Elixir in Action [3 ed.] 9781633438514

Elixir is the perfect choice for mission-critical software. Its fault-tolerance and concurrency capabilities let it seam

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Elixir in Action [3 ed.]
 9781633438514

Table of contents :
Praise for the Second Edition
Elixir in Action
Copyright
dedication
contents
front matter
foreword
preface
acknowledgments
about this book
Who should read this book
How this book is organized: A road map
About the code
liveBook discussion forum
about the author
about the cover illustration
Part 1 Functional Elixir
1 First steps
1.1 About Erlang
1.1.1 High availability
1.1.2 Erlang concurrency
1.1.3 Server-side systems
1.1.4 The development platform
1.1.5 Relationship to microservices
1.2 About Elixir
1.2.1 Code simplification
1.2.2 Composing functions
1.2.3 The big picture
1.3 Disadvantages
1.3.1 Speed
1.3.2 Ecosystem
Summary
2 Building blocks
2.1 The interactive shell
2.2 Working with variables
2.3 Organizing your code
2.3.1 Modules
2.3.2 Functions
2.3.3 Function arity
2.3.4 Function visibility
2.3.5 Imports and aliases
2.3.6 Module attributes
2.3.7 Comments
2.4 Understanding the type system
2.4.1 Numbers
2.4.2 Atoms
2.4.3 Tuples
2.4.4 Lists
2.4.5 Immutability
2.4.6 Maps
2.4.7 Binaries and bitstrings
2.4.8 Strings
2.4.9 First-class functions
2.4.10 Other built-in types
2.4.11 Higher-level types
2.4.12 IO lists
2.5 Operators
2.6 Macros
2.7 Understanding the runtime
2.7.1 Modules and functions in the runtime
2.7.2 Starting the runtime
Summary
3 Control flow
3.1 Pattern matching
3.1.1 The match operator
3.1.2 Matching tuples
3.1.3 Matching constants
3.1.4 Variables in patterns
3.1.5 Matching lists
3.1.6 Matching maps
3.1.7 Matching bitstrings and binaries
3.1.8 Compound matches
3.1.9 General behavior
3.2 Matching with functions
3.2.1 Multiclause functions
3.2.2 Guards
3.2.3 Multiclause lambdas
3.3 Conditionals
3.3.1 Branching with multiclause functions
3.3.2 Classical branching expressions
3.3.3 The with expression
3.4 Loops and iterations
3.4.1 Iterating with recursion
3.4.2 Tail function calls
3.4.3 Higher-order functions
3.4.4 Comprehensions
3.4.5 Streams
Summary
4 Data abstractions
4.1 Abstracting with modules
4.1.1 Basic abstraction
4.1.2 Composing abstractions
4.1.3 Structuring data with maps
4.1.4 Abstracting with structs
4.1.5 Data transparency
4.2 Working with hierarchical data
4.2.1 Generating IDs
4.2.2 Updating entries
4.2.3 Immutable hierarchical updates
4.2.4 Iterative updates
4.2.5 Exercise: Importing from a file
4.3 Polymorphism with protocols
4.3.1 Protocol basics
4.3.2 Implementing a protocol
4.3.3 Built-in protocols
Summary
Part 2 Concurrent Elixir
5 Concurrency primitives
5.1 Concurrency in BEAM
5.2 Working with processes
5.2.1 Creating processes
5.2.2 Message passing
5.3 Stateful server processes
5.3.1 Server processes
5.3.2 Keeping a process state
5.3.3 Mutable state
5.3.4 Complex states
5.3.5 Registered processes
5.4 Runtime considerations
5.4.1 A process is sequential
5.4.2 Unlimited process mailboxes
5.4.3 Shared-nothing concurrency
5.4.4 Scheduler inner workings
Summary
6 Generic server processes
6.1 Building a generic server process
6.1.1 Plugging in with modules
6.1.2 Implementing the generic code
6.1.3 Using the generic abstraction
6.1.4 Supporting asynchronous requests
6.1.5 Exercise: Refactoring the to-do server
6.2 Using GenServer
6.2.1 OTP behaviours
6.2.2 Plugging into GenServer
6.2.3 Handling requests
6.2.4 Handling plain messages
6.2.5 Other GenServer features
6.2.6 Process life cycle
6.2.7 OTP-compliant processes
6.2.8 Exercise: GenServer-powered to-do server
Summary
7 Building a concurrent system
7.1 Working with the Mix project
7.2 Managing multiple to-do lists
7.2.1 Implementing a cache
7.2.2 Writing tests
7.2.3 Analyzing process dependencies
7.3 Persisting data
7.3.1 Encoding and persisting
7.3.2 Using the database
7.3.3 Analyzing the system
7.3.4 Addressing the process bottleneck
7.3.5 Exercise: Pooling and synchronizing
7.4 Reasoning with processes
Summary
8 Fault tolerance basics
8.1 Run-time errors
8.1.1 Error types
8.1.2 Handling errors
8.2 Errors in concurrent systems
8.2.1 Linking processes
8.2.2 Monitors
8.3 Supervisors
8.3.1 Preparing the existing code
8.3.2 Starting the supervisor process
8.3.3 Child specification
8.3.4 Wrapping the supervisor
8.3.5 Using a callback module
8.3.6 Linking all processes
8.3.7 Restart frequency
Summary
9 Isolating error effects
9.1 Supervision trees
9.1.1 Separating loosely dependent parts
9.1.2 Rich process discovery
9.1.3 Via tuples
9.1.4 Registering database workers
9.1.5 Supervising database workers
9.1.6 Organizing the supervision tree
9.2 Starting processes dynamically
9.2.1 Registering to-do servers
9.2.2 Dynamic supervision
9.2.3 Finding to-do servers
9.2.4 Using the temporary restart strategy
9.2.5 Testing the system
9.3 “Let it crash”
9.3.1 Processes that shouldn’t crash
9.3.2 Handling expected errors
9.3.3 Preserving the state
Summary
10 Beyond GenServer
10.1 Tasks
10.1.1 Awaited tasks
10.1.2 Non-awaited tasks
10.1.3 Supervising dynamic tasks
10.2 Agents
10.2.1 Basic use
10.2.2 Agents and concurrency
10.2.3 Agent-powered to-do server
10.2.4 Limitations of agents
10.3 ETS tables
10.3.1 Basic operations
10.3.2 ETS-powered key-value store
10.3.3 Other ETS operations
10.3.4 Exercise: Process registry
Summary
Part 3 Production
11 Working with components
11.1 OTP applications
11.1.1 Creating applications with the mix tool
11.1.2 The application behavior
11.1.3 Starting the application
11.1.4 Library applications
11.1.5 Implementing the application callback
11.1.6 The application folder structure
11.2 Working with dependencies
11.2.1 Adding a dependency
11.2.2 Adapting the pool
11.2.3 Visualizing the system
11.3 Building a web server
11.3.1 Choosing dependencies
11.3.2 Starting the server
11.3.3 Handling requests
11.3.4 Reasoning about the system
11.4 Configuring applications
11.4.1 Application environment
11.4.2 Varying configuration
11.4.3 Config script considerations
Summary
12 Building a distributed system
12.1 Distribution primitives
12.1.1 Starting a cluster
12.1.2 Communicating between nodes
12.1.3 Process discovery
12.1.4 Links and monitors
12.1.5 Other distribution services
12.2 Building a fault-tolerant cluster
12.2.1 Cluster design
12.2.2 The distributed to-do cache
12.2.3 Implementing a replicated database
12.2.4 Testing the system
12.2.5 Detecting partitions
12.2.6 Highly available systems
12.3 Network considerations
12.3.1 Node names
12.3.2 Cookies
12.3.3 Hidden nodes
12.3.4 Firewalls
Summary
13 Running the system
13.1 Running a system with Elixir tools
13.1.1 Using the mix and elixir commands
13.1.2 Running scripts
13.1.3 Compiling for production
13.2 OTP releases
13.2.1 Building a release
13.2.2 Using a release
13.2.3 Release contents
13.2.4 Packaging in a Docker container
13.3 Analyzing system behavior
13.3.1 Debugging
13.3.2 Logging
13.3.3 Interacting with the system
13.3.4 Tracing
Summary
index

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