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English Pages  Year 1991
Egypt a country study
Egypt a country study Federal Research Division Library of Congress
Edited by Helen Chapin Metz Research Completed December 1990
1337 B.C.), pharaoh of the
Fifth Edition, First Printing, 1991.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Egypt: a country study
cm. 550-43) p.
Federal Research Division, Library of
5th ed. by Helen Chapin Metz. (Area handbook series, ISSN 1057-5294) (DA
Previous ed. has statement of responsibility: Foreign Area edited by Richard F. Nyrop. Studies, the American University "Research completed December 1990." :
Includes bibiliography (pp. 369-391) and index.
ISBN 0-8444-0729-1 II. Library of 1. Egypt. I. Metz, Helen Chapin, 1928Congress. Federal Research Division. III. Series. IV. Series: pam 550-43. .
Headquarters, Department of the 550-43
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
one in a continuing
books prepared by
the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under
Country Studies Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. The last page of this book lists the other the
in the series deal with a particular foreign country,
economic, social, and national and examining the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors. Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social describing and analyzing security systems
authors seek to provide a basic understanding of
dynamic rather than a static devoted to the people who make
the observed society, striving for a portrayal. Particular attention
the society, their origins,
mon interests and the issues on which they are divided,
and extent of their involvement with national institutions, and their attitudes toward each other and toward their social system and political order.
The books represent the analysis of the authors and should not be construed as an expression of an official United States government position, policy, or decision. The authors have sought to adhere to accepted standards of scholarly objectivity. Corrections, additions, and suggestions for changes from readers will be welcomed
for use in future editions.
Louis R. Mortimer Chief Federal Research Division Library of Congress Washington, D.C. 20540
authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of the writers
of the 1983 edition of Egypt:
Country Study, edited
Nyrop. Their work provided general background volume. F.
for the present
authors are grateful to individuals in various government
agencies and private institutions
of their time, research
and expertise in the production of this book. These individuals included Ralph K. Benesch, who oversees the Country Studies Area Handbook program for the Department of the Army. The authors also wish to thank members of the Federal Research materials,
who contributed directly to the preparation of the manuscript. These people included Thomas Collelo, the substantive reviewer of all the graphic and textual material; Sandra W. Meditz, who reviewed all drafts and served as liaison with the sponsoring agency; and Martha E. Hopkins and Marilyn Majeska, who managed editing and book production. Also involved in preparing the text were editorial assistants Barbara Edgerton and Izella Watson; Richard Kollodge and Ruth Nieland, who edited chapters; Beverly Wolpert, who performed the prepublication editorial review; and Joan C. Cook, who compiled the index. Linda Peterson of the Library of Congress Composing Unit prepared the camera-ready copy under the supervision Division staff
of Peggy Pixley.
Graphics were prepared by David P. Cabitto, and Timothy L. map drafts. David P. Cabitto and Greenhorne and O'Mara prepared the final maps. Special thanks are owed to Marty Ittner, who prepared the illustrations on the title page of each chapter, and David P. Cabitto, who did the cover art. The authors would like to thank Ly H. Burnham, who assisted with demographic data. Finally, the authors acknowledge the generosity of the many individuals and public and private agencies, especially the Press and Information Bureau of the Arab Republic of Egypt, who allowed their photographs to be used in Merrill reviewed
Mary Ann Fay
ANCIENT EGYPT The Predynastic Period and
Second Dynasties, 6000-2686 B.C The Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and Second Intermediate Period, 2686 to 1552 B.C Pyramid Building in the Old and Middle Kingdoms The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period, 1552-664 B.C Art and Architecture in the New Kingdom The Cult of the Sun God and Akhenaten's Monotheism The Late Period, 664-323 B.C
9 10 11
PTOLEMAIC, ROMAN, AND BYZANTINE EGYPT, 332 B.C.-A.D. 642
The Alexandrian Conquest The Ptolemaic Period
Egypt under Rome and Byzantium, 30 B.C.-A.D. 640
The Arab Conquest, 639-41 The Tulinids, Ikhshidids, Fatimids,
and Ayyubids, 868-1260
The Mamluks, 1250-1517
EGYPT UNDER THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE MODERN EGYPT The Neo-Mamluk Beylicate, 1760-98 The French Invasion and Occupation, 1798-1801
24 25 25 ...
Abbas Hilmi I, Social Change in
1848-54 and Said, 1854-63
the Nineteenth Century
FROM AUTONOMY TO OCCUPATION: TAWFIQ, AND THE URABI REVOLT
Khedive Ismail, 1863-79
Intervention to Occupation, 1876-82
FROM OCCUPATION TO NOMINAL INDEPENDENCE, 1882-1923
The Occupiers Economy and Society under Occupation
Egypt under the Protectorate and the 1919 Revolution
THE ERA OF LIBERAL CONSTITUTIONALISM AND PARTY POLITICS
The Rise and Decline of the Wafd, 1924-39 Egypt During the War, 1939-45
the Threshold of Revolution, 1945-52
The Revolution and
the Early Years of the
New Government, 1952-56 Egypt and the Arab World Nasser and Arab Socialism Egypt, the Arabs, and Israel
The War with
THE AFTERMATH OF THE WAR
Sadat Takes Over, 1970-73
October 1973 War Political Developments, 1971-78
Peace with Israel
David and the 85
Assassination of Sadat
MUBARAK AND THE MIDDLE WAY Chapter
The Society and
Physical Size and Borders
Population Control Policies
SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Urban
FAMILY AND KINSHIP
Importance of Kinship Attitudes
Women of Women
Other Religious Minorities
EDUCATION HEALTH AND WELFARE Chapter
STRUCTURE, GROWTH, AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY
THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
Mubarak's Gradualism? Development Planning Pricing and Subsidy Exchange Rates
168 169 170
Banking, Credit, and Inflation
The Food Gap Land Ownership and Reform Land Reclamation and Loss
Cropping Patterns, Production, and Yield Technology
ENERGY, MINING, AND MANUFACTURING
Energy Mining Manufacturing
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS AND MAIN SOURCES OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE
Current Account Balance
Capital Account and Capital Grants
Direct Foreign Investment
DEBT AND RESTRUCTURING Chapter
227 Hinnebusch, Jr.
THE DOMINANT EXECUTIVE AND THE POWER ELITE
The Presidency The President and the Power Elite The Prime Minister, the Council of
230 232 Ministers,
and the Policy-making Process
Power: Recruitment and Composition
of the Elite Elite Ideology Politics
The Bureaucracy and Local Government
THE SUBORDINATE BRANCHES: THE REGIME AND ITS CONSTITUENCY
Judiciary, Civil Rights, and the Rule of Political
Role of the Media
CONTROLLING THE MASS POLITICAL ARENA The ''Dominant Party" System x
258 260 262
Islam and the Continuing Role of Repression
The Determinants The Development
of Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy Decision
of Foreign Policy
MILITARY HERITAGE The Egyptian Military First Arab-Israeli
of Attrition and the October 1973
SECURITY CONCERNS AND STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES THE MILITARY IN NATIONAL LIFE THE ARMED FORCES
294 295 296
The 1956 War The June 1967 War
302 303 305
Air Defense Force
Training and Education
Conscription and Reserves
Conditions of Service
Uniforms and Insignia
ARMED FORCES PRODUCTION
Production of Civilian Goods
FOREIGN MILITARY ASSISTANCE INTERNAL SECURITY Muslim Extremism Leftist
334 334 336
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT The
Incidence of Crime
The Penal System
Administrative Divisions of Egypt, 1990
4 Estimated Population Distribution by
Transportation System, 1990
7 Principal Military Installations in the Sinai Peninsula,
8 Organization of National Defense, 1989 9 Military
This edition of Egypt:
Country Study replaces the previous edi-
tion published in 1983. Like
predecessor, the present
tempts to treat in a compact and objective manner the dominant historical, social, economic, political, and national security aspects of contemporary Egypt. Sources of information included scholarly books, journals, and monographs; official reports and documents of governments and international organizations; and foreign and
domestic newspapers and periodicals. Relatively up-to-date economic data were available from several sources, but the sources were not always in agreement. Chapter bibliographies appear at the end of the book; brief comments on some of the more valuable sources for further reading appear at the conclusion of each chapter. Measurements are given in the metric system; a conversion table
are unfamiliar with the metric system (see table
assist those 1,
Landholdings, however, are presented infeddans, a unit of measure that remains in general use although Egypt officially uses the metric system. One feddan equals 1.038 acres. The Glossary provides brief definitions of terms, such as feddan, that may be undix).
familiar to the general reader.
The information detailed
available on ancient and modern Egypt is and voluminous. Limitations of space and time, however,
precluded the presentation of anything more than a short survey. The transliteration of Arabic words and phrases posed a particular problem. For many of the words such as Muhammad, Muslim, Quran, and shaykh the authors followed a modified version of the system adopted by the United States Board on Geographic
Permanent Committee on Geographic Names
British Official Use,
and hyphens. In numerous instances, however, the names of persons or places are so well known by another spelling that to have used the BGN/PCGN system may have created confusion. For example, the reader will find Cairo rather than Al Qahirah, Giza rather than Al Jizah, Suez rather than As Suways, and Gamal Abdul Nasser rather than Jamal Abd an Nasr. For some place-names, two transcation entails the omission of all diacritical markings
have been provided (see
Country Formal Name: Arab Republic
Short Form: Egypt.
for Citizens: Egyptians.
Geography Size: Approximately
million square kilometers.
Topography: Four major
and Delta, where Western Desert; Eastern Desert;
regions: Nile Valley
about 99 percent of population
and Sinai Peninsula. Climate: Except for modest amounts of rainfall along Mediterranean coast, precipitation ranges from minimal to nonexistent. Mild
and hot summers (May
Society Population: Estimated at more than 52.5 million in mid- 1990, mostly concentrated along banks of Nile River. Annual growth rate estimated at 2.6 percent.
Education and Literacy: Education compulsory
for basic nine-
year cycle but attendance not enforced; approximately 16 percent of school-age children did not attend. Literacy approximately 45 percent in 1990.
Health and Welfare: Ministry of Health provided health care variety of public medical
Urban-rural distribution of health
cities. Average nutrition compared favorably with most middle- and low-income countries. Average life expectancy at birth fifty-nine years for men and sixty
care generally biased in favor of larger
Language: Arabic. Ethnic Groups: Egyptians, beduins, Greeks, Nubians, Armenians, and Berbers. Religion: Almost 90 percent Sunni Muslims, 8.5 percent Coptic Christians, 1.5 percent other Christians.
Economy Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$45.08 per capita in 1988. mid-1980s.
sluggish growth after
Agriculture: Single largest source of employment; contributed 15 percent of GDP in 1987. Major crops by area planted (in descending order): clover for livestock feed, corn, wheat, vegetables, rice, cotton, and fruit. Heavily dependent on food imports. Some reforms in pricing
Industry: Contributed 34 percent of GDP in 1987. Share of manufacturing in GDP 12 percent; sector stagnated in 1980s. Manufacturing produced mainly consumer goods but also some basic industries such as iron and steel, aluminum, and cement. Manufacturing dominated by public sector; consensus that sector needed reform. Oil share of GDP fell considerably with crash of oil prices in late 1985. Oil production averaged 42.7 tons per year between 1984 and 1988. Gas acquiring added importance in 1980s.
Exports: US$4.8 billion in 1988, of which oil was US$3.1 billion. Textiles US$458 million and other manufacturing US$810 million. Cotton (major export before late 1970s) US$310 million. Exports stagnated in 1980s.
Imports: US$10.6 billion, of which intermediate goods US$3.7 goods US$3 billion, consumer goods US$2 billion,
and food and agriculture US$1.7 rapidly in first half of 1980s and
stabilized in second half.
Debt: Civilian US$35
billion in 1988 (forecast); military US$10.8 Negotiations with International Monetary Fund continuing in early 1990 on debt rescheduling and economic restructuring. billion.
Currency: Egyptian pound (£E) consists of 100 piasters. In early 1990, worth between US$1 .00 and US$1 .50 depending on applicable exchange rate. Fiscal Year: Since July
through June 30.
Transportation and Communications Railroads: More than 4,800 kilometers of track, 950 kilometers of which double-tracked. Bulk of system standard gauge (1.435 meters), but 347 kilometers narrow gauge (0.75 meter). Twentyfive -kilometer suburban transit link between Cairo and industrial suburb of Hulwan electrified. Southern part of Cairo Metro opened 1987; northeast line opened 1989. Ferry at Aswan connects Egyptian Railways to Sudanese system.
Roads: More than 49,000 kilometers, of which about 15,000
meters paved, 2,500 kilometers gravel, 31,500 kilometers earthen.
Inland Waterways: About 3,500 kilometers, consisting mainly of Nile River and several canals in Delta.
Suez Canal: About 160 kilometers for international shipping between Red and Mediterranean seas. Reopened in 1975. Capable of handling ships of 150,000 deadweight tons laden and 16 meters draft. In 1987 17,541 ships transited canal with 257,000 tons of cargo, earning Egypt US$1.22 billion.
main port. Port Said and Suez other two large Phosphates shipped from Bur Safajah on the Red Sea. Port near Alexandria remained under construction in 1990.
Ports: Alexandria ports.
About 1,400 kilometers for domestic crude products plus about 600 kilometers for natural gas. Pipelines:
Airports: Sixty- six airfields but only Cairo and Alexandria handled international traffic.
Telecommunications: Well developed radio and ties;
shortage of telephones.
Government: Constitution of 1971
delegates majority of
— lower People's Assembly and upper Consultative Council, created in 1980 from the old Central Committee of the Arab Socialist Union — and judipresident,
who dominates two-chamber legislature
each constitutionally independent. President pospower to appoint and dismiss officials,
sesses virtually unrestricted
including vice president or vice presidents, prime minister and members of Council of Ministers, military officers, and governors of the twenty- six administrative subdivisions
Husni Mubarak (1981- ), former military Gamal Abdul Nasser (1954-70) and Anwar as Sadat (1970-81). Nasser was leader and Sadat member of Free Officers' group that overthrew monarchy in 1952 Revolution. President dominated National Democratic Party formed in 1977. Opposition composed of number of secular and religious parties in legislature, of which Muslim Brotherhood was the chief, and some nonparliamentary Islamic extremist groups. Politics: President officer, as
International Organizations: Member of United Nations and its specialized agencies; Organization of African Unity; and Nonaligned Movement. Founding member of League of Arab States (Arab League), headquartered in Cairo until after Egypt signed peace treaty with Israel in March 1979. Arab League expelled Egypt and moved headquarters out of country. In 1990 Arab League headquarters returned to Cairo.
Forces (1989): Total personnel on active duty 445,000, including draftees mostly serving for three years. Reserves totaled about 300,000. Component services: army of 320,000 (estimated
180,000 conscripts), navy of 20,000 including 2,000 Coast Guard (10,000 conscripts), and air force of 30,000 (10,000 conscripts). Air Defense Force separate service of 80,000 (50,000 conscripts).
Major Tactical Military Units (1988): Army: visions, six
four armored ditwo infantry divisions,
four independent infantry brigades, three mechanized brigades, one armored brigade, two air mobile brigades, one paratroop brigade, Republican Guard armored brigade, two heavy mortar brigades, fourteen artillery brigades, two surface-to-surface missile (SSM) regiments, and seven commando groups.
Navy: Twelve submarines, one destroyer
(training), five frigates,
twenty-five fast-attack craft (missile), eighteen fast-attack craft (torpedo), minesweepers,
Air Force: About 440 combat aircraft and 72 armed helicopters; force organized into one bomber squadron, ten fighter- ground attack squadrons, thirteen fighter squadrons, two reconnaissance squadrons, and fifteen helicopter squadrons, plus electronic monitoring, early warning, transport, and training aircraft. Air Defense Force organized into more than 230 battalions of antiaircraft guns and SAMs. Military Equipment (1989): Tanks and armored personnel vemix of older Soviet and newer United States models. Other major equipment included Soviet artillery and mortars; Soviet, French, United States, and British antitank rockets and missiles; and mostly Soviet tactical air defense weapons. Egypt planned to coproduce with United States 540 Abrams M1A1 tanks beginning in 1991. Air force fighters included F-16s and F-4s from United States and Mirage 2000s from France, backed by large number of older Soviet designs. Most fighting ships of Soviet or Chinese origin, although fleet included two modern frigates built in Spain and six British missile boats. Air Defense Force had more than 600 Soviet SA-2 and SA-3 SAMs plus 108 improved Hawk SAMs from United States. hicles a
Defense Budget: Authoritative data not available although minister of defense claimed spending £E2.4 billion or 10 percent of total government outlays in 1989. Other sources believed defense expenditures twice as high as claimed, even excluding US$1.3 billion in military aid from United States, aid from Saudi Arabia, and income from other sources such as foreign sales of domestic defense industry.
Internal Security Forces: Principal security agencies national police force of more than about 122,000 members and Central Security Forces, a paramilitary body of about 300,000, mosdy conscripts, which augmented regular police in guarding buildings and strategic sites
and controlling demonstrations. Several other government agenhad own law enforcement bodies. General Directorate for State xix
main intelligence organization monitoring suspected subversive and opposition groups and suppressing Islamic extremists. Security Investigations
istrat ve Divisions of i
o (Al Qahirah)