedom The Christian community enjoys religious freedom. The present government, however, is requiring churches to be involved in a social program of their choosing, such as Compassion, which helps local children with nutrition and homework while providing Bible classes. Unique Methods of Educating Christians Semiliterate believers learn Bible study methods through the Mobile Bible School, a ministry of Mosoj Chaski. Entering remote mountainous communities, they teach Bolivia’s largest group in Quechua. For the first time, these believers are studying the Bible individually and corporately.

Bolivia and Christian Education Reference The Origin of Christianity in Bolivia After the Bible Society in the early 19th century, the Gospel came to Bolivia primarily through faith missions. The first included the Brethren Assemblies (1895), Canadian Baptists (1898), Methodists (1901), Bolivian Indian Mission (1907) (later Andes Evangelical Mission, which merged with SIM), and Seventh-day Adventists (1907). Major Denominations and Institutions The largest protestant denomination in Bolivia is the Assemblies of God, followed by the Evangelical Christian Unión (established primarily by the Andes Evangelical Mission), Seventh-day Adventists, Bolivian Baptist Unión (founded by the Canadian Baptists), and Methodists. Although Bolivia boasts some 65 seminaries and Bible institutes, most are very small. In 2012 the largest, based on number of students pursuing degrees of four years or more (listed with the number of students in programs of shorter duration), were the Bible Seminary of the Evangelical Christian Unión (127/64 students, Cochabamba), Hebron Theological Seminary (64/54, Santa Cruz), Southern Theological Seminary (42/40, Sucre), Evangelical Bible Seminary (20/270, La Paz), and Baptist Theological Seminary (15/85, Cochabamba). Only the first two seminaries have master’s programs. Typical Means of Educating Christians Most Christians attend public school, but there are private Christian schools that either educate Bolivians or

Wagner, Peter. 1970. The Protestant Movement in Bolivia. South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.

—Michael W. Wheeler

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906–1945) was a German scholar, educator, theologian, and Lutheran pastor who became well known for his opposition to the Nazi regime. He is considered to be one of the most influential modern theologians.50 Background and Education Bonhoeffer was born in Breslau, Germany, but he grew up in Berlin, where his father was a professor of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Berlin, from which Dietrich earned a doctorate in theology at the age of 21. His doctoral dissertation was praised by Karl Barth as a “theological miracle.”51 After serving at a vicarage in Barcelona, Spain, he was admitted to the theology faculty at the University of Berlin. Bonhoeffer spent one year at Union Theological Seminary in New York for postgraduate study and then returned to Germany to give lectures 50. Neil Holm, “Classroom Formation and Spiritual Awareness Pedagogy Based on Bonhoeffer’s Life Together,” Journal of Education and Christian Belief 12, no. 2 (2008): 159. 51. Geffrey B. Kelly and F. Burton Nelson, Editors’ Introduction to A Testament to Freedom: The Essential Writings of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, ed. Geffrey B. Kelly and F. Burton Nelson (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1990), 7.

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich

in systematic theology in Berlin. He was ordained on 15 November 1931. Adolf Hitler’s rise to power had a dramatic impact on Bonhoeffer’s career. In February 1933, two days after Hitler became chancellor, Bonhoeffer broadcast a lecture over Berlin radio in which he criticized the German public for blindly following a “leader” who would inevitably become a “misleader” if he did not cease holding himself up as an idol to be worshipped. Before Bonhoeffer could finish, the broadcast was interrupted.52 In 1935, Bonhoeffer received a call from the Confessing Church to head a clandestine seminary in Finkenwalde, Pomerania. The Confessing Church stood in opposition to the Nazi regime. The Nazis kept him under surveillance, however, and in 1937 the seminary was closed by the Gestapo. “From then on his life was devoted to tasks assigned by the Confessing Church and the Resistance.”53 He moved around the country, speaking to covert groups and acting as a courier between them. With the help of his sister Christel’s husband, Bonhoeffer joined the Abwehr, a German military intelligence organization that secretly worked against Hitler. Ostensibly, Bonhoeffer’s international contacts would be useful to the German war effort. In reality, he was part of the resistance movement and carried communiqués to and from the Allies during his travels. On 5 April 1943, Bonhoeffer was arrested and imprisoned; during this time, guards often did him favors and preserved his papers. After the failed assassination of Hitler in July 1944, documentation was discovered linking Bonhoeffer with the German Resistance. At the age of 39, he was martyred in Flossenburg prison, on 9 April 1945.54 Significant Contributions to Christian Education Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s contributions to Christian education still have impact today. “He studied with Adolf von Harnack, the greatest liberal theologian of his time, but he was shaped more decisively by Karl Barth. Barth believed, and Bonhoeffer stressed, that the preaching of the Word of God in Holy Scripture was at the very heart of what it means to be a faithful follower of Jesus Christ.”55 He taught students from all levels of ability, from catechumens to university students. Probably he would consider his crowning educational achievement the organization of the Confessing Church seminary, which “was a new 52. John W. Doberstein, Introduction to Life Together, by Dietrich Bonhoeffer, trans. John W. Doberstein (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1954), 10. It was speculated that the Nazi regime was behind the interruption. 53. Ibid., 12. 54. Ibid., 7. 55. Timothy George, “Bonhoeffer Today,” in Life Together: Walking with Bonhoeffer, Community Worship, Spring 2013, by Samford University Beeson Divinity School (Birmingham, AL: Samford Office of Communication, 2013), 3.


undertaking, demanding in turn a rare combination of scholarship, a passion for the principles of the Reformation, and a certain fearlessness in those who would direct those seminaries.”56 Bonhoeffer believed that the proper way to educate seminarians “could only be done in community shaped by Christian service and sustained by regular spiritual exercises and worship.”57 Holm uses Bonhoeffer’s work Life Together as a way of discovering proper forms of classroom practices, and he notes that Bonhoeffer’s words offer encouragement to Christian teachers who work in isolation in secular classrooms and those who are disillusioned by working in faith-based schools that seem to lack true Christian unity and depth.58 From Bonhoeffer, educators can learn that allowing time for silence, meditation, and reflection is beneficial for schoolchildren. Holm fittingly summarizes Bonhoeffer’s approach to Christian education: Ultimately, Christian teachers seek to prepare students, in Bonhoeffer’s terms, to throw themselves utterly into the arms of God and to participate in God’s suffering in the world, to find their true selves as existing for humanity, to take their part in the social life of the world, not lording it over others, but helping and serving them to live in Christ and to exist for others.59

Most Notable Publications Bonhoeffer’s major works include The Communion of Saints (published as Sanctorum Communio in 1930); Act and Being (1931); The Cost of Discipleship (1937); Life Together (1939); Letters and Papers from Prison (written 1943–1945); and Ethics (which was unfinished and was published posthumously in 1949). A comprehensive, 16-volume collection of Bonhoeffer’s works, translated into English, is available from Augsburg Fortress Press. References and Resources Doberstein, John W. 1954. “Introduction.” In Life Together, by Dietrich Bonhoeffer, translated by John W. Doberstein, 7–13. San Francisco: Harper & Row. George, Timothy. 2013. “Bonhoeffer Today.” In Life Together: Walking with Bonhoeffer, Community Worship, by the Samford University Beeson Divinity School, 3–4. Birmingham, AL: Samford Office of Communication. Holm, Neil. 2008. “Classroom Formation and Spiritual Awareness Pedagogy Based on Bonhoeffer’s Life Together.” Journal of Education and Christian Belief 12 (2): 159–175. Kelly, Geffrey B., and F. Burton Nelson. 1990. “Editors’ Introduction.” In A Testament to Freedom: The Essential Writings 56. 57. 58. 59.

Kelly and Burton, Editors’ Introduction, 25. Ibid. Holm, “Classroom Formation,” 162. Ibid., 163.


Book of Kells

of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, edited by Geffrey B. Kelly and F. Burton Nelson, 3–46. San Francisco: HarperCollins.

—Kevin Voss

Book of Kells The Book of Kells is an ornately illustrated manuscript of the four Gospels, with several historic records and a limited glossary of Hebrew names. Around AD 800, the book was translated from Jerome’s Latin Bible (completed in 384) and intermixed with readings from the earlier Old Latin translation, as well as a concordance of Gospel passages compiled in the fourth century by Eusebius of Caesarea, summaries of the Gospel narratives, and prefaces characterizing the evangelists. Named after the Columban monastery of Kells in County Meath, Ireland, tradition holds that the work was begun at the scriptorium of the island monastery of Iona (Argyllshire), off the western coast of Scotland, to honor Columba (d. 597). After a Viking raid in 806, the Columban monks fled to Kells, taking the manuscript with them, where it was completed. Medieval monks had an eternal perspective of time as they lived under God’s providence, and wrote their books as an act of worship and a hallowed custody for future generations. “The pages are ploughed by the divine letters and the seed of God’s word is planted in the parchment, which ripens into crops of completed books.” Some archivists see the Book of Kells as purely a sacred work of art—an altar book intended to be displayed and viewed rather than read and designed for ceremonial use on special occasions such as Easter, rather than for daily services. This is possible given the number of uncorrected errors throughout the text (letters and whole words omitted and already copied texts repeated), as well as the size and splendor of the book. Or was it a liturgical document used at the altar within the religious calendar’s public reading of scripture, with the decoration used to emphasize important points of the biblical reading? The question remains of how the images and graphically articulated texts made the liturgy more meaningful. The script is one of the finest examples of Irish handwriting in existence, the creation of three artists and four major scribes. It has 340 pages, each a 13-by-9½-inch piece of glazed parchment, with many of the letters adorned with a variety of colors, such as the opening words of each of the Gospels, which were decorated and fill a whole page. There were also full pages of decoration for the symbols of the evangelists Matthew (the Man), Mark (the Lion), Luke (the Calf), and John (the Eagle); the Virgin and child surrounded by angels; a portrait of

Christ; and narrative episodes such as Christ’s temptation by the Devil and His arrest in the garden. Lavish creativity exudes in the interlacing of humans, animals, birds, and fanciful beings coiled in geometric patterns throughout the text. Emblems of vines, dragons, fish, serpents, and the cross are combined exquisitely in the most delicate manner, without any irregularity or repetition. For instance, archivists have counted more than 158 interlacings of “white ribbon with a black border on either side” in the space of one square inch. The aim of the decorations was to glorify Christ’s life and teachings by keeping His attributes and symbols ever before the reader. This may be seen in the repeated images of the face of Jesus, the cross, the Eucharist (with its grapes, chalices, and communion hosts), and the symbols of the resurrection (the lion, peacock, and snake). Various historic mentions of the book occur, such as in the Annals of Ulster, which described the manuscript as “the chief treasure of the Western world” and recorded that in 1006 it was stolen from the stone church of Colum Cille at Kells, the gold was removed from the ornate cover, and it was buried in the ground. It remained at Kells for eight centuries and was fairly well preserved. Then, in the interest of its safety, Henry Jones, scoutmaster general to Oliver Cromwell’s army in Ireland, when he became bishop of Meath in 1661 presented the book to the library of Trinity College in Dublin, where it is on permanent display. References and Resources Calkins, Robert G. 1983. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Farr, Carol. 1997. The Book of Kells: Its Function and Audience. London: British Library. Henderson, George. 1987. From Durrow to Kells: The Insular Gospel-Books, 650–800. London: Thames and Hudson.

—Robert L. Gallagher

Borromeo, Charles Early Background and Education St. Charles Borromeo was born in Castle Arona in Italy in October 1538. While he may be best remembered as a major figure in the Catholic Counter-Reformation and as an organizer of the Council of Trent, Borromeo should serve as an inspiration to all Christian educators. His legacy is Christian “Sunday school,” which grew out of his zeal for education in Christian principles. Borromeo was a cardinal-priest and archbishop of Milan. He died at the age of 46, in 1584, and is the patron saint of catechists and catechumens.

Bosnia/Herzegovina and Christian Education

Borromeo became a monk, receiving the tonsure at the age of 12, and studied in Milan. He later attended the University of Pavia, studying civil and canon law and earning a doctorate in 1559. That same year his uncle was named Pope Pius IV; he appointed Charles the secretary of state for the Vatican. At the age of 22, Borromeo helped organize the continuation of the Council of Trent (1562–1563). Significant Contributions to Christian Education Borromeo was a fierce reformer, who believed that the Protestant Reformation and attendant heresies were a result of the people’s ignorance of orthodox Christian beliefs. In Milan, he supported the establishment of the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine (CCD) for the teaching of children and adults by priests and laity, which survives today in Catholic religious education and in Protestant Sunday schools. Prior to this time, bishops and priests were required only to teach the basic precepts of the Apostles’ Creed and the Lord’s Prayer, and only a few times each year. Borromeo required that all priests in every parish of his diocese give instruction on Sundays and feast days, either themselves or through trained and morally upright members of the laity. In Milan, Borromeo trained 3,000 catechists, who in turn instructed up to 40,000 of the faithful in an expanded and codified curriculum of church doctrine (Glancey 1908). During the Council of Trent, Borromeo used the opportunity to compile a comprehensive summary of doctrine into the first printed version of the Roman Catechism (Catholic News Agency 2013). He also established an Academy of Literature in Rome, as well as numerous colleges and seminaries for the education of the clergy. Reformer and Healer As archbishop of Milan, Borromeo undertook an uncompromising and ultimately dangerous systematic reform of the clergy and monastic orders. A man of integrity, Borromeo began with his own house first, banishing most of the staff and selling off family properties to support feeding the poor. He forbade the selling of indulgences and purchase of clerical positions, which had prompted much of the fervor of the Protestant Reformation. In 1569, his reforms prompted one group, The Order of the Humiliati, to try to murder him while he was at prayer in his chapel. Struck by a cannon ball, he instructed his household to continue at prayer as he prepared himself for death. When prayer ended, he was found to have a relatively superficial wound (Glancey 1908). During an outbreak of the plague in 1576, Borromeo became a healer, personally attending to parishioners who were infected, in their homes and at St. Gregory


hospital. Understanding the gravity of his actions, he had already prepared his own will. Believing that the illness was punishment for sin, he walked the streets in procession, barefooted, with a rope around his neck to do penance for his people. Many were reported to be comforted by his presence. Even the clergy who so opposed his reforms were persuaded to return to the city and assist him (Glancey 1908). He ordered that decorative fabrics from the churches be used to clothe the poor and incurred personal debt in an attempt to feed over 60,000 people each day (Swetnam n.d.). Borromeo was canonized in 1610 by Pope Paul V. References and Resources Catholic News Agency. 2013. “St. Charles Borromeo.” 4 November. Accessed 26 May 2013. http://catholicnewsagency.com/ saint.php?n=645. Glancey, Michael. 1908. “New Advent.” In The Catholic Encyclopedia: Confraternity of Christian Doctrine. Accessed 25 May 2013. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03711b.htm. Swetnam, Susan. n.d. “Saint Charles Borromeo 1539–1584.” Loyola Press: A Jesuit Ministry. Accessed 26 May 2013. http:// www.loyolapress.com/YourPrintPage.aspx.

—Angelique Montgomery-Goodnough

Bosnia/Herzegovina and Christian Education Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in Central Europe, east of Italy across the Adriatic Sea. The estimated population is close to 4 million. The primary ethnic groups are Bosniak, Serb, and Croat. Arrival of Christianity Bosnia and Herzegovina lies along the religious fault line where three cultures converge. The Croat people have strong ties with Roman Catholicism from the West, the Serbs have equally strong ties to Orthodox beliefs from the East, and the polytheistic Slavic peoples who originated from the north were easily converted to the Islamic faith (beginning in 1463) during the Turkish Ottoman Empire’s conquest from the south. Within the country, religion was often based on politics and culture rather than a personal relationship with Christ and was loosely held. A determination of when Christianity arrived in Bosnia and Herzegovina depends, in large measure, on which ethnic heritage is being considered. There has long been some Christian presence, at least at a superficial level. On the other hand, the Bosniaks are one of the least-evangelized groups in the world; for them, Christianity has not yet arrived.


Bosnia/Herzegovina and Christian Education

Religious Identity in Modern Bosnia Ethnic identity is complicated, determined more by family history and political circumstances than by race, language, or place of origin (Vanderwerf 2008). The Bosniaks, who account for 48 percent of the population, are predominantly Muslim. Only an estimated .03 percent are Christian (Joshua Project 2013). The next largest segment of the population (37 percent) is the Bosnians of Serb ethnic origin. Approximately 80 percent are Orthodox, while 18 percent have no religious affiliation (Joshua Project 2013). Among the Croats (14 percent of the population), 95 percent are Roman Catholic, and 5 percent have no religious affiliation (Joshua Project 2013). Methods of Christian Education As is true in many European countries, children study religion in the public schools. International oversight has helped to create Catholic, Orthodox, and Muslim curricula that provide basic religious education (beliefs and history) without inciting animosity toward other faiths. However, a large percent of the public schools now have students of only one religious faith, due to the demographics of the communities they serve. There are private religious schools in the country, operated by the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. In the seven Catholic schools, enrollment is open to all faiths, and multicultural tolerance is actively encouraged (www.reliefweb.int 2013). Evangelicals have one school in Mostar and one in Sarajevo. There are also educational opportunities at various evangelical centers scattered around the country. Evangelicals who wish to pursue theological studies or Christian vocational studies need to go outside of the country (e.g., to Croatia, Hungary) for higher education. Evangelicals among the Bosniaks use a wide variety of methods to reach and teach the people. They have used English as a Second Language (ESL) classes, backyard Bible clubs, day camps, sports camps, music ministry, puppet ministry, women’s groups, small group studies, chronological Bible storying, mentoring, home Bible studies, and more. In 2002, a translation of the New Testament into the Bosniak dialect was published. It continues to be distributed and used for study. Religious Freedom Religious freedom today must be understood within the context of the war that took place from 1992 to 1995. After World War II Yugoslavia, of which Bosnia and Herzegovina was a part, became a communist country. Unlike in many Central European states under commu-

nism, religion was treated as an irrelevant nuisance rather than a mortal enemy of the state. During the communist years, under the dictatorial leadership of Josip Tito (1945–1980), Bosnians prided themselves on their religious tolerance. In Sarajevo, the Catholic cathedral, an Orthodox church, a Muslim mosque, and a Jewish synagogue stood within a few blocks of one another, and worshippers attended them peacefully. After Tito’s death, however, political factions wrestled for control of Yugoslavia until the 1990s, when the republics broke apart. The republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a history dating back to at least the 12th century, declared its independence in 1992. The vicious war that followed was waged on religious grounds, although the people are of the same racial ethnicity. Neighbors who had barely known one another’s cultural religious affiliation were suddenly divided in bloody conflicts of ethnic cleansing and genocide. An international peacekeeping force intervened and froze the position of the combatants along the then-existing dividing lines. The three ethnic nationalities, which took refuge in separate areas during the fighting, have been segregated to a large extent since the war. Following the war, evangelical agencies, other Christian organizations, nongovernmental agencies, and representatives of other faiths poured humanitarian aid and personnel into the country. Islamic funds also poured into the country, and mosques were built. People who were nominally affiliated with the three major religions have a heightened sensitivity to their religious identity. Tensions remain, even more than a decade after the war’s end. While daily life is generally peaceful, there is the constant possibility of militant religious activity. Religious freedom is guaranteed under the constitution, but incidents do occur, and governmental response is not always even-handed. Bosnia-Herzegovina is considered a high-security area for evangelical Christian workers. References and Resources “Catholic Schools an Oasis in Bosnia’s Ethnic Strife.” n.d. Accessed 30 April 2013. http://reliefweb.int/report/bosnia-and -herzegovina/catholic-schools-oasis-bosnias-ethnic-strife. Fletcher, Richard. 1997. The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganism to Christianity. New York: Henry Holt. Joshua Project. 2013. “Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs.” Accessed 17 April 2013. http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php. Spinka, Matthew. (1933) 1968. A History of Christianity in the Balkans: A Study in the Spread of Byzantine Culture among the Slavs. Hamden, CT: Archon Books. U.S. Department of State. 2011. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Executive Summary 2011. Accessed 30 April 2013. http://www .state.gov/documents/organization/193003.pdf.

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Vanderwerf, Mark. 2008. “A Missiological Examination of National Identity in Bosnia-Herzegovina.” PhD diss., Western Seminary, Portland, OR. World Factbook. n.d. Accessed 30 April 2013. https://www.cia .gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bk.html. http://www.joshuaproject.net/interactive-map.php

—Carol Olsen

Boston College’s Institute of Religious Education and Pastoral Ministry Boston College’s Institute of Religious Education and Pastoral Ministry (IREPM) was founded as a summer institute in 1971, adding an academic year faculty and curriculum the following year. Residing within the Boston College Department of Theology and in partnership with the university’s School of Education, it first offered MEd and CAES degrees in religious education. It soon added a PhD in religious education (1977) and an MA in pastoral ministry (1978). The IREPM entered into innovative partnerships with other schools of Boston College to offer joint and dual degrees, enabling people to prepare for vocations that combine competence in religious education and ministry with, for example, social work, counseling psychology, church management, nursing, or Catholic school leadership. It has also offered programs of sabbatical renewal and continuing education and has more recently added a rich curriculum of noncredit online Christian education (CE) courses. The institute’s cofounder (with Richard McBrien) and first director was Prof. Jack McCall; subsequent directors were Professors Richard McBrien, Philip King, Robert Imbelli, Claire Lowery, Mary Ann Hinsdale, and Thomas Groome. Its distinguished faculty (regular summer adjuncts and academic year) has included Richard McCormack, George McRae, Gabriel Moran, Bernard Cooke, Bernard Anderson, Maria Harris, Walter Brueggemann, James Fowler, Henri Nouwen, Gustavo Gutierrez, Paulo Freire, Raymond Brown, Dan Harrington, Michael Himes, Maryanne Confoy, Shawn Copeland, Richard Gaillardetz, John Baldovin, Mary Boys, Padraic O’Hare, Jane Regan, John Shea, Colleen Griffith, and many others. The IREPM was founded in response to the movement of renewal and reform launched by the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965); it has continued in the Council’s spirit of resourcement and aggiornamento. Its defining commitment has been to prepare and renew religious educators and pastoral minsters who will enable the church to be an effective instrument of the in-breaking


of God’s reign of justice, peace, and fullness of life for all as inaugurated in Jesus Christ. The institute became distinguished for its pedagogy, which maintains a dialectical unity between theory and praxis to encourage both the knowing and living of faith. Its overall curriculum has consistently reflected commitment to academic rigor, spiritual formation, and pastoral preparation. Committed to such holistic education for all functions and forms of religious education, ministry, and faith-based service, the IREPM has been a leader in the emerging movement of lay ecclesial ministries in the U.S. Catholic Church and beyond. Though distinctly Catholic in commitment and ethos, it has been ecumenical in its faculty and outreach. Over time, Boston College’s IREPM has come to enjoy an international as well as a national reputation, attracting students from throughout the world. Its thousands of graduates serve as leaders in religious education and in every conceivable function of ministry and faith-based service. In particular, the graduates of its small but highly regarded PhD program (now in theology and education) are among the most prominent scholars and leaders in contemporary religious education. On 1 June 2008, the IREPM merged with the Weston Jesuit School of Theology to form the Boston College School of Theology and Ministry (STM). It continues its distinguished service and defining commitments as the Department of Religious Education and Pastoral Ministry (DREPM) within the STM. —Thomas H. Groome

Bounds, E. M. E. M. (Edward McKendree) Bounds was an American Methodist author and minister. He was born on 15 August 1835, in Shelby County, Missouri. Bounds was the second youngest child in a family of three sons and three daughters. Originally from Maryland, his parents were married in 1823 and subsequently moved westward in search of greater opportunities for their young family. Bounds’s father served as a county clerk, and the family was relatively prosperous. Bounds was educated in a one-room schoolhouse in Shelbyville (where his father worked). He was 14 when his father died of tuberculosis, and although the family was financially stable, they were emotionally adrift. Consequently, he and his older brother Charles traveled westward in search of gold in California. The brothers returned home four years later, and Bounds decided to study law. He passed the bar at 18 and had a successful legal practice in Shelby County for five years.


Boys, Mary

At the age of 24, Bounds sensed God’s call upon his life. In 1859, he experienced a “second blessing,” which resulted in his devoting himself entirely to Christian ministry. (Wesleyan perfectionism is the notion that sinlessness is possible, and this “second blessing” is subsequent to a struggle and decisive act of faith. Similar to the Wesleyan notion is that of the Keswick victorious life, wherein the believer experiences the complete control of the Holy Spirit and struggle with the flesh ceases; however, the sin nature is not completely eradicated as in the Wesleyan view.) Bounds became an ardent reader of scripture and an avid admirer of John Wesley’s sermons, in addition to the biographies of David Brainerd and John Fletcher. Bounds closed his law office and began evangelizing and preaching. Early in 1860, he was licensed to preach by the Hannibal Station Quarterly Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he pastored his own congregation in Brunswick, Missouri. When the American Civil War officially began in 1861, the state of Missouri was a border state politically. Union martial law was imposed upon Missouri in September 1862, and Bounds was imprisoned by Union troops and charged as a Confederate sympathizer. He was a prisoner of war for a year and half; early in 1863, the 26-year-old was transferred to Tennessee and was eventually released in Arkansas (although the Union Army forbade his return to Missouri). During his imprisonment, Bounds ministered to others who had been arrested. He was never provided the opportunity to swear allegiance to the Union and was not a slaveholder. Bounds was spiritually committed to the Confederate prisoners and thus allied himself with the Confederacy as a chaplain in February 1863. He ministered courageously in definitive battles at Atlanta (GA), Franklin (TN), and Vicksburg (MS). He also preached messages of restoration and revival to the civilian population who experienced devastation from the Civil War. Bounds pastored churches in Alabama and Tennessee after the war. In Selma, Alabama, he met Emma Barnett (daughter of a prominent Methodist minister), and the couple married in 1876; both were 41 at the time and had never previously married. Emma gave birth to three children; she died in 1884. Nineteen months later, Bounds honored Emma’s wishes and married her cousin, Harriet Barnett, with whom he also had children. In 1883, he became associate editor of the St. Louis Christian Advocate, and in 1888, he began work as the associate editor of the Nashville Christian Advocate (the official paper of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South). Bounds wrote passionately against the liberal “New Theology” and to promote revival within his own beloved denomination. In 1894, when the General Conference

rejected the office of evangelist, he resigned his position and moved his family to Washington, Georgia. Bounds dedicated the last 17 years of his life to writing devotional works, such as the classic work Power through Prayer (1902; originally published as the Preacher and Prayer). During this time, Bounds would wake every morning at 4:00 a.m. to pray for several hours. He also wrote a series on heaven, entitled The Resurrection (1907). His other works were compiled and edited by Homer W. Hodge, including Essentials of Prayer (1925), The Necessity of Prayer (1929), Prayer and Praying Men (1921), Purpose in Prayer (1920), Reality of Prayer (1924), and Weapon of Prayer (1931). Although only two of his books were published in his lifetime, a definitive collection is available: The Complete Works of E. M. Bounds. Wilder Publications, 2009. The definitive biography is E. M. Bounds: Man of Prayer, by Lyle Wesley Dorsett (1991). Bounds died on 24 August 1913 at his home in Washington, Georgia. References and Resources Dorsett, Lyle Wesley. 1991. E. M. Bounds: Man of Prayer. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Irvin, Willis. 1983. The Prayer Warrior: A Mini-biography of Dr. E. M. Bounds. Augusta, GA: Author. King, Darrel D. 2009. E. M. Bounds Speaks to the Modern Church. Alachua, FL: Bridge-Logos. Perry, Howard W. 1952. “A Comparative Study of Views of Prayer as Held by E. M. Bounds, Andrew Murray and George Arthur Buttrick.” BD thesis, Western Evangelical Seminary Portland, OR. Riddle, John. 2003. For God and Country: Four Stories of Courageous Military Chaplains. Uhrichsville, OH: Barbour. Zylstra, Cornelius. 1981. The Best of E. M. Bounds. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

—Ron J. Bigalke

Boys, Mary Early Background and Education Mary Boys was born on 4 November 1947 in Seattle, Washington, and grew up steeped in the Latin Mass of the pre–Vatican II Catholic church. Her early experiences in the richly varied neighborhoods of Seattle meant that she was regularly in conversation with youth from diverse religious traditions, as well as those with no faith tradition at all. The Second Vatican Council was begun in 1962 and generated a significant and exciting degree of new openness in the church. In August 1965 Boys joined a Roman Catholic women’s religious order, the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, a community to

Boys, Mary

which she professed final vows in 1972. She has noted that the promulgation of the Vatican II document Nostra Aetate in 1965, which initiated a revolution in relations between Catholics and Jews, was always a key stimulus for her thought. After completing a BA in religion and humanities at Fort Wright College of the Holy Names in Spokane, Washington, Boys began her teaching career as an instructor in religion and in English at the Holy Names Academy. She completed an MA in religion and education in 1975 and an EdD in religion and education in 1978, both at Columbia University and Union Theological Seminary in New York City. From 1977 to 1994, she was on the faculty of Boston College, progressing from instructor to full professor. In 1994, she returned to her alma mater, Union Seminary, as the Skinner and McAlpin Professor of Practical Theology, a chair she continues to hold. On 1 July 2013, she assumed the position of dean of academic affairs at Union. Significant Contributions to Christian Education Boys’s earliest contributions to the scholarship of Christian education were centered in deep attention to biblical texts in the context of religious formation. Engaging historical critical scholarship, which was only then taking root in the Catholic context, she wrote numerous articles, chapters, and eventually a book, Biblical Interpretation in Religious Education (1980). That contribution had a significant impact in the community of Christian religious educators and drew her more deeply into the work of the Association of Professors and Researchers in Religious Education, an association that would later become the host for her remarkable scholarly collaboration with Dr. Sara Lee in Christian-Jewish learning and dialogue. Her most significant and lasting contributions to the field of Christian religious education have been her work on “learning in the presence of the other.” She has fundamentally reshaped not only Christian-Jewish dialogue, but also the scholarship of learning in multifaith contexts across myriad traditions. The recipient of multiple large grants, she has been a senior advisor to several national projects, including the Valparaiso Project in the Education and Formation of Faith, the Catholic-Jewish Colloquium, Educating for Religious Particularism and Pluralism, and the ATS Project on Christian Hospitality and Interreligious Education. Most Notable Publications Boys’s Educating in Faith: Maps and Visions gave the field its first thorough framework for mapping the history of religious education in the U.S. context. She wrote that a series of foundational questions within religion (about revelation, conversion, faith and belief,


and theology), when paired with a series of foundational questions in education (about the goal(s) of education, the understanding of knowledge, use of the social sciences, definition(s) of curriculum and teaching, and a tradition’s stance toward education as a political term), could offer a clear picture of religious education within a specific tradition. In doing so, she provided a means by which diverse religious educators could engage in thoughtful and respectful conversation about what mattered to their individual communities without ignoring the particular differences between them. Her commitment to these conversations grew into a substantial and foundational project exploring Jewish and Christian history and practice in mutual relationship within religious education. One of her books from that research, Has God Only One Blessing? Judaism as a Source of Christian Self-Understanding, first published in 2000, was awarded a Catholic Press Association’s Award in Theology in 2001. This book offers an alternative account of Christian origins, replacing the supersessionism that has so permeated Christianity with an accessible narrative for Christian life and thought that remains rooted in scripture and practice. Awards Boys received the International Council of Christians and Jews Sir Sigmund Steinberg Award in 2004, the Eternal Light Award from the Center for Catholic-Jewish Studies at St. Leo University in 2012, and the Ann O’Hara Graff award from the CTSA Women’s Consultation on Constructive Theology in 2013. She has honorary doctorates from four institutions and has given endowed lectures at multiple colleges and universities, including the Madeleva Lecture at St. Mary’s College, Notre Dame, Indiana, and The Cardinal Willebrands Lecture in Amsterdam, Netherlands. She was a Henry Luce fellow in 2009–2010. References and Resources Boys, Mary. 1980. Biblical Interpretation in Religious Education. Birmingham, AL: Religion Education Press. ———, ed. 1981. Ministry and Education in Conversation. Winona: St. Mary’s. (Editor) ———. 1989a. Educating in Faith: Maps and Visions. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Sheed & Ward. ———, ed. 1989b. Education for Citizenship and Discipleship. New York: Pilgrim. (A Korean translation was published in 1999.) ———. 1997. Jewish-Christian Dialogue: One Woman’s Experience. New York/Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. ———. 2000. Has God Only One Blessing? Judaism as a Source of Christian Self-Understanding. A Stimulus Book. New York/ Mahwah: Paulist Press.


Braille, Louis

———, ed. 2005. Seeing Judaism Anew: Christianity’s Sacred Obligation. A Sheed & Ward Book. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ———. 2013. Redeeming our Sacred Story: The Death of Jesus and Relations between Jews and Christians. A Stimulus Book. New York and Mahwah: Paulist Press. Boys, Mary, Philip A. Cunningham, Joseph Sievers, Hans Hermann Henrix, and Jesper Svartvik, eds. 2011. Christ Jesus and the Jewish People Today: New Explorations of Theological Interrelationships. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Boys, Mary, and Sara S. Lee. 2006. Christians and Jews in Dialogue: Learning in the Presence of the Other. Woodstock, VT: SkyLight Paths Publishing.

body rests in the Pantheon in Paris, “the highest honor that France can bestow upon its dead” (Spungin 2009, 6). Braille’s revolutionary alphabet system gives people who are blind a medium for literacy. Braille literacy gives them access to written culture and is also positively correlated with increased academic achievement and employment opportunities. Moreover, Braille literacy provides individuals who are blind with personal access to read and study God’s written word. There are multiple versions of the Bible (e.g., New King James Version, New International Version) available in Braille in multiple languages, as well as children’s Bibles, concordances, and Bible dictionaries.

—Mary Hess

Braille, Louis Early Background and Education Louis Braille was born on 4 January 1809 in a small town near Paris, France, called Coupvray. When Braille was three years old, he injured an eye while playing with a sharp tool in his father’s workshop. The wound became infected, the infection spread to his other eye, and by the age of five Braille was blind in both eyes. Though it was challenging, Braille adapted to being blind, refusing to allow his disability to slow him down or keep him from doing things his peers were doing. In addition to learning to play the cello, piano, and organ, Braille was also an avid student and at the age of 10 received a scholarship to attend the Royal Institution for Blind Youth in Paris. Braille’s school had 14 books with raised letters that students could read by tracing over them with their fingers. However, this method was slow and difficult for students to master. Significant Contributions to Christian Education Braille’s inspiration for the code that bears his name today came from a retired military officer in Napoleon’s army named Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767–1841). Barbier developed a “night writing” system using 12 raised dots for the mostly illiterate soldiers to communicate without light or sound to avoid alerting the enemy of their position. While the code was not well embraced by the army, Barbier was invited to demonstrate it at Braille’s school. Braille, 12 years old at the time, recognized the potential of such a system and spent the next three years revising it into a more efficient reading and writing system using combinations of 6 dots. While Braille’s system was largely developed by the time he was 15 years old, he continued to refine it throughout his lifetime, even adding mathematical and musical symbols. Braille died on 6 January 1852, at the age of 43, after a long struggle with tuberculosis. His

Most Notable Publications Braille’s alphabetic code was first published in 1834, was universalized in 1950 by UNESCO, and is presently used by people who are blind across the globe. His musical notations were published in 1839. Perhaps most remarkable, “for over two centuries Braille’s system has remained essentially as he designed it” (Spungin 2009, 6). References and Resources Mellor, Michael. 2006. Louis Braille: A Touch of Genius. Boston: National Braille Press. Spungin, Susan Jay. 2009. “Louis Braille Celebration: Past and Present Remembrances of Louis Braille.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (January): 5–6, 64. National Braille Press. http://www.nbp.org/ic/nbp/aboutus/ index.html.

—Lucinda S. Spaulding

Brazil and Christian Education Christianity is the predominant religion in Brazil, and the Roman Catholic tradition played a strong and definitive role in the process of diffusion of the Christian religion in the country from the time of Portuguese colonization. Currently, 64.6 percent of the population is Catholic, a significant decrease over the last few decades. Protestants make up 22.2 percent, and the predominant trend in this group is the Pentecostals. Pentecostal churches are religiously dispersed in Brazilian culture. They are characterized by a strong element of religious syncretism from Afro-Brazilians, currently totaling only 0.1 percent of the population. However, even though the majority of Brazilians do not declare themselves members of an Afro religion, there is a strong religious influence of these traditions, including Spiritism. There are three main aspects of Christian education in Brazil. First is the family and its capacity for intergen-

Brethren Church Christian Education

erational religious transmission. Second is the efforts by religious institutions to transmit the Christian message by means of evangelization. Third is the current debate in the country about confessional religious education in public schools. Regarding the first aspect, some research demonstrates that inside the family, the mother has a determinative role in the religious formation of the children. But there has been a decrease in intergenerational religious transmission, a consequence of the modernization of Brazilian families, who give religion a secondary status as an institution able to educate children. This trend expresses the desire to assure freedom of choice for children. Regarding the second aspect, there is a dispute between Catholics and Protestants, mainly the Pentecostals. Christian education in the Catholic Church occurs inside the parishes, through traditional catechism; through Catholic TV and radio, with a strong emphasis on charismatic Catholic renewal; and through mass events, such as World Youth Day, directed at the public, which has increasingly abandoned Catholic identity in recent decades. Among the Protestant churches similar strategies are used, including a strong presence in the media to guarantee the diffusion of the Christian message with acute proselytizing. However, the Pentecostals have continued to use Afro-Brazilian religious symbols, reactivating and resignifying the figure of the demon. Finally, Christian education in Brazil has been dispersed in the traditional Catholic and Protestant confessional schools (private), with a strong emphasis on human values and formation of character, and also in public schools. The Brazilian states have autonomy to form their own educational policies regarding religious education, but the Christian traditions, and particularly the Catholic Church, have been privileged in this process. In 1997, the Brazilian government instituted religious education in the public schools. Although the Brazilian state is secular, there are three models of religious education that can be followed. First is confessional education, with an emphasis on an exclusive religious tradition, usually Catholic or traditional Protestant. Second is interconfessional religious education, in which the Bible is used in the study of Christian traditions for comparative analysis. The third model understands religion as a social phenomenon. Its theoretical approach comes from the social sciences and the phenomenological perspective and aims at the development of a pluralistic point of view. The model most often applied is confessional religious education, in which each Christian tradition in the country fortifies its own doctrine and religious message. —Sílvia Regina Alves Fernandes


Brethren Church Christian Education Throughout Christian history, but especially since the rise of Protestantism, many distinct movements have identified themselves simply as “brethren” or similar biblical terms. One such arose in Ireland and Britain in the first third of the 19th century. It soon came to be called (by others) after the English port of Plymouth, where a large congregation had assembled. (In recent years there has been increasing willingness to accept the designation “Christian Brethren.”) Major causes for this new movement were distress over denominational divisions, the close linkage throughout Europe of the majority of the church with the civil government, and the sharp distinction between clergy and laity. None of these factors seemed to these Brethren to have been envisaged for the church in the New Testament. (Interestingly, about the same time, across the Atlantic, an unrelated movement arose known as “Restorationism,” which was quite similar in some ways, but distinct in others.) Within a couple decades after the founding, Brethren congregations had spread into many countries of Europe and a few beyond. They also began what has continued to be a very extensive foreign missions outreach. When combined with emigration from Europe, the result is that today there are some 28,000 Brethren congregations in about 130 countries, with approximately 2 million regular adult attenders. Wherever they are found, except on some small islands, the Brethren are only a minority within Evangelicalism. In some countries, however, they are a significant part of the non-Pentecostal/charismatic wing of Evangelicalism. Their doctrinal distinctives have been in the areas of ecclesiology and eschatology. In the former, they stressed the spiritual giftedness of all true believers, not just clergy, and this is now widely accepted in Evangelicalism. But while Brethren have always had those who were ministering full-time at home or abroad, they have not considered them “ordained” as a separate class, and instead place a strong emphasis on “lay” leadership and ministry. In the 19th century, education even for leadership was to take place within the framework of the local congregation, and this practice continues for some. Also, until recent generations most full-time ministers were itinerant, but in recent decades more have functioned locally. Brethren also traditionally observed the Lord’s Supper weekly and separately from the preaching service, though this also is changing, at least in some countries. Eschatologically, the view known as dispensationalism was developed within the Brethren (though not held by all of them). However, it soon was adopted and spread widely throughout


Brethren of the Common Life

Evangelicalism by means of teachers from other denominations who did not accept Brethren ecclesiology. After its first two decades, the Brethren divided into two categories: “Open” (essentially congregational, hence varying in practice) and “Exclusive” or “Closed” (unofficially but tightly connected with each other, hence very similar). Initially most of the members and prominent Bible teachers sided with the Exclusives, affirming that they best expressed the intended unity of the body of Christ. The more evangelistically and missionary minded were generally with the Opens. The widely traveled John Nelson Darby (1800–1882) was unofficial Exclusive leader. Within a generation of his death, the Exclusives had divided into seven distinct factions. Subsequent subdivisions, partial reunions, and the tendency of many Exclusives to evolve into Opens mean that now probably 90 percent of all Brethren are historically linked with the latter. But given their strong congregational emphasis, in countries where Open Brethren have a long history and large numbers, there is clearly a spectrum of belief and practice. This of course would be true of all Protestant denominations, except that the Brethren range stays within the evangelical spectrum. Educationally, the Brethren have functioned much as have other evangelical congregations, educating children and youth with Sunday schools and the like. Sometimes Brethren produce their own teaching materials, but many are content to use interdenominational ones. When it comes to Bible training programs for older youth and adults, Exclusives and the more conservative Opens still prefer to handle training within the congregation. But in most countries where Open Brethren are well established, they do create schools and training programs in which students can come together for a few weeks for one or more years or even for a longer period of time. This is not seen as preparing clergy, although many who attend become full-time Christian workers at home or abroad. Possibly the earliest still functioning Brethren tertiary school began in Berlin in 1905; it relocated after World War I to the village of Wiedenest, near Cologne. It is also a missionary service agency, along with performing other functions for many German Open Brethren, but many students come from other groups. Tilsley College in Scotland arose from an Australian initiative after World War II and has been primarily associated with a Brethren missions agency. In Australia itself there is the small Emmaus Bible College, while French Switzerland has the older Emmaus Institute, dating from the 1920s. The small and now bachelor’s-granting Emmaus Bible College was started in Canada in 1945, but in 1954 it merged with its Chicago branch and then was relocated to Dubuque, Iowa, in 1984. Though its faculty remains Brethren, presently the majority of the students are from

other evangelical groups. These schools are to varying degrees part of the higher education systems of their respective countries, but they have long functioned in the way that numerous other Bible and missionary and ministry training schools have done—both within the Brethren as well as in countless other evangelical groups. Such schools arise in response to the recognition that, though not essential for Spirit-empowered ministering, they can be very helpful preparations for beginning or improving it. Unlike other denominational families of European origin, Brethren have not developed liberal arts colleges, much less comprehensive universities. The most significant educational contribution from Brethren has been the development since the 1940s of Emmaus Bible correspondence courses, for a long time in conjunction with the aforementioned school that started in Canada, but now functioning separately under the name ECS Ministries and reaching far beyond Brethren boundaries. These courses are generally on a secondary level and are both evangelistic and instructional. By the 1960s there were some 35 courses, with at least one in each of 80 languages and some three million courses in circulation. A special focus has led to some four million courses being used in 3,000 prisons around the world. Overall, Emmaus courses are available in 120 languages in 90 countries, administered from some 1,200 centers. —Donald Tinder

Brethren of the Common Life Brethren of the Common Life, a late 14th- to early 16thcentury fraternity in Deventer and Zwolle in north Holland after 1384, was inspired by the life and teaching of Gerard Groote (see Groote, Gerard), whose preaching and example advocated renewal of church and society. The Deventer and Zwolle houses, and a handful of others, commissioned members to found new houses and hostels, so that by the end of the 15th century Brethren were found in towns across the Netherlands, Flanders (modern Belgium and northern France), and northern Germany. Brethren houses generally consisted of two priests aided by two or more clerks—often priests in training—and one or two lay folk. Brethren were neither laymen, nor pursuing a religious life in a monastery, but living in voluntary poverty and serving others in the midst of society. In the decades before the invention of printing, Brethren houses earned their living by copying books on commission and operating hostels for students at municipal Latin schools. After the invention of printing, some Brethren became printers, while others made direct contributions to schooling. Groote saw spiritual work with students as important, because the piety of a generation of leaders

Brethren of the Common Life

would bring wider renewal. The earliest Groote-inspired community was Sisters of the Common Life, organized in his house in Deventer in 1379; female houses also spread around Flanders and the lower Rhine basin, but since students were nearly always male, the Sisters had few or no hostels and little connection to education. The late 14th and early 15th centuries witnessed church scandal and calls for reform. Two popes claimed leadership of the church and established rival courts. Financial and sexual compromises, abuse of privilege, and pursuit of luxury touched both the higher clergy and monastics. Yet recurrent plague heightened awareness of the brevity of life, the closeness of judgment, and Hell. The Brethren’s motivation for working and living in common was based on Acts 2:32–35, in which the earliest church members sold personal possessions to live, preach, and serve together. The Brethren’s communal life confessed a committed faith to often less-than-welcoming townspeople. Brethren wore the distinctive hairstyle (“tonsure”) indicating full religious commitment, and a gray habit to below the knees; at some times and places they wore overlarge shoes to emphasize humility. They attracted curiosity from laypeople and jealous attention from established monastic orders, which saw them as undermining their own reasons for being. The Brethren’s work was provocative enough that it was investigated and exonerated by the Council of Constance in 1415. While earlier scholars thought that the Brothers made a significant educational impact through administration of schools and teaching, that assertion was questioned by R. R. Post’s The Modern Devotion (1968). Post’s archival research revealed that no house ever sent a man to university—yet a master’s degree was essential for other than auxiliary teaching. While the Brothers, later in their history, sponsored the main school of a town such as Liege or Maastricht, for the most part city or church leaders tended to prevent or harass private schools in order to maintain the town school’s reputation and viability. Only when a town such as Utrecht was larger than a single parish was it possible to establish a private school. Even then, shortages of masters or pupils would lead to one school possessing rights denied to its competitors. John Cele, the effective schoolmaster of the Zwolle Latin school, was a close friend of Groote and adherent of his movement. Cele’s influence passed via John Sturm’s academy at Strassburg to John Calvin’s widely admired Geneva Academy. Sturm expressly credited Cele’s model for his organization. However, Post, also the author of a history of Dutch medieval schooling, showed that the Zwolle school was unusual only in having two higher levels than most Latin schools. Groote’s influence on Cele appears to have been less educational than it was personal and religious.


Hostels, though, could have a significant influence. The priest or clerk in charge of the hostel would not only provide room and board, give devotional messages, and hear confession—a privilege claimed early on and maintained by the Brethren—but also assist the boys with schoolwork. Hostel overseers came to know schoolmasters well for the sake of their mutual charges, so the division between school and hostel was not watertight. Hostels had some tendency to evolve into schools in their own right; for example, the Sorbonne was first a residence for University of Paris students. However, because even those Brothers who were ordained as priests lacked theological training beyond the basics, Brethren hostels did not have the intellectual wherewithal to evolve. But the influence of godly Brothers on students could be and was marked: the Brothers were highly successful recruiters for vocations in monastery and priesthood. Earlier scholars believed that the Brethren’s educational contribution was humanistic learning that prepared reformers such as Luther. The lack of evidence for school sponsorship, administration, or teaching, plus the Brethren’s lack of training for any such influence, however, means that they have to be seen in the light of broader intellectual and spiritual trends. While Groote himself did postgraduate study at the University of Paris and was a noted bibliophile, humanistic (classical Greek and Roman) learning was not a mark of the Brethren houses. Humanism’s growing influence was apparently not connected to Brethren student work. Casting the net more widely, the philosopher Charles Taylor notes that the late medieval drive to reform was manifested in “attempts to bring a more intense devotional life into niches of personal and social existence where they had hitherto been absent,” marked especially by “mediaeval movements like the Brethren of the Common Life, which aim(ed) precisely to integrate the life of prayer more closely into everyday life” (2007, 144). The growing orientation to individual piety tended to devalue church ceremonies as primary ways of staying right with God, and Martin Luther’s Reformation from 1517 onward confirmed the nonritualistic tendency. Luther attended a Brethren-connected school at Magdeburg. The Brethren were perhaps responsible for bringing Luther to a focus on God in everyday life. But neither Groote nor the Breth