Diplomacy and Intercultural Communication: educationalmethodical manual 9786010421820

The teaching manual is addressed to first-year-students of the faculty of Philology and world languages as a guide in th

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Diplomacy and Intercultural Communication: educationalmethodical manual
 9786010421820

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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

  DIPLOMACY AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Educational-methodical manual

Almaty «Qazaq university» 2017 1

UDC 327(075) D 61 Recommended for publication by the decision of the Academic Council of the Faculty of Philology and World Languages, Editorial and Publishing Council of al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №2 dated 29.12.2016) Reviewers: cand. Sc. (Philology) L.A. Turumbetova cand. Sc. (Philology) P.M. Tayeba Compiler A.Zh. Aksholakova

D 61 Diplomacy and Intercultural Communication: educationalmethodical manual / A.Zh. Aksholakova. – Almaty: Qazaq university, 2017. – 120 p. ISBN 978-601-04-2182-0 The teaching manual is addressed to first-year-students of the faculty of Philology and world languages as a guide in the world of intercultural communication. The manual includes 4 chapters of lectures to read, render, discuss, and express opinions. Assignments after lecture materials are the continuation of the content of the discourse and are aimed at development of speaking abilities. Some tasks can be used at lessons, some as independent work of students, some at tests. The objective of the given teaching manual is to designate the content and allocate of peculiar features of the intercultural communications in the educational environment through studying foreign languages. Publishing in authorial release. UDC 327(075) © Comp. Aksholakova A.Zh., 2017 © Аl-Farabi KazNU, 2017

ISBN 978-601-04-2182-0

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INTRODUCTION Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted. With regard to intercultural communication proper, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses. There are several cross-cultural service providers around who can assist with the development of intercultural communication skills. Diplomacy and Intercultural Communication prepares today’s students to successfully navigate our increasingly global community, it introduces essential communication skills and concepts that will empower readers to interact successfully with different cultures and ethnic groups. To spark student interest, the manual offers readers unique insights into intercultural communication, at home and abroad, through an emphasis on history, culture, and popular media. Each chapter integrates material on social media, as well as extensive new examples from recent international news and events. Throughout the text, Diplomacy and Intercultural Communication reinforces the important roles that our own stories, personal experiences, and self-reflection play in building our intercultural understanding and competence. 3

Chapter 1 THE STUDY OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Although the ability to communicate effectively has long been an important aspect of any social interaction between people from different cultures, within the past two decades it has become essential. Responsible world leaders are working toward greater cooperation on all fronts – economic, political, and military. Movement to a more global, interconnected community has been abetted by dramatic technological changes, such as digital communication advances that permit the uninterrupted transfer of large amounts of data across national borders and breakthroughs in transportation that facilitate the rapid, economical movement of people and goods over vast distances. These events, often referred to collectively as «globalization» have brought about unprecedented levels of interaction among people from different national, ethnic, and religious cultural backgrounds. Media originating in one country are generally available throughout the world. Multinational and transnational organizations, replete with multicultural workforces, are now commonplace. An increasing number of international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are engaged in emergency relief, humanitarian assistance, and charitable service work around the globe. World tourism, once available only to the wealthy, is a growth industry, with package tours to international destinations tailored to almost any budget. Nations with declining birthrates and aging populations are recruiting health care workers from abroad. Immigration, international marriage, and intercountry adoptions have added to U.S. cultural diversity. Broadly speaking, globalization has brought about the realization that modern societies must learn to cooperate in order to prevent their mutual self-destruction. There is a growing perception that employment of force may result in near-term solutions but will ultimately create problems that are more complex. Increased concern over the planet’s ecological degradation resulting from climate change and pollution has raised awareness of the need for international cooperation on a scale 4

previously unseen. There is also recognition of the need to engage in global cooperative efforts on a number of other issues – nuclear arms, terrorism, over-population, world poverty, and escalating competition for natural resources. Solutions, either whole or partial, to these circumstances will require increased intercultural understanding. To define intercultural communication, it’s necessary to understand the two root words – culture and communication. Assignment 1 Choose the appropriate synonym from the list and rewrite each sentence, replacing the italicized word. Change tense, singular and plural, and part of speech when necessary. inclination illustrate suitable shorten recommend rank casual relationship similarly 1. The dialogue in the story exemplified the personal problem the couple was having. 2. The teenage boy's informal clothes displeased his parents. 3. An appropriate response to «thank you» is «you're welcome». 4. It is advisable that you see a lawyer before making a decision. 5. Upon entering the church, the tour guide removed his hat. Likewise the male tourists took off their hats. 6. The graduate student reduced his thesis from 300 to 200 pages. 7. The status differences in the military are very specific and precise. 8. Her tendency is to eat too much when she is angry. 9. It is desirable for teachers and students to have a good rapport.

UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION Communication is inescapable. It is something we have to do and something we enjoy doing, and in the digital age, we do a lot of it. Think about the many different ways that you engage in communication every day – by watching TV; listening to music; talking to friends; listening to a class lecture (well, at least pretending 5

to); daydreaming; sending and receiving messages through e-mail, Facebook, and Twitter; searching for something new on YouTube; wearing a suit to an interview; and in many, many other ways. These are but a few of the communication activities you participate in on a daily basis. If one is to function in today’s data-rich society, one cannot avoid communicating. Moreover, we seem to have an innate need to associate with, and connect to, other people through communication. Thus, the motives for entering into any communicative interaction can be categorized under one of three broad classifications. When people communicate, regardless of the situation or context, they are trying to (1) persuade, (2) inform, or (3) entertain. In other words, when you communicate, you have a purpose, an objective. Assignment 2 Choose the word that best defines the italicized word. 1. The man's handshake was too firm for the little boy's hand. a. sweaty c. light b. long d. strong 2. In the United States, it is not customary for men to embrace. a. forbidden c. legal b. usual d. unusual 3. The teacher wanted to speak briefly to the student about her excellent paper. a. in private c. in an open manner b. for a short time d. for a long while 4. Problems can arise when people have no knowledge of the law. a. occur c. decline b. deteriorate d. abound 5. My first impression of him was positive. a. encounter with 6

c. feeling about b. interaction with d. discussion about 6. During their relationship, the couple spoke only about trivial matters. a. personal c. deep b. serious d. superficial 7. Many people initiate conversations by asking questions. a. begin c. avoid b. end d. interrupt 8. American parents teach their children that it is impolite to talk with their mouths full of food. a. dangerous c. unhealthy b. strange d. rude

EXPLAINING COMMUNICATION It should be intuitively evident that communication is fundamental to contemporary daily life. But what exactly is communication? What happens when we communicate? In answering those questions, we will first define and then explain the phenomenon. Communication has been defined variously, and each definition is usually a reflection of the author’s objective or of a specific context. Often the definition is long and rather abstract, because the author is trying to incorporate as many aspects of communication as possible. In some instances, the definition is narrow and precise, designed to explain a specific type or instance of communication. When studying the union of culture and communication, however, a succinct, easily understandable definition is in everyone’s best interest. Thus, for us, communication is the management of messages with the objective of creating meaning (Griffin). This definition is somewhat broad, yet is precise in specifying what occurs in every communicative episode. It does not attempt to establish what constitutes successful or unsuccessful communication, which is 7

actually determined by the involved participants, can vary from one person to another, and is frequently scenario dependent. The only qualifiers we place on communication are intentionality and interaction. In other words, if communication is considered to be purposeful – to persuade, inform, or entertain – then we communicate with an intention, and we achieve our objective only by interacting with someone. Let’s now examine the eight major structural components used to manage messages and create meaning. The first and most obvious is the sender – the person or group originating the message. A sender is someone with a need or desire, be it social, work, or public service, to communicate with others. In completing this desire, the sender formulates and transmits the message via a channel to the receiver(s). The message consists of the information the sender desires to have understood – the data used to create meaning. Messages, which can be verbal or nonverbal, are encoded and transmitted via a channel to the receiver. The channel is any means that provides a path for moving the message from the sender to the receiver. For example, an oral message may be sent directly when in the immediate presence of the receiver or mediated through a cellphone, a conference call, or a YouTube video. A visual, or nonverbal, message can be transmitted directly, such as by smiling to indicate pleasure, or mediated through a photograph or text. Today, websites such as YouTube, Facebook, and MySpace provide channels that offer senders a means to reach millions of receivers through mediated messages. The receiver(s) is the intended recipient of the message and the location where meaning is created. Because the receiver interprets the message and assigns a meaning, which may or may not be what the receiver intended, communication is often characterized as receiver based. You may send a friend a text message, but for a variety of reasons, such as lack of nonverbal cues or insufficient context, the receiver may (mis)interpret the message and feel offended. After interpreting the message and assigning a meaning, the receiver may prepare a response. This is any action taken by the receiver as a result of the meaning he or she assigns to the message. A response can be benign, such as simply ignoring a provocative 8

remark, or, at the other extreme, a physically aggressive act of violence. The feedback component of communication is related to, yet separate from, the response. Feedback helps us to evaluate the effectiveness of a message. Perhaps the receiver smiles, or frowns, after decoding your message. This offers a clue as to the meaning the receiver assigned to the message and helps you adjust to the developing situation. Depending on the feedback, you may rephrase or amplify the message to provide greater clarity, ask whether the message was understood, or perhaps even retract the statement. Every communicative interaction takes place within a physical and contextual environment. The physical environment refers to the location where the communication occurs, such as a classroom, coffee shop, business office, or airplane cabin. The contextual, or social, environment is more abstract and exerts a strong influence on the style of communication employed. Think about the different styles of communication you use when participating in an interview, applying for a student loan, asking a stranger for directions, visiting your professor’s office, or apologizing when late to meet a friend. We alter our communicative style in response to the occasion and the receiver – the contextual environment. Noise, the last component of communication, concerns the different types of interference or distractions that plague every communication event. Physical noise is separate from the communication participants and can take many forms, such as two people talking in the back of the classroom during a lecture, someone talking loudly on the subway, the sounds of traffic coming through the window of an apartment, or static on your cell phone. Noise that is inherent to the people participating in the communication episode can take a variety of forms. Suppose that during a Friday afternoon class you find yourself concentrating more on plans for a spring break trip than on the lecture. Perhaps you are in a funk after learning your car needs an expensive brake job, or are worried about a term paper due the next week. These are examples of psychological noise that can reduce your understanding of the classroom communication. Physiological noise relates to the physical well-being of the people engaged in the communication activity. Coming to class with too little sleep, dealing with a head cold, or 9

simply feeling too hot or cold in the room will interfere with your ability to comprehend fully the classroom activity. The final type of noise often occurs during intercultural communication and can easily produce misunderstandings. For effective communication in an intercultural interaction, participants must rely on a common language, which usually means that one or more individuals will not be using their native tongue. Native fluency in a second language is very difficult, especially when nonverbal behaviors are considered. People who use another language will often have an accent or might misuse a word or phrase, which can adversely influence the receiver’s understanding of the message. This type of distraction, referred to as semantic noise, also encompasses jargon, slang, and specialized professional terminology. Collectively, these eight components provide an overview of factors that can facilitate, shape, or hamper communication encounters. But there is also another influential factor that normally plays a role in communicative interactions. Our culture provides each of us with a set of standards that govern how, when, what, and even why we communicate. However, you must first understand the concept of culture itself in order to appreciate how it influences communication. Assignment 3 Choose the correct word form for each sentence. Make verb tense changes, make nouns singular or plural, and use active or passive voice as applicable. 1. (to) flow, flowing, flow a. The_________________river was a beautiful sight. b. I couldn't follow the_________________of the conversation because they were speaking too rapidly. c. The poetry would not_________ from the writer's pen. 2. (to) vary, variety, various a. It is worthwhile to travel in order to become familiar with a ___________of cultures. b.________________topics were discussed at the business meeting. c. Customs________________from one country to another. 3. considerably, considerable a. The young business partners have had________________success this year. b. Those brothers are_________________different from each other. 10

4. purpose, purposely, purposeless a. The president did not state his__________________for visiting the small town. b. The boss criticized his employee for taking a__________________ trip. c. Did the children__________________set fire to the building?

WHAT IS CULTURE? Culture is an extremely popular and increasingly overused term in contemporary society. Expressions such as cultural differences, cultural diversity, multiculturalism, corporate culture, cross-culture, and other variations continually appear in the popular media. As with communication, the term culture has been the subject of numerous and often complex, abstract definitions. What is frequently counted as one of the earliest and easily understandable definitions of culture, and one still used today, was written in 1871 by British anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, who said culture is «that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society». Ruth Benedict offered a more succinct definition when she wrote, «What really binds men together is their culture – the ideas and the standards they have in common». A more complex explanation was provided by Clifford Geertz, who said culture was «a historically transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life». Contemporary definitions of culture commonly mention shared values, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, norms, material objects, and symbolic resources. Indeed, the many and varied definitions attest to the complexity of this social concept called culture. We propose an applied and hopefully more simplified explanation of culture. Stop for a minute and think about the word football. What mental picture comes to mind? Most U.S. Americans will envision two teams of eleven men each in helmets and pads, but someone in Montréal, Canada, would imagine twelve men per team. A resident of Sidney, Australia, may think of two eighteen-man teams in shorts and jerseys competing to kick an oblong ball between 11

two uprights, while a young woman in Sao Paulo, Brazil, would probably picture two opposing teams of eleven men, or women, attempting to kick a round ball into a net. In each case, the contest is referred to as «football,» but the playing fields, equipment, and rules of each game are quite different. Try to think about how you would react in the following situations. Following your successful job interview with a large Chinese company, you are invited to dinner. At the restaurant, you sit at a round table with other people, and plates of food are continually being placed on a turntable in the table’s center. People are spinning the turntable, taking food from different dishes, talking with each other, and urging you to try items you are completely unfamiliar with. How do you feel? At a later date, one of your close friends, whose parents immigrated from Mumbai, India, invites you to his home for the first time. There, you are introduced to your friend’s grandfather, who places his palms together in front of his chest as if praying, bows and says namaste. What do you do? In each of these examples, perhaps you felt unsure of what to do or say, yet in China and India, these behaviors are routine. These examples illustrate our applied definition of culture. Simply stated, culture is the rules for living and functioning in society. In other words, culture provides the rules for playing the game of life. Because the rules differ from culture to culture, in order to function and be effective in a particular culture, you need to know how to «play by the rules». We learn the rules of our own culture as a matter of course, beginning at birth and continuing throughout life. As a result, own culture rules are ingrained in the subconscious, enabling us to react to familiar situations without thinking. It is when you enter another culture, with different rules, that problems are encountered. If we accept the idea that culture can be viewed as a set of societal rules, its purpose becomes self-evident. Cultural rules provide a framework that gives meaning to events, objects, and people. The rules enable us to make sense of our surroundings and reduce uncertainty about the social environment. Recall the first time you were introduced to someone you were attracted to. You probably felt some level of nervousness because you wanted to make a positive impression. During the interaction, you may have had a few 12

thoughts about what to do and what not to do. Overall, you had a good idea of the proper courtesies, what to talk about, and generally how to behave. This is because you had learned the proper cultural rules of behavior by listening to and observing others. Now, take that same situation and imagine being introduced to a student from a different country, such as Jordan or Kenya. Would you know what to say and do? Would the cultural rules you had been learning since childhood be effective, or even appropriate, in this new social situation? Culture also provides us with our identity, or sense of self. From childhood, we are inculcated with the idea of belonging to a variety of groups – family, community, church, sports teams, schools, and ethnicity – and these memberships form our different identities. Our cultural identity is derived from our «sense of belonging to a particular cultural or ethnic group», which may be Chinese, Mexican American, African American, Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, or one or more of many, many other possibilities. Growing up, we learn the rules of social conduct appropriate to our specific cultural group, or groups in the case of multicultural families such as Vietnamese American, Italian American, or Russian American. Cultural identity can become especially prominent during interactions between people from different cultural groups, such as a Pakistani Muslim and an Indian Hindu, who have been taught varied values, beliefs, and different sets of rules for social interaction. Thus, cultural identity can be a significant factor in the practice of intercultural communication. Assignment 4 Choose the appropriate synonym (or the word closest in meaning) from the list and rewrite each sentence, replacing the italicized word. Change tense, singular and plural, and part of speech when necessary. conclude voice unspoken give way show considerable conversation courtesy 13

1. When a professor hands the students their exam scores, he doesn't expect them to argue. 2. He did me the favor of lending me his car for two weeks. 3. Some doctors have a quiet manner with their patients. 4. The two friends had a tacit agreement not to share their secrets with to their people. 5. Do you think $10,000 is a significantly large amount of money? 6. Often interaction between two people who don't speak the same language is difficult. 7. He tried to indicate to the teacher that he didn't understand what she was saying. 8. When we see the police, we assume there is trouble. 9. A person's tone can convey more than her words.

CULTURE’S COMPONENTS Culture Is Learned. At birth, we have no knowledge of the many societal rules needed to function effectively in our culture, but we quickly begin to internalize this information. Through interactions, observations, and imitation, the proper ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving are communicated to us. Being taught to eat with a fork, a pair of chopsticks or even one’s fingers is learning cultural behavior. Attending a Catholic mass on Sunday or praying at a Jewish Synagogue on Saturday is learning cultural behaviors and values. Celebrating Christmas, Kwanzaa, Ramadan, or Yon Kippur is learning cultural traditions. Culture is also acquired from art, proverbs, folklore, history, religion, and a variety of other sources. This learning, often referred to as enculturation, is both conscious and subconscious, and has the objective of teaching us how to function properly within our cultural milieu. Culture Is Transmitted Intergenerationally. Spanish philosopher George Santayana wrote, «Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.» He was certainly not referring to culture, which exists only if it is remembered and repeated by people. You learned your culture from family members, teachers, peers, books, personal observations, and a host of media sources. The appropriate way to act, what to say, and things to value were all communicated to the members of your generation by these many sources. You are also a source for passing these cultural expectations, usually with little or no variation, to succeeding generations. Culture represents 14

our link to the past and, through future generations, hope for the future. The critical factor in this equation is communication. Culture Is Symbolic. Words, gestures, and images are merely symbols used to convey meaning. It is our ability to use these symbols that allows us to engage in the many forms of social intercourse used to construct and convey culture. Our symbolmaking ability facilitates learning and enables transmission of meaning from one person to another, group to group, and generation to generation. In addition to transmitting meaning, the portability of symbols creates the ability to store information, which allows cultures to preserve what is considered important and to create a history. The preservation of culture provides each new generation with a road map to follow and a reference library to consult when unknown situations are encountered. Succeeding generations may modify established behaviors or values, or construct new ones, but the accumulation of past traditions is what we know as culture. Culture Is Dynamic. Despite its historical nature, culture is never static. Within a culture, new ideas, inventions, and exposure to other cultures create change. Discoveries such as the stirrup, gunpowder, the nautical compass, penicillin, and nuclear power are demonstrations of culture’s susceptibility to innovation and new ideas. More recently, advances made by minority groups, the women’s movement, and gay rights advocates have significantly altered the fabric of contemporary U.S. society. Invention of the computer chip and the Internet and the discovery of DNA have brought profound changes not only to U.S. culture but also to the rest of the world. Diffusion, or cultural borrowing, is also a source of change. Think about how common pizza (Italian), sushi (Japanese), tacos (Mexican), and tandoori chicken and naan bread (India) now are in the U.S. American diet. The Internet has accelerated cultural diffusion by making new knowledge and insights easily accessible. Immigrants bring their own cultural practices, traditions, and artifacts, some of which become incorporated into the culture of their new homeland – for example, Vietnamese noodle shops in the United States, Indian restaurants in England, or Japanese foods in Brazil. Cultural calamities, such as war, political upheaval, or largescale natural disasters, can cause change. U.S. intervention in 15

Afghanistan is bringing greater equality to the women of that nation. For better or worse, the invasion of Iraq raised the influence of Shia and Kurdish cultural practices and lessened those of the Sunni. International emergency relief workers responding to the earthquake in Haiti brought their own cultural practices to the situation, some of which have likely become intermingled with the cultural practices of the native Haitians. Immigration is a major source of cultural diffusion. Many of the large U.S. urban centers now have areas unofficially, or sometimes officially, called Little Italy, Little Saigon, Little Tokyo, Korea Town, Chinatown, Little India, etc. These areas are usually home to restaurants, markets, and shops catering to a specific ethnic group. However, they also serve to introduce different cultural practices into other segments of the population. Most of the changes affecting culture, especially readily visible changes, are often topical in nature, such as dress, food preference, modes of transportation, or housing. Values, ethics, morals, the importance of religion, or attitudes toward gender, age, and sexual orientation, which constitute the deep structures of culture, are far more resistant to major change and tend to endure from generation to generation. Culture Is Ethnocentric. The strong sense of group identity, or attachment, produced by culture can also lead to ethnocentrism, the tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to other cultures. Ethnocentrism can arise from one’s enculturation. Being continually told that you live in the greatest country in the world, that America’s way of life is better than those of other nations, or that your values are superior to those of other ethnic groups can lead to feelings of cultural superiority, especially among children. Ethnocentrism can also result from a lack of contact with other cultures. If you were exposed only to a U.S. cultural orientation, it is likely that you would develop the idea that your country is the center of the world, and you would tend to view the rest of the world from the perspective of U.S. culture. An inability to understand or accept different ways and customs can also provoke feelings of ethnocentrism. It is quite natural to feel at ease with people who are like you and adhere to the same social norms and protocols. You know what to expect, and it is usually easy 16

to communicate. It is also normal to feel uneasy when confronted with new and different social values, beliefs, and behaviors. You do not know what to expect, and communication is probably difficult. However, to view or evaluate those differences negatively simply because they vary from your expectations is a product of ethnocentrism, and an ethnocentric disposition is detrimental to effective intercultural communication. INTEGRATING COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE A number of culture-related components are important to the study of intercultural communication. These include (1) perception, (2) patterns of cognition, (3) verbal behaviors, (4) nonverbal behaviors, and (5) the influence of context. Perception. Every day we encounter an overwhelming amount of varied stimuli that we must cognitively process and assign a meaning to. This process of selecting, organizing, and evaluating stimuli is referred to as perception. The volume of environmental stimuli is far too large for us to pay attention to everything, so we select only what we consider relevant or interesting. After determining what we will attend to, the next step is to organize the selected stimuli for evaluation. The third step of perception becomes a process of evaluating and assigning meaning to the stimuli. A common assumption is that people conduct their lives in accordance with how they perceive the world. These perceptions are strongly influenced by culture. In other words, we see, hear, feel, taste, and even smell the world through the criteria that culture has placed on our perceptions. Thus, one’s idea of beauty, attitude toward the elderly, concept of self in relation to others – even one’s perception of what tastes good or bad – are culturally influenced and can vary among social groups. For example, Vegemite is a yeast extract spread used on toast and sandwiches that is sometimes referred to as the «national food» of Australia. Yet, few people other than those from Australia or New Zealand like the taste, or even the smell, of this salty, dark paste. As you would expect, perception is an important aspect of intercultural communication, because people from dissimilar cultures 17

frequently perceive the world differently. Thus, it is important to be aware of the more relevant socio-cultural elements that have a significant and direct influence on the meanings we assign to stimuli. These elements represent our belief, value, and attitude systems and our worldview. Beliefs can be defined as individually held subjective ideas about the nature of an object or event. These subjective ideas are, in large part, a product of culture, and they directly influence our behaviors. Bullfighting is thought to be cruel and inhumane by most people in the United States, but certainly not by the many people in Spain and Mexico who love the sport. A strict adherent of Judaism or Islam would probably find the thought of eating a ham sandwich repulsive. Regarding religion, many people believe that there is only one god but others pay homage to multiple deities. Values represent those things we hold important in life, such as morality, ethics, and aesthetics. We use values to distinguish between the desirable and the undesirable. Each person has a set of unique, personal values and a set of shared, cultural values. The latter are a reflection of the rules a culture has established to reduce uncertainty, lessen the likelihood of conflict, help in decision making, and provide structure to social organization and interactions. Cultural values are a motivating force behind our behaviors. Someone from a culture that places a high value on harmonious social relations, such as Japan, will likely employ an indirect communication style. In contrast, a U.S. American can be expected to use a more direct style, because frankness, honesty, and openness are valued. Our beliefs and values push us to hold certain attitudes, which are learned tendencies to act or respond in a specific way to events, objects, people, or orientations. Culturally instilled beliefs and values exert a strong influence on our attitudes. Thus, people tend to embrace what is liked and avoid what is disliked. Someone from a culture that considers cows sacred will take a negative attitude toward your invitation to have a Big Mac for lunch. Worldview. Although quite abstract, the concept of worldview is among the most important elements of the perceptual attributes influencing intercultural communication. Stated simply, worldview is what forms people’s orientation toward such philosophical concepts as deities, the universe, nature, and the like. Normally, worldview is 18

deeply imbedded in one’s psyche and operates on a subconscious level. This can be problematic in an intercultural situation, where conflicting worldviews can come into play. As an example, many Asian and Native North American cultures hold a worldview that people should have a harmonious, symbiotic relationship with nature. In contrast, Euro-Americans are instilled with the concept that people must conquer and mold nature to conform to personal needs and desires. Individuals from nations possessing these two contrasting worldviews could well encounter difficulties when working to develop an international environmental protection plan. The concept of democracy, with everyone having an equal voice in government, is an integral part of the U.S. worldview. Contrast this with Afghanistan and parts of Africa, where worldviews hold that one’s tribe takes precedence over the central government. Cognitive Patterns. Another important consideration in intercultural communication is the influence of culture on cognitive thinking patterns, which include reasoning and approaches to problem solving. Culture can often produce different ways of knowing and doing. Research by Nisbett (2003) has disclosed that Northeast Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) employ a holistic thinking pattern, whereas Westerners use a linear cause-and-effect model that places considerable value on logical reasoning and rationality. Thus, problems can be best solved by a systematic, in-depth analysis of each component, progressing from the simple to the more difficult. Northeast Asians, however, see problems as much more complex and interrelated, requiring a greater understanding of, and emphasis on, the collective rather than a focus on individual parts. Thought patterns common to a culture influence the way individuals communicate and interact with each other. However, what is common in one culture may be problematic in another culture. To illustrate the potential of this problem, in Japanese-U.S. business negotiations the Japanese have a tendency to reopen previously discussed issues that the U.S. side considers resolved. United States negotiators find this practice to be frustrating and time consuming, believing that once a point has been agreed upon, it is completed. From the Japanese perspective, however, new topics can have an influence on previously discussed points. This example demonstrates both the importance of understanding that different 19

patterns of cognition exist, and the need to learn how to accommodate them in an intercultural communication encounter. Verbal Behaviors. The role of language in intercultural communication is self-evident in that all of the participants must, to some degree, share a language, be it their first or second. What is not so self-evident is the symbiosis that exists between culture and language, because one cannot exist without the other. Without a common language, a group of people would not be able to establish and perpetuate a culture. They would be unable to share their beliefs, values, social norms, and worldview with one another or to transmit these cultural characteristics to succeeding generations. In turn, culture helps people to establish, evolve, and preserve their language. Like culture, language must be shared in order to exist. Language itself is merely a set of symbols that a cultural group has arbitrarily agreed upon to help them bring meaning to objects, events, emotions, experiences, places, and the like. Different cultures have, of course, decided to use different sets of symbols. The use of symbol systems to construct and express meaning, however, is an inexact process, because the meanings for words are open to a variety of translations by both individuals and cultures. The word parallel can be used to demonstrate how culture influences meaning and can lead to misunderstandings in intercultural exchanges. In the United States, telling someone they are on a «parallel» course implies agreement or similarity of views. In Japanese, however, «parallel» is used to indicate that the parties disagree, because parallel lines (heik-o-sen) never converge. Nonverbal Behavior. Another critical factor in intercultural communication is nonverbal behavior, which includes gestures, facial expressions, eye contact and gaze, posture and movement, touch, dress, silence, the use of space and time, objects and artifacts, and paralanguage. These nonverbal behaviors, which are inextricably intertwined with verbal behaviors, often communicate as much or more meaning than spoken words. Like language, culture also directly influences the use of, and meanings assigned to, nonverbal behavior. In intercultural communication, inappropriate or misused nonverbal behaviors can easily lead to misunderstandings and sometimes result in insults. A comprehensive examination of all nonverbal behaviors is beyond the scope of this chapter, but we will 20

draw on a few culture specific examples to demonstrate their importance in intercultural communication exchanges. Nonverbal greeting behaviors show remarkable variance across cultures. In the United States, a firm handshake among men is the norm, but in some Middle Eastern cultures, a gentle grip is used. In Mexico, acquaintances will often embrace (abrazo) each other after shaking hands. Longtime Russian male friends may engage in a bear hug and kiss each other on both cheeks. People from Japan and India traditionally bow to greet each other. Japanese men will place their hands at the side of the body and bow from the waist, with the lowerranking person bowing first and dipping lower than the other person. Indians will perform the namaste, which entails holding the hands together in a prayer-like fashion at mid-chest while slightly bowing the head and shoulders. Eye contact is another important culturally influenced nonverbal communication behavior. For U.S. Americans, direct eye contact is an important part of making a good impression during an interview. However, in some cultures, direct eye contact is considered rude or threatening. Among some Native Americans, children are taught to show adults respect by avoiding eye contact. When giving a presentation in Japan, it is common to see people in the audience with their eyes shut, because this is thought to facilitate listening. (Try it – you may be surprised.) How a person dresses also sends a strong nonverbal message. What are your thoughts when you see an elderly woman wearing a hijab, a Jewish boy with a yarmulke, or a young black man in a colorful dashiki? Nonverbal facial and body expressions, like language, form a coding system for constructing and expressing meaning, and these expressions are culture bound. Through culture, we learn which nonverbal behavior is proper for different social interactions. But what is appropriate and polite in one culture may be disrespectful or even insulting in another culture. People engaging in intercultural communication, therefore, should try to maintain a continual awareness of how body behaviors may influence an interaction. Contextual Influences. We have defined culture as a set of rules established and used by a group of people to conduct social interaction. These rules determine what is considered correct communicative behavior, including both verbal and nonverbal elements, for 21

both physical and social (situational) contexts. For example, you would not normally attend a funeral wearing shorts and tennis shoes or talk on your cell phone during the service. Your culture has taught you that these behaviors are contextually inappropriate (i.e., disrespectful). Context is also an important consideration in intercultural communication interactions, where the rules for specific situations usually vary. What is appropriate in one culture is not necessarily correct in another. As an example, among most White U.S. Americans, church services are relatively serious occasions, but among African American congregations, services are traditionally more demonstrative, energetic gatherings. In a restaurant in Germany, the atmosphere is usually somewhat subdued, with customers engaging in quiet conversation. In Spain, however, the conversation is much louder and more animated. In U.S. universities, students are expected to interactively engage the instructor, but in Japan the expectation is that the instructor will simply lecture, with very little or no interaction. In these examples, we see the importance of having an awareness of the cultural rules governing the context of an intercultural communication exchange. Unless all parties in the exchange are sensitive to how culture affects the contextual aspects of communication, difficulties will most certainly arise and could negate effective interaction. READING Is the sun red or yellow? Should you crack a joke in business presentation? Are such questions important? Is it only language you need to learn? International Business people often invest time and money in improving their knowledge of foreign languages in order to be able to communicate with colleagues from around the world. Language, of course, is vital, but it is only half the problem. There are hidden rules for playing the game of doing business with people of other cultures. It is all easy to «put your foot in it» by making mistakes which can upset your foreign counterparts. 22

An American greeting a mid-European businessman by saying «Hi Dieter, great to meet you!» may not be favorably regarded in a country where more formal modes of address are usual. In the West, business cards are given a cursory glance and pocketed. In Japan, they are highly regarded, looked at closely and left on the table during a business meeting. In Britain, most business presentations would include a joke. In many other countries, this would be unheard of. Will you cause offence if you refuse to eat something generally regarded as inedible in your country? Your counterpart may be watching your reaction when he offers you this local delicacy. Small talk and relationship building are considered highly important in some parts of the world; talking about the weather, the wine and the local area come before business. In other places, people get down to business immediately. It is important to know the way things are usually dealt with in your host country. Problems arise because we see things differently. It helps to be aware of how other nationalities perceive certain things. The Japanese see the sun as red. It is an important symbol which appears on their flag. When Japanese children paint pictures, they paint a red sun. European and American children paint the sun yellow. When children travel and see the sun painted in a different colour, they are surprised and find it very strange. Adults find these differences harder to accept. Both sides may feel uneasy because they are unsure of the rules of the game in the opposite culture. It is, however, very dangerous to have stereotyped views of what the other culture is like. Such views are often narrow and can cause criticism and intolerance. «A little knowledge is a dangerous thing» and can encourage you to make predictions about what will happen in your business transactions. If your sides are too narrow, you may be surprised at all the people you meet who do not fit into your pattern and who behave differently from the way you predicted they would. Our ideas then, have to be flexible and constructed from through research and observation. We should also recognize that it is not only people`s national background that influences their behavior and 23

personality, but also their particular regional background, their personal background and their company culture. Comprehension When you read an article, you can often guess the words you do not know from the context. Find words or expressions in the above article which have the following meanings: a) say or do something wrong or inappropriate, usually as a result of thoughtlessness, and so cause an awkward situation; b) quick and not through; c) something to eat which is considered rare or expensive; d) say or do something wrong or stupid; e) something done without attention to details; quick, hurried; f) deal seriously aware of something; tackle; g) become aware of something esp. through the eyes or demand. CASE STUDY Some people have an Eastern outlook on life, others a Western perspective. What is yours? A. Respond to each of the following items with «1» if it never relates to you, «2» if it rarely does, «3» if sometimes does? «4» if it often does? And «5» if it usually does. _____ 1. People should strive to return to nature. _____ 2. I believe in a personal soul that will continue after death. _____ 3. I hate to kill anything, even insects. _____ 4. I get little pleasure from material things. _____ 5. We should accept our role in life as it is given to us by our parents. _____ 6. Meditation is the highest form of enlightenment. _____ 7. The use of artificial organs is going too far. _____ 8. I feel real kindship with most plants and animals. _____ 9. We should try to harmonize with nature rather than try to conquer it. _____ 10. A meaningful life depends more upon learning to cooperate than to complete. 24

B. To score, add the points for the ten item. Total score: 10 to 50. Scores of 40to 50 suggest an Eastern outlook on life or worldview, below that, the Western view. C. Make comments: What worldview is more typical in Kazakhstani diverse society (eastern, Western, or a mixture of both)? Why? CULTURAL NOTES Ebonics has its own structure, syntax, and pragmatics, and various dialects of the language are spoken by Black people in many parts of the United States, especially in the South. Although Ebonics is looked down upon as incorrect English (which it is not), most educated and middle-class Blacks clearly identify with it. They find great comfort and pleasure in the use of this language, and have developed the capacity to alternate between their native tongue and Standard American English – to code switch. What governs a person’s desire to switch linguistic codes are the subject of conversation, the context of the conversation, and the gender of conversational partners. Few Mexican women would dare to make plans, whether it be meeting for lunch tomorrow or making plans for a child’s future, without adding before concluding those plans, Si Dios quiere (If God wills). It would be presuming much to think that one could control the future, which is viewed as in God’s hands alone. A German driver who was arrested for speeding was so mad that he forgot the basic rules of pronouns in his mother tongue: the pronoun du is not to be used with people who are not close friends. He was fined for using du to the officer who arrested him! Gift giving is still an important custom in establishing amicable interpersonal relationships. A gift does not have to be an expensive one, but it should be a token of friendship. For example, an American businessperson may give a bottle of Johnnie Walker whiskey or a carton of American cigarettes when visiting a Japanese counterpart for the first time. This small gift is not considered as a bribe in Japan, as it is a common practice among Japanese businesspeople. And the Japanese side will usually give the American an okaeshi (return gift) when he is leaving Japan. Islam outlines five pillars for Muslims. First, shahada, creed, is the confession of faith: «La illaha il-Allah Muhammad ur Rasulullah». This means, «There is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God»). Second, salat, prayer, is an important part of everyday life. Muslims are required to stop for prayer five times a day (fajr, dhuhr, asr, maghrib, isha a-dawn, after midday, afternoon, sunset, and nighttime) facing in the direction of the holy city of Mecca. 25

Third, zakat, giving alms, to the poor is expected of each person. Fourth, sawm, fasting, during the month of Ramadan is required. This fast prompts Muslims to be disciplined and reminds them to be more charitable to the hungry and the poor within their societies. Finally, the hajj, pilgrimage, to Mecca is a requisite trip for those who are able to make the journey. Islam does not require complicated rituals or sacrifices. If one repeats the shahada creed, then he or she is a Muslim. Good Muslims follow the five pillars.

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Chapter 2 THE CONCEPTS OF CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION Many people have a culturally identifiable name and, perhaps, a physical appearance that conveys, or at least suggests, their cultural identity. For example, imagine a brown-skinned, dark-haired person named Augusto Torres. He identifies himself as Latino. But many individuals are not so easily identified culturally. Two million people in the United States are culturally mixed and may identify with one or two or with multiple cultures. A person named Susan Lopez might be expected to be Latina, judging only from her last name. «Lopez» actually comes from her adoptive parents, who raised her in the Latino tradition in the Southwest. But Susan’s biological father was a European American, and her mother is a Native American. Her physical appearance reflects her biological parentage. However, Susan is culturally Latina, preferring to speak Spanish, enjoying traditional food and music, and displaying other aspects of Latino culture. Here we see that blood ancestry does not dictate an individual’s cultural identification. Many individuals have names that do not fit exactly with their self-perceived cultural identity. For example, consider three communication scholars named Fernando Moret, Miguel Gandert, and Jorge Reina Schement. Can you guess the culture with which each individual identifies? Do you think that their first name or their surname best predicts their cultural identification? In intercultural marriages, if the wife takes her husband’s surname, her cultural identity may no longer be conveyed by her married name. When individuals change their religious or ethnic identity, they often change their name to reflect their new identification. For instance, when the world heavyweight boxer Cassius Clay became a Black Muslim, he changed his name to Mohammed Ali. Likewise, basketball player Kareem Abul-Jabbar was Lew Alcindor before he joined the Muslim faith. Some European immigrants had their names changed by U.S. immigration officials when they were processed through Ellis Island in New York. For example, «Stein» became 27

«Stone», «Schwarz» was often changed to «Black». In many cases, the name change was to an Anglo-Saxon name that was easier to understand in the United States. GENDER IDENTITY We often begin life with gendered identities. When newborns arrive, they may be greeted with clothes in either blue or pink. To establish a gender identity for a baby, visitors may ask if it’s a boy or a girl. But gender is not the same as biological sex. This distinction is important in understanding how our views on biological sex influence gender identities. We communicate our gender identity, and popular culture tells us what it means to be a man or a woman. For example, some activities are considered more masculine or more feminine. Similarly, the programs that people watch on television – soap operas, football games, and so on – affect how they socialize with others and come to understand what it means to be a man or a woman. Our expression of gender identity not only communicates who we think we are but also constructs a sense of who we want to be. We learn what masculinity and femininity mean in our culture, and we negotiate how we communicate our gender identity to others. As an example, think about the recent controversy over whether certain actresses are too thin. The female models appearing in magazine advertisements and TV commercials are very thin – leading young girls to feel ashamed of anybody fat. It was not always so. In the mid-1700s, a robust woman was considered attractive. And in many societies today, in the Middle East and in Africa, fullfigured women are much more desirable than thin women. This shows how the idea of gender identity is both dynamic and closely connected to culture. There are implications for intercultural communication as well. Gender means different things in different cultures. For example, single women cannot travel freely in many Muslim countries. And gender identity for many Muslim women means that the sphere of activity and power is primarily in the home and not in public. 28

AGE IDENTITY As we age, we tap into cultural notions of how someone our age should act, look, and behave, that is we establish an age identity. And even as we communicate how we feel about our age to others, we receive messages from the media telling us how we should feel. Thus, as we grow older, we sometimes feel that we are either too old or too young for a certain «look». These feelings stem from an understanding of what age means and how we identify with that age. Some people feel old at 30; others feel young at 40. Our notions of age and youth are all based on cultural conventions and they change as we grow older. When we are quite young, a college student seems old. But when we are in college, we do not feel so old. Different generations often have different philosophies, values, and ways of speaking. RACIAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY The issue of race seems to be pervasive in the United States. It is the topic of many public discussions, from television talk shows to talk radio. Yet many people feel uncomfortable discussing racial issues. Most scientists now agree that there are more physical similarities than differences among so-called races and have abandoned a strict biological basis for classifying racial groups. Instead, taking a more social scientific approach to understanding race, they recognize that racial categories like White and Black are constructed in social and historical contexts. Several arguments have been advanced to refute the physiological basis for classifying racial groups. Racial categories vary widely throughout the world. In general, distinctions between White and Black, for example, are fairly rigid in the United States, and many people become uneasy when they are unable to categorize individuals. By contrast, Brazil recognizes a wide variety of intermediate racial categories in addition to White and Black. This indicates a cultural, rather than a biological, basis for racial classification. Racial identities, then, are based to some extent on physical characteristics, but they are also constructed in fluid social contexts. The important thing to remember is that the way people construct these identities and think about race influences how they communicate with others. 29

One’s ethnic identity reflects a set of ideas about one’s own ethnic group membership. It typically includes several dimensions: self-identification, knowledge about the ethnic culture (traditions, customs, values, behaviors), and feelings about belonging to a particular ethnic group. Ethnic identity often involves a common sense of origin and history, which may link members of ethnic groups to distant cultures in Asia, Europe, Latin America, or other locations. Ethnic identity thus means having a sense of belonging to a particular group and knowing something about the shared experiences of group members. For some Americans, ethnicity is a specific and relevant concept. These people define themselves in part in relation to their roots outside the United States – as «hyphenated Americans» (Mexican-American, Japanese-American) – or to some region prior to its being part of the United States (Navajo, Hopi, Cherokee). PHYSICAL ABILITY IDENTITY We all have a physical ability identity because we all have varying degrees of physical capabilities. We are all handicapped in one way or another – by our height, weight, sex, or age – and we all need to work to overcome these conditions. And our physical ability, like our age, changes over a lifetime. For example, some people experiences a temporary disability, such as breaking a bone or experiencing limited mobility after surgery. Others are born with disabilities, or experience incremental disability, or have a sudden-onset disability. The number of people with physical disabilities is growing. In fact, people with disabilities see themselves as a cultural group and share many perceptions and communication patterns. Part of this identity involves changing how they see themselves and how others see them. For people who become disabled, there are predictable stages in coming to grips with this new identity. The first stage involves a focus on rehabilitation and physical changes. The second stage involves adjusting to the disability and the effects that it has on relationships; some friendships will not survive the disability. The final stage is when the individual begins to integrate disabled into his or her own definition of self. 30

RELIGIOUS IDENTITY Religious identity is an important dimension of many people’s identities, as well as a common source of intercultural conflict. Often, religious identity gets confused with racial/ethnic identity, which means it can be problematic to view religious identity simply in terms of belonging to a particular religion. For example, when someone says, «I am Jewish», does this mean that this person practices Judaism or views Jewishness as an ethnic identity? When someone says, «That person has a Jewish last name», does this confer a Jewish religious identity? Historically, Jews have been viewed as a racial group, an ethnic group, and a religious group. Drawing distinct lines between various identities – racial, ethnic, religious, class, national, regional – can lead to stereotyping. For example, Italians and Irish are often assumed to be Catholic. Intercultural communication among religious groups also can be problematic. Religious differences have been at the root of conflicts from the Middle East, to Northern Ireland, to India/Pakistan, to Bosnia-Herzegovina. The traditional belief is that everyone should be free to practice whatever religion they want to, but conflict can result from the imposition of one religion’s beliefs on others who may not share those beliefs. Religion traditionally is considered a private issue, and there is a stated separation of church and state. However, in some countries, religion and the state are inseparable, and religion is publicly practiced. Some religions communicate and mark their religious differences through their dress. Other religions do not mark their members through their clothes; for example, you may not know if someone is Buddhist, Catholic, Lutheran. Because these religious identities are less obvious, everyday interactions may not invoke them. MULTICULTURAL IDENTITY Today, a growing number of people do not have clear racial, ethnic, or national identities. These are people who live «on the borders» between various cultural groups. While they may feel torn between different cultural traditions, they also may develop a multicultural identity – an identity that transcends one particular culture – and feel 31

equally at home in several cultures. Sometimes, this multicultural identity develops as a result of being born or raised in a multiracial home. The United States, for example, has an estimated 2 million multiracial people – that is, people whose ancestry includes two or more races – and this number is increasing. The development of racial identity for multiracial children seems to be different from either majority or minority development. These children learn early on that they are different from other people and that they don’t fit into a neat racial category – an awareness-of-differentness stage. The second stage involves a struggle for acceptance, in which these children experiment with and explore both cultures. They may feel as if they live on the cultural fringe, struggling with two sets of cultural realities and sometimes being asked to choose one racial identity over the other. In the final stage, self-acceptance and assertion, these children find a more secure sense of self. This exposure to more than one culture’s norms and values often leads to a flexible and adaptable sense of identity – a multicultural identity. CULTURAL CLASH A cultural clash is defined as the conflict that occurs between two or more cultures when they disagree about a certain value. A cultural clash may involve strongly held values, such as those concerning religion. Cultural clashes occur frequently in cities, such as Miami, that are composed of a large number of ethnic groups. For example, Suni Muslims immigrated from the Middle East and Pakistan in the 1950s. These people have maintained their culture over the several decades of living in North Miami, resisting assimilation into the dominant general culture. This cultural maintenance of the Suni Muslims, however, frequently leads to the intergenerational cultural clash between youth and their parents. This conflict may center on the degree of individual freedom allowed young women. For instance, a fourteen-year-old asked her parents for permission to go to a shopping mall with her friends. They refused because of the Suni Muslim value that unmarried women should not be seen in public unless chaperoned by parents or older brothers. The adolescent daughter insisted on going to the mall, so her parents chained her to her bed. 32

As the degree of intercultural difference becomes wider in human communication situations, information exchange is likely to be less effective. Meanings are less likely to be shared as the result of communication exchange. The message intended by the source participant has less probability of being interpreted predictably by the receiver if the two are culturally unalike. The basis for understanding one another narrows as cultural differences increase. For example, marriage advertisements in India might describe a prospective bride as «homely», meaning she is expert in domestic matters, a good cook, and a charming hostess. To someone from the United States, the word «homely» describes an unattractive person. When each participant in a communication exchange represents a different culture, the likelihood of effective communication is lessened. Communication between unalike individuals does not have to be ineffective. For instance, if the participants can empathize with each other (that is, put themselves in the shoes of the other person), then they may be able to overcome the ineffective communication. Further, the individuals can try to learn about people of different cultures. Assignment 5 Choose the correct word form for each sentence. Make verb tense changes, make nouns singular or plural, and use active or passive voice as applicable. 1. actual, actually a. «______________,» said the student, «I prefer having a job to being a student». b. The patient did not want to discuss the______________problem with the doctor; instead he talked around the problem. 2. definitely, definite a. The young man said that he would_______________come to the party. b. Are your plans_______________yet? 3. genuine, genuinely, genuineness a. The gift was a_____________expression of his appreciation. b. I sensed a lack of_______________in the car salesman. c. The artist was______________trying to be creative. 4. unconsciously, unconscious, unconsciousness a. After being hit by the car, the child was______________for three days. b. He_______________turned off the alarm clock when he woke up in the morning. c. He was in a state of______________that lasted for three weeks. 33

COLLECTIVISTIC VERSUS INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES We define a collectivistic culture as one in which the collectivity’s goals are valued over those of the individual (see Table 1). In contrast, an individualistic culture is one in which the individual’s goals are valued over those of the collectivity. Individualismcollectivism is perhaps the most important dimension of cultural differences in behavior across the cultures of the world. Japanese culture is an example of a collectivistic culture. Harmony is very important to the Japanese. The collectivistic nature of Japanese culture is evident when observing a typical business office in Tokyo. More than a dozen employees are packed into an office that in the United States might house two or three individuals. The Japanese workers sit at small desks, facing each other, clustered in the middle of the room. Their boss sits among them. Individual privacy is completely lacking; instead, much informal conversation occurs among the office workers as they help each other with various workrelated tasks. The nature of the self is different in an individualistic versus a collectivistic culture. Culture shapes one’s self, and thus one’s communication, perceptions, and other behavior. In an individualistic culture, the individual perceives himself/herself as independent. In a collectivistic culture, the individual mainly thinks of himself/herself as connected to others. To be independent in one’s thinking or actions would be considered selfish, rude, in poor taste. An individual who is not a good team player is punished for breaking the norm on collectivism. Interaction between individuals with these different perceptions of self can easily result in misinterpreting the other’s behavior. Obviously, not everyone in a collectivistic culture is equally collectivistic in thinking and behavior, nor are all of the individuals in an individualistic culture equally individualistic. For example, certain Japanese are task oriented rather than relationship oriented; they are very direct in their speaking style, telling it like it is. There is individual variation within both collectivistic and individualistic cultures, even though the average degree to which individuals are 34

collectivistic-oriented is much greater in a collectivistic society like Japan than in an individualistic culture like the United States. Table 1 Ten Differences between Collectivist and Individualist Societies Individualism

Collectivism

Everyone is supposed to take care of him- or herself and his or her immediate family only

People are born into extended families or clans which protect them in exchange for loyalty

«I» – consciousness Right of privacy Speaking one’s mind is healthy Others classified as individuals

«We» – consciousness Stress on belonging Harmony should always be maintained Others classified as in-group or outgroup Opinions and votes predetermined by in-group Transgression of norms leads to shame feelings Languages in which the word «I» is avoided Purpose of education is learning how to do Relationship prevails over task

Personal opinion expected: one person one vote Transgression of norms leads to guilt feelings Languages in which the word «I» is indispensable Purpose of education is learning how to learn Task prevails over relationship Assignment 6

For each number put I for the statement that defines an Individualist. Put C for a statement that defines a Collectivist. _____ 1a. It takes a long time to make a new friend. _____ 1b. Friends can be made relatively quickly. _____ 2a. I expect people to judge me by my achievements. _____ 2b. I expect people to judge me by groups I belong to. _____ 3a. Before making a decision, it is best to make sure everyone agrees with it. _____ 3b. Before making a decision, you should get at least half of the people to agree with it. _____ 4a. I am embarrassed by individual recognition. _____ 4b. If I do a good job, I feel that I have earned individual recognition. 35

_____ 5a. Making sure people don`t lose face is more important than always being completely honest. _____ 5b. Being honest with people is always best in the end. _____ 6a. If my brother did wrong, I would admit it to other people. _____ 6b. If my brother did wrong, I would defend him to other people. _____ 7a. Confrontation is sometimes necessary to clear the air. _____ 7b. Confrontation almost always causes more problems than it solves. _____ 8a. In the end, you can always rely on other people. _____ 8b. In the end, you can only rely on yourself. A. Do you consider yourself to be an individualist or collectivist value oriented? Explain why by using the choices above. Assignment 7 First choose the correct word for the definitions. Then fill in the blanks in the sentences following the definitions. Note: You may have to change the grammatical form of the word used in the sentence. modes disagreement praise interpret dominates reflects disapproval explicitly unique 1. one of a kind, having no equal_________________ Hand-made jewelry is expensive because each piece is ____________ . 2. refusal to approve, rejection________________ My father gave me a_____________look when he saw my examination scores. 3. to explain the meaning of_________________ His _________________ of the book was very different from the author's. 4. styles, manners, forms________________ Each writer has her own_________________of expression. 5. expression of approval________________ The child smiled after he was________________by his father. 6. shows_________________ Her poor response in class____________her lack of knowledge on the subject. 7. in a clearly stated or distinctly expressed manner__________________ The instructions on the package were so_________________that it was impossible to make a mistake. 36

8. difference of opinion_________________ Parents and children often_________________about what is right and wrong. 9. rules or controls_________________ The executive president _________________ the meeting by not allowing the others to speak.

INITIAL CONTACT AND UNCERTAINTY AMONG STRANGERS An interpersonal communication process must have a starting place, and getting a conversation underway with a complete stranger is particularly difficult. Charles Berger and Richard Calabrese set forth a theory of uncertainty reduction that takes place in initial communication between strangers. When two individuals encounter one another for the first time, they face a high degree of uncertainty due to their lack of information about each other. This uncertainty is especially high when the two individuals do not share a common culture. If they at least share a common language and have certain common interests, they can begin talking. Their discourse then allows them to share meanings and to decrease their uncertainty gradually as they get better acquainted. We do not build an intimate interrelationship suddenly. The process typically proceeds through a series of stages over time. Uncertainty is an individual’s inability to predict or to understand some situation due to a lack of information about alternatives. The antidote for uncertainty is information, defined as a difference in matterenergy that affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among a set of alternatives. As an individual gains information about another person, uncertainty is reduced, and the situation becomes more predictable. Uncertainty is unpleasant, and individuals generally seek to reduce it. In order to communicate with another person in a smooth and understandable process, one must be able to predict how the other person will behave, what the individual will say next, and how the person will react to one’s remarks. How does one obtain information in order to start a conversation with a complete stranger? In some cases, a mutual acquaintance may provide certain information about the stranger. Once a conversation gets underway between strangers, the degree of uncertainty is reduced, so that the further communication is facilitated. Notice that a conversation 37

between strangers in the United States usually begins with many questions being asked that demand short answers (such as questions dealing with one’s occupation, hometown). As two people get acquainted, the number of questions decreases, the number of statements increases, and they become longer. Uncertainty is being reduced. The degree of uncertainty between two strangers is greatest, of course, when they come from different cultural backgrounds. You do not even know if you share a common language with the other person. What if the other person does not speak your language? In what language should you begin the conversation? When meeting a business counterpart from another culture, should you kiss, bow, or shake hands? These uncertainties are all inhibitors to beginning a conversation with a cultural stranger. Assignment 8 Choose the word that best defines the italicized word. 1. The sad clown tried to disguise his feelings by wearing a big smile. a. discover c. hide b. expose d. resist 2. He showed his disgust for the movie by leaving in the middle. a. enchantment c. dislike b. approval d. appreciation 3. The majority of citizens disagreed with the political restraints that the government placed on them. a. rights c. elections b. limitations d. freedom 4. Insufficient knowledge in his work caused him many problems on the job. a. not enough c. inappropriate b. incorrect d. too much 38

5. Excessive spending may result in a bank's closing your account. a. thrifty c. careful b. exclusive d. extravagant 6. When there are barriers between two people, it is difficult for them to communicate. a. fights c. obstacles b. points d. words 7. It takes time to build emotional intimacy. a. privacy c. expression b. closeness d. sanity 8. She showed her mistrust of doctors by ignoring her physician's advice. a. love c. loyalty b. disease d. distrust

INTERPERSONAL AND INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Communication is fundamentally intrapersonal. Intrapersonal communication is information exchange that occurs inside of one person. It is the process of selecting and interpreting symbols to represent thoughts, perceptions, or physical reality. In contrast, interpersonal communication involves the face-to-face exchange of information between two or more people. Interpersonal communication is the process of exchanging mutually understood symbols. You communicate with yourself (intrapersonal) as well as with others (interpersonal). Language allows humans to perceive reality symbolically. Words and their meanings allow people to be human beings. Humans use symbols as mental events to represent physical reality, as well as their hopes and dreams. If a person did not engage in thinking processes, that person could not learn to communicate using symbols. We use both signs and symbols to communicate. For 39

example, when we turn and go into another room in the process of communication, this action is called a nonverbal sign. A sign is a physical event or action that directly represents something else. The words we exchange are symbols. Language is a key influence in intercultural communication. It is the use of vocalized sounds, or written symbols representing these sounds or ideas, in patterns organized by grammatical rules in order to express thoughts and feelings. People of a particular nation or ethnic group who share a language usually share a common history and a set of traditions. Speaking a particular language gives an individual a cultural identification. If the language of a cultural group disappears, the members of the cultural group find it difficult or impossible to maintain their culture, and they will be assimilated into another language/culture. An example is the Irish people, who lost their language (Celtic), and have become assimilated, at least in part, into English culture. Intercultural communication also begins with intrapersonal communication and ways of thinking. Levels of meaning suggest that meaning is assigned to messages during the decoding process, rather than residing in messages to be discovered. Based on our experiences, we develop attitudes, beliefs, and values that then influence the meanings we assign. Our culture accounts for a very large portion of what we experience and how we interpret the experience. Intercultural communication depends on an understanding of the belief system of the other person. Cultural belief systems serve as message filters that determine, to a certain degree, the meaning each person assigns to messages and how events are perceived. The notion of cultural-ways-of-thinking is used here in a broad sense to include religions, countries, cultures, belief systems. Understanding different cultural ways of thinking allows us to understand and predict the ways in which individuals from a given culture will respond to specific intercultural interactions. To understand communication and how it works, we need to understand what happens within people’s internal thinking processes. The meanings of a message are interpreted through a process in which the message content is interfaced with an individual’s feelings, prior experiences, cultural values. David Berlo, a communication scholar at Michigan State University, stated: «Words don’t mean, 40

meanings are in people». He meant that the meaning of a word exists only within the people who use words, not in some other location such as in the word itself. The written symbols for the word can be expressed with ink on paper, and definitions of words can be compiled in a dictionary, but the meaning is neither in the ink nor in the dictionary. When a human who shares the meaning of that particular written code reads the dictionary definition, that person can construct a meaning for the word in question. Communication helps people create meaning rather than just transmit meaning. It is a process of creating meaning for the messages received from other people. Humans are sense-makers. They decode communication messages in ways that make sense to them, thus forming perceptions that guide their behavior. The essence of intrapersonal communication is the process through which an individual creates meaning for himself out of the information in a message. Much communication is intentional, that is, the source individual is trying to convey a particular meaning to the receiver individual. In this case clear messages are desired in order to have the intended effect on the receiver. In certain situations, however, ambiguous communication may be appropriate, such as in diplomacy, business negotiations, and on romantic occasions. When the two or more participants in a communication process come from different cultures, it is less likely that the attempt to convey a meaning will be effective. The importance of «meanings are in people» for intercultural communication is that people construct meanings from their language, attitudes, and their interpersonal and cultural knowledge and experience. An individual’s culture shapes the meaning given to a word or other symbol. Assignment 9 Choose the appropriate synonym (or the word closest in meaning) from the list and rewrite each sentence, replacing the italicized word. Change tense, singular and plural, and part of speech when necessary. hug love backing away went with stressed click 41

indecent copied global send 1. The student emphasized his ideas by speaking more loudly. 2. His withdrawal from the group showed his dislike of the members in it. 3. The message was transmitted by radio. 4. Handshaking is not a universal gesture in introductions. 5. The two cousins embraced each other when they met at the airport. 6. Affection can be shown emotionally and physically. 7. The dancer was snapping her fingers while she swirled in the air. 8. Children learn gestures when they imitate their parents' movements. 9. Did you accompany your younger brother to the movies last night? 10. The young boy was punished for collecting obscene pictures.

READING Getting connected in Columbia A bank, in Bogota, Colombia decided to improve its computer communication system. The top sales manager of a young but successful communications company in the United States wanted to get the Colombian account. The sales manager, Peter Knolls, was a young man with an excellent background in computers and U.S. sales. He had been one of the original partners in this small communications company. From his office in Chicago, he started to look for the right person to contact. He called several people in the Colombian bank but wasn’t able to get ahold of the person in charge of the account. He decided to call the Colombian Association of Banks. The association coordinates bank business and encourages foreign investment. It also acts as a third party to introduce foreign contacts. An agent of the association named Roberto Coronas as the key contact of the Colombian bank for the account. The agent then suggested they all meet together in Colombia. Knolls, wanting to be certain that a trip to Colombia would be worthwhile, asked the agent for Coronas’s phone number and called him immediately. He introduced himself to Coronas and began to explain how his company could develop the best computer system for the bank. Coronas suggested they meet other in person to talk further. 42

Before leaving for Colombia, Knolls sent a brief letter to Coronas describing his company and its interest in doing business with the bank. He also sent his company’s credentials. These included a profile of his company with all the necessary financial information from the past two years and some references from satisfied clients. This information would show what a good reputation the business enjoyed in the United States. Knolls went with the agent to meet Coronas in person. After a brief introduction, Coronas suggested that the two men have dinner together that evening. At the dinner the sales manager was ready to talk about business, but Coronas wanted to talk about general topics, such as business friends and Colombia’s literary and cultural history instead. Knolls said his interest was business, not in the arts. The young man explained how he had independently developed a successful communications business without any special help or connections. He did not make a good impression on Coronas. At the end of the evening, Coronas said they should stay in touch, but he never contacted Knolls again. Answer the following questions and share your answers in groups. 1. Why do you think it was difficult for Knolls to contact the right people over the phone? 2. Why do you think Knolls sent information about his company before the first meeting? 3. Why do you think Coronas invited Knolls to dinner? 4. What was the purpose of the dinner for Knolls? 5. Why didn’t Knolls make a good impression on Coronas? CASE STUDY 1. What would you do if: – a friend of yours who worked in your department gave a very poor presentation and then asked you: «How did I do?» – you must write a thank-you note to a friend at work who gave you an awful gift at a holiday party. How do you express your thanks? 43

2. Which 3 aspects do you think are most important for your culture? Do different cultures emphasize different aspects? 3. What is your intercultural IQ? To get an idea, name: – at least 3 holidays that take place in December (besides New Year’s Eve); – at least one of the native American tribes that inhabit most of the states now; – at least 2 religions that prohibit the consumption of alcohol. 4. Which movies you’ve seen have been a place for the audience to experience and learn about another culture? 5. Why do you think one of the most common pieces of advice people get when learning a foreign language is that they should live in another country for a while? BUILDING INTERCULTURAL SKILLS 1. Understand the relationship between identity and history. How does history help you understand who you are? 2. What do you consider to be your identity? Describe your cultural identity. What is the most important part of your identity to you? 3. Which kinds of history are most important in your identity? 4. Develop sensitivity to other people’s histories. Aside from where «Where are you from?» what questions might strangers ask that can be irritating to some people? 5. What do you leave out when you tell the story of your identity? 6. Talk to members of your own family to see how they feel about your family’s history. Find out how the family history influence the way they think about who they are. Do they wish they knew more about your family? What things has your family continued to do that your forebears probably also did? 7. List some of the stereotypes that foreigners have about Russians and Americans. Where do these stereotypes come from? How do they develop? How do these stereotypes influence communication between Americans/Russians and people from other countries? 44

8. Notice how different cultural groups are portrayed in the media. If there are people of colour or other minority groups represented. What roles do they play? 9. Notice how diverse your friends are. Do you have friends from different age groups? From different ethnic groups? Do you have friends with disabilities? Whose first language is not Russian? Think about why you have/don’t have diverse friends and what you can learn from seeing the world through their «prescription lenses». 10. Become more aware of your own communication in intercultural encounters. Think about the message you are sending, verbally and nonverbally. Think about your tone of voice, gestures, eye contact. Are you sending the messages you want to send? 11. Look for advertisements in popular newspapers and magazines. Analyze the ads to see if you can identity the societal values that they appeal to. 12. What stereotypes do you believe in? CULTURAL NOTES Companies seeking to enter the German market need to take the linguistic diversity into consideration, especially when product names could result in misunderstandings, confusion, or even rejection. For example, the potato is called Kartoffel in Standard German as well as some parts of Northern Germany, but it is called Grumbeere in some parts of Western Germany, Erdäpfel in Southeastern Germany, and Nudel in parts of Northeastern Germany, to name only some variations, because there are many others. One can well imagine what the consequences would be for a distributor of potatoes in Germany, because the regional names are often unknown outside the respective regions. In fact, Nudel will result in a misunderstanding because in Standard German Nudel is a noodle and not a potato. New «individualism» tendency influenced the most basic group underlying all other groups: the family. The rate of divorce has climbed to previously unknown heights. Japanese women marry later and have fewer children. Many women now decide not to marry. In the 2005 census, about 60 percent of women in their late twenties and 30 percent in their early thirties reported they were single. In comparison with the 1975 census, the first figure has roughly tripled and the second quintupled. When I was a student, especially a junior high school student, I was always taught that everyone should place importance on harmony of their group. 45

Therefore all students had the same [school] bag, socks, shoes of the same color, and so on. And, for example, if one student skip a club activity or chat during a club activity, our teacher scold not only the student but also all the team members. We have collective responsibility. Even if only one student make a mistake, teacher scold all the team members with responsible for the team. Like this, Japanese always value group harmony more than individual.

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Chapter 3 VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Language influences thought, and thus influences the meanings that are conveyed by words. Becoming fluent in a foreign language is a difficult and time-consuming task, but it is essential to gaining intercultural understanding of the society in which that language is spoken. An individual’s perceptions are more important than objective reality in determining the individual’s behavior. These perceptions differ from one culture to another. One of the main propositions of intercultural communication is that culture shapes an individual’s perceptions, and thus behavior. One of the important intellectual contributions of the Chicago School is a theoretical perspective called symbolic interaction, defined as the theory that individuals act toward objects on the basis of meanings and perceptions that are formed through communication with others. The founder of symbolic interactionism was George Herbert Mead. Mead argued that no one is born with a self (a personality), nor does it develop instinctively. Instead, an individual’s self-conception evolves through talking with others (parents, teachers) during childhood. Mead suggested that human behavior could be understood by learning how individuals give meaning to the symbolic information that they exchange with others. Through such conversations, an individual forms perceptions which then determine actions. CODE-SWITCHING Code-switching is the process by which individuals change from speaking one language to another during a conversation. Participants must be equally fluent in at least two languages. Intercultural communication scholars have investigated under what conditions code-switching takes place and its consequences. They have learned that code-switching has complex rules, although it usually happens naturally without the code-switchers being fully aware of why they 47

switch when they do. The language spoken may affect the meanings derived by the conversation partners. For example, two people fluent in both English and Spanish are having a conversation in Spanish. A third person joins them who can only speak English. The conversation rather naturally switches to English. No one states: «Okay, now let’s talk in English». The change happens naturally. Now let’s assume the speakers do not know the third person who joins them, but they know his name is Jesus Martinez. They could continue speaking Spanish, assuming that Jesus knows the language, until they perceive that he does not comprehend what they are saying. This example illustrates code-switching as a desire to accommodate another participant. Code-switching occurs more frequently in countries where many people are bilingual. Code-switching can be used in the opposite direction of the examples above. If the goal was to send a very different message, code-switching could be used to distance oneself from others. Refusing to communicate in a shared code sends a clear message that the conversation is closed to «strangers». TURN-TAKING One important and necessary behavior in every face-to-face interpersonal exchange is turn-taking, defined as the process through which the participants in a conversation decide who will talk first, next, and so forth. Have you noticed how individuals in a conversation decide who will talk next? Nonverbal clues may be important, such as when an individual looks at the person who is expected to talk next in a conversation. When two people who are talking do not share a common culture, they may misunderstand each other’s subtle clues as to when each should speak. As a result, both individuals may try to talk at the same time, or their discourse may be interrupted by awkward silences. As a consequence of these difficulties with turntaking, both conversation partners may feel uncomfortable. For instance, when a Japanese and a North American talk in English, a pause of a few seconds’ duration may frequently occur before the Japanese speaker responds. 48

SELF-DISCLOSURE Self-Disclosure is the degree to which an individual reveals personal information to another person. An individual may not want to disclose such details as sexual orientation, feelings toward another person who is a mutual friend, or some item of taboo information. Imagine a university student disclosing to another individual that he or she was sexually abused by an adult as a child. Or consider a gay man or woman who comes out of the closet. Such topics are generally not considered acceptable in casual conversation because of social taboos and sanctions. However, individuals may consciously break their silence on these subjects as a political act in order to change these taboos. Research has been conducted on self-disclosure. Scholars have investigated whether or not women are more likely to disclose personal information about themselves than are men. Generally, personal and social characteristics are not related to the degree of an individual’s disclosure. The personal relationship between two or more individuals, however, does affect self-disclosure, with sameculture intimates. Researchers found that both men and women were more disclosing of descriptive information about themselves while talking with a stranger than with their spouse. The opposite was true when disclosing intimate feelings, which were more likely to be disclosed to a spouse. When an individual discloses personal information to another, such disclosure encourages reciprocal disclosure by the other party. The feeling of intimacy created by one individual’s personal remarks about himself/herself seems to encourage the other person to disclose personal information. Cultural factors strongly determine the degree to which selfdisclosure is appropriate. Collectivistic cultures are not very disclosing, while individualistic are more self-disclosing. European Americans disclose more personal details about their health, thoughts than do the Japanese or Chinese. This distinction implies that an individual may often not disclose inner feelings to others. Asians believe that self-centered talk is boastful, pretentious, and should be avoided. So when a European American discloses some personal information to an Asian American, the latter feels uncomfortable and does not self-disclose in return. 49

Assignment 10 First choose the correct word for the definitions. Then fill in the blanks in the sentences following the definitions. Note: You may have to change the grammatical form of the word used in the sentence. invisible counterparts intruded introverts associated threatened extroverts accidental defensively 1. expressed an intention of hurting or punishing _________________ The teacher`s_______________didn`t mean anything; he never did anything about them. 2. shy, inward people _______________ The_______________young woman was not hired by the public relations firm. 3. connected _______________ The retired professor was______________with the university for twenty years. 4. forced oneself on others without being asked or welcome __________ The_______________sensed that he was not wanted at the party. 5. happening by chance ______________ The car_______________hit the tree. 6. active and expressive people _______________ Do you have to be an______________to be a comedian? 7. unable to be seen ______________ In some religious schools children are taught that God is ______ 8. people or things that correspond to others in form and function; equivalents _______________ The dean of the sociology department felt that his _______________on other campuses were not doing their jobs well. 9. in a manner of feeling attacked and justifying quickly ____________ It is difficult to communicate with people who have ______________attitudes.

CONTENT VERSUS RELATIONSHIP Communication scholars distinguish between two dimensions of a message: 1) the message content, or what is said; 2) the relationship, or how it is said. 50

This distinction was originally formulated by Gregory Bateson while observing monkeys playing in the San Francisco zoo. He noticed that one monkey would nip another in a way that looked like real combat, but both monkeys understood that the nip was just in play. Bateson concluded that the bite message must have been preceded by another signal that established a playful relationship between the two monkeys. He called the relationship message metacommunication, that is communication about communication. Humans as well as monkeys, frequently engage in metacommunication. For example, one person is laughing while he makes a very offensive statement to a close friend, who thus understands from the smile that the remark is in jest. The content versus relationship dimensions of communication are different in different cultures. Collectivistic cultures put greater emphasis upon the relationship aspect of a message. For example, individuals in a collectivistic culture form messages in a way so as not to offend or make another person lose face. Less important is the clarity of the message content because relationships are considered more important. In comparison, individualistic cultures stress message content over the relationship dimension of a message. If someone’s feelings get hurt by a communication message, too bad. Individuals generally feel that effective communication depends on being clear and avoiding ambiguity, although in an individualistic culture there are situations when ambiguous messages are appropriate. For example, a certain degree of ambiguity would be appropriate when an individual refuses an invitation for a date. Explanations such as «I’m too busy» or «I have to study for an exam» are more acceptable than «No, I don’t like you». One of the important functions of interpersonal communication is to form and maintain interpersonal relationships (intimate or distant, etc.) culture defines the nature of these relationships between people and their intercultural interpersonal communication. Thus one of the most important dimension of interpersonal relationships, especially in most Asian cultures, is face, defined as the public selfimage that an individual wants to present in a particular social context. Face is particularly important for the Japanese, Chinese, and other Asians and Asian Americans who share a collectivistic culture. These individuals are extremely concerned with how they will 51

appear to others around them. They wish to avoid looking foolish or making a social error that could lead to guilt or shame. Much attention is given to maintaining positive interpersonal relationships with peers. In order to help another person maintain face, one should pay compliments, and offer frequent apologies for oneself. One should not criticize Asian persons in public situations, as this act might harm the individual’s face. For example, a North American teaching English as a foreign language in Japan playfully said in class to a favorite student: «You are a lazy student». The student did not talk to the teacher for the next several weeks and was very hurt by the teacher’s joking comment. The student had lost face. A distinction can be made between maintaining someone else’s face versus your own. In collectivistic cultures like Asia, the maintenance of other-face predominates. In individualistic cultures, attention to self-face is more important. Yet, face is not unimportant in an individualistic culture like the United States. Bosses are advised to praise their employees publicly but to offer criticism in private. LISTENING Communication is a two-way process, for every person speaking there is usually someone who is listening. The receiving role in the communication process is just as important as the sending role, although it has received much less attention from communication scholars. Most of us are not very effective listeners, because we are passive instead of active listeners. One reason for our inattentiveness while listening is because humans typically speak at about 125 to 150 words per minute, while individuals can listen at a rate of 400 words per minute. During our spare time as a listener, we often let our mind wander to other topics. Such inattentive listening often occurs during lecture classes. Twenty minutes after a lecture, listeners can remember only about half of the message content. One hour after the lecture, remembering drops to 40 percent; one day later this figure is 35 percent, and after two days it is 30 percent. One week after the lecture, listeners can remember 27 percent, and after two weeks, 25 percent. These data reflect the abilities of average individuals. 52

One principle of listening is to listen through the words in order to detect central themes. A good listener demonstrates attentiveness, does not interrupt, and is cautious in asking questions of the speaker. A listener should control his/her emotions and avoid being distracted. Listening demonstrates caring for the speaker and the topic. Active listening consists of two steps: 1) hearing, or exposure to the message; 2) understanding, when we connect the message to what we already know; 3) remembering, so that we do not lose the message content; 4) evaluating, thinking about the message and deciding whether or not it is valid; 5) responding, when we encode a return message based on what we have heard and what we think of it. Cultural factors affect each of these five components of active listening. In many cultures that consider it impolite to ask a speaker a question responding may not be valued, and to disagree would be unthinkable. Many of the difficulties in communication between culturally unalike individuals may be due to cultural factors in listening behavior. It is often problematic as to whether one’s conversation partner is tuned in or not. Assignment 11 First choose the correct word for the definitions. Then fill in the blanks in the sentences following the definitions. Note: You may have to change the grammatical form of the word used in the sentence. esteem formulate partner acquaintance precise segregation companion consoled 1. a person who takes part in an activity with another; one engaged in the same business as another___________________ Unfortunately, the doctor`s business ___________________ was unsuccessful and caused the doctor to lose thousands of dollars. 2. clearly expressed; definite; exact__________________ 53

The novelist writes with__________________. 3. a person someone knows___________________. Most people say «hi» to friends and____________________. 4. one who accompanies or spends time with another; a friend The older woman never goes anywhere without her 5. to express or reduce to a formula; to express in a systematic way The student became nervous when trying to____________________ his ideas in front of the teacher. 6. comforted; gave solace___________________ The grieving man was___________________by his daughters. 7. separation; isolation from a group___________________ It is illegal to___________________schoolchildren from each other because of skin color. 8. respect__________________ The student held his professor in high____________________.

CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN LANGUAGE Which is more important, being a good speaker or a good listener? Is it preferable to be effective at communicating verbally or nonverbally? Is it better to be direct and to the point in communicating. There are cultural variations in how language is used: differences in attitudes toward speech and silence, differences in whether meaning is more in the verbal or nonverbal communication, and differences in communication style. In some cultural groups speaking is highly-valued. For example, being a good political, business, or religious leader often depends on the ability to express oneself well, to be «quick on one’s feet». In these cultural groups, a secondary, or less important, mode of communication is listening. And silence is sometimes viewed negatively. For example, people may be embarrassed if there are too many pauses in conversations, or they may feel that they aren’t really connecting with people. Silence also may be associated with being isolated. By contrast, many cultural groups place a primary emphasis on silence and harmony, and a secondary emphasis on speech. Many Japanese have a distrust of verbal skills; the Japanese proverb «You have two ears and one mouth» implies that one should listen twice as much as one speaks. And other Asian cultures share this distrust. Another way of looking at power and language is to think about the labels we use to refer to other people and ourselves. For example, 54

we might label ourselves or others as «male» or «female» to indicate gender identity. The context in which a label is used may determine how strongly we feel about the label. Sometimes, people might complain: «Why do we have labels? Why can’t I just be me?» But the reality is, it would be nearly impossible to communicate without labels. Trouble arises, however, from the use of labels that we don’t like or that we feel inaccurately describe us. Think about how you feel when someone describes you by the terms you do not like. Labels communicate many levels of meaning and establish specific relationship between speaker and listener. Sometimes, people use labels to communicate a sense of equality with and affection for another – for example, «friend», «lover», or «partner». Sometimes people use labels that are offensive to others, which reflect the speaker’s ignorance and lack of cultural sensitivity and connection to the other group. For instance, the use of terms such as «Oriental» and «homosexual» communicates negative characteristics about the speaker and establishes distance between speaker and listener. «Oriental» is viewed as negative because it does not refer to any real place and has negative connotations of things exotic and strange; it is better to use «Asian». People who speak two languages are considered bilingual; people who speak more than two languages are considered multilingual. Rarely, however, do bilinguals speak both languages with the same level of fluency. More commonly, they prefer to use one language over another, depending on the context and the topic. Sometimes, entire nations are bilingual or multilingual. Belgium, for example, has three national languages: Dutch, German, and French. Choose the correct word form for each sentence. Make verb tense changes, make nouns singular or plural, and use active or passive voice as applicable. Assignment 12 1. references, (to) refer, reference a. Although I searched for hours in the library, I did not find three important___________________that I needed. b. Where is the___________________book that you told me about? c. «Please___________________to the back of the book for the bibliography», said the teacher. 55

2. mobile, mobility a. Sociologists are studying the high rate of___________________in the United States. b. The family enjoyed their___________________home because they were able to travel frequently. 3. superficial, superficially, superficiality a. Professors encourage their students not to do____________________ work. b. The young woman stopped going out with her boyfriend because she didn't like his___________________. c. It seemed that the teacher didn`t know the answer because she explained it___________________. 4. desire, (to) desire, desirable, desirous a. It is __________________ to sleep eight hours before taking an exam. b. After five years in a famous cooking school, he fulfilled his __________________to become a great chef. c. «You may have whatever you___________________ », said the bride to the groom. d. In the novel the older man had been___________________of the younger woman for several years. 5. socialize, social, socially, sociable a. The business partners also saw each other___________________. b. The hostess was not feeling very___________________when her guests arrived. c. «Don't__________________while you're working», said the boss angrily. d. What ___________________ activities are available to university students? 6. intensity, intense, (to) intensify, intensely a. The authors worked with such__________________during the day that they were exhausted at night. b. The___________________light hurt the drunk man's eyes. c. Her son was working so___________________that she didn't want to disturb him. d. His love for his wife___________________when she showed that she trusted him. 7. alternatively, (to) alternate, alternatives, alternate a. The commander made an________________plan in case the first one failed. b. The social worker___________________between loving and hating his work. c. The student could stay up all night to finish her term paper. ________________, she could do it in the morning. d. There are___________________to nuclear energy.

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Nonverbal Communication is defined as all types of communication that take place without words. As is generally characteristic 56

of anything that is defined as the absence of something else, nonverbal communication includes a very wide range of communication behaviors – everything from a nod, to the wave of a hand, to a wearing a new suit. All of these activities and artifacts transmit meaning, so they are considered to be communication. None involve words, so they are examples of nonverbal communication. Why is nonverbal communication so important? 1. Nonverbal communication is present everywhere and usually comes first. There is no way to avoid communicating nonverbally. Even the decision not to speak is a message, such as when you do not talk with the person sitting next to you in a bus. In other words, you cannot stop someone from making inferences about your nonverbal behavior, even if you are not intentionally sending a message. This statement is certainly true of nonverbal communication. Much nonverbal communication is unconscious and unintentional. 2. Nonverbal communication usually comes first. Even before individuals open their mouths, they have communicated nonverbally by their posture, their clothing, and so forth. During the initial impressions between two or more people, when there is a high degree of uncertainty in the communication situation, nonverbal communication is particularly important. When strangers meet, nonverbal communication often determines whether or not verbal interaction will occur. 3. Nonverbal communication is especially likely to be trusted. When nonverbal communication contradicts verbal communication, nonverbal communication wins out. Because it is difficult for individuals to control their nonverbal messages, such messages are perceived as more valid. It is difficult to lie nonverbally. However, under certain circumstances, even nonverbal communication can be deceptive. Facial expressions, for example, are carefully watched in card games in order to determine if a card player is bluffing. 4. Nonverbal communication can lead to misunderstanding, especially when verbal messages are missing or limited. If two participants in a communication situation do not share the same meaning for a nonverbal symbol, the results will be miscommunication. The «language» of nonverbal symbols differs from culture to culture, just as verbal language does. 57

5. Nonverbal communication is especially important to intercultural communication situations. When verbal and nonverbal communication are redundant, misunderstandings are less likely to occur. Each type of communication can reinforce the other. When the verbal fluency of the communication participants is limited, nonverbal reinforcement may clarify the intended meaning. Participants in a communication process adapt to each other’s speaking style – for example, by leaning forward, matching the other’s speech rate, assuming a similar posture, using similar gestures, or pronouncing words with the same accent. If a communicator rejects the style of the other as culturally inappropriate – for example, by leaning away, intentionally slowing the speech rate, or assuming an uninviting posture – the flow of communication is interrupted. Edward Hall stated: «People in interactions move together in a kind of dance, but they are not aware of their synchronous movement». He found that each culture has its own characteristic manner of sitting, standing, reclining and gesturing. Most people are unaware when these are happening. When they become aware, they are unable to pay attention to anything else. When someone from a low-context culture interacts with someone from a high-context culture, the rhythms are likely to be very different and may create such discomfort that communication is jeopardized. Culture establishes standards for nonverbal behavior. We often have an involuntary reaction to someone violating our expectations about personal space. Our culture specifies behaviors that invite or discourage interaction. We learn nonverbal signals that indicate another person is receptive to being approached – for example, smiling, and eye contact. If we use those same cues in interaction with someone from another culture, we could be quite startled by the response. If our expectations are not met, we will probably evaluate the other person negatively based on behavior that conforms to a culture different from our own. There are seven types of nonverbal communication: kinesics and other body movements, space, time, touch, voice, artifacts, and physical appearance. 58

BODY MOVEMENTS Kinesics is a type of nonverbal communication that involves body movement and activities (also called body language). The four main types of kinesic communication are: emblems, illustrators, regulators, affect displays. Emblems are body movements that can be translated into words and that are used intentionally to transmit a message. One type of emblem that is particularly important, perhaps ranking second only to facial expressions, is hand gestures. People talk with their hands. Hand gestures like the thumbs up or the thumb and forefinger circle (okay) sign, the palm outward gesture (silence, or stop), and circling a forefinger near one’s head (crazy) all have a widely understood meaning in the United States. But the meanings of these emblems may be quite different in another nation. For example, the thumb and forefinger circle is a sign for the sex act in some Latin American nations. So hand gestures can be very confusing interculturally. As with verbal language, nonverbal codes are not universal. There are gender differences as well as cultural differences in hand gestures. An emblem unique to Japanese women is the hand held in front of the mouth when smiling or laughing. People from the United States perceive this gesture as girlish, polite, and cute. Only women in Japan cover their mouth when smiling. Men never do. In addition to hand gestures, head movements can also communicate nonverbally. Like hand movements, head movements differ from one culture to another. In India the head gesture for a positive response to a question is a sideways movement which is perceived by most non-Indians as a head shake meaning no. But after visiting India for a period of time, the typical foreigner is likely to have picked up the sideways head nod. When the person returns to the home country and uses shaking the head sideways to mean yes, further confusion occurs. In Turkey, an up-and-down movement of the head conveys a negative rather than a positive expression. Illustrators are a type of kinesic behavior that accompanies what is said verbally. Hand and body gestures are a natural part of speaking for most individuals. Illustrators include gesturing with one’s hands, smiling or frowning. They are particularly noticeable 59

when an individual is giving directions to a certain place. Illustrators differ from emblems in that they cannot be translated into words. Regulators are kinesic behaviors that control turn-taking and other procedural aspects of interpersonal communication. A practical necessity in every conversation is to determine who is going to speak first, next, and so on. This process of turn-taking is mainly an unconscious process. Sometimes problems occur, such as when two or more people talk at once and no one can be understood. Usually this behavior occurs when individuals are excited or angry. In most conversations, turn-taking proceeds smoothly because of regulators like the turn of a head, gaze, and other body movements. Gaze is an important type of regulator. A speaker who maintains eye contact with members of the audience is perceived as a forceful presenter in the United States. But direct eye contact with elders is perceived as disrespectful by some Native Americans and in Asian cultures like Japan. It is extremely impolite to gaze at one’s grandparent’s eyes. Japanese children are taught to gaze at their grandparent’s Adam’s apple instead. Appropriate gazing behavior can have important consequences in certain communication situations. Affect displays are kinesic behaviors that express emotions. Facial expressions are one of the most important ways of communicating meaning to another person. For example, surprise is conveyed by arching the eyebrows, opening the eyelids so that the white of the eye shows. In contrast, the emotion of fear is shown by raising the eyebrows and drawing them together, while tensing the lips and drawing them back. Disgust is conveyed by wrinkling the nose, lowering the eyebrows, and raising the upper lip. The facial expressions for anger, happiness, and sadness are generally universal across all cultures, but other emotions are expressed differently depending on particular cultural constraints. Rules for expressing emotions vary depending on the culture. All cultures have display rules telling members when it is appropriate to show emotion and when to hide it. Affect displays can occur via crying, laughing, and even by one’s posture. Space. Proxemics is nonverbal communication that involves space. The word Proxemics derives from the same Latin root as proximity, implying that one dimension of space is how close or distant two or more people are located. How physically close or 60

distant two people stand when they talk tells a great deal about their relationship. A distance of only eight to thirteen inches between males, for example, is considered very aggressive. When a European American talks with a Latin American, the former feels that the Latin American is uncomfortably «pushy» or trying to be intimate, while the Latin American perceives the person from the United States as cold and remote. Arabic people from the Middle East do no9t feel that someone is friendly unless they are standing close enough to smell the garlic on the other’s breath. Clearly, there are strong cultural differences in perception of the appropriate space between people involved in interpersonal communication. People are often unaware that their culture has assigned meaning to the distances between communicators. Even if we are aware that cultures have different definitions of appropriate spacing, our emotions often override that information. Proxemics conveys a very important message about interpersonal relationships, but the definitions are culture-bound. In the United States, a smaller social distance indicates intimacy and communicates a close personal relationship. In other cultures, one cannot use the same standards to interpret relationships. When people are forced by a building, a room, or other constraints to stand at a distance closer than their culture would indicate is appropriate for conversation, they seldom talk. For example, have you ever observed communication among people on a crowded elevator? They generally avoid eye contact, remain silent, and tense their bodies. Touching another person, even accidentally, is embarrassing and leads to an apology. Space affects human communication in many other ways. For instance, whether or not individuals remain behind their desks when visitors enter their offices is an unstated message about friendliness or formality. Classroom arrangements of desks and chairs can determine how much discussion takes place in a class. A circular arrangement generally encourages discussion, while sitting in rows often discourages student participation. Religious values may affect spatial arrangements. For example, the Navajo always build their hogans (six- or eight-sided one-story structures) facing east, in order to face the rising sun. According to traditional beliefs, a Navajo should begin the day by running toward 61

the sun. Islamic people believe that the main entrance of important buildings should face in the direction of Mecca. Space also affects who talks to whom. For example, employees in an office whose desks are located closer are more likely to communicate. Families who live in neighboring homes are more likely to become friends than those who live farther away, even though the spatial difference may be negligible. New communication technologies like the Internet may overcome the effect of spatial distance on the frequency of communication. E-mail effectively removes spatial barriers whether two people are working in adjoining buildings or are located across the world from each other. Time. Another important dimension of nonverbal communication is time. Chronemics is the way in which time affects communication. The amount of time elapsed before being considered late for an appointment varies widely from culture to culture. The Japanese are extremely prompt in meeting with someone at an appointed time. It is considered very rude to keep someone waiting even for several minutes. Many Japanese students have never been late for a class. In contrast, individuals in Latin America and the Middle East are extremely relaxed about punctuality. The length of time for a certain type of communication may also be culturally determined. Let’s take the following example. An American was invited by officials in a Japanese advertising agency to a 10 a.m. meeting at their office in Tokyo. The topic was interesting, and the discussions were exciting. But after 11 a.m., the visitor noticed that he was the only one talking. The Japanese officials seemed to have lost any interest in the discussion. Later, he learned that the appointment had been pre-set for one hour. Because Japan is a high-context culture, this point was not explained to the visitor. It was assumed that he knew. The Japanese officials had other appointments at 11 a.m. Time can be organized into technical, formal, and informal components. Scientists developed the atomic clock to be the most accurate available; time is measured by the vibration of electrons in atoms. Formal time involves the process of separating units of time into days, weeks, and months. In the United States, formal time is used for precise appointments: government hearings, court dates, job interviews. Informal time in the same culture has a more loosely 62

defined (within limits) approximation: 8.00 can mean anywhere between 8.00 and 8.15 to 8.50. Informal time involves attitudes about punctuality within a culture. Symbolic uses of time can be related to a person’s or culture’s orientation. In the West, time is viewed as a linear progression from the past, to the present, to the future. Other cultures do not segment events the same way. Some cultures have a reverence for past experience; they value precedent and reject the present as untested. Other cultures have a future orientation – visions of how life will be. Others find both looking backward and forward irrelevant – the present is what counts. Language can reveal a culture’s attitudes towards time. In the United States we «spend» time; «time is money»; and we ask if we can «have some of your time?» Touch. Haptics is nonverbal communication that involves touching. Individuals within a culture vary as to the degree to which they touch while speaking, and there are important differences in touching from culture to culture. Touching is usually intended to convey warmth, caring, and other positive emotions; but it may be playful or show irritation. Hugging or kissing as a greeting conveys intimacy. A set of cultural conventions guides who may touch whom, under what conditions, and where to touch. For instance, same-sex touching in the United States is more permissible than cross-sex touching. Male-to-male touching is much less frequent (except in sports) than female-to-female touching, perhaps out of fear that such touching might be perceived as indicating a sexual preference. The difference is the displays of touching are not only gender based, they are also determined by status. In business, higher-status employees generally initiate touch; lower-status employees are less likely to do so since the behavior could be interpreted as assuming a familiarity which does not exist. Shaking hands is an example of differing cultural perceptions. In the United States, a moist handshake transmits a message that the individual is nervous or anxious. Most people in that culture think that a firm handshake is appropriate, and that a weak handshake is wimpy. In India, where handshaking is not practiced very widely as a form of greeting, a rather limp handshake is culturally appropriate. 63

Indians generally greet each other by holding their palms together in front of their chest. In Korea and in Mali a person touches his/her right forearm with the left hand while shaking hands. Moroccans kiss the other person’s hand while shaking. Islamic men may greet each other by embracing and kissing first on one cheek and then on the other. Thais greet each other with a wai (pronounced «wi»), which is executed by placing the hands together in a praying position in front of the chest. Japanese people greet each other with a bow. The depth of the bow depends on the other person’s status. Bows entail bending at the waist at about 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, depending on the relative status of the other person. One should not rise from the bow until the person of higher status has risen. The arms should be at the sides while bowing and one should gaze downward. A common greeting between a Japanese person and a foreigner is to bow while shaking hands. Voice. Paralanguage is vocal communication other than the verbal content. In addition to loudness, paralanguage includes the speed of speaking, accent, tone. Often, hearing a stranger’s voice (in a telephone conversation, for example) is sufficient to guess the person’s gender, ethnic group, age. Voice is a means by which individuals can be identified nonverbally. Loudness of voice when speaking is another type of nonverbal communication. Generally, we speak more loudly when we are more distant from the person we are addressing or when we are in a public speaking situation, such as in a classroom. Males often speak more loudly than females. Asians generally speak softly, with Asian women speaking even more softly than men. Most Thais speak very softly, and it is considered good manners to do so. In Arabic nations, males speak loudly in order to indicate sincerity. North Americans consider this volume aggressive. A Saudi Arabian also lowers his voice in order to show respect for a superior. Emotions such as anger, excitement, or enthusiasm may be conveyed by speaking in a loud voice. Artifacts and Physical Appearance. Artifacts include an individual’s clothing, lipstick, wedding ring, eyeglasses, and personal possessions like an attaché case or an expensive sports car. The clothing that one wears is an important message in a communication situation. For instance, individuals often ask, when invited to a party 64

or some other event, whether they should dress casually or formally. In this instance, people want to know how other guests will be dressed. Sometimes artifacts are selected for the opposite effect. Younger generations often choose clothing specifically because their parents find it inappropriate. Artifacts make statements. They can communicate belonging or independence. The most uniform dress, conforming precisely with one culture’s norms, might be considered outlandish or inappropriate in another culture. Body ornamentation – including tattoos, piercing, or painting – is culturally or co-culturally based. Physical appearance is another type of nonverbal communication. Rule-governed cultural preferences dictate the elements of appearance that are considered physically attractive. Physical beauty is more important to U.S. men in dating situations than is male physical attractiveness to women, who prefer intelligence, an outgoing personality, and a man who is considerate. For either gender, however, physical attractiveness is an advantage in interpersonal communication. Physically attractive individuals, particularly women, have higher self-esteem. In the United States, youth is valued over age. Cosmetics can mask the effects of the aging process and have a positive effect on self-image. Physical appearance is especially important during first impressions between strangers. Assignment 13 Choose the word that best defines the italicized word. 1. The executive and his family relocated five times in three years. a. succeeded c. lost b. profited d. moved 2. Each year the two friends wrote to each other less and less and eventually their friendship faded. a. appeared gradually c. disappeared slowly b. appeared suddenly d. ended quickly 3. Her work schedule determined the duration of their trip. a. location 65

c. cost b. enjoyment d. length 4. The building could not withstand the earthquake because the foundation was poorly designed. a. base c. furniture b. lighting d. roof 5. The couple attributed their enduring love to their complete trust in each other. a. jealous c. lasting b. dying d. passionate 6. A positive outlook is necessary for a happy life. a. personality c. answer b. thinker d. attitude 7. A friendship which is transient may last, for example, 3 days, 3 weeks or 3 months. a. not permanent c. permanent b. active d. not important 8. The woman became irritated when the strange man began pursuing her. a. confusing c. staring at b. following d. leading 9. Brief encounters do not always result in further contact. a. successes c. arrangements b. parties d. meetings 10. The president terminated the meeting early. a. cancelled c. ended 66

b. began d. continued 11. Because the worker progressed steadily, the boss was pleased. a. poorly c. slowly b. quickly d. continuously 12. They dated each other exclusively for two years. a. only c. slowly b. happily d. rapidly 13. Sometimes parents encourage their teenage children to have multiple dating partners. a. several c. younger b. hundreds of d. older

COMPARING VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Both verbal and nonverbal communication are symbolic, both communicate meaning, and both are patterned – that is, are governed by rules that are determined by particular contexts and situations. And as different societies have different spoken language, so they have different nonverbal languages. However, there are some important differences between nonverbal and verbal communication in any culture. Let’s look at the following example of these differences. The incident happened to Judith when she was teaching public speaking to a group of Japanese teachers of English. She explained how to write a speech and gave some tips for presenting the speech. The teacher seemed attentive, smiling and nodding. But when the time came for them to present their own speeches, she realized that they had many questions about how to prepare a speech and had not really understood the explanations. What she learned was that it is customary for students in Japan not to speak up in class unless they are called upon. In Japan a nod means that one is listening – but not necessarily that one understands. As this example 67

illustrates, rules for nonverbal communication vary among cultures and contexts. When misunderstandings arise, we are more likely to question our verbal communication than our nonverbal communication. We can use different words to explain what we mean, or look up words in a dictionary, or ask someone to explain unfamiliar words. But it is more difficult to identify and correct nonverbal miscommunication or misperception. Whereas we learn rules and meanings for language behavior in grammar and spelling lessons, we learn nonverbal meanings and behavior more unconsciously. No one explains: «When you talk with someone you like, lean forward, smile, and touch the person frequently, because that will communicate that you really care about him or her». In the United States, for example, this behavior often communicates positive meanings. But if someone does not display this behavior, we are likely to react quite differently. Sometimes we learn strategies for nonverbal communication. For example, you may have been taught to shake hands firmly when you meet someone, or you may have learned that a limp handshake indicates a person with a weak character. Likewise, many young women learn to cross their legs at the ankles and to keep their legs together when they sit. In this sense, we learn nonverbal behavior as part of being socialized about appropriate behavior. Nonverbal behavior can reinforce, substitute for, or contradict verbal behavior. When we shake our heads and say «no», we are reinforcing verbal behavior. When we point instead of saying «over there», we are substituting nonverbal behavior for verbal communication. Nonverbal communication operates at a more subconscious level, thus we tend to think that people have less control over their nonverbal behavior. Therefore, we often think of it as containing the «real» message. Have you ever received a compliment from someone you thought was not being sincere? You may have thought the person insincere because her nonverbal communication contradicted the spoken words. Perhaps she did not speak very forcefully or was not smiling very much. Perhaps she was giving other nonverbal clues indicating that she did not really mean she was saying. As was already mentioned above, nonverbal behavior sends relational messages and communicates status and deception. Although lan68

guage is effective at communicating specific information, nonverbal communication often communicates relational messages about how we really feel about the person, and so on. For example, when you first meet someone, he may say, «Glad to meet you», but he also communicates nonverbally how he feels about you. He may smile, make direct eye contact, and mirror your body language – all very positive messages in U.S. culture. Or perhaps he does not make direct eye contact, does not smile, and does not give any other nonverbal cues that indicate enthusiasm. One difficulty is that nonverbal clues are not always easy to interpret. And it is dangerous to assume that, every time someone doesn’t smile or make direct eye contact, he is communicating lack of interest. It may be that he is preoccupied, and his nonverbal message is not meant the way you interpret it. READING When in Tokyo … Businessman Freddie Marsh knows how to behave abroad. In Ethiopia, he arrives an hour late for meetings; in Egypt he holds hands with his business colleagues. After doing business for 24 hours in more than 80 countries, Marsh has become an expert in foreign etiquette. Once a consultant on exports for The United Nations and foreign governments, he lectures all over the world on the dos and don`ts of business travel. «I teach the sort of things that businessmen should avoid in order not to give offense in a country», says Britisher Marsh, «and what they should do to give a better impression». While his guidelines do not guarantee the clinching of a deal, they certainly put the businessman one step ahead of his competitors. Here, in his words, is Marsh`s quick round-the-world guide: JAPAN Never go to Japan without an enormous wad of business cards. And make sure the cards are translated into Japanese, because in Japan the business or visiting card is studied very carefully. At a convention or meeting with a managing director, it is no use just flipping your card across the table. You should take more care and 69

present your card before the meeting. This gives your contact more time to study the details and to see what position you occupy in the business hierarchy. And then when you are introduced, you must bow. The amount of bowing you do is determined by your position. But whether you are a typist or a manager, the golden rule is: if someone bows, you bow back. When it comes to negotiating, the Japanese never say no. They will find 101 different ways to say yes, but this does not mean «Yes, we agree to your terms»; it means «Yes, we hear what you are saying.» There is a strong feeling of saving face in Japan; they just do not like to upset people by saying no. So don`t put all of your cards on the table, or you might find you haven`t got the deal after all. Advertising can also confuse the Japanese. A food company had little success promoting its spaghetti sauce with a promise that its flavor was genuinely Italian. This promise was meaningless to most Japanese people, who could not even find Italy on a map of the world. Finally, avoid doing business on the fourth of the month. In Japan the number four is very unlucky, because the word for four also means death. CHINA You may be relieved to hear that there are no lingering afterdinner speeches in China. Lots of little toasts are given throughout the meal, but once the meal is over, people leave. And be careful where you sit. The host and chief guest are always seated at the spot farthest away from the door. And once again, be careful with your advertising campaigns. The slogan «Come Alive with the Coca-Cola Generation» must have caused a few giggles, because when translated into Chinese it meant, «Coca-Cola brings your ancestors back to life». THE MIDEAST Body language is vital in all Arab countries. People sit much closer together there, because being able to feel and smell other people`s breath is considered desirable. No matter what your business contact ate the night before, if you back away you are 70

giving the wrong signals and will appear unfriendly. And never arrive at your business meeting on time. This is very rude. And once seated, never show the soles of your feet. This is regarded as unclean, and you will offend your host. Doing business during the festival of Ramadan, when everyone fasts from dawn to dusk, can also cause problems: most people are not in the mood for negotiating on an empty stomach. I once went into an office in Egypt and saw a man`s head bobbing up and down behind a settee. I went up and tapped him on the shoulder and asked whether he was okay, but this did not go down very well because he was in the middle of saying his prayers. So remember: in the Middle East, business hours are very different. Sometimes you will be expected to take the hand of your business associate. If this happens, either adhere to the custom or politely explain that in your country men never hold hands, so you would like to please be excused. AFRICA Entertaining in Africa can be very frustrating at first. If you invite people for dinner at 8 p.m., they may arrive at 9 or even 9:30. The same goes for business. No one ever arrives at a meeting on time. But how late you arrive depends on your status, so check this first before you roll up two hours late. In Malaysia if you are a man, your hair should be short: if you are a woman, avoid wearing trousers. But there is nothing wrong with turning up for meetings in a magnificent native robe. DISCUSSION a) Why is Freddie Marsh well-suited to advising businessman wishing to make deals abroad? b) What does he try to teach them? c) What is the golden rule about owing in Japan? d) Why do the Japanese never say «no» and what do their ways saying «yes» mean? e) Why is it not a good idea to do business on the fourth of the month in Japan? f) Why did the Coco Cola slogan cause giggles in China? 71

g) What behavior is considered rude and/or unfriendly in the Middle East? h) And which custom is sometimes expected to be adhered to? i) What is the African attitude to time-keeping? CASE-STUDY Read the extracts to suggest that you would do or say if you were faced with these situations. What particular cultural value is being described in both of these extracts? Situation 1 Efficiency One of you colleagues is from the United States of America and he is having problems adjusting to what he calls «unprofessionalism» in the working place. He complains about how inefficient people are: they don`t come to meetings on time; they come very late to appointments with him or they make him wait a long time when he has an appointment with them; when he is meeting with someone, that person will tale telephone calls or talk to people who drop by and interrupt the conversation. «That is not the way to do business», he told you yesterday. Apparently he has complained to other people in your office as well, for just today some of them have come to you to complain about him. You are his closest friend in the office. What should you do? Situation 2 Caregiver A nurse works in an elderly-care home in Canada where you are the nursing supervisor. Her work habits are beginning to bother a lot of people, including several physicians and numerous residents. The latter complain that she is always late for her tasks, whether it`s bothering them, helping them to the toilet, or taking them down to the dining room at mealtime. They say she`s too friendly by which they mean she spends too much time chattering with people (who nevertheless appreciate it a lot, and this puts her behind the schedule. 72

Physicians and other nurses complain that she`s late to meetings and often reports late to work, which means someone on the shift before hers has to stay on until she arrives. Everyone likes this woman – she`s outgoing and very compassionate – but she can be exasperating when it comes to managing her time. What is your next move? CULTURAL NOTES «Mano Po» in Philippines refers to a physical gesture of taking the hand of an elder and bringing it towards your forehead. This is a sign of respect for the elder and it is usually done at the point of meeting or farewell. Children are expected to perform this gesture towards adults, relatives and adults in family friends. Failure to perform «Mano Po» would be considered as disrespectful. In business and formal gatherings, shaking hands is a sign of settled and sealed agreements. It also means hello, goodbye, and thank you. A changing custom that can create problems for both men and women is the question of «who pays for whom?» on dates. Traditionally men have paid the expenses on dates regardless of whether the couple's relationship is intimate or merely friendly. Currently some women feel more comfortable paying for themselves and may occasionally pay for the man. «Dutch treat» refers to a date where each individual pays for him/herself. There are no fixed rules for payment. In the United States the terms «boyfriend» and «girlfriend» are used differently depending on which sex uses the words. If a man uses the term «girlfriend» or a woman uses the term «boyfriend», romantic involvement is implied. However, a woman may say, «I'm going to meet my girlfriend today» (meaning a close friend); but most males would not say, «I'm going to meet my boyfriend». Instead, they would say, «I'm going to meet a friend of mine today». The «OK» gesture in the American culture is a symbol for money in Japan. The same gesture is obscene in some Latin American countries (This is why the editors of a Latin American newspaper enjoyed publishing a picture of former President Nixon giving the OK symbol with both hands!) When Indians receive a guest people stand up and greet him or her saying, «Namaste,» with both palms of the hands placed together and raised below the face or shaking hands. • Namaste is the most popular form of greetings in India, • For them the hands symbolize one mind. • The right hand represents higher nature • The left hand denotes worldly or lower nature.

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Chapter 4 INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE Conflict is usually defined as involving a perceived or real incompatibility of goals, values, expectations, or outcomes between two or more interdependent individuals or groups. An example of intercultural conflict can be seen between people sorting or assembly plants along the Mexican – U.S. border. Because Mexicans and U.S. Americans work alongside one another, intercultural conflict inevitably occurs. For example, some Mexican managers think that the U.S. American managers are rude in their dealings with each other and with the workers. While both Mexican and U.S. American managers have common goals, they also have some different expectations and values, which leads to conflict. The Mexican managers expect the U.S. American managers to be more polite and to value harmony in their relationships. The U.S. American managers expect the Mexicans to be more direct and honest and not to worry so much about the «face» and feelings of other managers and workers. These conflicts have roots in the history of U.S. – Mexican relations, a history characterized by economic and military domination on the part of the United States and by hostility and resentment on the part of Mexico. There is often a great deal of ambiguity in intercultural conflicts. We may be unsure of how to handle the conflict or of whether the conflict is seen in the same way by the other person. And the other person may not even think there is a conflict. However when we encounter ambiguity, we quickly resort to our default style of handling conflict – the style we learned in our family. If your preferred way of handling conflict is to deal with it immediately but you are in a conflict with someone who prefers to avoid it, the conflict may become exacerbated as you both retreat to your preferred styles. Thus, the confronting person becomes increasingly confrontational, while the avoider retreats further. Language issues may be important ones. Language can sometimes lead to intercultural conflict, and it can also be the primary vehicle for solving intercultural conflict. When you don’t know the language well, it is very difficult to handle conflict effectively. At the 74

same time some silence is not necessarily a bad thing. Sometimes it provides a «cooling off» period during which the participants can calm down and gather their thoughts. Types of Conflict Common categories of conflict include: 1) affective conflict; 2) conflict of interest; 3) value conflict; 4) cognitive conflict; 5) goal conflict. Affective conflict occurs when individuals become more aware that their feelings and emotions are incompatible. For example, suppose someone finds out that his or her romantic feelings for a close friend are not reciprocated. Their different levels of affection may lead to conflict. A conflict of interest describes a situation in which people have incompatible preferences for a course of action or plan to pursue. For example, one student of described an ongoing conflict with an exgirlfriend: «The conflicts always seem to be a jealousy issue or a controlling issue, where even though we are not going out anymore, both of us still try to control the other’s life to some degree. You could probably say that this is a conflict of interest». Value conflict, a more serious type, occurs when people have differing ideologies. For example, suppose that Ruben and Laura have been married for several months and are starting to argue frequently about their views on when to start their family and how to raise their children. Laura believes strongly that one parent should stay at home with the children when they are small, so she would like to wait until they have saved enough money and she can stop working for a few years. Ruben wants to have children immediately but does not want Laura to stop working; he thinks their children will do fine in day care. This situation illustrates value conflict. Cognitive conflict describes a situation in which two or more people become aware that their thought processes or perceptions are in conflict. For example, suppose that Ruben and Laura argue frequently about whether Laura’s friend Bob is paying too much attention to her. Ruben suspects that Bob wants to have sex with 75

Laura, but Laura doesn’t agree. Their different perceptions of the situation constitute cognitive conflict. Goal conflict occurs when people disagree about a preferred outcome or end state. For example, suppose that Marissa and Derek, who have been in a relationship for 10 years, have just bought a house. Derek wants to furnish the house slowly, making sure that money goes into the savings account for retirement. Marissa wants to furnish the house immediately, using money from their savings. Marissa’s and Derek’s individual goals are in conflict with each other. Assignment 14 Fill in each of the blanks with the word that best fits the sentence. Change the pat of speech when necessary. autonomy career self-reliance assert instill prevailing generations managing For women in my mother`s________________, taking care of the home and child raising were viewed as the most important functions for women. The ____________________view in society when she was growing up was that women should not work outside the home. This attitude was________________in my mother at an early age. By the time mother was 25 she had five children. Last year the youngest child left home to go to college. At that time Mom decided that she wanted to be more_____________________, more independent. Now, she is the____________of a children's de partment in a large store. Her new_________ ______in management has enabled my mother to___________________her independence and develop financial skill. She says that earning her own money and helping dad pay the bills makes her feel____________________.

STRATEGIES AND TACTICS IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS The ways in which people respond to conflict may be influenced by their cultural backgrounds. Most people deal with conflict in the 76

way they learned while growing up – the default style. Conflict resolution strategies usually relate to how people manage their selfimage in relationships. For example, they may prefer to preserve their own self-esteem rather than help the other person save face. Or they may prefer to sacrifice their self-esteem in order to preserve the relationship. Although individuals may have a general predisposition to deal with conflict in particular ways, they may choose different tactics in different situations. People are not necessarily locked into a particular style of conflict strategy. There are at least five specific styles of managing conflicts: 1) dominating style; 2) integrating style; 3) compromising style; 4) obliging style; 5) avoiding style. The dominating style reflects a high degree of concern for oneself and a low degree of concern for others, such that an individual might use forceful behavior to «win» the argument. For example, suppose that «Tom and his ex-wife, Lynn, often argue about how much child support he should give her for their children. Tom usually ends the argument by saying, «You’ll get what I give you, and that’s that» and then leaving before Lynn can say anything. This dominating style is often associated with loud, forceful expressiveness, which may be counterproductive to conflict resolution. The integrating style reflects a high degree of concern for both the self and the other person. This style involves an open exchange of information in an attempt to reach a solution that is acceptable to both parties. It is the style that involves collaboration, empathy, objectivity, recognition of feelings, and creative solutions. This style thus requires a lot of time and energy, but it is seen as most effective in most conflicts because it attempts to be fair and equitable. The compromising style reflects a moderate degree of concern for oneself and for others. This style involves sharing information such that both individuals give up something to find a mutually acceptable solution. For example, suppose that Jim likes to spend money on what his partner Donna considers frivolous things, such as fast cars and nights on the town. Donna prefers to put most of their 77

disposable income into savings for retirement. But they agree, after long hours of discussion, that Jim will contribute some of his salary to the couple’s retirement fund in exchange for being able to spend a portion of his salary in any way he wants – with no objections from Donna. Thus, they each give up something in using a compromising style to resolve the conflict. This style can be less effective than the integrating approach because people may only reluctantly give up something they value. The obliging style describes a situation in which one person in the conflict plays down the differences and emphasizes commonalities that satisfy the concerns of the other person. An obliging style may be most appropriate when one person is more concerned with the future of the relationship than with the issue at hand. For example, suppose that Jennifer hates to do housework and doesn’t help her partner, Lindsay, very much around the house. However, Lindsay doesn’t mind doing the extra work and loves Jennifer very much, so she is content to use an obliging style. This style is common in hierarchical relationships in which one person has more status or power than the other, with the person with lower status using an obliging style in conflicts. The avoiding style reflects a low degree of concern for the self and others. In the dominant U.S. cultural contexts, a person who uses this style attempts to withdraw, deny the conflict. However, in some cultural contexts, this is an appropriate strategy that, if used by both parties, may result in more harmonious relationships. For example, Amish children are taught that it’s much better to avoid conflict than to damage relationships by open conflict. From a traditional Asian perspective, obliging and avoiding styles do not have negative connotations of being passive or elusive. Thus, avoiding can be an effective way for Amish or Asians to deal with one another; but it may be less effective when they are in conflict with people who don’t share their approaches to conflict resolution. For example, Yuko, a Japanese exchange student, used an avoiding style when she had some small conflicts with two American friends while on vacation together. «We talked about what we were thinking, and they said to me «you should express more what you think». With some discussion, they solved their problem and became better friends. 78

We tend to prefer a particular conflict style in our interactions for many reasons. A primary influence is our family background; some families prefer a particular conflict style, and children come to accept this style as normal. Sometimes people try very hard to reject the conflict styles they saw their parents using. For example, suppose that Lauren’s parents argued loudly when she was growing up, and her mother often used a controlling style of conflict management. Lauren has vowed she will never deal with conflict that way with her own children and has tried very hard to use other ways of dealing with conflicts when they do arise in her family. It is important to recognize that people deal with conflict in a variety of ways and may not have the same reasons for choosing a certain style. Assignment 15 Choose the word that best defines the italicized word. 1. The elderly are beginning to demand rights for themselves. a. parents c. aged b. couples d. children 2. Her peers were her worst critics. a. students c. teachers b. equals d. parents 3. The glorification of youth has created negative feelings toward the elderly. a. happiness c. creation b. education d. adoration 4. What should be done about the citizens' indifference to the international situation? a: lack of interest in c. lack of agreement about b. lack of knowledge of d. lack of understanding of 5. New students trying to meet friends on crowded campuses often feel alienated. a. ignorant c. alone 79

b. awkward d. poor 6. Only 5 percent of the workers, a small segment of the company, voted in the last election. a. office c. line b. part d. department 7. Close family ties help children feel secure. a. homes c. relationships b. bows d. circles 8. Working mothers have obligations to the family. a. needs c. expectations b. responsibilities d. compromises 9. Communal living works best for people who have similar beliefs. a. communistic c. independent b. individualistic d. group

GENDER, ETHNICITY AND CONFLICT Our gender and ethnicity may influence how we handle conflict. Men and women in the United States seem to have different communication styles. These different ways of communicating sometime lead to conflict and can influence how men and women handle conflict. The problem area involves what is known as «trouble talk». For example, women typically make sympathetic noises in response to what a friend says, whereas men may say nothing, which women interpret as indifference. Or women commiserate by talking about a similar situation they experienced, whereas men follow rules for conversational dominance and interpret this as stealing the stage. And in telling stories, men tend to be more linear, whereas women tend to give more details and offer information, which men interpret as an inability to get to the point. 80

Men and women also talk about relationships in different ways. Women may express more interest in the relationship process and may feel better simply discussing it. But men are more oriented toward problem solving and may see little point in discussing something if nothing is identified as needing fixing. How does ethnic background affect the way males and females deal with conflict? In one study, when African Americans, Asian Americans, White Americans, and Mexican Americans were asked to describe how they dealt with conflicts they had had with a close friend, they gave different kinds of answers. African American males and females generally said they used a problem-solving approach (integration style). One respondent said: «I told him to stay in school and that I would help him study». Another explained: «We decided together how to solve the problem and deal with our friend». White males and females generally seemed to focus on the importance of taking responsibility for their own behavior. Males mentioned the importance of being direct, using expressions like «getting things in the open» and «say right up front». Females talked about the importance of showing concern for the other person and the relationship and of maintaining situational flexibility. One woman explained: «She showed respect for my position and I showed respect for hers». By contrast, Asian Americans generally used more conflict-avoiding strategies than did White Americans. Mexican American males and females tended to differ in that males described the importance of talking to reach a mutual understanding. One man wanted to «make a better effort to explain»; another said that he and his partner «stuck to the problem until we solved it together». Females described several kinds of reinforcement of the relationship that were appropriate. In general, males and females in all groups described females as more compassionate and concerned for feelings, and males as more concerned with winning the conflict and being «right». In any case, it is important to remember that, while ethnicity and gender may be related to ways of dealing with conflict, it is inappropriate and inaccurate to assume that any person will behave in a particular way because of his or her ethnicity or gender. 81

MANAGING INTERCULTURAL CONFLICT BECOMING MORE INTERCULTURAL What happens when there is conflict in intercultural relationship? One option involves distinguishing between productive and destructive conflict in at least four ways. First, in productive conflict, individuals or groups try to identify the specific problem; in destructive conflict, they make sweeping generalizations and have negative attitudes. For example, in an argument, one shouldn’t say: «You never do the dishes», or «You always put me down in front of my friends». Rather, one should state the specific example of being put down: «Last evening when you criticized me in front of our friends, I felt bad». Second, in productive conflict, individuals or groups focus on the original issue; in destructive conflict, they escalate the conflict from the original issues and anything in the relationship is open for reexamination. For example, guests on talk shows discussing extramarital affairs might start by citing a specific affair and then expand the conflict to include any number of prior arguments. The more productive approach would be to talk only about the specific affair. Third, in productive conflict, individuals or groups direct the discussion toward cooperative problem solving («How can we work this out?»); in destructive conflict, they try to seize power and use threats and deception («Either you do what I want, or …»). Finally, in productive conflict, individuals or groups value leadership that stresses mutually satisfactory outcomes; in destructive conflict, they polarize behind single-minded and militant leadership. In many political conflicts, such as those in the Middle East, people seem to have fallen into this trap, with leaders unwilling to work toward mutually satisfactory outcomes. Intercultural competence is the degree to which an individual is able to exchange information effectively and appropriately with individuals who are culturally dissimilar. Individuals vary widely in their ability to communicate with culturally unalike others. The purpose of most research, training, and teaching in the field of intercultural communication is to improve the intercultural competence of individuals. One of the most important skills for 82

cultural competence is the ability to suspend our assumptions about what is «right». The greater the range of alternatives to which we are exposed, the more choices we have for deciding what makes sense for us. Knowing another culture gives you a place to stand while you take a good look at the one you were born into. Anthropologists are taught to be nonjudgmental about cultural differences. Even though they may study a culture that has sexual practices considered bizarre by European/North American standards, anthropologists seek to understand the functions fulfilled by these sexual practices from the point of view of the culture in which they occur. We live in a world that is increasingly diverse in a cultural sense. Large cities, for example, have diverse population. Improved communication technologies and transportation make intercultural contact increasingly common. This trend will continue in the future; the «global village» becomes more real every day. If individuals could attain a higher degree of intercultural competence, they would become better citizens, students, and so forth. Society would be more peaceful, more productive, and become a generally more attractive place in which to live. Individuals would be better able to understand others who are unlike themselves. Through such improved understanding, a great deal of conflict could be avoided, the world would be a better place. If you want to become more interculturally experienced you should learn about individuals unlike yourselves, make friends with them, take vacations in other nations (go on student exchanges, study at foreign universities). Contacts with culturally different people provide an opportunity to become more interculturally competent, but they do not guarantee it. Our ability to learn from other individuals depends on our ability to overcome the barriers of culture. Willingness to expand one’s skills to include intercultural communication is an essential first step in overcoming barriers to intercultural communication. Intercultural contact in many cases leads an individual to become more ethnocentric, prejudiced, and discriminatory. Even when we are aware of the barriers that make intercultural communication particularly difficult, we may mistakenly attribute problems to other people rather than examining our own skills or lack of them. Misunderstandings are as likely to result 83

from intercultural contact as are understandings. Thus one of the most important barriers to intercultural competence is ethnocentrism. Assignment 16 Choose the correct word form for each sentence. Make verb tense changes, make nouns singular or plural, and use active or passive voice as applicable. 1. (to) impose, imposition, imposing a. Her domineering father continually_____________________his will on his daughter. b. Albert Einstein, one of the world's greatest scientists, was an _____________________figure in physics. c. The unexpected guests who «dropped by» were an ____________________ on the busy man's time. 2. prescribed, prescription, (to) prescribe a. Several ____________________ for medicine were given to the patient. b. Some offices have__________________rules for proper dress and behavior. c. The medical student was not authorized______________________ medicine because he hadn't received his degree. 3. (to) preserve, preservation, preservative a. The mummies in the pyramids of Egypt have been ____________________ for many years. b. Chemicals are used as____________________in food. c. Environmental groups are devoted to the_____________________of wild animals in danger of becoming extinct. 4. professional, professionally, profession a. Although she had played tennis for only five years, she was already a____________________ . b. A social worker's _____________________ is demanding but re warding. c. The office worker was competent_____________________, but she wasn't well-liked.

ETHNOCENTRISM Ethnocentrism is the degree to which other cultures are judged as inferior to one’s own culture. Ethnocentrism can lead to racism and sexism. Racism categorizes individuals on the basis of their external physical traits, such as skin color, hair, facial structure, and eye shape, leading to prejudice and discrimination. Sexism is the assignment of characteristics to individuals on the basis of their sex, such that the genders are treated unequally. In many cultures, the female gender is treated as inferior and subjected to prejudice and discrimination. 84

How can ethnocentrism, racism and sexism be decreased or eliminated? Decreasing ethnocentrism is usually not just a matter of increased information but rather one of bringing about an emotional change on the part of the individuals involved. Greater contact between unalike individuals may be one means to lessen ethnocentrism. Many individuals study other national cultures or travel to visit them because they think that closer contact will help them toward better understanding of an unalike culture. However, the nature of such intercultural contact is an important determinant of whether such travel decreases or increases ethnocentrism toward the culture that is visited. Many tourists who visit another culture for a brief period, often without knowing the language, become more ethnocentric toward that culture. Language competence, contact over a lengthy period of time, and a more intense relationship with members of the foreign culture (such as through close personal friendships) can help decrease ethnocentrism. The key is that only positive contacts produce positive feelings about another culture. The various elements of a culture are integrated so that each element generally makes sense in light of the other elements. When a stranger encounters only one cultural, independently of the other elements, it may seem exotic, unusual. Only when the outside observer experiences and understands all the cultural elements, does that culture make sense. This level of cultural understanding can be achieved more fully if an individual has fluency in the language that is spoken and has had extended personal contact. Only then can the stranger perceive all of the elements of an unfamiliar culture and understand that the totality is coherent. The nature of contact also applies to the case of ethnocentrism toward another religion, race, or any outgroup within one’s own society. Just as most individuals have only limited, and socially distant, contact with foreigners. Direct, personal (one-on-one) contact with an unalike other can decrease ethnocentrism. More individuals today have the opportunity to meet people from another culture. Frequently the reasons for increased contact are related to studying or working abroad. The special cultural patterns created, shared, and learned by individuals who have lived in a culture other than their own have been termed «third culture». Someone who was born in the United States and then lived in India 85

has a third culture experience in common with another individual who was born in Japan and then sojourned in Mexico. Most people learn the third culture as adults when they sojourn abroad. Their children may learn the third culture by accompanying their parents on the sojourning experience. Third culture young people have much in common and, in fact, often marry each other. Third culture individuals are unusually tolerant and understanding of cultural differences. They are less likely to think in terms of borders between ingroups and outgroups. Some individuals have a third culture from birth. Biracial children, for example, can often operate effectively within each of their parents’ cultures and can connect the two. Biracial people, who never leave their home nation, have a third culture. In the United States, the number of interracial marriages is increasing, as is the number of multiracial children. Today there are more than two million people of mixed racial ancestry in the United States; this number may be a substantial underestimate. Ethnocentric attitudes are firmly entrenched in cultural norms and thus are extremely difficult to change. Change is not, however, impossible. One means of decreasing ethnocentrism is intervention through training. There are courses designed to help individuals understand the nature of their ethnocentric beliefs. Intercultural communication training must be highly experiential in order for it to increase intercultural competence. Thus intercultural communication courses often use simulation games, exercises, videos, and other types of learning in which another culture can be experienced by the learner. In other words, if intercultural communication training is to have an effect on individuals’ behavior, the unalike culture must be experienced. One cannot just talk about intercultural communication. One has to do it. The variable of ethnocentrism versus ethnorelativism is marked by a series of stages through which an individual may pass. 1. A denial of cultural differences, in which there is little contact with unalike others. 2. An evaluative defense against understanding cultural differences, because they may be threatening to one’s view of the world. An individual may say, «I don’t want to understand what those people think. They are so different from us». 86

3. A minimization of cultural differences, through which cultural similarities are stressed. 4. The acceptance of cultural differences, which are acknowledged and understood. 5. The adaptation of one’s thinking and behavior to cultural differences. 6. The integration of cultural differences into one’s own worldview, so that one’s identity is both a part of, but apart from, the different culture, and a new «third culture» perspective replaces the native culture perspective. NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES. ANXIETY A second challenge in intercultural relationships is negative stereotyping. As we have already discussed, stereotypes are a way of categorizing and processing information, but they are particularly detrimental when they are negative and held rigidly. Sometimes it takes work to get individual information, information that can counteract the stereotype. An African American professor describes the beliefs and stereotypes about White people passed along to her in her family: (1) White people are often violent and treacherous; (2) White people probably have some kind of inferiority complex, which drives them to continually «put down» Blacks and anyone else who is not White; (3) White men are usually arrogant; (4) White women are lazy; and (5) there are some good White people, but they are the exception. More important, she goes on to describe how she did not let these stereotypes become a «prison» that determined how she felt about herself or all White people. And because of her open-mindedness, her beliefs changed and her reliance on stereo-types decreased. She learned that race was not a predictor of intelligence, but that income and opportunity were. She learned that all people, regardless of color, deserve to be treated with dignity and respect. And she made definite choices about how to relate to others and about the importance of having a variety of friends, not just African Americans. A third challenge in intercultural relationships involves overcoming the increased anxiety commonly found in the early stages of the relationship. (Some anxiety always exists in the early stages of 87

any relationship.) This anxiety stems from fears about possible negative consequences of our actions. We may be afraid that we will look stupid or will offend someone because we're unfamiliar with that person's language or culture. For example, our student Sam has a lot of friends who speak Spanish at home, and he has studied Spanish for five years in high school and college. But when he visits with his friends` families, he`s often anxious about speaking Spanish with them. He`s afraid he`ll say something stupid or reveal his ignorance in some way. Differences of age are not usually cause for discomfort, but relationships that span differences in physical ability, class, or race may engender more anxiety. The level of anxiety may be even higher if people have negative expectations based on previous interactions or on stereotypes. For example, some White and African American students seem to have more difficulty discussing intercultural issues with each other than they do with international students, perhaps because of negative stereotypes held by both groups. By contrast, intercultural interactions in which there are few negative expectations and no history of negative contact probably have less anxiety associated with them. For example, one student tells of traveling to New Zealand as an 18year-old on a sports team. He had no negative preconceptions about New Zealanders and no real language barrier. While he experienced a little anxiety at the beginning, he quickly found similarity with people he met, and it was «truly an unforgettable experience.» Assignment 17 First choose the correct word for the definitions. Then fill in the blanks in Definitions the sentences below the definitions. Note: You may have to change the grammatical form of the word placed in the sentence. heterogeneous trends breakdown racial estimated adaptation assimilate shifts inevitable heritage 88

1. that which is handed down from one's ancestors or the past (e.g., culture, tradition) ___________________ The ancient rituals for marriage were part of a rich cultural _______________ . 2. certain to happen, unavoidable ____________________ He didn't shady for the exam and it was_________________that he would fail. 3. directions or movements ____________________ The latest_____________________in entertainment are disco and ballroom dancing. 4. pertaining to or typical of a race ___________________ In some countries passport forms request information about one's ___________________or ethnic background. 5. a gradual change or adjustment in behavior to the environment When people travel abroad, it is sometimes difficult for them to ____________________to new foods and customs. 6. to be absorbed into the cultural tradition of a group________________ New immigrants who____________________too quickly into a new culture may become confused about their identities. 7. failure to function ____________________ The communication____________________between father and son was due to their political differences. 8. changes of direction ____________________ Whenever the teacher called on the student, he___________________ his position in his chair. 9. mixed; with varied composition ____________________ The_____________________class had students from 16 countries. 10. approximated ____________________ The policeman____________________the speed of the automobile to be 85 miles per hour.

ASSIMILATION AND ACCULTURATION Assimilation is the degree to which an individual relinquishes an original culture for another. When individuals are assimilated into a mainstream culture, they lose their previous culture. The assimilation process usually occurs as an immigrant gradually learns the language of the host culture, forms friendships with a network of host nationals rather than with fellow immigrants, becomes increasingly exposed to the mass media of the host nation, and gradually cuts ties and identification with the original homeland. This assimilation process may occur over two or more generations. Some cultures resist any acculturation into the host society even after many, many generations. Examples in the United States are Orthodox Jews and 89

the Old Order Amish, who maintain their original culture. The Gypsies are another example. Native Americans have suffered greatly from attitudes toward «strangers» and from earlier concerted efforts to bring about their assimilation. We have read briefly about the forced marches to reservations where Native Americans were isolated from the society that took their lands but rejected the people. Labels such as the «Five Civilized Tribes» were applied to the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole because of their strong cultural heritage, Christian influences, and «cooperation» with relocation efforts. In 1953 Congress passed House Concurrent Resolution 108 to terminate aid and protection to Native Americans. The belief was that Native Americans should leave tribal identities behind and assimilate into the general population. The only concrete results of the policy to assimilate were more lands lost by Native Americans. Acculturation is the process through which an individual is socialized into a new culture while retaining many aspects of a previous culture. In contrast to assimilation, the acculturated individual becomes a mixture of two or more cultures. The process of acculturation incorporates similar stages as the stranger modifies some aspects of the original culture, retains others, and adopts some of the norms of the new culture. Acculturation involves a less complete integration of an individual into the host culture than does assimilation. TYPES OF MIGRANT GROUPS Migration may be long term or short term and voluntary or involuntary. A migrant is an individual who leaves the primary cultural contexts in which he or she was raised and moves to a new cultural context for an extended period. For instance, exchangestudents’ sojourns are relatively short term and voluntary, and these transitions occur within a structured sociopolitical context. In contrast, the experience of being forced to relocate because of an unstable sociopolitical context would make the sojourn a long-term one. Cultural transitions may vary in length and in degree of voluntariness. We can identify four types of migrant groups based on these criteria (See Table 2). 90

Table 2 Four types of migrant groups Motivation for Migration Voluntary Immigrant

Short-Term Duration Sojourners Short-term refugee

Long-Term Duration Involuntary (Forced) Long-term refugee

VOLUNTARY MIGRANTS There are two groups of voluntary travelers: sojourners and immigrants. Sojourners are those travelers who move into new cultural contexts for a limited time and a specific purpose. They are often people who have freedom and the means to travel. This includes international students who go abroad to study and technical assistance workers, corporate personnel, and missionaries who go abroad to work for a specific period. Some domestic sojourners move from one region to another within their own country for a limited time to attend school or work (e.g., Native Americans who leave their reservations). Another type of voluntary traveler is the immigrant. Families who voluntarily leave one country to settle in another exemplify this type of migrant. Although many U.S. Americans believe that most immigrants come to the United States in search of freedom, the truth is that the primary reason people come to the United States is to join other family members; two other primary reasons are for employment and to escape from war, famine, or poverty. There is often a fluid and interdependent relationship between the countries that send and those that receive immigrants. Countries like the United States welcome working immigrants, even issuing special visas and developing programs (such as the bracero program of the 1940s between the United States and Mexico) during times of economic prosperity. Currently, only five major countries officially welcome international migrants as permanent residents: the United States, Canada, Australia, Israel, and New Zealand. Altogether, these countries accept 1.2 million immigrants a year, a small percentage of the estimated annual global immigration – and these countries can quickly restrict immigration during economic downturns. However, most migrants who move to another country are not accepted family members of migrants may be trapped in the home country, unable to join the rest of the family in the new home country. 91

There are two kinds of migrant labor: cheap manual labor and highly skilled intellectual labor. Newly industrializing countries need trained labor for routine and repetitive tasks, and also newly rich countries and individuals are in need of domestic services. Ehrenreich and Hochschild (2003) label this recent pattern of female migration a «worldwide gender revolution» in their book Global Woman. They describe how millions of women from poor countries in the south (Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India) migrate to do the «women’s work» of the north (North America, Europe, and the Middle East) – work that middle-and upper-class women are no longer able or willing to do. For example, Mexican and Latin American women are the domestics for U.S. women; Asian migrant women work in British homes; North African women work in French homes; Turkish women in German homes; Filipinas work in Spain, Italy, and Greece; and Filipino, Indian, and Sri Lankan women travel to Saudi Arabia to work. Ehrenreich and Hochschild raise many issues concerning this migration, one of which is who is taking care of the nanny’s children. Most of these women leave their own children to care for the children of their employer. More and more people are moving temporarily. Overseas study options are increasing, and today some 40% of Australia’s skilled migrants are drawn from the overseas student cohort, with similar trends in Canada, the United States, and Europe. A core principle of the 27 countries who belong to the European Union (EU) is «freedom of movement,» meaning that an EU national may travel to another EU member state and live, study, or work on an equal basis with nativeborn residents. For example, a French worker who applies for a job at Volkswagen in Germany must be treated just like a German applicant and can complain if a private employer discriminates in favor of local workers. INVOLUNTARY MIGRANTS As shown in Table 2, two types of migrants move involuntarily: long-term refugees and short-term refugees. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, there were 9.9 million refugees in 2006, the highest in four years. Most refugees are from developing countries and flee to other nearby developing countries. 92

For example, in 2006, the highest numbers of refugees came from Afghanistan and Iraq and the countries who hosted the largest numbers of refugees were their neighboring countries, Pakistan and Iran. In Africa, conflict between the Muslim north and the Christian south of Sudan moved refugees to Chad, Kenya, and other neighboring countries. Similarly, in Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, internal conflicts have sent refugees fleeing over the last decade. At the start of 2006, there were an estimated 23.7 million «internally displaced people» (IDP) worldwide – people who migrate involuntarily within their own country, usually because of civil war or famine – many from Africa (Sudan, Somalia, and Liberia), the former Soviet Union (Azerbaijan, Russia, Georgia), the former Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), and Iraq and Afghanistan. Most refugees, whether they have migrated domestically or internationally, want to return home as soon as possible, and an unprecedented number have done just that in the last four years – an estimated 6 million. In 2004, almost a million Afghanis and 200,000 Iraqis returned to their homes. A student, Naida, describes how her family fled Bosnia to become refugees and then immigrants in the United States: During the year 1992, civil war erupted in my home country, Bosnia. Overnight my life shifted from a peaceful existence to fear, persecution, and anxiety. My family and I were forcefully taken to a concentration camp, where we witnessed the blind rage of mankind expressed through physical and mental abuses, humiliation, destruction, rapes, and killings. Six months later, we were among the 5,000 people released. We returned home to fight for simple survival. At the age of 16, I found myself spending my days planning ways for my family to escape. My family and I were again forced from our home and experienced three years of uncertainty, fear and anger. The life we knew and had taken for granted was abruptly changed by others’ political agendas. Having our basic human rights violated was the experience that literally changed my life. There are also cases of domestic refugees who are forced, for short or indefinite periods, to move within a country. Examples include the Japanese Americans sent to internment camps during World War II; the Cherokees forcibly removed in 1838 from their 93

own nation, New Echota, to Oklahoma (the devastating Trail of Tears); and the Mormons, who fled the East and eventually settled in Utah and elsewhere in the West. Populations also relocate temporarily because of natural disasters, such as hurricanes or floods. This mass migration of refugees presents complex issues for intercultural communication, pointing to the importance of the relationship between the migrants and their host cultures. Assignment 18 First choose the correct word for the definitions. Note: You may have to change the grammatical form of the word used in the sentence. elated immersion exaggerate enthusiasm transplanted conversely aromas abroad scorn beset bewilderment vacillate deprived 1. to trouble; to worry _________________________ There are many problems that ____________________ people in modern urban society. 2. lacking __________________________ It is difficult to be____________________of food for too long. 3. state of being surrounded _______________________ The child ____________________ himself in the cold water and began to swim quickly. 4. hold in contempt; disdain; reject ______________________ The artist was____________________because of his radical art. 5. on the other hand; in a reversed order ___________________ The professor explained the_____________________of the mathe matical equation. 6. magnify; overstate; overemphasize ____________________ I found out that his story was a complete_________________of the truth. 7. smells; odors ________________________ The hungry child's stomach growled when she smelled the delicious ____________________from the bakery. 94

8. filled with joy and happiness ________________________ The man and woman were ___________________because they were in love. 9. lifted and reset in another soil or situation _______________ The patient's family rejoiced because of his successful heart _______operation. 10. strong excitement or feeling__________________________ Students generally prefer____________________teachers. 11. beyond the boundaries of a country___________________ Traveling____________________is an enriching experience. 12. to go back and forth between two opinions; to waver, to fluctuate _________________________ The employee was criticized for___________________on an important issue. 13. the condition of being hopelessly confused ______________ Feelings of___________________in a new culture may last only a short time.

MIGRANT-HOST RELATIONSHIPS The relationships between immigrants and their hosts are very complex, and understanding these relationships requires a dialectical approach. International migration is usually a carefully considered individual or family decision. The major reasons to migrate can involve economic and/or noneconomic reasons and complex pushpull (dialectical) factors. An economic migrant may be encouraged to move by a host employer recruite – pulling him or her to migrate, or a push factor might be lack of jobs in the home country. Migrants crossing borders for noneconomic reasons may be moving to escape persecution – a push factor. One of the most important noneconomic motivations for crossing national borders is family unification – a pull factor for family migration. Once in the host country, the migrant may face a range of reactions from people there. For example, in Arizona and many other states, business interests depend on cheap labor provided by Mexican immigrants; the general economy also depends on dollars spent by immigrants. At the same time, citizens may fear the consequences of rising illegal immigration and the pressure on the medical, social, and educational systems. The immigrants may be simultaneously accepted and rejected, privileged and disadvantaged, and relationships may be both static and dynamic. These relationships have implications for intercultural communication. Migrant-host relationships exist in multiple tensions: The migrants want to cherish and retain their own culture as well as value 95

their host culture. The host culture also may be motivated to accept or reject the new migrants. Social psychologist John Berry (1992) developed a framework that considers the relationship of migrants and hosts and their attitude toward each other’s cultures, resulting in four types of relationships. When migrants value the host culture more than their own, they assimilate. When migrants value their heritage culture more than the host, they separate. When migrants value both the host and their heritage culture, they integrate, and when migrants value neither their host nor their heritage culture, they are marginalized. Of course, we must also consider the reception of the host culture toward the migrants. Scholars point out that many migrant experiences do not fit neatly into one of these four types – migrants may shift from one to the other depending on the context – resulting in a fifth mode, cultural hybridity. ASSIMILATION In an assimilation mode, the individual does not want to maintain an isolated cultural identity but wants to maintain relationships with other groups in the new culture. The migrant is more or less welcomed by the new cultural hosts. When this course is freely chosen by everyone, it creates the archetypal «melting pot». The central focus in assimilation is not on retaining one’s cultural heritage. Many immigrant groups, particularly those from Europe, follow this mode of adapting in North America. For them, assimilating may not require adjusting to new customs. The same religions dominate, eating practices (the use of forks, knives, and spoons) are the same, and many other cultural practices (clearly originated in Europe) are already familiar. However, when the dominant group forces assimilation, especially on immigrants whose customs are different from those of the host society, it creates a «pressure cooker.» This mode of relating often entails giving up or losing many aspects of the original culture, including language. A student, Rick, describes the process: I am Mexican American and I grew up in a household where we took part in cultural events, but we never discussed why we did them. I am always asked if I know how to speak Spanish. I guess people 96

ascribe this to my appearance. My parents speak Spanish fluently, as well as English, but they never taught my siblings or myself because they did not want us to have any problems when we entered school, as they did. A recent study of African Americans and Hispanic Americans showed the effects of society’s pressure on groups to assimilate. According to the study, the more experiences people had with ethnic or racial discrimination (on the job, in public settings, in housing, and in dealings with police), the less importance they assigned to maintaining their own cultural heritage. This suggests that heavy doses of discrimination can discourage retention of immigrants’ original cultural practices. SEPARATION There are two forms of separation. The first is when migrants choose to retain their original culture and avoid interaction with other groups. This is the mode followed by groups like the Amish, who came to the United States from Europe in the 18th century. They maintain their own way of life and identity and avoid prolonged contact with other groups. Many strict religious groups actively resist the influence of the dominant society. The Amish, for example, do notparticipate in U.S. popular culture; they don’t have televisions or radios, go to movies, or read mainstream newspapers or books. An important point here is that these groups choose separation, and the dominant society respects their choice. However, if such separation is initiated and enforced by the dominant society, the condition constitutes a second type of separation, segregation. Many cities and states in the United States historically had quite restrictive codes that dictated where members of various racial and ethnic groups could and could not live. For example, Oregon passed legislation in 1849 excluding blacks from the state; it was not repealed until 1926. Malcolm X’s notes that his family could not live in East Lansing, Michigan, because it was for whites only. An example of de facto segregation is the practice of redlining, in which banks refuse loans to members of particular ethnic groups. This practice perpetuates ethnic segregation. 97

Many migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean experience prejudice and discrimination as they strive to make it in the United States. For example, a recent longitudinal study shows that many of today’s Latino immigrants, in comparison to previous generations, are struggling more educationally and economically and tend to live in more segregated neighborhoods. The authors blame the loss of middle-class manufacturing jobs, prejudice fueled by the immigration debate, and a decline in public education. Some people, realizing they have been excluded from the immigrant advancement version of the melting pot by legal or informal discriminatory practices, in turn promote a separate mode of relating to the host culture. They may demand group rights and recognition but not assimilation. INTEGRATION Integration occurs when migrants have an interest both in maintaining their original culture and language and in having daily interactions with other groups. This differs from assimilation in that it involves a greater interest in maintaining one’s own cultural identity. Immigrants can resist assimilation in many ways – for example, by insisting on speaking their own language in their home. One immigrant from Ghana, Meri, describes her home: «English was spoken only in the presence of people who could not communicate in any of our languages (Ga or Twi). It wasn’t as if my parents forbade me to speak English, but if I addressed either of them in English, the response I got was always in Ga. ... My mother still insists upon conversing with me in Ga. When it appeared as though I was losing fluency, she became adamant and uncompromising about this; in her mind, to forget one’s mother tongue was to place the final sever in the umbilical cord. I do believe that she was right, but over the years I have praised and cursed her for this». Meri also describes how her family participated in other aspects of American life, such as enjoying American music: «We listened to reggae, calypso, high life, jazz and sometimes R&B. We listened to country music – Kenny Rogers and Willie Nelson». Other immigrants, like Asian Indians in the United States, maintain a strong sense of their ethnic identity by celebrating Indian 98

holidays like Navaratrı, the Hindu festival that celebrates cosmic good over evil. Communication scholar Radha Hegde (2000) describes how these kinds of celebrations provide a connection and sense of affirmation to immigrants, playing an important part in the process of redefining selfhood and establishing a sense of community in the new environment. ... To immigrants like myself, these are opportunities to enjoy being Indian and to savor the colors, clothes, tastes, and sounds of a home left behind. Migrant communities can actively resist assimilation in many ways. They may refuse to consume popular culture products (TV, radio, movies) or the fashions of the host society, often for many generations. In any case, integration depends on the openness and willingness of those in the dominant society to accept and accommodate somewhat the cultures of others. For example, an interesting debate is occurring in the multicultural city of Liverpool, England. There are currently 122 ethnic support groups, from the AfroCaribbean lunch club to a forum for Chinese diabetics, and local state-funded «faith schools» can select students according to their religious background. However, when the town was considering «women only» nights at the local swimming pools (in deference to the religious traditions of local Muslims), city officials published guidelines to restrict using public money on projects that «might unnecessarily keep people apart». The challenge for host and immigrant groups is to find the balance of «integration», somewhere between segregation and assimilation. MARGINALIZATION Marginalization occurs when individuals or groups express little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant culture or the migrant culture. This situation of being out of touch with both cultures may be the result of actions by the dominant society – for example, when the U.S. government forced Native Americans to live apart from other members of their nations. However, the term marginalization has come to describe, more generally, individuals who live on the margin of a culture, not able to participate fully in its political and social life as a result of cultural differences. For example, women from overseas who marry U.S. military men may 99

find themselves living in relatively isolated parts of the country upon their husbands’ return to the States. These women, sometimes called «war brides» become marginalized by the dominant society. They cannot find a local community of people with whom to share their native culture and language, nor can they participate in U.S. culture as a result of linguistic, cultural, and sometimes prejudicial barriers. These women may also be rejected by their husbands’ families, leading to further marginalization. CULTURAL HYBRIDITY Migrants and their family often combine these four different modes of relating to the host society – at times assimilating, other times integrating, and still other times separating, or marginalizing, forming a cultural hybridity relationship with the host culture. They may desire economic assimilation (via employment), linguistic integration (bilingualism), and social separation (marrying someone from the same group and socializing only with members of their own group), producing not the «melting pot» society where everyone was supposed to try to become the same, but rather a «salad» society, where each group retains a distinctive flavor but blends together to make up one great society. Many people in today’s world who consider themselves the product of many cultures, not easily fitting into any of the categories, are also cultural hybrids. Consider the case of Virginia: I was born in Argentina, my entire family is Argentinean, and culturally I have been raised Argentinean. Yet at age four I moved out of Argentina and only returned on vacations. I grew up in Panama until I was thirteen and then moved to California. So where does that leave me? I speak perfect English and Spanish. Physically, I can pass as Californian, Panamanian, or Argentinean. I know many people who are in my same situation. In a sense, we identify with each other. We have created our own territory, imagined, but a territory nonetheless. In some families, individual members choose different paths of relating to the larger culture. This can cause tensions when children want to assimilate and parents prefer a more integrative mode. One of the more difficult aspects of adaptation involves religion. How do immigrants pass on their religious beliefs to their children in a 100

host country with very different religious traditions? Or should they? Aporva Dave, an honors student at Brown University, was curious about this question and conducted (along with another student) a study as an honors thesis. He interviewed members of South Asian Indian families that, like his own, had immigrated to the United States. He was curious about how strictly the parents followed the Hindu religion, how strongly they wanted their children to practice Hinduism in the future, and how the children felt about following the religious practices of their parents. In general, as expected, the children had a tendency to move away from the traditional practices of Hinduism, placing more emphasis on Hindu values than on Hindu practices (e.g., prayer). Although many of the parents themselves prayed daily, most were more concerned that their children adopt the morals and values of Hinduism. The parents seemed to understand that assimilation requires a move away from strict Hindu practices. Most viewed Hinduism as a progressing, «living» religion that would change but not be lost. And many spoke of Hinduism as becoming more attractive as a religion of the future generation. However, the study also revealed that children raised in the same house could have very different attitudes toward adaptation and religion. For example, two sisters who participated in the study were raised with «moderately» religious parents who worship weekly, read religious articles, and spend much time thinking about God. One sister followed the traditions of the parents: She prays every day, spends time reading religious scriptures, and is committed to marrying a Hindi. The other sister does not practice Hinduism and places emphasis on love in making a marriage decision. These kinds of differences can sometimes make communication difficult during the adaptation process. As individuals encounter new cultural contexts, they have to adapt to some extent. This adaptation process occurs in context, varies with each individual, and is circumscribed by relations of dominance and power in so-called host cultures. READING Most misunderstanding passenger As the plane left runway, the German tourist bolted from his seat, shoving aside a flight attendant who tried to stop him He had to go to the bathroom, he later told a judge. 101

But on that January flight from Fort Lauderdale to Hanover, Germany, something got lost in the translation. «The roof is going to go!» was what the flight attendant said she heard him say, as he made a sweeping gesture with his arms as if to indicate a gigantic explosion. The plane was brought back to Fort Lauderdale, and the passenger was arrested on federal charges of interfering with a flight crew and making a bomb threat. The tourist spent nine months in jail, until a German-speaking judge released him. Apparently, The German expression «then the roof flies» is slang for having to use the bathroom. DISCUSSION 1. What was the reason for miscommunication? 2. Was the punishment fair? Why? 3. Why do language expressions like «The roof is going to go!» might become barriers in understanding messages? 4. How are such expressions called? 5. When is it proper to use them? CASE STUDY After you read the case study, discuss the major problem the case presents and answer the discussion questions with the members of the class. Not Better Late than Never Rajesh Rao, a high school graduate from Madras, India, is enrolled in English language classes at a private language school in San Francisco. He is trying to improve his English skills to the point that he can apply to a highly competitive university in the United States. ln the meantime, Rajesh, a sociable and energetic young man, is having a good time getting to know San Francisco and making friends with the other international students in his school. 102

Although Rajesh is a pretty hardworking student, lately he has been having so much fun going out to clubs and parties at night that he has had trouble getting up in the morning. His English classes begin at 9 a.m. and end at 1 p.m. every day during the week, but Rajesh has not arrived on time since the first few days. He just can`t seem to wake up early enough in the morning to catch the 8 a.m. bus from his neighborhood in Mission to his school in the North Beach area. Actually, in India Rajesh had usually arrived late to his classes, but so did some of the other students, and even the teacher was late once in awhile. It didn't matter very much, and Rajesh had received excellent grades all through high school in spite of his lack of punctuality. He also tended to be late to his social activities, but that was customary in his country. In fact, it was considered almost rude to be on time to a party. One morning at the end of the first month of classes, when Rajesh as usual entered the classroom at about 9:45 a.m., his teacher, Mr. Kent, looked at him with annoyance and said, «Well, if it isn't Mr. Rao». Rajesh laughed and started to apologize for being so late, but Mr. Kent interrupted him by saying: «Better late than never is an expression we use for people who aren't punctual, but I don`t really agree with that saying». Rajesh was upset by Mr. Kent`s remark and sat down quickly in his seat. After class, Mr. Kent asked Rajesh if he could come to his office at 3:00 that afternoon to discuss a few things. Rajesh said he would be there, and then he went to meet several friends who were eating lunch at a nearby Italian restaurant. The time passed so quickly that it was 3:15 before Rajesh looked at his watch. «Oh, no, I'm supposed to be at Mr. Kent's office!» he exclaimed, leaving some money on the table and rushing out of the restaurant. When Rajesh knocked on Mr. Kent's door at 3:30, he was slightly worried about how Mr. Kent would react, and he apologized for being late. Mr. Kent just smiled politely and told Rajesh that his lack of concern about being late to class was becoming a serious problem. «Well», answered Rajesh, «I live quite far from school, so I have to take the bus, and you can never rely on the buses. Sometimes 103

they're right on time and sometimes they're late. But I`ll do my best to be on time to class from now on». «I certainly hope so», said his teacher, «because according to the rules of the school, if a student is continually late, we lower the grade. I'd hate to have to do that». That night, Rajesh attended a big party that continued into the early hours, and the next morning he again arrived late to class. This time he tried to sneak into the room during the break so his teacher would not notice him. Unfortunately, Mr. Kent ran into him at the door and gave him a dark look. «Late again, I see», he said to Rajesh. «This is going to affect your grade, as I told you yesterday». «But why should it matter if I'm late as long as I do all the work and get good marks on my tests?» asked Rajesh with annoyance. «I don't understand why being on time is so very important». Mr. Kent frowned and answered impatiently, «That's the way it is here, and these are the rules, so you`d better get used to it if you plan to study in the States. Maybe you need a course in time management to get your priorities in order. School should come first, you know». That evening Rajesh thought about how angry Mr. Kent had seemed and how hard it was to get to class on time. This whole misunderstanding about punctuality was really confusing to him and rather depressing. If his good work on the tests and homework didn't make any difference in how h s teacher treated him, he might as well quit going to school. Or maybe he should look into other language schools in San Francisco and even in other cities. They couldn`t all have this strict policy about such a minor matter. DISCUSSION 1. What does being late to classes and appointments reveal about a student's attitude? 2. List Rajesh`s priorities in order of importance (1 = most important). 3. What is Rajesh's attitude toward coming to class late? 4. What is Mr. Kent's attitude toward students who come to class late? 104

5. Did Mr. Kent give Rajesh a good explanation for his insistence on punctuality? 6. How honest was Rajesh when he gave his teacher an explanation for his lateness? 7. How can Mr. Kent convince Rajesh of the importance of being on time? 8. Should Rajesh change his behavior? Explain your answer. DISCUSSION In your culture, how would you react if:  someone arrived early for work? Exactly on time? 20 minutes late? One hour late?  a train arrived at the station earlier than expected? Exactly on time? 20 minutes late? One hour late?  a guest arrived for dinner 15 minutes earlier than invited? Precisely at the time specified by the host? 20 minutes late? One hour late? Here are some American expressions that have to do with time. Which statements match up with which of these American values about time? American Values – Time is money. – Time is a limited resource. – Time is a valuable commodity. English expressions – Do you have any time to spare? – Thank you for giving me your time. – The plane lost time due to the strong prevailing winds. – There isn`t enough time to do that now. – How did you spend your free time? – I need to put aside some time to catch up on my correspondence. – Don`t waste my time making excuses. – She`s investing a lot of time in her new job at the bank. What are some common Russian/Kazakh expressions that reflect our society`s ideas about time? 105

BUILDING INTERCULTURAL SKILLS 1. What kinds of personal power do you invoke with your labels? 2. Do you know how many language groups were represented in your institute? 3. Is it true to your opinion that when we lose languages we lose cultures? 4. As the use of e-mail and Internet chat rooms increases, certain communication styles will probably become more important because of the unique kind of communication involved in such text-based media. What is the preferred style for e-mail and computer-mediated communication? 5. Practice expanding your language repertoire in intercultural situations. When you speak with others whose first language is different from yours, speak more slowly, use easy-to-understand words and simple sentences, avoid slang. 6. Meet in small groups with other class members and come up with a list of general labels used to refer to people from other countries who come to Russia as immigrants. For each label, identify a general connotation (positive, negative and mixed). Discuss how the connotations of these words may influence our perceptions of people from other countries. 7. Standards of beauty vary widely across cultures, but people with the most symmetrical faces are more likely to be considered beautiful across cultures, regardless of supposed racial or cultural markers of beauty. Is beauty truly in the eye of the beholder? 8. Why do you think nonverbal communication is so necessary before (and after) we have the ability to communicate verbally? 9. Become more conscious of your nonverbal behavior in intercultural encounters. Practice your encoding skills. You can do this by noting the nonverbal behavior of others – their facial expression, gestures, eye contact. Check to see if their nonverbal communication is telling you that they understand or misunderstand you. 10. Choose a cultural space that you’re interested in studying. Visit this space on 4 different occasions to observe how people interact there. Focus on eye contact and personal space. Based on 106

your observations, list some rules about proper nonverbal behavior in this cultural space. CULTURAL NOTES The adjustment process in a new culture: (1) Honeymoon period. Initially many people are fascinated and excited by everything new. The visitor is elated to be in a new culture. (2) Culture shock. The individual is immersed in new problems: housing, transportation, shopping, and language. Mental fatigue results from continuously straining to comprehend the foreign language. (3) Initial adjustment. Everyday activities such as housing and shopping are no longer major problems. Although the visitor may not yet be fluent in the language spoken, basic ideas and feelings in the second language can be expressed. (4) Mental isolation. Individuals have been away from their family and good friends for a long period of time and may feel lonely. Many still feel they cannot express themselves as well as they can in their native language. Frustration and sometimes a loss of self-conidence result. Some individuals remain at this stage. (5) Acceptance and integration. A routine (e.g., work, business, or school) has been established. The visitor has accepted the habits, customs, foods, and characteristics of the people in the new culture. The visitor feels comfortable with friends, associates, and the language of the country. Some institutions in society are changing in order to help the family maintain close bonds. In some jobs pregnant women have «maternity leave» allowing them up to six months off the job with pay. Recently some jobs have been granting short «paternity leave» to men whose wives have delivered babies. In this way the man can take care of the house and child as the woman is recovering from delivery.

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FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE The final exam consists of objective questions (multiple choice, true/false, identifications, matching) and essay questions. Note here that this exam will cover all the readings, lectures, discussions, and videos since the beginning of the semester. KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS

                                

Anglocentrism Dialogical approach Diversity Diaspora Ethnocentrism Identity tourism Melting pot Collectivistic cultures Individualistic cultures Critical approach Interpretive approach Social science approach Ethnography Etic Intercultural competence Culture Contact cultures Cultural space Assimilation Adaptation Culture shock Marginalization Migrants Separation Sojourners Transnationalism Non-contact cultures Communication Paralanguage Context Cultural values Identity Ascription 108

                 

Discrimination Ethnic identity Gender identity Religious identity Hyphenated Americans Interpellation Majority identity Minority identity Prejudice Racial identity Stereotypes Culture industries Encoding Popular culture Avoiding style Compromising style Dominating style Integrating style

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LECTURES, READINGS, DISCUSSIONS, VIDEOS, AND PRESENTATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

What are the six imperatives for studying intercultural communication? How does technology affect intercultural communication? How have the origins of the study of intercultural communication in the United States affected its present focus? How did business and political interests influence what early intercultural communication researchers studied and learned? How have other fields contributed to the study of intercultural communication? What are the advantages of a dialectical approach to intercultural communication? How is culture a contested site? What is the relationship between identity and communication? What are some of the ways in which we express our identities? How does being white affect one’s experience in the United States? What are some of the ways in which members of minority cultures and majority cultures develop their cultural identities? What does ‘dynamic identity’ mean? What are the implications of such a concept? Why is a dialectical view of identity more comprehensive and effective in understanding identity processes? Examine the issues of racism, stereotypes, identity, and minority representation featured in the documentary «In Whose Honor?» Reflect on one field report presentation (other than your own): what did you learn from this presentation? What did you find particularly enlightening and compelling about this intercultural experience? What are some of the messages that we communicate through our nonverbal behaviors? How do cultural spaces affect our identities? What role does power play in determining our cultural spaces? What is the importance of cultural spaces in intercultural communication? Why does culture shock occur to people who make cultural transitions? What is the role of communication in the cultural adaptation process? How do relations of power and dominance affect adaptation? How do the choices you make about what forms of popular culture to consume influence the formation of your cultural identity? How does the portrayal of different cultural groups by the media influence intercultural interactions with those groups? Provide specific examples to support your argument. How is the development of intercultural relationships different from that of intracultural relationships? What are the advantages of taking a dialectical perspective on intercultural relationships? 110

27. Discuss the concepts of ‘culture shock’ and ‘intercultural relationships’ in connection with the documentary «God Grew Tired of Us.» How did the ‘lost boys’ of Sudan adapt to the American cultural space and environment? What adjustments did they have to make in their daily relationships with Americans? 28. How does the ‘conflict as opportunity’ orientation differ from the ‘conflict as destructive’ orientation? 29. Why is it important to understand the context in which intercultural conflict occurs? 30. Discuss the different kinds of conflict in the film «East Is East.» 31. What are some general suggestions for dealing with intercultural conflict? 32. How does your own social position (gender, class, age, etc.) influence your intercultural communication competence? Does this competence change from one context to another?

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GLOSSARY ACCULTURATION Deriving from the word culture, the term ‘acculturation’ indicates the processes of transformation and adaptation which take place within cultures when two or more groups – each of which has specific cultural and behavioral models – enter into relations with one another. ADAPTATION A process of reconciliation and of coming to term with a changed socio-cultural environment by making «adjustments» in one`s cultural identity. It is also a stage of intercultural sensitivity, which may allow the person to function in a bicultural capacity. In this stage, a person is able to take the perspective of another culture and operate successfully within that culture. The person should know enough about his or her own culture and a second culture to allow a mental shift into the value scheme of the other culture, and an evaluation of behavior based on its norms, rather than the norms of the individual`s culture of origin. This is referred to as «cognitive adaptation», in which the person can produce behaviors appropriate to the norms of the second culture. Adaptation may also refer to patterns of behavior which enable a culture to cope with its surroundings. AMBIGUITY The degree to which a communication message has many possible meanings to its receivers. ASSIMILATION A process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are «absorbed» into an established larger community. If a child assimilates into a new culture, he/she gives up his/her cultural values and beliefs and adopts the new cultural values in their place. Originates from a Piagetian term describing a person`s ability to comprehend and integrate new experiences. BELIEFS A term for an individual`s representations of the outside world. BILINGUAL The general sense of this term – a person who can speak two languages – provides a pre-theoretical frame of reference for linguistic study, especially by sociolinguistics, and by applied linguistics involved in foreign- or second-language teaching; it contrasts with monolingual. BORROWING A term used to refer to a linguistic form taken over by one language or dialect from another; such borrowings are usually known as «loan words» (e.g. restaurant, bonhomie, chagrin, which have come into English from French), and several types have been recognized. Less commonly, sounds and grammatical structures may be borrowed, e.g. the pronunciation of the above loan words with a French or quasi-French accent, or the influence of English grammar often found in European languages, e.g. using an English plural –s for a noun, as in drinks, goals, girls. COGNITION The various mental processes used in thinking, remembering, perceiving, recognizing, classifying, etc. COLLECTIVISM One of the most fundamental ways in which cultures differ is in the dimensions of individualism versus collectivism. Collectivists interact closely and are interdependent. They are best encouraged by appealing to their group spirit and by requesting cooperation. Persons in individualistic cultures are motivated by stressing individual competition. 112

COMMUNICATION A fundamental notion in the study of behavior, which acts as a frame of reference for linguistic and phonetic studies. Communication refers to the transmission and reception of information between a soutce and a receiver using a signaling system: in linguistic contexts, source and receiver are interpreted in human terms, the system involved is a language, and the notion of response to the message becomes of crucial importance. In theory, communication is said to have taken place if the information received is the same as that sent: in practice, one has to allow for all kinds of interfering factors, or «noise», which reduce the efficiency of the transmission. One has also to allow for different levels of control in the transmission of the message: speakers` purposive selection of signals will be accompanied by signals which communicate «despite themselves», as when voice quality signals the fact that a person has a cold, is tired/old/male, etc. The scientific study of all aspects of communication is sometimes called communication science: the domain includes linguistic and phonetics, their various branches, and relevant applications of associated subjects. Human communication may take place using any of the available sensory modes (hearing, sight, etc.), and the differential study of these modes, as used in communicative activity, is carried on by semiotics. A contrast which is often made, especially by psychologists, is between verbal and non-verbal communication to refer to the linguistic v. the non-linguistic features of communication (facial expressions, gestures). COMPETENCE A term used in linguistic theory, and especially in generative grammar, to refer to speakers` knowledge of their language, the system of rules which they have mastered so that they are able to produce and understand an indefinite number of sentences, and to recognize grammatical mistakes and ambiguities. It is an idealized conception of language, which is seen as in opposition to the notion of performance, the specific utterances of speech; the Saussurean distinction between langue and parole is similar, but there are important differences between the definitions of competence and langue. According to Noam Chomsky, linguistics before generative grammar had been preoccupied with performance in a corpus, instead of with the underlying competence involved. As a general conception, this distinction has been widely accepted, but there has been criticism from linguists who feel that the boundary between the two notions is not as clear-cut as their definitions would lead one to believe. There are problems, often, in deciding whether a particular speech feature is a matter of competence or performance. A particularly strong line of criticism emerged in the notion of communicative competence, which focuses on the native-speakers` ability to produce and understand sentences which are appropriate to the context in which they occur – what speakers need to know in order to communicate effectively in socially distinct settings. Communicative competence then, subsumes the social determinants of linguistic behavior, including such environmental matters as the relationship between speaker and hearer, and the pressures which stem from the time and place of speaking. If speakers have tacit awareness of such communicative constraints, it is argued, then a linguistic theory ought to aim to provide an explicit account of these factors, in so far there are systematic within a community, and not restrict itself to the analysis of structure in purely formal terms. This view has received a 113

wide measure of acceptance, but to date relatively little progress has been made over the question of how to model this broader conception of competence in precise terms. CONCEPT The fundamental unit of knowledge central to categorization and conceptualization. Concepts inhere in the conceptual system, and from early in infancy are redescribed from perceptual experience through a process termed perceptual meaning analysis. This process gives rise to the most rudimentary of concepts known as an image schema. Concepts can be encoded in a languagespecific format know as the lexical concept. While concepts are relatively stable cognitive entities they are modified by ongoing episodic and recurrent experiences. CONTACT A term used to refer to a situation of geographical continuity or close social proximity between languages or dialects. The result of contact situations can be seen linguistically, in the growth of loan words, patterns of phonological and grammatical change, mixed forms of language, and a general increase in bilingualism of various kinds. In a restricted sense, language are said to be «in contact» if they are used alternately by the same persons, i.e. bilinguals. CONTENT The general sense of this term – referring to the meaning of an expression – is found pre-theoretically in linguistics, but some linguists have given it a technical status, by analyzing language into two major dimensions, distinguishing a content plane from an «expression plane». More specifically, some approaches to word classification recognize a class of content words or contentives, defined as words which have stateable lexical meaning – the majority of words an the language, in fact, apart from the few function words, whose role is primarily to express grammatical relationship. Alternative terms include lexical and full words. In semantic studies of demonstratives and indexicals, the term is often used to designate the meaning of an expression relative to a particular pragmatic context; it contrasts with character. CONTEXT As a comprehensive concept in communication theory «context» refers to all elements of a communicative situations: the verbal and non-verbal context, the context of the given speech situation and the social context of the relationship between the speaker and hearer, their knowledge, and their attitudes. CULTURAL CLASH The conflict that occurs between two or more cultures when they disagree about a certain value. CULTURAL IDENTIFICATION A term used to refer to the degree to which an individual considers himself/herself to be a representative of a particular culture. CULTURE SHOCK A state of distress and tension with possible physical symptoms after a person relocates to an unfamiliar cultural environment. This term was used by social scientists in the 1950s to describe the difficulties of a person moving from the country to a big city, but now the meaning has changed to mean relocating to a different culture or country. DECODING The process by which a message is converted into an idea by the receiver. When decoding a speech utterance, the listener must: hold the utterance in short term memory; analyze the utterance into segments and identify clauses, phrases, and other linguistic units; identify the underlying propositions and illocutionary meaning. 114

DIALECT A variety of a language, spoken in one part of a country, or by people belonging to a particular social class, which is different in some words, grammar, and/or pronunciation from other forms of the same language. Sometimes a dialect gains status and becomes the standard variety of a country. DIFFUSION A term is used for the increased use of a language or linguistic form throughout an area over a period of time. Specifically, the theory of lexical diffusion explains the way a sound change moves through the vocabulary of a language, emphasizing that it spreads differentially and gradually through the words to which it applies, and not in an «across-the-board» manner at a uniform rate. Some speakers introduce a change into their speech before others; some use it more frequently and consistently than others; and some words are affected before others. DISCOURSE Verbal or written texts that extend beyond the level of a single sentence are referred to by linguists as discourse. Discourse is expressed in a wide diversity of forms or genres. For instance, informal conversation, narration, short and lengthy written texts, jokes, riddles, poems, gossip, and formal speeches are all considered to be forms of discourse. DIVERSITY The concept of diversity means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing individual differences along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. EMPATHY The term used to refer to the action of understanding, being aware of, being sensitive to, and vicariously experiencing the feelings, thoughts, and experience of another of either the past or present. ENCODING The process of turning a message into a set of symbols, as part of the act of communication. In encoding speech, the speaker must: select a meaning to be communicated; turn it into linguistic form using semantic systems, and phonological systems. Different systems of communication make use of different types of symbols to encode messages. ENCULTURATION The process whereby an established culture teaches an individual its accepted norms an values, by establishing a context of boundaries and correctness that dictates what is and is not permissible within society`s framework. Enculturation is learned through communication by way of speech, words, action and gestures. The six components of culture learnt are: technological, economic, political, interactive, ideological and worldview. ETHNIC GROUP A set of people who share a common culture that is usually based on a common nationality or language. ETHNOCENTRISM The term indicating the tendency of members of an ethnic group to privilege their group above all others and to judge outsiders according to the group`s own values and ideas. ETIQUETTE A term used to refer to the conduct or procedure required by good breeding or prescribed by authority to be observed in social or official life. EYE CONTACT Cultures have explicit rules regarding eye behavior such as staring, frequency of contact, and lowering the eyes. The same behavior can have different meanings in different cultures giving rise to misinterpretation. Direct eye contact can signify honesty and attentiveness or disrespect and boldness, depending on the culture. 115

GLOBALIZATION The increased contact between people of different social and linguistic backgrounds across broad swathes of geographical space. Commonly portrayed as a recent phenomenon and strongly associated with the new communication technologies. The dominance of a small number of language varieties is seen as an important factor decreasing the ethnolinguistic vitality of lesser-spoken languages worldwide. IMMIGRANTS People who come to a new country, region, or environment to settle more or less permanently. INTERGRATION The concept of integration indicates the sociological process by which divisions and heterogeneous factors within a society are overcome in order to create a new, balanced whole. INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION A term for information exchange that occurs inside of one person. LONG-TERM REFUGEES People who are forced to relocate permanently because of war, famine, and oppression. MARGINALIZATION A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual expresses little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant culture or the migrant culture. MELTING POT A metaphor that assumes that immigrants and cultural minorities will be assimilated into the U.S. majority culture, losing their original cultures. MOTIVATION A term used to refer to willingness or desire to make the effort required to reduce uncertainty in intercultural interaction. MULTICULTURALISM A term referring to the recognition that several different cultures can exist in the same environment and benefit each other. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION The nonverbal behavior through which a person communicates; behavior in this sense includes gestures, facial expressions, tone to voice, dress, body language, and the rituals one observes. NORMS A term used to refer to the established behavior patterns for the members of a social system. PERCEPTION The way in which an individual gives meaning to an object. RECEIVER A term referring to the individual who decodes the communication message by converting it into an idea. SEGREGATION The policy or practice of compelling groups to live apart from each other. SELF-DISCLOSURE The degree to which an individual reveals personal information to another person. SEPERATION A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual retains his or her original culture while interacting minimally with other groups. Separation may be initiated and enforced by the dominant society, in which case it becomes segregation. SEXISM The assignment of characteristics to individuals on the basis of their sex, so that the gender are treated unequally. SHORT-TERM REFUGEES People who are forced for a short time to move from their region or country. STEREOTYPE Generalization of a culture`s prevailing characteristic, giving rise to a preconceived idea of the group or individual. 116

SOJOURNERS People who move into new cultural contexts for a limited period of time and for a specific purpose, such as for study or business. TABOO (1) A prohibition against touching, saying, or doing something for fear of immediate harm from a supernatural force. (2) A prohibition imposed by social custom or as a protective measure. VALUES All the behaviors, opinions and mindsets serving as a reference and principle for a group of individuals. WORLDWIEW A term referring to the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing natural philosophy, fundamental existential and normative postulates, values, emotions, and ethics.

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CONTENT INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1. THE STUDY OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION............................................................................... 4 Understanding communication ................................................................. 5 Explaining communication ........................................................................ 7 What is culture? ......................................................................................... 11 Culture’s components ................................................................................ 14 Integrating communication and culture ..................................................... 17 READING ................................................................................................. 22 CASE STUDY ........................................................................................... 24 Chapter 2. THE CONCEPTS OF CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION............................................................................... 27 Gender identity .......................................................................................... 28 Age identity ............................................................................................... 29 Racial and ethnic identity .......................................................................... 29 Physical ability identity ............................................................................. 30 Religious identity ....................................................................................... 31 Multicultural identity ................................................................................. 31 Cultural clash ............................................................................................. 32 Collectivistic versus individualistic cultures .............................................. 34 Initial contact and uncertainty among strangers ......................................... 37 Interpersonal and intrapersonal communication ........................................ 39 READING ................................................................................................. 42 CASE STUDY ........................................................................................... 43 Chapter 3. VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION............................................................................... 47 Code-switching .......................................................................................... 47 Turn-taking ................................................................................................ 48 Self-disclosure ........................................................................................... 49 Content versus relationship ........................................................................ 50 Listening .................................................................................................... 52 Cultural variations in language .................................................................. 54 Nonverbal communication ......................................................................... 56 Body movements ....................................................................................... 59 Comparing verbal and nonverbal communication ..................................... 67 READING ................................................................................................. 69 CASE STUDY ........................................................................................... 72 Chapter 4. INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE ................................ 74 Strategies and tactics in conflict situations ................................................ 76 Gender, ethnicity and conflict .................................................................... 80 118

Managing intercultural conflict becoming more intercultural .................... 82 Ethnocentrism ............................................................................................ 84 Negative stereotypes. Anxiety ................................................................... 87 Assimilation and acculturation .................................................................. 89 Types of migrant groups ............................................................................ 90 Voluntary migrants .................................................................................... 91 Involuntary migrants .................................................................................. 92 Migrant-host relationships ......................................................................... 95 Assimilation ............................................................................................... 96 Separation .................................................................................................. 97 Integration.................................................................................................. 98 Marginalization .......................................................................................... 99 Cultural hybridity....................................................................................... 100 READING ................................................................................................. 101 CASE STUDY ........................................................................................... 102 GLOSSARY ............................................................................................. 112

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Educational issue

DIPLOMACY AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Educational-methodical manual Compiler Aksholakova Аssem Zhaksybekovna Computer page makeup and cover designer: U. Abdikaimova

IS No.10402 Signed for publishing 02.02.17. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 8.37 printer’s sheet. Edition 100. Order No.246 Publishing house «Qazaq university» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq university» publishing house

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