Dew Water 9788793609471, 8793609477

The world’s ever-increasing need for fresh water has led to the use of non-conventional sources such as rain and fog wat

241 88 34MB

English Pages 370 [371] Year 2018

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Dew Water
 9788793609471, 8793609477

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Half Title Page
RIVER PUBLISHERS SERIES IN CHEMICAL,ENVIRONMENTAL, AND ENERGY ENGINEERING
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
Forewords
Preface
Participants of the Reviewing Process
Glossary
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
Chapter 1 - History
Chapter 2 - Water on Earth
2.1 Water Cycle
2.2 Water Repartition
2.3 Atmospheric Water
2.3.1 Atmosphere Composition
2.3.2 Water Repartition
2.4 Contribution and Role of Dew
2.4.1 General
2.4.2 Dew and Plants
2.4.3 Dew Water for Humans
Chapter 3 - Atmosphere and Materials Radiative Properties
3.1 Radiative Properties of Materials
3.1.1 Definitions
3.1.2 Planck’s Law and Black Body
3.1.3 Stefan–Boltzmann Law
3.1.4 Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Radiation
3.1.5 Gray Body
3.1.6 Atmospheric Radiation
3.2 Long Wave Radiative Transfer in Atmosphere
3.2.1 Clear Sky Emissivity: Radiation Deficit
3.2.2 Clear Sky Emissivity: Angular Dependence
3.2.3 Cloudy Sky Emissivity
3.2.4 Dry and Wet Substrate Emissivities
Chapter 4 - Humid Air
4.1 Humid Air Characteristics
4.1.1 Dalton’s Law
4.1.2 Humid Air Equation of State
4.1.3 Humid Air Density
4.1.4 Saturated Vapor Pressure
4.2 Specific Quantities
4.2.1 Moisture Content, Humidity Ratio, Mass Mixing Ratio, Absolute and Specific Humidity
4.2.2 Relative Humidity
4.2.3 Dew Point Temperature and Relative Humidity
4.2.4 Dew-point Depression Temperature and Relative Humidity
4.2.5 Degree of Saturation
4.2.6 Specific Volume
4.2.7 Specific Enthalpy
4.2.8 Wet-Bulb Temperature: Psychrometric Constant
4.2.9 Mollier Diagram. Psychometric Chart
4.2.10 Moisture Harvesting Index
4.2.11 The Vapor Concentration?Vapor Pressure Relation
Chapter 5 - Dew Nucleation and Growth
5.1 Nucleation
5.1.1 Homogeneous Nucleation
5.1.2 Heterogeneous Nucleation
5.2 Boundary Layer
5.3 Growth Regimes
5.3.1 Basic Equations
5.3.2 Single Droplet Growth Law
5.3.3 Individual Drop Growth in a Pattern
5.3.4 Drop Pattern Evolution with Coalescence
5.3.5 Effect of Edges and Borders
5.3.6 Contact Angle Hysteresis and Surface Coverage
5.3.7 New Drop Generation
5.3.8 Effects of Gravity
5.4 Spatio-temporal Fluctuations
5.5 Condensation on Micro-patterned Substrates
5.5.1 Micro-pillars
5.5.2 Grooves and Stripes
5.6 Liquid and Liquid-Imbibed Substrate
5.7 Melting Substrate
5.8 Thermal Aspects
5.8.1 Drop Surface
5.8.2 Radiative Versus Conductive Cooling: Planar Substrate
5.8.3 Radiative Versus Conductive Cooling: Bumpy Substrate
5.8.4 Condensation Rates of Bumpy Substrates
Chapter 6 - Dew Collection by Gravity
6.1 Smooth Substrates
6.1.1 Filmwise
6.1.2 Dropwise
6.2 Edge Effects
6.3 Textured Substrates
6.3.1 Filmwise
6.3.2 Dropwise
6.4 Rough and Porous Substrate
6.4.1 Enhanced Roughness
6.4.2 Porous Substrate (Fibrocement)
6.5 Oil-Imbibed Micro-substrate
Chapter 7 - Dew Yield Estimation
7.1 Artificial Neural Networks
7.1.1 Model Inputs and Architecture
7.1.2 Model Optimization
7.1.3 Results
7.2 Energy Balance Models
7.2.1 Basic Equations
7.2.2 Semi-empirical Models
7.3 Analytical Model with Simple Meteorological Data
7.3.1 Approximations in the Energy Equation
7.3.2 Laboratory Tests
7.3.3 Wind Influence
7.3.4 Radiation Deficit
7.3.5 Dew Yield
7.3.6 Comparison with Measured Dew Yields
7.4 CFD-based Extrapolation to Non-planar Condensers
7.5 Dew Maps
Chapter 8 - Computational Fluid Dynamics
8.1 Principles of the Simulation
8.2 Dew Yield and Cooling Temperature
8.3 Radiative Cooling
8.3.1 Radiative Modules
8.3.2 Mimicking Radiation by Surface-like Heat Flux
8.4 Program Setup
8.5 Study of Structures
8.5.1 Planar Structures
8.5.2 Roofs
8.5.3 Hollow Ridges
8.5.4 Hollow Cones
8.5.5 Positive Cones and Pines
8.5.6 Calibrations
Chapter 9 - Dew Measurement and Collection
9.1 Optical Means
9.1.1 Observation-based Methods
9.1.2 Light Transmission or Reflection
9.1.3 Change of Spectral Reflectance
9.2 Electrical Means: Leaf-Wetness Sensors
9.3 Direct Weighing
9.4 Evaluation by Gravity Flow Collection
9.4.1 Scraping
9.4.2 Boundary Effects
9.5 General Effect of Materials and Forms
9.6 Enhanced Dew Condensation and Collection
9.7 Dew Measurement Standard
9.8 Super Absorbing Hydrogels
9.9 Massive Dew Condensers
9.10 Review of Large Dew Condensers
Chapter 10 - Dew Water Quality
10.1 Chemical Characteristics
10.1.1 Catchment Techniques and Data Analyses
10.1.2 Electric Conductivity. Total Dissolved Solids
10.1.3 Major and Minor Ions
10.1.4 pH
10.1.5 Ion Source Characterization (Correlations, Enrichment Factor, Air Mass Trajectory, Isotope Analysis)
10.1.6 Urban Environment
10.2 Biological Features
10.2.1 Dew on Plants
10.2.2 Dew on Inert Substrates
10.2.3 Sterilization by Dew Condensation
Chapter 11 - Economic Aspects
11.1 Mirleft (SW Morocco)
11.2 Coquimbo Region (S-center Chile)
11.3 Kothara (NW India)
Appendix A - Slab and Hemisphere Emissivities
Appendix B - The Clausius–Clapeyron Equation
Appendix C - Relation between Vapor and Heat Transfer Coefficients
C.1 Vapor Transfer
C.2 Heat Transfer
C.3 Ratio of Transfer Coefficients
Appendix D - Volume of a Spherical Cap
Appendix E - Wetting and Super Wetting Properties
E.1 Ideal Surface
E.2 Rough and Micro-patterned Surfaces
E.2.1 Rough Substrate
E.2.2 Micro-patterned Substrate. Cassie Baxter and Wenzel States
Appendix F - Sand Blasting Roughness
F.1 Roughness Amplitudes
F.2 Wenzel Roughness Factor
Appendix G - Meniscus in a Groove
Appendix H - The Penman–Monteith Equation
H.1 The Penman–Monteith Equation
H.2 Aerodynamic Resistance ra
H.3 (Bulk) Surface Aerodynamic Resistance rs
H.4 Reference Surface
Appendix I - Relation between Dew Yield and Dry Air Cooling
Bibliography
Index
About the Author
Back Cover

Polecaj historie