Electric Vehicles: Modern Technologies and Trends 9789811592508, 9789811592515

This book focuses on the latest emerging technologies in electric vehicles (EV), and their economic and environmental im

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English Pages 285 [292] Year 2021

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Electric Vehicles: Modern Technologies and Trends
 9789811592508, 9789811592515

Table of contents :
Preface
Contents
About the Editors
Design and Modeling of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Urban Transportation
1 Introduction
2 Architecture of FCHEV
2.1 PEMFC Modeling and Design
2.2 Unidirectional Converter (UDC)
2.3 Bidirectional Converter (BDC)
2.4 Battery Pack Sizing
2.5 Electric Motor Sizing
3 Different Modes of Operation of FC Vehicle
3.1 Cold Start and Normal Mode
3.2 Acceleration and Deceleration Modes of FC Vehicle
4 Simulations and Results Discussion
4.1 Case 1: Cold Start Mode
4.2 Case 2: Normal Mode
4.3 Case 3: Acceleration Mode
4.4 Case 4: Deceleration Mode
5 Conclusion
References
Light Electric Vehicles and Their Charging Aspects
1 Introduction
2 Electric Two-Wheelers Market Review
2.1 Regional Overview of the Market
2.2 Market Segmentation
3 Electric Three-wheelers
3.1 Regional Overview of the Market
3.2 Market Segmentation
4 LEV Charging
4.1 Distinct Features of LEV Charging
4.2 Battery Parameters
4.3 Battery Charging Basics
4.4 Charging Control Methods
4.5 Charging Technologies for LEVs
5 Challenges, Best Practices and Recommendations
5.1 Safety and Thermal Management of Batteries
5.2 Battery Swapping
5.3 Charging Techniques
5.4 Solar Charging
5.5 Vehicle to Grid Integration
References
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)
1 Introduction
1.1 About Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs)
1.2 Terminology
2 The History of PHEVs
2.1 The Demise of PHEVs
2.2 Revival of Interest
3 Comparison
3.1 Basic Electrical Vehicles (BEVs)
3.2 Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs)
3.3 Plug-In Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEVs)
4 Construction of PHEVs
5 Working of PHEVs
5.1 Block Diagram of Plug-In Hybrid
5.2 What is a Drive Train?
6 Heart of PHEVs-Battery
6.1 Sorts of Battery
7 Charging
7.1 How Would I Charge My Plug-In Hybrid?
7.2 Types
7.3 Charge Time
8 Why Choose Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles?
8.1 Plug-In Hybrids Are Cost Saving
8.2 PHEVs Enhances the Driving Experience
8.3 PHEVs Reduce the Fuel Consumption by a Lot
8.4 PHEVs Bring Down the Rate of Emission (Environment Friendly)
9 Conclusion
References
Power Electronics—EV Battery Charging
1 Introduction
2 Typical Power System Layouts of EV Battery Charging Systems
2.1 AC Charging System
2.2 DC Charging System
3 Power Electronic Converters for EV Battery Charging
3.1 AC–DC Converter Topologies
3.2 DC–DC Converter Topologies
4 Recent Development in Power Electronic Converter Topologies for EV Battery Charging
4.1 Single-Phase Single-Stage ZCS Boost PFC Converter
4.2 ZCS-PWM Flyback Converter
4.3 Bidirectional Isolated AC–DC Converter with PFC
5 Conclusion
References
An Overview of Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging in Vehicular Adhoc Network
1 Introduction
2 Overview of VANET
2.1 VANET Architecture
2.2 Standards
2.3 Communication Pattern in VANET
3 EV Charging/Discharging Interaction Model
4 Overview of Solar-Powered EV Charging
5 Conclusion
References
Study on Electric Vehicle (EV) and Its Developments Based on Batteries, Drive System and Charging Methodologies in Modern World
1 Introduction
2 Batteries Utilized in Electric Vehicles
3 Classification of Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles
3.1 Lead-Acid Batteries
3.2 Nickel Metal Hydride
3.3 Molten Salt Battery
3.4 Lithium-Ion
4 Motors Used in EV
5 Classification of Electric Motors Used in EV
5.1 Direct Current Series Motor
5.2 Brushless Direct Current Motors
5.3 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
5.4 Three Phase AC Induction Motors
5.5 Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM)
6 Charging Methodologies of EVs
6.1 Rapid Chargers
6.2 Constant Current
6.3 Constant Voltage
6.4 Non-contact Charging Method
7 Short Comings of Fast Charging Points
8 Types of Electric Vehicles
8.1 Plug-in Electric Vehicle
8.2 Hybrid EVs
8.3 Railborne EVs
8.4 Electrically Powered Spacecraft
9 Need for Electric Vehicles
10 Cons of Electric Vehicles
11 Conclusion
References
An Overview on the Prominence of Phase Change Material Based Battery Cooling and Role of Novel Composite Phase Change Material in Future Battery Thermal Management System
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Working Principle of PCMs
1.4 Selection of PCMs
2 Composite PCMs
2.1 Addition of High Thermal Conductive Materials
2.2 Use of Fin-PCM Structure
3 Prospective CPCM Based BTMS
4 Challenges in Prospective CPCM Based BTMS
5 Conclusion and Summary
References
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)
1 Introduction
1.1 A Brief Introduction of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)
1.2 Features
2 History and Evolution of BEV
2.1 Idea of the Electric Car
2.2 Invention of an EV
2.3 First BEV by General Motors
2.4 First BEV by Tesla
3 Comparison Between BEVs and Other EVs
3.1 BEV
3.2 HEV
3.3 PHEV
4 Construction of BEV
4.1 Key Components
4.2 Anatomy of Tesla Model S
4.3 Anatomy of Rimac Concept One
5 Working of BEVs
5.1 Working Principle
5.2 Modes of Operation
6 About Batteries in BEVs
6.1 Types of Batteries
6.2 Battery Pack Architectures
6.3 Battery Pricing
7 Classification of Charging
7.1 Level One Charging
7.2 Level Two Charging
7.3 Level Three Charging or DC Fast Charging
8 Advantages of BEVs Over Other EVs and Ice Vehicles
8.1 Efficiency
8.2 Dynamic Performance
8.3 Reliability
8.4 Torque Vectoring
8.5 Energy Recuperation and Brake Regeneration
8.6 Cost and Maintenance
8.7 Better for an Environment
9 Conclusion
References
Communication Standards for Interconnections of Smart Grid Infrastructure and Intelligent Electric Transportation System
1 Introduction
2 A Vehicle-to-Smart Grid Infrastructure Communication
2.1 Communication Standards for Vehicle-to-Smart Grid Interconnections
3 Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Everything Communication
4 Conclusion
References
Smart Grid, V2G and Renewable Integration
1 Vehicle to Grid (V2G)
2 Concept of V2G
3 Conclusion
References
Blockchain-Based Smart Contract Design for Crowdfunding of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Setup
1 Introduction
2 Blockchain Basics
3 Smart Contract Design
3.1 Proposed Smart Contract Algorithm
4 Smart Contract Testing
4.1 Deployment Phase
4.2 Donation to “Chargingstationcampaing” Phase
4.3 Spending Request Phase
4.4 Spending Request Approval Phase
5 Conclusion
Appendix 1
References
Modeling and Designing of E-bike for Local Use
1 Introduction
2 System Description and Principal
3 System Modeling
3.1 Chassis or Body of Bike
3.2 Battery
3.3 Motor
3.4 Controller
4 Methodology
5 Results and Discussion
6 Conclusions
References
A Novel Energy and Exergy Assessments of Solar Operated Combined Power and Absorption Refrigeration Cogeneration Cycle
1 Introduction
2 System Description of Solar Operated Cogeneration Cycle and Assumptions
3 Thermodynamic Analysis of Cogeneration Cycle
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusion
References
The Effectiveness of Smart Grids V2G and Integration of Renewable Energy Sources
1 Introduction
2 Challenges That Obstruct the Path of Smart Grid Development Are
2.1 Making Grid Stronger
2.2 Compatible Equipments
2.3 Advance Technology Avoiding Capacity
2.4 Cyber Security and Privacy
2.5 Assessment of Cost
2.6 Education of Consumers
2.7 Government Resource
2.8 The Financial Resource
3 The Vehicle to Grid (V2G) System
4 Smart Grid: Integration with Renewable Energy Sources
5 Smart Grids Technologies
6 Conclusion
References
A New Series-Parallel Switched Capacitor Configuration of a DC–DC Converter for Variable Voltage  Applications
1 Introduction
1.1 Charge Pump Simplified Analysis
1.2 One-Stage Charge Pump
1.3 Doubler Circuit
2 Proposed Converter
2.1 Circuit Description
2.2 Modes of Operation
3 Analysis of the Proposed SCC
3.1 Req Validation
4 Simulation Results and Discussions
5 Conclusion
References
A Comprehensive Study on Electrical Vehicle in Charging Infrastructure, Challenges and Future Scope
1 Introduction
2 Classification of Conductive and Inductive Charging Systems of EVs
2.1 Conductive Charging Scheme (CCS)
2.2 Inductive Charging Scheme (ICS) or Wireless Charging Scheme (WCS)
3 Various Electrified EVs, PEVs, and PHEVs Specification
4 Factor Affecting in Wireless Charging in EVs
5 Charging Circuitry Design for EVs
6 Standards of Contactless Charging Systems
7 Financial Examination of Remote Charging and Social Ramifications, Maintainability and Wellbeing Issues
8 Future of EVs in Power Transmission to Grid
9 Conclusion
References

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