Dissemination and Reception in the Later Middle Ages

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Dissemination and Reception in the Later Middle Ages

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рRЕFАсЕ

wеrе mentioned in the Рrеfасе to the Sчmmаrу Catalogue; here I Йll паmе опlу those spcifically involved with mу dосtоrаl project. Му greatest debt is to Dr David Dumville, mу rеsеаrсh suprvisor, who has mаstеrmiпdеd the Gеоffrеу of Monmouth Research Project. The present study has benefited епогmочslу frоm his formidable exprtise and tireless criticism. Рrоfеssоr Сhristорhеr Вrооkе and

Dr Neil Wright rеаd the disserиtion in final draft and suggested important

improvements. Both also supplied valuable advice and iпfоrmаtiоп at earlier stages. I have received direction and assistance frоm а пчmЬеr of others, notably Oliver Padel. Fоr discussion about various matters, diTectly ог indiTectly related, I must thank in addition to tlюsе alTeady mentioned Dr Elizabeth Archibald, Dr Marttra Bayless, Dr James Саrlеу, Dr Маrjоriе Chibnall, Dr Sшаh Foot, Dr Diana Grеепwау, Dr Michael Lapidge, CarinTaylor, David Thornton, DT Elizabeth Vап Houts, Dr John Watts, and particularly Магу Minty and Dr Julia Smith. I аm grateful to *lese and others fоr rеfеrепсеs and pidance оп а пчmЬеr of pints. I аm glad to tlrank the librarians and staff of ttre instirudons iп which I have worked. I аm particularly indebted to ttre staff of the МапчsсriрБ Reading Room in фе University LiЬrаrу, Cambridge, where mчсh of the gloundwork for this study was done. I have Ьееп supported in mу rеsеаrсh Ьу а British Academy Scholarship and, since ОсtоЬеr 1988, Ьу а Rеsеаrсh Fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. I must also acknowledge the contTibution of the Viпачеr fund, whose grant financed the рчrсhаsе of the microfilms оп which much of my project, and ttrat of Neil Wгight, has depnded. Finally, I owe thanks to fгiends fоr mоrаl sчррrt, espcially Simon Clarke, Dr Anrra Grabowska, Dr David Last, Dr Andrew l,eech, Dr Paul Matthews and, most of all, Dr Andrew Gilbert.

July 1990

Crick Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge

J. С.

v11l

NOTE с

The rеаdеr will need to ЬеаI

Summаrу Catalogue of mапчs Ш). The пчmегiсаl sigla аssiдт the course of the present wогI

first rеfеrепсеs to shelfmarb

abbreviated shelfmarks, and ct

witnesses in the test-collatror shelfmarks precedes the text, The following convenlion,s [] indicates supplied lеttеrs, abbreviation is not absolutely l

.

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LIST OF MANUSCRPTS ОF ТНЕ НISТОNД

xiii xii ý. xiii s. xiv s. xiii S.

22

S.

23

xv xii xv xiVxiii xvii xiv хч xii/xiii хч xiii xiii xiv xiiйiv xiv xiv хч s. xii s. xiii s. xiv s. xv s. xiv s. xii s. xii s. xiv s. xv s. xiv s. xii/xiii s. xii s. xiiИiv s. xii s. xv s. xiii s. xii s. xii s. xiv s. xiii s. xii/xiii s. xiv s. s. s. s. s. s. s, s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s.

СаmЬridgе, Сlаrе College, Fellows'Library, MS. 27 (N'.1.5) Cambridge, Ссгрчs Christi College, MS. 281 СаmЬridgе, Согрчs Christi College, MS. 292 СаmЬгidgе, Соrрчs Christi College, MS.414 Cambridge, Fiиwilliam Museum, MS. 302 (о/lи Phillipps

24 25 26 27

+

28*

29 30 * 31

+

32 33 34 35 36 + 37 * 38 39 40 41* 42 43 * 44 45 + 46 * 47 * 48 * 49 50 51 52 53 + 54 55 56 * 57 58 * 59 60 б1 62* 63 64

z03)

СаmЬгidgе, Fiиwilliam Museum, MS,346

СаmЬridgе, Gonville & Caius College, MS. 103/55 СаmЬridgе, Gonville & Caius College, MS.2491217 СаmЬгidgе, Gonville & Caius College, MS,40б1627 Cambridge, Gonville & Caius College, MS.450/391 Cambridge, St John's College, MS. G.16 (1И) Cambridge, St John's College, MS. 5.6 (2Я) Cambridge, Sidney Sussex College, MS. 75 (^.4,13) Cambridge, ТrЫtу College, MS. R.5.34 (725) Cambridge, ТrЫtу College, MS. R.7.6 (744) Cambridge, ТrЫtу College, MS. R.7.28 (770) Cambridge, Trinity College, MS.1.1.17 (1И1) Cambridge, Trinity College, MS. О.2.21 (1125) СаmЬгidgе, University Library, MS. Dd.1.17 (17) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Dd.4.И (209) СаmЬгidgе, University Library, MS, Dd.6,7 {З24) + Oxford, Bodl., MS. Bodley 585 (S.C. 2351), fos 1-47* Cambridge, University Library, MS. Dd.6.12 (329) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Dd.10.31 (590) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Dd.l0.32 (591) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Ее.1.24 (913) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Ff.1.25 (1158) Cambridge, University Library, MS.Ii,1.14 (170б) Cambridge, University Library, MS.Ii,4.4 (1801) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Ii.4.12 (l809) Cambridge, University Library, MS,Ii.4.17 (1814) СаmЬridgе, University Library, MS. Кk.6.1б (209б) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Мm.1.34 (2295) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Мm.5.29 (24З4) Cardiff, S. Glаmоrgап Сепtrаl Library, MS.2,611 Соlmаr, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS.448 (14) Cologny, ВiЬliоthёqче Martin Воdmеr, MS. Воdmеr 70 DOle, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MSS. 348 + 349 Douai, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS. 880 (835) Douai, Bibliottrёque municipale, MS. 882 (838) Dublin, Trinity College, MS. 172 (В.2.1) Dublin, Trinity College, MS.493 (В,.2.24) Dublin, Тriпitу College, MS.494 (Е,5.7) Dublin, Trinity College, MS.495 (Е.4,30)

шSтоI

xiv 65 xiv 66 s. xiii/xiv 67 s. xiv 68 s. xiii 69 s. xiii/xiv 70 s. xii 7| * s. xiv 72* s. xiii 73 * s. xiv 74* s. xiii 75 s. xii 76 s. xiii/xiv 77 ý. хч 78 s. xii 79 s. xii 80 s. xiiVxiv 81 s. xii 82 * s. xii 83 s. xv 84 s. xii 85 * s. xiii 86 * xiii s. 87 s. xiiVxiv 88 s. xii 89 * s. xiv/xv 90 s. xiv 91 s. xii/xiii 92 s. xiv 93 s. s.

+

+

s. xiiilxiv s. xii/xiii s. s. s. xiii, xiv s. xiii/xiv

xii xiv

s.xii s. xii s. xii/xiii s. xiii s. хiч s. s.

xiv/xv xiVxiii

Dublin. Т DчЬliп, Т Dublin, Т EdinburgJ Eton, Eto: Ехеtеr, Ci

Firеше.I Firепzе,

(А.4.2591 Glasgoч,,

Glasgow,

неidеlьеr lэidеп. В

lэiden, В lэningTac F.Iч.7б

Lille, Bib] Lincoln С I,ondon.I London. London. l,опdоп. London. l,опdоп. London, London. London. Lопdоп. London. London. London.

I I

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94

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95 96 * 97 *

98 99



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London. l,ondon. London, London. London. London. London. London. Lопdоп. London, London,

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LIST ОF MANUSCRIPTS ОF ТНЕ

s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s.

xiVxiii xii xiv/xv

xiv xiv/xv xii

xiii

xiv xiv/xv S, xv s. xii s. xiv s. xiv s. xii s. xiv s. xiii/xiv s. xii s. xiv s. xii s. xii s.

xii

s.

xii

s.

xiii

S. S.

xv хч

s. s. s.

xiii

s"

xiv

s. s. s. s.

xiv

xiii xii xiv xiv xii

s. xiv s. xii S.

хч

s. xiv s. хiч/хv s. xii s. xii

*

[лпdоп, British Library, MS. Lansdowne73} [.ondon, British Library, MS. Royal4.C.xi [юпdоп, British LiЬrаrу, MS. Royai l3.A.iii [-опdоп, British LiЬrаrу, MS. Royal 13.A.v London, British LiЬrаrу, MS. Royal 13.D.i [лпdоп, British LiЬrаrу, MS. Royal 13,D.ii [.ondon, British LiЬrаrу, MS. Royal 13.D.v Lюпdоп, British LiЬrаrу, MSS Royal 14.C.i + Cotton Nеrо С.ч lюпdоп, British LiЬrагу, MS, Royal l5.C.xvi lлпdоп, Bгitish Library, MS. Sloane 281. + 289 Lопdоп, British LiЬrагу. MS. Stowe 56 Lопdоп, College of Аrms, MS. Аrчпdеl l 119 * l,ondon, Lambeth Palace, MS. 188 LД) + lюпdоп, Lambeth Palace, MS. 379 + 357 |2l London, l,ambeth Palace, MS. 401 122 * London, lambeth Palace, MS. 454, fos 28r-l23r 123 * London, Lambeth Palace, MS. 454, ftls 124r-2Иr 107

lШ 1Ш 110 111 ll2 113 l|4 115 116 1l7 118

1И +

l?5 t26

[.ondon, Lambeth Palace, MS.503

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, MS. 6319 (F"147)

Montpllier, ВiЬliоthёqче de l'Universitб (Ecole de Мбdесiпе), MS.92 127 + Мопtрlliец ВiЬliоthёqче de l'Universitё (Ecole de Мёdеcine), MS, 378 1Л * New Haven (Сопп.), Yale University, MS. 59О (olimPhillipps

l29 130

LБт оF

ЛЛlЛýГОR/А

2324)

S.

s. s. s. s.

xlv

xii xiv xiii xiii

|47

Oxford, В 1зЕ + Oxford, В 149 * Oxford, В

l50

охfоrd, В

151+ охfогd. В

s. xiii s. xiii s. xiv s. xii s. xiii

l52

охfоrd, В

155

охfоrd, В

s. xiv s. xvi

158 159

охfогd. В [Охfогd I

S,

xv

s. xiii s. xiVxiii s. xii s. xiv

xiv s. xiii/xiv s.

xii s. xii s. S.

New Haven (Сопп.), Yale University, MS. 598 Notre Dame (Indiana), University of NotTe Dame Library, MS. 40 131 * Оlоmочс, National Оlоmочс Regional Archive, MS.411 l32 Oxford, Дl Souls'College, MS. 35 133 Oxford, Дl Souls'College, MS. 39 1У * Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS, Add. А.61 (S.C. 2884З) 135 Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS, Bodley 23З (S.С.2|SS) 13б Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. Bodley 5L4 (S.C.2|84) 137 + Охfоrd, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. Bodley 622 {S.C. 2156) 1ý Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. Bodley 977 (S.C. 2'7ф2) 139 + Oxford, Bodleian Librмy, MS. Digby 67 (S.С.lб68), fos 57-68 140 Oxford, Bodleian Library,, MS. Douce l15 (S.C. 2|6S9} 141 * Oxford, Bodleian LiЬгаrу, MS. Fаirfах 2S (S.C. 390S) 142 * Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. Jesus College 2 143 * Охfоrd, Bodleian Library, MS. Jones 4S (S.C, 8956) 144 + Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. Lat. hist. Ь.1, fragrnent 2 145 * Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrагу, MS. Lat. misc. b.l7, fo l0 tб Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. Lat. misc. е.42 (S.C,36220)

xv

хч

s. xiv s. xii s. xiiVxiv s. xiv s. xii S.

xv

153 * охfогd, В 154 + охfоrd, В

156 * Oxford. В 157 + охfоrd, Br fos 27-28

160

рр.22а| * охfоrd. С

162

*

161* Oxford. \j

163 164

Lб5

*

Paris, Bib'

John Rl lal Рагis, Bibl 167 + Раris, Bibl Рагis, Bit,l 169 + Раris, Bibi 170 * Раris, Bibl 171 * Рагis, Bit,l Paris, Brbi

1б8 |72 173

Paris, Bibl

174 + Рагis. Bibi 175 * Рагis. Bibl 176 * Раris, Bibl 177 + Рагis, Bibi 178 * Рагis, Bib,,l 179 * Рагis, Bib,] 180 + Рагis, Bibl

xii xii

s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s.

xiiVxiv xii xii xiv/xv 181 xiv |82 xii 183 xii 184 * xv 185 xiii/xiv 186 xvi 187 + xii/xiii 188

xv + xii

Раris, Brb]

Рагis, Bib]

166

ý.

s.

охfогd, }l

Paris, Brbl Paris, Bib,i

Рагis, Bibl Рагis, Bibl

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LIST ОF MANUSCRPTS ОF ТНЕ HISTORIA

xii xiv S. xii S. xii s. xii/xiii ý. ý.

xiii xii s. xiii s. xii s.

s.

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Paris, ВiЬliоthфче nationale, MS.lat. l8271 1Л) * Paris, ВiЬliоthфче nationale, MS. nouv. acq. lat. 1001 191 + Paris, ВiЬliоthфче Sаiпtе-Gепечiёче, MS. 2113 Philadelphia (Ра.), The Frее Library, MS. Е.247 L93 * Reims, ВiЬliоthфче municipale, MS. 1430 Roma, Biblioteca Apstolica Vaticana, MS, Ottoboni lat.14'12 195 * Roma, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS. Pat. lat. 956 1!Б * Roma, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS. Pal. lat.962

l92 1И

lП l98 199 200 201 202

Roma, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS, Reg. |at,692 Roma, Biblioteca Apstolica Vaticana, MS. Reg. lat. 825 Rom4 Biblioteca Apostolica Vаtiсапа, MS. Vat. lat, 2005 Rочеп, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS. U.74 (|l'71) Rочеп, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS. 30б9 SаiпьОmец ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS. 710 203 + Salisbury, CathedTal LiЬrаrу, MS. 12l

ZU

San Магiпо (Cal.), Henry Е. Huntington LiЬrаrу, MS. EL э4.с.9 (1l2l) 205 Sankt Gallen, Stifвbibliothek, MS. 633 20б * Sevilla, Biblioteca Colombina, MS.7.3.19 2(П * Stockholm, Kungliga Biblioteket, MS. Ноlm. D.1311 208 + Troyes, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS. 273 bis 209 Troyes, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS. 153l 2l0 Ushaw, Ushaw College, MS. б 2|l Valenciennes, ВiЬliоthёqче municipale, MS. 792 (5S9) 2l2 Winchester, Cathedral LiЬrагу, MS. 9 2l3 WiiTzburg, Universitaвbibliotlrek, MS. M.ch.f.14O 214 о/iи Phillipps, MS. 3117 2l5 Roma, Biblioteca Apstolica Vaticana, MS. Ottoboni |at.3}25

Sometimes the рорчIаritу еп

inversely proportional to

t}re

while а derivative wоrk li

manuscripts, а prime solrсе tical History survives in tfue This proposition is of cou to medieval as well as mode

manuscript-witnesses - but it historical information condul of familiar texts markedly с available to, those seeking tc

difficult

to suggest explanatrr

eval and mоdеrп readers. Ог оthеr, source material;

роr

а

the best histories in the Mid tions аЬочt the usage апd traI remain spculationuntil tlre tr propsed that the first step l should Ье to investigate the t

рrоmоtеs andjustifies that ех of history rаthеr than litеrагч the diffusion of medieval hlsl it is possible to оЬsеrче what

Geoffrey of Monmouttt's

а ptential subject fr dubious historical content haI

provides

Historia was written in the 1

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IЬИ.,р.1. Hbtoire,p.248.

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NTRODUCПCN

suФesýion to king Henry I, iп а priod of intellectual liveliness and innovation. Gеоffrеу traced Йе history of the island of Вriиiп frоm iB first settlement, following tlre fortunes of vmious kings of varying mеrit - t}re island чrаs unified from thйrst, in Geoffrey's account - and describing their impact оп the British landscape in the foundation of towns and the construction of mопumепts. His wоrk wis described as fabulous Ьу later twelfth-centuгy sceptics like william of Newburgh and Gerald of wales,6 but neverttleless it gained сrеdепсе and was iпсогройtеd into histories at ап early stage.7 opinion оп the frivolousness оr о*rейisе of his work is divided: Geoffrey's wоrk сап Ье classed as parody, fraud, оr history.8

GeofЙey's intentions remain Ьчriеd in his work and in its relationship to his sorгces. Тйе reaction of the immediate audience for which it was intended is unknown. However, something of the History's rvider audience and the паtчrе of

responses to it mау Ье gauged. Рrечiочs ýtudy of iB impact has concentrated оп the tangible evidence oi literary Ьоrrоwiпgs frоm it,9 but ttrere rеmаiпs а largely чпехрlБrеd, if mоrе ambiguous, body of evidence applicable to this mаttег - the пlrmеrоus extant mапчsсriрБ.lo They attest when the wоrk was copied (occasionally also whеrе and Ьу whbm) - and sometimes who owned versions, where and whеп. This information, together with that of extant library lisв, сап Ье added to what is kпоwп frоm litеrшу Ьогrоwiпgs about the readership of the text. The evidence of manuscripв contributes fundamentally to knowledge of the text in чаriочs ways; two aspects йll Ье рursчеd hеrе. FiTst, the identification of branches of transmission as represented iп gочрs of manuscrip6 will fоrm the basis for the construction of а text-history. sccondly, using t}ris text-historical material, some account of the work's circulation mау Ье sought Ьу looНng at the chronological and gеоgrафiсаl characteristics of branches of the transmission and at some of the means Ьу which they circulated. These aims йl1 Ье discussed in detail below. Before this, I propse to give some backgIound to the work's popularity Ьу outlining t}re gap in pre€alfridian historiogaphy, how Geoffrey

,rrice tis contemprilries аwаrе that 0re gap existed, and the паfurе of his History's success.

6

But not foT errtaely academic rеаýопý: ссmраге Crick, 'GeoftTey" Fоr example those of AlfTed of Beverley and Robert de Torigni (via Непту of Hrurtingdon), оп йeiT blective use of GeoffTey's material see Lдckie, Tle Passage of Dоrпiпiоп, рр. 45-49. Compare FletcheT, The Дrthuriап Material,pp, |7|J2. _ Fоr юmе receTrt views соmраrе Вrооkе, The Chtrch, рр. 95-106; Flint, 'The HЫoria'i _

8

Rosenhau-s, 'Вriиiп'. Brooke, ар:udlаrпеs,WаЛtеr Мар,рр.

xxxix-xliii; Keeler, 'TheHistoria'iUllmann,'оп йе Iпfluепсе', l0 оп йis material see йе rеmшks of ButgnweiseT, 'Popular дчthоrs', р. 5l. То mу knowiedge, the опlу such ацlтоасh to the tlistoria is йat of East iп раrt of his unpubbhed Ph.D, disselиtioц 'De Сопtеmрtч ВriюпT m'л

9

British History before Get

Before Geoffrey of Мопmочl Rоmап invasion led Ьу Julius this pint, after а few gепеrа indigenous population (fтоm Scythia via keland in the са-*

appndix to his iпtгоdчсtог}, t рrорr.12 Араrt from Bede, mс prhaps have tцrпеd to Gildas in the sub-Roman рriоd, wаrl them as а rеsчlt of феiт оцт circulated, however, and frог

пiпttrсепшrу СаmЬrо-Lаttл l himself, and quite widely cr Вrittопum provided the mos

population. It supplied йе sti grandson of the Тrоjап sчп rr Нсв and Irish. After Bede апd the ачttюr have made little effort to dеlъ, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle at аrriчаl of the Britons frоm Аг йе less begins iБ 'паrrаdче' v of the island waý not reyiyed ч has pinted out that in the iп Anglo-Saxon past were assoc beyond national sentiment а privilege and счltчrе: non-mi subjecБ.l7 The historiographl the intellectual endeavours чп 'Ьriпфпg things together and The view of рrе-Апglо-Sа,

Fоr а deиiled discussion ot С Passage of Dоmiпiоп, |2 Оп Bede's treatmeтlt of Вriш: 11

30.

Edited Ьу Fаrаl, La Ugейе, Ш вrittопдm, orr the Gildasian fc l4 Fоr йе parallel Continenta.l si:, 15 оп йеsе chronicles see \A/hiи_ lб See Brett,'John', рр. 101-4. |7 'Some Twelfth-cenmry Vie * s', 1з

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NoIIJnoo}IINI

INTRODUCTON

determined fоr tlre moýt pшt Ьу t}rat of Веф, and sometimes also Ьу that of the author of the Historia Вritlопии. It is clear from the stereotyped and limited паtчrе of ешlу twelfth-centmy ассочпБ that, for tlris priod, юаrсеlу mоrе than the thrее ýочrсеý described above were available.l9 Т\е Сlrопiсаrwп Сltrопiсс of John of Wоrсеstеr and tJ/illiam of Malmesbury's Gеstа Rеgwп дпglоrии begin йth the coming of the English аЬочt A.D. 450. Неrrrу of Huntingdon less conventionally

followed the account of Вrчtчs in the Historia Вrittопurлрl but he made no sipificant original contribution.2l The rеаsопs fоr the silence in the historical record ше evident; Bede used Rоmап sources for the priod before the documenиtion and memories of his own

time wеrе available, but to чепfurе back Ьеfоrе Саеsш required acquaintance йtlt the legends of the Britons оr those of their пеighЬочrs, the Irish.z The ачthоr of the Historia Brittoпulпclaimed to have drawn оп both Roman and native traditio. As а result, he said, he could supply the originJegend of the Britons (frоm Roman tradition) and provide genealogies dеsсгiЬiпg Brutus's (оr Britto's) descent and familyJinks with оthеr eponymous founders of Ечrорап nations (from native sources).B TЪle Historia Вrittопutп was аlrеаdу enjoying а priod of renewed interest when а пещ mоrе detailed account of this hiЁrerto оЬsсчrе соrпеr of Insular history арршеd. This latin histогу рчrроrtеd to Ье а шanslation of ап ancient book iп the British lanpage which the author, Galfridus Monemutensis, had Ьееп

given Ьу Walter, archdeacon of Oxford, а mап of acknowledged culture and lешпiпg.И Some context for the connection between these two mеп is provided Ьу six charters (dating frоm 1129 to ll52) frоm the Oxford шеа: Оsепеу, Godslow, Thame, and St Gеоrgе's, а hпrse of sесчlаr сапопý.Ъ Five of these аrе issued оr wiпressed Ьу Archdeacon Wаltеr and include in their witnessJisв а certain

'Gaufridus magister' оr 'Gaufridus Аrtчr'. Wаltеr арреаrý in his capacity as рrочоst of St George's, а psition which he held fгоm l115 until the suppression of the house in 1 149. Не died рrоЬаЬlу iп l l 5l И and the sixth сhаrtеr, of 1 1 52, is йtnessed Ьу his successor, Archdeacon Robert Foliot, also with Gaufridus.u It is not сlеаr why Gеоffrеу аррешs as а wifiress, His опlу official title in these

t9 lbid., р. l38. zo As did the Dчтhаm author of

the

Libellцs de Рriпо дdцепtч sсlюпurп, оп which see offler,

21 Соmраrе lэсКе, Tle Passage of Dоmirtоп,р,38, п IЬИ. рр.29-30. В ýý17-18: Fжal,I,aligeиde, Ш.8-9 апd 11-17. и Called superlativeretoricusby HeTrryof Huntingdon, DеСоrtеtпрtuМuпdi, ý4,editedby ATnold, Hewici ДrсhИiасопi Нцмеrйurепsis Historia, рр. 291-320 at 302. See also

r/

other such teachers had bet Theobaldus (ТhiЬачф of Ёип who moved to paris in ll39 а Gеоffrеу's wiEressings ha, St Gеоrgе's.З1 In the last two

r

'elect' оr 'episcopus' of l

Lambeth Ьу Archbishop Th

rесоrdеd.з2 The consecration , de Torigni, who added ttrat th

Historyof thekingsof the Вгit musl have brought rесоgтuu political difficulties for the Ar the death of Ranulf II, еаrl с

occupying his sее.З3 Gеоffrе1, Although, fоr most twelfй pation, it could act as а cata]! has Ьееп sееп аý а bid fоr pl elevation to the episcopate, й his yirc Merlini, dedicated to Liпсоlп.З7 Legge sought а srгr Hisloria to Robert, ешl of Glo and wаlеrап, count of Meuia

рrеtеd and dated Ьу the shifts i Gеоffrеу, lэggе аrgчеd, wTot of Henry I and рашоп of фе i work to Дехапdеr, bishop oI

mеп ineffective as patrons - Rl

28 Legge,'Maýter Geoffrey', р, 2] 29 Соmраrе Southern, 'From Sck з0 IЬИ' рр. 5-7.

зl Salter,'Gmffrey', р. 385. з2 Richter, d'Cotterbury РrоlЪs,

Medbyal HЫorians, р. 11.

б и

documents is magister (in 1 1. оr at le:Бt indicate that the Ь

Greenway, ed., tоhп Le Neye. Fasri, Ш.35. Salter, 'Geoffrey'. The sесопd ofhb seven listed dосчmепв Ь а fоrgеrу. Grеепwау, еd.,lоhп Le Nеvе. Fcsri, Ш.35. Тhоrре, 'The Last Years', р. б64.

зз Lloy4 'Geoffrey', р. 465. о:.

Episcopate'. Brooke, The Church,p. 10; Ч':: з5 Gчепбе, Hbtoire, рр. 49, 5l а dbtinction btween сhчrсh апd the court as а cultural сепЕе: S{ эб Llоуф 'CeoffTey', р. б5; Lэgд

у

38

Ibid.,pp,25-26. Оп whom see King, 'Wаlеrал'

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NoLjJnco8tNI

INTRODUCПON

being imprisoned Ьу Stephen in 1139 _ and after Oxford was besieged in 1142, Geoffrey prhap added secondary dedications, fust to Waleran of Мечlап, and lаtеr to Stephen himself.Ю Lэggе's шgцmепt is speculative. It assumes that the single dedication toRobertpreceded the two double dedications and that Gеоffrеу was respnýible fоr all alterations, poiný which are шlрrочеп. Neveгtheless, Ьу drawing attention to the imроrtапсе of t}re dedicatee fш the author's futuTe as well as that of his work, lэggе invited fчrthеr discussion of the function and thus the implications of the dedications. The раtrоп's role iý iпtеrmеdiаrу iп disseminating а work is well known. Gaimar's translation of GeoffTey's History depn&d on а mапчsсriрt acquiTed thrочф Walter Espec frоm Robert of Gloucester. It has Ьееп suggested tttat, ttrrочф Espc's interest, Аrthчriап material mау have соmе to the notice of Aelred, abbot of his foundation at Rievaulx.al Despite the imprtance of the раfiоп in а work's initial stages, its ultimate fate depended оп iB contents - although Guепёе's statement, 'Le раtrсlп рrорsе, mais le public dispse', has prhaps mоrе rhеtоriсаl force than ассurасу.аz

2. ýý2}53 Веfоrе фе Rоm Аftеr Brutus's death, his t]Ta ftе island between them. git; (England), Kambria fllЫе s.r

аlrеаdу Ьееп established in th as his share in the settlement rчlе for ýоmе gепеrаtiопs, ft is Ьrоkеп Ьу the suicide of С, in the mаппеr lаtеr dеsсгiьеd

lished Ьу Dunuallo Моlmчu Belinus and Brerrnius, mоч-г outside Britainby its rulеrs. Т Italy, eventually sacking Rсп mапу gепеrаdопs.

3.

ýý5,1-91The Coming оf

under cassiuellaunus, Ьrофс

GeoffTey's History Geoffrey begins Ьу rеmаrkiпg оп the lack of written ассочпБ of еаrlу British history despite а lively oral tradition, thus introducing Walter's ancient book. Geoffrey's 'translation'follows the dedications, andopns with abrief description of Britain - its size, countryside, rivers, cities and inhabitants. The ensuing паrrаtiче mау Ье divided into eight sесtiопs.lЗ

1. ýý5-22 Вrчtчs occupies йе island

of ДlЬiоп

Geoffrey's History begins much where Vergil's Депеid епф, with the sчrчiчоrs of the sack of Тrоу. The Trojan rеIппапt, чпdеr Aeneas (а mеmЬеr of the rоуаl house of Тrоу), have escapd tlre sack of the city and саrчеd out а kingdom in Italy" Some уеаrs later Siluius, Aeneas's gтandson, fathers ап illegitimate son паmеd Brutus. When Brutus Hlls his fаthеr in an accident, iБ ýoothýayers had prophesied at the time of his birth, he is explled frоm Italy. After чаriочs successful military adventures in Grеесе and Frапсе, he settles in the rеmоtе

island whеге he was destined to found а second Тrоу. Не gives his паmе to the island, thеrеаftеr Britain, апd his companions аrе called Britattпi, 40 'MasteT Geoffrey', w.2+Z5. 4l Powicke, Tle Lde, р. lxxxviii. а2 Histoire,p.290.

43 Taken for convenience fтоm GeoffTey, пarrslated Ьу Тhогр. BTeaks at йese points ате frequently mшkеd iп manuscripts, with фе exception of the fочrЁr (at ý92; it оссurs mоrе usually at ý89) and йе eighth (always at ýi77 if а division Ь indicaвd at all): Ыоч VI.

of Heli, the Britons аrе attack they were of the same rасе ц could easily Ье forced to ра1 battle and the Romans аrе ot vulnerability, trу to rebel. Tr+ l frоm caesar but he is betrar е tributary. Then follows ап а.

Rоmап rчlеrs, and of соIýtа] During tttis priod, йе islanc

4.

ýý92-108 The Hotrse of

(

After the dераrtчrе of Rоп enfeebled Ьу attacks оп

Constantine is чsчгрd

йei br \

respnsible fоr the sеttlеmеr rеsчlв in чпrеst and dеstrчсu to ensure his own safety Ь difficulties, which Vоrugег;l

strange Ьоу, Меrliп: subsiden iп which two dragorrs wеrе s]

5. ýýl(Ь117 The Рюрhесi

неrе the ачthоr breaks ш tc frоm Alexander, bishop of I

,

Merlin which he had alreadl

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}ioIJJneou,INI

INTRODUCПON

travelled indepndently frоm the Historia and which have Ьееп thочфt to have circulated before the арраrаrюе of the History.4

priod, creating history out о: was tfueatened wittt civii wa mеt счrепt ppular taste fоr

l

6.

ýý118_142 The House of Constantine

Ачrеliчs, son and heir of Cmstantine, Ьеюmеs king and Hlls Vоrtigеrп in his tоwеr Ьеfоrе defeating Hengist and the Saxons. Aurelius's reign sees the imрrting of а ring of stmles frоm keland to Stonehenge, iш o,peration organized Ьу Merlin, Aurelius is poisoned Ьу а Saxon infiltrator. Не is succeeded Ьу his Ьrоthеr, uttrer, who likewise faces the saxons iп battle and lаtеr becomes the victim of poison.

7. ýý14}178 Аrthчr

of

Britain

Uther is followed Ьу his young son, Althur, who had Ьееп conceived when Uther, magically disguised Ьу Меrliп, cuckolded the Duke of Соrпwаll. ATthur regains control of Britain Ьу defeating the Saxons, PicB, ScoB, апd Irish. Не then tчrпs his attentions abroad, winning Norway and Gaul and taking his аrmу to the Continent а second time to fight off Rоmап resistance. Не rеtчrпs victorious to Britain but is mortally wounded while defeating his Keacherous nephew, Моrdred, who, in ATthur's abýence, has Ьесоmе his wife's lover and usurpd йе throne.

8. ýý17}208 The Saxon Domination 's cousin, becomes king and is followed Ьу several successors. Eventually Gоrmчпd, king of the Africans, with Sжоп help overthrows Keredic, ап unworthy holder of the rоуаl title. Тhеп follows ап account of St Aupstine's mission to the English and the story of Cadwallo and Edwin and tttat of Cadualladr, romanticized versions of the пагrаtiче found in Bede's History.as Gеоffrеу's wоrk ends with the subjugation of the degenerate Britons - rеdчсеd through plape, famine and civil discord - Ьу the English whose newly paceful and

Constantine, Arthur

оrdеrеd life has brought them the сrоwп of I-oegria.

whаtечеr the reasons, the rл well attested. Непrу of Нчлt:

Normandy took place iп Jani Henry I, an ечепt which Ger was available in Nоrmапdr composition. Its ppulaпtv r счrrепtlу пчmЬеriпg 2 l 5. The significance of thts t] examination of the гelatrve р attested Ьу the пчmЬеr of sur of seventy histories ше oc.t Maximus, Orosius, Jчstiлчs. ; priod of circulation thап а whose success was shоrtеr-i Monmouth next аftеr Jоs€р according to mу figures, Gео and Josephus's 200 (alttrougi

may not have Ьееп So БSl Gеоffrеу).sl This is а corT}mi history of Сhаrlеmаgпе аtЕп History (lба). Ву соmрапs{ several centuries Ьеfоrе Geol survives in about fifty manus

circulation Something of the geogTaphrc

Historia mау Ье gauged frоl dates of manuscгipt-witnes se

investigation. Техtuаl сгitе

The Scale of the Historia's success Geoffrey's History touched оп mапу themes and the appeal of his work doubtless has complex explanations. Не provided the unique соппесtеd account of this

4

Аrgчmепь summarized Ьу EckhaTdt, 'T"he Propletia', рр. 169-72. No extant manuscript

рrеdаtеs йе HЫoria, however; Bernard Meehan's case for а manuscript of the 1120s faib оп palaeographical grounds ('Gюffrey'). 45 They may have antecede,lrБ in Webh lеgепф however. Orr Cadualladr, see Bromwich, Tr Ье dd Y пу s Р ry dеiп, р. 292-93.

па

раrtiсчlаr gToups of геlаtеd

:

46 Соmраrе LэсНе, The Passaяe

4? See also GiЬоц 'НЬюry

а: В

48 See непrу's lеttеr to Wагй. ; edition of the lепеr Ь Ьiля рр.99-100. 49 Argumenв сопсеrпiпg йе le,, Ьу Neil Wright,Tle HЫorio50 Hbtoire, рр.248-58, 51 Dumville,'The Мапчsсгiрк' l

1

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NoIJJncollINI

INTRODUCПON

raised: whether the wоrk circulated in different fшms in England and оп the Continent ш whether thеrе was сопtiпчiпg cross-fertilization across the Сhаппеl, whether distinctively Continental fоrms аrе identifiable апd, if so, whether theiT апсеýtогý rеасhеd the Continent.s2It is known that а mапчsсriрt was at IJ Вес at ап early stage, but not what рrорrtiоп of Continental copies stem frоm mапчscripв inroduced in the twelfth сепfurу. Сеrиiп networks of шansmission mау Ье visible, рrhарs within а раrtiсчlш religious оrdеr. It should Ье pssible to use tехtчаl criteria to фtесt whether each acquired iБ сору frоm separate sочrсеs оr whether they drеw оп а сопrm01 sочrсе. Where several houses, of the same оr different оrdеrý, in the same аrеа аrе kпоwп to hаче owned copies, аrе the texБ of those mапчsсгiрв related оr do they suggest acquisition from sераrаtе souTces? The implications of these questions ше mоrе than tехшаl. Antonia Gransden has pinted out hощ раrtlу because of earlier limitations of the mechanisms of circulation, plitical propaganda tends to Ье а lаtеr medieval рhепоmепоп.5З А study of transrnission сап allow explorationof notions of popularity and influence, botlr tеrms applied to this work. Foucault has attacked the assumption-laden use of the tегm 'influence'to describe рrосеssеs oprating in history: he has accused Ыstоriапs of creating ап artificial concept, а magical medium of propagation of ideas, notions, апd themes which furrctions as an еthеr and has rю fiгmеr basis in reality.g It mау Ь pssible to elucidate some of the processes which might underlie 'iпflчепсе'Ьу smdying t}re transmission of texts, even in а semiJiterate счltчrе. Another questiorr to Ье considered is that of the audience of the Historia. Despite ш}mеrочs чеrпасчlаr translations into чеrsе, it was iп latin that Geoffrey's work enjoyed mаjоr and lasting success. Тhеrе was evidently а significant Latin-reading audience цераrеd to invest mопеу and time in acquiring and rеаdiпg а lengthy non{lassical secular history а wоrk mоrеочег lacking overt moral оr didactic content.s5 The сопtепБ of the Hisloric might ýuggest ап aristocratic ачdiеrюе. The literary language of secularciTcles in ttre twelfthcenfury has traditionally Ьееп regarded as the чеrпасчlаr, hоwечеr.s Indeed, Diana T}son has suggested that it was enthusiasm in such ciTcles fоr accessible adapиtions of the Historia tltat created а 'gTeat vope fоr чеrпасчlаr history'.' А пчmЬеr of readers mау Ье identified from соmmепБ оп the Historia апd summaries оr ехtrасК frоm it in оthеr wогks. These аrе primarily chroniclers, both those condemning the work and those who found it convenient to drаw оп it,

52 Соmраrе фе Continental апd Insular вхв of Bede's History; Colgrave & Mynors,Bede's Hbtory, рр. xxxix-lxx, especially xli-xliv. 53'Рrораgапdа', р. 3б4. Я Major-Poetz1, Miclel Fоцсаuh's дrсhаеоIоgу оfWеstеrпСulturе, рр. 13-14. 55 oTr the importance of mоrаl berrefit to liвrary епфуmепt see olson, Lileratцre as Recreatioп, espcially р. 20.

56 But see Duby's remaTks abut пчmеrочs lay dedications of Latin rvorlcs: 'The Счltцrе', рр. 259-б0. 57 'Раýопаgе', рр. l85J6.

l0

sometimes selectively.Я Suci ways. The informatim whrct

it is not сlеаr how mапу о Historia оr frоm оthеr сhrоr presents опlу one, obvious. f other contexБ

-

used to Just

Маgпа Carta and the lzges ,, ial61 - Ьчt the problem of у derived from Latin materia]. Ьу surviving manuscripts р ation of this issue.62 The information about й essential fоr answering thes general conclusions about tj

deduced fTom оthеr ехtегпаj а Ьmkmау рrочidе some bro of originbut also of iB conte]l арреаrапсе, mау Ье rеlечапi and religious works, scholas

scripts copied Ьу the lгish sочthеrп has Ьееп аьlе to Caligula A.xv) wTitten чпdе: teristic miхtчrе of English а miscellany of chronologic ai

Contents mау Ье usefuI рrоЬаЬlу produced the апа1 mау have been associated rn

ation as а геsчlt of рrасuса collections were carefuli1, ап books copied in the еаrlу twi tion. This opration, iлчоli

produced а чоlчmе of Rоm; Anselmiana, апd so forth.s

tional. l.,Tevertheless, о(hеr which suggest the applicatlc

58 See Flеrchеr, Tle дrthцriап )1 59 For example, Geoffrey's mа,е conversely, йе аЬsепсе of r-a бо UllmaTrn, 'Оп the lп{lчепсе', ; 61 Edward IV's household гасе:

Age',p.225.

62 Соmраrе Gчепф, '[а Счiг;е бз The lrbhTraditioп, рр. 1-1i-:

ы StдrвеIm,р.252.

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NОilJПСОUJNI

INTRODUCПON

about t}re Crusades and the siege of Jerusalem is intersprsed with texБ on the

fall of Тrоу, ап appsite association which has Ьееп observed in а different context.6 Some mапчsсriрв Ьеаr the signs of рrераrаtiоп in а scriptorium collaborating scribes copying а selected series of texк. The арраrапсе of Geoffrey's work among

а

historical collection may thеrеfоrе Ье sigrrificant.

This study is essentially а sчrчеу and is therefore ехрlоrаtоrу. The mапчsсriрБ

оп which it is based аrе пчmеrочs and scattered; the quantity of readily assimilable information аЬочt each was чеrу variable - some had attracted sufficient scholarly attention to gain поtоriеtу while ойеrs wеrе not formally catalogued.fl Sчсh а sчrчеу is potentially one-dimensional, giving equal wеiфt to all mапчscripts, even though some mау have Ьееп little read and copied in medieval times; textual information offers а соrrесtiче, hоwечеr. The survey's рчrрsе is to оьsеrче the success of а work which has defied classification. when and where was interest in it most intense? In what milieux it was rеаd? Fасtоrs governing iB impact should also Ье considered: how was ttre text transmitted? When wTiting, ап ачthоr was prhaps influenced Ьу the extensiveness of circulation which he could expct fоr his work. Моrе significantly, the actual effectiveness of means of transmission defined ttre limiв of ilre power of the written wоrd in the diffusion of information and ideas.

Text-history А wоrk of the l1isroric's suc

shapd а clause in Magna ( to lordship очеr Scotland: scholarship. Debate has la it

immediate context and gеп рrоjесt, is devoted to the quс Despite the existence of : has remained impossible to

closer to what Geoffrey асгu edition - Ьу Acton Gпsсоm editors Ьеtwееп them used с of these has rесепtlу Ьееп diplomatic edition.a Grisсоrт

that they rерrеsепtеd раrtlсu оп the supposed histoгical й The frailty of such classifica чulпеrаьlе to loss оr аltегаu so ше not necessarily dерп, Since 1929, the dечеlоргп

1

2 э

4 5

6

66 Guenee, Hjýoire,p.276. Douai, ВiЫiойёqче municipale, MS, 882. CZ They have поw a]l Ьеп described: Cick"Tle Hbtoria, Ш.

|2

1

'Оп the Influence'; оп SсоСr роr а discussion of йе ediпc: Galfrid', рр.251_59, and На; Aberysмyttr, National LibтaMS. 568 [15]; Cambridge, Тr:: LiЫary, MS.Ii.1.14 [48]; Ь: Paris, ВiЬliоthфче nationae НЫоriа, edited Ьу GrЬсоm i The

Historia,l.

Fаrаl, 'Geoffroy', рр. 18-3]: Наmmеr, 'А Соmmеrrи:1,', р

р.217.

Соmраrе йе account of

Patranage,pp. 144-45.

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textual investigation, based оп а wide range of mапчsсгiрв. This work was fiTst чпdеrtаkеп Ьу Jacob Наmmеr, who aimed to рrоdчсе а critical edition, but the pюject was curtailed Ьу his death in 1953. The reasons fоr undertaking such an edition deserve discussion. It is widely accepted tha tthe Hiпoria is поt а historical sочrсе in which епоrs of transmission could Ье seen to endanger the ассчrасу of factual information. Nor is the Historia likely to Ье the subject of the minute stylistic scrutiny which а Classical work might undergo, Ьчt this is partly рrhарs because there is no gumantee of what Gеоffгеу actually wrote: ttre fluidity of medieval latin complicates the рrосеss of emendation, the editions of Fшаl and Grisсоm аrе based оп а false equation between the dedications of manuscripБ and theiT textual gToupings, and there is по account of the lively medieval transmission of the text. Ноwечеr, the fact of the wоrk's iпflчепсе alone makes it desirable for scholars in а variety of fields to Ье able to distinguish medieval additions and alterations to the text frоm the оrigiпаl. Fоr ttris state to Ье reached, the wоrk needs to чпdеrgо а cleaning operation which rеmочеs layers of ассrеtion,s This ought also to reveal mоrе about Geoffrey's solrrceý апd intentions. А textual investigation which ýeeks to identify the mаiп branches of the text as

rерrеsепtеd

in groups of extant manuscripts is ап essential preliminary to

а

reassessment of tlre editorial рrоЬlеm. It should show how fаr the printed editions deviate frоm the mainstream of the text and thеrеfоrе indicate whether а new edition is песеssаrу.

The text-histoгy to date Some inroads hаче Ьееп made into the fогmidаЬlе quantity of witnesses to the text. Since Faral's and Griscom's editions, it has Ьесоmе сlеш tttat the Historia did not always ciTculate iп the full-lenglh version printed Ьу iB editors. Jacob Наmmеr, the pioneer iп ttris field, rеmшkеd that'It took the collation of 130 MSS to discover that thеrе is not опе text of Geoffrey of Monmouth but that there аrе several tехБ which go чпdеr the паmе of Geoffrey'.9 The identification of at least two shorter versions posed ttre question of whether the published text should Ье regarded as рrimшу and the alternative versions as abbreviatiolý, оr whether the so-called variants rерrеsепt earlier versions of а subsequently expanded text. Until ttris question is settled it has Ьесоmе usual to describe the longer, commonly occurring text as ttre vulgate оr 'чеrsiоп соmmчпе' and the shоrtеr versions as variantý. It should Ье stated at the ouБet that while the two main fоrms of чаriапt identified to date have Ьееп analysed and textually examined, 'wlgate'remains а blanket tеrm for ttre геmаiпdеr (some l90 mапчsсriрв) апd has as yet little textual meaning. Some definition of ttris tегm is а major aim of tttis pýect.

t 9

The Fiгst Yагiапt

The First Variant was publist scripb known to him.'o Tfuex now Ьееп reedited Ьу Neil Ц additions, the liberal use of Ь down rhetorical excesses ап quotation of сеrtаiп sочrсеs fuelled сопtrочеrsу about ъh Variant Vеrsiоп. Robert Ca]d, his Rоtttдп de Brut, writtеп l

Vаriапt might have precede d t of the рriоritу of the Vагiапt someone drawing оп Ьой th Gеоffrеу could not have ътit,

deliberate product, not а SP

Wright has since фmопstrаtt

Vulgate and predates Wace.:!

The second yагiапt

Наmmеr was in the ргосеss с he died. The following геmаJ wоrk, that Ьу Н. D. Еmапчеl died Ьеfоrе the pýect's соп closely related to the vulgate (the юnversion of Вriиiл). TJ vocabulary, but 'rю ехаmрl, divergence in sепtепсе-stгчс г 10 АЬеrуsмуй, National Lib'ra1

LiЫаrу, MS.2.6ll [55]; Dubl MS,3514 [70]; Ьпdоц ВгiгЬ:,. ýчrпmшу account of the mалх

|1 The HЫoriц tr. The mоIе Iе.е of Scotland, MS. Adv. t8,4,5 i5 and amixed texb АЬегуsм1.,fl

.

t41.

12 напm€f,

l3 Caldwell,

GeoffTey, рр.8-12;

s,

'Wace's Rotъatt'. 1а Cddwell, 'The Use of Sоrлсеs 15 'LаVаtiапt Vеrsiоп', р. З0, 16 'Lдs deux styles sont аЬsоlчrпе

|1 lba. |t Tle Historia, tr.lv-lxiii. 19 'Geoffrey ofMorrmouй's ffдяс made available ю Neil Wпф.-

Соmраrе Чпачеr, 'kinciples', р. 157. 'Remarks', р, 501.

20 lba."pp. 105-6.

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PRocEDIJRE

remainder of sections 3 and 4 (to the Prophecies of Merlin) witnesses substantiai divergence, however. The Prophecies themselves ше little changed. The heaviest abbreviation then occurs iп the lаttег half of the work, whеrе some material is omitted rather than (as previously) reexpressed in abbreviated fоrm. The Second Vаriапt was lnown to Наmmеr in fifteen manuscripý,2l to which three сап now Ье added.z After extensive collation, Наmmеr was able to divide

the Sесопd-Vаriапt mапчsсriрв into three grочрs.2З Groups с апd y contain extensive abbreviations, as described above. Р, however, rечеrБ to the vulgate text аftеr the Рrорhесiеs of Меrliп. Наmmеr арреаrs to have based his sершаtiоп of о, апd 1оп а single reading: their indepndence is thus орп to question.

Method The two чшiапб account fоr опlу twenty-six mапчsсгiрв. Of the rеmаiпiпg 189, six have Ьееп intensively studied Ьу Griscom and Fаrаl, and опе of these has Ьееп the subject of Wright's semi-diplomatic edition, while а few of the rеmаiпdеr have Ьееп discussed Ьу Наmmеr in чаriочs рареrs. In gепеrаl, hоwечеr, the аrеа remains unmappd. The sешсh for the textual features necessary to provide orientationis complicatedby tlre sizeof the text and tlre пчmЬеrоf iБ manuscripts, Опе approach is to gIочр mапчsсriрв according to non-texmal evidence Ьеfоrе investigating texmal similarities. This method was discussed in detail Ьу MauTice ВёчепоL when reediting St Сурriап's ietters: he had needed to locate аmопg the existing l б0 manuscripв the bestfor соllаtiоп.и Вёчепоt described tlre value of the distinctionbetweeniпternal evidence, the tехшаl evidence of manuscripБ - еrrоrs, аgтееmепБ and disagTeemепБ йttl оthеr manuscript-copies -, and exlerпal,'what the mапчsсriрБ can tell чs аЬочt themselves as MSS' - script, date, origin, оrdеr of contenк. Theoretically, at least, complete knowledge of the date, origin, апd travels of а manuscript could contribute to discovering where it was copied and when and whеrе it became an ехеmрlаr itself, and ttrus its antecedený and descendants. Such information is usually imprfectly known and thеrеfоrе of limited value. More fruitfцl could Ье the iфntification of an order of contents duplicated between two оr mоrе mапчsсriрв. Despite ttre limitations of this ехtеrпаl evi2| Ibid,, р. 1И, Bruges, ВiЬliоthёqче de la Villе, MS. 428 [17]; Cambridge, Сlаrе College, MS. 27 [22]; Cambridge, Universiry Library, MSS Ff.1.25 [47] and Мm,5.29 [5а]; Dublin, Trinity College, MS. 5l4 [66]; Lincolц Cathedral LiЪary, MS, 98 [80]; [.опdоп, British Library, MSS Cotton Gatba E.xi [91], Соtюп Tifus A.xxvii [95], Harley 3773 [102], Royal 4.C,xi [108], апd Royal 14.C.i [11аh Oxford, Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. Bodley 977 [1З8], SаiпьОmеr, ВiЬliоthфче municipale, MS. 710 [202]l Stockholm, Kungliga bibiioteket, Holm. D,131l [207]; Troyes, ВiЬliоthфче municipale, MS. l53l [209]. 22 СаmЬridgе, Trinity College, MS, R.5.34 [35]; СаmЬridgе, University Library, MS. Ii.4.12 [50]; I-ondon, Britbh Library, MS. Arundel 10 [85]. See Crick 'Manuscripts', р. 162, в I аm indebted ю Neil wright fоr mу knowledge of йese tfuee groups aTrd йеiт chaTacterbtics.

U TleTradbiott,pp.|J. 16

dence, Вёчепоt regarded it as text as ап outer riпg of ечidеr the iппеr maze of the сочлt]t usingexternal evidence wеrе t task was scaled down to а rеа] passages iп the text, places l счrrеd. Thus twenty оr so mа The method adopted hеrе

йll Ье по аttеп the fоrm of а survey of all ava tion about the book, ехtеrпа! area of origin, сопtепБ, Size. аlthочф there

,

of lаtеr history. The disLincdo of the f/istorjc iвelf. RчЬпс (паmеlу physical and оthег ot portions of text have Ьееп nol of еithеr of the recopized ъ е Five sections of the text hз

179, 208. ýý1-5 contain йt Britain. They аrе раrtiсчJагlr of the паfurе of theiT subject_l chapters ше sometimes omitl - Geoffrey's intervenlion and

either оr both сочId Ье om-rtte contains the epilogue, iп ъ,h historians on related topics question, thanks to his 'Впп apparatus of his text as it d': repeated in just опе оthеr.Ё ý being embedded in the text: other passages. Both have Ьеi йе чsчцреr, Vоrtigеrп, who h wiý so taken with Hengist's Saxons to win pssession of ý37, was liable to Ье аЬЬгеr,r; it contains two рhrаsеs tn Еr

Latin in а few continental

succession of constantine. rе clergy waý sometimes thougi

Б и

lbid., рр.2-3.

Griscom & Jones, Тfrе Дl"яоrц Ii.1.14 (l706), and Phillipps 1 27 'Note оп Geoffrey', 2Е Thesepassages have Ьеп sela

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чэlвl sвqа8uls frвuпшlаrd эчJ,{Jол\ аФllрэ оlldшФlв ouaq пи\ а.lац фпоцр 'tочэ,r9g ,{q раq1-1эsэр 1вц л\опоJ ацппо щ прt\ эrэq pqdopB роцеш эчJ ,чопвпо,

пч

JoJ раlээlаs аrад sldtrcsnusm os Jо,{luадl sпчJ ,релпс

-эо чэlJо sldFэsпчвш uаалlаq sосuаtrалтр эJечл\ sювld 1xol ец ш sэ3вssud su//\ {sЕl .I?IсIuэ, ,{t{п{t ol uоqвцос эц 3uпIuцI ,{q Iэ^аI сцSIрэJ в о1 IIд\ор раIзэs 'uопиIцозrп (1вnlxa) рчrqш 8utsn рФsФ эq о1 аJэ1rr эсuэрIла рurФхэ 8utsn sTtLL

рэчýIlqв1sа sdпоr8 ацL я,,SSиI эц ш sl{пIпл ssэрlmоэ эц Jo эzvш Jаlпп aql Jalua a/t\ эJоJаq qЕполр ра{юл\ эq lsпш чэтч/$ acuapturo зо Зuч JФпо чв Su lxol

ец gо ,(pnls Jaýolc оц

о1

ршо.6Iсвq ,ftвssаэач з, sз

1l

рорл3а-l 1оuэл98

.эсчар

-э?lвчс 4ац рчв sdпо;З а;:-: at '791 ,d'.лdчэsпцр}{, ,)*]-zt,?,TI

,SW'&B:qll tls:;,-_ -. ; ,[еl:] .i j.

'1э{эrоqqlq B3ti3ш;'-*j-,\,-l_- f:

Sir

i

'[всt] rrb {эtрg ,slT ,.Э;:* р{оц'[761] gдlЕ iа,;,-: ,: чsпч8'чорчч :[oi. ;: S;.. ,-, 'щIqпс :[rý] бz,S r-11 :

1

;

_: _:

'э3эllоз элвlз'аЗр;,,--:_-

-Iла IзuJэlха SIл J..

_

i

i,t,:;l

рэlеэrldпр ýuаluо] ]J ::г_": ,апрл рэlrшI[ Jo эj.,,;_;-. ,Sluвpuocsap DLгЕ

:

Si,j:г :_-;: _

рuв uэч,ц рuв рэij--:

-

.,

=

В Jo sIОлел puE 'u-jЭ",_l: ]::: ,sluэluоэ ;о :эр:с "= -i_

uес fiduэsпuвtц этl :i j

t

-эаr3еsтр plп ýuэ,Jа::; ;-l: -: IDUlaЩIUае.\Uаq U3]:'_: ) ;

ац ýduэsпuвш 1J_q : З,::., -: ., lS 8uпрээl uэчrl ,lс!{j:,.;Е ; OJoJaq асuарIлэ рп]хэl-,j.]-j ,sldчэsпuвш ýI ]ц,jг ] : -: Jo эрr,rоrd о] ,rrвssаээu S;j-]a:

ваJз

ац

'Jэла.t\о{j

,,т::,:.:-

,

алеЧ JаРuIЕШЭ] ЭЦ ]] t,,:: ? :uэеq SЕч эSэц _lo эUa :- ,-?_f '691 8uтrлешэl эц Jr- .::_>.-

,uопsэпЬ ol uаjc !-,_-. а,,.: --: s

_.--

uoцBrвdas sц

p}_ýBq

,j;._: -* Ф33Iпл ац о1 ýJэ.\аJ uшluос l, ршв ю sСг..-_3 -

, орIлIр о1 эIqЕ SB.t\ Jэ[II--?--чэrцfi\ ol lz'flduJsnшE: j;=-..:

,цrюJ

рэlрL.,эj;.:1

ýI I3IJ0l3m 0ШОS ЭJЭQ,t 'f r]t ,раЗuЕq] эт:- а 1SэIлзач ачI IBIluщSqnS SoSSaщI.t\ i lлi]э}i

!шпсgэоud

PRocEDIJRE

The associations suggested Ьу each саtеgоrу of non-textual evidence will Ье discussed in tчrп and the resulting grочрý of mапчsсriрБ йll Ье tested Ьу comparing readings frоm the passages of text юllated. Thus the usefulness of the

typs of

evidence mау Ье соmраrеd. The identification of the texmal grочр will prhaps allow fчrthеr manuscripБ to Ье assigned gTounds аlопе. Finally, it is hopd that sоrпе ассочпt of the оп texmal to them iпtеrrеlаtiоп of the gToup, and thus фе branches of the text, will Ье possible. In view of the пчmЬеr of manuscript-witnesses and the known tехtчаl complications, the construction of а complete hierarchical ýtепrmа will not Ье possible at this stage. Араrtfrоm the possibility that the authorhimself made annotations, mапу copies wеrе in circulation during Geoffrey's lifetime. Later medieval library-catalogues show that some houses pssessed mоrе than one сору of йе wоrk. Thus texБ were available for comparison against ап ехеmрlаr, whеthеr to rectify lacunose copies оr just for scholarly interest. It is probable that, in Ночsmап's wordý, the mапчsсriрв will Ье divided into factions rаthеr than

чаriочs

characteristics of the

families.8 It is hopd tlrat tlre final stages of ttre process - the selection of the rерrеsentatives of еасhgrочр and the productionof atext- will Ь undertakenbyfuture editors. They lie ouýide the scop of опе doctoral disserиtion. I aim instead to apply the information frоm mу enquiries to the question of how the urork was transmitted. In Chapters II-VII, the texbhistorical evidence is examined category Ьу category

to determine what patterns of association each sчggеýБ. The discussion begins йth the potentially ciTcumstantial - works which ассоmрапу the l1isrorlc in the surviving mапчsсгiрý - and ends with the соrе evidence, tltat of the text iБelf.

The resulting patterm of association ше assembled and фе чаriочs sоrБ of evidence compared in Chapter VItr. The final chapters deal with the context of Geoffrey's History: the geographical and chronological extent of textual gтoups and the general milieu of the wоrk - its readership and the typs of litеrашrе йttt which it tended to become associated.

ASS

The works associated with й to Ье investigated in this sчгr

а description of items whos< incidental and, оп occasion_. оr patterns of texв аrе almr manuscripts, whether the sал to а limitedextent, in а mоrе г

seem to have Ьееп ubiquitп distinguished: it is inhented lines. This chapter ехаmiлеs they сап, unaided, сопtгiЬчt,

coincidentally linked $oups will merit full discussion lak It has been suggested CIntI some indication of the milieu

prhaps, of how Geoffrey's l апехрrimепt. Little is kпоu Medieval liЬrаrу lists give f

obvious categories of exeges Ьу апу mоrе than the most r

the examples cited in the

selection sometimes ор€гхtеr

conscious оr random, which large quantities of ехаmрlе: orrce inherited associatiom i the texmal features of the Н;

heavily qualified, but possr made.

Ьмееп

manuscripв. There Ь а danger йat being susce,ptible ю capricious less diagnostic for t}re mаiп text йап ойеr, less prominent, sections; but ехреriепсе hеrе shows Ёrat imроrипt dераfшrеs from йе text are mоrе immediately useful in grouping mапчsсriрь than miпоц but potentially less consciously made. varianБ. Ночsmап, М. Attttaei Luсапi Belli ciyilb, р, vii; quoвd Ьу Gоюff, Tle Тrажmissiоц р. 5. discrepancies

alEation Ёrey mау

Ь

18

бI , g, d 1lot sstutMo.1_д atz7'_;с,э9 .. ,ýlIзчвл'apBru .{1mors-:.,: ;s;, .' ,J ,(1аеlрашtш аlош

alp 1ха: э,-:

:sцоцсаý '1чаrrпло:d ssэI sпотэчdвэ о аlqпФхпs

,.эL:.

-=

!;>: ::

,арзш еJэл\ suопуэIIос л\оч lnoqв аэuэрIла 'рлIIuJ ,(1qrssod lnq 'paglpnb ,{prruer1 ,(рrвssаэеu ац о1 чJщ ol эlqTssod aq пI,ц || - DlJolslH aID Jo saml?эJ Iвщха1 эW ,(1Bloedsa - ?IJэlцс rецо 8utsn peuпIJuoc uаэq элвч ýчоцвIсоssв рэ1IJеIIш асuо fiщщrоddо чв чспs sарt,rоrd fрцs luэsard эц1 ,sаldшвха Jo ýоIlцuuпЬ э3rв1 8uшruпхэ fq sl slxal Jo suоц}эпос uЕuас padBqs qспIд\ 'шорtЕJ Jo sпоюsчоо 'sJolэeJ ац 8ut,r.lasqo Jo ýttЕэш lsaq ац Дlquп8ry ,palB.lado sэцпlэшоs чоцсэIэý ;о sеldlэuчd ошоs 1?ц lsэ33пs roldBrlc sпоtлэrd эц щ раtlэ sаldшехэ эц фпоцlв '(эldrrпхо roз'azts) зIJа1IJэ зо f-твluашrрп: lsош эц (Ец аJош ,{чu fq podnoЯ еJал\ оý ац sэчо3Фвс sпоIлqо 'uо 'sэIssвIэ 'sсцsщвd 'slsa3axa рчЕ зо ац apl$no s:lJол\ асчэрIJuоэ roз маз sрmоr8 аrrй ,trurqr1 lзц яsr1 рлеIраиI ,sэ3у оррgл1 ац ш ,lчэцлlэdхэ uв рэssзIс эJэлr $хэl лrоч lnoqз чл\оIц $ ешгI go ?uцдешоý sI ýF[l 'щ?3y ,рzуо3аlвэ seM zfuolsrg s,farдgoog д\оч Jo 'sdBqrэd 'рu? рэIqшаýsз sзд\ чоп}аIIоэ .твFсцпd т чэц,t\ щ папFц ац Jo IюцвэтрIп ешоs luц (чорвlпслэ :uоцспрдцD polsea8ns uээq s3ч 1I ept,rord ,(вш IBIJalBm

SF,[l

,JэlвI

чоIýSпэsр ппJ lIJэш пIлr fэц tnq luaserd 1u flаrrцвluоt (ро раrдuарI эq чвэ sdnoБ ра{uп ,{цеluэрlэtпоо 'snoauцuod5 ,,ftotsцlxel е Jo uопсплsuос ец ol эlпqцuос'рарIвuп'uвэ,(эц JBJ д\оч аэs о1 sldшcsnuвm-DtJorstнJo slualuoc эц sэшцпха.rаldutlэ sFlL,saurl рэl3оlвачэ3 {J?ш ol аsrшо.td чэItIд\ suоцээIшос рэlрачшt sr 1r :рэrlsrп8rцsр эq ol рээu suоIlвсопоэ шорuвJ рчв lчuсtдЯ15 ,snolmbtqn uаоq ал?ч ol шgэs $IJolr\ эшоs :sldчэsпuвш,irвrаlrl Jo uollcэIas шорuвJ аJош в ut'luаlхэ рэlпшI з о1 'оsIз lnq'aseц о{п 'чоп}аIшоэ IIд\оIц эшоs sBq эldчпs эц Jэцэчл\ 'sldrrэsпu?ш ,{uuш os до sls,{puu Irв шоц а3rэша ol pmoq lsomp эJв slхэt зо su-tэuBd ro slxal luoImcal tпвuоэ 'рgарul ,sпоlIпlJоJ,{1олtuэ'suоIs?эсо uо'рuв рluэрIэtп

эq ol ДIaTI st Дrоlsц s,,{аrздоэg цrд\ чопоэшюс аsочл\ sшэll Jo uоцdчэsар в эвsrшцdо ool oq ol lq8поц aq 1q3rш.аэuарtrrg, ,,{ашs spp tп рlв8usалш aq о1 аэчерIлаJо Jаfвl lsошrФпо эц alnlцsuoc DrJorýrH ац ql!$ palвIэoss? ýIJод\ эчJ

ФI/l\ аJп]вJэtl1 ;о sа:-.,: а:_

::

sdnor8 [зшха1 lo l,-:;:r; т:: Jo lхэlюэ эц цIп тт;т ý_;,.: Jo slJos Sпош?.\ эli э:: :+, ,::Tj;T: лэSlI 1ха эц Jo ]ви

ац

Lп D?./оr.ýrg

ац ,iuт:,:л::

sщ8эq uоIssп}sгtl эq_ r;;:-: ,{-lo8aec,(q,{:o3 эl в,. р э :l-::,

S?Л\ IJОЛ\

ЭЦ

1r{Ot{ _JO

UОПS::

,uonnlýS.:

ol рвеlflл [цrЕ I элпlпд fq uаlиJэршп

{

-аldэr эц Jo uопэаIэъ

,,_t

;; -

(Ец JaцBJ ýIIоп]?_] ,]:; ]; uI'lзц alqBp:d ýI :] :;j о1 Jацэч,lд 'пldшэха u! :i;l эц зо,(dоэ эuо u?п ;jt: : ,ашi;; ; . рлаlрш JalPl

pu8lssu aq ol яduэsпuт-J .,;: рпlхэ1 ац Jo uопвэIпп;rl

п

'SuОц?lоtшЕ аррш лэ.s-J: _i:i alqtssod эq юu IIl.n гjгх::} -цdшоо рп]хаl trt\ощ э; ;: ,эlqrssod аqII],ъ ,trэl ;: :

SINlttNоэ сILLYIэоSSY

эц Jo lmоэсЕ

эшо_{

]Еп ?.f:

эц SпцI : ptsa aq llltil пdusп,л

эtр Jo ssэщпJэSп

dq

эq пц\ асuарIлэ IBпlxa-i.шI

ASSOсIATED CONтENTS

WORKS FOUND WITH TWO OR MORE COPIES ОF ТНЕ HISЮRIA

Genealogy: F lemish counls Genealogy:

These аrе listed, where аррrоргiаtе, чпdеr ачthоr оr, failing lhis, чпdеr lпсiрil, Clearty defined grочрý of texБ, such as the Дехапdеr-litеrаtчrе, аrе listed tоgеthеr чпdеr а gепегаl heading and subcategories. ДЬ origine mшdi circa аппоs tria milia Aelred of Rievaulx, Uita Edwardi Дехапdеr: Collatio ДlехапФi сшm Diпditтю per liueras facta Дехапdеr: Epistola Дlехапdri ad Дristotilerп (farrlilies I, II, Ш+IV) Дехапdеr: Ерilарhiшm + Quicquid iп hutпапis

Дехапdеr: Ерitlюmа Дехапdеr: Р uuа rес ryitulacio Alexander: Iulius Ualerius, Gesta Дlехапdri дехапdеr: secreta sесrеtоrwп Дпgliа habet iп lопgitudiпе Aпglia modo dicta olim ДlЬiоп dicebatur Дпtепоr et alii profugi

Hilliry'Adrian IV

Epistolae: Рашiшсh of Jerusalem to bishops of the East Epitaph of King Ceadwalla Еtюlutis а muпdi colýIitucione Finding of the Тrче Cross: Post рессаtшп Ade Finding of the Тrче Cross: Sапсtа arbor Fчlсhеr of chmtres, Н i s t or ia hier о s о lirпit апа

ю

N or mаttпоr шп duс wп

Guido delle Соlоппе

Hayton Henry of Huntingdon (Hjsro, Higden, Роliсhrопiсоп Historia Вrittопum Н i s t оr i а G о t lюr wп, W аtl,сл i r

Libellus Berretoli Liber рrоuiпсiаlis

Марраmшdi Marco Polo

,

,

Epistolae: Еmрrоr of Constantinople to Robert of Handers Ер is tolae:

е s tа

Gesta Saluaoris Godfrey of Viterbo

Iпrосепt, Ш, De mysleriis |т,. Jacques de Vitry, Historia о,

Apollonius of Т)пе

Einhmd

G

HistoriaTurpiпi

De Aпtichristo (Adso, Albuinus, Апsеlrп)

Ausonius, роеms from Ориsсиlа 7 and 13 Bede, Hisraria ecclesiastica geпtis Дпglоrum СЬrопоlоgу: ДЬ Дdап жquе ad diluuium апп. .ii.ccxlii, . Chronology: Iп priпcipio еrФ uеrЬum Chronology: Quitцuagesillю еrgо qшlrto аwю Соmmепtаrу, hophecy of the Eagle С оrпр епditллt de В r itarшie С о stтю gr ар hjce (Aethicus, pseudo-Priscian) Cre duпt igitur S аrrасепi сurп апimаduеrtеrеm Cuthbert: Epistola de obitu Bede Dares Phrygius Defiпitioпes Ciceroпis Dоmiпus Dеж uпiuеrsоrum сопdilоr Dudo of SaintQuentin

NormaB

Genealogy: Тrоjапs Gerald of wales

Martinus polonus Meditationes Methodius (ps.), Re tle la i o.,l Mirabilia Вrittопum Nicodemus, Gospl of Pergamaflere uolo Реtrчs Alphonsus рrеstеr John prima etas seculi аь Аdаm

Prophecies:'Anglia trшБm]: Рrорhесiеs: 'Аппо cephas сс Рrорhесiеs :'Gallorum leuita Рrорhесiеs: Gildas

Ргорhесiеs:'Illius imрriчпl

Prophecies: John of Вгidliпg Рrорhесiеs: Merlin (Ga]fndl Prophecies: Robert de Sey

Prophecies: Sibylline Prophecies: Thomas of Сапi

Rеgпum Scottorumfuil RоЬеrt of Reims

Robert de Torigni, Сhrопiсlе Si qиls аЬ occidentalibж

Solinus

Status Imperii

ludaici

|z 1э!орлц l\J?ЙaJ

MplS

sпщIоS

ffiqlрru?рюэо qD SmЬ 1S аIсцIоJI{э 'т_u8FоJ эр lJaqou stшэuJо lJэqоu цпtшплоllоэg шпu3ау ýзшоцl :sэrсоqdоц

,{rпqrэtuвз зо

ащIIКqIS :sэtоаqdоц

(,{rnqsolзut15 до al8Bg

.,

,{э5 эр lJэqоu :sаrэаqdоц 'uвrрчдв9) uIIJаиI :sэrэаqdоц

(

lx_,_,_,

_

uоl8чпррg go urtro1 :sэrэоqdоц ,, suaE шпtrэdшl sпц11, :sаtсаtдdоц sBpIIg :sэlсаqdоц .

sцmэI шIuоIIв9, sаrээqdоц :

очuч, sаlэаqdоц вll3чу, :sэrэаqdоц

аIIIJрвэос sBqdac .,

,,

lоllтIлsuвд

:

шорV qo !рэаS Sap tшlJd

utlol Jalsaи

snsuortrdly sпдэd оlоп аlауfmаоЕп4 go 1эdsоg'sпшароJIN

шпчопlJg DпчDJ|и

8 au о1

аа,(,sd) sпроцоlл1 SаuоllDllрэи

|D| ?f,

snuolod SпuцJриI OIOd ОСJВIЛI

!рmlдоddоц nqt1

sцоtэumолd

поlшlаа sппаqц

S1lo|u?lJo DlJors1н 'ДдIл эр sэпЬэu1

аssflд

шпJоп7п S' шп

(1,{ruац

о1

sпD|sКш ао'ш luаэоutц цldлlDlJо|slн

юррltDм' lцltlоlчо'

Dlto1

ý1

н

шпuоulJg DlJolSlH uоэluоJцэцо4 'чар3lц

JallэI 'uпlo1Euy otlo1st11) uор8rrпtmll до

fruоц

uоfвg

OUUОIОЭ ЭШЭР ОР[nD

бqrФ!л 5о шп

{эrдр9

suopn|Ds цSа9

эпр

um

J

oullvlll Jo N ц



9

sэрд\Jо рIвJэ9 sltоfоll:f3орэuэ9 s"lltlдlоN:,{3ореuа9 :f3орачэ9

ýмпоэ цs!шаI

l

S;

pOlýII ел'am]Bra]11-:apuTra.

,l1dlэul Jэрuп

'sFI

3rгтlв_1

YIuOISH ан1

lo



S]

ýLNдINоэ оЕIYIэоSSY

ASSOCIATED CONтENTS

Аlехапdеr: collatio дlеха

Superius ашеm excidio Те s t аmе пt

а .xii.

р atr iarc har um

Т\е Collaio саsБ iл йе

Ualerius ad Rфпuпl Vision of the monk of Eynsham uita дdе et Еuе

]

Dindymus, king of the Вгаji of the Macedonians and В

This material is fс National LiЬгагу of Wales. G.16 (1М) [32]; СаmЬriф Cathedгal LiЬrагу, }{S. ! [117]; London, College of nationale, MSS lat. tsO1А l88, contain йе so.called С is prefaced in MS. 2 Ьу, а le; esse meliorem') which I h trчпсаtеd version of йе s; version iп MS. 32 is quite d, frоm the Рапtlеоп of Go,.jj:

phant.a

uitатlюmе William of МаlmеsЬчrу (Histories) ДЬ ortgine muпdi circa апrюs tria milia This phTase constitutes the iпcipit of а Ьriеf description of how Вritаiп was founded Ьу Albina, daughter of а certain king of Grеесе. Such accounts аrе not чпсопtmоп in historical manuscripts of the later Middle Ages but I know of this ршtiсчlаr version in опlу tfuee manuscripts, in each of which it precedes Geoffrey's Historia: London, Вгitish LiЬгагу, MS. Нагlеу 5U5 t105]; Notre Dame, University LiЬrаrу, MS. 40 t130]; Phillipps MS. 3117 [214].1There is no fчrthеr аgrееmепt between the contenБ of these manuscripý.

Alexander: Epistola

Дlе х а

Деlrеd of Rievauk, Uita Edwardi2

This letter рчгрогБ to hare abouthis expriences in IпJ:

The Life of Edward the Confessor Ьу Aelred, abbot of Rievaulx (1147-67), is found in two vulgate manuscripý: Веrп, Burgerbibliotlrek, MS. 568 [15], and Dublin, Trinity College, MS. 172 [6l]. That in MS. 15 must have Ьееп copied

воеr in his edition also соп

shortly after the work's completion in about manuscripts аrе not related.

116213.З

of the Orient'.g IB conside чеrпасulаr ffanslations. 1: \ i

included Ьу him. I folloц, Ц

The other contenв of these

1.

Family I

1?Leiden, Bibliotheek dеr I

Воеr Н) London, Вгitish LiЬrаг1,.

дlехапdеr Aconsiderable пчmЬеr of Hisloria-manuscripк include items frоm the substantial and епоrmочslу popular pseudo-historical litеrаtчrе which collected аrочпd the fiрrе of Alexander the Grеаt.

MSS 7б апd 92, tоgейеr

sчЬgrоuр of the six mапчх 4 5

10 11

Ер Ы ola Д

1

2 3

t Now in фчав hands: Dumville, 'The Мапчsсriрь', рр. 16м5. Ward rесоrds the version in MS. 105 but does not include any further manuscripБ among iп his listof ДЬiпа-sюriеs: apudWard & НеrЬq Caabgue of Rоmаюеs,I.Вs, I.198-203. Eфted Ьу Migne, Р arola gia Lаtiпа, СХСУ,1 37 -90. See discussion Ьу Wright, The

Historia,I.xlly, 22

С ary, Т he М ediey а l Д kхапзz As prinвd Ьу KuebleT, /л/; l;

Medieval Дlехдtldеr, р. 1.1 КчеЬlеr, 1иli Valeri дl-а,ап;,euuangelii texmm sсriЬеп j'c The Medieyal Дlехал-dеl. р. Ed, [Herold,] Рuthеоп, cc's Ross,'А Check-List', р. 1iСuу, Т le М edieval Д lездп;z

6

1

l

9

'.

lемиlлi, рр.

ii

i-rr

known: Voorbij,'Additiorb'. |2 bscribed Ьу WalйeT Воет, l

,Ilхх-пхх

,dd,

Ez

'ltpпraly о7оцdх Iaog lацрл\ {q рqчэsаq zl

,д11 ,d '.suotltppy, '[qrоол :llJt\оlч моu st sldrюsпчвшJо lаqчmч эW аIqпор l0ц pelвImlsa q lI ,Ixx-Iп ,dd 'rlplloxalyo1o1Mdx II 91, d' ацжаlу раача ц ц 1' tlB з 0I ,sL-пLZ,dd'алоl ,дzI ,d '.ls11-1эеqз lолцdолЕоаg 1q3gд aas Еамвш.ац чо ч, 'ssоц 6 ,(., , ,tI3эос элIuеý soo эач llpln sэрrrпш8еlg,

эuпц, шаоd в {q рмоцод ,tI

L- L9T, s||оэ' uоц lllo

9

орчаqIюý цrцхФ тпа3чвппэ

,lwrа|V !/ард!рI'rе|qеr.я ,

at7; 'Дrэз аа5

а ['рlо.tац],pg рла!раи ачI

,fuD,r|,d'прuоrаlу

,.sшппЬ

,I 'ý8I ,d'ao1sag ýau шqоd

:sаuоls-ЕtлоIv ]о uоIsIал аЧl

1STI

Sr-

.-

;

sploфl PJ?.\l

-,--i

_

-

;'; : _-::---:-:

8

L 9

у 1, р,9!р и ,б8-69I ,dd'aogag мц 1ul"Iоd ltwDрIV,!l"|олIпJ'rАlqэп; {q parлrd sy 9 I'z6-I б'} I-€ I,dd' вruопlv |ол"lр п I' КJ2э t ,

d' эрuох-qv

89

а

"lt

ец о1 8ul8uoleq ýв реlýп Jэоg JоIпрлil чсщд stdrrcsnuзIд xls ац Jo dnoбqns в uшоJ '{o1lolst11 эtп Ешulвluоо юu) рд.лtr1 в ЦIlr\ JЭЦОЗоl 'zб рuu 9L Ssиt

эц рuпол ра]ээI:.] ,j: - __ ;_ I?РUUlýqПS аЦ ШОj_: :.-':;" ::-

,SIлI .чорчс1 (uз:эоg JацIвл$ olaN цо||оэ [z0] lllд,с чsIlIJ[ ',{JвJq!"I (н raog JэцIвлO tуъl Oz.Id{ ,Sш'l1alls.la,rlunщПu Jap ,tаачlоIlq!fl .чарJа1,

1dl;швд .I ,soIIпIlвJ JnoJ оlчl 3шdпоr3 s.Jaog Jацрл\ /дoIIoJ I ,urщ /tq рерпIсш lоu SJэIпо uэлаs ап aJatn II:fuоlSц{ s,,(ar;goag uIЕlIюс osp uonlpa sц III Jэоg JоцIвлд,лд Kq рФsI fldцсSпuвш uелэS-,{lхrs эцзо эulN 0I,sчорЕISuЕд лIпсеurал ,{uвш эц ,(q palsatlu st ,{1trBlndod IзлаIраш эIqзJерIsIюэ sl[ 6,.1uэ|JQ эц Jo flwэq рuu uаш sпошэлJвш рuu эзuвдs arp Зuочп, ?рI{I щ sетrэцэdха sцlnoqв о1 JарIЕхэIY ,iq uашIJл\ чэаq олвt| ol цlodrnd Jallel sт_цI

аsэtDJо Slua]uo] Jэ:.: ;- - ( раrdоэ uаэq э.\Еч ]ý:.: ,Si{ ,I;::,,:, 89ý

;-

рш'[ýI] sI

'(ag-arI1) хlпв,lац

_::

i:.:

эпоlSIJv DlSl?ош sц

ш

apt о|цlV ро

w

uox

цV olorsld д

:

Jap

чвхаIY

,,(rшolaq aas) oqJФIл Jo Кацр9 Jo uоа|luDd эц шоц uаw1 sI lcзJ uI рш дпэ ,(q patstl asoql шоц IчэIэJJIр эllпЬ sI zE ,Sиt Iп uоISJэл эчJ g,(.sou pndв SIýошшuс, аuтрUа) оlлDпоэ эuпs ац Jo uоISJэл раl?эtmд ,Sш ,,(gpuap1 о1 aIqB чааq lоu алuч з slпвluос E8I I чэIцл\ (.шаJоIIэш asso , , ,Iэ шпэ JolBJэdIm rарuuхаlу,) uоцспрдш,(ц8uоl в,(q z,SW rп рэсвзэrd sr 1I ý,lхэ1 0ц Jo sчцоJ эоJчl эц Jo lSэпJвэ еq|lо!lопоэ рошвэ-оs оц tпвluос '88I рuв'дII '08'?ý'z SSш,t8sl] 69ýдI ,lвl рцв tEsI] WOýs,lв1 SSиI.аlвчоglвч ,SIt .ýtцJy anbqqprlqrg ![з11] аЕашоэ 3чорчо1 |[д11] Iарчпдy I 'ц.tвд Jo ,51ц'{.tBlq1.I qsрlJfl'чорчо1 :tш] .5lц .Д.rB.rqJ.I 9ý a,ýols lвJрач|вэ sб ,51ц',{.tв.lQ!.I {llslа,rцд'аtррqчrвэ :tzg] (7sI) 9I,c 'чlоlч11 ![иs] сz,s,шlц ,51ц'а3ацоз ý6ччоf grуSиi'ýаIвд d.rB.rq11 puollвN ls'а8рIJqшвэ : tz] rr .ц/щsЛ.rаqу 'sldрэsпчвчI-оlJоlslн lqtra чr ptmoJ sI Jo рIJаlвш sцц озчеqd -шпIд ааJэша suвuпрJg эц qэцл\ шоц 'sчзшtрJg рuе ýЕшорешW at1l Jo sаJоlдэqll!о ýlIJаш элпвIаJ эц lnoq? Фзqар B'strcmтpJg эцJо tuн'sпш,(ршq р(Е Jорuзхэ[ч ugэлцэq ээuэрuоdsа-lrос з Jo tIцoJ ац tц slýзc оlлопоэ ечtr

sI

,ýdt:эs:,_:: эJэцL,[иIz] 1,IIE ,SI\ id

а.цоц ![9g1] 9119 .ial.tB11 sэрээо-rd 1I чэгч.rl _Jo

,Jэцо ац ut эlаldtrюапr sT i

StN:iINоэ ca,IиcoSSY

ASsocиTED co}.tTENTS

above list), the wогk арреаrs iп а section of the чоlчmе separable frоm that conиining the Н is toria. А further Ёlistoria-wiпress - Oxfшd, Bodleian Library, MS. Jesus College 2 t|4Z) - is not accompanied Ьу оthеr works Ьчt is heavily inteгplated and annotated with material mostly иkеп frоm Маrtiпчs (see below, IY: IпtеrроlаIjопя).1tt

Aseriesof иz dilaliottes,sometimes attributedtoBernardof Сlаiгчачх, ýomelimes to Hugh of SainbVictor (/пс. 'Multi multa sciunt'), is found iп two Historiamanuscripts with otherwise disparate сопtепБ: Roma, Biblioteca Apoctolica Yaticana, MS. Ottobonilat.1472 t194] and СаmЬridgе, Tlinity College, MS. О.1.17 t38]. In 38 it has по title Ьчt iп 194 there is the ruЬriс: 'Incipit spculum ..

thirteenth сепtчrу, рrl

Mongol invasions'.l95 IБ

а

lyptic material shows that r Ап арраrепtlу full fог

Cambridge,MS. StJohn'

3514 t70]; London, Bгitil [116]; Nоtге Dаmе, Unir

Meditationes

anime

йе

.'. Начrёач listed many copies.lФ

nationale, MS.lat. 4|2Б l ап introductory ршаgтаф martiris . . .'.70 is оthег* and not the vulgate. Of t established (above, С hroru

they do not reveal апу slд:.l and, no doubt coincidenta first two manuscripts but i

the 1б4 to the fочrй, rt coincidental. The Sib1,lltnl onAntichrist, but that rп 3]

Methodius

чеrsiоп.

The seventh-century tract attributed to Methodius, bishop of Patara (mаrtуrеd in the eaTly fштth century), has Ьееп described as а hiф pint in the Eastern apocalyptic tradition.lgo Originally compsed iп Sуriас,191 it was translated into ktin in the eighth сепшry and was disseminated at Сhшlеmаgпе's сочrt.192 Like the tracts оп Antichrist which followed and pssibly imiиted it,tЯЗ *. pseudoMethodian Revelations сопсеrп the Last Еrпрrоr. This еmрrоr, called here rex Rоmulоrwц is destined to defeat йе раgап nationý, but the reigrr of Дпtiсhrist will Ье heralded when the twenty-two kings (including Gog and Magog) whom Дехапdеr confined behind ttre Gates of ttre Nогth break through апd сrеаtе carnage on the Еаrth. The ррчlаritу of this text at ttre Саrоliпgiап сочrt is поt surprising, considering ttrat it a"ssociated the rex Rоmаrюrum with а reigrr of militаrу glоrу (see above, De Дпichrisro).Its original рчrрsе, however, seems tohave Ьееп to exhort the Eastern christians in Ёre face of the Moslem tfueat, the rex being the Byzantine еmрrоr.lЯ The work enjoyed analogous populmity in

Methodius, beginning as t ending differently.lЯ Tfu s pale, MS. 428 [17]. А furt found in two other sесоп;

Апоthеr Нistоriа-mал,,

18s Bйrcken has sееп the inclusion of the Liьеr рrойпсiаlь in сеrиiп manuscripв of Martinus's Ctrronicle as а reflection of Ь position in the papal curia: р. 474. Thb seems imрrоЬФlе, сопsidеriпg how frequently йЬ work арраrý in оЁrеr contexts, for example

Mirabilia Вrittопutп

Inhis History, Geoffrey ге sixty streams and sixty r: (ý149). NеаrЬу thеrе is

а

ц

kindof fish, аmаrчеl whic Riчеr Severn (ýl50), Тh,

follows an established rа conquest bilingual mапu ! *lеrе.l9t The inspiTation а material iпсоrрrаtеd iл Ё Five Historiс-manuscn

wiй йeHlsroric.

tBg Jпitiц IV.ll0-11. А work of the same паmе, рrеýцmаЬlу in шanslation, Ь юmеtimеs recorded in secular ЦЬrаriеs. See Сачапачф, 'А Study', рр,331,161 .

190 МсGiпъ Иsiопs, р.70.

|9|

Ibid.

192 Reeves, Tle Iфuалсе,р.Зо0, 193 McGinц Иsiопs, р. 83, 194 Ibи,,p.-lI-,

195 lbid.,p.,|2.

196 'Sciendum namque поЬЬ

lп

seculorum. Аmеп'. Thrs с iфlliпisсlv Telae, рр, 5 Ч

S

'. . . АпtiсhrЫо autern

rг.:

198 BL Сопоп Tibrius B,v, : 58

,.l1qепьшdоrddв 'rnr{JBS

iq раччd

врэоs rэd

эsэчJ

,,,

'1ха1

6ý ,I

lao шшэIрпI la IImоý оIlвuпlmýuОЭ

uotsrал эц l1nва.ь о$lэцrd

чзd'л,Е ýпцаqllчоuоэ,I8

вот

'' ЧЁl?.ffi;;Жifiiп,i ,.чэчry ,цmю[пэеý

цIм рчоdsэr-rос ol чrэаý 1оч saop sчJ ц оршопЬ rrшssIJ?I ýэдз4I lsa пqou anbtrвu ч,mрчэIэS,

91;I

'TL'd''пqI sll

Ф3лdаý в ý? punoJ DпlqDлш эрпIсш Rdрсsпчuш-DlДоlslн е1iJ.l ,ulпloL|!1g o!.lorslH fдпluа>Wrпu

эц щ рэlвJоdJоэш luчэlзш

JзIIIшS SI 'Jала/t\оч 1чпосов s.,{ацзоо9 Jo аэJпоs рuе uопвrrdsщ эцL sбI,аJац lsаJэlщ z(I-1Ba slsэllB lsвa эц Jo ýlaл.lel/rl ац Jo dIJэýпчвш pn8ulшq lsэпЬuос -эrd роluдsпцr ,{цsrrrBl v ,salsl чsпIJg ац ш юцтрвд рочsIIWlsэ чз sл\oIIoJ ,(gstý)

sJэрuод\ 1вощdur3оа3 !о оl!оlýlн ац ш lюIsnlcul ачJ чJэлý Jалrх u 'чsIJ ац aJoq snotrals,{m оц :Jэцоuв ot ,{эrдоэ9 spзel Jo чсцл\ IэлJвш Jo ршц ,(otT luaJaJдp в ,{q patBlndod чшэ aJB sJэuJoc JnoJ еsочlr\ 1md в sr эrэц ,{qrвац ý) slsau s.al8Ba ,{txrs prrв s8elc ,{lxts ,(q рэddоl spuвIsl{1xls рuu suпедs flxls s.рuошо,I чэо,I Jo uопduэsар з цIл\ sJэрвоr sтц sар8эr ,(ацзоа9 ',ftolslg s[ч uI

umuо1llJg DlllqDJlи ,(цоmllаg мпаq!7 'алоq0 аэs) sэssэlцIл\ luзIлл-рчосаS Jацо о/цl ш punoJ ,tдr] sI 'tцJoJ эlqвzп€оээr ssol ш 'IJол\ оц зо ашоltdа JeцJnJ ч rzt ,51д 'apd -IJIчпш апЬqqlоцq;g'я3пrg luеIJЕл-рчоээs эш sI sцll,,f рuэrадlр 8rцрuэ lnq (rе,tамоq 'qdвr8BrBd frolu;эrd ац lпоцlм) pnsn ýв 3чrчшт3эq 'sпIроцэиI -орпэsd зо эшоlldа uз sllвluoc ,{puarBddB ldчэsпuвш-ruоlslн Jэцоuч

,д9i,I;i ;

sашIlэшоб ýI 'чоррIflrЕд

:

,.

--

аlduлхэ loJ 'slxaluoo ]aij,]c : !э; flдааs mLI ,94р ,d :вьтэ 'т:>.J ; до $dgэsпчвш uти.Iээ li :-,]--Tr

ul ,{llretndod sпоSоlг,_; :; ,, эц1велп uJэISо}t ац _]. ]]]. sшээs'Jэлэмоt1,эs€:-ч: -: до

tбlar s ц$

lц|,l,|",1-л_,)

lou sI lmoc uвt8ullо::з ::: эlвэJэ plrв ч3rюrц т:_- -:. шо[I/t (3о3ещ рuв ;r.,5 i

-

lslJqэрчy зо rбra: ;,; :,:. : ха1 еrечрlрэ ,:o:aJ,Ji i-ъ ац ит'lI раг::; -орпэsd

.,

эT,I z6l,uпос S, аuЗвшэ, :; *;, оlщ рэlзISlЕд яrд ]I ...,]т,*

чJэlsзЕ эц rп tшоd lf.; : раr,{tлш) зливd ;с ;с _;,: rTl

,uоIýJал

чвIцэsшy эц швluос sJэцо ац eIцM 'sпulпqlу ,{q sI zg Iп lзц lnq 'lsцчсцuy uo Slэвд aJu sB'9II рuв'88'zE щ рuпоJ аrв salэoqdord аш1l{qt5 ацL ,рluарIсlпоэ чtв3в sl slualuoc Jo uonцadal s1tп lBц шааý рIIюлl lI 'цmоJ эц о1 t9I ец щ l?ц рuв ',(рuпд рuосаs ац ot sЗчоlаq z€ щ lвц su lnq gdчэsпIЕш o1r\l lsлf ац tп plmoJ os[B sI 1Jpпra|V o1olsldx ацL ,0д ur 'z(ццuарlсш.ос lqnop оu 'рuв ,suопсаlшос lrтвсчп€rs ,{tTB рэпаr юu ор ,(ец Ф|'aЕ щ punoJ st frolsщ .saJ?c ,(, , , otdtэutld чl'КЕоlоuоцз lnq $uэlчос Jaцo эJвчs эшо5 'эzrоqu) рэчsпqиsэ ,эtвЗFл ац lou пел\ SI 9II рuв 88 чаа/tцаq {щ эц 'JарttтвшэJ ац Jo рuз 1II?Iлл 1sлс ац ol ssащи\ в 8чlэq ш sпоршоtlз аstд\JэIр щ 0L ,., , , ýIJцJзш la rdоэsldэ IроцаиI raqп lrdrcm рчщэ аulшоu щ, фвrЕвпd drоtэпрлчr uB ,{q рээвзаrd $ lхФ ец'9д ldаэхэ еsэц Jo Ip цt ccl, b9I1 ya1.;t,lBI,Sш'арчоllвч anbqq1ollqlg's!дBd !tml] 0,,51д'lirB.rq;1,{1;s-rа,rщд'ашвq аllоц ![911]

б8z ацвоIý рчв [Е8] J|aE JарчпJy 551ц'.{лвrqI.I чýтllJff 'чорчо.1 :tOд] ?IýE ,51ц'd.tвlq;1 ,51ц ![7g] ý6чIIог

р.tрацlвз '.Ialaxg

91,9'а3ацоз

|S

'аtр;.lqшвз

;sldрсsпuеш-Dltоrs!н xls ш pImoJ sI lxal ац Jo tmoJ I1nJ ,{рчэruddв чу ,пIJасшос [еJэчэ3 э.tош шоrg rншшФs оs[з lI щ lsэJаlщ lBФ ýдrочs рlrаеш опй1 -ээоdе Jацю lрIл\ sldFспruвш-Dltоls!н ш IюцвIсоýýв sl! 951,,suоIsЕrrш 1о3чоlд dэоqdоrd ,{юlulоsчоэ в, 8rцрr,rоrd '{mluес цuэоu,п{l ац

ац Jo эшц ац lB

шпlпэоds l1drэrц. :эIlJп_: ;,-:

,51ц'а3аllоз illul.t1, аф r.l вэцоlsоdу вJФо!|qlg,gш0

-DlJolSlH oztl ч рtmо,] S] , sаuпэшоs'хпu мrc l э _Io ; -Е,_

-Оlоfuац1 :лI 'лlоIэq ээý

| )-

рrrв рэtврd-rэlш ,{1t.lBau s: ,SIлl ',i_гв:ql7 а3эlоз sпsэI

lтц шоц эlqzлdаs

ацmlоt

SLчЕJNоэ CIIIYIJoýSY

ASSOCIATED CO}{TENTS

аrе accompanied Ьу а furthеr item frоm the Historia Вrittоruпп: а shоrt account of the peopling of the юпtiпепБ Ьу the descendants of the sons of Noah. In fочr of the manuscripв - СаmЬгidgе, Sidney ýussex, MS. 75 [34], Madrid, Biblioteca nacional, MS. б319 [125], Охfоrdо Bodleian LiЬrаrу, MS. ОriеI College 16 [152] апd Saint-Omer, ВМ, MS. 710 t202] - the works аrе immediately

preceded Ьу Geoffrey's History, The text iп 202 is quite extensive, ruппiпg 'Рrimчm miтасчlчm eýt ýиgпчm Lumonoy , . . поп longe а tеrrа'. In the оthеr tfuee, the Mirйilia follow ап account of the descent of nations 'Post diluuium tribus filiis Noe . . . et rерlечеrчпt Europiam et de his actenuý'and begin 'Рrimчm si quidem miтасчlчm Britannie sипgпчm Lчmmопоim . . . ad раrччm inuenitur' (the explicit is virtually illegible in l25;.lЯ No оthеr shагеd contenв аrе found iп any of these manuscripB. The fifth Hisroria-manuscript to include sераrаtе rnirйilia is Dublin, TFinity College, MS. 4И [65]. These аrе found at 226r227v,lhe Historia оссчруiпg 9r-|23v, Besides being separated Ьу пчmеrочý works, they fall in different uniв of the manuscript. Неrе the mirabilia рrесеdе the оthеr ассочпt. The texts аrе different from those described above: 'рrimчm miгасчlчm est stапgпrm Iчmопiчm . . . inuenitur p[]i lapides', 'Тrеs filii Noe diuiserunt оrЬеm . . . Uenedochia id est Nогй Wales et [СоrпчЬiа]'.Ш

Nicodemus

59 as ancestral to these ct found in а few mапчsсгlр conclusion that the реm sequently reused in сhеr Simon Сhёчrе d'оr,2б The demise of Наmmе close connection between

Douai, ВiЬliоthёqче mчl found in 59, provides ап manuscripý containing Р 4|26 tl64J and London.