Emanuel Adler

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Emanuel Adler

The Quest f or Technological Autonomy in Argentina and Brazil

U niversity of California Press Berkeley

Los Angeles

London

Studies in International Political Economy Stephen D. Krasner, Editor Ernst B. Haas, Consulting Editor

9. Between Dependency and Autonomy: India's Experience with the International Computer Industry

Joseph M. Grieco 10. The Problems of Plenty: Energy Policy and International Politics Peter F. Cowhey

1. Scientists and World Order: The Uses of Technical Knowledge

11. Standing Guard: Protecting Foreign Capital in the Nineteenth

in I nternational Organizations

and Twentieth Centuries

Ernst B. Haas, Mary Pat Williams, and Don Babai

Charles Lipson

2. Pollution, Politics, and International Law: Tankers at Sea R. Michael M'Gonigle and Mark W. Zacher

12. Structural Conftict: The Third World Against Global Liberalism Stephen D. Krasner

3. Plutonium, Power, and Politics: International Arrangements

13. Liberal Protectionism: The International Politics of Organized

for the Disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel Gene l. Rochlin

Textile Trade

Vinod K. Aggarwal

4. National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade Albert O. Hirsch man

14. The Politicized Market Economy: Alcohol in Brazil's Energy Strategy Michael Barzelay

5. Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy, 1929-1976 Robert A. Pastor

15. From Marshall Plan to Debt Crisis: Foreign Aid and

6. Natural Resources and the State: The Political Economy of

16. The Power of Ideology: The Quest for Technological Autonomy

Development Choices in the World Economy

Robert Wood

Resource Management

in Argentina and Brazil

Oran R. Young

Emanuel Adler

7. Resource Regimes: Natural Resources and Social Institutions Oran R. Young

17. Ruling the Waves: The Political Economy of International Shipping Alan Cafruny

8. Managing Political Risk Assessment: Strategic Response to

18. Banker to the Third World: U.S. Portfolio Investment in

Environmental Change

Latín America, 1900-1986

Stephen J. Kobrin

Barbara Stallings

Contents University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England

List of Tables List of Figures Acronyms Acknowledgments

IX XI Xlll

XIX

© 1987 by The Regents of the University of California

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

I

Adler, Emanuel. The power of ideology. Includes index. l. Technology and state-Argentina. 2. Technology and state-Brazil. l. Title. T25.A7A35 1987 338.98206 85-20845 ISBN 0-520-05485- 7 (alk. paper) Printed in the United States of America

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 Introduction The Problem The Case Studies Ideology and Change: Are Ideologies Real? The Idea and Ideology of Progress Catalytic Interdependence Political Science and Historical Processes: Toward Integration

1 4

6 10 17 20 27

V

VI

Contents

Contents

2 Domestic and International Choices Science, Technology, and Modernization Science and Technology for Development: Domestic Cho ices Interdependence and Self-Reliance: International Choices

29 29

52

Goals, Means, Information, and the State Strategies and Ideologies Technological Laissez-Faire Structural and Pragmatic Antidependency

52 62 65 68

Science and Technology Policy Making The "Weathermakers": Intellectuals and Political Action Egalitarian-Nationalist Weathermakers in Latin America The Pragmatic Antidependency Guerrillas

Technological Laissez-Faire The Quest for Technological Self-Determination From Pragmatic Antidependency to Chaos Erasing the Peronists' Legacy Summary and Conclusions

35 42

3 Three Strategies for Managing Science and Technology

4 The Policy-Making Process and the "Subversive Elites"

6 Ideology and Policy Making: Fracasomania

Vll

135 135 138 142 147 149

7 Science and Technology in Brazil, 1962-1982

151

Brazil's Pragmatic Antidependency Science and Technology Strategy Goals Means Management of Knowledge and Information Role of the State

152 165 168 179 186

83 83 87 90 93

8 An Image of the Future Takes Hold Ideological Background: Ideas, Sources, and Carriers The Evolution of an Idea Policy Continuity: Seizing Opportunities and Overcoming Obstades

199 200 208 213

II

III

5 Argentina's Science and Technology Policy, 1966-1982 Two Ways to Travel Argentina's Science and Technology Policy Goals Means Management of Knowledge and Information Role of the State

103 103 104 113 115 122 126

9 Argentina's Aborted Venture into Computers in the Mid-1970s Electronics and the Computer Market FATE Electronics and the National Computer That NeverWas

223 226 230

vm

Contents

1O Brazil's Domestic Computer Industry The Data-Processing Market, 1970-1982 Development of the Brazilian Computer Industry The Pragmatic Antidependency Guerrillas at Work The Multinational Corporations in an Ideologically Charged Context Conclusions

11 The Quest for Nuclear Autonomy in Argentina and Brazil Argentina: Success Brazil: Less Than Success

Condusion

Notes List of Interviews Index

238 238 244 258 272 276

280 283 303

327

333 377 385

List of Tables 1. Planning Activities in Bargaining and Compellence Societies 2. Planning, Type of Society, and Ideology 3. Argentina. Technical Assistance, Foreign Patents, and Know-How, 1968-1981 4. Argentina. Foreign Direct lnvestment, 1959-1980 5. Argentina. Personnel Involved "in Science and Technology Activities, 1969-1980 6. Argentina. Percentage of Total Personnel Engaged ín Research and Development, by Sector, 1976-1980 7. Argentina. Allocation of Finalidad 8, 1972-1981 8. Brazil. Nationalization Index of Equipment in Projects Financed by BNDE 9. Brazil. Technology Remittances, 1962-1976 1O. Brazil. FNDCT Operations, 1970-1980 11. Brazil. FINEP, Contracted Operations: Summary According to Type of Activities, 1967-1978 12. Brazil. Installed Computers, by Size, 1970-1982 13. Brazil. Technological Dependence Reduction by National Data-Processing Corporations, 1979-1981

41 88 118 121

123

124 129 169 176 194 196 240 243 IX

x

Tables

14. Brazil. Minicomputer Projects Under CAPRE's Examination 15. Argentina. Nuclear Research Reactors, 1958-1982 16. Brazil. Education and Training of Personnel for the Implementation of the Brazilian-West German Agreement, by Area of Specialization

252 288

31 O

List of Figures 1. The Modernization Process 2. Science and Technology Strategies: Goals, Means, Management of Knowledge, and the State 3. Intellectuals and the Policy-Making Process 4. Argentina. Research and Development Expenditure as Percentage of Gross Domestic Product, 1961-1980 5. Argentina. Finalidad 8, Relative to National Budget and to Gross Domestic Product, 1972-1981 6. Brazil. The Science and Technology Policy-Making System (to 1979) 7. Brazil. Authorized Technology Contracts, 1972-1980 8. Brazil. The Science and Technology Triangle: The State as Guide 9. Brazil. Domestic Computers, as Percentage of All Installed Computers, 1980-1982 10. Argentina. CNEA Budget, 1950-1982 11. Argentina. Finalidad 8 Allocations to the CNEA, 1972-1981 12. Journeys Toward Scientific and Technological Progress: A Theoretical Summary

36 64 96

125 128 166 174 191 242 300 301 330 XI

Acronyms ABICOMP APPD BID BNDE CACE X CADIE CAPES CAP RE CBPF CCNAI CCT CDE CDI

Brazilian Association for Computer and Peripheral Equipment Industries Association of Data Processing Professionals See IDB National Economic Development Bank Department of Foreign Commerce of the Bank of Brazil Argentine Association of Electronic Industries Company for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel Commission for the Coordination of Electronic Data-Processing Activities Brazilian Center for Physics Research Coordinating Commission of Articulation with Industry Scientific and Technological Council Economic Development Council Industrial Development Council

Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Argentina Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Xlll

XIV

Acronyms

Acronyms

CDTN CEDINI

CEPAL CGE CGT CNEA CNEN CNI CNPq

CONACYT CON AD E CON ASE CONCEX CONICET CON IN CONMETRO COPPE CTI Digibrás ECLA Eletrobrás EMBRAMEC ESG FATE FIBASE FIN AME

Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology Coordination of Entities for the Defense of an Informatics National Industry See ECLA General Economic Confederation General Confederation of Workers N ational Atomic Energy Commission National Nuclear Energy Commission National Informatics Commission National Research Council, later National Council of Scientific and Technological Development N ational Council of Science and Technology National Development Council National Security Council National Foreign Trade Council National Council of Scientific and Technical Research National Council on Informatics and Automation National Council for Metrology, Norms, and Industrial Quality Coordination of Graduate Programs in Engineering Industrial Technology Company Brazilian Digital Enterprises SA Economic Commission for Latin Ame rica Brazilian Electric Power Facilities Holding Co. Brazilian Mechanics, Inc. Higher War College Argentine Tire Mfg. Co. Basic Goods, Inc. Special Agency for Industrial lnvestment

Brazil

FINEP FNDCT

Brazil

FUNAT FUNTEC

Argentina Argentina Argentina Brazil Brazil

Brazil Argentina Argentina Argentina Brazil

GDP GIN GNP GTE HWR IBGE IBICT IBRASA IDB IEA IEN IN METRO

Argentina INPI Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil

Brazil Brazil Brazil Argentina Brazil Brazil

INT INTA INTI INVAP IPEA IPEN IPT ISEB ISI IUPERJ KWU LWR MEC

XV

Studies and Projects Financing Agency Brazil National Science and Technology Development Fund Brazil Fund for the Support of Technology Brazil Scientific and Technical Development Fund Brazil Gross Domestic Product National Industries Group Argentina Gross National Product Special Working Group Brazil Heavy Water Reactor Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Brazil Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technological Information Brazil Brazilian Investments Brazil Interamerican Development Bank Atomic Energy Institute Brazil Nuclear Engineering Institute Brazil National Institute for Metrology, Standardization, and Industrial Quality Brazil National Institute of Industrial Property Brazil National Institute of Technology Brazil National Institute of Agricultura! Technology Argentina National Institute of Industrial Technology Argentina Applied Research Argentina Economic and Social Planning Institute Brazil Energy and Nuclear Research Institute Brazil Technological Research Institute Brazil Higher Institute of Brazilian Studies Brazil Import Substitution Industrialization U niversity Research lnstitute of Rio de Janeiro Brazil Kraftwerk Union West Germany Low Water Reactor Ministry of Ed ucation and Culture Brazil

xv1

Acronyms

MIC MME NAI Nuclebrás OAS OECD PBDCT Petrobrás PND PUC/RJ R&D SATI SBC SBPC SCI SECYT SEGBA SEI SEPLAN SNDCT SNICT STI SUBCYT SUMOC Telebrás UFRJ UIA UNCTAD

Acronyms

Ministry of Industry and Commerce Ministry of Mines and Energy N uclei of Articulation with Industry Brazilian Nuclear Enterprises SA Organization of American States Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development Basic Plan for Scientific and Technological Development Brazilian Petroleum Co. SA National Development Plan Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro Research and Development Technical Assistance Service for Industry Brazilian Computation Society Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science Superintendency for International Cooperation Secretariat of Science and Technology Electrical Services of Greater Buenos Aires Special Secretariat of Informatics Planning Secretariat National System for the Development of Science and Technology National Science and Technology Information System Industrial Technology Secretariat Subsecretariat of Science and Technology Superintendency of Money and Credit Brazilian Telecommunications Co. SA Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Argentine Industrial Union United Nations Conference for Trade and Development

Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil

Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil

Argentina Brazil Brazil Brazil Argentina Argentina Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Argentina Brazil Brazil Brazil Argentina

UNDP UNESCO UNIDO

United Nations Development Program United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization

xvii

Acknowledgments My füst wish is to acknowledge and thank my wife, Sylvia, and my children, Shirli, Nadav, and Jonathan, for bearing with me the travail involved in writing and preparing a book manuscript and for showing support and understanding beyond what I could ask or expect. This book is a tribute to them. To my parents, my thanks for believing in and supporting me and my work. Among the many knowledgeable people who provided inspiration, support, and assistance my thanks go first and foremost to Ernst B. Haas, teacher, mentor, and friend, not only for his constant helpreading, advising, instructing, and guiding my work-but also for his profound intellectual legacy. He provided me with an understanding of human and social relations, the processes of cognitive change, and the importance of designing international relations theory with the values of peace and human welfare in mind. I am grateful also to David Collier and Pranab Bardhan for their valuable comments on my dissertation, on which this study is partially based. One of my greatest debts is to the people I interviewed in Washington, D.C., Cambridge, Massachusetts, and five Latin American countries. They were all extremely helpful and kind, sometimes taking long hours from their work to talk to this "stranger." XIX

xx

Acknowledgments

The support of sorne of those people exceeded ali expectations, and it is difficult to find the right words to thank them. They were Francisco (Paco) Sagasti, Gustavo Flores, and Fernando González Vigil of Peru; Carlos Paredes and Ramón Schulczewski of Bolivia; Alberto Aráoz, Jorge Katz, Jorge Kitroser, Rafael Kohanoff, Jorge Martínez Favini, Jorge Sabato, and Roberto Zubieta of Argentina; Andrea Sandro Calabi, lvan de Costa Marques, Suelí Mendes dos Santos, Arthur Pereira Nunes, Mário Ripper, José Pelúcio, and Simon Schwartzman of Brazil; and Miguel Wionczek of Mexico. I would also like to express appreciation to the staff of the BID/ECLA science and technology secretariat in Argentina and IUPERJ in Brazil and to ali those who provided me with help and hospitality during my trips, especially Miriam and Rafi Barak, Anne and Peter Levine, and Sara and Adolfo Zadunaisky. Many colleagues and friends have provided information and advice, for which l am indeed grateful. Edson and Marcia Nunes have been especially informative about their home country, Brazil; Van R. Whiting and Yaacov Vertzberger generously offered advice; and l wish Beverly Crawford and Stephan Haggard could know how useful our frequent conversations turned out to be. I am deeply indebted to the Institute of International Studies at Berkeley, Professor Carl Rosberg, and the staff for financia! and administrative support, first as part of the "International Conflict and International Regimes Project," and later as part of my postdoctoral fellowship. I am also indebted to the Institute for the Study of World Politics in New York, the Center for Latín American Studies at Berkeley, the Tinker Foundation, and the Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem for financial assistance. William K. Muir, Chairman of the Political Science Department at the University of California, Berkeley, and the department staff also provided valuable support, for which I thank them. I am also indebted to Mary Renaud and Naomi Schneider of the University of California Press, who made my job ofbringing the manuscript to publication much easier; to Anne G. Canright for her excellent copyediting; and to Nancy Herington for the preparation of the index. Last but not least, thanks to Florence Myer, my "English teacher ," who guided me in the ways and styles of the English language while-

Acknowledgments

xxi

incidentally-typing the many chapters and drafts. Her professionalism, quality work, and positive attitude were always a source of confidence. My joy in writing lengthy chapters was her pain, and we shared the pain when I had to rewrite them. Nevertheless she was always ready to help, as a good friend usually is. Gracias, Florencia!

Continuity of change, preservation of the past in the present, real duration-the living being seems, then, to share these attributes with consciousness. Can we go further and say that l~fe, like conscious activity, is invention, is increasing creation? -Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution

Introduction "My purpose," wrote Ovid two thousand years ago, "is to tell ofbodies which have been transformed into shapes of a different kind." 1 My purpose is to tell of shapes that have been transformed into bodies of a different kind; it is to study the role of ideology in shaping change in international relations and, more specifically, in the international political economy. Despite many years of inquiry into and theorizing about international relations, we know little and agree on less about the nature, roots, and modes of change. 2 This situation owes in part to a methodological indination in favor of positivism/behaviorism-which made us forget history-and to the paradigmatic dominance of neorealism-which too often emphasized structural change. 3 As a result, international relations theories of the past forty years have been static and mechanistic, aimed at explaining stability, efficiency, and hierarchy rather than the emergent and new in social systems. Most of these theories have also been deterministic, in at least two senses. They have tended either to deduce and predict political behavior from national and international political-economic structures (for example, contempo:rary behavioral international political economy theories, which are strongly influenced by neoclassical economic iml

2

The Power of Ideology

ages) or to state that structural change occurs, and in fact history develops, in one direction only (for example, Marxist theories). Although international relations theories differ profoundly according to which deterministic view is being advanced, both explain and predict change as resulting from "structures." From a paradigmatic and epistemological perspective, structural determinist international relations theories, mainly of the first type, are still considered state-of-the-art. 4 Whether these theories