E-learning by design [2ed.] 9780470900024, 0470900024

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E-learning by design [2ed.]
 9780470900024, 0470900024

Table of contents :
E-Learning by Design, Second Edition
Contents
Chapter 1: Designing e-learning
WHAT IS E-LEARNING?
WHAT IS E-LEARNING DESIGN?
DESIGN QUICKLY AND RELIABLY
THEN REDESIGN AGAIN AND AGAIN
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 2: Absorb-type activities
ABOUT ABSORB ACTIVITIES
PRESENTATIONS
READINGS
STORIES BY A TEACHER
FIELD TRIPS
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 3: Do-type activities
ABOUT DO ACTIVITIES
PRACTICE ACTIVITIES
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 4: Connect-type activities
ABOUT CONNECT ACTIVITIES
PONDER ACTIVITIES
QUESTIONING ACTIVITIES
STORIES BY LEARNERS
JOB AIDS
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
ORIGINAL-WORK ACTIVITIES
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 5: Tests
DECIDE WHY YOU ARE TESTING
MEASURE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES
SELECT THE RIGHT TYPE OF “QUESTION”
WRITE EFFECTIVE QUESTIONS
COMBINE QUESTIONS EFFECTIVELY
GIVE SIGNIFICANT FEEDBACK
ADVANCE YOUR TESTING
EXPLAIN THE TEST
CONSIDER ALTERNATIVES TO FORMAL TESTS
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 6: Topics
WHAT ARE TOPICS?
DESIGN THE COMPONENTS OF THE TOPIC
DESIGN REUSABLE TOPICS
INTEGRATE FOREIGN MODULES
IN CLOSING …
TEMPLATES FOR TOPICS
Chapter 7: Games and simulations
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS FOR LEARNING
WHY GAMES?
TYPES OF LEARNING GAMES
DESIGN GAMES FOR LEARNING
CREATE A MICRO-WORLD
SPECIFY THE DETAILS
ENGAGE LEARNERS
TEACH THROUGH FEEDBACK
PROGRESSIVELY CHALLENGE LEARNERS
MANAGE GAME COMPLEXITY
SIMPLIFY LEARNING THE GAME
DESIGN COACHED TASK SIMULATIONS
DESIGN BRANCHING-SCENARIO GAMES
USE GAMES AS E-LEARNING COURSES
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 8: Social learning
WHAT IS SOCIAL LEARNING?
HOW DO WE “DESIGN” SOCIAL LEARNING?
DECIDE WHERE AND WHEN TO USE SOCIAL LEARNING
WHAT SOCIAL LEARNING REQUIRES
PATTERNS OF INTERACTION
SOCIAL CAPABILITIES OF SOFTWARE
FACILITATE RATHER THAN TEACH
GRADE FAIRLY IN SOCIAL LEARNING
EXTEND CONVENTIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR SOCIAL LEARNING
USE PROVEN SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
ENCOURAGE MEANINGFUL DISCUSSIONS
PROMOTE TEAM LEARNING
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 9: Mobile learning
WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING?
START WITH WORTHY GOALS
ADAPT EXISTING LEARNING FOR MOBILE LEARNERS
USE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE DEVICE
DESIGN FOR THE LEARNER, ENVIRONMENT, AND DEVICE
DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR OVERCOMING LIMITATIONS
REAL MOBILE LEARNING
EXTEND CONVENTIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR MOBILE LEARNING
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 10: Design for the virtual classroom
CREATE A VIRTUAL CLASSROOM
SELECT AND USE COLLABORATION TOOLS
CONDUCT ONLINE MEETINGS
DESIGN WEBINARS
DESIGN VIRTUAL-CLASSROOM COURSES
IN CLOSING …
Chapter 11: Conclusion
HOW WE WILL LEARN
WHAT HAS TO HAPPEN
SECRETS OF E-LEARNING DESIGN
JUST THE BEGINNING
Appendix: Essentialism
ESSENTIAL ESSENTIALISM
SET UP THE TEST
SUPERVISE THE TEST
ANALYZE TEST RESULTS
MAKE TESTING BETTER
RECAP: MASTER THE ESSENTIALS OF ESSENTIALISM
Index

Citation preview

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E-Learning by Design 2nd Edition

By

William Horton

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Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Published by Pfeiffer An Imprint of Wiley 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741 www.pfeiffer.com All illustrations, except as otherwise noted, are copyright © 2010 by William Horton Consulting. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Readers should be aware that Internet websites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read. For additional copies/bulk purchases of this book in the U.S. please contact 800-274-4434. Pfeiffer books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Pfeiffer directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-274-4434, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3985, fax 317-572-4002, or visit www.pfeiffer.com. Pfeiffer also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Horton, William K. (William Kendall) E-learning by design / William Horton.— 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-470-90002-4 (pbk.) 1. Employees—Training of—Computer-assisted instruction. 2. Computer-assisted instruction—Design. I. Title. HF5549.5.T7H6357 2011 658.3'124040285—dc22 Book design and composition: William Horton Consulting, Inc. Printed in the United States of America Printing 10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1

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Contents !

1 DESIGNING E-LEARNING ......................... 1 What is e-learning? b4A'1'*'#1!#A!4K34F&1'1(! cF&'4*'47!#A!4K34F&1'1(! What is e-learning design? 6*F&*!P'*)!(##>!'17*[email protected]:*'#1F3!>47'(1! 47'(1!*#[email protected]'*7!#A!4K34F&1'1(! Design quickly and reliably 9>41*'A%!%#@[email protected]>4&3%'1(!(#F3! 7!F1>!F/'3'*'47! 9>41*'A%!P)F*!*#!*4F:)! 64*!34F&1'1(!#/S4:*'=47! 9>41*'A%[email protected]'7'*47! ?':G!*)4!F$$&#F:)!*#!B44*!4F:)!#/S4:*'=4! b4:'>4!*)4!*4F:)'1([email protected]:4!#A!%#@&!#/S4:*'=47! "&4F*4!#/S4:*7!*#!F::#B$3'7)!#/S4:*'=47! "&4F*4!*47*7! 6434:*!34F&1'1(!F:*'='*'47! ")##74!B4>'F! Then redesign again and again W4K>47'(1!/@*!>#!1#*!&4$4F*! \#*!%#@[email protected]*'F3!%!$&#(&477! In closing … [email protected]&%! H#&!B#&4!g!

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2 ABSORB-TYPE ACTIVITIES ..................... 67! About Absorb activities "#BB#1!*%$47!#[email protected]!>#:@B41*7! "&4F*4!F1!#13'14!3'/&F&%! W43%!#1!91*4&14*!&47#@&:47! M47*!$&F:*':47!A#&!&4F>'1(!F:*'='*'47! f`*41>!&4F>'1(!F:*'='*'47! Stories by a teacher !*&'$7! f`*41>!A'43>K*&'$!F:*'='*'47! In closing … [email protected]&%! ?':G!K$&F:*':4!F:*'='*'47! OF1>7K#1!F:*'='*'47! [@'>4>KF1F3%7'7!F:*'='*'47! M47*!$&F:*':47!A#&!$&F:*':4!F:*'='*'47! f`*41>!$&F:*':4!F:*'='*'47! Discovery activities '7:#=4&%!F:*'='*'47! c'&*@F3K3F/#&F*#&%!F:*'='*'47! "F74!7*@>'47! M47*!$&F:*':47!A#&!>'7:#=4&%!F:*'='*'47! f`*41>!>'7:#=4&%!F:*'='*'47! Games and simulations X74!(FB47!F7!7'1(34!F:*'='*'47! f`*41>!(FB4!F:*'='*'47! In closing … [email protected]&%! ?':G!b#!F:*'='*%!*#!F::#B$3'7)!34F&1'1(!#/S4:*'=4! H#&!B#&4!g!

4 CONNECT-TYPE ACTIVITIES .................. 163! About Connect activities "#BB#1!*%$47!#A!"#114:*!F:*'='*'47! 2)41!*#!A4F*@&4!"#114:*!F:*'='*'47! Ponder activities 4&!F:*'='*'47! W)4*#&':[email protected]*'#17! E4>'*F*'#1!F:*'='*'47! "'*4K4`FB$34!F:*'='*'47!

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Table of contents

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Combine questions effectively #47!1#*!F17P4&!F1#*)4&! [email protected]:4!*47*[email protected]*'#17!4AA4:*'=43%! cF&%!*)4!A#&B!#[email protected]*'#17!F1>!F17P4&7! Give significant feedback W4$#&*!*47*!7:#&47!7'B$3%! ?&#='>4!:#B$34*4!'1A#&BF*'#1! [41*3%!:#&&4:*!P(!F17P4&7! /F:G! ['=4!A44>/F:G!F*!*)4!&'()*!*'B4! Advance your testing O'1*!A'&7*! X74!F>=F1:4>!*47*'1(!:F$F/'3'*'47! E#1'*#[email protected]*7! EFG4!*47*7!AF'&!*#!F33!34F&14&7! U47*!4F&3%!F1>!#A*41! 64*!*)4!&'()*!$F77'1(!7:#&4! b4A'14!F!7:F34!#A!(&F>47! ?&4K*47*!*#!$&#$43!34F&14&7! Explain the test ?&4$F&4!34F&14&7!*#!*FG4!*)4!*47*! h44$!34F&14&7!'1!:#1*! Consider alternatives to formal tests X74!B#&4!*)F1!A#&BF38!(&F>4>!*47*7! O43$!34F&14&7!/@'3>!$#&*A#3'#7! OF=4!34F&14&7!:#334:*!*#G417! F$*!*47*'1(!*#!7#:'F3!34F&1'1(! F$*!*47*'1(!*#!B#/'34!34F&1'1(! In closing … [email protected]&%! H#&!B#&4!g!

260! ,e.! ,e.! ,e,! ,e,! 263! ,eJ! ,eJ! ,ed! ,ee! ,ee! 269! ,eC! ,eC! ,LJ! ,LJ! ,Ld! ,Le! ,LD! ,LD! 280! ,D-! ,D.! 281! ,D,! ,D,! ,D,! ,D,! ,DJ! 283! ,DJ! ,DI!

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6 TOPICS....................................... 285!

285! ,Dd! ,De! ,CJ! 294! ,CI! ,Ce! ,CC! J-.! J-J! J-d! J-L! J.-! 313! J.J! J.I! J.I! 315! J.e! J.L! 318! J.D! 319! J,,!

Table of contents

What are topics? U#$':7!F&4!34F&1'1(!#/S4:*7! f`FB$347!#A!*#$':7! !BF*4&'F3! 2&'*4!B4*F>F*F! b47'(1!:#B$#141*7!3#(':F33%!F1>!4:#1#B':F33%! Design reusable topics "&FA*!&4:#B/'1F1*!/@'3>'1(!/3#:G7! b47'(1!:#17'7*41*!*#$':7! @34! 2)F*!*#!'1:[email protected]>4!'1!F!>#:G'1(!B#>@34! In closing … [email protected]&%! Templates for topics H#&!B#&4!g!

7 GAMES AND SIMULATIONS .................... 323! Games and simulations for learning f`FB$34!#A!F!34F&1'1(!(FB4! O#P!F&4!(FB478!*47*78!F1>!7'[email protected]*'#17!&43F*4>R! b#!%#@!:F33!'*!F!(FB4!#&!F!7'[email protected]*'#1R! b4B#7!F&4!1#*!*[email protected]!7'[email protected]*'#17! O#P!>#!(FB47!F1>!7'[email protected]*'#17!P#&GR! 2)F*!>#!P4!B4F1!>47'(1R!

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Why games? 2)F*!:F1!(FB47!>#!A#[email protected]! 2)41!*#[email protected]!(FB47! Types of learning games [email protected]'ZK7)#P!(FB47! 2#&>!(FB47! 0'([email protected]! M&F1:)'1(!7:41F&'#7! UF7G!7'[email protected]*'#17! ?4&7#1F3K&47$#174!7'[email protected]*'#17! f1='B41*F3!7'[email protected]*'#17! 9BB4&7'=4!"K$3F%'1(!(FB47! Design games for learning b47'(1!*#!F::#B$3'7)!34F&1'1(!#/S4:*'=47! f`$&477!*)4!(#F3!F7!F!7$4:'A':!*F7G! ?':G!*)4!&'()*!7'Z4>!(FB4! fB$)F7'Z4!34F&1'1(8!1#*[email protected]*!>#'1(! 6$4:'A%!:)F3341(4!F1>!B#*'=F*'#1! EF1F(4!:#B$4*'*'=41477! ?&#='>[email protected]*'$34!PF%7!*#!34F&1! Create a micro-world 6$4:'A%!*)4!(FB4T7!P#&3>! 6$4:'A%!:)F&F:*4&7!F1>!'B$#&*F1*!#/S4:*7! "&4F*4!F!7*#&%3'14! "&4F*4!F!/F:G!7*#&%! 6$4:'A%!*)4!(FB4!7*[email protected]:*@&4! !A44>/F:G! Specify the details 6G4*:)!#@*!*)[email protected]&!'1*4&AF:4!

328! J,D! J,C! 330! JJ.! JJ,! JJJ! JJI! JJd! JJL! JI-! JI.! 342! JI,! JII! JII! JId! JId! JId! JId! 346! JIe! JIL! JIC! JIC! Jd-! Jd-! Jd-! Jd.! Jd.! Jd,! Jd,! 353! JdJ!

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JdJ! JdJ! JdI! 354! JdI! Jdd! Jde! Jde! JdL! JdL! JdD! JdC! JdC! JdC! 359! JdC! Je.! Je.! Je,! JeJ! JeI! JeI! Jed! Jee! JeL! JeL! JeD! 369! JeC! JL-! JL.! JL,! JL,!

Table of contents

2&'*4!*)4!P#&>7! 6$4:'A%!*)4!(&F$)':F3!7*%34! 6$4:'A%!#*)4&!B4>'F! Engage learners O##G!*)4!34F&14&! !>'7/43'4A! 64*!*)4!:#1*4`*! ?&#='>4!&4F3KP#&3>!$&#B$*'1(!F1>[email protected]$$#&*! ?&4741*!7#3=F/34!$&#/34B7! F$*!*#!*)4!34F&14&Q7!144>7! ")F3341(4!P'*)!*'B4!3'B'*7! i4*!34F&14&7!*&%[email protected]*'$34!7*&F*4('47! ?&#(&FB!=F&'4*%!'1*#!*)4!(FB4! 91=#3=4!*)4!34F&14&! Teach through feedback ?&#='>4!'1*&'17':!A44>/F:G! 91S4:*!4>@:F*'#1F3!A44>/F:G!P)4&4!144>4>! ?&#='>4!:#1*'[email protected]!A44>/F:G! [email protected]*!('=4!:[email protected]:'F3!A44>/F:G!'BB4>'F*43%! "#1A*!/F>!/4)F='#&!F1>!:)#':47! b4A4&!341(*)%!A44>/F:G! /F:G!]A44>A#&PF&>R^! f1F/34!34F&1'1(!*)&#@()!F!=F&'4*%!#A!4`$4&'41:47! ?&#='>4!:#B$34*48!>4*F'34>!A44>/F:G! O43$!34F&14&7!:#&&4:*!B'7*FG47! YAA4&!F/@1>F1*!$&F:*':4! (4!F:)'4=4B41*! Progressively challenge learners ")F3341(4!34F&14&7! WF*:)4*[email protected]$!*)4!:)F3341(4! ['=4!:3#[email protected]&4!/4*P441!$)F747! "#1*!*)4!&)%*)B!#A!>'AA':@3*%! [email protected]'&4!:#17#3'>F*'1(!7BF33!7*4$7!

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Manage game complexity M4PF&4!:#B/'1F*#&'F3!4`$3#7'#1! [email protected]!4`:@&7'#17! E'77'#[email protected]*'F3!7*[email protected]:*@&4! 6)#&*K34F7)!7*&F*4(%! 6FAF&'!7*[email protected]:*@&4! M&4FG*)&#@()!7*[email protected]:*@&4! Simplify learning the game [@'>4!F:*'#17!P'*)!'17*[email protected]:*'#17! f`$3F'1!*)4!(FB4!:34F&3%! 6*F&*!P'*)!*&F'1'1(!P)4437! '7*&F:*'#17! 4F7! ?':G!F!7'*@F*'#1! EF$!#/S4:*'=47!*#!7:4147! b4&'=4!7$4:'A':!#/S4:*'=47!*#!*4F:)! U&F173F*4!#/S4:*'=47!*#!F!7*#&%! 6$4:'A%!4F:)!7:414! U)&4F>!*#(4*)4&!*)4!7:4147! >!:#1*4`*K74**'1(!7:4147! Use games as e-learning courses

373! JLJ! JLI! JLe! JLL! JLD! JLD! 380! JD-! JD-! JD.! JD,! JDJ! JDI! JDI! JDd! JDd! JDe! 386! JDL! JDL! JDC! 390! JC-! JC-! JC.! JC.! JC,! JCI! JCd! JCe! 396!

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398! JCD! JCD!

What is social learning? 4A'1'*'#18!7#&*!#A! 6#!P)F*R! "#17'>4&!*)4!=F&'4*'47!#A!7#:'F3!34F&1'1(! 2)F*!'7!1#*!7#:'F3!34F&1'1(R! 2)F*!'7!*)4!(&#@$R! How do we “design” social learning? 2)F*!>#!P4!B4F1!/%!>47'(1R! U)4!"!#A!*)4!>47'(14&! Decide where and when to use social learning EFG4!34F&1'1(!B#&4!&43'F/34! EFG4!34F&1'1(!B#&4!41S#%F/34! U4F:)!>'AA':@3*[email protected]/S4:*7! 9B$34B41*!34F&1'1([email protected]':G3%!F1>!'14`$417'=43%! [email protected]'3>!F!14*P#&G!*#[email protected]$$#&*!*)4!34F&1'1(!'1!*)[email protected]*@&4! What social learning requires 2)F*!'[email protected]'&4>!#A!34F&14&7! 2)F*!'[email protected]'&4>!#A!*)4!#&(F1'ZF*'#1! Patterns of interaction U)4!434B41*7!#A!7#:'F3!34F&1'1(! "#B/'14!$F**4&17!A#&!:#B$34*4!F:*'='*'47! Social capabilities of software 641>!*F&(4*4>!B477F(47! E44*!&4F3K*'B4! b'7:@77!F7%1:)#@73%! M&#F>:F7*!7$#&F>':!B477F(47! ?#7*!B477F([email protected]:47! "#33F/#&F*'=43%!:&4F*4!>#:@B41*7! 6)F&4!:&4F*'#17!

399! JCC! I--! I--! I-.! I-.! 402! I-,! I-,! 404! I-I! I-I! I-d! I-d! I-e! 406! I-e! I-D! 410! I.-! I.I! 415! I.e! I.D! I,d! I,e! I,D! IJJ! II-!

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8 SOCIAL LEARNING ............................ 399!

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c#*4!F1>!&F*4! H'3*4&!B477F(47! f7*F/3'7)!F!$#'1*!#A!:#1*F:*! 64*[email protected]$!F1>!F>B'1'7*4&!F!*4FB!#&!#*)4&!(&#@$! Facilitate rather than teach b4A'14!*)4!>@*'47!#A!*)4!AF:'3'*F*#&! f7*F/3'7)!F!:#>4!#A!:#1>@:*! 91*4&=414!'1!:F747!#A!/F>!/4)F='#&! Grade fairly in social learning 41:4! 2F%7!*#!F77477!34F&14&7! 64*!:&'*4&'F!A#&!B477F(47!F1>!$#7*7! Y&8!A#&4(#!'1>'='>@F3!F77477B41*! Extend conventional activities for social learning f`*41>!!"#114:*!F:*'='*'47!A#&!7#:'F3!34F&1'1(! Use proven social activities 6)F&4!P)F*!%#@!34F&1! MF:G!:)F1143!A#&!$&4741*F*'#17! M&F'17*#&B'1(!F:*'='*'47! U4FBK*F7G!F:*'='*'47! W#34K$3F%'1(!7:41F&'#7! "#B$F&'7#1!F:*'='*'47! [&#@$K:&'*'[email protected]!F:*'='*'47! Encourage meaningful discussions b47'(1!>'7:@77'#1!F:*'='*'47! [email protected]&4!34F&14&7!)F=4!14:477F&%!7G'337! E#>4&F*4!>'7:@77'#1!F:*'='*'47! ?4&A#&B!B477F(4!BF'1*41F1:4! Promote team learning E44*!*)[email protected]'&4B41*7!#[email protected]::[email protected]!*4FB! H#&B!F!*4FB!A&#B!'1>'='>@F37!

IIe! Id-! Id-! IdJ! 454! IdI! Idd! Ide! 463! IeI! IeI! IeI! Ied! Iee! 466! Iee! IeL! IeL! 468! IeD! IeC! IL,! ILI! ILe! ID-! ID.! 483! IDI! IDe! IDL! IC-! 490! IC.! IC,!

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IC,! ICJ! ICd! ICe! ICL! ICL! ICL! ICD! ICD! ICC! 500! d--! d--!

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9 MOBILE LEARNING ........................... 501! What is mobile learning? Start with worthy goals i4F&1!A&#B!*)4!P)#34!P#&3>! UFG4!F>=F1*F(4!#A!*4F:)F/34!B#B41*7! U4F:)!'1!*)4!:#1*4`*!#A!F$$3':F*'#1! U4F:)!j#@*>##[email protected]/S4:*7! EFG4!34F&1'1(!)4F3*)'4&! i4F&1!B#&4!#A!*)4!*'B4! f1F/34!='&*@F3!F**41>F1:4! W4>@:4!'1A&F7*[email protected]:*@&4!:#7*7! ?&4$F&4!A#&!F1!'1:&4F7'1(3%!B#/'34!P#&3>! Adapt existing learning for mobile learners f1F/34!$F&*':'$F*'#1!'1!:3F77&##B!34F&1'1(! F*4!B#/'34!34F&14&7!'1!*)4!='&*@F3!:3F77&##B! i4*!B#/'34!34F&14&7!*FG4!7*F1>F3#14!4K34F&1'1(! EFG4!7#:'F3!34F&1'1(!B#/'34! ?4&A#&BF1:[email protected]$$#&*!

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Use the capabilities of the device Design for the learner, environment, and device b47'(1!A#&!*)4!B#/'34!34F&14&! b47'(1!A#&!*)4!41='B41*!P)4&4!34F&1'1(!#::@&7! b47'(1!A#&!*)4!B#/'34!>4=':4! Design guidelines for overcoming limitations b47'(1!A#&!4F7%!&4F>'1(! EF'1*F'1!:#1*F:*!P'*)!34F&14&7! b47'(1!A#&!*)4!>4=':47!34F&14&7!F3&4F>%!)F=4! X74!34F&14&7Q!*'B4!4AA':'41*3%! H'*!*4`*!F1>!(&F$)':7!*#!*)4!>'7$3F%! ?&#='>4!3#PK/F1>P'>*)!F3*4&1F*'=47! b47'(1!A#&!'B$4&A4:*!14*P#&G!:#114:*'#17! f1F/34!j>#P13#F>!F1>!(#k! 6'B$3'A%!41*4&'1(!*4`*! H#33#P!47*F/3'7)4>[email protected]&K'1*4&AF:4!(@'>43'147! W4B4B/4&8!$F$4&!'7!F!B#/'34!>4=':4! [email protected]!4`'7*'1(!:#1*41*! Real mobile learning E#/'34!>'7:#=4&%!34F&1'1(! b'7*F1:4!F$$&41*':47)'$!$&#(&FB! !b#!F:*'='*'47!A#&!B#/'34!34F&1'1(! f`*41>!"#114:*!F:*'='*'47!A#&!B#/'34!34F&1'1(! In closing … [email protected]&%! H#&!B#&4!g!

507! 515! d.e! d.L! d.C! 520! d,-! d,.! d,,! d,,! d,J! d,I! d,d! d,d! d,e! d,e! d,e! d,L! 528! d,D! dJ-! dJ,! dJe! 536! dJe! dJL! dJL! 538! dJD! dJD!

10 DESIGN FOR THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM ...... 539! Create a virtual classroom 2)%!:&4F*4!F!='&*@F3!:3F77&##BR!

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2)F*!F&4!24/'1F&7!F1>!='&*@F3K:3F77&##B!:#@&747R! b4:'>4!P)4*)4&!%#@!144>!F!3'=4!B44*'1(! Select and use collaboration tools 6434:*!%#@&!:#33F/#&F*'#1!*##37! 63'>4!7)#P7! M&4FG#@*!&##B7! Conduct online meetings ?3F1!*)4!B44*'1(! ?&4$F&4!A#&!*)4!B44*'1(! !*4F:)4&! U4F:)!*)4!:3F778!>#1Q*[email protected]*!34*!'*!)F$$41! ?3F1!$&4>':*F/34!34F&1'1(!:%:347! W47$#1>!*#!34F&14&7! ?&#='>4!:#B$34*4!'17*[email protected]:*'#17! 6'B$3'A%!*F7G7!A#&!34F&14&7! b4F3!P'*)!$&#/34B!34F&14&7! H#33#[email protected]$!FA*4&!*)4!:#@&74! In closing … [email protected]&%! H#&!B#&4!g!

11 CONCLUSION ............................... 583! How we will learn 2)4&4!P4!F&4!)4F>4>! O#P!P4!P'33!(4*!*)4&4!

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What has to happen Secrets of e-learning design Just the beginning

585! 585! 586!

APPENDIX ESSENTIALISM ....................... 587! Essential essentialism Set up the test Supervise the test U)4!"!#A!*47*[email protected]/S4:*7! U)4!"!#A!*)4!4`$4&*! W#34!#A!*)4!*47*!:#1>@:*#&! Analyze test results W4:#&>!144>4>!34F&1'1(! 9>41*'A%!*)4!34F&1'1(!F$$&#F:)! 91A4&!>47'(1!$&'1:'$347! Make testing better Y=4&:#B4!*)4!OFP*)#&14!4AA4:*! i4F=4!*)4!3F/K:#F*!/4)'1>! U47*!F!*P#7#B4! ?&#='>4!F33!&4F3!&47#@&:47! [email protected]&4!*47*[email protected]/S4:*7! 2F*:)!*)4!='>4#[email protected]%! "#1>@:*!41#@()!*47*7! ?':G!=F3'>!*47*[email protected]/S4:*7! Recap: Master the essentials of essentialism

587! 588! 588! dDC! dC-! dC.! 591! dC.! dCJ! dCI! 595! dCd! dCd! dCe! dCe! dCL! dCL! dCL! dCD! 598!

INDEX ........................................... 599!

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1 Designing e-learning

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Designing e-learning

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! ! ! ! 10 ! Designing e-learning ! E-Learning by Design !

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Designing e-learning

Analyze learners’ needs and abilities

1

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Designing e-learning

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1

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Objective Teach how to interpret task dependencies to midlevel managers who can

recognize dependency markers.

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1 Designing e-learning

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1 Designing e-learning

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1 Designing e-learning

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1 Designing e-learning

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1 Designing e-learning

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Let learners inspect items in detail i4*!34F&14&7!413F&(4!$)#*#(&F$)7!*#!'17$4:*!'*4B7!#A!'1*4&47*;!EFG4!*)4!'BF(4!#A!F1!4`)'/'*! '1*#!F1!'BF(4KBF$!P'*)!4F:)!#/S4:*!3'1G4>!*#!'*7!413F&(4B41*;!Y&8!#=4&3F%!*)4!'[email protected]*&F*'#1! P'*)!F!(&'>!#A!&4:*F1(@3F&!F&4F78!4F:)!*&'((4&'1(!*)4!>'7$3F%!#A!F1!413F&(4B41*!#A!*)F*! F&4F;!

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IN CLOSING … Summary

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3 Do-type activities

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