Dictionary and Introduction to Global Environmental Governance 9781849770996, 1849770999, 9058097048

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Dictionary and Introduction to Global Environmental Governance
 9781849770996, 1849770999, 9058097048

Table of contents :
Content: Dictionary and Introduction to Global Environmental Governance
Copyright
Contents
List of Tables
Acknowledgments
Biographies
Preface to the Second Edition
Foreword
Introduction
Part One Global Environmental Governance: An Essay
Global Environmental Governance: An Essay
Part Two A Dictionary of Selected Terms, Concepts, Jargon, Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in Global Environmental Governance
Sources Used to Develop the Dictionary and List of Acronyms
Dictionary
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Bibliography
Appendix 1: Selected Intergovernmental Environmental Agreements. Appendix 2: Principles and Values of Global Environmental GovernanceAppendix 3: Major Civil Society Alternative Agreements
Appendix 4: Documenting Governance
Appendix 5: Random Definitions.

Citation preview

Dictionary & Introduction

toGLO BAL

ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE

Richard E. Saunier • Richard A. Meganck

Further praise for the D ictio n a ry and Introduction to G lo b a l Environm ental G o v e rn a n c e ‘W o rd s m a tte r - th ey tra n sfo rm id eas in to a c tio n . T h is p o w e r o f c o m m u n ic a tio n is am p lified w ith a c o m m o n v o cab u la ry . S a u n ie r a n d M e g a n c k ’s a m b itio u s g lossary m ak es a v a lu a b le c o n trib u tio n to e n h a n c in g th e p o te n tia l o f g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ta l a g re e m e n t.’ E liz a b e th D o w d e s w e ll, F o r m e r E x ecu tiv e D irecto r, U N E P ‘S a u n ie r a n d M e g a n c k h av e z e ro e d -in o n o n e o f th e m o st c o n fo u n d in g issues re lated to G lo b a l E n v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e : la n g u a g e a n d m o st im p o rta n tly its c o n te x t. T h is b o o k will b e c o m e th e “yellow p a g e s ” fo r stu d e n ts a n d p ra c titio n e rs alike, assisting th e m in b e c o m in g “ flu e n t” in th e w ays o f G E G a n d e n v iro sp e a k .’ J a m e s G u s t a v e S p e t h , D e a n , Y a le S c h o o l o f F o r e s t r y , F o r m e r A d m in istra to r o f U N D P ‘T h is b o o k h elp s clarify th e step s n e e d e d to o v erco m e a m a jo r o b stacle to w a rd s m e a s u ra b le p ro g re ss o n th e goals set by g o v e rn m e n ts: c la rity o f p u rp o s e .’ A m b a s s a d o r J a ck V a u g h n , F o u n d in g C h a ir m a n , C o n s e r v a tio n In te rn a tio n a l ‘U n lik e th e w o rld o f G E G , w h ich b o rd e rs o n ch ao s, this b o o k c o n ta in s a p ro fo u n d ly u n a m b ig u o u s m essage, w ith p ro se th a t b o rd e rs o n th e p o e tic .’ D r R o b in R o s e n b e r g , D a n te B. F a sc e ll N o r th -S o u th C en ter, U n iv e r sity o f M ia m i ‘F inally a v o lu m e th a t d a re s to tak e o n th e c o m p le x ch allen g e o f G lo b a l E n v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e a n d , in th e p ro cess, su cceed s in m o b ilizin g th e sch o larsh ip n e ce ssa ry to in tro d u c e th e su b jec t in a w ay th a t is b o th c o m p re h e n sib le a n d e n g ag in g . B ravo g e n tle m e n !’ D r N o e l B r o w n , F o r m e r H e a d o f U N E P U SA O ffic e ‘T h e b o o k is full o f e x tre m e ly useful in fo rm a tio n th a t stim u late s th in k in g , a n d o p e n s new av en u es for rc sc a rc h , p o licy fo rm a tio n a n d a c tio n s in G lo b a l E n v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e .’ A m b a s s a d o r V icen te S á n ch ez

D ic tio n a ry a n d In tro d u c tio n to G lo b a l E n v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e

To K e n to n R . M iller: critic, co lleag u e, m en to r, friend.

Dictionary and Introduction to Global Environmental Governance R i c h a r d E. S a u n i e r a n d R i c h a r d A. M e g a n c k

laaianmaBiiaiBi London • Sterling, VA

F ir s t p u b li s h e d b y E a r t h s c a n in th e U K a n d U S A in 2 0 0 7 C o p y rig h t © R ic h a rd E. S a u n ie r a n d R ic h a rd A. M eg an ck , 2007 All rights reserved. N o p a rt o f this p u b lic a tio n o r th e in fo rm a tio n c o n ta in e d h ere in m ay b e rep ro d u ced , sto red in a retrieval system , o r tra n sm itte d in an y form o r by any m eans, clcctronic, m ech a n ic a l, by p h o to co p y in g , reco rd in g o r o therw ise, w ith o u t the w ritten p rio r p erm issio n from th e publisher. A lth o u g h all carc is tak en to en su re the in teg rity a n d q u ality o f this p u b licatio n a n d the in fo rm a tio n h e re in , no responsibility is assu m ed by th e p u b lish ers n o r th e a u th o rs for any d am ag e to p ro p e rty o r p erso n s as a result o f o p e ra tio n o r use o f th e p u b licatio n a n d /o r the in fo rm a tio n c o n ta in e d h erein . T h is book w as originally p u b lish e d in 2004 by A .A . B alk em a P ublishers, a m e m b e r o f T ay lo r & F rancis G ro u p pic, L o n d o n , U K u n d e r th e title: C.H.A.O.S.S.: An Essay and Glossary fo r Students and Practitioners o f Global Environmental Governance. ISB N 90 5809 704 8 (hardback), IS B N 90 580 9 705 6 (paperback). T h e view s expressed in this boo k a rc those o f th e a u th o rs a n d do n o t necessarily reflect the policies o f U N E S C O o r U N E S G O -1 H E , th e ir E xecutive o r G o v ern in g B o ard s o r th e M e m b e r States. IS B N -13: 9 7 8-1 -8 4 4 0 7 -4 2 5 -9 (hardback) T ypeset by Safehouse C reativ e P rin te d a n d b o u n d in th e U K by B ath Press, B ath C over design by Y vonne B ooth For a lull list o f p u b licatio n s please co n tac t: E arth scan 8 12 C a m d e n H ig h S treet L o n d o n , NVVl 0 JH , U K Tel: + 4 4 (0 )2 0 7387 8558 Fax: + 4 4 (0 )2 0 7387 8998 E m ail: earth in fo @ c a rth sc a n .c o .u k W eb: w w w . e a r t h s c a n . c o . u k 22883 Q uicksilver D rive, Sterling, VA 20 1 6 6 -2 0 1 2 , U S A E a rth sc a n is an im p rin t o f Ja m e s a n d Ja m e s (Science Publishers) L td a n d publishes in association w ith th e In te rn a tio n a l In stitu te for E n v iro n m en t a n d D ev elo p m e n t A catalogue rec o rd for this bo o k is available from the B ritish L ib rary L ib rary o f C o n g re ss C atalo g in g -in -P u b licatio n D a ta Saunier, R ic h a rd E. [C .H .A .O .S .S .] D ictionary' a n d in tro d u ctio n to glo b al e n v iro n m en tal g o v ern an ce / R ic h a rd E. S a u n ie r a n d R ic h a rd A. M eg an ck . p. cm . “ O rig in ally p ublished: L eiden ; L o n d o n : A.A. B alkcm a, 2004, u n d e r the title C .H .A .O .S .S . : an essay a n d glossary for stu d en ts a n d p ra c titio n e rs o f global en v iro n m en tal go v ern an ce. ISB N 1 3 :9 7 8 I 84407 425 9 (hardback) ISB N 10:1 8 4 407 4 2 5 -0 (hardback) 1. E n v iro n m e n ta l responsibility In te rn a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n D ictionaries. 2. E n v iro n m e n ta l p o lic y -in te rn a tio n a l c o o p eratio n D ictio n aries. 3. G lobalizatio n E n v iro n m en ta l aspects D ictionaries. 4. E n v iro n m e n tal m a n a g e m e n t In te rn a tio n a l co o p e ra tio n —D ictionaries. I. M eg a n c k . R ic h a rd A lb ert. II. T itle. H C 7 9 . E 5S 2 6 7 5 2007 3 33.703 dc22 200 6 1 0 04 7 3 T h is p u b licatio n is p rin te d o n F S C -certified a n d totally chlorine-free p ap er. F S C (the Forest S tew ard sh ip C ouncil) is an in te rn a tio n a l netw ork to p ro m o te responsible m a n a g e m e n t o f th e w o rld ’s forests.

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Contents List o f Tables Acknowledgments Biographies Preface to the Second Edition Foreword Introduction

viii ix x xii xiv xvi

P art O n e G lo b a l E n v ir o n m e n ta l G o v ern a n ce: An E ssa y

1

G lo b a l E n v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e : A n E ssay

3

P art T w o A D ic tio n a r y o f S elected T e r m s, C o n c e p ts, J a r g o n , A c r o n y m s a n d A b b r e v ia tio n s U s e d in G lo b a l E n v iro n m en ta l G o v ern a n ce

39

S o u rces U se d to D ev e lo p th e D ic tio n a ry a n d List o f A c ro n y m s

41

D ic tio n a ry

47

A c ro n y m s a n d A b b re v ia tio n s

288

B ib lio g rap h y

364

A p p e n d ix 1: A p p e n d ix 2: G o v e rn a n c e A p p e n d ix 3: A p p e n d ix 4: A p p e n d ix 5:

S elected In te rg o v e rn m e n ta l E n v iro n m e n ta l A g re e m e n ts P rin cip le s a n d V alues o f G lo b a l E n v iro n m e n ta l M a jo r C iv il S o c ie ty A lte rn a tiv e A g re e m e n ts D o c u m e n tin g G o v e rn a n c e R a n d o m D efin itio n s

375 378 399 402 407

List of Tables 1 2

C o n te x ts in w h ic h the w o r d ‘e n v i r o n m e n t ’ is d e fined C I D I E m e m b e r in stitu tio n s ’ in te r p r e ta tio n s o f the issues r e q u i r in g t r e a tm e n t as a n ‘e n v ir o n m e n ta l p r o je c t'

16 18

Acknowledgments W h a t is w ritte n h e re is n o t new a n d th e id eas have b e e n d e b a te d , a c k n o w l­ ed g e d , criticized , su p p o rte d , d a m n e d a n d p ra ise d by a lo n g list o f co lleag u es a n d m e n to rs, m o st o f w h o m w e still c o u n t as friends. O v e r th e y ears, in a g re a t v a rie ty o f m e etin g s, bus c o m m u te s, lo n g flights, c h e a p b a rs a n d , in ­ creasingly, in ex p en siv e h o tels, as w ell as on hillsides a n d m o u n ta in tops, th e faces a n d n a m e s h av e p re tty m u ch stay ed th e sam e. In th e b e g in n in g th e c o n v ersatio n s w ere o f c o n se rv a tio n a n d th e p u sh fo r w ild e rn ess legislation, th e n c a m c th e in te n se in te re st in ‘th e e n v iro n m e n t’ a n d d e b a te s o n su s ta in ­ able d e v e lo p m e n t a n d now, o n e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e . T h ro u g h o u t it all th e re w as p le n ty o f h elp fu l c ritiq u e a n d su p p o rt a n d w e w o u ld be rem iss if w e d id n o t a t least a c k n o w led g e th e v alu e o f th e c o m m e n ts a n d criticism s o f the m o st im p o rta n t. T h u s , in n o p a rtic u la r o rd er, su b je c t m a tte r, level o f im p o rta n c e o r a g re e m e n t, w e ow e a d e b t o f th a n k s to th e follow ing in d iv id u ­ als: A rth u r H e y m a n , K e n to n M iller, J o s h u a D ick in so n , A xel D o u ro je a n n i, B oris U tria , C h ris M cK ay , D ia n n e W o o d , G ilb e rto G a llo p in , A riel L ugo, J a m e s N a tio n s , J o a n n e M a rtin -B ro w n , J u a n Jo se C a s tro -C h a m b e rla in , K irk R o d g ers, B rian T h o m s o n , M a r g a re t C a tle y -C a rls o n , L a rry H a m ilto n , A a ro n Wolf, J o h n P. B en o , E liz a b e th D o w d esw ell, L id ia B rito, P eter Ja c o b s , Luis B o jo rq u ez, M a n u e l R a m ire z , M a rtin G o e b e l, M ic h a e l F reed, D a v id M u n ro , N o el B ro w n , P ab lo G o n z a le z , N e a l B andlow , th e late P e te r T h a tc h e r, R i­ c h a rd S a n d b ro o k , Y ad ira S o to , R o b e rt G o o d la n d , Ilo n a V an d e r W e n d o n , S te p h e n B en d er, T e d T rz y n a , W a lte r V erg a ra , W illiam Possiel, R a lp h Daley, Y o lan d a K a k a b a d s e a n d Silvio O liv ieri. C o m m e n ts fro m sev eral rev iew ers trig g e re d sig n ifican t ch a n g e s in th e tex t w hile o th e rs p ro v id e d us w ith n ec e ssa ry e n c o u ra g e m e n t. T h e se in clu d e A m b a ss a d o r Ja c k V au g h n (US), A m b a ss a d o r L uigi R . E in a u d i (U S), A m ­ b a ss a d o r M ic h a e l K in g (B arb ad o s), A m b a ss a d o r V ice n te S a n c h e z (Chile), A n d ra s S zollosi-N agy, A n d re a M e rla , G u s S p e th , A lfred D u d a , B a rt S ch u ltz , A n to n io R cngifo, C ris tin a G o n z a le z , E w o u d K ok, L a u ra K w ak a n d P eter S tro o , Jo y e e ta G u p ta , L en B erry, M a n th a M e h a lis, M o h a m e d T. El-A shry, R ick S ch u lb erg , R o b in R o se n b e rg , T o d d B ald w in a n d T o m Lovejoy. W e u sed a g re a t m a n y in d iv id u a l a n d in stitu tio n a l so u rces to b u ild th e glossary a n d list o f acro n y m s. W e a p p re c ia te th e ir w o rk a n d th ey a re n a m e d o n p ag es 4 1 -4 6 . Finally, w e o n c e a g a in w a n t to th a n k o u r sp o u ses G ayle S a u n ie r a n d Jan e t O . M e g a n c k fo r th e ir su p p o rt a n d love th ro u g h 30 y ears o f frien d sh ip b e tw e e n o u r fam ilies.

Biographies R I C H A R D E . S A U N I E R , P h D w as th e S e n io r E n v iro n m e n ta l M a n a g e ­ m e n t A d v iso r in the D e p a rtm e n t o f R e g io n a l D e v e lo p m e n t a n d E n v iro n ­ m e n t o f th e O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S ta tes from M a rc h 1975 u n til his re ­ tire m e n t in D e c e m b e r 1996. F rom 1970 to 1975, he h e ld sta ff p o sitio n s w ith the U S P eace C o rp s in P arag u ay , P eru a n d W a sh in g to n , D C a n d , d u rin g 1 9 6 7 -1 9 6 9 , he w as v isitin g p ro fe sso r o f fo restry a t th e U n iv e rs id a d A u stra l de C h ile in V aldivia, C h ile. H e h old s d e g ree s from C o lo ra d o S ta te U n iv ersity (BSc) in fo restry a n d ra n g e m a n a g e m e n t, a n d from th e U n iv e rsity o f A riz o n a (M S c, P h D ) in ra n g e eco lo g y a n d w a te rs h e d m a n a g e m e n t. H is in te re sts a n d re c e n t e x p e rie n c e a re in e n v iro n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t p o licy a n d p ro g ra m e v alu a tio n a n d in th e id e n tific a tio n a n d m e d ia tio n o f re so u rc e use conflicts. T o g e th e r w ith R ic h a rd A . M e g a n c k , h e is th e c o -e d ito r o f The Bottoms Up o f International Development, p u b lish e d by In fin ity P u b lish in g in 2 0 0 2 , Conserva­ tion o f Biodiversity and the N ew Regional Planning p u b lish e d by th e O A S a n d th e IU C N in 1995, a n d C .Ii.A .O .S.S.: An Essay and Glossary fo r Students and Practi­ tioners o f Global Environmental Governance p u b lish e d by A .A . B alk cm a P u b lish ers in 2004. rs a u n ie [email protected] c o m c a s t.n e t R I C H A R D A. M E G A N C K , P h D is th e R e c to r o f U N E S C O - I H E In stitu te for W a te r E d u c a tio n in D elft, T h e N e th e rla n d s. P rio r to his a p p o in tm e n t in T h e N e th e rla n d s in 2 0 0 3 , D r M e g a n c k w as th e D ire c to r o f S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t a n d E n v iro n m e n t at th e O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates. H is c a re e r sp an s 30 y e a rs in in te rn a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t a n d th e m a n a g e m e n t o f n a tu ra l reso u rces in b o th th e U n ite d N a tio n s a n d In te r-A m e ric a n system s, d u rin g w hich tim e he h a s u n d e rta k e n m o re th a n 4 0 0 te c h n ic a l a n d a d m in ­ istrative m ission s to 105 c o u n trie s th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld . H e h o ld s BS a n d M S d e g rees from M ic h ig a n S tate U n iv e rsity in n a tu ra l re so u rc e d ev e lo p m e n t p olicy a n d w a te rs h e d m a n a g e m e n t a n d a P h D from O re g o n S ta te U n iv ersity in n a tu r a l re so u rce m a n a g e m e n t. H e h a s p u b lish e d m o re th a n 90 articles a n d th re e books. D r M e g a n c k b e g a n his p ro fessio n al c a re e r as a facu lty m e m b e r in the C ollege o f F o restry a t O re g o n S ta te U n iv e rsity a n d serv ed as a U S P eace C o rp s V o lu n te e r in C o lo m b ia , S o u th A m e ric a in 1971 1972. r. m e ga n [email protected] u n esco-ih e .o rg K E N T O N R . M I L L E R . P h D h a s h e ld th e h ig h e st p o sitio n s in in te r n a tio n ­ al co n se rv a tio n . B eg in n in g in 1976, he served seven y ears as C h a irm a n o f I U C N ’s W orld C o m m issio n o n P ro te c te d A reas. F rom th e re he w as elec ted to be D ire c to r G e n e ra l o f IU C N w h e re h e serv ed five y ears. In 1982 D r M iller w as S e c re ta ry G e n e ra l o f th e 3 rd W o rld N a tio n a l P arks C o n g ress in B ali, In d o n e s ia . As W R I ’s D ire c to r o f th e B iological R eso u rce s P ro g ra m , he le a d th e co o p e ra tiv e p ro je c t b e tw e e n U N E P , IU C N a n d W R I, w h ich

Biog raph ies

d ev elo p e d th e Global Biodiversity Strategy, la u n c h e d a t th e 4 th W o rld Parks C o n g re ss in C a ra c a s, V en e zu e la , in 1992. F ollow ing his P h D stu d ies at th e S tate U n iv e rsity o f N ew Y ork, C olleg e o f F orestry a n d E n v iro n m e n ta l S c i­ ences, h e b e g a n his c a re e r as a field re s e a rc h e r a n d p o s t-g ra d u a te e d u c a to r in C e n tra l a n d S o u th A m e ric a u n d e r th e au sp ice s o f FA O , w hich p ro v id e d h im w ith th e o p p o rtu n ity to p ra c tic e w ild la n d m a n a g e m e n t a n d n a tio n a l p a rk p la n n in g th ro u g h o u t th e reg io n . S u b seq u en tly , his c o n se rv a tio n a c tiv i­ ties c a rrie d him to all c o n tin e n ts in c lu d in g A n ta rc tic a . L ater, as A ssociate P ro fesso r a t the S ch o o l o f N a tu ra l R eso u rces, U n iv e rsity o f M ic h ig a n , he e stab lish ed th e C e n te r fo r S tra te g ic W ild la n d S tu d ies. U n til his re tire m e n t D r M ille r w as V ice P re sid e n t for In te rn a tio n a l C o n se rv a tio n a n d D e v e lo p ­ m e n t, a t th e W R I. In 2 0 0 1 , he w as ag a in elec ted to c h a ir I U C N ’s W C P A for a fo u r-y e a r te rm . H e is re c ip ie n t o f th e G o ld e n A rk a w a rd , a n d an H o n o ra ry D o c to ra te from th e In te rn a tio n a l U n iv e rsity in C o sta R ic a . J O Y E E T A G U P T A . P h D h a s B a c h e lo rs’ d e g re e s in e c o n o m ic s (D elh i U n i­ versity) a n d law (G u ja ra t U niv ersity ), In d ia , a M a s te r’s d e g re e in law from H a rv a rd L aw S ch o o l, U S a n d a P h D in law from th e V rijc U n iv e rs ite it in A m ste rd a m , T h e N e th e rla n d s. S in ce 1993, she h a s b e e n w o rk in g a t th e In sti­ tu te fo r E n v iro n m e n ta l S tu d ie s at th e F acu lty o f E a rth a n d Life S c ien ce s V rije U n iv ersiteit. S he h o ld s a p a rt-tim e p o sitio n as P ro fesso r in Policy a n d L aw o f W a te r R eso u rces a n d th e E n v iro n m e n t a t U N E S C O -I H E In stitu te fo r W a te r E d u c a tio n in D elft. D r G u p ta ’s a re a s o f ex p e rtise a rc in th e m u ltid iscip lin a ry (legal, p o litical a n d policy) analy sis o f in te rn a tio n a l e n v iro n m e n ta l a n d w a ­ te r a g re e m e n ts a n d m u lti-lev el e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e . In p a rtic u la r, h e r focus h as b e e n o n th e clim ate c h a n g e reg im e, w h ich she h a s e x a m in e d from th e N o r th - S o u th p e rsp ec tiv e a n d th e p e rsp e c tiv e o f E u ro p e . S h e h a s also lo o k ed at d o m estic im p le m e n ta tio n issues esp ecially in re la tio n to e n e rg y in B razil, C h in a , In d ia , In d o n e sia a n d K e n y a. A lth o u g h h e r a re a o f rese a rc h th u s far has b een clim ate c h a n g e , she h as b e e n te a c h in g w a te r law a n d p o li­ tics for th e last 12 y ears. Jo y e e ta G u p ta h a s p u b lish e d extensively in th e a re a o f e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e , clim a te c h a n g e a n d N o rth S o u th relatio n s. S he is E d ito r-in -C h ie f o f International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, is on th e e d ito ria l b o a rd o f sev eral im p o rta n t jo u r n a ls , a n d serves o n a n u m b e r o f in te rn a tio n a l scientific p a n e ls a n d b o a rd s. j.g u p ta @ u n e s c o -ih e .o rg

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Preface to the Second Edition For those o f you fa m ilia r w ith th e first e d itio n o f this b o o k , tw o th in g s are n o tic e a b le w h en you p ick u p this o n e: first, this v o lu m e is a g o o d b it th ic k e r a n d seco n d , it h as b e e n g ra c e d w ith a new n a m e . G iv en th e c reativ ity o f G lo ­ b al E n v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e (G E G ) w o rd sm ith s, w e k n ew th a t a seco n d e d itio n w ould ev e n tu a lly b e re q u ire d we ju s t d id n o t k n o w it w o u ld b e so soon. H ow ever, th e larg e n u m b e r o f G E G m e e tin g s h eld d u rin g th e p e rio d since th e o rig in a l p u b lic a tio n re su lte d in a few h u n d re d a d d itio n a l te rm s a n d ac ro n y m s no w in c o rp o ra te d in this e d itio n . In c lu d e d a m o n g th ese, fo r e x a m ­ ple, are th e m a n y g ro u p in g s o f c o u n trie s w h a t A lan B eattie d escrib es as th e ‘G a n g o f G s5 (G 3, G 4 , G 5 , etc.) 13 m o re th a n w e h a d in th e first ed itio n . T h a t so m a n y g ro u p in g s a p p e a r necessary, if n o th in g else, is a n in d ic a tio n th a t co m p lex ity is still a larg e p a r t o f G E G . O u r basic thesis, th a t c o m m u n ic a tio n in g e n e ra l a n d th e sp ecial la n g u a g e o f G E G in p a rtic u la r have a g re a t d e a l to d o w ith th e success o r failu re o f g o v e rn a n c e activities still h o ld s tru e . F or e x a m p le , m a n y o f th e ex p e rts in ­ volved in G E G d e lib e ra tio n s k n ew th a t th e careless ease w ith w h ic h th e te rm ‘p re c a u tio n a ry p rin c ip le ’ w as u sed w o u ld ev en tu a lly co m e b a c k to h a u n t. It d id , w ith th e resu lt th a t th e E u ro p e a n C o m m issio n felt it n e c essary to give it a 2 9 -p ag e d efin itio n , w h ich , you will be h a p p y to h ear, w e d id n o t in clu d e. As fu rth e r ev id en ce th a t w e arc n o t a lo n e in o u r c o n c e rn a b o u t th e G E G p ro c ­ ess, F ran ce re c e n tly p u b lish e d b o th th e Petit Décodeur, a d ic tio n a ry o f th e 300 0 m o st c o m m o n ly u sed a d m in istra tiv e te rm s a n d Lara, a c o m p u te r a n ti-ja rg o n sp ellch eck er.1 W h ic h b rin g s us to th e n a m e c h a n g e . In sh o rt, G E G re m a in s o n th e edge o f ch ao s b u t n o t u n d e r th e u m b re lla o f C .H .A .O .S .S . (o u r ac ro n y m C an H u m a n s a n d O th e r S p ccies Survive?). As e v id en c e o f th e fo rm er, w e see p ro b le m s in fu rth e rin g re g io n a l allian ces, th e g lo b a l th r e a t o f te rro rism a n d in c re a se d iso latio n ism in th e n a m e o f n a tio n a l security, th e n e v e r-e n d in g c ri­ ses co n fro n tin g A frica a n d th e s tu b b o rn n u m b e rs o f p e o p le w h o still survive w ith few b en efits from te c h n o lo g y o r th o se e la b o ra te d in th e M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G oals. A ll o f this h as led th e P re sid e n t o f th e U N G e n e ra l A s­ sem bly, D r J a n E liasso n o f S w e d e n ,2 to reflect o n th e ‘d im in ish e d system o f glo b al g o v e rn m e n t,’ feeling th a t ‘m u ltila te ra l c o o p é ra tio n is a t a cross ro a d s ,’ w h ich , for o u r p u rp o s e s, is a fair d efin itio n o f th e ‘ed g e o f c h a o s.’ As ev id en c e o f th e latter, w e fin d a b it o f c o n fu sio n (not u n a n n o u n c e d d u rin g th e p e e r review process) c o n c e rn in g th e a c ro n y m C .H .A .O .S .S . th a t som e felt m a d e th e b o o k ’s d istrib u tio n m o re difficult. T h e m essage c a m e in tw o p a rts: first, a few seem ed to w o n d e r how w e c o u ld p u t to g e th e r a

Preface to the Seco nd Edition

d ic tio n a ry w ith th e title m issp elled . M o st u n d e rs ta n d th a t a n a c ro n y m is n o t a w o rd b u t w e a re a w a re o f th e p ro b le m - esp ecially w h e n m isc o m m u n ic a tion m ak es th e b o o k sh o w u p on th e science a n d m a th e m a tic s shelves ra th e r th a n o n those d e d ic a te d to e n v iro n m e n t o r g o v e rn a n c e . S in ce th e p u rp o s e o f th e b o o k is to a tte m p t to re d u c e th e level o f m isc o m m u n ic a tio n , we felt it b est to m ak e th e sw itch. R .E .S. R .A .M . 5 August 2 0 0 6

N o te s 1 2

J o h n H e n le y (2005) ‘P arlez-v o u s b u re a u c r a tiq u e ? ’ The Guardian, 18 F ebruary. M ic h a e l V atikiotis (2005) ‘A tro u b le d w o rld seen from a Sw edish id y ll/ The International Herald Tribune, 10 A u g u st.

Foreword W ith g lo b a liz a tio n , a n a tio n ’s d e v e lo p m e n ta l/e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro b le m s are in creasin g ly in te r-lin k e d w ith th e e co n o m ie s a n d p olicies o f o th e r c o u n trie s as w ell as o f local c o m m u n itie s. A s su ch , g o v e rn a n c e in to d a y ’s w o rld is o r­ g a n iz e d at d iffe re n t a d m in istra tiv e levels, a n d p olicies a t all th ese levels n e e d to be closely c o o rd in a te d a n d lin k ed ; a p ro cess th a t is re fe rre d to as m u lti­ level g o v e rn a n c e . T h r e e te n d e n c ie s a re in c rea sin g ly visible, a te n d e n c y to reg u late e v e ry th in g a t a g lo b al level to c re a te h a rm o n iz e d c o n d itio n s a n d po litical viability, a te n d e n c y to ad d re ss p o licy p ro b le m s a t th e c o m m u n ity level th ro u g h sta k e h o ld e r p a rtic ip a tio n in o rd e r to achieve leg itim ac y a n d effective im p le m e n ta tio n , a n d a te n d e n c y to c re a te th e c o n d itio n s in w hich p riv a te a n d o th e r n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l a c to rs c an m o re actively p a rtic ip a te in the g o v e rn a n c e process. A lth o u g h these te n d e n c ie s c a n p u ll in o p p o site d ire c ­ tions, th e c e n tra lity o f g o v e rn a n c e th ro u g h b ila tera l, m u ltila te ra l a n d g lobal in te rsta te n e g o tia tio n s re m a in s o bvious, a n d such n e g o tiatio n s arc b e c o m in g in creasin g ly fre q u e n t as tim e passes. T h e re c e n t ch alle n g e s to th e U n ite d N a ­ tions (U N ) system by th e U S sh o u ld n o t be c o n stru e d as a w e a k e n in g o f th e p o w e r o f th e U N , b u t re c o g n itio n th a t if th e U S a cc e p ts a n d ratifies a U N a g re e m e n t, it can be h e ld a c c o u n ta b le w ith in its ow n b o rd e rs fo r n o n -im p le ­ m e n ta tio n o f th e a g re e m e n t by n o n -sta te acto rs. G iv en this reality, it is v ital th a t stu d e n ts o f in te rn a tio n a l re la tio n s a n d in te rn a tio n a l law, d ip lo m a ts a n d o th e r n e g o tia to rs a n d o b se rv e rs u n d e rs ta n d th e co n d itio n s a n d realities w ith in w h ic h g lo b a l p o licy m a k in g is u n d e rta k e n . M a n y o f th e co n fe re n c e s th a t a rc a p a r t o f this p ro cess a re a tte n d e d by m o re th a n 1000 d eleg a tes, w ith m u ltip le p le n a ry sessions a n d often d o z e n s o f n o n ­ p le n a ry sessions a n d in fo rm a l sid e-m ee tin g s. T h e te rm in o lo g y in th ese ses­ sions is in creasin g ly m o re c o m p lic a te d a n d a c ro n y m s a re fre q u e n tly used. H o w decisions a re a c tu a lly ta k e n o ften re m a in s a m y stery fo r th o se p re s e n t in th e n e g o tia tin g ro o m , since m a n y o f th e d ecisio n s a rc p re p a re d a n d p re ­ n e g o tia te d w ith a few key p a rtie s lo n g b efo re th e p le n a ry d e b a te a c tu a lly starts. T h is is also b e c a u se , a lth o u g h c o u n trie s arc officially re p re se n te d by n e g o tia to rs a n d d ip lo m ats, in m a n y o f th e m o re te c h n ic a l n e g o tiatio n s, scien ­ tists a re se n t w h o m a y be e x trem e ly w ell q u alified in th e ir o w n field, b u t are v ery ‘g re e n ’ w h e n it c o m e s to fig u rin g o u t th e in tric a c ie s o f in te rn a tio n a l n e ­ g o tiatio n . M a n y n e g o tia to rs a re o ften faced w ith a fait a c c o m p li. O n ly tho se m o re in tim a te w ith th e g lo b al p ro cess k n o w h o w in flu e n tial th e U N ru les o f p ro c e d u re are in th e p ro cess o f g lo b a l d ip lo m acy , a n d th o se w h o know how to use a n d a b u se th ese ru les effectively have c o n tro l over th e p ro cess a n d its o u tco m es. T h e realities o f n e g o tia tio n s are o ften n o t c o n sid e re d in in te rn a tio n a l relatio n s th eo ries, in te rn a tio n a l law discussions, n o r in n e g o tia tio n th eo ries. It is h ere th a t th e p re s e n t b o o k fills a v ital g ap in th e av ailab le k n o w led g e a n d in m a k in g th e w hole p ro cess m o re accessible to th e fu tu re n e g o tia to r

Foreword

a n d re s e a rc h e r o f th e in te rn a tio n a l processes. It c o m b in e s a n a b s tra c t essay discussing th e n a tu re o f th e c h ao s in g lo b al g o v e rn a n c e w ith a v ery p ra c tic a l glossary th a t im m e d ia te ly m ak es m a n y o f th e te rm s accessible a n d c o m p r e ­ hen sib le to th e o utsider. F rom an in te rn a tio n a l re latio n s p e rsp e c tiv e , m o st g lo b al d e v e lo p m e n ­ tal a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro b le m s are closely in te r-lin k e d a n d arc essentially ‘w ic k e d ’ o r ‘u n s tru c tu r e d ’ p ro b le m s th a t reflect issues w h e re th e re is p o o r a lig n m e n t b e tw e e n th e costs o f ta k in g a c tio n a n d th e b en efits fro m th e a c ­ tio n , w h e re th e scien ce is lim ite d in its a b ility to a c tu a lly a d d re ss th e issue b e c a u se o f th e h ig h level o f c o m p le x ity a n d u n ce rta in ty , a n d w h e re th e re is little o r n o a g re e m e n t o n th e u n d e rly in g v alu es th a t sh o u ld d e te rm in e h o w p ro b le m s are to be a d d re sse d . U n d e r such c irc u m sta n c e s, all g lo b al processes c a n be v iew ed as so cial le a r n in g p ro cesses a n d th e re is a n e x p e c ta tio n th a t such pro cesses w ill e v e n tu a lly le a d to p ro b le m solving. F or m a n y o f us in the social sciences, th e re is a ‘m e th o d in th e m a d n e s s.’ T h is is d esc rib e d in th e p re s e n t b o o k as the e m e rg e n c e o f p ro c e d u re s th a t flow o u t o f th e ‘ed g e o f c h a o s ’ w h e re w e n o w fin d ourselves. A g ain st this b a c k g ro u n d , th e essay in this b o o k h a s a fresh a p p ro a c h , as it e x a m in e s th e in te rn a tio n a l p ro cess from th e p e rsp e c tiv e o f th o se w ho p a rtic i­ p a te in th e in te rn a tio n a l g o v e rn a n c e pro cess. T h e c o n te x t, p ro cess, a rc h ite c ­ tu re a n d im p le m e n ta tio n o f d ip lo m a tic e n c o u n te rs arc d c sc rib c d in b r ie f b u t co lo rfu l d etail. T h e b o o k uses th e m e ta p h o r o f c h ao s to d escrib e th e in te r n a ­ tio n al a re n a w h e re few co n sen su s d efin itio n s exist, even for key te rm s su ch as su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t a n d e n v iro n m e n t, w h ere th e c o n c e p t o f ecosystem is seldom u n d e rs to o d , w h e re th e te rm eco lo g y is u sed as a n id eo lo g y ra th e r th a n as a science th a t h a s useful insights a n d w h e re a lack o f p o litical will is used as a n excuse fo r n o t g e ttin g o u r h o m e w o rk d o n e. T h e b o o k th e n refers to a d d itio n a l tools to h elp d e a l w ith th e c ritic a l c h allen g es in g lo b al e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e . T h e b o o k arg u es th a t th e lack o f p o litic al will reflects an ab sen ce o f finish ed h o m e w o rk a n d th a t th e co n se n su s is p ro b a b ly a t b est only sym bolic. It th e n d ev elo p s a stra te g y to d e al w ith this ch allen g e. T h e b o o k m ak es p le a s a n t a n d in fo rm a tiv e re a d in g , w h ich in itself is a very useful a n d re w a rd in g effort. If a t all o n e n eed s to find fa u lt in th e b o o k , it is in its c o n fid e n ce th a t o p p o sin g view s will b e ab le to u n d e rs ta n d th e te rm s a n d p ro b le m s o f o n e a n o th e r. T h is m ay so u n d stra n g e to th e social sc ie n ­ tist fo r w h o m p ro b le m s a re socially c o n stru c te d , p e rc e p tio n s are reality, a n d ‘n o r m a l’ (as o p p o se d to p o s t-n o rm a l o r p u b lic in terest) science d o es n o t have so lu tio n s for so-called ‘w ic k e d ’ p ro b le m s. O n th e o th e r h a n d , to o m u c h re la ­ tivism m a y also c lo u d o n e ’s p e rsp e c tiv e a n d a c o n fid e n t, elo q u e n tly a rg u e d p o rtra y a l o f th e g lo b al p ro b le m s c a n h elp to c lea r o n es ow n d o u b ts as to how th ese p ro b le m s are to be ad d re sse d a n d m a y h elp us p re p a re to p a rtic ip a te m o re effectively in th e in te rn a tio n a l n e g o tia tin g a re n a . Joyeeta Gupta Delft, The Netherlands 4 December 2 0 0 6

XV

Introduction There is no human failure greater than to launch a profoundly important endeavour and then leave it half done. B a rb a ra W a r d

T h e id e a for th e essay th a t follow s a n d its a c c o m p a n y in g d ic tio n a ry a n d list o f a c ro n y m s o c c u rre d to us as th e g lo b al c o m m u n ity p re p a r e d fo r th e 2002 W orld S u m m it o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t (W S S D ) a n a rd u o u s , tw o -y e ar pro cess fra u g h t w ith m isu n d e rs ta n d in g a n d a c rim o n y .1 R e a c tio n to th e S u m ­ m it o u tp u ts on ly stre n g th e n e d o u r w ish to offer s o m e th in g th a t w o u ld h elp re in v ig o ra te a p ro d u c tiv e co n v ersa tio n o n th e p ro b le m s su ffered by E a rth a n d its in h a b ita n ts. A fte r all, a t o n e tim e th e y w ere o f sufficient m o m e n t for g o v e rn m e n ts to p ay m a n y m illio n s o f d o lla rs fo r th e ir re so lu tio n . T o o u r k n o w led g e, few, if any, o f th e m h av e g o n e aw ay.2 O p in io n s c o n c e rn in g th e rele v a n ce a n d efficacy o f th e W S S D vary, o f course. As w ith th e p rev io u s w o rld m e e tin g s o f this n a tu re , som e p a rtic ip a n ts have said th a t n o t o nly d id n o th in g o f v alu e occu r, th e d ialo g u e re q u ire d for th a t to h a p p e n d id n o t ex ist.3 R e fe rrin g to th e m e e tin g s o f th e W S S D , fo r ex­ a m p le, P re s id e n t H u g o C h a v e z o f V e n e z u e la su m m a riz e d it as a ‘d ia lo g u e o f th e d e a f ’, a s ta te m e n t often re p e a te d by g o v e rn m e n ts a n d n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s (N G O s) from th e S o u th .4 In a d d itio n to a p e rc e iv e d lack o f d ialo g u e, o th e rs cite th e a ssu m e d o b stin a c y a n d fa r from satisfacto ry efforts by g o v e rn m e n ts to m e e t th e goals set a t e a rlie r su m m its o f this k in d , as well as a failure to set u rg e n t goals fo r th e fu tu re a n d p ro v id e for th o se a lre a d y e s ta b ­ lis h e d .’ O n th e o th e r side, officials o f U N ag en cies, a n d som e g o v e rn m e n ts from th e N o rth , p u b licize th e decisions to im p le m e n t Agenda 21 as signs o f success a n d a re now busily w o rk in g on a n u m b e r o f p a rtn e rs h ip s e stab lish ed to fu rth e r su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t.0 Still, in a n a c k n o w le d g m e n t th a t se ri­ ous p ro b le m s d o exist, th e U N h a s a n n o u n c e d a m o ra to riu m o n such larg e e n v iro n m e n ta l m e e tin g s.7 T h a t p ro n o u n c e m e n t, o f c o u rse , a p p lie d o n ly to the U N , a n d n o t o th e r g ro u p in g s su ch as th e W o rld W a te r C o u n c il, w h ic h , fo u r years later, sp o n so re d th e F o u rth W orld W a te r F o ru m in M e x ic o City, w h ich w as a tte n d e d by 2 0 ,0 0 0 p e o p le from 140 c o u n trie s. T h e re , th e c o n c lu ­ sion w as th a t w a te r m a tte re d a n d th a t its p ro te c tio n w as u rg en t." A c c o rd ­ in g to th e final n ew s release from th a t c o n fe re n c e . P re sid e n t J a c q u e s C h ira c , ‘...e x p re s s e d th e feeling o f u rg e n c y re la tin g to th e ch a lle n g e o f w a te r th a t ev ery o n e faces, a n d called for a collective a n d lastin g c o m m itm e n t from eve­ ry o n e .’9 W e c a n h o p e , b u t th e ‘u rg e n c y ’ su rro u n d in g m a n y o th e r issues such as clim ate c h a n g e , H I V /A I D S , n u c le a r p ro life ra tio n , energy, th e th r e a t o f p a n d e m ic diseases, th e in c re a sin g o c c u rre n c e o f c a ta stro p h ic n a tu ra l events, g en o cid e , w a r a n d e n d u rin g p o v e rty m ak e fo r a lo n g list o f u p c o m in g gov­ e rn a n c e m eetin g s b o th larg e a n d sm all.

Introduction

L ittle d o u b t exists th a t s tu b b o rn n e s s a n d b iased a tte n tio n to d a ta arc sc a ttered a m o n g th e d ip lo m a ts, scien tists a n d c o n c e rn e d citizen s w h o w ork on th e issues c e n tra l to th ese m eetin g s. M o re often th a n n o t, th o u g h , b ic k e r­ ing a n d bias h elp ex p o se th e re a l reaso n s for th e g a m u t th a t a G lo b a l E n ­ v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e (G E G ) id ea m u st ru n . T h e s e in clu d e, b u t are n o t co n fin ed to, th e c o m p le x d ifferen ces in e c o n o m ic a n d social p olicies a n d c u ltu ra l v alu es a m o n g th e n early 2 0 0 sov ereig n n a tio n s th a t c an b e c o m c in ­ volved in th e issues, th e a p p lic a tio n o f ‘so ft’ a n d ‘h a r d ’ p o w e r p re fe re n c e s by m a jo r s ta te s10 a n d th e th o u s a n d s o f N G O s th a t now h e lp to fra m e th e G E G ag e n d a . P ro v in g them selv es h elp fu l in m a n y w ays, N G O s also b rin g w ith th e m a lo n g list o f a d d e d c o n c e rn s a n d d e m a n d s for a tte n tio n .11 L ikew ise, c o r p o r a ­ tions, new ly c o n v e rte d c ith e r by co n sc ie n c e o r by eco n o m ics, a d d a n a rra y o f id eas riv alin g th e p ro d u c ts a n d services th ey m a rk e t. A larg e a n d g ro w in g n u m b e r o f d is e n c h a n te d , n o t to say d ise n fra n c h ise d , in d iv id u als a n d g ro u p s o u tsid e th e gates also now claim a voice. C a u se d as m u c h by d ifferen ces in w h a t all sides a re h e a rin g as it is a d ifferen ce in th e ir u ltim a te goals, som e o f th ese g ro u p s p re fe r d is ru p tio n to d ia lo g u e to g et th e ir p o in ts across. T h e m a k e -u p o f state d e le g a tio n s c a n also c re a te its sh a re o f d iso rd er. R a re ly are th e e c o n o m ists a n d a tto rn e y s w h o fre q u e n tly fo rm p a r t o f a d e l­ eg a tio n fully p re p a r e d to discuss bio lo g y a n d chem istry. T h e ir co lleag u es, th e ch em ists a n d biologists, by a n d larg e k n o w little o f d ip lo m a c y ; a n d , d esp ite n e a r h ero ic efforts, n o n e o f th ese g ro u p s c an fully u n d e rs ta n d a n d re c o m ­ m e n d c o m p letely effective re m ed ie s for th e v a rie ty a n d p o te n c y o f th e p r o b ­ lem s w e face. F u rth er, th o u g h p re s e n t e arly on in th e d e b a te s on in te rn a tio n a l e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t, th e th e m e s o f h u m a n rig h ts a n d p o v e rty h av e ta k e n on new w eig h t, a n d crack s in th e w all o f th o se w h o w a n t to stay fixed on ‘th e e n v iro n m e n t’ w rit as n a tu ra l reso u rce c o n se rv a tio n a n d p o llu tio n c o n ­ trol are b e g in n in g to show. For so m e, ‘su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t’ in its m an y fo rm s seem s to h av e u s u rp e d th e c o n c e rn s o f m u c h o f th e e n v iro n m e n ta l m o v e m e n t. E v en fo r th o se w h o m a y feel th a t in e q u ity a n d p o v erty a re n o t a p a r t o f th e e n v iro n m e n ta l a g e n d a , these tw o realities a lte r w h a t we c an a n d c a n n o t do. C o rrectly , th e search fo r p a th w a y s to a c c o m m o d a te th ese m a n y d iffe re n c ­ es is hig h o n th e a g e n d a o f th e d ip lo m a ts a n d sc h o la rs active in th e th em es o f G E G .IJ H ow ev er, the p ro b le m s o f e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e a t a very p ra c tic a l level c a n also lie w ith w o rd s th a t a re m isu n d e rs to o d a n d m isin te r­ p re te d as well as w ith th o se th a t are k n o w n b u t n o t h e e d e d . T h u s , in a d d itio n to th e scholarly w o rk m e a n t to e lu c id a te a n d tr e a t th e co m p le x itie s o f G E G , tools a re re q u ire d th a t c a n h e lp o rie n t a n d facilitate th e p ro d u c tiv ity o f those directly involved in n e g o tia tin g in te rn a tio n a l in s tru m e n ts a n d o f th o se w ho p re p a r e a n d re p o r t o n th e m a n y co n g resses, c o n fe re n ce s a n d o th e r m ee tin g s alo n g the way. M o re specifically, it seem s n ece ssa ry to c ra c k o p e n the closed a n d o ften co n fu sin g la n g u a g e th a t lead s to u n n e c e ssa ry co m p lic a tio n s, a n d th a t c an m ak e fo r d ecisio n s a n d n e g o tia tio n s b a se d o n p a rtia l o r m istak en in fo rm a tio n .

D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

Jarg o n a n d a c ro n y m s arc th e s ta n d a rd (an d ncccssary) la n g u a g e o f g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e . W e o ffer y o u P IC -I N C . If you h a d to say th e p h ra s e , ‘In te rg o v e rn m e n ta l N e g o tia tin g C o m m itte e fo r th e P re p a ra tio n o f th e C o n fe re n c e o f P artie s o f th e R o tte rd a m C o n v e n tio n fo r th e A p p lic a tio n o f th e P rio r In fo rm e d C o n s e n t P ro c e d u re for C e rta in H a z a rd o u s C h e m i­ cals a n d Pesticides in In te rn a tio n a l T r a d e ’ at a n y in te rv a l sh o rt o f e v ery few y ears, you w o u ld m o st c e rta in ly o p t fo r P IC -IN C , its a c ro n y m . L ikew ise, A lan B eattie n o te s th e p ro life ra tio n o f ‘G s’: ‘so a ttra c tiv e is th e allure o f G -m e m b e rs h ip th a t g en erally th e o nly w ay o f sh rin k in g a g ro u p is to sh u t it d o w n a n d s ta rt ag a in . B ut new g a n g s a re c re a te d faster th a n th e old o nes a re d isso lv ed .’13 F or now, th e list in c lu d e s G 3 , G 4 , G 5 o ld , G 5 new, G 6 old, G 6 new, G 7 o ld , G 7 new, G 8 , G 8 + , G 8 + new, G 1 0 , G 1 3 , G 1 5 , G 2 0 , G 2 1 , G 3 3 , G 9 0 a n d G 7 7 + C h in a w h ic h n o w h a s w ell o v er a 100 m em b e rs. B ecause o f P IC -IN C , th e kG s y n d ro m e ’ a n d co u n tless o th e r bits o f G E G ja r g o n , ac ro n y m s a n d a b b re v ia tio n s, it a p p e a re d to us th a t G E G stu d e n ts a n d even lo n g -te rm p ra c titio n e rs c o u ld use a n easily accessible a n d sizeable d ic tio n a ry o f these th in g s. S u c h a d ic tio n a ry a n d a listing o f a c ro n y m s m ak e u p th e bulk o f this in tro d u c tio n to G E G . G E G is a c o n tin u in g p ro cess th a t o ccu p ies th e tim e a n d e n e rg y o f th o u ­ san d s o f d e d ic a te d p e o p le d u rin g h u n d re d s o f m e e tin g s. A vailable m in u te s o f these m eetin g s, how ever, re c o rd d iscussions th a t seem re p etitiv e , d isjo in t­ ed a n d , m a n y tim es, m is d ire c te d .14 T h e tu rm o il th a t arises b e tw e e n th e of­ ficial a n d th e unofficial, th e g o v e rn m e n ta l a n d n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l, a n d the b o a rd ro o m a n d th e stre et, to o often reflects a c u rio u s b le n d o f o b scu re, b u t im p o rta n t, scientific fac t a n d p o p u la r, b u t m ean in g less, science fictio n . B e­ cau se o f w eaknesses in h o w m a n y in te re ste d p a rtie s h a n d le th e m o st basic o f G E G te rm s, we have in c lu d e d a s h o rt essay o n som e o f th e m o re im p o rta n t o f these th a t sh o u ld h elp e n ric h th e d e b a te if n o t clarify th e issues. W e do n o t m e a n by a n y o f this to suggest a failu re o f th e G E G p ro c ­ ess o r o f th e ra n g e o f in s tru m e n ts successfully c o n c lu d e d b e c a u se o f it. W e have w a tc h e d th a t p ro cess closely o v er a fair n u m b e r o f y ears, a n d re sp e ct th e d e d ic a tio n a n d e n e rg y b ro u g h t to it by a g re a t m a n y in d iv id u a ls a n d in stitu tio n s. Yet, how this u n iq u e a n d v a lu ab le c u ltu re c o m m u n ic a te s w ithin itself often seem s a sig n ifican t c o n trib u tin g fa c to r in th e p ro b le m s - rea l a n d im a g in e d - so o ften c ited by o th e rs. C o n seq u en tly , ra th e r th a n ‘faile d ,’ w e ch o o se to d esc rib e th e c u rr e n t state o f th e glo b al g o v e rn a n c e p ro cess as ‘c h a o tic ,’ a p o rtra y a l th a t few w ho are active in it to d a y w o u ld deny. H o w ev er, th o u g h it is possible to d e p ic t th e p re s e n t system w ith th e d ic tio n a ry d efin itio n o f c h a o s as ‘tu rm o il a n d tu r ­ b u le n c e ,’ w e d o n o t w a n t to e m p h a siz e th o se asp ects o f it h ere. W e prefer, in s te a d , to see it in te rm s o f th e c o m p le x ity sciences w h e re slight in itia l dif­ ferences, im p rec isio n , p ositive fee d b a c k fo r so m e th in g less th a n o p tim a l a n d in c reasin g c o m p le x ity tak e a system to a ‘p la c e ’ a t th e ed g e o f c h a o s w h e re it w ill e ith e r sta g n a te in the c h a n n e l it h as c re a te d , d ie alto g eth e r, skid in to ceaseless c h ao s o r esc a p e to so m e th in g b e tte r.15 It is this last a lte rn a tiv e th a t m ak es th e ‘edge o f c h a o s’ a p o te n tia lly c o n stru c tiv e p la c e to be a n d , to a larg e d e g re e , th a t is o u r m essag e.16

Introduction

C o m p le x ity c o n c e p ts, o f c o u rse, arc o ften m is in te rp re te d a n d m isu sed from the p o in t o f view o f m a th e m a tic s a n d th e p h y sical sciences a n d w e are a w a re o f th e d a m a g e w e m ay d o in th e eyes o f th ese d isciplines. O u r in te n t, how ever, is on ly to m a k e a ‘m e ta p h o ric a l a p p lic a tio n ’ o f th e ir id e a s .17 W e do n o t m e a n , in an y way, to ex p lo re w h a t m a th e m a tic a l m o d e lin g m ay say a b o u t g lo b a l e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e . N ev e rth e less, it d o cs seem to us th a t th e rich n ess o f th e id eas c o m in g o u t o f th e co m p le x ity sciences c a n usefully describ e G E G a n d , as a resu lt, le ad to a fru itfu l re th in k in g o f th e g o v e rn a n c e process. W e also u n d e rs ta n d th a t so m e o f w h a t w e have w ritte n h e re will be o f little v alu e to th e m a n y d ip lo m a ts a n d sch o la rs w h o d e d ic a te th em selv es to g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e . If th ey h a p p e n to find th is b o o k in th e ir h a n d s, w e suggest th a t th ey skip o v er th e n e x t h a lf d o z e n p ag es. H ow ever, we do w a n t th e m to look a t th e re m a in d e r o f th e essay since it re p re se n ts a t least o n e view from th e field th a t th e y m a y o r m a y n o t b e m issing. A n d , fo r b e tte r o r for w orse, w e offer it as a n effort to h elp e n su re th a t th e ‘p ro fo u n d ly im p o r­ ta n t e n d e a v o r' o f g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e n o t be left h a lf d o n e.

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Dictionary and introduction to global environmental governance

N o te s 1 2

3

4

5

6

7 8

9

10

T h e W S S D took place from 26 A ugust to 4 S e p te m b e r 2002 in Jo h a n n e sb u rg , S o u th A frica. For a recen t analysis a n d th e p ro b lem s a n d future o f G E G see Ja m e sG u sta v e S p eth a n d P eter M . H a a s (2006) Global Environmental Governance, W ash in g to n D C , Island Press. For a critiq u e o f the 1992 U N C E D see A dil N a jan (1995) ‘A n en v iro n m en tal n eg o tiatio n strateg y for th e so u th ,’ International Environmental Affairs, vol 7, n o 3, p p 2 4 9 -2 8 7 ; a n d for the 2002 W S S D sec T om Bigg (2003) ‘T h e W orld S u m m it on S ustainable D evelo p m e n t: W as it w o rth w h ile?’ in T. Bigg (ed) Survival fo r a Small Planet, E a rth sc an , L o n d o n . T h e q u o te by P resid en t C h av ez is from R obin P om eroy (2002) ‘E a rth su m m iteers cast d o u b t on future w o rld m eets,’ Reuters News Publication Service, 4 S ep tem b er. A view from N G O s in the S o u th can be fo u n d in A nju S h a rm a , R ic h a rd M a h a p a tra a n d Clifford Polycarp (2002) ‘D ialo g u e o f the d ea f,’ Down to Earth, D elhi, C e n tre for Science a n d E n v iro n m e n t, p p 2 5 -3 3 . As given in a press release from the W orld R esources Institute (2003) 'W R I Expresses d isa p p o in tm e n t over m an y W S S D O u tc o m e s,’ h ttp ://n e w s ro o m .w ri.o rg , accessed on 6 O c to b e r 2003. U N D e p a rtm e n t o f E co n o m ic an d Social Affairs, D ivision o f S u stain ab le D ev elo p m en t (U N D E S A /D S D ), ‘P artn ersh ip s for S u stain ab le D e v e lo p m e n t,’ w w w .u n .o rg /e s a /su s td e v / p a rtn e rsh ip s/p a rtn e rsh ip s .h tm , accessed on 13 N o v em b er 2003. G eoffrey L ean (2002) ‘U.N. creates w atch d o g g ro u p in lieu o f future su m m its,’ London Independent, 8 S eptem ber. See R o b e rt V arady a n d M a tth e w Iles-Shih in a 2005 p a p er: ‘G lo b al w a te r initiatives: W h a t do the ex p erts th in k ?’ p resen te d at th e W orkshop on Im p acts o f M eg a -C o n feren ce s on G lo b al W ate r D ev elo p m en t a n d M a n a g e m e n t in B angkok, T h a ila n d . T h e y d o c u m e n t the grow th in p rofessional societies a n d in te rg o v e rn m e n t a n d n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg an izatio n s o f p rio ritiz in g w ater as a subject o f critical im p o rtan ce . O f co u rse, they also note the com plexity o f d eveloping a c o o rd in a ted in te rn a tio n a l a g en d a on this topic given the p le th o ra a n d in creasin g size o f n atio n a l, region al an d in te rn a tio n a l conferences. Jac q u e s C h ira c , ‘M essage from th e P resid en t o f the French R epub lic to th e C losing Session o f the 4th W orld W a te r F o ru m ’, accessed 30 N o v em b er 2006 a t w w w .ely see.fr/ely see/ely see.fr/ a n g la is /s p e e c h e s _ a n d _ d o c u m e n ts /2 0 0 6 /m e s s a g e _ f r o m _ th e _ p re s id e n t_ o f_ th e _ fre n c h _ re p u b lic _ to _ th c _ c lo s in g _ se s sio n _ o f_ th e_ 4 th _ w o rld _ w ate r_ fo ru m .4 4 7 8 2 .h tm l. R o b e rt K a g a n (2002) ‘Pow er a n d w eakness,’ Policy Review on Line, accessed 15 A ugust 2003 a t w w w .p o lic y rev ie w .o rg /JU N 0 2 /k ag a n . htm l; also A ndrew F. C o o p er, Jo h n English a n d R am esh T h a k u r

XX

Introduction

(2002) Enhancing Global Government: Towards a New Diplomacy, Tokyo: U N U Press. E lizabeth C orell a n d M ich ele M . Betsell (2001) ‘A co m p arativ e look a t N G O influence in in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l en v iro n m e n ta l negotiations: D esertification a n d clim ate c h a n g e ,’ Global Environmental Politics, vol 1, n o 4, p p 8 6 -1 0 7 . R o n ald B. M itchell (2002b) ‘O f course in te rn a tio n a l in stitutions m atte r: B ut w h en a n d how ?” in F ran k B ierm an , R a in ie r B rohm an d K lau s D in g w erth (eds) Proceedings o f the 2001 Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions o f Global Environmental Change: Global Environmental Change and the Nation Stale, P IK R e p o rt N o . 80, Potsdam : Potsdam In stitu te for C lim ate Im p a c t R esearch , p p l6 25; an d R o n ald B. M itch ell (2003) ‘In te rn a tio n a l e n v iro n m en tal ag reem en ts d efin e d ,’ accessed 15 O c to b e r 2003 at w w w .uoregon. e d u /~ rm itc h e l/IE A /o v e rv ie w /d e f in itio n s /h tm . A lan B eattie (2005) ‘W elcom e to the G ro u p o f 7 8 ,’ The Financial Times, 16 A pril. H illary F rench (2002) ‘R esh ap in g global g o v e rn an c e,’ in C h risto p h e r Flavin e t al. (eds) State o f the World 2 0 0 2 Progress Towards a Sustainable Society, L o n d o n W orld w atch Institu te an d W.W. N o rto n a n d C om pany, p p 1 7 4 -1 9 8 . E d w ard N. L o ren z (1993) The Essence o f Chaos, Seattle: U niversity o f W ash in g to n Press, p p lf il 179; an d M . M itch ell W aldrop (1993) Complexity. The Emerging Science at the Edge o f Order and Chaos, N ew York: T ouchstone. A fascinating p a p e r on the rise o f w a ter as a to p ic on the in te rn a tio n a l a g e n d a is pro v id ed by R o b e rt V arady a n d M a tth e w Iles-Shih in a 2005 p a p er: ‘G lo b al w ater initiatives: W h a t do the experts th in k ?’ p re se n ted at th e W orkshop on Im p a cts o f M eg aC onferen ces on G lo b al W a te r D e v elo p m e n t a n d M a n a g e m e n t in B angkok, T h a ila n d . T h e y d o c u m e n t the gro w th in professional societies a n d in te rg o v ern m en t a n d N G O s o f p rio ritiz in g w ate r as a subject o f critical im p o rtan ce . O f course, they also n ote the com plexity o f develo p in g a c o o rd in a te d in te rn a tio n a l a g e n d a on this topic given th e p le th o ra a n d increasin g size o f n atio n al, regional a n d in te rn a tio n a l conferences. S tep h en K ellert (1995) ‘W h e n is the e co n o m y n o t like the w eath er? T h e pro b lem o f ex ten d in g chaos th eo ry to the social sciences,’ in A. A lb ert (ed) Chaos and Society, A m sterd am : IO S Press; an d R o b e rt A xelrod (1997) The Complexity o f Cooperation, P rin ceto n : P rin ceto n U niversity Press, p p 3 -9 .

part one G lo b a l Environmental G overnance: An Essay

Global Environmental Governance: An Essay

G o v e r n a n c e and go vern m e n t The art of international diplomacy is to convert the obnoxious into the incomprehensible. W id e ly held principle of G E G

First a few w o rd s c o n c c rn in g a p h r a s e you have a lre a d y re a d m a n y times in this d o c u m e n t: ‘global e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e r n a n c e ’ (also k n o w n as G E G ). E a c h o f the th re e w o rd s is im p o r ta n t. T h e c o n c e p t o f ‘g o v e r n a n c e ’ requires discussion b e c a u se o f the subtle b u t significant differences b e tw e e n it a n d the c o n c e p t o f ‘g o v e r n m e n t.’1 T h o u g h they cover m u c h o f the sam e g ro u n d , g o v e r n a n c e is m o re th a n g o v e rn m e n t. For exa m p le , a c c o rd in g to the U n ite d N a tio n s C e n tr e for H u m a n Se ttle m e nts ( U N C H S ) , the differences arc b e ­ tw een ‘a single a u th o rity a n d sh a re d p u rp o s e s a n d responsibilities.’2 F urther, g o v e r n a n c e inclu des all o f the w ays t h a t individu als a n d institutions plan a n d m a n a g e th eir c o m m o n affairs a n d consists o f ‘fo rm a l institutions, infor­ m al a r r a n g e m e n ts ,’ a n d w h a t citizens know a n d d o .5 H ow ever, g o v e rn a n c e does not, as often believed, re d u c e the im p o rta n c e o f a g o v e r n m e n t since, as n o te d by the U N C H S , g o v e r n m e n t still ‘holds the r e g u la to ry p o w e rs a n d the m a jo rity o f fiscal responsibility;’ a n d , its ‘n o r m a tiv e a n d political leg itim acy ’ helps to creatc a n d sustain the stru ctures th a t e n c o u ra g c us to a c t together. ‘G lo b a l,’ in the c o n te x t o f g o v ern a n c e , likewise is different from ‘i n te r ­ g o v e r n m e n ta l’ a n d ‘in te r n a tio n a l.’ W h ile ‘in te r g o v e r n m e n ta l’ treats the of­ ficial affairs b e tw e e n a n d a m o n g g o v e rn m e n ts, ‘in te rn a tio n a l,’ in a d d itio n to c o n sid e rin g the relation ships a m o n g g o v e rn m e n ts , also includes the c o m m o n co nta c ts a n d dealings o f th e ir citizens. ‘G lo b a l ’ h a s a far b r o a d e r m e a n in g

D ic tio n a ry a n d in tro d u c tio n to g lo b a l e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e r n a n c e

t h a n e ith e r o f the tw o p re v io u s ideas a n d e m b r a c e s the official a n d unoffi­ cial g o v e rn a n c e activities o f a lo n g list o f in stitu tio n s i n c lu d in g g o v e rn m e n ts , businesses, n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l o r g a n iz a tio n s (N G O s), universities, re se a rc h c e n te rs, a n d f o u n d a tio n s. U se o f ‘g lo b a l’ ac k n o w led g e s th a t a large n u m b e r o f in stitu tio n s inside a n d o u tsid e o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d across n a tio n a l a n d in s titu tio n a l b o u n d a r i e s a rc re s p o n s ib le for m u c h o f the a d m in is tr a tio n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f o u r p l a n e t .4 ‘E n v iro n m e n ta l* is a t e r m o f su c h im p o r ta n c e t h a t it h as a section o f its o w n a n d w e c n c o u r a g c y o u to r e a d th e rest o f the essay to see why. As in all o t h e r issues o f global g o v e rn a n c e , g lobal e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e r n ­ a n c e is f o u n d e d o n a few basic r u l e s / First, the f u n d a m e n ta l p re m ise s o u t ­ lined in the 1648 W e stp h a lia S e ttle m e n t c o n c e r n in g the a b so lu te sovereignty a n d legal e q u a lity o f n a tio n states a rc a t its center. W it h o u t these c o n c ep ts, rela tio n sh ip s b e tw e e n states in i n te r n a t io n a l fo ru m s w o u ld a p p e a r as little m o r e t h a n political p a r l o r g a m e s a n d w eight-lifting contests. S e c o n d , G E G follows in te r n a tio n a l law - th e c o m p e n d i u m o f b i n d in g a g r e e m e n ts r c a c h c d over y e a rs o f in te r a c tio n a t v a rio u s levels by w h ic h g o v e r n m e n ts a d ju d ic a te differences a n d w o r k to w a r d p o sitions o f c o m m o n in terest a n d w h ic h s u b ­ s e q u e n tly b e c o m e n a tio n a l law (A p p e n d ix 1). In a d d itio n , G E G is g u id e d by a g r o w in g n u m b e r o f p rin c ip le s ( A p p e n d ix 2) a n d o t h e r n o n - b in d i n g in s tr u ­ m e n ts w ith the i m p o r t a n t ca v ea t th a t, a lth o u g h a g r e e d u p o n by consensus, these p r in c ip le s a re n o t alw ays a c c e p te d by all cu ltu res in the s a m e way. A significant a d d itio n a l fea tu re o f global e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e is the role o f civil society in decision m a k in g a c c e p te d by g o v e r n m e n ts a t the U n i t e d N a tio n s C o n f e r e n c e o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( U N C E D ) in R io d c J a n e i r o in 19 9 2 /' P rinciple 10 o f the R io D e c la r a tio n states, in p a r t , ‘E n v i r o n m e n ta l issues are best h a n d le d w ith the p a rtic ip a tio n o f all c o n c e r n e d citizens, at the re le v a n t level.’ M o r e im p o rta n tly , g o v e rn m e n ts e n a b le d this p ro ce ss w ith the a d d itio n a l s ta t e m e n t th a t, ‘S tates shall facilitate a n d e n c o u r a g e pu b lic a w a re n e s s a n d p a r tic ip a tio n by m a k in g in fo r m a tio n w idely available. Effective access to ju d ic ia l a n d a d m in is tra tiv e p ro c e e d in g s, in c lu d in g redress a n d rem edy, shall be p r o v id e d .’7 G lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e , w h ic h , in the r u n - u p to the W orld S u m m i t o n S u s ta in a b le D e v e l o p m e n t seem s to h ave u n d e r g o n e a m e t a ­ m o rp h o s is to b e c o m e ‘g lo b al s u sta in ab le d e v e lo p m e n t g o v e r n a n c e ,’ ha s at least th re e c o re c o m p o n e n ts : process, a rc h ite c tu re a n d i m p le m e n ta tio n . I d e ­ ally, G E G will reflect the i n te r d e p e n d e n c e o f these c o m p o n e n t s in th a t they sh o u ld o c c u r in a closely c o o r d i n a te d s e q u en c e . H ow ever, in the w o rld o f G E G , things m a y n o t w o rk as th ey s h o u ld a n d o r d e r m a y a p p e a r only a fter tim e, f re q u e n t false starts a n d m a n y frustrations. T h e process o f G E G c a n b e g in a lm o s t a n y w h e r e a n d often leads n o w h e re , as s h o w n in the in c re a sin g ly lo n g list o f u n ra tifie d , totally a b a n d o n e d o r a r ­ chaic in s tr u m e n ts .8 G E G architecture consists o f th e f o rm a l a n d in fo r m a l, a n d pu b lic a n d p riv a te in stitu tio n s th a t gu id e implementation w h ic h often m oves f o r w a r d b e fo re it has a clearly d e fin e d d e s tin a tio n o r f o rm a l s u p p o r t .9

4

G lo b a l environm ental g o ve rn an ce : An essay

Process T h e visible p o rtio n of th e G E G p ro cess is m a d e u p o f a larg e v a rie ty of” a s­ sem blies, c o n feren c es, co n g resses a n d su m m its - so m a n y in fact, th a t so m e ­ o n e o n ce d efin e d su sta in ab le d e v e lo p m e n t as th e ‘m a n tra th a t la u n c h e d a th o u s a n d m e e tin g s.’ Im p o rta n t ex a m p le s o f th ese m ee tin g s, o f c o u rse, are th e 1972 U N C o n fe re n c e o n th e H u m a n E n v iro n m e n t, th e 1992 U N C o n ­ feren ce o n E n v iro n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t, a n d th e 200 2 W o rld S u m m it on S u sta in a b le D ev e lo p m e n t. H o w ev er, o th e r m e etin g s a re n o w also c o n sid e re d as p a r t o f the G E G process; for e x a m p le , th e 1995 W orld S u m m it for S ocial D ev e lo p m e n t, th e 1996 S u m m it o f th e A m e ric a s o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p ­ m e n t, th e 2001 D o h a M in iste ria l C o n fe re n c e o f W T O a n d th e 2 0 0 6 W o rld W a te r F orum . For ev ery m a jo r m e e tin g th e re are literally h u n d re d s o f o th e r p r e p a r a ­ to ry m eetin g s sp o n so re d by a g alax y o f in te re sts in c lu d in g th o se th a t offer th e science th a t in fo rm s th e n e g o tia tio n s.10 T h e s e in terests re p e a te d ly b re a k in to su b -g ro u p s to d eal w ith specific issues o r a g g re g a te in to co alitio n s a c ­ c o rd in g to geo g rap h y , ec o n o m ic s, c u ltu re , id eo lo g y a n d th e q u e stio n o f th e day. In fo rm a l m eetin g s, a se c re ta ria t faithfully re c o rd s th e d iscussions a n d decisions for la te r review, d e b a te , a m e n d m e n t a n d a ctio n . A m a jo r p a r t o f the p ro cess is th e effo rt to g et it all d o w n o n p a p e r in th e p ro p e r la n g u a g e as a n in s tru m e n t th a t w ill e n te r in to force w h e n sig n ed (by th e ex ecu tiv e b ra n c h o f g o v ern m en ts) a n d ratified (by th e legislative b ra n c h o f g o v e rn m en ts) by a sufficient n u m b e r o f states o r o th e r in s titu tio n s." M e e tin g s called o n b e h a lf o f G E G c a n be larg e o r sm all, fo rm a l o r in fo r­ m al, inclusive o r exclusive a n d m a y re p re se n t se c to ra l, g e o g ra p h ic a l o r c u l­ tu ra l c o n c e rn s. A sp eech , a n article, o r a b a c k g ro u n d p a p e r for an y n u m b e r o f unofficial g a th e rin g s c a n in itiate a new, o r rek in d le an o ld , G E G effort. T h e fo rm a l p ro cess estab lish e d to n e g o tia te an in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l tre a ty o r co n v en tio n is a series o f m e e tin g s o f a n In te rn a tio n a l N e g o tia tio n C o m m it­ tee (IN C ). H ow ev er, ra th e r th a n in official o p en m e e tin g s, n e g o tia to rs often co m e to a g re e m e n t first in hallw ay s o r d u rin g coffee b reak s, cocktails a n d im p ro m p tu late n ig h t w o rk in g sessions w h ere, d e sp ite th e rh e to ric , tr a n s p a r ­ ency c an be a n early casu alty .12 S im ila r m e etin g s o f N G O s (see A p p e n d ix 3) a n d , m o re recently, o f th e business co m m u n ity , m irro r all o f this in te rm s o f com plexity, cost, v a rie ty o f in terests, th e a m o u n t a n d a c c u ra c y o f in fo rm a ­ tio n a n d secrecy.13

Architecture G E G a rc h ite c tu re - th e a g re e m e n ts a n d th e in stitu tio n s re q u ire d to in te rp re t a n d a d m in is te r th e in s tru m e n ts o f g o v e rn a n c e is likew ise c o m p le x .11 T h e o rg a n iz a tio n s s u rro u n d in g an a g re e m e n t co n sist o f a v a rie ty o f fo rm a l a n d in fo rm a l ad v iso ry c o m m itte e s (panels, su b sid ia ry b o d ies, b u re a u s , etc.) as w ell as th e c o n fere n c e s o r m e e tin g s o f th e p a rtie s th a t n e g o tia te d a n d / o r signed on to th e tre a ty o r p ro to c o l.15 S e c re ta ria ts, p ro g ra m s a n d c o m m is­ sions arc p a r t o f this a rc h ite c tu re . For ex a m p le , th e U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n ­ m e n t P ro g ra m m e (U N E P ) e n c o u ra g e s a n d facilitates im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e

5

D ic tio n a ry a n d in tro d u c tio n to g lo b a l e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e r n a n c e

m a n d a t e s o f th e 1972 U N C o n f e r e n c e o n the H u m a n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d the U N C o m m is s io n on S u s ta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t (C SD ) reviews p ro g re s s on the a p p ro v e d a g e n d a s o f the 1992 E a r th S u m m i t . 16 M o s t o f the treaties a n d c o n v e n tio n s th a t h ave e n te r e d in to force n o w will also have a s e c re ta ria t to tra c k ratification, h e lp insure im p l e m e n ta t io n , a n d p r o v id e s u p p o r t to th e ir a d m in is tra tiv e b o d ie s .17 A g r e e m e n ts c a n be s ta te m e n ts o r d e c la ra tio n s (som etim es d e fin e d as ‘soft la w ’) a n d c o n v e n tio n s, treaties o r p ro to c o ls (som etim es d e fin e d as ‘h a r d la w ’). T h e s e d ifferent kinds o f in s tr u m e n ts b in d the p a rtie s w ith d ifferent levels o f a u th o rity .18 A r e c o r d o f a g r e e m e n t for a n y o f these in s tr u m e n ts g e n e ra lly consists o f a n o p e n in g s ta t e m e n t {chapeau), references to p r i o r a g re e m e n ts , a set o f p rin c ip le s a n d s ta te m e n ts r e g a r d in g w h a t the p a rtie s have a g re e d to do. P re sc rib e d a c tio n s m a y follow as a p a r t o f th e i n s t r u m e n t itself, as a n a d d e n d u m , o r as a s e p a r a te text. E a c h in stitu tio n a n d m e e tin g h a s a n id e n ti­ fying c o d e for the d o c u m e n t s t h a t a rc p r o d u c e d (see A p p e n d i x 4 for h elp in d e c ip h e r i n g these codes). T h e r e a re at least fo u r varieties o f c o n v e n tio n s in G E G . F r a m e w o r k c o n ­ v e n tio n s, such as the U N F r a m e w o r k C o n v e n t io n o n C lim a te C h a n g e a n d th e C o n v e n tio n o n Biological Diversity, re q u ire a d d itio n a l, s e p a ra te ly n e g o ti­ a te d p ro to c o ls to re a c h the objectives laid o u t in the c o n v e n tio n a n d a gov­ e r n m e n t m a y sign a n d even ratify a c o n v e n tio n w ith o u t signing o r ratifying a n y o f its protocols. S e lf-c o n ta in e d a g r e e m e n t s such as U N C o n v e n t io n to C o m b a t D e se rtification a n d the C o n v e n tio n on I n te r n a tio n a l T r a d e o f E n ­ d a n g e r e d Species d o n o t necessarily n e e d f u r t h e r p ro to c o ls for i m p l e m e n t a ­ tion. U m b r e l l a a g re e m e n ts , such as th e C o n v e n tio n o n M ig r a to r y Species o f W ild A n im a ls, allow o t h e r allied a c c o rd s w ith in the w id e r m a n d a t e s o f the c o n v e n tio n . T h e fo u rth is a n a g r e e m e n t o p e n for s ig n a tu re to b o th g o v e r n ­ m e n ts a n d N G O s , as, for e x a m p le , the R a m s a r C o n v e n tio n o n W etlands. S ig n in g a n i n s tr u m e n t does n o t legally b in d a n a tio n to a b id e by its d ire c ­ tives - only ratification ca n d o th a t a n d only th e n if e n o u g h o f its signatories ratify to allow e n tr y in to force.1'' H o w e v er, signing d oes in d ic a te th a t a state, o r o t h e r in stitu tio n , will d o n o th in g to i m p e d e the w o rk o f th e tre a ty se cre ­ ta r ia t o r a n o t h e r state p a r ty to w a rd m e e tin g the objectives o f the i n s t r u m e n t t h a t it s ig n e d .20

Implementation As difficult a n d c o m p le x as the p rocess a n d a rc h ite c tu r e o f g o v e r n a n c e m a y be, they ca n a p p e a r easy c o m p a r e d to the im p l e m e n ta t io n o f w h a t h a s b e e n d e c id e d . I m p l e m e n ta t io n o f G E G fre q u e n tly causes s e e m in g ly endless a n x i­ ety, f ru s tra tio n , d e b a te , a c c u s a tio n s a n d delays. All o f this h a p p e n s b e c au se i m p le m e n ta tio n m e a n s f in a n c in g the w o rk o f th e a g r e e m e n t ’s p la n o f action; the staffing o f a s e c re ta ria t o r o t h e r institution(s) d e sig n e d to in su re th a t the a g r e e m e n t m e e ts its objectives; a n d in te n se n e g o tia tio n s to d e c id e j u s t w h e r e the s e c r e ta r ia t will be lo c a te d a n d w h a t the limits to its a u th o r i ty s h o u ld be. N a tio n a l, a n d reg io n a l, prestige a n d a d d itio n a l in c o m e to a n a t i o n ’s e c o n o m y a re involved. D e b a t e o n im p l e m e n ta t io n also revolves a r o u n d th e issues o f (a) f u n d in g

6

G lo b a l e n viro n m e n tal g o v e rn a n c e : A n essay

fo r th e p ro g r a m s m a n d a te d by a tr e a ty a n d (b) s o v e re ig n ty - w ith th e d e v e l­ o p in g w o rld g e n e ra lly in s istin g th a t fu n d in g b e ‘n e w a n d a d d itio n a l’ a n d th e b i- a n d m u ltila te ra l d e v e lo p m e n t a g e n c ie s in sistin g th a t c e rta in c o n d itio n s be m e t b e fo re th e fu n d in g m a tte r s c a n be re s o lv e d .21 M o n ie s fo r p ro g r a m

a n d p ro je c t im p le m e n ta tio n tra d itio n a lly c o m e

fro m b ila te r a l g ra n ts a n d low in te re s t lo a n s o r m u ltila te ra l lo a n s th a t m a y b e c o n c e ss io n a l in th a t th e y g e n e ra lly in c lu d e lo w e r in te re s t ra te s a n d lo n g e r p a y b a c k p e rio d s th a n th o s e fro m c o m m e rc ia l b a n k s. M o r e re ce n tly , fu n d in g a n d o th e r a ssista n c e c o m e s fro m N G O s a n d fo u n d a tio n s , as fo re ig n d ire c t in v e s tm e n ts fro m c o r p o r a tio n s a n d o th e r b u sin e sse s o r as so m e c o m b in a tio n o f p u b lic a n d p riv a te fu n d s. W h a te v e r th e c ase , fu n d in g is n o w h e re n e a r w h a t is re q u ir e d to fulfill c u r r e n t c o m m itm e n ts to a g r e e d u p o n ta rg e ts fo r G E G . F o r e x a m p le , th e to ­ ta l a n n u a l officia l d e v e lo p m e n t a ssista n c e (O D A )22 w a s b e tw e e n 50 a n d 60 b illio n d o lla rs w h e n th e 180 g o v e rn m e n ts a tte n d in g th e 1992 E a r th S u m m it a p p ro v e d Agenda 2 1 , a p ro g r a m th a t its e lf calls fo r 2 0 0 - 5 0 0 b illio n d o lla rs a n ­ nually. H o w e v e r, in s te a d o f in c r e a s in g fro m 5 0 b illio n d o lla rs to 5 0 0 b illio n d o lla rs, o r e v e n 2 0 0 b illio n d o lla rs , to ta l O D A h a s d r o p p e d e a c h y e a r sin ce. It no w sits close to a n a v e ra g e o f 0 .5 p e r c e n t o f G N P fo r th e w e a lth ie r n a tio n s d e sp ite calls th a t it s h o u ld rise to 1.0 p e r c e n t a n d a g r e e m e n t by th e se n a tio n s th a t it s h o u ld b e a t 0.7 p e r c e n t o f G N P .23 T h o u g h m u c h o f G E G h a s little o r n o fu n d in g , so m e p a rts o f it d o .24 T h e G lo b a l E n v ir o n m e n t Facility, fo r e x a m p le , s u p p o r ts im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e C o n v e n tio n o n B io d iv ersity , th e F ra m e w o rk C o n v e n tio n o n C lim a te C h a n g e , th e C o n v e n tio n o n P e rs iste n t O r g a n ic P o llu ta n ts a n d th e w o rk o f th e M o n ­ tre a l P ro to c o l S e c re ta ria t as w ell as w o rk o n in te r n a tio n a l w a te r a n d la n d d e g r a d a tio n . V a rio u s tr u s t fu n d s s u p p o r t im p le m e n ta tio n o f o th e r in d iv id u a l a g re e m e n ts a n d e n s u re p a r tic ip a tio n o f d e le g a te s fro m T h ir d W o rld c o u n ­ trie s in m a n y in te r n a tio n a l m e e tin g s.

F ra y in g ed g es G E G , its p ro c e s s, a rc h ite c tu re a n d im p le m e n ta tio n a rc n o t sta tic a n d in so m e th e m a tic a re a s , b o th th e s u b s ta n c e a n d th e ru le s th a t g u id e d e b a te a re ra p id ly evolving. A lth o u g h g o v e rn m e n ts g e n e ra lly a d h e r e to th e fu n d a m e n ta l ru le s o f h o w th e y a re to in te ra c t, se v e ra l re c e n t a c tio n s see m to q u e s tio n th e e s ta b ­ lish e d c o d e s o f b e h a v io r. T here is a trend tow ard greater polarization and hardening of positions betw een regions on certain issues - the rancorous debate over the Kyoto Pro to co l on global w arm ing at C O P-8 (O c to b e r 2002) that has jeopardized the entire process is an exam ple.25 Increased belief among M em ber States that anything emerging from

the United

N ations is either biased o r controlled

by

perverse interests regardless of the issue o r decision.26 Although science, rather than real o r perceived power, was

7

D ictionary and introduction to glo b al environm ental governan ce

to drive the agenda of international negotiations, large and powerful countries and donor nations appear more aggressive in their attempts to influence the outcom e of the G E G process for unilateral purposes. •

Movements like these force smaller countries to either align themselves with a larger country o r vote as a geographic or interest-driven coalition to get a piece of the action.The Small Island Developing States (SID S), for example, often votes as a group to garner the attention of the larger countries and to have a discernable influence on the outcom e.



In other instances, nations actually ‘sell’ (o r ‘buy’) votes in exchange for support, trade concessions o r even direct aid.27



Unilateral, and at times contravening, actions with regard to the Law of the S e a ,C IT E S principles, the Kyoto Protocol, International Crim inal C o u rt, C onvention on Biological Diversity, Persistent Organic

Pollutants, the

C onvention

on

Cultural

Diversity

and the Basal Convention on the M ovem ent of Hazardous Materials jeopardize core values of the United Nations as well as ‘unanimity’ as the accepted protocol for reaching consensus at intergovernmental meetings. •

Criticism of long accepted tenants for policy application such as the precautionary principle.



Disenfranchisement, perceived or real, of many of the w o rld ’s citizens has caused opposition to global governance as the backbone of globalization. It is a significant uprising that will get stronger as it matures. Accusations

that U N

officials themselves

are

corrup t and

working against the very decisions taken in the G eneral Assembly o r the Security Council, and the impact this may have on public perception and respect for the U N . •

The different preferences (and capacities) by states to use ‘hard p o w er’ (military, econom ics) o r ‘soft p o w er’(negotiation) in the conduct of international affairs.



The disturbing trend to consider United Nations and other aid and humanitarian w orkers (PV O s, N G O s,b ilatera l or multilateral organizations) as legitimate targets of violence in war-torn countries and regions when they are perceived to be supporting the aims of an invading or occupying force.

As a result, w h a t m a y b e e m e r g i n g a r e the d o c tr in e s o f ‘p r e e m p t i o n 5 a n d ‘retroactivity* e v e n th e use o f t h r e a t a n d u n ila te r a l force t h a t c o u ld sig­ n ific a n tly a lte r th e G E G p ro cess. S o m e see a d ire c t link b e t w e e n th e se a n d a so -called p r e d o m i n a n c e d o c t r i n c o r the w illingness to go it a lo n e o n issues as d is p a r a t e as w a r a n d in te lle c tu a l p r o p e r t y rig h ts vis-à-vis th e C o n v e n t i o n o n B iological D iversity.28 I n th is s c e n a r io , p o w e r le a d s to u n ila te ra list a c tio n s w h e t h e r fo r v e s te d in te re sts (political, e c o n o m ic , etc.) o r h u m a n i t a r i a n o r al­ truistic goals. A f o r m e r F in n ish A m b a s s a d o r to th e U N n o t e d t h a t w h ile the use o f p r e e m p t i o n as a s tra te g y is h isto ric , th e c o n t e x t o f e m p lo y in g it to d a y

8

G lo b a l environm ental g o ve rn an ce : An essay

has c h a n g e d sub stan tially .29 T im e w ill tell if th ese tre n d s arc m e re ly o p in io n s reflectin g c u rr e n t ev en ts o r if th ey w ill survive a t th e ex p e n se o f w h a t w ere o n ce glo b al values.

Success and failure S uccesses d o o c c u r d esp ite, b u t n o t n ecessarily b ec a u se of, th e w ay in s titu ­ tions fo rm u la te a n d a d m in is te r G E G . A lm o st p a rad o x ically , success w ith in th e co m p lex ities o f G E G seem s to d e p e n d o n sev eral relatively sim p le a t­ trib u tes: p e rso n a litie s, re la tio n sh ip s, tru st, m u tu a l re sp e c t a n d a sy m p a th e tic u n d e rs ta n d in g o f o th e r s ’ in terests. R a th e r th a n b lo ck in g co alitio n s, c astin g b la m e a n d p a rtic ip a tin g in id eo lo g ical b attles, jo in t p ro b le m solving is n e c ­ essary. T h e p ro cess calls fo r h ig h levels o f ex p e rtise - te c h n ic a l as w ell as d ip lo m a tic th r o u g h o u t th e system . All p a rtic ip a n ts m u st know a n d a d h e re to th e d ec isio n -m a k in g p ro c e d u re s a n d a fixed a n d a c c e p te d set o f rules. C o n fe re n c e officers sh o u ld be ste rn , d e d ic a te d , u n b ia s e d a n d k n o w led g eab le o f th e h isto ry a n d su b sta n c c o f th e issues. A lso re q u ire d are d o c u m e n ts in th e a p p ro p ria te la n g u a g e s a n d a fully p re p a r e d se c re ta ria t, in c lu d in g tra n s la ­ tion a n d in te rp re ta tio n services as w ell as a c a d re o f d e d ic a te d n o te-ta k e rs. B esides these, th e p ro ccss sh o u ld in c lu d e th e su p p o rt, criticism s, id eas a n d e n e rg y o f civil society.30 E q u ally im p o rta n t is th a t c o m m u n ic a tio n b e tw e e n th e n e g o tia to rs be cflicicnt a n d w ith a m in im u m o f erro r. A lth o u g h , as is o ften th e case, th e n e g o tia to rs m ay n o t ag re e o n th e d efin itio n s, as m u c h as possible, all p a r ­ tic ip a n ts sh o u ld seek to u n d e rs ta n d w h a t th e o th e rs a rc sayin g - even those p o p u la tio n s w h o ch o o se (or w h o are forced) to stay o u tsid e th e g ates. A fter all, w h a t g o o d is an in s tru m e n t th a t c o n ta in s all th e rig h t w o rd s if th e p a rtie s th a t a g re e d to th e m u n d e rs ta n d th e m in m u tu a lly exclusive w ays?

Chaos Squalid poverty lives side by side with over-abundance on our Earth. W e have reached the Moon but we have not yet reached each other. Many species of our co-inhabitants on the globe ... have forever disappeared. Many beautiful rivers have become sewers endangering the ocean s.W e must heed the o m en s.W e must pass from words to deeds. W e must pass from rights to obligations. W e must pass from self-interest to mutual interest. W e must pass from partial peace to total peace. U .T h a n t

T h o u g h n o t th e first e x p ressio n o f c o n c e rn for th e c o n d itio n o f o u r E a rth a n d its in h a b ita n ts , th ese w o rd s o f U N S e c re ta ry G e n e ra l U. T h a n t o v er 35 years ago (1970) lay th e fo u n d a tio n for a q u e stio n th a t m u st h av e a n af­ firm ativ e resp o n se from an y effo rt to b u ild a n effective a rc h ite c tu re o f g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e : ‘C a n H u m a n s a n d O th e r S pecies S u rv iv e?’

9

D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

D esp ite successes, th e resp o n se s o f th e in te rn a tio n a l c o m m u n ity to th e c o m ­ plexities th a t su rro u n d us have b e e n m essy a n d co n fu se d a n d th e an sw ers to th e q u estio n have d iv id ed as o ften as th e y h av e u n ite d th e p eo p le s o f o u r p la n e t. A rg u m e n ts can be m a d e th a t c h a o s is to b e b o th e x p e cte d a n d w elco m e d in so m e th in g as c o m p le x as G E G , if fo r n o o th e r re a s o n th a n th a t it creates the ten sio n re q u ire d for q u e stio n in g a n d c reativ ity to tak e p lace . N e v e rth e ­ less, this chaos, u n a tte n d e d , slows th e p ro cess b e ca u se o f n eed less re p e titio n , sid etrac k s th e d e b a te to u n p ro d u c tiv e b ic k e rin g a n d fu r th e r m is u n d e rs ta n d ­ ing, raises th e alre a d y excessive fin an cial a n d h u m a n costs, a n d d a m p e n s th e e n th u sia sm re q u ire d to o v erco m e th e fre q u e n tly te d io u s a n d th an k less jo b o f o rg a n iz in g a u n ite d a tta c k o n th e p ro b le m s we face today. I f G E G is lo o k ed a t th ro u g h th e lens o f th e c o m p le x ity sciences, it is the fo rm e r ra th e r th a n th e la tte r p o in t o f view th a t is o f in te re st. G lo b a l e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e , like o th e r social system s, is an o p e n , n o n -lin e a r, c o m p le x a n d , th erefo re, u n p re d ic ta b le system th a t follow s th e tra je c to ry : O rd e r

—>

Com plexity

—► Edge

of

Chaos

—► Chaos,

disintegration, death, or emergence to a new order depending on the rules the system follows.31

A ccordingly, a system b e g in s its ev o lu tio n from in itial o rd erlin e ss. H ow ever, as n ew in fo rm a tio n , p ro je cts, in te re sts, m is u n d e rs ta n d in g s, a d ju s tm e n ts, c o n ­ stra in ts a n d d is tu rb a n c e s o f an y k in d are a d d e d , th e system b e c o m e s p r o ­ gressively m o re co m p lex . It also b e c o m e s in c re a sin g ly d iso rg a n iz e d since, follow ing the c o m p le x ity sciences, sm all in itial d ifferen ces c a n la te r b e co m e m a jo r forces th a t p u sh a system to w a rd s c h ao s o r a v a rie ty o f u n d e sira b le kinds o f stability. L ikew ise, positive fe ed b a ck , esp ecially if fo r so m e th in g less th a n o p tim a l, will le a d th e system to in c re a sin g d is o rd e r a n d ev en tu a lly to th e ‘edge o f c h a o s.’ It is h e re , a t th e ed g e o f c h ao s, w h ere a n a rra y o f ‘ch o ic e s’ b eco m e s availab le. ‘A ttra c to rs ’ th e p o in ts a ro u n d w h ich o rd e r is g e n e ra t­ ed , in flu en ce these ch o ices a n d th e re are th re e o f th e m : ‘p o in t,’ ‘cyclic’ a n d ‘stra n g e .’ If th e system ‘falls’ to w a rd c ith e r o f th e first tw o, sta g n a tio n - even d e a th is th e resu lt. If it is th e th ird , th e c o n se q u e n c e is c h a o s.32 F ortunately, th o u g h , th e re is a fo u rth ‘e m e rg e n c e ’ a lte rn a tiv e , w h ere c re a ­ tivity a n d in n o v a tio n c a n tak e th e system to so m e th in g still c o m p le x b u t also new ly o rd e re d a n d , hopefully, in social system s, o n e h av in g m o re valu e. In ­ stitu tio n a l ex a m p le s o f th e first tw o a ttra c to rs in c lu d e a ll-im p o rta n t a n d im ­ m o v eab le o rg a n iz a tio n a l g oals d esp ite th e c h a n g e ta k in g p lace a ro u n d th e m . C u ltu re s, co re values a n d id eo lo g ies c a n be e x a m p le s o f stra n g e a ttra c to rs. W ith c o m p lcx , o p e n , n o n -lin c a r system s, h ow ever, c h a n g c o r ev o lu tio n o f th e system will alw ays occur. G iv en th e a lte rn a tiv e s o f d e a th , e te rn a l re p e titio n , o r endless ch ao s, it seem s to m a n y th a t th e id eal p o licy w o u ld be o n e th a t influences, ra th e r th a n a tte m p ts to stifle, this ch an g e .

10

G lo b a l environm ental g o vern an ce: An essay

En viro nm e nt a n d sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t in G E G G E G s ta n d s a t th e e d g e o f c h a o s. H i n t s o f th is c a n b e se e n in th e m o v e s by in d iv id u a l states t o w a r d u n ila te r a l a c tio n s, in th e p ro fe ssio n a lly b e llig e re n t, a n d , for o u r p u r p o s e s , in th e sign ifican t v a r i a tio n o f e s tim a te s fo r th e n u m b e r o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g r e e m e n t s ( a n y w h e r e fro m 16 to n e a r ly 1000) g iv e n by G E G s c h o la r s a n d n e g o tia to r s . T h e s e s e e m in g ly in n o c u o u s n u m b e r s in d ic a te fa r m o r e t h a n i n n o c e n t d is c r e p a n c ie s b e c a u s e th e y d e p e n d o n th e i n f o r m a n t ’s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h a t the t e r m environment m a y m e a n , 33 h o w it fits w ith his o r h e r view o f d e v e l o p m e n t , 34 a n d th e r e la ti o n s h ip these c o n c e p ts h a v e w ith o n e ’s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f w h a t sustainable development m a y b e .35 M u c h o f this c o n fu s io n rests o n th e re la tio n s h ip s b e t w e e n th e t e r m s o f ‘c o n s e r v a ti o n , ’ ‘e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , ’ ‘e n v i r o n m e n t a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ’ a n d ‘s u s ta in a b le d e v e l o p m e n t ’ t h a t h a v e ev olved o v er th e last 5 0 years. T h i s e v o lu tio n , t h o u g h n o r m a l l y positive, h a s also c r e a t e d m a n y o f th e tro u b le s t h a t p la g u e o u r se a rc h for successful m o d e ls o f g lo b a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c u m s u s ta in a b le d e v e l o p m e n t g o v e r n a n c e . V a rio u s G E G n e g o tia to rs , a n d o th e r s , h a v e lo n g a c k n o w l e d g e d th e lack o f c o n s e n s u s d e fin itio n s for b o t h ‘e n v i r o n m e n t ’ a n d ‘s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p ­ m e n t . ’36 L a c k o f c o m m o n , w o rk a b le d e fin itio n s o f th e s e t e r m s is o n e pie c e o f th e p r o b l e m . A n o t h e r is th e g r o w in g d is tr u s t o f s u s ta in a b le d e v e l o p m e n t b y s o m e e n v i r o n m e n ta l is t s a n d th e a c c u s a tio n s b y n o n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p r o ­ m o t e r s o f s u s ta in a b le d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t ‘r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s fro m th e e n v i r o n ­ m e n t a l m in istrie s a n d d e p a r t m e n t s d o m i n a t e s u s ta in a b le d e v e l o p m e n t . ’ T h e follow ing c x c c r p t fro m th e m i n u t e s o f a r e c c n t m e e t i n g o f a g r o u p o f e x p e r ts r e q u e s te d by th e O p e n - e n d e d I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l G r o u p o f M in is te r s illus­ tr a te s th e c o n f u s io n :37 The C hair recalled that the Open-ended Intergovernmental G rou p of Ministers had asked for a clearer definition of international environ­ mental governance and asked the experts to contribute to the debate on w h ether governance should refer to environmental issues or to sustainable development. The experts explored em powering the concept of sustainable development, to ensure the full integration of environmental policies with development. There was agreement that the problem is essen­ tially political insofar as the key econom ic actors have not been en­ gaged. This was taken as an indication that the sustainable develop­ ment agenda lacks maturity. As a result, environmental actors are left to w o rk only with the ‘con verted ’ in trying to deal with the w ider issues of sustainable development. This led to a critical discussion on the Comm ission on Sustainable D evelopm ent (C S D ), with one participant observing that it had been impossible to get down to real w o rk because the only people in the conference room w ere ones with an environmental portfolio. There w ere differences of opinion over the question of the existence of a governance process that addresses sustainable devel­ opm ent and that the only meaningful systems of governance address

11

Dictionary and introduction to global environmental governance

the environment. Some pointed out that the major environmental agreements also address sustainable development such as those de­ signed to modify production and consumption patterns. Participants discussed the role U N E P could play in international environmental governance cum sustainable development governance. There was a consensus that, on the whole, the C SD adds little to the debate on sustainable development.

T h e s e c o m m e n t s reflect the diversity o f u n d e r s ta n d in g s o f e n v ir o n m e n t a n d sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t e x ta n t in G E G a ga in, in large p a r t, th e result o f 50 years o f evolution. For exam p le, a biologist at the tim e o f the W orld C o n s e r v a tio n S tra te g y 38 w o u ld have a different u n d e r s ta n d in g o f sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t from th a t o f the forest m a n a g e r in the 1950s o r from a n a tto r­ ney at a n e n v ir o n m e n ta l N G O w h o pick ed it up in the 1970s. All th re e o f these in te r p r e ta tio n s are different from th a t o f a d ip lo m a t w h o le a rn e d a b o u t it from the B r u n d tl a n d C o m m is sio n R e p o r t in 1987,39 o r a businessp erso n w h o discovered the te r m in 1992 at the U n it e d N a tio n s C o n fe re n c e on E n ­ v ir o n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t. T h e s e w ould be different from the view o f a lm o st a n y o n e else w h o first le a r n e d a b o u t sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t d u r in g the M ille n n iu m S u m m it in 2000. All o f these in te rp r e ta tio n s arc possible, o f course, b u t all o f th e m are also in co m plete. T a k e n to g e th e r th o u g h , they are resources useful in o u r se a rch for sustainability r a t h e r th a n s o m e th in g illegiti­ m a te or lacking in context.

G E G at the ed ge of chaos Typically, the cou rse followed in ta king an idea th ro u g h to a form al in stru ­ m e n t o f G E G beg in s w ith g re a t e n th u sia sm a n d focus. Based on m u tu a l c o n c e rn s , states a n d / o r o th e r lik e -m in d e d g ro u p s have c o m m o n objectives th a t look d o w n the line to the in stitutionalization o f jo in tly m a d e solutions. N e g o tia tio n s c o m m c n c e b u t, a lm o st im m ediately, positions begin to move a w ay from on e a nother. M ultiple p arties a u to m a tic a lly m e a n m ultiple issues a n d u n p r e d ic ta b le allies. T h e u n c e rta in tie s o f biased science a n d te c h n o l­ ogy, w h e t h e r real o r im a g in e d , b egin to a p p e a r a n d , eventually, the realities o f p o w e r differences b e c o m e clear. T i m e fra m e s e v a p o ra te a n d the cadres o f early n e g o tia to rs d is a p p e a r - re p la c e d by n e w pe o p le w h o perceive the p o te n tia l o u tc o m e s as negative o r com petitive instead o f c o m m o n a n d c o n ­ v erg e n t.40 N eg o tia tio n s c o n tin u e a n d th en , b ecau se o f an im m o v a b le cut-off date, so m e th in g less th a n originally h o p e d for is p r o d u c e d a n d signed. W ork to w a rd s im p ro v in g global e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e requ ires a long institutional m e m o r y since the tim e c o u n te d from th e reco gn itio n o f a n e e d for a n a g r e e m e n t to its e n try into force c a n easily exceed h a lf o f a career. By default, m e m o r y is h eld m o r e by the c o m m u n ity o f observers (sec­ re ta ria t staffs a n d in terested N G O s ) t h a n by th e c o rp s o f official g o v e r n m e n t n eg o tiato rs for w h o m each new m e e tin g seem s a repetitive exercise for those w h o have b e e n there, o r a b iz a rre new le a r n in g e x p e rie n c e for those w ho have ju s t arrived. It seem s th a t th e n u m b i n g collection o f con cep ts, j a r g o n a n d a c ro n y m s th a t th e n e w c o m e r e n c o u n te rs is n e v e r quite m a ste re d before

12

G lo b a l environm ental g o ve rn an ce : An essay

re a s sig n m e n t to d iffe re n t tasks in a d iffe re n t b ra n c h o f th e d ip lo m a tic co rp s. C ritics w ho say th a t official d e le g a tio n s to G E G events, in c lu d in g th e m eetin g s o f th e U N C o m m issio n o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t, to o often re p re se n t a c o u n tr y ’s e n v iro n m e n ta l m in istry o r d e p a rtm e n t have a p o in t. H ow ever, th e n a m e ‘e n v iro n m e n t’ h id es im p o rta n t d e ta ils like th e fact th a t th e re p re se n ta tiv e s c a n b e lo c a te d in , a n d reflect th e view s of, a v a riety o f se cto ral in stitu tio n s th a t in clu d es n a tu ra l reso u rces, a g ric u ltu re , forestry, fish­ eries, h e a lth , e d u c a tio n , c u ltu re , social d e v e lo p m e n t, h o u sin g , y o u th , labor, to u rism , re c re a tio n , fo reig n affairs, fin a n ce , p la n n in g , science, c o o p erativ es, energy, in d u s try a n d , even, p u b lic w orks. N o w a n d th e n , th e y m a y even find th em selv es in th e office o f th e c h ie f o f state w h e re th e y c a n exercise g e n u in e pow er. M o re o fte n , th ey fill a m o re o r less p o w erless office o f th e ir o w n . T h e h a n d fu l o f m in iste rs w ith a ‘su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t’ title fair n o b etter, a n d sp e n d th e ir tim e d e fe n d in g th e ir role vis-à-vis th e ir c o lleag u es w ith ‘su b s ta n ­ tiv e ’ portfolios. R e c o g n iz in g this d iv ersity o f c o n te n t, d e le g a tio n s fro m th e ric h c r a n d la rg e r n a tio n s have re p re se n ta tiv e s from sev eral d iffe re n t offices, in c lu d in g foreign affairs, w h o o fte n d isa g ree w ith th e ir co lleag u es fro m th e su b stan tiv e u n its o n th e p o sitio n s th e ir g o v e rn m e n t sh o u ld take. D isa g re e ­ m en ts, how ever, ra rely tak e p lace on te c h n ic a l g ro u n d s. R a th e r th ey are b e ­ tw een th e te c h n ic a l a n d p o litic a l e le m e n ts o r official p o sitio n s th a t a d e le g a ­ tio n m u s t p u b licly u p h o ld . E ven if initially u n ified , th e p o sitio n o f a d e le g a tio n will v a ry o v er tim e. G o v e rn m e n ts, a n d a n a tio n ’s policies, c h a n g e w ith eac h elec tio n a n d , w ith ea c h new g o v e rn m e n t, a d iffe ren t set o f n e g o tia to rs arriv e s o n th e scene. D u rin g th e ir in itial m e e tin g s, at least, n ew d ele g a tes are u n p re p a r e d fo r w h a t th ey find d e sp ite w h a t th ey m ay u n d e rs ta n d o f th e ir g o v e rn m e n t’s policies a n d p o sitio n s o n a n y g iven to p ic. G enerally, d e le g a tio n s c o n ta in b o th specialists a n d g e n eralists. T h e p r e ­ d ic a m e n t o f th e sp ecialist is th a t th e p ro b le m a re a s co v ered by G E G are often so b ro a d th a t th e sp ecialist u n d e rs ta n d s o nly a very sm all p o rtio n o f th e te c h n ic a l issues a n d alm o st n o th in g o f diplo m acy . T h e tro u b le w ith th e g e n e ra list is th a t his o r h e r u n d e rs ta n d in g o f a specific p ro b le m a re a is often n o w h e re close to w h a t is necessary. A n y th in g o th e r th a n a so lu tio n b ased o n an in c re a sin g n u m b e r o f v a g a rie s re q u ire d to re a c h c o n sen su s is im p o s­ sible. In d e e d , p a r t a n d p a rc e l o f m a n y o f th ese a g re e m e n ts is th e a d ju s tm e n t o f o n c e valid c o n c e p ts a n d th e in v en tio n o f a la n g u a g e in te n tio n a lly m a d e u n in tellig ib le to ev e ry o n e .11 A g re e m e n t to use a te rm o r c o n c e p t th a t m e a n s d ifferen t th in g s to d iffe re n t p e o p le , how ever, c a n b e a costly b it o f trickery.42 T h e 1972 U N C o n fe re n c e o n th e H u m a n E n v iro n m e n t w as th e first in ­ te rn a tio n a l c o n fe re n c e o f its size to in c lu d e a side g a th e rin g o f a su b sta n tia l n u m b e r o f civil so ciety re p re se n ta tiv es. W ith e a c h c o n fe re n c e since th e n , civil society h a s m o v e d clo ser to th e official d e lib e ra tio n s as w ell as to b e c o m e b e tte r fu n d e d , la rg e r in n u m b e r, m o re v a rie d in in terests, b e tte r p re p a re d a n d in creasin g ly m o re aggressive a n d effective in th e p ro m o tio n o f its p o in ts o f view.43 As th e in flu en c e o f th ese g ro u p s grow s, it ad d s b o th g o o d a n d b a d co n se q u e n c e s in te rm s o f co m p le x ity a n d results. L ittle d o u b t exists th a t th e p ro cess achieves a b e tte r te c h n ica l a n d , in m a n y w ays, p o litical o u tc o m c b e c a u se o f th e in p u t a n d in flu en ce o f civil society. H o w ev er, th e resu lt often

13

Dictionary and introduction to global environmental governance

a tte m p ts to m e e t too m a n y d e m a n d s , a p p e a r s disjointed, a n d alm ost certain ly has a b u d g e t design ed to m e e t n e g o tia te d objectives u n a c c e p tab le to m a n y g o v e r n m e n ts th a t will claim they look m o r e like a wish list t h a n a re­ alistic effort to find solutions th a t fit w ith in n a tio n a l priorities a n d resources. N o t only are the n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l c a m p followers o f G E G g ro w in g in n u m b e r, they are also g ro w in g in variety a n d in streng th sufficient e n o u g h to force new socio -ec o n o m ic topics like tra d e , d e b t relief, e c o n o m ic theory, the selection a n d a ssig n m e n t o f subsidies, lifestyles, m a rk e tin g , g ender, war, d e m o c r a c y a n d h u m a n rights o n to the e n v ir o n m e n ta l a g e n d a . " It is the flip side o f the successes o f the e n v ir o n m e n ta l m o v e m e n t th a t previously forced systems thinking, i m p a c t studies, h ea lth a n d civil p a r tic ip a tio n o n t o the a g e n ­ da s o f d e v e lo p m e n t a n d g o v e r n m e n ta l policy. E n v iro n m en ta lists m a y c o m ­ plain, b u t this is the logical ex tension o f th e ir early successes a n d , even, o f the c o n c e p t o f e n v ir o n m e n t itself. A d d to all o f this the n u m b e r o f lan guages (including several different varieties o f English) a n d the fuzziness c re a te d by the s im u lta n eo u s in te r p r e ­ tation o f inv en te d ja r g o n . 45 A d d as well the h e a t c re a te d by c u ltu ral differ­ ences, a n c ie n t anim osities, c u r r e n t c o m p e titio n s a n d u n f o r tu n a te histories. A d d also the o p e n a n d in a d v e r te n t skewing o f in fo rm a tio n b e c a u se o f late n ig h t m eetings, in stitutional loyalties, e p h e m e r a l alliances a n d financial in e q ­ uities. Include, th e n , the intricacies o f w o rk in g th r o u g h n a tio n a l, institutional a n d de le ga te egos, as well as the delicacies o f m a n a g in g several sim ultaneous, cross-cultural flirtations, dalliances a n d tru e loves (both institutional a n d p e r ­ sonal), a n d th ere is little d o u b t th a t G E G stands at the edge o f chaos. We, the a u th o rs, o f course, can do n o th i n g a b o u t an y o f this. W e have n e ith e r the a u th o rity n o r the ability to do so. W e do have, however, the o p ­ p o r tu n ity to look at the lan g u a g e o f G E G a n d we will do so now.

C h a o s is born If language is not correct, then what is said is not what is meant. If what is said is not what is meant, then what ought to be done remains undone. If this remains undone, then morals and acts deteriorate and justice goes astray. Hence, there must be no arbitrariness in what is said. This matters above everything. Confucius

M a th e m a tic a l m o d e ls used in the d e v e lo p m e n t o f the science o f c o m p le x ­ ity show th a t chaos occu rs in c o m p le x systems b e c a u s e o f th e ir sensitivity to initial co n d itio n s a n d , the m o d e ls suggest, very sm all differences at the b e g in n in g o f an o p e ra tio n will g ro w at an e n o r m o u s rate. Likewise, as stated earlier, im precision a lo n g the way, a n d positive feedb ack for so m e th in g less th a n o p tim a l will take a n increasing ly c o m p le x system to a ‘decision p o in t' w h e re it will e ith e r stabilize itself in d e a th o r m on oton y, stay in th e fu rro w it has c re a te d to sp e n d a n e te rn ity in chaos, o r e m e rg e to s o m e th in g still c o m ­ plex b u t on ce again o rd e re d . T h a t such theo ries c a n describe social as well as physical systems is n ow

14

G lo b a l environmental governance: An essay

w idely a c c e p te d .46 In the physical sciences, co m plex ity a n d chaos c a n be e x p la in e d b e c a u se o f the p o w e r o f m o d e r n c o m p u te rs. For the social scien c­ es, however, C o n fu c iu s (see above) h a d it figured o u t long before the experts in n o n - lin e a r p ro g r a m m in g . D o es C h a o s T h e o r y hold for global e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e ? O u r guess is, ‘y e s / T h e differences a n d im p rec isio n in h o w individuals a n d in stitu ­ tions in the e n v ir o n m e n ta l/s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t m o v e m e n t u n d e r s ta n d the w o rd s - n o t to m e n tio n th e c o n c e p ts - o f ‘e n v i r o n m e n t / ‘e co lo gy ’ a n d ‘eco sy stem ’ a n d the positive fe e db a ck s u rr o u n d in g the politics o f ‘sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t’ as well as the c onfusion elicited by such n o tio n s as th e ‘p r e c a u ­ tio n a r y p r in c ip le ’ do seem to influence the co urse o f G E G . 47 For m a n y years, it has b e e n a h o b b y o f ou rs to ask students, te a c h e rs a n d techn ical a n d ad m in istra tiv e staff o f e n v ir o n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t courses, g o v e rn m e n t offices a n d N G O s to define these fo u r term s: e n v ir o n m e n t, ecol­ ogy, ecosystem a n d sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t. N o g ra d e s w ere involved b u t it is d e a r th a t few o f the responses w ere c o h e r e n t e n o u g h to serve as a guide to global e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e r n a n c e (see A p p e n d i x 5 for a collection o f their responses). H ow ever, since even a professional c o uld have a p r o b le m giving cold definitions to such requests, we need to look at w h a t they give us in p rin t, w h e re they have sufficient tim e to reflect on w h a t they say.

Environment T ab le 1 pre se nts the ways e n v iro n m e n talists often use the te r m ‘e n v ir o n m e n t’ w h e n they talk o r w rite to o n e another. In an a tte m p t to classify the various uses, w e have c o m e u p with fo ur categories a n d several sub-categ ories o f m e a n in g s. T h e r e c ou ld be m a n y m ore. H o w the w o r d is used is instructive, b u t th e wide variation in how it is used (the ‘small initial differences’ o f C h a o s T h e o r y ) is even m o re interesting. M o r e im p o rta n tly th o u g h , is th a t alm ost n o n e o f the uses really reflect the essential qualities o f the scientific c o n c e p t o f e n v iro n m e n t: th a t is th a t the c haracteristics o f an e n v ir o n m e n t c h a n g e in tim e a n d space a n d th a t these c haracteristics largely dictate the h e a lth , wel­ fare a n d b e h a v io r o f the ob je c t o r system at its ‘c e n te r.’48 D o es this variety o f uses cause p ro b le m s for e n v ir o n m e n ta l go ve rn a n ce ? A g ain, o u r a n s w e r is ‘yes’ a n d , this time, it is m o re th a n ju s t a guess. For ex a m p le , the c o nfusion sown by b e in g u n a c q u a in t e d w ith the c o n c e p t o f e n v ir o n m e n t surfaces in the following discussion fou n d in a U N D P r e p o rt o f a survey o f e n v iro n m e n ta l projects:49 (p.6) As a first step, it was decided that U N D P would prepare a compendium of environmental projects, building on its own Official Development Assistance information base with contributions from forum members.The idea was to better understand the impact of aid to the environment sector. In

1996, U N D P

published the Compendium of Environmental

Projects in Vietnam - 1985-1995 summarizing a decade of international assistance to the environmental sector ... The team collating the compendium had to define an‘environ mental’

15

D ictionary and introduction to glo b al environm ental governan ce

T a b l e I Contexts in which the word ‘environment’ is defined 1. Building

II. Economic

III. Spatial

IV. Ethical/

blocks

uses

uses

spiritual uses

1) Architectural

1) Inputs

1) Ecosystems

1) Home

Built environment

N atural resources

Forest

N ature

Natural environm ent

System services

Rangeland

Place

2) Geographical

2) Outputs

Planet

Planet

Terrestrial environm ent

Contam ination

2) Comprehensive

Earth

Aquatic environm ent

Products

W atersh ed

2) Spiritual

3) Institutional

3) Other

Landscape

G A IA

Hom e

Occupational health

W ild ern ess

Environmental engineering

Culture

environm ent W o rk environm ent Social environm ent

Deep ecology

project.This caused problems, as it is always difficult to define what activities constitute environm ent projects and programs. In

the

years

immediately

following

[ U N C E D ] , aid

agencies

reported on their performance in this field using different criteria and by ‘repackaging’ existing projects.The result was that it became impossible to gain an accurate picture of the true extent of environm ent investment ... To get around this problem ... U N D P adopted the definition that ‘an environmental project is one w here the main objective of the project is either the preservation of the natural environm ent or supporting the sustainable management of natural resources.’ UNDP

also noted that ‘even given this broad definition the

problem of concisely classifying projects remains.’ It found that the best way to identify w hat is or is not an environm ent project was to illustrate the type of donor projects that did or did not fall into this category.Thus, donor projects identified a s ‘environm ent’ included: •

all forestry projects;



all soil degradation and salinization projects, minus irrigation activities;

16

G lo b a l e n viro n m e n tal g o v e rn a n c e : A n essay



w atershed and w a te r pollution projects; environm ental research and training, but not general agricultural research;



integrated com m unity and rural developm ent projects,excluding com m ercially oriented agricultural and credit fund projects; disaster planning and mitigation;



rehabilitation of sea dykes projects;



urban and regional developm ent plans;



integrated pest management projects; energy efficiency projects (e.g. w o o d

stoves, solar o r wind

p ow er).

T h e in te r n a l in c o n s iste n c ie s in c lu d e d in th is list s h o u ld b e a p p a r e n t to m o s t re a d e r s . F o r e x a m p le : d o ‘a ll fo re stry p r o je c ts ’ in c lu d e h ig h g ra d in g , c le a rc u ttin g , a n d th e u se o f e x o tic sp ecies in p la n ta tio n s ? M o s t u r b a n a n d r e ­ g io n a l p la n s a rc te rrib ly co n flic tiv e ; in te g ra te d p e s t m a n a g e m e n t is in c lu d e d in th e list b u t a g ric u ltu ra l re s e a rc h is n o t; s a lin iz a tio n p ro je c ts [d e s a lin iz a ­ tio n p ro je c ts? ] a re in , b u t ir rig a tio n th e a c tiv ity p e r h a p s m o s t re s p o n sib le fo r s a lin iz a tio n is o u t; a n d th e d e b a te s s u r r o u n d in g th e lo c a tio n o f w in d p o w e re d g e n e ra to rs , w a ste tr e a tm e n t p la n ts a n d s a n ita ry lan d fills (p o llu tio n c o n tro l) a rc classic in N IM B Y w a rs as w ell as in th e b a ttle s fo r e n v ir o n m e n ta l ju s tic e . By n o m e a n s is su c h c o n fu s io n iso la te d ; n o r is it new . In th e e a rly 1980s, th e C o m m itte e o f I n t e r n a t io n a l D e v e lo p m e n t In s titu tio n s o n th e E n v iro n ­ m e n t (C ID IE ), w h ic h is m a d e u p o f th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l offices o f U N E P , U N D P , th e W o rld B a n k , ID B , A D B , A fD B , E IB , E B R D , O A S , E C E a n d a few o th e r p a r t- tim e a sso c iate s, w a s likew ise c o n c e r n e d w ith iso la tin g ‘e n v i­ r o n m e n ta l p ro je c ts ’ fro m th e re s t o f th e ir a g e n c ie s ’ p o rtfo lio s. T h e g ro u p also n e e d e d a c o m m o n b asis fo r u n d e r s ta n d in g th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t issues th e n c o n fr o n tin g th e ir a g e n c ie s. O f th e 35 issues su g g e s te d as b e in g ‘e n v ir o n m e n ta l’ by th e e ig h t C I D I E re p re s e n ta tiv e s (T a b le 2), tw o o f th e m w e re m e n tio n e d sev en tim e s, fo u r w e re m e n tio n e d th re e tim e s, sev en tw ice, and

22 o f

th e m w e re m e n tio n e d o n ly o n c e . N o c o n se n s u s w a s e v e r d e v e lo p e d

a n d th e p ro b le m o f w h a t is a n d is n o t a n e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro je c t re m a in s u n re s o lv e d . It is a p p a r e n t th a t, in te r m s o f its c o m m o n u sa g e , a n ‘e n v ir o n ­ m e n ta l p r o je c t’ is a n y th in g a n y o n e w a n ts to say it is.30 O t h e r c o n tr a d ic tio n s a rc e v id e n t in h o w n o n p ro fe s s io n a ls a n d p ro f e s ­ sio n als alike u n d e r s ta n d th e te r m ‘e n v ir o n m e n t.’ M o s t w ill say, fo r e x a m p le , th a t e n v ir o n m e n t h a s to d o w ith ‘n a tu r a l re s o u rc e s ,’ as in th e e x tr a c t o f th e U N D P r e p o r t g iv e n a b o v e , b u t m a n y o th e r s a re fo n d o f u sin g th e p h ra s e ‘e n ­ v ir o n m e n t a n d n a tu r a l re s o u rc e s ,’ w h ic h se e m s to say th a t e n v ir o n m e n t a n d n a tu r a l re s o u rc e s a re s e p a r a te e n titie s. T h e r e also is th e w id e ly a c c e p te d id e a th a t ‘e n v ir o n m e n t is ev ery th in g * (sec A p p e n d ix 5), w h ic h , if tru e , c o m p lic a te s th in g s fo r th o s e w h o p r e f e r to ta lk a b o u t a n ‘e n v ir o n m e n ta l s e c to r,’ a g a in as in th e 1996 U N D P r e p o r t. P e rh a p s th e r e a rc p ra c tic a l a n d o p e r a tio n a l re a s o n s fo r m a n y o f th e w ays th e te r m ‘en v iro n m e n t* is u se d . O u r c o n c lu s io n , h o w ev er, is th a t th is w o rd is th e m o s t u se d , y et le a st u n d e rs to o d , te r m e m p lo y e d in e n v ir o n m e n ta l

17

D ictionary and introduction to glo b al environm ental governan ce

T a b l e 2 CIDIE member institutions' interpretations of the issues requiring treatment as an ‘environmental project’ M em ber

Interpretation

institutions ADB

Reforestation, w a te r supply, sanitation, solid waste disposal, urban renewal, land-use and capability assessment, watershed manage­ ment, soil conservation, agro-forestry, industrial and urban pollu­ tion, regional planning.

EIB

W a t e r supply, sewerage, w astew ater treatment, oil tanker clean­ ing, industrial pollution, afforestation, pasture im provem ent and erosion control, soil saturation.

WB

Reforestation, soil conservation, rangelands and watershed man­ agement, w ater resources and slum upgrading, pollution control, natural resource development.

UNDP

Afforestation, energy conservation, pollution control, wildlife conservation, w a te r supply and sanitation, flood warning, occupa­ tional safety and health, environmental legislation, environmental management surveys and studies.

ID B

Conservation or enhancem ent of the environment, flood control, land erosion, air, land and w a te r pollution, transfer and utilization of science and technology.

A fD B

Sanitation, health, water, forestry, irrigation, agro-industry, mining, rural development, industry and energy.

ECE

D esertification and afforestation, wildlife conservation, renewable sources of energy, w a te r management, village w a te r supplies, soil conservation, fish stocks conservation.

OAS

Any developm ent project is an environmental project.

m a n a g e m e n t as well as in th e se a rc h fo r s u s ta in a b le d e v e l o p m e n t a n d g lo ba l g o v e r n a n c e . I t h a s b e e n m is u s e d for d e c a d e s , o f c o u rs e , a n d to o few w r ite r s use it in a w a y t h a t sufficiently e x p re sse s w h a t it h a s a lw ay s m e a n t : Anything

outside an object (or system) o f interest that influences the health, welfare and behavior o f that object (or system) o f interest at a given moment in time.51 H u m a n e n v ir o n m e n ts , o f c o u rse , a r e n o d iffe re n t fro m o t h e r e n v i r o n ­ m e n t s in t e r m s o f d e fin itio n ; th e y also a re p r e d o m i n a t e l y local, alw a y s p e r ­ so n a l, c o n tin u o u s ly c h a n g in g , a n d a re a p r i m a r y in flu e n c e o n th e h e a l th , w el­ fare a n d b e h a v i o r o f th e in d iv id u a l o r p o p u l a t i o n at t h e i r ‘c e n te r .’ T h e r e f o r e , a n y use o f the t e r m ‘h u m a n e n v i r o n m e n t ’ t h a t faithfully reflects th e c o n c e p t o f e n v i r o n m e n t will c o n v e y th e id e a t h a t o u ts id e o f n a m i n g a specific tim e , a specific p la c e a n d a specific o w n e r, s o m e t h i n g c alle d ‘th e e n v i r o n m e n t ’ d o e s n o t exist.

18

G lo b a l e n viro n m e n tal g o v e rn a n c e : A n essay

E c o lo g y W h e n a sk ed to give a d e fin itio n of ‘e c o lo g y ’ m o s t p e o p le w ill g e t it m o re o r less rig h t a n d c a ll it a ‘sc ie n c e .’ T h e y w ill th e n im m e d ia te ly u se th e te r m to m e a n s o m e th in g e n tire ly d iffe re n t.52 A n in te re s tin g e x a m p le o f th e c o rr e c t d e fin itio n a n d in c o r r e c t use o f th e te r m a p p e a r s in a p u b lic a tio n o f th e A sia n D e v e lo p m e n t B a n k in w h ic h ‘c o n c e p ts o f e c o lo g y ’ a n d ‘p r o te c tio n o f e c o l­ o g y ’ sh o w u p in th e sa m e s e n te n c e a fte r e a rlie r d e fin in g th e te r m o n ly as th e ‘... stu d y o f th e in te rre la tio n s h ip s o f o rg a n is m s to th e ir e n v ir o n m e n t.’53 E c o lo g y is, in d e e d , a s c ie n c e - a t le a s t it is a sc ie n c e a c c o rd in g to th e Ecological Society o f America (E S A ), w h ic h , d e sp ite its n a m e , is a n a ss o c ia tio n o f p ro fe ssio n a l eco lo g ists fro m a r o u n d th e w o rld . T h e full d e fin itio n g iv en by th e E S A is ‘Ecology is the .scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between organisms and their past, present, and future environments. ’54 N o te th e p lu ra l ‘e n v ir o n m e n ts .’ N o te also th a t e c o lo g y is n o t a sy n o n y m fo r e n v ir o n m e n t a n d th a t th e r e is o n ly o n e d e fin itio n g iv e n . U se d in a n y o th e r w a y - as if ‘e c o lo g y ’ w e re a w o rld v iew , a sy n o n y m fo r e n v ir o n m e n t o r as a n a d je c tiv e to d e sc rib e a p ro b le m , is ‘la n g u a g e th a t is n o t c o r r e c t.’ T o u se it in a n y o th e r w ay, w ith o u t g iv in g a d e fin itio n o f w h a t o n e m e a n s by it, is c o n fu s in g a n d im p e d e s o u r c a p a c ity to ‘d o w h a t n e e d s to b e d o n e .’ N e v e rth e le ss, m a n y o f its u se rs, th o u g h c o n tin u in g to d e fin e it as a scien ce, w ill say th a t th e p u b lic lo n g a g o c o -o p te d th e w o rd ‘e c o lo g y ’ a n d th a t o n e c a n n o w c o rre c tly u se it to m e a n o th e r th in g s.55 T h e r e is n o d o u b t th a t d e fin itio n s c h a n g e b e c a u s e a w o rd is m is in te r p r e te d a n d u se d e rr o n e o u s ly so o fte n th a t it e v e n tu a lly c o m e s to m e a n s o m e th in g else. A lte rn a tiv e ly , th e d e fin itio n c a n b e m o d ifie d b e c a u s e n e w in f o r m a tio n sh o w s it to b e in e r r o r as a d e s c r ip to r fo r so m e p h e n o m e n o n o r o b je c t. U n fo rtu n a te ly , w h e re e c o lo g y is c o n c e r n e d , c o -o p ta tio n is c lo s e r to th e first th a n it is to th e s e c o n d w h ic h b rin g s u p a q u e s tio n : W h y s h o u ld g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e a c c e p t th e c a reless u se o f w o rd s or, e v en m o re im p o rta n tly , w h y s h o u ld it a c c e p t th e ideological use o f w o rd s th a t, by d e fin itio n , w e re d e sig n e d to b e free o f id e o l­ ogy? I f th e w o rd ‘e c o lo g y ’ is c o -o p te d by a n id eo log y , d o e s th e sc ie n c e itse lf also b e c o m e id e o lo g ic a l in th e eyes o f m a n y ? O b s e rv a tio n tells us th a t th e a n s w e r to th a t q u e s tio n is also a re g r e tta b le ‘y es.’

Ecosystem E v e n eco lo g ists h a v e tro u b le sa y in g w h a t a n e c o sy ste m is, y e t th e w o rd is u se d by a lm o s t e v e ry o n e else b o th as if th e y k n o w fo r su re w h a t it m e a n s a n d as if e v e ry b o d y w h o is liste n in g h a s a p e rfe c t u n d e r s ta n d in g o f w h a t is b e in g s a id .Jf> H o w e v e r, as w ith ‘e n v ir o n m e n t’ a n d ‘e c o lo g y ,’ th e p o p u la r v iew o f ‘e c o s y s te m ’ o m its so m e v e ry im p o r t a n t p a rts. F o r in s ta n c e , a c c o rd in g to th e g e n e ra lly a c c e p te d concept, th e b o rd e r s o f a n ec o sy ste m a re n o t a g iv e n , a re n e v e r p re c ise, a n d , m o re im p o rta n tly , a re alw ay s d e fin e d by th e p e rs o n w h o lo c a te s th e b o u n d a r y a r o u n d th e e c o sy s­ te m in q u e s tio n :’7 ‘[T h e ] b o u n d a r y is b a s e d o n th e o b s e r v e r’s n e e d s, th e a c to rs , a n d th e c o n te x t, r a t h e r th a n o n a n y in trin s ic p ro p e r ty o f th e sys­ te m itsclf.’Ji! O t h e r p e o p le , fo r o th e r p u rp o s e s o r u sin g o th e r m e a s u r e m e n t

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D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

in s tru m e n ts a n d scales, w ill p u t th e line else w h e re.59 L ikew ise, ecosystem s, b e in g n o n -lin e a r a n d o p e n , are n e ith e r static n o r in e q u ilib riu m . T h e y are alw ays c h a n g in g a n d this c h a n g e c an b e ra p id o r slow, c a ta stro p h ic o r ev o ­ lu tio n ary , h u m a n c o n tro lle d a n d in flu e n c e d , o r w ith o u t an y h u m a n in te r­ v en tio n w h atso e v e r/'0 T h e s e c h a ra c te ristic s o f eco sy stem s, o f c o u rse, cau se p ro b le m s for su c h c o n c e p ts as ‘eco sy stem b a la n c e ,’ ‘ecosystem h e a lth ’ a n d ‘ecosystem frag ility ’ as w ell as fo r som e in te rp re ta tio n s o f ‘ecosystem restoration.*

Balance For e x am p le, o n e o f th e m y th s s u r ro u n d in g th e issue o f su sta in a b le d e v e lo p ­ m e n t closely tics su sta in ab ility to a n a ssu m ed ‘b a la n c e o f n a tu r e ’ w h e re dis­ tu rb a n c e s in itia te d by h u m a n s lead to d is h a rm o n y a n d d e v e lo p m e n t failure. H ow ever, science h a s d isco v ered su c h b a la n c e , w h e n it o ccu rs, to b e h ig h ly d e p e n d e n t o n th e scales o f tim e a n d sp a c e .61 In d e e d , for all p ra c tic a l p u r ­ poses, this kin d o f b a la n c e d o cs n o t last a n d d e v e lo p m e n t, like e n v iro n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t, if it is to b e su sta in ab le, m u st c ith e r a d a p t to su ch c h a n g e o r fail - th e reverse o f w h a t is o ften stated . F u rth e r, th o u g h science has lo o k ed in to th e stab ility o f eco sy stem s a n d , th erefo re, th e ir in stab ility u n d e r c o n d itio n s o f stress, few stu d ies have tru ly in v estig ated th e ir ‘fragility.’62 Yet, th e re is a lo n g list o f ecosystem s th a t have b e e n lab eled as fragile in th e p u b lic press: from th e A rctic to th e tropics, from reefs a n d estu a rie s to alp in e p o n d s, ra in fo rests, g ra ssla n d s, d eserts a n d , incidentally, u rb a n n e ig h b o rh o o d s. G iv en its u b iq u ity in p o p u la r w ritin g a n d its ab se n c e in scientific lite ra tu re , how ever, o n e co u ld su sp e c t th a t th e te rm fragile ecosystem’ is u sed m o re o ften to p ro m o te a p a rtic u la r view o f how to tre a t a specific p la c e th a n it is to in fo rm th e p u b lic o f scientific fa c t.63

Ecosystem health E cosystem h e a lth is sim ilarly a n in v e n te d a ttrib u te o f ecosystem s a n d n o t so m e th in g in c lu d e d in th e c o n c e p t. It b e c o m e s a valid p iece o f th e m o d e l only if a m a n a g e m e n t o b jectiv e is assig n ed to th e m a n ip u la tio n o f th e ecosystem in q u e stio n .64 T h a t is, if o n e is to talk o f ecosystem h e a lth , o n e also m u st state th e o b jective d esire d fo r th a t ecosystem be it a c o rn fie ld , w in d b re a k , p ristin e m o u n ta in lake o r tro p ic a l e stu a ry a n d be it (the o b jective) fo o d , fib er o r sp ir­ itu al tranquility. It is possib le to design an y n u m b e r o f objectiv es a n d activ i­ ties to m a k e use o f th e a ttrib u te s o f a n y system . M a n ip u la tio n o f th e system to m e e t a n objectiv e, o f c o u rse, in c lu d e s th e tools re q u ire d fo r c o n se rv a tio n o r p re se rv a tio n as w ell as for o th e r fo rm s o f d e v e lo p m e n t. C h a ra c teristic a lly , if th e re is m o re th a n o n e o b jectiv e fo r th a t system a t a given tim e, th e result will alw ays be co n flict over h o w ‘b e s t’ to use its stru c tu re a n d fu n ctio n o n th e o n e h a n d a n d ju s t w h o is g o in g to m a k e th a t d ecisio n o n th e o th e r.65

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G lo b a l environm ental g o ve rn an ce : An essay

Ecosystem restoration L ikew ise, g iven th e d y n a m ic s o f ecosystem c h a n g e , ecosystem restoration is a difficult te r m to u n d e rs ta n d a n d an even m o re difficult task to p u ll off.66 S u c ­ cession, a n o tio n p u t fo rth by ecologists to d escrib e ecosystem fo rm a tio n , is really a c o n tin u u m o f evolving stru c tu re a n d fu n c tio n a lte re d by fo rcing fu n ctio n s k n o w n a n d u n k n o w n to th e resto rer. T h e d ecisio n as to w h e re alo n g this c o n tin u u m o n e c a n say a n ecosystem is now ‘re s to re d ’ is a d ecisio n m a d e ac c o rd in g to th e d esires (objectives) o f th e resto rer, w h ic h m a y o r m a y n o t be w h a t th e system lo o k ed like w h en it w as ‘in equilib riu m * o r w h a t it m a y have b e e n like b efo re h u m a n s g o t th e re .67 In d e e d , a c c o rd in g to th e S o ciety for E cosystem R e sto ra tio n , ecosystem re s to ra tio n can b e b a se d on c o n se rv a tio n goals, ec o n o m ic n e e d , e th ic a l o r c u ltu ra l values, a e sth e tic p rin c ip le s or, even, p o litical c o n sid e ra tio n s.68

Positive fee d b a ck B ecause o f the u n q u e stio n in g use o f c o n c e p ts su c h as th e ‘p re c a u tio n a ry principle* a n d th e a c c e p ta n c e o f th e te rm ‘su stain a b le develo p m en t* across a b ro a d s p a n o f secto rs a n d th e n u m e ro u s p ro b le m s th e y cre a te in te rm s o f d efin itio n a n d p ra c tic a l a p p lic a tio n , th e ir h a n d lin g w ith in G E G falls in to th e c a te g o ry o f positive fe e d b a c k fo r so m e th in g less th a n o p tim al.

The Precautionary Principle (PP) T h e e m e rg e n c e o f in crea sin g ly u n p re d ic ta b le a n d u n q u a n tifia b le risks such as those asso ciate d w ith g en etically m o d ifie d o rg a n ism s (G M O s), a n d g lo b al clim ate c h a n g e h av e led th e scientific c o m m u n ity to d ev elo p an a n tic ip a to ry m o d el to p ro te c t a g a in s t su ch risks. O v e r th e last 20 y ears o r so, P P h a s b e c o m e o n e o f th e m o st fre q u en tly c ited ra tio n a le s fo r in te rn a tio n a l tre a tie s a n d d e c la ra tio n s. It is also o n e o f th e m o st criticiz e d a n d h o tly d e b a te d issues in th e G E G p ro c e ss.69 S im ply stated , P P is a stra te g y to c o p e w ith scientific u n c e rta in tie s in th e assessm en t a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f risks a ‘b e tte r safe th a n sorry* a p p ro a c h to p o licy m a k ­ in g th a t covers a m u ltitu d e o f in te rp re ta tio n s th a t v a ry fro m a g u a ra n te e ag a in s t serio u s a n d irre v e rsib le h a rm a n d th e p ro m o tio n o f in tc r-g c n c ra tio n al eq u ity to a m e a n s to d elay a n d b lock n e e d e d d e v e lo p m e n t. D esp ite these differences, PP, in th e last 40 y ears, h a s g a in e d c u rre n c y as a g u id in g p rin c ip le in a w ide v a riety o f G E G -re la te d issues, in c lu d in g th e 1992 U N C E D c o n fe r­ en ce a n d th e U n ite d N a tio n s F ra m e w o rk C o n v e n tio n o n C lim a te C h a n g e (U N F C C C ) n eg o tia tio n s. In spite o f this, th o u g h d efin itio n s are sim ilar, th e re is n o univ ersally ag re e d -to d efin itio n o f th e P P n o r u n ifo rm ity as to th e d e g re e o f its a u ­ th o rity .70 For e x a m p le , th e W orld C o m m issio n on th e E th ic s o f S cientific K n o w led g e a n d T e c h n o lo g y (C O M E S T ) c o m p la in s th a t 'th e trip le n eg ativ e n o tio n in th e R io D e c la ra tio n th a t th e “absence o f rig o ro u s p r o o f o f d a n g e r d oes not ju stify ¿«action,” forces b u t d o es n o t re q u ire c o n sid e ra tio n o f PP*;71

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D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

th e G e r m a n G o v e rn m e n t (1984) suggests th a t ‘d a m a g e s d o n e to th e n a tu ra l w o rld sh o u ld be a v o id ed in a d v a n c e a n d in a c c o rd a n c e w ith o p p o rtu n ity a n d p o ssib ility ’; th e L o n d o n D e c la ra tio n on th e P ro te c tio n o f th e N o rth S ea (1987) states th a t a n ‘a p p ro a c h is n ec e ssa ry w h ich m a y re q u ire a c tio n to c o n ­ trol in p u ts o f su c h su b sta n c e s even b e fo re a cau sal link h as b e e n estab lish ed by a b so lu tely c le a r scientific e v id e n c e 1; a n d th e E U D irectiv e o n th e P re ­ c a u tio n a ry P rin c ip le (2000) states th a t it ap p lies ‘w h e re scientific ev id e n c e is insufficient, in co n clu siv e o r u n c e rta in a n d p re lim in a ry scientific e v alu a tio n in d ic a te s th a t th e re are re a s o n a b le g ro u n d s fo r c o n c e rn th a t th e p o te n tia lly d a n g e ro u s effects o n th e e n v iro n m e n t, h u m a n , a n im a l o r p la n t h e a lth m ay be in c o n siste n t w ith th e h ig h level o f p ro te c tio n c h o se n by th e ELV W h a t is re m a rk a b le in th ese a n d o th e r d o c u m e n ts is th e c h a n g e in in te rp re ta tio n o v er tim e, ho w it h a s b e e n ap p lie d to a n ev er w id e n in g ra n g e o f secto rs, a n d m o v ed from g e n e ra l g u id a n c e to m a n d a to ry a ctio n s a n d m e a s u ra b le ta rg e ts a n d th a t ev en th e m o st stric t in te rp re ta tio n s also p ro v id e la n g u a g e a lo n g th e lines o f ‘a c c o rd in g to th e ir c a p a b ilitie s’ o r th a t th e P P ‘sh all n o t be u sed as a re a so n for p o stp o n in g cosI-effective m e a su re s to p re v e n t e n v iro n m e n ta l d a m ­ a g e / It is as if P P is such a n o n -ta rg e t p rin c ip le th a t w e c a n n o t affo rd to use it. A ltern ativ ely, it is so m e th in g th a t so u n d s so g o o d th a t we all w a n t it b u t if fully im p le m e n te d , p ro g re ss w ill co m e to a h a lt.72

Sustainable developm ent73 T reatises o n th e history, d efin itio n a n d p rin c ip le s o f su stain a b le d ev e lo p m e n t a n d su stain ab ility have b e c o m e u n m a n a g e a b le . D iscu ssio n s re g a rd in g th e orig in s o f these te rm s a p p e a r to d e p e n d as m u c h on a n a u th o r ’s in te re sts as it d oes o n re searc h . W h a t a p p e a rs o b v io u s, how ever, is th a t th e re are a t least tw o levels o f c o n c e p tu a l in ten sity th a t fall o u t o f th e h u n d re d o r so d efin i­ tions o f su stain ab le d e v e lo p m e n t th e a b s tra c t a n d th e p ra c tic a l. E a c h o f us is c a p tiv a te d by, a n d in tu itiv ely u n d e rs ta n d s , th e a b s tra c t id e a o f su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t. WTh a t w e g ra sp o f it a t a p ra c tic a l level, is so m e th in g else a l­ to g eth er. B eing u n d e rs to o d d ifferen tly by e a c h , su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t is a te rm th a t m o st p o litician s, e n tre p re n e u rs a n d e n v iro n m e n ta lists e n th u s ia sti­ cally e m b ra c e ; d e v e lo p m e n t and c o n serv a tio n to g e th e r are a h e a d y m ix. A d d to th a t th e positive fe e d b a ck every tim e a n y o n e uses th e te rm , n o m a tte r th e c o n te x t a n d c o n te n t, a n d we have th e stu ff o f c o n flict a n d chaos. A t a p ra c tic a l level, th e c o n c e p t is fra u g h t w ith th e sa m e c o n tra d ic tio n s as th e c o n c e p t o f d e v e lo p m e n t, w h ich a rc serious. For e x a m p le , a c c o rd in g to D en is G o u le t, d e v e lo p m e n t d ecisio n m a k in g suffers from a ‘failure to c o n ­ fro n t th e in h e r e n t conflicts b e tw e e n th e te c h n ic a l, p o litic a l a n d e th ic a l r a ­ tio n a litie s’ o f th e p ro cess w h e re a d ecisio n th a t favors a n y o n e o f th e th re e v ery often conflicts w ith o n e o r b o th o f th e o th e r tw o .’74 L ikew ise, th e th re e p rin c ip le s o f su sta in ab le d e v e lo p m e n t m o st o ften c ite d (p ro tec tio n o f n a tu re for its ow n sake, efficiency in th e use o f reso u rces, a n d in te rg c n c ra tio n a l e q ­ uity) are m u tu a lly exclusive id eas a c c o rd in g to D a v id J. P a n n c ll a n d S teven S chilizzi.75

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G lo b a l e n viro n m e n tal g o v e rn a n c e : A n essay

T h is d o c s n o t m e a n th a t w e m u s t rid o u rse lv e s o f th e te r m by a n y m e a n s . T h e id e a is c e rta in ly a g ia n t ste p fo r w a rd fro m u n s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t a n d e v ery in itia tiv e th a t ta k e s us fo r w a rd is a n im p ro v e m e n t o n w h a t w e h av e. H o w ev er, G E G c o u ld m a k e m o r e p ro g re s s if th e s u p p o r te rs o f s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t w o u ld a c c e p t th a t th e c o n c e p t h a s b o th a b s tr a c t a n d p r a c t i­ cal levels. T h e n , b e lie v in g th e a b s tr a c t to b e p o ssib le , th e y c o u ld d e d ic a te th e m se lv e s to w o rk th r o u g h th e d ifficu lties a n d c o n tr a d ic tio n s o f d e v e lo p ­ m e n t r a t h e r th a n d e n y in g th a t su c h c o n tr a d ic tio n s e x ist ju s t b e c a u s e s o m e ­ o n e a d d s th e w o rd ‘s u s ta in a b le ’ to th e p ro je c t o r policy. T h e a lte rn a tiv e s, th e o n e s b a s e d o n w h a t w e w o u ld like to k n o w r a t h e r th a n o n w h a t w e d o kn o w ; o r th e o n e s th a t re s p o n d to p re s s u re s b e th e y fro m th e d e sp o ile rs , o r from th e c o n s e rv a tio n is ts le a d us o n ly to u n p ro d u c tiv e c h a o s. In d e e d , th e b e st u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e c o n c e p t a n d , th e re fo re , th e b e s t w a y fo rw a rd , is to a p p re c ia te s u s ta in a b ility as d o c s T e rri M e y e r B o ak c: ‘I t ’s n o t a to p ic , i t ’s a n a ttitu d e .’

Complexity A c c o rd in g to W. B ria n A rth u r, w h o h e lp e d fo rm a liz e C h a o s T h e o r y :76 [com plexity] tends to increase as functions and m odifications are added to a system to break through limitations, handle exceptional circum stances o r adapt to a w orld itself m ore com plex... W h e r e forces exist to w eed o u t useless functions, increased com plexity delivers a sm ooth, efficient machine. W h e r e they do not, it m erely encum bers.77

T h is s ta te m e n t by D r A r th u r is o n e th a t th e p ra c titio n e r s o f G E G n e e d to h e e d as th e y try to ‘b re a k th r o u g h lim ita tio n s , h a n d le e x c e p tio n a l c ir c u m ­ sta n c e s a n d a d a p t to a m o re c o m p le x w o rld .’ F o r e x a m p le , b a s e d o n th e c o n flic t se e n d u r in g b o th th e r u n - u p a n d th e W S S D e v e n t itself, th e p ro c e ss o f G E G is n e ith e r ‘s m o o th ’ n o r ‘e ffic ie n t.’ S o m e o f th e re a s o n s fo r th is la c k o f s m o o th n e s s a n d efficiency, a lr e a d y m e n tio n e d , c o n sist o f th e d iv e rg e n t p o lic ies, id e o lo g ie s, so cial a n d e c o n o m ic c o n d itio n s a n d c u ltu re s o f n e a rly 2 0 0 in d e p e n d e n t sta te s a n d th e ir g o v e rn ­ m e n ts as w ell as th e p o lic ie s, id e o lo g ie s a n d c u ltu re s o f th o u s a n d s o f N G O s . L ikew ise, th e b r o a d a n d c h a n g in g m a k e u p o f e a c h o f th e g o v e rn m e n ts a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s te n d to p ro m o te d is a p p o in tm e n t r a t h e r th a n firm p ro g re s s in th e ir se a rc h fo r th e m e a n s to g o v e rn w ell. F in d in g a ro u te th r o u g h a n d a r o u n d th e se p e r m a n e n t fix tu res o n th e G E G la n d s c a p e r e ­ q u ire s a c o n c e rte d e ffo rt o n th e p a r t o f sc h o la rs a n d d ip lo m a ts . O n e p a r t o f th a t effo rt, w e b elie v e , is to im p ro v e th e la n g u a g e a n d th e m a n n e r in w h ic h it is c o n tin u o u s ly a ss e m b le d a r o u n d th e p ro c e ss, a rc h ite c tu re a n d im p le m e n ta ­ tio n o f G E G b e c a u s e it is h e re th a t m a n y o f th e ‘useless f u n c tio n s ’ m a y be m o s t easily w e e d e d o u t. O n e o f th e s e e n c u m b r a n c e s , in o u r view , is th e te r m ‘p o litic a l w ill.’

23

D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

Political will As p rev io u sly sta te d , C h a o s T h e o r y in clu d es th e id e a o f ‘a tt r a c to r s / A n a t­ tra c to r is the m a th e m a tic a l c o n c e p tu a liz a tio n o f som e stab le p o in t in a c o m ­ plex system . T h e s e a re th e ‘o rg a n iz e rs ’ o f c h ao s, th a t is w h e n a c o m p lex system is o n th e ‘ed g e o f c h a o s’ th e in flu e n c e o f a n a ttra c to r m ay p u sh (or drag ) th e system to a n ew o rd e r th a t c a n in c lu d e d e a th th e u ltim a te in sta­ bility, o r endless re p e titio n o nly slightly m o re d esira b le th a n d e a th . C e rta in system s also e x h ib it b e h a v io rs th a t settle o n ‘s tra n g e ,’ o r c h a o tic , a ttra c to rs. H o o k e d to a stra n g e a ttra c to r, th e b e h a v io r o f th e system v aries u n p rc d ic tab ly a n d sp en d s its life in ch ao s. In G E G , o u r guess is th a t th e te rm ‘p o litical w ill’ - so m e th in g th a t G E G h as y et to d efine o r ev en ex p la in - is a stra n g e a ttracto r. H o w o bsessed is G E G w ith th e id e a o f p o litic a l will? A n in te rn e t search for a c o m b in e d ‘p o litic a l w ill’ a n d ‘e n v iro n m e n t’ p ro d u c e s o v er 3 m illion referen ces w hile a se a rc h fo r ‘p o litica l w ill,’ ‘su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t’ a n d ‘su sta in a b ility ’ yields n e a rly 2 m illion referen ces. T h a t is a lo t o f c y b ersp a c e d e d ic a te d to so m e th in g th a t few h av e e v e r trie d to ex p lain . E ven m o re u n se t­ tling, how ever, is th a t th e m a jo rity o f th ese re fe re n c e s relate to d iscussions h eld d u rin g m ee tin g s d e d ic a te d to G E G a n d n early all o f th e m in c lu d e w h at c an o nly b e d e sc rib e d as a n ex cu se th a t p u sh e s th e b la m e for failu re o r in a c ­ tio n o n to so m eo n e else: ‘T h e effort w e sp e n t so m u c h tim e p la n n in g , failed b ecau se o f a lack o f p o litica l w ill.’ H ow ever, to say th a t a p ro je c t, p ro g ra m o r policy failed b e ca u se o f a ‘lack o f p o litical w ill,’ is little m o re th a n a p re te x t to escap e th e g u ilt for so m e th in g we d id n o t do: w e d id n o t finish th e a ssig n m e n t a n d o u r h o m e w o rk w as h a n d e d in h a lf d o n e. Is it n o t s o m e w h a t e m b a rra ss in g th a t w e w o u ld sp en d m illions u p o n m illio n s o f d o llars to d ev elo p a c tio n p ro p o sa ls w h o se o b je c ­ tives a re n o th in g less th a n th e salv a tio n o f th e w o rld as w e know it a n d th e n n o t do o u r h o m ew o rk ? T o m ake som e sense o f th e issue, w e a t least n e e d a d efin itio n o f w h a t ‘p o litical w ill’ is. T o s ta rt, we will m a k e a le a p o f faith a n d say th a t ‘p o litica l w ill’ involves a p o litic al d ecisio n . T h e q u e stio n th e n b eco m e s, ‘H o w a re p o ­ litical d ecisio n s m a d e ? ’ S in ce a p o litical d ecisio n is p ro b a b ly n o t m u ch d iffer­ e n t from a n y o f th e o th e r d ecisio n s w e m ak e o n ly th e n a m e s a n d in ten sities c h a n g e , w e have d e c id e d th a t w e m a k e decisions b a se d o n th e ro u te o f least co n flict for ourselves, th e d ecisio n m aker. ‘H a !’ som e o f you will say, ‘I knew it all th e tim e. P o litician s are such co w ard s!’ T ak e it a step fu rth er, th o u g h , a n d ask ‘co n flict w ith w h a t o r w ith w h o m ’ a n d ‘how s tro n g ’ a n d ‘how m u c h ’ a n d th e w h o le th in g gets a g o o d d eal m o re c o m p lic a te d ; so c o m p lic a te d in fact th a t w e find o u rselv es a d m ir­ in g th e p o litician s w h o h av e to m a k e p o litica l d ecisions. M a k in g a d ecision re q u ire s d e lib e ra tio n . D e lib e ra tio n is re q u ire d b e c au se o n e has to b a la n c e th e a m o u n t a n d k inds o f c o n flict th e d ecisio n will cau se w ith a n u m b e r o f d iffe ren t e n titie s o r id eas, p re tty m u c h all o f th e m im ­ p o rta n t. H e re a re a few: c o n stitu e n ts, su p p o rt base, m e n to rs, p e ers, o p p o si­ tio n , lead e rs, law, c o n stitu tio n , o th e r p rio ritie s, scientific in fo rm a tio n , a s p ira ­ tions a n d co n scien ce. M u ltip ly all o f th a t by th e m a n y in d iv id u a ls w ho will

24

G lo b a l environm ental g o ve rn an ce : An essay

b e c o m e involved in a d ecisio n o n G E G a n d ‘p o litic al will* b e c o m e s a stra n g e attra c to r. T h u s , rely in g on p o litical will w ith o u t d o in g o u r h o m e w o rk is costly, d a n g e ro u s a n d naiv e. H ow ever, since p ro g re ss in G E G d o es in d e e d d e p e n d o n th e decisions o f p o litic ian s, w e n e e d to k n o w ju s t w h a t th e h o m e w o rk is th a t w en t m issing. T h e a n sw e r to th a t h o m e w o rk q u e stio n is easy; d o in g it is q u ite a b it m o re difficult. T h a t is, o u r h o m e w o rk is to d isco v er a n d m a n a g e th e co n flict th a t is a t th e c e n te r o f e m e rg in g c h a n g e ; so m e th in g few o f us a re v ery g o o d at doing. W e have difficulty in m a n a g in g th e m a n y c o n flictin g d e m a n d s m a d e by h u m a n s on th e system s w e sh a re b e c a u se th e c o m p e tin g d e m a n d s a re n o t d isco v ered early e n o u g h , th ey a re k n o w n b u t n o t in c lu d e d in th e analysis an d tr e a tm e n t, or, m o re likely, th e re is no real c o n sen su s g a th e re d a ro u n d th e process, the p ro d u c t, o r b o th , b efo re a g o v e rn a n c e p ro p o s a l is p u t fo rw a rd .78 T h e re a c tio n s o f u n satisfied o r d ise n fra n c h ise d a ffected p a rtie s (in clu d in g a sig n ifican t p o rtio n o f th e p o litical esta b lish m e n t) a re m a jo r reaso n s fo r failed G E G p ro p o sa ls a n d actio n s. T h e y fail b e c a u se o f u n re so lv e d conflict.

Em ergence T h e re arc a t least tw o w ays to m a n a g e e m e rg in g c h a n g e in c o m p le x social system s such as G E G ; th ey in c lu d e th e p a rtic ip a tio n o f civil society a n d th e creativ e m a n a g e m e n t o f co n flic t.79 T h e se are im p o rta n t e n o u g h th a t th ere o u g h t to b e w ho le d ivisions o f G E G p ra c titio n e rs sch o o le d in th ese tw o m e th ­ ods for m in im iz in g conflict, th e re a so n b ein g th a t if w e c a n offer a p ro g ra m o r p olicy to a decision m a k e r th a t m e e ts a d e sired o b jectiv e a n d m in im izes th e co n flict th a t th e d ecisio n w ill b rin g , w e will have d o n e o u r h o m e w o rk .

Participation of civil society B ased o n P rin c ip le 10 o f W C E D , tw o re g io n s h av e esta b lish e d fo rm a l m e c h ­ an ism s to involve civil society in g o v e rn m e n t d e c isio n -m a k in g processes: th e A a rh u s C o n v e n tio n , in E u ro p e ,80 a n d th e Inter-American Strategyfo r the Promotion o f Public Participation in Decision-Making for Sustainable Development (ISP) in th e A m ericas.81 B oth in s tru m e n ts in clu d e a set o f p rin c ip le s th a t h elp g u a ra n te e civil society in p u t in to d ecisio n m ak in g . T h e s e m e c h a n ism s, c o m b in e d w ith th e g ro w in g activism o f tra n s n a tio n a l e le m e n ts o f civil society, a re ra d ic a lly tra n sfo rm in g in te rn a tio n a l n e g o tia tio n , d ip lo m a c y a n d g o v e rn a n c e . E u ro p e 's ‘A a rh u s C o n v e n tio n ’ (T h e U n ite d N a tio n s E c o n o m ic C o m m is ­ sion for E u ro p e C o n v e n tio n on A ccess to In fo rm a tio n , P ublic P a rtic ip a tio n in D e c isio n -m a k in g a n d A ccess to Ju stice in E n v iro n m e n ta l M atte rs) w as a d o p te d in J u n e 1998 a n d e n te re d in to force in O c to b e r 2 0 0 2 . N o t o nly w as it th e first fo rm a l a g re e m e n t o f its type in th e w o rld , it re p re se n ts a d e p a rtu re from th e sta n d a rd c o n v e n tio n in th a t it links e n v iro n m e n ta l rig h ts a n d h u ­ m a n rig h ts a n d a c k n o w led g es th e o b lig a tio n ow ed to b o th p re s e n t a n d fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s .82 It e stab lish es th a t su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t c a n be ach ie v e d on ly th ro u g h th e in v o lv em e n t o f all sta k e h o ld e rs a n d it links g o v e rn m e n t a c c o u n ta b ility a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t. T h e C o n v e n tio n focuses

25

Dictionary and introduction to global environmental governance

on in te ra c tio n s b e tw e e n the pu blic a n d pub lic a u th o ritie s in a d e m o c ra tic c o n te x t a n d it is forging a n e w process for p ublic p a rtic ip a tio n in the n e g o tia ­ tion a n d im p le m e n ta tio n o f in te r n a tio n a l a g re e m e n ts. T h e subject m a tte r o f the A a r h u s C o n v e n tio n also goes to the h e a r t o f the re lationship b e tw e e n pe o p le a n d th e ir g o v e rn m e n ts. It is n o t ju s t a c o n ­ ventio n c o n c e r n e d w ith e n v iro n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t ; it is also a n a g r e e m e n t th at d e m a n d s g o v e r n m e n t accountability, t r a n s p a r e n c y a n d responsiveness. T h e A a r h u s C o n v e n tio n g r a n ts the public rights a n d im poses obligations on p a rtie s a n d public a u th o ritie s re g a r d in g access to in fo rm a tio n , to justice a n d to the process itself. T h e Inter-American Strategy for the Promotion o f Public Participation also has its origins in U N C E D . U N C E D led to the first h e m isp h e ric ‘Specialized S u m ­ m it o f the A m e ric a s o n S u sta ina ble D e v e lo p m e n t.' T h is su m m it, c o n v e n e d in S a n ta C r u z , Bolivia in late 1996, in stru c te d the O r g a n iz a tio n o f A m e r ic a n States to fo rm u la te an in te r-A m e ric an strategy to p r o m o te public p a rtic ip a ­ tion in decision m a k in g for su stainable d e v e lo p m e n t. In a show o f consist­ ency, su b s e q u e n t su m m its a n d m e e tin gs o f m inisters (Chile 1996; Q u e b e c C ity 2001) e n d o rs e d the c o n c e p t o f public p a rtic ip a tio n in g o v e r n m e n t deci­ sion making. C on seq uen tly, early in 1997, the O A S G e n e r a l S e c re ta ria t b e g a n f o r m u ­ lation o f the IS P as an o p e n , tr a n s p a r e n t a n d p a r tic ip a to r y initiative itself. A Project A dvisory C o m m itt e e (PAC) th a t includ ed m e m b e r s from g o v e rn ­ m en ts, p riv a te business a n d labor, as well as w o m e n a n d in d ig e n o u s people, p ro v id e d strategic g u id a n c e a n d advice. T h e core o f the S tra te gy is the Policy F ra m e w o rk th a t c o n ta in s the following six basic principles: •

a proactive role of governments and civil society to assure opportunities for public participation; inclusion of a diversity of interests and sectors;



responsibility

to

share

the

commitments

and

burdens

of

development; comprehensiveness to ensure participation in all phases of the decision-making process, with sufficient flexibility to make midstream adaptations; •

access to relevant information, to the political process and to the justice system; transparency

of

information

within,

among

and

between

government and civil society organizations to ensure the efficient use of resources.

T h e s e principles, in tu r n , gave rise to the following re c o m m e n d a tio n s : Create or strengthen existingformaland informal communication mechanisms to encourage information sharing, collaboration and cooperation among civil society groups, within and between levels

of government, and

between

government

and

civil

society. Create, expand and put into practice legal and regulatory

26

G lo b a l e n viro n m e n tal g o v e rn a n c e : A n essay

fram ew orks that allow for the participation of civil society in developm ent decisions. Su p p o rt institutional structures, policies and procedures that actively prom ote and facilitate governm ent and civil society interaction in developm ent decisions. Build

and

governm ent

strengthen and

civil

the

in developm ent decision knowledge

on

capacity

society

making with

sustainable

of individuals,

organizations, to

within

participate

an increased base of

developm ent issues

and public

participation practices. Pro cu re and expand financial resources to initiate, fortify, and/ o r continue participatory practices in developm ent decision making. •

C reate, strengthen and support form al and informal fora in which developm ent activities are discussed and related decisions taken.

All this, o f c o u rs e , m a y (will) c re a te a n y n u m b e r o f te m p o r a r y p ro b le m s a n d will o fte n slow p ro g r e s s c o n sid e ra b ly . H o w e v e r, th e a d v a n ta g e s d o se em to o u tw e ig h

th e d is a d v a n ta g e s a n d th e p a r tic ip a tio n o f

civil so cie ty

se n t a n e m e r g in g s o lu tio n to w h ic h G E G m u s t p a y close a tte n tio n .

C on flict m an a g e m e n t In te r m s o f G E G d e c is io n m a k in g , w e h a v e c o m e a lo n g w a y in th e y e a rs sin ce th e 1972 S to c k h o lm C o n fe re n c e b u t th e r e is still a lo n g w ay to go. A lo n g th e ro u te , w e w ill n e e d to w o rk h a r d e r a t c o n flic t m a n a g e m e n t - s o m e ­ th in g th a t is a g r e a t d e a l d iffe re n t fro m th e fr e q u e n tly a c rim o n io u s n e g o tia ­ tio n s th a t c u r r e n tly ta k e p la c e in G E G . O b v io u sly , c o n flic t m a n a g e m e n t h a s b e e n a ro u n d fo re v e r a n d it is s o m e ­ th in g w e still n e e d .83 U n fo rtu n a te ly , h o w e v e r, w h e re G E G is c o n c e r n e d , c o n ­ flict m a n a g e m e n t is to o o fte n se e n as c o m p ro m is e a n d a loss o r re s tric tio n o f p o w e r w h e n w h a t it s h o u ld b e se e n as is th e o p p o r tu n ity to c re a te .84 D o e s th a t s o u n d n aiv e ? O f c o u rs e it d o e s; a t le a st it d o e s to us. B u t it also so u n d s n ecessary . W e d o live in a w o rld o f in e q u itie s in in f o rm a tio n , fin a n c e s, o r ­ g a n iz a tio n , ab ilitie s a n d o p p o r tu n ity as w ell as h id d e n a g e n d a s a n d u n a r t ic u ­ la te d , th o u g h s tro n g ly felt, n e e d s. H u m a n v a lu e s a re as d iv e rse as p e rso n a lity , a n d all o f th e m a re im p o r ta n t. M e m o rie s a re lo n g a n d h is to ry c a rrie s m o re w e ig h t th a n it sh o u ld . C o n flic t is e v e ry w h e re . H o w e v e r, a lth o u g h c o n flic t is o fte n in s a n e , it also tells us th a t in e q u itie s d o exist, th a t n o ise m a k e s p ro b le m s e a s ie r to id e n tify a n d th a t th e re is v a lu e in d e b a te . B e c a u se o f all o f th is, c o n flic t m a n a g e m e n t is n o t ju s t a m e a n s to resolve d is p u te s. I t also is a n o p p o r tu n ity to use th e re la tio n s h ip re v e a le d by a co n flic t to e n g a g e in p ro d u c tiv e d e b a te , a n d to lo o k fo r n e w a n d d iffe re n t so lu tio n s to th e p ro b le m s u n c o v e re d b e c a u s e o f th a t c o n flict. A c c o rd in g to D u d le y W eek s, w h o te a c h e s c o n flic t re s o lu tio n a t th e A m e r ­ ic a n U n iv e rs ity in W a s h in g to n , D C , a t le a s t fo u r o f o u r p e rc e p tio n s o f c o n ­ flict n e e d to b e c h a n g e d :85

27

does re p re ­

Dictionary and introduction to global environmental governance



that‘conflict is always a disruption of order,’ a negative experience when in fact it is an outgrowth of diversity that can be used to clarify a relationship and additional ways of thinking;



that

conflict

is

always

a

battle

between

competing

and

incompatible self-interests while forgetting the presence of needs or goals that the two [or more] parties might actually share; •

that a conflict defines the entire relationship when the reality is that it is only one part of a complex relationship;



that the conflict involves two absolutes, between right and wrong or between good and evil when, many ‘values’ are, in fact, subjective preferences.

Accordingly, conflict m a n a g e m e n t m a y well be the single m ost im p o r t a n t in g re d ie n t for successful global e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e th a t we know o f - if we view conflict in positive w ays r a t h e r th a n as so m e th in g th a t re q uire s the ch oosin g o f sides a n d destructive e n g a g e m e n t to the bitter e n d .86

Justice and the problem of environment vs. environments P e rh a p s som e o f you have n o tice d th a t we, the a u th o rs, have h a d a difficult tim e in k e e p in g o u r eyes fixed o n w h a t we set o u t to do in w ritin g this essay: to discuss only the lan g u a g e p ro b le m in G E G a n d leave the p ro b le m s o f p o w e r im b a la n c e , c u ltu ra l differences a n d all those ‘n o n - e n v iro n m e n ta lists ’ trying to get into G E G to s o m e o n e else. W e h a d a n idea all along, however, th a t in the e n d these two p ro b le m s w ould t u r n o u t to be essentially the sam e thing. Since it is so m e th in g th a t G E G is g o in g to have to face squarely, we should d o it also. It has to do with how on e u n d e rs ta n d s th e c o n c e p t o f ‘e n ­ v i r o n m e n t.’ T h e m a n y differences in h ow the te rm is used d o n o t a p p e a r b o th e r ­ som e w ith in d efined c o m m u n itie s. For e x a m p le , all architects recognize that a sleeping e n v ir o n m e n t is different from a n e a tin g e n v ir o n m e n t a n d those differ from a w ork e n v iro n m e n t. Biologists u n d e r s ta n d th a t a fluvial e n v iro n ­ m e n t is different from a terrestrial e n v ir o n m e n t a n d a n y sociologist ca n tell you the differences b e tw e e n the e n v ir o n m e n ts o f a barrio bajo a n d a barrio alto in Latin A m e ric a o r b e tw e e n U p p e r a n d L o w e r M a n h a t t a n in N e w York City. Few ca n tell you w h a t ‘the e n v i r o n m e n t’ is, however, a n d th erein lies the p ro b lem . A strong d isc o n n e c tio n exists b e tw e e n w h a t m a n y pe o p le vaguely believe the te r m to m e a n a n d the reality th a t those w h o fo rm u la te d the c o n c e p t m e a n t it to describe: a system outside o f a n o t h e r system th a t influences the in te r io r sy stem ’s h e a lth , welfare a n d behavior. G iv e n th a t c o n c e p t, o u r w ork is m u c h m o r e th a n the ‘p re se rv a tio n o f n a t u r e ,’ o u r challenges g r e a te r th a n the ‘sustainable m a n a g e m e n t o f n a tu r a l reso urces,’ the la b o r o f e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e is m o r e th a n biodiversity c o nservation , a n d w ork on the p ro b le m s o f ozo n e dep le tio n a n d clim ate c h a n g e - th o u g h all o f these arc e x tre m e ly im p o r ta n t a n d correctly fo rm a p a r t o f w h a t G E G is a b o u t.

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G lo b a l e n viro n m e n tal g o v e rn a n c e : A n essay

T h e c o n c e p t o f e n v ir o n m e n t, h o w ev er, d e m a n d s th a t G E G g o b e y o n d p o llu tio n c o n tro l a n d re s o u rc e p re s e rv a tio n . It o b lig a te s us to u n d e r s ta n d a n d use th e te r m as a p lu r a l r a t h e r th a n as a sin g u lar. ‘W h o s e e n v ir o n m e n t is to b e c o n s e rv e d , w h o se e n v ir o n m e n t is to b e d e v e lo p e d , a n d w h o se e n v i­ ro n m e n t w ill b e im p a c te d ’ by e ith e r o f th o s e a c tio n s a re q u e s tio n s a sk e d by th e d e v e lo p in g c o u n tr ie s in e v e ry e n v ir o n m e n ta l m e e tin g sin c e S to c k h o lm . I n d e e d , P rin c ip le 1 o f th e S to c k h o lm D e c la ra tio n a ffirm s th a t ‘M a n h a s th e f u n d a m e n ta l rig h t to fr e e d o m , e q u a lity a n d a d e q u a te c o n d itio n s o f life, in an e n v ir o n m e n t o f a q u a lity th a t p e r m its a life o f d ig n ity a n d w e ll-b e in g ’ (e m p h a sis a d d e d ).87 E n v iro n m e n ta l q u a lity is th e lin k b e tw e e n e n v ir o n m e n t a n d p o v erty , b e ­ tw e e n e n v ir o n m e n t a n d h e a lth , a n d b e tw e e n e n v ir o n m e n t a n d d e v e lo p m e n t. It h a s to d o w ith h o w w ell a sp ecific e n v ir o n m e n t satisfies th e n e e d s o f th o se w h o a rc a t its c e n te r. E a c h o f us, in d iv id u a lly o r in sm a ll g ro u p s , lives in d iffe re n t a n d e v e r-c h a n g in g e n v iro n m e n ts . S o m e o f th e s e e n v ir o n m e n ts a rc ric h a n d re w a rd in g . O th e r s a re to ta lly la c k in g in th e m e a n s re q u ir e d to s a t­ isfy h u m a n n e e d s. A s in g u la r e n tity la b e le d ‘th e e n v ir o n m e n t’ d o e s n o t exist, a n d calls to p r o te c t ‘th e e n v ir o n m e n t’ as d e s c rib e d by th e p o w e rfu l a n d th e fav o red d is e n fra n c h is e th e p o w e rle ss a n d less fo rtu n a te . R e g re tta b ly , th e q u e s tio n , ‘W h o s e e n v ir o n m e n t a re w e ta lk in g a b o u t? ’ h a s a lw ay s re c e iv e d th e w ro n g an sw er. T o re s p o n d d ire c tly o r in d ire c tly th a t th e re is o n ly ‘th e e n v ir o n m e n t,’ th a t it b e lo n g s to e v e ry o n e a n d th a t it m u s t be p r o te c te d , c a n m is re p r e s e n t d e v e lo p m e n t c h o ic e s, m is d ire c ts h u m a n e n e rg y a n d o th e r re s o u rc e s, a n d h id e s c o n flic t in s te a d o f m a n a g in g it. T h in k in g o f e n v ir o n m e n t as a s in g u la r c o n fo u n d s th e issues. T h in k in g o f e n v ir o n m e n t as a p lu r a l p e r m its iso la tio n a n d tr e a tm e n t o f p ro b le m s a n d allo w s us to u n d e r ­ s ta n d th e so u rc e s o f c o n flic t. U se o f th e p lu r a l allo w s a p r o p e r re s p o n se to th e c o m p le x ity o f o u r u n iv e rse ; use o f th e s in g u la r o v e rsim p lifie s to a n e x tre m e . U se o f th e s in g u la r b u rie s c o n flic t u n til it e x p lo d e s a n d b e c o m e s u n m a n a g e ­ ab le. U se o f th e p lu r a l allo w s civ ilize d d isc u ssio n , tr u s t a n d a c o o rd in a te d se a rc h fo r s o lu tio n s in th e fo ru m s o f g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e , use o f th e s in g u la r is a m a jo r re a s o n w h y G E G fin d s itse lf w h e re it is. W h a t a b o u t ‘th e e n v ir o n m e n t’ o f p la n e t E a r th —th e ‘g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n t’? D o e s it exist? O b v io u s ly it d o es. H o w e v e r, th a t e n v ir o n m e n t is o n ly o n e o f a c o u n tle ss n u m b e r a n d h a s little to d o w ith th e w a y m o s t in d iv id u a ls o r g ro u p s p e rc e iv e th e p ro b le m s fo u n d in th e ir o w n p riv a te a n d lo c a l e n v ir o n m e n ts .88 W h a t a b o u t th e o z o n e h o le a n d c lim a te c h a n g e ? A re th e y n o t e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro b le m s ? C e rta in ly th e y are. H o w e v er, rig h tly o r w ro n g ly , th e c itiz e n s o f e x tr e m e la titu d e s a re m u c h m o re c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o z o n e d e p le tio n th a n a re th o se in d iv id u a ls liv in g in re g io n s th a t a re n e a r e r th e e q u a to r - w h ic h ju s t h a p p e n s to c o in c id e w ith m a n y o f th e a re a s o f o u r w o rld th a t su ffer th e m o s t fro m p o v e rty a n d d ise a se . O b v io u s ly also, c lim a te c h a n g e w ill a ffect d iffe re n t p a r ts o f th e g lo b e in d iffe re n t w ay s, so m e o f w h ic h , a t le a st in th e s h o r t te r m , m a y ev en b e p o sitiv e fo r a p o r tio n o f th e w o rld ’s p o p u la tio n .89 E n v ir o n m e n t a n d d e v e lo p m e n t a re n o t o p p o s ite s a n d th e p ro b le m s o f e n ­ v ir o n m e n t a n d d e v e lo p m e n t a re n o t a q u e s tio n o f h a v in g o n e o r th e o th e r in v a ry in g d e g re e s. A s h o r t c o m p a r is o n w ill e x p la in : fo r fo re st d w e lle rs, d e fo r­ e s ta tio n m a y o r m a y n o t b e a n e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro b le m th a t fo re st p ro te c tio n

29

D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

m a y o r m ay n o t solve. P overty a n d inequity, o n th e o th e r h a n d , e n ta n g le d as th ey are w ith h a te a n d c o rr u p tio n , as w ell as w ith in te rn a tio n a l tra d e , n a tio n a l d e b t, lo cal in c o m p e te n c e , g e n d e r issues, p o w e r im b a la n c e a n d far from a d e q u a te e d u c a tio n a n d h e a lth c a re, a re m o st c e rta in ly e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro b le m s th a t only d e v e lo p m e n t, a n d g o o d g o v e rn a n c e , c an u n ra v e l.90 T h a t, in p a rt, is no w th e fu tu re c h allen g e to G E G - a q u a n tu m leap in com plexity, a lo n g w ay from th e still valid c o n c e rn s o f n a tio n a l p ark s, w ild e rn e ss a n d w ildlife - b u t e n v iro n m e n t, n o n eth e less.

N o te s 1

2

3 4

5

O r a n R . Y oung (1997b) ‘G lo b a l g o v e rn a n c e : D ra w in g insights from th e e n v iro n m e n ta l e x p e rie n c e / in O . R . Y oung (cd) Global Environmental Accord: Strategies fo r Sustainability and Institutional Innovations, C a m b rid g e : M I T Press; c h a p te r 2 o f U N C H S (2002) Cities in a Globalizing World Global Report on Human Settlements 2 0 0 1 , L o n d o n : E a rth s c a n , 3 4 4 p p ; a n d R o n n ie D. L ip sc h u tz (1999) ‘F rom lo cal k n o w led g e a n d p ra c tic e to g lo b a l e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e ,’ in M a rtin H c w so n a n d T im o th y J. S in c la ir (cds) Approaches to Global Governance Theory, A lbany, NY: S tate U n iv ersity o f N ew Y ork Press, p p 2 5 9 283. U N C H S p p 9 0 - 9 2 , a n d th e C G G (1995) ‘T h e c o n c e p t o f g lo b al g o v e rn a n c e ’ in C G G (ed) Our Global Neighborhood: The Report o f the Commission on Global Governance, O x fo rd : O x fo rd U n iv e rsity Press. U N C H S , p p 9 0 -9 2 . A n u m b e r o f w orks are av ailab le th a t seek to ex p lain th e w ays a n d m e a n s o f h o w this is d o n e . F o u r a m o n g m a n y are th a t o f P a tric ia B irn ie a n d A la n E. Boyle (1992) International Law and the Environment, O x fo rd : C la re n d o n Press, 5 6 3 p p ; th e ev en la rg e r a n d m o re w id e -ra n g in g D av id H u n te r, J a m e s S a lz m a n a n d D u rw o o d Z aelk e (1998) International Environmental Law and Policy N ew York: F o u n d a tio n Press, 1 5 6 7 p p ; th a t o f L a m o n t H c m p c l (1996) Environmental Governance: The Global Challenge, W ash in g to n D C : Islan d Press, 2 9 1pp. a n d th e re c e n t p u b lic a tio n o f Ja m e s G u stav e S p e th a n d P e te r M . H a a s (2006) Global Environmental Governance, W a sh in g to n , D C : Isla n d Press. O th e r fre q u e n tly u p d a te d so u rces such as th e Earth Negotiations Bulletin p u b lish e d by th e In te rn a tio n a l In stitu te fo r S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t a n d th e F rid tjo f N a n se n In s titu te ’s Yearbook o f International Cooperation on Environment and Development (L o n d o n : E a rth sc a n ) fo r ex a m p le , are e x cellen t a rc h iv a l so u rces o f facts a n d analysis. O f co u rse, th e treaties, a n d th e re c o rd s p ro v id e d by th e ir se c re ta ria ts, fill in th e n e c e ssa ry b a c k g ro u n d a n d c a n be easily accessed th ro u g h th e U n ite d N a tio n s T re a ty D a ta Base a t h t t p : / /u n tre a ty .u n .o rg o r th e C o lu m b ia U n iv e rsity C IE S IN D a ta Base a t h tt p ://s e d a c .c ie s in . c o lu m b ia .e d u . For a c o m p re h e n siv e discussion o f th ese ‘ru le s,’ see c h a p te rs 1 a n d 2 o f B irn ie a n d Boyle (1992). 30

G lo b a l environm ental g o ve rn an ce : An essay

T h e d o c u m e n ta tio n o f U N C E D in co n v e n ie n t fo rm ca n be fo u n d in M ic h a e l K e a tin g (1993) The Earth Sum m it’s Agenda fo r Change: A Plain Language Version o f Agenda 21 and the other Rio Agreements, G en e v a : C e n tre fo r O u r C o m m o n F u tu re , 70pp. T h e full te x t o f th e R io D e c la ra tio n c a n be fo u n d at w w w .u n ep . o r g /d o c u m e n ts /d e f a u lt.a s p ? d o c u m e n tID = 7 8 & a r tic lc ID = 1163. For ex am p le , th e E u ro p e a n M u ltila te ra l A g re e m e n t o n In v e stm en ts a p p e a rs a b a n d o n e d a n d th e p ro p o s e d V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n o n the L aw o f T re a tie s b e tw e en S tates a n d In te rn a tio n a l O rg a n iz a tio n s o r b e tw ee n In te rn a tio n a l O rg a n iz a tio n s h as seen little activ ity since 1986. A lth o u g h a c c e p te d by U N G A R E S 3 7 /7 (1982), th e largely N G O sp o n so re d World Charter fo r Nature is lo o k ed u p o n as ‘p re -su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t' a n d in su fficien t to p ro v id e a c o m p le te e th ic a l b ase fo r today. T h is w as p a rtic u la rly e v id e n t w ith early tre a tie s b u t, even w ith th ese p ro b le m s, th e re w ere successes. T h e 1940 W e ste rn H e m is p h e re C o n v e n tio n o n th e C o n se rv a tio n o f N a tu ra l R eso u rces, for ex am p le , p ro v e d w id ely useful fo r th e fo rm a tio n o f n u m e ro u s n a tio n a l p a rk s a n d reserv es in L atin A m e ric a d esp ite a lack o f fu n d in g fo r a se c re ta ria t o r an y c o n c e rte d official effo rt fo r its p ro m o tio n . A d iscu ssio n o f th e 1940 c o n v e n tio n c a n be fo u n d in K e n to n R . M ille r (1980) ‘C o o p e ra c ió n y asiste n c ia in te rn a c io n a l en la d ire c c ió n d e p a rq u e s n a c io n a le s’ in Planificación de Parques Nacionales para el Ecodesarrollo en Latinoamérica, M a d r id , F u n d a c ió n p a r a la E c o lo g ía y la P ro te c c ió n d el M e d io A m b ie n te . V ic to r K rc m c n y u k a n d W in frie d L a n g (1993) ‘T h e political, d ip lo m a tic , a n d legal b a c k g ro u n d ,’ in G u n n a r S jo sted t (ed) International Environmental Negotiation, L o n d o n : S age P u b lic a tio n s, p p 3 -1 6 . T h e p e c u lia ritie s o f all o f this can b e c o n fo u n d in g to n e w c o m e r a n d v e te ra n alike. N e ith e r sh o u ld v e n tu re in to a m e e tin g w ith o u t first re a d in g Jo y e e ta G u p ta ’s “On behalf o f M y D elegation...” A Survival Guide fo r Developing Country Climate Negotiators, C lim a te C hange K n o w led g e N e tw o r k /C e n te r fo r S u sta in ab le D e v e lo p m e n t in th e A m e ric a s (no d ate) A ccessed 22 July, 200 2 a t w w w .u n ita r.o rg /c c tra in / S u rv iv al% 20N ego tia tio n s% (n A I P)w w w /in d e x .h tm o r Felix D o d d s a n d M ic h a e l S tra u ss (2004) IIow to Lobby at Intergovernmental Meetings, L o n d o n : E a rth s c a n . A m o re g e n e ra l discussion o f th e w h o le p ro c e d u re is g iven in R ic h a rd Elliot B e n e d ic t (1993) ‘P erspectives o f a n eg o tia tio n p ra c titio n e r,’ in S jo sted t, p p 2 1 9 -2 4 3 a n d B irn ie a n d Boyle (1992) p p 3 2 —81. T h is is n o t to d e n ig ra te th e v alu e o f th e d e b a te th a t goes on in ‘u n o fficial’ m ee tin g s w h ere d iscu ssio n s c a n be m u c h m o re stra ig h tfo rw a rd th a n th o se th a t tak e p la c e in p le n a ry sessions. C C X , th e C h ic a g o C lim a te E x ch a n g e, a p riv a te c o n so rtiu m o f 14 fo u n d in g m e m b e rs re c e n tly sig n ed a leg ally b in d in g d o c u m e n t (2003) a g re e in g to re d u c e g re e n h o u s e gases by 4 p e rc e n t each in fo u r y ears. See w w w .c h ic ag o c lim a tex .c o m .

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See esp ecially c h a p te rs 1 a n d 2 o f B irn ie a n d Boyle (1992) fo r an ex ce lle n t in -d e p th d iscussion o f G E G a rc h ite c tu re . C o m m o n ly , C o n fe re n c e s o f th e P arties (C O P ) a re a d m in istra tiv e assem b lies o f p a rtie s to a c o n v e n tio n o r tre a ty w hile M e e tin g s o f th e P a rties (M O P ) arc a d m in is tra tiv e assem b lies o f p a rtie s to a p ro to c o l. U N E P (1997) Compendium o f Legislative Authority 1 9 9 2 -1 9 9 7 , O x fo rd : U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n m e n t P ro g r a m m e /E x p re s s L ith o S ervice, 2 8 7 p p . a n d K e a tin g (1993). In te rg o v e rn m e n ta l tre a tie s a n d c o n v e n tio n s a re g en e ra lly d e p o site d w ith in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s th a t will th e n d e d ic a te an office to a c t as th e se c re ta ria t. K e n n e th W. A b b o tt a n d D u n c a n S n id a l (2000) ‘H a r d a n d soft law in in te rn a tio n a l g o v e rn a n c e ,’ International Organization, vol 54, no 3, p p 4 2 1—456. R atific atio n is seldom a u to m a tic . In d e e d , if th e tre a ty severely affects d o m e stic in te re sts, a legislative b o d y m ay o p t to n o t ratify even th o u g h th e ex ecu tiv e b ra n c h o f th e g o v e rn m e n t sig n ed the in s tru m e n t (see A b ra m C h ay e s a n d A n to n ia H . C h ay es, (1991) A d ju s tm e n t a n d c o m p lia n c e p ro cesses in in te rn a tio n a l re g u la to ry re g im e s,’ in Jessic a T u c h m a n M a th e w s (cd) Preserving the Global Environment: The Challenge o f Shared Leadership, N ew Y ork a n d L o n d o n : W.W. N o rto n a n d C o m p a n y , p p 2 8 0 308. F ortun ately , th e V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n o n th e L aw o f T reaties, sig n ed a t V ie n n a 23 M a y 1969 a n d e n te re d in to force 27 J a n u a r y 1980, g o v ern s all o f this. E v e ry n e g o tia to r sh o u ld h av e a copy. It c an b e fo u n d at w w w .flc tc h c r.tu fts .e d u /m u lti/tc x ts /B II5 3 8 .tx t. A n im p o rta n t re la te d issue is th a t o f how a g re e m e n ts arc to be en fo rc e d (See R o n a ld B. M itc h e ll (2002a) ‘In te rn a tio n a l e n v iro n m e n t,’ in T h o m a s Risse, B eth S im m o n s a n d W a lte r C a rlsn a e s (eds) Handbook o f International Relations, L o n d o n : S age P u b lica tio n s; a n d D a n ie l W. D rc z n e r (2002) ‘B a rg a in in g , e n fo rc e m e n t, a n d m u ltila te ra l san ctio n s: W h e n is c o o p e ra tio n c o u n te rp ro d u c tiv e ? ’ International Organization, vol 54, n o 1, p p 7 3 -1 0 2 . O D A is th e official d e v e lo p m e n t assistan ce c o m in g from th e 22 m e m b e rs o f th e O rg a n is a tio n for E c o n o m ic C o -o p e ra tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (O E C D ). In 2 0 0 4 , th e U S G o v e rn m e n t d o u b le d it p e rc e n ta g e o f G D P d e d ic a te d to O D A to 0.2 p e rc e n t (Japan raised its g iv in g ra te to 0 .2 3 p e rc e n t o f G D P in 2005), w hile several E u ro p e a n c o u n trie s b e g a n in c re a sin g O D A levels to m e e t th e 0.7 p e rc e n t c o m m itm e n t, raisin g th e g lo b a l av erag e figure to n e a r 0.5 p e rc e n t in 2 0 0 5 . A n o th e r m e th o d o f ra n k in g giving h a s rec e n tly b een p u b lish e d by th e C e n tre for G lo b a l D e v e lo p m e n t a n d th e C a rn e g ie E n d o w m e n t fo r In te rn a tio n a l P eacc (2003) ‘R a n k in g th e ric h ,’ Foreign Policy, M a y /J u n e , p p 5 6 ~ 6 6 , w h ich use o th e r c rite ria to in d ic a te su p p o rt to th e p o o r (trad e, im m ig ra tio n a n d

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p e a c e k e e p in g policies) in a d d itio n to aid a n d in v estm en t. H illa ry F re n c h (2001) Vanishing Borders, L o n d o n : W o rld w a tc h In stitu te a n d W.W. N o rto n a n d C o m p a n y . O n e o f th e m o re sig n ifican t o f th ese w as w h en th e U S A m b a ss a d o r to th e U N c la im e d in 2 0 0 5 , to th e a m a z e m e n t o f m any, th a t his g o v e rn m e n t h a d sig n ed the M ille n n iu m D e c la ra tio n as a b ro a d sta te m e n t o f in te n t, b u t n o t th e goals a n d targ e ts th em selv es a d istin c tio n th a t c o u ld a n d sh o u ld have b e e n m a d e c le a r a t the signin g ra th e r th a n five y ears in to th e p ro g ra m . V ic to r D avis H a n s o n (2004) ‘T h e U .N .? W h o C a r e s . . . ’ The Wall Street Journal Europe. 23 S e p tem b e r. T h ir d M ille n n iu m F o u n d a tio n (2002) Briefing on Japan’s ‘Votebuying7 Strategy in the International Whaling Commission, P a cian o : T h ir d M ille n n iu m F o u n d a tio n . M a x B o o t (2002) ‘T h e b ig e n c h ila d a : A m e ric a n h e g e m o n y will be e x p e n siv e,’ The International Ilerald Tribune. 15 O c to b e r. M a x J a k o b s o n (2002) ‘P re e m p tio n : S h a d e s o f R oo sev elt a n d S ta lin ,’ The International Herald Tribune, 17 O c to b e r. J a m e s K . S e b cn iu s (1993) ‘T h e L aw o f th e S ea C o n fe re n c e : L esso n s fo r n e g o tia tio n s to c o n tro l g lo b al w a rm in g ,’ in S jo stedt, p p 1 8 9 -2 1 5 . L o re n z 1993, p 2 2 8 . L o re n z 1993, p p 2 2 2 -2 3 5 . For e x a m p le , R o n a ld B. M itc h e ll fo r th e specific p u rp o s e o f p re p a r in g a list o f in te rn a tio n a l e n v iro n m e n ta l ag re e m e n ts, discusses th is p ro b le m a n d d efin es a g re e m e n ts as b e in g ‘e n v iro n m e n ta l’ if th ey ‘... seek, as a p rim a ry p u rp o s e , to m a n a g e o r p re v e n t h u m a n im p a c ts o n n a tu r a l reso u rces; p la n t a n d a n im a l species (in c lu d in g in a g ric u ltu re ); th e a tm o sp h e re ; o c e a n s; rivers; lakes; te rre stria l h a b ita ts; a n d o th e r e le m e n ts o f th e n a tu ra l w o rld th a t p ro v id e ecosystem serv ices,’ International Environmental Agreements Defined accessed at w w w .u o r e g o n .e d u /~ r m itc h c l/I E A / o v e rv ie w /d e fin itio n s /h tm on 5 July, 2 0 0 3 . R o n n ie D. L ip sch u tz , o n th e o th e r h a n d , in his b o o k Global Environmental Politics from the Ground Up (acccsscd a t h t t p : / / i c . u c s c . e d u / ~ r l i p s c h / p o l l 7 4 / sy llab u s.h tm l o n 15 July, 2003) p refe rs ‘h a b ita t’ as a m o re suitab le a p p ro a c h to d efin in g th e g lo b al e n v iro n m e n t. H e r m a n E. D aly (1996) Beyond Growth: The Economics o f Sustainable Development, B oston: B ea co n Press. R ic h a rd E. S a u n ie r (1999) Perceptions o f Sustainability: A Framework fo r the 21st Century, W a sh in g to n D C : T re n d s fo r a C o m m o n F u tu re 6. C I D I /O r g a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates. Sec also, S im o n D re s n e r (2004) Principles o f Sustainability, L o n d o n : E a rth s c a n . B ecky J. B ro w n et al. (1987) ‘G lo b a l su stain a b ility : T o w a rd d e fin itio n ,’ Environmental Management, vol 11, n o 6, p p 7 1 3 719; J. Pezzey (1992) Sustainable Development Concepts: A n Economic Analysis, W orld B ank E n v iro n m e n t P a p e r N o. 2, W a sh in g to n , D C : T h e W o rld B an k ; a n d B irn ic a n d B oyle (1992), p2.

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U S D (2001) ‘S u m m a ry R e p o rt fro m th e U N E P E x p e rt C o n su lta tio n s on In te rn a tio n a l E n v iro n m e n ta l G o v e rn a n c e , 2 n d R o u n d T a b le , 29 M a y 2001 ,’ IIS D Linkages, vol 53, n o 1. IU C N , U N E P a n d W W F (1980) World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation fo r Sustainable Development, G la n d : IU C N . W orld C o m m issio n o n E n v iro n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (1987) Our Common Future, O x fo rd : O x fo rd U n iv e rsity Press. C h ris to p h c D u p o n t (1993) ‘T h e R h in e : A stu d y o f in la n d w a te r n e g o tia tio n s,' in S jo ste d t, p p 135 148. W h ic h c a u se d R o se m a ry R ig h te r to re p e a t a n o b se rv a tio n in a re c e n t article in The Times o f London (2003) th a t ‘T h e a rt o f in te rn a tio n a l d ip lo m a c y is to c o n v e rt th e o b n o x io u s in to th e in c o m p re h e n s ib le . * In d ip lo m acy , ‘c o n stru c tiv e a m b ig u ity ’ in la n g u a g e is often used to g et th ro u g h a h a rd p la c c so th a t n e g o tia tio n s c an c o n tin u e m a y b e to a p la c e w h e re th e re is so m u c h a g re e m e n t th a t the p o in t o f a m b ig u ity c a n be d is c a rd e d alto g eth e r. Ideally, it h a s tw o c h a ra cte ristic s: first, it is d e lib e ra te a n d all sides k n o w a n d a g re e to w h a t is g o in g on a n d se c o n d , it re d u ce s th e d ifferen ces to th e low est c o m m o n d e n o m in a to r r a th e r th a n to p a p e r th e m over. It c an be a d a n g e ro u s tac tic if th e p ro b le m is n o t ev en tu a lly resolved b eca u se th e realities o f th e d ifferen ces will alw ays co m e b a c k to cau se even m o re difficulties. R e c e n t d e v e lo p m e n ts in c lu d e th e d ecisio n s to p e rm it ‘official n o n ­ g o v e rn m e n t o b se rv e rs’ at m a n y sessions o f in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d m eetin g s, a n d th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f fo rm al m e c h a n ism s fo r civil society in v o lv em en t in g o v e rn m e n t d e c isio n ­ m a k in g a n d in te rn a tio n a l m eetin g s. U N E P (2002) Global Environment Outlook 3 , L o n d o n : E a rth s c a n . In this re g a rd , th e E U is c e rta in ly th e re c o rd h o ld e r w ith 21 official lan g u a g e s a m o n g its 25 m e m b e rs, 3 w o rk in g la n g u a g e s a n d even 3 official a lp h a b e ts. All this ‘linguistic d iv ersity ’ co m es w ith a hefty price tag. In 2 0 0 5 , w ritte n a n d sp o k en tra n sla tio n services c o st €1.1 billio n a n d th e la n g u a g e d ire c to ra te is th e E U ’s larg est d e p a rtm e n t w ith 1650 fu ll-tim e tra n sla to rs p lu s 5 5 0 su p p o rt staff. In 200 5 they tra n sla te d 1,324,231 pages! For m o re o n this to p ic see: M a tth e w B ru n w a sse r (2006) ‘For E u ro p e , a lesson in A B C s (o f C y rillic),’ The International Herald Tribune, 9 A u g u st. A. B. C a m b e l (1 9 9 3 ) Applied Chaos Theory: A Paradigm fo r Complexity, S an D ieg o : A c a d e m ic Press, In c. See T im O ’R io rd a n a n d J a m e s C a m e ro n (eds) (1994) Interpreting the Precautionary Principle, L o n d o n : E a rth s c a n ; T. O ’R io rd a n et al. (2001) Reinterpreting the Precautionary Principle, L o n d o n : C a m e ro n M a y ; a n d C a rn e g ie C o u n c il (2004) ‘H u m a n rig h ts d ialo g u e: E n v iro n m e n ta l rig h ts,’ Human Rights Dialogue, S eries 2, no 11, S pring. G ilb e rto C . G a llo p in (1981b) ‘T h e a b s tra c t c o n c e p t o f e n v iro n m e n t,’ International Journal o f General Systems, vol 7, p p l 3 9 149.

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U N D P (1996) Compendium o f Environmental Projects in Vietnam 1 9 8 5 -1 9 9 5 , H a N o i, V ie t N a m . B irnie a n d Boyle h a v e a n in te re stin g d iscussion o n th e to p ic o f th e m a n y w ays th e w o rd ‘e n v iro n m e n t’ is used . S u m m a riz in g th e ir discu ssio n , th ey re p e a t th e u n fo rtu n a te w o rd s o f C ald w ell (1980): ‘. ..i t [e n v iro n m e n t] is a te rm th a t ev ery o n e u n d e rs ta n d s a n d n o o n e is ab le to d e fin e .’ T h e w o rd s a rc u n fo rtu n a te b ec a u se th e c o n c e p t o f e n v iro n m e n t is w ell u n d e rs to o d in science a n d d efin itio n s th a t faith fu lly reflect th a t c o n c e p t a re av ailab le in any d ic tio n a ry o r en c y clo p e d ia . G ilb e rto C . G a llo p in (1981a) ‘H u m a n system s: N eed s, re q u ire m e n ts, e n v iro n m e n ts a n d q u a lity o f life,’ in G. E. L ask er (cd) Applied Systems and Cybernetics. Vol. 1. The Quality o f Life: Systems Approaches, O x fo rd : P c rg a m o n P ress; a n d A m o s H . H aw ley (1986) Human Ecology: A Theoretical Essay, C h ic a g o : T h e U n iv e rsity o f C h ic a g o Press. M o ja n W ali in th e J u n e 1995 Bulletin o f the Ecological Society o f America vol 76, p p 1 0 6 -1 1 1 ) lists 337 d ifferen t uses o f th e te rm s ‘e co lo g y ’ a n d ‘ec o lo g ica l’ fo u n d in th e p u b lish e d lite ra tu re he review ed . A sian D e v e lo p m e n t B an k (1986) Environmental Guidelines fo r the Development o f Ports and Harbours, M a n ila : A D B , p3. w w w .e sa .o rg /a b o u te s a /. L y n to n C a ld w ell (1980) International Environmental Policy and L a w , D u rh a m : D u k e U n iv e rsity Press. J o h n E. F au th (1997) ‘W o rk in g to w a rd o p e ra tio n a l d efin itio n s in ecology: P u ttin g th e system b a c k in to e c o s y s te m / Bulletin o f the Ecological Society o f America, vol 78, no 4 , p 2 9 5 ; A lice E. In g c rso n (2002) A critic al u s e r’s g u id e to “e c o sy stem ” a n d re la te d c o n c e p ts in ecology,’ In stitu te for C u ltu ra l L a n d sc a p e S tu d ies, th e A rn o ld A rb o re tu m o f H a rv a rd U niv ersity , accessed 10 J u n e 200 3 a t www. ic ls .h a rv a rd .e d u /cc o lo g y /c c o lo g y .h tm l. J o h n C . M a e rz (1994) ‘E cosystem m a n a g e m e n t: A su m m a ry o f th e E co sy stem M a n a g e m e n t R o u n d ta b le o f 19 Ju ly 1 9 9 3 ,’ Bulletin o f the Ecological Society o f America, vol 75, n o 2, p p 9 3 -9 5 . T h e r e is som e d e b a te on this issue b u t th e b ro a d o u tc o m e seem s to be th a t o f g e n e ra l system th eo ry , w h ich suggests th a t we isolate system s m e n ta lly fo r th e p u rp o s e o f study. S ee V ic to r M a r in (1997) ‘G e n e ra l system th e o ry a n d th e ecosystem c o n c e p t,’ Bulletin o f the Ecological Society o f America, vol 78, n o 1, p p 1 0 2 -1 0 3 a n d B e rn a rd Pavarcl a n d Ju lie D u g a le , ‘A n in tro d u c tio n to c o m p le x ity in social scien ce,’ p i 7, acccsscd 15 Ju ly 20 0 3 at w w w .irit.f r/c o s i/tra in in g / C o m p lc x ity -tu to ria l/h tm . T ak e, fo r e x am p le , th e m a n y d ifferin g d efin itio n s o f ‘w e tla n d ’ b e in g d e b a te d fo r re g u la tin g la n d -u se . C lo se r to th e su b ject o f G E G a rc th e d iscussions o f A rticle 3.3 o f th e K y o to P ro to c o l a n d how o n e d istin g u ish e s b e tw e e n ‘f o r e s te d / ‘re fo re ste d ’ a n d ‘affo re ste d ’ a reas.

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Jam csJ. K a y (1 9 9 1 )‘A n o n -eq u ilib riu m th e rm o d y n a m ic fram ew o rk for discussing ecosystem integrity,’ Environmental Management, vol 15, no 4, p p 4 8 3 -4 9 5 . D an ie l B. B otkin (1990) Discordant Harmony: A .New Ecology for the Twenty-first Century, O x fo rd : O x fo rd U niversity Press, 256pp. C . S. H ollings (1973) ‘R esilience a n d stability o f ecological system s,’ Annual Review o f Ecology and Systematics, vol 4, p p l 24; A riel E. Lugo (1978) ‘Stress a n d ecosystem s,’ i n j . H . T h o rp an d J. W. G ib b o n s (eds) Energy and Environmental Stress in Aquatic Systems, D O E Sym posium Series; a n d K a y 1991. T ry an in terestin g e x p e rim e n t w ith reference to science vs. advocacy: T ype ‘ecosystem fragile’ a n d ‘ecosystem stress’ into a search engine a n d see how m an y o f the references u n d e r each can be classified as ‘ad v o cacy ’ o r ‘science.’ R o b e rt T. L ackey (2001) ‘V alues, policy, a n d ecosystem h e a lth ,’ BioScience, vol 51, no 6, p p 4 3 7 —443. O A S (1987) Minimum Conflict: Guidelines fo r Planning the Use o f American Humid Tropic Environments, W ash in g to n D C : O rg an iza tio n o f A m erican States, 198pp. Ja m e s G. W y an t, R ic h a rd A. M e g a n ck a n d Sam II. H a m (1995) ‘T h e n eed for an en v iro n m en tal resto ra tio n decision fram ew o rk ,’ Ecological Engineering, vol 5, pp41 7 -4 2 0 . K ay 1991. S E R (2003) ‘G lo b al ratio n ale for ecological re sto ra tio n ,’ IU C N C E M 2 n d Ecosystem R esto ratio n W orking G ro u p M eeting, 2 -5 M arc h , T a m a n N e g a ra , M alaysia. See T im O ’R io rd a n et al. (1994) Interpreting the Precautionary Principle, L o n d o n : E arth sc an ; T. O ’ R io rd a n ct al. (2001) Reinterpreting the Precautionary Principle, L o n d o n : C a m e ro n May. E u ro p e a n C o m m ission (2000) Communication from the Commission on the Precautionary Principle, E U C O M (2 0 0 0 )1 , h tt p :/ /e u r o p a . e u .in t/c o m m /e n v ir o n m e n ta l/d o c u m /2 0 0 0 l_ e n .h tm . February, Brussels. C O M E S T (C om m ission on the E thics o f Scientific K now ledge a n d T echnology) (2005) The Precautionary Principle, Paris: UNESCO. C O M E S T 12. M u ch o f this discussion follows R ic h a rd E. S a u n ie r (1999) Perceptions o f Sustainability: A Framework fo r the 21st Century, W a sh in g to n D C : C ID I O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m erican States. D enis G o u let (1986) ‘T h re e rationalities in d ev elo p m en decisionm ak in g ,’ World Development, vol 14, no 2, p p 3 0 1 317. D avid J. Panneli a n d Steven Schilizzi (1997) ‘S ustainable agricu ltu re: A q uestio n o f ecology, equity, eco n o m ic efficiency o r exp ed ie n ce?’ Sustainability and Economics in Agriculture, SEA W orking P ap er 9 7 / 1 ’ G R D C P roject, U niversity o f W estern A ustralia. See c h a p te r 1 o f M . M itchell W aldrop (1993) Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge o f Order and Chaos, N ew York: T ouch sto n e.

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87

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W. B ria n A r th u r (1993) ‘W h y d o th in g s b e c o m e m o re com plex?* Scientific American, M ay, p 144. C o n sen su s, o f c o u rse , is a n im p o rta n t g oal o f n e g o tia tio n s m e a n t to le a d to a b in d in g tre a ty b a se d o n a n a g re e m e n t to use th e w o rd s th a t a re used . U n fo rtu n a te ly , th is d o es n o t n ecessarily in clu d e a g re e m e n t o n th e ir defin itio n s. T h e r e arc o th e rs, all o f w h ich te n d to fit in to th ese tw o responses. G e n d e r issues, fo r e x a m p le , a rc im p o rta n t, as a rc issues su rro u n d in g y o u th , in d ig e n o u s p eo p le s, etc. In c lu d in g these in te re sts in the analy sis re d u c e s fu tu re conflict - a n d p ro d u c e s a b e tte r p ro d u c t. L ikew ise, if o n e asks o f a n y e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c t, ‘W h o c re a te d it?’ a n d ‘W h o felt it?’ o n e im m e d ia te ly realizes th a t th e ‘im p a c t’ is really a co n flict b e tw e e n tw o o r m o re in terests th a t c a n b e tre a te d . T h a t is so m e th in g far d iffe re n t from id en tify in g a n im p a c t o f a d e v e lo p m e n t activ ity o n so m e th in g called the environment - a p ro b le m th a t c a n n o t be tre a te d . U N E C E (2002) Introducing the Aarhus Convention. A ccessed 15 A u g u st 2001 a t w w w .b u w a l.c h /in tc r /c /c a _ z u g a n .h tm . O A S (2001) Inter-American Strategy fo r Public Participation in DecisionM aking fo r Sustainable Development, W a sh in g to n , D C : G e n e ra l S e c re ta ria t, O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates. T h e X X X I I G e n e ra l A ssem b ly o f th e O A S (B a rb ad o s, 2002) also follow ed this p a th in p a ssin g R eso lu tio n 1896, w hich clearly jo in s th e rig h t to e n v iro n m e n ta l g o o d s a n d services, su ch as clea n a ir a n d w ater, to h u m a n rig h ts via th e In te r-A m e ric a n H u m a n R igh ts C o m m issio n . W illiam I. Z a rtm a n (1993) ‘L essons fo r analysis a n d p ra c tic e ’ a n d Je ffe ry Z. R u b in (1993) ‘T h ir d p a rty roles: M e d ia tio n in in te rn a tio n a l e n v iro n m e n ta l d is p u te s,’ b o th in S jo sted t. D u d le y W eeks (1992) Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution, N ew York: G.P. P u tn a m ’s S ons, 2 9 0 p p . W eeks 1992. T h is issue is also b e in g given serio u s in stitu tio n a l c o n sid e ra tio n in selected q u a rte rs. U N E S C O , to g e th e r w ith th e m e m b e rs o f th e U N W a te r F am ily a n d o th e r p riv a te sector, N G O a n d a c a d e m ic in stitu tio n a l p a rtn e rs , is sp e a rh e a d in g th e e s ta b lish m e n t o f th e W a te r C o o p e ra tio n Facility (W C F ) - a m e d ia tio n c e n te r for p a rtie s w ith conflicts o v er th e access a n d use o f tr a n s b o u n d a ry w a te r o r s h a re d riv er basin s, lakes o r reserv o irs. T h is facility w ill ho p efu lly h elp resolve d is a g re e m e n ts lo n g b efo re th ey involve ro o m s filled w ith law yers o r fo rm a l p ro c e e d in g s at th e P C A , IC J o r o th e r such a rb itra tio n o r ju rid ic a l b od ies. It is also in te re stin g to n o te th a t th e a c ro n y m W C F w as o rig in ally d e n o te d th e W a te r ‘C o n flic t’ Facility, b u t w ise r h e a d s p re v a ile d w ith th e w o rd ‘C o o p e ra tio n .’ T h e tex t o f th e S to ck h o lm D e c la ra tio n c a n be fo u n d a t www. u n e p .o r g / d o c u m c n t/d c f a u lt.a tp ? d o c u m c n tlD = 9 7 8 & a rtic le I D = 1501. T h o m a s F. S a a rin e n (1974) ‘E n v iro n m e n ta l p e rc e p tio n ,’ in Ia n R .

37

D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

89

90

M a n n e r s a n d M a rv in W. M ik esell (eds) Perspectives on Environment, W a sh in g to n D C : A sso ciatio n o f A m e ric a n G e o g ra p h e rs , p p 2 5 2 ~ 289. IP C C (2001) ‘C lim a te c h a n g e 2001: Im p a c ts, a d a p ta tio n a n d v u ln e ra b ility ,’ IP C C Third Assessment Report, W M O /U N E P . See especially p a ra . 1.21 o f th a t re p o rt: ‘C lim a te c h a n g e re p re se n ts o p p o rtu n itie s a n d risks for h u m a n d e v e lo p m e n t,’ at w w w .ipcc. ch. A kiko D o m o to (2001) ‘In te rn a tio n a l e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e : Its im p a c t o n social a n d h u m a n d e v e lo p m e n t,’ Inter-linkages, W o rld S u m m it fo r S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t, U n ite d N a tio n s U n iv e rsity C e n tre , 3 4 S e p te m b e r.

38

part two A Dictionary of Selected Terms, Concepts, Jargon, Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in G lob al Environmental G overnance

Sources Used to Develop the Dictionary and List of Acronyms

M u c h o f this bo o k is a b o u t w o rd s a n d how th ey a rc u sed in g lo b a l e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e ; th a t is w hy w e h a v e in c lu d e d m o re th a n 2 5 0 0 d efin itio n s a n d a b o u t 3000 a c ro n y m s th a t re p re s e n t th e in stitu tio n s, d evices, d re a m s a n d ja r g o n in v e n te d by o u r co lleag u es. W e are well aw a re th a t this d o es n o t do ju stic e to th e creativ ity o f G E G w o rd sm ith s. H o w ev er, h av in g now co llected a d ic tio n a ry o f so m e m a g n itu d e , w e a re also a w a re o f th e a m o u n t o f lim e a n d w o rk th a t goes in to su ch a n cxcrcisc. B ecausc o f this, w e w a n t to a c ­ kn o w led g e th e w o rk o f all th e o th e rs w h o h av e a tte m p te d such a th in g a n d to say ‘th a n k y o u ' for kno w in g ly o r u n k n o w in g ly a llo w in g us to use th e ir w ork. You w ill n o tic e th a t m a n y o f th e e n trie s e n d w ith som e h iero g ly p h ics o f o u r ow n an a tte m p t to id en tify o u r so u rces a n d th e follow ing is a tra n sla tio n o f th ese h iero g ly p h ics. W h e re a te rm is from an article o r p a p e r w ith a know n a u th o r, th e ir c o n trib u tio n is a c k n o w led g e d as in a te x t a n d th e so u rce is th e n given in the biblio g rap h y . W e are also q u ite a w a re th a t m a n y re a d e rs w ill d isag re e w ith so m e o f th e d efin itio n s w e hav e c h o se n to in c lu d e; w e d isa g ree w ith m a n y o f th em as well (m ostly those th a t ru n c o u n te r to w h a t we have said in th e essay), b u t for b e t­ te r o r w orse, th ey have c o m e in to c o m m o n usage in in te rn a tio n a l fo ra. L et th e d e b a te c o n tin u e ; clarificatio n is n e e d e d a n d , fo r o u r p a rt, w e lc o m e .1 ACCU AD A FESD A IT

A sia /P a c ific C u ltu ra l C e n tre for U N E S C O , w w w .a c c u .o r.jp / litd b a s e /g lo s s a ry / D e a r d o r if ’s G lo ssary o f In te rn a tio n a l E co n o m ics, www. p e rs o n a l.u m ic h .e d u /~ a la n d e a r A ra b F u n d fo r E c o n o m ic a n d S o cial D e v e lo p m e n t, www. a ra b fu n d .o rg A sian In s titu te o f T echnology, w w w .n a n o .a it.a c .th

D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

AM AMNH APO ASEAN AU BCHM BLD

BWP CAF CAN CBD CCP CD CEDAW CF CFR CGC CGü CI C IPA C IT E S C IV IC U S CMS CNS Co C O IC A CONGO

CSD CSG

Dictionary o f Environmental Economics, w w w .c a rth sc a n .co .u k A m e ric a n M u s e u m o f N a tu ra l H istory. w w w .C b c .a m n h .o rg / sy m p o s ia /a rc h iv e s /s e a s c a p e s /g lo s s a ry /h tm l P ro d u c tiv ity O rg a n iz a tio n , w w w .ap o -to k y o .o rg A sso ciatio n o f S o u th e a s t N a tio n s, w w w .asean sec.o rg A fric an U n io n , w w w .a fric a -u n io n .o rg /r o o t / a u / A b o u t A U / a u / a u _ in _ a _ n u tsh e ll_ e n .h tm B elgium C le a rin g H o u se M e c h a n ism , w e b b ic .k b in irsn b .b e / b e h _ c h d /b e lg iu m /g lo s s a r y /g lo s -_ a .h tm Beck’s Law Dictionary: A Compendium o f International Law Terms and Phrases. h tt p ://p e o p le .V ir g in ia .e d u /~ r jb 3 v /la tin .h tm l B re tto n W o o d s P ro ject, w w w .b re tto n w o o d s p ro je c t.o rg / a b o u t / glossary, h tm l A n d e a n D e v e lo p m e n t C o rp o ra tio n , w w w .caf.org C lim a te A c tio n N e tw o rk , w w w .c lim a te a c tio n n e tw o rk .o rg C o n v e n tio n o n B iological D iversity, S e c re ta ria t, w w w .biodiv. o r g /s e c re ta ria t C o p e n h a g e n C o n se n su s P ro je c t, w w w .c o p c n h a g c n c o n sc n su s. com C o n v e n tio n to C o m b a t D e sertific atio n , w w w .u n ccd .in t C o n v e n tio n o n th e E lim in a tio n o f all fo rm s o f D isc rim in a tio n A g a in st W o m e n , w w w .u n .o rg /w o m e n w a tc h /d a w /c e d a w C a n te r F itz g e ra ld , w w w .c o 2 c .c o m /c o rp o ra tc o v c ric w .a sp C o u n c il o n F o reig n R elatio n s, w w w .c fr.o rg /p u b lic a tio n C e n te r fo r G re e n C h em istry , w w w .g rc c n c h e m istry .u m l.e d u / C e n te r for G lo b a l D e v e lo p m e n t, w w w .c d g e v /ra n k in g th e ric h / h o m e .h tm l C o n se rv a tio n In te rn a tio n a l, w w w .co n serv atio n .o rg World Directory o f Environmental Organizations 1996. w w w / c ip a h q / p rg /l a n d m a rk s. h tm C o n v e n tio n o n In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e in E n d a n g e re d S pecies o f W ild F a u n a a n d F lo ra , w w w .cites.org C IV IC U S . w w w .civicus.org C o n v e n tio n o n th e C o n se rv a tio n o f M ig ra to ry S pccics o f W ild A n im als, w w w .u n c p -w c m c .o rg /c m s C e n te r fo r N o n p ro life ra tio n S tu d ies, c n s .m iis .e d u /p u b s / w e e k /0 2 0 8 0 5 .h tm C h a o rd ic C o m m o n s. w w w .C h a o rd ic .c o m C o o rd in a tin g G ro u p o f A m azon B asin In d ig e n o u s O rg a n iz a tio n s , w w w .coica.org C o n fe re n c e of N o n -G o v e rn m e n ta l O rg a n iz a tio n s in C o n su lta tiv e R e la tio n sh ip w ith th e U n ite d N atio n s, www. n g o .o rg /c o n g o .h tm l C o m m issio n o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t, w w w .u n .o rg /e s a / su std ev C o m p le x S y stem s G lossary. T h e C o m p le x ity a n d A rtificial Life R e se a rc h C o n c e p t for S e lf-O rg a n iz in g System s, www. c a lre sco .o rg

42

Sources used to develop the dictionary and list of acronyms

CW D E S IP D F ID EC EGA ECLAC ECO cD EEA EES EM EN B ENN ES E SA E SS EU FAO

FO E1 FSC G BA GBS GCC GEF GP G PF HH ID B IE A IFAD IISD IL O IM F IP C C IPS

C o u n try W atch , w w w .countryw atch.com D em o g ra p h ic , E n v iro n m en tal, a n d S ecurity Issues Project. w w w .ig c .a p c .o rg /desip /to e . htm l D e p a rtm e n t for In te rn a tio n a l D e v elo p m e n t (U K), w w w .dfid. gov.uk E a rth C oun cil, w w w .earth co u n cil.ac.cr E n v iro n m e n t C a n a d a , w w w .ec.gc.ca/ U n ite d N atio n s E co n o m ic C o m m issio n for L atin A m erica a n d the C a rib b e a n , w w w .eclac.org T h e O m b u d sm a n C e n tre for E n v iro n m e n t a n d D evelo p m e n t. w w w .om ced.org eD ip lo m at. w w w .eD iplom at.com E u ro p e a n E n v iro n m e n tal Agency, w w w .e e a .e u .in t/; glossary. e e a .e u .in t/E E A G lo s sa ry / E ncyclopedia o f E n v iro n m en ta l Science, w w w .w k a p .n l/p ro d / b / 0 - 4 12-74050-8 E vom arkets. w w w .evom arkets.com /ghg_glossary.htm l E a rth N eg o tiatio n s B ulletin, w w w .iisd.ca/linkages E n v iro n m en tal N ew s N etw ork, w w w .enn.com E uroscience. w w w .euroscience.org Society o f A m erica, w w w .esa.org E a rth System Sciences, w w w .ess.uci.edu C o u n c il o f E u ro p e a n M in isters w w w .eu ro p ean u n io n .o rg Food a n d A g ricu ltu re O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e U n ite d N ations. w w w .f a o .o r g W A I C E N T /f a o in f o /e c o n o m ic s /E S N /c o d e x / defau lt.h tm F riends o f th e E a rth In te rn a tio n a l, w ww .foei.org Forest S tew ard sh ip C o u n cil, w w w .fscoax.org Global Biodiversity Assessment, w w w .u n ep _ w c m c .o rg /assessm ents Global Biodiversity Strategy. w w w .w ri.o rg /b io d iv /p u b s_ descrip tio n . cfm ?p id = 2 5 5 0 G lo bal C lim ate C o alitio n , w w w .globalclim ate.org G lo b al E n v iro n m e n t Facility, w w w .gefw eb.org/gefgloss.doc G ree n p e a c e In te rn a tio n a l, w w w .greenpeace.org G lo b al Policy Forum , w w w .g lo b alp o licy .o rg /secu rity /issu es/ d ia m o n d /k im b crlin d ex .h tm WycoJJ & Shaw ’s Harper Handbook 3 rd ed In te r-A m eric a n D e v elo p m e n t B ank, w w w .iadb.org In te rn a tio n a l E n erg y Agency, w w w .iea.org In te rn a tio n a l F u n d for A g ricu ltu ral D ev elo p m e n t, w w w .ifad. org In te rn a tio n a l In stitu te for S u stainab le D ev elo p m e n t, www. iisd 1.iisd.ca/glossary.asp In te rn a tio n a l L a b o r O rg a n iz a tio n , w ww.ilo.org In te rn a tio n a l M o n e ta ry F u n d , w ww .im f.org In te rg o v ern m en ta l Panel o n C lim ate C h a n g e , w ww .ipcc.ch Institu te for Policy Studies, w w w .ip s-d c .o rg /p ro jec ts/ leg alsch o lars/

43

D ictionary and introduction to g lo b al environm ental g o vern an ce

IP U IS O IT T O IU G N IU F R O LEAD LLL MBDC MW N AFTA N ASA NGS NRDC NS OAS OECD Ox PA H O PEW P IC PL PPRC R RC RFF RMI SACN SETA C SFI SFW M D SNW SW F

P a rlia m e n ta ry U n io n w w w .p a rlin k o m .g v .a t/p o r ta l/p a g c ? _ p a g e id + 1033, 6 5 8 1 5 0 & _ d a d + p o rta l& _ s c h e m a = P O R T A L In te rn a tio n a l O rg a n iz a tio n fo r S ta n d a rd iz a tio n , w w w .iso.org In te rn a tio n a l T ro p ic a l T im b e r O rg a n iz a tio n , w w w .itto.or.jp W orld C o n se rv a tio n U n io n , w w w .iu cn .o rg In te rn a tio n a l U n io n o f Forest R e se a rc h O rg a n iz a tio n s , www. iu fro .o rg / L e a d e rsh ip fo r E n v iro n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t, w w w .fa.lead . o rg ’L e ctric L aw L ibrary, w w w .lectlaw .com M c D o n o u g h B ra u n g a rt D esig n C h em istry , w w w .m b d c .c o m / c 2 c _ g k c.h tm M e rria m W eb ster N o rth A m e ric a n Free T ra d e A g re e m e n t, w w w /n a fta -se c a le n a .o rg A ir a n d S p a c e A d m in istra tio n , w w w .nasa.gov N a tio n a l G re e n h o u se S tra te g y o f A u stralia , w w w .ngs. g rc c n h o u s c .g o v .a u /g lo ssa ry N a tu ra l R eso u rces D efen se C o u n c il, w w w .n rd c .o rg / re f c rc n c e / T h e N a tu ra l S tep , w w w /n a tu ra lstc p .o rg O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates, w w w .o a s.o rg / O rg a n is a tio n fo r E c o n o m ic C o -o p e ra tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t. w w w .o ecd .o rg O x fa m . w w w / o xfam .o rg P an A m e ric a n H e a lth O rg a n iz a tio n , w w w .p ah o .o rg P E W C e n te r o n G lo b a l C lim a te C h a n g e , w w w .p ew clim ate. o rg / R o tte rd a m C o n v e n tio n , w w w .c h e m .u n e p .c h /p ic Pequeño Larousse. w w w .la ro u s se .e s/la ro u s se /p r o d u c t. asp ? sk u = 1 P ra c tic a l S o lu tio n s for E n v iro n m e n ta l a n d E c o n o m ic Vitality. w w w .p p rc.o rg R ea l A lte rn a tiv e s In fo rm a tio n N e tw o rk , w w w .w e b .n e t/ra in / m a in .h tm R a m s a r C o n v e n tio n , w w w .ram sar.o rg R eso u rces for th e F u tu re , w w w .rff.o rg R ocky M o u n ta in In stitu te , w w w .rm i.o rg / S o u th A m e ric a n C o m m u n ity of N a tio n s. www. c o m u n id a d a n d in a .o r g /in g le s /s u d a m e ric a n .h tm S o c ie ty o f E n v iro n m e n ta l T o x ico lo g y a n d C h em istry , www. scta c .o rg S u stain a b le Forestry In itiativ e, w w w .a fa n d p a .o rg /fo re s try / sfi_ fram e.h tm l S o u th F lo rid a W a te r M a n a g e m e n t D istrict, w w w /sfw m d . o rg S u sta in a b le N o rth w e st, w w w .su sta in a b le n o rth w e st.o rg S ta te o f th e W o rld F o ru m , w w w .w o rld fo ru m .o rg

44

S ou rces used to d evelo p the dictionary an d list of acronym s

TFDD

T ra n s b o u n d a r y F re sh w a te r D isp u te D a ta b a se , www. tra n s b o u n d a ry w a te rs .o rs t.e d u T ra n s p a re n c y In te rn a tio n a l, w w w .tra n s p a re n c y .o rg / TW AS T h ir d W o rld A c a d e m y o f S ciences, w w w .tw as.org TW N T h ir d W orld N etw o rk , w w w .tw n sid e .o rg .sg /title /b rie 6 c n .h tm T h ir d WTo rld N e tw o rk o f S cicntific O rg a n iz a tio n s , www. TW NSO tw n so .o rg TW OW S T h ir d W o rld O rg a n iz a tio n fo r W o m e n in S cience, www. tw o w s.o rg UN U n ite d N a tio n s (M ain w eb p age) w w w .u n ite d n a tio n s.o rg UNCED U n ite d N a tio n s C o n fe re n c e on E n v iro n m e n t and D e v e lo p m e n t, w w w .u n c p .o r g /u n e p /p a r t n e r s / u n / u n c c d / h o m e .h tm U N H a b ita t, w w w .u n ch s.o rg UNCHS UNCLOS U n ite d N a tio n s C o n v e n tio n o n th e L aw o f the S ea. www. u n .o r g / d e p ts /lo s UNDP U n ite d N a tio n s D e v e lo p m e n t P ro g ra m m e . G o v e rn a n c e for S u sta in a b le H u m a n D ev e lo p m e n t, h tt p : / / m a g n e t .u n d p . o rg /p o lic y / glossary, h tin U n ite d N a tio n s E c o n o m ic C o m m issio n fo r E u ro p e , www. UNECE s u s ta in a b l e d c v e lo p m c n t.g o v .u k /p u b lic a tio n /p d f /s t r a te g y / n e w % 2 0 g lo ssa ry .p d f UNED U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t F o ru m , www. c a r th s u m m it2 0 0 2 .o rg / UNEP U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n m e n t P ro g ra m m e , w w w .u n ep .o rg U N E P -C A R -R C U U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n m e n t P ro g ra m m e - C a rta g e n a C o n v e n tio n R e g io n a l C o o rd in a tin g U n it, w w w .g p a .u n e p . o rg U n ite d N a tio n s E d u c a tio n a l, S cientific a n d C u ltu ra l UNESCO O rg a n iz a tio n . w w w .u n c sc o .o rg U NESCO-

IHE U NFA O U NFCCC UNFPA U N IA E A U N IC E F UNMD UNMP

UNOCHA

In stitu te for W a te r E d u c a tio n , w w w .u n esco -ih e.o rg U n ite d N a tio n s Food a n d A g ric u ltu re O rg a n iz a tio n , www. fao .o rg U n ite d N a tio n s F ra m e w o rk C o n v e n tio n o n C lim a te C h a n g e S e c re ta ria t, w w w .u n fc c c .d e /site in fo /g lo ssa ry .h tm l U n ite d N a tio n s P o p u la tio n F u n d , w w w .u n fp a.o rg U n ite d N a tio n s In te rn a tio n a l A to m ic E n e rg y A gency, www. u n ia c a .o rg U n ite d N a tio n s C h ild re n s F u n d , w w w .u n ice f.o rg .u k /c 8 U n ite d N a tio n s M ille n n iu m D e c la ra tio n , w w w .u n .o rg . m ille n n iu m U n ite d N a tio n s M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t P ro jec t, www. u n m i llc n n iu m p r o jc c t.o r g /h tm /a b o u t/ h tm ; u n m p .fo ru m o n e . c o m /in d e x .h tm l U n ite d N a tio n s O ffice for C o o rd in a tio n o f H u m a n ita ria n A ffairs, w w w .rc lie fw e b .in t/w /rw b .n sf

45

UNT UNW U S A ID U SDA U SD O S U SEPA U SGS V TPI VC WB W BCSD WC W CM C W Dp W EF W Fp WHO W IP O WP WR W RI W SF W SSD W TO Wu WWF

U n ite d N a tio n s T re a ty C o lle ctio n , T re a ty R e fe re n c e G u id e . u n tr e a ty .u n .o r g /e n g lis h /g u id e /a s p U n ite d N a tio n s W ire, u n .w ire @ sm a rtb rie f.c o m U n ite d S tate s A g en cy fo r In te rn a tio n a l D ev e lo p m e n t, www. U S A ID .o rg F orest S ervice, w w w .fs.fed .u s/ U S D e p a rtm e n t o f S tate, w w w .state.gov U S E n v iro n m e n ta l P ro te c tio n A gency, w w w .cpa.gov U n ite d S tate s G eo lo g ic a l Survey. h tt p ://I n te r a c tiv e 2 .u s g s . g o v /g lo s s a ry /in d e x .a s p T ra n s p o r t Policy In stitu te, w w w .vtpi.org V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n o n th e L aw o f T re a tie s, w w w .u n .o rg / la w /ilc /tc x ts /c v k c n g l.h tm l W o rld B ank, w w w .w o rld b an k .o rg W o rld B usiness C o u n c il fo r S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t, www. w b csd .o rg W ID E C A S T W id e r C a rib b e a n S ea T u rtle C o n se rv a tio n N c tw o rk . w w w .w id ecast.o rg W o rld C o n se rv a tio n M o n ito rin g C e n tre , w w w .u n e p -w c m c. o rg W a sh in g to n D ip lo m a t, w w w .w a sh d ip lo m a t.c o m /g lo ssa ry . h tm l W o rld E c o n o m ic F o ru m , w w w .w efo ru m .o rg W a te r fo o tp rin t, w w w .w a te rfo o tp rin t.o rg / W o rld H e a lth O rg a n iz a tio n , w w w .w ho.int W orld In te lle c tu a l P ro p e rty O rg a n iz a tio n , w w w .w ipo.int W ik ip ed ia, h t t p : / / e n . w ik ip e d ia .o rg /w ik i/M a in _ P a g c W o rld R e fc rc n c c .c o m . w w w .w o rld referen ce.co m W orld R e so u rces In stitu te , w w w .w ri.org W o rld S ocial F o ru m , w w w .fo ru m so c ia lm u n d ia l.o rg .b r W o rld S u m m it o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t, www. jo h a n n e s b u r g s u m m it.o r g /h tm l/d o c u m e n ts W orld T ra d e O rg a n iz a tio n , w w w .w to .o rg /c n g lis h /th e w to _ c / m i n i s t _ e /m i n 9 9 _ e /e n g l is h /a b o u t _ e /2 3 g lo s_ e.h tm W u p p e rta l In stitu te , w w w .w u p p e rin st.o rg /s ite s/lin k s.h tm l W o rld w id e F u n d fo r N a tu re , w w w .w w f.org

Note 1.

W e h a v e in c lu d e d a g o o d n u m b e r o f d efin itio n s th a t som e re a d e rs m ay d isa g re e w ith , w hich we m a y even q u e stio n . M a n y d efin itio n s w ere u n d o u b te d ly w ritte n by law yers, p o litic ian s, a c c o u n ta n ts a n d o th e rs w h o filled a v oid left by n o t h a v in g e n o u g h scientists.

46

Dictionary

Aa A 2 I m ajor gro u p s

A te r m u sed in th e te x t o f Agenda 21 in d ic a tin g n in e secto rs o f society fu n d a m e n ta l to a c h ie v in g su sta in ab le d e v e lo p m e n t: ch il­ d re n a n d y o u th , in d ig e n o u s p e o p le , w o m e n , N G O s , local a u th o ritie s, w o rk ­ ers a n d tra d e u n io n s, scientific a n d te c h n o lo g ic a l co m m u n ity , fa rm e rs , a n d business a n d industry. (U N )

A p ost e rio ri

R e la tin g to o r in v o lv in g in d u c tiv e re a s o n in g from p a rtic u la r facts o r effects to a g e n e ra l p rin c ip le : d eriv e d fro m o r re q u irin g e v id en c e for its v a lid a tio n o r su p p o rt; e m p iric a l; o p e n to revision. (W R )

A p re cis - A n a b stra c t, a b rid g e m e n t, c o n d e n sa tio n , d igest, synopsis o r a

s u m m a ry o f th e essen tial th o u g h t o f a lo n g e r piccc. (H H ) A p rio ri - R e la tin g to o r in v o lv in g d ed u c tiv e re a so n in g from a g e n e ra l p r in ­

ciple to the e x p e c te d facts o r effects; k n o w n to be tru e in d e p e n d e n tly o f o r in a d v a n c e o f e x p e rie n c e o f th e su b je c t m atter, re q u irin g n o e v id e n c e for its v alid a tio n o r su p p o rt. (W R ) A a r h u s C o n v e n tio n

T h e C o n v e n tio n o n A ccess to In fo rm a tio n , P ublic P a rtic ip a tio n in D ec isio n -m a k in g a n d A ccess to Ju stice in E n v iro n m e n ta l M a tte rs o f th e U N E C E e n te re d in to force on 30 O c to b e r 2 0 0 1 . Its p u rp o s e is to link e n v iro n m e n ta l rig h ts to h u m a n rig h ts th ro u g h sta k e h o ld e r involve­ m e n t, a n d it estab lish es th a t th e a c h ie v e m e n t o f su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t is th ro u g h g o v e rn m e n t a c c o u n ta b ility lin k ed to e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n . (U N E C E )

A a r h u s P ro to c o l on Pe rsiste n t O rg a n ic P o llu ta n ts ( P O P s )

A p ro ­ tocol to the C o n v e n tio n o n L o n g -R a n g e T ra n s b o u n d a r y A ir P o llu tio n

A batem en t

d e sig n ed to re d u c e a ir p o llu tio n fro m 16 p e rs iste n t o rg a n ic c h e m ic als in ­ c lu d in g D D T , a ld rin , d ie ld rin , P C B a n d th e in d u stria l b y p ro d u c ts, dioxins a n d fu ran s. T h irty -th re e g o v e rn m e n ts sig n ed th e p ro to c o l in 1998 b u t it has n o t yet e n te re d in to force. (U N E C E ) A b a t e m e n t - T h e re d u c tio n o f th e d e g re e o r in te n sity o f p o llu ta n ts o r

em issions. (EM ) A b s o r p t i v e c a p a c i t y —T h e c a p a c ity o f an e n v iro n m e n t to assim ilate w aste

p ro d u c ts from an ec o n o m ic activity. Acceptance

A d ecisio n h a v in g th e sam e legal effect as ratifica tio n an d c o n se q u e n tly ex p ressin g th e c o n se n t o f a state to b e b o u n d by a tre a ty o n ce the m in im u m n u m b e r o f states h as sig n ed a n d ratified . (VC)

A c c e s s i o n ( I ) - A sam p le o f a c ro p v arie ty c o llected a t a specific lo ca tio n

a n d tim e. (GBS) A c c e s s i o n (2)

T h e a c t w h e re b y a state a c c e p ts th e offer o r th e o p p o rtu ­ n ity to b e c o m e a p a rty to a tre a ty a lre a d y n e g o tia te d a n d sig n ed by o th e r states. It h as th e sam e leg al effect as ra tific a tio n . (VC)

A c c e s s i o n c o u n t r i e s ( I ) - C o u n trie s th a t b e c o m e p arty , th ro u g h sig n in g

a n d ratificatio n , to a n a g re e m e n t o r tre a ty a lre a d y in force. (VC) A c c e s s i o n c o u n t r i e s (2 )

C o u n trie s in th e p ro cess o f jo in in g th e E u ro ­

p e a n U n io n . (EEA) A c c l i m a t i o n - A c h a n g e th a t o c c u rs in a n o rg a n ism th a t allow s it to to le ra te

a new en v iro n m e n t. (CBD) Accord

A n in te rn a tio n a l a g re e m e n t o rig in ally m e a n t to d esc rib e so m e ­ th in g less th a n a c o n v e n tio n o r tre a ty b u t now all th re e te rm s a rc g e n erally c o n sid e re d as sy n o n y m o u s. (U N T )

A c c o u n t a b i l i t y - T h e re q u ire m e n t th a t officials a n sw e r to sta k e h o ld e rs on

the d isp o sal o f th e ir p o w ers, d u ties a n d decisio n s; a c t on criticism s o r re ­ q u ire m e n ts m a d e o f th e m ; a n d a c c e p t th e re sp o n sib ility for th e ir failure, in c o m p e te n c e o r d ec e it. (U N D P ) A c c r e d i t a t i o n - A fo rm a l re g istra tio n p ro cess th a t e n a b le s rep re se n ta tiv e s

o f an N G O to a tte n d m e e tin g s o f a n in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n a fte r p ro v id in g in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g its o rg a n iz a tio n , o b jectiv es a n d w ork p ro ­ g ra m , a n d after its a c c e p ta n c e by th e in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n . Accuracy

T h e closeness o f a m e a s u re d v alu e to th e tru e valu e. (S F W M D ) See P r e c i s i o n . ’

48

Acid rain

A c i d r a i n - T h e p re c ip ita tio n o f d ilu te so lu tio n s o f stro n g m in e ra l acids,

fo rm e d by the m ix in g in th e a tm o sp h e re o f v a rio u s in d u stria l p o llu ta n ts, p rim a rily su lfu r d io x id e a n d n itro g e n oxides, w ith n a tu ra lly o c c u rrin g o x y ­ gen a n d w a te r vapor. (N R D C ) A c q u is c o m m u n a u t a i r e - U se d in E U law to refe r to the to ta l b o d y o f E U

law a c c u m u la te d to d ate. (EEA) A e re -fe e t/fo o t (ac-ft)

T h e v o lu m e o f liq u id re q u ire d to co v er o n e acre to a d e p th o f o n e foot. (S F W M D )

A c t - In th e legislative sense, a bill o r m e a s u re p assed by a legislative o r

g o v e rn in g body. (M W ) A c t i v a t e d s l u d g e - A s e c o n d a ry sew age tr e a tm e n t p ro cess th a t involves

m ix in g o f p rim a ry efflu en t w ith b a c te ria -la d e n sludge, follow ed b y a g ita ­ tion o r a e ra tio n to p ro m o te b io lo g ical tre a tm e n t. (U SEPA ) A c t iv it ie s Im p le m e n t e d Jointly (A IJ )

In itiativ es ta k e n by c o u n trie s to jo in tly im p le m e n t activ ities to re d u c e G I I G em issio n s th a t, u n like jo in t im p le m e n ta tio n (JI), c a n n o t be c re d ite d a g a in st c u rr e n t c o m m itm e n ts o f p a rtie s to th e U N F C G C . (U N F C C C )

Ad hoc gro u p

A g ro u p fo rm e d fo r a specific p u rp o s e a n d n o oth er, w hich is g e n e ra lly d is b a n d e d w h e n th e task is c o m p le te d . (PL)

A d interim (a.i.) - D e sig n ate s th a t a p a rtic u la r official is in c h a rg e o n a

te m p o ra ry basis u n til e ith e r a p e rs o n is d e sig n a te d to a p a rtic u la r p o st o r re tu rn s to his post; fo r e x a m p le : A m b a ssa d o r, a.i.; o r Chargé d yAffaires> a.i. (eD ) A d r e f e r e n d u m - A n a g re e m e n t re a c h e d by n e g o tia to rs su b je ct to c o n c u r­

ren ce by th e ir g o v e rn m e n ts. (BLD) A d a p t a t i o n ( I ) - S p ecial tra its th a t h elp a p la n t o r a n a n im a l survive in its

e n v iro n m e n t. (C S G ) A d a p t a t i o n (2)

Policies a n d a c tio n s th a t m in im iz e ad v erse im p a c ts o f clim ate c h a n g e . (U N F C C C )

A d a p ta tio n

F u n d - A fu n d e stab lish e d to su p p o rt c o n c re te a d a p ta tio n p ro jects a n d p ro g ra m s in d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s th a t arc P a rty to th e K yoto P ro to co l a n d fin an ced th ro u g h a sh a re o f p ro c e e d s from p ro je c t activities o f the clea n d e v e lo p m e n t m e c h a n ism a n d o th e r sources. (U N F C C C )

A d a p ta tio n

m easures A ctio n s in resp o n se to, o r in a n tic ip a tio n of, clim ate c h a n g e m a d e to re d u c e o r avoid a d v erse c o n se q u e n c e s o r to take a d v a n ta g e o f b en e fic ia l c h an g es. (N G S)

49

A daptive m an ag em en t

A d a p tiv e m a n a g e m e n t

A ty p e o f n a tu ra l re so u rce m a n a g e m e n t w h ere a d ju s tm e n ts are m a d e in resp o n se to p ro je c t m o n ito rin g , new scientific in ­ fo rm a tio n , a n d c h a n g in g social co n d itio n s th a t m a y in d ic a te th e n e e d to c h a n g e a co u rse o f actio n .

A d d itio n ality

A n in te rv e n tio n th a t a d d s to, ra th e r th a n rep laces, o th e r fin an cial in p u ts. (D F ID )

A d o p tio n

T h e fo rm a l a c t th a t estab lish es th e stru c tu re a n d c o n te n t o f a p ro p o s e d tre a ty te x t th a t tak es p lace th ro u g h th e ex p re ssio n o f th e c o n se n t o f th e states p a rtic ip a tin g in th e tre a ty -m a k in g process. H o w ev er, a d o p tio n d o es n o t yet m e a n th a t a S ta te c o n se n ts to b e b o u n d by a treaty. (VC)

A d so rp tio n

A n a d v a n c e d m e th o d o f tre a tin g w a ste w a te r in w h ic h a c ti­ v ated c a rb o n rem o v es o rg a n ic m atter. (U SEPA )

A d v a n c e d i n f o r m e d a g r e e m e n t - T h e p rin c ip le th a t in te rn a tio n a l ex­

c h a n g e o f tra n sg e n ic p la n ts a n d m ic ro o rg a n ism s th a t c o u ld a d v ersely affect p la n ts sh o u ld n o t p ro c e e d (a) w ith o u t th e in fo rm e d a g re e m e n t of, o r (b) c o n tra ry to th e d ecisio n of, th e c o m p e te n t a u th o rity in th e re c ip ie n t c o u n ­ try. (B C H M ) A d v a n c e d t r e a t m e n t t e c h n o l o g i e s ( A T T s ) - B iological a n d c h em ic a l

tre a tm e n ts d e sig n e d to re d u c e c h e m ic a l levels in sto rm w a te r o r o th e r r u n ­ o ff to very low c o n c e n tra tio n s. (S F W M D ) A d v a n c e d w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e n t - T h e p ro cess th a t rem o v es p o llu t­

an ts n o t a d e q u a te ly re m o v e d by se c o n d a ry tre a tm e n t, p a rtic u la rly n itro g e n a n d p h o sp h o ru s; a c c o m p lish e d by m e a n s o f sa n d filters, m ic ro -s tra in in g o r o th e r m e th o d s. It is sim ila r to te rtia ry tr e a tm e n t. (EEA) A d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f c l i m a t e c h a n g e - C h a n g e s in th e p h y sical e n v iro n ­

m e n t o r b io ta re su ltin g from c lim a te c h a n g e th a t have sig n ifican t d e le te ri­ ou s effects on th e c o m p o sitio n , resilience o r p ro d u c tiv ity o f n a tu ra l a n d m a n a g e d ecosy stem s o r on th e o p e ra tio n o f so cio -e c o n o m ic system s o r h u ­ m a n h e a lth a n d w elfare. (U N F C C C ) A d v e r s e i m p a c t - A d e trim e n ta l effect o n a n e n v iro n m e n ta l c h a n g e re la ­

tive to th e legally m a n d a te d , d esired o r b ase lin e co n d itio n s. (S F W M D ) A e ro so ls

N o n -g a se o u s m ic ro sc o p ic p a rtic le s a n d d ro p le ts (.01 .0 0 0 0 1 cm ), o th e r th a n w a te r o r ice, su sp e n d e d in th e a tm o sp h e re - th e m o st a b u n d a n t b e in g p a rtic le s o f m in e ra l d u st, su lp h u ric a c id , a m m o n iu m su lp h a te, p o l­ lens a n d c a rb o n o r soot. (U N F C C C )

A ffected

p u b l i c - In d iv id u a ls a n d c o m m u n itie s th a t e x p e rie n c e th e im p a c ts o f a p ro je c t, a c tio n o r policy.

50

Affo rdable safe minimum standard ap p ro ach

A f f o r d a b le safe m i n i m u m s t a n d a r d a p p r o a c h

A m anagem ent ap­ p ro a c h in w h ic h th e few est activ ities re q u ire d to avoid d a m a g e s d u e to cli­ m a te c h a n g e re q u ire a b a la n c e b e tw e e n th e a c c e p ta n c e o f risk a n d th e affo rd ab ility o f a b a te m e n t costs. (U N F C C C )

A ffo re sta tio n

T h e e sta b lish m e n t o f forest co v er o n la n d n o t prev io u sly fo rested . (U N F C C C )

A fr ic a n D e v e lo p m e n t B a n k ( A f D B o r A D B )

T h e re g io n a l d ev e lo p ­ m e n t b a n k for A frica esta b lish e d in 1964 a n d w h ic h fo rm ally b e g a n o p ­ era tio n s in 1967. A fD B h e a d q u a rte rs w as m o v ed in 200 3 from its fo rm a l lo catio n in A b id ja n , C ô te d ’lv o re, given th e level o f p o litical in sta b ility in th a t co u n try , to a te m p o ra ry lo c a tio n in T u n is, T u n isia. T h e B an k h a s a m e m b e rsh ip o f 53 A fric an a n d 24 n o n -A fric a n m e m b e r states fro m th e A m ericas, A sia a n d E u ro p e . (ClPA )

A fr ic a n U n io n ( A U )

A p a n -A fric a n o rg a n iz a tio n fo rm e d in J u ly o f 2002 in D u rb a n , S o u th A frica to re p la c e th e O rg a n iz a tio n o f A fric an U n ity (O A U ). T h e AU h as a secu rity co u n cil, a n d a leg islatu re a n d a n e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t p la n , called th e N ew P a rtn e rsh ip for A fric a ’s D e v e lo p m e n t (N E PA D ).

A g e n c e França ise D é v e l o p p e m e n t ( A F D )

T h e p rin c ip a l a g e n c y th ro u g h w h ich F ra n c e p ro v id es te c h n ic a l assistan ce a n d d elivers fo reig n aid.

Agenda

A fo rm ally a d o p te d p ro g ra m o f w ork. (M W )

Agenda 2 I

A b lu e p rin t o f 40 c h a p te rs, th e fulfillm ent o f w h ic h w o u ld h elp lead to th e su sta in a b ility o f d e v e lo p m e n t. N ea rly 180 g o v e rn m e n ts a t th e E a rth S u m m it in R io de J a n e ir o in 1992 a g re e d to Agenda 21. (U N C E D )

A g r e e m e n t s - L eg al in s tru m e n ts th a t a re g e n e ra lly less fo rm a l a n d m o re

n a rro w ly focused in su b je c t m a tte r th a n are treaties. (M W ) A g r é m e n t — D ip lo m a tic c o u rte sy re q u ire s th a t b efo re a S ta te a p p o in ts a new

chief o f d ip lo m a tic m ission to re p re se n t it in a n o th e r S tate, it m u st first be a sc e rta in e d w h e th e r th e p ro p o s e d a p p o in te e is a c c e p ta b le to th e receiv in g S tate. G ra n tin g its agrément to th e a p p o in tm e n t signifies th e a c q u ie sc e n c e o f th e receiv in g S tate. (eD) A gro-e cosystem

A d y n a m ic asso c ia tio n o f cro p s, p a stu re s, livestock, o th e r flo ra a n d fa u n a , a tm o sp h e re , soils a n d w ater. A g ro -eco sy stem s are c o n ta in e d w ith in la rg e r la n d sc a p e s th a t in clu d e u n c u ltiv a te d la n d , d ra in a g e n etw orks, ru ra l c o m m u n itie s a n d w ildlife. (FAO)

A g r o - f o r e s t r y - As d e fin e d by 1C RAF, a g ro -fo re stry is a collective n a m e

for all la n d -u se system s a n d p ra c tic e s in w hich w o o d y p e re n n ia ls are d e lib ­ e rately g ro w n o n th e sa m e la n d m a n a g e m e n t u n it as cro p s o r a n im a ls. T h is

51

Aid

c a n b e e ith e r in so m e fo rm o f s p a tia l a r r a n g e m e n t o r in a tim e se q u e n c e . T h is d e fin itio n p ro v id e s a cla ssific a tio n o f a g ro -silv ic u ltu ra l (trees a n d cro p s) a n d silv o p a sto ra l (trees w ith p a stu re s) p ra c tic e s , s e q u e n tia l a n d s im u lta n e ­ o u s sy stem s as w ell as m ix e d a r r a n g e m e n ts o f tre e s a n d c ro p s. (E E S ) A id

- T h e tr a n s fe r o f g o o d s a n d se rv ic es b e tw e e n n a tio n s , c o m m e rc ia l b a n k s, in t e r n a tio n a l a g e n c ie s o r n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l a g e n c ie s g e n e ra lly in th e fo rm o f g r a n ts a n d lo a n s. In te rn a tio n a lly , a id re fe rs to n e t flow s o f official d e v e lo p m e n t a ssista n c e (O D A fo r c o u n tr ie s o n P a r t I o f th e D A C list) a n d official a ss ista n c e (O A fo r c o u n tr ie s o n P a rt II o f th e D A C list). (D F ID )

A id in su ra n ce

A c o n c e p t th a t p ro v id e s a n im m e d ia te p a y o u t by th e in s u r­

e r as a n a lte rn a tiv e to so lic itin g a n d d is b u rs in g fu n d s o n a n e m e rg e n c y basis a fte r a d is a s te r h a s o c c u rr e d . T h e c o n c e p t h a s its o rig in s in th e fa c t th a t late a id is in e ffe c tiv e a id , p a rtic u la rly in life -th re a te n in g situ a tio n s. (UNVV) S ee 'U n ited N a tio n s C e n tr a l E m e r g e n c y R e s p o n s e F u n d .’ A id e m e m o ir e - A sig n e d a n d d a te d s u m m a r y o f th e p o in ts m a d e in a n of­ ficial c o n v e rs a tio n left w ith th e p a rtie s to th e c o n v e rs a tio n , e ith e r a t th e tim e o f th e c o n v e rs a tio n o r s u b s e q u e n tly , as a n a id to m e m o ry . (eD ) A i r b a s e - T h e E u r o p e a n a ir q u a lity d a ta b a s e in c lu d in g a ir q u a lity in f o r m a ­

tio n a n d in f o rm a tio n o n m o n ito r in g n e tw o rk s a n d sta tio n s, as c o lle c te d by th e E u r o p e a n T o p ic C e n tr e o n A ir Q u a lity . (E E A ) A i r p o llu tio n

T o x ic , ra d io a c tiv e g ase s o r p a rtic u la te m a t te r in tro d u c e d

in to th e a tm o s p h e re u su a lly as a re s u lt o f h u m a n activ ity . (N R D C ) A i r p o l l u t i o n c r i t e r i a - T h e levels o f p o llu tio n a n d le n g th o f e x p o su re

ab o v e w h ic h a d v e rs e h e a lth a n d w e lfa re effects m a y o c c u r. (U S E P A ) A i r p o llu tio n e p iso d e

A p e rio d o f a b n o r m a lly h ig h c o n c e n tr a tio n o f a ir

p o llu ta n ts o fte n d u e to low w in d s a n d te m p e r a tu r e in v e rsio n th a t m a y c a u se illness o r d e a th . (U S E P A ) A i r p o l l u t i o n s t a n d a r d s - T h e level o f p o llu ta n ts p re s c rib e d by re g u la ­

tio n s th a t m a y n o t b e e x c e e d e d d u r in g a g iv en tim e p e rio d in a d e fin e d a re a . (U S E P A ) A ir Q u a lity V isu a liz a tio n In s t r u m e n t fo r E u ro p e on th e W e b (A irv i e w ) - A c o m p u te r b a s e d p ro g r a m th a t allo w s th e u s e r to c o n s u lt a d a ­

ta b a s e a n d v isu a liz e a ir q u a lity d a ta (raw d a ta o r statistics) in th e fo rm o f m a p s , g r a p h s o r ta b le s. (E E A ) A l b e d o - T h e ra tio o f re fle c te d so la r ra d ia tio n to in c o m in g s o la r ra d ia tio n ,

w h e re b o th th e in c o m in g (d o w n w ellin g ) a n d re fle c te d (u p w ellin g ) ra d ia tio n s tre a m s a re m e a s u re d o n a p la n e h o riz o n ta l to th e s u rfa c e a n d in te g ra te d o v e r th e c o m p le te s p e c tra l (w av e le n g th ) ra n g e o f s o la r ra d ia tio n . F o r a

52

Alicante Declaration

single w aveleng th , o r for a n a r r o w spectral b a n d , th e ratio is usually t e r m e d spectral alb e d o o r spectral reflectance. (EES) See ‘U r b a n h e a t i s l a n d . ' A lic a n te D e cla ra tio n

A n IS G W A S -s p o n s o re d a g r e e m e n t la u n c h e d in A licante, S p a in a n d o p e n e d for e n d o r s e m e n t in J a n u a r y 20 06 a im e d at im p ro v in g u n d e r s t a n d in g a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f g ro u n d w a te r. (ES)

A l i e n s p e c i e s - A species o c c u rrin g in a n a re a outside o f its historically

k n o w n ra n g e as a result o f in te n tio n a l o r a c c id en tal dispersal by h u m a n activities. (GBS) A l l i a n c e o f S m a l l Is l a n d S t a t e s ( A O S I S )

T h e coalition o f ov er 40 Pacific a n d C a r i b b e a n nations th a t lobby for ac tio n by d e v e lo p e d n a tio n s to re d u c e g r e e n h o u se gas em issions b ec a u se o f the th re a t o f rising sea levels a n d in c re a sed sto rm activity th a t m a y a c c o m p a n y global w a rm in g .

A l p h a b e t , official

A n a lp h a b e t officially re c o gn ized for use in c o m m u n i ­ cations in a n in te r n a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n . T h e E U h a s th re e official a lp h a ­ bets: Latin, G re e k a n d Cyrillic. (EU)

A lt e r n a t - T h e prin ciple th a t provides th a t a state’s ow n n a m e be listed

a h e a d o f the o th e r signatory, o r signatories, in its o w n official copy o f the signed in stru m e n t. It is a p ra c tic e devised cen tu rie s ago to h a n d le sensitivi­ ties over p re c e d e n c e a n d w h e re o r d e r in g all states alp hab etically d oes n o t suit the signatories, for e x a m p le w h e n c e rta in states a re always listed n e a r th e b o tto m o f the list o f signatories. In m o s t cases, th e states listed after the Alternat are listed e ith e r a lp h ab e tic ally o r in o r d e r o f signing o r ratification. (cD) A l t e r n a t i v e e n e r g y - E n e rg y d eriv ed from non-fossil fuel sources. (IPPC) A l t e r n a t i v e f u e ls

A ltern ativ e fuel is an y m e th o d o f p o w e rin g a n eng in e th a t does n o t involve p e tro le u m (oil). S o m e altern ativ e fuels are electricity, m e th a n e , hy drog en , n a tu ra l gas a n d w o o d . (WP)

A m b a s s a d o r - A d ip lo m a tic envoy o f the high est ra n k a cc re d ited to a gov­

e r n m e n t, generally for a specific p e r io d o r a ssignm ent. (M W ) A m b a s s a d o r at Large

A M in iste r o f the highest ra n k n o t a cc re d ited to any p a r tic u la r g o v e rn m e n t, b u t r a th e r to an o rg a n iz a tio n for a specific task o r th em e . (M W )

A m b a s s a d o r , E x t r a o r d i n a r y a n d P l e n i p o t e n t i a r y - T h e c h ie f o f a

d ip lo m a tic mission; the ra n k in g o ffic ia l/d ip lo m a tic represen tative o f his c o u n tr y to th e c o u n tr y to w hich he is a c c re d ited , a n d the p e r s o n a l r e p r e ­ sentative o f his o w n h e a d o f state to the h e a d o f state o f the h o st country. (eD)

53

A m bassad or, G o o d w ill

A m b a s s a d o r , G o o d w i l l - See ‘G o o d w i l l A m b a s s a d o r . ' A m b a s s a d o r W i t h o u t P o rtfo lio

A n A m b a s s a d o r w ith o u t a su b sta n tiv e o r te c h n ic a l p o rtfo lio in g o v e rn m e n t, b u t w h o u n d e rta k e s sp ecial m issions at th e re q u e s t o f th e H e a d o f S ta te a n d / o r F oreign M in iste r a n d for w h o m th e title A m b a s s a d o r’ p ro v id es th e n ece ssa ry ra n k to u n d e rta k e su ch m issions, such as access to h ig h -lev el a u th o ritie s a n d / o r sig n in g au th o rity . (M W )

A m bassadress

A (m isused) te rm to in d ic a te a fem ale a m b a ssa d o r. T h e c o rre c t te rm reg ard le ss o f g e n d e r is A m b a ssa d o r, a lth o u g h M a d a m e A m ­ b a ss a d o r is also ac c e p ta b le . (M W ; eD )

A m b i e n t - b a s e d s t a n d a r d s - A ir a n d w a te r q u a lity sta n d a rd s b a se d on

a n a m b ie n t q u a lity go al, n o rm a lly set a t a level n e e d e d to p re v e n t n eg ativ e h u m a n h e a lth a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l im p acts. (AM ) A m b ie n t p e rm it sy ste m (A P S )

A n a m b ie n t p e rm it en titles th e en v i­ r o n m e n ta l re g u la to r to v a ry p e rm itte d em issio n s a c c o rd in g to th e im p a c ts th ey h ave o n a rc c e p to r, such as a w ildlife sa n c tu a ry o r a d rin k in g w a te r e x tra c tio n site. (AM)

A m e n d m e n t - A p ro p o se d o r effected a lte ra tio n to a d o c u m e n t m a d e by

p a rlia m e n ta ry p ro c e d u re . (M W ) A n d e a n C o m m u n i t y o f N a t i o n s ( C A N ) - A tra d in g bloc (fo rm erly th e

A n d e a n Pact) d a tin g from 1969 th a t in clu d e s B olivia, C o lo m b ia , E cu a d o r, P eru a n d V en ezu ela. In m id -2 0 0 6 , V e n e z u e la a n n o u n c e d its in te n tio n s to leave th e C o m m u n ity b ec a u se tw o o f its m e m b e rs h a d sig n ed tra d e a g re e ­ m e n ts w ith th e U S , c o m p ro m isin g th e o rig in a l in te n t o f th e C A N . See S ou th A m e r ic a n C o m m u n ity o f N a tio n s .’ A n d e a n D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n ( C A F ) - F o rm e d in 1968, th e C A F

is a m u ltilatera l fin an cial in s titu tio n th a t p ro m o te s su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t a n d re g io n a l in te g ra tio n by a ttra c tin g c a p ita l re so u rces for a w id e ra n g e o f fin an cial, valu e a d d e d services to th e p u b lic a n d p riv a te secto rs o f s h a re ­ h o ld e r c o u n trie s. C A F h a s a c u rre n t m e m b e rsh ip o f 16 c o u n trie s in L atin A m e ric a a n d th e C a rib b e a n . Its p rin c ip a l s h a re h o ld e rs are th e five c o u n ­ tries o f th e A n d e a n C o m m u n ity : B olivia, C o lo m b ia , E c u a d o r, P e ru a n d V en ezu ela. T h e C o rp o ra tio n also h a s 11 e x tra -re g io n a l p a rtn e rs : A rg e n ­ tin a , B razil, C h ile, C o sta R ic a , J a m a ic a , M ex ico , P a n a m a , P araguay, S p ain , T rin id a d & T o b a g o a n d U ru g u ay , a n d 18 p riv a te b a n k m e m b e rs fro m th e A n d e a n reg io n . (CAF) Andean

Free T r a d e A s s o c ia t io n ( A F T A )

See ‘S o u t h A m e r i c a n

C o m m u n ity o f N a tio n s.’ A n n e x B C o u n t r i e s - D ev elo p e d c o u n try P a rtie s to th e K yoto P ro to co l

th a t have a g re e d to a ta rg e t for th e ir G H G em issions (g en erally in clu d es

54

Annex I Parties

th e O E C D m e m b e r states, C e n tra l a n d E a ste rn E u ro p e , a n d th e R ussian F e d e ra tio n . (U N F C C C ) A n n e x I P a rtie s

P a rtie s to th e U n ite d N a tio n s F ra m e w o rk C o n v e n tio n on C lim a te C h a n g e w h o p le d g e d to re d u c e th e ir g re e n h o u s e gas em issions by the y e a r 200 0 to 1990 levels. A n n e x I P a rtie s co n sist o f th e O rg a n is a tio n for E c o n o m ic C o -o p e ra tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (O E C D ) m e m b e r states a n d in d u stria liz e d c o u n trie s w ith ec o n o m ie s in tra n sitio n (C e n tra l a n d E a ste rn E u ro p e ex c lu d in g th e fo rm e r Y ugoslavia a n d A lb an ia). (U N F C C C )

A n n e x II P a r t i e s

T h e d e v e lo p e d c o u n try p a rtie s a n d o th e r p a rtie s in ­ clu d ed in A n n e x 1 o f th e U N F C C C th a t are also P artie s to th e K y oto P ro ­ tocol. (U N F C C C )

A n n e x I I I P a r t i e s - D e v elo p in g c o u n try p a rtie s w ith ec o n o m ie s th a t are

h ighly d e p e n d e n t on th e e x p lo ita tio n , p ro d u c tio n , p ro c e ssin g a n d e x p o rta ­ tio n o f fossil fuels. (U N F C C C ) A n no tated agenda

A d ra ft a g e n d a th a t in clu d es e x p la n a to ry text.

A n t h r o p o c e n e - A n ew g eo lo g ical e p o c h so n a m e d b e c a u se h u m a n s have

co m e to rival n a tu re in th e ir im p a c t o n th e physics, c h e m istry a n d bio lo g y o f th e glo b al e n v iro n m e n t sh o w in g ‘h o ts p o ts’ in th e E a r th ’s d efen ses a g a in st c a ta stro p h ic c h an g e . E x am p les o f ‘h o ts p o ts’ in c lu d e sea level rise, ch a n g e s in o c e a n circu latio n p a tte rn s, b re a k in g a n d m o v in g o f th e w est A n ta rc tic ice sh eet, th e in crea sin g p a c e o f g lac ie r re tre a t, c h a n g e in th e A sian m o n so o n system p a tte rn s a n d force, acid ificatio n o f soil a n d larg e w a te r b o d ies, a n d c a rb o n ex ch an g e s b e tw e e n th e o c e a n s a n d th e a tm o sp h e re . (ES) A n t h r o p o c e n t r i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l e t h ic - A view o f th e e n v iro n m e n t

th a t is h u m a n -c e n te re d . (AM ) A n t h r o p o c e n t r i s m - A b e lie f th a t o u r la rg e r b ra in s, w h ich a rc th e so u rce

o f o u r p a rtic u la r m o b ility a n d dexterity, a d v a n c e d re a s o n in g p o w ers, a n d th e source o f o u r p crc cp tiv en e ss, in d ic a te th a t th e h u m a n ra c e h as b een c h o sen to d o m in a te th e rest o f n a tu re . (EES) A n t h r o p o g e n i c - A th in g o r p h e n o m e n o n m a d e by p e o p le o r th a t result

from h u m a n activities. (M W ) A n tico rru p tio n

strategy

-

S ee

'W o r ld

Bank

A n tico rru p tio n

S tra teg y .’ A O S IS

See th e A l l i a n c e o f S m a l l I s l a n d S t a t e s . ’

A p p e lla te

Body An in d e p e n d e n t body th a t co n sid ers ap p eals w h en o n e o r m o re p a rtie s to a d isp u te re q u ests clarificatio n o r a review o f a d ecisio n . (M W )

55

A p p ro ach

A p p r o a c h - A w ay o f th in k in g o r o f d o in g th in g s b a sed o n v alu es u sed to

attack a p ro b le m . (M W ) A p p ro p ria te

te ch n o lo g y T e c h n o lo g y th a t p ro v id es so lu tio n s to th e p ro b le m s o f local co m m u n itie s th a t are su sta in a b le , in th e sense th a t th e te c h n o lo g y c a n b e m a in ta in e d b y th e c o m m u n ity w ith o u t in tro d u c in g d e ­ p e n d e n c e o n o u tsid e rs. A te rm th a t refers to u sin g th e sim p lest a n d m o st b en ig n level o f te c h n o lo g y th a t c a n effectively ach iev e th e in te n d e d p u r­ pose (A M ; W P)

Approval

See ‘A c c e p t a n c e . '

A q u i f e r - U n d e rg ro u n d fo rm a tio n s th a t are sufficiently p e rm e a b le o r p o ­

ro u s to yield g ro u n d w a te r in u sab le q u a n titie s. A q u ifers, w h ic h c a n be th o u g h t o f as u n d e rg ro u n d lakes o r reserv o irs, fo rm a vital w a te r reso u rce th a t co n ta in a b o u t 95 p c rc e n t o f th e w o rld ’s re ad ily av ailab le fre sh w a te r a n d are fo u n d th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld , in b o th w et a n d a rid zones. (EES; SFW M D ) A r a b F u n d f o r E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t - A fin an cially a u ­

to n o m o u s P a n -A ra b re g io n a l o rg a n iz a tio n c o m p risin g all A ra b c o u n trie s th a t are m e m b e rs o f th e L e a g u e o f A ra b S tates. Its fu n c tio n s are to assist th e e c o n o m ic a n d social d e v e lo p m e n t o f A ra b c o u n trie s th ro u g h (1) fin a n c­ in g d ev e lo p m e n t p ro jects, w ith p re fe re n c e g iv en to ov erall A ra b d e v e lo p ­ m e n t a n d to jo in t A ra b p ro jects; (2) e n c o u ra g in g in v e stm e n t o f p riv a te a n d p u b lic funds in A ra b p ro jects; a n d , (3) p ro v id in g te c h n ic a l assistan ce serv­ ices for A ra b e c o n o m ic a n d social d e v e lo p m e n t. (A F E S D ) A r a b L e a g u e - S ec L e a g u e o f A r a b S t a t e s . ’ A rc h ip e la g ic S ta te

A S tate c o n stitu te d w holly by o n e o r m o re a rc h ip e la ­ gos (islands) in c lu d in g p a rts o f islands, in te rc o n n e c tin g w a te rs a n d o th e r n a tu ra l featu re s th a t a rc so closely in te rre la te d th a t su ch islands, w a te rs an d o th e r n a tu r a l fea tu res fo rm a n in trin sic g e o g ra p h ic a l, e c o n o m ic a n d p o liti­ cal entity, o r w h ic h h isto rically h av e b e e n re g a rd e d as su ch . (U N )

A r t e s i a n ( a q u i f e r o r w e l l ) - W a te r h e ld u n d e r p re ssu re in p o ro u s rock o r

soil co n fin ed by im p e rm e a b le geologic fo rm a tio n s. (U SEPA ) A r t e s a n a l f i s h e r i e s - S m all-scale fisheries c a rric d o u t by p e o p le w h o rely

o n fishing to su p p o rt th e ir fam ilies a n d o th e r lo cal p eo p le . T h is type o f fish­ in g is n o t fully c o m m e rc ia l in n a tu re . T h e fish in g te c h n o lo g y m a y be very so p h istic a te d , b u t it is n o t h ig h ly d e p e n d e n t o n o u tsid e sources o f c a p ita l a n d m a terials. (A M N H ) A r t i c l e 8(j), W o r k i n g G r o u p o n

A w o rk in g g ro u p m a n d a te d by G O P / C B D to p ro v id e a d v ice on th e a p p lic a tio n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f legal an d o th e r a p p ro p ria te fo rm s o f p ro te c tio n fo r th e k n o w led g e o f in d ig e n o u s a n d

56

A rub a Protocol

local c o m m u n itie s e m b o d y in g tra d itio n a l lifestyles re le v a n t to th e c o n se rv a ­ tion a n d su stain ab le use o f biodiversity. (ENB) A ru b a Protocol

T h e p ro to c o l from O ra n je s ta d , A ru b a (1999) c o n c e rn in g P ollution from L a n d -b a se d S o u rces a n d A ctivities in th e W id e r C a rib b e a n R eg io n th a t is o n e o f th re e p ro to c o ls to th e 1983 C a rta g e n a C o n v e n tio n for the P ro te c tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t o f th e M a rin e E n v iro n m e n t o f th e W id e r C a rib b e a n R eg io n . (C B D )

A s h - In c o m b u stib le resid u e left over a fte r in c in e ra tio n o r o th e r th e rm a l

processes. (N R D C ) A s i a - P a c i f i c E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n ( A P E C ) - A P E C w as esta b lish e d

in 1989 to fu rth e r e n h a n c e e c o n o m ic g ro w th a n d p ro s p e rity fo r th e r e ­ gion a n d to s tre n g th e n th e A sia-P acific co m m u n ity . T h is fo ru m is d e d i­ ca te d to facilitatin g e c o n o m ic g ro w th , c o o p e ra tio n , tra d e a n d in v e stm e n t a n d is th e o n ly in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l g ro u p in g in th e w o rld o p e ra tin g o n th e basis o f n o n -b in d in g c o m m itm e n ts. A P E C h as 21 m e m b e rs re fe rre d to as ‘M e m b e r E c o n o m ie s’ in c lu d in g : A u stralia ; B ru n ei D a ru ssa la m ; C a n a d a ; C h ile ; P e o p le ’s R e p u b lic o f C h in a ; I lo n g K o n g , C h in a ; In d o n e sia ; J a p a n ; R e p u b lic o f K o re a ; M ala y sia ; M ex ico ; N ew Z e a la n d ; P a p u a N e w G u in e a ; P eru ; T h e R e p u b lic o f th e P h ilip p in e s; T h e R ussian F e d e ra tio n ; S in g a p o re ; C h in e se T aip ei; T h a ila n d ; th e U S ; a n d V ie tn a m . A sia -P a c ific P a rtn e rsh ip on C le a n D e v e lo p m e n t and C lim a te ( A P PCDC) In a u g u ra te d in J a n u a r y 2 0 0 6 in Sydney, A u stra lia this g ro u p in g in clu d es the six larg est p o llu te rs (U S, A u stra lia , J a p a n , C h in a , S o u th K o re a a n d In d ia), a c c o u n tin g fo r n e a rly h a lf o f th e w o rld ’s g re e n h o u s e gases, w ho claim th a t th e ir n a tio n a l efforts to re d u c e g re e n h o u s e gas em issio n s w ill c o m p le m e n t th o se o f th e K y oto P ro to co l. T h e y also feel th a t th e p riv a te se c to r m u st tak e th e le a d in a d d re ssin g clim ate c h a n g e by d e v e lo p in g new tech n o lo g ies th a t h e lp c u rb g re e n h o u s e gas em issions. (U N F C C C ) A s ia n b r o w n cloud

T h e h a z e o f p o llu ta n ts tr a p p e d by a te m p e ra tu re in v ersio n over th e n o rth e rn In d ia n O c e a n , m u c h o f S o u th A sia, In d ia , P a ­ k istan , S o u th e a s t A sia a n d C h in a th a t o cc u rs for th re e to fo u r m o n th s ea c h w in te r a n d w hich c o u ld h av e serio u s effects on th e h u m a n h e a lth a n d cli­ m a te o f th e reg io n . (EES)

A sia n

D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k ( A D B ) - A n in te rn a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t fi­ n a n c e in s titu tio n e sta b lish e d in 1966 fo r th e A sia-P acific reg io n . It h a s an O ffice o f th e E n v iro n m e n t esta b lish e d in 1987 to facilitate th e in te g ra tio n o f e n v iro n m e n ta l p la n n in g a t all levels o f B an k o p e ra tio n s. A D B h e a d q u a r ­ ters are lo c a te d in M a n ila , P h ilip p in es. (CIPA)

A sse m b ly

A g a th e rin g o f in d iv id u a ls o r d e le g a tio n s for th e p u rp o s e o f d e lib e ra tin g a n d a p p ro v in g legislatio n , d e c la ra tio n s a n d policy. (M W )

57

Assessed contribution

A sse s s e d co n trib u tion

F u n d s th a t a m e m b e r state is re q u ire d to c o n ­ trib u te b ased o n a fo rm u la a p p lie d to all states th a t a re n o rm a lly d e d i­ c a te d to su p p o rt th e co re (re g u lar fund) fu n c tio n s o f th e o rg a n iz a tio n . T h e 2007 assessed c o n trib u tio n s to th e U N by th e larg est d o n o rs e x p ressed as a p e rc e n ta g e o f th e to tal re g u la r fu n d in clu d e: U S 22 p c rc e n t, J a p a n 19.5 p e rc e n t, G e rm a n y 8.6 p e rc e n t, U K 6.1 p e rc e n t, F ran c e 6.0 p e rc e n t, Italy 4.8 p e rc e n t. T h e 2 5 -m e m b e r E U jo in tly c o n trib u te s 37 p e rc e n t o f th e U N re g u la r fu n d b u d g e t. (U N ) S ee ‘C a p a c i t y t o p a y , p r i n c i p l e of,' ‘A s ­ s e s s e d c o n tr ib u tio n in v e s tm e n t, c o n c e p t o f.’

A s s e s s e d c o n t r i b u t i o n i n v e s t m e n t , c o n c e p t o f - T h e re tu r n o n th e

‘in v e s tm e n t’ re a liz e d by d o n o rs to th e U N re g u la r fu n d (p ay in g assessed co n trib u tio n s) th ro u g h c o n tra c ts receiv ed for services o r m a te ria ls b a c k to th e U N system a c q u ire d th ro u g h a co m p e titiv e a n d tr a n s p a re n t process. T h e a m o u n t o f th e c o n trib u tio n is n o t re la te d to th e a w a rd in g o f c o n su l­ ta n c y o r o th e r c o n tra c ts. (U N ) A s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y - In re la tio n to w a te r quality, th e c a p a c ity o f a n a t­

u ral b o d y o f w a te r to receive w a ste w a te rs o r toxic m a te ria ls w ith o u t d e le te ­ rious effects a n d w ith o u t d a m a g e to a q u a tic life o r h u m a n s w h o c o n su m e th e w ater. (U SE PA ) A s s i s t a n c e - S u p p o rt fo r p ro je c ts th a t c a n in clu d e te c h n ic a l a d v ice a n d as­

sistance as w ell as fu n d s. (D F ID ) A s s o c ia t e d project

A G E F p ro je c t th a t is e ith e r physically d e p e n d e n t on a n o th e r a g e n c y ’s p ro je c t o r w h o se success c o u ld d e p e n d u p o n th e im p le ­ m e n ta tio n o f a n o th e r p ro je c t. O p p o site o f a fre e sta n d in g p ro je c t. (G E F)

A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a r i b b e a n S t a t e s ( A C S ) - T h e C o n v e n tio n e sta b lish ­

in g th e A C S w as sig n ed in Ju ly 1994 in C a rta g e n a , C o lo m b ia , w ith th e aim o f s tre n g th e n in g th e re g io n a l in te g ra tio n p ro cess, in o r d e r to c re a te a n e n h a n c e d e c o n o m ic sp ace in th e reg io n ; p re s e rv in g th e e n v iro n m e n ta l in te g rity o f th e C a rib b e a n S e a , w h ich is th e c o m m o n p a trim o n y o f th e p eo p les o f th e reg io n ; a n d p ro m o tin g th e su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e G re a te r C a rib b e a n R eg io n . T h e A sso ciatio n c o m p rise s 25 M e m b e r S tates a n d th re e A ssociate M e m b e rs. A sso ciatio n of S o u th e a st A sia n

N a t i o n s ( A S E A N ) - A S E A N w as estab lish ed in A u g u st 1967 to: (i) a c c e le ra te th e e c o n o m ic g ro w th , social p ro g ress a n d c u ltu ra l d ev e lo p m e n t in th e reg io n th ro u g h jo in t e n d e a v o rs in th e sp irit o f e q u a lity a n d p a rtn e rs h ip in o r d e r to s tre n g th e n th e fo u n d a ­ tio n for a p ro sp e ro u s a n d p ea c e fu l c o m m u n ity o f S o u th e a s t A sian n atio n s, a n d (ii) p ro m o te re g io n a l p e a c e a n d stab ility th ro u g h a b id in g re s p e c t for ju s tic e a n d th e ru le o f law in th e re la tio n sh ip a m o n g c o u n trie s in th e reg io n a n d a d h e re n c e to th e p rin c ip le s o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s C h a rte r. T h e re are c u rre n tly ten M e m b e r N a tio n s p a rtic ip a tin g in this fo ru m : B ru n ei D a ru s ­ salam , C a m b o d ia , In d o n e s ia , L aos, M a lay sia , M y a n m a r, P h ilip p in e s, S in ­ g a p o re , T h a ila n d a n d V ie tn a m .

58

A sso ciatio n o f S o u th e ast A sian N a tio n s Em in e n t Persons G r o u p

A sso c ia tio n of S o u th e a st A sia n N a tio n s E m in e n t P erso n s G ro u p -

A n id e a to c re a te a n E U -lik e re g io n (one c u rre n c y , b o rd e rle s s society, legally b in d in g w ith p o w e rs to im p o s e s a n c tio n s o n m e m b e rs w h o d o n o t follow its ru les, etc.) w as first g iv en se rio u s c o n s id e ra tio n in 2 0 0 6 . A t th e ir J a n u a r y 2 0 0 7 m e e tin g , th e h e a d s o f sta te c re a te d th e E m in e n t P e rs o n s G r o u p to d ra f t a n A S E A N c h a rte r. T h e A S E A N c h a r t e r w ill a d d re s s tr a d e , h u m a n rig h ts, e n v ir o n m e n ta l re g u la tio n s , tr a n s n a tio n a l c rim e , m a r itim e security, d is a s te r re d u c tio n a n d relief, a n d m itig a tio n o f c o m m u n ic a b le d iseases a m o n g o th e r issues. (A S E A N ) A s y lu m fa tigu e

T h e re a c tio n s o r p o lic ie s o f g o v e rn m e n ts th a t n e g a tiv e ly

a ffect asy lu m se e k e rs, w h ic h c lo u d th e c o n c e p ts o f w h o a sy lu m se e k e rs a re a n d w h a t n e e d s to b e d o n e to h e lp th e m . T h e te r m c a m e in to use in 2 0 0 6 w h e n th e U N H ig h C o m m is s io n e r fo r R e fu g e e s o b s e rv e d th e c o n fu s io n b e tw e e n le g itim a te a sy lu m se e k e rs a n d illeg al im m ig ra n ts . (U N W ) A s y lu m sh o p p in g

A E U tr e n d by a sy lu m se e k e rs w h e re p e o p le a p p ly fo r re fu g e e sta tu s in se v e ra l c o u n tr ie s s im u lta n e o u s ly o r in a specific c o u n tr y b a s e d o n th e p o licie s a n d th e re fo re th e c o u n tr y m o s t likely to a c c e p t th e m . T h e E U is c o n s id e rin g th e a d o p tio n o f a c o m m o n asy lu m p o lic y to c o m b a t th is te n d e n c y . (E U )

A t m o s p h e r e — T h e 5 0 0 k m th ic k e n v e lo p e o f a ir s u r r o u n d in g th e E a rth

a n d b o u n d to it by th e E a r th 's g ra v ita tio n a l a ttr a c tio n , w h ic h s u p p o r ts th e e x is te n c e o f all flo ra a n d f a u n a . F o u r g a ses d o m in a te th e a tm o s p h e re : n i­ tro g e n (7 8 .0 8 p e rc e n t), o x y g e n (2 0 .9 4 p c rc e n t), a rg o n (0.93 p e rc e n t), a n d c a r b o n d io x id e (0 .0 3 4 p e rc e n t). (E E S ; N R D C ) A t m o s p h e r i c i n v e r s i o n - A n u p p e r la y e r o f w a r m a ir p re v e n tin g th e rise

o f c o o le r a ir a n d th e p o llu ta n ts tr a p p e d b e n e a th it. (U S E P A ) A to m ic energy

E n e rg y re le a s e d in n u c le a r re a c tio n s . W h e n a n e u tr o n

splits a n a to m ’s n u c le u s in to s m a lle r p ie c e s, it is c a lle d fissio n . W h e n tw o n u c le i a re jo i n e d to g e th e r u n d e r m illio n s o f d e g re e s o f h e a t, it is c a lle d fu ­ sio n . (N R D C ) A t t a c h é - G o v e r n m e n t a tta c h é s a re e ith e r j u n i o r officers in a n e m b a s s y or, if m o r e sen io r, o fficers w h o h a v e a p ro fe ssio n a l s p e c ia liz a tio n su c h as ‘la b o r a tta c h é ,’ ‘c o m m e rc ia l a tt a c h é ,’ ‘scie n tific a tt a c h é ,’ ‘c u ltu ra l a tt a c h é ,’ ‘m ili­ ta r y a tt a c h é ,’ e tc . a n d w h o a rc re s p o n s ib le fo r o r a d v ise th e A m b a s s a d o r o n th o s e a sp e c ts o f th e e m b a s s y p o rtfo lio . (cD) A t t r a c t o r - A p o in t to w h ic h a sy stem te n d s to m o v e , a g o a l, e ith e r d e ­

lib e ra te o r c o n s tra in e d b y system p a r a m e te r s (laws). T h e th re e p e r m a n e n t a ttr a c to r ty p e s a re fix ed p o in t, cy clic a n d s tra n g e (o r c h a o tic ). (C S G ) A u d it

A sy s te m a tic re tro sp e c tiv e e x a m in a tio n o f th e w h o le, o r p a r t , o f a p ro je c t o r p ro g r a m to m e a s u re c o n f o r m a n c e w ith th e p la n a n d / o r p o licies. (M W )

59

Australian A g en cy for International D evelo p m en t (AusAid)

A u stra lia n A g e n c y for In te rn atio n al D e v e lo p m e n t ( A u s A id ) - T he

p rin c ip a l a g en cy th ro u g h w h ich A u stra lia p ro v id es te c h n ic a l assistan ce a n d delivers foreign aid. A u t h e n t i c t e x t - T h e te x t o f a tre a ty th a t is e sta b lish e d as definitive a n d

w h e re states c a n n o t u n ila te ra lly c h a n g e its p ro v isio n s. U su a l fo rm s o f a u ­ th e n tic a tio n s a rc by sig n a tu re , sig n a tu re ad referendum o r the in itia lin g by th e re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e states th a t n e g o tia te d th e treaty. (VC) A u t h e n t i c a t i o n - T h e p ro c e d u re w h e re b y th e tex t o f a tre a ty is estab lish ed

as a u th e n tic a n d definitive u su ally by sig n a tu re o r in itialin g by re p re s e n ta ­ tives o f th e n e g o tia tin g states. (U N T )

60

Bb B a c k g r o u n d le v e l ( I ) - T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a s u b s ta n c e in a n e n v i r o n ­

m e n t a l m e d i a (air, w a t e r o r soil) t h a t o c c u r s n a tu r a lly a n d n o t b e c a u s e o f h u m a n activities. (E E A ) B a c k g r o u n d le v e l (2 )

In e x p o s u r e a s s e ssm e n t, th e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a s u b s ta n c e in a d e f in e d c o n tr o l a r e a , d u r i n g a fixed p e r i o d b e fo re , d u r i n g o r a fte r a d a t a - g a t h e r i n g o p e r a t i o n . (E EA )

B a la n c e of p a y m e n t s

A set o f a c c o u n ts fo r a given p e r i o d , u su ally a year, w h ic h s u m m a r i z e s th e f in a n c ia l t r a n s a c ti o n s o f th e in s titu tio n s a n d r e s id e n ts o f o n e c o u n t r y w ith th e in s titu tio n s a n d r e s id e n ts o f th e re st o f th e w o rld . T h e set o f a c c o u n ts consists o f a c u r r e n t a c c o u n t , w h ic h show s e x p e n d i t u r e s th e c o u n t r y m a d e d u r i n g th e p e r i o d o n th e p u r c h a s e o f g o o d s a n d services fro m a b r o a d , a n d th e re v e n u e d e r iv e d fro m t h e sale o f g o o d s a n d services to th e rest o f th e w o rld ; a n d a c a p ita l a c c o u n t , w h ic h sh o w s the flows o f p r iv a t e a n d p u b lic in v e s t m e n t a n d o f o t h e r tra n sfe rs. ( D F ID )

B a l k a n i z a t i o n - A t e r m t h a t e m e r g e d in re s p o n s e to sm all-scale i n d e p e n d ­

e n c e m o v e m e n ts a n d th e in c r e a s in g t r e n d o f m in i- o r m ic r o n a tio n a lis m s th a t o c c u r a lo n g e th n ic , c u lt u r a l a n d religiou s fault lines. T h e t e r m finds its ro o ts fro m th e divisive a n d c o n flic t- r id d e n B a lk a n r e g io n o f E u r o p e a n d g e n e r a lly d e s c rib e s th e p r o c e ss o f g e o p o litic a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n , a n d p olitic a l disso lu tio n ac ross th e w o rld . ( C W ) See ‘M i c r o n a t i o n a l i s m . ’ B a m a k o C o n v e n t io n on th e B a n of th e Im p o r t s in to A fr ic a and the C o n tr o l of T r a n s b o u n d a r y M o v e m e n t an d M a n a g e m e n t of H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s w i t h i n A f r i c a - T h i s a g r e e m e n t p ro v id e s g u id e lin e s

for th e m a n a g e m e n t o f h a z a r d o u s w a s te s by m e m b e r states o f th e O r g a n i ­ z a tio n o f A f ric a n U n i t y (now A fr ic a n U n io n ) . It w a s a d o p t e d in B a m a k o , M a li in J a n u a r y 1991 as a n a lte r n a tiv e to th e Basel C o n v e n t i o n as O A U m e m b e r states felt t h a t th e b a n o n m o v e m e n t o f h a z a r d o u s w a s te s in c lu d e d in th e Basel C o n v e n t i o n w e r e n o t stric t e n o u g h . T o d a te 2 2 c o u n t r i e s hav e sig n e d a n d 18 c o u n tr ie s h a v e ratified th e C o n v e n t i o n . ( U N T ) Bank

A b a n k is a n in s titu tio n t h a t p ro v id e s f in a n c ia l services, p a r t ic u la r ly ta k in g d e p o s its a n d e x te n d i n g c re d it. See ‘D e v e l o p m e n t b a n k . ’

B a n k a b l e - A te r m u se d p r i m a r i l y by th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l te c h n ic a l assist­

a n c e a g e n c ie s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t b a n k s to d e s c r ib e a cost-cffcctivc p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l. (WB)

B arb ad o s D eclaratio n and Plan of Action

B a r b a d o s D e c l a r a t i o n a n d P l a n o f A c t i o n - T h e fo rm a l s ta te m e n t p ro ­

d u c e d by th e G lo b a l C o n fe re n c e on th e S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t o f S m all Islan d D ev elo p in g S tate s (SID S) h e ld in B rid g e to w n . B a rb a d o s, ‘2 5 A p ril-6 M a y 1994. T h e B a rb a d o s D e c la ra tio n m a d e a c o m m itm e n t to specific p o li­ cies, a c tio n s a n d m e a su re s to b e ta k e n a t th e n a tio n a l, re g io n al a n d in te rn a ­ tio n al levels to e n a b le S ID S to ach ie v e su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t. It rec o g n ize d th e special c o n stra in ts to su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t th a t S ID S face by v irtu e o f th e ir sm all size a n d called fo r th e assistan ce o f re g io n a l a n d in te rn a tio n a l en tities, b o th g o v e rn m e n ta l a n d n o n -g o v e rn m e n ta l, to e n g a g e in a p ro g ra m o f a c tio n a im e d at th e su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e S ID S . (U N D P ) B a rce lo n a C o n v e n tio n

See ' M e d i t e r r a n e a n A c t i o n P la n .'

B a re fo o t C o lle g e

E sta b lish ed in 1972 in th e village o f T ilo n ia , In d ia , th e college, b u ilt by th e p o o r, serves only th o se e a rn in g less th a n a n a v erag e o f U S $ 1 .0 0 p e r day. T h e id e a is to reco g n ize a n d a p p ly tra d itio n a l k n o w led g e, village w isd o m a n d lo cal skills fo r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p o o r c o m m u n itie s th u s re d u c in g d e p e n d e n c y o n o u tsid e ex p ertise . U sin g th is a p p ro a c h , th e re arc p resen tly 20 such ‘co lleg es’ in 13 In d ia n S tates sp ecializin g in th e d e v e lo p ­ m e n t o f d rin k in g w a te r reso u rces, in c o m e g e n e ra tio n , elec tricity a n d pow er, as w ell as social a w aren ess, d ecisio n skills a n d th e c o n se rv a tio n o f ecolo g ical system s s u p p o rtin g ru ra l c o m m u n itie s. (U N ) S ee ‘G r o s s v i l l a g e p r o d u c t . ’

B a r o m e t e r o f su sta in ab ility

S ee ‘S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a s ­

u r e s.’ B a s e flo o r sa la r y scale

A u n iv ersally a p p lie d scale fo r U N sta ff at the P rofessional (P-lcvcl) a n d h ig h e r c a te g o rie s (D -level ancl unclassified) a n d re ­ flecting th e m in im u m n e t salary receiv ed by U n ite d N a tio n s sta ff a ro u n d th e w o rld b u t e x clu d in g o th e r b en efits a w a rd e d b a se d o n th e level a n d p o stin g o f th e sta ff m e m b e r (post a d ju s tm e n t, e d u c a tio n allo w an c e, re n ta l subsidy, v a c a tio n , h e a lth in su ra n c e , h o m e leave, s e p a ra tio n b o n u s, h a z a rd o u s d u ty allo w an ce, p e n sio n , travel c o n d itio n s, daily su b siste n c e a llo w an c e, etc.) (U N )

B a s e w a t e r f l o w - T h e su sta in e d o r d ry w e a th e r flow o f stre a m s re su ltin g

from th e outflow o f p e r m a n e n t o r p e rc h e d g ro u n d w a te r, a n d fro m th e d r a in ­ age o f lakes o r w etla n d s, d u rin g d ry w eath er. Also in c lu d e d is th e flow from g laciers, snow a n d o th e r possible so u rces n o t d irectly a ttrib u ta b le to runoff. (FAO) B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n - T h e B asel C o n v e n tio n o n th e C o n tro l o f T ra n s b o u n d -

a rv M o v e m e n ts o f H a z a rd o u s W astes a n d T h e ir D isp o sal e n te re d in to force in 1989 w ith th e g o al to p ro te c t h u m a n a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l h e a lth by m in im iz in g h a z a rd o u s w aste p ro d u c tio n . T h e co n v e n tio n re q u ire s th a t th e p ro d u c tio n o f h a z a rd o u s w astes is m a n a g e d u sin g an ‘in te g ra te d life-cycle a p p ro a c h ,’ w h ich involves stric t c o n tro ls fro m p ro d u c tio n to sto rag e, tr a n s p o rt, tre a tm e n t, reu se, recycling, re co v e ry a n d final d isposal. (U N T )

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Baseline (1)

B a s e l i n e ( I ) - I n fo rm a tio n collected before o r at the start o f a p ro je c t to p r o ­

vide a basis for p la n n in g a n d / o r m o n ito r in g s u b s e q u e n t p rogre ss a n d im p act. (WB; S F W M D ) B a s e l i n e (2)

T h e reference p o in t for calculatin g in c re m e n ta l costs. T h e G E F funds the difference b e tw e e n the cost o f a p ro je c t u n d e r ta k e n with global e n v ir o n m e n ta l objectives in m in d a n d the costs o f the sa m e pro ject w ith o u t global e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n c e rn s. T h e baseline is the latter p ro je c t th a t yields only n a tio n a l benefits. (GEF)

B a sic h u m a n rig h ts

T h e rights o u tlin e d in the ‘U n ite d N a tio n s U n iv e rsa l D e c la ra tio n o f H u m a n R ig h ts’ (See A p p e n d ix 1).

B a sle A g r e e m e n t

A 1988 a g r e e m e n t th a t established the G 1 0 m e th o d s for qualifying c redit w o rthiness a n d credit risk for countries.

Beijing D e c la ra t io n

T h e Beijing D e c la r a tio n a n d its P latform o f A ctio n are the p ro d u c ts o f the Fourth W o rld C o n f e re n c e on W o m e n , w h ic h was held in Beijing, C h i n a in S e p te m b e r o f 1995. T h e Platfo rm for A ctio n is an a g e n d a for w o m e n ’s e m p o w e r m e n t. It aim s to rem ove all the obstacles to w o m e n ’s active p a rtic ip a tio n in all spheres o f pu blic a n d p riv a te life th r o u g h a full a n d e q u a l share in e c o n o m ic , social, cultu ral a n d political decision making. ( U N T )

B e l l a g i o P r i n c i p le s

In 1996, the I n t e r n a tio n a l Institute for Sustainable D e v e lo p m e n t c o n v e n e d assessm ent specialists at the Rockefeller F o un da tion C o n fe r e n c e C e n t e r in Bellagio, Italy to develop p rin c ip le s to guide the assess­ m e n t o f pro gress tow ard s sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t. T h e Bcllagio principles state th a t assessm ents sho uld m e e t the following criteria: G u id i n g v isio n a n d g o a ls - Be guided by a clear vision o f sustainable developm ent and goals that define that vision.



H o lis t ic p e rs p e c t iv e — Include a review o f the w h o le system as w ell as its parts and consid er the w ell being o f sub-systems and both positive and negative consequences o f human activity in m o n etary and non-m onetary term s.

E sse n tia l e le m e n t s - C o n sid e r equity and disparity w ithin the c u rre n t population and b etw een presen t and future generations.

A d e q u a t e scop e - A d o p t a tim e horizon long enough to capture both human and ecosystem tim e scales.



P ra ctica l fo c u s - Be based on an explicit set o f categories that link visions and goals to indicators.



O p e n n e s s - Include transparent m ethods and accessible data; they should make explicit all judgments, assum ptions and uncertainties in data and interpretation.

Effe ctive c o m m u n i c a t i o n - Be designed to m eet the needs of the users and aim fo r sim plicity in stru ctu re and language.



Broad

p a rt ic ip a tio n - O btain broad representation o f key

63

Bench

professional, technical, and social groups, while also ensuring the participation of decision makers.



O n g o i n g a s s e s s m e n t - Develop a capacity to repeat measurement to determine trends and be responsive to change and uncertainty and adjust goals and frameworks as new insights are gained.



I n s t i t u t i o n a l c a p a c i t y - Continuity of assessing progress should be assured by clearly assigning responsibility and support in the decision-making process, providing institutional capacity for data collection, and supporting development of local assessment capacity. (IISD )

B e n c h - In a la n d -u s e sen se, a ste e p c u t in to a h illsid e to c re a te a h o riz o n ta l

strip o f c u ltiv a b le la n d . (FA O ) B e n c h -sc a le te sts

L a b o ra to ry scale te s tin g o f te c h n o lo g ie s p r i o r to field-

testing. (U S E P A ) B e n e f i c i a r y - T h e p e o p le , c o m m u n itie s , o rg a n iz a tio n s o r n a tio n s e x p e c te d

to b e n e fit from th e p ro je c t o r p r o g r a m . (W B) B e n e fic ia r y p a y s p rin c ip le

A c o n c e p t th a t im p lie s th a t th e b e n e fic ia r­

ies o f a h ig h q u a lity o r im p ro v e d e n v ir o n m e n t s h o u ld c o m p e n s a te re s o u rc e u se rs fo r th e o n g o in g co sts o f m a in ta in in g e c o lo g ic a l fu n c tio n s a n d serv ices th a t d o n o t b rin g d ire c t m a r k e t b e n e fits a n d a rc n o t r e q u ir e d o f all p e o p le . (A M ) S ec “P o l l u t e r p a y s p r i n c i p l e . ’ B e n e f i t - c o s t r a t i o — A d e c is io n c rite r io n th a t u ses th e n e t p r e s e n t v a lu e o f

th e b e n e fit re la te d to th e n e t p r e s e n t v a lu e o f th e costs. (W B ) B e n e fit s h a r in g

O n e o f th e th r e e o b je c tiv e s o f th e C o n v e n tio n o n B io lo g i­ c a l D iv ersity , it is th e ‘fa ir a n d e q u ita b le s h a r in g o f th e b e n e fits a ris in g o u t o f th e u tiliz a tio n o f g e n e tic re s o u rc e s, in c lu d in g by a p p r o p r ia te acc e ss to g e n e tic re s o u rc e s a n d by a p p r o p r ia te tr a n s f e r o f r e le v a n t te c h n o lo g ie s , ta k ­ in g in to a c c o u n t all rig h ts o v e r th o s e re s o u rc e s a n d to te c h n o lo g ie s , a n d by a p p r o p r ia te fu n d in g .’ T h e C o n v e n tio n also e n c o u ra g e s ‘e q u ita b le s h a r in g o f th e b e n e fits a risin g fro m th e u tiliz a tio n o f k n o w le d g e , in n o v a tio n s a n d p r a c ­ tices o f in d ig e n o u s a n d lo ca l c o m m u n itie s e m b o d y in g tr a d itio n a l lifestyles r e le v a n t fo r c o n s e rv a tio n a n d s u s ta in a b le use o f b io lo g ic a l d iv e rsity .’ (C B D )

B e r l i n D e c l a r a t i o n - A g lo b a l in itia tiv e fo r th e p ro m o tio n o f s u s ta in a b le

to u r is m , s ig n e d in B e rlin , 8 M a r c h , 1997. (U N F C C C ) B e rlin M a n d a t e

A n e g o tia te d p ro c e s s fro m C O P 1 (1 9 9 5 ) o f th e U N ­

F C C C th a t d e a lt w ith th e in a d e q u a c y o f th e m e a s u re s c o m m itte d to u n d e r th e U N F C C C w h e re d e v e lo p e d c o u n tr ie s w e re to r e t u r n th e ir g re e n h o u s e g as em issio n s to 1 990 levels b y th e y e a r 2 0 0 0 . T h e B erlin M a n d a te e n a b le s p a rtie s to ta k e a c tio n fo r th e p e rio d b e y o n d 2 0 0 0 , in c lu d in g a s tre n g th e n in g o f d e v e lo p e d c o u n tr y c o m m itm e n ts , th r o u g h th e a d o p tio n o f a p ro to c o l o r o th e r le g a l in s tru m e n ts . ( U N F C C C )

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Bern Convention

B e r n C o n v e n t i o n - T h e C o n v e n tio n o n the C o n se rv a tio n o f E u r o p e a n

Wildlife a n d N a tu ra l H a b ita ts was a d o p te d in B e rn , Sw itzerland on 19 S e p ­ te m b e r 1979 a n d c a m e into force o n 1 J u n e , 1982. Forty-five E u r o p e a n a n d A frican States as well as the E C are parties to the co nv ention. It h a s a t h r e e ­ fold objective: to conserve wild flora a n d fa u n a a n d th eir n a tu ra l habitats; to p r o m o te c o o p e r a tio n b e tw e e n states; a n d to give p a r tic u la r e m p h a sis to e n d a n g e r e d a n d v u ln era b le species, in c lu d in g e n d a n g e r e d a n d v u ln erable m ig r a to ry species. (EEA) B e s t a l t e r n a t i v e t o a n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t ( B A T N A ) - A resistance

level in neg otiation s c o rr e s p o n d in g to the best o p tio n outside the c u r r e n t relationship. B e s t m a n a g e m e n t p ractice (s) ( B M P s )

- A p ra c tic e or c o m b in a tio n o f practices d e te r m in e d by a state o r a d esign ated p la n n in g a g e n c y to be the m o st effective a n d p ra ctic a b le m e a n s (including technological, e c o n o m ic a n d in stitutio nal considerations) o f controlling p o in t a n d n o n - p o in t source ca u se d by nutrien ts, a n im a l wastes, toxics a n d s e d im e n t p o llu ta n ts to levels co m p a tib le with e n v ir o n m e n ta l quality goals. ( S F W M D )

B i f u r c a t i o n - A p o in t at w hich a system splits into two a lternative b e h a v ­

iors, e ith e r b e in g possible, th e on e actually followed often b e in g in d e te r m i­ n a te o r u n p re d ic ta b le . (C SG ) B i g T a b l e - A n in fo rm a l co n su lta tio n b e tw e e n finance m inisters from

eleven A frican cou n trie s a n d th e ir c o u n te r p a r ts from th e d e v e lo p m e n t c o ­ o p e r a tio n m inistries o f the O r g a n is a tio n for E c o n o m ic C o - o p e ra tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (O E C D ). B ilate ral

D escrib es in s tr u m e n ts o r processes th a t reciprocally affect two na tio n s o r civil society parties. (MW)

B i l a t e r a l ( s ) - T h o s e n a tio n a l g o v e r n m e n t agencies o r o rg a n iz a tio n s im p le ­

m e n tin g the te rm s o f a n a g r e e m e n t o r c a r ry in g o u t policies b e tw e e n two nations. (U S D O S ) B i l a t e r a l d e b t s w a p - A form o f d e b t e x chang e, n e g o tia te d b e tw e e n a

cre d ito r n a tio n a n d a d e b to r n a tio n th a t results in a p a r tic u la r pub lic e x te r­ nal d e b t (or a p o r tio n thereof) b e in g c ancelled in e x c h a n g e for c o u n t e r p a r t fu n d in g for a specific p u rp o se . (AM) See ‘D e b t f o r n a t u r e s w a p / B ilate ral tre aty B ill

A n a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n two states. (MW)

A p ro p o s e d law, to be d e b a te d a n d v oted on. ( N R D C )

B illa n th ro p y

P h ila n th ro p y by billionaires. A large d o n a tio n (‘Bill’ions) in line w ith the objectives o f the M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G oals o r to specific U N p r o g r a m s or o th e r altruistic o r h u m a n i t a r i a n goals, such as those m a d e by th e Bill a n d M e lin d a G a te s F o u n d a tio n a n d W a r r e n Buffet to address

65

B ioaccum ulotio n

th e H I V / A I D S crises a n d o t h e r h e a lth a n d e d u c a t i o n issues, o r t h a t m a d e by T e d T u r n e r in s u p p o r t o f th e h e a lt h , h u m a n i t a r i a n , s o c io - e c o n o m ic a n d e n ­ v i r o n m e n t a l c h a lle n g e s o f the 21 st c en tu ry, Li K a - S h i n g in s u p p o r t o f m e d i ­ cal, e d u c a t i o n , c u l t u r a l a n d c o m m u n i t y w e lfa re p ro je c ts in C h i n a , a n d t h a t o f R i c h a r d B r a n s o n in s u p p o r t o f efforts to a d d r e s s c lim a te c h a n g e . (UNYV) B io a c c u m u la tio n

T h e in ta k e o f a c h e m ic a l a n d its c o n c e n t r a t i o n in th e o r g a n is m by all po ssible m e a n s , i n c lu d in g c o n ta c t, r e s p i r a t io n a n d in g e s tio n , relativ e to its c o n c e n t r a t i o n in th e b a c k g r o u n d e n v i r o n m e n t o v e r tim e . (E E S ; SFW M D)

B io a c c u m u la tio n fa c to r ( B A F )

T h e r a tio o f a c o n t a m i n a n t c o n c e n t r a ­ tio n in living tissue to its c o n c e n t r a t i o n in th e o r g a n i s m 's d iet. ( S F W M D )

B i o a s s a y - T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f th e a c tiv ity o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a c h e m ic a l

b y its effect o n th e g r o w th o f a n o r g a n is m u n d e r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d itio n s . (EEA) B io c h e m ic a l o x y g e n d e m a n d ( B O D )

T h e a m o u n t o f o x y g e n u se d for

b io c h e m i c a l o x id a t io n b y a u n it v o lu m e o f w a t e r at a given t e m p e r a t u r e a n d f o r a g iv e n tim e. B O D is a n in d e x o f th e d e g r e e o f o r g a n i c p o llu tio n in w ater. (EE A ) B io c e n trism

T h e c o n c e p t t h a t all living c r e a tu r e s a r e o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e in th e g r a n d s c h e m e o f n a tu r e . (EES)

B io c o n c e n tra tio n

T h e in ta k e a n d r e t e n t i o n o f a s u b s t a n c e in a n o r g a n ­ ism e n tir e ly b y re s p ir a ti o n fr o m w a t e r in a q u a t i c e c o sy ste m s o r fro m a ir in te r re s tr ia l e c o system s. (EES)

B io c o n v e rsio n

T h e c o n v e r s io n o f o r g a n ic m a t e r ia l s in to e n e r g y so u rce s su c h as m e t h a n e by p ro c e sse s s u c h as f e r m e n t a t i o n in v olving living o r g a n ­ isms. (EES)

B io d e g r a d a b le - A ny m aterial or p ro d u c t capable o f b ein g broken dow n

in to in n o c u o u s p r o d u c t s by th e a c t io n o f living o rg a n is m s . (EES) B i o d i v e r s i t y — T h e v a ria b ility a m o n g living o r g a n is m s fro m all s o u rc e s i n ­

c lu d in g , inter a lia , te r re s tria l, m a r i n e a n d o t h e r a q u a t i c e c o sy ste m s a n d the e c o lo g ic a l c o m p le x e s o f w h ic h th e y a r c p a rt: this in c lu d e s d iv e rsity w ith in species, b e t w e e n species a n d o f eco sy ste m s. (C B D ) T h e to ta lity o f genes, species a n d e c o sy ste m s in a re g io n o r th e w o r ld (GBS). B io d iv e rsity C le a r in g -h o u se

M e c h a n ism A n e tw o r k o f p a r t i e s a n d p a r t n e r s w o r k in g t o g e t h e r to facilitate i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f th e U N C B D . It also facilitates access to a n d e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n b io d iv e rsity a r o u n d

th e w o rld . C r e a t e d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith A rticle 18 o f th e U N C B D . (U N ) B io d iv e rsity , e c o n o m ic v a lu e o f

66

T h e e c o n o m i c v a lu e o f b io d iv e rsity

Biodiversity hotspots

consists o f sev eral c o m p o n e n ts: d irc c t-u sc valu e, in d irc c t-u sc v alu e, o p tio n value, b e q u e st v alu e a n d ex isten ce value. D ire c t v alu e d eriv es from th e d i­ rect use o f th e b io lo g ical re so u rce su ch as in a ttra c tin g to u rism b a se d on a r e e f system , a p a rtic u la r p la n t o r n a tu ra l p h e n o m e n o n . In d ire c t value refers to th e role o f b io d iv ersity in su p p o rtin g h u m a n activ ities, for e x a m p le th e w a te r p ro d u c e d by a m a n a g e d forest. O p tio n v alu e is the v alu e p la c e d on p re se rv in g a reso u rc e p re se n tly for possible fu tu re use. B e q u est v alu e is th e value th a t p e o p le p la c e o n p re se rv in g n a tu ra l assets fo r fu tu re g e n e ra ­ tions. E x isten ce v alu e is th e value th a t p e o p le p la ce o n th e k n o w led g e th a t a p a rtic u la r re so u rc e exists. (AM) B io d ive rsity h o ts p o ts

B iodiversity h o tsp o ts h o ld esp ecially h ig h n u m ­ b e rs o f e n d e m ic species, y et th e ir c o m b in e d a re a o f re m a in in g h a b ita t covers on ly 2.3 p e rc e n t o f th e E a r th ’s la n d su rface. O v e r 50 p e rc e n t o f th e w o rld ’s p la n t species a n d 42 p e rc e n t o f all te rre stria l v e rte b ra te species are e n d e m ic to th e 3 4 -b io d iv e rsity h o tsp o ts. T o qualify as a b io d iv ersity h o ts p o t, a reg io n m u s t m e e t tw o strict c rite ria : it m u st c o n ta in at least 1500 species o f e n d e m ic v a sc u la r p la n ts (> 0.5 p e rc e n t o f th e w o rld ’s total), a n d it h a s to have lost a t least 70 p e rc e n t o f its o rig in a l h a b ita t. (C l)

B io e n e rge tics

- T h e stu d y o f th e How, e x c h a n g e a n d tra n s fo rm a tio n o f e n e rg y a lo n g tro p h ic p a th w a y s in eco sy stem s, p o p u la tio n s a n d o rg an ism s. (EES)

B i o g e o c h e m i c a l c y c le

T h e c h e m ic a l in te ra c tio n s a m o n g th e a tm o s­ p h e re , b io sp h e re , h y d ro sp h e re a n d th e lith o sp h e re . (EES)

B io lo gical c o rrid o r

A m a n a g e m e n t a re a in w hich m e th o d s arc u sed to m a in ta in th e m ig ra tio n s a n d m o v e m e n t o f sp ecies b e tw e e n a re a s o f n a tu ra l d istrib u tio n . (W W F )

B io lo gical d iv e rsity

See B i o d i v e r s i t y . '

B io lo gical re sou rce s

(B iotic resources) in c lu d e s g e n e tic reso u rces, o rg a n ­ ism s o r p a rts th ereo f, p o p u la tio n s o r a n y o th e r b io tic c o m p o n e n t o f ecosys­ tem s w ith a c tu a l o r p o te n tia l use o r v alu e fo r h u m a n ity . (C B D )

B i o m a g n i f i c a t i o n - A p ro c e ss th a t o c c u rs w h e n a c h e m ic a l is p asse d up

th e food ch a in to h ig h e r tro p h ic levels, su c h th a t in p re d a to rs it exceeds the c o n c e n tra tio n to be e x p e c te d w h e re e q u ilib riu m p rev ails b e tw e e n an o rg a n ism a n d its e n v iro n m e n t. (EES; S F W M D ) B i o m a s s - All th e living m a tte r in a g iven a re a . A lso th e a m o u n t o f p la n t

a n d cro p m a te ria l th a t c o u ld be p ro d u c e d in a n ecosystem for m a k in g biofuels a n d o th e r ra w m a te ria ls u sed in in d u stry , fo r e x a m p le . (E SS; S F W ­ MD) B i o m e - T h e c o m p le x o f living c o m m u n itie s m a in ta in e d by th e clim ate

o f a region a n d c h a ra c te riz e d by a d istin ctiv e ty p e o f v e g e ta tio n , su ch as

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Bio-piracy

tu n d r a , tro p ic a l forest, ste p p e a n d d e sert. As a su b d iv isio n o f th e b io ta, th e b io m e in clu d es h u m a n s , c h a ra c te riz e d by a p a rtic u la r a ssem b lag e o f a n im als, p la n ts a n d o th e r living th in g s. (EES) B io -p iracy

T h e e x p lo ita tio n o f a c o m m u n ity ’s g e n etic reso u rces fo r d ru g , fertilizer o r p ro d u c t d e v e lo p m e n t w ith o u t a fair re tu rn o r a n e g o tia te d a g re e m e n t b e n e fitin g th e o w n ers o f th e reso u rce b ase. (U N W )

B i o p r o s p e c t i n g - A ctivities th a t e n ta il th e search fo r e c o n o m ica lly v alu ab le

g en etic a n d b io c h e m ic a l re so u rces from n a tu re . (B C H M ) B io re g io n s

A te rrito ry d efin e d a t a given scale by a d istin c t c o m b in a ­ tio n o f b io lo g ical, social a n d g e o g ra p h ic c rite ria , ra th e r th a n by g e o p o litic a l co n sid e ra tio n s. (EES)

B i o r e m e d i a t i o n - T h e m e tab o lism a n d c o n se q u e n t ch e m ic a l tra n s fo rm a ­

tio n o f h a z a rd o u s c h e m ic a ls to less h a z a rd o u s c h em ic a ls by m ic ro o rg a n ­ isms. T h e m ic ro o rg a n ism s fa c ilita tin g this p ro cess are ty p ically b a c te ria , b u t o ccasio n ally m ay be fungi. T h e m a trix to b e tre a te d c a n in c lu d e c o n ­ ta m in a te d soil, g ro u n d o r su rface w ate rs, w astew ater, sludge, se d im e n t o r air. (EES) B i o s e c u r i t y - Policies a n d p ro g ra m s d e sig n ed to p re v e n t th e h a rm fu l in tro ­

d u c tio n o f p la n t a n d a n im a l p a th o g e n s in to a g ric u ltu re a n d fo o d p ro d u c ­ tio n system s. (U N ) B io sp h e re

T h e te rre stria l a n d a tm o sp h e ric a re a s o c c u p ie d by life, in c lu d ­ in g th e h y d ro sp h e re (the v e ry th in fluid o u te r re g io n o f th e E a r th ’s surface), th e lith o sp h e re (solid p o rtio n - rocks, soils, se d im e n ts - o f th e e a rth ), a n d the a tm o sp h e re (gaseous lay er s u rro u n d in g th e p lan e t). (E E S ; M W )

B io sp h e re

reserve A classification o f la n d -u se esta b lish e d u n d e r U N E S C O ’s M a n a n d B io sp h ere P ro g ra m m e th a t in clu d es allied a re as o f in c re a sin g p ro te c tio n in te n d e d to d e m o n s tra te th e re la tio n sh ip b e tw e e n c o n se rv a tio n a n d d ev e lo p m e n t. (U N E S C O ; EES)

B i o t a - A te rm for all o f th e o rg an ism s, in c lu d in g an im als, p la n ts, fungi a n d

m ic ro o rg a n ism s, fo u n d in a g iven a re a . (GBS) B i o t e c h n o l o g y - A ny tec h n o lo g ic a l a p p lic a tio n th a t uses b io lo g ical sys­

tem s, living o rg an ism s, o r d eriv ativ es th ereo f, to m a k e o r m o d ify p ro d u c ts o r p ro cesses fo r a specific use. E x a m p le s in c lu d e p h a rm a c e u tic a ls , v accin es, im p ro v ed b re e d s o f p la n ts a n d a n im als, b io m ass fuels a n d foodstuffs. (C B D ; E E S) See G e n e t i c a l l y m o d i f i e d o r g a n i s m . ’ B io tic

O f o r re la tin g to life. (N R D C )

B i o t i c r e s o u r c e s - T h o s e c o m p o n e n ts o f b io d iv ersity o f d ire c t, in d ire c t o r

p o te n tia l use to h u m a n ity . (GBS)

68

Bird flu

B i r d flu - T h e H 5 N 1 av ia n viru s is a type o f in flu e n z a v iru le n t in birds.

It w as first id en tifie d in Italy in th e e arly 1900s a n d is now kn o w n to exist w o rld w id e. (W H O ) B i r t h r a t e - T h e n u m b e r o f b a b ie s b o rn a n n u a lly p e r 1000 w o m e n o f

re p ro d u c tiv e age in a n y g iven set o f p e o p le . (N R D C ) B l a s t fish in g

A m e th o d o f fishing (usually o n reefs) th a t involves th e use o f d y n a m ite o r h o m e m a d e explosives to h a rv e st larg e n u m b e rs o f fish.

Bloc

A g ro u p o f p e o p le w ith th e sam e in te re st o r g o al, u sually u sed to d e ­ scribe a v o tin g b lo c, a g ro u p o f re p re se n ta tiv e s in te n d in g to v ote th e sam e way. (N R D C )

B l o c k i n g c o a l i t i o n - A g ro u p o f o p p o sin g in terests th a t c o u ld p re v e n t a

w in n in g c o alitio n from c o m in g in to ex isten ce

01* b e in g

su sta in e d . (BLD)

B lood d iam o n d

A d ia m o n d m in e d in a w a r z o n e a n d sold, u su ally c la n ­ destinely, in o rd e r to fin an ce a n in s u rg e n t o r in v a d in g a r m y ’s w a r efforts. N o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s h av e also alleg ed th e use o f these d ia ­ m o n d s in fin a n c in g o th e r illegal o r te rro ris t activities. (W P)

B l o o d le a d le v e ls

T h e a m o u n t o f le a d in th e b lo o d as c o m p a re d to W H O sta n d a rd s. H u m a n ex p o su re to le a d in b lo o d c a n cause b ra in d a m ­ age, especially in c h ild re n . (W H O ; N R D C )

B l u e H e l m e t s - M e m b e rs o f th e U N p e a c e k e e p in g fo rc e s/m issio n s, d is­

tin g u ish e d by th e ir b lu e p ro te ctiv e h elm ets. U N p e a c e k e e p in g is a w ay to help c o u n trie s, to rn by co n flict, c re a te c o n d itio n s fo r p e a c efu l elec tio n s a n d / o r cata ly z e n e g o tia tio n s b e tw e e n w a rrin g factions. U N p e a c e k e e p e rs soldiers a n d m ilita ry officers, civilian p o lice officers a n d civilian p e rso n n e l from m a n y c o u n trie s - m o n ito r a n d o b serv e p e a c e p ro cesses th a t em e rg e in p o st-co n flict situ a tio n s a n d assist e x -c o m b a ta n ts im p le m e n t th e p ea c e a g re e m e n ts they h av e sig n ed . S u c h assistan ce c o m e s in m a n y form s, in ­ clu d in g p ro v id in g security, c o n fid e n c e -b u ild in g m e a su re s, p o w e r-sh a rin g a rra n g e m e n ts a n d e le c to ra l m o n ito r in g /s u p p o rt. (W P) B lu e P lan

S ee ‘E u r o p e a n B l u e P l a n . ' ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s E n v i r o n ­ m e n t P r o g r a m m e B lu e P la n .’

B l u e s e c t o r - A c a tc h a ll lab el fo r ‘e n v iro n m e n ta l’ p ro je c ts th a t co v er issues

re la te d to o cean s. B lack w a te r/is s u e s B lue w a t e r / is s u e s

See 'W a te r .' S ee ‘W a t e r .’

B o d y ( I ) - T h e m a in p a r t o f a te x t o r o f a n a g re e m e n t. (M W )

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Body (2)

B o d y (2) - T h e a tte n d e e s a t a c o n fe re n c e o r m eetin g . (eD) B o i l e d - f r o g s y n d r o m e - A n o ft-u sed fab le re la tin g to th e ten d e n c y , in

a d d re ssin g co m p le x issues in in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l settings, to p o stp o n e ta k ­ ing d efin ite decisio ns o r to th e slow p ro cess in a tta in in g m e a su ra b le re ­ sults in re d u c in g g re e n h o u s e gases, a n d th e re su ltin g te n d e n c y to c o n tin u e to discuss th e issue r a th e r th a n co m e to co n clu sio n s. M e a n w h ile in spite o f th e slow p ro c e ss o f clim ate c h a n g e , th e frog ev e n tu a lly ‘boils a n d d ies,’ p re e m p tin g 01*c o m p ro m isin g a d ec isio n th a t w o u ld h av e h a d a positive a n d m e a s u ra b le im p a c t. B o liv ia S u m m i t

T h e 1996 S p ecia liz e d S u m m it o f th e A m e ric a s o n S u s­ ta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t h eld in S a n ta C ru z , B olivia in a n a tte m p t to p rio ri­ tize a c tio n s calle d fo r in Agenda 21. (O A S, 2001)

B o n a Fides - In law a n d in te rn a tio n a l p a rla n c e , ‘g o o d fa ith ’ is th e m e n ta l

a n d m o ra l state o f h o n e st, even if o b jectiv ely u n fo u n d e d , co n v ictio n as to th e tru th o r false h o o d o f a p ro p o sitio n o r b o d y o f o p in io n . (W P) B o n n C o n v e n t i o n - C o n v e n tio n o n th e C o n se rv a tio n o f M ig ra to ry S p e ­

cies o f W ild A n im a ls (1979), w h ich p ro h ib its th e c o m m e rc ia l c a p tu re o f so m e 50 species o f m ig ra to ry a n im a ls a n d w h ich u rg es P arties to th e C o n ­ v en tio n to co n serv e a n d re sto re th e h a b ita ts o f these species. (U N T ) B o n n G u id e lin e s

V o lu n ta ry g u id elin es th a t a re th e resu lt o f D ecisio n V I / 2 4 o f C O P - V I o f th e C o n v e n tio n on B iological D iversity th a t d eal w ith access to g en etic re so u rc e s a n d th e fair a n d e q u ita b le s h a rin g o f th e b e n ­ efits a risin g fro m th e ir u tiliz atio n . T h e y a re m e a n t to assist p a rtie s, g o v e rn ­ m en ts, a n d o th e r sta k e h o ld ers w h e n estab lish in g legislative, a d m in istra tiv e o r policy m e a su re s on access a n d b e n e fit s h a rin g a n d / o r w h en n e g o tia tin g c o n tra c tu a l a rra n g e m e n ts fo r access a n d b e n e fit sh arin g . (C B D )

B o r e h o l e — A well o r h ole in th e e a rth to th e p o in t w h ere w a te r c an be

e x tra c te d . (M W ) B o r e a l f o r e s t - T h e n o rth e rn h e m isp h e re , c irc u m p o la r, tu n d r a fo rest type

co n sistin g p rim a rily o f b lack sp ru c e a n d w h ite sp ru ce, m ix e d w ith b alsam fir, b irch a n d asp en . (EEA) B o u t de P a p i e r - A v ery in fo rm a l m e a n s o f co n v ey in g w ritte n in fo rm a tio n ;

m o re in fo rm a l th a n an aid e m e m o ire o r a m e m o ra n d u m . (eD ) S ee 'V e r b a l N o te .’ Brackets

S q u a re b ra c k e ts [ ] are u sed to s u r ro u n d w o rd s o r p h ra s ­ es th a t are in d isp u te o r th a t a re a lte rn a tiv e w o rd in g p ro p o s e d by a d e le g a tio n w h e n d ra ftin g leg al in s tru m e n ts a n d in d ic a te th a t n o a g re e m e n t h a s b een re a c h e d . (U N ; eD )

Bretton W o o d s Conference

A n in te rn a tio n a l co n feren ce h eld 1 -2 2 July,

70

Bro w n clo ud

1944 a t B re tto n W o o d s, N e w H a m p s h ire . A tte n d e d by re p re se n ta tiv e s o f 44 c o u n trie s, th e c o n fe re n c e e sta b lish e d th e In te rn a tio n a l M o n e ta ry F u n d a n d th e In te rn a tio n a l B an k fo r R e c o n s tru c tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (W orld B ank). (BW P) B r o w n c l o u d —S e e ‘A s ia n b r o w n c lo u d . B r o w n f i c l d s - A b a n d o n e d , id le d o r u n d e r- u s e d in d u s tria l a n d c o m m e rc ia l

facilities w h e re e x p a n s io n o r r e d e v e lo p m e n t is c o m p lic a te d by re a l o r p e r ­ ceiv e d e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n ta m in a tio n . (N R D C ) B ro w n s e c to r/issu e s

A c a tc h a ll la b e l fo r ‘e n v ir o n m e n ta l’ p ro je c ts th a t

c o v e r issues r e la te d to u r b a n a n d in d u s tria l a re a s . (E E S) B r o w n w a t e r / i s s u e s - S ee W a t e r . ’ B ru n d tla n d C o m m is s io n R e p o rt

T h e r e p o r t o f th e W o rld C o m m is ­ sion o n E n v ir o n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (W C E D ): Our Common Future (1987).

D r G r o H a rle m B r u n d tla n d , th e n N o rw e g ia n P rim e M in iste r, c h a ir e d th e W C E D (W C E D , 1987). B u b b l e - T h e id e a th a t e m issio n s re d u c tio n s a n y w h e re w ith in a sp ecific a re a

c o u n t to w a rd s a c o m m o n re d u c tio n g o a l - a s if a g ia n t b u b b le w e re p la c e d o v e r th e v a rio u s so u rc e s to c o n ta in th e m in a c o m m o n a re a . (E M ) B u b b le s

A te r m u se d in th e n e g o tia tio n o f m u ltila te ra l in s tru m e n ts to

in d ic a te in f o rm a l c o n s u lta tio n s o n sp ecific to p ic s th a t tak e p la c e in fo rm a l n e g o tia tio n s . (U N ) B u c h a r e st C o n v e n tio n on th e P ro te ctio n o f th e B lac k S e a A g a in s t P o llu tio n A d o p te d in 1992 (e n te re d in to fo rce in 1994), its o b je c tiv e s a re to u n d e rta k e all n e c e ss a ry m e a s u re s c o n s is te n t w ith in te r n a tio n a l law a n d

in a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e p ro v isio n s o f th is C o n v e n tio n to p re v e n t, re d u c e a n d c o n tro l p o llu tio n th e r e o f in o r d e r to p r o te c t a n d p re s e rv e th e m a r in e e n v ir o n m e n t o f th e B lack S e a . (E E A ) B u c h a r e s t P o p u l a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e - T h e first W o rld C o n fe re n c e on

P o p u la tio n h e ld in B u c h a re s t, R o m a n ia in 1 9 7 4 , a tte n d e d by m o r e th a n 120 0 re p re s e n ta tiv e s o f 135 n a tio n s. B u d g e t - A fo r m a l p ro je c tio n o f in c o m e a n d s p e n d in g fo r a p r e d e te r m in e d

p e rio d , tr a d itio n a lly s u b m itte d by th e c h ie f e x e c u tiv e o f a n o rg a n iz a tio n fo r c o n s id e ra tio n a n d a p p ro v a l by its g o v e rn in g body. (N R D C ) B u e n o s A i r e s P l a n o f A c t i o n ( B A P A ) - A s c h e d u le a d o p te d b y C O P - 4

(1998) o f th e U N F C C C fo r re a c h in g a g r e e m e n t o n th e d e ta ils o f h o w to im p le m e n t th e K y o to P ro to c o l. B u f f e r z o n e - T h e re g io n n e a r th e b o r d e r o f a p r o te c te d a r e a d e s ig n a te d as

71

Bully pulpit

a tra n sitio n zo n e b e tw e e n th e p ro te c te d a re a a n d o th e r a re a s m a n a g e d fo r m o re intensive o b jectives. (EES) B u lly p u lp it

A te rm d e sc rib in g a n office o f sufficient p restig e, w h e th e r p u b lic o r p riv a te in n a tu re , th a t it p ro v id es th e in c u m b e n t th e o p p o rtu n ity to sp eak o u t o n a lm o st an y issue o f p u b lic in te re st. T h e U N S e c re ta ry G e n ­ e ra l, th e Pope a n d th e U S P re s id e n t a n d o th e rs o f th e ir sta tu re arc o fte n ­ tim es d e sc rib e d as h av in g a bully p u lp it a t th e ir d isposal. (M W )

B u rd e n sh a r in g

- A n E U c o n c e p t o f em issions sh a rin g allow ances a m o n g the 15 M e m b e r S tates o f th e E U (ex p an d ed to 25 m e m b e rs in 2005). A n a g re e m e n t on b u rd e n sh a rin g w as re a ch e d in J u n e 1998 a n d m a d e legally b in d in g as p a rt o f th e E U ’s in s tru m e n t o f ratificatio n o f th e K yoto P rotocol. (EEA)

B u r e a u - G ro u p o f n a tio n a l re p re se n ta tiv e s th a t acts b e tw e e n sessions a c ­

c o rd in g to th e m a n d a te s given it by th e P artie s to a c o n v e n tio n o r th e gov­ e rn in g c o u n c il o f an in s titu tio n . T h e B u re a u p re sid e s ov er th e w o rk o f a g e n e ra l assem b ly a n d facilitates a g re e m e n t a m o n g th e p a rtie s o r m e m b e rs. (BLD) B u r e a u o f O c e a n s a n d In t e r n a t io n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d Scien tific A f f a i r s ( O E S ) - T h e U S D e p a rtm e n t o f S ta te ’s focal p o in t for foreign

policy fo rm u la tio n a n d im p le m e n ta tio n in g lo b a l e n v iro n m e n t, science a n d te c h n o lo g y issues. (CIPA) Bushm eat

E d ib le m e a t o b ta in e d from w ild an im als. (C B D )

B u s i n e s s a s u s u a l s c e n a r i o - B aseline sc e n a rio th a t e x am in e s th e c o n se ­

q u e n c e s o f c o n tin u in g c u rr e n t tre n d s in p o p u la tio n , econom y, technology, h u m a n b e h a v io r o r an y specific activity. (EEA) B u s i n e s s C o u n c i l f o r S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t - S ee 'W o rld B u s i ­

n e s s C o u n c il for S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t .’ B u s i n e s s f o r D i p l o m a t i c A c t i o n ® - B o rn in th e a fte rm a th o f th e S e p ­

te m b e r 2001 te rro rist attack s on N ew Y ork C ity a n d W a sh in g to n , D C , this g ro u p c o m p rise s U S b u sin essm e n a n d a c a d e m ic s c o m m itte d to im p ro v in g th e im ag e o f th e U S a b ro a d by m o b iliz in g th e p riv a te se c to r in su p p o rt (h u m a n a n d fin an cial reso u rces, b est p rac tic e s, e x c h a n g e p ro g ra m s, etc.) o f p u b lic d ip lo m a c y efforts. (U S A ID ) B y - c a t c h - T h e p o rtio n o f a fishing ca tc h d isc a rd e d as u n w a n te d o r c o m ­

m ercially u n u sab le. (N R D C ) Byproduct

A useful a n d m a rk e ta b le p ro d u c t o r service d e riv in g from a m a n u fa c tu rin g p ro c e ss th a t is n o t th e p rim a ry p ro d u c t o r service b e in g p ro ­ d u c e d . (EEA)

72

Cc C 8 f o r K i d s - A U N IC E F -h o s te d c h ild re n ’s v e rsio n o f th e 0 8 m eetin g ,

first h eld in c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e G 8 m e e tin g c o n v e n e d in D u n b la n e , S c o t­ la n d 3 -5 July, 2 0 0 5 . D u rin g th e p a ra lle l su m m it, ‘u n d e r-e ig h te e ir ad v o ca te s from eig h t o f th e w o rld ’s p o o re s t c o u n trie s B h u ta n , C a m b o d ia , M o ld o v a , Y em en, G u in e a , S ie rra L e o n e, L eso th o a n d B olivia m e t w ith th e ir c o u n ­ te rp a rts from selected G 8 c o u n trie s - R u ssia, F ran ce, Italy, G e rm a n y a n d the U K - to d e b a te a n d firm ly p la ce th e ir issues o n th e a g e n d a o f th e G 8 m eeting. T h is fo ru m is h eld in c o o rd in a tio n w ith G 8 m eetin g s. See ‘M o d e l U n i t e d N a t i o n s . ’ (U N IC E F ) C a ir o P la n

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s fo r stab iliz in g w o rld p o p u la tio n a g re e d u p o n a t th e U N In te rn a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e o n P o p u la tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t, h eld in C a iro in S e p te m b e r 1994. T h e p la n calls for im p ro v e d h e a lth care a n d fam ily p la n n in g services fo r w o m e n , c h ild re n a n d fam ilies th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld , a n d e m p h a siz e s th e im p o rta n c e o f e d u c a tio n fo r girls as a fa c to r in the shift to sm a lle r fam ilies. (U N T )

C a iru s G ro u p

G ro u p o f a g ric u ltu ra l e x p o rtin g n a tio n s lo b b y in g fo r a g ­ ric u ltu ra l tra d e lib e ra liz a tio n fo rm e d in 1986. M e m b e rsh ip consists o f A r­ g e n tin a , A u stralia , B olivia, B razil, C a n a d a , C h ile , C o lo m b ia , C o sta R ic a , G u a te m a la , In d o n e sia , M a lay sia , N ew Z e a la n d , P arag u ay , P h ilip p in es, S o u th A frica, T h a ila n d a n d U ru g u ay . (W T O )

C a n a d ia n In te rn atio n al D e v e lo p m e n t A g e n c y ( C ID A )

T h e p rin ­ cip al a g e n c y th ro u g h w h ich th e fe d e ral g o v e rn m e n t o f C a n a d a p ro v id es te c h n ic a l assistan ce a n d d istrib u te s foreign aid.

C a n a l i z a t i o n - T h e re stric tio n o f possible state sp ace e x p lo ra tio n by c o n ­

stra in ts im p o se d u p o n th e system e ith e r from o u tsid e o r self-g en erated . T h is h elp s to p reserv e sta b ility o r th e ‘s ta tu s -q u o ’ b u t m ay also p re v e n t b e tte r o p tim a from b e in g re a c h e d . (C S G ) C a n c e r - U n re g u la te d g ro w th o f c h a n g e d cells; a g ro u p o f c h a n g e d , g ro w ­

in g cells (tum or). (N R D C ) C a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g - A c o llectio n o f activ ities in c lu d in g h u m a n reso u rces

d e v e lo p m e n t th ro u g h e d u c a tio n a n d tra in in g , in stitu tio n a l a n d in fra stru c ­ tu re d e v e lo p m e n t, a n d fo rm u la tio n o f e n a b lin g p o licies (W C E D ). A c o o r­ d in a te d process o f d e lib e ra te in te rv e n tio n s by in sid e rs a n d / o r o u tsid ers o f a given society le a d in g to (i) skill u p g ra d in g , b o th g e n e ra l a n d specific, (ii) p ro c e d u ra l im p ro v e m e n ts, a n d (iii) o rg a n iz a tio n a l stre n g th e n in g . (WB)

C a p a c ity d eve lo p m e n t

C a p a c i t y d e v e l o p m e n t - T h e p ro c e s s b y w h ic h in d iv id u a ls , o r g a n iz a ­

tio n s, in s titu tio n s a n d so c ie tie s d e v e lo p th e ir a b ilitie s in d iv id u a lly a n d c o l­ lectiv ely to p e rf o rm fu n c tio n s, solve p ro b le m s a n d set a n d a c h ie v e o b je c ­ tives. (U N D P ) C a p a c i t y t o p a y , p r i n c i p l e o f - T h e b a sis fo r c a lc u la tin g th e U N assess­

m e n t (dues) o f a n y M e m b e r S ta te to th e re g u la r fu n d to th e U N S e c r e ta r ia t in N cw r Y ork C ity o r a n y o f th e S p e c ia liz e d O rg a n iz a tio n s o f th e U N sys­ te m . (U N ) S ee ' U n i t e d N a t i o n s E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l C o u n c i l . ’ C a p ita l costs

T h e to ta l e x p e n d itu re in c u r r e d o n a p ro je c t (lab o r, e q u ip ­

m e n t a n d in fra s tru c tu re ) fro m th e b e g in n in g o f its p la n n in g a n d c o n s tru c ­ tio n to its deliv ery , e x c lu d in g th e co sts o f o p e r a tio n a n d m a in te n a n c e . (W B) C a p t i v e b r e e d i n g p r o g r a m s - T h e fo u n d in g a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f c a p tiv e

p o p u la tio n s o f sp ecies a t risk b a s e d u p o n s o u n d scie n tific p rin c ip le s fo r th e p u r p o s e o f s e c u rin g th e ir su rv iv al th r o u g h sta b le , se lf-su sta in in g p o p u la ­ tio n s. (IU C N ) C a r b o n - I 4 d a t i n g - A p ro c e ss w h e re b y c a r b o n a to m s a rc m e a s u re d (by

c o n v e rtin g C 14 in to C O , g as; o r by u s in g a c c e le r a to r m a ss s p e c tro m e try ) re s u ltin g in n u m e r ic a l d a tin g o f fossils, a rtifa c ts a n d d e p o sits w h o se ag e p re v io u sly h a d to b e e s tim a te d . (E E S ; W P ) C a r b o n c ycle

T h e re s e rv o irs o f c a rb o n (a tm o s p h e re , te r re s tria l a n d m a ­

rin e b io m a ss, soil o rg a n ic m a tte r, fossil fu els a n d o th e r s e d im e n ts , th e o c e a n , a tm o s p h e re , etc.) a n d th e c h c m ic a l p ro c e s se s g o v e rn in g th e e x c h a n g e s o f c a r b o n b e tw e e n th e m . C a r b o n d i o x i d e ( C 0 2)

A n a tu r a lly o c c u rr in g g re e n h o u s e g a s in th e a t ­ m o s p h e re , c o n c e n tr a tio n s o f w h ic h in c re a s e (from 2 8 0 p a r ts p e r m illio n in

p re - in d u s tria l tim e s to o v e r 3 5 0 p a r ts p e r m illio n sin c e th e 1970s) as a re s u lt o f b u r n in g o f c o a l, oil, n a tu r a l g as a n d o rg a n ic m a tte r. (N R D C ) C a r b o n d i o x i d e e q u i v a l e n t s - A m e tric m e a s u re u se d to c o m p a r e th e

em issio n s from v a rio u s g re e n h o u s e g ases b a s e d u p o n th e ir g lo b a l w a r m in g p o te n tia l (G W P ) c o m m o n ly e x p re s se d as ‘m illio n m e tric to n s o f c a r b o n d io x id e e q u iv a le n ts ( M M T C D E ) ’ o r ‘m illio n s h o r t to n s o f c a r b o n d io x id e e q u iv a le n ts ( M S T C D E ) .’ M u ltip ly in g th e to n s o f th e g as by th e a ss o c ia te d G W P d e riv e s th e c a r b o n d io x id e e q u iv a le n t fo r a g as. (E E A ) C a r b o n d i o x i d e f e r t i l i z a t i o n - A p ro c e s s le a d in g to th e e n r ic h m e n t o f

th e a tm o s p h e re w ith C O .,. (E E A ) Carbon

E m issio n s T ra d in g

T h e tr a d in g o f p e rm its to e m it c a r b o n

d io x id e (a n d o th e r g re e n h o u s e g ases, c a lc u la te d in to n s o f c a r b o n d io x ­ id e e q u iv a le n t, tC Q 2 e ) as a m e a n s o f assistin g e m ittin g c o u n tr ie s to m e e t

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C a rb o n footprint

th e ir o b lig atio n s u n d e r th e K y o to P ro to c o l to re d u c e c a rb o n em issio n s a n d th e re b y m itig a te g lo b al w arm in g . T h e w o rld ’s o n ly m a n d a to ry c a rb o n tr a d ­ in g p ro g ra m is th e E u ro p e a n U n io n E m issio n s T ra d in g S c h e m e (E U E T S ). C re a te d in c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e K y o to P ro to c o l, it c a p s th e a m o u n t o f c a rb o n dioxide th a t c a n be e m itte d from larg e in stallatio n s, such as p o w e r p la n ts a n d facto ries, in E U M e m b e r S tates. (U N W ; E U ) C a r b o n f o o t p r i n t - A c o n c e p t re p re se n tin g th e effect h u m a n activities

have on th e clim ate in te rm s o f th e to ta l a m o u n t o f g re e n h o u s e gases p r o ­ d u c e d m e a s u re d in u n its o f c a rb o n . (W P) C a r b o n n e utral a u d it

A c o m b in a tio n o f re d u c tio n o f e n e rg y c o n s u m p ­ tio n a n d offsettin g o f re m a in in g em issio n s in o r d e r to ach ie v e n e t zero CCV em issions as m e a s u re d th ro u g h a c a rb o n a u d it fo r g re e n h o u s e gases. It es­ tab lish es if th e c la im e d re d u c tio n s in em issions, o r c a rb o n se q u e s tra tio n , h a s a c tu a lly o c c u rre d a n d is stab le. (WP)

C a r b o n n e u tra l sh ip p in g

S ee ‘C a r b o n o f f s e t t i n g . ’

C a r b o n o f f s e t t i n g - T h e p ra c tic e w h e re b y p e o p le c alc u la te h o w m u ch

c a rb o n d io x id e em issions th e ir a c tio n s p ro d u c e a n d c o u n te r it by d o n a tin g m o n e y to w a rd c le a n e n e rg y a n d o th e r e n v iro n m e n ta lly frie n d ly p ro g ra m s. E x am p les in c lu d e c o n trib u tio n s to h av e en o u g h trees p la n te d to offset y o u r c a rb o n fo o tp rin t, a n d ‘c a rb o n n e u tra l sh ip p in g ’ w h e re b y a c a ta lo g e re ta ile r a n d p u rc h a s e r jo in tly o r in d iv id u ally c o n trib u te a n a m o u n t o f m o n e y eq u a l to s h ip p in g costs to a c o n se rv atio n fu n d . (U N W ) See ‘G r e e n u p g r a d e s . ’ C a rb o n se q u e stra tio n

T h e u p ta k e a n d sto rag e o f c a rb o n , in c lu d in g a n th ro p o g e n ic c a rb o n d io x id e th a t w o u ld o th e rw ise affect g lo b a l clim ate ch a n g e , in larg e-scale c a rb o n sinks o r re serv o irs th a t a b so rb m o re c a rb o n th a n th ey release (i.e. o cea n s a n d im m a tu re forests). (U N E P )

C a r b o n s i n k - Forests a n d o th e r eco sy stem s th a t a b so rb c a rb o n , thereby-

re m o v in g it from th e a tm o sp h e re a n d offsettin g C O ., em issions. T h e K yoto P ro to co l allow s c e rta in h u m a n - in d u c e d sinks activ ities u n d e rta k e n since 1990 to be c o u n te d to w a rd s A n n e x I P a rtie s’ em issio n targ ets. (EEA) C a r b o n t a x - A c h a rg e on fossil fuels (coal, oil, g aso lin e, n a tu ra l gas, etc.)

b a se d o n th e ir c a rb o n c o n te n t a n d re s u lta n t e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c t. W h e n b u rn e d , th e c a rb o n in th ese fuels b e c o m e s c a rb o n d io x id e in th e a tm o s­ p h e re , th e c h ie f g re e n h o u s e gas. (N R D C ) C a r c i n o g e n - A ny su b sta n c e th a t cau ses can cer. (M W ) C a r i b b e a n C o m m u n i t y a n d C o m m o n M a r k e t ( C A R I C O M ) - E s ta b ­

lish ed by th e T re a ty o f C h a g u a ra m a s , T rin id a d a n d T o b a g o , a n d sig n ed by B arb ad o s, J a m a ic a , G u y a n a a n d T rin id a d & T o b a g o , it c a m e in to effect in A u g u st 1973. T h e re are c u rre n tly 15 m e m b e r states.

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C arin g for the Earth

C a r in g f o r the E a rt h - T h e 1991 seq u el to th e World Conservation Strategy

(p ublished in 1980). Like th e e a rlie r W C S , Caring fo r the Earth w as sp o n so re d by th e IU C N , U N E P a n d W W F. It sets fo rth 132 a c tio n s re q u ire d to ‘in ­ crease h u m a n w ell-b ein g a n d h a lt th e d e stru c tio n o f th e E a r th ’s c a p a c ity to s u p p o rt life.’ (C IPA ) C a r r y in g ca p a city

A te rm u sed to d e scrib e th e m a x im u m n u m b e r o f in ­ d iv id u als o f a p a rtic u la r species th a t a given e n v iro n m e n t c a n su p p o rt over tim e a n d w ith in set m a n a g e m e n t o b jectiv es a n d m e th o d s. (EES)

C a rta g e n a C o n v e n tio n

T h e C o n v e n tio n fo r th e P ro te c tio n a n d D e ­ v e lo p m e n t o f th e M a rin e E n v iro n m e n t o f th e W id e r C a rib b e a n R eg io n , a d o p te d in C a rta g e n a , C o lo m b ia o n 24 M a rc h 1983 a n d e n te re d in to force o n 11 O c to b e r 1986 as th e legal in s tru m e n t fo r im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e C a r ­ ib b e a n A ctio n P lan . (U N E P -C A R -R C U )

C a rta ge n a Protocol

A p ro to c o l o f th e C B D o n b io safety d ev elo p e d a t an e x tra o rd in a ry C o n fe re n c e o f th e P arties in C a rta g e n a , C o lo m b ia in 1999 a n d a d o p te d by m o re th a n 130 c o u n trie s on J a n u a r y 29, 2 0 0 0 , in M o n ­ tre a l, C a n a d a . It p ro v id es a fra m e w o rk for a d d re ssin g e n v iro n m e n ta l im ­ p acts o f b io -e n g in e e re d p ro d u c ts (referre d to as living m o d ifie d o rg a n ism s o r ‘L M O s ’) th a t cross in te rn a tio n a l b o rd e rs. (C B D )

C a t c h m e n t area

A riv er o r lake d ra in a g e b asin . (U N D P )

Caucus

A closed m e e tin g o f a g ro u p o f p e o p le w ith a sim ila r a g e n d a , u su ­ ally to d e b a te a n d / o r d ec id e o n a p o licy o r p o sitio n . (M W )

C e n t e r o f c r o p d i v e r s i t y - G e o g ra p h ic a re a c o n ta in in g a h ig h level o f

g en etic diversity for c ro p species in in-situ c o n d itio n s. (C B D ) C e n t e r of origin

G e o g ra p h ic a l a re a w h e re a d o m e s tic a te d o r w ild p la n t species d ev elo p e d its d istinctive p ro p e rtie s. (C B D )

C e n t r a l G r o u p - I I ( C G - I I ) - A c o alitio n o f g o v e rn m e n ts th a t b rin g s to ­

g e th e r th e c o u n trie s w ith ec o n o m ie s in tra n sitio n listed in A n n e x I o f th e U N F C C C m in u s th e R u ssian F e d e ra tio n a n d th e U k ra in e . (U N F C C C ) C e rtific a tio n

A w ritte n te stim o n y to c e rta in facts u sed to satisfy re g u ­ lato ry b o d ies o r c u sto m e rs th a t a p e rs o n ’s o r th in g ’s capability, q u alities, p e rfo rm a n c e , etc. m e e t specified sta n d a rd s. See ‘S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s ­ m e n t m e a s u r e s , ’ C r a d l e to c r a d l e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , ’ ‘C e r t i f i e d e m i s ­ s i o n r e d u c t i o n s , ’ ‘F a i r - t r a d e , ’ ‘C e r t i f i e d w o o d (1) (2 ) .’

C e r t i f i e d e m i s s i o n r e d u c t i o n s ( C E R s ) - V erified a n d a u th e n tic a te d re ­

d u c tio n s o f g re e n h o u s e gas from th e a b a te m e n t o r s e q u e s tra tio n p ro jects th a t arc certified by th e C le a n D e v e lo p m e n t M e c h a n ism . (U N F C C C ) C e rtifie d w o o d ( I )

- T im b e r, o r p ro c e sse d wro o d certified to have b een

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Certified w o o d (2)

g ro w n on a su sta in ab le p la n ta tio n o r in a su sta in a b le fash io n . (FSC ) C e r t i f i e d w o o d (2) - T h e p rin c ip le th a t m a te ria ls g o in g in to w oocl-bascd

p ro d u c ts m u st co m e from a su sta in ab le fo rest o r c o n ta in certified recycled a n d / o r rec o v e re d c o n te n t. M o st forest p ro d u c ts a re c u rre n tly c ertified by tw o in te rn a tio n a l N G O s: th e F orest S te w a rd sh ip C o u n c il o r th e S u sta in ­ ab le F orestry In itiativ e. (F S C ; SFI) CFCs

See C h l o r o f l u o r o c a r b o n s . '

C h a i n o f c u s t o d y - A te rm u se d in certific atio n ( Q A /Q G , IS O , F S C o r

S F I processes) th a t track s all stag es o f th e p ro d u c tio n , h a n d lin g , d is trib u tio n a n d sale o f th e p ro d u c t to be c ertified to in su re th a t th e p ro d u c t m e e ts th e sta n d a rd s set by th e c ertify in g in stitu tio n . S ee ' M D I A R a g r e e m e n t . ’ C h a ir

T h e title o f the p e rso n c h a rg e d w ith facilitatin g th e w o rk o f a m eetin g , a n d fo r e n su rin g th a t th e ru les o f p ro c e d u re fo r th a t m e e tin g arc u p h e ld .

C h a n c e r y —T h e office w h e re th e c h ie f o f m ission a n d his sta ff w ork. T h is

office is often called th e e m b assy b u t this is a m isn o m er. T echnically, th e em b assy is w h ere th e a m b a s s a d o r lives, n o t w h e re h e w orks, a lth o u g h in e a rlie r tim es w h e n d ip lo m a tic m issions w ere sm aller, this w as u su ally th e sam e building. Today, fo r c la rity ’s sake, m a n y d ip lo m a ts n o w d istin g u ish b e tw e e n th e tw o by u sin g th e te rm s ‘e m b a ssy re s id e n c e ’ a n d ‘em b assy of­ fic e / (eD) Chaord

A ny a u to -c a ta ly tic , self-reg u latin g , a d ap tiv e, n o n -lin ea r, c o m p le x o rg a n ism , o rg a n iz a ti o r sy stem , w h e th e r p h y sical, b io lo g ical o r social, th e b e h a v io r o f w h ic h h a rm o n io u sly e x h ib its c h a ra c te ristic s o f b o th o rd e r a n d chaos. (Co)

Chaos

A system w hose lo n g -te rm b e h a v io r is u n p re d ic ta b le , tiny c h a n g e s in th e a c c u ra c y o f th e s ta rtin g v alu e ra p id ly d iverg e to a n y w h e re in its p o s­ sible state space. H o w ev er, th e re c an be a finite n u m b e r o f av ailab le states, so statistical p re d ic tio n c a n still be useful. (C S G )

C h a o s T h e o r y - A n a tte m p t to u n c o v e r th e statistical re g u la rity h id d e n

in processes th a t o th e rw ise a p p e a r ra n d o m . S y stem s d e sc rib ed as ‘c h a o tic ’ are ex tre m e ly su scep tib le to c h a n g e s in in itial c o n d itio n s. As a resu lt, sm all u n c e rta in tie s a re m a g n ifie d o v er tim e, m a k in g c h a o tic system s p re d ic ta b le in p rin c ip le b u t u n p re d ic ta b le in p ra c tic e . C h a p e a u - A n o p e n in g p a r a g r a p h to a sta te m e n t o r d e c la ra tio n u se d to o u tlin e o r in tro d u c e th e to p ic a t h a n d ra th e r th a n to d ire ctly e n te r in to th e discussion. C h a rg é d 9A f f a i r e s , a .i. F orm erly, a Chargé d yAffaires w as th e title o f a c h ie f o f m ission, in fe rio r in ra n k to a n a m b a s s a d o r o r a m inister. T o d a y w ith th e

77

Charrette

a.i. {ad interim) a d d e d , it d e sig n ate s th e se n io r officer ta k in g c h a rg e fo r th e in te rv a l w h e n a c h ie f o f m ission is a b s e n t from his p o st. C ha rre t te

A sh o rt p e rio d o f in te n se , cro ss-d iscip lin ary , c o lla b o ra tiv e p la n ­ n in g th a t em p o w ers c o m m u n ity p a rtic ip a n ts a n d th e re b y e n c o u ra g e s th e ir s u p p o rt for, a n d o w n e rsh ip of, th e final p ro d u c t.

C h a r t e r - A te r m u se d fo r p a rtic u la rly fo rm a l a n d so le m n in s tru m e n ts , such

as th e c o n stitu e n t tre a ty o f an in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n . (U N T ) C h e m ical oxygen d e m a n d (C O D )

T h e a m o u n t o f o xygen c o n su m e d by a c h em ical o x id izin g a g e n t in a q u a n tity o f w ater, d e te rm in e d by th e to ta l a m o u n t o f o rg a n ic m a te ria l th a t c a n b e o x id ized in th e w a te r c o lu m n . (U SE PA )

C h e m t r a i l S h i e l d —A b e lie f h eld by c e rta in se g m e n ts o f th e e n v iro n m e n ta l

m o v e m e n t th a t a se c re t c h e m ic a l sp ray in g p ro g ra m in th e u p p e r a tm o s­ p h e re h as b e e n in effect since th e early 1990s. T h e y p o in t to c h a n g e s in th e a p p e a ra n c e o f th e sky from o n e o f crisscro ssin g c o n tra ils th a t n o rm a lly dis­ sipate in a m a tte r o f m in u te s, to a sp re a d in g m ass o f m ilky c lo u d s lastin g for h o u rs. W h ile still u n c o n firm e d by a n y g o v e rn m e n t, th e b e lie f o f th e p r o p o ­ n e n ts o f this effort is th a t this p ro g ra m is ju stified as a p ro te c tiv e shield to in c reasin g c o n c e n tra tio n s o f h a rm fu l U V rays re a c h in g th e su rface o f th e E a rth , d u e to a d e c re a se in th e stra to s p h e ric o z o n e layer. T h e o p p o n e n ts a rg u e th a t th e c o m p o sitio n o f th e c h e m ica l spray, w h ich in c lu d e s b a riu m a n d a lu m in u m , is h a v in g a n u m b e r o f n eg ativ e h e a lth -re la te d effects on larg e n u m b e rs o f u n su s p e c tin g p e o p le . Sec “C o n t r a i l s . ’ C h i e f o f M i s s i o n - T h e ra n k in g o fficer in an em bassy. (M W ) C h illin g effect

A situ a tio n w h e re c o m p lia n c e w ith tra d e ru les p ro v es to be a b a rr ie r to th e use o f tra d e p ro v isio n s to stop e n v iro n m e n ta lly d a m a g in g activ ities (i.e. P O P s: B iosafety P ro to co l in te lle c tu a l p ro p e rty d eb ate).

C h in a -E u r o p e D ia lo g u e and Exch ange fo r Su sta in ab le D e v e lo p ­ m e n t ( C E - D E S D ) - A n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n a im e d a t fac ilita t­ in g in te rn a tio n a l p a rtn e rs h ip s for su sta in a b le ec o n o m ic activities, devel­ o p m e n t a n d p e a c e b e tw e e n C h in a a n d E u ro p e ; fo sterin g a w aren e ss a n d h a rm o n y o f m a n a n d his n a tu ra l e n v iro n m e n t; a n d c o n n e c tin g v alu es a n d c u ltu re w ith e c o n o m ic , social, te c h n o lo g ic a l, e n v iro n m e n ta l a n d le a d e rsh ip issues. T h e F o u n d a tio n w ill ach ie v e these goals th ro u g h th e im p le m e n ta ­ tio n o f in te r-c u ltu ra l, p c o p lc -to -p e o p lc a n d b u sin ess-to -b u sin ess d ialo g u es; o rg a n iz a tio n o f se m in a rs, c o n fere n c e s, tra in in g , tw in n in g a n d e x ch a n g e p ro g ra m s; a n d p ro je c t m a n a g e m e n t, c o m m u n ic a tio n a n d logistic services to p a rtn e rsh ip s. C h in a -U S

C e n te r for S u sta in ab le D e v e lo p m e n t ( C U C S D ) The m ission o f th e C U C S D is to a c c e le ra te su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t in C h in a

78

C h lo ro flu o ro c a rb o n s (C F C s )

a n d th e U S th r o u g h a n e w fo rm o f c o o p e ra tio n a m o n g g o v e rn m e n ts , th e b u sin e ss c o m m u n ity , u n iv e rsitie s, re s e a rc h in s titu tio n s a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n ­ ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s . T h e C e n te r fo cu ses o n th r e e p r io r ity a c tio n s: (a) c re a tin g su s ta in a b le e n te r p ris e s th a t e n a b le c o m m e rc e , c o m m u n ity a n d n a tu r e to th riv e a n d g ro w in h a rm o n y , (b) c o o p e ra tin g o n stra te g ic in itiativ e s o f im ­ p o r ta n c e fo r b o th C h in a a n d th e U S , a n d (c) b u ild in g c a p a c ity fo r s u s ta in ­ a b le d e v e lo p m e n t th r o u g h tr a in in g a n d e d u c a tio n . C U C S D ’s h e a d q u a r te r s a re lo c a te d in P o rtla n d , O r e g o n . C h l o r o f l u o r o c a r b o n s ( C F C s ) - C h e m ic a ls u se d fo r re frig e ra tio n , a ir c o n ­

d itio n in g , p a c k a g in g , in s u la tio n , so lv e n ts o r a e ro s o l p ro p e lla n ts a n d th a t, u n d e r c e rta in c o n d itio n s , b re a k d o w n o z o n e . (E E S ) C h o k e p o i n t s - A U N te r m first u se d b y S c c rc ta ry G e n e ra l K o fi A n n a n

in 2 0 0 6 to d e s c rib e th e m o s t v o la tile h o ts p o ts w h e re th e s lig h te st sp a rk o f v io le n c e c o u ld trig g e r m assiv e e c o n o m ic a n d p o litic a l sh o c k w a v e s, p o te n ­ tially a ffe c tin g th e e n tire w o rld . T h e first su c h listin g in c lu d e d th e S tr a it o f H o r m u z c o n n e c tin g th e G u lf o f O m a n a n d th e P e rsia n G u lf, th e A b q a iq oil p ro c e s sin g facility in S a u d i A ra b ia , th e S tr a it o f M a la c c a c o n n e c tin g th e I n d ia n a n d P acific o c e a n s b e tw e e n M a la y s ia a n d In d o n e s ia , th e S u e z C a n a l c o n n e c tin g th e R e d S e a w ith th e M e d i te r r a n e a n , a n d th e D r u z h b a p ip e lin e , w h ic h is th e w o rld ’s lo n g e s t oil p ip e lin e fro m R u ssia to m u ltip le p o in ts in E u ro p e . (U N W ) C IV IC U S

A n in te r n a tio n a l a llia n c e d e d ic a te d to s tre n g th e n in g c itiz e n

a c tio n a n d civil so cie ty th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld . Its m e m b e rs in c lu d e n e a rly 5 0 0 n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s , a ss o c ia tio n s, p riv a te fo u n d a tio n s a n d in d iv id u a ls fro m 91 c o u n trie s . It w o rk s to p r o m o te a n e n a b lin g a rc h ite c tu re fo r civil so ciety ; p r o m o te c itiz e n p a r tic ip a tio n in civil so cie ty ; a n d b u ild a g lo b a l civ il-so ciety m o v e m e n t. (C IV IC U S ) C iv il so c ie ty

E x tra - g o v e rn m e n ta l in d iv id u a ls a n d g ro u p s , o rg a n iz e d o r

u n o rg a n iz e d , w h o in te r a c t in th e so c ia l, p o litic a l a n d e c o n o m ic d o m a in s a n d w h o a re re g u la te d b y fo r m a l a n d in f o rm a l ru le s a n d law s. C iv il so ciety offers a d y n a m ic , m u ltila y e re d w e a lth o f p e rs p e c tiv e s a n d v alu e s, seek in g e x p re s sio n in th e p u b lic sp h e re . (U N D P ). A c la s sifica tio n th a t in c lu d e s th o se p o litic a l, c u ltu ra l a n d so cial o rg a n iz a tio n s o f m o d e r n so cie tie s th a t a re a u ­ to n o m o u s o f th e sta te b u t p a r t o f th e m u tu a lly c o n stitu tiv e re la tio n s h ip b e tw e e n sta te a n d society. (L ip s c h u tz , 1999). T h e w e b o f a sso c ia tio n s, so cial n o r m s a n d p ra c tic e s th a t c o m p ris e a c tiv itie s o f a so c ie ty as s e p a r a te fro m its sta te a n d m a r k e t in s titu tio n s. C iv il so c ie ty in c lu d e s re lig io u s o rg a n iz a tio n s , fo u n d a tio n s , g u ild s, p ro fe ssio n a l a sso c ia tio n s, la b o r u n io n s , a c a d e m ic in s ti­ tu tio n s , m e d ia , p re s s u re g ro u p s a n d p o litic a l p a rtie s . (W B) C l a s s i c a l s t a t i s t a p p r o a c h t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w - A v iew o f i n t e r n a ­

tio n a l law w h e re in sta te s a re th e o n ly re c o g n iz e d a n d le g itim a te ‘su b je c ts ,’ e v e ry th in g else is a n ‘o b je c t,’ a n d o n ly sta te s c a n c re a te a n d e m p lo y in te r ­ n a tio n a l law. It is p re m is e d o n id e a s re g a r d in g th e ‘so v e re ig n e q u a lity o f

79

C le o n d e ve lo p m e n t m ech an ism (C D M )

s ta te s ,’ a d u ty o f n o n - in te r v e n tio n o n th e p a r t o f sta te s in th e in t e r n a l a ffairs o f o th e r state s, a n d sta te c o n s e n t to in te r n a tio n a l o b lig a tio n s. (E C O ) C le a n D e v e lo p m e n t M e c h a n ism

(C D M )

C D M is a m e a n s by w h ic h

n o n -A n n e x I P a rtie s to th e K y o to P ro to c o l (d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s ) c a n be assisted in d e v e lo p m e n t effo rts a n d c o n tr ib u te to th e sta b iliz a tio n o f G H G c o n c e n tr a tio n in th e a tm o s p h e re a t a lev el th a t w o u ld p re v e n t d a n g e ro u s a n th r o p o g e n ic in te rfe re n c e w ith th e c lim a te sy stem a n d to h e lp d e v e lo p e d c o u n tr ie s a n d c o u n tr ie s w ith e c o n o m ie s in tr a n s itio n to m e e t th e ir q u a n tifie d em issio n lim ita tio n c o m m itm e n t. (U N F C C C ; E E A ) C le a n fu els

F u e ls th a t p ro d u c e lo w e r e m issio n s th a n c o n v e n tio n a l g a so lin e

a n d d iesel. R e fe rs to a lte rn a tiv e fuels as w ell as to re f o rm u la te d g a so lin e a n d diesel. (N R D C ) S e e ‘A l t e r n a t i v e f u e l s . ' C l e a n e r p r o d u c t i o n - T h e c o n tin u o u s a p p lic a tio n o f a n in te g ra te d p r e v e n ­

tive e n v ir o n m e n ta l s tra te g y to p ro c e sse s, p ro d u c ts a n d serv ic es to in c re a se o v erall efficiency, a n d to re d u c e risks to h u m a n s a n d th e e n v ir o n m e n t. C le a n ­ e r p r o d u c tio n c a n b e a p p lie d to th e p ro c e sse s u se d in a n y in d u stry , to p r o d ­ u c ts th e m se lv e s a n d to v a rio u s se rv ic es p ro v id e d in society. (U N E P ) C l e a n u p - T r e a tm e n t, r e m e d ia tio n , d e s tr u c tio n /d is p o s a l o f c o n ta m in a te d

m a te ria l. (N R D C ) C le a ra n c e s

A m e ssa g e o r o th e r d o c u m e n t c o n v e y in g a p o lic y o r a n

in s tru c tio n is ‘c le a r e d ’ in a fo re ig n office, o r la rg e e m b assy , w h e n all officials w h o h av e re s p o n sib ility fo r a n y o f its specific a sp e c ts h a v e sig n ified th e ir a p ­ p ro v a l by in itia lin g it. S ec ‘V i s a ' w h e n re f e r r in g to U N a n d o th e r i n t e r n a ­ tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s . (cD ) C le a r c u ttin g

A c o m m e rc ia l tim b e r m a n a g e m e n t te c h n iq u e in w h ic h all tre e s, w ith th e p o ssib le e x c e p tio n o f ‘s e e d ’ o r ‘s p e c im e n ’ tre e s a n d b u ffe rs b o r d e r in g w a te r c o u rs e s ( d e p e n d in g o n th e p o licie s o f a g iv en c o u n try ), are h a rv e s te d fro m a d e lim ite d fo re ste d a re a . (U S E P A )

C le a rin g H o u s e M e c h a n is m

( C H M ) - A m e c h a n is m g e n e ra lly o p e r a te d

by a c o n v e n tio n ’s s e c r e ta ria t to p r o m o te a n d fa c ilita te te c h n ic a l a n d scien tific c o o p e ra tio n o r to fa c ilita te th e e x c h a n g e o f sc ien tific , te c h n ic a l a n d leg al in f o r m a tio n a n d assist d e v e lo p in g c o u n tr y p a rtie s in th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e M E A c o n c e r n e d . (U N F C C C ) C lim a te A c tio n

N etw ork

( C A N ) - F o rm e d in 1 9 8 9 , C A N is a g lo b a l

n e tw o rk o f o v e r 2 8 7 n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s (N G O s) w o rk in g to p r o m o te g o v e r n m e n t a n d in d iv id u a l a c tio n to lim it h u m a n - in d u c e d c lim a te c h a n g e to e c o lo g ic a lly su s ta in a b le levels. C A N m e m b e rs w o rk to a c h ie v e th is g o a l th r o u g h th e c o o rd in a tio n o f in f o r m a tio n e x c h a n g e a n d N G O s tra te g ie s o n in te r n a tio n a l, re g io n a l a n d n a tio n a l c lim a te issues. (C A N ) C lim a te change

A c h a n g e o f c lim a te th a t is a ttr ib u te d d ire c tly o r in d ire c tly

80

C lim a te C h a n g e Protocol

to h u m a n activ ity th a t alte rs th e c o m p o sitio n o f th e g lo b a l a tm o sp h e re a n d w h ich is in a d d itio n to n a tu ra l clim ate v a ria b ility o b serv e d o v er c o m p a ra b le tim e p erio d s. (U N F C C G ; EES) C lim a te C h a n g e P ro to co l

See ‘K y o t o P r o t o c o l . ’

C lim a te m o d e ls

L a rg e a n d c o m p le x c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s u sed to sim u late g lo b al clim ate b ased o n m a th e m a tic a l e q u a tio n s d eriv e d fro m th e physics th a t gov ern th e e a rth a tm o s p h e re system . (IPPG )

C lim a te syste m

T h e to ta lity o f th e a tm o sp h e re , h y d ro sp h e re , b io sp h e re a n d g e o sp h ere a n d th e ir in te ra c tio n s. (U N F C G C )

C lim a te variab ility

R efers to c h a n g e in p a tte rn s , su ch as p re c ip ita tio n p a t­ te rn s, in w e a th e r a n d clim ate. (PEW )

C lin t o n G lo b a l In itia tiv e

A n o n p a rtis a n p ro je c t o f th e W illiam J. C lin to n N o n p ro fit F o u n d a tio n sta rte d in 20 0 5 a n d b rin g in g to g e th e r so m e o f th e w o rld ’s b e st m in d s a n d m o st d istin g u ish e d p ro b le m solvers to id en tify im ­ m e d ia te , p ra c tic a l so lu tio n s to som e o f th e w o rld ’s m o st c h a lle n g in g issues in clu d in g , b u t n o t lim ite d to, re d u c in g poverty, a d d re ssin g clim ate c h a n g e an d stre n g th e n in g g o v e rn a n c e . H ow ever, u nlike o th e r w o rld co n fe re n c e s, it re q u ire s each p a rtic ip a n t to m a k e a p e rs o n a l c o m m itm e n t to tak e specific ac tio n o n o n e o f th e to p ics d iscu ssed . T h e 200 5 co n fe re n c e re su lte d in fo rm a l p led g es o f U S S 1 .2 5 b illion, a n d th e 2 0 0 6 c o n fe ren c e in p led g e s o f U S $ 2 b illio n .

C l o s u r e / C l o t u r e - T h e fo rm a l close o f d e b a te in a legislative o r g o v e rn in g

p rocess, m a n y tim es e n d in g w ith a v o te o r c o n sen su s d ecisio n . (M W ) C lu b b a b le

A te rm th a t refers to th e p o te n tia l o f a n o n -E U state to be in v ited to jo in th e E U th a t c a m e in to c o m m o n usage in 2005 in re la tio n to th e p o s­ sibility o f T u rk ey g ain in g th e su p p o rt it n e e d e d to be asked to jo in th e EU.

C lu b o f M a d rid

- A g ro u p c o m p risin g 66 fo rm e r h e a d s o f state a n d gov­ e rn m e n t c re a te d fo r th e p u rp o s e s o f p ro m o tin g d e m o c ra c y a n d ad d re ssin g p rio rity issues for w o rld p e a c e a n d stability. (W P)

C lu ste rin g

A su g g ested m e th o d to re d u c e co n flict a n d o v erlap b e tw e e n in ­ te rn a tio n a l legal in s tru m e n ts , w hich in clu d es p la c in g trea tie s o r c o n v e n tio n s h a v in g sim ilar su b je c t m a tte r o r th a t c o v er th e sam e g e o g ra p h ic a re a in the sam e a d m in istra tiv e u n it.

C N N effect

T h e effect th a t c o n tin u o u s a n d in s ta n ta n e o u s television co v er­ age m a y have o n m a k in g a n d c o n d u c tin g fo reig n p o licy a n d / o r th e c o n d u c t o f in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s, N G O s a n d p riv a te se c to r en tities.

C o a l i t i o n - A te m p o ra r y allian ce o f d istin c t p a rtie s, p e rs o n s o r states th a t is

g en erally estab lish e d to fu rth e r jo in t a c tio n o n a specific m atter. (M W )

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C o o stai zone

C o a s t a l z o n e - T h e p a r t o f th e la n d affccted by its p ro x im ity to th e sea, a n d

th a t p a r t o f th e sea a ffected by its p ro x im ity to th e la n d . (EEA ) Cocoyoc

D e claratio n T h e p u b lish e d re p o rt o f th e 1974 U N E P / U N C T A D sy m p o siu m h eld in C o co y o c, M ex ico th a t id e n tifie d th e m a ld is­ trib u tio n o f re so u rc e s as a fa c to r in e n v iro n m e n ta l d e g ra d a tio n . T h e sy m ­ p o siu m , c h a ire d by B a rb a ra W a rd , called for d e v e lo p m e n t ac tio n focused o n filling basic h u m a n n eed s. (U N T )

C o d e x A li m e n t a r iu s - T h e in te rn a tio n a l 'fo o d c o d e ’ o r set o f s ta n d a rd s

im p le m e n te d th ro u g h a co m m issio n resp o n sib le to th e D ire c to rs -G e n e ra l o f th e Food a n d A g ric u ltu re O rg a n iz a tio n (FAO) a n d th e W o rld H e a lth O rg a n iz a tio n (W H O ). T h e sta n d a rd s a re e sta b lish ed to p ro te c t th e h e a lth o f c o n su m e rs a n d e n su re fair p ra c tic e s in th e fo o d tra d e ; p ro m o te c o o rd i­ n a tio n o f all w o rk o n food s ta n d a rd s u n d e rta k e n by in te rn a tio n a l, g o v e rn ­ m e n ta l a n d n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s; a n d to d e te rm in e p rio ritie s a n d g u id e th e p re p a r a tio n o f d ra ft sta n d a rd s. (FAO) C o -fin a n c in g

A n a rr a n g e m e n t w h ereb y a n in te rn a tio n a l b a n k a ttra c ts a se co n d le n d e r to fin a n c e p a r t o f a lo a n . S u c h a n a rr a n g e m e n t sp re ad s the risks to th e b an k s a n d o b ta in s a se c o n d o p in io n as to w h e th e r th e p ro je c t is b a n k a b le a n d in terestin g . (D F ID )

C o -ge n e ra tio n

T h e use o f w aste h e a t fro m electric g e n e ra tio n , su ch as e x h a u st from gas tu rb in e s, fo r e ith e r in d u s tria l p u rp o s e s o r d istric t h eatin g . (IP C C ) A lso, th e use o f a p u b lic p o w e r g rid by p riv a te e n e rg y p ro d u c e rs.

C o - i n c i n e r a t i o n - J o in t in c in e ra tio n o f h a z a rd o u s w aste o f an y k in d w ith

refuge a n d / o r sludge. (EEA) C o ld W a r

T h e p o s t- 1945 stru g g le b e tw e e n th e U S a n d th e S o viet U n io n th a t e n d e d w ith th e co llap se o f th e B erlin W all in 1989 a n d th e d isso lu tio n o f th e S oviet U n io n in 1991. (U N )

C o lifo r m Inde x

A ra tin g o f th e p u rity o f w a te r b a se d o n a c o u n t o f coliform b a c te ria . (U SEPA )

C o lla b o ra tio n

C o o p e ra tio n w ith a n a g e n c y o r in s tru m e n ta lity w ith w h ich o n e is n o t im m e d ia te ly c o n n e c te d . (M W )

C o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s —T h e n e g o tia tio n o f in te rn a tio n a l

a g re e m e n ts w h e re th e e stab lish ed p ro c e d u re s in c lu d e d ecisio n c rite ria o f fair re p re se n ta tio n a n d tr e a tm e n t o f all p a rtie s, tra n sp a re n c y , e q u ity an d efficiency. C o m ity

T h e a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n c o u n trie s to re c o g n ize a n d resp e c t th e law s a n d in stitu tio n s o f ea c h . S o m e w h a t sim ilar to in te rn a tio n a l law e x ce p t th a t in te rn a tio n a l law is b in d in g w hile c o m ity is n o t. (M W )

82

C o m m a n d and control

C o m m a n d a n d c o n t r o l - In re la tio n to p o licy a n d m a n a g e m e n t, c o m -

m a n d -a n d -c o n tro l in s tru m e n ts (e.g. m e c h a n ism s, laws, m easu res) rely on p re s c rib in g rules a n d sta n d a rd s a n d u sin g sa n c tio n s to en fo rce c o m p lia n c e w ith th e m . (EEA) C o m m e r c i a l e x t i n c t i o n - A te rm m o st c o m m o n ly u sed in re fe re n c e to fish

p o p u la tio n s a n d its d e p le tio n to th e p o in t w h e re fish e rm a n c a n n o t catc h en o u g h to be e c o n o m ic a lly w o rth w h ile, o r to c o m m e rc ia l w ildlife p o p u la ­ tions to th e p o in t w h e re h u n te rs o r tra p p e rs c a n no lo n g e r realize gain fu l e m p lo y m e n t from th e ir killing o r c a p tu re . (E E A ; N R D C ) C o m m is sio n for E n viro n m e n tal C o o p e ra tio n (C E C )

A n in te r n a ­ tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n c re a te d by C a n a d a , M e x ic o a n d th e U S u n d e r th e N o rth A m e ric a n A g re e m e n t o n E n v iro n m e n ta l C o o p e ra tio n (N A A E C ). T h e C E C w as esta b lish e d to a d d re ss re g io n a l e n v iro n m e n ta l c o n c e rn s , h elp p re v e n t p o te n tia l tr a d e a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l conflicts, a n d to p ro m o te th e effective e n fo rc e m e n t o f e n v iro n m e n ta l law. T h e A g re e m e n t c o m p le m e n ts th e e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro v isio n s o f th e N o rth A m e ric a n F ree T ra d e A g re e ­ m e n t (N A FT A ) See “N o r t h A m e r i c a n A g r e e m e n t o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o o p era tio n '; N o rth A m e r ic a n Free T ra d e A g r e e m e n t /

C o m m i s s i o n o n G l o b a l G o v e r n a n c e ( C G G ) - A n in d e p e n d e n t g ro u p

o f 28 p u b lic figures w h o , b a se d o n th e b e lie f th a t th e e n d o f th e C o ld W a r offered o p p o rtu n itie s to b u ild a m o re c o o p e ra tiv e , safer a n d fa ire r w o rld , p u b lish e d Our Global Neighborhood (1995) a n d Millennium Tear and the Reform Process (2000). C o m m is s io n on S u sta in ab le D e v e lo p m e n t ( C S D ) A c o m m issio n o f th e U N E c o n o m ic a n d S o cial C o u n c il c re a te d in D e c e m b e r 1992 to en su re effective follow -up o f U N C E D ; a n d to m o n ito r a n d re p o rt on im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e E a rth S u m m it a n d th e W S S D a g re e m e n ts a t th e local, n a tio n a l, re g io n a l a n d in te rn a tio n a l levels. (C S D ) CSD

D e v e lo p m e n t W a ter A c tio n a n d N e t w o r k in g d a t a b a s e (C S D WAND) D e v e lo p e d by U N D E S A , th e C S D -W A N D is a to o l for th e im ­ p le m e n ta tio n o f th e C S D ’s d ecisio n s a n d p ro v id es in c re a se d in fo rm a tio n to those w o rk in g o n w a te r a n d sa n ita tio n issues. (U N )

C o m m i t m e n t a u t h o r i t y - T h e p o w e r th a t G E F h a s to m a k e c o m m it­

m e n ts b ased o n th e a m o u n t o f re so u rces it h a s receiv ed o r th a t d o n o rs have c o m m itte d . T h e a u th o rity covers c o n trib u tio n s receiv ed in th e fo rm o f no tes a n d cash d ep o sits, a n d in v e stm e n t in c o m e g e n e ra te d o n cash d e p o s­ its, less a c tu a l p ro je c t d isb u rse m e n ts a n d a n tic ip a te d a d m in is tra tiv e costs o f th e G EF. (G E F) C o m m i t m e n t t o D e v e l o p m e n t I n d e x - T h e W a sh in g to n , D C -b a se d

C e n te r for G lo b a l D e v e lo p m e n t//7« ? ^ // Policy m a g a z in e C o m m itm e n t to D e v e lo p m e n t In d e x ra n k s 21 o f th e w o rld 's ric h e st c o u n trie s b a se d on th e ir d e d ic a tio n to p o licies th a t b e n e fit th e 5 billio n p e o p le living in p o o re r

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Com m ittee

n a tio n s w o rld w id e. M o v in g b ey o n d s ta n d a rd c o m p a riso n s o f fo reig n aid v olum es, th e in d ex also rate s c o u n trie s: q u a lity o f foreign a id , o p e n n e ss to d e v elo p in g c o u n try ex p o rts, p o licies th a t in flu en c e in v estm e n t, m ig ra tio n policies, su p p o rt to th e c re a tio n o f new te ch n o lo g ies, secu rity policies, a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l policies. (C G D ) See ‘S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a s ­ u r e s.’ C o m m i t t e e - A g ro u p o f p e o p le selected from a la rg e r g ro u p to discuss,

investigate o r r e p o r t on a p a rtic u la r su b ject. C o m m it t e e of the W h o le ( C O W )

A c o m m itte e c re a te d by a G O P to facilitate th e p ro cess o f te x t n e g o tia tio n . T h e C O W th e n tu rn s o v er th e d ra ft text to th e C O P fo r fu r th e r w ork a n d fo rm a l a d o p tio n d u rin g a p le ­ n a ry session. (B C H M )

C o m m o n b u t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - P rin cip le 7 o f th e R io

D e c la ra tio n , w h ich re a d s, 'S ta te s sh all c o o p e ra te in a sp irit o f g lo b al p a r tn e r ­ ship to co n serv e, p ro te c t a n d resto re th e h e a lth a n d in te g rity o f th e E a r th ’s ecosystem . In view o f th e d iffe re n t c o n trib u tio n s to g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ta l d e g ra d a tio n , S ta tes h av e c o m m o n b u t d iffe re n tia te d resp o n sib ilitie s.5 C o m m o n c o n c e r n o f h u m a n k i n d - A p rin c ip le s u p p o rte d by n u m e ro u s

in te rn a tio n a l m ee tin g s th a t re p re se n ts a n effort to p ro v id e a b asis fo r in te r­ n a tio n a l a c tio n to p ro te c t th e g lo b al clim ate. H o w ev er, since clim ate c h a n g e is n o t im p o sed by o n e state u p o n a n o th e r state, th e tra d itio n a l legal p rin c i­ ples g o v e rn in g tr a n s b o u n d a ry p o llu tio n d o n o t apply. B u t if th e a tm o sp h e re is a ‘c o m m o n c o n c e rn o f h u m a n k in d ,’ all states h av e an in te re st a n d d u ty to p ro te c t it from se rio u s h a r m . A state o n o n e side o f th e g lobe is th u s ‘affe c te d ’ b y a state o n th e o th e r side o f th e g lo b e th a t is e m ittin g g re e n ­ h o u se gases in to th e a tm o sp h e re . (U N F C C C ) Com mon

good F reely accessible g o o d fo r w h ich th e re is stro n g c o m p e titio n b e tw e e n users. T h is is th e case w ith fish ery reso u rces, c e rta in forest a re a s a n d c e rta in g ra z in g rig h ts w ith o u t a n a g re e m e n t; u n re s tric te d e x p lo ita tio n o f th e re so u rc e m a y le a d to it b e c o m in g e x h a u ste d . (U N C ­ LOS)

C o m m o n h e r i t a g e o f m a n k i n d - A c o n c e p t in itially u se d by A rv id P ra d o

in 1967, w hich sta te d th a t th e se a b e d a n d th e o c e a n flo o r (and p re s u m ­ ably o th e r o f th e g lo b a l c o m m o n s) a re b e y o n d n a tio n a l ju ris d ic tio n , arc th e c o m m o n h e rita g e o f m a n k in d , n o t su b je ct to n a tio n a l a p p ro p ria tio n in an y m a n n e r w h a tso e v e r a n d sh o u ld be u se d a n d e x p lo ite d fo r p e a ce fu l p u rp o se s an d for th e exclusive b en efit o f m a n k in d as a w h o le. (U N C L O S ) C o m m o n p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e - A re so u rc e w h e re th e rig h ts o f use are

c o m m u n a lly sh a re d a n d o w n e d a n d w h e re fo rm a l o r in fo rm a l use re g u la ­ tio n s are em p lo y e d . (BLD) C o m m o n w e a l t h o f N a t i o n s - T h e C o m m o n w e a lth o f N a tio n s, u sually

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C o m m un iqu é

k n o w n as T h e C o m m o n w e a lth , is a n a ss o c ia tio n o f 53 in d e p e n d e n t so v e r­ eign states, a lm o s t all o f w h ic h a re fo r m e r te r rito rie s o f th e B ritish E m p ire . It w as o n c e k n o w n as th e B ritish C o m m o n w e a lth o f N a tio n s o r B ritish C o m m o n w e a lth , a n d so m e still c a ll it by th a t n a m e , fo r h is to ric a l re a s o n s o r to d is tin g u ish it fro m th e o th e r c o m m o n w e a lth s a r o u n d th e w o rld , su c h as th e C o m m o n w e a lth o f A u s tra lia a n d th e C o m m o n w e a lth o f T h e B a h a ­ m as. (W P) C o m m u n i q u é - A b r ie f p u b lic s u m m a ry s ta te m e n t issu ed fo llo w in g im p o r t b ila te ra l o r m u ltila te ra l d isc u ssio n s. (eD ) C o m m u n ity

A n in te g ra te d g ro u p o f sp ecies in h a b itin g a g iv en a re a .

(G B S) C o m m u n i t y - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( C B O ) - O rg a n iz a tio n s th a t a re v o l­

u n ta ry , n o t-fo r-p ro fit, n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l a n d ru n by c itiz e n s w ith a im s a n d a c tiv itie s lim ite d to a lo c a lity th a t h a s a u n iq u e id e n tity , as a city o r n e ig h ­ b o rh o o d . C o m m u n i t y o f D e m o c r a c i e s ( C D ) - A te r m c o in e d b y th e n U S S e c re ­

ta r y o f S ta te M a d e lin e A lb rig h t in th e y e a r 2 0 0 0 , th e C D w a s a re s p o n se to th e fa c t th a t fo r th e first tim e in histo ry , m o s t c o u n tr ie s h a d so m e fo rm o f re p r e s e n ta tiv e g o v e rn m e n t. M e e tin g s o f in v ite d g o v e rn m e n ts a re g e n e ra lly h e ld e v ery tw o y e a rs a n d m e a n t to a d v a n c e p rin c ip le s s tre n g th e n in g d e m o ­ c ra tic g o v e rn m e n ts . (U S D O S ) C o m m u n i t y o f p ra c tic e ( C o P )

A g ro u p o f p e o p le in fo rm a lly b o u n d

to g e th e r by s h a r e d e x p e rtis e a n d p a ss io n fo r a j o i n t e n te r p r is e in a c o m m o n c o n te x t. (W en g er, 1998) C o m p e t e n t a u t h o r i t y ( I ) - A g o v e rn m e n ta l e n tity e m p o w e re d by th e

M e m b e r S ta te s as re s p o n sib le fo r p e r f o r m in g th e d u tie s a risin g fro m e n ­ fo rc in g a g iv en law o r policy. (E E A ; W P ) C o m p e t e n t a u t h o r i t y (2 )

A g o v e rn m e n ta l a u th o r ity d e s ig n a te d b y a p a r ty to b e re s p o n sib le fo r re c e iv in g th e n o tific a tio n o f a tr a n s b o u n d a r y m o v e m e n t o f h a z a r d o u s w a ste s o r o th e r w a ste s, a n d a n y in f o rm a tio n re ­ la te d to it, a n d fo r r e s p o n d in g to th e n o tific a tio n . (U N ; E E A )

C o m p e titio n

T h e id e a th a t to su rv iv e, a g e n ts m u s t fig h t e a c h o th e r a n d

th a t o n ly o n e o f th e m c a n b e su ccessfu l. T h is a ss u m e s th a t re s o u rc e s a rc lim ite d (in su fficie n t fo r b o th ) a n d is o fte n a n e g a tiv e -s u m stra te g y , i.e. ‘w in — lo se ’ o r ‘lo s e -lo s e .’ (C S G ) C o m p le x

In tr ic a te a ss o c ia tio n o f in d iv id u a l p a r ts fo r m in g a w h o le.

(M W ) C o m p le x

ad a p tive sy ste m A fo rm o f sy stem c o n ta in in g m a n y a u to n o m o u s a g e n ts w h o se lf-o rg a n iz e in a c o -e v o lu tio n a ry w a y to o p tim iz e th e ir s e p a r a te v a lu e s. (C S G )

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C om plex systems

C o m p l e x s y s t e m s - S ystem s th a t in te ra c t n o n -lin e a rly w ith th e ir e n v iro n ­

m e n t. T h e ir c o m p o n e n ts have p ro p e rtie s o f self-o rg an iz a tio n th a t m a k e th e m n o n -p re d ic ta b le b ey o n d a c e rta in te m p o ra l w indow . (P av ard a n d D u gale, 2003) C o m p l e x i t y t h e o r y - A field o f re se a rc h th a t e x p lo res system s in w h ich a

g re a t m a n y in d e p e n d e n t a g e n ts in te ra c t w ith eac h o th e r in a g re a t m a n y w ays. (W aldrop, 1993) C o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g —In a w a te r q u a lity m a n a g e m e n t p ro g ra m , c o m ­

p lia n c e is asso ciate d w ith m e e tin g p e rm it c o n d itio n s as w ell as a m b ie n t sta n d a rd s. O n g o in g m o n ito rin g p ro v id es p e rio d ic w a te r q u a lity d a ta used to assess co m p lia n c e . (S F W M D ) C o m p l i m e n t a r i t y , p r i n c i p l e o f - T h e c o rn e rs to n e o f th e In te rn a tio n a l

C rim in a l C o u rt (IC C ), w h ich h o ld s th a t th e IC C will only c o n d u c t a sm all n u m b e r o f p ro se c u tio n s a n d o nly w h e n n a tio n a l c o u rts a re u n w illin g o r u n a b le to p ro se c u te w a r o r o th e r in te rn a tio n a l crim es. T h e IC C believes th a t n a tio n a l c o u rt system s sh o u ld b e th e first line o f in v estig atio n o f these crim es. T h e IC C d o e s n o t seek to s u p p la n t these c o u rts, b u t to rein fo rce th e n a tio n a l c o u rts (i.e. c o m p lim c n ta rity ). T h e p rin c ip le o f c o m p lim e n ta rity w as also th e resu lt o f a n astu te p o litical ju d g m e n t in th a t M e m b e r S tates w ere m o re likely to ratify this c o n c e p t if it p ro v id e d re sp e c t for n a tio n a l c o u rt system s. (U N ) C o m p o stin g

A p ro cess w h e re b y o rg a n ic w astes, in c lu d in g food w astes, p a p e r a n d y a rd (g ard en ) w astes, d e c o m p o se n aturally , re su ltin g in a p ro d u c t rich in m in e ra ls a n d id eal fo r g a rd e n in g a n d fa rm in g as soil c o n d itio n e rs, m u lch , re su rfa c in g m a te ria l, o r landfill cover. (N R D C )

C o m p re h e n siv e

E n v ir o n m e n t a l R e s t o r a t io n P la n ( C E R P ) The fra m e w o rk a n d g u id e fo r th e re s to ra tio n , p ro te c tio n a n d lo n g -te rm m a n ­ a g e m e n t o f a given eco sy stem . (EES)

C o n c e s s i o n a l f i n a n c i n g - U sually, m o n e y lo a n e d by d e v e lo p m e n t b a n k s at

below m a rk e t in te re st rate s a n d o ften below th e co st o f b o rro w in g fo r th e le n d in g a g en cy to p ro m o te a specific g o al. (WB) C o n c e s s io n a l/ C o n c e s s io n a r y loan

L o a n p ro v id e d to p o o re s t c o u n trie s w ith lo w er in te re st ra te s a n d lo n g e r re p a y m e n t p e rio d s th a n a re ty p ic a l o f s ta n d a rd m a rk e t o r m u ltila te ra l lo an s, th a t is less th a n m a rk e t in te re st rates a n d e x te n d e d g ra c e p e rio d . (W B)

C o n ciliatio n

A te rm m e a n in g to u n ite o r to m a k e c o m p a tib le d iffe re n t v iew p o in ts in a d o c u m e n t.

C o n c o r d a t - A tre a ty to w hich th e P ope o r th e H o ly See is a p arty . S u ch n o ­ ta tio n s have b e e n a tta c h e d to e n v iro n m e n ta l a g re e m e n ts /p rin c ip le s su ch as

86

C o n d itio n a lity (1}

th e acccss to p o ta b le w a te r, w h e n th e H o ly S ee d e te r m in e s th a t b a sic h u m a n rig h ts a re in v o lv ed . (eD ; U N ) C o n d itio n a lity ( I )

T h e p ra c tic e o f a tta c h in g c o n d itio n s to in te r n a tio n a l e c o n o m ic c o n c e ssio n s o r d e v e lo p m e n t a ssista n c e fu n d s, o r to th e o p e n in g o f in te r n a tio n a l m a rk e ts. T h e o b lig a tio n s a c c e p te d by a d e v e lo p in g c o u n tr y in re la tio n to its p o lic ie s o r in s titu tio n s as p a r t o f a n a id tr a n s a c tio n . (D F ID )

C o n d i t i o n a l i t y ( 2 ) - A ru le o f th e I n t e r n a tio n a l M o n e ta r y F u n d th a t a

m e m b e r ’s rig h t to th e u se o f c r e d it tr a n c h e s a n d c re d it fac ilitie s w ill b e c o n ­ d itio n e d o n its p ro g re s s in re g u la riz in g its b a la n c e -o f-p a y m e n ts o b lig a tio n s a n d in d e v e lo p in g su s ta in e d e c o n o m ic g ro w th . (W B) C o n d i t i o n s - T h e e x is te n c e of, o r s e ttin g of, c e rta in re q u ir e m e n ts b e fo re

a g r e e m e n t c a n b e re a c h e d o r w o rk c a n b e g in . (M W ) Conference

(or C o n g re ss) I n te r n a tio n a l m e e tin g . In th e d ip lo m a tic sen se, a c o n g re s s h a s th e s a m e m e a n in g as a c o n fe re n c e . (eD )

C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e P a r t i e s ( C O P ) - T h e s u p r e m e b o d y o f a n y M u ltila te r­

a l E n v iro n m e n ta l A g r e e m e n t (M E A ). T h e ro le o f th e G O P is to p r o m o te th e M E A a n d its o b je c tiv e s a n d to re v ie w its c o m m itm e n ts , e ffe c tiv e n ess a n d im ­ p le m e n ta tio n . C O P s g e n e ra lly m e e t o n c e a y e a r to re v ie w im p le m e n ta tio n a n d ta k e d e c isio n s o n h o w to im p ro v e th e im p le m e n ta tio n p ro c e ss. (eD ) Conferen ce -room

papers (C R P )

A c a te g o ry o f in -sessio n d o c u m e n ts

c o n ta in in g n e w p ro p o s a ls o r o u tc o m e s o f in -se ssio n w o rk fo r u se o n ly d u rin g th e session. (B C H M ) C o n f i n e d a q u i f e r —A n a q u if e r d e lim ite d by a la y e r o f im p e r m e a b le ro c k o r

soil a b o v e a n d / o r b e lo w th e b o d y o f w a te r. (U S E P A ) C o n f l i c t —A c o n d itio n w h e re tw o o r m o re p a rtie s h a v e d iffe rin g in te re s ts o r

p e rs p e c tiv e s th a t re q u ire re s o lu tio n to a c h ie v e a p o sitiv e o u tc o m e . (M W ) C o n f l i c t d i a m o n d . S ee B l o o d d i a m o n d . ’ C o n g r e s s ( I ) - A m e e tin g o f e le c te d o r a p p o in te d re p re s e n ta tiv e s . (M W ) C o n g r e s s (2 ) - A n a tio n a l leg islativ e assem bly. (M W ) C o n g r e s s (3 ) - T h e h ig h e s t leg islativ e b o d y in a g iv e n c o u n tr y c h a rg e d w ith

m a k in g law. (M W ) C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d - A d o c u m e n t p u b lis h e d b y th e U S g o v e rn m e n t

p r in tin g office r e c o r d in g all d e b a te s , v o te s a n d d isc u ssio n s ta k in g p la c e in th e U S C o n g re s s (leg islatu re); a v a ila b le fo r free in s p e c tio n a t all g o v e rn ­ m e n t d o c u m e n t re p o s ito rie s, as w ell as in so m e m a jo r lib ra rie s. (N R D C ) S ee ‘G a z e t t e . ’

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C onsensus

C o n s e n s u s - A d e c isio n o f a n a s s e m b ly t h a t h a s a g r e e m e n t fro m all v o tin g

p a r ti e s o r m e m b e r s . A n a g r e e m e n t a d o p t e d w i t h o u t a vo te w h e n th e r e a re n o s ta te d o b je c tio n s b y a n y o f th e d e le g a tio n s. A b s te n tio n s m a y b e vo ice d a n d n o t e d in th e c o n f e r e n c e r e c o r d a n d n o t affect a c o n s e n s u s d ecision . (BLD) C o n se q u e n tia l e q u ity

A p ri n c ip l e o f e q u ity t h a t refers to th e o u tc o m e s o f a d e c is io n in t e r m s o f b u r d e n s h a r i n g a m o n g a n d w ith in c o u n tr ie s as well as b e tw e e n p r e s e n t a n d f u tu r e g e n e r a t io n s . (C S G )

C o n se rv a tio n

T h e m a n a g e m e n t o f h u m a n use o f th e b io s p h e r e so th a t

it m a y yield th e g r e a te s t s u s ta in a b le b e n e f it to c u r r e n t g e n e r a ti o n s w hile m a i n t a i n i n g its p o t e n t i a l to m e e t th e n e e d s a n d a s p ir a tio n s o f f u tu r e g e n ­ e r a tio n s. (GBS) C o n s e r v a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s o f I U C N - S p e c ie s c o n s e r v a ti o n g r o u p in g s th a t

in d ic a te th e d e g r e e o f t h r e a t to su rv iv a l fo r ta x a . T h e six I U C N c a te g o rie s a r e g iv e n a c a p ita l le tte r to d istin g u is h th e m fro m g e n e r a l u s a g e o f th e t e r m s as follows: T h r e a t e n e d C a t e g o r ie s -

E x t in c t (Ex) T a x a t h a t a re n o l o n g e r k n o w n t o e x i s t in t h e w ild

after rep e ate d

searches of

t h e i r t y p e lo c a litie s a n d o t h e r k n o w n o r lik e ly places. -

E n d a n g e r e d (E) T a x a in d a n g e r o f e x t i n c t i o n a n d w h o s e s u r v i v a l is u n li k e l y if t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r s c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i n g . I n c lu d e d a re t a x a w h o s e n u m b e r s h a v e b e e n r e d u c e d t o a critic a l le vel o r w h o s e h a b i t a t s h a v e b e e n s o d r a s t ic a lly r e d u c e d t h a t t h e y a re d e e m e d t o b e in i m m e d i a t e d a n g e r o f e xtinction . V u ln e ra b le (V) T a x a b e lie v e d lik e ly t o m o v e i n t o t h e E n d a n g e r e d c a t e g o r y in t h e n e a r f u t u r e if t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r s c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i n g . In c lu d e d a re t a x a o f w h i c h m o s t o r all t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a re

decre asin g

e x te n sive

because

h ab ita t

or

of o v e r-e x p lo itatio n , other

e n v iro n m e n ta l

d is t u r b a n c e ; t a x a w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t h a v e been

se rio u sly d e p le te d an d

se cu rity

is

p o p u latio n s under

not

yet

that

threat

a re

fro m

assured; still

w hose and

taxa

abundant

se rio u s

u ltim ate

adverse

but

w ith a re

factors

th r o u g h o u t th e ir range. -

R a r e (R) T a x a w i t h s m a l l w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t a re n o t a t p r e s e n t E n d a n g e r e d o r V u ln e r a b le , b u t a re a t risk. T h e s e t a x a a re u s u a lly lo ca liz e d w i t h i n r e s t r ic t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s o r h a b i t a t s o r a re t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r a m o r e e x t e n s i v e range. 88

Conservation easements

-

In d e te rm in a te (I) T a x a k n o w n to be Extinct, E n d a n g e re d , V u ln e r a b le , o r R a r e b u t th e r e is n o t e n o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n t o sa y w h ich o f th e fo u r c a te g o r ie s is a p p ro p r ia t e .

U n k n o w n C ate gories Status U n k n o w n (?) N o i n f o r m a t i o n is ava ilable w ith w h ich t o a ssig n a c o n s e r v a t io n cate gory. In su fficie n tly K n o w n (K ) T a x a t h a t are su sp e c te d b u t n o t d efinite ly k n o w n t o b e lo n g t o a n y o f the a b o v e ca te gories, fo llo w in g a s s e s s m e n t , b e cau se o f lack o f in fo r m a t io n . N o t T h re a te n e d C a te g o ry Safe (nt) N e i t h e r rare n o r th re a te n e d . C o n se rv a tio n e ase m e n ts

R e gu la tio ns th a t limit activities p e r m i tte d in the process o f using a n a tu ra l resource. For e x a m p le , allow ing in digeno us peop les to use a p r o te c te d forest for c e rta in subsistence a n d / o r e c o n o m i­ cally p ro d u c tiv e activities, allow ing a pub lic access p a th to cross a private pa rc e l o f la n d s e p a ra tin g two public parcels. (AM)

C o n s e r v a t io n In te rn a t io n a l (C l)

A U S - b a s e d , in te r n a tio n a l o r g a n iz a ­ tion, th a t applies in n o v a tio n s in science, econ om ics, policy a n d c o m m u n ity pa rtic ip a tio n to p ro te c t the E a r t h ’s richest regions o f p la n t a n d a n im a l d i­ versity in biodiversity hotspots, high-biodiversity w ilderness areas as well as im p o r t a n t m a r in e regions a r o u n d the globe. W ith h e a d q u a r te rs in W a s h ­ ing to n, D C , C l w orks in m o r e th a n 40 c o u n trie s on fo ur continents.

C o n stru c tiv e a m b ig u ity

A m e th o d used in d ip lo m a c y th a t inserts t e m ­ p o r a r y la n g u a g e into a d o c u m e n t th a t is th e lowest c o m m o n d e n o m in a t o r a c c e p tab lc by the p a rtie s in d isa g re e m e n t, b u t w hich allows negotiation to p ro c e e d - hopefully to full a g r e e m e n t o n o th e r m o re im p o r ta n t issues. T h e w o r d in g m ust be revisited o r im p le m e n ta tio n o f the a g r e e m e n t will be m a d e m o re difficult later. (eD)

C on sul General

See ‘C o n s u l a t e . ’

C o n s u l a t e - A n office established by o n e state in an i m p o r t a n t city o f a n ­

o th e r state for the p u r p o s e o f s u p p o rtin g a n d p ro te c tin g its citizens traveling or residing there. In a d d itio n , these offices arc c h a r g e d w ith p e r fo r m in g adm inistra tive duties such as issuing visas to host c o u n tr y n a tio n a ls w ishing to travel to the c o u n tr y the co nsu late represents. All consulates, w h e th e r located in the capital city o r in o th e r c o m m u n itie s, are a dm inistratively u n d e r the a m b a s s a d o r a n d the embassy. In a d d itio n to c a r ry in g o u t their co n s u la r duties, they often serve as b r a n c h offices for the embassy. C o n s u ­ lates are e x p e c te d to play a p a rtic u larly significant role in c o n n e c tio n with the p r o m o tio n o f their o w n c o u n t r y ’s ex ports a n d o t h e r c o m m e r c ia l activi­ ties. Officers p e r f o rm in g c o n su la r du ties arc k n o w n as consuls or, if m o re ju nior, vice consuls. T h e c h ie f o f the con sulate is know n as the consul, or consul general. (cD)

89

C onsultative group

C o n s u l t a t i v e g r o u p - G ro u p s estab lish e d to tre a t specific th e m e s o r g e o ­

g ra p h ic reg io n s w h ere th e m e m b e rs a re usually b o th p u b lic a n d p riv a te a n d w h ere th e ir s u p p o rt m a y o r m a y n o t in c lu d e financing. C o n s u lt a t iv e G r o u p on In t e r n a tio n a l A g r ic u lt u r a l R e se a rch ( C G I A R )

- C G IA R w as c re a te d in 1971 as a n asso ciatio n o f p u b lic a n d p riv a te m e m ­ b ers to su p p o rt a system o f 16 F u tu re H a rv e st C e n te rs th a t w o rk in m o re th a n 100 c o u n trie s, w ith a m a n d a te to m o b iliz e c u ttin g -e d g e science th a t will re d u c e h u n g e r a n d poverty, a n d im p ro v e h u m a n n u tritio n a n d h e a lth , w hile e m p h a s iz in g e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n . (FAO) C ontact group

A g ro u p called in to b e in g to resolve a specific issue o n w hich th e re is d is a g re e m e n t. M e m b e rs h ip is osten sib ly o p e n to all p a rtie s, b u t is u su ­ ally lim ited to th o se p a rtie s in d iv id u a lly in v ited by th e c h a ir to p a rtic ip a te b ecau se o f th e ir d ifferin g v iew p o in ts. (ENB)

C o n ta m in a n t

A su b sta n c e th a t is n o t n a tu ra lly p re s e n t in th e e n v iro n ­ m e n t o r is p re s e n t in u n n a tu r a l c o n c e n tra tio n s th a t c a n , in sufficient c o n c e n tra tio n , ad v ersely a lte r an e n v iro n m e n t. (M W )

C o n tin e n ta l

s h e l f - T h e se a b e d a n d sub so il o f th e s u b m a rin e a re a s th a t e x te n d b ey o n d a co asta l s ta te ’s te rrito ria l sea th r o u g h o u t th e n a tu ra l p ro lo n g a tio n o f its la n d te rrito ry to th e o u te r ed g e o f th e c o n tin e n ta l m a rg in . A c o a sta l state m ay claim a c o n tin e n ta l sh elf o f u p to 200 m iles fro m th e baselines from w h ic h th e te rrito ria l sea is m e a s u re d even if th e c o n tin e n ta l m a rg in is n o t th a t fa r se a w a rd ; b u t its m a x im u m claim can be no m o re th a n 350 m iles. (EES)

C o n t i n g e n c y p l a n - A n a lte rn a tiv e for a c tio n if th in g s d o n o t go as p la n n e d

o r if an e x p e c te d resu lt fails to m a teria liz e . (M W )

C o n t in g e n t v alu atio n

V a lu a tio n te c h n iq u e th a t asks p e o p le d ire ctly how m u ch they arc w illing to p a y for im p ro v in g e n v iro n m e n ta l quality. See ‘D e ­ f e n s i v e e x p e n d i t u r e . ’ (EEA)

C o n tr a le g e m - A g a in st th e la w ’ (term u sed to d esc rib e a n e q u ita b le d ecisio n o f a c o u rt o r trib u n a l th a t is c o n tra ry to th e law g o v e rn in g th e co n troversy). (BLD) C o n t r a c t i n g s t a t e - A S tate th a t h a s c o n se n te d to b e b o u n d by th e treaty,

w h e th e r o r n o t th e tre a ty h a s e n te re d in to force. (VC) C o n t r a i l s - C o n d e n s a tio n trails so m e tim e s called v a p o r trails o r a rtificial c ir­

ru s clo u d s m a d e by th e e x h a u st o f a irc ra ft en g in e s o r w in g tip v o rtices th a t p re c ip ita te a stre am o f tiny ice cry stals in th e m o ist, frigid u p p e r a ir lay er o f th e tro p o sp h e re b e tw e e n 9 a n d 12km in h e ig h t w ith te m p e ra tu re s b etw e en -37"C to -57°C . (W P) S ee G l o b a l d i m m i n g , ' ‘G l o b a l c o o l i n g , ' “H a z e . ’ C o n v e n t i o n - W h e n sig n e d a n d ratified , a b in d in g a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n twro

90

C o n v e n tio n C o n c e rn in g the Protection of the W o rld C u ltu ra l an d N a tu ra l H e rita g e

o r m o re sta te s th a t d e a ls w ith sp ecific m a tte r s o f m u tu a l in te re s t a n d w h ic h d e ­ fines th e d u tie s o f th e P a rtie s to th e C o n v e n tio n th a t sets o u t th e p o litic a l a n d leg al fra m e w o rk fo r a c tio n s th a t m a y b e listed o r th a t m a y n e e d to b e d e v e lo p e d . (V C ) C o n v e n tio n

C o n c e rn in g

N a tu ra l H e rita ge

th e

P ro te ctio n

of th e

W o rld

C u ltu ral

and

A c o n v e n tio n a d o p te d in N o v e m b e r 1972 a t th e 17th

G e n e ra l C o n fe re n c e o f U N E S C O . T h e C o n v e n tio n is re s p o n sib le fo r th e es­ ta b lis h m e n t a n d r e c o r d in g o f th e W o rld H e rita g e L ist o f c u ltu ra l a n d n a tu r a l p ro p e r tie s , s u b m itte d by th e S ta te s P a rtie s. T h e s e sites a re c o n s id e re d to b e o f o u ts ta n d in g u n iv e rs a l v a lu e . T h e C o n v e n tio n p ro v id e s te c h n ic a l c o o p e ra tio n u n ­ d e r th e W o rld H e rita g e F u n d to S ta te s P a rtie s w h o se re s o u rc e s a re in su ffic ie n t to sa fe g u a rd W o rld H e rita g e p ro p e rtie s . C o n v e n t io n fo r th e P re v e n tio n o f M a r in e P o llu tio n by D u m p in g from S h i p s a n d A i r c r a f t - T h e O slo C o n v e n tio n c a m e in to force in A p ril 1974. It

g ra d e s p o llu ta n ts in to th r e e levels o f to x ic ity b la c k list (m o st d e tr im e n ta l, o rg a n o h a lo g e n s , o rg a n o s ilic o n s, c a rc in o g e n ic c o m p o u n d s , m e r c u r y a n d m e r ­ c u ry c o m p o u n d s , a n d p e rs is te n t p la stic s a n d o th e r sy n th e tic m a te r i­ als); th e g re y list (h a rm fu l, a rs c n ic , le a d , c o p p e r, z in c a n d th e ir c o m ­ p o u n d s , c o n ta in e rs , s c ra p m e ta l, ta r-lik e su b s ta n c e s a n d b u lk y w astes, and

su b s ta n c e s th a t a lth o u g h

n o t n e c e ss a rily to x ic

m ay becom e

h a rm fu l

in la rg e q u a n titie s); a n d th e w h ite list (least to x ic, b u t r e q u ir in g a p p ro v a l b e fo re d u m p in g fro m lo c a l a u th o ritie s). T h e C o n v e n tio n also p ro v id e s r e g u la ­ tio n s fo r th e d is p o sa l o f th e s e p o llu ta n ts . (A M ) C o n v e n tio n

for

the

P ro te ctio n

of

th e

e ra l tr e a ty a d o p te d a t V ie n n a o n 22 M a r c h ,

Ozone

Layer

A m u ltila t­

1 9 8 5 , a n d in fo rc e fro m

22

S e p te m b e r, 1988. It re q u ire s S ta te s P a rtie s to c o o p e ra te in u n d e r ta k in g scien tific re s e a rc h to p r o te c t th e E a r t h ’s o z o n e layer. C o n v e n t io n on B io lo gic a l D iv e r sity ( C B D )

T h e C o n v e n tio n o n B io lo g ic al

D iv e rsity w as n e g o tia te d u n d e r th e a u sp ic e s o f U N E P a n d o p e n e d fo r s ig n a tu re a t U N C E D in J u n e 1 9 9 2 . It e n te r e d in to fo rce o n 29 D e c e m b e r, 1993 a n d h a s th r e e g o als: to p r o m o te th e c o n s e rv a tio n o f b io d iv e rsity , th e s u s ta in a b le u se o f its c o m p o n e n ts , a n d th e fa ir a n d e q u ita b le s h a r in g o f b e n e fits a risin g o u t o f th e u tiliz a tio n o f g e n e tic re s o u rc e s. (E N B ) C o n v e n t io n on E arly N o tific a tio n of a N u c le a r A c c id e n t

A 1986 C o n v e n ­

tion th a t aim s to p ro v id e re le v a n t in fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g n u c le a r a c c id e n ts as early as possible to m in im iz e tr a n s b o u n d a ry rad io lo g ic a l co n seq u e n ce s. (V C; U N IA E A ) C o n v e n t i o n o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l I m p a c t A s s e s s m e n t in a T r a n s b o u n d a r y C o n t e x t (E sp o o C o n v e n tio n )

T h e E s p o o (E IA ) C o n v e n tio n sets o u t th e o b ­ lig a tio n s o f p a r tie s to assess th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l im p a c t o f c e rta in a c tiv ities a t a n e a rly sta g e o f p la n n in g . It also lays d o w n th e g e n e ra l o b lig a tio n o f S ta te s to n o tify

a n d c o n s u lt e a c h o th e r o n all m a jo r p ro je c ts u n d e r c o n s id e ra tio n th a t a rc likely to h a v e a sig n ific a n t a d v e rs e e n v ir o n m e n ta l im p a c t a c ro ss b o rd e r s . T h e E sp o o C o n ­ v e n tio n w as s ig n e d in E sp o o , F in la n d a n d e n te r e d in to fo rc e in 1997. (U N T )

91

C on ven tion on Internotionol Trade in En dan gered Species of W ild Fau n a and Flora (C ITES)

C o n v e n t i o n o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e in E n d a n g e r e d S p e c i e s o f W i l d F a u n a and F lo ra ( C I T E S ) C I T E S b a n s o r re g u la te s i n t e r n a t i o n a l tr a d e in e n d a n g e r e d species to c o m b a t t h e ir o v e r-e x p lo ita tio n . T h e te x t w a s o p e n e d f o r s ig n a tu r e in W a s h i n g to n D C o n 3 M a r c h , 1973 a n d e n t e r e d in to forcc o n 1 July, 1975. ( C I T E S ) C o n v e n tio n on N u c le a r Safe ty

T h e C o n v e n t i o n e sta b lish e s a legal o b ­

ligatio n o n th e p a r t o f th e P a r tie s to a p p ly c e r ta in g e n e r a l safety p rin c ip le s to the c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n a n d r e g u la tio n o f la n d - b a s e d civilian n u c l e a r p o w e r p la n t s u n d e r th e ir j u r is d ic tio n a n d s u b m i t p e r i o d ic r e p o r ts o n th e steps th e y a rc ta k in g to i m p l e m e n t th e o b lig a tio n s o f th e C o n v e n t i o n . T h e C o n v e n t i o n w a s o p e n e d for s ig n a tu re s in S e p te m b e r , 19 94 a n d e n t e r e d in to force in 1996. (V C; U N I A E A ) C o n v e n tio n on S u p p le m e n ta r y C o m p e n s a tio n for N u c le a r D a m ­ age

T h e C o n v e n t i o n o n S u p p l e m e n t a r y C o m p e n s a t i o n for N u c l e a r D a m a g e w a s a d o p t e d o n 12 S e p t e m b e r , 1997 a n d w a s o p e n e d for s ig n a tu r e

o n 29 S e p t e m b e r , 1997 a t th e 4 1 s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e o f th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A to m ic E n e r g y A g e n c y in V i e n n a . T h e C o n v e n t i o n allow s fo r c o m p e n s a ­ tio n for d a m a g e w ith in a c o u n t r y ’s exclusive e c o n o m i c z o n e , w h i c h in c lu d e s loss o f to u r is m o r fisheries r e la te d i n c o m e . (V C; U N I A E A ) C o n v e n tio n

on the C o n s e r v a t io n

of M ig ra to ry

Sp e c ie s o f W ild

A n i m a l s - A 1979 U N E P s p o n s o r e d C o n v e n t i o n a n d its a m e n d m e n t s to

p r o t e c t th e h a b i t a t o f m i g r a t i n g species w h e t h e r w ith i n a single c o u n t r y o r o f a t r a n s b o u n d a r y n a tu r e . ( U N E P ) C o n v e n tio n

on the

E lim in a tio n

o f A ll F o r m s of D isc rim in a tio n

A g a in st W o m e n ( C E D A W )

C E D A W w a s a d o p t e d in 1979 by th e U N G e n e r a l A s s e m b ly a n d is o fte n d e s c r i b e d as a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l bill o f rights for w o m e n . C o n s is tin g o f a p r e a m b l e a n d 30 articles, it defines w h a t c o n ­ stitutes d is c r im in a tio n a g a in s t w o m e n a n d sets u p a n a g e n d a fo r n a tio n a l a c tio n to e n d su c h d is c r im in a tio n . ( C E D A W ) C o n v e n tio n

on

th e

Law

In te rn a tio n a l W a t e r c o u r s e s

of

the

N o n -N a v ig a tio n a l

U se

of

T h e so-called I n t e r n a t i o n a l W a t e r C o n ­

v e n tio n w a s first p r o p o s e d in 1954. W o r k w a s in itia te d o n a d r a f t te x t in 1971 a n d finally a d o p t e d by th e U N G A in 1997. T h e C o n v e n t i o n a tte m p ts to p r o m o t e c o o p e r a t i o n b e tw e e n r i p a r i a n states b y se ttin g p rin c ip le s, n o r m s a n d rules t h a t give g u i d a n c e for r e g u la tin g c o n flic tin g uses. It is a m o n g the m o s t c o n t e n t i o u s o f tex ts e v e r n e g o ti a te d in th e U N a n d th e d a te o f its e v e n tu a l e n t r y in to force is still listed as ‘u n p r e d i c t a b l e . * ( U N T ) C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e P h y s i c a l P r o t e c t i o n o f N u c l e a r M a t e r i a l —T h i s

1980 C o n v e n t i o n p r o v id e s fo r c e r t a i n levels o f p h y sic a l p r o t e c t i o n d u r in g i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t o f n u c l e a r m a te r ia l a n d e sta b lish e s a g e n e r a l f r a m e ­ w o r k for c o o p e r a t i o n a m o n g states in the p r o te c tio n , re c o v e ry a n d r e t u r n o f sto le n n u c l e a r m a te r ia l. (U N IA E A )

92

C o n ven tio n on the Protection and Use of Transboundary W aterco u rses and International Lakes (Helsinki I)

C o n v e n tio n on th e P ro te c tio n and U se of T r a n s b o u n d a r y W a t e r ­ c o u r s e s a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a k e s ( H e l s i n k i I) T h e H e ls in k i I C o n ­ v e n ti o n , w h i c h e n t e r e d in to force in 199 6, is i n t e n d e d to s tr e n g th e n n a t i o n a l m e a s u r e s for th e p r o te c ti o n a n d e c o lo gically s o u n d m a n a g e m e n t o f t r a n s ­

b o u n d a r y , s u rfa c e a n d g r o u n d w a te r . T h e C o n v e n t i o n o bliges p a r tie s to p r e ­ v e n t, c o n tr o l a n d r e d u c e w a t e r p o llu t io n fr o m p o i n t a n d n o n - p o i n t so u rc e s a n d also in c lu d e s p ro v isio n s for m o n ito r in g , re s e a r c h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t, c o n s u lta tio n s , w a r n i n g a n d a l a r m system s, m u t u a l a ssistan ce, in stitu tio n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , a n d the e x c h a n g e a n d p r o t e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , as well as p u b lic access to i n f o r m a t i o n . ( U N T ; E U ) C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e R i g h t s o f t h e C h i l d ( C R C ) - T h e tr e a ty t h a t fully

a rtic u la te s th e h u m a n rig h ts o f c h ild r e n a n d th e s t a n d a r d s to w h ic h all g o v ­ e r n m e n t s m u s t asp ire. T h e C o n v e n t i o n , e n t e r e d in to force in 1989, is a d m i n ­ istered by U N I C E F R atifie d by n e a rly all c o u n tr ie s , it is the m o s t u n iv e rsa lly a c c e p t e d h u m a n r ig h ts i n s t r u m e n t in history. (U N ) C o n v e r t i b l e c u r r e n c y - A c u r r e n c y t h a t c a n b e e x c h a n g e d freely fo r o t h e r

c u r r e n c ie s at m a r k e t rates, o r for g old. (WB) C o o p e ra tio n

T h e id e a t h a t a g e n ts c a n in c r e a s e t h e i r fitness by m u t u a l h elp r a t h e r t h a n by c o m p e tit io n . T h i s a s s u m e s t h a t r e s o u r c e s a d e q u a t e for b o th

exist, o r a r c c r e a t e d b y th e i n te r a c ti o n . (C S G ) C o o rd in a tin g G ro u p

of A m a z o n

B a sin

In d ig e n o u s

O rg a n iz a tio n s

(C O IC A )

C O I C A is a c o o r d i n a t i n g b o d y for m o r e t h a n 4 0 0 i n d ig e n o u s g r o u p s . N o w h e a d q u a r t e r e d in Q u i t o , E c u a d o r, it w a s f o u n d e d in L im a , Peru in 1982 to h e lp n a tiv e p e o p le d e f e n d t h e ir rights, figh t fo r th e su rv iv a l o f t h e i r c u ltu re , e x c h a n g e e x p e r ie n c e s a n d find so lu tio n s to th e ir v a r io u s c o m ­ m o n p r o b le m s . ( C O I C A ) C o p e n h a g e n C o n s e n s u s P r o j e c t ( C C P ) - A c o n c e p t c o n c e iv e d by th e

D a n i s h e c o n o m is t B jö r n L o m b o r g , w h ic h b r in g s t o g e t h e r a p a n e l o f e m i n e n t d e v e l o p m e n t specialists w h o a t t e m p t to p r io r itiz e a r a n g e o f id e a s for m e a s ­ u r a b l y im p r o v i n g th e q u a li ty o f lives o f p e o p l e living in d e v e lo p i n g c o u n tr ie s . T h e a r g u m e n t is m a d e t h a t th e r e is o n ly so m u c h O D A , lo a n o r in v e s tm e n t m o n e y a v a ila b le a n d t h a t it s h o u ld b e s p e n t o n th e h ig h e s t p r io r ity p ro jects. (C C P ) C O R I N E - A p r o g r a m for th e C o o r d i n a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n o n th e E n v i r o n ­

m e n t p r o p o s e d in 1985 by th e E u r o p e a n C o m m i s s i o n t h a t is to g a t h e r in f o r ­ m a t i o n o n p r io r ity e n v ir o n m e n t a l ly r e la te d to p ic s fo r th e E u r o p e a n U n i o n . (EE A ) C o r p o r a t e so cia l r e s p o n s ib ility - A co n cep t w h ereb y co m p an ies v o lu n ­

tarily in te g r a te social a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s i n to th e ir b u sin e ss a n d th e w a y th e y in t e r a c t w ith sta k e h o ld e r s . T h i s g e n e ra lly im p lie s g o in g o v e r a n d a b o v e legal r e q u ir e m e n ts , in te g r a ti n g e c o n o m i c , social a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l

93

C o rrid o r

c o n c e rn s in to th e ir b u sin ess p lan s, a n d a d o p tin g n ew a p p ro a c h e s to bu si­ ness m a n a g e m e n t. (E E A ; W P)

C o r rid o r

A b a n d o f v e g eta tio n , u su ally o ld e r forest, w h ich serves to c o n ­ n e c t d istin c t p a tc h e s on th e la n d sc a p e . (EES)

C o rru p tio n

In d u c e m e n t to w ro n g by im p ro p e r o r u n la w fu l m e a n s such as brib ery. (M W )

C o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s - A d ecisio n to o l th a t assesses p ro je c ts th ro u g h a

c o m p a riso n b e tw e e n th e ir costs a n d b en efits, in c lu d in g social costs a n d benefits. (D F ID ) C o s t - b e n e f i t a p p r o a c h - A m e th o d o f an aly sis u se d in c irc u m sta n c e s

w h e re c o m p o n e n ts o f th e re a l costs o r b en efits o f a p ro je c t w o u ld n o t be a d e q u a te ly re p re s e n te d by m a rk e t p ric e s a n d m a y n o t be tra d e d a t all. It assu m es th a t b en efits a n d costs are u ltim a te ly d efin e d in te rm s o f h u m a n p re fe re n c e s. (WB) C o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s - T h e re la tio n b e tw e e n th e costs (inputs) a n d o u tp u ts

o f a p ro je c t. T h e m o st cost-effective is th e m o st e c o n o m ic a l in te rm s o f ta n g ib le ben efits p ro d u c e d by m o n ey sp e n t. (D F ID ) C o st-e fficie n cy

T h e re la tio n b e tw e e n th e costs (inputs) a n d o u tp u ts o f a p ro je c t. A p ro je c t is m o s t cost-efficien t w h en it achieves its o u tp u ts a t th e low est possible co st c o m p a re d e ith e r to a lte rn a tiv e m e th o d s o f d eliv ery o r a lte rn a tiv e o u tp u ts a c h ie v in g th e sa m e ob jectiv e. (D F ID )

C o t o n o u A g r e e m e n t - A p a rtn e rs h ip a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n th e E U a n d th e

c o u n trie s o f A frica, th e C a rib b e a n a n d th e Pacific sig n ed in J u n e 2 0 0 0 in C o to n o u , B en in . T h e a g re e m e n t re p la c e d th e L o m e C o n v e n tio n a n d has p o v erty re d u c tio n as its m a in o b jectiv e, ‘to be ach ie v e d th ro u g h p o litical d ialo g u e, d e v e lo p m e n t aid a n d clo ser e c o n o m ic a n d tra d e c o o p e ra tio n .’ (AD) C o u n c i l ( I ) - A n ex ecu tiv e o r g o v e rn in g b o d y w h o se m e m b e rs arc e q u a l in

p o w e r a n d au th o rity . (C O N G O ) C o u n c i l (2)

T h e G E F g o v e rn in g b o d y th a t consists o f 32 m e m b e rs re p r e ­ se n tin g c o n stitu e n c y g ro u p in g s a n d m eets sem i-an n u ally . It develops, a d o p ts a n d evalu a tes th e o p e ra tio n a l p olicies a n d p ro g ra m s fo r G E F -fin a n c c d a c­ tivities. (G EF)

C o u n c il

fo r

In te rn atio n al

and

Eco n om ic

C o o p e ra tio n

(C IF IC )

- C re a tin g a n ew a g e n d a -s e ttin g b o d y fo r th e in te rn a tio n a l fin a n c ia l sys­ tem is th e p rim a ry o b jectiv e fo r C IF IC , as th e G 7 d o e s n o t in c lu d e som e o f th e critical ac to rs (C h in a , In d ia , B razil), a n d th e G 2 0 , w ith 40 m in is­ ters a n d c e n tra l b a n k g o v e rn o rs a ro u n d its tab le, is c o n sid e re d to o larg e

94

C o u n c il o f Eu ro p e

to be effective. A n e w body, provisionally n a m e d C I F E C , is b e in g d e b a te d as the a g e n d a -se ttin g body, p ro v id in g strategic d ire c tion for the fu n c tio n ­ ing a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f the in te r n a tio n a l financial system a n d exercising in fo rm a l oversight to the various m ultilateral institutions a n d fo ru m s in ­ volved in in te r n a tio n a l e c o n o m ic c o o p e ra tio n . As p ro p o s e d , C I F E C w ould have n o m o re th a n 15 m e m b e r c o u n tr y m e m b e rs , r e p re s e n te d by th eir fi­ n a n c e m inisters. T h e S e c re ta ry G e n e r a l o f the U N , the M a n a g i n g D ir e c to r o f the IMF, the P re sid e n t o f th e W orld B ank, a n d the D ire c to r G e n e r a l o f the W T O w ould be invited to its m eetings. (CFR) C o u n cil of E u ro p e

T h e C o u n c il o f E u r o p e is a n in te r g o v e r n m e n ta l o r­ g an iz a tio n established to p ro te c t h u m a n rights, pluralist d e m o c ra c y a n d the rule o f law; p ro m o te a w are n e ss a n d e n c o u r a g e the d e v e lo p m e n t o f E u r o p e ’s c u ltu ra l identity a n d diversity; seek solutions to p ro b le m s facing E u r o p e a n society; a n d help consolid ate d e m o c r a tic stability in E u r o p e by b ac k in g political, legislative a n d c o n stitu tion al re fo rm . (EU)

C o u n cil of E u ro p e a n M in is te rs

T h e political lead ership o f the E U c o m p ris in g sectoral m inisters from all 25 States, a c c o r d in g to w h a t is on the a g e n d a , a n d the p r e s id e n t w h o is a p p o in te d by the E u r o p e a n C o u n ­ cil. For ex a m p le , if a decision m ust be taken on a g ric u ltu ra l m a tte rs, the na tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts send th e ir M in isters o f agricu lture. (EU)

C o u n cil on E n v ir o n m e n ta l Q u a lity (C E Q )

U S G o v e r n m e n t agencies e stablished by th e N a tio n a l E n v iro n m e n ta l Policy A ct o f 1969 to fo rm u la te a n d r e c o m m e n d n a tio n a l policies a n d p rovide analysis c o n c e r n in g U S p a r ­ ticipation in i n te r n a tio n a l a g r e e m e n ts a n d treaties relating to e n v ir o n m e n ­ tal q u a lity issues. (EES) See B u r e a u o f O c e a n s a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d S cien tific A ffa ir s.’

C o u n t r i e s w i t h e c o n o m i e s in t r a n s i t i o n ( E I T )

T h e c o u n trie s o f C e n ­ tral a n d E a s te rn E u r o p e a n d f o r m e r republics o f the Soviet U n io n th a t are in tran sition to a m a rk e t economy. (WB)

Country

T h e largest local ad m in istra tiv e subdivision o f m ost States. (M W ) Sec “N a tio n ," “S t a t e ' a n d 'T e r r it o r y .'

C o u n t r y d e s k - A U S State D e p a r t m e n t te r m in d ic a tin g the office d ealin g

with a given c o u n tr y o r countries. (U S D O S ) C o u n t r y o f o r i g i n o f g e n e t i c r e s o u r c e s - T h e c o u n tr y th a t possesses

those g enetic resources in in-situ conditions. (CBD) C o u n t r y p r o file

A socio-econ om ic, political, e n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d d e m o ­ gra p h ic overview o f a n a tio n th a t e m p h a siz e s the interests o f the institution m a k in g the overview.

C o u r t ( I ) - A j u d g e o r ju d g e s in session with the aim o f c o n d u c tin g ju d ic ia l

business. (MW)

95

C o u rt (2)

C o u r t (2) - A fo rm a l facu lty c o m p risin g a ju d g e o r ju d g e s c o n v e n e d fo r in ­

te rp re tin g a law o r its a p p lic a tio n . (M W ) C r a d le to c rad le ce rtific a tio n ( C 2 C C e r t if ie d )

T h is certifica tio n p r o ­ vides a c o m p a n y w ith a m e a n s to d iffe re n tia te its p ro d u c t w ith in th e m a r ­ k etp lace, d e fin in g ta n g ib le a c h ie v e m e n t a n d p ro v id in g credibility. W ith in the c ertificatio n pro cess, M B D G ev alu a tes a m a te ria l o r p r o d u c t’s in g re d ie n ts a n d th e c o m p le te fo rm u la tio n fo r h u m a n a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l h e a lth im p a c ts th r o u g h o u t its life-cycle a n d its p o te n tia l fo r b e in g tru ly recy cled , u p cy cled o r safely co m p o ste d . C e rtific a tio n o f a fin ish ed p ro d u c t also re q u ire s th e e v a lu ­ a tio n o f en erg y -u se q u a n tity a n d q u a lity (i.e. relative p ro p o r tio n o f re n e w ­ ab le energy), w a te r-u se q u an tity , w ate r-efflu e n t q u a lity a n d w o rk p lace eth ics asso ciate d w ith m a n u fa c tu rin g . C rite ria fall in to th e follow ing five cate g o ries: m ate ria ls, m a te ria l rc u tiliz a tio n /d c s ig n fo r e n v iro n m e n t, energy, w a te r a n d social responsibility. (M B D C ) Sec ' S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a s ­ u r e s.’

C r a d le to cradle, c o n c e p t o f

A d esig n p a ra d ig m o rig in a te d by a rc h ite c t W illiam M c D o n o u g h , a n d c h e m ist M ic h a e l B ra u n g a rt, b a sed on p rin c ip les a n d an u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e p u rs u it o f v alu e, p ro cesses for p ro d u c t a n d m a ­ te ria l re search a n d d e v e lo p m e n t, a n d for e d u c a tin g a n d tra in in g . (M B D C )

C r a d l e t o g r a v e , c o n c e p t o f - C ra d le to grave a ssessm en t c o n sid e rs im ­

p a c ts at each stag e o f a p r o d u c t’s life-cycle, from th e tim e n a tu r a l reso u rces are e x tra c te d a n d p ro ce sse d th ro u g h eac h su b s e q u e n t stag e o f m a n u f a c tu r­ ing, tra n s p o rta tio n , p ro d u c t use a n d , ultim ately, d isp o sal. (EEA) C r e d e n t i a l s - A d o c u m e n t issued b y a S ta te a u th o riz in g a d ele g a te o r d e l­

eg a tio n o f th a t state to a tte n d a c o n fere n c e , in clu d in g , w h ere necessary, for the p u rp o s e o f n e g o tia tin g a n d a d o p tin g th e te x t o f a treaty. (U N T ) C re d ito r R e p o rtin g S y ste m (C R S )

A d a ta b a se jo in tly esta b lish e d by th e O E C D a n d th e W orld B ank in 1967 th a t re p o rts official d e v e lo p m e n t assist­ an c e (O D A ) a n d official a id (OA) a n d o th e r le n d in g to d ev elo p in g c o u n trie s a n d c o u n trie s in tra n sitio n by O E C D m e m b e r c o u n trie s a n d B rc tto n W oods in stitu tio n s. (D F ID ; W B)

C r e e p i n g n o r m a l c y , c o n c e p t o f - A p o litica l te rm u sed to re fe r to slow

tre n d s c o n c e a le d w ith in noisy flu ctu atio n s. I f th e e c o n o m y o r th e e n v iro n ­ m e n t d e te rio ra te s slowly it is difficult to realize th a t ea c h successive y e a r is o n av erag e slightly w o rse th a n th e p re c e d in g year. T h e re fo re , o n e ’s b a se lin e s ta n d a rd is w h a t is c o n sid e re d n o rm a lc y (Jared, 2005). See l a n d s c a p e a m ­ n esia;' B o ile d -fr o g sy n d r o m e .' C r i s e s m a n a g e m e n t - M a n a g e m e n t th a t re sp o n d s to u n fo rese e n c irc u m ­

stan ces w ith n o tim e to p la n . (D F ID ) C r i t i c a l l o a d - T h e n o tio n o f c ritica l lo a d p re s u m e s a n e co lo g ical th re sh o ld

o r in to le ra n c e to th e a c c u m u la tio n o f a p o llu ta n t in an eco sy stem . (EES)

96

C ritic a l m ass (1)

C r i t i c a l m a s s ( I ) - T h e m in im u m m a s s o f fissio n a b le m a te ria l th a t w ill

s u p p o r t a s u s ta in in g c h a in re a c tio n . (N R D C ; M W ) C r it ic a l m a s s (2)

T h e m in im u m a m o u n t o r n u m b e r re q u ir e d fo r s o m e ­

th in g to h a p p e n . (M W ) C ro ss c o m p lia n c e

M o s t fre q u e n tly u se d to in d ic a te th e a tta c h m e n t o f

e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n d itio n s to a g ric u ltu ra l s u p p o r t p o lic ie s. In th e E U d e ­ b a te , th e te r m s c ro s s -c o m p lia n c e a n d e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n d itio n a lity a rc o f­ te n u se d in te rc h a n g e a b ly to d e s c rib e th e lin k in g o f a f a r m e r ’s e lig ib ility fo r a g ric u ltu ra l su b sid ie s to e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n d itio n s . (E E A ) C r o s s c u t t i n g i s s u e s ( a l s o c r o s s - s e c t o r a l i s s u e s ) - T o p ic s o f c o n c e r n

to se v e ra l d iffe re n t se c to rs o r in te re s ts th a t in c lu d e su b je c ts su c h as e d u c a ­ tio n , fin a n c e a n d b u d g e tin g , p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t a n d secu rity , tra d e , te c h n o lo g y tra n sfe r, c o n s u m p tio n a n d p r o d u c tio n p a tte r n s , scie n c e , c a p a c ­ ity b u ild in g a n d in f o rm a tio n . C u ltiv a r

A c u ltiv a te d v a rie ty (genetic, stra in ) o f a d o m e s tic a te d c ro p p la n t.

(G B S) C u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y - T h e v a rie ty o f h u m a n so c ia l s tru c tu re s , b e lie f sys­

te m s, a n d stra te g ie s for a d a p tin g to s itu a tio n s in d iffe re n t p a r ts o f th e w o rld . (G B S) C u m u la tiv e im p a c ts

T h e im p a c ts (positive a n d n e g a tiv e , d ir e c t a n d in d i­

re c t, lo n g - te rm a n d s h o r t-te rm ) a ris in g fro m a ra n g e o f a ctiv itie s th r o u g h ­ o u t a n a r e a o r re g io n , w h e re e a c h in d iv id u a l efTcct m a y n o t b e sig n ific a n t if ta k e n in iso la tio n . S u c h im p a c ts c a n a rise fro m th e g ro w in g v o lu m e o f traffic, th e c o m b in e d effect o f a n u m b e r o f a g ric u ltu re m e a s u re s le a d in g to m o r e in te n siv e p r o d u c tio n a n d use o f c h e m ic a ls , e tc . C u m u la tiv e im p a c ts in c lu d e a tim e d im e n s io n , sin c e th e y a re c a lc u la te d b a s e d u p o n th e im p a c t o n e n v ir o n m e n ta l re s o u rc e s re s u ltin g fro m c h a n g e s b r o u g h t a b o u t by p a st, p r e s e n t a n d re a s o n a b ly fo re se e a b le fu tu re a c tio n s. (E E A ) C u s t o m a r y i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w - U s u a l a n d e x p e c te d , a lth o u g h u n w ritte n ,

ru le s o f b e h a v io r r e g a r d in g re la tio n s b e tw e e n states. (B E D ) Cuzco

D e claratio n

S e e ‘S o u t h A m e r i c a n

C o m m u n ity o f

N a­

tio n s.’ C y c l i c a l m a c r o - e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s - S p e n d in g m o re w h e n th e e c o n o m y

is d o in g w ell a n d c u ttin g d ra s tic a lly w h e n th e e c o n o m y is d o in g poorly. T h e s e p o lic ie s te n d to le a d to a w id e n in g o f th e in c o m e s p e n d in g g ap , le a d in g to h ig h e r d e b t levels. (W B) S ee ‘T a i l o r - m a d e e c o n o m i e s . '

97

Dd D 8 - A g ro u p o f th e la rg e st M u slim d ev e lo p in g c o u n trie s (based o n a c o m ­ b in a tio n o f th e p o p u la tio n o f th e M u slim c o m m u n ity a n d th e size o f th e eco n o m y ) esta b lish e d to im p ro v e th e lives o f th e citizens o f these c o u n trie s a n d to p u sh for th e in te g ra tio n o f th e ir ec o n o m ie s (B an g lad e sh , E g y p t, Ira n , In d o n e s ia M ala y sia, N ig e ria , P ak ista n , T urkey). DAC

Sec ‘D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e C o m m i t t e e . '

D a ily s u b siste n c e a llo w a n c e ( D S A )

A n a m o u n t o f m o n e y given to a tra v e le r o n official m issio n to c o v er h o u sin g a n d food ex p en ses. (U N )

D an ish In te rn atio n al D e v e lo p m e n t A g e n c y ( D A N ID A )

T h e p rin c i­ p a l a g en cy th ro u g h w h ich D e n m a rk p ro v id es te c h n ic a l assistan ce a n d dis­ trib u te s foreign aid.

D a r w i n D e c l a r a t i o n - A d e c la ra tio n by th e D a rw in W o rk sh o p on R e m o v ­

in g th e T a x o n o m ic Im p e d im e n t (F eb ru a ry 1998) th a t reco g n iz e s th e lack o f sufficient in fra stru c tu re , tra in in g , re se a rc h a n d access to ta x o n o m ic in fo r­ m a tio n re q u ire d for th e c o n se rv a tio n , su sta in a b le use a n d e q u ita b le sh a rin g o f benefits from biodiversity. D A T A - N G O esta b lish e d to tra c k th e p led g es o f th e 20 0 5 (G lcn eag les,

S co tlan d ) G 8 m e e tin g on d e b t relief, tra d e policies, a n d A ID S -H IV tre a t­ m e n t to th e w o rld ’s p o o re s t c o u n tries. (U NW T) Davos m om ent

A refe ren c e to th e W orld E c o n o m ic F o ru m h eld in D a ­ vos, S w itz e rla n d , th o se ‘o n ly -a t-D a v o s e x p e rie n c e s’ w h e n o n e h a s th e u n ­ e x p e c te d o p p o rtu n ity to m ix w ith th e rich a n d p o w erfu l a n d b e w itn ess to th e r a th e r e x tra o rd in a ry sy n erg y th a t o cc u rs w h e n p o w erfu l p e o p le sh a re a p u b lic m o m e n t.

D avos (Sw itze rla n d ) S y m p o s iu m (W E F ).’

S ee th e 'W o r ld E c o n o m i c F o r u m

DCM

A U S G o v e rn m e n t a b b re v ia tio n u se d to in d ic a te D e p u ty C h ie f o f M ission. (U S D O S )

D D T - D ic h lo ro d ip h e n y ltric h lo ro e th a n e , a n in secticid e th a t is h ig h ly toxic

to b io ta, in c lu d in g h u m a n s . T h is is a p e rs iste n t b io c h e m ic a l th a t a c c u m u ­ lates in th e food c h a in . (EEA) D e f a c t o - In fact (as o p p o se d to in law, dejure). (BLD)

D e jure

D e ju re - In law (as o p p o s e d to in fact, de facto). (BLD) D e lege f e r e n d a - W h a t the law o u g h t to be (as o p p o s e d to w h a t the law is).

(BLD) D e b a t e E u r o p e —A m e c h a n is m establish ed in ‘2 001 a n d str e n g th e n e d in 2006

to facilitate public in p u t o n issues o f im p o r ta n c e to the c o n tin e n t th a t will be d e b a te d in o n e o f the E U g o v e rn in g bodies. By involving citizens a n d civil so­ ciety closely in these d ebates, fresh im p e tu s can be given to the w hole process o f E u r o p e a n ex p a n sio n a n d in te g ra tio n . T h is d e b a te will m a k e it possible to b ette r define objectives, establish a d e lim ita tio n o f pow ers, develop m o r e ind e p th policies a n d im prove th e U n i o n ’s m e th o d s a n d in stru m en ts. (EU) D e b t b u y-b ack

P u rc h a se by a d e b t o r o f all o r a p a r t o f its d e b t, usually at a d isc o u n t from the original face value. (WB; A M )

D e b t for nature sw a p

D e b t-fo r-n a tu re -sw a p s c o nv ert u n p a id o r u n c o l­ lectible loans to in d e b te d cou n trie s into funds for co n serv a tio n activities in those countries. A sw ap o c c u rs w h e n a c o u n tr y allows a foreign investor to a c q u ire a p o r tio n o f its d e b t held by a c re d ito r b a n k . T h e d e b t is sub se q u e n tly d o n a t e d or p u r c h a s e d at a discou nt, usually by a n o n -p ro fit N G O , a n d is th e n co n v e rte d into n a tio n a l c u rre n c y b o n d s a n d e x p e n d e d as p e r th e te r m s o f a c o n tr a c t b e tw ee n the c re d ito r bank(s), the p u r c h a s in g N G O a n d the G o v e r n ­ m e n t. (EES)

D e b t r e lie f

D e b t relief m a y take the fo rm o f refinancing, re o rg a n iz atio n , re sc h e d u lin g o r cancellation o f r e p a y m e n ts a n d / o r interest d u e o n a loan. A loan is re fin a n c ed w h e n the c re d ito r c o u n tr y m a k e s a n e w loan to en a b le the d e b to r c o u n tr y to m e e t the d e b t service p a y m e n ts o n an earlier loan. A loan is re sc h e d u le d w h e n the a m o rtiz a tio n o r interest p a y m e n ts o r b o th on the o u t ­ sta n d in g p o r tio n are r e a r r a n g e d to m a k e p a y m e n t easier. (D FID )

D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n - T h e g e n e ral te rm for a tra n sfe r o f a u th o rity a n d / o r re ­

sponsibility for p e r f o r m in g a functio n from the top m a n a g e m e n t o f a n o r g a n i­ z ation o r th e c e n tra l g o v e r n a n c e level o f a n institution to low er level units or the priv ate sector. (U N D P ) D e c e n t r a l i z e d e n e r g y p a t h ( D E ) - T h e g e n e ra tio n o f electricity at the p o in t

o f its use regardless o f p l a n t size, fuel o r technology. D e c i s i o n - A fo r m a l a g r e e m e n t th a t leads to b in d in g actions. It b e c o m e s p a r t

o f the ag re e d b o d y o f decisions th a t d irect the w o rk o f a C O P o r o th e r gov­ e r n in g body. D e c i s i o n 21/21 - A decision o f the U N E P G o v e rn in g C o u n c il th a t e s ta b ­

lished a n O p e n - e n d e d I n te rg o v e r n m e n ta l G r o u p o f M inisters to u n d e r ta k e a c o m p re h e n siv e po licy -o rien ted assessm ent o f w eaknesses in existing in t e r n a ­ tional e n v iro n m e n ta l institutions a n d e x a m in e op tion s for s tr e n g th e n e d in te r ­ n a tio n a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn an c e . (U N E P)

99

D e cla ra tio n

D e claratio n

in g o n

- A j o i n t s ta te m e n t by tw o o r m o re sta te s th a t is b in d ­ th o se sta te s m a k in g th e d e c la ra tio n (m a n d a to r y d e c la ra tio n ).

N o n - m a n d a to r y d e c la ra tio n s m a y b e n o n -b in d in g . T h e te r m m a y also re ­ fe r to a n ‘in te r p r e tiv e ’ d e c la ra tio n fro m a sta te as to its u n d e r s ta n d in g o f so m e m a t te r c o v e re d by a tre a ty b u t th e s e a re n o t th e s a m e as re s e rv a tio n s. (U N T ) D e c l a r a t i o n a n d P l a n o f A c t i o n o f B a r b a d o s - T h e fo r m a l s ta te m e n t

p r o d u c e d by p a r tic ip a tin g sta te s in th e G lo b a l C o n fe re n c e o n th e S u s ta in ­ a b le D e v e lo p m e n t o f S m a ll Is la n d D e v e lo p in g S ta te s (S ID S ) h e ld in B rid g ­ e to w n , B a rb a d o s , 25 A p ril 6 M ay , 1 9 9 4 . T h e B a rb a d o s D e c la ra tio n m a d e a c o m m itm e n t to specific p o lic ie s, a c tio n s a n d m e a s u re s to b e ta k e n a t th e n a tio n a l, re g io n a l a n d in te r n a tio n a l lev el to e n a b le S ID S to a c h ie v e su s­ ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t. It re c o g n iz e d th e sp e c ia l c o n s tra in ts to s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t th a t S ID S face e c o n o m ic a lly , e n v ir o n m e n ta lly a n d so cially by v irtu e o f th e ir sm a ll size. It c a lle d fo r th e a ssista n c e o f re g io n a l a n d in te r ­ n a tio n a l e n titie s, b o th g o v e rn m e n ta l a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l, to e n g a g e in a p ro g r a m o f a c tio n a im e d a t th e s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e S ID S . (U N E P ; U N ) D e c o m p o s it io n (b io lo gic a l)

T h e a c tio n o f m ic ro o rg a n is m s b re a k in g d o w n o rg a n ic c o m p o u n d s in to s im p le r o n e s a n d re s u ltin g in th e re le a se o f en erg y . (S F W M D )

D e e p e co lo gy

A p h ilo s o p h y th a t a rg u e s th a t h u m a n s a re p a r t o f a la rg e r

e c o lo g ic a l sy ste m , a n d th a t th e re a liz a tio n o f th is in te rc o n n e c te d n e s s is fu n ­ d a m e n ta l fo r m a in ta in in g th e h e a lth a n d in te g rity o f e co sy ste m s. (A M ) D e f e n s i v e e x p e n d i t u r e - A fa c to r c a lc u la te d fro m w h a t p e o p le o r c o m ­

m u n itie s a re o b s e rv e d to s p e n d to p r o te c t th e m se lv e s a g a in s t a p o te n tia l o r a n a c tu a l d e c lin e in th e ir e n v ir o n m e n ta l q u ality . P e o p le b u y g o o d s a n d serv ices, w h ic h h e lp th e m to p re s e rv e th e e n v ir o n m e n t a n d re d u c e p e rs o n a l o r c o m m u n ity risk levels. (E E A ) S ee ‘C o n t i n g e n t v a l u a t i o n . ' D e f i n i t i v e s i g n a t u r e - A w a y o f e s ta b lis h in g th e c o n s e n t o f th e sta te to b e

b o u n d by a tr e a ty th a t is n o t s u b je c t to ra tific a tio n , a c c e p ta n c e o r a p p ro v a l. (U N T ) D e fo re sta tio n

T h e c h a n g e o f fo re ste d la n d s to n o n -fo re s t la n d s , w ith a

d e p le tio n o f tre e c o v e r to less th a n 10 p c rc e n t. T h e re m o v a l o f fo re st s ta n d s b y c u ttin g a n d b u r n in g to p ro v id e la n d fo r a g r ic u ltu r a l p u rp o s e s , re s id e n tia l o r in d u s tria l b u ild in g sites, ro a d s , e tc ., o r by h a rv e s tin g th e tre e s fo r b u ild in g m a te ria ls o r fuel. (IP C C ; E E S ) S ec ‘C l e a r c u t t i n g . ’ D e l e g a t i o n - A g ro u p re p r e s e n tin g o th e r s , w h ic h m a y in c lu d e h ig h -le v e l

re p re s e n ta tiv e s o f r e le v a n t m in is trie s in c lu d in g fo re ig n a ffairs, te c h n ic a l e x p e rts a n d , in c re asin g ly , N G O re p re s e n ta tiv e s ; th e g r a n t o f a u th o r ity to a p e rs o n to a c t o n b e h a lf o f o n e o r m o re o th e rs , fo r a g re e d p u rp o s e s . (U N ; eD )

100

D e m a rsch /D em a rc h e

D e m a r s c h / D e m a r c h e - A d ip lo m atic o r political initiative o r m aneuver. A

p etitio n o r protest p re se n ted th ro u g h d ip lo m atic channels. (M W ) D e m o c r a c y d e fic it

A d e m o cracy deficit is co n sid ered to be o ccu rrin g w hen ostensibly d em o cra tic o rg an izatio n s o r institu tio n s (particularly gov­ ern m en ts) are seen to be falling short o f fulfilling the principles o f d e m o c­ racy in th eir p ractices o r o p e ra tio n . (WP)

D e m o g r a p h ic , E n v ir o n m e n ta l and Se curity Issu e s Project ( D E S I P )

- A p ro ject th a t is in te n d ed to help illu m in ate co n n ectio n s b etw een en v iro n ­ m en tal scarcity a n d political conflict. T h e p ro je c t w as to com pile in fo rm a ­ tion on th e w orld ’s w ars an d tro u b le spots b u t now includes in fo rm atio n on the d e m o g rap h ic , political an d en v iro n m e n ta l factors th a t im p a c t h u m a n a n d o th e r life on the p lan et. (D ESIP) D e p a r t m e n t f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t ( D F I D ) - T h e p rin cip al

o rg an izatio n th ro u g h w hich th e U K pro v id es tech n ical assistance a n d dis­ tributes foreign aid. D e p e n d e n c y - A la n d o r te rrito ry g e o g rap h ically distinct from the c o u n try

g overn in g it, a n d held in tru st o r as a possession. (M W ) D e p l e t i o n q u o t a s - Q u o ta s th a t set limits on the a m o u n t o f a resource th a t

can be used o r e x tracted . (AM) D e p o sit-re fu n d system

S u rch arg e on the price o f p o ten tially pollu tin g products. W h e n p o llu tio n is avoided by re tu rn in g the p ro d u c ts o r th eir re ­ siduals, a full o r p a rtia l refu n d o f th e su rch arg e is g ra n te d . (EEA)

D e p o sitio n

T h e tran sfer o f substances in th e air to surfaces, in clu d in g soil, vegetation, surface w ate r o r in d o o r surfaces, by d ry o r w et processes. (EEA)

D e p o s i t o r y - T h e in stitution actin g as the c u sto d ian o f a treaty an d th a t

is e n tru sted w ith several specific functions re g a rd in g the co m m itm en ts o f the parties: accep ts notifications a n d d o c u m e n ts related to treaties, exam ines w h e th e r all fo rm a l re q u ire m e n ts are m et, registers a n d deposits all related d o cu m en ts, a n d notifies the parties o f all rele v a n t actio n s re g a rd in g the tre a ­ ty. (U N T ) D e s a l i n a t i o n / D e s a l i n i z a t i o n - The rem oval o f salt from brackish o r sea­

w ater in o rd e r to m ake it d rinkable. T h e rem o v al o f salt from the u p p e r h orizons o f the soil to m ake it m o re p ro d u ctiv e. (EES; USEPA) Desert

A d ry place classified by U N E S C O as arid , sem i-arid o r hyperarid. (U N E S C O )

D e sertification

T h e progressive d estru ctio n o r d eg ra d a tio n o f vegetative cover especially in arid o r sem i-arid regions b o rd e rin g existing deserts. (FAO; EES)

101

D esertification C onven tion

D e s e r t i f i c a t i o n C o n v e n t i o n - See ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n v e n t i o n to C o m ­

b a t D e s e r tific a t io n in C o u n tr ie s E x p e r ie n c in g S e r io u s D r o u g h t a n d / o r D e s e r t if ic a t io n , P a r tic u la r ly in A frica (U N C C D ).’ D étente - A n easin g o f ten sio n b e tw e e n states, (cl)) D e tritu s

P la n t o r a n im a l d e b ris th a t o c c u rs as sm all p a rtic les a fte r h a v in g b een a tta c k e d by o rg a n ism s o f decay. (M W )

D e v e lo p e d

c o u n t r y - G en erally , a h ig h ly in d u s tria liz e d c o u n try usu ally from th e so-calle d ‘N o r th ’ o r ‘W e st.’ E c o n o m ie s u sed to be classified as d e ­ v elo p ed if th ey w ere m e m b e rs o f O E C D . B ut to d a y th e re is som e c o n fu sio n as d iffe re n t o rg a n iz a tio n s use d ifferen t d efin itio n s. T h e O E C D m e m b e rsh ip , for e x a m p le , in clu d e s p o o re r c o u n trie s su ch as M ex ic o a n d P o la n d , yet e x ­ cludes w e a lth ie r c o u n trie s su ch as H o n g K o n g , S in g a p o re a n d th e U n ite d A ra b E m ira te s , w h ich have G D P ra n k in g s e q u iv a le n t to sev eral E u ro p e a n n a ­ tions. The Economist gave th e follow ing e x a m p le s in discu ssin g th e co m p le x ity o f c o u n try classifications: ‘J P M o rg a n C h a se a n d th e U n ite d N a tio n s c o u n t H o n g K ong, S in g a p o re , S o u th K o re a a n d T a iw a n as e m e rg in g eco n o m ies. M o rg a n S tan ley C a p ita l In te rn a tio n a l in clu d e s S o u th K o re a a n d T a iw a n in its e m e rg in g -m a rk e t in d e x , b u t keeps H o n g K o n g a n d S in g a p o re in its develo p e d -m a rk e ts in d ex . T h e IM F sc h iz o p h re n ic a lly c o u n ts all fo u r as “ d e v e lo p ­ in g ’' in its I n te rn a tio n a l F in a n c ia l S tatistics b u t as “ a d v a n c e d e c o n o m ie s” in its W o rld E c o n o m ic O u tlo o k .’ (The Economist 2006)

D e v e lo p in g co u n try

L ow - a n d m id d lc -in c o m c c o u n trie s in w hich m o st p eo p le have a lo w er s ta n d a rd o f living w ith access to few er g o o d s a n d services th a n do m o st p e o p le in h ig h -in c o m e c o u n trie s. T h e r e arc c u rre n tly a b o u t 125 d ev elo p in g c o u n trie s w ith p o p u la tio n s o v er 1 m illion; in 1998, th e ir to ta l p o p u la tio n w as m o re th a n 5.0 b illio n . T h e te rm is u se d to cate g o rize c o u n trie s eligible for official d e v e lo p m e n t assistance. (W B)

D e v e l o p m e n t - P rocess o f in c re a sin g c a p ac itie s in th e c o n te x t o f a d efin e d

go al o r set o f goals, c o m m o n ly o f a p a rtic u la r sp h ere at th e level o f c ith e r a co m m u n ity , state o r a n o rg a n iz a tio n (social d e v e lo p m e n t, e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p ­ m e n t, in stitu tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t, etc.) (U N D P ) A p ro ce ss m a d e u p o f activities le a d in g to th e use, im p ro v e m e n t, o r c o n se rv a tio n o f n a tu ra l a n d e c o n o m ic goo d s a n d services in o rd e r to m a in ta in a n d im p ro v e th e life q u a lity o f a ta rg e te d h u m a n p o p u la tio n . (O A S, 1987) T h e g ro w th o f a p e rs o n o r society to w a rd its full p o te n tia l. It is o ften used to m e a n ‘in d u s tria liz a tio n ’ o r ‘m o d ­ e rn iz a tio n ’ o f c o u n trie s o f th e S o u th , w ith th e u n d e rly in g a ss u m p tio n th a t th e in d u s tria l m o d e l is w o rth em u la tin g . (R) D e v e lo p m e n t A ssista n c e C o m m itte e ( D A C )

A fo ru m for c o n su lta tio n a m o n g m o st o f th e d o n o r c o u n trie s, to g e th e r w ith th e E C , o n how to in ­ crease th e level a n d effectiveness o f aid flows to all aid re c ip ie n t co u n trie s. D A C sets th e d efin itio n s a n d c rite ria for aid statistics in te rn a tio n a lly . (D F ID ) T h e follow ing in c lu d es m e m b e r states a n d su p p o rtin g a g e n cie s w ith in those c o u n trie s. See O D A ( l ) ; O D A ( 2 ) .

102

Developm ent Assistance Committee (DAC)

Australia -

AusAid, Australian Agency for International Development

Austria -

BK A , Federal Chancellery

-

BM A, Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs

-

O e K B , Oesterreichische Kontrollbank AG

Belgium -

D G IC , Directorate General for International Cooperation

-

MF, Ministry of Finance

Canada -

C G , Canadian Government

-

C ID A , Canadian International Development Agency

-

IR D C , International Development Research Centre

Denmark -

D A N C E D , Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development

-

D A N ID A , Danish International Development Agency

-

MFA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

-

EDF, European Development Fund

-

EIB, European Investment Bank

EC

Finland -

MFA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

-

F IN N ID A , Finish International Development Agency

France -

AFD, Agence Française Développement

-

FSP, Fonds de solidarité prioritaire

-

M AE, Ministère des Affaires Étrangères

-

Natexis, Nateis Banque Populaire

Germany -

BM Z, Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche

-

FO, Foreign Office

-

G T Z , Duetsche Gesellschaft für Technische

-

K FW , Kreditanstalt fürWiederaufbau

-

LG, Federal States and Local Governments

Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung

Zusammenarbeit

Ireland -

DFA, Departm ent of Foreign Affairs

Italy -

C A , Central Administration D G CS, Direzione

Generale

per la

Cooperazione

allo

Sviluppo -

LA, Local Administration

-

M C ,Mediocrecito Centrale

-

SACE, Sezione Speciale per l’Assicurazione del Credito all’Esportazione

103

D e v e lo p m e n t bonk



• •



• •

Japan - JBIC,Japan Bank for International Cooperation - JICA,Japan International Cooperation Agency MOFA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs The Netherlands MFA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Norway - MFA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs NORAD, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation Portugal - GP, Portuguese Government ICP, Portuguese Cooperation Institute Spain - EC O N , Ministry of Economy and Finance - EDUC, Ministry of Education and Science - ENV, Ministry of Environment - IC O , Institute de Credito Oficial - MFA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sweden - SIDA, Swedish International Development Authority Switzerland - DD C, Direction de Développement et de la Coopération - SECO, Secrétariat d’Etat à l’Economie UK

-

DFID, Department for International Development C D C, C D C Capital Partners PLC

-

USAID, US Agency for International Development STATE, US State Department TDA.USTrade and Development Agency

US

D e v e l o p m e n t b a n k - See ‘W o r l d B a n k . D e v e lo p m e n t b a n k (re g io n a l)

A m u ltila te ra l in s titu tio n th a t p ro v id e s fin a n c in g fo r d e v e lo p m e n t n e e d s o f a re g io n a l g ro u p o f c o u n trie s . E x a m ­ ples in c lu d e : th e A fric a n , A sia n , Isla m ic , C a r ib b e a n a n d In te r-A m e r ic a n D e v e lo p m e n t B anks.

D e v e l o p m e n t c o o p e r a t i o n - A te r m o fte n u se d s y n o n y m o u s ly w ith o v e r­

seas d e v e lo p m e n t to in d ic a te th e in te r d e p e n d e n t n a tu r e o f th e d e v e lo p ­ m e n t p ro c e s s a n d to e m p h a s iz e th e c o o p e ra tio n b e tw e e n p o o r e r a n d ric h e r c o u n trie s . D e v e lo p m e n t round

W T O n e g o tia tio n s in itia te d in D o h a , Q a t a r in

2001 th a t e m p h a s iz e th e n e e d to e lim in a te tr a d e p ro te c tio n is m (p rim a rily in a g ric u ltu re ). D i a s p o r a - P e o p le w h o h a v e b e e n fo rc ed o r in d u c e d to settle o u ts id e o f

th e ir tr a d itio n a l h o m e la n d d u e to m a n - c a u s e d o r n a tu r a l d isa ste rs, b e in g

104

Diffuse pollution

disp ersed th r o u g h o u t o th e r p a rts o f th e w o rld , a n d th e e n su in g d e v e lo p ­ m e n ts in th e ir d isp e rsa l a n d cu ltu re. (M W ; W P ) See ‘R e f u g e e , ’ ‘ E n v i r o n ­ m e n ta l re fu g e e .’ D iffu se p o llu tion

P o llu tio n from w id e sp re a d activ ities a n d n o t n e c essar­ ily from a single o r d iscrete so u rce, fo r e x a m p le ac id ra in , p esticid es, u rb a n ru n o ff, etc. (EEA)

D i g i t a l d i v i d e - T h e d ig ital d ivide is a s o c ia l/p o litic a l issue re fe rrin g to th e

so cio -eco n o m ic g a p b e tw e en c o m m u n itie s th a t have access to c o m p u te rs a n d th e in te r n e t a n d th o se th a t d o n o t. T h e te rm also refers to g ap s b etw e e n g ro u p s re g a rd in g th e ir ab ility to use in fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n s te c h ­ nologies effectively, d u e to d ifferin g levels o f lite rac y a n d te c h n ic a l skills, as w ell as th e g ap b e tw e e n those g ro u p s th a t have access to quality, useful d ig ital c o n te n t a n d tho se th a t d o n o t. (W P) D ioxin

A m a n -m a d e c h e m ic a l b y p ro d u c t fo rm e d d u rin g th e m a n u fa c tu re o f o th e r ch em ic a ls a n d d u rin g in c in e ra tio n . S tu d ie s show th a t d io x in is a m o n g th e m o st p o te n t a n im a l c a rc in o g e n s ev er tested , as well as th e cause o f severe w eig h t loss, liver p ro b le m s, k id n ey p ro b le m s, b irth defects a n d d e a th . (N R D G )

D i p l o m a c y - T h e a rt a n d skill o f c o n d u c tin g n e g o tia tio n s b e tw e e n states o r

b etw een a state a n d a n in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n . A fo rm o f in te rn a tio n a l d isp u te se ttle m e n t th a t a tte m p ts to reco n c ile p a rtie s to a d is a g re e m e n t by use o f n eg o tia tio n , m e d ia tio n o r inquiry. (M W ) D i p l o m a t ( I ) - A n in fo rm a l te rm for a g o v e rn m e n t official w h o is a skilled

n e g o tia to r for th e p o sitio n o f a state. (M W ) D i p l o m a t (2)

A ra n k en titlin g a re p re se n ta tiv e o f a state to c e rta in p riv i­ leges such as im m u n ity fro m a rre st a n d p ro s e c u tio n w h en o n official statu s o r p e rfo rm in g official d u ties. (M W )

D i p l o m a t (3) - A ra n k rese rv ed fo r th e h e a d o f a n in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a ­

tio n , g e n e ra lly c a rry in g th e sam e p riv ileg es a n d im m u n itie s as a d ip lo m a t o f a state. (M W ) D ip lo m atic bag

See ‘D i p l o m a t i c p o u c h . ’

D i p l o m a t i c c o r p s - T h e b o d y o f th e h ig h e s t-ra n k in g fo reign d ip lo m a ts in

a given country . T h e title ‘D e a n ’ o f th e C o rp s is u su ally a c c o rd e d to th e longest serv in g d ip lo m a t in th a t p o st (ra n k /c o u n try ). T h e D e a n m a y r e p ­ re se n t the C o rp s in collective d ealin g s w ith h o st c o u n try officials o n m a t­ ters o f a c e re m o n ia l o r a d m in istra tiv e c h a ra c te r affectin g th e C o rp s as a w hole. (eD) D i p l o m a t i c i m m u n i t y - A n e x e m p tio n from lo cal ta x a tio n a n d c o u rt a ctio n

105

Diplom atic pouch

in a foreign c o u n try g r a n te d by in te r n a tio n a l law to m e m b e r s o f a d ip lo ­ m a tic service above a n e g o tia te d ra n k ( d e p e n d in g on the c o u n tr y a n d / o r in ­ te r n a tio n a l org a n iza tio n ) a n d their families. T h e p u r p o s e o f these privileges a n d im m u n itie s is n o t to benefit individuals b u t to en su re th e efficient a n d ef­ fective p e r f o r m a n c e o f th e ir official missions o n b e h a lf o f th e ir g o v e rn m e n ts o r o rga n iz a tio ns. M o s t o f these privileges a n d im m u n itie s are n o t ab solute in th a t law e n f o r c e m e n t ca n p u r s u e d ip lo m a ts w h o b r e a k the law, w ith the p e r ­ p e tr a to r s usually d e p o r te d to th e ir h o m e c o u n tr y for p ro se c u tio n d e p e n d in g on the type o f in fraction c la im e d by the h o st c o u n tr y o r a ctually c o m m itte d by the d ip lo m a t. (U N ; U S D O S ) Diplomatic

p o u c h - A sealed mail p o u c h used to c a r r y c o m m u n i c a ­ tions b e tw e e n a n em ba ssy o r in te r n a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n a n d its h o m e of­ fice, the co n te n ts o f w hich have d ip lo m a tic i m m u n ity to search a n d / o r seizure. (YVP)

D i p l o m a t i c p r i v i l e g e — See ' D i p l o m a t i c i m m u n i t y . ' D i p l o m a t i c Q u a r t e t - S ee ‘M i d d l e E a s t Q u a r t e t / Diplomatic Rank

(in o r d e r o f p recedence):

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary •

Ministers Plenipotentiary



Ministers



Chargé d’Affaires ad hoc or pro tempore Chargé d’Affaires ad interim Minister-Counselors



Counselors (or Senior Secretaries in the absence of Counselors)



Civilian Attachés



First Secretaries

Army, Naval and Air Attachés



Second Secretaries



Assistant Army,

Naval

and A ir Attachés, Civilian Assistant

Attachés Third Secretaries and Assistant Attachés

D i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n - A te r m generally used to indicate a cash c o n tr i­

b u tio n to a p r o g r a m o r project. D e b t relief o r restru cturin g, e a r m a r k e d g r a n t m o n e y s o r o th e r financial tools resulting in ‘effective c a s h ’ are also c o n sid e re d as direct con tribu tion s. (U N ; W B) See ‘D e b t r e l i e f , ’ D o n o r c o n fe r e n c e / In -k in d c o n tr ib u tio n .’ Direct use value

A n e c o n o m ic value derived from the dire ct use o r in te r ­ a ction w ith a reso urce o r reso urce system. (GBA)

D i r e c t i o n de D é v e l o p p e m e n t et de la C o o p é r a t i o n ( D D C ) - T h e p rinc ip a l

agency th ro u g h w hich S w itze rlan d delivers tec h n ic a l assistance a n d d istrib ­ utes foreign aid.

106

D irezio ne G e n e r a le p er la C o o p e ra z io n e a llo S vilu p p o ( D G C S )

D i r e z i o n e G e n e r a t e p e r la C o o p e r a z i o n e alio S v i l u p p o ( D C C 5 ) - T h e

p r in c ip a l a g e n c y th r o u g h w h ic h Ita ly d e liv e rs te c h n ic a l a ss ista n c e a n d d is ­ trib u te s fo re ig n a id . D ire c to ra te

G ene ral fo r D e v e lo p m e n t C o o p e ra tio n

(D G IS )

T he

p r in c ip a l a g e n c y th r o u g h w h ic h T h e N e th e rla n d s d e liv e rs te c h n ic a l assist­ a n c e a n d d is trib u te s fo re ig n a id . D ire c to ra te

G ene ral fo r In te rn a tio n a l C o o p e ra tio n

(D G IC ) - T he

p rin c ip a l a g e n c y th r o u g h w h ic h B elg iu m d e liv e rs te c h n ic a l a ssista n c e a n d d is trib u te s fo re ig n a id . D i s a s t e r - A s in g u la r e v e n t in sp a c e a n d tim e in w h ic h loss o f life, d a m a g e to

p ro p e r ty o r loss o f liv e lih o o d o c c u rs . (E E S) D i s a s t e r m a n a g e m e n t - A co lle ctiv e te r m e m p lo y e d to e n c o m p a s s all a s­

p e c ts o f p la n n in g fo r a n d r e s p o n d in g to d isa ste rs. (P A H O ) D is a st e r m itig a tio n

L o n g -te rm m e a s u re s to re d u c e th e scale a n d / o r th e

d u r a tio n o f a d v e rs e effects o f h a z a r d s o n a so cie ty o r c o m m u n ity th a t is a t risk, by re d u c in g th e v u ln e r a b ility to its p e o p le , s tru c tu r e s , se rv ic e s a n d e c o ­ n o m ic activ ities. (O A S , 1987) D is a ste r p re ve n tio n

M e a s u re s a im e d a t re d u c in g th e c h a n c e s o f o c c u r­ re n c e o f a h a z a r d e v e n t a n d / o r p re v e n tin g o r r e d u c in g th e im p a c t o f th e

d isaster. (D F ID ) D i s c h a r g e ( o r f l o w ) - T h e ra te o f w a te r m o v e m e n t p a s t a rc fc rc n c c p o in t,

m e a s u re d as v o lu m e p e r u n it tim e (u su ally e x p re s se d as c u b ic fe e t o r c u b ic m e te rs p e r seco n d ). (S F W M D ) D isin c e n tiv e s

In th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n te x t, a m e c h a n is m th a t in te rn a liz e s

th e co sts o f th e use o f a n d / o r d a m a g e to e n v ir o n m e n ta l re s o u rc e s, a n d in so d o in g p ro v id e s e c o n o m ic in c e n tiv e s to re d u c e th e u se o f o r d a m a g e to th e e n v ir o n m e n t. E x a m p le s in c lu d c u s e r fees, n o n -c o m p lia n c e fees, fines fo r d a m ­ ag es a n d c le a n u p , lia b ility ru les, p e r f o r m a n c e b o n d s , e tc . (A M ) D i s i n f o r m a t i o n - e r r o n e o u s m a te r ia l in te n tio n a lly p r o m o te d to c o n fu se , d is­

tr a c t a n d o th e rw ise m a k e it m o re d ifficu lt to d e te r m in e th e tr u th . (WTP) D i s s o l v e d o x y g e n - A m o u n t o f g a se o u s o x y g e n (0 .2) a c tu a lly p r e s e n t in w a te r

e x p re s se d in te r m s e ith e r o f its p re s e n c e in th e v o lu m e o f w a te r (m illig ra m s o f 0 2 p e r liter) o r o f its s h a re in s a tu r a te d w a te r (p e rc e n ta g e ) c o m m o n ly u se d as a n in d ic a to r o f w a te r ‘h e a lt h ’ o r q u ality . (E E A ; U S E P A ) D iv isio n fo r th e A d v a n c e m e n t of W o m e n ( D A W )

D A W w as e s ta b ­

lish ed in 194 6 as th e ‘S e c tio n o n th e S ta tu s o f W o m e n , H u m a n R ig h ts D iv i­ sio n , a n d D e p a r tm e n t o f S o c ia l A ffa irs’ o f th e U N . In 1 9 7 2 , th e se c tio n w as u p g r a d e d to th e 'B ra n c h fo r th e P ro m o tio n o f E q u a lity fo r M e n a n d W o m e n ’

107

D-level staff

a n d in 1993, it w as m o v ed to N ew Y ork as a p a r t o f th e D e p a rtm e n t fo r Policy C o o rd in a tio n a n d S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t (D P C S D ), w h ich , in 1996 b e ­ c a m e th e D e p a rtm e n t o f E c o n o m ic a n d S ocial A ffairs (D E SA ). D A W acte d as th e su b sta n tiv e s e c re ta ria t fo r th e F o u rth W o rld C o n fe re n c e o n W o m e n in B eijing (1995), th e la rg e st c o n fere n c e in th e h isto ry o f th e U n ite d N atio n s. (C E D A W ) D - l e v e l s t a f f - A te rm u sed to c a te g o riz e d ire c to r-le v e l/p ro fe ssio n a l level sta ff

(and s a la ry /b e n e fit p ack ag e) in th e U N a n d O A S system s, s ta rtin g a t D1 a n d rising to D ‘2. T h e se staff m e m b e rs c a rry a re d Laissez-Passer travel d o c u m e n t. (U N D P ) D N A - D e o x y rib o n u c le ic a cid - c o m p risin g m o lecu les th a t c a rry th e g en etic

in fo rm a tio n n e c e ssa ry for th e o rg a n iz a tio n a n d fu n c tio n in g o f m o st living cells a n d c o n tro l th e in h e rita n c e o f c h a ra c teristics. D o h a M in iste ria l D e cla ra tio n

T h e final d o c u m e n t o f th e W o rld T ra d e O rg a n iz a tio n ’s fo u rth m in iste ria l c o n fe re n c e (N o v e m b e r 2001) in w h ich th e 142 m e m b e rs o f W T O d e c id e d to la u n c h a new th re e -y e a r ro u n d o f n e g o tia ­ tions (the D o h a D e v e lo p m e n t A g en d a) b a se d o n fu rth e r tr a d e lib e ra liz a tio n a n d c o m m itm e n ts to b u ild c a p a c ity in d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s. It also a p p ro v e d th e accession o f C h in a a n d T a iw a n to th e W T O .

D o m e s t i c b e n e fits

T h e ben efits th a t a c c ru e to a c o u n try from a G E F p ro je c t a im e d a t ach ie v in g g lo b a l e n v iro n m e n ta l benefits. T h e c o u n try b e a rs th e e x p e n d itu re for th e d o m estic benefits. (G E F )

D o n o r c o n f e r e n c e - A g a th e rin g called by a c o m p e te n t a u th o rity (n o rm a lly a

c o u n try o r in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n ) to receive a n d / o r fo rm a liz e p led g es o f su p p o rt for a specific activity, cau se o r crises. P ledges o f su p p o rt can tak e th e fo rm o f d ire c t (cash o r e a rm a rk e d g ra n t funds), in d ire c t (d eb t relief, co n ce s­ sio n a ry loans) o r in -k in d (n o n -cash such as office sp ace, tra n s p o rta tio n services, in fo rm a tio n , etc.) su p p o rt. N o rm a lly th e type a n d level o f su p p o rt h av e e ith e r b e e n d e c id e d by a d o n o r o r n e g o tia te d p rio r to th e c o n fe re n c e a n d o n ly fo rm a l a n d p u b lic a n n o u n c e m e n t o f w h a t h as b e e n a lre a d y n e g o tia te d is p re s e n te d . (U N ) D o n o r c o u n t r y - A n a tio n th a t p a rtic ip a te s in th e d ire c t tr a n s f e r /c o n tr ib u ­

tio n o f funds, ex p ertise o r e q u ip m e n t th ro u g h g ra n ts o r low in te re st lo an s to d e v elo p in g co u n trie s. D o n o r f a t i g u e - A state in w h ich d o n o rs no lo n g e r c o n trib u te to a cause b e ­

cau se th ey have b e c o m e tire d o f re ce iv in g u rg e n t o r re p e a te d a p p e a ls fo r d o ­ n a tio n s, e ith e r fo r a p a rtic u la r cau se o r in g e n e ra l term s. D o o m s d a y v a u lt

A m assive seed b a n k h o u sin g sp ec im e n s fro m all k n o w n cro p s b u ilt d e e p in a sa n d sto n e m o u n ta in on th e islan d o f S v alb ald , S w ed en h ig h above th e A rctic C ircle a n d m e a n t to sa fe g u a rd c ro p div ersity in th e ev en t o f a g lo b al c a ta stro p h e . (U NW r) S ee ‘F r o z e n A rk.'

108

Double majority

D o u b l e m a j o r i t y - A d o u b le m ajo rity req u ires a m ajo rity to be m a in tain ed

b o th on the basis o f o n e vote p e r country, as well as on the basis o f financial co n trib u tio n s to a fu n d . (G u p ta, 2002) See Q u a l i f i e d “ d o u b l e ” m a j o r ­ ity v o tin g .’ D o u b l e w e i g h t e d m a j o r i t y s y s t e m - System used in the fo rm al vote

p ro ced u re; it is an affirm ative vote re p rese n tin g b o th a 60 p c rc e n t m ajo rity o f the total n u m b e r o f p a rtic ip a n ts an d 60 p e rc e n t m ajo rity o f th e to tal co n tributions. (GEF) Draft agenda

A p ro p o sed p ro g ra m o f w ork n o t yet fo rm ally ap p ro v ed

by a m eeting. D raft annotated agenda

Sec ‘A n n o t a t e d a g e n d a . ’

D r a f t i n g g r o u p ( o r c o m m i t t e e ) - G ro u p established by the c h air o r p re s­

id e n t to facilitate neg o tiatio n s a n d to p re p a re text. N orm ally, observers m ay n o t a tte n d m eetings o f th e d raftin g groups. D r a i n a g e b a s in - A n a re a o f the E a rth ’s surface from w hich surface d ra in ­

age all flows to a single o u tlet stream (a w ate rsh e d in N o rth A m erica). D r i v i n g F orces, P r e s s u r e s , S t a t e s , I m p a c t s a n d R e s p o n s e s ( D P S I R )

T h e E U fram ew o rk for d e sc rib in g /a d d re ssin g in teractio n s b etw een soci­ ety a n d the en v iro n m en t. (EEA) Drought

A p erio d o f deficient p recip itatio n o r ru n o ff e x ten d in g over an indefinite n u m b e r o f days, b u t w ith no set sta n d a rd by w hich to d e te rm in e the a m o u n t o f deficiency n eed ed to co n stitu te a d ro u g h t. T h u s, th ere is no universally a c cep ted q u an titativ e definition o f d ro u g h t; generally, each investigator establishes his o r h e r ow n definition. (U SG S)

D r o u g h t d e r i v a t i v e - See A id i n s u r a n c e . ' DSA

See D a i l y s u b s i s t e n c e a l l o w a n c e . '

D u b l i n P r i n c i p l e s / S t a t e m e n t - T h e D u b lin S ta te m e n t on W ater an d Sus­

tainable D ev elo p m e n t a d o p te d at the In te rn a tio n a l C o n feren ce on W ate r an d the E n v iro n m en t (IC W E ), held in D u b lin , Ire la n d , J a n u a ry 1992. T h e IC W E w as atte n d e d by over 500 p a rtic ip a n ts from m o re th a n 100 co u n tries an d 80 in te rn a tio n a l g o v ern m e n ta l o rg an izatio n s a n d N G O s. T h e four re ­ sulting p rinciples have served as a baseline for n early all w ate r m eetings held since th a t tim e: (i) fresh w a ter is a finite a n d v u ln erab le resource, essential to sustain life, d ev elo p m en t a n d the e n v iro n m en t, (ii) w a te r d e v elo p m en t an d m a n a g e m e n t should be based on a p a rtic ip a to ry a p p ro a c h , involving users, p la n n e rs an d policy-m akers at all levels, (iii) w om en play a c e n tra l p a rt in the provision, m a n a g e m e n t a n d safeg u ard in g o f w ater, a n d (iv) w a ter has an eco nom ic value in all its co m p etin g uses a n d should be reco g n izcd as an eco nom ic good.

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Duty O fficer

D u t y O f f i c e r - R e sponsible p a r ty for e m b a ssy business d u rin g n on-b usiness

hours. D u ty Station

See P os t , P o s t i n g . ’

D u t y t o i n t e r f e r e - An o bligation th a t falls to all n atio n-states to provide

assistance at the re q u e st o f the s u p r a n a tio n a l authority. Obviously, this n o ­ tion is the closest to the o riginal c o n c e p t o f h u m a n ita r ia n inte rv e n tio n . It is also so un dly rejected by the M e m b e r States o f the U n ite d N ation s, w h o see this n o tio n as a n u n a c c e p ta b le in frin g e m e n t o n th eir prerogatives. (WP) See " H u m a n ita r ia n i n t e r v e n t i o n / 'R ig h t to i n t e r f e r e / D y n a m i c s - T h e b e h a v io r o f a system in time. C h a n g e s w ith tim e arc the

essence o f com plexity; a static system is m ere ly a sn a p s h o t w ithin a n evolu­ tio n a r y c o n tin u u m , h o w e v e r interesting it m a y be in its ow n right. (CSG) Dysergy

See N e g a t i v e s u m . ’

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Ee E3 - See ‘E U 3 , ‘ E U 3 + .‘ E6 - See ‘EU6.' E9 - E d u c a tio n M in iste rs from the nine h ig h - p o p u la tio n cou n trie s (B ang­

ladesh. Brazil, C h in a , Egypt, India, In d o n e sia , M exico, N ig e ria a n d P a ­ kistan), c o m p risin g m o r e th a n 50 p e r c e n t o f th e w o rld ’s p o p u la tio n , m e e t regularly to discuss th e E d u c a tio n For All (EFA) initiative o f U N E S C O a n d the U N D e c a d e for E d u c a tio n for S usta in a ble D e v e lo p m e n t. (UN ) E - w a s t e - D isc a rd e d o r recycled c o m p u te r s a n d o t h e r electronic e q u i p m e n t

a n d m aterials. E a r m a r k ( e d ) - Refers to the p r e - c o m m i tm e n t o f taxes o r o th e r public

funds to s u p p o r t pre-specified e x p e n d itu r e items. T h e s e reven ues are g e n ­ erally c h a n n e le d th r o u g h the g e n e r a l b u d g e t o r m a y b e p a id directly to a d e d ic a te d fund. (M W ) E a r t h C h a r t e r - A n initiative to create an in s tr u m e n t th a t w ould set forth

f u n d a m e n ta l principles for sustain able d e v e lo p m e n t called for in 1987 by th e U n i te d N a tio n s W orld C o m m is s io n on E n v ir o n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t a n d in 1994 by the E a r th C o u n c il a n d G r e e n C ross I n te r n a tio n a l with su p p o rt from the D u tc h g o v e r n m e n t. A n E a r th C h a r t e r C o m m iss io n was fo rm e d in 1997 to oversee the p ro je c t a n d a n E a r th C h a r t e r S e c re ta riat was established at the E a r th C o u n c il in C o s ta R ica. (EC) Earth Council, T h e

T h e E a r th C o u n c il is an in te rn a tio n a l N G O that was c re a te d in S e p te m b e r 1992 to p r o m o te a n d a d v a n c e the im p l e m e n ta ­ tion o f the E a rth S u m m it a g re e m e n ts. It is led by a b o d y o f 18 M e m b e rs , d ra w n from the w o r ld ’s political, business, scientific a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l co m m u n itie s. (EC)

E a r t h N e g o t i a t i o n s B u l l e t i n - A r e p o r tin g service for e n v ir o n m e n t a n d

d e v e lo p m e n t nego tia tio n s p u b lish e d by the In te r n a tio n a l Institute for Sus­ tain ab le D e v e lo p m e n t. (IISD) Earth S u m m it

A c o m m o n n a m e for the 1992 U N C o n f e r e n c e on E nvi­ r o n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t ( U N C E D ) , h eld in R io de J a n e ir o , from w hich c a m e five m a jo r d o cu m e n ts: th e R io D e c la ra tio n , Agenda 2 1 , A F ra m e w o rk C o n v e n tio n on C lim a te C h a n g e , A F ra m ew o rk C o n v e n tio n on Biological Diversity a n d a S ta te m e n t o f Principles o n Forests.

Earth Sum m it + 5

E a r t h S u m m i t + 5 - See ‘U N G A S S . ' Earth system

T h e E a rth re g a rd e d as a u n ified system o f in te ra c tin g c o m ­ p o n e n ts , in c lu d in g g e o sp h e re (land), a tm o s p h e re (air), h y d ro s p h e re (w ater an d ice), a n d b io s p h e re (life). (N A SA )

E C - E c o l a b e l ® ( E C E ) - T h e 1992 E C E sc h em e w as d e sig n ed to id en tify

p ro d u c ts th a t arc less h a rm fu l to th e e n v iro n m e n t th a n e q u iv a le n t b ra n d s. E co -lab els m a y be a w a rd e d to p ro d u c ts th a t do n o t c o n ta in c h lo ro ilu o ro c a rb o n s (G FG s), to th o se p ro d u c ts th a t c a n be recy cled , o r to th o se th a t are e n e rg y efficient b a sed o n E G c rite ria . T h e s e co v er th e w h o le life-cycle o f a p ro d u c t, from th e e x tra c tio n o f raw m a te ria ls, th ro u g h m a n u fa c tu re , d is trib u tio n , use a n d d isp o sal. (EEA ) S ee ‘S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a s u r e s , ’ ‘C r a d l e t o c r a d l e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . ' Ec o -c e n trism

See B i o c e n t r i s m . '

E co -c e rtifica tio n

P rocess le a d in g to a p ro d u c tio n u n it b e in g a w a rd e d a certificate by a n in d e p e n d e n t body, c o n firm in g th a t q u a lity c rite ria for m a n a g e m e n t o f n a tu ra l re so u rc e s a n d o th e r e n v iro n m e n ta l q u a lity c rite ria have b een m e t. E co -certific atio n w orks o n a v o lu n ta ry basis: c o m p a n ie s th a t d esire to have a g o o d e n v iro n m e n ta l im ag e are free to tak e p a r t in this process. F or th e co n su m er, th e visible p a r t o f e c o -ce rtifica tio n is an ‘e c o -la b e l’ on th e fin ish ed p ro d u c t, w h ich is re c o g n iz ed as a g u a ra n te e o f m a n a g e m e n t quality.

E c o - d e v e l o p m e n t - C o n c e p t a ttrib u te d to e c o n o m ist Jeffrey S ach s (1976)

th a t c o m b in e d basic n e e d s a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l strateg ies in sp ire d in larg e p a r t by th e 1972 U N S to ck h o lm C o n fe re n c e o n th e H u m a n E n v iro n m e n t. E c o -d e v e lo p m e n t is d ire c te d a t th e ru ra l p o o r a n d e m b ra c e s a n e n v iro n ­ m e n ta lly co n serv ativ e d o c trin e . E c o - e f f i c i e n c y - T h e d eliv ery o f co m p etitiv ely p ric cd g o o d s a n d services

th a t satisfy h u m a n n e e d s a n d im p ro v e q u a lity o f life, w hile pro g ressiv ely re d u c in g ccolo g ical im p a c ts a n d rcso u rc c use. (W B C S D , nd) E c o - f u n d *92 — A n in d e p e n d e n t, n o n -p ro fit o rg a n iz a tio n fo r m o b iliz in g

p riv ate fu n d s to fin an ce n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l activities in su p p o rt o f U N C E D p re p a ra tio n s . E c o - h y d r o l o g y - D e scrib e s re la tio n sh ip s b e tw e e n h y d ro lo g ical processes

a n d b iotic d y n a m ic s at th e c a tc h m e n t scale. (U N E S C O ) E c o -M a n a g e m e n t and A u d it Schem e ( E M A S )

T h e resu lt o f a E u ­ ro p e a n U n io n d irectiv e fo r a fra m e w o rk to im p le m e n t a n d police ‘g re e n ’ la b e lin g sch em es in E U m e m b e r states. (D F ID )

E c o - r e g i o n s - See ‘E c o l o g i c a l r e g i o n s . ’

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Eco-terrorism (1)

E c o - t e r r o r i s m ( I ) - A ny c rim e, in c lu d in g p ro p e rty d a m a g e , v a n d a lism a n d

p e rso n a l in ju ry c o m m itte d in th e n a m e o f d e fe n d in g n a tu re . (U S D O S ) E c o - t e r r o r i s m (2)

A te rm o ften d e sc rib e d as ‘m o n k e y w re n c h in g ’ o r resist­ an ce to th e d e stru c tio n o f n a tu ra l div ersity a n d w ild ern ess. T h e s e activ ities are n o t d ire c te d a g a in st h u m a n b e in g s o r o th e r fo rm s o f life, b u t ra th e r a im e d at m a c h in e s, tools a n d p ro p e rty (public a n d / o r p riv ate) u sed to ‘d e stro y ’ o r oth erw ise im p a c t p u b lic o r p riv a te n a tu ra l re so u rces to a d e g re e c o n sid e re d u n a c c e p ta b le by its p ro p o n e n ts . (G P) See ' M o n k e y w r e n c h i n g . '

Eco lo gica l c o r r id o r

See ' B i o l o g i c a l c o r r i d o r . '

E c o l o g i c a l d e b t (d a y , m o n t h , y e a r ) - A th e o re tic a l c o n c e p t im p ly in g th a t

b ey o n d a c e rta in d ate , a city, re g io n , c o u n try o r th e w o rld is living b ey o n d its e n v iro n m e n ta l m e a n s for th e re m a in d e r o f th e y e a r (m o n th , y ear), o r th e p o in t a t w h ich th e c o n su m p tio n o f re so u rces ex ceed s th e ab ility o f th e p la n ­ et to rep lace th e m (d u rin g th e sa m e tim e fram e). W h ile it m ay be possible to d e te rm in e th a t p o in t fo r a specific in d icato r, fo r e x a m p le fish h a rv e stin g for a given species in a given year, th e re is n o a g re e m e n t in th e scientific c o m ­ m u n ity 011 the suite o f in d ic a to rs th a t w o u ld have to be m e a s u re d to a c tu a lly d e te rm in e a specific d a te to d e c la re an y p o litic a l e n tity to be in ‘ecological d e b t.’ See: 'G a ia “ r e v e n g e ” h y p o t h e s i s . ’ (E N N ) Eco lo gica l e c o n o m ic s

A b ra n c h o f e c o n o m ic s th a t tak es a c c o u n t o f e c o ­ logical p rin c ip le s a n d e x a m in e s e c o n o m ic values o f n o n -m a rk e t p ro d u c ts a n d services. (B C H M ; A M )

Eco lo gica l e n e rge tic s

S ec ‘B i o e n e r g e t i c s /

Eco lo gica l e n v e lo p e

T h e ra n g e w ith in a single ta rg e t o r a ra n g e o f targ e ts resu ltin g from scientific stu d y th a t m e e t c rite ria o r legally estab lish ed lim its w ith in a n a c c e p ta b le co n fid c n c c ra n g e a n d w ith in a specified tim e p e rio d . (EES)

Eco lo gica l fo o t p r in t

Sec E n v i r o n m e n t a l f o o t p r i n t ( i n d i v i d u a l ) , ’ ‘E n v i r o n m e n t a l f o o t p r i n t ( i n d u s t r y ) . '

Eco lo gica l re g io n s

A la n d a re a th a t v aries in size from a few h e c ta re s to th o u s a n d s o f sq u a re k ilo m e te rs a n d h as a u n ified clim ate, geology, to p o g r a ­ phy, soil, p o te n tia l n a tu ra l v e g e ta tio n a n d p re d o m in a n t lan d -u se. (EES)

E c o l o g y - T h e scientific d iscip lin e th a t is c o n c c rn e d w ith th e re la tio n sh ip s

b e tw e e n o rg a n ism s a n d th e ir p a st, p re s e n t a n d fu tu re e n v iro n m e n ts. (ESA) E c o n om ic d e v e lo p m e n t

T h e p ro cess o f im p ro v in g th e q u a lity o f h u ­ m a n life th ro u g h in c re a se d p e r c a p ita in c o m e , re d u c e d poverty, e n h a n c e d in d iv id u a l e c o n o m ic a n d e d u c a tio n a l o p p o rtu n itie s, b e tte r h e a lth a n d n u tritio n , reso u rc e c o n se rv a tio n a n d a c le a n e r e n v iro n m e n t. (D F ID )

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Economic efficiency

E c o n o m i c e f f i c i e n c y - T h e a llo c atio n o f a reso u rc e in a n e c o n o m y yielding

an overall n e t gain to society as m e a s u r e d by a c o s t- b e n e f it ratio. (M W ) Econom ic grow th

A n incre ase in a c o u n t r y ’s total o u tp u t. It m a y be

m e a s u r e d by the a n n u a l rate o f incre ase in a c o u n t r y ’s gross n a tio n a l p r o d ­ u c t (G N P ) o r gross d o m e s tic p r o d u c t (G D P ) as a d ju s te d for pric e c hanges. (D F ID ) E c o n o m ic valuation

A m e t h o d o f giving e c o n o m ic value to e n v i r o n m e n ­ tal factors a n d co n sid e ratio n s, w h ic h h e lp s give w e ig h t to such c o n s id e r a ­ tions w h e r e they m ig h t o th erw ise n o t be tak e n into a c c o u n t.

E c o n o m i e s in t r a n s i t i o n - Sec ‘C o u n t r i e s w i t h e c o n o m i e s i n t r a n s i ­ tio n .'

Ecosystem

A d y n a m ic c o m p le x o f p la n t, a n im a l a n d m ic r o o rg a n is m c o m ­ m u n itie s a n d th e ir n o n -liv in g e n v ir o n m e n t i n te r a c tin g as a f u n c tio n a l unit. E cosystem s b o u n d a r i e s a rc n o t fixed a n d th e ir p a r a m e t e r s a rc set a c c o r d in g to the scientific, m a n a g e m e n t o r policy q u e stio n b e in g e x a m in e d .

Ecosystem approach

- For the p u r p o s e s o f the C B D , th e ‘ecosystem a p ­ p r o a c h ’ is a stra te g y for th e in te g r a te d m a n a g e m e n t o f la n d , w a t e r a n d living reso u rc es th at p r o m o t e s c o n s e r v a tio n a n d s u sta in ab le use o f the c o m p o n e n t s a n d processes o f a n ecosystem . It rec ognizes th a t h u m a n s , w ith th e ir c u ltu ra l diversity, a rc a n in te g ra l c o m p o n e n t o f ccosystem s. (CBD )

E c o s y s t e m h e a l t h - See the essay, p 2 0 . E c o s y s t e m r e s t o r a t i o n - Sec the essay p 2 1 . E cosyste m services

I f a n y a sp e c t o f ecosystem stru c tu re a n d fu n ctio n h as a value, k n o w n o r u n k n o w n , to its in h a b ita n ts , it c a n be classified as an

ecosystem service. For e x a m p le , p h o to sy n th e sis, a n a tu r a l ecosystem process, p ro v id e s food a n d fiber, a n d sto ra g e o f h ig h w a t e r by w e tla n d s pro v id e s a flood c o n tro l scrvicc. E cosystcm services m a y h ave e c o n o m ic , social o r c u l­ tu ra l values a n d , there fo re , th ey a re i m p o r t a n t to c u r r e n t h u m a n activities; they m a y have scientific values a n d a re i m p o r t a n t for future d e v e lo p m e n t; a n d they m a y c o n tro l ecosystem fu n c tio n in g a n d are, there fo re , i m p o r t a n t to a s u s ta in e d flow o f o t h e r g o o d s a n d services. S u c h services a rc variously n a m e d in th e lite ra tu re as ‘n a tu r a l services,’ ‘n a t u r e ’s services’ a n d ‘n a tu r a l o r system f u n c tio n s .’ (O A S, 1987) Eco tax

A g e n e ric te r m d e s c rib in g a tax w ith a p o te n tia lly positive e n v ir o n ­ m e n t a l i m p a c t, for e x a m p le e n e rg y taxes, t r a n s p o r t taxes a n d taxes o n the ‘r ig h t’ to pollute o r im p a c t n a tu r a l resources. Also callcd a n e n v ir o n m e n ta l tax.

Ecotone

- A b o u n d a r y a r e a o r b u ffer z o n e b e tw e e n two a d ja c e n t ecosystem s, such as a tra c t o f s a v a n n a b e tw e e n g ra ssla n d s a n d forest. (EES)

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Ecotourism

Ecotourism

T ravel a n d travel services u n d e r ta k e n to visit sites o r regions o f u n iq u e n a tu r a l o r historic quality.

E c o t o x i c o l o g y - T h e sciencc o f poisons a n d toxic s ub stan ces o c c u rr in g in

the e n v ir o n m e n t a n d th e ir effects. (EEA) Edge of chaos ( E O C )

Point b e tw e en c h a o s a n d stasis w h e re evolution is m o st likely to occur. T h e te n d e n c y o f d y n a m ic systems to sclf-organize to a state rou gh ly m id w a y b e tw e e n globally static (unchan ging ) a n d chaotic (ra n d o m ) states. (CSG )

E D U N p r o j e c t - E D U N is a socially c onscious c lo th in g c o m p a n y la u n c h e d

in spring 2005 by singer B ono a n d his spouse Ali H e w s o n with N e w York c lothing de sig ne r R o g a n G regory. T h e c o m p a n y 's m ission is to help in ­ crease tr a d e a n d create sustainable e m p lo y m e n t for develop in g areas o f the w orld w ith a n e m p h a sis on A frica, p ro v id in g a business m o d e l th a t o th e rs c a n replicate. E f f e c t i v e c a s h - See D i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n . ’ E f fi c i e n c y

A c h ie v e m e n t o f a goal at th e lowest cost. (MW)

E f f l u e n t - T r e a te d w a s te w a te r released from a w a te r t r e a tm e n t facility. E IO N ET

- T h e E u r o p e a n E n v ir o n m e n t I n f o rm a tio n a n d O b s e r v a tio n N etw o rk is a collab orative n etw o rk o f the E u r o p e a n E n v ir o n m e n t A gency a n d its m e m b e r c ountries, c o n n e c tin g n a tio n a l focal po ints in the E U a n d accession c ountries, E u r o p e a n topic c e n ters a n d n a tio n a l reference c e n t­ ers. T h e s e o rg a n iz a tio n s jo in tly p ro vide in fo rm a tio n used for m a k in g e n ­ v ir o n m e n ta l decisions in E u r o p e a n d m a k in g E U policies m o r e effective. E I O N E T is b o th a n e tw o rk o f o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d an e lectronic n e tw o rk (e-Eionct). (EEA)

A clim atic event o c c u r r in g irregularly, b u t generally every 3 5 years, so n a m e d b e c a u se it first b e c a m e e v id e n t d u r in g the C h r is tm a s sea­ son at the surface o f the e aste rn tropical Pacific O c e a n in p a r t cre a te d by seasonal c h a n g e s in the d ire c tio n o f the trop ical w inds over th e Pacific a n d a b n o r m a l ly w a r m o c c a n surface te m p e ra tu re s . A lth o u g h m o st intense in th e Pacific region, c h a n g e s c a n d isru p t w e a t h e r p a tte r n s th r o u g h o u t the tropics a n d to h ig h e r latitudes.

El N i n o

E m b a s s y - T h e official resid ence a n d / o r office o f an a m b a s s a d o r m o re

fo rm ally referred to as the ‘em b assy office’ a n d the ‘em ba ssy residen ce.’ (MW) E m e r a l d N e t w o r k - A n etw o rk o f a reas o f special c o n se rv a tio n in te r­

est (ASCI), established in the te rrito ry o f the c o n tra c tin g p a rtie s a n d o b ­ server States to the B e rn C o n v e n tio n , in c lu d in g c e n tra l a n d east E u r o p e a n c ou n trie s a n d the E U M e m b e r States. (EEA)

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Em erg ence

E m e r g e n c e - S y stem p ro p e rtie s th a t arc n o t e v id e n t from th o se o f th e p arts.

H igher-level p h e n o m e n a th a t c a n n o t be re d u c e d to th a t o f th e sim p le r c o n ­ stitu en ts a n d n e e d n ew c o n c e p ts to be in tro d u c e d . (C S G ) E m e rgin g c o u n trie s/e c o n o m ie s

A n in fo rm a l d e sig n a tio n b a sed on g ro w th ra te s a n d e c o n o m ic p ro je c tio n s, as w ell as c o n su m p tio n p a tte rn s a n d d e v e lo p m e n t in d ic to rs classifying c e rta in c o u n trie s in b e tw e e n b e in g classified as e ith e r d e v e lo p e d o r d e v elo p in g in clu d in g , a m o n g o th e rs, B ra ­ zil, C h ile, C h in a , In d ia , M ex ic o a n d V e n ezu ela. T h e s e c o u n trie s w ill likely reach th e ec o n o m ic a n d d e v e lo p m e n t th re sh o ld to be v iew ed as d e v elo p ed o r d o n o r n a tio n s in th e c o m in g d ec a d e. (U N W ) S ee ‘T r a n s i t i o n c o u n ­ tr ie s.’

E m i s s i o n p e r m i t - A n o n -tra n sfc ra b lc , n o n -tra d a b le a llo c atio n o f e n title ­

m e n t by a g o v e rn m e n t to a n in d iv id u a l firm to e m it a specified a m o u n t o f a su b stan ce. (KM) E m i s s i o n s - T h e release o f g re e n h o u s e gases a n d / o r th e ir p re c u rso rs in to

th e a tm o sp h e re o v er a specified a re a a n d p e rio d o f tim e. (U N F C C C ) E m i s s i o n s c a p - A leg islated o r n e g o tia te d lim it on th e a m o u n t o f g re e n ­

h o u se gases th a t a c o m p a n y o r c o u n try c an legally e m it. (N R D C ) E m issio n s stan d ard s

T h e m a x im u m a m o u n t e ith e r ra te o r c o n c e n tra ­ tio n o f a p a rtic u la r p o llu ta n t th a t m a y legally be rele ase d in to th e a ir from a single p o llu ta n t source.

E m is sio n s tr a d in g

E m issio n s tra d in g is a re g u la to ry p ro g ra m th a t allow s firm s th e flexibility to select cost-effective so lu tio n s to ach ie v e estab lish ed e n v iro n m e n ta l goals. W ith em issio n s tra d in g , firm s c an m e e t estab lish ed em issions goals by: (a) re d u c in g em issio n s fro m a d iscrete em issio n s u n it; (b) re d u c in g em issions fro m a n o th e r p la c e w ith in th e facility; o r (c) se c u r­ in g em ission re d u c tio n s from a n o th e r facility. E m issio n tra d in g c n c o u ra g e s c o m p lia n c e a n d fin an cial m a n a g e rs to p u rs u e cost-effective em issio n re d u c ­ tio n strateg ics a n d o fte n tim e s cata ly zes e m ittin g e n tre p re n e u rs to dev elo p th e m ean s by w h ich em issio n s c a n in ex p en siv ely be re d u c e d . (CF)

E m p o w e r m e n t - T h e e x p a n sio n o f p e o p le ’s c a p a c itie s a n d cho ices; th e

ab ility to exercise c h o ice b a se d o n fre ed o m from h u n g e r, w a n t a n d d e p riv a ­ tio n ; a n d th e o p p o rtu n ity to p a rtic ip a te in, o r e n d o rse , d ecisio n m a k in g th a t affects th e ir lives. (U N E P ) T h e e x p a n sio n o f fre ed o m o f c h o ice a n d a c tio n , g e n e ra lly a p a rtic ip a to ry p ro c e ss th a t p lace s o r tra n sfe rs d e c isio n -m a k in g resp o n sib ility a n d th e re so u rces to a c t in to th e h a n d s o f th o se w h o w ill b e n ­ efit. T h is c an in c lu d e (i) c a p a c ity b u ild in g fo r s ta k e h o ld e r o rg a n iz a tio n s; (ii) s tre n g th e n in g the legal statu s o f sta k e h o ld e r o rg a n iz a tio n s; (iii) sta k e h o ld e r a u th o rity to m a n a g e fu n d s, h ire a n d fire w o rk ers, su p erv ise w o rk , a n d p r o ­ c u re m a terials; (iv) sta k e h o ld e r a u th o rity to ccrtify satisfacto ry c o m p le tio n o f a p ro je c t a n d e stab lish m o n ito rin g a n d e v a lu a tio n in d ic a to rs; a n d (v) su p p o rt for n ew a n d s p o n ta n e o u s in itiativ es by sta k e h o ld e rs. (WB)

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En abling activities

E n a b l i n g a c t i v i t i e s - P re -p ro je c t activ ities th a t in c lu d e in v en to ries, in fo r­

m a tio n g a th e rin g , p olicy analysis a n d th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f strateg ies a n d a c ­ tion p la n s th a t c a n p ro v id e a b asis fo r m a k in g d ecisio n s re g a rd in g fu n d in g th ro u g h th e G lo b a l E n v iro n m e n t Facility. (WB) E n a b l i n g e n v i r o n m e n t - C o n d itio n s s u rro u n d in g a n activ ity o r system

th a t facilitate th e fulfillm ent o f th e p o te n tia l o f th a t activ ity o r system . A p olicy d o c u m e n t c o n c e rn e d w ith th e p re c o n d itio n s fo r su sta in a b le h u m a n d ev e lo p m e n t, in c lu d in g su p p o rtiv e law s a n d re g u latio n s, a d e q u a te re so u rc ­ es a n d skills, b ro a d u n d e rs ta n d in g a n d a c c e p ta n c e o f th e d ifferin g roles o f th e state, p riv a te se c to r a n d civil society in su sta in a b le h u m a n d e v e lo p m e n t, a c o m m o n p u rp o s e a n d tru st. (U N D P ) E n d - o f - p i p e s o l u t i o n s - T e c h n o lo g ies su ch as s c ru b b e rs o n sm o k estack s

a n d c a ta ly tic c o n v e rte rs o n a u to m o b ile tailp ip es th a t re d u c e em issions o f p o llu ta n ts a fte r th ey h av e fo rm e d . (EEA) E n d a n g e re d (species)

IU C N c a te g o ry o f p la n t a n d a n im a l ta x a in d a n ­ g e r o f ex tin c tio n a n d w h o se surv iv al is unlikely if th e c au sal facto rs c o n ­ tin u e o p e ra tin g . In c lu d e d a re ta x a w hose n u m b e r s h a v e b e e n re d u c e d to a critical level o r w h o se h a b ita ts h av e b e e n so d rastic a lly re d u c e d th a t th ey a re d e e m e d to be in im m e d ia te d a n g e r o f e x tin c tio n . In 2 0 0 6 , th e IU C N estim a te d th a t th e n u m b e r o f species in d a n g e r o f e x tin c tio n h a d re a c h e d 16,000 in c lu d in g o n e th ird o f th e p la n e t’s a m p h ib ia n s , 25 p e rc e n t o f th e w o rld ’s co n ifero u s tre es a n d a sim ila r p e rc e n ta g e o f th e w o rld ’s m a m m a ls a n d n early o n e in e ig h t b ird s. (IU C N )

En d e m ic

R cstric tc d to a specified re g io n o r locality. (GBS)

E n e r g y e f f i c ie n c y - T ech n o lo g ie s a n d m e a su re s th a t re d u c e th e a m o u n t

o f electricity a n d / o r fuel re q u ire d to do th e sa m e w ork, su ch as p o w e rin g au to m o b ile s, h o m e s, offices a n d in d u strie s. (N R D C ) E n h a n c e d S t r u c t u r a l A d j u s t m e n t F acility ( E S A F )

A facility to p ro ­ vide m e d iu m te r m b a la n c e o f p a y m e n ts assistan ce to c o u n trie s facin g p r o ­ tra c te d b a la n c e o f p a y m e n ts difficulties.

E n r o l l e d bill - A U S te rm to in d ic a te th e final, certified bill sen t to th e

p re s id e n t for sig n a tu re a n d im p ly in g th a t H o u se a n d S e n a te v ersio n s m a tc h exactly. (N R D C ) E n te n t e - D e n o te s a close u n d e rs ta n d in g b e tw e e n n a tio n s. It c a n b e a g re e d o rally o r in w ritin g , b u t as a c o n c e p t is g e n e ra lly less b in d in g th a n a treaty. (eD) E n t r y in to force

M u ltila te ra l treaties p ro v id e fo r a fixed n u m b e r o f states to ex p ress th e ir c o n se n t a n d / o r ratify a n a g re e m e n t, c o n v e n tio n o r tre a ty for e n try in to force. O th e r c o n d itio n s a rc a fixed a m o u n t o f tim e elap sed

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Environment

o r a given p e r c e n ta g e o f states falling w ith in a d efined category. W h e n these c o n d itio n s are m e t a treaty en te rs into force for those states th a t gave the re q u ir e d co nsen t. (VC) Environm ent

See the essay p i 5.

Environm ent (hum an)

T h e c o m p e n d iu m o f n a tu ra l, social a n d cultu ral values existing in a given place a n d m o m e n t th a t influences the m a te ria l a n d psychological life o f m a n . (PL)

E nviron m en t Fund

A v o lu n ta ry fu nd o f U N E P established to provide a d d itio n a l financing for e n v iro n m e n ta l p r o g r a m s u n d e r th e g u id a n c e o f its G o v e r n in g C ou nc il. (U N E P )

E n v i r o n m e n t a l a s s e s s m e n t - A te r m used a lm o st in te r c h a n g e a b ly with

e n v ir o n m e n ta l im p a c t assessm ent, e n v ir o n m e n ta l ap p ra isa l a n d e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l analysis th a t refers to a fo rm a l p r o c e d u r e s tru c tu re d to e n su re th a t selected e n v ir o n m e n ta l issues are co n sid e re d in th e early stages o f th e project cycle. E nvironm ental auditing

A process o f assessing the im p a c ts o f existing de v e lo pm e nts, policies a n d projects, as o p p o se d to e n v iro n m e n ta l assess­ m e n ts th a t a pp ly to new o r greatly m od ified d evelo pm ents.

Environmental awards

T h e r e are literally h u n d r e d s o f different lo­ cal, na tio na l, regional a n d in te rn a tio n a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l a w a rd s c o n fe rre d th r o u g h o u t the world. W e n ote a few o f the m o s t p r o m in e n t. A s a h i B l u e P l a n e t P r i z e - In 1992, the Asahi Glass Foundation established an award recognizing individuals and organizations that have made major contributions to solving global environmental problems. The

prize

was so named in the hopes that our blue planet will be a shared asset capable of sustaining human life far into the future. Areas of recognition include: environmental problems

such

as global warming, acid

depletion, tropical

rain, ozone

rainforest destruction, destruction

of ecosystems and species extinction, desertification, water pollution and environmentally induced afflictions; and environmental issues related to energy, population, food, water, environmental ethics, policies, disease caused by environmental change, waste treatment and recycling. Each year, two award recipients receive a certificate of merit, a commemorative trophy, and a supplementary award of JPY 5 0 million (about US$450,000).

K i n g H a s s a n II G r e a t W o r l d W a t e r P r i ze - An international award jointly established by the Governm ent of the Kingdom of M orocco and the W o rld W a te r Council, in memory of his Majesty King Hassan II. This award

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Environm ental aw ards

recognizes cooperation and sound management in the developm ent and use of w a te r resources by an individual or organization. It is presented every three years at the opening cerem ony of the W o rld W a t e r Forum and carries a stipend of U S$ 100,000, a com m em orative trophy and a certificate.

K y o t o W o r l d W a t e r G r a n d P r i z e - This award was created during the Third W o rld W a t e r Forum in March 2003 in Kyoto,Japan.This prize is funded by Soroptim ist International of Kyoto, the Municipality of Kyoto and the W o rld W a t e r Council in recognition of an individual or organization whose grassroots-level activities addresses critical w a te r needs of communities and regions including sustaining safe drinking w a te r and preventing w ater contam ination.The prize of JP¥5,000,000 (approximately US$45,000) is awarded every three years.

N o b e l P e a c e P r i z e - Although not an environmental prize, the

N obel

Peace

Prize

was

awarded

to

an

environmental activist for the first time in 2004, when the N ob el Panel recognized the w o rk of D r W angari Maathai of Kenya for her ‘contribution to sustainable developm ent,dem ocracy and peace.’ In addition, it should be noted that many N ob el laureates in other categories (physics,chemistry,medicine or physiology, literature and econom ics) have been recognized for w o rk that has clear connection to improving and managing the environment. Each prize consists of a medal, personal diploma and m onetary award (in 2006 SeklO million, approximately U S$ 1.3million). The since

N obel prize(s) awarded annually

1901 are recognized as the first and forem ost

international award.

Prince Prize

Sultan for

Din

W ater

Abdulaziz -

This

In tern ational

international

scientific

prize is a significant contribution from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to global w a te r issues and is intended to acknowledge special achievements by innovative scholars and scientists as well as applied organizations in the realm of w a te r resources w orldw ide. The m onetary award (one million Saudi Riyals, approximately US$266,000) is accompanied by a gold medallion,trophy and certificate in five thematic areas:creativity,surface water,groundwater, alternative (non-traditional) w a te r resources, and w ater resources management and protection.

S t o c k h o l m W a t e r P r i z e - The Stockholm W a te r Prize is a global award presented annually to an individual, organization or institution for outstanding water-related activities in the fields of aid, awareness building and education, technology, management

or

science. The

Stockholm W a t e r Prize was founded by Swedish and

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Environm ental aw ards

international companies in collaboration with the C ity of Stockholm and first presented in 1991. The award includes a US$150,000 stipend and a crystal sculpture.

U N E P G l o b a l 5 0 0 E n v i r o n m e n t a l A w a r d - Each year the U N Environm ent Program m e (U N E P ) names an unspecified number of individuals and organizations to receive the U N E P Global 500 Environm ental Aw ard for environmental achievement in helping to p rotect and better manage our natural resources.

UN

S a s a k a w a E n v i r o n m e n t P r i z e - The U N E P

Sasakawa Environm ent Prize is one of the most prestigious environmental awards in the world. This international environm ent prize was recom m ended at the United Nations Conference on the Human

Environm ent in

Stockholm in 1972.This prize, then known as the Pahlavi Prize, was first awarded in 1976. In 1982, the U N E P Governing Council accepted an endow m ent of US$1 million from the Japan Shipbuilding Industry Foundation to finance this award in perpetuity. Since that time, the endow m ent has been administered by U N EP. N o w known as the U N E P Sasakawa Environm ent Prize, it is awarded annually to

leading environmentalists and recognizes

the w o rk of ‘individuals or groups who

have made

outstanding global contributions to the management and protection of the environm ent’.T h e Prize aims to encourage achievement in any environmentally related field. Two awards of $200,000 are granted annually.

V o l v o E n v i r o n m e n t P r i z e - TheVolvo Environm ent Prize

was

formally

instituted

in

May

1988

by

the

Volvo shareholders with the objective of promoting research and developm ent across the environmental spectrum, by acknowledging people who have made an outstanding contribution to understanding o r protecting the

environm ent

through

scientific, socio-economic

o r technological innovation or discovery of global or regional importance.

Zayed

In tern ational

Prize

for

the

E n v i r o n m e n t - T h e prize was founded by G eneral H. H. Sheikh Mohamed Bin Rashid Al M aktoum ,the C row n Prince of Dubai and Defense M inister of the United Arab Emirates in appreciation of the achievements of H. H. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates and G o v e rn o r of Abu Dhabi. The aim of the US$1 million prize is to recognize and prom ote pioneering contributions in the field of the environm ent in accordance with the philosophy and vision of H. H. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan, and in support of Agenda 21. The Zayed Prize is presented every tw o years.

120

En viro n m e n ta l determ inism

E n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s m - A v iew th a t th e p h y sic a l e n v ir o n m e n t,

r a t h e r th a n so cial c o n d itio n s , d e te r m in e s c u ltu re . T h o s e w h o b e lie v e th is view say th a t h u m a n s a re stric tly d e fin e d by s tim u lu s-re sp o n se (e n v iro n m e n t-b e h a v io r) a n d c a n n o t d e v ia te . (W P) E n v i r o n m e n t a l d i p l o m a c y - T h e a r t o f n e g o tia tin g a s h a r e d w a y fo rw a rd

o r a s e ttle m e n t to a d is p u te b a s e d o n e n v ir o n m e n ta l issues th a t tr a n s c e n d c o u n tr ie s a n d e v e n c o n tin e n ts a n d re q u ire in te r n a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n to solve. A d d re s s in g e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro b le m s su c h as g lo b a l c lim a te c h a n g e , o z o n e d e p le tio n , o c e a n a n d a ir p o llu tio n , a n d re s o u rc e use a n d d e g ra d a tio n a re fr e q u e n tly c ite d as issu es re q u irin g e n v ir o n m e n ta l (scientific) a n d d i­ p lo m a c y skills. T h e s e n e g o tia tio n s n o rm a lly le a d to a n a g r e e m e n t o r o th e r m e c h a n is m d e fin in g th e p ro b le m , id e n tify in g m ile s to n e s o r in d ic a to r s o f p ro g re ss, a n d o u tlin in g a fra m e w o rk to fa c ilita te o n g o in g d isc u ssio n s a n d / o r m o n ito r p ro g re ss. (U S D O S ) E n viro n m e n ta l

ec o n o m ic s A m a r k e t- b a s e d a p p r o a c h to a c h ie v ­ in g a s u s ta in a b le e c o n o m y th a t in te g ra te s lo n g - te rm e c o n o m ic g ro w th ,

e n v ir o n m e n ta l q u a lity a n d so cial fa irn e ss th r o u g h in n o v a tiv e ta x es, ta x in ­ c e n tiv es, a u c tio n e d p e r m its a n d o th e r m a r k e t- b a s e d m e c h a n is m s . (P P R C ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l e q u i t y - E q u a l p ro te c tio n fro m e n v ir o n m e n ta l h a z a rd s

a ffo rd e d to in d iv id u a ls , g ro u p s o r c o m m u n itie s re g a rd le s s o f a n y so cial o r e c o n o m ic c o n d itio n s o r sta tu s. (U S E P A ) E n v ir o n m e n t a l e th ic s

A th e o r e tic a l a n d a p p lie d field o f stu d y th a t seeks

a re u n ific a tio n o f h u m a n s w ith n a tu r e . (EES) E n v iro n m e n ta l fo o tp rin t

(in d iv id u a l) -

A n e n v ir o n m e n ta l fo o tp rin t

is a su b je c tiv e m e a s u re a im e d a t d e te r m in in g h o w o u r in d iv id u a l a c tio n s im p a c t th e E a r th b a s e d o n a n u m b e r o f c rite r ia in c lu d in g re n e w a b le a n d n o n -r e n e w a b le re s o u rc e s. I t is c o n s id e re d a s u b je c tiv e m e a s u re b e c a u s e o f th e in fin ite n u m b e r o f c rite r ia th a t c a n b e m e a s u re d a n d th e in d iv id u a lity o f h o w a c c e p ta b le im p a c t a n d q u a lity o f life a re d e fin e d . (W P) E n v i r o n m e n t a l f o o t p r i n t ( i n d u s t r y ) - F o r a n in d u s tria l se ttin g , th is is a

su b je c tiv e m e a s u re o f a c o m p a n y ’s e n v ir o n m e n ta l im p a c t d e te r m in e d by a c o m p a r is o n o f th e a m o u n t o f d e p le ta b le ra w m a te ria ls a n d n o n re n e w a b le re s o u rc e s it c o n s u m e s to m a k e its p ro d u c ts , w ith th e q u a n tity o f w a ste s a n d e m issio n s th a t a re g e n e r a te d in th e p ro c e ss. T ra d itio n a lly , fo r a c o m p a n y to grow , th e f o o tp rin t h a d to g e t la rg e r. T o d ay , fin d in g w a y s to re d u c e th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l f o o tp rin t is a p rio rity fo r le a d in g c o m p a n ie s . (W P ; U N E P ) S ee ' L i f e - c y c l e a p p r o a c h e s / E n v i r o n m e n t a l g o v e r n a n c e - P ro c ess th a t links a n d h a r m o n iz e s p o licies,

in s titu tio n s , p ro c e d u r e s , to o ls a n d in f o rm a tio n to allo w p a r tic ip a n ts (p u b ­ lic a n d p riv a te secto r, N G O s , lo c al c o m m u n itie s ) to m a n a g e c o n flic ts, seek p o in ts o f c o n se n s u s, m a k e f u n d a m e n ta l d e c isio n s, a n d b e a c c o u n ta b le fo r th e ir a c tio n s. (ID B )

121

Environmental impact assessment (EIA)

E n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t ( E I A ) - A process o f e v a lu atin g a n d

suggesting m a n a g e m e n t a n d m itigation scenarios for the im p a cts arising for a n e w d e v e lo p m e n t at the various stages o f the p ro je c t cycle. E n v ir o n m e n ta l indicators

E n v ir o n m e n ta l indicators b o th q ua n tify an d simplify c o m p le x scientific in fo rm a tio n . T h e a p p r o a c h is to identify a single m e a su re o r a small n u m b e r o f m e a s u r e s o f e n v ir o n m e n ta l pressure, state a n d resp on se for a lim ited set o f issues. For e x a m p le , U N E P a n d O E C D use clim ate c h a n g e w ith g r e e n h o u se gas emissions as a pressu re indicator, c o n c e n tra tio n s o f G H G s as a pressure as a state in d ic a to r a n d e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l m e a su res as a response indicator. O t h e r issues for w h ic h in d ic a to rs have b e e n d e v elop ed include o z o n e de p le tio n , e u tr o p h ic a tio n , acidification, toxic c o n ta m in a tio n , u r b a n e n v iro n m e n ta l quality, biodiversity a n d waste. T h e W orld B a n k categorizes issues into source in d ic a to rs (agriculture, forest, m a r in e resources, w a te r a n d subsoil assets); sink o r pollutio n in d ic a ­ tors (climate c h a n g e , acidification, e u tr o p h ic a tio n , toxification); life su p p o rt in d ica to rs (biodiversity, o ceans, special la n ds such as wetland); a n d h u m a n im p a c t in d ic a to rs (health, d e p e n d e n c e o n w a te r a n d air qu ality as well as o c c u p a tio n a l exposure, food security a n d quality, housing, w aste a n d n a tu ra l disasters). (AM)

E n v i r o n m e n t a l I n t e g r i t y G r o u p ( E I G ) - A coalition w o rk in g w ith in the

U N F C C C th a t includes M ex ico, the R ep ub lic o f K o r e a a n d S w itzerland. E n v i r o n m e n t a l j u s ti c e

A social science te r m used to describe injustices in th e w ay n a tu ra l resources are used. E n v ir o n m e n ta l justice is c o n sid e re d a holistic effort to a n alyze a n d o verco m e the p o w e r stru c tu re s th a t have tra d i­ tionally th w a r te d e n v iro n m e n ta l reform s. (WP)

E n v i r o n m e n t a l l a w - A b o d y o f law, w hich is a system o f c o m p le x a n d in te r­

locking statutes, c o m m o n law, treaties, conventio ns, regu lation s a n d policies th a t seeks to p ro te c t the n a tu r a l e n v ir o n m e n t th a t m a y be affected, im p a c te d o r e n d a n g e r e d by h u m a n activities. S o m e e n v ir o n m e n ta l laws regulate the q u a n tity a n d n a tu r e o f im p a c ts o f h u m a n activities: for e x a m p le, setting allowable levels o f p ollution. O t h e r e n v iro n m e n ta l laws a re p rev entiv e in n a tu r e a n d seek to assess the possible im p acts before the h u m a n activities o c c u r (en viro nm ental im p a c t assessment). G r o u p s a n d individuals seeking e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n s for g e n e ra l public benefit p ractice e n v iro n m e n ta l law in the pu blic interest, b u t it is m ostly p ra c tic e d in th e private interest, by g ro u p s a n d individuals th a t u n d e r ta k e pollu ting o r e n v iro n m e n ta lly d e s tru c ­ tive activities, a n d w ho seek to avoid violating e n v ir o n m e n ta l laws in the process. (WrP) Environm ental m a n a ge m e n t

T h e m o b iliza tio n o f resources a n d the use o f g o v e r n m e n t to co ntro l th e use, im p r o v e m e n t o r con se rv atio n o f b o th n a tu r a l a n d e c o n o m ic goods a n d services in such a w ay th a t conflicts c re a te d by th a t use, im p r o v e m e n t o r conserv atio n are m in im iz e d . (OAS, 1987)

122

Environm ental M a n a g e m e n t G ro u p (E M G )

E n v i r o n m e n t a l M a n a g e m e n t G r o u p ( E M G ) - A n in s titu tio n e s ta b lish e d

by th e U N G e n e r a l A s s e m b ly t h a t focuses o n th e lin k a g es b e tw e e n en v i­ r o n m e n t a n d d e v e lo p m e n t. C h a i r e d by th e E x e c u tiv e D i r e c t o r o f U N E P , th e go a l o f th e E M G is to c o o r d i n a t e a n d p r o m o t e j o i n t a c tio n w ith i n th e U n i t e d N a t i o n s in th e a r e a s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t a n d h u m a n set­ tle m e n ts. ( U N E P ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l m i t i g a t i o n - M e a s u r e s ta k e n to r e d u c e th e i m p a c t o f a

p o te n ti a l risk o r a f te r a n a t u r a l h a z a r d to r e d u c e th e c h a n c e s o f it o c c u r r i n g a g a in . (E E S) Environ m en tal protection

A c tio n s a t th e in t e r n a t i o n a l , n a tio n a l a n d lo­ cal levels to p r e v e n t a n d a m e lio r a te d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f h u m a n e n v i r o n m e n t s . S u c h a c tio n s in c lu d e c o n s e r v a tio n efforts, recycling, w a s te r e d u c t i o n a n d d is­

p o sa l, a n d th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c le a n e r a n d safer te c h n o lo g ie s . E n v iro n m e n ta l quality

T h e relative c a p a c i ty o f a n e n v i r o n m e n t to satisfy th e n e e d s a n d w a n t s o f th e in d iv id u a l o r society ‘s u r r o u n d e d ' by t h a t en v i­ r o n m e n t . (O A S , 1987)

Environm ental

r e f u g e e - P e o p le w h o a rc fo rc e d to leave t h e i r h o m e , t e m p o r a r i l y o r p e r m a n e n tly , b e c a u s e o f a p o te n tia l e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d ( n a tu ra lly o c c u r r i n g o r m a n - i n d u c e d ) o r a d is r u p tio n in th e ir lif e - s u p p o r tin g e c o sy ste m s. (U N E P ) S e e D i a s p o r a , ' R e f u g e e , ' E n v i r o n m e n t a l s e c u ­ r it y .'

E n v i r o n m e n t a l risk

L ik e lih o o d , o r p ro b a b ility , o f injury, disease, o r d e a t h r e s u ltin g fr o m e x p o s u r e to a p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d .

E n v i r o n m e n t a l s e c u r i t y - A c o m p le x issue t h a t involves societal efforts to

p r o t e c t th e h e a l t h a n d p r o d u c tiv ity o f e c o lo g ic a l system s, to r e n d e r th e ir f u tu r e se c u re , a n d to e n s u r e th e ir s ta bility in t e r m s o f th e g o o d s a n d services th e y p ro v id e . It also involves r e p e rc u s s io n s o f th e state o f th e e n v i r o n m e n t u p o n n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l s tra te g ic issues. It is g e n e r a lly d e f in e d in t e r m s o f e ig h t b r o a d issues: p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h rates; m o rta lity , dise a se a n d h u n g e r ; n a t io n a l d e b t a n d w o rld c o m m o d i t y prices; d e s p o lia tio n o f re g io n a l ( tr a n s b o u n d a r y ) e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d re so u rc e s; p olitica l d e c isio n m a k i n g a n d e n v i r o n m e n t ; n a t u r a l re s o u r c e conflicts; m ilita r y se c u rity ; a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f th e g lo b a l c o m m o n s a n d e x t r a te r r ito r i a l claim s. (EES) E n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s o r - A n y e n v i r o n m e n t a l fa c to r w h o s e p r e s e n c e , a b ­

se n c e o r a b u n d a n c e is th e m a i n fa c to r re s tr ic tin g th e d is tr ib u tio n , n u m b e r s o r c o n d itio n o f a n o r g a n i s m . (EES) E n v i r o n m e n t a l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y - S u s ta in a b ility o f th e ec o lo g ic a l services

o n w h ic h h u m a n s d e p e n d , d ire c tly a n d indirectly. (A M ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l S u s t a i n a b i l i t y I n d e x ( E S I ) - A m e a s u r e o f th e overall

123

Environm ental terrorism

p ro g ress to w a rd s e n v iro n m e n ta l su sta in a b ility d e v e lo p e d by th e W o rld E c o ­ n o m ic F o ru m . T h e a n n u a l E S I ra n k in g ev alu a te s c o u n trie s b a se d on 22 co re in d ic a to rs e a c h o f w h ich c o m b in e s tw o to six v a ria b le s fo r a to ta l o f 67 u n d e rly in g c rite ria . (W E F) See " S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a s ­ u r e s.’ E n v iro n m e n ta l te rro rism

S ee ‘E c o - t e r r o r i s m . '

E n v i r o n m e n t a l t o x i c o l o g y - C o n c e rn s th e id e n tific a tio n a n d q u a n tific a ­

tio n o f possible ad v erse effects on living o rg a n ism s as a resu lt o f ex p o su re to e n v iro n m e n ta l c o n ta m in a n ts. (EES) E n v o y - A se n io r d ip lo m a t. (M W ) E p i d e m i c - A v ery fast sp re a d in g disease. (M W ) E p iste m ic c o m m u n it y

A s d efin e d by H a a s (1992), an ep iste m ic c o m ­ m u n ity is a ‘n e tw o rk o f p ro fessio n als w ith re c o g n iz e d ex p e rtise a n d c o m p e ­ te n c e in a p a rtic u la r d o m a in a n d a n a u th o rita tiv e claim to p o licy -re le v a n t kn o w led g e w ith in th a t d o m a in o r issue a re a . T h e y c a n b e id e n tified by a sh a re d set o f n o rm a tiv e a n d p rin c ip le d beliefs, sh a re d c a u sa l beliefs, sh a re d n o tio n s o f validity, a n d a c o m m o n p olicy e n te rp ris e .’

Equal per capita co n c e p t

A c o n c e p t th a t im p lies th a t th e to ta l n a tio n a l ‘rig h t to e m it’ c a rb o n is b a se d on p o p u la tio n size a n d a basic p e r c a p ita em issions q u o ta .

E q u ity ( I )

- Im p a rtia l o r ju s t tre a tm e n t, re q u irin g th a t sim ila r cases be tre a te d in sim ila r w ays.

E q u i t y (2)

In th e e n v iro n m e n ta l sense, th e p la n n e d lo c a tio n o f toxic o r w aste facilities in reg io n s th r o u g h o u t th e so c io -e c o n o m ic stra ta . (N R D C )

E q u it y p rin c ip le

A p rin c ip le re la tin g to b u rd e n s h a rin g a n d th e d is trib u ­ tio n o f costs a n d b en efits th a t c a n be te m p o ra l (in te rg e n e ra tio n a l) o r sp atial (a m o n g c o u n trie s a n d c o m m u n ities).

E rga o m n e s - ‘T o w a rd a ll,’ w ro n g fu l acts th a t h a r m ev ery o n e a n d n o t sim ­ ply o n e in ju re d party. (BLD) E s t u a r y - A b ay o r in let, o ften at th e m o u th o f a river, in w h ic h larg e q u a n ­

tities o f fre sh w a te r a n d se a w a te r m ix to g eth er. (N R D C ; M W ) E th ic a l t r a d in g in itia tiv e

A U K in itiativ e lin k in g N G O s , p riv a te secto r c o m p a n ie s, tra d e u n io n s a n d o th e r in v esto rs a im e d at im p ro v in g c o rp o ra te codes o f p ra c tic e to e n su re th a t th e su p p ly c h a in w o rk in g c o n d itio n s for p ro d u c ts p ro d u c e d in d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s for th e U K m ark et. (W P)

124

Ethical values

E t h i c a l v a l u e s - S ta te m e n ts o f ethical principles th a t in fo rm the private

a n d social valu ation o f biological resources. (GBA) EU3

A n in f o r m a l coalition c o m p ris in g B ritain, F ra n c e a n d G e r m a n y th a t has ta ke n sta n d s o n issues o f im p o rta n c e to the E G , in clu d in g security, trade a n d e n v ir o n m e n t. As the E U ’s three largest e c o n o m ies, this g ro u p in g has su bstantial influence at b o th the E C a n d w orld scales. (EU) See ' G 3 . '

E U 3 + - T h e E U 3 plus the U n ite d States, Russia a n d C h i n a w h o b e c o m e

involved w h e n issues o f im p o r ta n c e to the E C are also i m p o r t a n t to on e o r m o r e o f the o th e r c o u n trie s o r regions. (EU) E U 6 - A n in fo rm a l g ro u p in g in c lu d in g Italy, G e r m a n y , F rance, S p a in , Bel­

gium a n d L u x e m b o u r g th a t are perceived by som e to have the strongest c o m m itm e n t to preserving a c o m m o n E u r o p e a n policy process. EU -R io Group

E stablish ed in 1986, th e E U - R i o G r o u p is a key forum for political dialogue a m o n g foreign m inisters from the E U a n d L atin A m e r i­ can regions a n d on e o f the m a in p la tfo rm s th r o u g h w hich E U Latin A m e r ­ ican relations arc e n h a n c e d , a n d the d ire c tio n o f the relation sh ip discussed. (EU)

E u r o (€ ) - T h e official c u r r e n c y o f 12 o f the original 15 E U M e m b e r States,

w h ic h re p la c e d n a tio n a l c u rre n c ie s in all c o u n trie s except B ritain, D e n m a r k a n d S w eden on 1 J a n u a r y 2002. Several M e m b e r States a d m itte d in 2004 are e x a m in in g the p ossib ility/process o f a d o p tin g the e u ro as th e ir n a tio n a l currency. Slovenia a d o p t e d the eu ro in J a n u a r y 2007, w ith a n effective date for circulation o f the c u r r e n c y in m i d - 2 007. B ulgaria is p la n n in g to switch to th e e u ro in 2 00 9 o r 2010. European B a n k for R econstruction and D e v e lo p m e n t ( E B R D )

A

m a jo r m u ltila tera l d o n o r located in L u x e m b o u rg . E u r o p e a n Blu e Fla g®

A n E C E co-label a w a r d e d to b e a c h e s a n d m a r i ­ nas. T h e a w a rd o f the Blue F la g is b as e d on 27 specific criteria for b e aches a n d 16 specific criteria for m a r in a s as app lied to four aspects: w a te r quality, e n v iro n m e n ta l e d u c a tio n a n d in fo rm a tio n ; e n v ir o n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t; a n d safety a n d services. T h e Blue Flag C a m p a ig n is o w n e d a n d ru n by the in d e p e n d e n t n o n -p ro fit o r g a n iz a tio n F o u n d a tio n for E n v ir o n m e n ta l E d u ­ cation (FEE). (EEA)

E u r o p e a n B l u e P l a n - T h e E u r o p e a n Blue Plan has several m e a n in g s: a

process o f reflection on the M e d i t e r r a n e a n region in all its vastness a n d com plexity; a rese a rc h c e n te r w h ere this reflective process is c a rrie d out; a n d the in fra stru c tu re o f a n o n -p ro fit o rg a n iz a tio n for a d m in is tr a tio n o f the Plan. (EEA) E u r o p e a n C o m m i s s i o n ( E C ) - R e g a r d e d as the executive b r a n c h o f the

125

Eu ro p e an C o u n cil Presidency

EU , this g ro u p o f a p p o in te d C o m m issio n e rs d eals w ith th e U n io n ’s le a d e r­ ship o n a d aily basis. T h e E C e n su re s th a t th e M e m b e r S ta tes a d h e re to E U law s, a n d in te rv e n e s d irectly w h e n e v e r a S ta te fails to ab id e by th o se law s. A p o litician a p p o in te d by th e C o u n c il o f M in iste rs h e ad s th e E C , w h ich can be dissolved by th e E u ro p e a n P a rlia m e n t. (E U ) E u ro p e an C o m m is s io n P re sid e n cy

T h e P re sid e n t o f th e C o m m issio n is selected by c o n sen su s a m o n g m e m b e rs o f th e E u ro p e a n C o u n c il an d m u st su b se q u e n tly be a p p ro v e d by th e E u ro p e a n P a rlia m e n t, a lo n g w ith th e re m a in d e r o f th e C o m m issio n . T h e re a fte r, th e p re s id e n t is a c c o u n ta b le to P a rlia m e n t, w h o m a y dism iss th e C o m m issio n w ith a v o te o f n o c o n fi­ d en ce. (E U ) See ‘E u r o p e a n C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n c y . '

E u ro pe an C o n stitu tio n

T h e T re a ty e sta b lish in g a C o n stitu tio n fo r E u ­ ro p e, c o m m o n ly re fe rre d to as th e E u ro p e a n C o n stitu tio n , is an in te rn a ­ tio n a l tre a ty in te n d e d to cre a te a c o n stitu tio n fo r th e E u ro p e a n U n io n . R e p ­ resen tativ es o f th e M e m b e r S tates o f th e U n io n sig n ed it in 2 0 04 . Its m a in aim s a rc to rep la c e th e o v e rla p p in g set o f existing tre a tie s th a t c o m p rise th e U n io n ’s c u rr e n t c o n stitu tio n , a n d stre a m lin e d ecision m ak in g . (EU )

E u ro p e a n C o u n c il (E C )

L e a d e rs o f th e m e m b e r n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts, a n d th e elec ted P re sid e n t o f th e E u ro p e a n C o m m issio n . T h e C o u n c il is th e E U ’s m a in d e c isio n -m a k in g b o d y e sta b lish e d by th e fo u n d in g tre a tie s in the 1950s. It re p re se n ts th e M e m b e r S tates a n d its m eetin g s are a tte n d e d by o n e m in is te r fro m ea c h o f th e E U ’s n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts d e p e n d in g o n th e ag e n d a . If, for ex a m p le, th e C o u n c il is to discuss e n v iro n m e n ta l issues, th e m e e tin g w ill be a tte n d e d by th e E n v iro n m e n t M in iste r from eac h E U c o u n ­ try a n d it w ill be k n o w n as th e ‘E n v iro n m e n t C o u n c il.’ T h e E U ’s relatio n s w ith th e rest o f th e w orld are d e a lt w ith by th e ‘G e n e ra l A ffairs a n d E x ­ te r n a l R elatio n s C o u n c il,’ b u t as th e C o u n c il c o n fig u ra tio n also h as w id e r resp o n sib ility fo r g e n e ra l p o licy issues, its m eetin g s are a tte n d e d by w h ic h ­ ev er M in iste r o r S tate S e c re ta ry e a c h g o v e rn m e n t chooses. A lto g eth er, th e re are n in e d iffe re n t C o u n c il c o n fig u ra tio n s: G e n e ra l A ffairs a n d E x te rn a l R elatio n s; E c o n o m ic a n d F in a n c ia l A ffairs (E C O F IN ); Ju stic e a n d H o m e A ffairs J H A ); E m p lo y m e n t, S ocial Policy, H e a lth a n d C o n s u m e r A ffairs; C o m p e titiv e n e ss; T ra n s p o rt, T e le c o m m u n ic a tio n s a n d E n erg y ; A g ric u ltu re a n d F isheries; E n v iro n m e n t; a n d E d u c a tio n , Y o uth a n d C u ltu re . (EU )

E u r o p e a n C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n c y - T h is p o sitio n ro ta te s every six m o n th s

as each E U c o u n try in tu r n tak es c h a rg e o f th e C o u n c il a g e n d a a n d ch a irs all the m e e tin g s for a six -m o n th p e rio d , p ro m o tin g legislative a n d p o litical decisions a n d b ro k e rin g co m p ro m ise s b e tw e e n th e M e m b e r S tates. If, fo r e x am p le, th e E n v iro n m e n t C o u n c il is sc h e d u le d to m e e t d u rin g th e te rm w h e n F in la n d h o ld s th e C o u n c il P residency, it will b e c h a ire d by th e F in n ­ ish M in iste r fo r th e E n v iro n m e n t. (EU ) Sec ‘E u r o p e a n C o m m i s s i o n P re sid e n cy .' European Currency U n it (E C U )

T h e E u ro p e a n c u rre n c y u n it w as an

126

E u ro p e a n D e v e lo p m e n t Fund

artific ia l ‘b a s k e t’ c u rr e n c y th a t w as u se d by th e M e m b e r S ta te s o f th e E u ­ r o p e a n U n io n (E U ) as th e ir in t e r n a l a c c o u n tin g u n it. T h e E C U w a s c o n ­ ceiv e d o n 13 M a r c h 1 979 by th e E u r o p e a n E c o n o m ic C o m m u n ity (E E C ), th e p re d e c e s s o r o f th e E u r o p e a n U n io n , as a u n it o f a c c o u n t fo r th e c u r ­ re n c y a r e a c a lle d th e E u ro p e a n M o n e ta r y S y stem (E M S ). T h e E C U w as also th e p r e c u r s o r o f th e n e w sin g le E u r o p e a n c u rre n c y , th e e u ro , w h ic h w a s in tro d u c e d o n 1 J a n u a r y 1999. (A n tw eiler, 20 0 6 ) E u ro pe an D e v e lo p m e n t Fund

A d e v e lo p m e n t fu n d c o m m itte d to u n ­

d e r th e L o m e C o n v e n tio n . (U N T ) European

E n v iro n m e n t

In fo rm a tio n

and

O b se rv a tio n

N etw ork

(E IO N E T )

- A c o lla b o ra tiv e n e tw o rk o f th e E u r o p e a n E n v iro n m e n t A g e n c y a n d its m e m b e r c o u n tr ie s , c o n n e c tin g n a tio n a l fo ca l p o in ts in th e E U a n d acc e ssio n c o u n tr ie s , E u r o p e a n to p ic c e n te rs a n d n a tio n a l re fe re n c e c e n te rs. T h e s e o rg a n iz a tio n s jo in tly p ro v id e in f o rm a tio n th a t is u s e d fo r m a k in g d e c isio n s fo r im p ro v in g th e sta te o f th e e n v ir o n m e n t in E u ro p e a n d m a k in g E U p o lic ie s m o r e effective. (E E A ) European

E n v i r o n m e n t a l A g e n c y ( E E A ) - T h e a im o f th e E E A , w h ic h w as fo rm a lly e sta b lish e d in A p ril 1 9 9 9 , is to e sta b lish a sea m le ss

e n v ir o n m e n ta l in f o rm a tio n system to assist th e C o m m u n ity in its a tte m p ts to im p ro v e th e e n v ir o n m e n t a n d m o v e to w a rd s su sta in a b ility , in c lu d in g th e E U ’s effo rts to in te g r a te e n v ir o n m e n ta l a sp e c ts in to e c o n o m ic p o licies. (E E A ) E u r o p e a n I n v e s t m e n t B a n k ( E I B ) - A fin a n c ia l in s titu tio n o f th e E u r o ­

p e a n C o m m u n ity th a t p ro v id e s lo n g - te rm le n d in g to th e m e m b e r s ta te s o f th e E u r o p e a n U n io n , a p p ro x im a te ly 5 0 p c r c e n t o f w h ic h is to th e p riv a te sector. (E U ) European M o n e ta ry System ( E M S ) - A

1 979 a g r e e m e n t th a t fo rc e d th e

n a tio n s o f th e E E C to b rin g th e ir e c o n o m ie s in to a sin g le -m a rk e t c o m ­ m u n ity b y 1986 w ith th e sig n in g o f th e S in g le E u r o p e a n M a r k e t A ct. T h e e u ro (€) b e c a m e th e o fficial c u r r e n c y o n 1 J a n u a r y 2 0 0 2 in 12 o f th e o rig i­ n a l 15 E U M e m b e r S ta te s, w ith th r e e e x c e p tio n s in B rita in , D e n m a r k a n d S w e d e n . S e v e ra l M e m b e r S ta te s a d m itte d in 2 0 0 4 a rc c u r r e n tly e x a m in ­ in g th e p o s s ib ility /p r o c e s s o f a d o p tin g th e E u ro as th e ir n a tio n a l c u rre n c y . S lo v e n ia b e c a m e th e 13 th E U m e m b e r to a d o p t th e E u ro in J a n u a r y 2 0 0 7 . (E U ) S ee ‘E u r o . ’ European

N ature

In fo rm a tio n

System

( E U N I S ) - E U N IS h a s tw o

m a in aim s: to fa c ilita te use o f d a ta by p ro m o tin g h a rm o n iz a tio n o f te r ­ m in o lo g y a n d d e fin itio n s, a n d to b e a re s e rv o ir o f in f o rm a tio n o n e n v ir o n ­ m e n ta lly im p o r t a n t m a tte rs . E U N I S c o n sists o f a c e n tr a l u n it in te g r a tin g d a ta m o d e ls o n sp ec ies, h a b ita ts a n d sites; se v e ra l s e c o n d a r y d a ta b a s e s th a t a re m a n a g e d by d iffe re n t p a r tn e r s ; a n d a n in c re a s in g n u m b e r o f sate llite d a ta b a s e s . (E E A )

127

Eu rop ean Parliam ent (EP)

European

P a r l i a m e n t ( E P ) - T h e o n ly p a r t o f th e E U g o v e rn m e n ­ tal stru c tu re d irectly ch o sen by th e e le c to ra te as re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e ir n a tio n a l p a rlia m e n ta ry p artie s. T h e re are 732 m e m b e rs o f th e EP. T h e n u m b e r o f M E P s th a t a n a tio n c an ele c t is b a se d o n p o p u la tio n . T h e E P n o rm a lly m eets in B russels, b u t as a resu lt o f p o litical d e m a n d s by F ran ce, m eets o ne w eek e a c h m o n th in S tra sb o u rg . (EU )

E u r o p e a n T o p i c C e n t e r s ( E T C ) - In s titu tio n s /o rg a n iz a tio n s c o n tra c te d

by th e E E A to ex ec u te tasks id en tifie d in th e m u lti-a n n u a l w ork p ro g ra m . T h e y arc d esig n a te d by th e m a n a g e m e n t b o a rd a fte r a co m p e titiv e e x p e r­ tis e /c a p a c ity selectio n pro cess. G u id in g p rin c ip le s for selectio n sh o u ld be th e cost-efficien t use o f existin g a n d p o te n tia l ca p a c itie s in th e m e m b e r c o u n trie s a n d av o id a n c e o f d u p lic a tio n o f w o rk a n d cap a citie s. (EEA) European U n io n (E U )

T h e E U w as th e d re a m o f a g ro u p o f F re n c h a n d G e rm a n p o litic ia n s a im e d at av o id in g w a r a n d in c re a sin g unity. In 1951, B el­ g iu m . F ran ce, G e rm a n y , Italy, L u x e m b o u rg a n d T h e N e th e rla n d s sig n e d th e T re a ty o f P aris. In 1957, th e T re a ty o f R o m e stre n g th e n e d this c o m m itm e n t to c o o p e ra tio n w h en th e E E C w as c re a te d . In 1973, D e n m a rk , Ire la n d a n d th e U n ite d K in g d o m jo in e d th e E E C , w ith S p a in , P o rtu g a l a n d G re e c e fol­ low ing sh o rtly after. T h e E U w as fo rm a liz e d in th e E u ro p e a n U n io n T reaty, m o re c o m m o n ly re fe rre d to as th e T re a ty o f M a a s tric h t (T h e N e th e rla n d s), in 1993. S w ed e n , F in la n d a n d A u stria jo in e d in 1995, b rin g in g th e to ta l n u m b e r o f E U M e m b e r S tates to 15. In M a y o f 2 0 0 4 , 10 n e w S ta tes, m ostly from th e fo r m e r W a rsa w P ac t bloc jo in e d th e E U in c lu d in g C y p ru s, C z ec h R ep u b lic, E sto n ia , H u n g a ry , M a lta , L ith u a n ia , L atv ia, P o la n d , S lo v ak ia a n d S lovenia, b rin g in g th e to tal n u m b e r o f M e m b e r S ta te s to 25. B u lg a ria a n d R o m a n ia e n te re d th e U n io n in J a n u a r y 2 0 0 7 , b rin g in g th e to ta l n u m b e r o f M e m b e r S tates to 27. In O c to b e r 200 5 E U m e m b e rs in itia ted n e g o tia tio n s w ith T u rk ey a n d C ro a tia , p o te n tia lly le a d in g to th e ir accessio n in to th e E U a lth o u g h no specific tim e ta b le s w ere a p p ro v e d . (EU )

E u r o p e a n U n i o n D i r e c t i v e ( s ) - A E u ro p e a n U n io n te rm in d ic a tin g a

m u tu a lly b in d in g , collective d ecisio n m a d e by th e M e m b e r S tates, a c tin g th ro u g h th e ir N a tio n a l G o v e rn m e n t M in iste rs, in th e C o u n c il o f th e E U a n d th e P a rlia m e n t. A D irectiv e is o n ly b in d in g in a n y M e m b e r S ta te w h en it h a s b e e n tra n sp o se d in to n a tio n a l law. For e x a m p le the E U D rin k in g W a te r D irectiv e ( 9 8 / 8 3 /E C ) o f 3 N o v e m b e r 1998, c o n c e rn in g th e q u a l­ ity o f w a te r in te n d e d fo r h u m a n c o n su m p tio n is in te n d e d to p ro te c t h u ­ m a n h e a lth by lay in g d o w n h e a lth in e ss a n d p u rity re q u ire m e n ts, sh o u ld be m a tc h e d by d rin k in g s ta n d a rd s by all M e m b e r S tates. (EEA) E u r o p e a n U n i o n la w

T h e FLU is u n iq u e a m o n g in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a ­ tions in h av in g a c o m p le x a n d h ig h ly d e v e lo p e d system o f in te rn a l law w h ich h as d ire c t effect w ith in th e leg al system s o f its M e m b e r S tates. T h e re are th re e p rim a ry souces o f E U law : (1) tre aties (p rim a ry legislation); (2) re g u latio n s d irectiv es, d ecisio n s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s a n d o p in io n s m a d e by th e U n io n ’s in stitu tio n s in a c c o rd a n c e w ith e x istin g trea tie s (sec o n d ary

128

Eu ro p e an U nion reco m m en datio n

legislation); a n d (3) d ecisio n s by th e E u ro p e a n C o u rt o f Ju stic e . (E E A , W P) See E u r o p e a n C o n s t i t u t i o n . 7 E urope an U n io n re c o m m e n d atio n

A n o n -b in d in g in s tru m e n t o f in d i­ rect actio n a im in g at p re p a ra tio n o f legislation in M e m b e r S tates, d ifferin g from the D irectiv e o nly by th e a b se n c e o f o b lig a to ry p o w er. (EEA)

European

U n i o n r e g u l a t i o n s - T h e m o st p o w erfu l fo rm o f E U law, reg u la tio n s arc d ire ctly a n d im m e d ia te ly a p p lic a b le in all M e m b e r S tates. (EEA )

E u r o p e a n U n io n , th r e e pillars o f

T h e T re a ty o f M a a s tric h t, w hich e stab lish ed th e E U , d iv id e d E U policies in to th re e a re a s, calle d ‘p illa rs’: the first o r C o m m u n ity p illa r c o n c e rn s e c o n o m ic , social a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l policies; th e se c o n d o r C o m m o n F oreign a n d S ec u rity Policy (C F S P ) p illa r co n c e rn s foreign p olicy a n d m ilita ry m a tte rs; a n d th e th ird o r Police a n d J u d ic ia l C o o p e ra tio n in C rim in a l M a tte rs (P JC C ) p illa r c o n c e rn s c o o p e ra ­ tio n in th e fight a g a in st c rim e . (E E A ; E U )

E u r o p e a n U n i o n T r e a t y - E u ro p e ’s c o n s titu tio n a l law ; tre a tie s c o m p ris­

in g its p rim a ry leg islatio n . (E E A ; W P) E u r o s c i e n c e - A p a n -E u ro p e a n a sso ciatio n , fo u n d e d in 1997, a n d in c lu d ­

in g in d iv id u als in te re ste d in c o n stru c tin g a ‘scientific E u ro p e ’ from th e b o t­ to m -u p . It re p re se n ts E u ro p e a n scien tists o f all discip lin es in o rd e r to: (1) pro v id e an o p e n forum fo r d e b a te o n science a n d tec h n o lo g y ; (2) s tre n g th e n the links b e tw e e n science a n d society; (3) c o n trib u te to th e c re a tio n o f an in te g ra te d space for science a n d te c h n o lo g y in E u ro p e ; a n d (4) in flu en ce science a n d te c h n o lo g y p olicies th r o u g h o u t th e c o n tin e n t. (ES) E U T ro ik a

G e n e ra lly a g ro u p in g o f th re e h ig h level officials from th e E U system a n d / o r M e m b e r S ta te s w h o a re e m p o w e re d to re p re se n t th e E C in a d d re ssin g a p a rtic u la r issue. (EU )

Eu tr o p h ic

A n a q u a tic e n v iro n m e n t e n ric h e d w ith n u trie n ts, u su ally asso­ ciated w ith h ig h p la n t p ro d u c tiv ity a n d low o x ygen levels. (S F W M D )

E u t r o p h i c a t i o n — T h e n u tr ie n t e n ric h m e n t o f w a te rs th a t results in the

stim u la tio n o f an a rra y o f sy m p to m a tic c h a n g e s, a m o n g w h ich in c re a sed p ro d u c tio n o f alg ae a n d m a c ro p h y tc s, d e te rio ra tio n o f w a te r q u a lity a n d o th e r sy m p to m a tic c h a n g e s, are fo u n d to be u n d e sira b le a n d in te rfe re w ith w a te r uses. (U N E S C O ) A p ro ce ss by w h ich a b o d y o f w a te r b e c o m e s e n ­ rich ed in dissolved n u trie n ts (as p h o sp h a te s) th a t stim u late th e g ro w th o f a q u a tic p la n t life u sually re su ltin g in th e d e p le tio n o f dissolved oxygen. (M W ) E v a p o tra n sp ira tio n

T h e p ro cess by w hich w a te r is released to th e a t­ m o s p h e re b y e v a p o ra tio n from a w a te r su rface o r m o v e m e n t from a p la n t surface (m ore specifically k n o w n as tra n sp ira tio n ). (S F W M D )

129

E-w aste

E - w a s t e - D is c a rd e d c o m p u te rs , p r in te r s , c o p y in g m a c h in e s , fax m a c h in e s ,

m o b ile p h o n e s a n d o th e r e le c tro n ic e q u ip m e n t. (E U ) Ex p r o p i o m o t u

O n its o w n a c c o rd . (B L D )

E x a l t e d r a n k - R e fe rs to a n o n -e le c te d p e rs o n w h o re c e iv e s h i s / h e r title

fro m b lo o d lin es (in h e rite d ) o r m a r ria g e (a p p o in te d ). (M W ) E x - a n t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l e v a l u a t i o n - A fo rw a rd -lo o k in g a ss e ssm e n t o f th e

likely fu tu re effects o f a g iv e n e n v ir o n m e n ta l p o lic y o r d e c is io n . (eD ; E E A ) E x a e q u o et b o n o — L iterally, in ju s tic e a n d fa irn e ss. S o m e th in g to b e d e ­

c id e d ex aequo et bono is s o m e th in g th a t is to b e d e c id e d b y p rin c ip le s o f w h a t is fa ir a n d ju s t. M o s t le g a l case s a re d e c id e d o n th e stric t ru le o f law. F o r e x ­ a m p le , a c o n tr a c t w ill b e n o rm a lly u p h e ld a n d e n fo rc e d by th e le g al system n o m a t te r h o w ‘u n f a ir ’ it m a y p ro v e to b e. B u t a c ase to b e d e c id e d ex aequo el bono o v e rrid e s th e s tric t ru le o f law a n d re q u ire s in s te a d a d e c isio n b a s e d o n w h a t is fa ir a n d ju s t g iv en th e c irc u m s ta n c e s . (B L D ) E x c e l l e n c y - A title g e n e ra lly re s e rv e d fo r a H e a d o f S ta te o r C a b in e t-le v e l

M in iste r. (M W ) E x clu siv e e c o n o m ic z o n e ( E E Z )

E x c lu siv e E c o n o m ic Z o n e as d e fin e d in th e L aw o f th e S e a . W ith in th is z o n e (w h ich m a y e x te n d to 2 0 0 n a u ti­ ca l m iles u n d e r U N C L O S III), th e sta te h a s ju r is d ic tio n a n d c o n tr o l o v e r th e e x p lo r a tio n , e x p lo ita tio n , m a n a g e m e n t a n d c o n s e rv a tio n o f th e n a tu r a l re s o u rc e s o f th e w a te rs , s e a b e d a n d su b so il. S h ip s a n d a ir c ra ft e n jo y h ig h seas fre e d o m s o f n a v ig a tio n a n d o v e r flig h t u n le ss th e y in frin g e u p o n th e c o a sta l s ta te ’s e c o n o m ic rig h ts w ith in th e E E Z .

E x c u r s i o n (in w a t e r q u a l i t y )

A c o n s titu e n t c o n c e n tra tio n th a t is o f p o ­

te n tia l c o n c e r n as a n c x c e e d a n c c a n d p o ssib le v io la tio n o f a w a te r q u a l­ ity c rite r io n . ‘E x c u rs io n ’ in d ic a te s so m e u n c e r ta in ty in th e in te r p r e ta tio n o f th e r e p o r te d c o n s titu e n t c o n c e n tr a tio n r e q u ir in g f u r th e r e v a lu a tio n o f b a c k g r o u n d c o n d itio n s , a n c illa ry d a ta , q u a lity a s s u ra n c e a n d h is to ric a l d a ta . (S F W M D ) E x e c u tin g a g e n c y

W ith in th e G E F , th e o rg a n iz a tio n th a t a c tu a lly c a r ­ ries o u t th e p r o je c t w o rk in th e field w ith a te a m o f n a tio n a l c o u n te r p a r ts . (G E F ) S ee ‘I m p l e m e n t i n g a g e n c y . ’

Ex gracia

- S o m e th in g th a t is d o n e as a g e s tu re o f g o o d w ill a n d n o t o n th e

basis o f a n a c c e p te d leg al o b lig a tio n . (eD ) E x h a u stib le re so u rce s

S ee ‘N o n - r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s . ’

E x i s t e n c e v a l u e - T h e v a lu e o f k n o w in g th a t a p a r tic u la r sp e c ie s, h a b ita t

o r e c o sy stem d o e s a n d w ill c o n tin u e to ex ist. It is b a s e d o n th e p e rc e iv e d v a lu e o f th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l asset u n r e la te d to c u r r e n t o r fu tu re use.

130

Exotic species

E x o t i c s p e c i e s - S p e c ie s o f p la n ts o r a n im a ls t h a t a r c n o t n a t u r a l l y f o u n d

in a re g io n ( n o n - in d ig e n o u s). ( S F W M D ) Expert group

A g r o u p o f a c a d e m i c s , scientists a n d g o v e r n m e n t r e p r e ­

se n ta tiv e s from spe c ia liz e d m in is trie s o r d e p a r t m e n t s a n d N G O s c o n v e n e d to a d d r e s s specific issues w i t h o u t r e g a r d to p o litic a l in te re st. E x p l o i t a b l e w a t e r r e s o u r c e s - T h a t p a r t o f th e w a t e r re s o u rc e t h a t is

c o n s id e r e d to b e a v a ila b le for d e v e l o p m e n t u n d e r specific te c h n ic a l, e c o ­ n o m ic a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d itio n s . (FAO) E x -p o s t evaluation

A n e v a l u a tio n o f a c o m p l e t e d p r o je c t c a r r i e d o u t e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y a f te r p r o je c t c o m p le ti o n o r at a la te r tim e w h e n the p r o j e c t im p a c t s a r c fully d e v e lo p e d . (WB)

E x - s i t u c o l l e c t i o n - A co llec tio n o f p l a n t g e n e tic r e s o u rc e s for a g r ic u ltu r e

t h a t a r e m a i n t a i n e d o u ts id e th e ir n a t u r a l h a b i ta t. (C B D ) Ex-situ c o n se r v a t io n

T h e c o n s e r v a tio n o f p l a n t g e n e tic r e s o u r c e s for fo o d a n d a g r i c u ltu r e o u ts id e t h e i r n a t u r a l h a b i ta t s . (C B D )

E x t e r n a l f o r c i n g - I n f lu e n c e o n th e E a r t h system (or o n e o f its c o m p o ­

nents) by a n e x te r n a l a g e n t su ch as so la r r a d i a t i o n o r th e i m p a c t o f e x t r a ­ t e r re s tr ia l b o d ie s su c h as m e te o r ite s . (NA SA ) Externality

A n e x te r n a l effect; in te r a c t io n s b e tw e e n e c o n o m i c a g e n ts n o t in v olving m a r k e t tra n s a c tio n s . By w a y o f th e ir p r o d u c t i o n o r c o n s u m p t i o n activities, e c o n o m i c a g e n ts m a y u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y g e n e r a t e positive o r n e g a ­ tive effects fo r th e w e ll- b e in g o f o t h e r a g e n ts. E x te r n a litie s m a y b e n e gative: a n i n d u s tr y w h o s e w a ste p o llu te s a riv e r m i g h t affect th e w e lfare o f fish er­ m e n . C onv ersely, c o n s e r v a tio n o f local p l a n t v a rie tie s by f a r m e r s , w h o are n o t r e m u n e r a t e d fo r this, is a positive ex te rna lity. T h e costs (or benefits) im p o s e d o n o n e in d iv id u a l o r firm b y th e a c tio n s o f a n o th e r , for w h ic h th e la tte r d o e s n o t p a y (or receive) c o m p e n s a t i o n . (WB)

E x t i n c t - I U C N c a te g o r y E x for ta x a t h a t a re n o lo n g e r k n o w n to exist in

th e w ild a fte r r e p e a t e d s e a rc h e s o f th e ir ty p e localities a n d o t h e r k n o w n o r likely places. (C B D ) E x t r a c t i v e I n d u s t r i e s R e v i e w ( E I R ) - A p r o c e ss t h a t th e W o rld B a n k

G r o u p h a s l a u n c h e d to discuss its f u tu r e role in th e e x tra c tiv e in d u s tr ie s w ith c o n c e r n e d s ta k e h o ld e r s . T h e a im is to p r o d u c e a set o f r e c o m m e n d a ­ tion s t h a t will g u id e in v o lv e m e n t o f th e W o rld B a n k G r o u p in th e s e c to rs o f oil, g a s a n d m in in g . (WB) Extractive reserve

T h e m a i n id e a b e h i n d e x tra c tiv e reserves is t h a t local

c o m m u n i t i e s o w n a n d c o n tr o l th e h a r v e s ti n g o f forest (w e tla n d , s a v a n n a h , etc.) p r o d u c ts . I n theo ry , m u c h o f th e n a t u r a l c o v e r r e m a i n s w hile p e o p le

131

E x tr a b u d g e ta r y

c o n tin u e to live in th e a re a . R a t h e r t h a n fence p e o p le a w a y from the for­ est, e xtractive reserves a re s u p p o s e d to p e r m i t p e o p le to m a n a g e the forest w i t h o u t d e stro y in g it. (EES) Extrabudgetary

F u n d in g outside o f the c ore o r r e g u la r funds o f an a g e n c y o r o r g a n iz a tio n . (IDB)

E x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y - T h e exercise by o n e n a tio n , as the result o f a f o rm a l­

ly c o n c lu d e d a g r e e m e n t , o f c e rta in sovereign fu n ctio n s w ith in the te r r ito ry o f a n o t h e r n a tio n . For e x a m p le , a t tim es T h e N e t h e r l a n d s re p re s e n ts the interests o f L u x e m b o u r g in c e rta in in te r n a t io n a l fora. (eD) E x t r e m e p o v e r t y - A situ a tio n in w h ic h a p e r s o n o r h o u s e h o ld lacks the

reso u rc es to c o n s u m e a c e rta in m in i m u m a m o u n t o f food j u d g e d to be n e c e s s a ry for a d e q u a t e n u tritio n , ev en in th e case w h e n all re so u rc es a re d e v o te d to food. E x t r i n s i c v a l u e - A fo rm o f j u d g m e n t th a t allows a c o n ti n u u m o f possibili­

ties, t h a t is a m e a s u re o f g o o d n e ss o r p rese n c e . (G SG )

132

Ff F a c t o r 4 / F a c t o r 10

T h e c o n c e p t th at, in o r d e r for sustainability to be r e a c h e d a n d m a in ta in e d d u rin g a p e r io d w h e n h u m a n p o p u la tio n s arc like­ ly to do u b le in size a n d average living s ta n d a rd s to increase significantly, in ­ du stry sh ou ld increase its reso urce conversion efficiency by a m i n im u m fac­ to r o f 4 (i.e. reso urce p ro d u c tiv ity should g ro w fourfold). P u t a n o t h e r way, the a m o u n t o f w ealth e x tra c te d from one n a tu r a l reso urce unit sh o u ld be q u a d r u p le d . Since industrialized societies typically c o n s u m e 2 0 - 3 0 times m o r e th a n less d ev elop ed ones, som e p e o p le arc calling for a fa c to r 10 in ­ crease in conversion efficiency in the d ev elop ed w orld. ( R M I ; Wu)

F a c t o r 10

Refers to a n u m b e r o f E u r o p e a n c o u n trie s th a t m e t for th e first tim e in 1992 in C a r n o u le s , Fran ce b ecau se o f m o u n tin g c o n c e r n s o ver the role o f h u m a n - in d u c e d g lobal m a te ria l flows, a n d the ecological ram ifica­ tions o f their u n c h e c k e d g row th . T h e i r aim is to d r a w a tte n tio n to the n e e d for substantially re d u c in g global m a te r ia l flows in a tim ely m a n n e r. (EEA)

F a i r - t r a d e - A system o f in te r n a tio n a l c o m m e r c e b ased o n e q u ita b le re la ­

tionships b e tw e e n p r o d u c e r s a n d co n s u m e rs. T h e goal is for p ro d u c e rs, of­ ten fa r m e rs in im p ov erished areas, to receive m o re o f w h a t c o n s u m e rs p a y for the goods. Specifically, a fair tr a d e o rg a n iz a tio n pays p r o d u c e r s m o re th a n the m a r k e t rate, provides cred it to the p ro d u c e rs , builds lo n g -te rm relationships w ith th e m , e n c o u ra g e s th e m to fo rm d e m o c ra tic co-ops, e n ­ co ura ge s ecologically sustainable p r o d u c tio n a n d bypasses in te rm e d ia rie s b e tw e e n p r o d u c e r s a n d c o n su m e rs. (WP) See C e r t i f i c a t i o n . ’ FAO

See ' U n i t e d N a t i o n s F o o d a n d A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n .

F A O C o d e o f C o n d u c t f o r R e s p o n s i b l e F i s h e r i e s ( 1 99 5 )

T h is C o d e sets o u t p rin cip les a n d in te r n a tio n a l s ta n d a r d s o f b e h a v io r for responsible p ractices with a view to e n s u r in g the effective c on servatio n, m a n a g e m e n t a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f living a q u a tic resources, w ith d u e respect for th e ec o ­ system a n d biodiversity. T h e C o d e recognizes the n u tritio n a l, eco n o m ic , social, e n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d cultural im p o r ta n c e o f fisheries a n d the interests o f all those c o n c e r n e d w ith the fishery sector. T h e C o d e takes into a c c o u n t the biological ch aracteristics o f the resources a n d th e ir e n v ir o n m e n t a n d the interests o f c o n s u m e r s a n d o th e r users. (FAO)

F a s t t r a c k a u t h o r i t y - In the U S it is the a u th o r ity given to the p re sid e n t

by the C o n g re ss th a t allows th e p re sid e n t to send to th e C o n g re ss c o m ­ p lete d in te rn a tio n a l tra d e a g r e e m e n ts for a vote o f ‘yes’ o r ‘n o .’ U n d e r fast track authority, C o n g re ss is n o t allow ed to alter o r a m e n d the a g re e m e n ts. (U S A ID )

Fast tracking

Fast track in g

T h e p ro c ess o f re d u c in g th e n u m b e r o f se q u e n tia l re la tio n ­ ships a n d re p la c in g th e m ty pically w ith p a ra lle l re la tio n sh ip s, u sually to achieve s h o rte r overall d u ra tio n s b u t often w ith in c re a se d risk.

F a u n a - All th e a n im a l species fo u n d in a given a re a . (M W ) Feedback

A lin k in g o f th e o u tp u t o f a system b a ck to th e in p u t. T ra d i­ tio n ally this can be n eg a tiv e, te n d in g to re tu rn th e system to a w a n te d state, o r positive te n d in g to d iv erg e from th a t state. (C S G )

F e e d - i n la w - R efers to th e leg al re q u ire m e n t, in so m e p a rts o f th e w o rld ,

re q u irin g a p u b lic utility to p u rc h a s e e le c tric ity g e n e ra te d from re n ew a b le p riv ate sources a n d in c o rp o ra te it in to th e g rid availab le to th e ir su b sc rib ­ ers. (U SE PA ) F e rtility ra te

T h e av erag e n u m b e r o f c h ild re n th a t w o u ld be b o rn alive to a w o m a n d u rin g h e r lifetim e if she w ere to b e a r c h ild re n at e a c h age in a c c o rd w ith p re v a ilin g ag e-specific rates. (U N C H S )

F i l i b u s t e r - A stra te g y u se d to d elay o r stop a v ote by m a k in g lo n g sp eech es

a n d e n c o u ra g in g u n e n d in g d e b a te . (M W ) F in a l a c t - A fo rm a l su m m a ry sta te m e n t, d ra w n u p (an d so m e tim e s w it­

nessed o r signed by th e p a rtic ip a n ts) a t th e c o n clu sio n o f a m eetin g . F in a l A c t o f t h e U r u g u a y R o u n d f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e W o r l d T r a d e O r g a n i z a t i o n - A re p o rt th a t in clu d e s a sectio n o n ‘D ecisio n o n T ra d e a n d

S ervices a n d th e E n v iro n m e n t’ th a t o u tlin e d th e n e e d to n e g o tia te issues o f tra d e a n d th e ir re la tio n sh ip w ith th e e n v iro n m e n t w ith in a su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t c o n te x t. T h e se issues are b e in g d iscu ssed at th e re g io n a l a n d su b -re g io n a l levels in a v a rie ty o f fo ra as a m e a n s o f in fo rm in g th e WrT O . T h e U ru g u a y R o u n d A g re e m e n t also fo rm ally e stab lish ed th e T ra d e a n d E n v iro n m e n t C o m m itte e . F in ancial m e c h a n is m

A m e c h a n ism o f th e U N F C C C th a t e n a b le s th e tra n sfe r o f fun d s a n d te c h n o lo g y to d e v elo p in g c o u n trie s on a g r a n t o r c o n ­ cessional basis, u n d e r th e g u id a n c e o f th e C O P . (U N F C C C )

F i n n i s h I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y ( F I N N I D A ) - T h e p rin ­

cipal ag en cy th ro u g h w h ich F in la n d p ro v id es te c h n ic a l assistan ce a n d deliv ­ ers foreign aid. F irst W o r l d

A te rm re fe rrin g to d ev elo p e d (in g e n e ra l O E C D ) c o u n tries.

F is c a l y e a r - T h e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d fo r w h ich th e a n n u a l b u d g e t is d ev e l­

o p e d a n d im p le m e n te d a n d w h ich d o es n o t n ecessarily c o rre sp o n d to th e c a le n d a r year. (M W )

134

Fisheries m an ag e m e n t

F ish e rie s m a n a g e m e n t

T h e m a n a g e m e n t o f fish a n d shellfish resou rces. It in clu d es th e settin g o f rules fo r h o w fishing c a n be c a rrie d o u t, th e p ro te c ­ tio n a n d e n h a n c e m e n t o f fish reso u rces, th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f fisheries a n d th e m e d ia tio n o f co n flict b e tw e e n sta k e h o ld e rs. (EES)

F i s s i o n - T h e p ro cess w h e re b y th e n u c le u s o f a p a rtic u la r h eav y e le m e n t

splits in to (generally) tw o n u clei o f lig h te r elem en ts, w ith th e release o f su b sta n tia l a m o u n ts o f energy. (N R D C ) F l e m m i n g p r i n c i p l e - A set o f c rite ria th a t defines th e te rm s a n d c o n ­

ditio n s (salaries, allo w an c es, frin g e benefits) o f e m p lo y in g g e n e ra l service (ad m in istrativ e) staff in th e U N system a n d m o n ito re d by th e In te rn a tio n a l C ivil S ervice C o m m issio n a n d th e v a rio u s sta ff c o m m itte e s in U N system o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d o th e r o rg a n iz a tio n s u sin g th e U N system . In g e n e ra l te rm s, it m e a n s th a t th e co n d itio n s o f service sh o u ld b e a m o n g th e b est, w ith o u t b e in g th e b est. (U N ) See ‘N o b l e m a i r e P r i n c i p l e . ’ F l e x i b i l i t y m e c h a n i s m s - A te rm th a t refers to th e th re e c o o p e ra tiv e im ­

p le m e n ta tio n m e c h a n ism s u n d e r th e K y o to P ro to co l J o i n t Im p le m e n ta tio n , In te rn a tio n a l E m issio n s T ra d in g a n d C le a n D e v e lo p m e n t M e c h a n ism ) a n d w h ich in c lu d es th e n o tio n o f d iffe re n tia te d c o m m itm e n ts. (EM ) F l o r a - All th e p la n t species fo u n d in a given a re a . (M W ) F l u o r o c a r b o n s - C a rb o n -flu o rin c c o m p o u n d s th a t c o n ta in o th e r ele m e n ts

such as h y d ro g e n , c h lo rin e o r b ro m in e . C o m m o n flu o ro c a rb o n s in clu d e ch lo ro flu o ro c a rb o n s (C F C s), h y d ro c h lo ro flu o ro c a rb o n s (H C F C s), h y d ro flu o ro c a rb o n s (H F C s), a n d p e rilu o ro c a rb o n s (PFC s). F o c a l a r e a ( a l s o t h e m a t i c a r e a ) - T h e fo u r m a in a re as th a t th e G E F

w orks in. T h e y a rc clim ate c h a n g e , b io lo g ical diversity, in te rn a tio n a l w ate rs a n d o zo n e lay er d e p le tio n . (G E F ) Focal p o in t ( I )

A n a rr a n g e m e n t w h e re b y a n a tio n a l e n tity reflects an in te rn a tio n a l p u b lic in te re st.

F o c a l p o i n t (2) - A fo rm a l re p re se n ta tiv e n o m in a te d by a g o v e rn m e n t to

receive a n d d is trib u te c o m m u n ic a tio n s o n a g iven to p ic as w ell as to p a rtic i­ p a te in m eetin g s o n th e su b je c t on its b eh alf. Foggy B o tto m

A co llo q u ial te rm o rig in ally re fe rrin g to th e m a rsh a re a n e a r th e W ash in g to n D C ’s P o to m a c R iv e r a n d now c o m m o n ly u sed to refer to th e U S S tate D e p a rtm e n t. (U S D O S )

F o o d c h a i n - A se q u e n c e o f o rg a n ism s ea c h o f w h ich uses th e n e x t to its

ben efit, p rim a rily as a food source. (U SEPA ) F oo d se curity

C o n c e p t th a t d isc o u ra g e s o p e n in g th e d o m e stic m a rk e t to

135

Force m ajeure

foreign a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u c ts o n th e p rin c ip le th a t a c o u n try m u st be as selfsufficient as possible for its basic d ie ta ry n eed s. (W T O ) Force m a j e u r e

Literally, ‘g re a te r fo rc e ’; a clause d esig n e d to p ro te c t a g a in st failures to p e rfo rm c o n tra c tu a l o b lig a tio n s c au se d by u n a v o id a b le events b e ­ y o n d th e p a r ty ’s c o n tro l, su ch as n a tu ra l d isasters o r w ars. (U N ; M W )

F o r c e m u l t i p l i e r ( I ) - T h e te n d e n c y by a n in v a d in g o r o c c u p y in g force to

c o n sid e r aid a n d o th e r h u m a n ita r ia n w o rk ers as a u to m a tic a lly su p p o rtin g th e ir role, p a rtic u la rly w h en su ch force is a u th o riz e d by th e U N S e c u rity C o u n c il o r view ed as b e in g s u p p o rte d by th e M e m b e r S tates. (U S D O S ) F o r c e m u l t i p l i e r (2) - T h e a ss u m p tio n (by th e in v a d in g o r o c c u p y in g force)

o r p e rc e p tio n (by those b e in g in v a d e d o r o ccu p ie d ) th a t aid a n d o th e r h u ­ m a n ita ria n w o rk e rs a n d o rg a n iz a tio n s su p p o rt th e goals o f a n in v ad in g o r o c c u p y in g force w h e n such a g en cies receive d ire c t fin an cial su p p o rt from such sources. (U S D O S ) F ore ign dire ct i n v e s t m e n t ( F D I )

T h e a c t o f b u ild in g p ro d u c tiv e c a p a c ­ ity d irectly in a fo reig n co u n try . In v e s tm e n t in o n e c o u n try b y firm s o w n e d in a n o th e r country.

F o r e s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n - A p ro cess o f c ertify ing a n d la b e lin g w o o d th a t has

b e e n h a rv e s te d from a w e ll-m a n a g e d forest in c lu d in g social, c u ltu ra l, m a r ­ k eting a n d c h a in o f c u sto d y asp ects as c o m p o n e n ts o f th e ov erall m a n a g e ­ m e n t o f th e reso u rce. (N R D C ) See ‘F o r e s t S t e w a r d s h i p C o u n c i l , ' ‘C e r ­ t i f i e d w o o d . ’. F o r e s t l a n d s c a p e r e s t o r a t i o n ( F L R ) - A p la n n e d p ro cess im p le m e n te d to

resto re a specific forest ty p e a n d e n h a n c e h u m a n w ell-b ein g in d efo re sted o r d e g ra d e d forest la n d s c a p e s th a t re q u ire s ch o ices at a la n d sc a p e scale w h e re overall la n d s c a p e b en efits a re m o re im p o rta n t th a n ch o ices re la tin g to in d i­ v id u al forest sta n d s o r sites. Forest m a n a g e m e n t

- T h e p ra c tic a l a p p lic a tio n o f b io lo g ical, phy sical, q u a n tita tiv e , m a n a g e ria l, e c o n o m ic , social a n d p o licy p rin c ip le s to th e re ­ g e n e ra tio n , u tiliz a tio n a n d co n se rv a tio n o f forests to m e e t specified goals a n d objectives w hile m a in ta in in g th e p ro d u c tiv ity o f th e forest. (IU F R O )

F o r e s t P r i n c i p l e s - T h e n o n -lcg ally b in d in g a u th o rita tiv e sta te m e n t o f

p rin c ip le s to g u id e th e m a n a g e m e n t, c o n se rv a tio n a n d su stain a b le d e v e lo p ­ m e n t o f all types o f forests a g re e d to by n e a rly 180 g o v e rn m e n ts a t U N C E D in 1992. (U N C E D ; U N T ) F o r e s t S t e w a r d s h i p C o u n c i l ( F S C ) - A n in te rn a tio n a l, n o n -p ro fit o rg a n i­

z a tio n th a t offers forest c e rtifica tio n in tern atio n ally . F o r u m - A m e d iu m o f o p e n discussion o r ex p ressio n o f ideas. (M W )

136

Fossil fuel

F o s s i l f u e l - A ny h y d ro c a rb o n d e p o sit th a t c a n be b u rn e d fo r h e a t o r pow er,

such as p e tro le u m , co al a n d n a tu ra l gas (or an y fuel d e riv e d from them ). (N ASA ) F o ssil w a t e r

See ‘N o n - r e n e w a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . ’

Founex R eport

T h e w ritte n p ro d u c t o f a m e e tin g in F o u n ex , S w itz erla n d called to p re p a r e fo r th e 1972 S to c k h o lm C o n fe re n c e th a t discussed th e links b e tw e e n d e v e lo p m e n t a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n in th e T h ir d W o rld . (CIPA)

Fourth W o rld

T h is te rm refers to p e ri-u rb a n p o o r living in u n p la n n e d , in fo rm a l a n d / o r u n a u th o riz e d se ttle m e n ts w ith o u t th e b en efits o f p u b lic services su ch as electricity, w a te r a n d s e w a g e /s a n ita tio n . T h e y arc re fe rre d to as th e ‘fo u rth w o rld ’ as th ey a rc g e n erally n o t co v ered by th e social n e t, o p e ra te in a p a ra lle l eco n o m y , a n d a rc n o t c o u n te d o r in c lu d e d in g o v e rn ­ m e n t statistical surveys o r re co rd s; im p ly in g th a t they are even w o rse o ff th a n th o se from th e T h ir d W orld.

F r a g i l e e c o s y s t e m - Sec th e essay p 2 0 . F r a g i l e s t a t e s - A 2 0 0 6 W orld B ank classification o f 26 S tates a t risk o f

po litical o r ec o n o m ic collapse. (W B) F ra gm e n ta tio n

T h e b re a k in g u p o f extensive la n d sc a p e fe atu res in to d is­ ju n c tiv e , isolated , o r sem i-iso lated p a tc h e s as a re su lt o f la n d -u se chan g es. (B C H M )

F r a m e w o r k - A b ro a d overview , o u tlin e o r sk eleto n w ith in w h ich d etails can

b e a d d e d . (G E F) F r a m e w o r k co n v e n tio n

A g re e m e n ts u n d e r w h ich p ro to c o ls c a n be d e ­ v elo p ed to ad d re ss specific su b jec ts th a t re q u ire m o re d e ta ile d a n d sp ec ia l­ ized n eg o tiatio n s. (U N F C C C )

F r e e m a r k e t - o r i e n t e d r e f o r m s - See ‘S t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t l o a n s . ’ F r e e t r a d e - T ra d e in w h ich g o o d s c a n be im p o rte d a n d e x p o rte d w ith o u t

b a rrie rs in th e fo rm s o f tariffs, q u o ta s o r o th e r restrictio n s. (WTT O ) F r e e - r i d e r p r o b l e m - In d e b a te o f th e U N F C C C th e ‘fre e -rid e r p ro b le m ’

refers to th e possibility th a t so m e p a rtie s m ay take a d v a n ta g e from clim a te a c tio n by o th e rs w ith o u t th em selv es a c c e p tin g c o m m itm e n ts o r ta k in g a c ­ tion. F r ie n d s o f th e c h a ir ( p r e s id e n t )

A few p ro m in e n t n e g o tia to rs in v ited by th e c h a ir /p r e s id e n t to h elp in fo rm a lly in d ev e lo p in g c o n sen su s o n issues. (U N F C C C )

137

Friends o f the Earth In te rn a tio n a l (Fo El)

F r i e n d s o f t h e E a r t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l ( F o E l ) - F o E I w a s fo u n d e d in 1971

by fo u r o rg a n iz a tio n s fro m F ra n c e , S w e d e n , E n g la n d a n d th e U S . T o d a y ’s f e d e r a tio n o f 66 g ro u p s g re w fro m a n n u a l m e e tin g s o f e n v iro n m e n ta lis ts fro m d iffe re n t c o u n tr ie s w h o a g re e d to c a m p a ig n to g e th e r o n c e rta in c ru c ia l issues, su c h as n u c le a r e n e rg y a n d w h a lin g . In 1 9 9 8 , th e c o m b in e d n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s a n d s u p p o r te rs o f F rie n d s o f th e E a r th g ro u p s w a s clo se to 1 m illio n , a n d th e F oE I u m b r e lla u n ite d a lm o s t 5 0 0 0 lo c a l a c tiv ist g ro u p s. T h e c o m b in e d a n n u a l b u d g e t o f F O E g ro u p s w a s close to U S $ 2 0 0 m illio n , a n d to g e th e r th e y e m p lo y e d close to 7 0 0 fu ll-tim e s t a ll m e m b e rs . (F O E ) F rie n d s o f th e U n it e d N a t io n s

F o u n d e d in 1 9 8 5 , F rie n d s o f th e U n ite d

N a tio n s is a n in d e p e n d e n t, n o n -p a r tis a n o rg a n iz a tio n d e d ic a te d to in c re a s ­ in g a w a re n e s s o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s ’ a c tiv itie s. T h e y w o rk w ith e d u c a tio n ­ al in s titu tio n s , c o rp o r a tio n s , th e m e d ia , th e in te r n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts a n d o th e r o rg a n iz a tio n s to in fo rm a n d e d u c a te p e o p le a b o u t th e U N ’s effo rts o n b e h a lf o f p e a c e , h u m a n rig h ts, th e e n v ir o n m e n t, c h ild re n a n d r e s p o n ­ sible e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t. T h is N G O is c o m m itte d to fa c ilita tin g c o m ­ m u n ic a tio n b e tw e e n e c o n o m ic a lly a n d so c ia lly d iv e rse w o rld p o p u la tio n s , a n d c re a tin g s o lu tio n s to g lo b a l p ro b le m s . M a n y n a tio n a l c h a p te r s o f th e F rie n d s o f th e U N h a v e b e e n e sta b lish e d th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld . (U N ) Frozen A r k

- A B ritish -le d p ro g r a m

in v o lv in g zo o s, m u s e u m s , c a p tiv e

b r e e d in g p ro g r a m s a n d la b o r a to r ie s fro m m a n y c o u n tr ie s th a t sto re s D N A sa m p le s fro m e n d a n g e r e d a n im a l sp e c ie s fo r scie n tific p u rp o s e s in c lu d in g p ro v id in g a so u rc e fo r g e n e tic v a ria tio n th a t o th e rw ise m ig h t be lost. (T h e F ro zen A rk, n d ) S ee D o o m s d a y v a u l t . ' F .S .O . - A U S te r m re f e rrin g to th e ro le o f a c a r e e r d ip lo m a t; F o re ig n S e rv ­

ice O fficer. (U S D O S ) F u g itiv e fu e ls

F u e l em issio n s th a t m a y o r m a y n o t b e fully c o n tro lle d a lth o u g h in m o s t cases th e y a re n o t a c c id e n ta l. E x a m p le s o f fu g itiv e e m is­ sio n s a re leak s fro m g a s p ip e lin e s a n d valves, v e n tin g a n d fla rin g o f g ases, m e th a n e em issio n s fro m c o a l se a m s a n d v a p o r g iv en o ff by p e tro le u m sto res. (U N F C C C )

F u ll p o w e r s - A d o c u m e n t e m a n a tin g from th e c o m p e te n t a u th o r ity o f a

S ta te d e s ig n a tin g a p e rs o n o r p e rs o n s to re p r e s e n t th e S ta te fo r n e g o tia tin g , a d o p tin g o r a u th e n tic a tin g th e te x t o f a treaty , fo r e x p re s sin g th e c o n s e n t o f th e S ta te to b e b o u n d by a tre aty , o r fo r a c c o m p lis h in g a n y o th e r a c t w ith re s p e c t to a treaty . (VC)

138

Gg G3 T h e U K , G e rm a n y a n d F ran ce. A g ro u p fo rm e d in 200 5 to assist th e IA E A in w o rk in g th ro u g h issues re la te d to n u c lc a r p o w e r d e v e lo p m e n t a n d o p e ra tio n in th e Islam ic R e p u b lic o f Ira n . G 4 - O rig in a lly e stab lish ed by th e fo u r c o u n trie s w ith th e g re a te st h o p e o f

w in n in g p e r m a n e n t seats o n th e p ro p o s e d rev ised U N S e c u rity C o u n c il (Japan, G e rm a n y , In d ia a n d B razil). T h e G 4 c o u n trie s p ro p o s e d in 2005 th a t th e 15 m e m b e r S e c u rity C o u n c il o f 5 p e r m a n e n t a n d v eto -w ield in g m e m b e rs a n d th e 10 n o n -p e r m a n e n t a n d n o n -v e to w ield in g m e m b e rs be e x p a n d e d to 25 m e m b e rs, in c lu d in g 9 p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs a n d 16 n o n ­ p e rm a n e n t m e m b e rs. E arly d iscussions s u rro u n d in g e x p a n d in g p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rsh ip to th e C o u n c il ru le d o u t g ra n tin g im m e d ia te v e to p o w e r to new m e m b e rs. In early 200 6 J a p a n left th e G 4 w ith th e in te n t o f o p e n in g d ire c t talks w ith th e U S G o v e rn m e n t o n a sc at o n th e C o u n c il. (U N ) G 5 (‘o l d ’)

T h e five p e r m a n e n t M e m b e r S ta tes o f th e U N S ecu rity C o u n ­ cil h o ld in g v eto p o w e r (the U K , C h in a , F ra n c e , R u ssia, th e U S). (U N )

G 5 (‘n e w ’) - G ro u p o f th e five la rg e st E u ro p e a n e c o n o m ie s (the U K , F ran ce,

G e rm a n y , Italy a n d S p ain ). (U N ) G 6 ( ‘o l d ’)

A tra d e -n e g o tia tin g b lock c o m p risin g six m a jo r in d u stria liz e d c o u n trie s (the U S , J a p a n , G e rm a n y , F ran ce, Italy a n d th e U K ). (U N )

G 6 ( ‘n e w ’)

A g ro u p fo rm e d in late 200 5 p rim a rily to d e a l w ith th e issue o f I r a n ’s a s p ira tio n s /rig h ts to d ev elo p its n u c le a r p o w e r in d u s try a n d c o m p ris­ in g the o ld G 5 p lus G e rm a n y . (U N )

G 7 ( o l d ) - T h e g ro u p o f th e seven la rg e st in d u stria liz e d e c o n o m ie s /d e ­

m o cracies w hose resp o n sib ilities in clu d e se ttin g th e p olicies o f th e IM F a n d the W orld B ank (the U S , J a p a n , G e rm a n y , F ran c e, th e U K , Italy a n d C a n a d a ). G 7 (new )

T h e ‘N ew G 7 ’ is a te rm th a t first c a m e in to use as th e p r e p a r a ­ tions for th e 200 6 G 7 m e e tin g w ere b e in g d iscussed. It reco g n izes o n e o f th e o rig in al o rg a n iz in g p rin c ip le s o f th e G 7 , th a t b e in g m e m b e rsh ip fo r the w o rld ’s larg est e c o n o m ic s, n o lo n g e r a p p lie d , as C h in a ’s e c o n o m y w as la rg e r th a n several o f th e e x istin g m e m b e rs (F rance, th e U K , Ita ly a n d C a n a d a ). H ow ever, th e d e b a te a b o u t C h in a ’s in clu sio n also rev o lv ed a ro u n d th e c o n ­ d itio n o f m e m b e rs also b e in g d e m o c ra c ie s. (C F R , T W N ) See ‘C I F I C . '

G8

G 8 - G ro u p o f e ig h t m a in (largest G D P ) in d u stria liz e d d e m o c ra c ie s (G 7 +

R ussia). T h e c rite ria for m e m b e rs h ip in clu d e: a d e m o c ra tic reg im e; a larg e e c o n o m y ; a hig h level o f e c o n o m ic a n d in s titu tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t; a c o n ­ v ertib le c u rre n c y ; m e m b e rsh ip in th e W T O , th e O E C D a n d th e I n t e r n a ­ tio n al E n e rg y A g en cy ; a n d d e d ic a tio n to th e g oals a n d p rin c ip le s o f in te r­ n a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n . (U N W ) G 8 + - T h e G 8 p lu s C h in a . G 8 + ( n e w ) - T h e te rm ‘N e w G 8 + ’ in c lu d e s th e G 8 + c o u n trie s, plu s p o ­

ten tially In d ia a n d B razil, a m o n g o th e rs th a t w ill u n d o u b te d ly be n o te d as eco n o m ie s grow a n d th e o rig in a l m e m b e rs o f th e G 8 are d isp laced a c c o rd ­ in g to th e o rig in a l c rite ria . (T W N ; U N ) G I 0 - A g ro u p c o m p risin g th e c e n tra l b a n k e rs o f B elg iu m , C a n a d a , F ran ce,

G e rm a n y , Italy, J a p a n , L u x e m b o u rg , T h e N e th e rla n d s, S w e d e n , S w itz er­ lan d . th e U K a n d th e U S w h o m e e t for th e p u rp o s e o f m a in ta in in g a m e c h ­ anism to m a tc h th e b a n k in g in s titu tio n s' e q u ity c a p ita l w ith re g a rd to th e ir o p e ra tio n s, a n d d efin in g th e risks th e y ru n w ith re g a rd to th o se o p e ra tio n s. T h e 1988 Basle A g re e m e n t g u id es th e ir w ork. G I 3 - A c o n c e p t p ro p o s e d in 200 5 a t th e U N S u m m it by T h e N e th e rla n d s

to g e th e r w ith 12 o th e r c o u n trie s su p p o rtin g ra d ic a l re fo rm o f th e U N system in c lu d in g th e e lim in a tio n o f m a n y sp ecialized o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d c o m b in in g th e re m a in in g fu n c tio n s in to th re e stro n g o p e ra tio n a l ag en cies (d ev elo p m en t, h u m a n ita r ia n affairs a n d e n v iro n m e n t) p lu s th e c re a tio n o f glo b al c e n te rs o f ex cellen ce th a t w o u ld be c h a rg e d w ith d e v e lo p in g n o rm s a n d sta n d a rd s a n d p ro v id in g a p la tfo rm fo r in te rn a tio n a l d ia lo g u e o n issues such as h e a lth , la b o r sta n d a rd s a n d ag ric u ltu re . It w o u ld also o rg a n iz e all co u n try -le v el activ ities u n d e r a single U N te a m le a d e r resp o n sib le for a u nified U N p ro g ra m in a g iven c o u n try (T h e N e th e rla n d s, B elg iu m , C a n ­ a d a , D e n m a rk , F ra n c e , F in la n d , G e rm a n y , Ire la n d , L u x e m b o u rg , N orw ay, S w ed en , S w itz e rla n d a n d th e U K ). (U N ) See ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e f o r m P r o c e ss.’ G I 5 - G ro u p o f 15. A su m m it level g ro u p o f d ev e lo p in g c o u n trie s o rg a n ­

ized in 1989 th a t p ro v id es a p la tfo rm to p ro m o te S o u th - S o u th c o o p e ra tio n a n d N o rth S o u th d ialo g u e. T h e g ro u p n o w h as 19 m e m b e rs (A lgeria, A r­ g e n tin a , B razil, C h ile , C o lo m b ia , E g y p t, In d ia , In d o n e s ia , I r a n , J a m a ic a , K en y a, M alay sia , M ex ico , N ig e ria , P e ru , S e n e g al, Sri L a n k a , V en ezu ela a n d Z im b ab w e ). G 2 0 - A n in te rn a tio n a l fo ru m o f fin a n c e m in isters a n d c e n tra l b a n k gov­

e rn o rs re p re se n tin g 19 g o v e rn m e n ts, th e E U a n d th e B re tto n W 'oods In ­ stitu tio n s (A rg e n tin a , A u stralia , B razil, C a n a d a , C h in a , F ra n c e , G e rm a n y , In d ia , In d o n e s ia , Italy, J a p a n , K o re a . M ex ic o , R ussia, S a u d i A ra b ia , S o u th A frica, T urkey, th e U K , th e U S , a n d th e E U , plu s th e W o rld B ank a n d th e IM F).

140

G 21

G 2 I - A g ro u p o f d e v elo p in g c o u n trie s th a t c o ale sced at th e W T O ro u n d in C a n c ú n , M ex ico in m id -2 0 0 3 a n d is d e d ic a te d to n e g o tia tin g an e lim in a ­ tio n o f subsidies in all secto rs, a n d p a rtic u la rly tho se p ro v id e d in d e v elo p ed n a tio n s to secto rs (such as a g ric u ltu re ) th a t d irectly im p a c t th e ab ility o f dev elo p in g n a tio n s to c o m p e te in th e in te rn a tio n a l m a rk e tp la c e . (U N ) G33

A g ro u p in g o f 40 d ev e lo p in g c o u n trie s w h o se w o rk w as assu m e d by th e G 2 0 from 1999. S ev eral e a rlie r se m in a rs o f th e G ro u p o f 33 ad d re sse d in te rn a tio n a l fin a n cial a rc h ite c tu re a n d w as c o n v e n e d at th e initiativ e o f th e fin an ce m in iste rs a n d c e n tra l b a n k g o v e rn o rs o f th e G 7 . (W P) See N o n -A lig n ed M o v e m e n t.'

G 7 7 + C h i n a - A c o a litio n o f 135 m e m b e rs th a t aim s to collectively a rtic u ­

late a n d p ro m o te th e e c o n o m ic in te re sts o f th e g ro u p a n d to e n h a n c e its n e ­ g o tiatin g p o sitio n o n all m a jo r issues in th e U N . T h e c h a ir ro ta te s a n n u a lly b e tw e e n n a tio n s a n d reg io n s. T h e co a litio n c u rre n tly h as a R o m e C h a p ­ te r (at FA O ), P aris C h a p te r (at U N E S C O ), N a iro b i C h a p te r (at U N E P ), W a sh in g to n C h a p te r (at IM F a n d W o rld B ank) a n d a V ie n n a C h a p te r (at U N ID O ). G 9 0 - A g ro u p o f th e p o o re s t d ev elo p in g c o u n trie s th a t m a in ta in a n in fo r­

m al re la tio n sh ip b a se d o n tra d e p rin c ip le s a n d w h ich o p e ra te s w ith in th e W T O co n te x t. T h e G 9 0 is a n u m b re lla b o d y o f th e A fric a n , C a rib b e a n a n d Pacific (A C P) G ro u p , in c lu d in g all H IP IC c o u n trie s, a n d is th e larg est s u b -g ro u p in g o f M e m b e rs S ta te s in th e W:T O . (T W N ) C a ia h y p o t h e s i s T h e h y p o th esis a d v a n c e d by B ritish scien tist. Ja m e s L ovelock, th a t th e E a r th ’s a tm o sp h e re , b io sp h e re a n d its living o rg a n ism s b eh av e as a single system striv in g to m a in ta in a stab ility th a t is co n d u c tiv e to th e existence o f life. (N A SA ; EES) C a ia ‘r e v e n g e ’ h y p o t h e s i s - T h e th e o ry th a t p re d ic ts th a t h u m a n k in d ’s a b u se o f th e E a r th ’s su p p o rt system s is now m a k in g th e sta b ilizin g m e c h a ­ nism w ork a g ain st us. In sh o rt, th e th e o ry h o ld s th a t th e E a rth h as p assed th e p o in t o f re tu rn specifically trig g e re d by clim a te c h a n g e a n d life o n the p la n e t will n e v e r a g a in be th e sam e. (NASA) G a p a n a l y s i s - S y ste m atic a p p lic a tio n o f g oals a n d c rite ria to d e te rm in e

w h a t reso u rces o r v alu es are c u rre n tly p ro te c te d a n d w h a t n e e d s to be p r o ­ tected . G azette/G azetted

A n official p u b lic a tio n o f a g o v e rn m e n t o r o th e r c o n ­ stitu te d b o d y su c h as a P a rlia m e n t o r leg islatu re, sim ilar in n a tu re to th e U S C o n g re ss io n a l R e c o rd , a n d g e n erally re q u ire d b efo re a law e n te rs in to force. (M W )

GEF

See ‘G l o b a l E n v i r o n m e n t F a c i l i t y . '

141

G E F o b le

G E F a b l e - A te rm u sed to d e sc rib e a p ro je c t p ro p o s a l th a t m e e ts th e te rm s

a n d c o n d itio n s fo r a G E F g ra n t. Gender

T h e socially d e te rm in e d roles p la y e d by w o m e n a n d m e n , w h ich c an d e d e te rm in e d by h isto rica l, religious, e c o n o m ic , c u ltu ra l a n d e th n ic factors. (U N D P )

G e n d e r-re la te d

D e v e l o p m e n t I n d e x ( G D I ) - T h e G D I m ea su re s a ch ie v e m e n ts in th e sam e d im e n sio n s a n d v a ria b le s as th e H u m a n D ev el­ o p m e n t In d e x (H D I), b u t c a p tu re s in e q u a litie s in a c h ie v e m e n t b etw e e n w o m e n a n d m e n . T h e g re a te r th e g e n d e r d isp a rity in basic h u m a n d ev el­ o p m e n t, th e lo w er a c o u n tr y ’s G D I c o m p a re d w ith its H D I. (AM )

Gene

T h e fu n c tio n a l u n it o f h e re d ity : th e p a r t o f th e D N A m o le c u le th a t en c o d e s a sing le e n z y m e o r s tru c tu ra l p ro te in u n it. (GBS)

G e n e ra l A g r e e m e n t on Tariffs and T r a d e ( G A T T )

O rig in a lly signed by 23 n a tio n s in 1947, G A T T is a n in te rn a tio n a l b o d y d e v o te d to e lim in a t­ in g im p o rt q u o ta s, lo w e rin g tariffs, a n d o th erw ise p ro m o tin g free, n o n d isc rim in a to ry in te rn a tio n a l tra d e . T h e U ru g u a y R o u n d c re a te d th e W T O as a n in te rn a tio n a l b o d y in 1995 to a d m in is te r th e G A T T . (W T O )

G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y —T h e h ig h e st p rin c ip le o rg a n o f an in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l

o rg a n iz a tio n th a t consists o f re p re se n ta tiv e s o f all its M e m b e r S tates. G e n e r a l circu latio n m o d e l ( G C M )

A g lo b al, th re e -d im e n sio n a l c o m ­ p u te r m o d e l o f th e c lim a te system th a t c a n be u sed to sim u late h u m a n - in ­ d u c e d clim ate c h a n g e . G G M s arc h ighly c o m p le x a n d th e y re p re s e n t th e ef­ fects o f such facto rs as reflective a n d a b so rp tiv e p ro p e rtie s o f a tm o sp h e ric w a te r vapor, g re e n h o u se gas c o n c e n tra tio n s, clo u d s, a n n u a l a n d daily so lar h e a tin g , o c e a n te m p e ra tu re s a n d ice b o u n d a rie s. T h e m o st re c e n t G C M s in c lu d e g lo b al re p re se n ta tio n s o f th e a tm o sp h e re , o ce a n s a n d la n d surface. (NASA)

G e n e ra l s u p p o r t staff

See ‘G - l e v e l s t a f f . ’

G e n e t i c d i v e r s i t y - V a ria tio n in th e g e n e tic c o m p o sitio n o f in d iv id u a ls

w ith in o r a m o n g species. (GBS) G e n e t i c m a t e r i a l - A ny m a te ria l of p la n t o rig in c o n ta in in g fu n c tio n a l

u n its o f heredity . (C B D ) G e n e t i c r e s o u r c e s - G e n e tic m a te ria l o f a c tu a l o r p o te n tia l v alu e in c lu d ­

in g th e g enes o f p la n ts, a n im a ls o r o th e r o rg a n ism s. (C B D , EES) G e n e tic a lly m o d ifie d o rg a n is m ( G M O )

A n o rg a n ism w h o se g en etic ch ara c te ristic s have b e e n c h a n g e d by in se rtin g a m o d ified g en e o r a g en e from a n o th e r v a rie ty o r species. G e n e tic a lly m o d ified o rg a n ism s m a y be p la n ts, an im a ls o r m ic ro o rg a n ism s.

142

G e n o c id e

G e n o c i d e - T h e d e lib e ra te a n d sy s te m a tic d e s tru c tio n o f a ra c ia l, p o litic a l,

c u ltu ra l o r re lig io u s g ro u p . (U N ) G e n u in e p ro g re ss in d icato r (G P I)

A c o n c e p t in g re e n a n d w elfare

e c o n o m ic s su g g e s te d as a r e p la c e m e n t fo r G D P as a m e tric o f e c o n o m ic g ro w th . (W P) G e o e n g i n e e r i n g - R e a r r a n g in g th e E a r t h ’s e n v ir o n m e n t o n a la rg e scale to

su it h u m a n n e e d s a n d p r o m o te h a b ita b ility . E x a m p le s in c lu d e sh ie ld in g th e E a r th fro m s u n lig h t to re v e rse th e effects o f g lo b a l w a rm in g , re v e rsin g o r d iv e rtin g th e flow s o f m a jo r riv e rs, c lo u d s e e d in g o n a m assiv e scale, d e sa li­ n a tio n o n a scale th a t c o u ld a ffc c t a rid z o n e p ro d u c tiv ity , c re a tin g h u m id ity o n a re g io n a l scale, u sin g la rg e a m o u n ts o f o c e a n w a te r to c o o l re g io n s o r su b -re g io n s . S ee P l a n e t a r y e n g i n e e r i n g . ' G e o g r a p h ic b a la n c e

S ee “Q u o t a , g e o g r a p h i c a l . ’

G e o g ra p h ic in fo rm a tio n sy ste m (G IS )

A c o m p u te r b a s e d sy stem th a t

sto re s, m a n ip u la te s a n d d isp lay s sp a tia l in f o rm a tio n . (E E S) G eoth erm al

L iterally , h e a t fro m th e E a r th ; e n e rg y o b ta in e d fro m th e h o t a re a s u n d e r th e su rfa c e o f th e E a r th . (N R D G )

G e r m a n T e ch n ica l C o o p e r a t io n A g e n c y ( G T Z )

T h e p r in c ip a l a g e n c y th r o u g h w h ic h G e r m a n y p ro v id e s te c h n ic a l a ss ista n c e a n d d e liv e rs fo re ig n

aid . G i l l n e t s - W alls o f n e ttin g th a t a rc u su a lly sta k e d to th e sea floor. F ish b e ­

c o m e e n ta n g le d o r c a u g h t by th e ir gills. (N R D C ) G -le v e l sta ff

A te r m u se d to d e n o m in a te a n d c a te g o riz e G e n e r a l S erv ice

o r A d m in is tra tiv e S u p p o r t s ta ff (a n d s a la r y /b e n e f it p a c k a g e ) in th e U N a n d O A S sy stem s, s ta rtin g a t G 1 a n d risin g to G 8 . T h e s e s ta ff a rc n o rm a lly re c r u ite d o n a lo c a l b asis a n d p a id u sin g p re v a ilin g lo c a l ra te s a n d c o n d i­ tio n s. (U N ) G l o b a l b e n e f i t s - E n v iro n m e n ta l b e n e fits a c c r u e d a t th e g lo b a l level as o p ­

p o s e d to th o se g a in e d n a tio n a lly o r lo cally th r o u g h th e d e v e lo p m e n t effo rts o f a g o v e rn m e n t. (G E F ) G lo b a l B io d iv e rsity F o ru m

( G B F ) - M e c h a n is m fo u n d e d in 1993 by I U C N , WrR I a n d U N E P th a t a c ts to c n c o u ra g c an a ly sis, d ia lo g u e a n d p a r t ­

n e rs h ip o n th e m a in e c o lo g ic a l, e c o n o m ic , so cial a n d in s titu tio n a l issues re la te d to b io d iv e rsity a t th e lo c a l, n a tio n a l, re g io n a l a n d in te r n a tio n a l le v ­ els. (C B D ) G l o b a l c i v il s o c i e t y - A te rm im p ly in g a n e x te n s io n o f civil so cie ty in to

th e tr a n s n a tio n a l re a lm , w h e re it c o n s titu te s s o m e th in g a lo n g th e lin e s o f a ‘re g im e ’ c o m p o s e d o f lo c a l, n a tio n a l a n d g lo b a l N G O s . (L ip sc h u tz , 1999)

143

G lo b a l C lim a te Co olitio n (G C C )

G l o b a l C l i m a t e C o a l i t i o n ( G C C ) - A c o a litio n o f e n e rg y -b a se d in d u strie s

th a t o p p o se th e U N F C C C . (G C C ) G lo b a l C o m p a c t (G C )

A n e tw o rk o f five U N a g en c ie s ( H C H R , IL O , K N O P , U N ID O , U N E P ) w ith p riv a te se c to r c o m p a n ie s a n d o th e r o rg a n i­ z atio n s fo rm e d in 2 0 0 0 a n d p ro m o tin g a c c e p ta n c e o f 10 p rin c ip le s in the b ro a d a re a s o f h u m a n rig h ts, la b o r sta n d a rd s, e n v iro n m e n ta l responsibility, a n d c o rru p tio n a n d a im ed at resp o n sib le c o rp o ra te c itizen sh ip (U N )

G l o b a l c o m m o n s - A c o m p o n e n t o f th e E a rth - a tm o s p h e re system th a t is

c la im e d by no o n e b u t h a s th e p o te n tia l to be u se d by ev ery o n e w h ich c a r­ ries th e p o te n tia l th a t, over tim e, it w o u ld b e o v eru sed a n d d estro y ed . (U N ) G l o b a l c o o l i n g - A d e c re a se over tim e o f th e av era g e te m p e ra tu re o f

E a r th ’s a tm o sp h e re a n d o c e a n s g e n e ra lly a sc rib e d to a n in cre ase in a ir p o l­ lu tio n , resu ltin g in less su n lig h t re a c h in g th e E a r th ’s su rface. T h e th e o ry p osits a n overall c o o lin g o f th e E a rth a n d p e rh a p s th e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f g laciatio n o r even a n ice age. T h e E a rth is g e n e ra lly n o t c o n sid e re d to be h e a d in g to w a rd a p e rio d o f g lo b al co o lin g a t th is tim e. (U N F C C C ; W P ) Sec G l o b a l d i m m i n g . ' G l o b a l c u r r e n c y u n i t ( G C U ) - A p ro p o se d g lo b al c u rre n c y u n it b ased on

th e in fla tio n -a d ju ste d real G D P o f th e m a jo r eco n o m ie s. Im p le m e n tin g this c o n c e p t does n o t im p ly issu in g a new c u rre n c y n o te , b u t ra th e r a m e th o d for v alu in g th e re al m a rk e t v alu e o f an y ex istin g c u rre n c y in th e g lobal e c o n o m y b ased o n p ro d u c tio n costs a n d d e m a n d fo r g o o d s a n d services a n d n o t sp e c u la tio n a g a in st fu tu re m o v e m e n ts. G o v e rn m e n ts w o u ld issue b o n d s d e n o m in a te d in G C U s a n d h o ld th em in th e ir reserv es to use to m ak e c ro s s-b o rd e r p a y m e n ts in th e ir o w n c u rre n c y w ith p a y m e n ts settled inside an in te rn a tio n a l c le a rin g h o u se u sin g th e G C U as th e b ase u n it o f m easu re. (IM F) S ee ' E u r o p e a n c u r r e n c y u n i t . ’ G l o b a l D e v e l o p m e n t L e a r n i n g N e t w o r k ( G D L N ) - T h e G D L N is

a w o rld w id e p a rtn e rs h ip o f d ista n c e le a rn in g c e n te rs a n d o th e r p u b lic, p riv a te a n d n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s c o m m itte d to d e v e lo p m e n t le a rn in g a n d d e v e lo p m e n t d ia lo g u e fo r lastin g p o v e rty re d u c tio n . O ffe r­ in g a u n iq u e c o m b in a tio n o f d ista n c e le a rn in g te ch n o lo g ies a n d m e th o d s, G D L N facilitates tim ely a n d cost-effective k n o w led g e sh arin g , c o n su lta tio n , c o o rd in a tio n a n d train in g . (W B; U N E S C O -I H E ) G l o b a l d i m m i n g - A te rm th a t refers to th e re d u c tio n in th e a m o u n t o f

su n lig h t re a c h in g th e E a r th ’s su rface d u e to in c re a se d a ero so l p a rtic u la te m a tte r, p o llu tio n a n d w a te r v ap o r, w h ic h a b so rb th e so la r e n e rg y a n d reflect su n lig h t b a c k in to sp ace. G lo b a l d im m in g c rea te s a co o lin g effect th a t m ay have led scientists to u n d e re s tim a te th e effect o f g re e n h o u s e gases o n g lobal w a rm in g . (U N F C C C ; W P ) See G l o b a l c o o l i n g . ' G l o b a l E n v i r o n m e n t F a c i l i t y ( G E F ) - A n in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l in stitu tio n

144

G l o b a l e n v ir o n m e n t a l b e n e fits

s u p p o r te d by its m e m b e r s th a t offers g ra n ts to cover the a d d itio n a l costs to a c o u n t r y ’s ow n actions for sustainable d e v e lo p m e n t to m a x im iz e a g re e d global e n v iro n m e n ta l benefits in the are a s o f biodiversity, clim ate c h an ge, in te r n a tio n a l w aters, o zo n e layer d e p le tin g substances, p e rsisten t o rganic pollutan ts, a n d la n d d e g r a d a tio n , p rim a rily desertification a n d d e fo re sta­ tion. Its sec re ta riat is h o u s e d in the W o rld B an k a n d its p r i m a r y i m p le m e n t­ ing agencies arc the W orld B ank, U N D P a n d U N E P . N e w E x e c u tin g A g e n ­ cies u n d e r e x p a n d e d o p p o rtu n itie s include U N I D O , U N F A O , the R eg io nal D e v e lo p m e n t B anks a n d IFAD. T h e s e agencies have d irect access to G E F Project D e v e lo p m e n t Fu nd s. (GEF) See ' G E F a b l e . 5 G EF Mid-size Project - A G EF grant for one time of up to US$1,000,000. G EF Project - A G EF grant that has no set limit. •

G EF Trust Fund (G EFT F) - Fund set up with the W orld Bank asTrustee, which consists of contributions received from members of the G EF and is used to fund grants. (G EF ) G EF W orking Paper Series - A series of documents that provide general information on G E F ’s work and more specific

information

on

methodological

approaches;

scientific and technical issues; and policy and strategic matters. (G EF) •

G EF-PD F ‘Block A ’ - A G EF grant of up to US$25,000.



G EF-PD F ‘Block B ’ - A G EF grant of up to US$750,000.



G EF-PD F

‘Block

C’

-

A

G EF

grant

of

up

to

US$1,000,000.

G l o b a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l b e n e f i t s - Benefits th a t a c c ru e to th e glob al c o m ­

munity, for e x a m p le the r e d u c tio n o f g re e n h o u s e gas emissions. (GEF) Global e nvironm ental governance scenarios

T h e W B C S D defines three b r o a d scenarios for global e n v iro n m e n ta l g o v ern a n c e . W B C S D claims th a t the c u r r e n t w orld o f G E O P o li ty is failing b u t c an be re d e sig n e d to suc­ ceed by insisting on n e w n o r m - s e ttin g p ro c e d u r e s a n d n e w institutions, i n ­ c lu ding e sta b lish m e n t o f a global e n v ir o n m e n t o rg a n iz a tio n . A secon d p a th to a sustainable future is to i m p le m e n t J a z z to scale in the business world. The FR O G (first raise our growth) scenario calls for the resolution of economic challenges first. F R O G is a business-as-usual scenario, leading to huge environmental costs, even in the eyes of business leaders. •

G EO Po lity is a success scenario in which sustainability is vigorously pursued. In this case, people turn to government to focus the market on environmental and social ends and rely heavily on intergovernmental institutions and treaties.



Jazz refers to a spirit, a world of unscripted initiatives.

145

G lo b a l Fund for the En vironm ent (G F E )

decentralized and improvisational. In this world, there is abundant information about business behavior; good conduct is enforced by public opinion and consumer behavior. Governm ents facilitate, N G O s are very active, and business sees strategic advantage in doing the right thing.

G l o b a l F u n d f o r t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ( G F E ) - A n o u tc o m e o f th e 1992

E a rth S u m m it, th e fu n d w as e sta b lish e d to h e lp p re se rv e g lo b a l biodiversity. G l o b a l M e c h a n i s m ( G M ) - E sta b lish e d u n d e r th e C o n v e n tio n o n D e se rti­

fication, th e G M is in ch a rg e o f p ro m o tin g a c tio n s for th e m o b iliz a tio n a n d c h a n n e lin g o f su b sta n tia l fin a n cia l reso u rces, a n d fo r th e tra n sfe r o f te c h ­ nology, on a g r a n t basis, a n d / o r o n co n c e ssio n a l o r o th e r te rm s, to affected d e v elo p in g c o u n try p arties. (C D ) G lo b a l M in iste ria l E n v ir o n m e n t F oru m

A c c o rd in g to G A R eso lu tio n 5 3 /2 4 2 o f 28 Ju ly 1999 it is a n a n n u a l, m in iste ria l level, g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ­ tal fo ru m th a t m e e ts to g e th e r w ith th e U N E P G o v e rn in g C o u n c il a n d , in a lte rn a te y ears, tak es th e fo rm o f a sp ecial session o f th e G o v e rn in g C o u n cil. P a rtic ip a n ts review im p o rta n t a n d e m e rg in g p o licy issues w ith d u e co n sid ­ e ra tio n for th e n e e d to e n su re th e effective a n d efficient fu n c tio n in g o f th e g o v e rn a n c e m e c h a n ism o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n m e n t P ro g ra m m e , as w ell as possible fin a n cia l im p lic atio n s, a n d th e n e e d to m a in ta in th e role o f th e C o m m issio n o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t as th e m a in fo ru m fo r hig h level policy d e b a te o n su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t. (U N )

G lo b a l p a rlia m e n t

A c o n c c p t th a t g a th e re d fo rm a l su p p o rt fro m a b o u t m id -2 0 0 5 to en su re g re a te r levels o f citizen p a rtic ip a tio n in d ecisio n s affect­ in g g lo b al e c o n o m ic s a n d th e q u a lity o f life. T h e c o n c e p t h a s b e e n e n d o rs e d by th e U N S G , th e P re sid e n t o f th e W o rld B an k , th e M a n a g in g D ire c to r o f th e IM F, th e D ire c to r G e n e ra l o f th e W T O a n d o th e r w o rld le a d e rs b u t a c le a r strateg y as to how to im p le m e n t this id e a h as yet to em erg e. F o rm ally c o n sid e re d a u to p ia n id e a , th e id e a is g a in in g stre n g th b e ca u se it c a n no lo n g e r be ig n o re d th a t d ecisio n s ta k e n in o n e c o u n try o r reg io n h av e d ire c t im p a c ts o n th e lives o f o th e rs as a resu lt o f g lo b a liz a tio n tre n d s in c lu d in g tra d e , foreign d ire c t in v e stm e n t, a n d c a p ita l flows, all o f w h ic h is d isp e rs­ in g p o litical a u th o rity th r o u g h o u t th e in te rn a tio n a l o rd er. Sec ‘N e w w o r l d o rd e r .'

G lo b a l P o licy F o r u m ( G P F )

A n N G O fo u n d e d in 1993 th a t m o n ito rs p olicy m a k in g a t th e U n ite d N a tio n s, p ro m o te s a c c o u n ta b ility o f g lo b a l d e ­ cisions, e d u c a te s a n d m o b ilizes for g lo b al citizen p a rtic ip a tio n , a n d a d v o ­ cates o n v ital issues o f in te rn a tio n a l p e a cc a n d justice.

G lo b a l tax

A view h eld by som e se g m e n ts o f society th a t th e 0.7 O D A goal is a glo b al tax in disguise, m e a n t to p ro v id e a d d itio n a l d isc re tio n ­ a ry funds to th e U N , W orld B a n k a n d o th e r m u ltila te ra l o rg a n iz a tio n s.

146

G lo b a l villag e (1)

See ‘N a t i o n s , 0 . 7 , ’ ‘M i l l e n n i u m P r o j e c t ; ’ ‘O f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s s is t a n c e / I n t e r n a tio n a l F in a n c e F a cility .’ G lo b a l v illa g e ( I )

A u to p ia n c o n c e p t im p ly in g a w o rld w ith o u t re stric ­ tions to h in d e r tra d e o r d e v e lo p m e n t w hile re q u irin g sh a re d p o lic in g o f d ru g trafficking, te rro rism a n d a rm s c o n tro l. (WP)

G l o b a l v i l l a g e (2) - A te r m , co in e d by c o m m u n ic a to r M a rsh a ll M c L u h a n ,

d e sc rib in g how elec tro n ic m ass m e d ia collap se sp ace a n d tim e b a rrie rs in h u m a n c o m m u n ic a tio n , e n a b lin g p e o p le to in te ra c t a n d live on a g lo b al scale. In this sense, th e g lo b e h as b e en tu r n e d in to a village by th e e lectro n ic m ass m e d ia a n d th e ex p lo sio n in IC T . (W P) G l o b a l w a r m i n g - A th e o ry b a sed o n an in c re a sin g n u m b e r o f scientific

studies re la tin g to an in c re a se in th e E a r th ’s te m p e ra tu re c a u se d , in p a rt, by th e ‘g re e n h o u s e ’ effect b e in g c re a te d by em issio n s o f G H G s asso ciate d w ith h u m a n activities. G lo b a l w a r m in g su p e rfu n d

A p ro p o se d fu n d th a t w o uld be s u p p o rte d by p o llu te rs from w ealth y c o u n trie s a n d b e used fo r re s e a rc h in g a n d p r o ­ m o tin g v a rio u s g re e n tech n o lo g ies. (U N W )

G lo b al W a t e r C h alle n ge

A W orld B a n k in itiativ e a im e d al m a in s tre a m ­ in g w a te r as a p rim e d riv e r o f social a n d e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t. (WB)

G lo b a l W a t e r In itia tiv e s ( G W I s )

In stitu tio n s w hose fu n d a m e n ta l p u r ­ pose is to a d v a n c e th e k n o w led g e base re g a rd in g th e w o rld ’s in la n d w a te r a n d its m a n a g e m e n t. S in ce th e 1980s, th e co re aim o f m a n y GW Ts h as e x ­ p a n d e d to in clu d e a n active social a n d p o licy c o m p o n e n t a im in g to im p ro v e access to p o ta b le w a te r a n d sa n ita tio n across th e globe. T h e p h e n o m e n o n reflects a p o st-W o rld W a r II tre n d to w a rd collective a p p ro a c h e s to resolving m u ltin a tio n a l issues in g e n e ra l a n d c o m m o n -p o o l reso u rc e s in p a rtic u la r. (V arady a n d Ilcs-S h ih , 2005)

G l o b a l W a t e r P a r t n e r s h i p ( G W P ) - A w o rk in g p a rtn e rs h ip , e stab lish ed

in 1996, a m o n g all th o se involved in w a te r m a n a g e m e n t: g o v e rn m e n t a g e n ­ cies, p u b lic in stitu tio n s, p riv a te co m p a n ie s, p ro fessio n al o rg a n iz a tio n s, m u l­ tila te ra l d ev e lo p m e n t ag en cies a n d o th e rs c o m m itte d to th e D u b lin R io p rin cip les. T h e G W P ’s o b jectiv es a rc to: clearly e stab lish th e p rin c ip le s o f su stain ab le w a te r reso u rc es m a n a g e m e n t; id en tify g ap s a n d stim u late p a rtn e rs to m e e t critic a l n eed s w ith in th e ir av ailab le h u m a n a n d fin an cial reso u rces; a n d su p p o rt a c tio n at th e local, n a tio n a l, re g io n a l o r riv e r b asin level th a t follows p rin c ip le s o f su sta in a b le w a te r reso u rces m a n a g e m e n t. G lo b a liz a t io n (I)

T h e in c re a sin g w o rld w id e in te g ra tio n o f m a rk e ts for goods, services a n d c a p ita l, th a t b e g a n to a ttra c t sp ecial a tte n tio n in th e late 1990s.

147

G lo b a liz a tio n (2)

G l o b a l i z a t i o n ( 2 ) - A te r m u se d to e n c o m p a s s a v a rie ty o f c h a n g e s th a t

w e re p e rc e iv e d to o c c u r a t a b o u t th e s a m e tim e , su c h as a n in c re a s e d ro le fo r la rg e c o rp o r a tio n s (M N C s) in th e w o rld e c o n o m y a n d in c re a s e d in te rv e n tio n in to d o m e s tic p o lic ie s a n d affa irs by in te r n a tio n a l in s titu tio n s su ch as th e IM F , W T O a n d W o rld B a n k . (A D ) G lo b a liz a t io n (3)

A te r m u se d to d e s c rib e th e in c r e a s in g flow o f g o o d s,

serv ices, c a p ita l, te c h n o lo g y , in f o rm a tio n , id e a s a n d la b o r a t th e g lo b a l lev­ el, d riv e n b y lib e ra liz a tio n p o licie s a n d te c h n o lo g ic a l c h a n g e c o n s id e re d by p r o p o n e n ts to b e a n in te g r a tin g a n d in clu siv e fo rce. (U N ) Goal

A set g e n e ra l p u r p o s e a n d d ire c tio n ; th e e n d re s u lt o f u ltim a te a c ­ c o m p lis h m e n t to w a rd w h ic h a n e ffo rt is d ir e c te d . (M W )

G o l d i l o c k s e c o n o m y - A re fe re n c e to th e W o rld E c o n o m ic F o ru m a n d

e c o n o m ie s th a t a rc n o t to o h o t o r to o c o ld , b u t ju s t rig h t. G o od governance

G o v e rn a n c e is th e p ro c e s s o f m a k in g a n d im p le m e n t­

in g d e c is io n s in th e c o n d u c t o f p u b lic a ffa irs a n d in th e m a n a g e m e n t o f p u b lic re s o u rc e s. G o o d g o v e rn a n c e in c lu d e s a la c k o f c o r r u p tio n , fre e d o m fro m h u m a n rig h ts a b u se s a n d a firm re g a r d fo r th e ru le o f law. G o o d n e i g h b o r l i n e s s ( p r i n c i p l e o f ) - A p rin c ip le o f in te r n a tio n a l law

th a t calls fo r a b r o a d s t a n d a r d o f re s p e c t a n d re c o g n itio n a n d w h ic h o b ­ lig ates states, e n te r p ris e s a n d in d iv id u a ls to re s p e c t th e rig h ts o f o th e r s to p a r tic ip a te in th e so cial d e v e lo p m e n t p ro c ess. (B L D ) G o o d o f f i c e s ( I ) - A n e ffo rt b y a th ird S ta te (literally v ia th e in te rv e n tio n

by o r a ssista n c e of), o r by a n in d iv id u a l o r a n in te r n a tio n a l body, d e sig n e d to fa c ilitate c o m m u n ic a tio n s a n d / o r s tim u la te th e p ro c e sse s o f d is p u te se t­ tle m e n t b e tw e e n tw o o th e r states. (eD ) G o o d o f f i c e s ( 2 ) - A te rm u se d to d e s c rib e a se rv ice p ro v id e d b y o n e S ta te

to a n o th e r (e.g. r e c e ip t o f o fficia l c o rr e s p o n d e n c e , fa c ilita tin g a m e e tin g , p ro v id in g a te m p o r a r y visa). (M W ) G o o d w i l l A m b a s s a d o r - A n h o n o r a r y title g iv en to a n in d iv id u a l w h o

c a n h e lp p r o m o te a n id e a l o r c o n c e p t a n d fre q u e n tly u se d b y th e U N o r its S p e c ia liz e d O r g a n iz a tio n s . O fte n tim e s in te r n a tio n a lly re c o g n iz e d a rtists o r s e n io r s ta te s m e n a re a c c o rd e d th is title as th e ir n a m e re c o g n itio n c a n a s­ sist in fu r th e r in g u n d e r s ta n d in g o f a p a r tic u la r issue a n d th e re b y g e n e ra te fin a n c ia l o r p o litic a l s u p p o r t. (U N ) ‘G O U T H E ’ o f w a t e r - G lo b a l O b s e r v a to r y o f U n its fo r T e a c h in g , T r a in ­

in g a n d E th ic s. A U N E S C O - I H P in itia tiv e a im e d a t s tim u la tin g a n d s tru c ­ tu r in g c o o p e ra tio n a n d n e tw o rk in g o n w a te r- re la te d issues. It w ill a c t as a p la tfo rm a n d a llia n c e for in f o rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n , e x te n d in g g e o ­ g ra p h ic a lly lim ite d p a r tn e r s a n d fa c ilita tin g n e w p a rtn e rs h ip s . (U N E S C O )

148

G o v e rn a n ce

Governance

- C o n c e p t d e s c r ib in g th e w a y p o w e r is ex e rc ise d in the m a n a g e m e n t o f a c o u n t r y ’s e c o n o m i c a n d social re s o u rc e s t h r o u g h a p p li­ c a tio n o f responsibility, p a r ti c i p a tio n , i n f o r m a t i o n availability, tr a n s p a r e n c y a n d t h e ru le o f law. G o v e r n a n c e is n o t e q u a l to g o v e r n m e n t , w h ic h is th e a r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t a given level o f p o w e r. R a th e r , it is th e a r t o f c o o r d i n a t ­ in g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a c tio n s b e t w e e n d iffe re n t te r rito r ia l levels - o n e o f w h ic h m a y b e g lo b a l. ‘G o v e r n a n c e is th e s u m o f th e m a n y w a y s in d iv id u a ls a n d in stitu tio n s, p u b l ic a n d p riv a te , m a n a g e th e ir c o m m o n affa irs.’ ( C G G , 1995)

G o v e r n i n g C o u n c i l , U N E P ( G C ) - T h e 5 8 - m e m b e r g o v e r n i n g b o d y o f the

U N E P e s ta b lis h e d in D e c e m b e r 1975. T h e U N E P / G C r e p o r t s to th e G e n ­ eral A s s e m b ly t h r o u g h th e E c o n o m i c a n d S oc ia l C o u n c il. Its respo nsib ilities a n d f u n c tio n s in c lu d e : •

prom otion of international cooperation in environmental matters;



general policy guidance for the direction and coordination of environmental programs within the U N system; reviews of global environmental conditions to ensure that emerging problems of international significance receive appropriate and adequate consideration by governments; prom otion

of

participation

of

relevant

international

scientific and other professional communities for the acquisition, assessment and exchange of knowledge and information,

and

technical

aspects

of

environmental

programs within the U N system; •

continuous

review

of

national

and

international

environmental policies and their impact on developing countries including the additional costs that they may incur in the implementation of environmental programs and projects, and that ensures that such programs and projects are compatible with the developm ent plans and priorities of those countries; and, review and approval of use of the Environm ent Fund. (U N ; UN EP)

Grameen

b a n k / b a n k i n g - A sy stem in itia te d in B a n g la d e s h to p r o v id e

sm a ll lo a n s to th e p o o r e s t o f th e p o o r. M o r e t h a n 25 G r a m e e n - l i k e l e n d in g in s titu tio n s a n d sy ste m s h a v e b e e n in stitu te d . O n a v e ra g e th e y e n jo y a 98 p e r c e n t p a y b a c k rate . T h e G r a m e c n B a n k (a n d its f o u n d e r, D r M u h a m m a d Y unus), r e c e iv e d th e N o b e l P e a c e Prize in 2 0 0 6 . S e e ' M i c r o c r e d i t . ’ G r a s s r o o t s - P e o p le o r society a t a local level r a t h e r t h a n a t th e c e n t e r o f

m a j o r po litic a l activity. Gray water/issues

See ‘W a t e r . ’

G r e a t g r e e n w a l l , c o n c e p t o f - T h e t e r m a p p lie d to C h i n a ’s efforts to

149

G re a te r M eko n g Sub-region (G M S R )

rev erse e n c ro a c h in g d ese rts th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try by p la n tin g 12 billion trees in five years. T h e B ad ain J a r a n d e se rt in th e n o rth w e s t a n d th e T en g g e r D e se rt in th e n o rth w e s t c o n tin u e to g row in spite o f th ese efforts, w hile th e g o v e rn m e n t a n n o u n c e d in 2 0 0 6 th a t fo r th e first tim e in its h isto ry th e G o b i D e s e rt on th e o u tsk irts o f B eijing sh o w ed signs o f sh rin k in g by an av erag e o f 1283 k m 2 (797 sq m iles) a n n u a lly since 2001. G r e a t e r M e k o n g S u b - r e g i o n ( G M S R ) - T h e n a m e re fe rrin g to th e M e ­

ko n g R iv er w a te rs h e d in c lu d in g c o u n trie s th a t arc m e m b e rs o f th e M e k o n g R iv er C o m m issio n (C a m b o d ia , L ao s, T h a ila n d , V ie tn a m ) a n d c o u n trie s w h ic h a re n o t m e m b e rs o f th e C o m m issio n (C h in a , M y a n m a r). G r e e n a c c o u n t i n g - S y stem atic p re s e n ta tio n o f d a ta o n e n v iro n m e n ta lly

im p o rta n t stocks a n d flows (e.g. stocks o f life-su stain in g n a tu r a l reso u rces, flows o f p o llu ta n ts), a c c o m p a n y in g c o n v e n tio n a l e c o n o m ic a c c o u n ts (e.g. m easu res o f gross d o m estic p ro d u c t) w ith th e u ltim a te o b jectiv e o f p ro v id ­ in g a co m p re h e n siv e m e a s u re o f th e e n v iro n m e n ta l c o n se q u e n c e s o f e c o ­ n o m ic activity. (EEA) See S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a s u r e s . ’ G r e e n b e l t - A n a re a o f la n d b e tw e e n a city o r to w n a n d th e c o u n try sid e

d e sig n ed to lim it th e e n c ro a c h m e n t o f u rb a n a re a s o n to ru ra l la n d . It acts as a b u ffer zo n e b e tw e e n city a n d ru ra l lan d sca p es. (AM ) G reen ch e m istry

T h e u tiliz a tio n o f a set o f p rin c ip le s th a t re d u c e s o r e lim in ates th e use o r g e n e ra tio n o f h a z a rd o u s su b sta n ce s in th e design, m a n u fa c tu re a n d a p p lic a tio n o f m a n u fa c tu re d p ro d u c ts. It is a re v o lu tio n ­ a ry science p h ilo so p h y th a t seeks to u n ite g o v e rn m e n t, a c a d e m ic a n d in ­ d u stria l c o m m u n itie s by p la c in g m o re e m p h a sis o n e n v iro n m e n ta l im p ac ts a t th e earliest stage o f in n o v a tio n a n d in v en tio n pro cesses. T h is a p p ro a c h re q u ire s an o p e n a n d in te rd isc ip lin a ry view o f m a te ria ls d esig n , ap p ly in g the p rin c ip le th a t it is b e tte r to n o t g e n e ra te w aste in th e first p la c e , ra th e r th a n d isp o sin g o r tre a tin g it a fte rw ard s. (C G C )

G r e e n c o lla r jobs

A p la y o n th e te rm s w h ite c o lla r (office) a n d b lu e co llar (factory), jo b s re la te d to re tro -fittin g a tra d itio n a l in d u s tria l e c o n o m y to o n e th a t is ab le to ad d re ss e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro b le m s a n d p ro d u c e e n v iro n m e n ­ tally frien d ly g o o d s a n d services.

G reen C ro ss In te rn a tio n a l®

F o u n d e d in 1993 by M ik h a il G o rb a c h e v , th e m ission o f G C I is to h elp en su re a ju s t, su sta in a b le a n d secu re fu tu re for all by fo sterin g a v alu e shift a n d cu ltiv a tin g a new sense o f g lo b al in ­ te rd e p e n d e n c e a n d sh a re d resp o n sib ility in h u m a n ity ’s re la tio n sh ip w ith n a tu re . G C I p ro m o te s legal, eth ic a l a n d b e h a v io ra l n o rm s th a t e n su re basic ch a n g e s in th e values, a c tio n s a n d a ttitu d e s o f g o v e rn m e n t, th e p riv a te sec­ to r a n d civil society, n ec essary to b u ild a su sta in ab le g lo b a l c o m m u n ity ; p r e ­ v e n ts /re s o lv e s conflicts arisin g from e n v iro n m e n ta l d e g ra d a tio n ; a n d assists p e o p le affected by th e e n v iro n m e n ta l c o n se q u e n c e s o f w a rs a n d conflicts.

150

G re e n d ip lo m acy

G r e e n d i p l o m a c y - A b ra n d o f d ip lo m a c y th a t relates tra d itio n a l e c o ­

n o m ic d ev e lo p m e n t issues to to p ics o f sig n ifican t relev an ce g lo b ally such as clim ate c h a n g e , biodiversity, d e se rtific a tio n , re n e w a b le energy, etc. (EU ) G r e e n e c o n o m i c s - G re e n e co n o m ic s loosely d efin es a th e o ry o f e c o n o m ­

ics by w h ich a n e c o n o m y is c o n sid e re d to b e a c o m p o n e n t o f th e eco sy stem in w hich it resides. A holistic a p p ro a c h to th e su b je c t is ty p ical, such th a t ec o n o m ic id eas are c o m m in g le d w ith a n y n u m b e r o f o th e r su b jects, d e ­ p e n d in g o n the p a rtic u la r th e o rist. (W P) G r e e n f i e l d s it e

L a n d o n w h ic h n o u rb a n d e v e lo p m e n t h as p rev io u sly ta k e n p lace ; usually u n d e rs to o d to be on th e p e rip h e ry o f an e x istin g b u iltup a re a . (EEA)

G r e e n h o u s e e f f e c t - A ny c h a n g e in clim a te o v er tim e w h e th e r d u e to

n a tu ra l v a riab ility o r b e c au se o f h u m a n activity. (IP C C ) See ‘C l i m a t e change/ G reen h o u se gases ( G H G )

T h e g aseo u s c o n stitu e n ts o f th e a tm o sp h e re (w ater v apor, c a rb o n d io x id e, m e th a n e , n itro u s oxid e, a n d h y d ro flu o ro c a rb o n s, p e rflu o c a rb o n s a n d su lp h u r h ex a flu o rid e) b o th n a tu ra l a n d a n th ro p o g e n ic , th a t a b so rb a n d re -e m it in fra re d ra d ia tio n . (U N F C C C )

G reen infrastru cture

A system o f p ark s, refuges a n d ex tra c tiv e reserves, c o m b in e d w ith la n d -u se re g u la tio n s, c a rb o n c re d its a n d o th e r la n d m a n ­ a g e m e n t policies a im e d a t stim u la tin g su stain a b le p ro d u c tio n o f a ra n g e o f fo rc s t/w x tla n d g o o d s a n d services, g re e n businesses, a n d c re a tin g a g ree n e c o n o m ic c o u n te rw e ig h t to th e g lo b a l e c o n o m ic forces d riv in g u n re g u la te d h a rv e stin g o f tro p ic a l forests a n d o th e r u n su s ta in a b le la n d -u se p rac tic e s. (C l)

G r e e n P a r t y / g r e e n p a r t y - T h e d istin c tio n is m a d e b e tw e e n th e m o re g e ­

n eric ‘g reen p a rtie s ’ (low ercase) in a g e n e ra l sense o f e m p h a siz in g e n v iro n ­ m e n ta lism , a n d specific o rg a n iz e d p o litic a l p a rtie s w ith th e n a m e ‘G re e n P a rty ’ (uppercase) th a t have g ro w n u p a ro u n d a s ta te m e n t o f p rin c ip les called th e F our Pillars a n d th e co n se n su s d e c isio n -m a k in g p ro cess b u ilt on th em : E co lo g y (ecological su stain ab ility ); Ju stice (social resp o n sib ility ); D e ­ m o c ra c y (a p p ro p ria te d ecisio n m aking); a n d P eace (n on-violence). (W P) G r e e n p e a c e I n t e r n a t i o n a l ® - G re e n p e a c e is a n o n -p ro fit o rg a n iz a tio n

fo u n d e d in 197 1, w ith a p re se n c e in 40 c o u n trie s across E u ro p e , th e A m e r­ icas, A sia a n d th e Pacific a n d a m e m b e rsh ip o f a p p ro x im a te ly 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 in d iv id u als. Its in te rn a tio n a l h e a d q u a rte rs is in T h e N e th e rla n d s. To m a in ta in its in d e p e n d e n c e , G re e n p e a c e d o es n o t a c c e p t d o n a tio n s from g o v e rn m e n ts o r c o rp o ra tio n s b u t relies o n c o n trib u tio n s fro m in d iv id u a l s u p p o rte rs a n d fo u n d a tio n g ra n ts. As a g lo b a l o rg a n iz a tio n , G rc c n p c a c c focuses o n th e m o st cru c ia l w o rld w id e th re a ts to o u r p la n e t’s b io d iv ersity a n d e n v iro n m e n t.

151

G re e n pricing (energy)

G r e e n pricing (e n e rg y )

R efers to a n o p tio n a l utility service th a t allow s c u sto m e rs o f tra d itio n a l utilities to su p p o rt a g re a te r level o f utility invest­ m e n t in ren e w a b le e n e rg y by p a y in g a p re m iu m o n th e ir utility bill to cover any a b o v e -m a rk e t costs o f a c q u irin g re n e w a b le e n erg y reso u rces.

G r e e n p r o d u c t i v i t y - A stra te g y fo r e n h a n c in g p ro d u c tiv ity a n d e n v iro n ­

m e n ta l p e rfo rm a n c e w ith a view to ov erall so cio -e co n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t, involving th e use o f a p p ro p ria te te c h n iq u e s, te c h n o lo g ies a n d m a n a g e m e n t system s to p ro d u c e e n v iro n m e n ta lly c o m p a tib le g o o d s a n d services. G re e n p ro d u c tiv ity c a n be a p p lie d to m a n u fa c tu rin g , services, a g ric u ltu re a n d th e co m m u n ity . (A P O ) G r e e n p r o d u c t s - P ro d u c ts th a t h av e b e e n certified th ro u g h a p ro c e ss o f

‘e c o ’ o r ‘green* lab elin g , w h ich in su re s th a t th e p ro d u c t w as h a n d le d , m a d e o r g ro w n u n d e r c o n d itio n s th a t m e e t sta n d a rd s o f su sta in e d use, p esticid e a p p lic a tio n a n d h a rv e stin g as w ell as c e rta in social a n d e c o n o m ic c rite ria for w orkers. (C G G ) G re e n re v o lu tio n

R efers to a m o v e m e n t in th e a g ric u ltu ra l se c to r sta rt­ in g in the 1950s a n d in v o lv in g th e use o f fertilizers, p esticid es, in ten siv e irrig a tio n a n d p ro d u c tio n o f c e re a l g ra in s u sin g h y b rid seed v arieties. D r N o rm a n B orlau g , th e fa th e r o f th is m o v e m e n t, received th e N o b e l P rize in 1970 for his w ork in d e v elo p in g a n d ap p ly in g this c o n c e p t, p a rtic u la rly in d e v elo p in g c o u n trie s.

G reen sector

A c atc h all lab el lo r ‘e n v iro n m e n ta l’ p ro je c ts th a t co v er is­ sues re la te d to forests, la n d , b io d iv ersity a n d p ro te c te d areas.

G r e e n t a x , r e v e r s e - A m e a su re p ro p o s e d by F ran c e in 2 0 0 6 to be a d o p t­

ed by th e E U th a t w o u ld ta x g o o d s a n d services from c o u n trie s th a t have n o t ratified the K y oto tre a ty (EU ) G r e e n u p g r a d e s - A te rm re fe rrin g to v o lu n ta ry ch a n g e s in p e rs o n a l life­

style writh th e aim o f n e u tra liz in g an in d iv id u a l’s sh a re o f w aste p ro d u c e d . Sec ‘C a r b o n o f f s e t t i n g . ’ G r e e n w a t e r / i s s u e s - See ‘W a te r .’ G r e e n w a y - U n d e v e lo p e d lin e a r o p e n sp ace u sually in cities, set aside o r

used for re c re a tio n o r c o n se rv a tio n . A lin e a r o p e n sp ace; a c o rr id o r c o m ­ p o se d o f n a tu ra l v e g e ta tio n . G re e n w ays c an b e u sed to c re a te c o n n e c te d n etw o rk s o f o p e n sp ace th a t in c lu d e tra d itio n a l p a rk s a n d n a tu ra l areas. (N R D C ) G R ID

U N E P ’s G lo b a l R eso u rce In fo rm a tio n D a ta b a se (G R ID ) is a n e t­ w o rk o f in fo rm a tio n c e n te rs th a t p ro v id es im p ro v e d access to h ig h -q u a lity e n v iro n m e n ta l in fo rm a tio n . T h e r e a rc c u rre n tly 16 G R I D c en te rs o p e ra tio n a l w o rld w id e. (U N E P )

152

G ro ss dom estic product (G D P )

G ro ss d o m e stic p rod u ct ( G D P )

T h e m e a su re o f all o u tp u t p ro d u c e d by the facto rs o f p ro d u c tio n lo c a te d in a c o u n try reg ard less o f w h o ow ns these factors. (IM F) Sec S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t s . ’

G r o s s n a t i o n a l i n c o m e ( G N I ) - G N I tak es in to a c c o u n t all p ro d u c tio n in

the d o m estic e c o n o m y (i.e. G D P ) plu s th e n e t flows o f fa c to r in c o m e (such as ren ts, profits a n d la b o r in co m e) from a b ro a d . (WB) G r o ss n atio nal in c o m e W o r ld B a n k A tla s m e t h o d

T h e A tlas m e th ­ od sm o o th e s G N I c a lc u la tc d e x ch a n g e ra te flu c tu a tio n s by u sin g a th re e y e a r m o v in g av erag e, p ric e -a d ju ste d co n v e rsio n factor. (WB)

G r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t ( G N P ) - T h e m e a s u re o f to ta l in c o m e e a rn e d

by th e citizen s o f a c o u n try (G N P e q u als G D P p lus e a rn in g s from a b ro a d ). (IM F) See S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t s . ’ G r o s s v illa g e p r o d u c t ( G V P )

T h e m e a s u re o f to ta l o u tp u t p ro d u c e d by a d elim ite d village a re a , th e size a n d / o r p o p u la tio n o f w h ich as d efin e d in the n a tio n a l o r state law. (U N ) See ‘B a r e f o o t C o l l e g e . ’

G roundw ater

W a te r fo u n d b e n e a th th e E a r th ’s surface.

G S - l e v e l s t a f f - A te rm u se d to c a te g o riz e a d m in istra tiv e s u p p o r t staff (an d

sa la ry /b e n e fit pack ag e) in th e U N a n d O A S system s, sta rtin g at G S1 a n d rising to G S 7 . (U N ) G u i d e l i n e - A re c o m m e n d e d o r c u sto m a ry m e th o d o f w o rk in g to a c c o m ­

plish a n objectiv e. A g u id e lin e is n o t e n fo rce d b u t is g e n e ra lly follow ed. (M W )

153

Hh H . E . - A b b i eviatio n for H o n o ra b le E x cellen cy o r H i s / H e r Excellency. H a b ita t

T h e p la ce w h e re a n o rg a n ism lives a n d / o r th e c o n d itio n s o f th a t e n v iro n m e n t in clu d in g th e soil, v e g eta tio n , w a te r a n d food. (EES)

H A B I T A T - T h e U n ite d N a tio n s C e n tre for H u m a n S e ttle m e n ts (U N C H S )

w as estab lish ed in O c to b e r 1978 as th e lead ag en cy w ith th e U n ite d N a ­ tions system for c o o rd in a tin g activ ities in th e field o f h u m a n settlem en ts. It is th e focal p o in t fo r th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e H a b ita t A g e n d a th e g lo b al p la n o f ac tio n a d o p te d by th e in te rn a tio n a l c o m m u n ity a t th e H a b ita t II C o n fe re n c e in Ista n b u l, T u rk ey in J u n e 1996. T h e m ission o f U N C H S is to p ro m o te socially a n d e n v iro n m e n ta lly su sta in a b le h u m a n s e ttle m e n t dev el­ o p m e n t a n d th e a c h ie v e m e n t o f a d e q u a te sh e lte r fo r all. (U N C H S ) H a b i t a t A g e n d a - T h e se c o n d U n ite d N a tio n s C o n fe re n c e on H u m a n

S e ttlem en ts, h e ld in Is ta n b u l, J u n e 1996, also ca lle d th e ‘C ity S u m m it.’ (U N C H S ) H a l f - l i f e - T h e tim e re q u ire d fo r a p o llu ta n t to lose h a lf o f its effect o n the

e n v iro n m e n t. For e x a m p le , th e b io c h e m ic a l half-life o f D D T in th e envi­ ro n m e n t is a p p ro x im a te ly 15 years; o f ra d iu m , 1580 y ears. (U SEPA ) H a n o v e r P r i n c i p l e s - A set o f n in e p rin c ip le s th a t e n c o u ra g e th e design

professions to tak e su sta in a b ility in to c o n sid e ra tio n . T h e y are d escrip tiv e o f a w ay o f th in k in g , n o t p re sc rip tio n s o r re q u ire m e n ts a n d tak e th e form o f a fram ew o rk , b a sed o n th e e n d u rin g e le m e n ts o f e a rth , air, fire, w a te r a n d sp irit in w h ich d esig n d ecisio n s m a y be rev iew ed a n d e v a lu a te d . T h e p rin c ip le s arc m e a n t to g u id e o u r c reativ e acts in o r d e r to b le n d ae sth e tic c o n c e rn s w ith eco lo g ical p rin cip le s so th a t d esig n b e c o m e s a d id a c tic tool, d e m o n s tra tin g th a t su sta in a b le th in k in g c a n be p u t in to p ra c tic e in th e real w o rld . (M B D C ) See ‘C r a d l e t o c r a d l e , c o n c e p t o f . ’ ‘H a r m o n i o u s w o r l d , c o n c e p t of.' H a r d la w T h e b o d y o f b in d in g a n d e n fo rce a b le law s (precise, legally b in d ­ ing o b lig atio n s a n d a p p ro p ria te th ird p a rty d e leg a tio n ) (U N T ; BLD ) See " S o ft l a w . ’ H a r m o n i o u s w o r l d , c o n c e p t o f - A c o n c e p t fo rm ally in tro d u c e d by

P re s id e n t H u J in ta o o f C h in a in 200 5 a t th e U N ‘W o rld S u m m it 2 0 0 5 ’ a n d g a in in g v alid ity in th e in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l a re n a . T h e c o n c e p t in clu d e s th e p rin c ip le s o f m u ltila te ra lism , m u tu a lly b en eficial c o o p e ra tio n a n d th e sp irit o f inclusiveness as v ital c o m p o n e n ts in re a liz in g c o m m o n secu rity a n d

H arm onization

p ro s p e rity goals h eld by th e in te rn a tio n a l co m m u n ity . S ince this tim e, a n u m b e r o f C h in e se officials have tied these c o n ce p ts to e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p ­ m e n t, p e a cefu l g lo b a liz a tio n a n d issues o f e q u ity in te rm s o f n a tu ra l reso u rce use in a n u m b e r o f U N a n d o th e r in te rn a tio n a l fora. (U N ) S ee ‘H a n o v e r P rin cip les.' H arm o n iz a tio n

T h e p ro cess o f m a k in g p ro c e d u re s o r m e a su re s ap p lie d by d iffe re n t c o u n trie s - esp ecially th o se affectin g in te rn a tio n a l tra d e - m o re c o m p a tib le , as by effectin g sim u lta n e o u s ta riff cu ts a p p lie d by d iffe re n t c o u n trie s so as to m a k e th e ir ta riff s tru c tu re s m o re u n ifo rm . (W T O )

H az a rd o u s w aste

R efers to an y m a te ria l in te n d e d to be d isc a rd e d o r o f no f u r th e r use a n d e x h ib its c h a ra c te ristic s o r q u a litie s th a t m a k e it d a n g e ro u s to h u m a n s o r th e e n v iro n m e n t, n o rm a lly d efin e d by fo u r p a ra m e te rs ea c h w ith its ow n c riteria : ignitability, co rro siv e ness, re a ctiv ity a n d toxicity. (EES)

Haze

A n a tm o sp h e ric c o n d itio n m a rk e d by a slight re d u c tio n in a tm o s p h e r­ ic visibility, resu ltin g from th e fo rm a tio n o f p h o to c h e m ic a l sm og, ra d ia tio n o f h e a t from th e g ro u n d su rface o n h o t days o r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a th in m ist. (N R D C ) See ‘C o n t r a i l s . '

H e a r i n g - T estim o n y n o rm a lly given u n d e r o a th to a legislative body. H e a t islan d e ffect

A ‘d o m e ’ o f ele v a te d te m p e ra tu re s o v er a n u rb a n a re a c au sed by th e h e a t a b so rb e d by stru c tu re s a n d p a v e m e n t.

H e a v ily In d e b te d P o o r C o u n trie s ( H IP C )

F orty-tw o o f th e w o rld ’s p o o re st c o u n trie s (34 in A frica, fo u r in L a tin A m e ric a , th re e in A sia a n d o n e in th e M id d le E ast). T h e c o n c e p t w as p ro p o se d b y th e W orld B ank a n d IM F a n d a g re e d to by g o v e rn m e n ts a ro u n d th e w o rld in th e fall o f 1996 as th e first c o m p re h e n siv e a p p ro a c h to re d u c e th e e x te rn a l d e b t o f th e w o rld ’s p o o re st, m o st heavily in d e b te d c o u n trie s, a n d re p re se n te d a n im p o rta n t step fo rw ard in p la c in g d e b t re lie f w ith in a n o verall fra m e w o rk o f p o v e rty re d u c ­ tion a n d su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t. (A D ; W B ) See ‘H I P C G 8 d e b t r e l i e f p la n .’

H e l s i n k i C o n v e n t i o n - T h e 1992 C o n v e n tio n on th e P ro te c tio n o f th e M a ­

rin e E n v iro n m e n t o f th e B altic S e a A re a , w h ich e n te re d in to force o n 1 7 Ja n u a ry , 2 0 0 0 . (EEA ; U N T ) H e l s i n k i I C o n v e n t i o n - See C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e P r o t e c t i o n a n d U s e

o f T r a n sb o u n d a r y W a terco u rses an d In te r n a tio n a l L a k e s.’ H e rb ic id e

C h e m ic a l th a t kills p la n ts. (U SEPA )

HFCs

H y d ro flu o ro c a rb o n s. C h e m ic a ls c o m p o s e d o f o n e o r tw o c a rb o n ato m s a n d v a ry in g n u m b e rs o f h y d ro g e n a n d flu o rin e a to m s a n d used as solvents a n d c le a n e rs in th e s e m ic o n d u c to r in d u s try th a t are g e n e ra lly felt to c o n trib u te to g lo b al w a rm in g m a n y tim es g re a te r th a n C O ,. (N R D C )

155

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H ig h C o m m is s io n e r

A se n io r d ip lo m a t from o n e c o u n try to a n o th e r w ith the ra n k a n d resp o n sib ility o f a n A m b assad o r. T h is te rm is g e n erally used in te rc h a n g e a b ly w ith th e te rm A m b a ss a d o r in th e C o m m o n w e a lth System . (M W )

H i g h - i n c o m e c o u n t r y - A c o u n try h a v in g a n a n n u a l gross n a tio n a l p r o d ­

u c t (G N P) p e r c a p ita e q u iv a le n t to $9361 o r g re a te r in 1998. M o st h ig h in c o m e co u n trie s have an in d u stria l eco n o m y . T h e r e are c u rre n tly a b o u t 28 h ig h -in c o m e c o u n trie s in the w o rld w ith p o p u la tio n s o f 1 m illio n p e o p le o r m o re. T h e ir c o m b in e d p o p u la tio n is a b o u t 0.9 b illio n , less th a n o n e -six th o f th e w o rld 's p o p u la tio n . (WB) H i g h - l e v e l ( m e e t i n g ) s e g m e n t - M in iste ria l c o m p o n e n t o f a te c h n ic a l

m e e tin g w h e re th e m o st sig n ifican t o u tp u ts from th e te c h n ic a l c o m p o n e n t are fo rm ally d e c id e d a n d / o r signed. (U N ) H ig h seas

T h e o c e a n a re a s o u tsid e th e te rrito ria l seas a n d m a ritim e zones o f c o astal states. T h e y arc o p e n to use by all states for p e a c e fu l p u rp o se s. (U SE PA )

H I P C G 8 D e b t R e l i e f P l a n - A 20 0 5 G 8 p la n to ease th e IM F a n d WTorld

B ank d e b t b u rd e n o f th e 18 p o o re st c o u n trie s ’- th e so -calle d ‘p o o re s t o f th e p o o r (B enin, B olivia, B u rk in a Faso, E th io p ia , G h a n a , G u y a n a , H o n d u ra s , M a d a g a sc a r, M a li, M a u r ita n ia , M o z a m b iq u e , N ic a ra g u a , N iger, R w a n d a , S en eg al, T a n z a n ia , U g a n d a a n d Z a m b ia ) by U S $ 1 .5 b illion a n n u a lly T h e to ta l savings o v e r th e life o f th e p ro p o se d lo an re p a y m e n t sch ed u les is es­ tim a te d to b e U S $ 4 0 b illio n . (WB) See “H e a v i l y I n d e b t e d P o o r C o u n ­ tr ie s.’ H is / H e r R o yal H ig h n e ss

A title g e n e ra lly re se rv e d fo r a p e rs o n o f ‘ex­ alted r a n k ’ such as a king, q u e e n , p rin c e o r p rin cess. (M W )

H o l d r i d g e life z o n e s y s t e m - S ee L i f e z o n e . ’ H o m o s p h e r e - T h e b io sp h e re m o d ifie d by h u m a n s. (EES) S ee ‘A n t h r o -

pocene. H o s t country

T h e te rm u sed for a n a tio n w h e re a n em bassy, office o r co n v e n tio n se c re ta ria t is lo c a te d . (U N )

H o t a i r - T h e q u a n tity o f tra d a b le g re e n h o u s e gas em issio n s o f a c o u n try

e q u a l to th e d ifferen ce b e tw e e n its a c tu a l em issio n s a n d its h ig h e r legally b in d in g lim it. (U N F C C C ) H otsp o t (I)

A n a re a p a rtic u la rly rich in e n d e m ic species th a t a rc e n d a n ­ g e red by la n d -u se c h a n g e . (C B D )

H o t s p o t (2) - P a tte rn s in th e ‘g lo b a l e n v iro n m e n t’ o f m a c ro -in sta b ilitv in

156

HQ

n a tu ra l cycles, p a tte rn s , a n d fre q u e n c y /in te n s ity o f ‘n a tu r a l e v e n ts.’ (U N ­ FCCC) HQ

R efer rin g to H e a d q u a rte r s , su c h as N ew York C ity as th e h e a d q u a rte rs for th e U N S e c re ta ria t, R o m e b e in g th e ‘H Q ; fo r U N FAO, P aris b e in g th e ‘H Q ; for U N E S C O , N a iro b i b e in g th e ‘H Q ’ fo r U N E P . (U N )

H . R . H . - A b b re v ia tio n fo r H i s / H e r R o y al H ig h n ess. (M W ) Hum an

d e v e l o p m e n t i n d e x ( H D I ) - T h e H D I m e a su re s th e overall a c h ie v e m e n ts in a c o u n try in th re e basic d im e n sio n s o f h u m a n d e v elo p ­ m en t: longevity, k n o w led g e a n d d e c e n t sta n d a rd o f living. It is m e a su re d by life ex p ectan cy , e d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t (ad u lt lite ra c y a n d c o m b in e d p rim a ry , se c o n d a ry a n d te rtia ry en ro lm e n t) a n d a d ju ste d in co m e . (A C C U ; U N D P ) S ee S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a s u r e s . '

H u m a n D e v e lo p m e n t R e p o rt

A n a n n u a l re p o rt p ro d u c e d by U N D P th a t re p o rts d e v e lo p m e n t p ro g re ss b a se d o n h u m a n d e v e lo p m e n t in d e x c ri­ te ria . (U N )

H u m a n i m m u n o d e f i c i e n c y v i r u s ( H I V ) - A v iru s th a t stead ily w e ak en s

th e b o d y ’s defen se (im m u n e) system u n til it c a n no lo n g e r fig h t o ff in fec­ tions such as p n e u m o n ia , d ia r rh e a , tu m o rs a n d o th e r illnesses. All o f w hich c an b e p a r t o f A ID S (a c q u ire d im m u n o d e fic ie n c y sy n d ro m e). M o s t H IV in fectio n s have b e e n tra n s m itte d th ro u g h u n p ro te c te d sex u al in te rc o u rse w ith so m eo n e w ho is a lre a d y in fected w ith H IV, by in fected b lo o d o r b lo o d p ro d u c ts (as in b lo o d tran sfu sio n s), by th e s h a rin g o f c o n ta m in a te d n eed le s, a n d from a n in fected w o m a n to h e r b a b y b efo re b irth , d u rin g delivery, o r th ro u g h b reast-feed in g . H IV is n o t tra n sm itte d th ro u g h n o rm a l, d a y -to -d a y c o n ta c t. (U N ) Hum an

p o v e r ty index A m e a s u re th a t reflects th e d is trib u tio n o f p ro g ress a n d th e b ack lo g o f d e p riv a tio n s th a t still exists. (U N D P )

H u m a n i t a r i a n C h a r t e r - See ‘S p h e r e c o n c e p t / p r o j e c t . ' H u m a n i t a r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n - T h e in te rfe re n c e in a sovereign state by

a n o th e r w ith th e o b jectiv e o f e n d in g o r re d u c in g su fferin g w ith in th e first state. T h a t sufferin g m a y be th e resu lt o f civil w ar, s ta rv a tio n o r g en o cid e . H u m a n ita ria n in te rv e n tio n sh o u ld n o t a n n e x th e state, n o r affect th e s ta te ’s te rrito ria l in te g rity b u t m e rely ac t to m in im iz e th e su fferin g o f civilians in th a t state. T h e ra tio n a le b e h in d such a n in te rv e n tio n is th e b e lie f in a c o n ­ c o m ita n t d u ty u n d e r c e rta in c irc u m sta n c e s to d isre g a rd a sta te ’s sovereignty to p reserv e o u r c o m m o n h u m a n ity . (W P ; S c h n a b e l a n d T h a k u r, 2000). See ‘R i g h t t o I n t e r f e r e . ' D u t y t o I n t e r f e r e ' H u m a n righ ts

T h e m in im u m social, e c o n o m ic a n d p o litica l s ta n d a rd s th a t are g e n e ra lly c o n sid e re d a c c e p ta b le . T h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f h u m a n

157

H ydrocarb on s

rig h ts is o ften th o u g h t o f as a re q u ire m e n t fo r h u m a n d e v e lo p m e n t a n d / o r su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t. In th a t re g a rd , th e U n iv e rsa l D e c la ra tio n o f H u m a n R ig h ts calls fo r th e p ro h ib itio n o f slavery, to rtu re , o th e r c ru e l a n d d e g ra d in g tre a tm e n t, a rb itra ry a rre st, d e te n tio n a n d exile, sta tin g th a t eve­ ry o n e h as th e rig h t to life, lib e rty a n d secu rity o f p e rso n . It calls fo r a n e n d to all fo rm s o f d is c rim in a tio n , fo r fa ir trials a n d re a s o n a b le p u n is h m e n t, th e rig h t o f p e rs e c u te d p e o p le to asylum in o th e r c o u n trie s, a n d for fre e d o m o f th o u g h t, con scie n c e, o p in io n , e x p ressio n , a sso ciatio n a n d religion. H y d r o c a r b o n s - C o m p o u n d s o f h y d ro g e n a n d c a rb o n in v a rio u s c o m b i­

n a tio n s th a t a re p re s e n t in p e tro le u m p ro d u c ts a n d n a tu r a l gas. S o m e hy­ d ro c a rb o n s arc m a jo r a ir p o llu ta n ts, so m e m ay b e c arc in o g e n ic a n d o th e rs c o n trib u te to p h o to c h e m ic a l sm og. H y d r o f l u o r o c a r b o n - Sec lH F C S . ’ H y d ro g e o lo g y

T h e science th a t stu d ies g ro u n d w a te r, its m o v e m e n t in th e su b su rface , th e w a te r-b e a rin g p ro p e rtie s o f th e e a rth m a te ria ls a n d th e geological re la tio n sh ip s b e tw e e n su rface a n d su b su rfa ce w ater. (EES)

H y d r o i n f o r m a t i c s - A m a th e m a tic a l m o d e l-b a se d field o f stu d y o f th e

flow o f in fo rm a tio n a n d th e g e n e ra tio n o f k n o w led g e re la te d to th e d y ­ n a m ic s o f w a te r in th e real w o rld , th ro u g h th e in te g ra tio n o f in fo rm a tio n a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n tec h n o lo g ie s fo r d a ta a c q u isitio n , m o d e lin g a n d d e ­ cision su p p o rt, a n d ta k in g in to a c c o u n t th e c o n se q u e n c e s fo r th e a q u a tic e n v iro n m e n t a n d society a n d for th e m a n a g e m e n t o f w ate r-b a se d system s. (U N E S C O -IH E ) H y d r o l o g i c a l c y c le - T h e h y d ro lo g ical cycle refers to th e c irc u la to ry flux

o f w a te r m o lecu les a t o r n e a r th e E a r th ’s su rface. T h e y take th e gaseo u s fo rm w h e n e v a p o ra te d in to th e a ir m asses u n d e r th e in flu en ce o f clim atic a n d m e te o ro lo g ic a l p h e n o m e n a . S u b seq u en tly , th ey are p re c ip ita te d as ra in o r snow, a n d ev en tu a lly th ey re tu rn to th e o cean s, riv ers a n d glaciers, c o m ­ p le tin g the cycle. (EES) H y d r o l o g i c a l p o v e r t y - A te rm first u sed by L e ste r B ro w n o f th e E a rth

W atch In stitu te to d escrib e th e m illio n s o f p e o p le w h o will b e b o rn in to a ‘w o rld ’ th a t do es n o t have sufficient w a te r re so u rces to m e e t th e basic n eed s o f its citizens, c u rre n tly n u m b e rin g in excess o f 1.2 billio n p eo p le . See 'W a ­ t e r s t r e s s , ’ ‘W a t e r s c a r c i t y . ’ H y d ro lo g ic a l w arfare, c o n te x t o f

A situ a tio n in w h ich rivers, lakes a n d aq u ife rs b e c o m e n a tio n a l secu rity assets to be fo u g h t o v e r o r c o n tro lle d th ro u g h p ro x y a rm ie s a n d c lien t states. (U N D P )

H y d ro lo g y

T h e science d e a lin g w ith w a te r a n d snow , in c lu d in g th e ir p ro p e rtie s a n d d istrib u tio n . (EES)

158

Hydropattern

H y d r o p a t t e r n - D e p th , d u ra tio n , tim in g a n d d istrib u tio n o f fresh w a te r in

a specified a re a . A c o n siste n t h y d ro p a tte rn is critical fo r m a in ta in in g v a ri­ ous eco lo g ical c o m m u n itie s in w e tla n d s a n d o th e r ecosystem s. (S F W M D ) H y d r o p e r i o d - P erio d o f tim e d u rin g w h ich soils, w a te r b o d ie s a n d sites

a re w et. (U SEPA) H y d r o p o w e r - E n e rg y p ro d u c e d by m o v in g w ater. (M W ) H y d r o - s o l i d a r i t y - A te rm im p ly in g th e ex isten ce o f a re c ip ro c a tin g p o licy

involving u p stre a m a n d d o w n stre a m w a te r d e p e n d e n c ie s /u s e rs w ith c o m ­ p e n sa tio n m e c h a n ism s a n d a g re e m e n ts o f w a te r e n title m e n ts in c lu d in g m o n e ta ry a n d p olicy a rra n g e m e n ts . (EU) Hyogo

F r a m e w o r k f o r A c t i o n - In J a n u a r y 2 0 0 5 , 168 U N M e m b e r S tates a d o p te d a 10-year p la n to m a k e th e w o rld safer fro m n a tu ra l h a z a rd s a t th e W orld C o n fe re n c e o n D isa ster R e d u c tio n , h eld in K o b e , H y o g o , J a ­ p a n . T h e F ram ew o rk is a g lo b al b lu e p rin t fo r d isa ste r risk re d u c tio n efforts d u rin g th e n e x t d e c a d e . Its g o al is to su b stan tia lly re d u c e d isa ste r losses by 2015 - in lives, a n d in th e social, ec o n o m ic a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l assets o f c o m m u n itie s a n d c o u n trie s. (U N )

H y p e r-d e v e lo p e d

co u n tries A so m e w h a t d e ro g a to ry re fe re n c e to O E C D c o u n trie s, as c o m p a re d to H IP C co u n trie s.

H y p o x ia

T h e d e p le tio n o f dissolved oxygen in w ater. A c o n d itio n re su lt­ ing from a n o v e r-a b u n d a n c e o f n u trie n ts o f h u m a n o r n a tu r a l o rig in th a t stim u lates th e g ro w th o f alg a e , w h ich in tu r n die a n d re q u ire larg e a m o u n ts o f oxygen as th e alg ae d e c o m p o se. L arg e fish kills have b e e n a ttrib u te d to this p h e n o m e n o n globally. (N R D C )

159

Ii I b e r i a n A m e r i c a - A d ip lo m a tic fo ru m c r e a t e d in 2 0 0 5 a n d h e a d q u a r t e r e d

in M a d r i d , S p a i n i n t e n d e d to p r o m o t e rela tio n s b e tw e e n L a ti n A m e r i c a a n d th e I b e r ia n P e n in su la . (IDB) Iboam erican

Group A n i n f o r m a l i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l p o lic y e x c h a n g e n e t w o r k in c l u d in g S p a in p lu s 20 L a tin A m e r i c a n a n d C a r i b b e a n S p a n is h

a n d P o r tu g u e s e s p e a k in g c o u n trie s. Ikea d e v e lo p m e n t

A t e r m , d e riv e d fro m a r e f e r e n c e to th e ‘d o -it-y o u rs e lf ' sto re I k e a ® , a n d u s e d to d e s c r ib e a g ra s s ro o ts o r local a p p r o a c h to

d e v e l o p m e n t w h e r e b y c o m m u n i t i e s solve t h e i r o w n p r o b le m s w ith th e m a ­ terials at h a n d . A p r o a c tiv e a p p r o a c h to p r o b l e m solv in g w h e n a c o m m u ­ n ity d o c s n o t w a it for O D A to arriv e, b u t r a t h e r solves t h e i r o w n p r o b l e m , w h e t h e r as a s to p g a p o r m o r e p e r m a n e n t s o lu tio n . ( U N W ) ILO D e c la ra tio n on F u n d a m e n t a l Principles and R ig h ts at W o r k

A d e c l a r a t i o n o f th e 8 0 th session o f th e I L O in G e n e v a (June 1998) t h a t all its M e m b e r s , ‘e v e n if th e y h av e n o t ratified th e C o n v e n t i o n s in q u e s ­ tio n , h av e a n o b lig a tio n a r is in g fro m th e v e ry fact o f m e m b e r s h i p in the O r g a n i z a t i o n to re sp e c t, to p r o m o t e a n d to realize, in g o o d faith a n d in a c ­ c o r d a n c e w ith th e C o n s t i t u t i o n , th e p r in c ip le s c o n c e r n i n g th e f u n d a m e n t a l rig h ts w h ic h a r e th e s u b je c t o f th o s e C o n v e n tio n s , n a m e ly : •

freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; the elimination of all forms of forced or com pulsory labor; the effective abolition of child labor; and



the elimination of discrimination in respect to em ploym ent and occupation.

IM O

C o n v e n t i o n s in t h e F i e l d o f M a r i n e S a f e t y a n d P r e v e n t i o n

of M arine

P o l l u t i o n — A suite o f s o m e 33 c o n v e n t io n s d e a lin g w ith

m a r i n e safety, m a r i n e p o llu tio n , a n d liability a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n , a n d c o o r ­ d i n a t e d t h r o u g h a v a rie ty o f in s titu tio n a l m e c h a n i s m s a n d p a r t n e r s h i p s by th e I M O . Im p e r m i s s i b i l i t y prin ciple

A p r in c ip le fro m th e V i e n n a C o n v e n t i o n

o n T r e a ti e s t h a t states t h a t a r e s e r v a tio n i n c o m p a ti b le w ith th e o b je c t a n d p u r p o s e o f a c o n v e n tio n sig n e d a n d ra tifie d b y th e c o u n t r y w is h in g to m a k e th e r e s e rv a tio n sh all n o t b e p e r m i t t e d .

Im p lem enting a g e n c y (IA)

I m p l e m e n t i n g a g e n c y (I A )

W ith in th e G E F , a n IA is o n e o f th re e

a g e n c ie s (U N D P , U N E P , W B ) a c c o u n ta b le to th e G E F c o u n c il fo r a c tiv itie s fin a n c e d by th e G E F . (G E F ) Sec E x e c u t i n g a g e n c y . ' I n c r e m e n t a l c o s t s - T h e a d d itio n a l co st th a t th e G E F fu n d s b e tw e e n th e

co st o f a n a lte rn a tiv e p ro je c t th a t a c o u n tr y w o u ld h a v e im p le m e n te d in th e a b s e n c e o f g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n c e rn s a n d a p ro je c t u n d e r ta k e n w ith g lo b a l o b je c tiv e s in m in d . (G E F ) I n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e - A sta te th a t is so v e re ig n ; o n e th a t o p e ra te s in d e p e n d ­

e n tly in te rn a tio n a lly . I n d e t e r m i n a t e - A n I U C N c a te g o ry o f ta x a k n o w n to b e E x tin c t, E n d a n ­

g e re d , V u ln e ra b le , o r R a r e b u t w h e re th e r e is n o t e n o u g h in f o r m a tio n to say w h ic h o f th e fo u r c a te g o rie s is a p p ro p r ia te . (IU C N ; C B D ) In d e x of S u sta in a b le E c o n o m ic W e lfa r e ( I S E W )

A n e c o n o m ic in d i­ c a to r in te n d e d to re p la c e th e G D P . R a th e r th a n sim p ly a d d in g to g e th e r all e x p e n d itu re s like G D P , IS E W in c lu d e s fa c to rs su c h as in c o m e d is trib u tio n a n d co sts a ss o c ia te d w ith p o llu tio n a n d o th e r so c ie ta l e x p e n se s . (W P ) S ee ‘G e n u i n e p r o g r e s s i n d i c a t o r . ’

In d ic a to r -

A q u a li f ie d /q u a n tif ie d p a r a m e te r th a t d e ta ils th e e x te n t to w h ic h a p ro je c t o b je c tiv e h a s b e e n a c h ie v e d w ith in a g iv e n tim e fra m e a n d in a sp ecifie d lo c a tio n . (U N D P )

I n d i c a t o r s p e c i e s - A sp ec ies w h o se sta tu s p ro v id e s in f o r m a tio n o n th e

o v erall c o n d itio n o f th e e c o sy ste m a n d o f o th e r sp ec ie s in th a t e c o sy ste m . T h e y re fle c t th e q u a lity a n d c h a n g e s in e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n d itio n s as w ell as a sp e c ts o f c o m m u n ity c o m p o s itio n . (IU C N ) In d ig e n o u s -

O c c u r r in g n a tu r a lly b u t n o t e x clu siv ely in a g iv en a re a .

(G B S) In d ig e n o u s P e o p le s D e v e lo p m e n t P la n ( I P D P )

A p la n p r e p a r e d fo r

a n y in v e s tm e n t p ro je c t th a t affects in d ig e n o u s p e o p le s th a t is d e s ig n e d in a c u ltu ra lly a p p r o p r ia te m a n n e r a n d is b a s e d o n th e full c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e o p tio n s p r e f e r r e d b y th e in d ig e n o u s p e o p le afTcctcd by th e p ro je c t. T h e p la n also in c lu d e s p ro v isio n s th a t e n s u re th a t in s titu tio n s re s p o n sib le fo r g o v e rn m e n t in te ra c tio n w ith in d ig e n o u s p e o p le s s h o u ld p o ssess th e so c ia l, te c h n ic a l a n d le g a l skills n e e d e d to c a r r y o u t p ro p o s e d d e v e lo p m e n t activ ities. E le m e n ts o f a n I P D P in c lu d e a n a ss e ssm e n t o f th e le g a l fr a m e ­ w o rk ; c o lle c tio n o f b a se lin e d a ta ; e x a m in a tio n o f la n d te n u r e ; a s tra te g y for lo cal p a r tic ip a tio n ; d e sig n o f m itig a tio n m e a s u re s a n d a c tiv ities; a ss e ssm e n t o f in s titu tio n a l c a p a c ity ; a n im p le m e n ta tio n sc h e d u le a n d a sy stem fo r m o n ito r in g a n d e v a lu a tio n . (W B) In d u stria l m e t a b o lism

A m e ta p h o r, b o rr o w e d fro m bio lo g y , to stu d y

161

In d u s tria liz e d c o u n trie s

flows o f m aterials from the e x tra c tio n o f raw m a te ria ls via (industrial) tra n s f o rm a tio n s into p ro d u c ts th a t are c o n s u m e d , p e r h a p s recycled a n d fi­ nally disposed o f as waste. (EES) Industrialized countries

A te r m th a t is s o m e w h a t o u t o f d a te b u t re­ fers to n a tio n s w hose e c o n o m ie s arc b a se d on ind ustrial p r o d u c tio n a n d the conversion o f raw m a te rials into p ro d u c ts a n d services, m a in ly with th e use o f m a c h in e r y as o p p o s e d to those w h ose e c o n o m ics a rc b ased on a g ric u ltu ra l p r o d u c tio n a n d the sale o f u n a lte r e d a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u c ts 01 * p rocessing a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u c ts using h a n d labor. Indu strialized nations are g enerally located in the n o r t h e r n a n d w e ste rn h em isp h e re s a n d c o m ­ prise the O E C D countries. ( N R D C )

I n f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t - A c o m m o n fo rm o f in te r n a tio n a l c o o p e r a tio n th a t

p e r m it states to c o n c lu d e m u tu a lly profitable b a rg a in s w ith o u t the fo r m a l­ ity o f treaties. Inform al consultation

- A n in f o r m a l m e e tin g n ot c o n te m p la te d in the a g e n d a th a t is called by the c o n fere n ce c h a ir w h o u p o n receipt o f the r e p o r t o f the c o n su lta tio n p re se n ts it to the plenary.

I n f o r m a l c o n t a c t g r o u p - O n the instructions o f the m e e tin g ’s p re sid en t

o r chair, delegates m a y m e e t in p riv a te to discuss specific m a tte rs in o r d e r to co nsolidate different views, re a c h a c o m p ro m ise , a n d p ro d u c e a n a g re e d p ro p o sa l, often in the form o f a w ritten text. Inform al e m p lo y m e n t

T h e p e rc e n ta g e o f the e m p lo y e d p o p u la tio n , m e n a n d w o m e n , w hose activity is p a r t o f the in f o r m a l sector. ( U N C H S )

I n f o r m a l g r o u p - A g r o u p called into b e in g by o n e o r m o re o f the parties,

for p u rp o se s o f in fo rm a l con su lta tio n to re a c h a c o m p ro m is e o r to p ro d u c e an a g r e e d u p o n proposal. ( U N F C C C ) Inform al sector

Persons e n g a g e d in the p r o d u c tio n o f g oods o r services w ith the p r i m a r y objective o f g e n e r a tin g e m p lo y m e n t a n d in c o m e s to the pe rso n s c o n c e rn e d . It includ es u n re g iste re d c o m m e r c ia l e n terp rise s a n d all n o n - c o m m e r c ia l e n terp rises th a t have no form al s tru c tu re in te rm s o f o r ­ g a n iz a tio n a n d o p e ra tio n . ( U N C H S )

I n f o r m a l - i n f o r m a l c o n s u l t a t i o n - A n in fo rm a l con sultation o f parties

a n d a t times, observers, to discuss a specific p oint. T h e results o f the c o n ­ sultan cy m a y th e n be p re s e n te d by a p a r ty in plenary, b u t w ith o u t a fo rm a l re q u e s t from th e co nfe re n ce chair. I n f o r m a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s ( I C T s ) - A n y e q u ip ­

m e n t, o r i n te r c o n n e c te d system(s) o r subsy.stem(s) o f e q u ip m e n t, th a t is used in the a u to m a tic a cquisition, storage, m a n ip u la tio n , m a n a g e m e n t, m o v e m e n t, c ontrol, display, switching, in te rc h a n g e , tran sm issio n 01 * r e c e p ­ tion o f d a ta o r in fo rm a tio n .

162

Inform ation docum ents/docs

I n f o r m a t i o n d o c u m c n t s / d o c s - D o c u m e n ts th a t u n d e rp in o r a n n o ta te

m e e tin g w o rk in g d o c u m e n ts. (U N ) In itia tiv e

A n in te rv e n tio n by a fo rm a l o r in fo rm a l g ro u p to m e e t a specific

o bjective. I n i t i a t i v e 2 0 2 0 (2 0 2 0 I n i t i a t i v e ; 20:20 C o m p a c t )

T h e 1995 U N S o ­ cial D e v e lo p m e n t S u m m it in fo rm a lly a g re e d th a t a m in im u m o f 20 p e rc e n t o f aid (O D A ) a n d 20 p e rc e n t o f d e v e lo p in g c o u n try b u d g e ts w o u ld go to basic social services. (U N )

I n j e c t i o n w e l l — A w ell in to w h ich fluids a re in je c te d for p u rp o s e s such as

w aste disp o sal, im p ro v in g th e rec o v e ry o f c ru d e oil, o r so lu tio n m ining. (U SE PA ) In n o v a t iv e le a rn in g (1 -L e a rn in g)

A n in te llig e n t b le n d o f (i) te c h n o l­ o g y -b ased system s, sim u la tio n a p p lic a tio n s a n d o th e r e -le a rn in g p a c k a g e s a im e d at b rid g in g d ista n c e s th ro u g h in te rn e t, v id eo a n d te le c o n fe re n c in g tech n o lo g ies, a n d (ii) social-p sy ch o lo g ical m e th o d s th a t em p lo y ta c it a n d in tu itiv e kn o w led g e a n d th e creativ e p o w e rs o f p ro fessio n als. (R a m s u n d e rsin g h , 2003)

In -k in d c o n trib u tion

A te rm g en e ra lly u sed to in d ic a te a n o n -c a sh c o n ­ trib u tio n to a p ro je c t o r p ro g ra m th a t m a y in c lu d e office sp ace, utility costs, p e rs o n n e l tim e, e q u ip m e n t, access, ctc.

I n - m a t e r i a l - b r e a c h - A te rm u sed to in d ic a te a d e m o n s tra b le n o n -c o m -

p lia n c c by a M e m b e r S ta te w ith a n a p p ro v e d re so lu tio n o f th e U N S e c u rity C o u n c il o r th e U N G e n e ra l A ssem bly. In se cticid e

A c h e m ic a l th a t kills insects. (U SEPA )

I n - s itu c o n s e r v a t i o n - T h e c o n se rv a tio n o f eco sy stem s a n d n a tu ra l h a b i­ tats a n d th e m a in te n a n c e a n d re co v e ry o f v iab le p o p u la tio n s o f species in th e ir su rro u n d in g s a n d , in th e case o f d o m e s tic a te d o r c u ltiv a te d p la n t species, in th e s u rro u n d in g s w h e re th e y have d e v e lo p e d th e ir distinctive p ro p e rtie s. (C B D ) l n s t i t u t e @ W S I S E - S t r a t e g i e s - A n in itiativ e o f th e S m ith s o n ia n In sti­

tu te a n d U N D P to p ro m o te su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t a n d la u n c h e d a t th e W S S D in J o h a n n e s b u rg . It consists o f a n e tw o rk o f v o lu n te e rs w h o d e ­ liver sh o rt co u rse s in w h ich p ra c tic a l skills a n d a p p ro p ria te tec h n o lo g ie s arc tra n sfe rre d directly to p a rtic ip a n ts. (U N D P ) In stitu tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t

T h e p ro cess o f e n a b lin g a n d facilitatin g an o rg a n iz a tio n to d ev elo p a n d in c re a se its cap a c ities a n d c a p ab ilitie s so as to m e e t its d esired o b jectives. (U N D P )

I n s t r u m e n t - A te rm u se d to re fe r to th e tools u sed fo r c e rta in ty p es o f

163

Integrated are a m a n a g e m e n t (1AM)

w ork, w h ich m ay b e p h y sical su ch as th o se u se d in surveying, o r n o tio n a l such as u sed in e sta b lish in g law. (U N T ) In te gra te d

area m a n a g e m e n t (1A M ) A m a n a g e m e n t a p p ro a c h w h ereb y a specific a re a is z o n e d a n d re g u la te d fo r a v arie ty o f uses, in ­ c lu d in g re se a rc h , species p ro te c tio n , to u rism , h a rv e stin g , c u ttin g o f trees, h u n tin g , o r fishing th a t a rc c o m p a tib le w ith th e m a n a g e m e n t goals fo r th e are a . (B C H M )

In te gra te d

c o n se rv a tio n d e v e lo p m e n t projects ( I C D P ) - An ap ­ p ro a c h to b io d iv ersity c o n se rv a tio n th a t reco n ciles th e m a n a g e m e n t o f p ro te c te d a reas w ith th e social a n d e c o n o m ic n eed s o f th e allied o r n e a rb y local p o p u la tio n s. T h is is u sually d o n e by th e in v o lv e m e n t o f these c o m ­ m u n itie s in m a n a g e m e n t o f th e p ro te c te d a re a s a n d by e n su rin g th a t th e ir social a n d e c o n o m ic n eed s a rc c o n sid e re d th ro u g h th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f e c o ­ n o m ic activities. (G E F)

In t e g r a t e d d e v e lo p m e n t p la n n in g

A th r e e -p a rt te c h n iq u e for b rin g ­ in g a b o u t b en eficial social a n d e c o n o m ic c h a n g e : (1) d iag n o sis o f p rin c ip a l p ro b le m s a n d p o te n tia ls; (2) p re p a ra tio n o f a d e v e lo p m e n t strateg y ; a n d (3) fo rm u la tio n o f a c o o rd in a te d p ac k a g e o f in fra stru c tu re , p ro d u c tio n , a n d service p ro je c ts (in clu d in g c o n se rv atio n ) w ith in a n a c tio n p la n fo r im p le ­ m e n tin g th e strategy. (O A S, 1987)

In te gra te d p e st m a n a g e m e n t ( IP M )

A m a n a g e m e n t system th a t uses all su itab le te c h n iq u e s a n d m e th o d s in as c o m p a tib le a m a n n e r as possible to m a in ta in p e st p o p u la tio n s a t levels below th o se c a u sin g e c o n o m ic injury. (U SEPA )

I n t e g r a t e d W a t e r R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t ( I W R M ) - A p ro cess th a t

p ro m o te s th e c o o rd in a te d d e v e lo p m e n t a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f w ater, la n d a n d re la te d reso u rces in o rd e r to m a x im iz e th e re s u lta n t e c o n o m ic a n d so­ cial w elfare in a n e q u ita b le m a n n e r w ith o u t c o m p ro m isin g th e su sta in a b il­ ity o f vital ecosystem s. (G lo b al W a te r P a rtn e rsh ip , 2003) I n t e g r a t i o n - T h e a c tio n in w h ic h sm a lle r a n d d iffe re n t u n its arc b ro u g h t

to g e th e r in to a la rg e r u n it to fo rm a satisfacto ry a n d w o rk in g w hole. In te lle ctu al p r o p e r ty

A te rm g e n e ra lly re fe rrin g to p a te n ts, c o p y rig h ts, scientific discoveries o r n ew th e o rie s, tra d e m a rk s a n d tra d e se c re ts. T h is te rm also in clu d e s creativ e id eas a n d ex p re ssio n s (o rig in al a rt, w ritin g s, m u ­ sic, etc.) th a t have c o m m e rc ia l v alu e a n d receiv e th e legal p ro te c tio n o f a p ro p e rty rig h t. (B C H M )

I n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y r i g h t s - A rig h t e n a b lin g a n in v e n to r o r d isc o v e re r

to exclu d e im ita to rs from th e m a rk e t fo r a lim ited tim e a n d g e n e ra lly re la te d to n a tio n a l o r in te rn a tio n a l p a te n t laws. In telle ctu a l p ro p e rty rights, p a te n ts a n d tra d e m a rk s e n a b le o w n e rs to d e te rm in e w h o c a n h av e access to a n d use th e ir p ro p e rty , w hile p ro te c tin g it from u n a u th o riz e d use. (B C H M )

164

Inter alia

In t e r alia - A m o n g o th e r th in g s. In te r -A m e r ic a n B io d iv e rsity In fo rm a tio n N e t w o r k ( I A B I N ) - An

in itia tiv e o f th e S u m m it o f th e A m e ric a s to p ro v id e g r e a te r a n d m o re u se ­ ful access to b io d iv e rsity in f o rm a tio n th r o u g h o u t th e w e s te rn h e m is p h e re . (O A S , 1998) I n t e r - A m e r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t B a n k ( I D B ) - T h e ID B w as e sta b lish e d

in D e c e m b e r o f 1959 to h e lp a c c e le ra te e c o n o m ic a n d so cial d e v e lo p m e n t in L a tin A m e ric a a n d th e C a r ib b e a n . Its p r in c ip a l fu n c tio n s a re to u tiliz e its o w n c a p ita l, fu n d s ra is e d in fin a n c ia l m a rk e ts, a n d o th e r a v a ila b le r e ­ so u rc e s, fo r fin a n c in g th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e b o rr o w in g m e m b e r c o u n ­ tries; to s u p p le m e n t p riv a te in v e s tm e n t w h e n p riv a te c a p ita l is n o t a v a ila b le o n re a s o n a b le te r m s a n d c o n d itio n s ; a n d to p ro v id e te c h n ic a l a ssista n c e fo r th e p r e p a r a ti o n , fin a n c in g a n d im p le m e n ta tio n o f d e v e lo p m e n t p la n s a n d p ro je c ts. C u r r e n t le n d in g p rio ritie s in c lu d e p o v e rty re d u c tio n a n d so cial equity, m o d e r n iz a tio n a n d in te g r a tio n a n d th e e n v ir o n m e n t. (ID B ) In te r-A m e rica n

W ater

Resource

N etw ork

(IW R N )

A n e tw o rk

fo u n d e d in 1993 w h o se p u rp o s e is to s tre n g th e n w a te r re s o u rc e p a r t n e r ­ sh ip s a m o n g n a tio n s , o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d in d iv id u a ls. (O A S) I n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l e q u i t y - A c o re p ro p o s itio n o f so m e d e fin itio n s o f su s­

ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t, w h ic h su g g ests th a t fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s h av e a rig h t to a n in h e r ita n c e (c a p ita l b e q u e st) su fficie n t to allo w th e m to g e n e ra te a level o f w e ll-b e in g n o less th a n th a t o f th e c u r r e n t g e n e ra tio n s . (G B A ) In te rg o v e rn m e n ta l N e g o tia tio n C o m m it te e ( IN G )

A fo r m a l g ro u p

o f re p re s e n ta tiv e s fro m d iffe re n t in te re s te d g o v e rn m e n ts e sta b lish e d to n e ­ g o tia te a d r a f t c o n v e n tio n o r treaty . In te rg o v e rn m e n ta l O c e a n o g ra p h ic C o m m is s io n (IO C )

T h e IO C

w a s e sta b lish e d by th e G e n e ra l C o n fe re n c e o f U N E S C O in O c to b e r o f 1961 to p r o m o te scie n tific in v e s tig a tio n w ith a v ie w to le a r n in g m o re a b o u t th e n a tu r e a n d re s o u rc e s o f th e o c e a n s th r o u g h th e c o n c c rtc d a c tio n o f its m e m b e rs . C u r r e n t m e m b e rs h ip in c lu d e s 136 n a tio n s. (W P) I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l P a n e l o n C l i m a t e C h a n g e ( I P C C ) - A g ro u p o f

a p p ro x im a te ly 2 0 0 0 sc ie n tists e sta b lish e d by th e W o rld M e te o ro lo g ic a l O r ­ g a n iz a tio n a n d U N E n v iro n m e n t P ro g r a m m e (U N E P ) in 1 988 to assess th e sta te o f k n o w le d g e o n c lim a te c h a n g e . T h e IP C C p re p a r e s p e rio d ic a sse ssm e n ts o f th e sc ie n tific b a sis fo r u n d e r s ta n d in g g lo b a l c lim a te c h a n g e a n d its c o n s c q u c n c e s . It c u rr e n tly h a s th r e e W o rk in g G r o u p s a n d tw o T a sk F orces: W o rk in g G r o u p I assesses th e sc ien tific a sp e c ts o f th e c lim a te sys­ te m a n d c lim a te c h a n g e ; W o rk in g G r o u p II a d d re s se s th e v u ln e ra b ility o f so c io -e c o n o m ic a n d n a tu r a l sy stem s to c lim a te c h a n g e , n e g a tiv e a n d p o sitiv e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f c lim a te c h a n g e , a n d o p tio n s fo r a d a p tin g to it; W o rk in g G r o u p II I assesses o p tio n s fo r lim itin g g re e n h o u s e g a s e m issio n s a n d o th e rw ise m itig a tin g c lim a te c h a n g e ; th e T a sk F o rce o n N a tio n a l

165

Internal rate of return {IRR)

G re e n h o u s e G as In v e n to rie s oversees th e N a tio n a l G re e n h o u s e G a s In ­ v e n to ries P ro g ra m ; a n d th e T ask G ro u p o n S c e n a rio s for C lim a te im p a c t A ssessm ent. A lth o u g h th e IP C C advises th e C O P / U N F C C C , it is n o t an in s titu tio n o f th e C o n v e n tio n . (IP C C ) I n t e r n a l r a t e o f r e t u r n ( I R R ) - A d e c isio n -m a k in g c rite rio n th a t assesses

th e a m o u n t a n d tim in g o f p ro je c t b en efits a n d w h ich is b a se d o n a d isc o u n t ra te th a t red u c es th e n e t p re s e n t v alu e o f a p ro je c t to zero. If th e IR R is la rg e r th a n th e d is c o u n t ra te , th e a c tio n is a c c e p ta b le fro m a n e c o n o m ic p o in t o f view. T h is c rite rio n is often u se d by d e v e lo p m e n t b a n k s to d e te r­ m in e c re d it w o rth in ess o f a p ro p o s e d p ro je c t. I n t e r n a l l y d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n - S o m e o n e th a t h a s b e e n fo rced to leave

his h o m e d u e to a n a tu ra l o r m a n -m a d e d is a s te r/s itu a tio n b u t w h o has re m a in e d w ith in th e b o rd e rs o f his co u n try . (U N ) Sec R e f u g e e , ' ' E n v i ­ r o n m e n ta l r e fu g e e .’ In te rn a tio n a l C e n tre fo r S e ttle m e n t of In v e s t m e n t D is p u te s ( I C ­ S ID )

A p a r t o f th e W orld H ank G ro u p esta b lish e d in 1966 a n d in c lu d in g 140 m e m b e r c o u n trie s, w h ich p ro v id es facilities fo r th e c o n c ilia tio n a n d a rb itra tio n o f d isp u te s b e tw e en m e m b e r c o u n trie s a n d fo reign investors. (WB) In te rn a tio n a l C e n tre fo r W a t e r H a z a r d

and

R isk

Managem ent

(IC H A R M )

A n in itiativ e o f th e J a p a n e s e g o v e rn m e n t to g e th e r w ith th e D ivision o f W a te r S cien ce s o f U N E S C O a im e d a t p ro m o tin g su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t o f riv er b asin s. T h e cen te r, w h ich w as a p p ro v e d by U N E S C O ’s G e n e ra l C o n fc rc n c e in 2 0 0 5 , a n d serves as a n in te rn a tio n a l h u b fo r specific w a te r secto r p ro b le m s b a sed o n th e o b jectiv es o f th e IH P re la tin g to risk m a n a g e m e n t. T h e c e n te r is lo c a te d in T su k u b a , J a p a n . In t e r n a t io n a l C ivil S e rv ic e C o m m i s s i o n ( I C S C )

A su b sid iary b o d y o f th e U N G A estab lish ed in 1974 to re g u late th e c o n d itio n s o f service fo r all U N c o m m o n system staff. (U N )

In t e r n a tio n a l C o m m i t t e e o f th e R ed C ro ss, R ed C re s c e n t (and Red C r y s t a l ) S o c i e t i e s ( I C R C ) - See I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f t h e

R e d C r o s s , R e d C r e s c e n t (a n d R e d C r y s ta l) S o c i e t i e s (IF R C ).’ I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y - A b ro a d , g e n e ric te rm used to re p re s e n t U N

M e m b e r S tates, an y re c o g n iz e d su b -g ro u p o f U N M e m b e r S tates, a n y in ­ te rn a tio n a l o r re g io n a l g ro u p in g , a n d / o r a n y g ro u p o f o rg a n iz a tio n s from civil society (g o v e rn m e n ta l, n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o r p riv a te sector) re co g n ize d by th e U N a n d / o r involved in in te rn a tio n a l g o v e rn a n c e o r d ev e lo p m e n t. (U N ) In t e r n a t io n a l C o n fe r e n c e on F in a n c in g fo r D e v e lo p m e n t ( I C F D )

Also kno w n as th e ‘M o n te rre y C o n fe re n c e .’ A m e e tin g o f m o re th a n 50 h e a d s o f S ta te a n d se n io r g o v e rn m e n t officials h eld in M o n te rre y ,

166

International C o n fe re n ce on Population and D evelo p m ent

M ex ico in M a rc h , 2 0 0 2 , w h ic h m a y b e c o n sid e re d as p a r t o f th e ru n -u p to th e S e p te m b e r 200 2 W o rld S u m m it on S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t. T h e m e e tin g a d o p te d th e M o n te rre y C o n se n su s a n d p led g es w ere m a d e by a n u m b e r o f d e v elo p e d c o u n trie s to in c re ase O D A to a level o f 0.7 o f G D P. See " M o n t e r r e y C o n s e n s u s , ’ ‘G l o b a l t a x . ’ in te rn a tio n a l C o n fe re n ce on P o p u la tio n and D e v e lo p m e n t

A con­ feren ce sp o n so re d by th e U n ite d N a tio n s to discuss g lo b a l d im e n sio n s o f p o p u la tio n g ro w th a n d c h a n g e in C a iro , E g y p t in S e p te m b e r, 1994. T h e co n fe re n c e m ark s th e a c h ie v e m e n t o f a n e w co n sen su s o n effective w ays to slow p o p u la tio n g ro w th a n d im p ro v e q u a lity o f life by a d d re ssin g ro o t causes o f u n w a n te d fertility.

i n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u r t o f J u s t ic e ( I C J ) - T h e IC J is o n e o f th e six p rin ­

ciple o rg a n s o f th e U N S ystem a n d th e ju d ic ia l o rg a n o f th e U N w ith the p o w e r to h e a r tw o k in d s o f cases: (1) cases b e tw e e n states, a n d (2) an y cases re q u e s te d by sp ecialized ag en cies o f th e U N . T h e C o u r t’s fu n c tio n is to settle legal d isp u tes w ith in th e b o u n d a rie s o f in te rn a tio n a l law su b m itte d to it by states a n d also to give ad v iso ry o p in io n s re g a rd in g legal q u e stio n s re fe rre d to it by a u th o riz e d in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n s a n d ag en cies. T h e IC J re ­ p la c e d th e P e rm a n e n t C o u rt o f In te rn a tio n a l Ju stic e in 1945 a n d o p e ra te s u n d e r a S ta tu te larg ely sim ila r to th is p red ecesso r. T h e C o u rt, lo ca te d in T h e H a g u e , T h e N e th e rla n d s, is c o m p o se d o f 15 ju d g e s w h o serve n in ey e a r te rm s o f office. (U N ) In te rn atio n al C rim in a l C o u r t (IC C )

T h e IC C , esta b lish ed in 2 0 0 2 , is not ju risd ic tio n a lly n o r in stitu tio n a lly re la te d to th e U N . It is th e first-ever p e rm a n e n t, tre a ty b a se d , in te rn a tio n a l c rim in a l c o u rt esta b lish e d to p ro ­ m o te th e rule o f law a n d e n su re th a t th e g rav est in te rn a tio n a l c rim e s d o n o t go u n p u n is h e d . It is a c o m p lim e n ta ry b o d y to n a tio n a l c rim in a l ju risd ic tio n s a n d is g o v e rn e d by th e "R om e S ta tu te .’ (W P) See ‘R o m e S t a t u t e . ' ' C o m ­ p l i m e n t a r i t y , p r i n c i p l e of.'

In te rn atio n al

D e v e lo p m e n t A sso ciatio n (ID A ) T h e W o rld B an k G r o u p ’s co n cessio n al le n d in g w in d o w esta b lish e d in 1960 a n d in c lu d in g 165 m e m b e r c o u n trie s. T h e ID A p ro v id es lo n g -te rm lo a n s a t zero in te re st to th e p o o re s t o f th e d ev elo p in g c o u n trie s d efin e d as th o se c o u n trie s h av in g a p e r c a p ita in c o m e in 20 0 2 d o lla r v alu es o f less th a n U S $ 8 7 5 .0 0 a n d lack th e fin a n c ia l ab ility to b o rro w fro m th e IB R D . In 2 0 0 4 th e ID A p ro v id e d U S $ 9 billion in lo an s to re c ip ie n t c o u n tries. (WB)

I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n e r g y A g e n c y ( I E A ) - F o rm e d in 1974, th e IE A is an

a u to n o m o u s a g en cy b a se d in P aris th a t acts as th e e n e rg y fo ru m fo r th e O E C D . M e m b e rs take jo in t a c tio n to m e e t oil su p p ly em erg e n cie s, sh are e n e rg y in fo rm a tio n , c o o rd in a te th e ir e n e rg y p o licies a n d c o o p e ra te in th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f ra tio n a l e n e rg y p ro g ra m s. (IEA) I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l la w - T h e b o d y o f law th a t c o n c e rn s th e

167

In te rn a tio n a l F e d e ratio n of the Red C ro ss, Red C re sc e n t (and Red C rystal) S o cie tie s (IF R C )

p ro te c tio n o f th e g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n t. T h e r e a rc m a n y le g a lly b in d in g in te r n a tio n a l a g re e m e n ts c o n c e r n in g th e p ro te c tio n o f th e e n v ir o n m e n t, b u t in th is a re a o f in t e r n a tio n a l law, 'so ft la w ’ is m o r e c o m m o n . S o m e b asic p rin c ip le s o f in te r n a tio n a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l law a re : th e p r e c a u tio n a r y p r i n ­ cip le, th e p o llu te r p a y s p rin c ip le , th e p rin c ip le o f su s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t a n d e n v ir o n m e n ta l p r o c e d u r a l rig h ts. (W P ) S e e S o f t l a w . ” In t e r n a tio n a l F e d e ra tio n o f the R e d C ro ss, R e d C r e s c e n t (an d Red C r y s t a l ) S o c i e t i e s ( I F R C ) - T h e IF R C , a n d its F e d e ra tio n o f 183 so ci­

eties, is th e w o rld ’s la rg e s t n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l h u m a n ita r ia n o rg a n iz a tio n , p ro v id in g a ssista n c e w ith o u t d is c rim in a tio n as to n a tio n a lity , ra c e , re lig io u s beliefs, class o r p o litic a l o p in io n s a n d re g a rd le ss o f th e so u rc e o r ty p e o f d is a s te r th a t h a s b e fa lle n a n y g ro u p o f p e o p le . G iv e n th e re lig io u s c o n ­ n o ta tio n s th a t a rc a t tim e s a ss o c ia te d w ith th e cro ss a n d c rc s c e n t sy m b o ls o f th e IF R C , th e G o v e r n m e n t o f S w itz e rla n d c o n v e n e d a m e e tin g in D e ­ c e m b e r o f 2 0 0 5 th a t a p p ro v e d a n a d d itio n a l sy m b o l, th e ‘c ry s ta l’ - a re d fra m e in th e fo rm o f a s q u a r e s ta n d in g o n o n e o f its p o in ts a g a in s t a w h ite b a c k g ro u n d . I t is e q u a l in e v e ry w a y to th e re d cro ss a n d re d c rc s c c n t e m ­ b le m s a n d w ill re in fo rc e its h u m a n ita r ia n m issio n a n d p ro v id e a n a d d itio n a l p ro te c tiv e d e v ic e fo r th e m e d ic a l se rv ic e s o f a r m e d fo rces a n d R e d C ro ss a n d R e d C re s c e n t h u m a n ita r ia n w o rk e rs in co n flic ts w h e re th e e x istin g e m ­ b le m s c a n n o t a lw ay s p ro v id e p ro te c tio n b e c a u s e o f p e rc e p tio n s o f p o litic a l, re lig io u s o r o th e r c u ltu ra l c o n n o ta tio n s . In t e r n a t io n a l F in a n c e C o r p o r a t io n ( IF C )

A p a r t o f th e W o rld B a n k

G r o u p e sta b lish e d in 1956 a n d in c lu d in g 176 M e m b e r S ta te s th a t assists e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t b y p r o m o tin g g ro w th in th e p riv a te secto r. (W B ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c e F a c i l i t y ( I F F ) - A U K - p r o p o s c d m e c h a n is m to

in c re a s e d e v e lo p m e n t a ss ista n c e b a s e d on a llo w in g a b e n e fic ia ry c o u n tr y to b o rr o w m o n e y a g a in s t fu tu re a id flow s o r b y s u p p o r tin g in c r e a s e d assist­ a n c e th r o u g h in s titu tin g a n in te r n a tio n a l ta x in g a r r a n g e m e n t su c h as a n a irlin e ta x th a t w o u ld b e e a r m a r k e d fo r specific d e v e lo p m e n t- re la te d o b je c ­ tives. It w as first p ro p o s e d a t th e 2 0 0 5 G 8 s u m m it. S e e ‘G l o b a l t a x / In t e r n a tio n a l

F lo o d

In itia tiv e

(IF I)

-

A n in te r-a g e n c y (U N E S C O ,

W M O , U N U , U N I S D R , U N IS D R -P P E W , IA H S ) in itia tiv e la u n c h e d in 2 0 0 5 by U N E S C O a im e d a t m in im iz in g loss o f life a n d re d u c in g d a m ­ ag e c a u s e d by flo o d s. T h e s e c r e ta r ia t is lo c a te d in th e I n te r n a tio n a l C e n tr e fo r W a te r H a z a r d a n d R isk M a n a g e m e n t ( I C H A R M ) h o s te d by th e P u b lic W o rk s R e s e a rc h In s titu te in T s u k u b a , J a p a n . (U N E S C O ) In t e r n a tio n a l F u n d fo r A g r ic u ltu r a l

D e v e lo p m e n t (IF A D ) - T he

IF A D is a sp e c ia liz e d a g e n c y o f th e U N e s ta b lis h e d as a n in te r n a tio n a l fin a n c ia l in s titu tio n in 1977 as a re su lt o f th e 1974 W o rld F o o d C o n fe re n c e th a t w as o rg a n iz e d in re s p o n s e to th e fo o d crises o f th e e a rly 1970s. IF A D w a s c re a te d to m o b iliz e re s o u rc e s o n c o n c e ss io n a l te r m s fo r p ro g r a m s th a t a lle v ia te r u r a l p o v e rty a n d im p ro v e n u tr itio n . (IFA D )

168

International H eritage C on ventio n (IH C )

In te rn a tio n a l H e r ita g e C o n v e n t io n ( I H C ) - A U N E S C O -led conven­

tion t h a t a im s to p r o t e c t the in ta n g ib le h e r ita g e o f th e w o rld in c lu d in g p r a c ­ tices, e x p re ss io n s a n d r e p r e s e n ta tio n s o f o r a l tr a d itio n s ; t r a d i t i o n a l m u sic , d a n c e a n d th e a tr e ; social p r a c tic e s , rituals, a n d festive events; k n o w le d g e a n d p r a c tic e s r e g a r d i n g n a t u r e a n d th e u n iv e rse; a n d t r a d itio n a l c r a f t s m a n ­ ship. T h e I H C e n t e r e d in to force in A p ril, 2 0 0 6 . ( U N E S C O ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w - T h e b o d y o f ru les t h a t g o v e r n th e re la tio n s h ip s o f

states w ith e a c h other. I n t e r n a t i o n a l tre a tie s a re a p a r t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. S o u r c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law (from A rtic le 38 o f th e S ta t u t e o f th e I n t e r ­ n a t i o n a l C o u r t o f Ju stic e ) in c lu d e : i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n tio n s o f g e n e r a l o r p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e ; i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u s t o m , as e v id e n c e o f a g e n e r a l p r a c tic e a c c e p t e d as law ; a n d th e g e n e r a l p r in c ip le s o f law r e c o g n i z e d by civilized n a tio n s . In tern ational M o n e t a r y Fund (IM F )

T h e I M F is a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r ­

g a n iz a ti o n o f 182 m e m b e r c o u n tr ie s , e s ta b lis h e d to p r o m o t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l m o n e t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n , e x c h a n g e stability, a n d o r d e r ly e x c h a n g e a r r a n g e ­ m e n ts ; to fo ste r e c o n o m i c g r o w th a n d h ig h levels o f e m p l o y m e n t ; a n d to p r o v id e t e m p o r a r y fin a n c ia l a ssista n c e to c o u n tr ie s to h e lp case b a l a n c e o f p a y m e n t s a d j u s t m e n t . (IM F) In t e r n a t i o n a l Office o f E p iz o o t i c s

O ffice t h a t d e a ls w ith i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s c o n c e r n i n g a n i m a l h e a lth . ( W T O )

In tern ational organization (IO )

O r g a n i z a t i o n s w ith g lo b a l m a n d a t e s , g e n e ra lly f u n d e d b y c o n t r i b u t i o n s fro m n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s . E x a m p l e s i n c lu d e th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e o f th e R e d C ro s s a n d R e d C r e s c e n t, th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r M i g r a t i o n , th e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f A m e r i ­ c a n S ta te s a n d U n i t e d N a t i o n s a g e n c ie s. (U N )

I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l l i n a t o r s I n i t i a t i v e ( I P I ) - T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l In itia tiv e

for th e C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d S u s ta in a b le U s e o f P o llin a to rs is a c ro ss c u ttin g in itiative w ith i n the p r o g r a m o f w o r k o n a g r ic u l tu r a l biodiversity. (C B D ) In te rn a tio n a l public g o o d

G o o d s t h a t will te n d , in a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l

m a r k e t e c o n o m y , to b e p r o v id e d in q u a n titi e s t h a t a r e to o low fro m the p o i n t o f view o f social efficiency. T h e y a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n o n - r iv a lr y a n d n o n -e x c lu d a b ility . If, for e x a m p l e o n ly th e A n n e x I c o u n tr i e s w o u ld c a r r y o u t g lo b a l g r e e n h o u s e strategies, th e n o n - A n n c x c o u n t r i e s w o u ld b e n e fit at n o co st for th e m se lv e s. T h e A n n e x I c o u n tr ie s c a n n o t p r e v e n t th e n o n - A n n c x c o u n t r i e s fr o m ta k in g a d v a n t a g e o f th e i r g r e e n h o u s e strategies, n o r c a n th e y force th e m to p a y for th e ir in v e stm e n ts. T h i s m a y le a d to a s itu a tio n w h e r e i n a to o low a m o u n t o f the g o o d - i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m i t ­ m e n t s will ta k e p lace. ( D F ID ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e a b e d A u t h o r i t y - T h e U N C o n v e n t i o n o n th e L a w o f

th e S e a e sta b lish e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e leg al f r a m e w o r k to re g u la te all o c e a n

169

Inte rn a tio n a l S e d im e n t Initiative (ISI)

sp a c e , its uses a n d re s o u rc e s. It c o n ta in s , a m o n g o th e r th in g s, p ro v isio n s re la tin g to th e te r rito ria l se a , th e c o n tig u o u s z o n e , th e c o n tin e n ta l shelf, th e ex clu siv e e c o n o m ic z o n e a n d th e h ig h seas. It also p ro v id e s fo r th e p ro te c tio n a n d p re s e rv a tio n o f th e m a r in e e n v ir o n m e n t, fo r m a r in e scien tific re s e a rc h a n d fo r th e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d tr a n s f e r o f m a r in e te c h n o lo g y . O n e o f th e m o st im p o r ta n t p a rts o f th e C o n v e n tio n c o n c e rn s th e e x p lo r a tio n fo r a n d e x p lo i­ ta tio n o f th e re s o u rc e s o f th e s e a b e d a n d o c c a n flo o r a n d su b so il th e re o f, b e y o n d th e lim its o f n a tio n a l ju r is d ic tio n (th e A re a ). T h e C o n v e n tio n d e c la re s th e A re a a n d its re s o u rc e s to b e ‘th e c o m m o n h e rita g e o f m a n ­ k in d .’ T h e I n te r n a tio n a l S e a b e d A u th o rity , e sta b lish e d by th e C o n v e n tio n , a d m in is te rs th e re s o u rc e s o f th e A re a . (U N ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e d i m e n t I n i t i a t i v e ( I S I ) - T h e IS I w a s la u n c h e d in 2 0 0 2

as a m a jo r ac tiv ity o f P h a se V I (2 0 0 2 -2 0 0 6 ) o f U N E S C O ’s I H P a n d re ­ n e w e d in P h a se V I I (2 0 0 8 -2 0 1 3 ). IS I stu d ie s issu es c o n c e r n in g s e d im e n t m a n a g e m e n t, th u s m a k in g a v a lu a b le c o n tr ib u tio n to s u s ta in a b le w a te r re ­ so u rc e s d e v e lo p m e n t o n a g lo b a l scale. Its m issio n d ire c tly re la te s to th e c o m m itm e n ts o f th e in te r n a tio n a l c o m m u n ity e x p re s se d in m a jo r d o c u ­ m e n ts su ch as th e M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G o a ls, th e R io D e c la ra tio n o f S u s ta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t, th e W o rld W a te r A sse ss m e n t P ro g r a m m e , a n d th e W o rld W a te r D e v e lo p m e n t R e p o rts . (U N E S C O ) In t e r n a t io n a l S t a n d a r d s O r g a n iz a t io n (also k n o w n as th e In t e r ­ n atio n a l O r g a n iz a tio n fo r S ta n d a rd iz a tio n ) ( IS O ) IS O is a n o n ­ g o v e rn m e n ta l n e tw o rk o f th e n a tio n a l s ta n d a r d s in s titu te s o f 146 c o u n trie s ,

o n th e basis o f o n e m e m b e r p e r c o u n try , w ith a C e n tr a l S e c re ta ria t in G e ­ n e v a , S w itz e rla n d , th a t d e v e lo p s a n d c o o rd in a te s te c h n ic a l s ta n d a rd s . Its m e m b e rs a re n o t, as is th e e ase in th e U N sy ste m , d e le g a tio n s o f n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts . (IS O ) In t e r n a tio n a l T rib u n a l fo r the L a w o f the S e a

T h e I n te r n a tio n a l T r ib u n a l fo r th e L a w o f th e S e a is a n in d e p e n d e n t ju d ic ia l b o d y e sta b lish e d b y th e C o n v e n tio n to a d ju d ic a te d is p u te s a risin g o u t o f th e in te r p r e ta tio n a n d a p p lic a tio n o f its te rm s . T h e T r ib u n a l is c o m p o s e d o f 21 in d e p e n d e n t m e m b e rs , e le c te d fro m a m o n g p e rs o n s e n jo y in g th e h ig h e s t re p u ta tio n fo r fa irn e s s a n d in te g rity a n d o f re c o g n iz e d c o m p e te n c e in th e field o f th e L aw o f th e S e a . (U N )

In t e r n a tio n a l T ro p ic a l T i m b e r O r g a n iz a t io n ( I T T O )

A n in s titu tio n

o f p r o d u c e r s fo r m e d in 1987 to p ro m o te c o n s e rv a tio n a n d s u s ta in a b le d e ­ v e lo p m e n t o f tro p ic a l fo rests. ( I T T O ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r e ( I U C N ) - S ec

W o rld C o n s e r v a t i o n U n io n .' In t e r n a tio n a l W a t e r A s s o c ia t io n ( I W A )

A s th e w o rld ’s la rg e s t p ro fe s­

sio n a l w a te r o rg a n iz a tio n , IW A in te g ra te s th e le a d in g e d g e o f p ro fe ssio n ­ al th o u g h t o n re s e a rc h a n d p ra c tic e , re g u la to rs a n d th e re g u la te d , acro ss

170

International W a te r C onven tion

n a tio n a l b o u n d a rie s a n d acro ss th e d rin k in g w ater, w a ste w a te r a n d sto rm w a te r disciplines. IW A w as fo u n d e d in S e p te m b e r, 1999, by th e m e rg e r o f th e In te rn a tio n a l A sso ciation o f W a te r Q u a lity (IA W Q ) a n d th e I n te r n a ­ tio n a l W a te r S u p p ly A sso ciatio n (IW SA ). Its h e a d q u a rte rs a re in th e U K . (W P) In te rn a tio n a l W a t e r C o n v e n tio n

Sec ' C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e L a w o f the N o n -N a v ig a tio n a l U se o f In te r n a tio n a l W a terco u rses.’

I n t e r n a t i o n a l W a t e r M a n a g e m e n t I n s t i t u t e ( I W M I ) - O n e o f 16

c e n te rs s u p p o rte d by th e C o n su lta tiv e G ro u p o n In te rn a tio n a l A g ric u ltu ra l R esearch (C G IA R ). H e a d q u a rte r e d in C o lo m b o , Sri L a n k a , IW M P s m is­ sion is to im p ro v e w a te r a n d la n d re so u rce s m a n a g e m e n t for food, liveli­ h o o d s a n d n a tu re . I n t e r n a t i o n a l w a t e r s - O n e o f th e seven focal a re a s o f G E F d e fin e d as

th e seas, sh a re d riv e r a n d lake b asin s, sh a re d estu a rie s a n d w e tla n d s, a n d s h a re d g ro u n d w a te r aq u ifers. T h e d istin g u ish in g fe a tu re is th a t m o re th a n o n e n a tio n h as access to o r m ak es use o f th e m . (G E F) In te rn a tio n a l W h a lin g C o m m is s io n ( I W C )

T h e IW C w as e stab lish ed u n d e r th e In te rn a tio n a l C o n v e n tio n fo r th e R e g u latio n o f W h a lin g , w h ich w as sig n ed in W a sh in g to n D C o n 2 D e c e m b e r, 1946. Its p u rp o s e is to p ro ­ vide for th e p ro p e r c o n se rv a tio n o f w h ale stocks a n d su p p o rt th e o rd erly d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e w h a lin g in d u stry . It review s a n d revises as n ece ssa ry th e m e a su re s laid d o w n in th e S ch e d u le to th e C o n v e n tio n , w hich g o v ern s th e c o n d u c t o f w h a lin g th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld. T h e s e m e a su re s p ro v id e fo r th e c o m p le te p ro te c tio n o f c e rta in species; d esig n ate specified a re a s as w hale san c tu a rie s; set lim its o n th e n u m b e rs a n d size o f w h a le s th a t m ay be tak en ; p re sc rib e o p en a n d closed seasons a n d a re a s for w h alin g ; a n d p ro h ib it th e c a p tu re o f suck lin g calves a n d fem ale w h ales a c c o m p a n ie d by calves.

I n t e r - P a r l i a m e n t a r y U n i o n ( I P U ) - T h e IP U is th e w o rld ’s o ld e st m u l­

tilateral p o litic a l o rg a n iz a tio n e sta b lish e d in 1889 a n d in c lu d in g m e m b e rs o f th e p a rlia m e n ts o f so v ereig n states. T h e U n io n is th e focal p o in t for w o rld w id e p a rlia m e n ta ry d ia lo g u e a n d w o rk s fo r p e a c e a n d c o o p e ra tio n a m o n g p eo p les a n d for th e firm e s ta b lish m e n t o f re p re se n ta tiv e d em o cracy . F or th e first tim e in its history, th e 2 0 0 6 g a th e rin g o f IP U m e m b e rs focused o n th e issue o f e n v iro n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t as a fu n d a m e n ta l c o m p o n e n t o f su stain ab le d e v e lo p m e n t. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n - A te rm re fe rrin g to tra n sla tin g th e w ritte n o r sp o k en w o rd

into o th e r lan g u ag e s. (M W ) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a c t i v e - R efers to in te rv e n tio n s p e rm itte d in a n y o f th e

officially re c o g n iz e d w o rk in g la n g u a g e s o f a n in te rn a tio n a l o r in te rg o v e rn ­ m e n ta l m e e tin g th a t is su b se q u e n tly tra n sla te d in to all o f th e w o rk in g la n ­ g uag es o f th a t p a rtic u la r m e e tin g sim u ltan eo u sly . (U N )

171

Interpretation, full

I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , fu ll

Q u e stio n s a n d an sw ers p e rm itte d /g iv e n in any o f the official languages o f a given o rg a n iz a tio n . F or e x a m p le: U N - sim u lta n e ­ ou s tra n sla tio n in to all six official U N lan g u ag e s: E n g lish , S p a n ish , F re n c h , M a n d a r in C h in e se , R u ssian a n d A ra b ic ; G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a - sim u lta n e o u s tra n sla tio n in to E n g lish a n d F ren ch ; O A S - sim u ltan e o u s tra n sla tio n in to E n g lish , F re n c h , S p a n ish a n d P o rtu g u e se ; E U - sim u lta n e ­ ou s tra n sla tio n in to all th e la n g u a g e s o f th e M e m b e r S tates. (U N ; O A S ; E U ; W P)

I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , p a s s i v e - R efers to in te rv e n tio n s in an y o f th e officially

re c o g n ized lan g u a g e s o f a n in te rn a tio n a l o r in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l b o d y b u t tra n sla tio n in to o n ly th e p rin c ip le working languages o f a given organization. For e x am p le: in a U N E S C O m e e tin g h e ld in P aris a n d p ro v id in g passive tra n sla tio n , a d e le g a te c o u ld ask a q u e stio n in a n y o f th e official U N la n ­ g uages, b u t it w o u ld o n ly be tra n sla te d (q u estio n a n d resp o n se) in to F re n c h a n d E n g lish , th e p rin c ip le w o rk in g la n g u a g e s at U N E S C O h e a d q u a rte rs . (U N E S C O ) In te rp re ta tio n , s im u lta n e o u s

T ra n s la tin g th e sp o k en w o rd in to a sec­

o n d la n g u a g e as it is sp o k e n . (UN) In te r-se ssio n a l m e e tin g

- A n official m e e tin g b e tw e e n reg u la rly sc h ed ­

uled m eetin g s. I n t e r v e n t i o n s c e n a r i o - In te rv e n tio n s c e n a r io s /in f o rm e d p re d ic tio n s (in

th e c o n te x t o f e n v iro n m e n ta l studies) d e p ic t th e fu tu re c o n se q u e n c e s o f p olicy in te rv e n tio n s. In o th e r w o rd s, th e y d e scrib e th e fu tu re state o f society a n d th e e n v iro n m e n t u n d e r in flu e n ce o f d ire c te d e n v iro n m e n ta l policies. In te rv e n tio n sc e n a rio s a re also kno w n as ‘p o llu tio n c o n tro l’, ‘m itig a tio n ’ o r ‘p o licy ’ scen ario s. (EEA) In t ra f a u c e s terra - L iterally, ‘in th e ja w s o f th e la n d .’ A p rin c ip le fo r d e fin ­

ing te rrito ria l seas. (BLD) I n t r i n s i c v a l u e - A fo rm o f ju d g m e n t th a t tak es in to a c c o u n t all th e values

p re s e n t in th e system , a n holistic v a lu a tio n o r fitness m e a s u re m e n t o f th e w hole. (C SG ) I n t r o d u c e d s p e c i e s - A species o c c u rrin g in an a re a o u tsid e its h isto rically

kno w n n a tu ra l ra n g e as a resu lt o f in te n tio n a l o r a c c id e n ta l d isp e rsa l by h u m a n activities. I n v a s i v e a li e n s p e c i e s

A species o f p la n t, a n im a l o r o th e r o rg a n ism th a t is (1) n o n -n a tiv e (or alien) to th e ecosystem u n d e r c o n sid e ra tio n a n d (2) w h o se in tro d u c tio n cau ses o r is likely to cau se ec o n o m ic o r e n v iro n m e n ta l h a rm o r h a rm to h u m a n h e a lth . (C B D )

Ip so f ac t o - By th e fact (o r act) itself. (BLD)

172

Irre v e rs ib ility o f e n v ir o n m e n t a l d a m a g e

Irreversibility

of

environmental

damage

A situation resulting in p e r m a n e n t loss o f e n v ir o n m e n ta l assets o r e n v ir o n m e n ta l quality, re q u irin g preventive o r altern ativ e actions r a t h e r t h a n re sto ra tio n o r c le a n ­ up. For e x am p le , q u a r r y in g o f rock is often cited as an irreversible e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l c h a n g e as the original geologic f o rm a tio n s can n ever be re p la c e d in a h u m a n tim e fram e. (EEA)

Island b i o g e o g r a p h y

T h e study o f the relation ship b e tw e e n island a re a a n d species n u m b e r a n d b e tw e e n isolated c o n tin e n ta l areas, w h ic h are, ef­ fectively, islands for m a n y spccics. (EES)

I S O g e n e r i c m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s - IS O 9 0 0 0 a n d IS O 14000 series

are a m o n g I S O ’s m o st w idely k n o w n stan d a rd s, h a v in g b e e n im p le m e n te d by ne a rly 8 0 0 ,0 0 0 o rg a n iz atio n s th r o u g h o u t th e world. IS O 90 00 h a s b e ­ c o m e an in te r n a tio n a l reference for quality m a n a g e m e n t re q u ir e m e n ts in business-to-business dealings, a n d I S O 14000 is a im e d a t e n a b lin g o r g a n i­ zations to m e e t th e ir e n v ir o n m e n ta l challenges. ‘G e n e r i c ’ m e a n s th a t the sam e s ta n d a rd s c a n be app lied to an y o rg a n iz a tio n , large o r small, w h a te v e r its p r o d u c t in c lu d in g w h e th e r its p ro d u c t is actually a service in any sector o f activity, a n d w h e th e r it is a business e n te rp rise , a pu blic a d m in is tra tio n , o r a g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r tm e n t . ‘M a n a g e m e n t sy ste m ’ refers to the o r g a n iz a ­ tio n ’s stru c tu re for m a n a g in g its processes th a t tra n sfo rm in p u ts o f re so u rc ­ es into a p r o d u c t o r service th a t m e e t the o rg a n iz a tio n ’s objectives, such as satisfying the c u s to m e r ’s quality r e q u ire m e n ts , c o m p ly in g to regu lations o r m e e tin g e n v ir o n m e n ta l objectives. (ISO) I S O 900 0 s t a n d a r d s - T h e I S O 90 00 family is p rim a rily c o n c e r n e d with

quality m a n a g e m e n t , referring to w h a t the o r g a n iz a tio n does to fulfill the c u s t o m e r ’s qu ality r e q u ir e m e n ts a n d a p plicable r e g u la to ry re q u ire m e n ts, while a im in g to e n h a n c e c u s to m e r satisfaction, a n d achieve c o n tin u a l im ­ p r o v e m e n t o f its p e r f o r m a n c e in p u rs u it o f these objectives. (ISO) I S O 14 0 0 0 s t a n d a r d s

T h e I S O 14000 family is p rim a rily c o n c e r n e d with e n v ir o n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t , re ferrin g to w h a t the o r g a n iz a tio n does to m in im iz e h a r m f u l effects on the e n v ir o n m e n t c a u sc d by its activities, a n d to achieve c o n tin u al im p r o v e m e n t o f its e n v iro n m e n ta l p e r f o r m a n c e . (ISO)

Isolationism

- A d ip lo m a tic or political policy w h e re b y avoid alliances w ith o th e r nations. M o s t n a tio n s are n o t sition to m a in ta in strict isolationist policies for e x te n d e d even th o u g h m o s t n atio ns have historical p e rio d s w h e n p opu lar. (WP)

a n a tio n seeks to in a political p o ­ p e rio d s o f time, isolationism was

I t e r a t i o n - A loop th a t uses the c u r r e n t value o f a system to derive its future

value by reinsertin g it into the e q u a tio n s c on trollin g th e system dynam ics. (C S G ) IU C N

S e e ‘W o r l d C o n s e r v a t i o n U n i o n .

173

Jj J a k a r t a M a n d a t e - T h e J a k a r ta M a n d a te on M a rin e a n d C o a sta l B io­

logical D iv ersity is a g lo b al co n sen su s o n th e im p o rta n c e o f m a rin e a n d coastal b iological div ersity a n d is a p a r t o f th e M in isteria l S ta te m e n t o n th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e C B D , as a d o p te d by th e C O P / C B D held in J a k a r ta , In d o n e s ia , in N o v em b er, 1995. T h ro u g h its p ro g ra m o f w ork, a d o p te d in 1998, th e C o n v e n tio n focuses o n in te g ra te d m a rin e a n d co asta l a re a m a n ­ a g e m e n t, th e su sta in a b le use o f living reso u rces, p ro te c te d area s, m aric u ltu re a n d alien species. (B C H M ) Japan

In te rn a tio n a l C o o p e ra tio n A g e n c y (J IC A ) T h e p rin c ip a l ag en cy th ro u g h w h ich J a p a n p ro v id e s te c h n ic a l assistan ce a n d d eliv ers fo r­ eign aid.

J o h a n n e s b u r g D e c l a r a t i o n - T h e J o h a n n e s b u rg D e c la ra tio n is o n e o f th e

tw o d o c u m e n ts a g re e d to at th e 20 0 2 W orld S u m m it on S u sta in a b le D e ­ v e lo p m e n t. It review s th e c u rr e n t g lo b al ch alle n g e s a n d th e p ro g re ss m a d e in su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t from 1992 to 2 0 0 2 , c o m m its its sig n a to ries to su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t, e m p h asiz e s th e im p o rta n c e o f w o rk in g o n a m u l­ tila te ra l basis, a n d e m p h a siz e s th e n e e d to c o m p le te th e w o rk o u tlin e d in the W S S D ‘P la n o f Im p le m e n ta tio n .* J o h a n n e s b u r g s e t t i n g - A te rm u sed to id en tify m in iste ria l level c o n su lta ­

tions a n d n e g o tia tio n . Joint c o n t a c t g r o u p

T w o c o n ta c t g ro u p s c re a te d se p a ra te ly a n d b ro u g h t to g e th e r to resolve d ifferen ces b e tw e e n th e m . (G u p ta , 2002)

Joint C o n v e n t io n on th e S a fe t y of S p e n t Fuel M a n a g e m e n t an d on t h e S a f e t y o f R a d i o a c t i v e W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t (2 0 0 I ) —T h is n o n ­

b in d in g C o n v e n tio n seeks to ach iev e a n d m a in ta in a h ig h level o f safetyw o rld w id e in s p e n t fuel a n d ra d io a c tiv e w aste m a n a g e m e n t th ro u g h th e e n ­ h a n c e m e n t o f n a tio n a l m e a su re s a n d in te rn a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n ; to en su re th a t d u rin g all stages o f sp e n t fuel a n d ra d io a c tiv e w aste m a n a g e m e n t th e re arc effective d efen ses a g a in s t p o te n tia l h a z a rd s so th a t in d iv id u a ls, society an d th e e n v iro n m e n t a re p ro te c te d from th e h a rm fu l effects o f io n izin g ra d ia tio n now a n d in th e fu tu re ; a n d to p re v e n t a c c id e n ts w ith rad io lo g ic a l c o n se q u e n c e s a n d to m itig ate th e ir c o n se q u e n c e s if th e y o c c u r d u rin g an y stag e o f sp e n t fuel o r ra d io a c tiv e w aste m a n a g e m e n t. J o i n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (Jl)

A p ro je c t-b a se d a ctiv ity in w h ic h o n e c o u n ­ try c an rcccivc em issio n re d u c tio n c re d its w h e n it fu n d s a p ro je c t in a n o th e r c o u n try w h e re th e em issio n s a rc a c tu a lly re d u c c d . (U N F C C C )

Jo in t working group

J o i n t w o r k i n g g r o u p - T w o w o rk in g g r o u p s , e a c h c o n v e n e d by a d iffe re n t

body, b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r to w o r k o n c r o s s c u ttin g issues. ( G u p ta , 1997) Ju s c i v i l e

L a w c r e a t e d w ith in e a c h c o u n try . (BL D )

Ju s c o g e n s - C o m p e l l i n g law. P e r e m p t o r y p rin c ip le s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law

th a t c a n n o t b e o v e r r id d e n by specific tre a tie s b e t w e e n c o u n tr ie s ; n o r m s t h a t a r c b i n d i n g o n all states a t all tim es. (BLD ) J u s i n t e r g e n t e s - L a w a m o n g p e o p le s , n a tio n s . (BLD) JUSSCANNZ

A c o a litio n o f th e n o n - E U d e v e lo p e d c o u n tr ie s (a n d o t h e r in v ite d c o u n trie s) t h a t acts as a n i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g a n d d isc ussio n f o r u m . T h e a c r o n y m s ta n d s for J a p a n , U S , S w itz e r la n d , C a n a d a , A u s tr a lia , N o r ­ w ay a n d N ew Z ealan d .

175

Kk K a r e z e - See Q a n a t . ’ K e y - A te rm th a t typ ically m e a n s an ite m , id ea o r c o n c e p t th a t is a d e c id ­

in g factor, th a t is, is critic a l, in s tru m e n ta l o r c e n tra l to a rriv in g at som e d e te rm in a tio n . K e y s t o n e s p e c i e s - A species th a t p lay s a n im p o rta n t role in d e te rm in in g

th e overall stru c tu re a n d d y n a m ic re la tio n sh ip s w ith in a b io tic co m m u n ity . A keystone species p re se n ce is e ssen tial to th e in te g rity a n d stab ility o f a p a rtic u la r ecosystem . K im b e r le y P ro c e ss C e rtific a tio n S c h e m e

In M a y 2 0 0 0 , re s p o n d in g to a g ro w in g g ra ssro o ts m o v e m e n t o n ‘b lo o d d ia m o n d s ,’ g o v e rn m e n ts a n d th e d ia m o n d in d u s try c a m c to g e th e r in K im b erley , S o u th A frica to c o m b a t th e tra d e in d ia m o n d s from c o n flict zones. T h e resu lt o f th ese n e g o tia tio n s w as th e K im b e rle y P rocess C e rtific a tio n S c h e m e , a n in te rn a tio n a lly re c o g ­ n iz e d certificatio n fo r ro u g h d ia m o n d s estab lish in g n a tio n a l im p o r t/e x p o r t sta n d a rd s. In N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 2 , 52 g o v e rn m e n ts ratified a n d a d o p te d th e K im b erley Process, w hich c a m c in to force in A u g u st 2 0 0 3 . (G PF)

K n o c k - o n i m p a c t s - A te rm u sed p rim a rily in th e U K to m e a n se c o n d a ry

im pacts. K y o to fore st

T h e K y o to P ro to c o l a n d th e M a rra k e c h A cc o rd s allow in ­ d u stria l c o u n trie s to d isc o u n t th e ir g re e n h o u s e gas em issio n s by im p le m e n t­ in g /in v e s tin g in c e rta in la n d -u sc c h a n g e a n d fo restry activities, in c lu d in g re fo re sta tio n , so m e tim e s called a ‘K y o to fo rest.’ T o q u alify as a 'K y o to For­ e st,’ strict c rite ria a p p ly in c lu d in g p a rc e l size, species c o m p o sitio n , c a n o p y an d u n d e r-sto ry h e ig h t a n d density, sto c k in g levels a n d p ro je c te d g ro w th rates. (E E A ; IP C C )

Kyoto

m e ch an ism s F o rm e rly k n o w n as ‘flexibility m e c h a n ism s,’ th e K yoto m e c h a n ism s arc b a se d o n m a rk e t p rin cip le s th a t P arties to th e K yoto P ro to c o l c an use in an a tte m p t to lessen th e p o te n tia l e c o n o m ic im p ac ts o f G H G em issio n -re d u c tio n re q u ire m e n ts. T h e y in c lu d e J o in t Im p le m e n ­ ta tio n (A rticle 6), th e C le a n D e v e lo p m e n t M e c h a n ism s (A rticle 12), a n d E m issions T ra d in g (A rticle 17). (IP C C )

K yo to Protocol (K P )

In 1997 a t C O P -3 in K y o to , J a p a n th e p a rtie s a d o p te d a p ro to c o l to th e U N F C C C th a t e n te re d in to force in F eb ru ary , 2 005. T h e K yoto P ro to c o l calls fo r a re d u c tio n in G H G em issio n s by th e

Kyoto Protocol (KP)

in d u stria liz e d n a tio n s a n d th e n a tio n s w ith e c o n o m ie s in tra n sitio n (A nnex I co u n tries) o f at least 5 p e rc e n t belo w 1990 levels (an d in so m e cases 1995 levels) in the p e rio d 2 0 0 8 -2 0 1 2 . (IP G C ) See ' A s i a P a c i f i c P a r t n e r s h i p o n C le a n D e v e lo p m e n t a n d C l i m a t e / 'U n ited N a tio n s F r a m e ­ w o r k C o n v e n tio n o n C lim a t e C h a n g e.'

177

LI L . d o c s - In-session d o c u m e n ts th a t c o n ta in d ra ft re p o rts a n d texts for a d o p ­

tio n by a C O P o r a su b sid ia ry body. (U N F C C C ) L a c u n a e - H oles in th e law ; a g a p o r b lan k in a w ritte n d o c u m e n t. (BLD)

L a is s e z - P a s s e r U N trav el d o c u m e n t, c o m m o n ly re fe rre d to as a n ‘L P ’ o r ‘U N p a s s p o rt’ a n d issued in tw o fo rm s: R e d fo r D -levcl sta ff a n d above, Blue for all o th e r sta ff w ith travel resp o n sib ilities - G e n e ra l S ervice (Glcvcl) a n d P rofessio n al (P-levcl). (U N ) Laissez faire

Free e n te rp rise . T h e d o c trin e o r system o f g o v e rn m e n t n o n ­ in te rfe re n c e in th e e c o n o m y e x c e p t as n ec essary to m a in ta in e c o n o m ic free­ d o m . (AD)

L a n d - b a s e d S o u r c e s P r o t o c o l ( L B S ) - T h e p ro to c o l c o n c e rn e d w ith

la n d -b a se d sou rces o f p o llu tio n a n d p o llu tin g activ ities in th e W id e r C a r ib ­ b e a n a d o p te d 6 O c to b e r, 1999 in O ra n je s ta d , A ru b a as p a rt o f th e F ra m e ­ w ork P lan o f th e C a rta g e n a C o n v e n tio n . (U N E P ) Landfill

A d isp o sal a re a w h e re w aste is p iled u p a n d ev e n tu a lly co v ered w ith d irt a n d topsoil. (N R D C ) S ec ‘S a n i t a r y l a n d f i l l . ’

L a n d m a p p i n g u n i t ( L M U ) - T h e sm allest a re a o f la n d th a t c an b e d e lin e ­

a te d o n a m a p o f a p a rtic u la r scale. L a n d s a t - T h e L a n d s a t (‘la n d sa tellite ’) p ro g ra m , la u n c h e d in 1972, is the

lo ngest ru n n in g e n te rp ris e fo r a c q u isitio n o f im a g e ry o f E a rth fro m spacc. T h e in s tru m e n ts o n th e L a n d sa t satellites, w h ich have a c q u ire d m illio n s o f im ag es, a rc arc h iv e d in th e U S a n d a t L a n d s a t rec e iv in g statio n s a ro u n d th e w o rld . T o g e th e r th ey are a u n iq u e re so u rce fo r g lo b al c h a n g e re se a rc h a n d ap p lic a tio n s in a g ric u ltu re , geology, forestry, re g io n a l p la n n in g , e d u c a tio n an d n a tio n a l security. T h e p ro g ra m w as called th e E a rth R eso u rces O b s e r­ v a tio n S atellites P ro g ra m w h en it w as in itia te d in 1966, b u t th e n a m e w as c h a n g e d to L a n d s a t in 1975. (EEA) L a n d s c a p e a m n e s i a , c o n c e p t o f - F o rg ettin g h o w d iffe re n t th e s u r ro u n d ­

in g la n d s c a p e lo o k ed in th e p a st b e ca u se th e c h a n g e from y e a r to y e a r has b een so g ra d u a l. (Jared, 2005) S ee ‘C r e e p i n g n o r m a l c y ' ; ‘B o i l e d - f r o g sy n d r o m e .’ Land su b sid e n ce

S in k in g o f th e to p o g ra p h ic su rface re su ltin g d ire ctly o r in d irc c tly from h u m a n ac tio n o r n a tu ra l p h e n o m e n o n . (EES)

Land tenure

L a n d t e n u r e - L a n d te n u re refers to th e m a n y rig h ts a n d resp o n sib ilities

asso ciate d w ith th e possession o r h o ld in g o f a p a rc e l o f la n d . T h e se rig h ts may in c lu d e th e rig h t o f access to th e la n d , th e rig h t to c o n tro l p ro d u c ts from th e la n d (surface o r su b su rface), th e rig h t o f succession, th e rig h t o f tra n sfe r a n d th e rig h t to d e te rm in e c h a n g e s in la n d -u se , a n d th e rig h t to use o f rip a ria n su rfacc w aters. L a n d te n u re also im p lies o b lig a tio n s o n the p a r t o f th e o w n e r o r te n a n t to m a in ta in th e la n d as p e r existin g z o n in g a n d la n d -u se law s. (EES) L a n d u s e - T h e w ay in w h ic h la n d is u sed , especially in a g ric u ltu ra l, c o n se r­

v a tio n a n d city p la n n in g pro cesses. (N R D G ) L a n g u a g e ( s ) , o ff ic ia l - A n official language(s) is so m e th in g th a t is given

a u n iq u e status in c o u n trie s, states a n d o th e r te rrito rie s. It is ty p ically th e language(s) u sed in a n a tio n ’s legislative b o d ies, th o u g h th e law in m a n y in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d n a tio n s re q u ire s th a t d o c u m e n ts be p r o ­ d u c e d in o th e r la n g u a g e s as w ell. E x a m p l e s o f o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e s : U N S ecreta ria t an d sp e c ia liz e d a g e n c ie s E n g lish , S p a n ish , F re n ch , M a n ­ d a rin C h in ese, R u ssian a n d A ra b ic ; G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a E nglish a n d F ren ch ; O A S - E n g lish , F re n c h , P o rtu g u e se a n d S p an ish ; E U - C zech , D a n ish , D u tc h , E n g lish , E sto n ia n , F in n ish , F re n ch , G e rm a n , G re e k , H u n ­ g a ria n , Irish , Ita lia n , L a tv ia n , L ith u a n ia n , M alte se , Polish, P o rtu g u e se , S lo­ vak, S lovene, S p a n ish a n d S w ed ish ; A S E A N a n d A P E C E n g lish . (E U ; O AS ; U N ; W P) Language(s), p o st

T h e language(s) th a t are c o m m o n ly used in n o rm a l d a y -to -d a y c o m m u n ic a tio n (not n e cessarily th e lo cal la n g u a g e ) a n d w h ich is n o rm a lly re q u ire d o f all p e rs o n n e l assig n ed to th a t U N office (or th e office o f an y in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s). (U N )

Language(s), w o r k in g

A w o rk in g language(s) also k n o w n as a p ro c e d u ra l language(s), is g iven a u n iq u e legal statu s in a state o r in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a ­ tion as its p rim a ry m e a n s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n . It is p rim a rily th e language(s) o f the d aily c o rre sp o n d e n c e a n d co n v e rsa tio n , sincc th e o rg a n iz a tio n u su a l­ ly has m e m b e rs w ith d ifferin g la n g u a g e b a c k g ro u n d s. By d e fin itio n , a w o rk ­ ing la n g u a g e is n o t e q u a l to an official la n g u a g e , u nless specifically n o te d by th e o rg a n iz a tio n , as is th e case in th e U N . E x a m p le s o f w o rk in g lan g u ag e s: U N S ecretaria t E n g lish , S p a n ish , F re n ch , M a n d a r in C h in e se , R u ssian a n d A rab ic; U N E S C O - E n g lish a n d F re n ch ; O A S - E n g lish a n d S p a n ish ; G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a — E n g lish a n d F ren ch ; E U - E n g lish , F rench a n d G e rm a n ; A S E A N a n d A P E C - E n g lish . (E U ; O A S ; U N ; W P W P )

La N iñ a A p e rio d o f s tro n g e r-th a n -n o rm a l tra d e w in d s a n d u n u su ally low sea-su rface te m p e ra tu re s in th e c e n tra l a n d e a ste rn tro p ic a l Pacific O c e a n ; th e o p p o site o f E l Niño. (NASA) L a r g e c o u n t r y - A c o u n try th a t is larg e e n o u g h for its in te rn a tio n a l tra n s a c ­

tions to affect e c o n o m ic v a ria b les a b ro a d , u su ally fo r its tr a d e to m a tte r for w o rld prices. (AD)

179

Law

L a w - A n act o r bill th a t h as b e c o m e p a r t o f th e leg al co d e th ro u g h p assag e

by a legislative b o d y a n d if re q u ire d sig n ed o r e n d o rs e d by th e e lec te d H e a d o f State. L D C F u n d - T h e L D G fu n d is in te n d e d to su p p o rt th e w o rk p ro g ra m for th e

lesser-d ev elo p ed c o u n trie s th a t ‘sh all in c lu d e , inter alia, N a tio n a l A d a p ta tio n P ro g ra m m e s o f A ctio n (N A P A s)/ (U N F C C C ) Leachate

L iq u id th a t h a s seep ed th ro u g h solid w aste in a lan d fill, fa rm in g a re a o r feed lo t a n d h as e x tra c te d soluble dissolved o r su s p e n d e d m a te ria ls (n o rm a lly c o n ta m in a n ts) in th e pro cess. (U SEPA )

L EA D - A n in te rn a tio n a l n e tw o rk o f p ro fessio n als c o m m itte d to su sta in ab le d e v e lo p m e n t. E sta b lish ed in 1991 by th e R o ck efeller F o u n d a tio n , L E A D ’s ‘aim is to cre a te a n d su stain a g lo b a l n e tw o rk o f e m e rg in g a n d w o rk in g lead e rs re a d y a n d w illing to a d d ress e n v iro n m e n t a n d d e v e lo p m e n t c h a l­ lenges in d ifferen t c o u n tr ie s / (LEA D ) Lead re vie w e r

A n in d iv id u a l d e sig n a te d fro m a list o f e x p e rts g en e ra lly n o m in a te d by p a rtie s b e c a u se o f th e ir k n o w led g e a n d e x p e rie n c e in th e to p ic to be cov ered in a r e p o r t o r o th e r d o c u m e n t to ev alu a te its a c c u ra c y a n d c o m p reh en siv en e ss.

League of A ra b States

T h e A ra b L e a g u e o r L e a g u e o f A ra b S tates (A rabic: is a n o rg a n iz a tio n o f 21 A ra b states fro m th e M id d le E ast a n d th e P alestin e A u th o rity , fo u n d e d in 1945. It is sim ila r to th e O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates, th e C o u n c il o f E u ro p e , o r th e A fri­ c an U n io n , in th a t its a im s arc p rim a rily p o litical. All o f th ese o rg a n iz a tio n s c an b e c o n sid e re d to be re g io n a l v ersio n s o f th e U N . (W P)

League of N a tio n s

A w o rld o rg a n iz a tio n esta b lish ed in 1920 to p ro m o te in te rn a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n a n d p e ace. It w as first p ro p o s e d in 1918 by P resi­ d e n t W o o d ro w W ilso n, a lth o u g h th e U S n e v e r jo in e d th e L eag u e. It w as officially dissolved in 1946 a n d re p la c e d by th e U n ite d N a tio n s System . (U N )

L e a p f r o g g i n g - A p ro cess by w h ic h , th ro u g h te c h n o lo g y tran sfer, d ev el­

o p in g c o u n trie s a d o p t tec h n o lo g ie s d esig n e d a n d te ste d in in d u strialize d c o u n trie s w ith o u t b e a rin g th e costs o f re se a rc h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o r e x p e ­ rie n c in g th e relativ ely slow stages o f d e v e lo p m e n t th a t c h a ra c te riz e d th e in tro d u c tio n o f th ese tec h n o lo g ie s in th e in d u s tria liz e d w o rld . (U N E P ) L e a st d e ve lo p e d c o u n trie s ( L D C s )

As d efin ed by th e U N , 40 50 p o o r a n d v u ln e ra b le c o u n trie s w ith a n a n n u a l p e r c a p ita in c o m e o f less th a n U S $ 1 .0 0 p e r day; in cre asin g ly they w o rk to g e th e r as a co a litio n to d efe n d th e ir in terests in in te rn a tio n a l forum s.

L e a s t - c o s t a l t e r n a t i v e - A n e c o n o m ic c rite rio n a p p lie d in cost—b en efit

180

le g itim a c y

an a ly sis in s itu a tio n s in w h ic h th e b e n e fits o f p ro je c ts o r a c tio n s a rc e q u a l. It th e n c o m p a r e s th e n e t p re s e n t v a lu e o f th e co sts o f th e d iffe re n t p ro je c ts. T h e a lte rn a tiv e th a t h a s th e lo w e r p re s e n t v a lu e o f costs is p re f e rre d . L e g itim a c y

T h e d e g re e to w h ic h a g o v e r n m e n t’s p ro c e d u r e s fo r m a k in g

a n d e n fo rc in g law s a rc a c c e p ta b le to th e p e o p le . (U N D P ) L e i p z i g D e c l a r a t i o n ( I ) - T h e full title is ‘T h e L e ip z ig D e c la ra tio n o n

C o n s e rv a tio n a n d S u s ta in a b le U tiliz a tio n o f P la n t G e n e tic R e so u rc e s for F ood a n d A g r ic u ltu r e ’, w h ic h w a s m a d e in L e ip z ig in 1996 a t a c o n fe re n c e o rg a n iz e d by FA O . T h e m e e tin g a tte n d e d by d e le g a te s fro m 150 c o u n trie s re a c h e d a c o n se n s u s o n u rg e n t a c tio n s n e e d e d to p r o te c t th e w o rld ’s d w in ­ d lin g p la n t g e n e tic re s o u rc e s fo r fo o d a n d a g ric u ltu re , fu n d in g a n d th e issue o f F a r m e r s ’ R ig h ts. (FA O) L e i p z i g D e c l a r a t i o n ( 2 ) - A d e c la ra tio n m a d e by a g ro u p o f in d e p e n d e n t

sc ien tists re s e a rc h in g a tm o s p h e ric a n d c lim a te p ro b le m s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t th e th e n u p c o m in g c lim a te c o n fe re n c e in K y o to , J a p a n in 1997 b e c a u s e it w o u ld im p o se ‘o n c itiz e n s o f th e in d u s tria liz e d n a tio n s , b u t n o t o n o th e rs - a sy stem o f g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l re g u la tio n s th a t in c lu d e q u o ta s a n d p u n itiv e ta x e s o n e n e rg y fu e ls.’ (U N F C C C ) L e s s d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y ( L D C ) - A c o u n tr y w h e re th e a n n u a l p e r c a p ita

in c o m e is b e tw e e n S 3 0 0 a n d $ 7 0 0 . (U N ) L e sso n s learn ed

T h e n o ta tio n a n d a n a ly sis o f th e a c h ie v e m e n ts a n d

e rr o rs o f a n a c tiv ity th a t re s u lt in su ccess o r fa ilu re s o f m a te r ia l, tim in g o r o th e r m ista k e s, so th a t fu tu re s im ila r a c tiv itie s m a y b e im p ro v e d . L e x p o s t e r i o r d e r o g a t p r i o r i - M o r e re c e n t law p re v a ils o v e r (a b ro g a te s, o v e rru le s, tru m p s) a n in c o n s is te n t e a rlie r law. (B L D ) L i a b i l i t y a n d r e d r e s s - A te r m d e s c r ib in g th e d u ty o f r e p a r a tio n fo r d a m ­

a g e w h e n th r e e c o n d itio n s a re m e t: (1) a b re a c h o f a le g a l o b lig a tio n ; (2) th e b re a c h c a n b e a ttr ib u te d to a n a c to r; a n d (3) c a u sa lity c a n b e e s ta b ­ lish ed . T h e r e a rc a t le a st tw o re g im e s: re s p o n sib ility a n d liability. U n d e r th e first, th e d u ty to r e p a ir e x ists o n ly w h e n a w ro n g fu l a c t is c o m m itte d , a n d w h e re w ro n g fu ln e ss is d e fin e d . U n d e r th e se c o n d , lia b ility falls o n th e in s titu tio n o r p e rs o n w h o b e n e fits fro m o r c o n tro ls th e a c tiv ity e v e n if th e re is n o w ro n g fu ln e ss. C o m p e n s a tio n m a y b e p a id by th e lia b le a c to r th r o u g h o b lig a to ry in s u ra n c e , b y a fin a n c ia l p o o l c r e a te d b y c o m p a n ie s , a n d b y th e s ta te o f o rig in . L ife -cy cle

approaches S tra te g ie s th a t h e lp e v a lu a te a n d a d d re s s e n v ir o n m e n ta l issues a n d o p p o rtu n itie s h o listic a lly w ith th e a im o f d e s ig n ­ in g p r o d u c t serv ic e sy ste m s a n d re d u c in g p o te n tia l e n v ir o n m e n ta l im p a c ts

o v e r th e e n tire life-cycle. (U N K P )

181

Life z o n e



Life-cycle assessment - An objective process for evaluating the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying the energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to evaluate and implement opportunities to effect environmental improvements. (SETAC)



Life-cycle management - An integrated framework of concepts, techniques and procedures to address environmental, economic, technological and social aspects of products and organizations, in order to achieve continuous environmental improvement from a life-cycle perspective. (SETAC)



Design

for

environment

-

The

systematic

integration

of

environmental and social considerations into product and process design. (N R C C ) Product service systems - A marketable mix of products and services that jointly fulfill client needs with less environmental impact. (U N EP) •

Integrated product policy - A process of working to stimulate each part of each phase of a product or service life-cycle to improve its environmental performance, from natural resources extraction through design, manufacture, assembly, marketing, distribution, sale, use, recycling (partial or complete) and disposal. (EU)

Life z o n e

T h e two p rin c ip le life zon e classification systems in use today in c lu d e the following definitions o f a life zone: (a) in the M erriam system , a subdivision o f the E a r t h ’s surface a lo n g lines c o n fo r m in g to p a r tic u la r m a g ­ nitudes o f te m p e r a tu r e selected to a c c o u n t for differences in the d istrib u­ tion o f organism s, a n d (b) in the Holdridge system , a unit o f climatic classifica­ tion involving three w eig h te d climatic indices b a se d on h e a t, p re c ip ita tio n a n d a tm o sp h e ric m oisture. (EES)

Limiting factor

A n abiotic c o n d itio n th a t controls the g ro w th o f a spe­ cies. For m o s t terrestrial p la n ts this c o n d itio n is th e supply o f the n u trie n t n itrog en in th e soil. (EEA)

Lisbon A g e n d a

In M a r c h 2000, the E U C o u n c il o f M in iste rs m e t in L isbon, P ortu gal to e n a c t a set o f s o cio-eco no m ic a n d fiscal reform s a im e d a t m a k in g the EU m o r e com p etitiv e on a global scale w hile m a in ta in in g e n v ir o n m e n ta l quality by 2010. (EU)

L i t h o s p h e r e - T h e solid in o rg a n ic p o r tio n o f the E a r th (c om po sed o f

rocks, m in e ra ls a n d elements). It c a n be r e g a rd e d as the o u te r surface o f the solid E a r th . (EES) L i t t l e Ice A g e - A cold pe rio d th a t lasted from a b o u t

a d

1550 to a b o u t

a d

1850 in E u ro p e , N o r t h A m e r ic a a n d Asia. L i t t o r a l z o n e - T h e p a r t o f the sh oreline th a t is s u b m e rg e d at high tide a n d

e xp ose d at low tide. (EES; U SE PA )

182

Living m odified organism s (LM O s)

L i v i n g m o d i f i e d o r g a n i s m s ( L M O s ) - All o r g a n i s m s p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h

th e use o f r e c o m b i n a n t D N A te c h n o lo g y , w ith a w i d e r r a n g e o f m o d if y ­ in g t e c h n o lo g ie s r e le v a n t w h e n c o n s id e r in g liv in g m o d if ie d p r o k a r y o te s a n d y east. (C B D ) L o a d i n g ( w a t e r ) - T h e a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l c a r r i e d b y w a t e r in to a sp e c i­

fied a r e a , e x p re s s e d as m a s s p e r u n it o f tim e. L o c u m t e n e n s - A d ip lo m a t ic t e r m b e s t tr a n s la te d as t h a t o f a p l a c e h o l d e r

in the a b s e n c e o f a su p e rio r. (W P) Logic of collective action, c o n c e p t of

A s h a r e d in te r e s t in a c o m m o n l y h e ld a n d u s e d re s o u rc e in w h ic h all use rs e xercise r e s t r a in t so as to a v o id the c o llap se o f th e rc s o u r c c base. (Jared, 2 0 0 5 ) Sec ‘T r a g e d y o f th e C o m m o n s ’; ‘S u n k - c o s t e f f e c t , c o n c e p t o f . ’

Lom é Convention

A n a g r e e m e n t o rig in a lly sig n e d in 1975 c o m m i t t i n g th e E U to p r o g r a m s o f a ssis ta n c e a n d p r e f e r e n ti a l t r e a t m e n t fo r th e A C P

C o u n tr ie s . T h e C o t o n o u A g r e e m e n t r e p l a c e d th e L o m e C o n v e n t i o n in J u n e , 2 0 0 0 . (AD) L o n d o n C l u b - A n ad hoc f o r u m fo r r e s t r u c t u r i n g n e g o tia tio n s c o n c e r n i n g

d e b t o w e d to c o m m e r c i a l b a n k s . T h e f o r u m is f o r m e d a t the initiative o f th e d e b t o r c o u n t r y a n d is dissolved w h e n a r e s t r u c t u r i n g a g r e e m e n t is signe d . L o n d o n C l u b ‘A d v is o ry C o m m i t t e e s ’ a re c h a i r e d by a le a d i n g fin a n c ia l firm a n d in c lu d e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s from a cro ss-se c tio n o f o t h e r e x p o s e d firms. L o s e - l o s e o p t i o n s - Sec N e g a t i v e s u m . ' L o w - i n c o m e c o u n t r y - A c o u n t r y h a v in g a n a n n u a l gro ss n a tio n a l p r o d ­

u c t (G N P ) p e r c a p it a e q u iv a le n t to $ 7 6 0 o r less in 1998. T h e s t a n d a r d o f living is lo w e r in th e s e c o u n trie s ; th e r e a re few g o o d s a n d services; a n d m a n y p e o p l e c a n n o t m e e t th e ir ba sic n e e d s . T h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y a b o u t 58 l o w - in c o m e c o u n tr i e s w ith p o p u l a t i o n s o f 1 m illio n o r m o r e . T h e i r c o m ­ b i n e d p o p u l a t i o n is a lm o s t 3.5 billion. (WrB)

183

Mm M a a s t r i c h t T r e a t y - See ‘E u r o p e a n U n i o n ' . M a k e Poverty H isto ry ®

A U K -b a s e d g lo b a l c a m p a ig n , w h ich , w ith its N o rth A m e ric a n p a r tn e r th e O N E ® c a m p a ig n , c o o rd in a te s th e N G O d e v e lo p m e n t c o m m u n ity to h elp e d u c a te th e g e n e ra l p u b lic a b o u t g lo b al p o v e rty a n d ex erts p re ssu re o n G 8 c o u n trie s to forgive b ila te ra l a n d m u lti­ la te ra l d e b t to th e p o o re s t c o u n trie s. (T W N ) See ‘H e a v i l y I n d e b t e d P o o r C o u n tr ie s .’

M a in stre a m in g

A te rm o rig in ally co in e d in th e 1970s to d esc rib e e d u c a ­ tio n for stu d e n ts w ith disab ilities a lth o u g h now, in te rm s o f G E G , it has co m e to m e a n ‘in clu siv e’ (i.e. ‘m a in s tre a m in g e n v iro n m e n t’ m e a n s to in ­ clu d e e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n m e a s u re s o r e n v iro n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t c o n sid e ra tio n s in th e p olicies a n d p ro g ra m s o f a n in stitu tio n m o re o r less on th e sam e level as e c o n o m ic a n d social co n sid e ra tio n s).

M a jo rity

A n u m b e r g re a te r th a n h a lf o f a to tal.

M ajority v o t e v o tin g .’

(M V -E li)

-

S ee

'Q u a lified

“ d o u b le ”

m a jo r ity

M a lm o D e claratio n

A m in iste ria l level d e c la ra tio n (M ay 2000) th a t fo­ cuses on th e m a jo r e n v iro n m e n ta l ch alle n g es o f th e 21st cen tu ry , th e p ri­ v ate sector, civil society a n d a 1 0 -y ear review o f th e U N C o n fe re n c e on E n v iro n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t.

M a l t h u s i a n - B ased o n th e th e o rie s o f B ritish e c o n o m ist T h o m a s R o b e rt

M a lth u s (1 7 6 6 -1 8 3 4 ), w h o a rg u e d th a t p o p u la tio n te n d s to in c re a se faster th a n food supply, w ith in ev itab ly d isa stro u s results, u nless th e in c re a se in p o p u la tio n is ch e ck ed by m o ra l re stra in ts o r by w ar, fa m in e a n d disease. (N R D C ) M a n a n d t h e B i o s p h e r e P r o g r a m m e ( M A B ) - A n in te rd isc ip lin a ry p r o ­

g ra m g u id e d by U N E S C O d e d ic a te d to re se a rc h a n d tra in in g in te n d e d to dev elo p th e basis fo r th e ra tio n a l use a n d c o n se rv a tio n o f th e re so u rces o f the b io sp h ere. M a n d a t e s - A legal te rm re ferrin g to T e rrito rie s n o te d in th e C h a r te r o f th e

L eag u e o f N a tio n s a n d re q u irin g in te rn a tio n a l p r o tc c tio n /m a n a g c m c n t in th e y e a rs a fte r W orld W a r I. T h e M a n d a te s b e c a m e U n ite d N a tio n s T ru s t T e rrito rie s w ith th e fo rm a tio n o f th e U N . (U N ) Sec ' U n i t e d N a t i o n s T r u s t e e s h ip C o u n cil'.

M a n g ro v e s

M a n g r o v e s - Salt to le r a n t trees o r sh ru b s th a t g row b e tw e e n n e a r m e a n

sea level a n d the high sp rin g tide m a r k in accretive shores, w h e re they form distinct co m m u n itie s. (EES; U SE PA ) M a n i f e s t d e s t i n y - A 1 9 th -c e n tu ry b e lie f th a t the U S h a d a divinely in ­

spired mission to e x p a n d , p a rtic u la rly across the N o r t h A m e r ic a n frontier to w a rd s the Pacific O c e a n . (WP) M anila Declaration

T h e full n a m e for this d e c la ra tio n is ‘T h e M a n ila D e c la ra tio n C o n c e r n i n g th e E th ic a l U tilization o f Biological R es o u rc e s’, w h ic h w as d evelo ped at the A S O M P S m e e tin g in M a n ila , Philip pines in February, 1992. (B C H M )

/VI ar e c l a u s u m - C lo se d seas as o p p o s e d to mare liberum (freedom o f the seas). (BLD) M a r e lib e ru m

F re e d o m o f the seas as o p p o s e d to mare clausum (closed seas).

(BLD) M a r i c u l t u r e - M a r ic u ltu re is the cultivation o f m a r in e org a n ism s for food,

eith e r in th eir ‘n a tu ra l e n v ir o n m e n t,’ o r in s e a w a te r in p o n d s o r raceways.

(W P ) M arket-based environmental instrum ents

M a r k e t- b a s e d e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l in s tru m e n ts seek to add ress the m a r k e t failure o f ‘e n v ir o n m e n ta l e x te rn a litie s’ e ith e r by in c o r p o r a tin g the e x te rn a l cost o f p r o d u c tio n o r c o n s u m p tio n activities th r o u g h taxes o r c h a rg e s o n processes o r pro du cts, o r by c re a tin g p r o p e r ty rights a n d facilitating the e sta b lish m e n t o f a p rox y m a r k e t for the use o f e n v iro n m e n ta l services. (EEA)

M A R P O L Convention

T h e C o n v e n tio n for the P re v e n tio n o f Pollution from Ships is th e m a in in te rn a tio n a l c o n v e n tio n cov ering p r e v e n tio n o f p ol­ lution o f the m a r in e e n v ir o n m e n t by ships from o p e ra tio n a l o r a c c id en tal causes.

Marsh

W e tla n d , sw a m p o r bog, sa tu ra te d with w a te r c o n sta n tly o r re c u r ­ rently a n d d o m i n a te d by h e rb a c e o u s v egetation. M a r s h e s m a y be fresh or saltwater, tidal o r no n -tid a l. (N R D C )

M a t r i x - A n o n - n c g o tia tc d re fe re n ce a n d in f o rm a tio n a l tool consisting

o f e c o n o m ic a n d tec h n ica l solutions o u tlin in g best pra c tic e s a n d lessons le a r n e d re g a r d in g relevant e n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d social actions. (EEA) M a x i m u m s u s t a i n a b l e y ie l d

T h e m a x i m u m a m o u n t o f a p ro d u c t th a t ca n con tin u o u sly be taken from a stock u n d e r existing e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n ­ ditions. (USEPA)

M D I A R a g r e e m e n t - A n E U a g r e e m e n t g o v e rn in g the m o n ito r in g - d a ta -

185

M ed iatio n

in fo rm a tio n -a sse s sm e n t-re p o rtin g c h a in th a t fu n c tio n s as th e m a in filter fo r flow o f d a ta a n d in fo rm a tio n from n a tio n a l m o n ito rin g to E u ro p e a n re ­ p o rtin g system s. See ‘C h a i n o f c u s t o d y . ’ M e d iatio n

B rin g in g a b o u t a p e a c efu l s e ttle m e n t o r c o m p ro m ise b etw ee n p a rtie s to a d isp u te th ro u g h th e b e n e v o le n t in te rv e n tio n o f a n im p a rtia l th ird party.

M e d i t e r r a n e a n A c t i o n P l a n ( M A P ) - T h e M e d ite rra n e a n A ctio n P lan ,

fo rm a lly th e 'B a rc e lo n a C o n v e n tio n fo r th e P ro te c tio n o f th e M a rin e E n v i­ ro n m e n t a n d th e C o a sta l R eg io n o f th e M e d ite r r a n e a n ,’ strives to p ro te c t th e e n v iro n m e n t a n d to fo ster su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t in th e M e d ite rr a n e ­ a n b asin . It w as a d o p te d in B a rc e lo n a , S p a in in 1975 by 16 M e d ite rr a n e a n S tates a n d th e E C , u n d e r th e au sp ices o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n m e n t P ro g ra m m e (U N E P ). Its legal fram ew o rk c o m p rises th e B a rc e lo n a C o n v e n ­ tion a d o p te d in 1976 a n d revised in 1995, a n d six p ro to c o ls co v erin g specif­ ic aspects o f e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n . A M e d ite rr a n e a n C o m m issio n for S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t w as also estab lish e d by M A P in 1995 to facilitate th e p a rtic ip a tio n o f all stak e h o ld e rs in th e M e d ite rr a n e a n a re a . (EEA) M e d i u m - s i z e d p r o j e c t s - M e d iu m -siz e d p ro je cts re q u ire n o m o re th a n

U S$1 m illion in G E F fin a n c in g fo r p re p a r a tio n a n d im p le m e n ta tio n . M o st G E F p ro jects av erag e $5.5 m illion p e r p ro je c t a n d tak e sev eral years to im p le m e n t. As th e G E F h a s g a in e d e x p e rie n c e in im p le m e n tin g p ro jects, it has b e e n re c o g n iz e d th a t sm a lle r p ro je c ts c o u ld b e n e fit from e x p e d ite d p ro c e d u re s so th a t th ey c o u ld b e d esig n e d a n d e x e c u te d m o re q uickly a n d efficien tly. (G E F) M e e t i n g o f t h e P a r t i e s ( M O P ) - W h e re a s th e C o n fe re n c e o f th e P arties

ca rrie s w ith it th e sense o f ‘a sso c ia tio n ’ o r ‘m e m b e rs ’ a n d is reserv ed for co n v en tio n s, ‘m e e tin g o f th e p a rtie s ’ is m e a n t to convey th e sense o f an e n c o u n te r a n d is reserv e d fo r a m e e tin g o f th e p a rtie s to a p ro to c o l. M e k o n g R iv e r C o m m is s io n ( M R C )

A c o m m issio n esta b lish e d in 1995 by th e g o v e rn m e n ts o f C a m b o d ia , L aos, T h a ila n d a n d V ie tn a m to h elp m a n a g e th e 4 8 8 0 k m river. M y a n m a r a n d C h in a a rc n o t m e m b e rs, a lth o u g h th e riv er flows th ro u g h th e ir territo ries.

M e m b e r states ( I)

G o v e rn m e n ts th a t officially p a rtic ip a te in a n in te r­ g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n o r arc a ‘p a rty ’ to a co n v e n tio n .

M e m b e r s t a t e s (2 )

M e m b e rs o f th e U N G e n e ra l A ssem b ly a n d / o r its su b sid iary b o d ies a n d sp ecialized o rg a n iz a tio n s, a n in te rn a tio n a l o r in te r­ g o v e rn m e n ta l body. (U N )

M e m o ra n d u m of U n d e rsta n d in g ( M O U )

A n a g re e m e n t d efin in g the roles a n d respo n sib ilities o f all p a rtie s in rela tio n to th e o th e r p a rtie s o n an issue o f in te re st to e a c h (often m a d e b e tw e e n in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s). (U N T )

186

M ERC O SU R

M E R C O S U R - T h e ‘c o m m o n m a rk e t o f th e S o u th ,’ c re a te d by th e 1991 T re a ty o f A su n c ió n (P arag u ay ). M E R C O S U R o rig in ally in c lu d e d A rg e n ­ tin a. B razil, P a ra g u a y a n d U ru g u ay . C h ile a n d B olivia b e c a m e asso ciate m e m b e rs in 1996 a n d 1997, respectively. V en e zu e la b e c a m e a m e m b e r in m id -2 0 0 6 . (AD) See S o u t h A m e r i c a n C o m m u n i t y o f N a t i o n s . ' M e te o ro lo gy

T h e scien ce o f th e E a r th ’s a tm o sp h e re a im e d a t u n d e r­ s ta n d in g th e p ro cesses by w h ic h e v ery sta te o f th e a tm o s p h e re is c rc a tc d , m a tu re s a n d is u ltim a te ly d issip ated . (EES)

M ethane

A h y d ro c a rb o n w ith fo u r h y d ro g e n a to m s a tta c h e d to e a c h c a r­ b o n ato m (C H +).

M i c r o c l i m a t e - T h e c lim a tic c o n d itio n s o n th e scale o f a v e g e ta tio n o r cro p

canopy, to g e th e r w ith th e im m e d ia te ly a d ja c e n t a tm o sp h e re a n d u n d e rly ­ ing soil layers. It h as a v e rtic a l m e a su re o f a p p ro x im a te ly 1 m e te r for cro p s a n d b e tw e e n 10 30 m e te rs fo r fo rest c an o p ie s. (EES) M icro c re d it

A sm all lo a n to a c lien t m a d e by a b a n k o r o th e r in stitu tio n , offered, often w ith o u t c o lla te ra l, to a n in d iv id u a l o r th ro u g h g ro u p lending. M ic ro c re d it c a m c to p ro m in e n c e in th e 1980s, a lth o u g h e arly e x p e rim e n ts d a te b a c k 30 y e a rs in B a n g lad e sh , B razil a n d a few o th e r c o u n tries. T h e im p o rta n t d iffcrcn ce o f m ic ro c re d it is th a t it h a s a v o id ed the pitfalls o f an e a rlie r g e n e ra tio n o f ta rg e te d d ev e lo p m e n t len d in g , by in sistin g o n re p a y ­ m e n t, by c h a rg in g in te re st ra te s th a t c o u ld co v er th e costs o f c re d it delivery, a n d by focusing o n clien t g ro u p s w hose a lte rn a tiv e so u rce o f c re d it is th e in fo rm a l scctor. E m p h a sis sh ifted from ra p id d is b u rse m e n t o f su b sid ized lo an s to p ro p u p ta rg e te d secto rs to b u ild local, su sta in ab le in stitu tio n s to serve th e poor. M ic ro c re d it h as larg ely b e e n a p riv a te (n o n -p ro fit) se c to r in itiativ e th a t a v o id ed b e c o m in g overtly p o litical o r b u re a u c ra tic , a n d has o u tp e rfo rm e d v irtu a lly all o th e r fo rm s o f d e v e lo p m e n t le n d in g in te rm s o f re p a y m e n t success. In re c e n t y e a rs, d e v e lo p m e n t b an k s h av e also in itia te d sim ilar p ro g ra m s. (U N ) See M i c r o f i n a n c e / G r a m e e n b a n k i n g . ’

M i c r o f a u n a - T h a t p a rt o f an a n im a l p o p u la tio n to o sm all to be clearly

d istin g u ish ab le w ith o u t th e use o f a m ic ro sc o p e , in c lu d in g p ro to z o a n a n d n e m a to d e s. (U SE PA ) M icro fin a n c e

M ic ro fin a n c e refers to loan s, savings, in s u ra n c e , tra n sfe r services a n d o th e r fin an cia l p ro d u c ts ta rg e te d a t lo w -in c o m c clients. M ic ro ­ fin an ce m e a n s p ro v id in g v ery p o o r fam ilies w ith v ery sm all lo a n s (m icrocredit) to help th e m e n g a g e in p ro d u c tiv e activities o r g row th e ir tiny b u si­ nesses. O v e r tim e, m ic ro fin a n c c h a s c o m e to in clu d e a b ro a d e r ra n g e o f services (credit, savings, in su ra n c e , etc.) as we have co m e to realize th a t th e p o o r a n d th e v e ry p o o r w h o lack access to tra d itio n a l fo rm a l fin a n c ia l in sti­ tu tio n s re q u ire a v a rie ty o f fin a n c ia l p ro d u c ts. (U N ) S ee M i c r o c r e d i t . ’

M i c r o f l o r a - T h a t p a r t o f a p la n t p o p u la tio n to o sm all to be clearly

187

M ic ro n a tio n a lis m

d is tin g u is h a b le w ith o u t th e u se o f a m ic ro s c o p e , in c lu d in g a n tin o m y c c te , b a c te r ia a n d so m e a lg a e a n d fu n g i. (U S E P A ) M ic ro n a tio n a lism

D iv isio n o f la r g e r state s o r re g io n s a lo n g e th n ic , lin ­

g u istic , c u ltu ra l a n d / o r re lig io u s lines. C iv il u n re s t, e th n ic , lin g u istic , c u l­ tu r a l a n d re lig io u s te n s io n s, te r ro ris m , fa c tio n a lis m a n d s e p a ra tis m h a v e c o n jo in tly c re a te d a n e w te x tu re o f p o litic a l b o u n d a r ie s a n d fric tio n in c o n ­ t e m p o r a r y society. (C W ) S ee B a l k a n i z a t i o n . ' M i c r o v e n d i n g - S e llin g sm a ll a m o u n ts o f p ro d u c ts su ch as is p r a c tic e d by

s tre e t v e n d o rs th r o u g h o u t th e w o rld . S e e G r a m e e n b a n k i n g , ' M i c r o fin a n c e ,' 'M ic r o c r e d it / M id d le E ast Q u a rte t

A n in f o rm a l g ro u p c o m p ris in g th e U N , E U , th e R u ssia n F e d e ra tio n a n d th e U S fo r m e d in 2 0 0 4 a n d d c d ic a tc d to w o rk in g

w ith P a le s tin ia n s a n d Isra e lis to reso lv e la n d , w a te r a n d s e c u r ity /a c c e s s is­ sues a m o n g o th e r s in th a t re g io n . (U N ) M id d le -in c o m e co u n try

A c o u n tr y h a v in g a n a n n u a l G N P p e r c a p ita

e q u iv a le n t to m o re th a n $ 7 6 0 b u t less th a n S 9 3 6 0 in 1998. T h e s ta n d a r d o f liv in g is h ig h e r th a n in lo w -in c o m c c o u n trie s , a n d p e o p le h a v e ac cc ss to m o re g o o d s a n d serv ices, b u t m a n y p e o p le still c a n n o t m e e t th e ir b asic n e e d s. T h e r e a re c u rr e n tly a b o u t 65 m id d lc -in c o m c c o u n tr ie s w ith p o p u la ­ tio n s o f 1 m illio n o r m o re . T h e i r c o m b in e d p o p u la tio n is m o r e th a n 1.5 b illio n . (W B) M i lle n n i u m +5 S u m m i t ( M D G +5)

In S e p te m b e r 2 0 0 5 , th e U N h e ld a h ig h -le v e l p le n a r y m e e tin g - also re f e rre d to as th e M D G + 5 o r th e WTo rld S u m m it 2 0 0 5 - to re v ie w th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e M ille n n iu m D e c la r a ­ tio n (2000), a n d th e in te g r a te d fo llo w -u p to th e m a jo r U N c o n fe re n c e s a n d s u m m its in th e e c o n o m ic a n d so cial fields. M e m b e r S ta te s a t th e S u m m it also d e lib e ra te d th e S e c r e ta r y - G e n e r a r s M a r c h 2 0 0 5 r e p o r t o n th e im p le ­ m e n ta tio n o f th e M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G o a ls as w ell as issues re la te d to p e a c e a n d secu rity , a n d his p ro p o s a ls fo r U N re f o rm . (U N )

M i l l e n n i u m C h a l l e n g e A c c o u n t ( M C A ) - A U S $ 5 b illio n a n n u a l g r a n t

p ro g r a m o f th e U S G o v e r n m e n t c re a te d in 2 0 0 2 th a t d e v e lo p e d o u t o f a W o rld B a n k re s e a rc h p ro je c t sh o w in g th a t a id m o n e y is m o s t effectiv ely s p e n t in c o u n tr ie s th a t a re g o v e rn e d w ell. T h is p r o g r a m links fin a n c ia l a s­ sista n c e to 16 o b je c tiv e ly m e a s u re d so cial a n d e c o n o m ic c rite r ia in c lu d in g re fo rm in itia tiv e s p r o m o tin g d e m o c ra c y , g o v e r n m e n t tra n s p a re n c y , civil lib ­ e rtie s, im m u n iz a tio n ra te s a n d tr a d e policy. (U S A ID ) M ille n n iu m C h a lle n ge C o r p o r a tio n ( M C C )

A U S G o v e rn m e n t c o rp o ­ ra tio n c h a r g e d w ith m a n a g in g th e M C A a n d d e sig n e d to s u p p o r t in n o v a tiv e

s tra te g ie s a n d to e n su re a c c o u n ta b ility fo r m e a s u ra b le re su lts. (U S A ID ) M i l l e n n i u m D e c l a r a t i o n - T h e U n ite d N a tio n s M ille n n iu m D e c la ra tio n

188

M illennium D evelo p m en t G o a ls (M D G s )

w as a d o p te d a t th e M ille n n iu m S u m m it in S e p te m b e r 2 0 0 0 by 147 h e a d s o f S tate a n d G o v e rn m e n t, a n d th e th e n 191 M e m b e r S tates o f th e U N . T h e D e c la ra tio n spells o u t values a n d p rin c ip les, as w ell as goals in th e p rio rity a re a s o f p e a c e, d e v e lo p m e n t (re d u c in g g lo b a l p o v erty by h a lf a n d c re a tin g u n iv e rsa l p rim a ry e d u c a tio n by th e y e a r 2015), th e e n v iro n m e n t, h u m a n rights, p ro te c tin g th e v u ln e ra b le , th e sp ecial n ee d s o f A frica a n d s tre n g th e n in g th e U N . (U N M D ) M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G o a ls ( M D G s )

T h e M illennium Declaration, a d o p te d by th e U N M e m b e r S ta te s in 2 0 0 0 , estab lish ed e ig h t M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G o als to be r e a d ie d by th e y e a r 2015: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger: •

achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality;



improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases;



ensure environmental sustainability; develop a global partnership for development.

T h e goals d etail 18 specific d e v e lo p m e n t targ ets, ea c h o f w h ich h as a tim e fra m e a n d in d ic a to rs d e sig n e d to m o n ito r d e g re e o f a c h ie v e m e n t. T h e cost to a tta in these goals is b e tw e e n $40 3 6 0 b illion ea c h y e a r in a d d itio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t assistan ce. See A p p e n d ix 1. (U N ) M ille n n iu m

E c o s y s t e m A s s e s s m e n t ( M A ) - A p ro g ra m m o d e le d on th e IP C G as a m u lti-scale, in te rd isc ip lin a ry assessm en t o f b io d iv ersity to m e e t th e scientific n e ed s o f th e R a m s a r C o n v e n tio n o n W etla n d s, th e C B D a n d th e C o n v e n tio n to C o m b a t D esertific atio n . It is a scientifically b a sed ro a d m a p for how w e c o u ld slow o r rev erse ccosystcm d e g ra d a tio n as an im p o rta n t step in th e su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t pro cess. T h e final p u b lish e d v o lu m e o f the M ille n n iu m E co sy stem A ssessm en t, th e fo u r-y ear, la n d m a rk re p o r t o n th e state o f th e w o rld 's eco sy stem s, w as rele a sed in J a n u a r y 2 0 0 6 . T h e M A w as c o m m issio n e d by th e U N a n d involved 1300 scien tists from 95 c o u n trie s. (U N )

M ille n n iu m gap

T h e g ro w in g g a p b e tw e e n O D A p led g es a n d a c tu a l d is­

b u rse m e n ts. M ille n n iu m P roject

T h e U N S e c re ta ry -G e n e ra l a n d th e A d m in is tra to r o f th e U N D P la u n c h e d th e M ille n n iu m P ro je c t in 2 0 0 0 to re c o m m e n d th e b est strateg ies fo r a c h ie v in g th e M D G s . T h e M ille n n iu m P ro je c t’s re ­ search focu sed o n the o p e ra tio n a l p rio ritie s, o rg a n iz a tio n a l m e a n s o f im ­ p le m e n ta tio n , a n d fin a n c in g s tru c tu re s n e c e ssa ry to achicve th e M D G s. T e n th e m a tic a lly o rie n ta te d task forces u n d e rto o k th e re se a rc h a n d c o m ­ p rise d re p re se n ta tiv e s from a c a d e m ia , th e p u b lic a n d p riv a te secto rs, civil society o rg a n iz a tio n s, a n d U N ag en cies u n d e r th e le a d e rsh ip o f P ro fesso r

189

M illennium village

Jeffrey S ach s o f C o lu m b ia U niversity. T h e M ille n n iu m P ro jec t s u b m itte d its r e p o r t Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Devel­ opment Goals to th e U N S e c re ta ry -G e n e ra l a n d th e A d m in is tra to r o f th e U N D P in Ja n u a ry , 2 0 0 5 . A m o n g o th e r re c o m m e n d a tio n s, it called for in ­ d u stria liz e d n a tio n s to d e d ic a te 0.7 p e rc e n t o f G D P to O D A activ ities in s u p p o rt o f th e M D G s . In S e p te m b e r 200 5 a su m m it w as h e ld to review the p ro g ress o n a c h ie v in g th e M D G s . (U N D P ) Sec ‘M i l l e n n i u m + 5 S u m ­ m it.’ M i l l e n n i u m v i l l a g e - A c o n c e p t th a t ta n g ib le steps to w a rd s re a liz in g th e

M D G s a re m o st effective if u n d e rta k e n at th e village level w ith sm all in p u ts o f ta rg e te d fu n d in g a n d u n d e r th e c o n tro l o f village le a d e rsh ip . T h e U N h a s sta te d th a t this m o d e l b rin g s re a lity to th e o ft-citcd slo g an ‘th in k glo ­ bally, act locally.’ (U N W ) M i n i s t e r ( I ) - A h igh officer o f a state e n tru s te d w ith m a n a g e m e n t o f a

division o f g o v e rn m e n t activities. (M W ) M i n i s t e r (2)

A d ip lo m a tic re p re se n ta tiv e ra n k in g b elow an am b assad o r.

(M W ) M in iste ria l (m e e tin g ) s e g m e n t -

See ‘H i g h - l e v e l ( m e e t i n g ) s e g ­

m e n t.’ M isc. d o c s

M iscellan e o u s d o c u m e n ts issued o n p lain p a p e r w ith n o m a s t­ h e a d : th ey g en e ra lly c o n ta in view s o r c o m m e n ts s u b m itte d as receiv ed from a d e le g a tio n w ith o u t fo rm a l editing.

M i s s i o n ( I ) - O fficial trav el fo r a n a d m in is tra tio n , re p re s e n ta tio n a l o r te c h ­

nical p u rp o se . (U N ) M i s s i o n (2)

U se d in te rc h a n g e a b ly w ith ‘em b assy ,’ w h e n th e re p re s e n ta ­ tive, often c a rry in g th e ra n k a n d title o f a m b a s s a d o r is a c c re d ite d to an in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n ra th e r th a n th e oflice o f th e a m b a ssa d o r, a c c re d ­ ited to a co u n try , w h ich is re fe rre d to as th e em bassy. (U N )

M i t i g a t i o n - A ctio n s tak e n d u rin g th e p la n n in g , d esig n , c o n stru c tio n a n d

o p e ra tio n o f w o rk s a n d u n d e rta k in g s to allev iate th e p o te n tia l ad v e rse ef­ fects o f those activ ities o n o th e r in terests. (U SEPA) M o d a l i t y - A c e re m o n ia l fo rm , p ro to c o l o r c o n d itio n th a t su rro u n d s fo rm a l

a g re e m e n ts o r n e g o tia tio n s. (D C ) M o d e l U n ite d N a tio n s ( M U N )

A sim u la tio n e d u c a tio n a ctiv ity focus­ in g on civics, c o m m u n ic a tio n s , g lo b a liz a tio n a n d m u ltila te ra l d ip lo m acy . In M U N , se c o n d a ry o r college level stu d e n ts take o n roles as fo reig n d ip lo m a ts a n d p a rtic ip a te in a sim u la ted session o f a n in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a ­ tio n . P a rtic ip a n ts re s e a rc h a c o u n try o r a c c re d ite d N G O , tak e o n a role as

190

M o d us vivendi

a d ip lo m a t, in v estig ate in te rn a tio n a l issues, d e b a te , d e lib e ra te , co n su lt, a n d th e n dev elo p so lu tio n s to w o rld p ro b lem s. (W P) S ee ‘C 8 f o r k i d s . ' M o d u s v iv en d i

A n in s tru m e n t re c o rd in g a n in te rn a tio n a l a g re e m e n t o f te m p o ra r y o r p ro v isio n al n a tu re in te n d e d to be re p la c e d by an a rr a n g e ­ m e n t o f a m o re p e rm a n e n t a n d d e ta ile d c h a ra c te r. It is u su ally m a d e in an in fo rm a l way, a n d n e v e r re q u ire s ratifica tio n . (U N T )

M o n i t o r i n g - A c o n tin u o u s p ro ce ss o f c o lle c tin g a n d a n a ly z in g in fo rm a tio n

to m e a s u re th e p ro g re ss o f a p ro je c t to w a rd e x p e c te d results. M o n ito rin g p ro v id es m a n a g e rs a n d p a rtic ip a n ts w ith re g u la r fee d b a c k th a t c a n help d e te rm in e w h e th e r a p ro je c t is p ro g re ssin g as p la n n e d . (U N D P ) M o n it o r in g and e v a lu a tio n ( M & E )

- T h e p e rio d ic e v a lu a tio n o f m a n ­ a g e m e n t activ ities to d e te rm in e how w ell o b jectiv es w ere m e t a n d how m a n a g e m e n t p ra c tic e s sh o u ld be ad ju ste d .

M o n k e y w r e n c h i n g - A te rm c o in e d to illu strate ‘e c o n o m ic w a rfa re ’ by

sab o ta g e , often by illegal m e a n s, used to slow d o w n o r h a lt an u n d e sire d g o v e rn m e n t-sa n c tio n e d activity, p a rtic u la rly in n a tu ra l o r p ro te c te d a rea s such as forests a n d p ark s. In th e U S th e te rm is m o st o ften u sed in th e c o n te x t o f eco -d efen se from o n e p o litic al p o in t o f view to e c o -te rro rism o r eco ta g c on th e o th e r ex tre m e . M o n k e y w rc n c h in g is th e re fo re th e d e s tru c ­ tio n o f e q u ip m e n t such as b u lld o zers, lo g g in g e q u ip m e n t a n d ro a d -b u ild in g m ach in ery . It also in clu d e s th e rem o v a l o f ro a d survey m a rk ers, b illb o ard s a n d c e rta in b rid g e s, p o w e r lines, p o w e r p o les a n d tow ers, a n d ro ad s. T h e te rm ‘m o n k e y w re n c h in g ’ c o m e s from E d w a rd A b b e y ’s n ovel The Monkey Wrench Gang p u b lish e d in 1975. (W P) M o n t e r r e y C o n s e n s u s - T h e p rim a ry d o c u m e n t re su ltin g from th e In ­

te rn a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e on F in a n c in g for D e v e lo p m e n t (IC F D ) th a t has as its go al to ‘e ra d ic a te poverty, ach iev e su stain e d e c o n o m ic g ro w th a n d p ro m o te su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t’ th a t looks to w a rd a ‘fully inclusive a n d e q u ita b le g lo b a l e c o n o m ic sy ste m .’ A ctio n s arc to tre a t th e issues o f the m o b iliz a tio n o f d o m estic fin a n cia l rc so u rccs fo r d e v e lo p m e n t; m o b iliz a ­ tio n o f in te rn a tio n a l reso u rces fo r d e v e lo p m e n t, fo reign d ire c t in v e stm e n t a n d o th e r p riv a te flows; in te rn a tio n a l tra d e as an en g in e for d e v e lo p m en t; th e a u g m e n ta tio n o f in te rn a tio n a l fin a n c ia l a n d te c h n ic a l c o o p e ra tio n for d e v e lo p m e n t; e x te rn a l d e b t; a n d e c o n o m ic issues, a n d th e c o h e re n c e a n d co n sisten cy o f in te rn a tio n a l m o n eta ry , fin an cial a n d tra d in g sy stem s in su p ­ p o r t o f d e v e lo p m e n t. M o n te v id e o

P r o g r a m m e - A lo n g -te rm strateg ic p ro g ra m o f U N E P th a t p ro v id es th e fo u n d a tio n for th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f e n v iro n m e n ta l law. Its ac h ie v e m e n ts in clu d e th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f g lo b a l c o n v e n tio n s o n th e o zo n e layer, tra n s b o u n d a ry m o v e m e n ts o f h a z a rd o u s w astes, b io lo g ical div ersity a n d in fo rm a tio n ex c h a n g e on h a z a rd o u s ch cm icals.

191

M o n treal Process

M o n t r e a l P r o c e s s - A n in te rn a tio n a l w o rk in g g ro u p e stab lish ed to id en tify

a n d define c rite ria a n d in d ic a to rs for th e su sta in a b le m a n a g e m e n t o f te m ­ p e ra te a n d b o re a l forests. (U N T ) M ontreal

Protocol

(on

Substances

th at

D e p le te

the

Ozone

L a y e r ) - T h e p rin c ip a l in te rn a tio n a l a g re e m e n t u n d e r w h ich o z o n e -d e -

p lc tin g c o m p o u n d s a rc re g u la te d . E stab lish ed in 1987 a n d e n te re d in to force o n 1 J a n u a r y (1992), it h as su b se q u e n tly b e e n a d ju s te d a n d a m e n d e d . (U N T ) M o ra to riu m

A legislative (P a rlia m e n ta ry o r C o n g ressio n a l) a c tio n th a t p re v e n ts a law o r p o licy from b e in g im p le m e n te d . (M W ; N R D C )

M o r b i d i t y - T h e n u m b e r o f sick p e rs o n s in re latio n to a specific p o p u la tio n

p o o l. (M W ) M o rta lity

T h e n u m b e r o f d e a th s in re la tio n to a specific p o p u la tio n poo l.

(M W ) M O S A I C C - A v o lu n ta ry c o d e o f c o n d u c t d ev e lo p e d to facilitate easy access

to , a n d in te rn a tio n a l circ u la tio n of, m ic ro b ia l g e n e tic re so u rces fo r th e b e n ­ efit o f science a n d w o rld w id e su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t in th e fra m e w o rk o f the C B D . (B C H M ) M o s t f a v o r e d n a t i o n c l a u s e - A p rin c ip le th a t g u id es p ro g re ss to w a rd s

tra d e lib e ra liz a tio n w ith in G A T T a n d W T O w h ereb y a n y a d v a n ta g e g r a n t­ ed by o n e sig n a to ry c o u n try to a n o th e r m u st b e e x te n d e d to all th e o th e r sig n a to ry c o u n trie s. (AD) M u ltid im e n s io n a l (p ro b le m solving)

A te rm th a t g a in e d p ro m in e n c e in te rn a tio n a lly in 200 5 at th e D av o s, S w itz e rlan d WTo rld E c o n o m ic F o ru m to d e scrib e a system in w h ich states a n d sta te -b a se d m u ltila te ra l o rg a n iz a ­ tio n s w ork w ith businesses a n d civil society th ro u g h a d en se w e b o f in te rn a ­ tio n a l a n d in te rd isc ip lin a ry n etw o rk s to solve co m p le x p ro b le m s re q u irin g c o o rd in a te d re sp o n ses n o t o n ly across g e o g ra p h ic b o rd e rs, b u t also across p ro fessio n al ones. E x a m p le s c ited in clu d e te rro rism , th e p ro life ra tio n o f w e a p o n s o f m ass d e stru c tio n , c o rp o r a te fra u d in v o lv in g m u ltin a tio n a l c o m ­ p an ies, p a n d e m ic s, e n v iro n m e n ta l d isasters, poverty, sp re a d o f technology, in te lle c tu a l p ro p e rty m a n a g e m e n t a n d th e in te rd e p e n d e n c e o f m ark ets. (W EF)

M u ltifu n c tio n a lity

T h e id e a th a t a g ric u ltu re h as m a n y fu n c tio n s in a d ­ d itio n to p ro d u c in g food a n d fiber, e.g. e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n , la n d sc a p e p r e s e r v a ti o n , ru r a l e m p lo y m e n t, food security, etc. (WrT O )

M u ltila te ra l

N e g o tia tio n s, a g re e m e n ts o r tre a tie s th a t effect o r are b e ­ tw een th re e o r m o re p a rtie s, co u n trie s o r o th e r civil society o rg a n iz a tio n s. (M W )

192

M ultilateral A greem ent on Investments (M AI)

M u l t i l a t e r a l A g r e e m e n t o n I n v e s t m e n t s ( M A I ) - T h e M u lt ila te r a l

A g r e e m e n t o n I n v e s tm e n ts is th e re su lt o f n e g o tia tio n s w ith in th e O r g a n i ­ sa tio n for E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t a n d is d e s ig n e d to e lim in a te n e a rly all b a r r i e r s to i n t e r n a t i o n a l tr a d e by lib e ra liz in g i n t e r n a t i o n ­ al tr a d e law s a n d p r o t e c t i n g foreign in v e s tm e n ts . Its b a sic p ro v is io n s a re to o p e n m o s t e c o n o m i c a n d n a t u r a l re s o u rc e s e c to rs to fo re ig n o w n e r s h ip ; tr e a t foreign fir m s fairly a n d e q u a lly ; r e m o v e re str ic tio n s a g a in s t the m o v e m e n t o f c a p ita l; allow in d iv id u a l firm s to sue fore ig n g o v e r n m e n t s b e f o re a n in ­ t e r n a t i o n a l m e d i a t i o n p a n e l; a n d give full a n d p r o p e r c o m p e n s a t i o n for e x p r o p r i a tio n . It w a s n e v e r a d o p t e d . ( T W N ) M u l t i l a t e r a l aid

A id c h a n n e l e d t h r o u g h m u ltila te r a l in stitu tio n s for use in, o r o n b e h a l f of, a id r e c ip i e n t c o u n tr ie s .

M u l t i l a t e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s - I n t e r n a t i o n a l in s titu tio n s w ith g o v e r n m e n t a l

m e m b e r s h i p , s p a n n i n g s everal reg io ns, in c l u d in g fin a n c ia l in s titu tio n s such as th e W o r ld B a n k a n d IM F , U N a g e n c ie s a n d r e g io n a l g r o u p in g s . Multilateral In ve stm e n t G u aran te e A g e n c y ( M I G A )

A com ponent

o f th e W o r ld B a n k G r o u p e s ta b lis h e d in 1988 a n d in c lu d in g 164 m e m b e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t assists e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h lo a n g u a r a n t e e s to fo re ig n investors. (WB) M ultistakeholder (M S )

T e r m u s e d to d e s c r ib e th e case w h e r e th e r e are a n u m b e r o f p a r ti e s in te r e s te d in th e o u t c o m e o f a d e c isio n ; Agenda 21 lists

w o m e n , y o u th , I n d ig e n o u s Peoples, N G O s , b u sin e ss a n d industry, w o r k e r s a n d tr a d e u n io n s , scien c e a n d te c h n o lo g y , f a r m e r s a n d lo cal a u t h o r it ie s as b e i n g th e m a j o r sta k e h o ld e r s t h a t s h o u ld b e in c lu d e d in e n v i r o n m e n t / d e ­ v e l o p m e n t discussions. ( U N E D ) M u lti-sta k e h o ld e r dialogue

M e e tin g s th a t e n a b le d ir e c t i n t e r a c t io n s b e t w e e n g o v e r n m e n t s a n d m a j o r g r o u p s o n specific to p ics a n d as p a r t o f the official i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l p ro c e ss r a t h e r t h a n ta k in g p la c e o n th e m a r ­ gins. T h e d ia lo g u e s allow m a j o r g r o u p s to discuss t h e ir c o n c e r n s , e x p e r i ­ e n c e s a n d p r o p o s a ls in specific a r e a s in d e ta il w ith g o v e r n m e n t s . ( W S S D )

M u t a t e s m u t a n d i s - T h e n e c e s s a r y c h a n g e s h a v in g b e e n m a d e ; h a v in g s u b ­

stitu te d n e w t e r m s ; w ith re sp e c tiv e d iffe re n ces ta k e n in to c o n s id e r a tio n . M u t u a l l y c o h e r e n t p o l i c i e s - Policies t h a t a rc r e la te d to o n e a n o t h e r such

t h a t th e y a rc c o n s is te n t, co h e siv e a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . M y w o n d e r f u l w o r l d c a m p a i g n - In m i d - 2 0 0 6 th e N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c

Society, the U n i t e d N a tio n s F o u n d a t i o n a n d le a d e r s fro m the bu siness, n o n ­ p ro fit a n d e d u c a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s in itia te d a p u b l i c - e n g a g e m e n t c a m p a i g n d e s ig n e d to give s tu d e n ts tools to b e c o m e m o r e i n f o r m e d g lo b a l citizens by a im in g to im p r o v e g e o g r a p h i c a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l lite ra c y a b o u t th e w o r ld th e y will in h e r it. (U N W r)

193

Nn N a t i o n - A stable, historically de v e lo p e d c o m m u n it y o f pe o p le w ith a te rri­ tory, e c o n o m ic life, distinctive culture, a n d la n g u ag e in c o m m o n . (M W ) See ‘C o u n t r y / S t a t e ,' ‘T e r r i t o r y / N ation al delegation

O n e o r m o r e officials w ho are e m p o w e r e d to r e p r e ­ sent a n d neg otiate o n b e h a l f o f th eir g o v e r n m e n t. (B C H M )

N a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t A c t i o n P l a n ( N E A P ) - A plan th a t identifies key

e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro b le m s, sets priorities for d e a lin g w ith th e m a n d leads to a c o m p re h e n siv e n a tio n a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l policy a n d p r o g r a m s to i m p le m e n t th e policy. (GEF) N ational income accounts

A system o f a c c o u n tin g used to m e a su re a n a tio n ’s econom y, the results o f w hic h arc often given in te rm s o f G N P o r GDP.

N a tio n a l interest, con c ept of

A c o n c e p t th a t identifies interests o f one c o u n tr y th a t are distinct from o r even c o n tr a ry to those o f a nother.

National park

A reserve o f la n d , usually o w n e d by a n a tio n a l g o v e r n ­ m e n t, th a t is p r o te c te d from m ost d e v e lo p m e n t activities. H u n tin g , logging, m ining, c o m m e rc ia l fishing, a g ric u ltu re a n d livestock g r a z in g arc all c o n ­ trolled w ith in n a tio n a l parks, as is ind ustrial activity. ( I U C N ; U N E P ) See ‘P r o t e c t e d A r e a M a n a g e m e n t C a t e g o r i e s /

N a t i o n a l S tr a te g ie s for S u s ta in a b le D e v e l o p m e n t ( N S S D ) - A ccord­

ing to an a g r e e m e n t p r o d u c e d at the U N R io + 5 C o n fe re n c e , the N S S D are a p la n o f n a tio n a l a ction d evelop ed to achieve su stain ab le d e v e lo p m e n t goals. N a t i o n s , 0.7 - T h o s e cou n trie s m e e tin g the s ta n d a r d o f d e sig n a tin g 0.7

p e r c e n t o r g re a te r o f G D P for O D A - s u p p o r te d activities. See M i l l e n ­ n i u m P r o j e c t ; ' G l o b a l ta x .' N a t i v e s p e c i e s - Plants, a nim als, fungi a n d m ic ro o rg a n is m s th a t o c c u r

n a tu ra lly in a given a re a or region. N a t u r a 2 00 0

E U n e tw o rk o f sites d e sig n a ted by M e m b e r States u n d e r the birds a n d h a b ita ts directives. (EEA)

N a t u r a l capital

- M in e r a i, p la n t a n d a n im a l fo r m a tio n s o f the E a r t h ’s

N atu ra l hazards

b io sp h e re w h en view ed as a m e a n s o f p ro d u c in g n a tu ra l g o o d s a n d serv ­ ices such as oxy g en , w a te r filter services, a n d soil sta b iliz a tio n . It is o n e a p ­ p ro a c h to ecosystcm v a lu a tio n , a n a lte rn a tiv e to th e tra d itio n a l view o f all n o n -h u m a n life as passive n a tu ra l reso u rces, a n d to th e id e a o f eco lo g ical h e a lth . (W P) N a tu ra l hazards

A n a tu ra lly o c c u rrin g g eo p h y sical c o n d itio n th a t th r e a t­ ens life o r p ro p e rty u sually in v o lv in g th e risk o f e x tre m e ev en ts in w hich p h e n o m e n a in th e a tm o sp h e re , h y d ro sp h e re , lith o sp h e re o r b io s p h e re differ su b stan tially fro m th e ir m e a n values. For ex a m p le , excessive ra in fa ll m a y give rise to floods, w h ile a lack o f p re c ip ita tio n m a y lead to d ro u g h t. T h e m ain n a tu ra l h a z a rd s in clu d e: e a rth q u a k e s, tsu n am is, v o lcan ic e ru p tio n s, floods, d ro u g h t, h u rric a n e s (ty p h o o n s, tro p ic a l cyclones), to rn a d o e s, lig h t­ n in g a n d severe th u n d e rs to rm s , h a ilsto rm s, av a la n c h e s, g la c ie r h a z a rd s, snow sto rm s, frost h a z a rd s , soil e ro sio n , d e se rtific a tio n , lan d slid es, la n d su b sid en ce, soil h eav e a n d co llap se, co asta l ero sio n , w ildfires a n d d a m d is­ asters. (EES)

N a t u r a l la w - A th e o ry b a sed on th e p re m ise th a t th e re are c e rta in n o r m a ­

tive p rin cip les th a t are ‘se lf-e v id e n t’ a n d w h ic h exist in d e p e n d e n tly o f th e ir co d ificatio n o r e n fo rc e m e n t by h u m a n b eings. (E C O ) N a t u r a l p e r s o n s - P eo p le, as d istin c t fro m ju r id ic a l p e rso n s su c h as c o m ­

p a n ie s a n d o rg a n iz a tio n s. (W T O ) N a tu r a l resource

A te rm d e sc rib in g a n y th in g th a t is p ro v id e d by n a tu re , such as m in e ra ls dep o sits, forests, w ater, w ildlife, etc. T h e te rm is b e in g re p la c e d by ‘n a tu r a l’ o r ‘ecosystem serv ices.’

N a t u r a l S t e p , c o n c e p t o f - D r K a rl- H e n rik R o b e rt, o n e o f S w e d e n ’s

le a d in g oncolo g ists, d ev e lo p e d th e N a tu ra l S tep p ro g ra m as a m e th o d o f re a c h in g co n sen su s a b o u t su stain a b le fu tu re s. T h e N a tu ra l S te p m o d e l is a sim ple, scientifically b a se d a p p ro a c h to su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t th a t e n c o u ra g e s e n v iro n m e n ta l system s th in k in g w ith in c o rp o ra tio n s, g o v e rn ­ m e n ts a n d a c a d e m ic in stitu tio n s fo u n d e d o n b asic scicnce p rin c ip le s a n d th e p rin c ip a l th a t h u m a n ity c a n n o t to le ra te c o n tin u a l d e g ra d a tio n o f th e e n v iro n m e n t. (NS) N a v i g a b l e w a t e r s - T rad itio n a lly , w ate rs sufficiently d e e p a n d w id e for

n a v ig atio n by all o r specified vessels. (U SE PA ) N e g a t i v e s u m - T h e id e a , from g a m e th e o ry th a t a g e n ts c o m b in e in such

a w ay th a t b o th lose o r th a t th e to ta l c h a n g e is a re d u c tio n in overall fitness, so m e tim e s called dyserg y o r ‘lo s e -lo s e ’ w h e n re fe rrin g to a situ a tio n th a t so lu tio n s p ro p o se d d o n o t serve th e in terests o f a n y o f th e p a rtie s involved in a d isa g re e m e n t. N e g o tia te d

science

C o n c lu sio n s o f g o v e rn m e n t a p p o in te d scientists

195

N ego tiatin g state

th a t a rc criticize d by n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l scien tists as re p re se n tin g c o m p ro ­ m ises r a th e r th a n p u re scientific findings. N e g o tia tin g state

A state th a t to o k p a r t in th e d ra w in g u p a n d a d o p tio n o f th e tex t o f a treaty. (VC)

N e g o tia tio n

A p ro cess w h e re b y tw o o r m o re p e o p le w h o b eg in w ith c o n ­ flicting p o sitio n s a tte m p t to re a c h a n a g re e m e n t by m o d ify in g th e ir o rig in al p o sitio n s o r by d e v e lo p in g new p ro p o sa ls th a t reco n cile th e in te re sts u n d e r­ lying th e m . T h e p re lim in a ry d iscussions le a d in g u p to th e a d o p tio n o f an a g re e m e n t.

N e o c l a s s i c a l e c o n o m i c s - A system o f e c o n o m ic s th a t seeks th e o p tim u m

a llo catio n o f re so u rces th ro u g h m a rk e t c o m p e titio n in w h ich th e w ell-bein g o f o n e in d iv id u a l c a n n o t be in c re a se d w ith o u t th a t o f a n o th e r b e in g d im in ish e d . N e o l i b e r a l i s m - A b u sin e ss-g o v e rn m e n t p h ilo so p h y b a se d on th e p rim a c y

o f th e in d iv id u a l w ith only a m in im a l role fo r g o v e rn m e n t. N e o lib e ra l p o li­ cies re c o m m e n d so lu tio n s b a se d o n free m o v e m e n t o f g o o d s, services a n d c a p ita l, w ith re lia n c e o n m a rk e t forces to allo c ate reso u rces. N e t p r e se n t v a lu e ( N P V ) -

A n e c o n o m ic c rite rio n u sed to ev alu a te w h e th e r a p ro je c t is e c o n o m ic a lly v iab le o r n o t w h e re th e d isc o u n te d v alu e o f th e e x p e c te d costs o f a n in v estm e n t is d e d u c te d fro m th e d isc o u n te d valu e o f th e e x p ec te d b en efits o f th e sam e in v e stm e n t. If th e N P V is p o si­ tive, th e p ro je c t o r a c tio n is usu ally c o n sid e re d w o rth w h ile . Likew ise th e N P V s o f m o re th a n o n e p ro je c t c a n be c o m p a re d to isolate th e o n e th a t w o u ld th e o re tic a lly be p re fe rre d .

N e v e r A g a in , P rin ciple o f

See R e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o P r o t e c t , t h e D o c ­

tr in e o f / N e w Europe

A rh e to ric a l te rm to d esc rib e th e bloc o f E a s te r E u ro p e a n p o st-C o m m u n ist c o u n trie s in c lu d in g B u lg aria , C zc c h R e p u b lic , E sto n ia , H u n g a ry , L atv ia, L ith u a n ia , P o la n d , R o m a n ia , S lovakia a n d S lovenia. (W P)

N e w P a rtn e rsh ip fo r A fr ic a ( N P f A )

A v o lu n tary , in d e p e n d e n t a n ti­ c o rru p tio n m e c h a n ism in c lu d in g a n in s p e c to ra te th a t c a n assess w h e th e r a g o v e rn m e n t is seek in g to ru n itself in a n h o n e st a n d a c c o u n ta b le way. T h e in sp e c to ra te , in c lu d in g ex p e rts fro m o th e r co u n trie s, verifies a g o v e rn ­ m e n t’s claim s a g a in st 4 0 c rite ria by e x a m in in g d o c u m e n ts a n d c o n d u c tin g in -d e p th in terv ie w s w ith g o v e rn m e n t lead e rs, o p p o sitio n le a d e rs, civic a n d religious g ro u p s a n d N G O s activ e in th e co untry.

N e w w o r ld o rd e r

T h is te rm refers to th e d ra m a tic c h a n g e s in w orld p o litical th o u g h t a n d th e b a la n c e o f p o w e r a fte r th e co llap se o f th e S oviet

196

N ich e

U n io n a n d b a sed o n th e n o tio n o f a W e ste rn -le d p o st-G o ld W a r stru c tu re o f g lo b al pow er. (W P) See ‘G l o b a l p a r l i a m e n t . ’ N ich e

T h e p la c e o c c u p ie d by a species in a n ecosystem a n d its role: w h ere it lives, w h a t it feeds o n , a n d w h e n it p e rfo rm s its activities. (EES)

N I M B Y , prin cip le o f

S ec ‘N o t i n m y b a c k y a r d , p r i n c i p l e o f . ’

N i t r o g e n o x i d e s - G ases th a t c o n trib u te to acid ra in a n d g lo b a l w a rm in g

e m itte d as a b y p ro d u c t o f fossil fuel c o m b u s tio n . (N R D C ) N o b le m a i r e P rin ciple

A c o n c e p t d a tin g from 1921 a n d th e L e a g u e o f N a tio n s a n d a d o p te d by th e U N w h e n it w as fo rm e d th a t p ro v id es th a t salaries o f sta ff a t th e p ro fessio n al a n d h ig h e r c a te g o rie s in th e U N system be set by referen c e to th e h ig h e st p a id n a tio n a l civil service. For th a t, th e U S F ederal C ivil S erv ice h as b e e n u sed as th e c o m p a ra to r. T h e m a rg in is th e averag e p e rc e n ta g e d ifferen c e b e tw e e n th e p a y o f U N sta ff in N ew Y ork a n d th a t o f th e U S fed e ral service. In a d d itio n to th e U N system , th ere are 13 o th e r in te rn a tio n a l a n d reg io n al o rg a n iz a tio n s th a t su b scrib e to this p rin c ip le , b u t in p ra c tic e th e salaries o f sta ff o f m a n y in te rn a tio n a l o r re ­ g io n al o rg a n iz a tio n s, such as th e d e v e lo p m e n t b an k s, ex ceed th o se callcd for in this p rin c ip le by su b sta n tia l a m o u n ts. (U N ) S ee ' B a s e f l o o r s a l a r y s c a l e , ’ ‘P o s t a d j u s t m e n t i n d e x , ' ‘P - l e v e l s t a f f , ’ ‘D - l e v e l s t a f f .'

N o n et loss

A w o rk in g p rin c ip le th a t strives to b a la n c e u n a v o id a b le h a b i­ ta t losses w ith h a b ita t re p la c e m e n t on a p ro jc c t-b y -p ro je c t basis.

N o-regrets

m e a s u r e s - D ecisio n s a n d a c tio n s ta k e n th a t c an rc d u c c g re e n h o u s e gas em issions b u t w h ic h m e rit im p le m e n ta tio n p u re ly o n a fi­ n a n c ia l basis.

N o n -A lig n e d M o v e m e n t ( N A M )

A g ro u p o f 114 d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s a n d a n im p o rta n t lo b b y in g g ro u p in g lo b al affairs. S in ce its in c e p tio n in 1961, th e m o v e m e n t h a s p la y ed a h ig h ly visible role in re p re s e n tin g the in terests o f d e v elo p in g c o u n trie s, p a rtic u la rly in th e e ra d ic a tio n o f co lo n ia l­ ism , su p p o rtin g stru g g les fo r lib e ra tio n a n d se lf-d e te rm in a tio n , th e p u rs u it o f w orld p e a c e a n d th e search for a m o re e q u ita b le a n d ju s t g lo b a l o rd e r in c lu d in g ad d re ssin g e n v iro n m e n ta l issues o f re g io n al o r g lo b al in te re st. (UNW r) ^

N o n - c o n s u m p t i v e v a l u e - A v alu e assig n ed to a reso u rce th a t is n o t d i­

m in ish e d by th e use o f th a t reso u rce. N o n g o v e rn m e n ta l actor

T h e full ra n g e o f N G O s a n d civil society in ­ clu d in g th e m a jo r g ro u p s id en tified at U N C E D .

N o n g o v e r n m e n t a l o rga n iz a tio n ( N G O )

A n o n -p ro fit g ro u p o r asso­ c iatio n o rg a n iz e d o u tsid e o f in stitu tio n a liz e d p o litica l s tru c tu re s to realize p a rtic u la r social o b jectiv es o r serve p a rtic u la r co n stitu e n c ies. (GBS)

197

N o n g o ve rn m e n tal organization consultative status (with E C O S O C )

N ongovernm ental

o rga n iz a tio n

c o n su lta tiv e

status

(w ith

ECOSOC)

T h e a u th o rity g ra n te d to a n N G O to b e fo rm a lly a c c re d ite d to a U N m e e tin g o r c o n fc rc n c c a n d h av e fo rm a l ‘v o ic e ’ (w ith o u t vote). T o d a y m o re th a n 26 0 0 N G O s e n jo y th is status. A rticle 71 o f th e U N C h a r te r p ro v id ­ ed th e a rra n g e m e n ts for fo rm a l c o n su lta tio n w ith n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n i­ zatio n s. T h e co n su lta tiv e re la tio n sh ip w ith E C O S O C is g o v e rn e d to d a y by E C O S O C reso lu tio n 1 9 9 6 /3 1 , w h ich o u tlin e s th e eligibility re q u ire m e n ts for co n su ltativ e status, rig h ts a n d o b lig a tio n s o f N G O s in c o n su lta tiv e statu s, p ro c e d u re s for th e w ith d ra w a l o r su sp en sio n o f c o n su lta tiv e statu s, th e role a n d fu n ctio n s o f th e E C O S O C C o m m itte e o n N G O s , a n d th e re sp o n si­ bilities o f the U N S e c re ta ria t in su p p o rtin g th e co n su ltativ e re la tio n sh ip . C o n su ltativ e statu s is g ra n te d by E C O S O C u p o n re c o m m e n d a tio n o f th e E C O S O C C o m m itte e o n N G O s , w h ich c o m p rise s 19 M e m b e r S tates. (U N ) N on -grou p

U n d e r c irc u m sta n c e s o f e x tre m e re lu c ta n c e to e n te r in to n e g o ­ tia tio n , n o n -g ro u p s c a n be called in to b e in g by th e c h a ir in o rd e r to e n c o u r­ age c o m m u n ic a tio n w ith o u t th e p re ssu re o f n e g o tia tio n s. (G u p ta , 1997)

N o n - l i n e a r - A te rm u sed to d e scrib e system s th a t b e h av e in u n e x p e c te d

w ays a n d th a t d o n o t c h a n g e p ro p o rtio n a lly to a c h a n g e in in p u t. T h e c h a n g e m ay so m e tim e s go d o w n w h e n e x p e cte d to go up , d o n o th in g in ­ ste a d , o r c h an g e d ra stic a lly w ith o n ly m in o r c h a n g e s to th e in p u t. (C SG ) N o n - m e t h a n e v o latile o r g a n ic c o m p o u n d s ( N M V O C ) - C om p o u n d s

g en erally e m itte d from c o m b u stio n so u rces th a t c a n c o m b in e w ith o th e r p o l­ lu ta n ts to p ro d u c e p h o to c h e m ic a l sm og. N on -pape rs

In-session d o c u m e n ts issued in fo rm a lly to facilitate n e g o tia ­ tions; th ey do n o t h av e a n official d o c u m e n t sy m b o l o r n u m b e r a lth o u g h th ey m a y have a n id e n tify in g n u m b e r o r th e n a m e o f th e au th o r(s). (C B D )

N on -party

A state th a t h a s n o t ratified a c o n v e n tio n b u t m a y a tte n d m e e t­ ings o f a C O P , M O P o r th e ir su b sid ia ry b o d ies as an observer.

N o n - p o i n t source p o llu tio n ( N P S P )

P o llu tio n e m a n a tin g fro m diffuse so u rces a n d c a u se d by rain fall o r sn o w m e lt m o v in g o v e r a n d th ro u g h th e g ro u n d . (U SEPA )

N o n - r e i m b u r s a b l e g r a n t - T h a t p a r t o f a p re -in v e stm e n t stu d y (pre-

feasibility o r feasibility study) o r lo a n p a c k a g e th a t is n o t re q u ire d to b e re ­ p a id by th e b o rro w in g o r b e n e fic ia ry c o u n try e v en if th e p ro je c t p ro v es to have an in te rn a l rate o f re tu rn th a t d o es n o t s u p p o rt th e lo an . (W B) N o n - r e n e w a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s - T h e te rm refers to n a tu r a l reso u rc es

fo u n d in th e g ro u n d o r in th e sea w ith a finite stock o r in c re a se d in a geologic tim e fram e. E x am p les gas, m in e ra l ro ck a n d , in c e rta in c irc u m sta n c e s, m o v ed from aq u ife rs th a t a re n o t b e in g re c h a rg e d

198

th a t c an o n ly b e re p la c ed in c lu d e oil, co al, n a tu ra l fre sh w a te r w h e n it is re ­ (fossil w ater). (EES)

N on-state A cto r

N o n - s t a t e A c t o r - A n in d iv id u a l, p riv a te c o m p a n y o r N G O th a t h a s su f­

ficien t in flu e n c e to im p a c t a d e c isio n ta k e n in an in te rg o v e r n m e n ta l body. (S u sk in d 2006) N oosphere

T h e re a lm o f th e h u m a n m in d in te r c o n n e c te d a n d in te ra c tin g

th r o u g h c o m m u n ic a tio n a n d a m a n ife s ta tio n o f th e m o s t a d v a n c e d life fo rm o n th is p la n e t, homo sapiens. It is th e re a lm o f h u m a n p o ssib ility th a t d is tin ­ g u ish e s h u m a n s fro m all o th e r life fo rm s. (EES) N orth

A m e ric a n

(N A A E C )

A greem ent

on

E n v iro n m e n ta l

C o o p e ra tio n

E s ta b lis h e d b y th e g o v e rn m e n ts o f C a n a d a , M e x ic o a n d th e

U S , th e A g re e m e n t a im s to : (a) fo ster th e p ro te c tio n a n d im p ro v e m e n t o f th e e n v ir o n m e n t in th e te r rito rie s o f th e p a rtie s fo r th e w e ll-b e in g o f p re s e n t a n d fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s ; (b) p r o m o te s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t b a s e d o n c o ­ o p e ra tio n a n d m u tu a lly s u p p o r tiv e e n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d e c o n o m ic p o lic ie s; (c) in c re a s e c o o p e ra tio n b e tw e e n th e p a r tie s to b e tte r c o n se rv e , p ro te c t a n d e n h a n c e th e e n v ir o n m e n t, in c lu d in g w ild flo ra a n d fa u n a ; (d) s u p p o r t th e e n ­ v ir o n m e n ta l g o a ls a n d o b je c tiv e s o f th e N A F T A ; (e) a v o id c re a tin g tr a d e d is­ to r tio n s o r n e w tr a d e b a rr ie rs ; (f) s tre n g th e n c o o p e ra tio n o n th e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d im p ro v e m e n t o f e n v ir o n m e n ta l la w s, re g u la tio n s , p ro c e d u r e s , p o lic ies a n d p ra c tic e s ; (g) e n h a n c e c o m p lia n c c w ith , a n d e n fo r c e m e n t of, e n v ir o n ­ m e n ta l law s a n d re g u la tio n s ; (h) p r o m o te tr a n s p a r e n c y a n d p u b lic p a r tic ip a ­ tio n in th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f e n v ir o n m e n ta l law s, re g u la tio n s a n d p o lic ie s; (i) p r o m o te e c o n o m ic a lly e ffic ie n t a n d effectiv e e n v ir o n m e n ta l m e a s u re s ; a n d (j) p r o m o te p o llu tio n p re v e n tio n p o lic ie s a n d p ra c tic e s . (N A F T A ) S ee ‘C o m ­ m is s io n on E n v ir o n m e n ta l C o o p e r a tio n .’ N o r t h A m e ric a n B io d iv e rsity In fo rm a tio n N e t w o r k ( N A B I N )

An

in itia tiv e o f M e x ic o , th e U S a n d C a n a d a to p ro v id e g r e a te r access to b io d i­ v e rsity in f o rm a tio n . N orth

A m e rica n

C o m m issio n

for

E n v iro n m e n ta l

C o o p e ra tio n

( N A C E C ) - C a n a d a , th e U S a n d M e x ic o fo rg e d a tr ila te ra l c o m m is sio n

m a d e u p o f C a n a d a ’s M in is te r o f E n v iro n m e n t, M e x ic o ’s S e c re ta ry o f th e E n v ir o n m e n t a n d th e A d m in is tr a to r o f th e U S E P A to a d d re s s re g io n a l e n ­ v ir o n m e n ta l c o n c e rn s , h e lp p re v e n t p o te n tia l tr a d e a n d e n v ir o n m e n ta l c o n ­ flicts, a n d p ro m o te effectiv e e n fo r c e m e n t o f e n v ir o n m e n ta l law. T h e A g re e ­ m e n t, w h ic h w a s e sta b lish e d u n d e r th e te r m s a n d o b je c tiv e s o f N A A E C c o m p le m e n ts th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro v isio n s o f th e N o r th A m e ric a n F ree T ra d e A g re e m e n t (N A F T A ). S ee ‘N o r t h A m e r i c a n A g r e e m e n t o n E n ­ v i r o n m e n t a l C o o p e r a t i o n (N A A E C ).5 N o rth A m e rica n

Free T r a d e A g r e e m e n t ( N A F T A ) - A n a g re e m e n t

im p le m e n te d in 1 9 9 4 c o m m ittin g C a n a d a , th e U S , a n d M e x ic o to th e e lim i­ n a tio n o f all tariffs, q u o ta s , a n d o th e r tr a d e b a r r ie r s b e tw e e n th e m b e fo re 2 0 0 9 . S ee ‘N o r t h A m e r i c a n A g r e e m e n t o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o o p ­ e r a t io n / C o m m is s io n o n E n v ir o n m e n ta l C o o p e r a tio n .' N o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s - H ig h -in c o m e o r d e v e lo p e d c o u n trie s.

199

N o rth - S o u th (1)

N o r t h - S o u t h ( I ) - A te r m in d ic a tin g c o lla b o ra tio n o r te c h n o lo g y s h a rin g

b e tw e e n a ‘n o r t h e r n ’ c o u n tr y a n d o n e from th e ‘s o u t h / N o r t h - S o u t h (2 )

N o r th re f e rrin g to d e v e lo p e d c o u n trie s ; S o u th re fe rrin g

to d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s . N o rw e g ia n A g e n c y fo r D e v e lo p m e n t C o o p e ra tio n ( N O R A D )

The

p r in c ip a l a g e n c y th r o u g h w h ic h N o rw a y p ro v id e s te c h n ic a l a ssista n c e a n d d is trib u te s fo re ig n a id . N o t in m y b a c k y a r d , p r i n c i p l e o f ( N I M B Y )

T h e so -c a lle d ‘N IM B Y

p rin c ip le ’ is a b r o a d c o n c e p t th a t in c lu d e s a n y o rg a n iz e d m o v e m e n t a g a in s t a n y p r o p o s e d d e v e lo p m e n t o r in v e s tm e n t, im p ly in g th a t w h ile th e p ro p o s e d d e v e lo p m e n t m a y o r m a y n o t b e im p o r ta n t, it s h o u ld n o t b e c o n s tru c te d w h e re it is p ro p o s e d . S ee ‘P I M B Y , p r i n c i p l e o f . ’ N o tific a tio n

A fo r m a lity th r o u g h w h ic h a sta te o r a n in t e r n a tio n a l o r g a n ­ iz a tio n c o m m u n ic a te s c e rta in facts o r e v e n ts o f leg al im p o rta n c e . In s te a d o f o p tin g fo r th e e x c h a n g e o f d o c u m e n ts o r d e p o s it, s ta te s m a y b e c o n te n t to n o tify th e ir c o n s e n t to th e o th e r p a r ty o r to th e d e p o sita ry . (VC)

N u c l e a r c l u b - A te r m c o m m o n ly u sed to in d ic a te th o s e n a tio n s h a v in g

u r a n iu m c o n v e rs io n c a p a b ilitie s , e ith e r fo r n u c lc a r e n e rg y o r a rm s p r o d u c ­ tio n . T h e r e a re c u rr e n tly sev en sta te s k n o w n to b e n u c le a r w e a p o n s states; a n in te r n a tio n a lly re c o g n iz e d s ta tu s c o n fe r re d th r o u g h a v e rific a tio n p r o c ­ ess by th e T re a ty o n th e N o n -P ro life r a tio n o f N u c lc a r W e a p o n s (N P T ). In o r d e r o f a c q u is itio n o f n u c le a r w e a p o n s th e y a re : th e U S , R u ssia , th e U K , F ra n c e , th e P e o p le ’s R e p u b lic o f C h in a , In d ia a n d P a k is ta n . S e v e ra l o th e r n a tio n s hav e e ith e r c la im e d o r a re su s p e c te d to p o ssess u r a n iu m c o n v e r­ sion c a p a b ilitie s a n d / o r p o ssess n u c le a r w e a p o n s w ith o u t h a v in g h a d su ch cla im s v e rifie d , in c lu d in g Is ra e l a n d N o r th K o re a . (U N IA E A ) N u c l e a r e n e r g y - E n e rg y o r p o w e r p r o d u c e d by n u c lc a r re a c tio n s - fu sio n

(a p ro c e ss in w h ic h tw o n u c le i jo in , fo r m in g a la r g e r n u c le u s a n d re le a sin g o r a b s o r b in g e n e rg y ) o r fission (w h en th e n u c le u s splits in to tw o o r m o re sm a lle r n u c le i re le a sin g s u b s ta n tia l a m o u n ts o f e n e rg y ). ( N R D C ; W P ) N u c l e a r T h r e a t I n i t i a t i v e - A n in itia tiv e o f T e d T u r n e r o f th e U N F o u n ­

d a tio n , f o r m e r U S S e n a to r S a n N u n n a n d e n tr e p r e n e u r W a rr e n B u ffett w h o to g e th e r p le d g e d U S $ 5 0 m illio n to th e IA E A to c re a te a u ra n iu m sto ck p ile. T h e a im is to s u p p ly lo w -g ra d e fu e l fo r n u c le a r p o w e r p la n ts a ro u n d th e w o rld a n d d is c o u ra g e c o u n tr ie s fro m d e v e lo p in g th e ir o w n n u ­ c lc a r p ro g r a m s . (U N ) N u t r i e n t s - O r g a n ic o r in o r g a n ic c o m p o u n d s e ss e n tia l fo r th e su rv iv a l o f

a n o rg a n is m . In a q u a tic e n v iro n m e n ts , n itro g e n a n d p h o s p h o r u s a re im ­ p o r t a n t n u tr ie n ts th a t a ffe c t th e g ro w th ra te o f p la n ts . (S F W M D )

200

Oo O b je ctio n

A n y s ig n a to ry o r c o n tra c tin g state h as th e o p tio n o f o b je ctin g to a re s erv atio n , inter alia, if, in its o p in io n , th e re se rv atio n is in c o m p a tib le w ith th e p u rp o s e o f th e treaty. (VC)

O b s e r v e r - A state o r o th e r in s titu tio n such as th e sp ecialized ag en cies o f

the U N , o th e r in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s, a n d q u alified g o v e rn m e n ta l a n d n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s th a t are a c c re d ite d to a tte n d th e m eetin g s o f C O P , M O P a n d th e ir su b sid ia ry b o d ies, a n d h a v in g ‘v o ic e ’ a t th e d isc re ­ tion o f the p re s id e n t o f th e m e e tin g , b u t n e v e r h av in g a d ire c t ‘v o te ’ from the floor. (U N ) O c e a n d e s e r t - A p o rtio n o f th e sea flo o r th a t is b a rr e n o f o b v io u s fo rm s

o f life. O E C D — Sec ‘O r g a n i s a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p ­ m e n t.’

O fficial a s s is t a n c e ( O A )

S im ila r to O D A b u t is in te n d e d for c o u n trie s in th e O E C D -D A C P a rt II list - c o u n trie s in tra n sitio n . (O E C D )

O fficial d e v e lo p m e n t a s s is t a n c e ( O D A ) ( I )

T h e a m o u n t th a t a n a tio n ex p e n d s th ro u g h g ra n ts a n d o th e r d e v e lo p m e n t assistan ce p ro g ra m s c a lc u ­ lated as a p e rc e n t o f G N P . A n e t O D A ta rg e t o f 0.7 p c rc e n t o f G N P for d e ­ v elo p ed n a tio n s w as a g re e d to a t th e 1990 U N G e n e ra l A ssem bly a n d re it­ e ra te d a t v ario u s su m m its su ch as th e U N C o n fe re n c e o n E n v iro n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (U N C E D ) in 1992. A n e t O D A ta rg e t fo r th e least d e v elo p e d b e n e fic ia ry co u n trie s (H IP C o r L L D C ) o f 0.15 p e rc e n t o f G N P w as a g re e d to at th e 1981 U N C o n fe re n c e on L L D C . T h e W orld B an k estim a te d th a t O D A to ta le d U S $ 1 0 6 .5 b illio n in 2 0 0 6 . (U N ; W B ) S ec R e m i t t a n c e s . ’

O f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t a n c e ( O D A ) (2) - F low s o f g ra n t m o n ey s

to O E C D -D A C P a rt I aid re c ip ie n ts a d m in is te re d w ith th e p ro m o tio n o f th e ec o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t a n d w elfare o f d ev e lo p in g c o u n trie s as its m ain objective. T h is aid is co n ce ssio n a l in c h a ra c te r a n d conveys a g r a n t e le m e n t o f at least 25 p e rc e n t (calcu lated at a d isc o u n t ra te o f 10 p erce n t). (O E C D ) Sec ‘O r g a n i s a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t - D e v e lo p m e n t A s s is ta n c e C o m m it t e e P art I L ist.’ Official d e v e lo p m e n t a s sist a n c e , b ila te ra l

O D A th a t is a d m in is te re d a n d sen t to th e re c ip ie n t c o u n try by th e d o n o r co u n try . It m ay p ass th ro u g h a n N G O p ro v id e d th a t it re m a in s u n d e r th e c o n tro l o f th e d o n o r country. (O E C D )

O ffic ia l d e v e lo p m e n t a ssista n ce, m u ltilateral

O f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s s i s t a n c e , m u l t i l a t e r a l - O D A c o n sists o f d o ­

n a tio n s m a d e by O E C D m e m b e r c o u n tr ie s th r o u g h re g io n a l g ro u p in g s su c h as th e E U , o r g ra n ts by d e v e lo p m e n t b a n k s to in te r n a tio n a l o r g a n iz a ­ tio n s w o rk in g in d e v e lo p m e n t. (O E C D ) O f f i c i a l U N l a n g u a g e s - S ec L a n g u a g e ( s ) , o f f i c i a l . ’ O ffse ttin g

effect -

I n c r e a s e d c o n s u m p tio n re s u ltin g fro m a c tio n s th a t

in c re a s e effic ie n c y a n d re d u c e c o n s u m e r costs. O n e e x a m p le w o u ld b e a h o m e in s u la tio n p ro g r a m th a t re d u c e s h e a t loss by 5 0 p e r c e n t b u t d o c s n o t b rin g a b o u t a n e q u a l re d u c tio n in e n e rg y c o n s u m p tio n , b e c a u s e re s id e n ts c a n th e n affo rd to k e e p th e ir h o m e s w a r m e r m o re ch eap ly . (V T P I) O ffsh o re

- A w ay fro m th e sh o re lin e ; refe rs la rg e ly to th e e x p a n s e o f s u b ­

m e rg e d c o n tin e n ta l s h e lf o n th e o c e a n sid e o f th e sh o re lin e b u t m a y also re fe r to a re a s n e a r e r th e o c e a n e d g e o f th e shelf. U se d also to re fe r to th e a re a b e y o n d th e th r e e n a u tic a l m iles te r r ito r ia l w a te rs . (E E A ) O il S p ills P r o t o c o l

T h e p ro to c o l c o n c e r n in g c o o p e ra tio n in c o m b a tin g

oil spills in th e W id e r C a r ib b e a n R e g io n th a t w a s a d o p te d a n d e n te r e d in to fo rce c o n c u r r e n tly w ith th e C a r ta g e n a C o n v e n tio n . ( U N E P - G A R /R C U ) O ld E u rop e

T r a d itio n a lly a te r m re f e rrin g to W e s te rn E u r o p e a n n a tio n s a n d m e m b e rs o f N A T O . In J a n u a r y 2 0 0 3 , th e te r m O ld E u ro p e w a s u se d o u t o f its n o r m a l c o n te x t by U S G o v e r n m e n t officials to re fe r to th o se E u ­ r o p e a n c o u n tr ie s th a t d id n o t s u p p o r t th e 2 0 0 3 in v a s io n o f Ira q . (W P)

O m n i b u s s p e n d i n g bill

A U S leg islativ e te r m m e a n in g a bill c o m b in in g

th e a p p r o p r ia tio n s fo r se v e ra l fe d e ra l a g e n c ie s. (N R D C ) ONE

S e e 'M ak e P o verty H is to r y .’

O p e n - e n d e d In t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l G r o u p o f M in is t e r s o r th e ir R e p ­ r e s e n t a t i v e s ( I G M ) - T h e g ro u p o f m in is te rs m a n d a te d in D e c isio n

2 1 /2 1 o f th e U N E P G o v e rn in g C o u n c il (F e b ru a ry 2 0 0 1 ) to u n d e r ta k e a c o m p re h e n s iv e p o lic y -o rie n te d a s s e ssm e n t o f e x is tin g in s titu tio n a l w e a k ­ n esses as w ell as fu tu re n e e d s a n d o p tio n s fo r s tre n g th e n e d in te r n a tio n a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l g o v e rn a n c e , in c lu d in g th e fin a n c in g o f U N E P . (U N E P ) O p e r a t i o n a l f o c a l p o i n t - A fo cal p o in t c h a rg e d w ith c o o rd in a tin g G E F

o p e r a tio n a l m a tte r s w ith in a c o u n try . S ee P o l i t i c a l f o c a l p o i n t . ’ O p p o rtu n ity cost ( I)

T h e v a lu e o f g o o d s o r se rv ices fo re g o n e , in c lu d in g

e c o sy ste m g o o d s a n d serv ices. O p p o r t u n i t y c o s t (2)

T h e v a lu e o f th a t w h ic h m u s t b e g iv en u p in o r d e r

to a c h ie v e s o m e th in g else. (M W )

202

O rg an izatio n

O rg a n iz a tio n

A social g ro u p w ith a stru c tu re d esig n e d to achieve collective goals. (U N D P )

O rga n isa tio n

for

E c o n om ic

C o -o p e ra tio n

and

D e v e lo p m e n t

( O E C D ) - A n in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n th a t in c lu d e s m o st o f the

w o rld ’s in d u stria liz e d , m a rk e t e co n o m ie s (A u stralia, A u stria , B elgium , C a n a d a , C zech R e p u b lic , D e n m a rk , F in la n d , F ra n c e , G e rm a n y , G re ec e , H u n g a ry , Ic e la n d , Ire la n d , Italy, J a p a n , K o re a , L u x e m b o u rg , M ex ico , T h e N e th e rla n d s, N ew Z e a la n d , N orw ay, P o la n d , P o rtu g a l, S lovak R ep u b lic , S p a in , S w ed en , S w itz erla n d , Turkey, th e U K , a n d th e U S). O rga n isa tio n

fo r

E c o n om ic

C o -o p e ra tio n

and

D e v e lo p m e n t

C o n v e n t i o n o n C o m b a t i n g B r i b e r y o f F o r e i g n P u b l i c O f f i c i a l s in In te rn a tio n a l B u sin e ss T r a n s a c tio n s A d o p te d by O E C D m e m b e rs in 1997 (an d e n te re d in to force in 1999), th e C o n v e n tio n im p o ses c rim in a l san ctio n s o n th o se c o n v ic te d o f b rib in g fo reign officials a n d p ro v id es for m o n ito rin g a n d e v a lu a tio n th ro u g h c o u n try p e e r review s. In a c o m p lim e n ­ ta ry a c tio n , O E C D p u b lish e d R isk Awareness Toolfo r Multinational Enterprises in Weak Governance Zones, w hich a d d resses risks a n d eth ic a l d ile m m a s th a t c o m p a n ie s a re likely to face in p a rtic u la r c o u n trie s w ith w eak in stitu tio n s. (O E C D ) O r g a n is a tio n for E c o n o m ic C o -o p e r a t io n and D e v e lo p m e n t - D e ­ v e lo p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e C o m m i t t e e P a r t I List ( O E C D - D A C

Part

I li s t ) - A list o f th e w o rld ’s d e v elo p in g c o u n trie s classified as least d ev el­

o p e d c o u n tries, lo w -in co m e c o u n trie s, lo w er m id d le in c o m e c o u n trie s, u p ­ p e r m id d le in c o m e c o u n trie s. (O E C D ) O r g a n is a tio n for E c o n o m ic C o -o p e r a t io n and D e v e lo p m e n t - D e ­ v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e C o m m i t t e e P a r t II L i s t ( O E C D - D A C P a r t II li s t ) - C o u n trie s classified as b e in g ‘in tra n s itio n ’ to m a rk e t e co n o m ics a n d d ev elo p e d c o u n try statu s by th e O E C D -D A C . (O E C D ) O r g a n iz a t io n of A fric a n U n it y ( O A U )

T h e O rg a n iz a tio n o f A frican U n ity w as e stab lish ed in 1963 to p ro m o te self-g o v e rn m en t, rc sp c c t for te r­ rito rial b o u n d a rie s, a n d social p ro g ress th r o u g h o u t th e A frican C o n tin e n t. M e m b e rs h ip is o p e n to all in d e p e n d e n t A frica n c o u n tries. T h e O A U w as re p la c e d in 2001 by th e A fric a n U n io n .

O r g a n i z a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n S t a t e s ( O A S ) - A w e ste rn h e m isp h e re o r­

g a n iz a tio n e stab lish ed in 1890 (as th e P a n A m e ric a n U n io n ) to p ro v id e a fo ru m for p o litic a l, e c o n o m ic , social a n d c u ltu ra l c o o p e ra tio n a m o n g its 35 m e m b e r a n d 5 4 o b se rv e r states. T h e O A S C h a r te r w as o p e n e d fo r sig n a ­ tu re in 1948 a n d e n te re d in to force in 1950. (OAS) O r g a n i z a t i o n o f E a s t e r n C a r i b b e a n S t a t e s ( O E C S ) - T h e O E C S ca m c

in to b e in g in J u n e 1981, w h en seven e a ste rn C a rib b e a n c o u n trie s sig n ed a tre a ty a g re e in g to c o o p e ra te w ith ea c h o th e r a n d p ro m o te u n ity a n d

203

O s lo C o n v e n tio n

s o lid a rity a m o n g th e M e m b e rs . T h e T r e a ty b e c a m e k n o w n as th e T re a ty o f B a sse te rre , so n a m e d in h o n o r o f th e c a p ita l city o f S t. K itts a n d N ev is w h e re it w as sig n e d . T h e O E G S is n o w a n in e - m e m b e r g ro u p in g c o m p ris in g A n tig u a a n d B a rb u d a , C o m m o n w e a lth o f D o m in ic a , G r e n a d a , M o n ts e r r a t, S t. K itts a n d N ev is, S t. L u c ia , a n d S t. V in c e n t a n d th e G re n a d in e s . A n g u illa a n d th e B ritish V irg in Is la n d s a rc a ss o c ia te m e m b e rs o f th e O E C S . O slo C o n v e n tio n

- S e e ‘C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f M a r i n e

P o llu tio n b y D u m p in g fr o m S h ip s a n d A ir c r a ft.’ O S P A R C o n v e n tio n

T h e C o n v e n tio n fo r th e P ro te c tio n o f th e M a r in e

E n v ir o n m e n t o f th e N o r th - E a s t A tla n tic w a s o p e n e d fo r s ig n a tu re a t th e M in is te ria l M e e tin g o f th e O slo a n d P a ris C o m m is s io n s in P a ris o n 22 S e p ­ te m b e r, 1992 a n d e n te r e d in to fo rc e o n 25 M a r c h , 1 9 9 8 . (E E A ) O u r C o m m o n F u t u r e - T h e fin a l r e p o r t o f th e U N W o rld C o m m is s io n o n

E n v ir o n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t p u b lis h e d in 1987. S e e ‘S u s t a i n a b l e d e ­ v e lo p m e n t.1 O u t f a l l - T h e p o in t o f d is c h a rg e o f w a ste w a te r. O v e r a r c h i n g r o l e - A te r m v a rio u sly u s e d to m e a n th e ‘p r e p o n d e r a n t,’ ‘s tr a ­

te g ic ,’ a n d / o r ‘o v e rr id in g ’ o b je c tiv e o r th e m e o f a n in s titu tio n th a t m a y in ­ c lu d e a sen se o f a h ig h d e g re e o f f o r m a l a n d in f o rm a l in flu e n c e . O xfam

A B ritish N G O fo rm e d in 1942 as a d e v e lo p m e n t, re lie f a n d c a m ­ p a ig n in g o rg a n iz a tio n d e d ic a te d to fin d in g la s tin g s o lu tio n s to p o v e rty a n d su ffe rin g a r o u n d th e w o rld . (O x)

O z o n e - T e c h n ic a lly , th e tria to m ic , a llo tro p ic fo rm o f o x y g e n , w ith th e fo r­

m u la O . WTh a t is im p o r t a n t fo r h u m a n ity is th a t o z o n e is th e m o s t c h e m i­ cally activ e fo rm o f o x y g en a n d o v e r tim e s p a n s o f se v e ra l m o n th s is o n ly se m i-s ta b le . In th e te rre s tria l e n v ir o n m e n t it h a s tw o so u rc e s a n d tw o a re a s o f c o n c e n tra tio n : (a) in th e s tra to s p h e re it is a n o r m a l n a tu r a l p r o d u c t o f so la r ra d ia tio n , b u t is s u b je c t to a c c c le ra tc d d e s tru c tio n by a n th r o p o g e n ic re le a se in to th e a tm o s p h e re o f c e rta in c h lo rin e a n d n itro g e n c o m p o u n d s ; a n d (b) a t th e E a r t h ’s su rfa c e in u r b a n e n v ir o n m e n ts as a p r o d u c t o f u rb a n p o llu tio n in p h o to c h e m ic a l sm o g . (E E S) Ozone

d e p l e t i n g s u b s t a n c e s - A c o m p o u n d th a t c o n tr ib u te s to s tra t­

o s p h e ric o z o n e d e p le tio n . (E E S ) O z o n e h o l e - A s h a r p se a s o n a l d e c re a s e in s tra to s p h e ric o z o n e c o n c e n tr a ­

tio n th a t o c c u rs o v e r A n ta r c tic a in th e sp rin g . F irs t d e te c te d in th e la te 1970s, th e o z o n e h o le c o n tin u e s to a p p e a r b e c a u s e o f c o m p le x c h e m ic a l re a c tio n s in th e a tm o s p h e r e th a t in v o lv es C F C s . (E E A ) O z o n e l a y e r - V e ry d ilu te a tm o s p h e ric c o n c e n tr a tio n o f o z o n e fo u n d a t a n

a ltitu d e o f 1 0 -5 0 k m a b o v e th e E a r t h ’s su rfa c e . (E E A )

204

Pp P s t a f f - See ‘P - l e v e l s t a f f . ’ P5 ( I ) - T he h ig h est ra n k fo r p ro fe s s io n a l/te c h n ic a l sta ff in th e U N p e rs o n ­

nel classification system . See ‘P - l e v e l s t a f f . ' P5 (2)

T h e five p e r m a n e n t a n d v e to -w ield in g m e m b e rs o f th e U N S ec u ­ rity C o u n c il (C h in a , F ran c e, R ussia, th e U K a n d th e U S). (U N )

P a ct a s u n t s e r v a n d a - T h e d o c trin e th a t a g re e m e n ts m u st be o b serv ed

(th at is: h o n o re d , a n d obeyed). (BLD) Pan A m e ric a n H e a lth O r g a n iz a tio n ( P A H O )

A sp ecialized o rg a n iz a ­ tion o f the O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates a n d a re g io n a l a g e n c y o f th e W orld H e a lth O rg a n iz a tio n fo u n d e d in 1902. It p ro v id es te c h n ic a l assist­ an c e to L a tin A m e ric a a n d th e C a rib b e a n in e n v iro n m e n ta l h e a lth a n d sa n ita tio n ; w a te r supply, w astew ater, c o n tro l o f air, w a te r a n d soil p o llu tio n a n d h a z a rd o u s w astes. (P A H O )

P a n A m e r i c a n U n i o n - T h e p re d e c e s so r to th e O A S a n d th e w o rld ’s o ld ­

est re g io n a l o rg a n iz a tio n d a tin g to th e F irst In te rn a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e o f A m e ric a n S tates h eld in W a sh in g to n , D C from O c to b c r 1889 to A p ril 1890. (W P) P a n d e m i c - W id e s p re a d th ro u g h o u t an a re a , n a tio n o r th e w o rld . (M W ) P a re n t m a te r ia l

T h e m in e ra l m a te ria l from w h ich soil form s.

Paris C lu b

A g ro u p o f 19 g o v e rn m e n ts th a t h o ld claim s o n o th e r g o v e rn ­ m e n ts e ith e r d irectly o r th ro u g h th e ir g o v e rn m e n t in stitu tio n s. C re a te d to m a in ta in strict sta n d a rd s for n e g o tia tin g d e b t-re s tru c tu rin g a rra n g e m e n ts w ith b ila te ra l c re d ito rs. T h e follow ing c o u n trie s are p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs: A u stria, A u stra lia , B elg iu m , C a n a d a , D e n m a rk , F in la n d , F ra n c e , G e rm a n y , Ire la n d , Italy, J a p a n , T h e N e th e rla n d s, N orw ay, R ussian F e d e ra tio n , S p ain , S w ed en , S w itz e rla n d , th e U K a n d th e U S .

P a r i s C o n f e r e n c e f o r G l o b a l E c o l o g i c a l G o v e r n a n c e - T h e so-called

‘C itizen s o f th e E a rth C o n fe re n c e ’ w as h eld in P aris in early 2007 to receive th e IP C C re p o rt o n g lo b al w a rm in g . A t th a t C o n fe re n c e P re sid e n t J a c q u e s C h ira c o f F ra n c e called fo r th e e sta b lish m e n t o f a U N O rg a n iz a tio n to d ea l w ith g lo b al e n v iro n m e n ta l issues su ch as c lim a te ch an g e . S o m e 45 c o u n trie s sig n ed a le tte r o f in te n t to su p p o rt su ch a n in itiate.

Parliam ent

P a r l i a m e n t - A b o d y o f in d iv id u a ls to w h o m th e p e o p le h av e e n tru ste d

th e resp o n sib ility o f re p re se n tin g th em by lay in g d o w n th e legal fra m e ­ w ork w ith in w h ic h so ciety shall be g o v e rn e d a n d seein g to it th a t these legal co n d itio n s a re im p le m e n te d in a resp o n sib le m a n n e r by th e E x ecu tiv e a n d th ro u g h th e c re a tio n o f law s. (IPU ) P a rtic ip a tio n

A p ro ccss th ro u g h w h ich stak e h o ld e rs in flu e n c e a n d sh a re c o n tro l over d e v e lo p m e n t initiativ es a n d th e d ecisio n s a n d reso u rc es th a t a i l e d th e m . It is a p ro cess th a t c a n im p ro v e th e quality, effectiveness a n d su sta in a b ility o f p ro je c ts a n d s tre n g th e n o w n e rsh ip a n d c o m m itm e n t o f g o v e rn m e n t a n d stak e h o ld ers. (WB)

P a r t i c i p a t o r y u r b a n g o v e r n a n c e - T h e relativ e d e g re e to w h ic h citizen s

arc involved in lo cal p olicy d e v e lo p m e n t, p la n n in g , p ro g ra m m in g , b u d g e t­ ing, service d eliv ery a n d m o n ito rin g . (U N C H S ) P a rtic u la te m a t t e r

In th e fo rm o f sm all liq u id o r solid p article s, p a rtic u ­ late m a tte r is su sp e n d e d in e ith e r a gas o r a liq u id m e d iu m . (EES)

P a r t n e r s h i p ( I ) - A re la tio n sh ip re se m b lin g a leg al p a rtn e rs h ip a n d u su ­

ally involving elose c o o p e ra tio n b e tw e e n p a rtie s h a v in g specified a n d jo in t rig h ts a n d resp o n sib ilities. (M W ) P a r t n e r s h i p (2)

T w o o r m o re p a rtie s c o m b in in g k n o w led g e, skills a n d m e a n s to achiev e a c o m m o n goal. (U N E S C O )

P a rts pe r m illio n /b illio n

T h e n u m b e r o f "p arts’ by w e ig h t o f a s u b ­ stan ce p e r m illio n o r billion p a rts o f a ir o r w a te r a n d n o rm a lly u sed to re c o rd p o llu tio n c o n c e n tra tio n s.

Party

A state th a t h as c o n se n te d to be b o u n d by th e tre a ty a n d for w h ich th e tre a ty is in force. (VC)

Patent

A n in c o rp o re a l sta tu to ry rig h t th a t gives a n in v e n to r, for a lim ited p e rio d , th e exclusive rig h t to use o r sell a p a te n te d p ro d u c t, m e th o d o r process. (M W )

P D F A , P D F B - See ‘P r o j e c t P r e p a r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t F a c i l i t y . Peacekee p in g

- T h e d e p lo y m e n t o f a U N p re se n c e in th e field, w ith th e c o n se n t o f all the p a rtie s c o n c e rn e d , n o rm a lly in volving U N m ilitary a n d / o r po lice p e rs o n n e l a n d fre q u e n tly civilians as w ell. P e a c e k e e p in g is a te c h ­ n iq u e th a t e x p a n d s th e possibilities fo r b o th th e p re v e n tio n o f co n flict a n d the m a k in g o f p e a ce . A d ecisio n o f th e S e c u rity C o u n c il is o ften c o n sid ered to b e a n ecessary step p rio r to d e p lo y m e n t o f tro o p s. (U N )

P e a ce m a k in g

A ctio n to b rin g h ostile p a rtie s to a g re e m e n t, essentially th ro u g h such p e a ce fu l m e a n s as th o se fo reseen in C h a p te r V I o f th e C h a r ­ te r o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s. (U N )

206

Peak level

P e a k le v e l - L evel o f a ir b o rn e p o llu ta n t c o n ta m in a n ts m u c h h ig h e r th a n

av erag e o r o c c u rrin g fo r sh o rt p e rio d s o f tim e in re sp o n se to su d d e n re ­ leases o r in ten se clim atic o c c u rre n c e s. Pela gic

species -

Fish th a t live a t o r n e a r th e su rfac e o f th e w ater.

(N R D C ) P e o p l e - p l a n e t - p r o f i t - S ee ‘T r i p l e b o t t o m - l i n e . ' P e o p l e ’s S u m m i t - A series o f m eetin g s h e ld in R io de J a n e iro in 1992 to

c o in cid e w ith th e m e e tin g s o f U N C E D a tte n d e d by th o u s a n d s o f p riv ate citizens, a n d re p re se n ta tiv e s from N G O s , in d ig e n o u s p eo p les, businesses, scientific a n d sp iritu a l g ro u p s fro m all o v er th e w orld. P e r d i e m - See ‘D a i l y s u b s i s t e n c e a l l o w a n c e . ’ P e r m -5

C o u n c il

A re fere n ce to th e five p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs o f th e U N S ecu rity C h in a , F ra n ce R ussia, th e U K a n d th e U S . (U N W )

P e r m -5 ‘c o n v e n t i o n ’ - A n u n w ritte n , c u sto m a ry p ra c tic e w h e re b y th e

five p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs o f th e S e c u rity C o u n c il a re allo w ed to serve on a n y U N b o d y th e y ch o o se, in ex c h a n g e fo r ra re ly seek in g th e le a d e rsh ip o f those entities. It is a rg u e d th a t th e p re se n c e o f th e p e r m a n e n t five o n any U N b o d y m ak es it m o re serio u s a n d m o re likely to su cceed o v er th e lo n g te rm , b u t at th e sa m e tim e c a n be v iew ed as to o h e a v y -h a n d e d by o th e r M e m b e r S tates. (U NW r) P e r m a f r o s t - G ro u n d th a t re m a in s fro zen at o r below 0°C fo r a t least tw o

co n secu tiv e years. (EES) P e rsiste n t o rg a n ic p o llu t a n t s ( P O P s )

C h e m ic a l su b sta n ce s th a t bio a c c u m u la tc th ro u g h th e food w eb a n d pose a lo n g -te rm risk to h u m a n a n d en v iro n m e n ta l h ea lth .

P e r s o n a n o n g r a t a - A n in d iv id u a l w h o is u n a c c e p ta b le to o r u n w elco m e by a g o v e rn m e n t. Pe rv e rse e n v ir o n m e n ta l su b sid ies, c o n c e p t o f

L arg e su m s o f m o n ey th a t g o v e rn m e n ts p a y to su p p o rt in d u strie s th a t m ig h t be u n e c o n o m ic w ith ­ o u t th e subsidies, b u t w h ich m ay b e c o n sid e re d strateg ic to th e w elfare o f a c o m m u n ity o r a co u n try . F or e x a m p le , su p p o rt to N o rth A tla n tic fisheries, su g a r g ro w in g in th e U S o r c o tto n g ro w in g in A u stralia . (Jared, 2005)

Pesticides

C h e m ic a l a g e n ts u sed to d e stro y pests. (N R D C )

P h ila n th ro p re n e u rs

A new g e n e ra tio n o f p h ila n th ro p ists w h o believe th a t d o n a tin g a p o rtio n o f th e ir w ealth to se lected c h a ritie s can positively im p a c t th e d ev e lo p m e n t p ro cess. S ee B i l l a n t h r o p h y . ’

207

pH scale

p H s c a l e - A m e a s u re fo r th e d e g re e o f acid ity o f a p a rtic u la r su b sta n c e

on a 0 - 1 4 scale. A m e a s u re o f 14 in d ic a te s th a t th e su b sta n c e is e x tre m e ly alk alin e, a m e a su re o f 0 in d ic a te s p u re acid . P I C C o n v e n t i o n - T h e P IC C o n v e n tio n (T h e R o tte rd a m C o n v e n tio n on

the P rio r In fo rm e d C o n s e n t P ro c e d u re for C e rta in H a z a rd o u s C h e m ic a ls a n d Pesticides in In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e ) w as o p e n e d fo r sig n a tu re in 1998 a n d will co m e in to force w h e n ratified by 50 c o u n trie s. T h e C o n v e n tio n will allow m o n ito rin g a n d c o n tro l o f in te rn a tio n a l tra d e in v a rio u s h e a lth th re a te n in g ch em icals. Im p o rtin g c o u n trie s w ill d e c id e w h ich c h em ic a ls they w a n t to receiv e a n d to ex clu d e th o se th ey c a n n o t safely m a n a g e . (P IC ) P I M B Y , p r i n c i p l e o f - S ee ‘P l e a s e i n m y b a c k y a r d , p r i n c i p l e of.' P i n o c h e t p r i n c i p l e / c o n c e p t - T h e te rm refers to in te rn a tio n a l a tte m p ts

by a n u m b e r o f c o u n trie s to p u rs u e ju s tic e a g a in st th e fo rm e r P re s id e n t o f C h ile for crim e s a g a in st citizen s o f C h ile c o m m itte d d u rin g his a d m in is tra ­ tion. T h e c o n c c p t refers to in d iv id u a l re sp o n sib ility fo r in te rn a tio n a l crim e s as d efin ed by U N p rin c ip le s a n d p ra c tic e s, in a d d itio n to th o se o f a n u m b e r o f c o u n trie s a n d re g io n a l e n tities w ith a c o m m o n b o d y o f law su ch as th e E U . W h ile th e te rm has g e n erally b e e n a p p lie d to h u m a n rig h ts vio latio n s, referen ce h as b e e n m a d e to th e c o n c e p t in p u rs u in g resp o n sib le p a rtie s for o th e r ‘c rim e s’ in tr a n s b o u n d a ry e n v iro n m e n ta l p o llu tio n o r b o u n d a ry v io latio n cases. (IPS; U N ) See ‘U n i v e r s a l j u r i s d i c t i o n c a s e s , ’ I n t e r ­ n a tio n a l C r im in a l C o u rt.’ P l a n o f a c t i o n - A n official d o c u m e n t th a t o u tlin e s th e goals, o b jectives,

m a n d a te s, p a rtn e rs h ip s , c o o rd in a tio n a n d m a n a g e m e n t processes, tim e fra m e a n d fu n d in g m e c h a n ism s o f a n initiative, p ro je c t o r p ro g ra m . P la n o f Im p l e m e n t a t i o n

T h e P la n o f Im p le m e n ta tio n is o n e o f tw o d o c u m e n ts sig n ed a t th e 20 0 2 W o rld S u m m it o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t. It is a fram ew o rk fo r a c tio n fo r im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e U N C E D c o m m it­ m e n ts a n d in clu d e s a n in tro d u c tio n a n d c h a p te rs on p o v e rty e ra d ic a tio n ; c o n su m p tio n a n d p ro d u c tio n ; th e n a tu ra l re so u rc e base; h e a lth ; S ID S ; A f­ rica as a p rio rity a re a fo r O D A in v estm en t; o th e r reg io n a l initiatives; m e a n s o f im p le m e n ta tio n ; a n d a n in stitu tio n a l fram ew o rk .

P la n e ta ry en gin e e rin g

- T h e a p p lic a tio n o f te c h n o lo g y fo r th e p u rp o s e o f in flu en cin g th e g lo b al p ro p e rtie s o f a p la n e t. T h e g oal o f this th e o re tic a l task is to m ak e th e w 'orld m o re su itab le for su p p o rtin g life, o r o th e r w o rld s h a b ita b le for life. (W P) See ‘G e o e n g i n e e r i n g . ’

P lan t G e n e tic R e so u rce s for F ood and A g ric u ltu re ( P G R F A )

A ny m a te ria l o f p la n t o rig in , in c lu d in g re p ro d u c tiv e a n d v eg etativ e p ro p a g a tin g m a te ria l, as w ell as th e g e n e tic p a rts a n d c o m p o n e n ts, c o n ta in in g fu n c tio n ­ al u n its o f h ered ity , o f a c tu a l o r p o te n tia l v alu e for food a n d a g ric u ltu re . (FAO)

208

Please in my b ackyard , principle of

P l e a s e in m y b a c k y a r d , p r i n c i p l e o f - T h e so -calle d ‘P IM B Y principle*

is th e c o u n te r to th e ‘N IM B Y p rin c ip le ’ a n d im p lies su p p o rt for a p ro p o s e d d e v e lo p m e n t o r in v e stm e n t o n th e p a r t o f a c itiz en s’ g ro u p w h o c o n sid e r th em selves as p a rtn e rs o r stak e h o ld e rs in th e p ro cess. See ‘N I M B Y , p r i n ­ c i p l e of.' P l e d g i n g c o n f e r e n c e - Sec D o n o r c o n f e r e n c e . ’ P le n a ry

A n o p e n session o f th e e n tire C o n fe re n c e o f th e P a rtie s to a c o n ­ v en tio n o r to an y o f th e su b sid ia ry b o d ie s w h e re all fo rm a l d ecisio n s are m a d e . (B C H M )

P l e n i p o t e n t i a r y - A p e rso n w h o h as full p o w e r to d o so m eth in g . T h e

p e rso n a u th o riz e d by an in s tru m e n t o f full p o w e rs to u n d e rta k e a specific tre a ty ac tio n . (U N T ) In in te rn a tio n a l law, a se n io r d ip lo m a tic officer c o m ­ m issio n ed to a c t for his o r h e r g o v e rn m e n t. A minister plenipotentiary is o n e w h o by cu sto m ran k s im m e d ia te ly belo w a n a m b a s s a d o r a n d is o f th e sam e ra n k as a n envoy ex tra o rd in a ry . P - l e v e l s t a f f - A te rm u se d to c a te g o riz e p ro fessio n al level sta ff (an d sal­

a r y /b e n e f it p ack ag e) in th e U N a n d O A S system s, sta rtin g at P I a n d risin g to P5; sim ilar to m o st civil service ra n k in g system s.. P M I 0, 20, 30, e t c .

P a rtic u la te m a te ria l less th a n 10 m ic ro n s in d ia m eter.

(N R D C ) P o i n t o f o r d e r - A ch allen g e fro m a p a rtic ip a n t w ith ‘voice rig h ts ’, via th e

chair, to th e p ro c e d u re th a t is b e in g follow ed o r to th e g e rm a n c n c ss o f an a m e n d m e n t o r in te rv e n tio n b e in g o ffered a t a m eetin g . (eD) P o in t-so u rc e p o llu tio n (P S P )

P o llu tio n d isc h a rg e d d irectly fro m a sp e ­ cific site su ch as a m u n ic ip a l sew age tre a tm e n t p la n t o r a n in d u s tria l o u tfall p ip e. (U SE PA )

P o l i t i c a l f o c a l p o i n t - A focal p o in t resp o n sib le for c o o rd in a tio n m a tte rs

related to G E F g o v e rn a n c e . See ‘O p e r a t i o n a l f o c a l p o i n t . ’ P o l i t i c a l w ill

H a v in g th e fo rtitu d e a n d d e te rm in a tio n to take a d ecision o n a co n tro v ersia l issue a n d th e w illingness to a c c e p t th e p o litic a l fallo u t o r ram ificatio n s from such a d ecisio n . 'F ak in g th e ro u te o f m in im u m conflict. S ee th e essay p 2 4 .

P olitically c o rre c t

A te rm used to d e sc rib e la n g u a g e th a t a p p e a rs c a lc u ­ lated to p ro v id e a m in im u m o f offense, p a rtic u la rly to th e racial, c u ltu ra l o r o th e r id e n tity g ro u p s b e in g d e sc rib e d o r discusscd. (W P)

P olity -

A specific fo rm o f p o litical o rg a n iz a tio n . (M W ) T h e form of' g o v e rn m e n t o f a n a tio n , state o r o rg a n iz a tio n o r th e p o litic a l o rg a n iz a tio n itself, such as a n a tio n .

209

Polluter pays principle (PPP)

P o l l u t e r p a y s p r i n c i p l e ( P P P ) - T h e c o n c e p t th a t th e co st o f m e a su res

n e e d e d to im p ro v e a p o llu te d e n v iro n m e n t to an a c c e p ta b le state sh o u ld be reflected in th e cost o f th e g o o d s a n d services w h o se p ro d u c tio n (or c o n ­ su m p tio n ) c au se d th e p o llu tio n . (EES) P o l l u t i o n o f f s e t s —A c o n c e p t w h e re b y em issio n s from a p ro p o s e d n e w o r

m o d ified sta tio n a ry so u rce a re b a la n c e d by re d u c tio n s from e x istin g sources to stabilize to ta l em issions. (U SEPA ) P o llu tio n

p r e v e n t i o n - T h e use o f p rocesses, p rac tic e s, m ate ria ls, p ro d u c ts o r e n e rg y th a t avoid o r m in im iz e th e c re a tio n o f p o llu ta n ts a n d w aste, a n d th a t re d u c e th e overall risk to h u m a n h e a lth o r th e en v iro n m e n t. P o llu tio n p re v e n tio n a n d c le a n e r p ro d u c tio n b o th focus o n a stra te g y o f c o n tin u o u sly re d u c in g p o llu tio n . (EG)

P o p u l a t i o n - A g ro u p o f in d iv id u a ls w ith c o m m o n a n c e stry th a t a rc m u ch

m o re likely to m a te w ith o n e a n o th e r th a n w ith in d iv id u a ls fro m a n o th e r such g ro u p . (G BS) P o p u l a t i o n a t r i s k — C e rta in p o p u la tio n s w h o are m o re likely to e x p e ri­

en ce in c re a se d risks o f diseases, in ju ries, a tta c k o r th e effccts o f n a tu ra l o r m a n -in d u c e d d isasters as a resu lt o f bio lo g ic, social a n d / o r e c o n o m ic c h a ra c te ristic s such as age, race, g e n etic susceptibility, la n g u a g e , literacy, c u ltu re, h isto ric rivalries, living c o n d itio n s a n d low in c o m e . (U N ) P o rtfo lio

T h e a re a o f official resp o n sib ility o r d u tie s o f an in d iv id u al, office o r in stitu tio n ; th e c o llectio n o f p ro g ra m s a n d p ro je c ts b e lo n g in g to a given th em e.

Portu gu ese

C o o p e r a t i o n I n s t i t u t e ( I C P ) - T h e p rin c ip a l ag en cy th ro u g h w h ich P o rtu g a l p ro v id es te c h n ic a l assistan ce a n d d is trib u te s fo r­ eign aid.

P o sitiv e s u m

T h e id e a , from g a m e th e o ry th a t w h e n a g e n ts in te ra c t they c an b o th b en e fit, th e w h o le b e in g g re a te r th a n th e su m o f th e p a rts; also callcd sy n erg y o r ‘w in —w in .’ (C S G )

P o s t / P o s t i n g - A n official c a re e r a ssig n m e n t (p o s itio n )/lo c a tio n o f assign­

m e n t. (U N ) P o s t a d j u s t m e n t i n d e x - A fo rm u la th a t w h e n a p p lie d m e a su re s living

co n d itio n s o f U N sta ff in a given lo c a tio n c o m p a re d w ith costs, b a se d on a b ask et o f go o d s a n d services, in N ew York o n a specific d ate. Post a d ju s t­ m e n t is a s u p p le m e n t to b ase p a y a n d is c a lc u la te d as a p e rc e n ta g e o f n e t base pay. (U N ) P o tab le w a te r

W a te r th a t is su itab le for h u m a n c o n su m p tio n d rin k a b le a n d safe. ‘D rin k a b le ’ w a te r m e a n s it is free o f u n p le a s a n t o d o rs, tastes a n d

210

Poverty, relative

colors, a n d is w ith in re a s o n a b le lim its o f te m p e ra tu re . ‘S a fe ’ w a te r m e a n s it c o n ta in s n o to x in s, c a rc in o g e n s, p a th o g e n ic m ic ro o rg a n ism s o r o th e r h e a lth h a z a rd s. (EES) P o ve rty, relative

A te rm , n o rm a lly legally d efin e d a t a n a tio n a l o r re ­ gio n al level, as th e m in im u m in c o m e re q u ire d to m a in ta in a lifestyle c o n ­ sid ered a c c e p ta b le by c o m m u n ity (n atio n ally o r reg io n ally ) sta n d a rd s, a n d in c lu d in g such m e a su re s as shelter, su ste n a n c e , access to h e a lth services, e d u c a tio n , tr a n s p o rta tio n , etc.

Poverty, subje ctive

A te rm d e fin in g ‘p o v e rty ’ th a t is b a se d o n in d iv id u a l p e rc e p tio n s o f in c o m e levels re q u ire d to m a in ta in a n a c c e p ta b le sta n d a rd o f living.

P r e c a u t i o n a r y P r i n c i p l e - A p rin c ip le a d o p te d by th e 1992 U N C o n ­

ference on E n v iro n m e n t a n d D e v e lo p m e n t (R io p rin c ip le 15) statin g : (1) th a t e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n m e a su re s sh o u ld be a p p lie d w h e re th re a ts o f serious o r irrev ersib le e n v iro n m e n ta l d a m a g e c a n be seen ev en th o u g h th e re is a lack o f full scientific c e rta in ty o f th e th re a t, a n d (2) th a t th is lack o f c e rta in ty sh o u ld n o t b e u se d to p o stp o n e cost-effective a c tio n s to p r e ­ v en t e n v iro n m e n ta l d e g ra d a tio n . U se d for th e first tim e a t th e 1990 B erg en C o n fe re n c e , w'hich sta te d : ‘w h e n c o n fro n te d w ith serio u s o r irrev ersib le e n ­ v iro n m e n ta l th re a ts, th e a b sen ce o f a b so lu te scicntific c e rta in ty sh o u ld n o t serve as a p re te x t fo r d elay in g th e a d o p tio n o f m e a su re s to p re v e n t e n v i­ ro n m e n ta l d e g ra d a tio n .’ A lso re fe rre d to as th e ‘p re c a u tio n a r y a p p ro a c h .’ (U N F C C C ) P r e c i s i o n - T h e d e g re e o f re p ro d u c ib ility o f a m e a s u re m e n t. Low p rec isio n

yields h igh sc a tte r in d a ta . (S F W M D ) See A c c u r a c y . ’ P re e m p tiv e inte rve n tio n , c o n c e p t of

A c o n c e p t, as yet u n a c c e p te d by th e in te rn a tio n a l co m m u n ity , u n d e r w h ic h a S tate (or g ro u p o f S tates) take a u n ila te ra l d ecisio n to in te rv e n e in th e affairs o f a n o th e r S ta te (or g ro u p o f S tates) for v ested in te re sts (strategic, p o litical, e c o n o m ic , etc.) o r h u m a n ita r­ ian o r altru istic goals. (T h e A sp en In stitu te , 1996) S ee ‘H u m a n i t a r i a n in te r v e n tio n .'

P r e p a r a t o r y c o m m i t t e e ( P r e p C o m ) - A c o m m itte e esta b lish e d as an

a d m in istra tiv e step in th e p ro cess to dev elo p a n in te rn a tio n a l co n fere n c e in o rd e r to ach iev e c o n se n su s o n issues a n d p rc -n e g o tia tc d d o c u m e n ts th a t w o rld le a d e rs a re to ap p ro v e. P r e s i d e n t ( I ) - E lec te d in d iv id u a l w h o p re sid e s o v er a m e e tin g o r asse m ­

bly. For e x am p le , a p e rs o n , g e n erally a se n io r official o r m in iste r from the state o r reg io n h o stin g th e m e e tin g elec ted by th e C O P to p re sid e o v er th a t m eetin g . (M W ) P r e s i d e n t (2 ) - A n e le c te d official h a v in g th e p o sitio n o f b o th h e a d o r c h ie f

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President (3)

o f state a n d c h ie f p o litical ex ecu tiv e in a re p u b lic h a v in g a p re sid e n tia l g o v e rn m e n t. (M W ) P r e s i d e n t (3) - A n c lc c tc d official h a v in g th e p o sitio n o f h e a d o r c h ie f o f

state, b u t w ith o n ly m in im a l o r c e re m o n ia l p o litical p o w ers in a rep u b lic h av in g a p a rlia m e n ta ry g o v e rn m e n t. (M W ) P re sid iu m

A n ex ecu tiv e c o m m itte e o f a legislative o r o rg a n iz a tio n a l b o d y th a t acts for th e la rg e r g ro u p w h e n it is n o t in session (W P)

P r e v e n t i v e d i p l o m a c y - A c tio n to p re v e n t d isp u te s from a risin g b e tw e e n

p a rtie s, to p re v e n t existin g d isp u te s from e sca la tin g in to conflicts a n d to lim it th e sp re a d o f th e la tte r w h e n th ey occur. (U N ) P r i m a r y f o r e s t - A fo rest larg ely u n d is tu rb e d by h u m a n activities. P r i m a r y p r o d u c t i v i t y - T h e ra te at w h ich n e w p la n t b io m ass is fo rm e d

by p h o to sy n th e sis. G ross p rim a ry p ro d u c tiv ity is th e to ta l ra te o f p h o to ­ sy n th etic p ro d u c tio n o f b io m ass; n e t p rim a ry p ro d u c tiv ity is gross p r i­ m a ry p ro d u c tiv ity m in u s th e re sp ira tio n rate . (NASA) T h e tra n sfo rm a tio n o f ch e m ic a l o r so lar e n e rg y to bio m ass. M o st p rim a ry p ro d u c tio n o ccu rs th ro u g h p h o to sy n th e sis. (GBS) P rim a ry sew age tre a tm e n t

R em o v a l o f flo atin g solids a n d su sp e n d e d solids, b o th fine a n d co arse, from raw sew age. (U SEPA )

P r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t - T r e a tm e n t o f u rb a n w a ste w a te r by a p h y sical a n d /

o r c h e m ic a l p ro c e ss in v o lv in g se ttle m e n t o f su s p e n d e d solids, o r o th e r p ro c ­ esses in w hich th e B O D a n d to tal su s p e n d e d solids o f th e in c o m in g w aste­ w a te r is re d u c e d to p re d e te rm in e d levels b efo re d isch arg e. (EEA ) P r i m e M i n i s t e r - T h e c h ie f p o litica l executive in a re p u b lic h av in g a p a r-

lia m e n ta ry g o v e rn m e n t. P rin ciple of s u b s id ia r it y

A g e n e ra l p rin c ip le e m b o d ie d in th e E U E n ­ v iro n m e n ta l D irectiv es th a t states th a t a d ecisio n sh o u ld be ta k e n a t th e ‘low est possible le v e r o r by th e p o p u la tio n m o st d ire c tly affected . T h e id ea is th a t m o re p ra c tic a l d ecisio n s a rc ta k e n in th is m a n n e r. (EU )

P r i n c i p l e s f o r r e s p o n s i b l e i n v e s t m e n t ( P R I ) - A set o f six p rin c ip les

fo rm ally e n d o rs e d by th e U N in 2 0 0 6 e n c o u ra g in g in stitu tio n a l investors w o rld w id e in w ays th a t p ro te c t th e p la n e t a n d m e e t social responsibilities. T h e p rin c ip le s, strictly v o lu n tary , will su p p o rt su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t, al­ lo w in g th e w o rld to d ev elo p e c o n o m ic a lly w ith o u t d e stro y in g n a tu r a l h a b i­ tats o r in c re a sin g poverty. (UNW T) P r i o r i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t , p r i n c i p l e o f ( P I C ) - A p rin c ip le esta b lish e d to

h elp p a rtic ip a tin g c o u n trie s k n o w th e c h a ra c te ristic s o f p o te n tia lly h a z a r d ­ ou s ch em icals th a t m a y b e sh ip p e d to th e m . T h e aim is to p ro m o te a sh a re d

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resp o n sib ility b e tw e e n e x p o rtin g a n d im p o rtin g c o u n trie s to p ro te c t h u m a n h e a lth from th e h a rm fu l effects o f c e rta in h a z a rd o u s c h e m ic a ls th a t are tra d e d in te rn atio n a lly . (P IC ) P rivate se c to r

In a m ix ed eco n o m y , th e p a r t o f th e e c o n o m y n o t u n d e r g o v e rn m e n t c o n tro l th a t fu n ctio n s w ith in th e m ark e t; p riv a te e n te rp rise . (U N D P )

P r i v a t i z a t i o n - Policies th a t allow th e c h a n g e o f a busin ess, ind u stry , a c tiv ­

ity o r in s titu tio n from p u b lic to p riv a te c o n tro l o r o w n ersh ip . (AD) P r o c e d u r a l equity, prin cip le o f

A p rin c ip le th a t refers to h o w d ecisio n s arc m a d e : (a) e q u ity im p lies th a t th o se w h o a re affected by d e cisio n s sh o u ld have som e say in th e m a k in g o f these d ecisio n s a n d (b) e q u ity m u st en su re eq u a l tr e a tm e n t b efo re th e law.

P ro c e d u ral la n gu a ge

See ' L a n g u a g e ( s ) , w o r k i n g /

P rocess in d icato rs

M o n ito rin g tools th a t c a n p ro v id e in fo rm a tio n a b o u t w h e re in te rv e n tio n s a re n e e d e d . (U N FPA )

P r o d u c t R e d - A B o n o -fo u n d e d p ro je c t, P ro d u c t R ed is n o t a c h a rity b u t

ra th e r a m o n e y g e n e ra tin g v en tu re . C o m p a n ie s d o n a te a p e rc e n ta g e o f profits o n R E D b ra n d p ro d u c ts to th e G lo b a l (A ID S) F u n d a n d in tu rn g ain access to an e x p a n d e d c u sto m e r b ase a n d th e 4h a lo ? effect o f d o in g g o o d for society. (U N W ) Program (I)

A c o h e re n t a n d in te ra c tiv e set o f p ro p o sa ls a n d p ro jec ts th a t a re sy n ch ro n iz e d w ith in a p la n n in g a n d im p le m e n ta tio n sch em e.

P r o g r a m (2)

A p o rtfo lio o f p ro je c ts th a t aim s to achieve a strateg ic g oal o f an o rg a n iz a tio n , p la n n e d a n d m a n a g e d in a c o o rd in a te d way.

P r o g r a m m e o f A c tio n o f the In te rn a tio n a l C o n fe re n ce on P o p ­ u l a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( I P C D ) - T h e IC P D w as h eld from 5 -1 3

S e p te m b e r 1994 in C a iro , E g y p t. IC P D d e leg a te s c o n sid e re d th e in te r­ c o n n e c te d n e ss o f p o p u la tio n , poverty, g en d er, p a tte rn s o f p ro d u c tio n a n d c o n su m p tio n a n d th e e n v iro n m e n t. T h e 1994 P ro g ra m o f A c tio n re c o m ­ m e n d e d a set o f im p o rta n t p o p u la tio n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t ob jectiv es, in c lu d ­ ing: su stain ed e c o n o m ic g ro w th in th e c o n te x t o f su sta in a b le d e v elo p m e n t; e d u c a tio n , esp ecially fo r girls; g e n d e r e q u ity a n d e q u a lity ; in fa n t, ch ild a n d m a te rn a l m o rta lity re d u c tio n ; a n d th e p ro v isio n o f u n iv e rsa l access to re ­ p ro d u c tiv e h e a lth services, in c lu d in g fam ily p la n n in g a n d sexual h e a lth care. P r o g r a m m e o f A c t i o n of the S pecial S e ss io n of the G e n e r a l A s ­ s e m b ly to R eview and A p p r a is e the Im p le m e n t a tio n of Agenda 21 ( U N G A S S ) - T h e 19th sp ecial session o f th e U N G A c o n v e n e d in Ju n e ,

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Project

1997 (E arth S u m m it +5) to review th e o u ts ta n d in g issues n o t fully resolved a t the U N C E D in c lu d in g fin an ce , clim a te c h a n g e , fre sh w a te r m a n a g e m e n t a n d forest m a n a g e m e n t. T h is session a d o p te d th e P ro g ra m m e fo r th e F u r­ th e r Im p le m e n ta tio n o f Agenda 21 ( A / R E S / S - 1 9 /2 ). It assessed p ro g ress since U N C E D , e x a m in e d im p le m e n ta tio n , a n d e sta b lish e d th e C S D ’s w ork p ro g ra m for th e p e rio d 1 9 9 8 -2 0 0 2 , le a d in g u p to W S S D . P r o j e c t - A p la n n e d a n d g o a l-o rie n te d so c io -e co n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t activity

re q u irin g fin an cial in v estm en t o r h u m a n p a rtic ip a tio n ov er a given tim e. P r o j e c t c y c le

A n o rd e re d series o f activ ities th a t in c lu d e p la n n in g , a p ­ p ro v al, e x e c u tio n , m o n ito rin g a n d ev a lu a tio n .

P ro je c t P r e p a r a t io n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t F acility ( P D F )

Facility th a t g ra n ts m o n ey to th e im p le m e n tin g ag cn cics fo r d e v e lo p in g p ro je c t c o n c e p ts in th re e blocks: Block A (up to S 25,000), Block B (up to 8 7 5 0 ,0 0 0 ) a n d m id ­ size o r B lock C (up to $ 1 m illion). B lock A fu n d s a re for p re -p ro je c t activities at n a tio n a l level. B lock B fu n d s arc for o b ta in in g in fo rm a tio n to c o m p le te p ro je c t p ro p o sals. Block C fu n d s a re a o n e -tim e G E F g ra n t for c o m p le tin g te c h n ic a l d esig n a n d feasibility stu d ies for larg e-scale p ro je c ts to be fu n d e d by a n o th e r entity. F o u r R e g io n a l D e v e lo p m e n t B anks (AfDB, A D B , E B R D an d ID B ), FAO, U N ID O a n d IFA D c a n access P D F -B reso u rces u n d e r th e e x p a n d e d o p p o rtu n itie s e x e cu tin g agcncies. (G E F)

P roject scre e nin g

A W o rld B an k p ro je c t classification m e th o d p re p a re d by th e p ro je c t te a m a n d b ase d o n its p o te n tia l e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c t an d th e refo re th e level o f e n v iro n m e n ta l a ssessm en t re q u ire d : c a te g o ry A EA is n o rm a lly re q u ire d as th e p ro jc c t m a y h av e sig n ifican t e n v iro n m e n ta l im ­ p acts; ca te g o ry B - a m o re lim ited E A is a p p ro p ria te as th e p ro je c t m ay have specific e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c ts; c a te g o ry C - E A is n o rm a lly n o t n e c ­ essary as th e p ro je c t is unlik ely to have sig n ifican t e n v iro n m e n ta l im p acts. (U S E P A ; W B )

P ro te cte d area

A g e o g ra p h ic a lly d e fin e d a re a (land o r sea) th a t is desig­ n a te d o r re g u la te d a n d m a n a g e d to ach ie v e specific c o n se rv a tio n o bjectives (C B D ). S o m e d efin itio n s su g g est th a t th e a re a n eed s to be legally desig­ n a te d . (W R I)

P ro te cted A r e a M a n a g e m e n t C a te g o rie s ( I U C N - W o r ld C o n s e r ­ v a t i o n U n i o n ) - A set o f m a n a g e m e n t o b jectiv es assig n ed to te n d ifferen t

classifications o f p ro te c te d areas: Category I: Scientific Reserve/Strict Nature Reserve. To protect nature and maintain natural processes in an undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of the natural environment available for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state.

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P ro te c tio n is m



Category II: National Park. To protect natural and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific, educational and



Category III: Natural Monument/Natural Landmark. To protect and preserve nationally significant natural features because of their special interest or unique characteristics.



Category IV: Managed Nature Reserve/Wildlife Sanctuary.To assure the natural conditions necessary to protect nationally significant species,

recreational use.

groups of species, biotic communities, or physical features of the environment where these require specific human manipulation for their perpetuation. Category V: Protected landscape or Seascape. To maintain nationally significant natural landscapes which are characteristic of the harmonious interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas. Category VI: Resource Reserve. To protect resources of the area for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives which are based upon appropriate knowledge and planning. •

Category VII: Natural Biotic Area /Anthropological Reserve. To allow the way of life of societies living in harmony with the environment to continue undisturbed by modern technology.



Category VIII: Multiple-Use Management Area/Managed Resource Area. To provide for the sustained production of water, timber, wildlife, pasture and outdoor recreation, with the conservation of nature primarily oriented to the support of economic activities (although specific zones may also be designed within these areas to achieve specific conservation objectives).



Category IX: Biosphere Reserve. These are part of an international scientific program, the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program, which is aimed at developing a reserve network representative of the world’s ecosystems to fulfill a range of objectives, including research, monitoring, training and demonstration, as well as conservation roles.



Category X: World Heritage Site. The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (which was adopted in Paris in 1972 and came into force in December, 1975) provides for the designation of areas of‘outstanding universal value’ as World Heritage Sites, with the principal aim of fostering international cooperation in safeguarding these important sites. (IUCN)

A n in te rn a tio n a l tra d e p h ilosop hy th a t favors the c reation o f b a rrie rs ag ainst the im p o r tin g o f g oods to shelter dom e stic industries from foreign co m p e titio n . (WP)

P ro te c tio n ism

P r o t e m p o r e - A te r m th a t best translates to ‘for the tim e b e in g ’ in English.

215

Protocol (1 )

T h is p h r a s e is m o st often used in politics o r in te rn a tio n a l d ip lo m a c y to describe a p e r s o n w h o acts as a locum tenens (placeholder) in the a b se n c e o f a superior. Sec ' A d i n t e r i m / (WP) P r o t o c o l ( I ) - A n in te r n a tio n a l a g r e e m e n t s u p p le m e n ta r y to a c o nv e ntio n

th a t ad ds to o r c h a n g e s som e provision o f the c o n v e n tio n only for the states p artie s w h o a d o p t th e pro to co l. (VC) P r o t o c o l (2)

In science, a series o f p re sc rib e d steps for c o n d u c tin g an e x p e r im e n t o r for p r o te c tin g the integrity o f sam ples o r d a ta collcctcd. (USEPA)

P r o t o t y p e C a r b o n F u n d ( P C F ) - W orld B an k fu n d in g o f U S S 1 45 m il­

lion to U g a n d a , C hile a n d L a tv ia for these a n d o th e r d e v e lo p in g co un tries to a d a p t to clim ate im p a c ts a n d develop emissions re d u c in g technologies. U n d e r this fun d, the W orld B an k will b u y c a r b o n dioxide em issions r e d u c ­ tions for u p to S3.9 million over 1 5 -2 0 years. P r o v i n c i a l i t y e f f e c t - I n c re a se d diversity o f species b ecau se o f g e o g r a p h i­

cal isolation. (IU C N ) Public

O n e o r m o re n a tu r a l o r legal person s, a n d , in a c c o r d a n c e with n a tio n a l legislation o r pra c tic e , th e ir associations, o rg an iza tio n s o r groups. (U N E C E )

Public a u th o r ity

A g o v e r n m e n t at the n a tio n a l, re gional o r o th e r level; n a tu r a l o r legal p e rso n s p e rf o r m in g pub lic a d m in is tra tio n fu n c tio n s u n d e r n a tio n a l law, in c lu d in g specific duties, activities o r services; o th e r n a tu r a l o r legal p erso n s having p ublic responsibilities o r functions, o r p ro viding public services; a n d the institutions o f any re g io n al e c o n o m ic in te g ra tio n o rg a n iz a tio n . (U N E C E )

Public concerned

T h e public affected o r likely to be affected by, o r h a v in g an interest in, e n v iro n m e n ta l decision m aking. N o n g o v e r n m e n ta l o r g a n iz a ­ tions p r o m o tin g e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n a n d m e e tin g an y re q u ir e m e n ts u n d e r n a tio n a l law shall be d e e m e d to have an interest. (U N E C E )

Public con sultatio n

T h e process o f e n g a g in g affectcd p e o p le a n d o th e r interested p a rtie s in o p e n dialo gu e th ro u g h w h ic h a ra n g e o f views a n d c o n c c r n s can be e xp ressed in o r d e r to in fo rm decision m a k in g a n d help build consensus. (WB)

Public g o o d

A g o o d th a t is im possible to keep an y o n e from using a n d w h e re one p e r s o n ’s c o n s u m p tio n o f th a t g o o d docs n o t re d u c e the q u a n tity available for use by so m e o n e else.

P u b l i c l a n d - L a n d o w n e d in c o m m o n by all a n d re p r e s e n te d by a g o v e rn ­

m e n ta l jurisdiction (e.g. village, to w n, country, state o r nation). (N R D C )

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Public participation

P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n - A p ro cess by w h ich th e view s a n d c o n c e rn s o f th e

p u b lic a re id en tified a n d in c o rp o ra te d in to d ecisio n m a k in g by p u b lic in sti­ tu tio n s. P a rtic ip a tio n is a p ro cess th ro u g h w h ic h sta k e h o ld e rs in flu e n c e a n d sh a re c o n tro l over d e v e lo p m e n t initiativ es a n d th e d ecisio n s a n d reso u rces th a t affect th e m . In clu d es access to in fo rm a tio n , access to p ro cess a n d a c ­ cess to ju stice. P u b l i c s e c t o r - T h e p a r t o f th e e c o n o m y th a t is n o t p riv a te ly o w n e d , c ith e r

b e c a u se it is o w n e d by th e state o r b e ca u se it is su b je c t to c o m m o n o w n e r­ ship. In c lu d e s th e n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n t, local a u th o ritie s, n a tio n a l in d u s ­ tries a n d p u b lic c o rp o ra tio n s. (U N D P ) P u n t a d e l E s t e D e c l a r a t i o n - A 1986 d e c la ra tio n fro m th e p a rtie s to the

G e n e ra l A g re e m e n t o n T ariffs a n d T ra d e (G A T T ) w ritte n to la u n c h th e U ru g u a y R o u n d o f m u ltila te ra l tra d e n eg o tiatio n s. (AD) P u rc h a sin g p o w e r p arity ( P P P )

T h e n u m b e r o f u n its o f a c o u n tr y ’s c u rre n c y n e e d e d to p u rc h a s e th e sa m e a m o u n t o f g o o d s a n d services in a d iffe re n t cou n try . P P P G N I is m e a su re d in c u rr e n t international dollars, w h ich , in p rin cip le , h av e th e sam e p u rc h a s in g p o w e r as a d o lla r sp e n t on G N I in th e U S econom y. B ecau se P P P s p ro v id e a b e tte r m e a s u re o f th e s ta n d a rd o f living o f re sid e n ts o f a n eco n o m y , th ey are th e basis fo r the W o rld B a n k ’s c a lc u la tio n s o f p o v e rty ra te s a t U S S 1 -2 a day. T h e G N I o f d ev elo p in g c o u n trie s m e a s u re d in P P P te rm s g e n e ra lly ex ceed s th e ir G N I m e a s u re d u sin g m a rk e t e x c h a n g e rates. (W B)

217

Qq Q a n a t - A n u n d e rg r o u n d system ta p p in g su b su rfa c e w ater, c o n stru c te d by tu n n e lin g in to a cliff, sc a rp o r b ase o f a m o u n ta in o u s a re a , follow ing a w a ­ te r-b e a rin g fo rm a tio n . T h e w a te r is n o t b ro u g h t u p to th e su rface b u t ra th e r o u t to th e surface via tu n n e ls th a t a re ro u g h ly h o riz o n ta l, w ith a slope to allow w a te r to d ra in o u t. (U N E S C O ) Q u a l i f i e d ‘d o u b l e * m a j o r i t y v o t i n g ( Q M V - E U )

A system u tiliz e d in th e E u ro p e a n C o u n c il o f M in iste rs th a t re p la c e d th e ‘m a jo rity v o te ’ system (vote w eig h ted by th e n u m b e r o f p e o p le living in a given co u n try . T h u s a ‘y es’ vote by P o la n d w o u ld have m o re w eig h t th a n a ‘n o ’ v ote by sm aller L u x em b o u rg ). T h e n ew system is d efin e d as ‘a t least 55 p e rc e n t o f th e m e m b e rs o f th e C o u n c il, c o m p risin g a t least 15 o f th em a n d re p re se n tin g M e m b e r S tate s c o m p risin g a t least 65 p e rc e n t o f th e p o p u la tio n o f th e E U .’ In o th e r w o rd s, a p ro p o sa l is a c c e p te d w h e n a t least 55 p e rc c n t o f th e r e p ­ resen tativ es o f th e n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts in th e C o u n c il o f M in iste rs, a n d at least 15 n a tio n s re p re s e n te d in that C o u n c il v ote in favor. T h o s e 15 n atio n s (or votes) m u s t also re p re se n t 65 p e rc e n t o f th e e n tire E U p o p u la tio n . (EU) See ' D o u b l e m a j o r i t y . '

Q u a lifie d m a jo rity

T h e ra isin g o f th e sim p le m a jo rity re q u ire m e n t o f ‘50 p c rc c n t p lu s o n e ’ to a h ig h e r level, in o rd e r to p ro te c t th e rig h ts o f th e m in o rity ; th u s, a system o f w e ig h te d votes. For e x a m p le fo r c e rta in d e c i­ sions in th e E U , M e m b e r S ta te s’ v otes a re w eig h te d b a se d on th e ir p o p u la ­ tio n a n d c o rre c te d in favor o f less-p o p u la te d c o u n trie s.

Q u a lity a ssu ra n c e /q u a lity control ( Q A / Q C )

T h e p ro cess o f s tre n g th ­ e n in g re search o u tc o m e s by ap p ly in g rig o ro u s a n d sy stem atic a p p ro a c h e s to p la n n in g a n d c o n d u c tin g scientific inv estig atio n s. (U SEPA)

Q u a l i t y o f life - Q u a lity o f life is larg ely a m a tte r o f in d iv id u a l p re fe re n c e

a n d p e rc e p tio n a n d o v erlap s th e c o n c e p t o f social w ell-being. G en erally , th e e m p h a sis is o n th e a m o u n t a n d d istrib u tio n o f p u b lic g o o d s, such as h e a lth ca re a n d w elfare services, p ro te c tio n a g a in s t c rim e , re g u la tio n o f p o llu tio n , p re s e rv a tio n o f la n d sc a p e s a n d h isto ric a n d c u ltu ra l a sp ects o f a reg io n . (M W ) Q u i c k w i n - In th e in te rn a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t co n tc x t, a c o n c e p t th a t an

in jectio n o f O D A o r g ra n t m o n e y fo r a v ery specific p u rp o s e (i.e. m ass dis­ trib u tio n o f in se c tic id e -tre a te d b e d n ets to c o m b a t m a la ria o r h o m e w a te r p u rifica tio n kits to tre a t d y sen tery ) w ill have a n im m e d ia te a n d m e a su ra b le im p a c t on solving a p a rtic u la r p ro b le m . (U N )

Q u o d hoc

Q uod hoc

O n this m atter.

Q u o r u m - T h e m in im u m n u m b e r o f p e o p le /g o v e rn m e n ts /in s titu tio n s re ­

q u ire d to fo rm ally o p e n a m eeting. Q u o t a , f i n a n c i a l - See ' A s s e s s e d c o n t r i b u t i o n . ' Q u o ta , ge o g rap h ical

A te rm used to d esc rib e a p olicy o f m o st in te r n a ­ tio n al o rg a n iz a tio n s to try to b a la n c e th e n u m b e rs o f sta ff from an y given n a tio n e m p lo y ed in th a t o rg a n iz a tio n . It is b a se d o n a fo rm u la u sin g v a ri­ ously p o p u la tio n , G D P p e r c a p ita a n d assessed c o n trib u tio n , a m o n g o th e r crite ria . G en erally , this p olicy a p p lies to in te rn a tio n a lly re c ru ite d p ro fe s­ sio n al staff a n d n o t to locally re c ru ite d g e n e ra l service o r a d m in istra tiv e su p p o rt staff. (U N )

219

Rr R 2 P - See R e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o P r o t e c t , t h e d o c t r i n e o f . ’ R a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e - T h e b y p ro d u c t o f n u c lc a r re a c tio n s th a t gives off

(usually h arm fu l) ra d ia tio n . (N R l)C ) R a d i o a c t i v i t y - T h e sp o n ta n e o u s e m issio n o f m a tte r o r e n e rg y from th e

n u cleu s o f an u n sta b le a to m . (N R D C ) R a i n f o r e s t - A tro p ic a l o r te m p e ra te w o o d la n d w ith a n a n n u a l rain fa ll o f

a t least 25 4 cm a n d m a rk e d by lofty, b ro a d - le a f e v e rg re e n trees fo rm in g a c o n tin u o u s canopy. (E E S ; M W ) R a m s a r C o n v e n tio n

C o n v e n tio n o n W e tla n d s o f In te rn a tio n a l Im p o r­ ta n c e especially as W aterfo w l H a b ita t, sig n ed a t R a m sa r, In d ia on 2 F e b ru ­ ary, 1971. I t c a m e in to force o n 21 D e c e m b e r, 1975. (RC)

R a p i d a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s ( R A P ) - A te rm in d ic a tin g a m e th o d o l-

ogy p e rm ittin g a ra p id asse ssm e n t o f a given situ a tio n (c o m m o n ly ap p lie d in th e h e a lth , e n v iro n m e n t a n d h u m a n rig h ts fields). R apporteur

T h e o fficer specifically c h a rg e d w ith k e e p in g th e m in u te s a n d w ritin g the d ra ft fin al r e p o r t o f eac h session o f a m eetin g . S u b s e q u e n t to final c o m m e n ts fro m m e e tin g p a rtic ip a n ts , th e rapporteur co m p iles a n d edits th e final re p o rt.

R a r e - A n IU C N c a te g o ry (R) o f ta x a w ith sm all w o rld p o p u la tio n s th a t

are n o t at p re s e n t E n d a n g e re d o r V u ln era b le , b u t a re a t risk. T h e se tax a are usually localized w ith in re stric ted g e o g ra p h ic a l a re a s o r h a b ita ts o r are th in ly sc a tte re d o v er a m o re ex ten siv e ra n g e. (IU C N ) R a t i f i c a t i o n - A n in te rn a tio n a l a c t w h e re b y a state, th ro u g h c o n g re ssio n a l

o r p a rlia m e n ta ry a p p ro v a l, in d ic a te s its c o n se n t to be b o u n d to a tre a ty if th e p a rtie s in te n d e d to show th e ir c o n se n t by su ch a n a c t (VC). REACH

A n E U p ro g ra m to reg iste r su b sta n c e s m a n u fa c tu re d o r im p o rte d in vo lu m es g re a te r th a n 1 to n p e r y e a r w ith th e E u ro p e a n C h e m ic a ls A g e n ­ cy. U n lik e U S re g u la tio n s, R E A C H w o u ld also a p p ly to ‘a rtic le s’ (objects c o m p o se d o f su b sta n c e s a n d / o r p re p a ra tio n s , w ith a specific sh a p e , su rface o r design), w hose c o n te n ts o r c o m p o sitio n c o u ld be released d u rin g n o rm a l a n d foreseeable use. T h e P ro p o sal also c o n te m p la te s p re -m a rk e t a u th o r iz a ­ tion o f th e use o f c h e m ic als o f ‘v ery h ig h c o n c e rn ,’ a n d p lace s th e b u rd e n

Rebound effect

o f p ro o f (risk analysis) o n b u sin esses seek in g to p u t th ese c h e m ic als to new uses. (EU ) See R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n . ' R e b o u n d effect

S ee O f f s e t t i n g e f f e c t . ’

R e c h a r g e - T h e p ro cess by w h ic h w a te r is a d d e d to a zo n e o f s a tu ra tio n o r

ac c u m u la tio n , u sually by p e rc o la tio n from th e soil su rface. (U SEPA ) R e c i p i e n t - See ' B e n e f i c i a r y . ' R e c la im e d m a te r ia ls

R e p ro c essed o r re g e n e ra te d m a te ria ls th a t p ro v id e a u seable p ro d u c t o r ‘n e w ’ ra w m a te ria l (lead from sp e n t b a tte rie s, re p ro c ­ essed oil, p a p e r o r plastics). (EES)

R e c o m m e n d a t i o n - A d e te rm in a tio n th a t is w e a k e r th a n a d ecisio n o r a

reso lu tio n a n d n o t b in d in g o n p a rties. R e c y c l a b l e m a t e r i a l s - M a te ria ls th a t can be re p ro c e ssed to p ro v id e a

se c o n d a ry m a te ria l for h u m a n use. (EES) Red B o o k / L is t species

A p u b lic a tio n o f th e IU C N listing th e c o n se rv a ­ tio n status o f d iffe re n t ta x a in a given g e o g ra p h ic a re a (e.g. reg io n , c o u n ­ try, w orld). T h is scries p ro v id es an in v e n to ry on th e th r e a t to ra re p la n ts a n d a n im a l species. In fo rm a tio n in c lu d es status, g e o g ra p h ic a l d istrib u tio n , p o p u la tio n size, h a b ita t a n d b re e d in g rate. T h e bo o k s also c o n ta in th e co n serv atio n m e asu re s, if any, th a t have b e e n tak e n to p ro te c t th e species. T h e re arc five c a te g o ries o f ra rity status: ‘e n d a n g e re d sp ecies;’ ‘v u ln e ra b le o rg a n ism s ,’ w h ic h a rc those u n lik ely to a d a p t to m a jo r e n v iro n m e n ta l ef­ fects; ‘ra re o rg a n ism s ,’ w h ich are th o se a t risk b e c a u se th e re a re few o f th em in th e w o rld , such as p la n ts th a t o nly g ro w o n m o u n ta in p e a k s o r on islands; ‘o u t o f d a n g e r sp ecies,’ w h ich w ere fo rm e rly in th e ab o v e c a te g o ­ ries, b u t h ave h a d th e th re a t re m o v e d b e c a u se o f c o n se rv a tio n actio n s; a n d ‘in d e te rm in a te sp ecies,’ w hich in clu d e p la n ts a n d an im a ls p ro b a b ly a t risk, alth o u g h n o t e n o u g h is k n o w n a b o u t th e m to assess th e ir status. (IU C N )

R e d C r o s s a n d R e d C r e s c e n t S o c i e t i e s - See ‘I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a ­

tio n o f th e R ed C r o ss, R ed C r e s c e n t (and R ed C rystal) S o c ie tie s (I F R C ) .’ R e f e r e n d u m ( I ) - A q u e stio n o r m e a su re p ro p o se d by a legislative b o d y o r

p o p u la r initiativ e a n d p u t to th e v o ters fo r a d ecisio n . (M W ) R e f e r e n d u m (2 ) - A n o te fro m a d ip lo m a t askin g fo r g o v e rn m e n t in s tru c ­

tions o n a p a rtic u la r issue. (M W ) R e fo re statio n

T h e a c tio n o f re n e w in g o r im p ro v in g fo rest co v er by p la n t­ ing seeds o r seedlings o n la n d th a t h a d b e e n p rev io u sly forested.

221

R efugee

R e fu gee

A p e rs o n w h o , o w in g to w e ll-fo u n d e d fear, o r fa c t, o f b e in g p e r ­

se c u te d fo r re a s o n s o f ra c e , e th n ic ity , re lig io n , n a tio n a lity , m e m b e rs h ip o f a p a r tic u la r so c ial g ro u p o r p o litic a l o p in io n , is o u ts id e th e c o u n tr y o f h is / h e r n a tio n a lity a n d is u n a b le or, o w in g to su ch fear, is u n w illin g to av ail h i m / h e r se lf o f th e p ro te c tio n o f th a t c o u n tr y ; o r w h o , n o t h a v in g a n a ­ tio n a lity a n d b e in g o u ts id e th e c o u n tr y o f f o r m e r h a b itu a l re s id e n c e as a re s u lt o f su ch e v e n ts, is u n a b le or, o w in g to su c h fear, is u n w illin g to re tu r n to it. (U N D P ) S ee I n t e r n a l l y d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n , ' D i a s p o r a . ' E n v i ­ r o n m e n ta l r e fu g e e .’ R e f u g e e f a t i g u e - S ec ‘A s y l u m f a t i g u e . ' R e g i m e - A n in s titu tio n a l a r r a n g e m e n t fo rm a lly o r in f o rm a lly e s ta b lis h e d

to stu d y a n d s u p p o r t a c o m m o n p ro p e r ty issue a r e a (a tm o s p h e re , o c e a n s, b io d iv ersity , A n ta rc tic a , o u te r sp a c e , etc.). R e gio n

■A n a r e a o f te r r ito r y th a t c a n b e d e fin e d fo r s p a tia l a n a ly sis a n d p la n n in g p u rp o s e s as d is tin c t a n d c o h e r e n t. P la n n in g re g io n s c a n b e a d m in ­ istra tiv e fo llo w in g th e b o rd e r s o f p a r t ic u l a r ju r is d ic tio n s w ith in c o u n trie s ; o r fu n c tio n a l, w h ic h follow th e b o u n d a r y o f th e issue s u b je c t to th e p la n ­ n in g p ro c e s s, fo r e x a m p le , riv e r c a tc h m e n t a re a s a n d tra v e l to w o rk a re a s.

R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c I n t e g r a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n - A n o rg a n iz a tio n c o n ­

stitu te d b y so v e re ig n S ta te s o f a g iv en re g io n , to wrh ic h its m e m b e r S ta te s h a v e tr a n s f e r r e d c o m p e te n c e in rc s p c c t o f m a tte r s g o v e rn e d by th is c o n v e n ­ tio n a n d w h ic h h a s b e e n d u ly a u th o r iz e d , in a c c o rd a n c e w ith its in te r n a l p ro c e d u r e s , to sig n , ratify, a c c e p t, a p p ro v e o r a c c e d e to it. (C B D ) R e gio n a l g ro u p

O n e o f five re g io n a l g ro u p in g s w ith in th e U N sy stem t h a t m e e t to d iscu ss issu es a n d n o m in a te b u r e a u m e m b e r s a n d o th e r o f­ ficials (A frica, A sia, C e n tr a l a n d E a s te r n E u ro p e (C E E ), L a tin A m e ric a a n d th e C a r ib b e a n (G R U L A C ), a n d Y V EO G , th e W e s te rn E u ro p e a n d O th e r s G ro u p .

R e g io n a l S e a s C o n v e n t io n s an d A c tio n P la n s

A series o f 19 re g io n a l

c o n v e n tio n s a n d a c tio n p la n s a d m in is te re d b y th e U N E P (six p ro g ra m s ) a n d o th e r in d e p e n d e n t p a r t n e r o rg a n iz a tio n s (13 p ro g ra m s ). T h o s e u n d e r d ir e c t U N E P m a n a g e m e n t in c lu d e :

Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (1976); •Abidjan Convention for Cooperation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (1981); • East Asian Seas Convention and Action Plan (1981); Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (1983); •Nairobi Convention for the Protection, Management and

222

R e g io n a l S e a s P r o g r a m m e

Development of the Marine and Coast Environment of the Eastern Africa Region (1985).

T h o s e a d m in is te re d by o th e r intuition s include: Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (1992); •

OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (Oslo and Paris conventions, adopted 1974, revised and combined 1992); Arctic Council for the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (1992); Antarctic Treaty System: Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1982) and Madrid Protocol on the Protection of the Antarctic Environment (1991);



Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution (1978); Lima Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Area of the South-East Pacific ( 1981);



Jeddah Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (1982);



Noumea Convention for the Protection of Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region (1986); Convention and Action Plan for the Caspian Sea and Bucharest Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (1992);



North-West Pacific Action Plan (1994);



North-East Pacific Action Plan (1995);



South Asian Seas Action Plan (1995).

Regional Seas P r o g r a m m e

T h e R e giona l Seas P r o g r a m m e w as initi­ a te d in 1974 as a global p r o g r a m im p le m e n te d th r o u g h re gional c o m p o ­ nents. T h e P ro g r a m at p re s e n t inclu des 13 regions involving m o r e th a n 140 coastal States a n d Territories. (U N E P )

Regular fun ds/bud ge t

Assessed c o n trib u tio n s from m e m b e r states o f an in te r n a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n . (U N D P )

R e g u l a t i o n s - Rules o r o rd e rs issued by a n executive a u th o r ity o r re g u la ­

tory ag e n c y o f a g o v e r n m e n t a n d h a v in g th e force o f law. R e i m b u r s a b l e g r a n t - T h a t p a r t o f a p re -in v e stm e n t study (pre-feasibil­

ity o r feasibility study) o r loan p a c k a g e th a t is re q u ir e d to be re p aid by the b o rr o w in g o r b en eficiary c o u n tr y if the p r o p o s e d p ro je c t proves to have an in te rn a l ra te o f r e t u r n th at justifies the (re p a y m e n t o f the) loan. (WB) R e m i t t a n c e s — Private m o n e y transfers n o rm a lly from s o m e o n e e a r n in g

a convertible c u r re n c y to a family m e m b e r in a d ev elop in g country. T h e

223

R enew able energy

W orld B an k e stim a te d th a t re m itta n c e s to ta le d U S $ 2 3 0 b illio n in 2 0 0 6 , m o re th a n tw ice th e a m o u n t o f all O D A e stim a te d at U S S 106.5 billion in 2006. (U N W ) R ene w able en ergy

E n e rg y d eriv ed from a v a rie ty o f n a tu ra l reso u rces in c lu d in g su n , w in d , tid e, w ave, g e o th e rm a l a n d b io m a ss (if th e la tte r is p la n te d a t a g re a te r ra te th a n it is utilized). (EES)

R e n e w a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s - A ny n a tu ra l re so u rc e th a t rep la c e s itself

o r is re p le n ish e d w ith in a h u m a n tim e fra m e , in c lu d in g forestry, fisheries a n d w ildlife reso u rces, as w ell as air, w a te r a n d soil reso u rces. H ow ever, th ey arc only re n e w a b le in an e c o n o m ic /a n th ro p o g e n ic sense if th e ra te o f re p la c e m e n t is e q u a l to o r g re a te r th a n th e ra te o f u tiliz a tio n . T h e te rm ‘re n e w a b le ’ dos n o t im p ly ‘in e x h a u s tib le .’ (EES) R e n e w a b l e s - E n e rg y sources th a t a re , w ith in a sh o rt tim e fram e relativ e

to th e E a r th ’s n a tu r a l cycles, su s ta in ab le, a n d in c lu d e n o n -c a r b o n te c h n o lo ­ gies such as so la r energy, h y d ro p o w er, g e o th e rm a l, w ave a n d w in d as well as c a rb o n - n e u tra l tech n o lo g ie s su ch as b io m ass. (IP C C ) R e p l e n i s h m e n t - A c o n trib u tio n to a fu n d su c h as th o se m a n a g e d by a

d e v e lo p m e n t b a n k o r to a g ra n tin g a g e n c y by th ird p a rtie s a n d n o rm a lly b a s e d on an a g rc c d -to o r n e g o tia te d p la n . (G E F ) See T r a n c h e , ' “D o n o r c o n fe r e n c e .' R e p o r t o f th e W o r l d F o o d S u m m i t (2002)

T h is r e p o r t su m m a riz e d the p ro g ress m a d e in re a c h in g th e goals o f th e R o m e D e c la ra tio n o n W orld Food S e cu rity a n d th e W o rld Food S u m m it P O A . In all asp ects it is o n e o f th e m o st critic ize d m e e tin g s ev er h eld u n d e r th e au sp ices o f th e U N .

R e p o r t of th e W o r l d S u m m i t fo r S ocial D e v e lo p m e n t ( W S S D )

In th e W S S D , h e ld in M a rc h 1995 in C o p e n h a g e n , g o v e rn m e n ts re a c h e d a new co n sen su s o n th e n e e d to p u t p e o p le a t th e c e n te r o f d e v e lo p m e n t. In th e final r e p o r t g o v e rn m e n ts p le d g e d to m ak e th e c o n q u e st o f poverty, the goal o f full e m p lo y m e n t a n d th e fo sterin g o f social in te g ra tio n o v e rrid in g o b jectives o f d e v e lo p m e n t.

R e q u e s t f o r p r o p o s a l ( R F P ) - A d o c u m e n t issued by o n e o rg a n iz a tio n

to a n o th e r o rg a n iz a tio n (or to sev eral o th e r o rg a n iz a tio n s) d e sc rib in g w ork th a t th e issu er w ishes to h av e u n d e rta k e n by th e recipicnt(s) a n d in v itin g th e recipient(s) to re s p o n d w ith a p ro p o sa l. R e s. R e p . - See ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e s i d e n t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . ' R e s e r v a t i o n - A u n ila te ra l s ta te m e n t, h o w ev er p h ra s e d o r n a m e d , m a d e

by a S tate, w h e n signing, ratifying, ac c ep tin g , a p p ro v in g o r a c c e d in g to a treaty, w h e re b y it p u rp o r ts to ex clu d e o r to m o d ify th e legal cffcct o f c e rta in provisions o f th e tre a ty in th e ir a p p lic a tio n to th a t S tate. (VC)

224

Reservoir (1)

R e se rv o ir ( I )

A c o m p o n e n t o r c o m p o n e n ts o f th e clim a te system w h ere a g re e n h o u s e gas o r a p re c u rs o r o f a g re e n h o u s e gas is sto re d . (U N F C C G )

R e s e r v o i r (2) - A b o d y o f w a te r c re a te d artificially by th e c o n stru c tio n o f

a d a m across a flow ing riv er o r stre a m . R e so lu tio n

A fo rm a l a c tio n such as a re c o m m e n d a tio n th a t d o es n o t n o r­ m ally b e c o m e p a r t o f th e b o d y o f d ecisio n s th a t g u id e th e w o rk o f a G O P. T h e y are directiv es th a t g u id e ra th e r th a n p e r m a n e n t leg al acts. F o rm a l reso lu tio n s o f a g e n e ra l assem b ly are b in d in g decisions.

R e s o l u t i o n 4 7 /1 9 1 - A reso lu tio n o f th e U N G e n e ra l A ssem b ly a d o p te d

in 1992 relativ e to th e c re a tio n o f th e U N C o m m issio n o n S u sta in a b le D e ­ v e lo p m e n t (C SD ). T h e re so lu tio n p re se n ts th e te rm s o f re feren c e, m a k e ­ up, g u id elin es for N G O p a rtic ip a tio n , o rg a n iz a tio n o f w o rk , rela tio n s w ith o th e r U N b o d ie s a n d S e c re ta ria t a g re e m e n ts fo r th e C S D . R e s o l u t i o n 5 5 / 1 9 9 - A re so lu tio n o f th e U N G e n e ra l A ssem b ly a d o p te d

in D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 0 th a t calls for a te n -y e a r review o f U N C E D (S e p te m b e r o f 2002) at th e su m m it level to re in v ig o ra te g lo b a l c o m m itm e n t to su sta in ­ a b le d ev e lo p m e n t. T h e review w as to focus o n a c c o m p lish m e n ts, id en tify a re a s re q u irin g fu rth e r efforts to im p le m e n t Agenda 21 a n d o th e r U N C E D o u tco m es, le a d to a c tio n -o rie n te d d ecisio n s, a n d re su lt in re n e w e d p o litic a l c o m m itm e n t to achieve su sta in a b le d ev e lo p m e n t. Resource recovery

T h e p ro cess o f o b ta in in g m a tte r o r e n e rg y from d is­ c a rd e d m a teria ls. (U SEPA)

R e sp o n sib ility to P rotect, the D o c trin e of

In ste a d o f c h a lle n g in g th e leg itim acy o f S ta te sovereignty, th e R esp o n sib ility to P ro te c t D o c trin e ch allen g es sovereign states to e m b ra c c a d eep er, socially resp o n sib le co n c c p t o f sovereignty. T h e In te rn a tio n a l C o m m issio n o n In te rv e n tio n a n d S tate S o v ereig n ty (IC IS S ) o f th e U N calls u p o n all M e m b e r S tates to a c ­ c e p t th e ir resp o n sib ility to p ro te c t th e u ltim a te sovereigns the people as th e p rim e o b lig a tio n o f state sovereignty. I f a n a tio n fails to fulfill this r e ­ sponsibility so h o rrib ly so as to ‘sh o ck th e co n sc ie n c e o f h u m a n ity ,’ a n d b a se d o n six ‘th re sh o ld c rite r ia ’ (just cau se, rig h t in te n tio n , last re so rt, p r o ­ p o rtio n a l m ean s, re a s o n a b le p ro sp ec ts a n d rig h t a u th o rity ) o th e r so vereign states m u st assu m e th a t resp o n sib ility in its p lace . (U N ) See * R 2P,’ " N ever a g a in , P r in c ip le o f.’

R e s t o r a t i o n - In eco sy stem m a n a g e m e n t re s to ra tio n is th e r e tu r n o f th a t

system to som e p re v io u s d e sired state o r e a rlie r su ccessio n al state in te rm s o f its p rin c ip le c o m p o n e n ts o f specics a n d fu n ctio n s. (EES) R e s u l t s - A b ro a d te rm u se d to refer to th e effects o f a p ro je c t. T h e te rm s

‘o u tp u ts ,’ ‘o u tc o m e s ’ a n d ‘im p a c t’ d esc rib e m o re precisely th e d iffe re n t types o f results: (G EF)

225

Retroactivity, the co n cep t of



O utputs: tangible products (including services) of a project that are necessary to achieve its objectives. Outcomes', results of a project relative to its immediate objectives that are generated by the project outputs.



Im pact: results of a project that are assessed with reference to the development objectives o r long-term goals of that project; changes in a situation, w hether planned o r unplanned, positive or negative, that a project helps to bring about.

R e t r o a c t i v i t y , t h e c o n c e p t o f - See P r e e m p t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n , c o n ­ c e p t o f.” R e t r o s p e c t i v e t e r m s a d j u s t m e n t - A te r m u sed in th e W orld B an k to

in d ic a te a revisio n o f th e c o n d itio n s o f a lo an . (W B) See ‘D e b t relief.' R e v e r s i b l e e f f e c t - A n cffcct th a t is n o t p e rm a n e n t; esp ecially ad v erse

effects th a t d im in ish w h en e x p o su re to a tox in is d e c e a se d o r sto p p e d . (U SE PA ) R i c h m a n ’s c lu b - A so m e w h a t p e jo ra tiv e refe re n c e to O E C D co u n tries. R id e r

A U S C o n g re ss io n a l o r L egislative te rm re fe rrin g to u n re la te d p ro ­ visions ta c k e d o n to a n e x istin g C o n g re ssio n a l hill. S in ce bills m u st p ass o r fail in th e ir entirety, rid e rs c o n ta in in g o th e rw ise u n p o p u la r la n g u a g e arc often a d d e d to p o p u la r bills. (N R D C )

R ig h t to d e v e lo p m e n t

A c c o rd in g to th e 1986 U N G A ‘D e c la ra tio n on the R ig h t to D e v e lo p m e n t/ th e rig h t to d e v e lo p m e n t ‘is a n in a lie n a b le h u ­ m a n rig h t by v irtu e o f w h ich every h u m a n p e rs o n a n d all p e o p le s a re e n ti­ tled to p a rtic ip a te in , c o n trib u te to, a n d e n jo y social, c u ltu ra l a n d p o litical d e v e lo p m e n t, in w h ich all h u m a n rig h ts a n d fu n d a m e n ta l fre e d o m s c an be fully re a liz e d .’ D e v e lo p m e n t, as a ‘rig h t’ is n o t a c c e p te d by all states.

R ig h t to e n v ir o n m e n t

A p h ra s e th a t g e n erally re la tes to th e R io D e c ­ la ra tio n a n d its p rin c ip les, w h ich d efin e d th e rig h ts a n d resp o n sib ilities o f p e o p le to a cle a n a n d safe e n v iro n m e n t. T h e 18 p rin c ip le s in c lu d e d in the D e c la ra tio n p ro v id e su b sta n tia l d e ta il as to w h a t th e rig h t in c lu d e s a n d w h a t resp o n sib ilities it im p lies. (U N C E D )

R ig h t to in te rfe re

T h e rig h t o f o n e o r m a n y n a tio n s to v io late th e n a ­ tio n a l sovereig n ty o f a n o th e r state, w h en a m a n d a te h as b e e n g ra n te d by a s u p ra n a tio n a l au th o rity . (W P) See ' D u t y to i n t e r f e r e , ’ ‘H u m a n i t a r i a n

inte rve n tio n .' R i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n - A rig h t g e n e ra lly re fe rrin g to A rticles 19, 20

a n d 21 o f the U n iv e rsa l D e c la ra tio n o f H u m a n R ig h ts o f D e c e m b e r 1948 w h ich re c o g n iz e d an in d iv id u a l’s rig h t to fre ed o m o f o p in io n a n d e x p re s­ sion, assem bly a n d d ecisio n s a ffectin g th e fu tu re o f o n e ’s c o u n try in c lu d in g electio n s o f re p re se n ta tiv e s. (U N )

226

Right to w ater

R ig h t to w a te r

In 200 2 th e U N C o m m itte e o n E c o n o m ic , S o cial a n d C u ltu ra l R ig h ts a ffirm e d th e rig h t o f all p e o p le to c le a n a n d ‘sufficient q u a n titie s ’ o f ‘safe a n d a c c c p ta b lc ’ fresh w ater, w h ic h is b o th ‘physically accessib le’ a n d ‘a ffo rd a b le ’ as a p re c o n d itio n fo r th e re a liz a tio n o f h u m a n rights. (O E C D ; U N )

R io D e c la r a t io n on E n v i r o n m e n t an d D e v e lo p m e n t

T h e fo rm a l o u tc o m e o f th e U N C E D m e e tin g in R io de J a n e iro in 1992 th a t s u m m a ­ rizes a co n sen su s o f p rin c ip le s for su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t.

R i o G r o u p - T h e R io G ro u p is a n in te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n o f L atin

A m e ric a n states. It aro se in 1986 as a n a lte rn a tiv e b o d y to th e O rg a n iz a ­ tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates d u rin g th e C o ld W ar, since th a t b o d y w as, in th e o p in io n o f so m e, d o m in a te d by th e U S . T h e R io G ro u p d o es n o t have a s e c re ta ria t o r p e r m a n e n t body, a n d in ste a d relies o n y early su m m its o f h e a d s o f states. (W P) R i o P r i n c i p l e s - A s ta te m e n t o f 27 p rin c ip le s p ro d u c e d by th e U N C E D

in R io d e J a n e iro in 1992, w h ich d efin e th e rig h ts a n d re sp o n sib ilities o f n a tio n s as th ey p u rs u e h u m a n d e v e lo p m e n t a n d w ell-being. S ee A p p e n d ix I. (U N C E D ) R i p a r i a n r i g h t s - E n title m e n t o f a la n d o w n e r to c e rta in uses o f w a te r on

o r b o rd e rin g his p ro p e rty , n o rm a lly in c lu d in g th e rig h t to p re v e n t d iv ersio n o r m isuse o f u p stre a m w a ters, b u t w ith th e sam e re sp o n sib ilities to d o w n ­ stream users. (U SEPA ) R ip a ria n zo n e

T h e a re a a d ja c e n t to a stre a m th a t is su b je c t to d ire c t in flu ­ e n c e o f th e w a te r in th e stre a m . It fo rm s th e e c o to n e b e tw e e n th e te rre stria l a n d a q u a tic ecosystem s. (EES)

R i s k - T h e p ro b a b ility o f a n u n d e sira b le o u tc o m e . (M W ) R isk a n a ly s is / a s s e s s m e n t

A d e ta ile d e x a m in a tio n p e rfo rm e d to u n d e r ­ sta n d th e n a tu re o f u n w a n te d , n e g ativ e c o n sc q u c n c c s to h u m a n life, h e a lth , p ro p e rty o r th e e n v iro n m e n t: to p ro v id e in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g u n d e sir­ able events; a n d to q u a n tify th e p ro b a b ilitie s a n d e x p e c te d c o n sc q u e n c e s for id en tified risks.

R i v e r b a s i n - A g e o g ra p h ic a l a re a (c a tc h m e n t a re a ) g e n e ra lly d e te rm in e d

by th e w a te rs h e d lim its o f a w a te r sy stem , in c lu d in g su rface a n d u n d e r­ g ro u n d w a te r th a t flow in to a c o m m o n te rm in u s. Road m ap

A te rm th a t refers to a stra te g y o r stra te g ic p la n o f w o rk th a t in clu d es a tim e ta b le a n d m ilesto n es, a n d w h ich c a m e in to c o m m o n u sag e in a b o u t 2003.

R o b e r t ’s R u l e s o f O r d e r

R o b e r t’s R ules o f O r d e r is a h a n d b o o k o f

227

Rom e D e clara tio n on W o rld Food Security and the W o rld Food Sum m it P O A (1 99 6 )

p a rlia m e n ta ry p ro c e d u re th a t is often used as th e p a rlia m e n ta ry a u th o rity by d e lib e ra tiv e b o d ies, as p a r t o f th e ir o v erall ru les o f o rd er. (W P) R o m e D e cla ra tio n on W o r ld F ood Security and the W o r ld F ood S u m m i t P O A ( I 9 9 6 ) - T h e S u m m it w as h o ste d by th e U N F ood a n d A g­

ric u ltu re O rg a n iz a tio n (U N F A O ) in R o m e in N o v e m b e r, 1996. T h e m e e t­ in g D e c la ra tio n sig n ed by 187 h ea d s o f S ta te a n d G o v e rn m e n ts re a ffirm e d th e rig h t o f ev ery o n e to h av e access to safe a n d n u tritio u s food, co n sist­ e n t w ith the fu n d a m e n ta l rig h t o f ev ery o n e to be free fro m h u n g er. T h e se officials p le d g e d th e ir p o litical w ill a n d m a d e c o m m itm e n ts to e ra d ic a te h u n g e r a n d to re d u c e th e n u m b e r o f u n d e rn o u ris h e d p e o p le by half, no la te r th a n 201 5 . T h e P lan o f A ctio n id en tifies seven m a jo r c o m m itm e n ts, p re se n ts o b jectiv es a n d o u tlin e s a c tio n s th a t n e e d to be ta k e n by d e v elo p e d a n d d ev elo p in g c o u n trie s in o rd e r to ach iev e th ese objectives. R o m e Statute

T h e R o m e S ta tu te o f Ju ly 1998 e sta b lish e d th e I n te r n a ­ tio n a l C rim in a l C o u rt w h e n 120 S tate s p a rtic ip a tin g in th e ‘U n ite d N a tio n s D ip lo m a tic C o n fe re n c e o f P le n ip o te n tia rie s o n th e E sta b lis h m e n t o f an In te rn a tio n a l C rim in a l C o u r t’ a d o p te d th e S ta tu te . T h e S ta tu te e n te re d in to force o n 1 July, 2 0 0 2 . A n y o n e from an A cc e d in g S ta te w h o co m m its any o f th e crim es c o v ered u n d e r th e S ta tu te a fte r this d a te will be su b ject to a rre s t in an y o f th e A c ce d in g S tates a n d liable for p ro se c u tio n by th e C o u rt. (U N )

Rotterdam

C o n v e n t i o n - In 1998, g o v e rn m e n ts d e c id e d to s tre n g th e n th e ‘P rio r In fo rm e d C o n s e n t’ (P IC ) p ro c e d u re by a d o p tin g th e R o tte rd a m C o n v e n tio n , w h ich m ak es P IC legally b in d in g . T h e C o n v e n tio n establishes a first line o f d efen se by g iv in g im p o rtin g c o u n trie s th e tools a n d in fo rm a ­ tio n they n eed to id en tify p o te n tia l h a z a rd s a n d ex clu d e ch e m ic a ls th e y c a n ­ n o t m a n a g e safely. If a c o u n try a g rees to im p o rt ch em ic a ls, th e C o n v e n tio n p ro m o te s th e ir safe use th ro u g h la b e lin g sta n d a rd s, te c h n ic a l assistance a n d o th e r fo rm s o f su p p o rt. It also e n su re s th a t e x p o rte rs co m p ly w ith th e re ­ q u ire m e n ts. T h e R o tte rd a m C o n v e n tio n e n te re d in to force o n 24 F eb ru ary , 2004. (E U ) S ee 'R E A C H .’

Round

A s used in in te rn a tio n a l p a rla n c e , o n e o f a series o f m eetin g s (as in th e U ru g u a y R o u n d o r th e D o h a R o u n d o f th e W T O n e g o tiatio n s). (M W )

R o v a n i e m i P r o c e s s ( A E P S ) - A n extensive in te rn a tio n a l A rctic c o o p ­

erativ e p ro g ra m (the A rctic E n v iro n m e n ta l P ro te c tio n S trateg y ) a d o p te d by th e e ig h t A rctic co u n trie s: R ussia, th e U S , C a n a d a , G r e e n la n d /D e n m a r k , Ic e la n d , N orw ay , S w e d en a n d F in la n d in 1991. O th e r c o u n trie s a n d in ­ te rn a tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n s have o b se rv e r status. Its o b jectiv es a re to p ro te c t A rctic ecosystem s; p ro v id e fo r th e p ro te c tio n , e n h a n c e m e n t a n d re s to ra tio n o f n a tu r a l reso u rces; rcco g n izc th e tra d itio n a l a n d c u ltu ra l n eed s, v alu es a n d p ra c tic e s o f th e in d ig e n o u s p e o p le s; review reg u larly th e sta te o f th e A rctic e n v iro n m e n t; a n d identify, re d u c e a n d e lim in ate p o llu tio n .

228

Rules of law

R u l e o f la w - E q u a l p ro te c tio n (of h u m a n as w ell as p ro p e rty a n d o th e r

ec o n o m ic rights) a n d p u n is h m e n t u n d e r th e law. T h e ru le o f law reigns ov er g o v e rn m e n t, p ro te c tin g c itizen s a g a in st a rb itra ry sta te a c tio n , a n d over society generally, g o v e rn in g re latio n s a m o n g p riv a te in terests. It en su res th a t all citizen s a re tre a te d eq u a lly a n d a re su b je c t to th e law ra th e r th a n to th e w h im s o f th e p o w erfu l. T h e ru le o f law is a n essen tial p re c o n d itio n for a c c o u n ta b ility a n d p re d ic ta b ility in b o th th e p u b lic a n d p riv a te sectors. T h e e s ta b lish m e n t a n d p e rsiste n c e o f th e ru le o f law d e p e n d o n c le a r c o m ­ m u n ic a tio n o f th e rules, in d isc rim in a te a p p lic a tio n , effective e n fo rc e m e n t, p re d ic ta b le a n d legally en fo rc e ab le m e th o d s fo r c h a n g in g th e c o n te n t o f law s a n d a c itiz e n ry th a t p erceiv es th e set o f ru les as fair, ju s t o r leg itim ate, a n d th a t is w illing to follow it. (U N D P ) R u l e s o f p r o c e d u r e - T h e ru les th a t g o v ern th e o rg a n iz a tio n a n d p ro ­

c eed in g o f a C O P o r o th e r su b sid ia ry body, in c lu d in g th e p ro c e d u re s for d ecisio n -m ak in g , v o tin g a n d p a rtic ip a tio n . T h e y m a y (an d often do) v ary s o m e w h a t b e tw e e n in stitu tio n s a n d m eetin g s.

229

Ss S a f e g u a r d p o lic ie s - Policies o f th e W orld B ank re q u irin g th a t p o ten tially

adverse en v iro n m en tal im p acts a n d selected social im p acts o f B an k invest­ m en t projects be identified, avoided o r m in im ized w h ere feasible, a n d m iti­ g ated a n d m o n ito re d . T h e se policies provide guidelines for B ank a n d b o r­ row er staff in the id entification, p re p a ra tio n an d im p le m en ta tio n o f p ro ­ g ram s a n d projects in su p p o rt o f en v iro n m en tally a n d socially sustain ab le developm ent. Specific safeguard policies are pro v id ed for e n v iro n m en tal assessm ent, n a tu ra l h azard s, p est m a n a g e m e n t, in v o lu n tary resettlem en t, in d ig en o u s peoples, forests, safely o f dam s, c u ltu ra l properly, projects on in te rn a tio n a l w aterw ays a n d projects in d isp u ted areas. (WB) S a f e t y - n e t aid, c o n c e p t o f

F in an cial assistance given directly by a gov­ e rn m e n t o r N G O d o n o r to those w ho im p lem en t actions on the g ro u n d ra th e r th a n th ro u g h a g o v e rn m e n t agency. T h is p ractice has b eco m e co m ­ m o n p lace by d o n o rs pro v id in g assistance to g o v ern m en ts co n sid ered to be eith e r too disorg an ized o r c o rru p t to en su re th a t aid reaches those w ho n eed it. (U N W )

Sahel

T h e tro p ical, sem i-arid region alo n g the so u th e rn m arg in o f the S a h a ra d esert th a t form s large p a rts o f six A frican c o u n tries (M au ritan ia, M ali, N iger, C h a d , S om alia a n d S udan) a n d sm aller p a rts o f th ree m o re (Senegal, B urkina Faso a n d E thiopia). (EES)

S a li n i t y

T h e m easu re o f saltiness o f w ate r freq u en tly expressed as p a rts o f salt p e r th o u sa n d p a rts o f w ater. (USEPA)

S a lin iz a tio n /sa lin a tio n

T h e im p re g n a tio n o f soils by v arious salts th a t p recip itate from th e g ro u n d w a te r by p erco la tin g vertically th ro u g h cap il­ lary action u n d e r th e influence o f e v a p o tra n sp ira tio n d u rin g p erio d s o f d ro u g h t a n d n o t from the ev ap o ratio n o f sta g n a n t w a te r on im p erm eab le soils. T h e process by w hich drin k ab le w a te r b eco m es u n d rin k a b le brackish o r salt w ater. (EES)

S a l t w a t e r i n t r u s i o n — T h e invasion o f fresh surface o r g ro u n d w a te r by

salt w ater. S a lva ge h a rv e stin g

A forest m a n a g e m e n t tech n iq u e in w hich stan d in g b u t d a m a g e d (disease, fire, etc.) o r d o w n ed (w ind sto rm , flood, etc.) tress are h arv ested before they lose m a rk e t value o r fu rth e r d am a g e the rem ain in g h ealthy stan d . (USEPA)

Sanctions (in the U N context)

S a n c t i o n s (in t h e U N c o n t e x t )

A co erciv e m easure(s) a p p ro v e d by th e U N S e c u rity C o u n c il re q u irin g a n a tio n to u n d e rta k e a n ac tio n b a se d on in te rn a tio n a l law, n o rm a lly e n fo rc ed th ro u g h p u n itiv e e c o n o m ic sa n c tio n s a n d / o r d ip lo m a tic m easu re s. (U N )

S a n i t a r y la n d fill

A m e th o d o f refuse d isp o sal o n la n d w ith o u t c re a tin g n u isan ce to p u b lic h e a lth o r safety by u sin g th e p rin c ip le s o f e n g in e e rin g to co n fin c refuse to th e sm allest p ra c tic a b le a re a , to rc d u c e it to th e sm allest v o lu m e, a n d to co v er it w ith a lay er o f e a rth al th e co n c lu sio n o f e a c h d a y ’s o p e ra tio n , o r a t m o re fre q u e n t in terv a ls if necessary. B y p ro d u c ts a rc e ith e r collected a n d safely d isp o sed o f (leachate) o r u tilized fo r o th e r p u rp o s e s such as h e a t o r elec tricity g e n e ra tio n (gases). (EES)

Sasia

A n a m e c o in e d by th e S o u th A sia F o u n d a tio n for w h a t c o u ld b e co m e a c o m m o n S o u th A sian cu rren cy , sim ila r to th e e u ro in E u ro p e . T h e F o u n ­ d a tio n feels th e S asia c o u ld b e c o m e th e a n c h o r o f e c o n o m ic stab ility a n d re g io n a l c o o p e ra tio n .

S c e n a r i o - A p lau sib le d e sc rip tio n o f h o w th e fu tu re m a y d ev elo p , b a se d on

a c o h e re n t a n d in te rn a lly c o n siste n t set o f a ssu m p tio n s a b o u t key re la tio n ­ ships a n d d riv in g forces. (IP C C ) S c i e n t i f ic a n d T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y P a n e l ( S T A P ) - A n in d e p e n d e n t a d ­

visory b o d y to th e G E F , esta b lish e d by U N E P in c o n su lta tio n w ith U N D P a n d th e W orld B an k . It advises th e G E F o n th e issues o f g lo b a l e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t; dev elo p s a n d m a in ta in s a R o ste r o f E x p e rts; review s selected p ro jec ts; c o o p e ra te s a n d c o o rd in a te s w ith th e scientific a n d te c h n i­ cal b o d ies o f th e v a rio u s M E A s; a n d p ro v id es a liaison b e tw e en th e G E F a n d th e w id e r scientific a n d te c h n o lo g ic al c o m m u n itie s. (U N E P ) S c i e n t i f ic p h i l a n t h r o p y - A te rm w id ely a ttrib u te d to th e larg e a n d d i­

re c te d d o n a tio n s o f A m e ric a n m a g n a te s A n d re w C a rn e g ie a n d J o h n D. R ockefeller Sr. w hose g iv in g fo cu sed o n e d u c a tio n a n d h e a lth issues n early a c e n tu ry ago. S ince th a t tim e o th e rs such as T e d T u rn e r, Bill a n d M e lin d a G a te s a n d W a rre n B uffet h av e follow ed this tre n d . W h ile g e n e ra lly p ra ise d , this ty p e o f d ire c te d p riv a te p h ila n th ro p y h as b e e n c riticized for its im p a c t on th e g lo b al a g e n d a a n d fo r su p la n tin g n a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t/in v e s tm e n t p rio rities. (UNW T) S c o p i n g - A p ro c e d u re for a tte m p tin g to en su re th a t a n e n v iro n m e n ta l a s­

sessm ent focuses o n th e key e n v iro n m e n ta l issues asso ciate d w ith a p ro je ct, o m ittin g irre le v a n t m a te ria l. (EEA) S e a lev el rise - A n in c re a se in th e m e a n level o f th e o c e a n . (U SEPA) S e a le v e l rise , e u s t a t i c - A c h a n g e in g lo b al av erag e sea level b ro u g h t

a b o u t by an a lte ra tio n to th e v o lu m e o f th e w o rld o c e a n . (U N F C C C )

231

S ea level rise, relative

S e a le v e l rise , r e l a t i v e - A n e t in c re a se in th e level o f th e o c e a n relativ e to

local la n d m o v e m e n ts a n d av erag e high tide rec o rd in g s. (U N F C C C ) Second A sse ssm e n t R eport (S A R )

T h e se c o n d re p o r t o f IP C C also kn o w n as ‘C lim a te C h a n g e 1 9 9 5 .’ Its co n clu sio n (w ritten a n d rev iew ed by so m e 2 0 0 0 scientists) w as th a t ‘th e b a la n c e o f ev id e n c e suggests th a t th e re is a d is cern ib le h u m a n in flu en ce o n g lo b al c lim a te 5 a n d c o n firm e d th e av ail­ ab ility o f ‘n o -re g re ts ’ o p tio n s a n d o th e r cost-cffcctivc strateg ics fo r c o m b a t­ in g clim ate c h a n g e . (U N F C C C )

Second super pow er

A te rm re fe rrin g to th e p o w e r o f g lo b al p u b lic o p in ­ ion (expressed th ro u g h c o m m u n ic a tio n m e d ia , m ass d e m o n s tra tio n s , p o liti­ cal p ressu re, etc.) to in flu en ce th e d ecisio n s o r a c tio n s o f th e U S , fre q u en tly re fe rre d to as th e w o rld ’s o n ly ‘su p e r p o w e r.’ (IPS)

S e c o n d a ry fo re st

N a tu ra l fo rest g ro w th a fte r som e m a jo r d is tu rb a n c e (e.g. logging, serious (ire o r in sect attack).

Secondary sew age treatm en t

P rim a ry sew age tre a tm e n t p lu s b io c h e m i­ cal o x id a tio n o f b io d e g ra d a b le su b sta n c e s in w astew ater.

S e c r e t a r i a t - A n in stitu tio n o f an M E A th a t u n d e rta k e s th e d a y -to -d a y

activities o f c o o rd in a tin g th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e M E A a n d m ak es a r ­ ra n g e m e n ts for th e a n n u a l m e e tin g s o f th e C O P o r p e rio d ic m ee tin g s o f its su b sid iary bodies. S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l — T h e c h ie f a d m in is tra tiv e officcr o f a n o rg a n iz a tio n .

(M W ) Sector

A socio lo g ical, e c o n o m ic o r p o litic a l su b d iv isio n o f society: e c o ­ n o m ically as th e p rim ary , s e c o n d a ry a n d te rtia ry secto rs; a n d socially a n d p olitically to in d ic a te a n y division o f h u m a n a ctiv ity (or a n y in te re s t g ro u p ) th a t p ro v id es fo r th e p ro te c tio n o r p ro m u lg a tio n o f its in terests.

S e c t o r lo a n - A lo a n m a d e by th e W o rld B an k , IM F o r a re g io n a l d evel­

o p m e n t b a n k to fu n d a p a rtic u la r set o f p ro d u c tiv e activ ities a n d a t tim es re q u irin g a d ju s tm e n ts a n d p olicies o f th a t sector, such as a g ric u ltu re , fish­ eries, forestry, h e a lth , e d u c a tio n , etc. (W B) S ee ‘S t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t lo a n s.' S e c t o r a l - P e rta in in g to a sector. Se c u rity C o u n c il

S ee ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l . ’

S e d im e n ta tio n

A g e n e ra l te r m re fe rrin g to th e su sp e n sio n , tra n s p o rt a n d d ep o sitio n o f sed im en ts. (EES)

Se le cte d h a r v e s tin g /t h in n in g

A forest m a n a g e m e n t te c h n iq u e in w h ich

232

Self-contained convention

selected trees (specics, age, h e a lth , m a rk e t d e m a n d , etc.) arc r e m o v e d from a forest stand. (USEPA) Self-contained convention

A n A g r e e m e n t th a t works using a n nexes a n d a p p e n d ic e s a n d , a lth o u g h they m a y be revised pe riodically by the C O P , requires n o o th e r protocols. (C IT E S )

S e n i o r S t a t e s m a n - A n in fo rm a l ‘title’ n o r m a lly referring to a retired se n ­

ior official w h o u n d e rta k e s specific tasks for a g o v e r n m e n t o r an in t e r n a ­ tional o rg a n iz a tio n o n a p e rio d ic basis. (WP) Seoul Millennium Declaration

T h e d e c la ra tio n o f the 1999 S eoul 'M i l­ le n n iu m ' C o n fe r e n c e o f N G O s . T h e C o n f e r e n c e w as a tte n d e d by m o re th a n 10,000 p a r tic ip a n ts r e p re se n tin g som e 1400 N G O s from at least 107 countries. T h e d e c la ra tio n addresses several m a jo r th e m e s inc lu d in g envi­ r o n m e n t, g e n d e r equality, social a n d e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t, e d u c a tio n for all a n d h u m a n rights. ( C O N G O )

Sequestration

O p p o r tu n i tie s to rem ov e a tm o s p h e r ic C O „ e ith e r th ro u g h biological processes (e.g. p la n ts a n d trees), o r geological processes th r o u g h storage o f C O , in u n d e r g r o u n d reservoirs. (PEW)

S e v e n t h f l o o r —A U S te rm re fe rring to the top floor in th e U S D e p a r t m e n t

o f State a n d the location o f the offices o f the m o st senior staff (Secretary o f State a n d senior aides). (U S D O S ) Sewage treatm ent

A multi-stage process design ed to c lean w a ste w a ter before it re -e nte rs a b o d y o f w a te r (EES)

S h a d o w pricing

- A te c h n iq u e so m e tim e s used to a ttrib ute a value to a c o m m o d ity o r service th a t has n o m a r k e t p rice (or o f w h ic h the m a r k e t p rice does n o t reflect the tru e e c o n o m ic value) d u e to m a r k e t failures (ex­ ternalities) o r m a r k e t distortions.

S h e r p a s - A s o m e w h a t irre v e re n t n a m e given to those G 8 , b c h in d -th e -

sccnes civil servants w h o do the so-called ‘h ea v y lifting’ o f p r e p a r i n g a n d revising a seem ingly infinite n u m b e r o f b a c k g r o u n d a n d final m e e tin g d o c ­ u m e n ts re q u ir e d for fo r m a l m eetings o f H e a d s o f State. S h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n - A process o f r e m o v in g p ri m a r y o r se c o n d a ry forest

cover on a p e rio d ic basis, p la n tin g crops o n th a t cleared la n d a n d th e n al­ low ing forest covcr to re g e n e ra te . T h is p ractice is variously kn o w n as slashb u r n a griculture, sw idd e n a g ric u ltu re o r subsistence agriculture. (EES; FAO) Sick build ing s y n d r o m e

A h u m a n h e a lth c o n d itio n w h e re infections linger, ca u se d by e x po sure to c o n ta m in a n t s w ithin a building as a result o f p o o r ventilation. ( N R D C )

233

Side event

S id e e v e n t - In the U N co n tex t, a p re se n ta tio n o p en to all, n o rm a lly held

d u rin g the lunch p e rio d o r after n o rm a l m e etin g ho u rs, th a t is related to the issues b eing n eg o tiated d u rin g an in te rg o v e rn m e n tal m eeting. S ig n a to ry

A term th a t usually refers to a state th a t has signed an ag ree ­ m en t o r conven tio n . (U N T )

S i g n a t u r e - U sually signifies th a t a state has co n sen ted to be b o u n d by the

treaty especially in b ilateral treaties. For m u ltilateral treaties, how ever, the signature is as a rule n o t definitive, m e a n in g th a t the treaty is subject to ra ti­ fication, accep ta n ce o r ap p ro v al in o rd e r to e n te r in to force (VC). S i g n a t u r e a d r e fe r e n d u m - A term m e an in g th a t an a g re e m e n t m ay be

signed by a rep resen tativ e o f a state b u t the a g re e m e n t only b eco m es b in d ­ ing once the. sig n atu re is co n firm ed by the responsible o rg an . (VC) S il v i c u lt u r e

M a n a g e m e n t o f forest la n d for tim ber.

S im p le m ajo rity

Fifty p e rc e n t o f delegates in atte n d a n c e an d official proxies plus one vote.

S i m u l t a n e o u s t r a n s l a t i o n / i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - R efers to the spoken w ord.

(M W ) S in e q u a n o n uisite. (BLD)

W ith o u t w hich n o t. A n indisp en sab le co n d itio n , a p re re q ­

S i n k - A ny process, activity o r m ech an ism th a t rem oves a g re en h o u se gas,

an aerosol o r a p re c u rso r o f a g reen h o u se gas from the a tm o sp h ere. (U N ­ FC CC ) S ix , T h e

See ' G 6 (n e w ).’

S ix th flo o r

A U S term referrin g to the floor in the U S D e p a rtm e n t o f S tate w here regional a n d A ssistant S ecretaries o f State have th e ir offices. (U S D O S )

S l a s h - b u r n a g r i c u l t u r e - See ‘S h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n . ’ S m a l l G r a n t s P r o g r a m m e ( S G P ) - A p ro g ram ad m in istered by the

U N D P th at provides g ra n ts o f up to S 50,000 to grassroots g ro u p s an d N G O s to d em o n stra te c o m m u n ity -b ased strategies a n d technologies th at address global e n v iro n m e n ta l co n cern s. (G EF) S m o g - A dense, discolored rad iatio n fog c o n ta in in g large q u an tities o f

soot, ash a n d gaseous p o llu tan ts such as sulfur dioxide a n d c a rb o n dioxide. (N R D C )

234

S o c ia l business

S o c i a l b u s i n e s s - A n e w c a te g o ry o f c o r p o r a tio n th a t w o u ld b e n e ith e r

p ro fit-m a x im iz in g n o r n o n p ro f it in lin e w ith th e p rin c ip le s o f th e G ra m e e n B an k . S u c h in s titu tio n s c o u ld b r in g h e a lth c a re , in f o rm a tio n te c h n o lo g y , e d u c a tio n a n d e n e rg y to th e p o o r w ith o u t re q u irin g in fu sio n s o f a id . S o c i a l c a p i t a l - F e a tu re s o f so cia l o rg a n iz a tio n - su c h as n e tw o rk s a n d v a l­

u es, in c lu d in g to le ra n c e , in c lu sio n , re c ip ro c ity , p a r tic ip a tio n a n d tru s t

th a t

fa c ilita te c o o rd in a tio n a n d c o o p e r a tio n fo r m u tu a l b e n e fit. S o c ia l c a p ita l in h e re s in th e re la tio n s b e tw e e n a n d a m o n g a c to rs . (U N D P ) So cial c o st

T h e c o st to so c iety o f a n y e c o n o m ic activity. (M W )

S o c i a l i s s u e s - Issu es a ris in g d u e to d iffe re n tia l ac c e ss to la n d a n d o th e r

re s o u rc e s; c o n flic tin g d e m a n d s o n th e sa m e re s o u rc e s fo r c o n s e rv a tio n a n d e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t o f tr a d itio n a l u se rs; m a r g in a liz a tio n o f w o m e n ; re ­ lig io u s o r e th n ic te n s io n s; w in n e rs a n d lo se rs in p riv a tiz a tio n a n d re fo rm p ro g r a m s ; s tru c tu r a l e x c lu sio n o f a so c ial g ro u p ; p o o r g o v e rn a n c e , a d v e rs e so cial im p a c ts , e tc . (W B ) S o f t l a w - N o n -le g a lly b in d in g a g re e m e n ts . T h o u g h th e y m a y b e sig n e d by g o v e rn m e n ts , th e y a re less p rc c isc th a n h a r d law in s tru m e n ts a n d h av e less s trin g e n t o b lig a tio n a n d w e a k e r d e le g a tio n . C o m p a r e d to h a r d law in ­ s tru m e n ts , th e y a rc e a s ie r to a c h ie v e , p ro v id e s tra te g ie s fo r d e a lin g w ith u n c e rta in ty , in frin g e less o n so v e re ig n ty a n d fa c ilita te c o m p ro m is e a m o n g d iffe re n tia te d a c to rs. (A b b o tt a n d S n id a l, 2 0 0 0 ) S ee ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i ­ r o n m e n ta l la w .’ S o l a r e n e r g y - E n e rg y g e n e r a te d by c o n v e rtin g s u n lig h t in to u se fu l e n ­

e rg y a n d n o rm a lly d iv id e d in to th r e e c a te g o rie s : a c tiv e a n d p a ssiv e b u ild in g m o d ific a tio n s, s o la r th e r m a l c o lle c to rs, a n d p h o to v o lta ic cells. (E E S ) S o la r w a t e r d isin fe c tio n s y s t e m

(S O D IS )

A sim p le m e a n s o f p u ­

rify in g w a te r u sin g c le a r p lastic b o ttle s m a d e fro m s ta n d a r d p o ly e th y le n e te r e p h th a la te (P E T E o r P E T ) th a t a r e filled w ith w a te r a n d e x p o se d to n a tu r a l s u n lig h t fo r six h o u rs . S o l i d w a s t e - A n y so lid o r se m i-so lid m a te ria l d is c a rd e d fro m in d u s tria l,

c o m m e rc ia l, m in in g , a g ric u ltu ra l o p e ra tio n s o r h o u s e h o ld so u rc e s, in c lu d ­ in g g a rb a g e , c o n s tru c tio n d e b ris, c o m m e rc ia l refu se, slu d g e fro m w a te r s u p ­ p ly o r w a ste tr e a tm e n t p la n ts , o r a ir p o llu tio n c o n tro l facilities a n d o th e r d is c a rd e d m a te ria ls. (M W ) S o u r c e - A n y p ro c e s s o r a c tiv ity th a t re le a se s a g re e n h o u s e g as, a n a e ro s o l

o r a p re c u r s o r o f a g re e n h o u s e g as in to th e a tm o s p h e re . (U N F C C C ) S o u rc e Principle

T h e e n v ir o n m e n ta l d a m a g e s h o u ld p re f e ra b ly b e p r e ­

v e n te d a t th e so u rc e , r a t h e r th a n by u sin g th e ‘e n d -o f-p ip e te c h n o lo g y .’ T h is p rin c ip le also im p lie s a p re f e re n c e fo r e m issio n s ta n d a rd s r a t h e r th a n

235

South

e n v iro n m e n ta l q u a lity sta n d a rd s, especially to d e a l w ith w a te r a n d a ir p o l­ lu tio n . South

A n o th e r n a m e for th e low - a n d m id d le -in c o m e c o u n trie s as a

g ro u p . Sou th A m e ric a n C o m m u n it y of N a tio n s ( S A C N )

A c o n tin e n t-w id e free tra d e zo n e co n ce iv e d to u n ite tw o free tra d e o rg a n iz a tio n s, M E R ­ C O S U R a n d th e A n d e a n C o m m u n ity o f N a tio n s (C A N ), e lim in a tin g tariffs on n o n -sen sitiv e p ro d u c ts by 20 1 5 a n d sensitive p ro d u c ts by 2020. R ep re se n ta tiv e s o f th e 12 S o u th A m e ric a n n a tio n s sig n ed th e C u z c o (Peru) D e c la ra tio n in D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 4 fo rm a lly e sta b lish in g S A C N a n d sig n alin g th e ir in te n tio n to m o d e l th e o rg a n iz a tio n o n th e E U m o d e l in c lu d in g a c o m m o n c o n stitu tio n , cu rren cy , p a rlia m e n t a n d p a ssp o rt. In m id -2 0 0 6 , V en ezu ela a n n o u n c e d its in te n tio n s to leave th e C A N b e c a u se tw o o f its m e m b e rs h a d signed tra d e a g re e m e n ts w ith th e U S , e n d a n g e rin g th e r a ­ tio n ale for th e S A C N . (S A C N ) See ' A n d e a n C o m m u n i t y o f N a t i o n s . 5

South C entre

A n in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l b o d y o f d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s e s ta b ­ lished o n 31 July, 1995, th e C e n tre c u rre n tly h as 46 m e m b e rs a n d d raw s its stre n g th from n e tw o rk in g so as to c a rry o u t th e d e sig n a te d w ork in c o ­ o p e ra tio n w ith o th e r in stitu tio n s a n d in d iv id u a ls o f th e S o u th . Its w o rk is to p ro m o te solidarity, co n scio u sn ess a n d m u tu a l u n d e rs ta n d in g a m o n g th e c o u n trie s a n d p eo p le s o f th e S o u th ; p ro m o te S o u th S o u th c o o p e ra tio n a n d actio n , S o u th S o u th n e tw o rk in g a n d in fo rm a tio n e x c h a n g e ; a n d d e v e lo p ­ in g c o u n try p a rtic ip a tio n in in te rn a tio n a l fo ru m s d e a lin g w ith S o u th S o u th a n d N o r th - S o u th m a tte rs a n d g lo b al c o n c e rn s . It fosters c o n v e rg e n t view s a n d a p p ro a c h e s a m o n g c o u n trie s o f th e S o u th w ith rc sp c c t to g lo b a l e c o ­ n o m ic, p o litical a n d strateg ic issues a n d c o n trib u te s to b e tte r m u tu a l u n d e r­ sta n d in g a n d c o o p e ra tio n b e tw e en th e S o u th a n d th e N o rth on th e basis o f e q u ity a n d justice for all.

S o u t h - N o r t h - A te rm in d ic a tin g c o lla b o ra tio n o r te c h n o lo g y s h a r in g /

tra n sfe r from a ‘S o u th ’ n a tio n to a ‘N o r th ’ n a tio n . S o u t h P a c if ic R e g i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t P r o g r a m m e ( S P R E P ) - H e a d -

q u a rte re d in A p ia , S a m o a , S P R E P is th e Pacific R e g io n ’s m ain e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n w ith 26 m e m b e rs in c lu d in g th e U S , A u stra lia , N ew Z e a la n d a n d F ra n c e . Its m a n d a te is to p ro m o te c o o p e ra tio n in th e S o u th Pacific R eg io n , p ro v id e assistan ce in o rd e r to p ro te c t a n d im p ro v e its envi­ ro n m e n t a n d e n su re su sta in ab le d e v e lo p m e n t fo r p re s e n t a n d fu tu re g e n ­ eratio n s. South-Sou th

A te rm in d ic a tin g c o lla b o ra tio n o r te c h n o lo g y sh a rin g b e ­ tw een low in c o m e a n d / o r m id d le in c o m e d ev e lo p in g c o u n trie s. (U N T )

Sove re ign ty

T h is difficult c o n c e p t h as b o th e m o tio n a l a n d ra tio n a l c o m p o n e n ts a n d is o ften a m a tte r o f p e rc e p tio n . It re la te s to th e s ta te ’s

236

Specific funds

m o n o p o ly o n the use o f force a n d its position as final a u th o rity over m a tte rs w ith in its territory. State sovereignty is d im in is h e d with the rise o f i n t e r n a ­ tional c o rp o ra tio n s , m u ltin a tio n a l o rg a n iz atio n s a n d tra n sn a tio n a l forces like religion, ethn icity a n d culture. S pe ci f i c f u n d s - M o n ie s d o n a te d for a specific p u r p o s e b u t w ith in the ov er­

all m a n d a te o f a n o r g a n iz a tio n b u t n o rm a lly in a d d itio n to re g u la r funds. S p h e r e c o n c e p t / p r o j e c t - T h e S p h e r e P roject was la u n c h e d in 1997

by a g ro u p o f h u m a n ita r ia n N G O s a n d the R e d C ross a n d R e d C re sc e n t Societies. S p h e r e is b a s e d o n a p p lic a tio n o f T h e H u m a n i t a r i a n C h a r t e r a n d its two core beliefs: first, th a t all possible steps should be taken to allevi­ ate h u m a n suffering arising o u t o f c a la m ity a n d conflict a n d , second, th a t those affected by disaster have a rig ht to life with dignity a n d therefo re a righ t to assistance. Spoils

D irt o r rock re m o v e d from its original location resulting in a n altered soil stru c tu re a n d c o m p o sitio n as in strip m in in g o r dredging. (USEPA)

S q u a r e b r a c k e t s [ ] - S y m bols used d u rin g treaty neg otiation s to indicate

th a t a section o f text is b e in g discusscd b u t has n o t yet b e e n a g re e d u p o n . O n e w o u ld state: ‘p u t it in sq u a r e brackets for th e tim e b e in g a n d we can revisit it la te r / F ion a M c C o n n e l l ’s 1996 e x p la n a tio n o f sq u a re bra c ke ts in The Biodiversity Convention: A Negotiating H istory , identifies six ratio nales for th e ir use: •

Alternative brackets comprise alternative text for the same issue and may revolve around a substantive disagreement, but tend to be similar wording for the same issue.



Contentious brackets are there because of fundamental disagreement over a particular section.



Suspicious brackets are used when one group thinks the other is up to something with a section or a phrase and therefore the brackets are put in until it becomes clearer. Tactical or trading brackets may be put in by one country to enable them to trade with another bracket in another section or in another area. Uncertain brackets are put where no one was quite sure what the proposed text meant or why the brackets were placed there in the first place.



Waiting brackets are inserted when governments are waiting for instructions from the capital on what to do.



W eary brackets are usually included when negotiations go on into the early morning and when people get too tired to negotiate effectively.

S R E S scenarios

A suite o f em issions scenarios de v e lo p e d by th e I P C C to ex plore a ra n g e o f p o te n tia l future g re e n h o u s e gas em issions p a th w a y s

237

Stability

o v e r th e 2 1 st c e n tu r y a n d th e ir s u b s e q u e n t im p lic a tio n s fo r g lo b a l c lim a te c h a n g e . (P E W ) S ta b ility

U n c h a n g in g w ith tim e . T h is c a n b e a sta tic sta te (n o th in g c h a n g ­

es) o r a ste a d y sta te (re so u rc e flow s o c c u r). (C S G ) S ta ge (w ate r)

T h e h e ig h t o f a w a te r s u rfa c e a b o v e a n e sta b lish e d re fe r­

e n c e p o in t. S t a k e h o l d e r - A n in s titu tio n , o rg a n iz a tio n , o r g ro u p th a t h a s so m e in te re s t

in a p a r tic u la r s e c to r o r sy stem o r o u tc o m e o f a p ro je c t, p ro g r a m o r p o lic y in itia tiv e . (E E A ) State ( I)

T h e set o f p o litic a l in s titu tio n s w h o se specific c o n c e r n is w ith

th e so cial a n d p o litic a l o rg a n iz a tio n a n d m a n a g e m e n t, in th e n a m e o f th e c o m m o n in te re s t, w ith in a d e te r m in e d te rrito ry . (U N D P ) S t a t e (2)

T lie p o w e r o r a u th o r ity r e p r e s e n te d by a b o d y o f p e o p le p o liti­

cally o rg a n iz e d u n d e r a n in d e p e n d e n t g o v e r n m e n t w ith in a te r r ito r y h a v in g d e fin e d b o u n d a r ie s a n d c o n s titu tin g th e b a sis fo r civ il g o v e rn m e n t. (M W ). S ec ' C o u n t r y ' , N a t i o n ' , ‘T e r r i t o r y . ' S t a t e o f t h e W o r l d F o r u m ( S W F ) - F o rm e d in 1 9 9 5 , S W F is a n o n -p r o fit

o rg a n iz a tio n d e d ic a te d to ‘e sta b lish in g a g lo b a l n e tw o rk o f le a d e rs, citiz e n s a n d in s titu tio n s c o m m itte d to d is c e rn in g a n d im p le m e n tin g th e p rin c ip le s, v a lu e s a n d a c tio n s n e c e ss a ry to g u id e h u m a n ity w isely as it gives s h a p e to a n in c re a s in g ly g lo b a l a n d in te r d e p e n d e n t c iv iliz a tio n .’ (S W F ) S t a t e m e n t o f F o re st Prin ciples (U n it e d

N a t io n s C o n fe re n ce on

E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t - U N C E D ) - T h e ‘N o n -le g a lly B in d ­

in g A u th o rita tiv e S ta te m e n t o f P rin c ip le s fo r a G lo b a l C o n s e n s u s o n th e M a n a g e m e n t, C o n s e rv a tio n a n d S u s ta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t o f all T y p e s o f F o rests’ w as a g re e d to a t U N C E D in 1992 a n d a d d re s se s issues re la t­ e d to s u s ta in a b le fo rest m a n a g e m e n t. T h is w a s th e first g lo b a l c o n se n s u s o n fo rests th a t a tte m p te d to d e a l w ith p e o p le w h o w a n t to p r o te c t fo rests fo r e n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d c u ltu ra l re a s o n s to g e th e r w ith th o s e w h o d e p e n d o n tre e s a n d o th e r fo re st life fo r e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t. T h e h o p e is th a t th e se p rin c ip le s w ill fo rm th e b asis o f f u r th e r n e g o tia tio n s to w a rd a b in d in g a g re e m e n t. S to c k h o lm

C o n v e n t i o n - A n in te r n a tio n a l le g a lly b in d in g in s tr u m e n t (o p e n e d fo r s ig n a tu re o n 22 M ay , 2 0 0 1 ) fo r im p le m e n tin g in t e r n a tio n a l a c ­

tio n o n tw elv e p e rs is te n t o rg a n ic p o llu ta n ts (P O P s) g r o u p e d in to th r e e c a t­ e g o ries: (1) P estic id e s: a ld r in , c h lo r d a n e , D D T , d ie ld rin , e n d r in , h e p ta c h lo r, m ire x a n d to x a p h e n e ; (2) in d u s tria l c h e m ic a ls : h e x a c h lo ro b e n z e n e (H C B ) a n d p o ly c h lo rin a te d b ip h e n y ls (PC B s); a n d (3) u n in te n d e d b y p ro d u c ts : d i­ o x in s a n d f'urans. T h e C o n v e n tio n w ill c o m e in to force w h e n 5 0 p a rtie s h av e ratifie d .

238

Stockholm D eclaratio n on the H u m an Environm ent

S t o c k h o l m D e c l a r a t i o n o n t h e H u m a n E n v i r o n m e n t - T h e D e c la ra ­

tion p ro d u c e d a t th e first U n ite d N a tio n s C o n fe re n c e on th e H u m a n E n ­ v iro n m e n t th a t m e t at S to ck h o lm from 5 - 1 6 J u n e , 197*2, w h ich su p p o rts a c o m m o n o u tlo o k a n d p rin c ip le s to in sp ire a n d g u id e th e p e o p les o f th e w orld in th e p re s e rv a tio n a n d e n h a n c e m e n t o f th e h u m a n e n v iro n m e n t. See A p p e n d ix I. S t r a d d l i n g s t o c k - A p o p u la tio n o f o rg a n ism s th a t travels b e tw e e n th e e x ­

clusive e c o n o m ic z o n e s o f tw o o r m o re c o u n trie s, o r b e tw e e n th e m a n d th e h ig h seas. (B C H M ) Strange attractors

A re as a ro u n d w h ich b e h a v io rs a n d in te ra c tio n s te n d

to occur. S t o r m w a t e r t r e a t m e n t a r e a - A larg e, c o n stru c te d w e tla n d d esig n ed

to rem o v e p o llu ta n ts, p a rtic u la rly n u trie n ts from s to rm w a te r ru n o f f using n a tu r a l processes. Strate gic

A m b igu ity , concep t of A te rm re fe rrin g to a c o u n tr y ’s d ecisio n to n e ith e r c o n firm n o r d en y th e ex istence o f a p a rtic u la r in fra stru c ­ tu re o r policy. T h is te rm w as first u sed in 2 0 0 4 by c e rta in c o u n trie s in refe r­ en ce to n u c le a r sites a n d th e ex isten ce o r n o n -e x iste n c e o f n u c le a r w e a p o n s, the ab ility to m a n u fa c tu re n u c lc a r w e a p o n s a n d / o r b e in g in possession o f th e raw m a te ria ls o r te c h n o lo g y to do so. (U N IA E A )

Strate gic e n v iro n m e n ta l a s se s s m e n t (S E A )

A te c h n iq u e sim ila r to e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c t a ssessm en t (EIA ) b u t n o rm a lly a p p lie d to policies, p lan s, p ro g ra m a n d g ro u p s o f p ro jects. T h e re arc tw o m a in ty p es o f SE A : S e c to ra l, w h ich is a p p lie d w h e n m a n y new p ro jec ts fall w ith in o n e se c to r a n d R eg io n al, w h ic h is a p p lie d to co v er d e v e lo p m e n t w ith in a reg io n . (EEA)

Strategy

A fra m e w o rk g u id in g th o se ch o ices th a t d e te rm in e th e n a tu re a n d d ire c tio n to a tta in th e o b jective.

S t r a t o s p h e r e - T h e u p p e r p o rtio n o f th e a tm o sp h e re , a p p ro x im a te ly 1 1 -

5 0km ab o v e th e su rface o f th e e a rth . (N R D C ) S t r a w v o t e - A n u n official v ote u sed to p re d ic t how a n e lec tio n m ig h t tu rn

o ut. S t r i p m i n i n g - A m in in g te c h n iq u e in w h ic h th e la n d a n d v e g e ta tio n co v er­

ing th e m in e ra l b e in g so u g h t a rc s trip p e d aw a y by h u g e m a c h in e s, usually p e rm a n e n tly a lte rin g th e la n d a n d lim itin g su b s e q u e n t uses. (N R D C ) S t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t l o a n s - L a rg e lo a n s m a d e by th e W orld B an k , IM F

o r re g io n a l d e v e lo p m e n t b a n k s to d ev elo p in g co u n trie s th a t m a y c a rry strict fin an cial a n d b u d g e ta ry o b lig a tio n s o r re q u ire d p o licy re fo rm s in te n d e d to o p e n re c ip ie n t c o u n trie s to p riv a te in v e stm e n t a n d in c re a se th e rec ip ie n t's

239

S ub -Saharan

co m p e titiv e n e ss in th e g lo b al eco n o m y . R e fo rm s a re u su ally o rie n ta te d to ­ w a rd s lib e ra liz a tio n o f tra d e rules, p riv a tiz a tio n o f S ta te -h e ld assets, a n d a re d u c tio n in g o v e rn m e n t e x p e n d itu re s. (WB) Sub -Sah aran

O f o r relatin g to o r situ a te d in th e reg io n so u th o f th e S a ­ h a ra D e se rt. (U N )

S u b s i d i a r i t y , p r i n c i p l e off - A h ie ra rc h ic a l fo rm o f g o v e rn m e n t w h e re d e ­

cision m ak in g is m a d e a t th e level o f a u th o rity m o st resp o n siv e to th e p u b ­ lic. (U N C H S ). A p rin c ip le th a t reco g n izes th a t a c tio n s will o c c u r at d ifferen t levels o f ju ris d ic tio n d e p e n d in g on th e n a tu re o f th e issue. It assigns p rio rity to th e low est ju ris d ic tio n a l level c o n siste n t w ith effectiveness. (IIS D ) S u b sid ia ry B o d y for Im p le m e n t a tio n

Assists th e C o n fe re n c e o f the p a rtie s (C O P ) in th e a ssessm en t a n d review o f th e effective im p le m e n ta tio n o f a c o n v e n tio n . (U N F C C C )

S u b s i d i a r y B o d y o n S c i e n t i f ic , T e c h n i c a l a n d T e c h n o l o g i c a l A d v i c e (SB ST T A )

T h e S B S T T A is a b o d y o f th e C o n fe re n c e o f th e P arties (C O P ) th a t re p o rts re g u la rly o n its assessm en ts o f th e statu s o f th e su b je c t m a tte r o f th e C o n v e n tio n ; th e m e a su re s ta k e n by th e p a rtie s in a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e pro v isio n s o f th e C o n v e n tio n ; a n d , it re sp o n d s to q u e stio n s p u t to it by th e C O P . (C B D ; U N F C C C ) S ub sid y

A d ire c t o r in d ire c t b en e fit g ra n te d by a g o v e rn m e n t fo r th e p r o ­ d u c tio n o r d is trib u tio n (in clu d in g ex p o rt) o f a g o o d .

S u b siste n c e agricu ltu re

S ec S h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n . '

S u c c e s s i o n - T h e m o re o r less p re d ic ta b le c h a n g e s in th e species c o m p o si­

tio n o n a given site o v er tim e. (EES) Su i g e n e ris - A L a tin te rm m e a n in g u n iq u e o r p ecu liar, in a class o f its

ow n. S u m m i t o f t h e A m e r i c a s P r o c e s s - A series o f fo rm a l S u m m its o f th e

A m ericas (M iam i, U S D e c e m b e r 1994; S a n tia g o , C h ile A p ril 1998; Q u e b e c City, C a n a d a A p ril 2 0 0 2 ; a n d M a r de P la ta , A rg e n tin a N o v e m b e r 2005), a n d o n e sp ecialized S u m m it o f th e A m eric a s o n su stain a b le d ev e lo p m e n t (S an ta C ru z , B olivia D e c e m b e r 1996). T h e n e x t S u m m it o f th e A m ericas w ill be h eld in T rin id a d a n d T o b a g o in late 2 0 0 8 o r early 2 0 0 9 . T h e S u m ­ m it o f th e A m e ric a s is th e first step in d ev e lo p in g policies, d e c la ra tio n s a n d p la n s o f ac tio n fo r In te r-A m e ric a n c o o p e ra tio n in a w id e ra n g e o f topics in c lu d in g tra d e , e d u c a tio n a n d e n v iro n m e n t. T h e In te r-A m e ric a n system , led by the O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates, its in s titu tio n a l p a rtn e rs , a n d civil society o rg a n iz a tio n s, p lay fu n d a m e n ta l roles in th e d e b a te le a d in g to th e d efin itio n o f h e m isp h e ric policies. T h ro u g h S u m m it Im p le m e n ta ­ tio n R eview G ro u p (S IR G ) m e e tin g s, p a rtic ip a tin g g o v e rn m e n ts m e e t an

240

Sunk-cost effect, co n ce p t of

av erag e o f th re e tim e s a y e a r to discuss official S u m m it d o c u m e n ts, n a m e ly th e d e c la ra tio n a n d th e P lan o f A ctio n . (O A S, 2 0 0 1 ; U N C E D ) S u n k - c o s t e f fe c t , c o n c e p t o f

A p sy ch o lo g ical te rm th a t im p lies a n u n ­ w illingness to a b a n d o n a p olicy o r c o u rse o f a c tio n in w h ich so m u ch has alre a d y b e e n inv ested . (Jared, 2005) See T r a g e d y o f t h e C o m m o n s ; ’ 'L o g i c o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , c o n c e p t of.'

S u n s e t c l a u s e - A s ta te m e n t a d d e d to th e e n d o f a m e a su re , a g re e m e n t, ad

hoc c o m m itte e c re a tio n /a s s ig n m e n t, leg islatio n , etc. th a t cau ses th e sam e to ‘su n s e t’ o r b e c o m e ineffective, null a n d v oid a fte r a c e rta in d ate. S u p p l e m e n t a r i t y , p r i n c i p l e o f - A te rm re fe rrin g to w h e th e r o r n o t th e

P arties o f T h e K y o to P ro to co l, w h ich use flexibility m e c h a n ism s such as em issions tra d in g to lo w e r g re e n h o u s e gas m itig a tio n costs, also in stitu te a d e q u a te d o m e stic e n e rg y a n d o th e r p olicies to ach iev e lo n g -te rm g re e n ­ h o u se gas re d u c tio n goals. S u sta in a b ility

S u sta in a b ility is a n e c o n o m ic , social a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l c o n c e p t. It is in te n d e d to be a m e a n s o f c o n fig u rin g civ ilizatio n a n d h u m a n activity so th a t society a n d its m e m b e rs arc ab le to m e e t th e ir n ee d s a n d express th e ir g re a te st p o te n tia l in th e p re s e n t, w hile p re se rv in g b io d iv ersity a n d n a tu ra l ecosystcm s, a n d p la n n in g a n d a c tin g for th e ab ility to m a in ta in these ideals indefinitely. S u sta in a b ility affects every level o f o rg a n iz a tio n , from th e local n e ig h b o rh o o d to th e e n tire p la n e t. See th e essay p p 3 38.

S u sta in a b ility a s s e s s m e n t m e a su re s

T h e tra d itio n a l m e a su re s o f g ro w th such as G D P have b e e n c riticized as in a p p ro p ria te m e a s u re s for h u m a n a n d ecosystem w ell-b ein g as th e y re g iste r in c o m e b u t n o t its d istri­ b u tio n a n d d o n o t d istin g u ish b e tw e en su sta in a b le a n d u n su sta in a b le a c ­ tivities. For e x am p le, crim e, forest fires, disease, n a tu ra l d isasters all a d d to th e G D P b e c au se in c o n fro n tin g th e m m o n e y is e x c h a n g e d . T h e re fo re , a n u m b e r o f ind ices o r a ssessm en t m e a su res have b e e n d e v e lo p e d w ithin a su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t c o n te x t p ro v id in g a n o th e r p o in t o f view as to w h a t co n stitu te s ‘p ro g re ss’ in th e c o n te x t o f h u m a n a n d ccosystcm h e a lth , in clu d in g : th e Human Development Index, w hich m ea su re s fac to rs such as life ex p ectan cy , e d u c a tio n , G D P p e r c a p ita , etc. (w w w .u n d p .o rg /h d r), Environ­ mental Sustainability Index m e a s u rin g e n v iro n m e n ta l system s, re d u c in g en v i­ ro n m e n ta l stress, re d u c in g h u m a n vuln erab ility , g lo b al ste w a rd sh ip , etc. (w w w .c ie s in .o rg /in d ic a to rs /E S I), Living Planet Index m e a s u rin g th e h e a lth o f a n im a l species in a v a rie ty o f ecosystem s (w w w .p a n d a .o rg /liv in g p la n et), Ecological Footprint, w h ich re p o rts o n a v a rie ty o f im p a c ts in p ro d u c ­ tive secto rs (w w w .p a n d a .o rg /liv in g p la n e t), Compass o f Sustainability, w hich ex a m in e s th e w ell-b ein g o f h u m a n s b a se d o n sev eral m e a su re s o f n a tu re , ec o n o m y a n d society (w w w .iisd.org), Dashboard o f Sustainability, w h ic h m e a s ­ u res in stitu tio n s activ e in e n v iro n m e n t, e c o n o m y a n d society (w w w .iisd .ca/ c g s d i/d a s h b o a rd ), a n d Well Being Assessment/Barometer o f Sustainability, w hich looks a t ecosystem s a n d p e o p le a n d a v a riety o f in d ic a to rs (w w w .iu c n .o rg /

241

Sustainability indicator

in fb _ a n c l_ n c w s/p rc ss/w o n b a c k .d o c ). See ‘C o m m i t m e n t to D e v e l o p ­ m e n t In d ex .’ S u sta in a b ility in d ic a to r

A v a ria b le , a p o in te r, a n in d e x o f a co m p lex p h e n o m e n o n . Its flu ctu a tio n s reveal th e v a ria tio n s in c o m p o n e n ts o f th e eco sy stem , th e re so u rc e o r th e sector. T h e p o sitio n a n d tre n d o f th e in ­ d ic a to r in re la tio n to th e c rite ria in d ic a te th e p re s e n t state a n d d y n a m ic s o f th e system . Ideally, c o m p o site in d ic a to rs are n e e d e d , th e p o sitio n a n d tra je c to ry o f w h ic h , w ith in a system o f re fe re n ce o f re la te d c rite ria , w o u ld allow sim ple holistic a ssessm en t o f sustainability. O n e c a n d istin g u ish in d i­ c a to rs o f th e state o f th e sy stem , p re ssu re (or stress, d riv in g forces) o n th e system , a n d resp o n se (reflecting a c tio n tak e n to m itig a te , re d u c e , e lim in a te o r c o m p e n s a te fo r th e stress). (EEA ) Sec ‘S u s t a i n a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t m e a su r e s.’

S u s ta in a b ilit y , p rin c ip le o f

A p rin c ip le th a t im p lies a re la tio n sh ip b e ­ tw een th e ra te a n d ty p e o f use o f n a tu r a l reso u rces a n d th e ab ility to s u p ­ p o r t a d efin ed lifestyle. (RFF)

S u s t a i n a b l e c o m m u n i t y - F osters h ea lth y p e o p le a n d biodiversity, a n d the

linkages b e tw e e n th e m ; co n tin u o u sly invests in cap a c itie s, in stitu tio n s a n d p a rtn e rs h ip s th a t p ro te c t, re sto re a n d e n h a n c e n a tu ra l, social a n d e c o n o m ic cap ital; actively m o n ito rs a n d d isse m in a te s k n o w led g e a n d k n o w -h o w ; p ro ­ m o te s inclusive, c o lla b o ra tiv e , sta k e h o ld e r-d riv e n p la n n in g a n d a d a p tiv e a c tio n in resp o n se to c h a n g in g c o n d itio n s; p re fe rs lo cal p ro d u c ts a n d serv­ ices th a t resu lt in trip le b o tto m -lin e p rofits social, e c o n o m ic a n d e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l; a n d h a s in c re a sin g o p tio n s a n d o p p o rtu n itie s b e c a u se its citizen s cho o se to in te rn a liz e th e local, re g io n a l, g lo b al a n d in te r-g e n e ra tio n a l im ­ p a c ts o f th e ir d ecisio n s a n d actio n s. (SNVV) S u sta in ab le c o n su m p tio n

T h e c o n su m p tio n o f services a n d p ro d u c ts th a t re sp o n d to basic n e e d s a n d b rin g a b e tte r q u ality o f life, w hile m in im iz ­ in g use of n a tu ra l reso u rces a n d toxic m a te ria ls as well as th e g e n e ra tio n o f w astes a n d p o llu ta n ts over th e life-cycle o f a p ro d u c t o r service, so as n o t to je o p a rd iz e th e n e e d s o f fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s. (C S D )

S u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t - T h e re a re literally h u n d re d s o f d efin itio n s o f

su stain ab le d ev e lo p m e n t. P e rh a p s th e m o st fam o u s is th a t in c lu d e d in the B ru n tla n d C o m m issio n re p o rt, Our Common Future, sta tin g th a t su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t is d e v e lo p m e n t th a t m ee ts th e n eed s o f th e p re s e n t w ith o u t c o m p ro m isin g th e ab ility o f fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s to m e e t th e ir ow n n eed s. It c o n ta in s w ith in it tw o key c o n cep ts: th e c o n c e p t o f ‘n e e d s ’, in p a rtic u la r th e essential n eed s o f th e w o rld ’s p o o r, to w hich o v e rrid in g p rio rity sh o u ld be given; a n d th e id ea o f ‘lim ita tio n s’ im p o se d by th e state o f te c h n o lo g y a n d social o rg a n iz a tio n o n th e e n v iro n m e n t’s ab ility to m e e t p re s e n t a n d th e fu tu re needs. H o w ev er, it m u st be re m e m b e re d th a t th e B ru n tla n d C o m ­ m ission did n o t in v e n t th e te rm su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t. O th e rs in c lu d in g th e IU C N h a d u sed th e te rm for y e a rs p rio r. T h e C o m m issio n u n d o u b te d ly

242

Sustainable enterprise

use d th e t e r m in th e c o n t e x t o f th e tim e a n d b a s e d o n th e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e m e e tin g s h e ld in r e la tio n to p r o d u c i n g its final r e p o r t . ( U N C E D ) See th e text: ‘Our Common Future .' (W orld C o m m i s s i o n o n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1987) S u s t a i n a b l e e n t e r p r i s e - A c o n c e p t t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n a n d sale o f g o o d s

a n d services m u s t i n c o r p o r a t e th e role o f a n d i m p a c t o n n a t u r e a n d society; p u r s u e s trip le b o tt o m - li n e pro fits - e c o n o m i c , social a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l ; p r a c tic e s ec o-e fficie nc y a n d c o m m i t s to m o v in g t o w a r d eco-effectiveness (i.e. w h e r e th e b y p r o d u c ts o f p r o d u c t i o n a re in p u ts for o t h e r proc e sse s z e ro w aste); b uild s a s tr o n g c u s t o m e r b a se a n d e x p a n d s m a r k e t s h a r e by h e l p in g c o n s u m e r s c o n s u m e less, s e rv in g t h e i r t r u e n e e d s; a n d e n g e n d e r s loyal s h a r e h o l d e r s a n d e m p lo y e e s. ( S N W ) S u s t a i n a b l e f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t - Forest m a n a g e m e n t activities t h a t

b e n e fit p e o p le a n d th e re s o u r c e b a se today, b u t d o n o t c o m p r o m i s e the r e s o u rc e for f u tu r e g e n e r a tio n s . (U SFS). T h e s te w a r d s h ip a n d use o f forests a n d forest la n d s in a way, a n d at a ra te , th a t m a i n t a i n s th e ir biodiversity, p ro d u c tiv ity , r e g e n e r a t i o n c a pacity, vitality a n d th e ir p o te n tia l to fulfill, n o w a n d in th e fu tu re , r e l e v a n t e c o lo g ic a l, e c o n o m i c a n d social fu n c tio n s , at local, n a t i o n a l a n d g lo b a l levels, a n d th a t d o c s n o t c a u s e d a m a g e to o t h e r e c o system s. (U N F F ) Sustainable h u m a n d e v e lo p m e n t ( S H D )

A p a ra d ig m o f dev elo p m en t t h a t p u ts p e o p le a n d th e ir o n g o i n g n e e d s a n d a s p ir a tio n s a t th e c e n t e r o f its

c o n c e r n s ; t h a t n o t on ly g e n e r a t e s e c o n o m i c g r o w th b u t d is tr ib u te s its b e n ­ efits e q u ita b ly ; t h a t r e g e n e r a te s th e e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h a t e m p o w e r s p e o p le ; a n d t h a t, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r e x istin g p o s itio n o f fe w e r o p p o r tu n itie s , gives p r io r ity to th e p o or, e n la r g in g th e ir c h o ic e s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d p r o v i d ­ ing for th e ir p a r tic ip a t io n in d e cisio n s t h a t affect t h e ir lives. U N D P ' s co re m issio n, fo c u se d o n b u ild in g h u m a n a n d in s titu tio n a l c a p a c ity for p o v e rty e lim in a t io n , liv e lih o o d a n d j o b c r e a ti o n , th e a d v a n c e m e n t o f w o m e n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p ro te c t io n . S H D differs from h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p ts by m o r e a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d s th e f a c to r o f tim e. ( U N D P ) S u s t a i n a b l e l i v e l i h o o d - A liv e lih o o d is s u s ta in a b le w h e n it c a n c o p e w ith

a n d r e c o v e r fro m stresses a n d sh ocks w hile m a i n t a i n i n g o r e n h a n c i n g its c a p a b ilitie s a n d assets. S u s t a i n a b l e u s e ( o f b i o d i v e r s i t y ) - T h e use o f c o m p o n e n t s o f b io lo gical

diversity in a w a y a n d a t a r a te t h a t d o c s n o t le a d to th e lo n g - t e r m d e c lin e o f b io lo g ica l diversity, t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g its p o t e n t ia l to m e e t th e n e e d s a n d a s p ira tio n s o f p r e s e n t a n d f u tu r e g e n e r a tio n s . (C B D ) S u s t a i n e d y i e l d - T h e yield t h a t a r e n e w a b le re s o u r c e c a n p r o d u c e c o n ­

t in u o u s ly a t a given in te n s ity o f m a n a g e m e n t . S w e d i s h I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y ( S I D A ) - T h e p r in c ip a l

243

Swidden agriculture

ag en cy th ro u g h w hic h S w e d e n provides technical assistance a n d delivers foreign aid. S w i d d e n a g r i c u l t u r e - Sec S h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n . ' S y m b io sis A ssociation o f two org a n ism s in w hich the re lationship is m u ­ tually beneficial. (USEPA) S y m b o ls Sy m b ols c o m m o n ly used in U n it e d N a tio n s d o c u m e n ts. See ‘U n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t . ’ b

billion

£

cents



©

copyright





euro



F

French Franc(replaced by euro in 2002)



fte

full-time equivalent(s) referring to staff members



ha

hectare (2.47 acres; 10,000 square meters)

ac

acre (2.47 acres; 43,560 square feet, 405 hectares)

k

kilo

I

liter

g



g'ga



£

British pound



m

meter



mJ

square meter



m3

cubic meter



Mm5

millions of cubic meters



masl

meters above sea



M

mega



M

million



ppb

parts per billion



ESP

M m V millions of cubic meters per annum

ppm [] •

® s

parts per million Spanish Peseta (replaced by euro in 2002) square brackets, text under discussion registered second



T

tera



t

ton





trademark



¥

Japanese yen






greater than



@

at (in electronic mail addresses)



%o

%

percentage parts per thousand

244

Synergy

S y n e r g y - T h e result o f a c o m b in ed actio n o r o p eratio n o f tw o o r m o re

parlies, systems, o r p arts, in w hich the results are g re a te r th a n they w ould be acting separately. S y s t e m ic insec tic id e /p e stic id e

A n insecticide o r pesticide th a t is a b ­ sorbed inlo p la n t sap a n d / o r a ro o t system a n d is leth al lo insects a n d pests feeding on the tre a te d p lan t. (USEPA)

245

Tt T a b l e - A te r m th a t, d e p e n d in g o n w h o is u sin g it, c a n m e a n to c ith e r tak e

u p o r h a lt d e b a te o n a n issue. T o p la c e o n th e a g e n d a o r to re m o v e (as a p a r lia m e n ta r y m o tio n ) fro m c o n s id e ra tio n in d efin itely . T a cit k n o w le d g e

T h e a c c u m u la te d p o r tio n o f e x p e rie n c e s a n d skills w ith in p e o p le g a in e d th r o u g h c o g n itio n in o n e ’s life tim e . (N o n a k a a n d T a k e u c h i, 1995)

T a i l i n g s - S ee S p o ils ." T a ilo r-m a d e e c o n o m ie s

A te r m th a t c a m c in to c o m m o n u se in m id -

2 0 0 6 to in d ic a te sm a ll-sc a le , lo c ally d e v e lo p e d e c o n o m ic re f o rm stra te g ie s as o p p o s e d to ‘b ig b a n g ’ in s titu tio n a l c h a n g e s su c h as s tr u c tu r a l/ s e c to r re fo rm p o lic y p a c k a g e s a d v o c a te d by d e v e lo p m e n t b a n k s. T h e fo u r-p o in t a g e n d a p r o p o s e d fo r H I P C a n d o th e r low in c o m e c o u n tr ie s in c lu d e s: fos­ te r in g activ e tr a d e a n d p ro d u c tio n s e c to r p o lic ie s fo r e c o n o m ic d iv e rsific a ­ tio n ; im p ro v in g th e tr a d e e n v ir o n m e n t; o p e n in g u p m o r e sp a c e fo r c o u n te r ­ cyclical m a c r o e c o n o m ic p o lic ie s; a n d e n s u r in g su s ta in e d levels o f p u b lic sp e n d in g . (U N W ) S ee C y c l i c a l m a c r o - e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s , ' T k e a d e ­ v e lo p m e n t/ T a k e - b a c k e f f e c t — Sec ‘O f f s e t t i n g e f f e c t .5 T a llb e rg F o ru m

- A n in te r n a tio n a l fo ru m in v o lv in g g lo b a l le a d e rs s ta rte d

in 1980 to e n h a n c e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f tr a n s f o r m a tio n a l le a d e rs h ip , v a lu e s a n d in s titu tio n a l c h a n g e . (W P) T a r g e t g r o u p s - T h e m a in s ta k e h o ld e rs o f a p ro je c t th a t a rc c x p c c tc d to

g a in from th e resu lts o f th a t p ro je c t; se c to rs o f th e p o p u la tio n th a t a p ro je c t a im s to re a c h in o r d e r to a d d re s s th e ir n e e d s b a s e d o n g e n d e r c o n s id e r a ­ tio n s a n d th e ir so c io -e c o n o m ic c h a ra c te ris tic s . T e c h n o c e n trism

A b e lie f th a t c o n s ta n t g e n e ra tio n o f n e w te c h n o lo g y is a p a n a c c a fo r h u m a n ity ’s p ro b le m s . (EES)

T e c h n o l o g i c a l c o l o n i a l i s m - A te r m th a t c a n b e tr a c c d to th e ro le o f la rg e

I C T c o m p a n ie s a n d th e ir s tra te g ie s fo r d e v e lo p in g a n d m a r k e tin g so ftw a re a n d h a r d w a r e fo r u se in d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s . T h e a r g u m e n t is m a d e th a t d e v e lo p in g c o u n tr ie s a rc fo rc ed (by c o st, av ailab ility , p a te n t p ro te c tio n s a n d te c h n ic a l in te r n e t acc e ss c o n fig u ra tio n s) to a c c e p t I C T d e v e lo p e d by a few la rg e m u ltin a tio n a l c o m p a n ie s , w h ic h in t u r n in d c b ts th e m so cially a n d e c o n o m ic a lly to th e v a lu e s o f d e v e lo p e d n a tio n s . In e sse n c e th e y a re fro z e n

Technology transfer (1)

ou t o f effective c o m p e titio n in the I C T m a rk e tp la c e a n d d o m in a te d by outside firms. See ' D i g i t a l d i v i d e . ’ Technology transfer (I)

T h e tra n sfe r o f know ledge or e q u ip m e n t to en a b le the m a n u f a c tu r e o f a p r o d u c t, the a pp lic a tion o f a process, o r the r e n d e r in g o f a sendee. (B C H M )

T e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r (2) - T h e proccss o f dev eloping p ra c tic a l a p p lic a ­

tions for the results o f scientific research. (WP) Territorial sea

o f the ereign m o n ly o f the

L itto ral zon e w a te rs re g a r d e d as being u n d e r ju risd ic tio n state: com m only, those w aters m e a s u r e d from the shoreline o f a sov­ state w h e re the laws o f th a t state are ap plicable. T h e s e w a te rs c o m ­ e x te n d to 12 n a u tic a l miles (22km) from the coast, as p e r the te rm s U n i te d N a tio n s C o n v e n tio n o n the L aw o f th e Sea. (WP)

Territory

T h e la n d a n d w a te r con tro lled by a country, n a tio n o r state.

Terrorism

T h e in te n tio n a l use of, o r th r e a t to use, violence a g a in st civil­ ians or against civilian targets, in o r d e r to a tta in political aims. ( U S D O S ) Sec E c o - t e r r o r i s m , ’ ‘M o n k e y w r e n c h i n g . ’

T e r t i a r y s e w a g e t r e a t m e n t - P rim a r y a n d s e c o n d a ry tr e a t m e n t plus a

final stage involving a n u m b e r o f a lte rn a te tr e a tm e n ts a im e d at raising the effluent q u a lity to the s ta n d a r d re q u ir e d before it is d isc h a rg e d to th e re ­ ceiving e n v ir o n m e n t (sea, river, lake, g ro u n d , etc.) (WP) T h e N a t u r e C o n s e r v a n c y ( T N C ) - I n c o r p o r a te d in 1951 in the U S,

T N C is o n e o f the largest c on servation N G O s in the world. Its mission is to help preserv e plants, a n im als a n d n a tu ra l c o m m u n itie s th a t re p re s e n t the n a tu r a l diversity o f life on E a r th by p ro te c tin g the lan ds a n d w a te rs they n e e d to survive. Its h e a d q u a r te r s are in A rlin gton , V irginia, U S. Third state

A state n o t a p a r ty to the treaty. (VC)

T h i r d W o r l d - A te r m re fe rrin g to th e a re a s o f the w orld t h a t a rc the

least develop ed, w hich consists o f large p a r ts o f Latin A m e ric a , A frica a n d S o u th a n d East Asia. T h i r d W o r l d A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e s ( T W A S ) - A n association o f m ore

th a n 6 0 0 e m in e n t scientists, largely from the So uth. Its p rin cip le aim is to p r o m o t e scientific c a p a c ity a n d cxccllencc for sustain able d e v e lo p m e n t in th e S o u th . It s u p p o rts scicntific research in m o r e th a n 90 c o u n trie s by p ro v id in g p ro m isin g scientists with resea rc h facilities necessary for the a d ­ v a n c e m e n t o f their w ork. (TW AS) T h i r d W o r l d N e t w o r k o f S c i en t i f ic O r g a n i z a t i o n s ( T W N S O )

A n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l alliancc o f 154 scientific o rg a n iz a tio n s in the So uth, in c lu d in g m inisters o f science, te c h n o lo g y a n d h ig h e r e d u c a tio n , science

247

Third W orld O rg an iza tio n for W o m e n in Science (T W O W S )

ac a d e m ic s, a n d re se a rc h co u n cils. T W N S O ’s p rim a ry g oals arc to h elp bu ild p o litical a n d scientific le a d e rsh ip in th e S o u th for scie n c e-b a sed e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t a n d to p ro m o te su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t th ro u g h S o u th S o u th a n d S o u th N o rth p a rtn e rs h ip s in scien ce a n d technology.

(TWNSO) T h i r d W o r l d O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r W o m e n in S c i e n c e ( T W O W S )

An in d e p e n d e n t N G O , e stab lish ed w ith th e a ssistan ce o f T W A S in 1993, it is th e first in te rn a tio n a l fo ru m d esig n e d to u n ite e m in e n t w o m e n scientists from th e S o u th fo r th e p u rp o s e s o f s tre n g th e n in g th e ir role in su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t a n d p ro m o tin g th e ir re p re se n ta tio n a n d le a d e rsh ip in science a n d technology. (T W O W S )

T h i r t y p e r c e n t c lu b - C o u n trie s w h o h av e sig n ed th e P ro to c o l to th e 1979

C o n v e n tio n o n L o n g -R a n g e T ra n s b o u n d a r y A ir P o llu tio n . T h is C o n v e n ­ tion calls for re d u c tio n s o f a t least 30 p c rc e n t in su lp h u r em issio n s o r th e ir tr a n s b o u n d a ry fluxes. (AM ) T h r e a t e n e d species ( I )

S pecies th a t are g en etically im p o v erish e d , o f low fecundity, d e p e n d e n t on p a tc h y o r u n p re d ic ta b le reso u rces, ex tre m ely v a ria b le in p o p u la tio n density, p e rs e c u te d o r o th erw ise p ro n e to e x tin c tio n in h u m a n d o m in a te d la n d sc a p e s. (GBA)

T h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s (2)

A classificatio n re fe rrin g to a species th a t is likely to b e c o m e e n d a n g e re d w ith in th e n e a r fu tu re , th r o u g h o u t all o r a sig n ifican t p o rtio n o f its ran g e. (IU C N )

T h r e e p i l l a r s o f s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t - A c o m m o n ly a c c c p tc d

id ea th a t su sta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t is b a se d o n th e su sta in a b ility o f its th re e c o m p o n e n ts: e c o n o m ic a l su stain ab ility , social sustain ab ility , a n d ‘eco lo g i­ c a l’ o r ‘e n v iro n m e n ta l’ sustainability. T i e d a id —A id is said to be ‘tie d 5 w h e n o n e o f th e c o n d itio n s for g ra n tin g

it is th a t the m o n e y g iv en o r lo a n e d will be u se d to b u y g o o d s a n d serv­ ices from th e d o n o r c o u n try o r a n o th e r specified co u n try . D o n o r c o u n trie s in th e O E C D -D A C arc c o m m itte d to u n ty in g a id fo r th e least d ev e lo p e d c o u n tries. (O E C D ) T o p -u p funds

F u n d s th a t a re in a d d itio n to th o se re q u e s te d for a p ro je c t for th e p u rp o se s o f e n a b lin g th e p ro je c t to m ove fo rw ard .

T o p - u p p r o j e c t s - E n a b lin g p ro je c ts th a t a re d iffe re n t fro m , b u t n ece ssa ry

for, th e success o f p ro je c ts d esig n e d to m e e t a specific goal. T o t a l a l l o w a b l e c a t c h - T h e q u a n tity o f fish th a t c a n b e tak e n from each

stock ea c h year. T o t a l d i s s o l v e d s o l i d s ( T D S ) - T h e d ry w eig h t o f all m a te ria l in w a te r o r

248

Totol maximum daily load

w a s t e w a t e r t h a t passes through a series o f c a lib r a te d s t a n d a r d filters. (U S E P A ; W P) T o t a l m a x i m u m daily load

T h e m a x i m u m a llo w e d level o f p o l l u t a n t lo a d in g for a w a t e r body, w hile still p r o t e c t i n g its uses a n d m a i n t a i n i n g c o m p l i a n c e w ith e s ta b lis h e d w a t e r q u a lity s ta n d a r d s .

T o t a l s u s p e n d e d s o l i d s ( T S S ) - T h e d r y w e i g h t o f th e s u s p e n d e d solids

in w a ste w a te r, e fflu e n t o r w a t e r b o d ie s trapped by a scries o f c a lib r a te d s t a n d ­ a r d filters. (U S E P A ; W P ) Tour

See ‘P o s t / P o s t i n g . '

T o u r D ’H o r i z o n - A d ip l o m a tic d iscu ssion c o v e rin g m o s t s u b je cts o f c u r ­

r e n t a n d c o m m o n c o n c e r n a m o n g th e p a rtie s . (cD) Toxic w aste

R e fu se o r o t h e r u n w a n t e d m a t e r i a l p o s in g a sig n ific a n t h a z ­ a r d to th e h e a l th o f h u m a n s o r o t h e r o r g a n is m s w h e n im p r o p e r l y h a n d l e d .

(WP) T rack I diplom acy

G o v e r n m e n t to g o v e r n m e n t c o n v e r s a tio n s o r n e g o ­

tiations. (eD) T rack 2 diplom acy

C iv il society to g o v e r n m e n t o r g o v e r n m e n t to civil so c ie ty c o n v e r s a tio n s o r n e g o tia tio n s . (eD)

T r a d a b l e e m i s s i o n s - A n a p p r o a c h to lim itin g th e g lo b a l d is c h a rg e o f

g r e e n h o u s e e m is sio n s b y a llo w in g p o llu te r s to ‘t r a d e ’ th e costs o f em issio n s for p ro a c tiv e c o n s e r v a tio n initiatives in re la te d sectors. A n e x a m p l e w o u ld be c a r b o n e m issio n s from a p o w e r sta tio n ‘t r a d e d ’ for s u p p o r t to c a r b o n s e q u e s tr a tio n in forestry. ( U N F C C C ) T ra d itio n a l resource rights ( T R R ) -

S im il a r to in te lle c tu a l p r o p e r t y rights, b u t th e t e r m d e n o te s b r o a d e r ‘b u n d l e s o f ri g h ts ’ t h a t i n c lu d e h u m a n rights, l a n d rights, religious r ig h ts a n d c u ltu r a l p r o p e rty . ( B C H M )

T R A F F I C - A wildlife t r a d e - m o n i t o r i n g g r o u p s p o n s o r e d by I U C N a n d

WWE T r a g e d y o f t h e C o m m o n s - A b o o k p u b lis h e d by D r G a r r e t t H a r d i n in

1968, w h ic h e x p lo r e d the issue o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c ity o f n a t u r a l reso urces. T h e thesis o f th e b o o k a r g u e d t h a t in m a n y situa tio ns, th e s e lf - m a x im iz in g g a in s by in d iv id u a ls u ltim a te ly d e stro y th e re so u rc e , su c h t h a t n o b o d y wins. T h e utility o f a n a d d i t i o n a l ite m fo r th e p e r s o n is m o r e t h a n th e d isutility o f the a d d i t i o n a l s tr a in o n re s o u rc e s ( s h a re d by e v e ry b o d y ). T h i s o c c u r s w ith p a r k usa g e , p o l lu tio n , etc. A p p e a l s to c o n s c ie n c e will n o t b e effective. I n a sense, f re e d o m m u s t b e re s tric te d to r e ta in th e reso u rc e .

249

Tranche (1)

T r a n c h e ( I ) - A w o rk p ro g ra m th a t c o n ta in s a tim eta b le, p ro je c t c o m p o ­

n e n t a n d fu n d in g level. (G E F ) T r a n c h e (2)

A d is b u rs e m e n t/p a y m e n t o f fu n d s b a se d o n an a g re e d -to tim e ta b le a n d tied to m ilesto n es o r p ro d u c ts in a p ro je c t w o rk p lan . (G E F)

Transboundary

D esc rib es c o lla b o ra tio n activ ities o r a n y system o r e x te r­ n ality e x te n d in g b ey o n d o n e ju ris d ic tio n , reg io n o r n a tio n state a t a n y scale (cross-border, in te r-re g io n a l, tra n sn a tio n a l) a n d is th u s a g en e ric te rm for c o lla b o ra tio n e x te n d in g over n a tio n a l b o rd e rs.

T r a n s b o u n d a r y d ia g n o st ic analysis ( T D A )

A stu d y u n d e rta k e n to id en tify a n d e v a lu a te th e m a jo r e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro b le m s a n d th e ir ro o t so­ cietal a n d e c o n o m ic cau ses resp o n sib le fo r th e d e te rio ra tio n o f in te rn a tio n ­ al w aters. F u rth e r, th e T D A is a m e c h a n ism to define p rio rity a ctio n s a n d co -o p c ra tiv c efforts b e tw e e n G E F a n d c o u n tr ic s /p a rtic ip a n ts . T h e stu d y in clu d es n a tu ra l a n d social scientists a n d e c o n o m ists as well as re p re s e n ta ­ tives o f th e a r e a ’s stak e h o ld ers. (G EF)

T r a n s b o u n d a r y F r e s h w a t e r D i s p u t e D a t a b a s e ( T F D D ) - T h e w o rld 's

larg est se a rc h a b le d a ta b a se o n fre sh w a te r co n flict p re v e n tio n a n d d isp u te reso lu tio n . T h e d a ta b a se , h o u sed in th e D e p a rtm e n t o f G eo scien ces at O re g o n S tate U niversity, h a s b e c o m c a n in c re a sin g ly im p o rta n t so u rcc o f in fo rm a tio n fo r n e g o tia to rs a n d c o n ta in s five elem en ts: th e A tlas o f I n te r ­ n a tio n a l F re sh w a te r A g re e m e n ts, th e In te rn a tio n a l F re sh w a te r T re a tie s D a ­ ta b ase, th e T ra n s b o u n d a r y F re s h w a te r S p a tia l D a ta b a se , th e In te rn a tio n a l F re sh w a te r E v e n t D a ta b a se , a n d th e I n te rn a tio n a l R iv e r B asin R egister. (T F D D ) T r a n s b o u n d a r y g o v e r n a n c e - A te rm re fe rrin g to e ith e r a fo rm a l o r in ­

fo rm a l fram ew o rk to m a n a g e a n a tu ra l reso u rc e o r to ad d re ss a n e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l p ro b le m sh a re d b etw ee n tw o o r m o re ju risd ic tio n s. (O A S , 2001) T r a n s b o u n d a r y po llu tion

P o llu ted a ir a n d w ater, o r a n y o th e r c o n ta m i­ n a te d w aste th a t is g e n e ra te d in o n e ju ris d ic tio n a n d tra n s m itte d to o th ers. (EEA)

T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l d i p l o m a c y - A U S D O S te rm d efin e d in 2 0 0 6 as w o rk ­

in g w ith p a rtn e rs a ro u n d th e w o rld to b u ild a n d su sta in d e m o c ra tic , wellg o v e rn e d states th a t will re sp o n d to th e n eed s o f th e ir p e o p le a n d c o n d u c t th em selves resp o n sib ly in th e in te rn a tio n a l system . T ra n s fo rm a tio n a l d ip lo ­ m a c y is ro o te d in p a rtn e rs h ip , n o t p a te rn a lis m , in d o in g th in g s w ith o th e r p eo p le, n o t fo r th e m , to h elp fo reig n citizen s to b e tte r th e ir ow n lives, to bu ild th e ir ow n n a tio n s, a n d to tra n sfo rm th e ir ow n fu tu res. (U S D O S ) T ra n sitio n coun tries

A te rm re fe rrin g to a class o f 24 c o u n trie s from th e fo rm e r S oviet U n io n (C o m m o n w e a lth o f I n d e p e n d e n t S tates) a n d th e fo r m e r W arsaw P act. See ‘E m e r g i n g c o u n t r i e s / e c o n o m i e s . '

250

Transitional woters

T r a n s i t i o n a l w a t e r s - B odies o f su rface w a te r in th e vicin ity o f a riv e r

m o u th th a t a re p a rtly saline in c h a ra c te r as a resu lt o f th e ir p ro x im ity to co astal w a te rs b u t w hich a re su b sta n tially in flu e n c e d by fre sh w a te r flows. (EES) T r a n s l a t i o n - A te rm re fe rrin g to tra n sla tin g th e w ritte n o r sp o k e n w o rd

in to o th e r lan g u ag e s. T ra n s-n atio n a l A c to r

See ' N o n - s t a t e A c t o r . ’

Transparency

A p o licy o f sh a rin g in fo rm a tio n a n d a c tin g in su ch a w ay so as to allow sta k e h o ld e rs to g a th e r in fo rm a tio n th a t m a y be critical to u n c o v e rin g abu ses a n d d e fe n d in g th e ir in terests. T ra n s p a r e n t system s have c lea r p ro c e d u re s fo r p u b lic d ecisio n m a k in g a n d o p e n c h a n n e ls o f c o m ­ m u n ic a tio n b e tw e e n sta k e h o ld e rs a n d officials, a n d m a k e a w id e ra n g e o f in fo rm a tio n accessible. (U N D P )

T r a n s p a r e n c y In te rn a tio n a l (T l)

F o rm e d in 1993 a n d b a se d in B erlin, T ra n s p a re n c y In te rn a tio n a l is a n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n d e d ic a te d to in c re a sin g g o v e rn m e n t a c c o u n ta b ility a n d c u rb in g b o th in te rn a tio n a l a n d n a tio n a l c o rru p tio n . It w o rk s to en su re th a t th e a g e n d a s o f in te r n a ­ tio n al o rg a n iz a tio n s give h ig h p rio rity to c u rb in g c o rru p tio n . B oth th e T I S e c re ta ria t a n d T I N a tio n a l C h a p te rs a ro u n d th e w o rld actively m o n ito r the im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e a n ti-c o rru p tio n in s tru m e n ts o f th e O E C D , th e C o u n c il o f E u ro p e , th e E U a n d th e O rg a n iz a tio n o f A m e ric a n S tates. (T I)

T reaty

A n in te rn a tio n a l a g re e m e n t c o n c lu d e d b e tw e e n S tates in w ritte n fo rm a n d g o v e rn e d by in te rn a tio n a l law, w h e th e r e m b o d ie d in a single in ­ s tru m e n t o r in tw o o r m o re re la te d in s tru m e n ts a n d w h a te v e r its p a rtic u la r d esig n atio n . (VC)

T reaty

o f B a s s e t e r r e - T h e tre a ty e sta b lish in g th e O rg a n iz a tio n o f E a ste rn C a rib b e a n S tates. See O r g a n i z a t i o n o f E a s t e r n C a r i b b e a n S ta tes.’

T r e a t y o f N i c e - T h e T re a ty o f N ice (France) w as a d o p te d by th e E u ro ­

p e a n C o u n c il to a m e n d th e tw o fo u n d in g tre a tie s o f th e E U : th e T re a ty o n E u ro p e a n U n io n , o r M a a s tric h t T reaty, w h ich in tro d u c e d th e e u ro a n d the in stitu tio n a l stru c tu re o f th e E U ; a n d th e T re a ty o f R o m e, w h ich es­ ta b lish e d th e E u ro p e a n E c o n o m ic C o m m u n ity a n d th e E u ro p e a n A to m ic E n e rg y C o m m u n ity . It e n te re d in to force on 1 F ebruary, 2 0 0 3 . (E U ; W P ) T r e a t y on E u ro p e a n U n io n

S ee ' E u r o p e a n U n i o n . '

T rip artite A g r e e m e n t

A n a g re e m e n t o f 28 O c to b e r, 1991, fo rm ally signed by th e h e a d s o f th e W orld B an k , U N D P a n d U N E P to estab lish a n d o p e ra te the G EF.

251

Triple bottom -line (1)

T r i p l e b o t t o m - l i n e ( I ) - E x p a n d in g th e tr a d itio n a l c o m p a n y re p o r tin g

fra m e w o rk fro m o n e th a t is e x clu siv ely fin a n c ia l to o n e in c lu d in g so cial, e n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d e c o n o m ic fa c to rs. (W P) T r ip le b o t t o m - l i n e (2)

T h e w h o le se t o f v alu es, issues a n d p ro c e sse s

c o m p a n ie s m u s t a d d re s s in o r d e r to m in im iz e th e h a r m re s u ltin g fro m th e ir ac tiv ities a n d to c re a te e c o n o m ic , so c ia l a n d e n v ir o n m e n ta l v a lu e . T h e th r e e b o tto m lin es re p r e s e n t society, th e e c o n o m y a n d th e e n v ir o n m e n t. S o c ie ty d e p e n d s o n th e e c o n o m y a n d th e e c o n o m y d e p e n d s o n th e g lo b a l e c o sy s te m , w h o se h e a lth is th e u ltim a te b o tto m lin e. (U N E P ) T r o p h i c le v e l(s)

O n e o f th e h ie r a rc h ic a l s tra ta o f a fo o d w eb c h a r a c te r ­

iz e d b y o rg a n is m s th a t a re th e sa m e n u m b e r o f ste p s re m o v e d fro m th e p r i­ m a r y p ro d u c e r s . A p r e d a t o r sp e c ie s re p re s e n ts o n e o r m o re tr o p h ic levels h ig h e r th a n th e sp ecies b e in g c o n s u m e d . (E E S) T ro p ica l fo re st

T h e n a tu r a l a n d s e m i- n a tu r a l tr o p ic a l o r s u b tro p ic a l fo r­ est e co sy stem s, w h e th e r p r im a r y o r se c o n d a ry , w h e th e r c lo se d o r o p e n fo r­ ests, in b o th d ry a n d h u m id a re a s fo u n d w ith in th e tro p ic s a n d s u b tro p ic s d e lim ite d by th e 3 0 th n o r t h e r n a n d s o u th e r n p a ra lle ls. (E E A )

T r u s t f u n d s - E x tr a - b u d g e ta r y p ro g r a m re s o u rc e s th a t h e lp m e e t th e o b ­

je c tiv e s o f U N E P th a t a re n e g o tia te d b e tw e e n U N E P a n d th e d o n o r (or se v e ra l d o n o rs ) a n d fo rm s e p a r a te a c c o u n ts . (U N E P ) T r u s t Fund fo r th e C o n v e n t io n on B io lo g ic a l D iv e r sity

A n in s titu ­

tio n e s ta b lis h e d b y th e C O P - C B D to a d m in is te r fu n d s fo r th e a d m in is tr a ­ tio n o f th e c o n v e n tio n in c lu d in g th e fu n c tio n s o f th e S e c re ta ria t. T h e T ru s t F u n d is fin a n c e d fro m c o n tr ib u tio n s m a d e by P a rtie s to th e C o n v e n tio n s b a s e d o n a se t scale, a d d itio n a l c o n tr ib u tio n s b y th e p a rtie s , c o n tr ib u tio n s fro m S ta te s n o t P a rtie s to th e C o n v e n tio n a n d g o v e rn m e n ta l, in te rg o v e r n ­ m e n ta l a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s . (C B D ) T sunam i

A se a w ave o f lo c a l o r d is ta n t o rig in th a t re su lts fro m la rg e -sc a le s e a flo o r d is p la c e m e n ts a ss o c ia te d w ith la rg e o ffsh o re e a rth q u a k e s , m a jo r s u b m a r in e slid es o r e r u p tin g u n d e r w a te r v o lc a n ic islan d s. (U N D P )

T u n d r a - A z o n e b e tw e e n th e p e r p e tu a l sn o w a n d ice o f A rc tic re g io n s

a n d th e tre e lin e (b o re a l ta ig a ), h a v in g a p e r m a n e n tly fro z e n su b -so il a n d s u p p o r tin g lo w -g ro w in g v e g e ta tio n su ch as lic h e n s, m o sses, d w a r f s h ru b s a n d s tu n te d tre e s. (E E S ) T u r b i d i t y - A m e a s u re o f w a te r clarity. (U S E P A )

T u r n e r F o u n d a t i o n - S ee ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s F o u n d a t i o n . ' T u r t le e x c lu d e r device ( T E D )

A n e t m o d ific a tio n u se d o n s h r im p b o a ts t h a t e n a b le s in c id e n ta lly c a u g h t se a tu rtle s to e sc a p e . (N R D C )

252

Twinning arrang em ents

T w i n n i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s - A rra n g e m e n ts m a d e to facilitate s h a rin g o f

k n o w led g e a n d te c h n o lo g y tra n sfe r b etw e e n in stitu tio n s h a v in g sim ilar m a n d a te s in d iffe re n t co u n tries. Type

I O utcom e

A tan g ib le o u tc o m e o f a c o n fe re n c e , g e n e ra lly a

treaty. T y p e 2 O u t c o m e - A ta n g ib le o u tc o m e o f a c o n fere n c e, g e n e ra lly p a r tn e r ­

ships.

253

Uu U 4 R e s o u r c e C e n t e r - T h e U 4 U tstcin A n ti-C o rru p tio n R e so u rce C e n ­

tre is a w eb -b a se d reso u rc e c e n te r e sta b lish e d by th e U tste in G ro u p to stre n g th e n th e ir p a rtn e rs h ip for fig h tin g c o rru p tio n in su p p o rt o f in te r n a ­ tio n a l d ev e lo p m e n t. See ‘U t s t e i n G r o u p P a r t n e r s h i p . ’ U m b r e l l a c o n v e n t i o n - A sta n d -a lo n e c o n v e n tio n th a t c a n fo ster o th e r

co n v e n tio n s (p rim arily re g io n a l co n v en tio n s) th a t h elp s to m e e t its o b je c ­ tives. (C M S ) U m b re lla gro u p

A co a litio n o f lik e -m in d e d g o v e rn m e n ts esta b lish e d for p u rp o s e s o f v o tin g w ith in th e U N F C C C (Jap an , th e U S , Ic e la n d , C a n a d a , A u stralia, N orw ay, N ew Z e a la n d , R ussian F e d e ra tio n a n d U k rain e).

U n a n im ity

A d ecisio n h a v in g th e a g re e m e n t a n d c o n se n t o f all p a rtic i­

p an ts. U n c e rta in ty

D istin g u ish e d fro m risk by th e fact th a t th e re is n o scientific basis u p o n w h ich to fo rm u la te a n y p ro b a b ilistic a rg u m e n t.

UN

D i s p a t c h - A d aily su m m a ry o f U N -re la te d ‘b lo g 5 c o m m e n ta r y (w eb­ site w h ere c o m m e n ts c an be p o sted ), w w w .u n d isp a tc h .c o m /

U N E S C O C a t e g o r y I W a t e r I n s t i t u t e - A n in te g ra l p a rt o f U N E S C O

a d d re ssin g a p a rtic u la r th e m e o r p rio rity o f th e ‘U N E S C O - I H E I n s t i t u t e f o r W a t e r E d u c a t i o n . ’ UNESCO

o rg a n iz a tio n . Sec

C a t e g o r y II W a t e r I n s t i t u t e s O n e o f th e fo u r p illars o f U N E S C O ’s W a te r P ro g ra m . T h e C a te g o ry II w a te r in stitu tes (n a tio n a l th e m a tic w a te r c e n te rs b u t c o lla b o ra tin g w ith U N E S C O th ro u g h th e D ivi­ sion o f W a te r S ciences) in clu d e th e follow ing: th e I n te rn a tio n a l R e sea rc h a n d T ra in in g C e n tre o n E ro sio n a n d S e d im e n ta tio n (IR T C E S ) in C h in a , W a te r C e n tre fo r th e H u m id T ro p ics o f L a tin A m e ric a a n d th e C a r ib ­ b e a n (C A T H A L A C ) in P a n a m a , R eg io n a l H u m id T ro p ics H y d ro lo g y a n d W a te r R eso u rces C e n tre for S o u th e a s t A sia a n d th e Pacific (H T G ) in M a ­ laysia, R e g io n a l C e n te r o n U rb a n W a te r M a n a g e m e n t (R C U W M ) in Ira n , R eg io n al C e n te r for T ra in in g a n d W a te r S tu d ies o f A rid a n d S em i-A rid Z o n e s (R C T W S ) in E g y p t, In te rn a tio n a l R e search a n d T ra in in g C e n te r on U rb a n D ra in a g e (IR T C U D ) in S e rb ia , In te rn a tio n a l C e n te r o n Q a n a ts a n d H istoric H y d ra u lic S tru c tu re s (IC Q H H S ) in Ira n , In te rn a tio n a l C e n tre fo r W a te r H a z a rd a n d R isk M a n a g e m e n t (IC H A R M ) in J a p a n , W a te r C e n tre for A rid a n d S em i-A rid R eg io n s o f L a tin A m e ric a a n d th e C a rib b e a n (C A Z A L A C ) in C h ile, IH P -H E L P C e n tre fo r W a te r Law, Policy a n d S cie n ce in

U N E S C O Centre University of Ulster

S c o tla n d , th e E u ro p e a n R e g io n a l C e n tre fo r E c o h y d ro lo g y in P o la n d , a n d the R eg io n al C e n tre on U rb a n W a te r M a n a g e m e n t fo r L a tin A m e ric a a n d th e C a rib b e a n in C o lo m b ia (C IN A R A ). UNESCO

C en tre U n ive rsity of U lste r A u n iv ersity re se arch c e n te r th a t c o n c e n tra te s o n th e th e m e s o f e d u c a tio n fo r p lu ra lism , h u m a n rig h ts a n d d e m o c ra c y in local, n a tio n a l a n d in te rn a tio n a l co n tex ts.

U N E S C O - I H E I n s t i t u t e f o r W a t e r E d u c a t i o n - O n e o f th e fo u r p il­

lars o f U N E S C O ’s W a te r P ro g ra m . L o c a te d in D elft, T h e N e th e rla n d s, U N E S C O - I H E is a C a te g o ry I (an in te g ra l p a r t o f U N E S C O ) p o st­ g ra d u a te tra in in g in stitu te in w a te r sciences, e n g in e e rin g a n d p o licy th a t aim s to c o n trib u te to th e e d u c a tio n a n d tra in in g o f p ro fessio n als a n d to b u ild th e c a p a c ity o f se c to r o rg a n iz a tio n s, k n o w led g e c e n te rs a n d o th e r in stitu tio n s active in th e fields o f w ater, e n v iro n m e n t a n d in fra stru c tu re in d ev elo p in g a n d tra n sitio n c o u n trie s. (U N E S C O ) U N E S C O -IH E

P artn e rsh ip

fo r

W ater

Edu catio n

and

Research

( P o W E R ) - A n etw o rk o f e ig h te e n a u to n o m o u s c o lla b o ra tin g c e n te rs in

all reg io n s o f th e d e v e lo p in g w o rld th a t aim s to c o n d u c t a n d d issem in ate re se a rc h in to all asp ects o f in te g ra te d w a te r re so u rc e m a n a g e m e n t a n d c a ­ p a c ity building . (U N E S C O ) U N E S C O - I H P In te rn a tio n a l H y d ro lo g ic al P r o g r a m m e

O n e o f th e fo u r pillars o f U N E S C O ’s W a te r P ro g ra m . U N E S C O ’s in te rg o v e rn m e n ­ tal scientific c o o p e ra tiv e p ro g ra m in w a te r re so u rc e s is a vehicle th ro u g h w h ich M e m b e r S ta te s c a n u p g ra d e th e ir k n o w led g e o f th e w a te r cycle a n d th e re b y in crease th e ir c a p a c ity to b e tte r m a n a g e a n d d ev elo p th e ir w a te r reso u rces. IH P aim s a t th e im p ro v e m e n t o f th e scientific a n d te c h n o lo g i­ cal basis for th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f m e th o d s fo r th e ra tio n a l m a n a g e m e n t o f w a te r reso u rces, in c lu d in g th e p ro te c tio n o f th e e n v iro n m e n t. (U N E S C O )

U N E S C O ‘W a t e r F a m i l y ’ — A n in fo rm a l u n io n o f th e D ivision o f Wai­

te r S ciences o f U N E S C O H e a d q u a rte rs , U N E S C O - I H P (chairs, n etw o rk s a n d cen ters), th e W orld W a te r A ssessm en t P ro g ra m m e (W W A P), a n d U N E S C O - I H E th a t c o lla b o ra te on w a te r-re la te d issues a im e d at a c h ie v ­ ing th e goals o f th e kU N D e c a d e for A ctio n : W a te r fo r L ife’ a n d th e U N M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G oals. (U N E S C O ) U N E S C O W o r ld W a t e r A s se ssm e n t P ro g ra m m e ( W W A P ) - O ne

o f th e fo u r p illars o f U N E S C O ’s W a te r P ro g ra m (to g e th e r w ith IH P, U N E S C O C a te g o ry II C e n te rs , a n d U N E S C O -I H E ). W W A P focuses on assessing th e d e v elo p in g situ a tio n w ith re g a rd to fre sh w a te r th ro u g h o u t th e w orld. T h e p rim a ry o u tp u t o f th e W W A P is th e p e rio d ic W o rld W a te r D e v e lo p m e n t R e p o rt (W W D R ). (U N E S C O ) U N ese

A sla n g te r m re fe rrin g to th e a rra y o f ja r g o n a n d ac ro n y m s u sed by U N in sid ers, m a k in g full u n d e rs ta n d in g by o u tsid e rs v e ry difficult.

255

U N G A S S {Earth Sum m it + 5 )

U N G A S S ( E a r t h S u m m i t + 5 ) - T h e 19th sp ecial session o f th e U N G A

c o n v e n e d in J u n e , 1997, to rev iew th e o u ts ta n d in g issues n o t fully resolved at th e U N C E D in c lu d in g fin an ce, clim ate c h a n g e , fre sh w a te r m a n a g e m e n t a n d forest m a n a g e m e n t. T h is session a d o p te d th e P ro g ra m m e fo r th e F u r­ th e r Im p le m e n ta tio n o f Agenda 21 ( A / R E S / S - 1 9 /2 ). It assessed p ro g ress since U N C E D , e x a m in e d im p le m e n ta tio n , a n d e sta b lish e d th e C S D ’s w ork p ro g ra m m e fo r th e p e rio d 1998 2 0 0 2 , le a d in g u p to W S S D . U N s p e a k - See ' U N e s e . ’ U N W atch

A n o n g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n b a se d in G e n e v a th a t m o n i­ to rs activities o f th e U N b ase d on th e C h a r te r a n d o th e r A g re e m e n ts an d R eso lu tio n s e m a n a tin g fro m th e G e n e ra l A ssem bly. (U N )

UN

W a t e r ( F a m i l y ) - A n in te r-a g e n c y stru c tu re o f 24 a g en cies in th e U N system w ith activ ities re la te d to w a te r in all its aspects. T h is g ro u p is resp on sible for ste e rin g th e W o rld W a te r A ssessm en t P ro g ra m a n d its p r in ­ ciple o u tp u t, th e W o rld W a te r A ssessm en t R e p o rt, a n d serves as an a ctio n forum to p ro v id e a m u ltista k e h o ld e r m e c h a n ism for e n g a g e m e n t w ith ex­ tr a U N b o d ies th ro u g h th e W o rld W a te r Im p le m e n ta tio n P ro g ra m . T h e U n ite d N a tio n s S ystem C h ie f E x ecu tiv e B o a rd fo r C o o rd in a tio n (C EB), on th e re c o m m e n d a tio n o f its H ig h -lev el C o m m itte e o n P ro g ra m s (H L C P ), e n d o rs e d U N W a te r in 200 3 as th e n ew official U n ite d N a tio n s sy stem ­ w ide in te r-a g e n c y m e c h a n ism fo r follow u p o f th e w a te r-re la te d decisions re a c h e d a t th e W o rld S u m m it o n S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t 200 2 a n d th e M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G oals.

U N W ire

A daily su m m a ry o f m a jo r w o rld new s a n d how it affects o r is b e in g affected by th e U N system , in c lu d in g its sp ecialized o rg a n iz a tio n s. u n .w ire @ sm a rtb rie f.c o m (U N W )

U n ite d N a tio n s

T h e U n ite d N a tio n s C o n fe re n c e o n In te rn a tio n a l O r ­ g an iz a tio n o p e n e d in S an F ran cisco on 25 A p ril, 1945 w h e re d ele g a te s o f 50 n a tio n s discussed a n d m o d ified th e o rig in a l D u m b a rto n O a k s p ro p o sals. O n 26 J u n e th e U n ite d N a tio n s C h a r te r w as c o m p le te d a n d signed. By 24 O c to b e r, 1945, th e re q u ire d n u m b e r o f n a tio n s h a d ratified th e c h a rte r a n d th e U n ite d N a tio n s c a m e officially in to ex isten ce. T ry g v e L ie, foreign m in is te r o f N orw ay, w as elec ted th e first se c re ta ry -g e n e ra l. T h e U N p re s­ en tly in clu d es 192 M e m b e r S tates. W ith th e e x c e p tio n o f th e H o ly See, th e sole p e rm a n e n t O b s e rv e r S ta te, all in te rn a tio n a lly re c o g n iz e d in d e p e n d e n t c o u n trie s arc m e m b e rs. O th e r p o litic a l en tities, n o ta b ly th e R e p u b lic o f C h in a , T a iw a n ; (T a iw an o f C h in a ; T a iw a n , C h in a ); S a h a ra w i A ra b D e m o ­ c ratic R e p u b lic (W estern S a h a ra ); a n d P alestin e, h av e defacto in d e p e n d e n c e a n d / o r so m e in te rn a tio n a l d ip lo m a tic re c o g n itio n fro m selected states, b u t are n o t full U N m e m b e rs.

U n ite d

N a tio n s A sso ciatio n (s) T h e m ission o f th e W o rld F e d e ra ­ tio n o f U n ite d N a tio n s A sso ciatio n s is to in fo rm , su sta in a n d e n e rg iz e a g lo b al n e tw o rk o f m o re th a n 100 n a tio n a l U N asso ciatio n s to su p p o rt th e

256

U n ited N o tio n s C a p ita l D e v e lo p m e n t Fund (U N C D F )

p rin c ip le s a n d p r o g r a m s o f th e U N sy stem a n d to h e lp s h a p e its a g e n d a . S ee F r i e n d s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . ' U n ite d N a t io n s C a p ita l D e v e lo p m e n t Fund ( U N C D F )

The U N ­

C D F w as e sta b lish e d by th e U N G A in 1 966 as a s e m i-a u to n o m o u s u n it w ith in U N D P th a t d e v e lo p s n e w s o lu tio n s fo r p o v e rty re d u c tio n in lea st d e v e lo p e d c o u n trie s. U n i t e d N a t i o n s C e n t r a l E m e r g e n c y R e s p o n s e F u n d - A $ 5 0 0 m illio n

fu n d e s ta b lis h e d in late 2 0 0 5 b y th e U N G e n e r a l A ssem bly, p ro v id in g th e U N w ith a c a sh o n - h a n d a c c o u n t to b e a b le to re s p o n d im m e d ia te ly fo llo w ­ in g a n a tu r a l d is a s te r to th e m o s t u rg e n t resc u e a n d re lie f n e e d s. (U N ) S ee W eb R e lie f.’ U n ite d

N a tio n s

C en tre

for

Hum an

S e ttle m e n ts

(U N C H S)

U N C H S (H a b ita t), lo c a te d in N a iro b i, K e n y a , w a s e s ta b lis h e d in 1978, tw o y e a rs a fte r th e U N C o n fe re n c e o n H u m a n S e ttle m e n ts h e ld in V a n c o u v e r, C a n a d a . T h e C e n tr e se rv e s as th e le a d a g e n c y fo r U N ’s h u m a n s e ttle m e n t d e v e lo p m e n t a c tiv itie s, as w ell as fo r th e g lo b a l e x c h a n g e o f in fo rm a tio n a b o u t h u m a n se ttle m e n ts, c o n d itio n s a n d tre n d s. U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r - T h e U N C h a r t e r is th e fo u n d in g d o c u m e n t

o f th e U N , w h ic h w a s o p e n e d fo r sig n a tu re in J u n e 1 945 a n d e n te r e d in to fo rce in O c to b e r 1945. U n ite d

N a tio n s C o m m is sio n

on

Hum an

R ig h ts ( U N C H R )

The

U n ite d N a tio n s C o m m is s io n o n H u m a n R ig h ts , c o m p o s e d o f 53 S tates, m e t e a c h y e a r in re g u la r sessio n in M a r c h /A p r il fo r six w eek s in G e n e v a u n til it w a s d is b a n d e d in m id -2 0 0 6 a n d re p la c e d by th e U N H u m a n R ig h ts C o u n c il. D u r in g its re g u la r a n n u a l sessio n , th e C o m m is s io n c o n s id e re d re s o lu tio n s, d e c isio n s a n d c h a ir p e r s o n ’s s ta te m e n ts o n m a tte r s o f re le v a n c e to in d iv id u a ls in all re g io n s a n d c irc u m s ta n c e s . (U N ) S ee ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s H u m a n R ig h ts C o u n c il.’ U n ite d

N a tio n s C o nferen ce on

E n v iro n m e n t and

D e v e lo p m e n t

( U N C E D ) - T h e U n ite d N a tio n s C o n fe re n c e o n E n v ir o n m e n t a n d D e ­

v e lo p m e n t w a s h e ld fro m 3 J u n e th r o u g h 14 J u n e , 1 9 9 2 , in R io d e J a n e iro , B razil. F ive m a jo r a g re e m e n ts o n g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l issu es w e re sig n e d . T w o o f th ese , T h e F ra m e w o rk C o n v e n tio n o n C lim a te C h a n g e a n d T h e C o n v e n tio n o n B io lo g ical D iv e rsity a rc fo rm a l tre a tie s w h o se p ro v isio n s m a y e v e n tu a lly b e b in d in g o n th e p a rtie s . T h e o th e r th re e U N C E D a g r e e ­ m e n ts a rc n o n - b in d in g s ta te m e n ts o n th e re la tio n s h ip b e tw e e n su s ta in a b le e n v ir o n m e n ta l p ra c tic e s a n d th e p u r s u it o f so c ial a n d so c io -e c o n o m ic d e ­ v e lo p m e n t: Agenda 21 is a w id e -r a n g in g a ss e ssm e n t o f so c ia l a n d e c o n o m ic se c to rs w ith g o a ls fo r im p ro v in g e n v ir o n m e n ta l a n d d e v e lo p m e n ta l im p a c t o f e a c h ; th e Rio Declaration s u m m a riz e s c o n se n s u s p rin c ip le s o f s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t, a n d th e Statement on Forest Principles p le d g e s p a rtie s to m o re s u s ta in a b le use o f fo re st re so u rc e s.

257

United N ations C o n ven tio n A gainst C orrup tion (U N C A C )

U n ite d N a tio n s C o n v e n tio n A g a in s t C o rru p tio n ( U N C A C ) - T he

c o n v en tio n sets sta n d a rd s for th e p re v e n tio n a n d c rim in a liz a tio n o f c o rru p t acts a n d spells o u t te rm s o f in c re a se d in te rn a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n a n d for th e recovery o f th e p ro c e e d s o f c o rru p tio n . T h e C o n v e n tio n e n te re d in to force in D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 5 . (U N ) U n ite d N a t io n s C o n v e n t io n on Bio lo gical D iv e r sity ( C B D )

S ig n e d by 150 g o v e rn m e n t lea d e rs a t th e 1992 R io E a rth S u m m it, th e C o n v e n tio n o n B iological D iv ersity is d e d ic a te d to p ro m o tin g su sta in a b le d ev e lo p m e n t. C o n c e iv e d as a p ra c tic a l to o l fo r tra n sla tin g th e p rin c ip le s o f Agenda 21 in to reality, th e C o n v e n tio n reco g n iz e s th a t b io lo g ical d iv ersity is a b o u t m o re th a n p lan ts, an im a ls a n d m ic ro o rg a n ism s a n d th e ir eco sy stem s - it is a b o u t p e o p le a n d o u r n e e d for fo o d security, m e d ic in e s, fresh a ir a n d w ater, sh el­ te r a n d a clean a n d h e a lth y e n v iro n m e n t in w h ich to live. (U N E P )

U n ite d

N a tio n s

C o n v e n tio n

on the C o n tro l of T ra n s b o u n d a ry

M o v e m e n t s o f H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s and th e ir D is p o s a l ( U N T )

See

'B a se l C o n v e n tio n .’ U n ite d

N a t io n s C o n v e n tio n

on the Law

of the Sea ( U N C L O S )

- U N C L O S p ro v id es a g lo b al fra m e w o rk fo r th e p ro te c tio n a n d m a n a g e ­ m e n t o f th e m a rin e e n v iro n m e n t a n d th e c o n se rv a tio n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f its living a n d n o n -liv in g reso u rces. It b e c a m e o p e ra tio n a l in N o v e m b e r 1994. See I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e a b e d A u t h o r i t y . ’ U n ite d N a t io n s C o n v e n tio n to C o m b a t D e se rtifica tio n ( U N C C D )

- A s the q u e stio n o f h o w to tackle d e se rtific a tio n wras still a m a jo r c o n c e rn a t th e tim e o f U N C E D , Agenda 21 s u p p o rte d a new, in te g ra te d a p p ro a c h to th e p ro b le m e m p h a s iz in g a c tio n to p ro m o te su stain a b le d e v e lo p m e n t a t th e c o m m u n ity level. I t also called o n th e U N G A to e stab lish a n In te rg o v e rn ­ m e n ta l N e g o tia tin g C o m m itte e to p re p a re , by J u n e 1994, a C o n v e n tio n to C o m b a t D esertific a tio n . In D e c e m b e r 1992, th e G e n e ra l A ssem b ly a g re e d by a d o p tin g R eso lu tio n 4 7 /1 8 8 . T h e C o m m itte e c o m p le te d its n e g o tia ­ tio n s in five sessions a n d th e C o n v e n tio n w as a d o p te d in P aris o n 17 J u n e , 1994. It e n te re d in to force o n 26 D e c e m b e r, 1996. U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e c a d e ( s ) - A te n -y e a r p e rio d d u rin g w hich a p a rtic u ­

la r th e m e is given p rio rity in te rm s o f fu n d in g (re g u la r a n d e x tra b u d g e t­ ary) such as th e ‘U N D e c a d e o f E d u c a tio n fo r S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t’ (2 0 0 5 -2 0 1 4 ); T h e ‘U N D e c a d e for A ctio n : W a te r for L ife’ (2 0 0 5 -2 0 1 4 ). (U N ) U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e c a d e ‘E d u c a t i o n f o r S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t (2005-2014)’

T h e U n ite d N a tio n s D e c a d e o f E d u c a tio n fo r S u sta in ­ able D e v e lo p m e n t (D E S D ) w as officially la u n c h e d a t U N H e a d q u a rte r s in N ew Y ork o n 1 M a rc h , 2 0 0 5 , by U N E S C O ’s D ire c to r G e n e ra l K o ic h iro M a ts u u ra . T h e D e c a d e aim s to see E d u c a tio n for S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t im p le m e n te d in th o u s a n d s o f lo cal situ atio n s o n th e g ro u n d , in v o lv in g th e

258

U n ited N a tio n s D e c a d e for A ctio n : W a t e r fo r Life (2 0 0 5 - 2 0 1 4 )

in te g r a tio n o f th e p rin c ip le s o f S u s ta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t in to a m u ltitu d e o f d iffe re n t le a r n in g situ a tio n s. U n ite d

N a tio n s

D e c a d e f o r A c t i o n : W a t e r f o r L ife ( 2 0 0 5 - 2 0 1 4 )

T h e ‘W a te r fo r L ife ' D e c a d e , la u n c h e d o n W o rld W a te r D a y (22 M a rc h ) 2 0 0 5 , calls u p o n th e in te r n a tio n a l c o m m u n ity to s tre n g th e n effo rts to in c re a s e acc e ss to w a te r a n d s a n ita tio n fo r all. T h e d e c isio n to e sta b lish th is D e c a d e w a s m a d e by th e G e n e r a l A sse m b ly d u r in g its 5 8 th a n n u a l session ( A / R E S / 5 8 / 2 17). T h is is th e se c o n d in te r n a tio n a l d e c a d e o n w a te r- re la te d issues u n d e r th e a u sp ic e s o f th e U N . T h e first, th e I n te r n a tio n a l D e c a d e o n D rin k in g W a te r S u p p ly a n d S a n ita tio n , w a s h e ld fro m 1981 to 1990. U n ite d

N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t G r o u p - A c o n s o r tiu m o f th e h e a d s o f all U N d e v e lo p m e n t fu n d s, p r o g r a m s a n d d e p a r tm e n ts h e a d e d by th e

A d m in is tr a to r o f th e U N D R U n ite d N a tio n s D e v e lo p m e n t P r o g r a m m e ( U N D P )

E s ta b lis h e d in 1965, th e U n ite d N a tio n s D e v e lo p m e n t P r o g r a m m e (U N D P ) is o n e o f th e

la rg e s t m u ltila te ra l so u rc e s o f g r a n t te c h n ic a l a ss ista n c e in th e w o rld . H e a d ­ q u a r te r e d in N e w Y ork C ity, th is v o lu n ta rily fu n d e d o rg a n iz a tio n p ro v id e s e x p e rt a d v ic e , tr a in in g a n d lim ite d e q u ip m e n t to d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s , w ith in c re a s in g e m p h a s is o n a ssista n c e to th e le a st d e v e lo p e d c o u n tr ie s in p r io r ­ ity a re a s o f g o v e rn a n c e , p o v e rty re d u c tio n , crises p re v e n tio n a n d recovery, e n e rg y a n d e n v ir o n m e n t, a n d H I V / A I D S . (U N ) U n ite d N a t io n s E c o n o m ic an d S o cia l C o u n c il ( E C O S O C )

O n e of

th e six p rin c ip le o rg a n s o f th e U N sy ste m . I t is e sta b lish e d by c h a p te r 10 o f th e U N C h a r te r a n d h a s 5 4 (18 b e fo re 1965) m e m b e r n a tio n s e le c te d a n n u ­ ally fo r th r e e -y e a r te r m s by th e G e n e ra l A ssem b ly . T h e c o u n c il u n d e rta k e s in v e s tig a tio n s o f in t e r n a tio n a l e c o n o m ic a n d so cial q u e s tio n s a n d re p o r ts its c o n c lu s io n s a n d su g g e s tio n s to th e G e n e r a l A sse m b ly a n d o th e r o rg a n s o f th e U N fo r a c tio n . T h e c o u n c il also c o o rd in a te s th e a ctiv itie s o f th e F u n c tio n a l C o m m is s io n s , R e g io n a l C o m m iss io n s, a n d S p e c ia liz e d A g e n ­ c ie s /O r g a n iz a tio n s o f th e U N a n d a rr a n g e s fo r c o n s u lta tio n s w ith i n t e r n a ­ tio n a l n o n g o v e r n m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n s as listed below . (U N ) •

Functional Commissions - Commission for Social Development (UNCSD) - Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR); Replaced by the UN Human Rights Council (2006) - Commission on Narcotic Drugs (UNCND ) Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ) - Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) - Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) - Commission on the Status ofWomen (U N C SW ) - Commission on Population and Development (UNCPD) - Statistical Commission (UNSC)

259

United Nations Econom ic Com mission for Europe (U N E C E )

Regional Commissions -

United

Nations

Economic

Commission

for

Europe

(U N EC E) -

United

Nations

Economic

Commission

for

Africa

(U N E C A ) -

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (U N EC LA C )

-

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (U N ESC A P)

-

United

Nations Economic and Social Commission for

Western Asia (U N E S C W A ) Specialized Agencies. The Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the U N and each other through the coordinating machinery of the Economic and Social Council. -

International Labour Organization (ILO )

-

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

-

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

-

United

-

W orld Health Organization (W H O )

Nations

Educational,

Scientific

and

Cultural

Organization (U N E SC O ) -

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

-

International Civil Aviation Organization ((IC A O )

-

International Maritime Organization (IM O)

-

International Telecommunication Union (ITO)

-

Universal Postal Union (U PU )

-

W orld Meteorological Organization (W M O )

-

United Nations Development Programme (U N D P)

-

United Nations Environment Programme (U N EP)

-

W orld Intellectual Property Organization ((W IP O )

-

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

-

United

Nations

Industrial

Development

Organization

(U N ID O ) -

International Refugee Organization (eliminated in 1952)

-

International Narcotics Control Board (IN C B)

-

W orld Bank Group -

International

Bank

for

Reconstruction

and

Development (IBRD ) -

International Development Association (IDA)

-

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

-

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (M IGA)

-

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)



Other Entities -

United Nations Forum on Forests Sessional and Standing Committees Expert, ad hoc and related bodies

United N a tio n s Econom ic C o m m is s io n for Europe ( U N E C E )

The

U N E G E w as in stituted in 1947 as a fo ru m at w h ic h the c o u n trie s o f N o r th A m e ric a , C e n tr a l a n d E a ste rn E u ro p e a n d C e n tr a l Asia c o m e to g e th e r to 260

U n ited N o tio n s E c o n o m ic C o m m is sio n fo r Latin A m e ric a an d the C a rib b e a n {E C L A C )

s tr e n g th e n e c o n o m ic c o o p e r a tio n . U N E C E fo cu ses o n e c o n o m ic an aly sis, e n v ir o n m e n t a n d h u m a n se ttle m e n ts, statistics, su s ta in a b le en erg y , tra d e , in d u s try a n d e n te r p ris e d e v e lo p m e n t, tim b e r a n d tr a n s p o rt. U n ite d N a t io n s E c o n o m ic C o m m is s io n fo r L a tin A m e r ic a and th e C a r i b b e a n ( E C L A C ) - E C L A C w a s e s ta b lis h e d in F e b ru a r y 1948 as a

re g io n a l a g e n c y o f th e U N to c o o p e ra te w ith th e g o v e rn m e n ts o f L a tin A m e ric a in th e e c o n o m ic a n d so cia l d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e re g io n ; th e sco p e o f its activ itie s w a s su b s e q u e n tly e x p a n d e d to in c lu d e th e c o u n tr ie s o f th e C a r ib b e a n . E C L A C c a rrie s o u t stu d ie s a n d p r o g r a m s in c o lla b o ra tio n w ith th e g o v e rn m e n ts o f th e re g io n in in te g r a tio n , fo re ig n tr a d e , a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u c tio n , in d u s tria l d e v e lo p m e n t, tr a n s p o r t a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n s , sta tis­ tics, n a tu r a l re s o u rc e s, th e e n v ir o n m e n t, sc ie n c e a n d te c h n o lo g y , a n d t r a n ­ s n a tio n a l c o rp o r a tio n s . (E C L A C ) U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t io n a l, S cie n tific , a n d C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (U N ESC O )

U N E S C O w a s fo u n d e d o n 16 N o v e m b e r, 1945 a n d p r e s e n t­ ly in c lu d e s 192 M e m b e r S tate s. Its h e a d q u a r te r s a re in P aris, F ra n c e w ith 73 field offices a n d u n its in d iffe re n t p a rts o f th e w o rld . T h e m a in o b je c tiv e o f U N E S C O is to c o n tr ib u te to p e a c e a n d se c u rity in th e w o rld by p r o m o t­ in g c o lla b o ra tio n a m o n g n a tio n s th r o u g h e d u c a tio n , sc ie n c e , c u ltu re a n d c o m m u n ic a tio n in o r d e r to f u r th e r u n iv e rs a l re s p e c t fo r ju s tic e , fo r th e ru le o f law a n d for h u m a n rig h ts a n d fu n d a m e n ta l fre e d o m s. U n ite d N a tio n s E n v iro n m e n t P r o g r a m m e ( U N E P )

U N E P w a s c re ­

a te d as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f th e 1972 S to c k h o lm C o n fe re n c e o n th e H u m a n E n v iro n m e n t. Its m issio n is to b e th e le a d in g e n v ir o n m e n ta l a u th o r ity w ith ­ in th e U N sy stem th a t sets a g lo b a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l a g e n d a ; p r o m o te s th e c o h e r e n t im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l d im e n s io n o f s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t; serv e s as a n a u th o r ita tiv e a d v o c a te fo r th e g lo b a l e n v ir o n ­ m e n t; a n d e n c o u ra g e s in te r n a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n a n d a c tio n , b a s e d o n th e b e st scientific a n d te c h n ic a l c a p a b ilitie s a v a ila b le . U N E P h a s h a d five E x e c ­ u tiv e D ire c to rs in c lu d in g : M a u r ic e S tr o n g (1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 , C a n a d a ), M u s ta fa T o lb a (1 9 7 5 1 9 9 2 , E g y p t), E liz a b e th D o w d e sw e ll (1 9 9 2 1 9 9 7 , C a n a d a ), K la u s T o c p h c r (1 9 9 8 - 2 0 0 5 , G e rm a n y ) , a n d A c h im S te in e r (2 0 0 6 - , G e r ­ m a n y ). (U N ) U n i t e d N a t i o n s E n v i r o n m e n t P r o g r a m m e B l u e P l a n - A U N E P th in k

ta n k e sta b lish e d in 1 9 9 6 to a d d re s s e n v ir o n m e n ta l p o lic y issu es fo r th e p r o ­ m o tio n o f s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t in th e M e d ite r r a n e a n b a sin . (U N E P ) U n ite d

N a tio n s

E n v iro n m e n ta l

M anagem ent

G roup

(U N E M G )

- C r e a te d in 1 999 as a U N sy ste m -w id e m e c h a n is m , th e U N E M G c o n ­ v e n e s 28 U N a g e n c ie s, c o n v e n tio n s e c r e ta ria ts a n d B re tto n W o o d s in s titu ­ tio n s u n d e r th e c h a ir m a n s h ip o f th e E x e c u tiv e D ir e c to r o f U N E P . T h e g o a l o f th e U N E M G is to ‘p r o m o te in te r-lin k a g e s , e n c o u ra g e tim e ly a n d r e le v a n t e x c h a n g e o f d a ta o n in f o rm a tio n o f sp ecific issu es a n d c o m p a tib il­ ity o f d iffe re n t a p p r o a c h e s to fin d in g so lu tio n s to th o s e c o m m o n p ro b le m s , a n d to c o n tr ib u te to th e s y n e rg y a n d c o m p lim e n ta r ity a m o n g a ctiv itie s o f

261

United N atio n s Food and A griculture O rg an izatio n (FA O )

its m e m b e rs in th e field o f e n v iro n m e n t a n d h u m a n se ttle m e n ts.’ M e m ­ b e rs in clu d e: U N D E S A , U N R W A , U N ID O , U N C H S , U N H C R , W H O , U N E S C O , W FP, IL O , W T O , IB R D , IC A O , IM O , U P U , U N F C C C , U N F P A , U N IC E F , U N C T A D , U N D P , U N D C P , U N IT A R , W M O , O C H A , FAO, IFA D, IT U , W IP O , IA E A . (U N E P ) U n ite d N a t io n s Food and A g ric u ltu re O rga n iz a tio n (F A O )

FAO w as fo u n d e d in 1945 w ith a m a n d a te to raise levels o f n u tritio n a n d s ta n d a rd s o f living, to im p ro v e a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u ctiv ity , a n d to b e tte r th e c o n d itio n o f ru ra l p o p u la tio n s . It is o n e o f th e la rg e st sp ecialized ag encies in th e U N system a n d th e le a d a g e n c y fo r a g ric u ltu re , forestry, fisheries a n d ru ra l d ev e lo p m e n t. A n in te rg o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n , FAO h as 183 m e m b e r c o u n trie s plu s o n e m e m b e r o rg a n iz a tio n , th e E C . (FAO)

U n i t e d N a t i o n s F o r u m o n F o r e s t s ( U N F F ) - T h e U N F F is a su b sid ia ry

b o d y o f E C O S O C e sta b lish e d to p ro m o te th e m a n a g e m e n t, c o n se rv atio n a n d su stain ab le d e v e lo p m e n t o f all types o f forests. Its p u rp o s e is to: p r o ­ m o te th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f in te rn a tio n a lly a g re e d a ctio n s o n forests a t th e n a tio n a l, reg io n a l a n d g lo b al levels; p ro v id e a c o h e re n t, tra n s p a re n t a n d p a rtic ip a to ry g lo b a l fra m e w o rk fo r p olicy im p le m e n ta tio n , c o o rd in a tio n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t; a n d c a rry o u t p rin c ip a l fu n ctio n s, b ased o n th e R io D e c ­ la ra tio n , th e Forest P rin c ip les, C h a p te r 11 o f Agenda 2 1 , a n d th e o u tco m e s o f th e IP F a n d th e IFF. U n ite d N a t io n s F o u n d atio n

In 1997, b u sin e ssm a n a n d p h ila n th ro p is t T e d T u r n e r m a d e a h isto ric gift o f U S$1 billion in su p p o rt o f U N efforts to a d d re ss g lo b a l issues. H e ch o se to c h a n n e l his g lo b a l c o m m itm e n t th ro u g h th e U N b ecau se o f its v ital role as th e p rim a ry fo ru m for in te rn a tio n a l c o o p e ra tio n re c o g n iz ed by all n atio n s. T h e U N F o u n d a tio n ’s m ission is to s u p p o rt th e go als a n d o bjectiv es o f th e U N a n d its C h a rte r, in o rd e r to p ro ­ m o te a m o re p eac e fu l, p ro sp e ro u s a n d ju s t w o rld w ith sp e c ia l e m p h a sis on th e U N ’s w o rk o n b e h a lf o f p re ssin g h e a lth , h u m a n ita r ia n , so cio -e c o n o m ic a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l c h allen g es o f th e 21 st cen tu ry . (U N )

U n ite d N a t io n s F o u n d a t io n / C lu b of M a d rid T a s k Force on C lim a te C h a n g e - A task force fo rm e d in 2 0 0 6 th a t w ill d ev elo p a n in te rn a tio n a l

p lan for tacklin g g lo b a l w a rm in g a fte r th e K yoto T re a ty e x p ires in 2012. T h e task force w ill m a k e re c o m m e n d a tio n s to th e D ia lo g u e o n C lim a te C h a n g e , C le a n E n e rg y a n d S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t, w h ich is p a r t o f U N ’s F ram ew o rk C o n v e n tio n o n C lim a te C h a n g e . (U N W ) U n ite d

N a tio n s

Fram ew ork

C o n v e n tio n

on

C lim a te

Change

( U N F C C C ) - T h e U N F C C C w as sig n ed in 1992 a t th e E a rth S u m m it in

R io d e J a n e iro by m o re th a n 150 c o u n tries. It consists o f a P re a m b le , 26 A rticles a n d tw o A n n e x es a n d h a s as its o b jectiv e to ach iev e th e sta b iliz a­ tio n o f g re e n h o u s e gas c o n c e n tra tio n s in th e a tm o sp h e re a t a level th a t w ould p re v e n t d a n g e ro u s a n th ro p o g e n ic in te rfe re n c e w ith th e clim ate sys­ tem w ith in a tim e fra m e sufficient to allow eco sy stem s to a d a p t n a tu ra lly to c lim ate c h a n g e , to e n su re th a t food p ro d u c tio n is n o t th r e a te n e d a n d to

262

United N atio n s G e n e ra l Assem bly

e n a b le e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t to p ro c e e d in a su sta in a b le m a n n e r. T h e tr e a ­ ty took effect in M a rc h 1994 u p o n th e ratificatio n o f m o re th a n 50 co u n trie s; som e 186 n a tio n s have n o w ratified . (U N F C G C ) U n ite d N a tio n s G ene ral A s se m b ly

O n e o f th e six p rin c ip le o rg a n s o f th e U N system c o m p risin g all o f th e M e m b e r S tates. It m e e ts a n n u a lly u n d e r a n elec ted p re s id e n t from th e M e m b e r S tates. (U N )

U n ite d N a t io n s G lo b a l A llia n ce fo r In fo r m a tio n and C o m m u n ic a ­ t i o n s T e c h n o l o g i e s f o r D e v e l o p m e n t ( U N G @ I D ) - A 2 0 0 6 initiativ e

o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s b rin g in g to g e th e r a w ide v a rie ty o f in te re ste d p a rtic i­ p a n ts as p a r t o f b ro a d e r in te rn a tio n a l efforts to h a rn e s s te c h n o lo g ic a l a d ­ v an ces for use in th e fight a g a in st p o v e rty w ith in th e c o n te x t o f th e M D G s. T h e A llian ce w ill o rg a n iz e th e m a tic g lo b a l fo ru m s o n core issues re la te d to th e role o f I C T in e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t a n d th e e ra d ic a tio n o f poverty, focusing o n h e a lth , e d u c a tio n , g e n d e r issues a n d y o u th , as w ell as d isab led a n d d is a d v a n ta g e d se g m en ts o f society. (U N ) See ’T e c h n o l o g i c a l c o l o n i ­ a lism ;' 'D ig ita l d iv id e .’ U n i t e d N a t i o n s G l o b a l C o m p a c t - Sec 'G l o b a l C o m p a c t . 5 U n i t e d N a t i o n s G l o b a l Y o u t h L e a d e r s h i p S u m m i t - A U N in itiative

d e sig n ed to b rin g to g e th e r y o u n g le a d e rs in th e ir efforts to a c c e le ra te th e a c h ie v e m e n t o f th e M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G o a ls (M D G s). T h e first su m ­ m it w as h eld in O c to b e r 2 0 0 6 a t U N H e a d q u a rte r s in N ew Y ork. (U N ) U n ite d N a tio n s, hard

A te rm re fe rrin g to th e p o litic a l m e d ia tio n a n d p e a c e k e e p in g roles o f th e U N . See ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s , s o f t . '

U n ite d N a t io n s H ig h C o m m is s io n e r fo r R e fu ge e s ( U N H C R ) - T h e

U N H C R w as esta b lish e d in 1951 a n d is m a n d a te d to le a d a n d c o o rd i­ n a te in te rn a tio n a l a c tio n for th e w o rld w id e p ro te c tio n o f refu g ees a n d th e reso lu tio n o f refu g ee p ro b lem s. Its p rim a ry p u rp o s e is to safeg u a rd th e rig h ts a n d w ell-b ein g o f refu g ees a n d e n su re th a t ev ery o n e c a n exercise th e rig h t to seek a sy lu m , fin d safe refu g e in a n o th e r state a n d re tu rn h o m e v oluntarily. U n i t e d N a t i o n s H u m a n R i g h t s C o u n c i l ( U N H R C ) - T h e C o u n c il w as

p ro p o s e d as a re p la c e m e n t fo r th e U N C o m m issio n o n H u m a n R ig h ts in 2005 a n d a p p ro v e d by th e G e n e ra l A ssem bly (GA) in M a rc h 2 0 0 6 . It for­ m ally re p la c e d th e C o m m issio n in J u n e 2 0 0 6 . T h e 4 7 -m e m b e r b o d y is e le c t­ e d by an a b so lu te m a jo rity o f th e G A (96 M e m b e r States) fo r a th re e -y e a r p e rio d (13 seats fo r A frica, 13 fo r A sia, 6 fo r E a s te rn E u ro p e , 8 fo r L atin A m e ric a a n d th e C a rib b e a n , a n d 7 for a b lock o f m a in ly W e ste rn c o u n ­ tries in c lu d in g E u ro p e , th e U S a n d C a n a d a ). All M e m b e r S tates are eligible for m e m b e rsh ip b u t m u st ‘u p h o ld th e h ig h e st s ta n d a rd s in th e p ro m o tio n a n d p ro te c tio n o f h u m a n rig h ts,’ fully c o o p e ra te w ith th e C o u n c il a n d have th e ir h u m a n rig h ts re c o rd s rev iew ed d u rin g th e p e rio d o f th e ir te rm . T h e n ew C o u n c il m a y su sp en d a n y M e m b e r fo r ‘gross a n d sy stem atic v io latio n s

263

United N ations Peace-building Com m ission

o f h u m a n rig h ts by a tw o -th ird s m a jo rity o f th o se M e m b e r states c a stin g v o tes.’ A ny M e m b e r o f th e C o u n c il w ith th e s u p p o rt o f a t least o n e -th ird o f th e M e m b e rs c a n call a sp ecial session in o rd e r to g et q u ick re so lu tio n to a n e m e rg e n c y h u m a n rig h ts situ atio n . T h e w o rk o f th e C o u n c il is o v erseen by th e so-called T h ir d C o m m itte e . (U N ; U N W ) S ee ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o m ­ m is s io n on H u m a n R ig h ts.’ U n i t e d N a t i o n s P e a c e - b u i l d i n g C o m m i s s i o n - A 3 1 -m e m b e r b o d y es­

ta b lish ed in D e c e m b e r 20 0 5 as p a r t o f th e U N R efo rm P rocess w ith th e m a n d a te to p re v e n t c o u n trie s e m e rg in g from w a r from falling b a c k in to chaos. T h e C o m m issio n acts o n ly by c o n sen su s, p ro p o s in g in te g ra te d s tra t­ egies fo r stab iliz atio n , e c o n o m ic reco v ery a n d d e v e lo p m e n t, a n d p ro v id ­ in g re c o m m e n d a tio n s fo r im p ro v in g th e c o o rd in a tio n o f th e U N system in those efforts. M e m b e rsh ip in c lu d e s seven S ecu rity C o u n c il m e m b e rs, in ­ c lu d in g th e five p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs, selected by th e C o u n c il; seven m e m ­ b e rs o f E C O S O C elected from re g io n a l g ro u p s, five to p c o n trib u to rs to U N b u d g ets, funds, p ro g ra m s a n d agencies; five to p p ro v id e rs o f m ilita ry p e rs o n n e l a n d civ ilian p o lice to U N m issions a n d seven a d d itio n a l m e m b e rs elec ted by th e G e n e ra l A ssem bly, w ith sp ecial c o n sid e ra tio n for S ta te s th a t have e x p e rie n c e d p o st-c o n flic t recovery. (U N ) U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e f o r m P r o c e s s - T h e re fo rm effort p ro v id es a signifi­

c a n t re s h a p in g o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s O rg a n iz a tio n to re s p o n d to th e c h a l­ lenge o f m a in ta in in g a n d im p ro v in g m u ltila te ra lism in th e 21st century. W ith in six m o n th s o f assu m in g office in 1997, S e c re ta ry G e n e ra l K ofi A n ­ n a n co n so lid a te d th e U N o rg a n iz a tio n a l stru c tu re to re d u c e o v e rla p p in g fu n ctio n s a n d im p ro v e c o o rd in a tio n a n d a cco u n tab ility , a n d c re a te d a c a b i­ n e t o f se n io r ex ecutives. S u b seq u en tly , th e S e c re ta ry G e n e ra l led a n over­ h a u l o f p e a c e k e e p in g o p e ra tio n s, a n d h u m a n rig h ts a d v o ca c y w as in te g ra t­ ed in to all m a jo r a re a s o f U N w ork. N ew w ays o f in volving civil so ciety a n d the p riv a te se c to r in d e v e lo p m e n t a n d w o rld affairs w ere also im p le m e n te d . In 2 0 0 2 , th e S e c re ta ry G e n e ra l la u n c h e d a se c o n d m a jo r p a c k a g e o f re ­ fo rm s aim e d p rin c ip a lly a t e n su rin g th a t all activ ities o f th e U N a re alig n ed w ith the p rio ritie s d e c id e d u p o n in th e M ille n n iu m D e c la ra tio n . In S e p te m ­ b e r 2005 a t th e M ille n n iu m + 5 S u m m it (also k n o w n as th e W o rld S u m m it) m eetin g , o th e r m e a su re s w ere p ro p o se d to re s tru c tu re sev eral d e p a rtm e n ts a n d sp ecialized o rg a n iz a tio n s. E arly in 2 0 0 6 , a d e b a te w as o p e n e d o n tw o key issues o f th e re fo rm pro cess: (1) re p la c in g th e d isc re d ite d U N H u m a n R ig h ts C o m m issio n w ith a revised U N H u m a n R ig h ts C o u n c il, a n d (2) es­ ta b lish in g a U N P e a ce -b u ild in g C o m m issio n to h elp c o u n trie s e m e rg in g from w a r in th e ir re d e v e lo p m e n t process. A g re e m e n t o n th e U N P e a c e ­ b u ild in g C o m m issio n w as re a c h e d in D e c e m b e r 2005 a n d o n th e H u m a n R ig h ts C o u n c il in M a rc h 2 0 0 6 . (U N ) S ee M i l l e n n i u m + 5 S u m m i t ' , G 13 ’ U n ite d

N a tio n s

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UNRC)

(U N R R /

N o rm a lly th e U N D P R e sid e n t R e p re se n ta tiv e (Res. R ep.) in a given c o u n try a n d th e h ig h e st ra n k in g U N official. (U N )

264

United N a tio n s Resolution 'T o w ard s the S u sta in a b le D e v e lo p m e n t of the C a rib b e a n S e a for Present an d Future G e n e ra tio n s ' (A / C .2 / 6 1 / L .3 0 )

U n ite d

N a tio n s

R e so lu tio n

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th e

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D e v e lo p ­

m e n t of th e C a rib b e a n Sea fo r P re se n t and F uture G e n e r a tio n s ' ( A / C . 2 / 6 I / L . 3 0 ) - A d o p te d in D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 6 by th e U N G A , th is re s o lu ­

tio n d iffers fro m p re v io u s U N G A re s o lu tio n s in th a t its d e c la re d o b je c tiv e s a rc u n e q u iv o c a l in rc c o g n i/.in g th e C a r ib b e a n S e a as a sp e c ial a r e a in th e c o n te x t o f s u s ta in a b le d e v e lo p m e n t b y th e in t e r n a tio n a l c o m m u n ity . (W C ) U n it e d N a t io n s R e v is e d R e fo r m P la n 2007

U n d e r S e c re ta ry G e n e ra l

B a n K i M o o n , th e R e fo rm P ro c e ss in tr o d u c e d by h is p re d e c e s s o r K o fi A n ­ n a n w a s re v ise d . T h e p la n n e d m e r g e r o f U N a g e n c ie s d e a lin g w ith p o liti­ ca l a ffa irs a n d d is a r m a m e n t w a s d r o p p e d in fa v o r o f g r e a te r a c c o u n ta b ility a fte r o p p o s itio n fro m th e N o n -a lig n e d m o v e m e n t, a p o w e rfu l b lo c k o f 118 d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s . A d d itio n a lly , U N P e a c e k e e p in g o p e ra tio n s w o u ld b e s tre a m lin e d . (U N W ) U n ite d N a t io n s S e cre ta ria t

O n e o f th e six p rin c ip le o rg a n s o f th e U N S y ste m . It is h e a d e d by th e U n ite d N a tio n s S e c re ta ry G e n e ra l, a ssiste d b y a s ta ff o f in te r n a tio n a l civil s e rv a n ts w o rld w id e . I t p ro v id e s stu d ie s, in f o r m a ­ tio n a n d facilities n e e d e d by U N b o d ie s fo r th e ir m e e tin g s . It also c a rrie s o u t tasks as d ir e c te d b y th e U N S e c u rity C o u n c il, th e U N G e n e r a l A ssem b ly, th e U N E c o n o m ic a n d S o c ia l C o u n c il, a n d o th e r U N b o d ie s. T h e U N C h a r te r p ro v id e s th a t th e s ta f f b e c h o se n by a p p lic a tio n o f th e ‘h ig h e s t s ta n d a r d s o f efficiency, c o m p e te n c e a n d in te g rity ,’ w ith d u e re g a r d fo r th e im p o r ta n c e o f re c r u itin g o n a w id e g e o g ra p h ic a l b asis. (U N ; U N W )

U n i t e d N a t i o n s S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l ’s A d v i s o r y B o a r d o n W a t e r a n d S a n i t a t i o n - A g ro u p o f h ig h -le v el e x p e rts a p p o in te d b y U N S e c re ta ry

G e n e r a l K ofi A n n a n in 2 0 0 4 to c o n s id e r w ay s to m o b iliz e p o litic a l s u p p o r t a n d fin a n c ia l re s o u rc e s to e n s u r e th a t th e w o rld stay s o n tra c k to m e e t th e M D G d e v e lo p m e n t ta rg e ts o n w a te r a n d s a n ita tio n . (U N ) U n i t e d N a t i o n s S e c r e t a r i e s G e n e r a l - T h e s e c r e ta ry g e n e ra l (S G ) is th e

s e n io r m o s t in te r n a tio n a l civil s e r v a n t a n d c h ie f a d m in is tr a to r o f th e U N S y ste m . T h e S G is fo rm a lly c h o se n b y th e G e n e ra l A ssem bly, b u t m u s t first be n o m in a te d by th e S e c u rity C o u n c il a n d w in th e c o n s e n t o f all five o f its p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs . T h e S G serv e s a fiv e -y ea r te r m , w h ic h m a y b e re n e w e d o n c e . T h e S e c u rity C o u n c il c a n n o m in a te a c a n d id a te fro m a n y c o u n try , b u t it is tr a d itio n th a t th e p o sitio n ro ta te s g e o g ra p h ic a lly , w ith a s e c re ta ry g e n ­ e ra l c h o s e n fro m a n ew re g io n a fte r e v e ry tw o te rm s . In 1997 th e G e n e ra l A sse m b ly c re a te d th e p o s t o f D e p u ty S e c re ta ry G e n e r a l (D S G a p p o in te d by th e S G ) to assist in th e m a n a g e m e n t o f th e S e c re ta ria t. P a st se c re ta rie s g e n e ra l h a v e c o m e fro m v a rio u s re g io n s o f th e w o rld , b u t it is a n u n w ritte n ru le th a t th e y n e v e r sh o u ld c o m e fro m o n e o f th e m o s t p o w e rfu l c o u n trie s . T h is tr a d itio n is a re s p o n se to c o n c e rn s th a t a s e c re ta ry g e n e ra l se le c te d fro m su ch a c o u n tr y w o u ld n o t be p e rc e iv e d b y o th e r n a tio n s as o b je c tiv e o r n e u tr a l. T h e r e is also a fe a r th a t su c h a se le c tio n w o u ld give th e w o rld ’s m o s t in flu e n tia l n a tio n s th a t m u c h m o re p o w er. P a st s e c re ta rie s g e n e ra l in c lu d e T ry g v e L ie o f N o rw a y , w h o se rv e d fro m 1946 to 1 9 5 3 ; D a g H a m m a r s k jö ld o f S w e d e n , 1953 1961; U T h a n t o f B u r m a , 1962 1 9 7 1 ; K u r t W a ld h e im o f

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United N ations Secretary G e n e ra l's Expert Panel on W a te r and Sanitation

A u stria, 1 9 7 2 -1 9 8 1 ; J a v ie r P e rez do C u e lla r o f P eru , 1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 1 ; B o u tro s B o u tro s-G h a li from E g y p t 1 9 9 2 -1 9 9 6 ; K ofi A n n a n from G h a n a , 1 9 9 7 -2 0 0 6 a n d B an K i-m o o n o f S o u th K o re a , 2 0 0 7 -2 0 1 1 (first fiv e-y ear te rm ). (U N ) U n it e d N a t io n s S e c r e ta r y G e n e r a l's E x p e r t P ane l on W a t e r and S a n i t a t i o n - A se v e n -m e m b e r p a n e l a p p o in te d by th e se c re ta ry g e n e ra l in

2 0 0 4 to pro v id e e x p e rt a d v ice o n all asp ects o f w a te r a n d s a n ita tio n , p a rtic u ­ larly those issues a d d re sse d in th e M ille n n iu m D e v e lo p m e n t G oals. U n i t e d N a t i o n s S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l ( U N S C ) - A 1 5 -m e m b e r g ro u p c o n ­

sisting o f five p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs (C h in a , F ran c e , R u ssia, th e U K , a n d th e U S, all w ith a v eto p o w er) a n d ten n o n -p e r m a n e n t m e m b e rs w h o are elec ted by th e G e n e ra l A ssem b ly fo r a tw o -y e a r p e rio d . T h e U N S e c u rity C o u n c il is resp o n sib le fo r m a in ta in in g in te rn a tio n a l p e a c e a n d se c u rity in th e w orld. (U N ) U n ite d N a tio n s, soft

A te r m re fe rrin g to th e social, h u m a n ita r ia n a n d e c o ­ n o m ic d ev e lo p m e n t fu n ctio n s o f th e U N . S ee ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s , h a r d . ’

U n i t e d N a t i o n s S p e c i a l i z e d A g e n c i e s / O r g a n i z a t i o n s - E sta b lish e d by

A rticle 57 o f th e U N C h a r te r a n d d efin ed as a n O rg a n iz a tio n th a t c o n d u c ts a p ro g ra m o f im p o rta n c e fo r th e U N , in a specific field o f c o m p e te n c e , u n d e r th e g e n e ra l review o f th e G e n e ra l A ssem bly a n d o f th e E co n o m ic a n d S ocial C o u n c il, b u t w ith im p o rta n t sco p e o f a u to n o m y in m a tte rs o f m e m b e rsh ip , p ro g r a m , p e rs o n n e l a n d fin an ces. (U N ) S ee ‘U n i t e d N a t i o n s E c o n o m i c a n d S o c ia l C o u n cil.' U n ite d N a tio n s S y ste m

- C o m p rise s six p rin c ip le o rg a n s: U N G e n e ra l A ssem bly, U N S e c u rity C o u n c il, U N E c o n o m ic a n d S ocial C o u n c il, U N T ru ste e sh ip C o u n c il, U N S e c re ta ria t, a n d th e In te rn a tio n a l C o u rt o f Ju stice. (U N )

U n ite d

N a t i o n s T r u s t e e s h i p C o u n c i l - O n e o f th e p rin c ip a l o rg a n s o f th e U N S y stem , th e C o u n c il w as esta b lish e d to h e lp e n su re th a t n o n self-governing te rrito rie s w ere a d m in is te re d in th e b est in te re sts o f th e in h a b ­ ita n ts a n d o f in te rn a tio n a l p e a c e a n d security. T h e tru s t te rrito rie s - m o st o f th em fo rm e r m a n d a te s o f th e L e ag u e o f N a tio n s o r te rrito rie s tak e n from n a tio n s d e fe a te d a t th e e n d o f W o rld W a r II h av e all n o w a tta in e d self-gove rn m e n t o r in d e p e n d e n c e , e ith e r as se p a ra te n a tio n s o r by jo in in g n e ig h b o r­ in g in d e p e n d e n t c o u n trie s. T h e last w as P a la u , w hich b e c a m e a m e m b e r o f th e U N in 1994. Its m ission fulfilled, th e T ru ste e sh ip C o u n c il su s p e n d e d its o p e ra tio n o n 1 N o v em b er, 1994, a n d a lth o u g h u n d e r th e U N C h a rte r, it c o n ­ tin u es to exist o n p a p e r, its fu tu re role a n d ev en ex isten ce is u n d e te rm in e d . (U N )

U n ite d

N a tio n s W o r ld

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P ro p e rty O rg a n iz a tio n

(U N -

C re a te d in 1967, th e G e n e v a -b a se d U N b o d y is o n e o f th e sp e­ cialized ag en cies o f th e U N S y stem . It a d m in iste rs 23 in te rn a tio n a l treaties d e a lin g w ith d iffe re n t asp ects o f in te lle c tu a l p ro p e rty p ro te c tio n . S p ecialized

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U n ite d N a t io n s W o r ld In t e lle c t u a l P ro p e rty O r g a n iz a t io n ( U N W I P O )

te rm in o lo g y o r laws, in c lu d ed in the treaties u n d e r W I P O a d m in istra tio n , a n d increasingly used in G E G d eb a te s p a rticu la rly relating to the C B D a n d the W T O , include: •

Copyright - An exclusive right conferred by a government for a specified period to the creator of a work or a discoverer of a new



Digital Millennium Copyright Act (D M C A ) - A 1998 US law that criminalizes the use of technology that can circumvent copyright protections.

plant or animal species to exclude others from reproducing it.

Discovery -To find or discover something new. •

European copyright directive - Includes the same prescriptions as the DMCA. Fair use or fair dealing - A complex legal doctrine that may allow limited use of copyrighted work without permission for criticism, comment, parody, satire, news reporting, teaching and research.The term ‘fair use’ is used in the US.The term ‘fair dealing’ is used in the EU and by some other States.



First to file -A patent system in which the first inventor or discoverer to file an application for a specific invention or discovery is entitled to the patent. In most countries, the first person to file has priority over others claiming rights for the same invention or discovery. Intellectual property - See i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y . ’



Invention - The creation of a technical idea and the physical means to accomplish or embody it.To be patentable, an invention must be novel, have utility and differ from what skilled users might expect. License - Permission to use an intellectual property right within a defined time, context, market and/or State or Territory.



Naming - The act of providing a label for a thing (such as a species name), person, place, product (as in a brand name), and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. Patent - A government-conferred right to exclude others from making, using or selling an invention. Patents do not protect ideas, only structures and methods that apply the ideas. Patent pool -An arrangement allowing the holders of several patents necessary for a product or process to license their rights at a single price.



Open source - A movement in the computer programming and scientific communities to make program instructions free and available to anyone.



Piracy - The unauthorized duplication of goods protected by intellectual property law. Public domain - The status of an invention or creative work that is not protected by intellectual property rights and is available for copying and use by anyone. Royalty - A payment to copyright or patent owners for the right to use their work.



Trademark - A name or symbol used to identify and distinguish goods. 267

U n it e d S ta te s A g e n c y fo r In t e r n a t io n a l D e v e lo p m e n t ( U S A ID )

U n ite d

States

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D e v e lo p m e n t

(U S A ID )

T h e p rin c ip a l a g e n c y th ro u g h w h ic h the U S provides tec h n ica l assistance a n d delivers foreign aid. U n its of m e a su re m e n t (c o m m o n ly used ports).

in U N

a n d sc ie n tific r e ­

See ‘S y m b o l s . ’ M e tr ic U n it S y m b o l - U S U n it E q u iv a le n t

-

meter m,= yard 1.094yd kilometer km, = mile 0.6214mi hectometer h, = none 328ft

-

cubic meter m3,= cubic yard 1.308yd3

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square kilometer km2, = square mile 0.386sq mi hectare ha, = acres 2.477ac

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cubic hectometer hm\ = acre-foot; 8 10.68ac-ft. gram g, = ounce 0.035oz

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kilogram kg, = pound 2.2051b metric ton ( 1000kg), = mt ton 2,2051b

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milliliter ml, = fluid ounce 0.0338oz liter L,= quart 1.057qt

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milligram/liter mg/L, = part per million I ppm = Img/L microgram/liter (jg/L, = part per billion I ppb = I pg/L

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nanogram/liter ng/L, = part per trillon Ippt = Ing/L

O t h e r c o m m o n u n its:

-

cfs - cubic feet per second mgd - million gallons per day ppm - parts per million ppb - parts per billion |jmhos/cm —micromhos per centimeter NTU - nephelometric turbidity unit

D e c l a r a t i o n o f H u m a n R i g h t s - A d ec la ra tio n m a d e by th e U N G e n e r a l Assem bly in 1948 th a t outlines a c o m m o n s ta n d a r d for all pe o p le a n d all n a tio n s re g a r d in g the h u m a n rights a n d fre e d o m s (See A p p e n d ix 2).

U n iv e rsa l

- T h e prin ciple a n d p ractice o f one State o r re gional e ntity with a c o m m o n b o d y o f law p u r s u in g an individual(s) w h o has violated e ith e r U N o r o th e r sh a re d laws a n d policies th r o u g h co urt pro ceedings. (U N ; IPS) See “P i n o c h e t p r i n c i p l e / c o n c e p t . ' ‘U n i v e r s a l ju stic e .’

U n iv e r s a l ju risd ic tio n c a se s

A c o n c e p t th a t allows o n e c o u n tr y to p ro se c u te a citizen o f a n o t h e r c o u n tr y for violations o f in te rn a tio n a l a g ree m e n ts. M o st w ritings on this subject are related to h u m a n rights abuses, b u t legal specialists a re also b e g in n in g to ex plore th e im plication s o f a p p ly in g such prin cip les in relation to in te r n a tio n a l e n v ir o n m e n ta l treaties a n d m a li­ cious acts im p a c tin g the resources o f a n o th e r state or the global c o m m o n s.

U n iv e r s a l ju stic e (U J )

268

U niversal justice (U J)

N e ith e r th e IG J n o r th e IC G h a s yet e n d o rs e d this c o n c e p t a lth o u g h n a ­ tio n al g o v e rn m e n ts h av e h e ld a n d p ro s e c u te d in d iv id u a ls in a m a n n e r c o n ­ sistent w ith UJ. (E U ) See I n t e r n a t i o n a l C r i m i n a l C o u r t / P i n o c h e t p rin cip le.' U p c y c l i n g - T h e p ra c tic e o f recy clin g w aste m a te ria ls fo r use in h ig h e r

value goods, such as th e use o f o ld tires for ro a d b ed s o r tu r n in g old lu m b e r in to fu rn itu re . U r b a n h e a t i s l a n d - R efers to th e te n d e n c y fo r u rb a n a re a s to have w a r m ­

er a ir te m p e ra tu re s th a n th e s u rro u n d in g ru ra l la n d s c a p e d u e to th e low alb e d o o f streets, sidew alks, p a rk in g lots a n d build in g s. T h e s e surfaces a b so rb so lar ra d ia tio n d u rin g th e d ay a n d rele ase it at n ig h t, resu ltin g in h ig h e r n ig h t te m p e ra tu re s. (PEW ) S ee ‘A l b e d o . ’ U r u g u a y R o u n d - T h e ro u n d o f m u ltila te ra l tra d e n e g o tia tio n s u n d e r th e

G A T T th a t c o m m e n c e d in 1986 a n d w as c o m p le te d in 1994 w ith th e c re a ­ tio n o f th e W T O . (D C ) U s e r - p a y s p r i n c i p l e - A v a ria tio n o f th e p o llu te r-p a y s p rin c ip le th a t calls

u p o n th e u ser o f a n a tu r a l re so u rc e to b e a r th e co st o f ru n n in g d o w n n a tu ­ ral cap ital. U s u f r u c t o r y righ t

A m e c h a n ism to convey a rig h t to use a n a tu ra l reso u rce as o p p o se d to o w n in g th e n a tu ra l reso u rce. (AM )

U tste in G ro u p P artn e rsh ip

T h e U tste in G ro u p consists o f th e U K , N orw ay, S w ed e n , T h e N e th e rla n d s, G e rm a n y a n d C a n a d a , w h o se in te r n a ­ tio n al d e v e lo p m e n t m in isters fo rm e d a p a rtn e rs h ip to c o o rd in a te d e v e lo p ­ m e n t assistance policies. T h e p a rtn e rs h ip sta rte d in 1999 at U tstein A bbey in N orw ay, a m o n g th e fo u r fem ale m in isters o f th e o rig in a l U tste in c o u n ­ tries: U K , N orw ay , T h e N e th e rla n d s a n d G e rm a n y . S w ed en a n d C a n a d a jo in e d th e g ro u p in 2 0 0 4 , stre n g th e n in g th e n e tw o rk a n d c o n trib u tin g to secure th e a c h ie v e m e n t o f th e M D G s . See *U4 R e s o u r c e C e n t e r . '

269

Vv Valuation

T h e process o f d e te r m in in g the c u r r e n t w o r th o f a n asset or the estim a te d w o rth o f a th in g or process. It differs from price, w h ic h docs n ot always afford a tr u e c rite rion o f value. (LLL)

V a r i e t y - P lant g r o u p in g , w ith in a single b o ta n ic a l taxo n o f the lowest

kn o w n ran k, d efin ed by the rep ro d u c ib le expression o f its distinguishing a n d o th e r g enetic characteristics. (CBD) Verbal note

In diplom acy, an u n sig n e d n o te o r m e m o r a n d u m sent as a notification o r r e m i n d e r o f som e m a t t e r a n d generally n o t o f im m e d ia te im p o rta n c e .

V e t o - A n action taken by an e m p o w e r e d in dividual or b o d y (e.g. Presiden t

o f a State o r a n y o f the five p e r m a n e n t U N Security C o u n c il M e m b e r States) rejecting a n ac tio n th a t otherw ise has received a p p ro v al by a legisla­ tive o r g o v e rn in g body. (UN) V i c t i m p a y s p r i n c i p l e - A prin ciple th a t suggests th a t victims affected

b y pollu tion shou ld p a y the p o llu te r n o t to pollute, im ply in g th a t p r o p ­ erty rights in e n v iro n m e n ta l resources lie with the p o llu te r r a th e r th a n w ith those affected. (AM) V i e n n a C o n v e n t i o n o f 1963 - T h e V i e n n a C o n v e n tio n o n Civil Liability

for N u c le a r D a m a g e (1963). T h i s C o n v e n tio n p r e c e d e d the a d o p tio n o f the Protocol to A m e n d the 1963 V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n on Civil Liability for N u c le a r D a m a g e a n d the C o n v e n tio n o n S u p p le m e n ta r y C o m p e n s a ti o n for N u c l e a r D a m a g e a d o p t e d in 1997. V i e n n a C o n v e n t i o n o f 1969

T h e V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n o n the L aw o f T reaties was signed at V ie n n a , 23 May, 1969 a n d e n te re d into force, 27 Ja n u a r y , 1980. It is th e so urce for definitions a n d p rinciples th a t g uide in te r­ n a tio n a l treaties. Previously, treaty rules w ere b a s e d on c u s to m a r y i n t e r n a ­ tional law o r w ere a p a r t o f the g e n e ra l p rinciples o f law. T h e V ie n n a C o n ­ ve n tio n codified these rules a n d n o w g overns all th e in te r n a tio n a l treaties since it e n te r e d into force. A lth o u g h the V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n does n o t apply to treaties c o n c lu d e d before its en try into force, it is de facto a p p lie d since it in c o r p o r a te s the c u s to m a r y rules th a t w e re ap plicab le before this date.

V i e n n a C o n v e n t i o n o f I 985

T h e V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n for the P rotection o f the O z o n e L ayer is a c o nv en tion th a t gives p rio rity to research , c o o p e r a ­ tion a m o n g countries, a n d e x c h a n g e o f in f o r m a tio n re g a r d in g sub stances a n d activities w hich m ay h a r m th e o z on e layer.

V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n of 198 6

V i e n n a C o n v e n t i o n o f 19 8 6 - T h e V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n o n th e L a w o f

T re a tie s b e tw e e n S ta te s a n d I n te r n a tio n a l O r g a n iz a tio n s o r b e tw e e n I n t e r ­ n a tio n a l O r g a n iz a tio n s (1986) reflects in t e r n a tio n a l c u s to m a ry law b u t it h a s y e t to e n te r in to force. V ie n n a C o n v e n t io n on C iv il L ia b ility fo r N u c le a r D a m a g e - A U N

C o n v e n tio n o n lia b ility a n d c o m p e n s a tio n fo r n u c le a r d a m a g e s im ila r to th e P a ris C o n v e n tio n . It w as re c e n tly re v ise d by m e a n s o f th e 1997 P r o to ­ co l a n d a n ew C o n v e n tio n o n S u p p le m e n ta r y C o m p e n s a tio n w a s a g re e d to p ro v id e a d d itio n a l c o m p e n s a tio n , a lth o u g h th is h a s n o t y e t e n te r e d in to force. T h e V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n a n d P a ris C o n v e n tio n a re lin k e d by th e J o i n t P ro to c o l re la tin g to th e A p p lic a tio n o f th e V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n a n d th e P a ris C o n v e n tio n . V ie n n a C o n v e n tio n

on

D ip lo m a tic and C o n s u la r R e la tio n s - An

a g r e e m e n t th a t p la c e s th e se c u rity o f e m b a s sie s a n d c o n s u la r offices a n d th e ir re c o g n iz e d s ta ff in th e h a n d s o f th e h o s t c o u n try . V ie n n a se ttin g

A n e g o tia tin g f o r m a t m o d e le d a fte r th e final n e g o tia tio n s

o n th e C a r ta g e n a P ro to c o l o n B io safety th a t in v o lv es s p o k e s p e rs o n s fro m th e m a jo r n e g o tia tin g g ro u p s. V irtu a l W a t e r

C re d it/D e b t

R e lie f -

A n u n te s te d c o n c e p t b a s e d on

a n a ly z in g d a ta fro m th e W o rld W a te r E x c h a n g e a n d th e WTa te r P o v e rty I n ­ d e x re s u ltin g in a w a te r- h e a lth in d e x . W a te r - h e a l th /p o o r c o u n tr ie s w o u ld b e r a n k e d (w a te r a n d h e a lth ) a n d b a se d o n th a t r a n k in g re c eiv e a v irtu a l w a te r c re d it (fro m d o n o rs su c h as th e W o rld B a n k , re g io n a l d e v e lo p m e n t b a n k s, O D A fro m specific c o u n tr ie s by w a y o f a n ‘e a r n e d g r a n t ’) th a t c o u ld in tu r n b e e x p e n d e d to im p o r t fru its a n d v e g e ta b le s to h e lp o ffset w a te rre la te d h e a lth issu es fro m a lack o f su ch d ie ta ry in p u ts . S ee ' W o r l d W a t e r E x c h a n g e ; ' ‘W a t e r P o v e r t y I n d e x ; ’ D e b t r e l i e f ; ’ ‘D e b t f o r n a t u r e sw a p .’ V irtu a l w a te r/issu e s

S ee ‘W a t e r . ’

V i s a ( I ) - W ritte n a u th o r ity to e n te r a c o u n tr y fo r e ith e r te m p o r a r y o r p e r ­

m a n e n t re s id e n c e d e p e n d in g o n its w o rd in g . (eD ) V i s a (2 )

A te r m c o m m o n ly u se d in th e U N sy stem im p ly in g th e r e q u ire d

p ro c e ss o f g a in in g a p p ro v a l o f a letter, m e m o o r r e p o r t b e fo re it is se n t for fin al sig n a tu re ; as in ‘y o u w ill h a v e to “ v is a ” th is le tte r b e fo re s e n d in g it fo r s ig n a tu re to th e S e c re ta ry G e n e r a l,’ o r ‘H a s th a t te x t b e e n “v is a ’d ” y e t? ’ V o ice, righ t o f

B ein g re c o g n iz e d b y th e c h a ir o f a m e e tin g a n d a llo w e d to sp e a k to a g a th e r e d a u d ie n c e . (U N )

V o ice v o te

A v o te w h e re m e m b e rs v o te by sa y in g o u t- lo u d e ith e r ‘y es’ o r ‘n o ’ to g e th e r, a n d a fte r w h ic h th e c h a ir e s tim a te s w h ic h re s p o n se is s tro n g ­ e r; in d iv id u a l m e m b e r ’s v o te s a re n o t p la c e d o n re c o rd . (M W )

271

Voluntary ag reem ent

V o l u n t a r y a g r e e m e n t - A set o f p olicy in s tru m e n ts in tro d u c e d in sev­

eral co u n trie s to p re v e n t in d u stria l p o llu tio n . P o llution re d u c tio n is re a c h e d th ro u g h a c o n tra c t b e tw e e n g o v e rn m e n t a n d in d u s try a n d m a y in c lu d e re g u la tio n a n d ta x a tio n . V o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n - F u n d s d o n a te d by a state in excess o f its as­

sessed c o n trib u tio n th a t m a y be b a se d o n a se p a ra te a p p e a l o r fo r a d esig ­ n a te d p u rp o s e . (U N ) V o l u n t a r y f u n d - A fu n d c re a te d fo r a specific p u rp o s e a n d to w h ic h c o u n ­

tries are e n c o u ra g e d to c o n trib u te . (U N ) V o t e ( r i g h t o f ) - B ein g re c o g n iz e d by th e c h a ir as h a v in g th e rig h t to ca st

a b a llo t for o r a g a in st a p ro p o sa l. (U N ) V u l n e r a b i l i t y - T h e p ro p e n s ity o f a p o p u la tio n g ro u p to e x p e rie n c e s u b ­

sta n tia l d a m a g e , d is ru p tio n a n d casu alties as a resu lt o f a h a z a rd . (D F ID ) A c o n d itio n c h a ra c te riz e d by h ig h e r risk a n d re d u c e d ab ility to co p e w ith shock o r negativ e im p acts. It m ay be b ase d o n so c io -ec o n o m ic c o n d itio n , g en d er, age. disability, e th n ic ity o r o th e r c rite ria th a t in flu e n c e p e o p le ’s a b il­ ity to access reso u rces a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s. V u ln e ra b ility is a l­ w ays co n te x tu a l, a n d m u st b e assessed in th e c o n te x t o f a specific situ atio n a n d tim e. G o o d p ra c tic e in W o rld B ank p ro jec ts in d ic a te s th a t d e v e lo p m e n t in te rv e n tio n s a n d su p p o rt m e c h a n ism s sh o u ld assess v u ln erab ility , a n d ta r ­ g et in te rv e n tio n s to be a p p ro p ria te a n d re d u c e risk for th o se d e e m e d as v u ln e ra b le . (WB) V u l n e r a b l e - A n IU G N c a te g o ry o f ta x a b eliev ed likely to m ove in to th e

E n d a n g e re d ca te g o ry in th e n e a r fu tu re if th e cau sa l fa cto rs c o n tin u e o p e r­ ating. In c lu d e d a re ta x a o f w hich m o st o r all th e p o p u la tio n s a re d e c re a s­ in g b ec a u se o f o v e r-e x p lo ita tio n , extensive h a b ita t o r o th e r e n v iro n m e n ­ tal d is tu rb a n c e ; ta x a w ith p o p u la tio n s th a t h av e b e e n serio u sly d e p le te d a n d w hose u ltim a te secu rity is n o t y et assu re d ; a n d ta x a w ith p o p u la tio n s th a t are still a b u n d a n t b u t a re u n d e r th r e a t from serio u s ad v e rse facto rs th r o u g h o u t th e ir ra n g e . (IU G N ) V u l n e r a b l e t a x a - A classification re fe rrin g to a species th a t is likely to

b e c o m e e n d a n g e re d w ith in t