Developing religious leadership among high school youth

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DEVELOPING RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP AMONG HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of The School of Religion University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts

by Anna Elizabeth Nelson June 1950

UMI Number: EP65196

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This thesis, w ritte n by

under the guidance of h§X‘. ... F a c u lty C o m m ittee, and app ro ved by a l l its members, has been presented to and accepted by the C o u n cil on G raduate S tudy and Research in p a r t ia l f u l f i l l ­ ment of the requirements f o r the degree of

MASTER OP ARTS

Date

June..l.9.£0

Faculty Committee

Chairman

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION

. . . . . . . .

................

1

..........................

1

Statement of the p r o b l e m ................

1

Importance of the problem • • • • • • . • •

1

Definitions of terms used ........ . . . . .

3

Review of the l i t e r a t u r e ...............

10

Procedure used in the study . . . . . . . .

11

The problem

Organization of remainder of the study II.

...

12

A THEORY OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION..............

13

Underlying philosophy

............

1I4.

Comparison of major a p p r o a c h e s ..........

1I4.

Further notes on functional approach

1.8

...

An emergent philosophy

27

Guidance of purposeful activities .......... Development of a philosophy of life . . . . Personal commitment Devotional practices Christian service

............ « • • • • • • • • . . ............

Encouragement and guidance of youth leaders . III.

A DYNAMIC CONCEPT OF RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP . . . Leadership defined

3h

3141l1 I4.3 4-6 53 60

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

Types of leadership..................* . .

67

iii CHAPTER

PAGE Authoritarian

. ♦ ............. . . . . .

68

Laissez-faire

. . . . . . ........

71

Democratic

...........

72

Christian orientation of the group Methodology

.

leader .

. . * ........................

7k-

81$.

Personal attributes and approach of the Christian leader IV.

. . . . . . . .

90

TECHNIQUES OP DISCOVERING AND ENLISTING HIGH SCHOOL AGE LEADERS

..................

Leadership discovery • • . . • • • • . . . • Observation

10k

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

107

Rating s c a l e s ...................

110

Sociometry

............................

117

Interviews

........ ...................

11±2

Leadership enlistment V.

IOI4.

........

155

TECHNIQUES FOR LEADERSHIP EDUCATION OP HIGH SCHOOL AGE Y O U T H .............

l6£

Guidance

167

...................

Individual guidance

........

169

Group guidance..........................

173

Counseling

....

176

Shareviews Supervision

190 . . . . . . .

Apprent ice s h i p .............

.

19k 212

iv CHAPTER

PAGE Guided reading

• • • • . • • • • • • • •

Group counseling Coaching

. • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

Role playing

....

221

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

225

.........

230

••••

...

2.3k-

Leadership education classes• • • • • • • • •

236

Leadership practicums

2hfi

Camping

• • • * . . • • • • • • • • • •

Summer conferences

....

Summer service projects Vacation church schools

............. .....

••••

Conclusions BIBLIOGRAPHY

2I4.9 .

........... ••

• . • • • • • • • • • • • • . .

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary

2I4.6

. . . . .

Observation * * • • • • . . . . . • • • Evaluation

2lp.

. . . . . . . .

Laboratory schools and workshops

VI.

220

. . . . • . . . .

Workers1 conferences Retreats

217

.................

..........................

257 259 26l

.

• . . . . ..................

• • • • • • • • •

253

.

267

267 2 73

2

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem*

Leadership is one of the

most important aspects in the functioning of any group or organization*

The writer further assumes that every person

possesses the God-given potentiality of leadership, as well as the ability to follow*

Every person plays both roles in

life— he is a leader in certain situations and under certain circumstances, and a follower in others*

The problem (pur­

pose) of this study is to determine how persons are to be discovered, enlisted, and educated for purposes of religious leadership.

This involves a study of leadership and a con­

cept of its function.

This present study deals with the high

school age group, those youth of ’’middle adolescence,” of the church* Importance of the problem*

The need for adult leader­

ship and the need of developing peer leadership is recognized as of major importance to those of high school age*

Even

though a great number of studies have been made and books and pamphlets have been written on both leaders and leader­ ship, the material available is quite generalized and not necessarily specifically related to any one age group.

The

2 dearth of* material to be found on the development of leadership among those of high school age is particularly noteworthy; this is especially true in regard to developing religious leadership among the individuals of this high school age peer group. The church has become conscious of the in^portance of leadership, and has for some years now, in theory at least, called attention to the necessity of adequate education of the lay leadership.

This has, in more recent years, extended

to the youth of the church; however, very little research has been done on this problem of developing leadership among youth, and certainly little attention has been given it from a group work point of view. As a result of research and experience and thought, the writer felt that there was a great need for careful study of ways and means of developing religiousleadership among the high school youth of t;he church.

With such a need in

mind this study was made in order to attempt to answer some of the questions common to the development of leadership among the youth within a church.

The problem is to be treat­

ed in terms of the following statements of inquiry; What are the ways and means available to the worker with youth— and to the youth themselves— to recognize, enlist, and develop a religious leadership among the youth age peer group that will help them to find God, to find themselves, and to find

3 their relation to their fellow-man and to the universe in which they live and of which they are such an important part?

lhat techniques can be used?

And how does one go

about the challenging task of educating the youth of the chureh for religious leadership, vocational and avocational? XI. DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED Leadership. The definition

of this term, and that of

"leader,” in this study necessitated developments which are included in a separate section in Chapter III.

This also

holds true for the terms used to designate the various tech­ niques available for the discovery, enlistment, and education of youth found

for religious leadership; the first two are to be

in Chapter IV

and the last one, in Chapter V of this

study. Youth.

Throughout this study the term "youth” Is

used to designate those persons in the church who are in the period of "middle adolescence,” those of high school age— from around ll§. to or through 18 years of age.

(This varia­

tion in age range Is given so as to include all of'high school age because of the fact that in some areas high schools are divided into three years of academic pursuit, while in others there is a four year period which begins with the ninth grade.)

The term "young people” has been used

k f

I

interchangeably with wyouth. M Religion.

Religion may be defined as a personal and

cooperative response to a Creator and Sustainer of Values.^ Functionally, it is Ha quality of life diffused throughout every phase of the living person1s interests and activi­ ties. ”2 ence.

It is not something that is added,to human experi­ Instead it is Man integral part of man 1s experience

and operates within his experience to shape and direct it toward spiritual ends.”3 Education.

This term signifies the 11introduction of

control of experienc e.”

tod, ,fhuman edue ati on I s the intro­

duction of control into experience in terms of Ideas and ideals.*1^- The modern emphasis upon education Is that it is a teaching-learning process, with the educator acting in the

1 Paul E. Johnson, Psychology of Religion (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1945), PP* 29-31. The writer concurs wi th Dr. Johnson in his observation that to define religion is a difficult task, for even the experienced person, because religion in and of itself Is so complex— one of the broadest terms that language has provided, for it works with the largest ideas that have ever been con­ ceived by man. p William Clayton Bower, Christ and Christian Education (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1953), p* 22.

3 Ikld., p. 37. M- Walter Scott Atheam, The Minister and the Teacher (New York: The Century Company, 193?), pp. 26-27•

5 capacity of resource leader and guide in a life or experi­ ence-centered approach. Religious education.

Religious education is ”the

introduction of control into experience in terms of religious ideas and ideals.”5

% l1s , too, is a teaching-learning

process which aids and guides persons in their quest of living religiously; it is a process that 11involves both form and content, both means and ends, both a technique and a philosophy. Christian education.

Christian education, in turn,

then, is ”the introduction of control into experience in terms of the ideas and ideals of Jesus Christ. ”7

It is

the systematic, critical examination and reconstruction of relations between persons, guided by Jesus1 assump­ tion that persons are of Infinite worth, and by the hypothesis of the existence of God, the great Valuer of persons.®

5 hoc, eit. 6 Georgia Harkness, ”An Underlying Philosophy for Religious Education,” Studies in Religious Education. Philip Henry hotz and h. W. Crawford,"Editors, (Nashville: Cokesbury Press, 1931), p. 53. 7 Athearn, oj>. cit., pp. 26-27. 3 George Albert Coe, What is Christian Education? (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929}, p. 296.

6 Harrison S. Elliott points out that present-day religious educators, Tor meeting those conditions under which growth in Christian life and experience are nourished, emphasize the human responsibility and consider Christian education as the process through which such takes place*9 Christian education, then, is Ma reverent attempt to dis­ cover the divinely ordained process by which individuals grow in Christlikeness, and to work with that process."10

It should be stated here that throughout this study religious education will be referred to specifically as it might be practiced by proponents of Christianity; therefore, the terms "religious education” and "Christian education" will be used interchangeably. Church,

'throughout this study the term "church" was

used in its broadest connotation, and is not tied to any specific denomination.

It refers to the local church on the

corner, to be sure, but it Is more than that: It is a fellow­ ship that extends out into the community and becomes a part of the ecumenical or world religious movement.

9 Harrison S* Elliott, Can Religious Education Be Christian? (Hew York: The Macmillan Company, 19if0), p. 313* ^ koc* city Nevin C. Earner, The Educational Work of the Church (Hashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1939 )* P* 20.

7 Personality.

Personality, another difficult term to

narrow into a definition, may he defined as wthe organizing unity of experience directed by insight and purpose. ,fH Further, it is f,the integrated expression of the character­ istic needs, goals, reaction patterns, and modes of handling situations* ”3-2; j-fc is interaction between the organic physical organism and the environment. Adolescence.

This term characterizes that process or

period of growing up— from childhood into adulthood, the goal of which is maturity.3*3

Therefore, it is not to be viewed as

a life by itself, but as a stage in the individual1s total life.

Its peculiar features are both striking and character­

istic— with the recognition of physical, mental, social, and religious needs and interests which should be met through creative experience— but the preparatory conditioning of these have their beginning in the preceding period of life and many of the effects continue until life*s end: There is no characteristic of adolescence whose germ may not be found in childhood, and whose consequences may

Johnson, op. cit., p. 32. 3*2 A. H. Maslow and Bela Mittelmann, Principles of Abnormal Psychology (Hew York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 19lpJ, p. 6o6. 3-3 Katharine Whiteside Taylor, Do Adolescents Heed Parents? (Hew York. D. Appleton-Century Company, Incorporated, 193^;, p. 3 .

not be traced in maturity and old age. No adequate understanding of tills period is possible unless one looks also beyond the period in both directions. They little know of adolescence ¥ho only adolescence know. Back of adolescence are boyhood and childhood, and back of childhood are the forces of heredity, and all about the individual are the diverse operations of the environ ment; while on the other hand youth develops into maturi ty and maturity is succeeded by senescence, decay and death. 14 Middle adolescence.

By this term is meant that

period of adolescence which is in the center of the span of ttgrowing upM years♦

The age range is from llj. years to or

through 18 years— referring to those youngsters of high school age. Peer.

In this study the term peer refers to fellow

youth of the middle adolescent age grouping— those youth of approximately the same age, class or rank who form natural groups through such mutual associations with one another. Group work.

Although difficult to define, group work

may be said to be a process and method through which individuals in groups . . . are helped by a worker to relate themselves to other people and to experience growth opportunities in accordance with their needs and capacities. . ♦ . the group itself is utilized by the individual with the help of the worker, as a primary means of personality growth,

IJ4. Frederick Tracy, The Psychology of Adolescence (New York: The Macmillan Company^ 1923)> P •*""]?•

change and development. 'The worker is interested in helping to bring about individual growth and social de­ velopment for the group as a whole as a result of guided group interaction. 3-5 A study of this foregoing statement reveals that group work (1 ) focuses its attention upon the individual in the group; (2 ) is carried on within the setting of a group; (3 ) has the dual purpose of both individual and group growth; (If) uses the group itself as a major tool; and, (f>) calls for a par­ ticular kind of worker— a helper or guide. The group work process has much in common with the functional approach to Religious Education.

As a discipline

it has come further in its effort to understand the dynamics of behavior, and certainly of interpersonal behavior, than has any previous educational approach.

Insofar as group work

promotes individual and group growth, it is to that extent Christian.

Certainly this is true where the group worker

accepts and ’’loves” the members, for this very concept of ’’love” is from the Christian point of view a religious con­ cept.

It becomes articulately Christian when the values

emerging from the group process are related and interpreted in terms of the Christian heritage.^7

Harleigh B. Trecker, Social Croup Work: Principles and Practices (Mew York: The Woman’s Press, 1955), pp. tf-9 .

16 Ibid., p. 9 . Paul B. Irwin, Assistant Professor of Religious Education, School of Religion, University of Southern California, in an interview.

III.

REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE

Through widespread research in preparation for this study, it was discovered that no definitive treatment of leadership education for youth as such has been made, and certainly there has been no treatment in this regard from the point of view of group work;^9 therefore, there was actually no literature to review. To be sure, there is a great deal of literature available on leaders, leadership, and group work, but it has been aimed at the adult worker with youth.

Or, when it has

been particularly focused on the youth themselves, as in regard to leadership, it has had some such objective in view as the electing of and training for officers in a youth group, or training for actual organization, promotion, or conducting of programs or meetings within the youth division.

Such

material is valuable for its own use, but it goes without saying that there is definite need for literature"on leader­ ship that is aimed directly at the young people themselves, considering their needs and interests and working through the democratic group work process to achieve an adequate, func­ tional concept of leadership which allows opportunities for

3-9 Cf*, for example, A Classified Bibliography of Youth Publications (Chicago: The International Council of Religious Education, I9I4.8T, pp. 60-62.

11 full development of the Individuals.

There is also need for

further development of a literature dealing with the group work process and the distinct contributions it can offer to functional Christian leadership. IV.

PROCEDURE USED IN THE STUDT

Method of procedure.

The method used for this study

was library research. Sources of data.

There are two main sources of data

used in this study, books and periodicals; some pamphlets were also used. Of the books used, the following types are to be found: standard texts on the psychology of adolescence; texts and other books on leaders and leadership; those dealing with the related fields of social psychology, sociology, group work, pamphlets and manuals for leaders and workers with youth; texts and other books treating programming f or youth in the church; theses and dissertations dealing with related subjects in the fields of religion:psychology, sociology, social psychology, group work, soeiometry. The second source, periodicals, are also those con­ nected with the above mentioned related fields or subjects, as are the pamphlets.

V.

ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE STUDY

The remainder of this study is divided into five chapters.

A theory of Religious Education and the objec­

tives of the worker with youth in developing leadership among the youth peer group will be found in Chapter II. Following that is an investigation of a dynamic concept of Christian leadership, which Includes an elaborated definition of the term, ftleader ship,tf the types of leadership, the im­ plications of these studies for a new concept of Christian leadership, the methodology of leadership, and the personal attributes and approach of the Christian leader. Chapter IV gets at the heart of the problem of this study by presenting techniques--observation, rating scales, sociometry, and interviews— that are available in the dis­ covering of leadership potentialities among the high school youth; also included in this chapter are techniques of enlist­ ment of the youth as leaders*

Techniques to be used in the

education of this potential religious leadership are found in Chapter V; these include various ways and means of individual and group guidance, an ongoing leadership education program through the use of periodic classes in leadership education, and actual practicums in leadership education.

The final

chapter deals with the summary and conclusions of the study.

CHAPTER II A THEORY OP RELIGIOUS EDUCATIOH Of major Importance to a study of the development of religious leadership among the high school youth of the church is the cognizance of an underlying theory of Religious Education* Keeping In mind the definitions of Religion, Education, Religious Education, and Christian Education pointed up in the preceding chapter, further observations can be made*

It

is to be recognized that religion is old and that it is ever in the process of change in Its concepts and practices.

”lt

represents a persistent outreach on the part of man for mean-. ings and values to inspire and to guide him in his restless search for a fuller and a more satisfying life.nl

Modern

Education— and, consequently, modern Religious or Christian Education--is concerned with the reconstruction of the worth of persons in their cosmic setting*

In effecting inter­

personal adjustments or reconstructing relations among per­ sons, personal reorientation and growth are Involved in such a way that both individual growth and social growth are

3* Ernest J. Chave, A Functional Approach to Religious Education (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1947)> p. 1 *

*4 integral to the same educational

process.^

A theory of Religious Education, then, would seem to include the development— on the part of the youth as well as that of the adult worker— of an underlying philosophy of Religion and of Religious Education and of a statement of underlying objectives which result from such a philosophy. I.

UBDERLYIHG PHILOSOPHY

In developing and stating this philosophy underlying Religious Education, a comparison and critical review of the two major approaches of Religious Education which are in current use--the transmissive and functional— would seem to be in order.

Implications which arise from such a comparison

point toward a further elaboration of the functional concept followed by a concluding statement of the writer fs emergent philosophy. A Comparison of the major approaches of Religious Education.

The two current approaches relative to Religious

Education which are held by various religious educators, with a brief comparison and critical review follow:3

2 Paul B. Irwin, Assistant Professor of Religious Education, University of Southern California, in an inter­ view. 3 Paul B. Irwin, through interviews and Religious

(1)

The transmissive or content-centered' approach^-

in religious education places stress upon the methods of indoctrination and upon the authority of the leader*

This

concept or approach, characteristic of Herbart, begins with a fixed body of knowledge (revealed truth) and assumes that the task of the teacher or leader is to impart a knowledge of this truth to the youth and to attempt to motivate them through the content which he transmits to them*

It is in­

terested in the quality of life to be developed within the youth, but the major emphasis is upon information giving and memorization of facts* The leader is the source of wisdom and the final authority and he makes all the plans and arrangements.

The

maintainence of interest is attempted through either promised rewards or through threatened punishments.

And it is the

personality of the leader which is usually given first con­ sideration, his right over that of the individual group member being emphasized. What is to be taught is organized in a logical manner

Education classes in the School of Religion, University of Southern California; Prank A. Lindhorst, The Minister Teaches Religion, (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1945)* PP« 15-19% Leon C. Palmer, The New Religious Education (Milwaukee Morehouse Publishing Co., 1932), pp. 77-78’! ^ See George A. Coe, What is Christian Education? (New York: Charles Scribnerfs Sons, 1929), pp. 35-&0, for a further treatment of this educational approach*

16 and handed out either in books or by lecture, or through memory work, without consideration of the relationship it has to the individual’s experience or as to whether or not it fits his present understanding or situation; it is dis­ continued when the allotted period of time is up regardless of whether or not solutions have been reached or of the frustration and insecurity that may result from unfinished experiences*

And, good work has been done when the youth can

reproduce what has been given to him* A major fault to be seen in this approach is the al­ most exclusive emphasis upon knowledge as the objective, and, further, the obtaining of such knowledge through transmission rather than through actual experience* (2)

The functional, or life or experience-centered

approach^ places its stress upon the individual in his life experience, with the leader as a guide and resource person* This concept— which is characteristic of such men as Bower, Chave, Coe,^ and others— begins with the individual, and the objectives grow out of his life situations, his interests, and his needs*

The leader begins at the point in experience

5 See Chave, op* cit•, for a further treatment of the functional approach to Religious Education*

6 George A* Coe is regarded as the founder of this approach in Religious Education*

17 where he finds the individual youth and through guidance, rather than transmission, helps him to achieve satisfying individual and group experiences*

IShile content is equally

important to the experience centered approach, it is used functionally; the emphasis is upon understanding adjustment and growth and not upon information learning* Both the leader and the individual youth are considered as having knowledge and experience, and together they search, discover, plan, execute, and evaluate*

The leader seeks to

discover the needs, both the felt and the unfelt, of the youth, and to guide him through the experiences which will be of help to him in meeting his needs.

The individual's

interest is maintained by leading him to want that informa­ tion or experience that is offered*

And, the personalities

of all— the individual group members and the leaders, adult or youth— are held sacred, with the right of each being held in trust by all members* The psychological point of the individual youth's personal growth is considered and those studies or projects are offered when he has need of them in his experience, and they are continued over such periods of time as there is need to complete a satisfying experience of searching, acquiring new ideas that may result, making desired commitments, and planning whatever action is needed and then carrying it out. Good work has been accomplished when the youth can make use

18 of at least some of his new discoveries in meeting some need in his personal life. A danger in the functional approach lies in the possi­ bility of only developing isolated areas, thus producing a fragmentary character composed of a mosaie of good qualities which are lacking in cohesion.

But, this can be avoided by

careful planning and good guidance. It may be pointed out that there are further dangers in both the transmissive and the functional approaches, but ”the dangers are there because one is dealing with the guidance of personalities, and guiding persons is dangerous business.”

The functional approach, however, in seeking to

discover and to meet the needs of the individuals makes the dangers far less hazardous.

Furthermore, it should be noted

in passing that the functional approach really uses the best of the methods of the transmissive approach and adds to them. 7 Further notes on the functional approach to Religious Education.

It has been observed, and rightly so, that the

best leaders and teachers of all time have used the function­ al life and experience-centered approach in education, re­ ligious or secular.

Even though this approach is considered

to be a reasonably new one, it can be traced to an

7 Lindhorst, op. cit., p. 19f.

19 outstanding example which was given over two thousand years ago when the educational work of the church had its begin­ ning in the educational ministry of the one who has been thought of as the greatest teacher of all time, Jesus of Nazareth.

Bower has pointed out four characteristics of

Jesus* method of education, which, when compared, could well represent the modern concept of functional religious educa­ tion.

These characteristics follow:

(1) He began, not with formulated beliefs, subject mat­ ter, tradition, or even with the Bible of his day, but with living persons where they were in their esqperience of life. (2 ) Jesus thought of religion as a quality of life dif­ fused throughout every phase of the living person*s interests and activities. . . . Heligion with Jesus was never a specialized interest apart from the rest of life, localized in special times and places or limited to ceremonial acts. (3) Bather than give them ready-made solutions drawn either from tradition or from the Scriptures, Jesus threw people back upon their own resources. (ip Jesus placed his emphasis upon action as the outcome of thinking and purposing.8 Jesus * religion, then, was ffa vital experience of life in terms of its spiritual values and of its responsible rela­ tion to God, M and a direct one, being unmediated by either tradition, ritual, or ecclesiastical institution.

In his

8 William Clayton Bower, Christ and Christian Education (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1953)$ pp. 20-2FI

teaching is to be found 11a freshness, a reality, and an authenticity11 which stood in marked contrast with the ex­ ternal ism of those learned official teachers of his lifetime “who appealed to tradition and authority for the validation of their ideas.f,9 With the development of historic Christianity, how­ ever, it can be observed that Christian education underwent tremendous change from its initial expression found in the life and teaching of Jesus, who was concerned with 11an immediate experience of the common life in terms of its dynamic religious values— with people face to face with the issues of living.11 Instead, Christian education came to be the church1s conception of education— the transmissive and authoritative Christian education which the church of the twentieth century inherited from the Intervening nineteen centuries; this was in contrast with Jesus conception.!® After these nineteen centuries modern Christian educa tion is again “seeking to bring the ideals and purposes of Christ back into functional relation to the experience of growing persons and of the Christian community.11 Through a functional approach, Christian education is seeking, under the conditions of m o d e m contemporary life, “to accomplish

9 Ibid., p. 26. 10 Ibid,, p. 27.

21 what it believes Christ sought to accomplish under the eon- . ditions of* his world— to bring living persons into a vital experience of the Christian values of life *11^

This it is

attempting to do through its objectives, its curriculum, its method or procedure, the concepts of God and of Christ, the place of the Bible, and the basic experiences that result from and through these* (l)

Objectives of modern functional Christian educa­

tion may be seen in terms of the following four fundamental purposes:^

(a) Through an orientation of the whole self of

the individual in thought, attitude, and motive, the helping of growing persons to achieve Christlike personalities; (b) the bringing of those relations and processes constituting society under that ’’searching criticism and reconstruction or the Ideals and purposes of Christ in the progressive realiza­ tion of the Kingdom of God upon earth”; (c ) the making available, to those growing persons and groups seeking to become Christian persons within a society that is Christian, that ’’funded experience of the Christian past” as a resource for the interpreting, the judging, and the resolving of the issues which are faced in their interaction with the real end and present world; and (d) the building of the church into a

11 Ibid,. p, 37.

12 Ibid.. PP. 38-39.

”sustained and sustaining fellowship” in which means are available for ‘‘continued reorientation of one’s life, for self-criticism, for the rectification of values, and for wholehearted commitment to Christ and the causes of the Kingdom of God.” (2)

Curriculum is experience or life-centered,

experimental,

13 and functional.

A unit of learning is a

unit of experience and moves from a situation to a completed response.

Subject matter, when so viewed, takes on both a

wider range and a richer content.

11It consists not only of

the situation itself, but of all that enters into the resolu­ tion of the situation. Through analyzing a unit of experience, it may be observed to break down into the following three elements, which tend to Overlap and flow together as phases of a single process. ”15

(a) The situation itself at the moment with all

its detail; (b) the growing person or group’s past experi­ ence— ^the funded experience of all one’s past interaction with his natural, social, cultural, and cosmic world11 and (c) those lfvast, accumulated, and systematized stores of' racial experience.ff Development takes place through inter-

13 See Chave, op. cit., pp. II4.6-I6I, for treatment of an experimental curriculum. 1-K Bower, op. cit., p. 63. ^

Ibid., pp. 63-68.

pre tat ion, enrichment, and control, in terms of ideas, ideals, and purposes* The dealing with the e xperiences of the youth and the working with these real life situations as they occur are what constitute the content of the curriculum for leadership education, and likewise the method* (3)

Method and curriculum in functional religious

education cannot be separated, for they both grow out of the situation as it is articulated.

The leader, be he adult or

youth, becomes a resource person and guide who begins with the person(s) with whom he is working on the level where he finds him and helps him in ascertaining the forces at work and the issues that need to be met arising out of the actual situations being experienced, particularly those in which there is awareness of confusion, difficulty, or defeat. Situations are resolved by dealing with them creative­ ly and religiously through the procedure of the group's purposing, planning, executing, and evaluating^ as a unit rather than as separate individuals.

The leader participates

as a group member and in this way assists the youth to grow in their ability to think and ehoose and act. (Ij.} Concepts of God and of Jesus, in the functional

Ibid., pp. 58-62; Method and procedure in function­ al religious education will be more fully developed in Chap­ ter III under Methodology*

2-k approach, are tentative and outgrowths of the process of experience. The religious mind has been convinced throughout the ages that something personal is at the heart of reality. This aspect of reality, in whatever way it may be conceived, is to the religious mind the "Supreme Person, God.

Conse­

quently, manfs interaction with total reality involves an interaction with an objectively real God"17— one who is to be found and understood in and through experience.

For

modern man, as for Jesus, the living God is not to be found in the historic creeds of the church, or in its liturgies, or even in the literature of the Bible, however precious. Like the smoldering ashes of the campfires of Evangeline1s lover, these mark the places in history where God has been. But if we would find the living God, we must look for him where Jesus found him— in the living experience of living men confronted with the realities of the present world, where men hope and fear, where they strive and suffer, where the creative forces of life are as much at work as in any historic period, and where history is in the making.18 The concept of God in functional Christian education, then, has a stabilizing and integrating value when "kept in close reference to growing knowledge of the creative and sustaining forces of the universe which affect manfs welfare."19

17 Bower, op. cit., p. 56. 18 Ibid., p. 36. 19 Cha ve, op. cit., p. 7.

25 Jesus usually is conceived of as the Christ of faith arising through the resurrection story and the tradition of early Christianity, but he was Jesus of Nazareth to his con* temporaries*

In the natural, human scene of that time, Jesus

moved among the people, 11observing their activities, con­ cerned with their interests and problems, and commenting upon their experiences with rare insight and sympathy,,!^ It is this concept of a historical Jesus that is relevant to functional religious education, (5)

The place of the Bible is that of an important

source of historical information and a resource for Christian living.

It is a ndeposit of past religious living.”21

It

contains Ma fascinating story of changing ideas and practices in changing social conditions of an ancient period in history,11 It is one of the sources of the funded experience of the Christian past, and should be viewed historically. From a religious standpoint, its justifiable use is one In which the historical and developmental character therein contained is appreciated and understood fully, and in which the insights and patterns of behavior are evaluated critical­ ly.

In a well-graded curriculum for the varied needs of

20 Bower, op. cit., p. 19.

21 Ibid., p. 89.

26 both young and old, it is to be considered as one important source among many.22 In bringing the Bible into a functional relation to present experience of living persons, the following con­ siderations— growing directly out of the nature and origin of the Bible and of the nature and structure of experience-suggest themselves :23 (a) beginning with people where they are— in Interaction with the real and present world rather than with the "deposit of past religious living" which is the canonized Bible; (b) rearranging the assembled parts of the Bible’s literature "according to their genetic origin” by distributing its several portions along the time span of more than the thousand years it represents; (c) selectively using the Bible for much is contained therein which is Ir­ relevant to life in the modern world; (d) viewing the litera­ ture of the Bible and the experiences recorded there in the light of their historical perspective; and, (e) extracting the enduring values of the Bible from the concrete historical contexts represented, "so that they may be released for use in the enrichment and guidance of our own experience under the changed historical conditions in which Bower pointed out Jesus’ use of

the Bible and suggested

22 Chave, op. cit.. pp. 8, 113, 129. 23 Bower, op. cit., pp. 89-98.

welive*11

27 that for modern religious education the Bible is the earthen vessel in which have come down to us the undying insights, values, and achievements of countless generations of men and women who have sought and found God in their experience of life. The circum­ stances, the intellectual thought forms, the cultural framework— these dated concomitants falling away leave the imperishable elements of an undying f aith. And be­ cause this is so, the Bible remains for us the most precious legacy of our Christian h e r i t a g e . 24 (6 )

The basic experiences of life which result from

and through functional religious education are not to be found merely in the expression of religion which is conven­ tional and organized, but rather in those attitudes, values, and behavior patterns characteristic of everyday living. These experiences basic to Christian living, then, would indicate (a) sense of worth, (b) social sensitivity, (c) appreciation of the universe, (d) discrimination in values, (e) responsibility and an accountability, (f) cooperative fellowship, (g) quest for truth and realization of values, (h) integration of experiences into a working philosophy, (i) appreciation of historical continuity, and (j) participa­ tion in group celebrations.^5 An Emergent Philosophy.

Prom the foregoing comparison

of the two major approaches of religious education--the

2lf Ibid. . p. 99, 25 Chave, op. cit.. pp. 22, 132-135.

28 transmissive or content-centered approach and the functional or life or experience-centered approach— and the pointing up of further characteristics of the functional approach, an underlying philosophy of religious education based on the functional approach would seem to emerge. This approach provides opportunities for persons to grow through dealing with their needs, interests, or prob­ lems at the time there is such need.

Through its use, the

leader is a guide and resource person who takes into account the follower’s own equipment of insights, attitudes, and skills, who helps him search diligently for every relevant resource of funded Christian experience, and who guides him to end in experience where his need or interest began, in an intelligently purposed act.26

Thus it is recognized that

functional religious education begins and ends with the ex­ perience of the life situations of the living person.

It

places its major emphasis upon the guidance of persons in making religious adjustments in every area of life. Christian education functionally conceived seeks to en­ able growing persons and groups to become vividly aware of . . . interaction with their world in its several aspects, to make intelligent decisions in regard to the issues Involved, and to commit themselves to outcomes that are in their essential nature Christian in spirit and motive.27

Bower, &g>. cit. , p. 69, 27 Ibid., p# 57*

Functionally, religion deals with the "revaluation of all other values"— a comprehending form of valuation in which all special­ ized values--intellectual, economic, social, aesthetic, and moral— are fused and heightened into a total meaning and worth of life in its cosmic setting*28 Besulting in a two-fold functional relation of religion to man’s experience: (a) "The integration of personal and social experience," and (b) "the reconstruction of personal and social experience."29 This functional approach affords a view of religion which "transcends sectarianism, divisive controversy, and rigid tradition"— allowing for a wide diversity in creative expression, while at the same time conserving the growing historical appreciations of religion and providing for both direct and indirect attack upon those critical human needs of the day .30 The infinite value of each human being— the worth of persons— is the key to functional and creative religious e d u c a t i o n , 31

about which Smith has this to say:

28 Ibid*, p. 46* 29 Loc. cit. 30 Chave, op. cit., p. 15. 31 This point of view is that held by Bower, Ghave, Coe, and other contemporary religious educators. See George A Coe, What is Christian Education (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929)# for a fuller treatment.

30 It is interested in persons, in the growth of their ideas and ideals, in the enrichment of their character and the enlargement of their outlook on life. It starts with persons♦ It deals with persons* Its end is the growth and culture of per sons. 32 It is the interaction and integration of the individual with himself and with his environment that are the ends to be met through the life and experience-centered approach of modern religious education.

Through purposiveness and permissive­

ness, it seeks to approximate Christfs way of education by coming to grips with the experience of growing persons where they are face to face with reality, where God is creatively at work in our generation, and where tradition is under­ going reconstruction in the light of emergent insights and growing values.33 Prom the foregoing treatment it may be concluded that to be adequate, religious education lfcan never be an indoc­ trination into any particular theology, fundamentalist or liberal”; instead It nmust rest upon the primary experiences and growing appreciations of life itself.”34

Such a dynamic

and functional approach to religious education is the view held by the writer and Is the theory upon which this study of the developing of religious leadership among the high school youth has been conducted.

32 Robert S. Smith, Hew Trails for the Christian Teacher (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press,1934.), p. 10. 33 Bower,

op. cit., p. 42.

34 Chave,

op. cit., p. 56.

II.

OBJECTIVES OP THE ADULT WORKER WITH YOUTH

Objectives depend upon basic philosophy, concepts of religion, constituency needs, and available means for at­ taining specific ends.35 Objectives vary with the growth and the development of the person or persons concerned; therefore, the adult worker with youth needs to know where in experience in the specific area of particular concentration his youth are to be found.

This will determine where he can begin working

with them, how much he can assume, and what the needs and interests are, and what types or extents of work may be done.36 Arising out of needs, a formulation of goals or ob­ jectives develops within the religious educational program for the youth of the church.

These objectives may be general and

specific, and/or ultimate and immediate, in character.

They

should be developmental and appropriate to the level of maturity; should be based upon past experience, giving due regard to its scope and level; should recognize individual differences within the group, making allowances for varying capacities and personal experiences; but at the same time

Chave, op. cit., p. 127* 36 Lindhorst, op. cit., pp. 22-38.

32 should recognize the commonality of the needs, interests, and experiences of the group. The two levels of objectives with which this study deals are Youth Objectives and Adult Leader (usually referred to as "Teacher11) Objectives.37

These two levels are in­

timately related. A young person1s objectives are his own— typical things which he wishes to do— which may be arrived at either as a result of his own thinking and explorations, or as a result of a cooperative exploration with others; "The immediate results which he sees and desires and which will result from his activity in solving the question in which he is interested1*— the immediate things which the learner wishes to accomplish.33 The objectives of the aduit leader are the desirable religious educational outcomes in such forms as definite understandings, attitudes, values, appreciations, general

37 Two other distinguishable levels of objectives are: the 11remote, general, all-inclusive purposes or objectives of society (in so far as society can be thought of as having objectives) and hence the remote, general aims or purposes of education**; and, the "general but more definite social pur­ poses or objectives of given social groups..11 to. H. Burton, The Guidance of Learning Activities (New York: B. AppletonCentury Company, inc., 19I&)V P* 269• 38 Ibid., pp. 268, 271.

33 abilities, skills and general behavior patterns, which it is hoped will develop in the learner (youth).

The adult leader

should strive so to guide the learning experience of the youth that desirable religious educational results (the ob­ jectives of the adult leader) will be achieved at the same time that the young person is achieving his objectives.39 The adult leader’s objectives are structured around the youth objectives, with the primary function regarded as being that of guidance of the youth in his life experiences. As was pointed out in the underlying philosophy, above, the adult leader seeks to begin this guidance at the point or level where he finds the youth and proceeds from there, tackling the problems as they arise, giving the young person a challenge he can meet, and helping him in the economy of solution of his problems.

Very often, however, the adult

leader finds it necessary to think through the situation that may be uppermost at the moment and try to foresee what pur­ poses may arise in such a given situation; in such a case, he may need f,to manipulate the environment” in order to cause pupil purposes to arise.

Therefore, plans may be made, when

such need arises, for the emergence and development of any likely purposes for young people*

39 Ibid,. pp. 268-370.

"Cooperative definition

3k of the purpose as it emerges and cooperative planning for its development then follow. "If®

However, the most desirable

plan is to work through the natural on-going activities of the learners both in and out of the religious educational program, and through events in, or characteristic of, their immediate environment--utilizing interests, purposes, or any of the other motives that may be present.^ The guidance of purposeful activities*

In developing

religious leadership among the youth of the church, the guidance by the adult leader of purposeful activities for them is one of the essential objectives.

This can be ac­

complished through such means as the following: (l)

Development of a philosophy of life.

By the

development of a philosophy of life is meant the development of a functional, or workable, philosophy— one that can be of constant use to the youth in his daily living.

This is that

intangible goal which most people spend a lifetime seeking, and which some seem never to attain; it is the ultimate objective of any person of any age. Such a philosophy should be the concern of the parents of the youth but if, as Is often the case, no such concern exists or Is evident, it is the responsibility of the leader

4-0 Ibid. , p. 271. 41 Ibid., p. 277.

35 of youth in the church to furnish guidance in developing a philosophy that will be vital to the youth. Since human life consists of a continuous stream of experiences, in helping the young person to develop a philosophy of life the adult worker must constantly keep in mind the experiences that the young people are having— the activities in which they are engaged*

Such activities in­

clude, health, educational, economic, vocational preparation, citizenship, recreational, home and family life, general group life, friendship and sex interest, aesthetic interests, and specialized religious activities.

The worker must also

be cognizant that these experiences of his young people are to be identified in terms of their basic needs and drives. During the adolescent stage, many needs of these young persons are in evidence,

^hey may be classified as

physiological, psychological, social, and religious.

They

may be listed as desires and needs for love and affection, for security, for a sense of worth and of belonging, for acceptance and social status, for understanding, ejb al.

For

the purposes of this study, however, Hamer*s treatment of the six needs which he considers as basic to youth seems to be quite adequate to help the adult leader guide his youth in purposeful activities.

These needs are set up for the

age range of twelve to twenty-four, and are applicable to

36 those youth with which this study deals— the "middle adolescent" or high school age youth*:^ (a)

"They need to find God."

vital Christian faith.

This need is for a

There has never been a time when

this need was more desperate, nor one in which it was harder for youth to achieve a living faith than it is at the present time.

The very air is full of conflicting ideas

and systems of thought and ideals; science has brought about a general unsettling of men’s minds.

Furthermore, they

have grown up in a world which is largely secularized— one in which God is mentioned or referred to only casually or incidentally, if at all, which tends to make Him seem far distant from the everyday world of study, work, and play. Development of a spiritual life among the youth can result through guidance of these young people into the discovery of prayer and personal devotions as life-giving and life-sup­ porting experiences, through consecrated, but informed, adult leaders who are sure in what and in whom they themselves be­ lieve, and through the churches1 formulating careful and adequate answers for those who have be gun to question the older forms of Christian belief.

The spiritual well-being

of youth, then, should be of major concern to all interested

4-2 Nevin C. Harner, Youth Work in the Church (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 19lf2 ), pp. 31-6l.

37 leaders, adult or youth. (b) !,They need to find themselves.11 This is one need which can be overlooked all too easily and one which has not, until recently, fallen within the scope of Christian education, for unless a person can understand himself, his whole philosophy, and his whole life, is in a state of con­ fusion, and, frequently, chaos.

Unless a person can come to

understand himself and his day-to-day experiences, how can he understand others and his relationships to and with them? Life is not just the surface of the intellectual understand­ ing of things.

The process of learning, and of living, is

accomplished through first hand self experience; therefore, the person needs to understand himself individually, and also to understand himself cosmically, if he is to find himself and live a full and abundant life.

The youth themselves

sense this need and eagerly respond to opportunities for gaining some understanding of themselves. (c) MThey need to find a life work,” out of which arises the need for Christian vocational guidance.

Since so

many of the high school youth do not have the opportunity for further education and have to begin working as soon as high school days are over, it is all important that guidance be given them albng this line.

Many civic agencies are

geared to give such help, but it should also be the responsi­ bility of the church and of the adult leader to furnish

38 Christian vocational guidance, and to make the Christian vocational motive clear and compelling.

The church and the

religious leader have something to say to the youth that neither the public school nor the guidance bureau can tell them explicitly and fully--the divine plan of life which can be held before their eyes.

There is need that the Christian

ideal of service, part time volunteer or full time profession­ al, be put into their thoughts as they are trying to find the particular niche in which they will spend the remainder of their lives--all the needs of all mankind throughout the world is this unique task in Christian vocational guidance. (d) ”They need to find a life mate.”

The finding of

a life mate involves guidance of these high school young people by a mature individual— guidance in making friends, in establishing heterosexual adjustments (such as, dating, going steady, and other emergent problems), in taking ad­ vantage of counseling opportunities, in establishing success­ ful marriages, homes, and families, etc.

In this connection,

too, is the ever-present need for Christian sex education for many of the young people are caught in secret worries, tensions, and conflicts because of sex. (e) ”They need to find society— and their relation­ ship to it.”

”The Christian gospel is good news for both the

individual and society, and these two sides of the gospel's

meaning must always be kept in proper balance."ii-3

This

expresses a need for Christian social education; but more than that is the need for the channeling of these young people into real concern and action activities, within the church, the community, and the world at large.

There has

never been a time when young people have had as desperate and uncertain times to face.

They are searching for help

and relief from tension in many ways; therefore, there is need for a more thorough and Christian grounding in social education and social action than they have heretofore been able to receive.

With the world in the condition that it

now is, the time has come when the youth of the land should be guided toward a world mindedness and concern which will result in concerted action for good instead of the passive acceptance that seems to have been so characteristic of adults as well as youth.

Such a world mindedness and concern

followed by study, planning for ways of best action, and actually getting out and doing something about it— in the home, community, nation, and world— are of vital importance not only to the development of a philosophy of life, but to the development of worthful and meaningful life experiences and expressions.

Individuals should be so educated as to be

vitally interested in seeking and discovering ways and means

Ibid,, p. £l^f.

1*0 of bettering the social situations "in which they live and move and have their being”; then guidance in actual social action opportunities should 11spur them on” to do what they are capable of doing in the line of duty. (f)

11They need to find the Christian society, the

Church— and their relationship to it.”

Herein lies the need

for rootage in the Christian fellowship; the youth need to become attached deeply and irrevocably to a church.

Each

successive group of "wistful youth" needs to be drawn into, «

incorporated in, and given a definite place of service in that "age-old Body of Christ" which is called the church. High school youth, if they have not already done so, are ready to become identified with the church if the church is ready to provide guidance for purposeful living.

With their

ideals and dreams, so characteristic of this age, they may be a source of real inspiration and service if recognized for their true worth and allowed expression in words and deeds. The development of this philosophy of life is, as has already been stated, the working out of a functional or workable philosophy.

It is one that is actively working and

guiding the life of the individual.

It comes as a result of

the individuals efforts to make adjustments to his world and is met in terms of such basic needs as are mentioned above.

Thus, as a result of the educational process— that

on-going teaching-learning experience under careful and adequate guidance— the individual is able to develop a functional or creative and meaningful way of life. (2)

Personal commitment.

By personal commitment is

meant the consecrated commitment of one’s life to a cause that is greater than himself, which in the Christian tradi*

tion is interpreted as meaning commitment to Cod and to His Kingdom and to his fellow man.

This may be achieved through

the losing of one’s self in a widening, growing commitment or cause.

This is not to be regarded as the throwing away

of one’s ego£ instead it is a process whereby the environ­ ment is taken into the ego and thereby the ego is shaped. This may be accomplished in such a way that a balance is achieved between a necessary central, personal ”1” element of experience and the whole context of the situation, which makes for greater integration of personality and, hence, of living. A better understanding of personal commitment may be arrived at through an explanation in relation to Kunkel’s f,We-I-WeH concept of psychology*^* The first MWefl is uncritical or unevaluated— it is actually the possibility of being bom.

l|i|- Fritz Kunkel, and Roy E. Dickerson, How Character Develops (Hew Yorks Charles Scribner’s Sons, 19lp)).

kz The "I" is the stage when the individual is beginning to feel his own way in the world— when he is trying to cast off the "primitive We," and make his own decisions; in other words, when he is conscious of himself as an individual and is attempting to establish his ego. defined in terms of needs and drives.

This personal ego is And, unless he can

find himself, unless he can fit himself (or that ego) into the world so as to have integration and a wholesomeness for all of life and for all individuals concerned, the ego stays in the "I" stage and very often personality deterioration results instead of the desired well-rounded, well integrated personality. Therefore, the need for the development of the second *We" is evident.

There is need for the development of this

we-concept in the life of the individual, in society, and in the cosmic world.

The individual should personally commit

himself— lose himself— in God’s meaning, which is evident in the life of Jesus, and establish the "We" situation with God through Jesus.

Only as the individual’s thoughts and de­

sires and actions are turned in the direction of some worthy cause— one greater than himself— to which he gives of his whole self through Jesus to God can this desirable "We" stage of the full and abundant life be established. No individual can respond to the whole of things in 4

43 an abstract sense; It mast be made complete In some task* Therefore, through personal commitment to some cause greater than himself, he Is giving himself to the whole— ^losing” himself in that whole, and in that way actually 11finding” himself, rather than wasting his life completely in some such task or cause that is done merely for personal and selfish gain*

As a result a more wholesome, well-rounded,

and integrated personality comes into being* Integrated personality is impossible save as the In­ dividual finds outside himself valuable interests, in devotion to whieh he forgets himself. To be whole per­ sons we must get ourselves off our hands*45 Therefore, a total pattern of personal commitment in the light of Christian values might include: (1) The unconditional commitment of life to God through Jesus Christ, expressed through the Christian way of life in building the Kingdom of God on earth. (2) The expression of God 1s will and purpose through vocation, insofar as one is able. (3) The expression of God*s will and purpose through some specific avocation* (I4.) The giving of onefs life in time and service in participation In a cause that is humanity-wide in its Implications.M 5 Devotional practices*

Devotional Practices refer to

those individual or collective acts, or habits, of worship

k$ Harry Emerson Fosdick, On Being A Real Person (Hew York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers, 194-3)» P* 79kfi The Vocational Council of the Methodist Church, Vol. IV of the Service Projects Directory, p. 3*

11Adventuring * * .

l\}[ I T

which lead to full experiences in life*^4*7 They may be consciously or unconsciously performed by the individual or by the group; or they may be induced.

The purpose of such

practices for the individual are contact with a higher power which gives inner resources and greater insight and ability to perform one’s duty to others.

Here, as in the foregoing

ways of guidance of purposeful activities, the adult leader should give guidance through example as well as through mere lip service. It is up to the individual or group concerned as to whether there should be certain specific periods daily for such devotions— and as to what type of devotions would be the most beneficial at a particular time.

Ideally, however,

definite periods of time should be set up daily for such worship--as many as the individual feels he needs— when there are no outside disturbances or confusions to divide one’s thoughts.

And he should keep such periods for himself and

let nothing interfere. Such periods can be for the Individual alone, or for a group of individuals meeting together regularly; the latter are more recently referred to as "cells,'M groups of people, a few in number in each, who meet together regularly to

i}*7 Harvey Seifert, unpublished syllabus for Devotional Practices, a course in the School of Religion, University of Southern California.

ks worship and to receive the added strength and fortitude and spiritual insight that can arise through communion and discussion and planning together*

Very often such l,cellsM^-8

or group fellowship, develop into full time community ex­ periments and experiences*

In planning for such a devotion­

al period, the

time and place, the content and sequence, and

the devotional

materials to be used should be considered by

the group as a whole. Various devotional practices include such techniques as: prayer— the nature of prayer, steps to be followed, types, growth that can be accomplished through prayer, and problems in the philosophy of prayer; devotional reading sources and procedures, taking care so as not to make devotional reading merely a crutch or an unconscious habit, but a source of in­ spiration and guidance; meditation— the steps to be followed, and the problem of guidance; contemplation— its values and technique; and

the practice of the presence of God— the

meaning of such a practice and

the exercises that may be used

in developing the experience; the disciplines of discipleship— the need for such disciplines and the areas for applica­ tion of them; and group fellowship— its distinctive characteristics and contributions, organizations, procedures,

ii-8 por fuller treatment on flcells,tt see Harvey Seifert, Fellowships of Concern (Nashville:.Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, I9I1.9 J.

li.6 and probable community experimentation.^9

All techniques

need not be used in any one period, but such as these are available when particularly needed. Natural outgrowths of such devotional practices, in­ dividual and/or collective, are greater spiritual and mental insight and awareness which lead the individual or group to a better understanding and interpretation of the interrela­ tionships to be found throughout life, to a striving for a balanced life, and to an expression of these new insights and awareness and interpretations through social action— within the community or the universe at large. Leadership and guidance in the practice of devotions is vital to the development of the individual and of the group personality.

In order for such practice to be or

become meaningful and beneficial to the participant(s), the leadership and guidance must be sincere, but at the same time, adequate— showing the knowledge, appreciation, and ability to use (practice) the techniques available which can aid one in discovering, understanding, and d eveloping him­ self and attaining the fullness of life that is desired. Christian service.

Christian service has already

been touched upon under the development of a philosophy of

^4*9 Harvey Seifert, unpublished syllabus for Devotional Practices,, p. 1 .

ki life, as well as under the topic of personal commitment* The term is self-explanatory— service by the individual or group in creative and Christian channels through the church and the community*

The Christian faith, the development of

a functional philosophy of life, and personal commitment are motivations of Christian service. Christian service can take several forms.

It can be

either a vocation— full time professional service; or it can be an avocation— part time voluntary service.

It can be

active participation in the life of the church; and it can include active participation in the life of the community and of the greater world. Here the adult leaders should help the youth to dis­ tinguish between his. purpose or mission in life and his profession or occupation. One’s mission might be described as something to which one gives his energies, such as helping humanity, defend­ ing the rights of minority groups, helping the under­ privileged get a fair chance, or building a healthier society. If he has any one of these missions he may make his profession contribute to it. It is the old question: For what do you strive in life? Youth need to be helped at this point. As one person said: "One should probably study his interests and capacities, select the profession or occupation in which he can be the happiest and then work to carry out his mission through it."50 At any rate, whether it be their "mission" or their

SO Lindhorst, op. cit., p. 73«

lj.8 "profession,” or vocation or avocation, youth want a chal­ lenge which will demand their best in all respects. If the youth of the church are to have any part in building a better world— one in which unity will prevail instead of division, and cooperation instead of strife, the things that are needed include: (1 ) "a sense of responsibil­ ity”— as individuals and as groups recognizing responsibility to the community in udiich they live; (2 ) ua willingness to share”— involving that fundamental condition of group unity and suecess, each individual contributing his share to the welfare of the whole as well as partaking of the having and the sharing.

(3 ) ”an active program of service” in which

no helpful act is too insignificant to have a place in the religious educational program, which will, therefore, result in a wide range of activities rangingcfrom "small items of personal service to co-operation with great world-wide move­ ments that will require years for final realization. There are many worthy callings to full-time Christian service, and certainly such recruitment should be an objec­ tive of the adult leader of youth, for, although the potential sacredness of all useful work is recognized, Christians have a special responsibility for recruiting choice youth of both

5>1 Hoy 2S. Burt, Community Service for Youth (Nashville: Methodist Publishing House, 19£fl), pp. 6-7*

k-9 sexes to meet the needs of leadership in the church and its agencies.

The significance of the work of the church and

the urgent need for personnel of high ability in the church are two factors, which, combined, show an imperative for such service.52 Among the permanent positions in Christian service from which youth can choose are to be found such as: ministers; religious education directors and teachers; teachers in Christian and secular schools (including element­ ary , high school, junior college, college and university, and schools of theology); missionaries, foreign and home; rural church workers; community workers; doctors, nurses, medical social workers and occupational therapists; church secretaries; such specialized areas as local, district, and conference directors of the various age group levels; religious journalists and writers; religious personnel for the new field of religious radio, etc.53

Christian states­

manship is a field which needs special mention, and to which some especially well qualified youth should be directed. As Lindhorst states,

52 The Vocational Council of the Methodist Church, op. cit., p. l^i*. 53 See Ibid.» pp. 17-1^6, for fuller treatment of permanent positions in Christian Service.

50 What a godsend to the nation and to the world if the church could send a thousand young men, with the Christ­ ian motive and objective uppermost in their lives, into political and diplomatic service I Here is undoubtedly one of the guarantees of lasting peace*54 This full time service may be given in home or in foreign fields.

Preparation for these needed personnel in this wide

variety of services— which includes ministerial, social, medical, and business--should be the very best available, including regular college work, with specialized graduate study in the major field of interest. Although there is great need for full time Christian service, the ministry to human need in church and community must go forward*

At this point is where the avocational or

part time Christian service can be made manifest. many worthy callings to volunteer service, also.

There are An individu­

al doesn't need to go to home or foreign fields of full time service to find challenging opportunities to serve God and fellowman.

For most, "volunteer service,” shouldn't mean

going away, since individuals can give sacrificially of them­ selves right where they are.

Help in the church school, the

church office, or in the visitation program of the church, are among the needs in any church.

The youth should be

encouraged to look around him and see the opportunities in

5k* Lindhorst, op., cit., p. 7^.

51 his own church and community which are available for bis adventuring in Christian service;; he will find that such a list of opportunities is long. Christian service in the community might include a personal ministry, service to the church in various capaci­ ties, and direct service to the community through seeking to meet certain needs which no one else seems to have discovered or worked out.

nThe important thing is to discover just

what are the greatest needs of your community and then start out with your group in an intelligent and earnest way to meet their need. f,55 Relief work--cooperation with community relief organi­ zations, such as hospitals and homes, goodwill industries, etc., and relief work in war-torn countries of the world— is another challenge to youth, which can be either part time or full time volunteer service.

Another phase of part time

Christian service is that in which the youth of the church join other youth of their own denomination and of the church at large, in service in short or long-term projects.56

55 Burt, op. cit., p. 28.

56 The Methodist Church has the following types of service projects: (1) Short-term, including Methodist Youth Caravans, Church-Sponsored Summer Activities for Children, Vacation School Leadership, Vacation Church School Extension Service, Fellowship Teams, Summer Camp Leadership, Day-Care Assistants, World Peace Fellowship Teams, Missions to Youth,

52 As has been said before, the list of opportunities for Christian service is long, and the foregoing have merely been typical examples of volunteer full time or part time, remunerative or voluntary, service. Christian cooperation and service of the youth should extend beyond the local church if he is to grow in the Christian way of life.

Reasons for cooperation include (1)

the widening contacts through which life develops and the realization that ,rreligious growth depends upon this same law of expanding contacts11; (2) deeper spiritual experience which is a result of interchurch fellowship; and (3) the demand of difficult tasks that come from such cooperation.

Thus this

cooperation should extend within the denomination— in the community or other denominational area, in the larger organi­ zation area, and in the national organization; and among denominations^— in the local community, in the state or provincial area, and in the national and international

Work Camps within and outside of the United States; (2) Oneyear, including Church School Extension Service, Church Secre­ tarial Work; (3) Three-year, in foreign fields including Africa, China, India, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. For fuller treatment of these service projects, see The Vocational Council of the Methodist Church, o£. cit., pp. 6-17• 57 Percy R. Hayward, and Roy A. Burkhart, Young; Peoplefs Method in the Church (New York: The Abingdon Press,

1933) , p p 7 _2BIZ^312.

53 areas.53

In such ways is the youth given the vision of true

service to God, to his fellowman, and, as a result, to him­ self. Co-operation of the local church and of its young people in other churches lies at the heart of all sound growth of the individual young Christian, and so must be central in a program of adolescent Christian education.59 Encouraging leadership among youth, to give direction to their own purposeful activities.

Encouraging leadership

among youth, to give direction to their own purposeful activities naturally follows the guidance of purposeful activities through the development of a philosophy of life, personal commitment, devotional practices, and Christian service. Inherent in such encouragement is the awareness of the adult leader of youth of his responsibility for further­ ing the altruistic interests among his young people; the youth should be stimulated in such ways that they will have an enthusiastic appreciation for others, that each individual

58 The International Council of Religious Education is an example of such cooperation of over forty Protestant denominations in the United States and Canada. Another ex­ ample, to be found among some 125 and more theological semin­ aries of various Protestant denominations throughout Forth America, is The Interseminary Movement which meets triennially for a Forth American Conference. 59 Hayward and Burkhart, op. cit.. p. 283.

5k will discover that his welfare depends on his relationship to others.60 The youth of this age are in a period when much thought is being given to self— physical, mental, social, intellectual— and it is up to the adult worker to help to draw them out of themselves and make them realize not only their importance as individuals, but their place among their peer group, among their adult friends, and in society in general• Encouragement in leadership should be given these youth,

^his can be done through helping them to discover

and develop their active or latent potentialities for leader­ ship, to realize that their activities should be purposeful in every phase of life, and to give meaningful direction for all concerned to these purposeful activities.

Such guidance

can best be given and maintained through group activities and the democratic group process, which will be treated more fully in Chapter III of this study.

From group building and direc­

tion, the best leadership development will result. The importance of direction, guidance, and encourage­ ment of the youth into roles of leadership involves the tasks or purposes to be accomplished, among which might be

60 Bernice Baxter and Rosalind Cassidy, Group Experience (New York:. Harper & Brothers, 19i0)> p* 8 .

55 I n c l u d e d :

(i) the group, youth and adult leaders and

followers, working cooperatively to make the youth program In the church Increasingly meaningful from a religious standpoint, for every adult leader of youth should have as one of his fundamental purposes the guiding of his youth so that they will see and feel the religious meaning of everyday experiences; (2 ) the group as a whole going forward in com­ mon undertakings--securing the creative contributions of the youth, guiding them in building their activities purposefully on the basis of their needs and interests, making group experience the product of youth itself, and making wise choices of courses, methods, and other materials to be used; (3 ) the group cooperating in seeking to create a desire for continued improvement on the part of each individual--adult or youth leaders, and followers as well— within the group itself.

In this respect, leaders must be continuously moving

ahead, gradually pushing back the horizon of the members of the group;

(1l ) the group constantly seeking to build a

leadership personnel equipped in both teaching and leadership skill and in spiritual insight and devotion.

The adult lead­

er, and the leaders among the youth also, must be ”ever on the alert to develop the potentialities of individual young people for service In the group.”

Hayward and Burkhart, op. cit., pp. 19^-196•

56 Leadership can be encouraged, and direction given to purposeful activities with the members sharing actively in the program of the group, if the leader, adult or youth, has first become skilled in the art of pushing the youth forward and guiding them in creative self-expression.

Con­

sequently, the leader "holds a place of controlling import­ ance in the developing Christian experience of each member. "62 In order to be such a leader, the individual "must himself experience the same process of growth and change in which he would guide others.M&3 To become a leader of others makes a severe demand upon oneself . He who would guide young people in the laws of growth must himself be an example of that same process of enlarging experience. He too must know in his own life a widening apprehension and practice of the prin­ ciples of Christian living. He must experience con­ tinuous growth.64 It is of vital importance, therefore, that Christian leaders themselves be growing Christians, and especially so in the case of leaders of youth for several reasons: 65 (i) Because of the modern emphasis upon religion— the Christian religion today being interpreted "in terms of growing ideas, of enlarging experience, and of life” instead of upon a

62 Ibid., p. 322.

63 Ibid.. p. 323. (

Ibid., p. 322.

65 Ibid.. pp. 323-326.

57 fixed set of truths which, when once learned, make up the main features of one's religious life* .Life is constantly changing, dealing with new problems, and acquiring new and enlarging knowledge; consequently, the individual's inter­ pretation of religion must also change if religion is to deal with life.

True enough, there are still basic princi­

ples and deeply rooted experiences of the soul that remain constant throughout the history of Christianity--such as, forgiveness, faith, love, cooperative good will, and the abiding consciousness that one's own life rests back upon and is caught up in the life and purposes of God; but the interpretation of these Umust change and adjust itself to men’s growing grasp of truth and their changing experiences of life.”

Such a quality of leadership as is heeded, there­

fore, demands the willingness of the individual to grow, to face whatever risks there may be in change, and to test the joys that result from the new experience.

(2) Because of

the modern trends in education— education today, as was pointed out in the underlying philosophy of religious educa­ tion in the beginning of this chapter,~seeking to guide these growing persons in the largest possible development of their own powers and to create the situations in which such persons as these can grow most effectively— more concerned with what the individual becomes than with what he can remember. a program of Christian education that deals with life as

Such

58 these youth know it and that also brings effective guidance into their own everyday growth is the most acceptable to them.

(3) Because of the law of personal influence itself,

the leader occupying a position of unique importance and opportunity in the group which is seeking causes, purposes, and ideals in this present age of confusions and uncertain­ ties.

The importance of living an exemplary life before and

with these youth cannot be too greatly emphasized.

Ho in­

dividual, be he

leader or follower, knows just when someone

is watching him

and using him as a pattern for developing

his own life.

It is a Mbig order11 for the Christian leader

and one that he must constantly take into prayerful considera­ tion.

Such an opportunity demands shared experiences, or

fellowship.

Besults are evidenced through nthe prayers and

fasting of intimate fellowshipconsequently, such a fellow­ ship as this demands that the leader himself be a growing person. He will admit gladly the incompleteness of his present grasp of truth. He will be grappling anew with the problems of his own life. He will be in search of hew contacts. He will be reaching out for new personalities. The printed page, the world of thought and action, the concrete social problems of his own day, music, art, travel, a deepening experience of Jesus Christ and God— these and many other avenues that are open to any growing person will make their demands upon him. Thus he will avoid the necessity of some day laying against himself the charge that, while leading others, he was, in his inner self, a spiritual castaway.66

66 ibid., p. 326.

59

Leadership among the youth themselves and the guid­ ance of them in the direction of purposeful activities will come about through knowledge and understanding, on the part of the adult leader, of the dynamic function of leadership, and of the techniques that are available in the discovering, enlisting, and training of this leadership.

A study of these

aspects will he made in the chapters that follow.

CHAPTER III A DYNAMIC. CONCEPT OP RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP I.

LEADERSHIP DEFINED

Leadership is a natural phenomenon in a group life, a dynamic process which emerges in the interaction of in­ dividuals one with another. 1 . . . a means and an end, at the same time both an ob­ jective and a way in which objectives may be achieved.^ Leadership has been defined in many ways*

There are

probably as many definitions as there are people who make them.

The conception of leadership, however, which has

proved to be most helpful for this study is that given by Emory S.

Bogardus.3

He maintains that leadership is (1)

personality, (2) a group phenomenon, and (3) a social process. (This conception is closely paralleled by Dimock and Trecker in their recent work4- in which they view leadership as ffa

1 Gertrude Wilson and Gladys Ryland, Social Group Work Practice (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 19I4. 9 )/ 3• ^ Everett W. Du Vail, Personality and Social Group Work (New York: Association Press, 19^3 J» P* 1^2. 3 Emory S. Bogardus, Leaders and Leadership (New York: D* Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 193^)9 P P . 3-13» ^ Hedley S. Dimock and Harleigh B. Trecker, The Supervision of Group Work and Recreation (New York: Associa­ tion Press, I9I19), p. iilf.

61 function within a three-dimensional relationship involving three inseparable and indispensable factors”: (1 ) the leader, (2 ) the group, and (3 ) the social setting of the group; they suggest that such a three-dimensional conception of leader­ ship as this will help to eorrect that common danger of thinking of the leader as 11in vacuo.11) leadership is personality— "personality in action under group conditions," including dominant personality traits of one person(the leader) and receptive personality traits of many persons (the followers).

"It is interaction

between specific traits of one person and other traits of the many, in such a way that the course of action of the many is changed by the one.5 The writer*s thesis is that each individual possesses God-given potentialities for leadership of one form or an­ other.

It must be recognized, however, that besides these

traits of leadership that each person has, he also possesses what may be called "followership" traits.

Actually, person­

ality should be divided into leadership and followership even though the dividing line between these two kinds of traits can neither be clear-cut nor stationary; for example, what are considered as leadership traits in one particular social situation may be followership traits in another one.

5 Bogardus, op. eft., p. 3 *

It is

62 usually considered, in general, that 11the more active physical and mental phases of personality comprise one's stock of leadership traits and that the less active are followership qualities*”6 Dr* Bogardus also suggests that, "Leadership bears a vital relationship to individuality and its complementary element, sociality*"

If individuality here refers to "those

distinguishing traits which set one person off from another," then sociality must be composed of "those behavior traits which identify one person with another."

Through his indi­

viduality a person can act in ways different from and superior to his peer group and in that way qualify for leadership; however, that "superior individuality must be expressed in directions that are appreciated by some social group, or Its possessor will not become a leader."

Also, because of his

sociality a person may be able "to understand his fellows, to perceive their needs, and to suggest ways and means of leading them out of their difficulties"; but, if this quality "func­ tions upon a mediocre level without stimulating any one to do anything new or of social value, it has no leadership significance*"

Personality is bifurcated into individuality

and sociality, and thus this has Implications for a concept of leadership.7

6 Eoc. e l t «

7 Ibid., pp. 3-5*

63 Leadership is a group phenomenon, a product of group life, f,an outgrowth effecting changes in group values,”8 as Bogardus has said.

The usual person is a member of several

groups at one time and his relationships to these groups will most probably vary greatly.

He may have leadership

responsibilities in one group, and be a follower in another. Gr, he may even be a leader in on© aspect or project of a group and be a follower in all other aspects of that same group.

It has been observed that a group unit may have only

momentary existence and that its members may be totally una­ ware of relationships or that they may be part of a larger and comparatively permanent self-conscious group.

"Within

every group, however, individuals have a functional relation to each other which can be described in terms of various degrees of leadership and followership. f,9

The difference

between leaders and followers, then, lies in "the degree and duration of their influence and in the number of situations in which their influence determines the attitudes and behavior of other persons."^0 Du Vail also suggests that perhaps the terms "leader" ‘"H

8 Ibid., p. 5. 9 Wilson and Hyland, op. cit*, p. 3* Du Vail, op. cit., p. 183.

6k. and "follower” could be more accurately applied to the roles played in group life rather than to types of personalities* He points out that a leader is not an altogether different kind of person from a follower, but the findings of various studies indicate that those who most frequently and for the longer periods of time play the role of leader tend to possess certain personality qualities. These qualities are either not found at all or are found to a lesser de­ gree among those who customarily play the role of follower. II Since leadership is a quality that is inherent in the group situation— the situation creating the role of the leader and the choice of the leader being dictated by the needs of the particular group and the competence of the various members in it, the role of the leader varies accord­ ing to the variations within group situations.

Also, it is

to be observed that different groups make different demands upon leaders, and even the same group may require a different type of leader or leadership at various times.

Therefore,

leadership is shared rather than invested in one person in effective group life, for no one person can possibly possess the competence to meet all situations that may arise.

There

are some situations that call for specialized knowledge or skill or diplomacy.

"The leaders, then, should be persons

with the best equipment in the areas indicated. ”12

3,1 £oc. cit. ^

Ibid., p. i^f.

65 Leadership is a social process*also Bogardus, for it involves

according to

,fa number or persons in mental

contact in which one person assumes a dominance over the others.”

It Is a process in which "the activities of the

many are organized to move in a specific direction by the one,” in which ”the attitudes and values of the many may be changed by the one,” in which ”at every stage the followers exert an influence, often a changing counter-influenee, upon the leader. tfl3

He goes on to say that leadership is a

process in whieh there is a give-and-take between leader and followers.

Generally the role of the leader is self-evident

while the function of the follower may be obscured.

But,

the follower is vital for without him there could be no leader, and the leader must continually consider the various possible reactions that his followers may have.

Thus it is

to be observed that the members of groups not only choose the leaders but determine their functions as well.

There is no

leader who has more authority than his group gives him; instead, ”his role is defined by what the members want him to do for and with them.” A leader must be recognized and accepted by members of the group as a person who has the desire and the ability to help them achieve their purposes and satisfy their

^3 Bogardus, op. cit., p. 6f.

66 needs and desires.^4 This important principle of human relationship is often for­ gotten and denied, as witnessed in the many groups in which individuals feel helpless and ineffectual.

Man, however,

has originated all the bonds which tie him to others, and in spitje of traditions he is capable of changing them when he becomes aware of the need for such

change.

3-5

Therefore, when leadership is analyzed from the stand­ point of social psychology, it is observed that it is not merely a matter of personal qualities possessed by an individual, but it is also a social or group function: The leader is one who defines, stimulates, and crystal­ lizes the desires of the group members and who usually shares with them in the effort to actualize their purposes. Leadership is a function of social relations in which one person is superior as a stimulus in defining the attitudes or conduct of the group.3.6 In order to do this, he must become a genuine member of the group. And, leadership, of other individuals and of groups of individuals, is an on-going process.

It usually has a

goal which, when once achieved, calls for another form of

34 Dimock and Trecker, op. cit., p. Ip.. 3-S Wilson and Ryland, op. cit., p. 5>* l6 Dimoek and Trecker, op. cit., p. Ip..

. leadership and, perhaps, another leader*

nSuch leadership

is rendered by those who have varying degrees of competence for the task, and the results vary according to the skill of the leadership or guidance involved!!3-7 Since leadership may be defined, then, to be person­ ality, a group phenomenon, and a social process, the study moves on to a consideration of the common types of leader­ ship. II.

TYPES OP LEADERSHIP

Many studies have been made in the effort to establish some useful classifications of the types of leadership or of leaders*

Among them, Bogardus suggests that leadership can

be classified as either (1 ) direct or indirect; (2 ) partizan or scientific; (3 ) social, executive, or mental; (I4.) auto­ cratic, paternalistic, or democratic; or (5 ) as specialists in leadership, such as the prophet, the saint, the expert, and the boss.

Also, no hard and fast line can be drawn be­

tween the subdivisions in any of these classifications.^-® He has also classified group leaders into four types: the group eompeller, the group exponent, the group representative,

17 Bernice Baxter and Bosalind Cassidy, Group Experi­ ence: The Democratic Way (New York: Harper & Brothers, Publ isher s, 194-3), p . 18 Bogardus, op. cit., pp. 15-27*

68 and the group builder* 19 Another classification of leadership that is commonly distinguished is: Authoritarian, Laissez-faire, and Democrat­ ic.

Recent experiments and comparative studies have been

made in the field of social psychology and appear

to have

value for a study of this kind.^O Authoritarian, or autocratic, leadership— that in which the leader places himself in a status above the group. He sets the policies regarding the kinds of activities and procedures of the group; he communicates the techniques and activity steps one unit at a time so that future steps are not known until he gives them; he also assigns the activity tasks and decides who should work with whom.

He criticizes

and praises the activities of the individuals without giving objective reasons, and remains fairly aloof from active group participation except in demonstrating; he is impersonal rather than outwardly hostile or friendly. obedience are the all-ruling principles. who directs and commands his

Emotions and It is the leader

f o l l o w e r s . 21

3-9 Bogardus, Fundamentals of Social Psychology (New York: Century Co., 19II4.), pp. 371-573* ^ See Ronald Lippitt and Ralph K. White, WAn Experi­ mental Study of Leadership and Group Life,” Readings in Social Psychology. m . Newcomb and E. L.-Hartley, editors, (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 19^7)» pp. 315-330. ^

Kurt Lewin, Resolving Social Conflicts (New York:

69 As to behavior, the authoritarian leader gives orders constantly, and disrupting commands*

He gives some noncon­

structive criticism and a few guiding suggestions, but very little, if any, stimulating self-guidance*

He does extend

knowledge to a certain extent, but it is done, of course, through authority*

He gives a fair amount of praise and

approval but is not jovial*22

The authoritarian leader is

usually strict, dictatorial, not necessarily cross but direct, powerful, and gets a lot of things done. Autocratic leadership, whether avowed or indirect, may be based on the individual will-to-power, which in turn may arise from a selfish desire to accomplish one*s own ends; or it may arise from a sense of inferiority which seeks compensation through the establishing of authority quite without respeet to the ends to be served.23 If tactful, the authoritarian leader has certain ad­ vantages over other types of leadership.

He usually sees

that his program and the steps toward its realization are clear-cut and workable.

He is smart enough to give his

followers benefits which they value.

And, his program moves

right along since he is not held back by the necessity of counseling with many people nor is he dependent upon their

Harper and Brothers, 19I4.8 ), pp. 75-83* Lippitt and White, op. cit*. pp. 317-320* 22 Lippitt and White, op. cit.. Fig. 1, p. 31.8. 23 Henry M. Busch, Leadership in G-roup Work (New York: Association Press, 193^)* p. 12tf.

70 co-operation.2K However, on the whole, autocratic atmosphere gives ”a much greater and more aggressive dominance of the leader, and a narrowing down of the free movement of the members, together with a weakening of their power fields. tr25

As an

example, in the experiments of Kurt Lewin and his associ­ ates it was found that under the authoritarian type of leadership, the behavior of the members of the group was character­ ised by loss of individuality and initiative and increased dependence and by loss of friendliness and **we-feeling1* and increased hostility within the g r o u p . 26 The autocratic leader secures end-resuits for his group, not training nor growth.

And, what is worse, he endangers his

group at several points: Because he has discouraged their participation in the group process, he has not equipped them for leadership when he is no longer with them.

And if his

program should fail, the group is prepared with no alterna­ tive for he has been doing the thinking and planning for them, and, anyway, consideration of alternative plans would have been disloyal.^7

2k Ibid.,

p. 120.

25 Lewin,

o£. cit., p. 77.

26 Dimock and Trecker, op. cit., p. lj.0 . 27 Busch,

op.cit*,

p. 137f*

71 Laissez-faire, or ”individual is tic freedom*11 leader­ ship— that in which the leader plays a rather passive role in social participation and leaves complete freedom for group or individual decisions in relation to activity and group

p r o c e d u r e .28

He does a minimum of taking the initia­

tive in making suggestions, but he makes clear as to the various materials available and is sure it is understood that he will supply information and help when asked.

He usually

makes no attempt to evaluate either negatively or positively the behavior or productions of the individuals or the group as a group*

But, at the same time, he is friendly rather

than 11stand-offish” at all times.29 In regard to behavior, the laissez-faire leader gives a few orders, but almost no disrupting commands nor noncon­ structive criticism.

He extends individual and group freedom

and abilities through guiding suggestions, stimulating self guidance, and a great extending of knowledge.

As has been

mentioned before, he gives little praise and approval, and is not noted for joviality and confidential rapport.3® Laissez-faire leader is often too easy going and mild

28 Kurt Lewin, "The Dynamics of Group Action,1* Educational Leadership. January, 19Mf, P* 198. 29 Lippitt and White, op. cit., pp. 317-320. 30 Ibid.* Pig. 1, p. 318.

The

72 mannered, having no real f,push,f or motivation and, thereby, accomplishing little with his group* In this type of leadership freedom is given to the group members, 11in so far as they create a situation where the members are aeting on their own motivation rather than being moved by forces Induced by an authority in which they have no part,fl31

but there is not enough active encourage­

ment and guidance by the leader.

Consequently, the entire

group moves along lackadaisically and without Initiative and results* Democratic leadership— that in which the leader functions as a participant along with the members of his group*

The group makes its own decisions, its policies re­

sulting from group decision and discussion with active encouragement and assistance by the leader.

He attempts to

see that "activity perspective emerges during the discussion period with the general steps to the group goal becoming clarified.11 If technical advice is needed, he trys to suggest two or more alternative procedures from which the group mem­ bers can choose; he allows his group members to work with whomever they choose and leaves the divisions of responsibi­ lity up to the group.

He attempts to give his praise and

31 Kurt Lewin, "The Dynamics of Group Action," Educa tional Leadership, January, 19^4* P» 19&.

73 criticism of individual and group activities in an objec­ tive, Tact-minded way.

And, he is a regular group member

in spirit and in discussion but doesnft do much of the actual work.32 The democratic leader’s behavior shows the giving of few orders and very little, if any, disrupting commands and nonconstructive criticism.

Through guiding suggestions, ex­

tending knowledge, and stimulating self-guidance he extends individual and group freedom and abilities.

He gives objec­

tive praise and approval, as well as criticism.

And his

joviality and confidential rapport with the group members is perhaps one of the best indices of the extent to which he is ”on the same level” as the group members*33

The democratic

leader is usually a good sport, works along with the group members and thus helps them more by that kind of support than by going ahead and doing the work himself or by issuing orders as to how to do it, and leaves the policies and procedures to group decision. Democratic leadership must have a basic and possessive belief in democratic principles and must demonstrate this basic point of view in behavior; it must have a belief in the value of the individual, a belief in the group as a means of individual development, a respect

32 Kurt Lewin, Resolving Social Conflicts, pp. 75-77* Lippitt and White, op. cit., pp. 317-320. 33 Lippitt and White, op. cit., Pig. 1, p. 318 .

Ik for majority rule and a passionate protectiveness of the minority opinion and its right to be heard. It must be­ lieve in the group process, the emergence of group think­ ing, planning and action as different from and of more value to the Individual and to society than the separate, unaided act of any one single person in the group. But belief alone Is not enough. The leader must have skill in the group process. This skill must come by living in and through the group. It cannot be learned by .the lecture method divorced from practice in doing. 3hMany paths are open to bers work together.

the democratic group as its mem*

Instead of hindering the group members

in getting to their goal, the of difficulty that may exist.

leader bridges over theregions And, there is a relatively

greater individuality, initiative, and independence among the members, as well as the greater riwe” feeling and friendliness among them. 35 II.

CHRISTIAN ORIENTATION OP THE GROUP LEADER

The Implications of the studies that have been made by the writer regarding the authoritarian, the laissez-faire, and the democratic types of leadership point to a new concept of Christian leadership.

This concept is that of the demo­

cratic group builder, who works In and through the group work process. The group work approach is not entirely new to re­ ligious leadership.

It is to be found in the accounts of the

3k Baxter and Cassidy, op> cit., p. 3 . 35 Lewin, Resolving Social Conflicts. pp. 77-79*

75 Temple schools; and Jesus himself used the group process through his circle of disciples.

Churches have always made

it their main method of teaching, regardless of the content taught. 36 Historically, the emphasis in religious education has frequently shifted from one point to another . . . . Organized classes, graded lessons, ."four-fold11 programs, experience-centered curricula, memory work, young peoples 1 societies, recreation, handiwork, worship services for and by youngsters, and many other things have appeared, as religious educators have sought better ways of bring­ ing young people to religious maturity. The group work movement validates many of these things; it raises ques­ tions at some points; it goes beyond them with several challenging suggestions and puts the whole process in a framework of scientific inquiry.37 Emphasis upon the worth of the individual and the im­ portance of group life are to be found in both Judaism and Christianity.

For example, in Christianity a respect for the

individual personality and an obligation to seek its highest good is implicit in the outlook on life; creative relation­ ships of mutuality are characteristic; the Christian is to be servant of all and not to lord it over his fellows.

Further­

more, membership in a community— both in the broader sense of being a part of a corporate movement with its traditions,

36 £,# K. Hall, ”Group Work in Religious Education,” Religious Education, XL-Il (September-October, 1945)* 257«~ 37 Loc. cit.

76 standards, and convictions, and in the sense of belonging to an intimate local fellowship— is involved in either Christianity or

J u d a i s m . 39

The essence of democratic living— ”mutuality, the interplay of free personalities within an intimate fellow­ ship”— is to be found in the Bible even though the word 11democracy” does not appear there.

In spite of counteracting

forces tending toward authoritarian structure and mass emphasis, the genius of Christianity has been expressed con­ tinually in small, creative "cells,” which often have combined study, worship, and work.39 The indication, then, seems to be that what is known today as "group work1’ is not foreign to religious education. Nor can the religious educator merely take over the group work method and "baptize it in the name of religion”; he needs, instead, to integrate group-work concepts and pro­ cedures into his total thinking and practice.

As Harrison S.

Elliott is quoted as saying, “Creative group work is not automatically Christian group work . . .

Creativity is

essential, to be sure, but unless this type of group work is carried out through democratic living and in terms of

39 Paul M. Limbert, "What Group Work Means for Religious Education,” Religious Ed\ication, Xh-ii. (SeptemberOctober, 19I4.5 ), 266. . £°c« cit. k° Ibid.. p. 267.

77 Christian values, it will have no characteristics which dis­ tinguish it as Christian. Group work insofar as it is promoting individual and group worth is to that extent Christi^n.^P-

Certainly this

is true where the group leader accepts and wloves” the mem­ bers.

This very concept of love is from the Christian point

of view a religious concept.

Love itself becomes one of the

major goals and outcomes of the group process.

The leader

strives not only to love the individuals, but seeks to effect a love relationship among the members.

This is the

fellowship or communion that has historically characterized the Christian movement.

The group leader’s first purpose,

then, is to help the members to experience this love rela­ tionship or mutuality. The Christian group leader is also eager to have these members become aware of what is happening to them, — that this experience which they begin to sense as being of value is the very essence of the good life to which, as Christians, they are committed. Too frequently in Christian education the major emphasis is placed upon talking about love and other Christian virtues, while the group work approach places its

Material for this section was obtained through an interview with Paul B. Irwin, Assistant Professor of Re­ ligious Education, School of Religion, University of Southern California.

78 emphasis upon the experience itself.

Not until persons have

experienced mutuality or love can they know its meaning. Having recognized this, the Christian group worker is obliged to help the group members become aware of their ex­ periences and to find meaning in what they are doing together.

Creative outcomes usually, if not always, follow

an experience of wrestling with problems of concern to the group. At the point where awareness has been achieved, the Christian group worker helps the group to interpret its ex­ perience in terms of the historic, 11Christian-religious" symbols.

The young people should know that what is happening

to them is an experience of the divine, that when they meet the conditions under which individual and group growth takes place they have experienced what has been historically re­ garded as a relationship with God.

And, in dealing with any

situation they, under the guidance of the group leader, must ask the question, "What are the Christian values involved, and how do they apply to this particular situation?" Such an articulation and interpretation of Hie re­ ligious values in group life may be achieved in various ways. The conventionsl practice is to plan a formal service of worship in which devotional literature and various kinds of liturgy are used.

The Bible itself becomes a major resource

in helping the group interpret its experience.

Or, the

79 leader may find that a brief prayer is adequate to gather up the values that are accumulating through the experience. There are times when the leader will want simply to make a brief comment.

Another important method for achieving this

end is enlisting the group members themselves in an evalua­ tion and interpretation of what they are doing or undergoing. As has been pointed out before, the leader (or group builder) must become a genuine member of the group, a par­ ticipant in its activities. group.

He must live in and through the

He must guide, rather than lead or dictate.

Helping

the individuals of the group to grow should be his objective, rather than merely getting things accomplished.

His leader­

ship ”grows out of the needs of the group,” seeking ”to define these needs and to stimulate the members to secure adequate satisfactions.”

He ’’draws people up to their best

levels” instead of ”driving them on in line with his own purposes. He trains persons to become leaders, to take his place, and even to surpass him. He ministers to others rather than allowing others to minister to him. He suggests rather than orders.q-3 In this manner* he makes leadership known through the enrich­ ment of personalities rather than through the domination of a

Bogardus, Leaders and Leadership, p. 22. ^3 Loc. cit.

80 following. The group builder seeks to beIp tbe group express itself and to strengthen group participation.

The leader

and his group form a whole in which mutual stimulation and response are constantly going on.

He must be cognizant of

his relation to the whole of the group and not to its parts, and must think and feel in terms of all concerned.

Upon

accepting leadership he has ceased to be simply himself as a person; instead, he has 11identified himself with the whole, and his own thinking must be permeated,with that' identification. If it is * the good of all becomes his absorbing interest »!> which fact can convey itself in all kinds of ways, many beyond his conscious control. He seeks to sharpen his social awareness as to the needs and desires of the group, be these needs conscious or unconscious, articulate or inarticulate.

He attempts to

sensitize himself to the meaning of the behavior of the other" members of the group, and at the same time he makes every attempt f,to absorb criticism, accept the hostility which ac­ companies it and, by passing it through his personality, distill it so that, as it emerges from him, it bears a

^ G-race L. Coyle, Group Experience and Democratic Values (Hew York: The Womanfs Press, 19k-7), p.21f .

81 constructive, positive aspect without defensiveness or ob­ structionism. He helps the group 11to evaluate its present urges against its earlier experiences so that it moves by a healthy evolution, dropping the obsolete but preserving the true value of its past.”

By this is not meant a ”hidebound tie

to tradition”; instead, there is a necessity in any organi­ zation that has any history at all to use ,!those assets in the organization^ experience which need to be carried on into the present and the future.” The roots of an organization provide strength to its growing trunk and must not be cut off. They are not its only source of growth but if properly used they give vitality and balance to the new developments. The group builder also has the responsibility ”for keeping the group realistic in its program and in its think­ ing ,” for it is upon the leaders that the group should be able to rely for that tempered balance that grows out of full knowledge, realistic and far-reaching consideration of the facts in the situation, and long-range thinking.k-7 The maintaining of fair play in expression of the group, the keeping of the continuity with the past, and the

kS Ibid. , pp. 23-2^.

¥> Ibid.. p. 25. k-7 Ibid. . p. 25f.

82 dealing realistically with the capacities and resources and deeds and desires of the group all demand a sound understand­ ing of the situation by the persons in the positions of leadership within the groups however, these leaders must also maintain a kind of control of their Individual impulses, ,fa checking of them against the good of all which interposes be­ tween their rise and their impulsive discharge, these con­ sidered weightings of the wider good,nh& The group builder, then, stimulates creative expres­ sion and social participation.

He attempts at all times to

be alert to the problems that any member of his group may have, and seeks to guide the group toward ifa healthy resolu­ tion of psychological stress. rf^9 Busch has pointed out: This type of leader is self-effacing, seeking to direct the interest of his group toward its organization and program rather than toward himself. He seeks to discover within the group needs and interests which can be made the starting points or organizing centers for activity. He relies on stimulation, suggestion, and inspiration, rather than on personal authority. He organizes, system­ atizes, and deputizes in such ways that, instead of carrying responsibility himself and as a result deriving the benefits of growing experience, he develops within the group increasing powers of initiating, planning, carrying responsibility, and assuming leadership.53

48 Ibid., p. 26. 49 Slavson, op. cit., p. 23.

5° Busch, op. cit., p. 120f.

83 In this way, he makes the group more and more independent of his leadership as it grows through group experience. Through the study of this new concept of Christian leadership, it is to be observed that the democratic group builder must ”be willing to take his cues and direction from the interests and needs of the individuals composing group.”

It is his opportunity ”to lead through skillful guid­

ance which is based on a deep, human understanding of the hopes and desires of others.”

It is his responsibility ”to direct

individual aspirations into intelligent, social co-operation,” and to do this in terms of Christian values.5l Therefore, it is to be assumed that the democratic group builder in providing Christian leadership is a guide in group experiencing, and he must possess the abilities that are needed in guidance by the group; he must, also, take the responsibility to guide the group, whatever the age of the individuals, into undertakings f,which are commensurate with their interest and abilities.”52 When group leadership is of the type in which the lead­ er helps the group to grow, to achieve, and to produce in terms of Christian values, this new concept of Christian

51 Baxter and Cassidy, op. cit., p. 5* 52 Ibid., p. 11.

&k leadership--tills democratic concept of working with people as a group builder— is the type of leadership that should be developed not only among the adults working with youth, but among the youth themselves as well. What then, should be the criteria or methodology used to develop groups which are Christian in spirit and in practice? III.

METHODOLOGY

As has been pointed out before, Christian group work must be creative.

But, it must be taken even beyond creativ­

ity and carried out in terms of the very spirit and practice of Christian values. quoted as saying, when

As Harrison

Elliott is further

addressing a national conference of

Y.M.C.A. workers with boys: Boys need to be enlisted in developing groups which in spirit and practice are Christian, They need to be helped in discovering what is Christian in various aspects of their lives and in making Christian decisions. They need to learn how to utilize the Bible as an aid in their decisions, and prayer and worship as a resource in their lives* We have a unique obligation and opportunity as a Christian organization to develop distinctively Christian group work,53 Such a statement of goals or objectives might well be made concerning any Christian organization or institution, or even

53 Limbert, oj>. cit,, p. 267 * quoted from Centennial Advances for Y.M,C.A, Work with Boys, Report of the Seventh North American Assembly of Workers with Boys (New York: Association Press, I 9I44.)•

85 any group that is working under Christian auspices, be it i

within the church itself or some related, or even unrelated, group within the community. The writer, however, would here like to make an addi­ tion to the above suggestions, which is undoubtedly assumed, but should probably be stated: That is, that the group needs to be helped, as was pointed out earlier in this study, to find God and their relation to Him and to His Kingdom.

Of

course, functionally God is to be found in and through these processes of experiencing the development of groups, and individuals through the groups, that are Christian in spirit and practice in daily living.

True, the Christian group, as

any other group, exists for the individual; the individual should never be the tool of the group.

"The end is the ^

individualfs growth; the group experience is the means; in­ dividuals are never to be used as means with the development of the group as the end."54

But, at the same time, the need

to find God is an objective that should be stated.

Whether

they will admit such to be a goal, the youth of high school age are tremendously concerned over things religious in their daily experiences.

They are seeking answers to many questions;

many are floundering around and can be, and frequently are, lost because of inadequate guidance and leadership among

54 Baxter and Cassidy, op. cit., p. 55*

86 their peer group as well as among the adults. What methodology can be used by group leadership which would be in line with the development of groups which are Christian in spirit and practice?

Limbert has suggested

a set of criteria for Y.M.C.A. leaders who are attempting to develop such Christian groups among boys which is applicable to other Christian groups*

These, in effect,

f o l l o w : 55

(1) In stating the purpose of the group, analyzing it to see whether or not it is in harmony with 11the concern for the development of Christian personality and the building of a better society1*; (2) Helping each member of the group to feel that he has a relationship with the group— that he be­ longs and is recognized by the others as "having something to contribute to the group"; (3) As to the procedure in planning, giving the members of the group as much opportunity for taking responsibility and making decisions as they are capable of doing at their particular stage of development; (k) Allowing the program content to stimulate the individuals of the group "to widen the range of their interests, under­ standings, skills, and acquaintances"; (5) Making the group aware that it has a share in a larger movement and should, therefore, undertake wider social relationships; (6 ) Guiding the group to a recognition and awareness of the Christian

55 Limbert, op. cit*, p .

267*

87 values in what it is attempting— thinking of the signifi­ cance and looking critically at the outcomes of its activities, and learning to “make these judgments on the basis of Christian values and convictions.1* This last criterion, the “element of reflection and . evaluation in religious terms” is what is too often over­ looked.

“What is potentially a group experience of Christian

quality is not actually religious unless the individual participant recognizes, however dimly, the religious values and purpos es of the exp eri ence.“56 Bower also suggests the procedure used by functional Christian education “in seeking to help persons and groups resolve their situations into Christian outcomes.”

This he

states in terms of the following steps that are involved “in dealing with situations creatively and religiously”: (1) Helping persons become aware of the situations they face in the various areas of their living— in the family, in the school, in the church, in economic activities, in civic and political responsibilities, in leisure-time pursuits, in the enjoyment and creation of beauty. Per­ haps this may best be accomplished through a social analysis of all the relations and functions in which the person is involved. . . . (2) Clarifying the issue or issues involved in a given situation. This is the prerequisite of clear thinking, decision, and commitment. . . . (3) Analysis of the situation for its factors, on the one hand, and for its possible outcomes, on the other . . . .

56 ibid., p. 268

88 (2j.) The us© of all available sources of knowledge, with­ out which any action is unintelligent• . . . Knowledge and tradition cease to be ends in themselves and become the indispensable means for the interpretation and con­ trol of present experience. More, not less, is made of knowledge when it is thus functionally used than when it is directly 11taught •11 The past is no longer inert, but comes alive with meaning. (5) Weighing of every discoverable outcome in the light of Christian values and the making of a definite choice of that which seems most clearly to conform to a Chris­ tian judgment. Such a choice is made with action in view and involved commitment. It is the point at which thinking moves over the line of verbalization into the realm of action, (6 ) The actual trying out of the decision. It is in the completed act that the soundness of one’s thinking and the validity of one’s choice are tested, , . * (7) The seventh step is consummatory. It consists of the integration of each particular choice, commitment, and action into the whole system of attitudes, senti­ ments, and habits of the whole self. It is through the integration of such acts that enduring and effective habit-patterns and attitudes are fashioned into a way of life.57 In other words, then, the- Christian leader guides his group, in terms of Christian values and experiences, through the following stages of the thinking process: The discovery of an interest or problem; The analysis of the problem into Its component factors; Consideration of the bearing of these factors and the re­ lation of the most significant factors; The working out of tentative hypotheses or solutions, in terms of their possible consequences; The selection of the hypothesis or solution which appears most satisfactory;

57 William C. Bower, Christ and Christian Education (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 19^-3)$ PP* 58-6l.

89 The trial of the hypothesis or solution in action; The review of the consequences of the trial, to determine reasons for failure or success, with a view to improving future analysis of problems.5$ Thus it is to be observed that the methodology to be used for creative Christian development of the individual through group work is for the leader to help the group to discover and state its goals, and to clarify and achieve them, through purposing, planning, executing, and evaluating— using the procedures of Kilpatrick and others^ in terms of Christian experience and values.

These he does in an attitude of love,

respect, and concern for all with whom he is working. One of the most important of these steps is the evalu­ ation.

Unless the leader is able to guide his group to

review together critically but constructively what the pur­ pose has been, what methods have been used, what has been accomplished and to make its judgments in terms of Christian values and convictions, no matter how much creativity is evident it will not have been growth or

an experience of

religious

development for the group as a whole

or forthe

individuals who comprise it.

It would seem, then, that the

Christian group builder should strive to guide his group in

5$

Busch, op. cit., p. 139*

59 Baxter and Cassidy, op. cit., p. 10; Dimockand Trecker, op. cit., p. ijij.; Wm. H. Kilpatrick, Foundation of Method (New York: The Macmillan Company, 192577

90 purposing, planning, executing, and evaluating all experi­ ences in the light of Christian spirit and value. Since this dynamic, functional concept of Christian leadership can be met through the group builder type of leader and the methodology that accompanies such democratic leadership, what are the personal attributes and approach that one should seek to either discover or develop in order to have sincere and dynamic Christian leaders? IV.

PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES AND APPROACH OF THE CHRISTIAN LEADER

It is important to see leadership, states Benne, !tin terms of functions to be performed in helping groups to grow and to operate productively, not in terms of qualities in­ herent in certain persons .11^0

Also, as Dimock and Hedley

have suggested, wit is difficult to discover and define the marks of successful leadership by concentration on the leader apart from his group and social settlng.tt6l Assuming the validity of these observations, there are still certain basic attributes of personality that can be quite normally expected in the Christian leader.

This

K. Benne, “Leaders Are Made, Not Born ,*1 Child Edu­ cation, January, 19li-8 , p. 20l{.. Dimock and Hedley, op. cit., p. Il5.

91 generalization that Christian leaders of youth, be they youth or adult, should have eertain basic qualifications does not mean that these leaders would, or probably even could, meet the ideals in full; however, some special leader­ ship qualifications should be evident in the person who exercises leadership in Christian groups, and continuous growth certainly should be in evidence in the lives of such leaders* Slavson*s list of characteristics that he considers essential for successful teaching and leadership in character education might well apply to the Christian leader*

These

are: (1 ) psychological insight, (2 ) a socialized personality, (3 ) intellectual hospitality, (k) respect for the person­ alities and views of others, (5 ) broad social interests and an evolved social philosophy, (6 ) the capacity to allow others to grow intellectually at their own pace, (7 ) emotional maturity, (8 ) co-operativeness, (9 ) re­ sourcefulness, (10 ) creativity and respect for the creativity of other people, (11 ) love for people,' (12 ) cheerfulness and evenness of temper, (13 ) knowledge, and (llf.) humor. ^2 Slavson also asserts that leadership consists of the / following three factors: First, the ability to understand and to respond to the desires and needs of a group; second, the capacity to help the group express these desires constructively and progressively; and, third, the power to focus the atten­ tion of a group upon one 1s self.^3

Slavson, op. cit*» p. 2ii.. ^3 hoc* cit*

92 Maturity— both emotional and social; Objectivity— that capacity to deal with persons or situations either in group or individual contact without allowing one’s emotions to distort one’s judgment; Insight--that acquisition of in% formation and effective analysis and evaluation of the infor­ mation followed by acceptance of the implications revealed in the dynamic unity of the individual or situation under study— these are the personality attributes that Du Vall^t lists as essential to democratic leadership* Du Vail, in discussing differences in the roles played by the f,leader,f and the 11follower,n suggests “certain person­ ality qualities11 which he feels tend to be possessed by those "who most frequently and' for the longer periods of time play the role of leader" and are "either not found at all or are found to a lesser degree among those who customarily play the role of follower."

These include:"foresight, ability to

discern quickly and accurately the relationships and meanings in situations, and ability to plan and make clear-cut, firm decisions that will bring successful results for the group"-qualities frequently listed as essential for leadership; "initiative, determination, creative imagination, the courage of one’s convictions, and the will to lead, which involves an

Du Vail, G£. cit., pp. 198-20Ij.. Ibid., p. l83f.

93 acceptance of the responsibility for results.”

He also

points out that leaders are "more often found to be above the average intelligence of the groups with which they are associated," but, also, it should be noted that "not all persons of higher intelligence are leaders.” Baxter and Cassidy point out that "learned technical skills are not a substitute for personal behavior require­ ments in the leader": The leader, to be effective, must have a positive stimu­ lus effect upon others. His own behavior must typify the behavior he wishes those led to exhibit. His sincere interest in the contributions of members of his group, his freedom from a self-laudatorv manner and his enthusi­ asm for the group’s purpose are "must” qualifications for any person who wants to have^his leadership foster co-operative responses in others.66 Such an extensive review of personal attributes pos­ sessed, to some extent at least, by a qualified leader would seem to have run the whole gamut of characteristics to be found.

But, they have not gone far enough to constitute

adequate Christian leadership.

True, the foregoing personal

attributes are essential to Christian leadership, but these attributes must be conditioned and expressed in the light of Christian spirit, values, and experiences. The International Council of Religious Education some time ago gave a set of criteria of "certain" marks or

66 Baxter and Cassidy, op. cit., p. 9*

qualities of which the effective leader of youth should give evidence.

These might well be paraphrased to pertain to the

youth leader himself, as follows:^? (l) A passion, or deeply rooted desire, to serve; (2) An understanding of youth, a sympathetic understanding of developing needs among their peers in that adolescent period of life; (3 ) comradeship, spending time with other youth: (k) A vision of the goal to be accomplished; (5) An appreciation of the process by which character develops, through their experience or active in­ terest; (6 ) An understanding of the youth program— in the church, the community, and the world; (7 ) A skillful use of the principles of program-making, including an ideal and ob­ jective^ active participation by the members, putting a motive into all of life, beginning where the members are, and co-op­ eratively choosing program materials carefully— on the basis of need and interest; (8 ) A wise use of the growing loyalties; (9) A wholesome personality, which may include personal attractiveness, personal charm, neatness and good grooming, youthfulness of spirit, a sense of humor, poise, and the uni­ fication of the personality around some worthwhile center; (10) Growing*Christian experience and'character, a personal character that is sincerely Christian, for,

&7 "Qualities of an Effective Leader," The Christian Quest: Youth and Jesus 1 Way of Life (Chicago:. International Council of Religious Education, 1927), Pamphlet No. I, 3-25.

95

Whatever the Christian religion may mean in the inner life of the leader will, by both conscious and uncon­ scious paths, work its way outward into the conduct and attitude of the leader and so into the lives of those in the group. In all of this the true leader makes wise and constant use of the divine, spiritual forces '’ ' opened up to the soul through meditation and Perhaps the most important to the Christian leader of those criteria just listed are* desire for service, under­ standing, wholesomeness of personality, and growth in Chris­ tian experience and character.

Certainly without such

attributes leadership possibly could be found, but the ques­ tion is as to whether it would be either adequate or Christian in character. The mention of meditation and prayer In connection with the tenth criteria listed above does not presuppose-that these are to be ends for the Christian leader.

They are,

instead, means— means to the-developing of a receptive spirit and an ever enlarging spiritual growth within the personality, a constant, never-ending search for truth through growing experiences of God as reality.

The Christian leader should be

one who utilizes valid practices or techniques particularly in his private devotional life, but he should not allow these to become ends within themselves, but, rather, means to fur­ ther insight and growth in living.

68 Ibid.. p. 2k.

It should be clearly

96 distinguished here that such dedication, devotion, and spiritual living and growth do not insure that that particu­ lar person would be a good leader; there are other attributes many of which are listed above, that are also of as great importance* The group leader should be: sensitive to his own and others 1 feelings; basically friendly and with sympathetic understanding in any respect; of few words and have good judgment in the use of words; of even temperament; positive in his approach to life, non-cynical; objective in his love and respect for others, not involved emotionally as a result of it; aware— psychologically able to discern meanings in behavior; resourceful— able to meet unusual problems and difficulties; able to receive suggestions or criticisms with emotional balance and profit; open minded, not defensive— growing in his work and associations; accurate in observation; loyal and co-operative to the group and to the church and community which it represents as shown through attendance at its meetings and services, and through service, financial support, co-operation in its enterprises, etc.; and, for some fields of leadership, skilled in crafts, handy with tools, and mechanically minded.^9 All of these attributes presuppose that one

69 See, also, Hayward and Burkhart, op, cit., p. 331.

9? without which none of the others would be valid for Chris­ tian leadership: a strong and abiding and growing faith— an experience of intimate fellowship with God, with mankind, and with himself.

This, as has already been suggested can

be sought and found in his personal spiritual life by such means as: devotional reading of various sorts,.meditation and prayer, participating in corporate worship and sharing in study, work, and play with his peer group, children, or adults.

The leader also finds faith and a spiritual refresh­

ment by participating in the very exercise of the practice of leadership itself by working with people--his peer group, or younger or older friends— -and finding values in associa­ tions with his fellowmen.

In such relationships "he does

not think of himself as working alone, but he shares in a movement with a great company of men and women who have a common insight and purpose. "7^

This experience is a growing

one, issuing in a broadening and deepening to the pattern of value and meaning to which one commits himself. Other marks of the religious person in the place of leadership, from a functional point of view, would indicate that he should be a religious person who strives to cultivate an attitude of mind which is based on love and devotion, an

7° International Council of Religious Education, "Enlisting, and Developing Church Workers,” p. 9* See pp. 9-10 for further "desirable personal qualities,in a Christian leader.11

98 awareness of what is taking place within his group (both to individuals and to the group), a holistic outlook on life. In order to do this, the leader must constantly seek to gain new perspective and to reexamine the nature of his function as a leader.

He needs to acknowledge his limitations as a

finite person and to accept the sense of inadequacy that all have who cooperatively participate in a process greater than themselves.

And, he needs, above all, to draw strength, in­

spiration, and insight from those sources that are higher than himself, as has already been suggested through private and corporate worship and service. The Christian leader must, therefore, experience in his own life devotion to God's will, respect for all person­ ality, and desire for helping to develop a society after Godfs way— the Kingdom of God. This Christian group leader's method should be rooted in the New Testament concept of love.

He should go mueh

farther than that love for the members of the group regarded as "professionally regarding. 11 Although, as has been pointed out it is humanly,'Impossible for a leader "to like personally, each individual with whom he comes in contact,"71

still the

Christian group leader should realize that the love of human beings is at the very core of religion and he constantly should

71 Wilson and Ryland, op, cit., p. 85.

99 strive to -understand each, individual in the light of his experience— past, present, and future--and to discover and develop his innate potentialities; he should seek to do this through love and devotion and a concern for those with whom he is working which transcends his dislike of the behavior patterns of specific individuals who may be in the group. His motivation, then, would be love and the desire to serve mankind— in this case, his peer group; humility, humbleness, and the realization of the infinite worth of each individual are his tools. He should make the members of his group feel that they are loved and accepted by him because his reactions to them when they have tested him have proved that he continues to love them even when he has disapproved of their behavior. This means that he loves them— and tries to understand them— no matter if they are good or bad.

He does this by helping

them handle such aggressive hostile feelings as they may have in a socially acceptable way through the medium of wholesome and satisfactory group experience.

The group members feel in

such a leader wthe strength of a stable person*1 upon whom they can depend at all times.

The group feels that the

leaderfs tested reactions to them have proved that he does have a sincere interest in and appreciation of their person­ al and group traditions and customs.

He proves able to

respect beliefs that are different from his own and helps the

100 members of the group to make the religious factor more mean­ ingful to them; and he has this same respect toward the differing customs of various other groups such as national, racial, and social.72 This attitude transcends tolerance; it is a positive acceptance of the values of difference among human beings, of their right to be different one from an­ other. 73 It is, then, up to the Christian group builder leader and his group to understand each other*s differences, and also flto learn the value of difference within a common framework and the art of self-respect and of respect for others.11lb This Is, indeed, an idealistic goal, but one necessary to achieve on the part of the Christian leader, presupposing, as it does, an understanding of the whole Individual and of his problems of personality development.

In order to love

and respect others, the individual must respect and accept himself, his own personal capacities and limitations, his religious convictions, his cultural heritage, and his place in society.

As long as a person is living, he is growing and

developing— hence, he cannot aecept himself as static or full grown, r,but his grbwth and development are greater if he has

72 Ibid., pp. 85-89.

73 Ibid., p. 88f. 7k Ibid., p. 89.

101 full appreciation of all that goes into making him the per­ son that he is. ”75 Personal religious living and, consequently, religious leadership depends upon growth, as this study has shown* Even though much of a person's growth is not the result of conscious effort and lies outside any act or will on his part, there are what may be considered conscious aids to re­ ligious living.

These include: (l) umeditation, self-examin­

ation, and prayer11; (2 ) ”a sincere and sympathetic sharing with other Christians in the work and worship of the local church11; (3 ) 11an honest evaluation of one*s own life program”; (4-) 11some reading”; (5 ) ”some close contact with the urgent problems and issues of the modern world”; and, (6 ) ”a con­ structive use of his own mental powers.”76 It is to be remembered, in this connection, that the leader of youth in the church or church-related organization is ”first and last a leader in religion”: He often does and always should interpret religion in a broad sense so that it includes the total sweep of ex­ perience. And yet it is by the injection of a religious note and a Christian interpretation that he expects to see that total experience permeated by eternal and worthy values. In this broad sense he is more profoundly a teacher of religion than if he thought of religion as touching only a narrowed segment of life.77

75 hoc, cit. 76 Hayward and Burkhart, op. cit., pp. 337-3lf3*

77 Ibid., p. 336f.

102 Therefore, rather as an Interpreter and guide in the field of religious living, the youth leaderfs own religious experi­ ence and growth become a matter of deep significance. Some of these qualities listed in this section are basic leadership qualities, while others fall in the category of qualities that could be developed or achieved by a new leader through subsequent supervised experience.

As was

stated before, no one person can be expected to possess all these desirable personal attributes, but the Christian group builder should have as many of them as possible.

Actually,

very few young people of high school, and even college, age could qualify in all the foregoing respects, but leadership education is a process and the assumption made here is that

s

within this descriptive framework we see the young person growing and developing as the leader. be a shared leadership.

Furthermore, his will

He will be working with other peer

leaders and he will be working with an adult, more experienced leader.

This means that he is not carrying a full burden of

leadership responsibility, but is carrying his particular share. We see these traits or qualities in terms of a way of life— a qualitative approach to life.

The Christian leader

in group procedure develops an awareness and a sensitiveness to the needs and interests of people and helps the group to find new meaning in experience that adds depth to the lives

103 of all concerned with, the group♦

He sees something of the

divine in the common, everyday experiences of life, and life to him is a continual quest that is rooted in love and ser­ vice— for God and fellowman. Prom this discussion of a dynamic concept of Christian leadership in which the writer attempted a definition of leadership; assessed the kinds of leadership— autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire; discussed the Christian orien­ tation of the democratic group builder leader; investigated the methodology to be used by this group builder type of leader; and analyzed the personal attributes and approach of the Christian leader; the study now takes up, in the follow­ ing chapter, methods through which such functional Christian leadership can be discovered among the youth themselves and interested and enlisted in service.

CHAPTER IV TECHNIQUES OP DISCOVERING AND ENLISTING HIGH SCHOOL AGE LEADERS I*

LEADERSHIP DISCOVERY

With. such, a functional concept of Christian leader­ ship as has been outlined in the foregoing chapter, a study need now be made of the techniques that are available for use in the discovering of this type of leadership among the youth themselves# The ideal Is to begin this process of discovery of leadership with the eighth or ninth grade youth— to begin then to spot those who may be potential leaders.

However,

if they have not been spotted before they reach the high school stage of development, efforts should be doubled in order that their potentialities may be discovered, enlisted, and developed to the fullest in leadership experience and growth for service with their peer group of this age and throughout the ensuing years. In this study there is no question as to where to look for leadership for it has already been stated that every youth possesses God-given potentialities of leadership, therefore, with the youth age range every group has within it the potentialities for its own leadership.

Consequently,

105 the potentialities innate in every single youth with whom the workers come in contact, be he a member of the particu­ lar group in question or one outside of it who should be brought in, should be the basis used for discovering leaders for the various opportunities for leadership that arise from time to time within the group— small, or enlarged— to in­ clude the entire youth of the particular church, community, or even on the national or international scale. It is important that each group use as many individu­ als in its leadership as possible; first, because of the worth of individual personality it is to be observed that "persons grow through serving”; and second, "because those who share have a care for the church"— or group. 1 In making a study of the techniques that are available for use in the discovering of the leadership among the youth themselves within the church, the writer presupposes a study of the group as a whole and of its needs and demands and proposes a study of the individuals within the group and the various techniques applicable to discovery of leaders as the

International Council of Beligious Education, "Enlisting and Developing Church Workers," Educational Bulletin Bo. 59Jz A Guide for Building a Local Church Program of Leadership Education. p. 13. (it should be stated that the writer has in this study reversed the order as given by the International Council.)

io6 point of emphasis.

Since many of the techniques used in

discovering leadership in the individual are also available for use in the discovery of group leadership, some to a lesser and others to a greater degree, such will be the point of departure for this phase of the study. While the student of child or youth psychology has developed a number of modern techniques which are in harmony with the attitude and methods of scientific study;^ the writer proposes to make a brief survey of those techniques which can be used by the average lay worker in the church, adult or youth, to discover the leadership that is potential within the individuals who comprise the youth group or groups.

Such techniques might well include: observation,

interviews, counseling, the compiling of case histories, the use of tests and measurements, the charting of relations within the group, the use of rating scales, research--personal or library--diseussion.

For the purpose of this study, how­

ever, the more obvious techniques for the discovery of potential leadership among those youth of high school age—

2 gee Louis P. Thorpe, Child Psychology and Develop­ ment, pp. 23-32, for a treatment of such techniques, which include observations of spontaneous child activity, controlled experiments, objective tests and measurements, psychophysiological research, case study investigations, psycho­ analysis, community surveys, rating scales.

107 observation, rating scales, sociometry, and interviewing— will be considered and discussed.

However, through careful

analysis, a capable adult or youth worker should be able to use the best in all useful methods or to choose the method or the combination of methods that are best suited to the requirements of the particular individual whose leadership potentialities may be in question. Observation.

Observation is perhaps the most common

technique used in the discovery of leadership, for a study of the individual himself and in relation to other individu­ als can indicate much about the type of adjustments he has learned to make and about what potentialities of leadership he may possess.

It is to be assumed that such observation,

in order to give an accurate picture of the observed, will be done in an impersonal and an objective manner— demanding of the observer absolute detachment of self from the in­ dividual and from the situation without undue interpretation.3 Observation may be either primary or secondary.

By

primary is meant that which is done by the observer himself. Secondary refers to that which may be done by interested individuals other than the worker himself— such as, the

3 Baxter and Cassidy, Group Experience: The Democratic VSay(New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 19lj.3 ), p. £ 6 .

108 parents, the public school teachers, the peer group, etc.— who may be asked to cooperate. A great deal of observation is done spontaneously or on-the-spot; however, a more accurate picture may often be gained through a planned procedure.

As Baxter and Gassidy

write, One way to proceed in the observation of individual be­ havior is to select in advance a typical situational segment from the interplay of individuals upon one another and decide upon a plan of recording. Exact description of what the individuals under observation do will afford an accurate and uninterpreted account of behavior which will be available for study. By frequent sampling of this overt behavior tendencies can be ascertained without prejudice and without chance of mis­ interpretation. 4 Both procedures require, of course, that records of some sort be made and kept on each individual being studied. The types of activities through which the youth may be observed include his periods of worship, study, work, and play.

In each of these types his actions, reactions, con­

versations, associations, may be noted and studied in relation to his physical, mental, intellectual, and emotional characteristics or needs and used as guides for leadership discovery. Observation through the worship experiences of the youth would include: (1 ) the meaningfulness of worship to

4 Loo, cit.

him, as expressed through his attendance, attention, activi­ ty, and attitude; (2 ) how much inspiration he himself puts into the experience of worship; (3 ) the quality of his religious interest— Does he have a church, personal, or world-wide centric vision? emotional?

Is his interest intellectual or

Extroverted or introverted?

or a passivist?

Is he an activist

Poes he want to lead, or to follow?— (ij.)

what abilities he possesses— vocal, instrumental, dramatic; (5 ) his growth in understanding topic-wise (of himself, his social environment, God, the church, and others), age-wise (of himself, his peers, and his superiors), and personalitywise •

His personality as a whole is organismic and is to be

integrated in and through under standing— intellectual (reason), emotional (response), and conative (planning or stewardship). Many of the items stated above are also applicable to discovering potentialities of leadership among the youth through study, work, and play— such as, the meaningfulness of the experience as his attendance, attention, activity, and attitude would indicate; the inspiration he himself puts Into the experience; the quality, and quantity, of his interest in the particular experience; the abilities he possesses that would indicate his eligibility or availabili­ ty for positions of leadership; and his growth in

110 understanding— of himself, of his relations with his fellowman in his community and throughout the world-wide neighbor­ hood. In the observation of the youth in his study, work, and play, secondary sources of information are much in demand— the home (parents and brothers and sisters), the school (teachers, the peer group, and those youngsters who are older or younger than the particular individual under study), the church, and the community at large.5 Rating scales.

It is recognized that there are many

types of tests and measurements available for use in Religious Education.^

Such measuring devices include

questionnaires, analytic schedules, rating scales, score cards, multiple choice tests, attitude scales, descriptive records, and conduct tests.

For the purpose of this study

of discovering the leadership potential among the high school youth, the rating scale is the measuring device which seems most applicable for use by the average worker. 7 There are, several kinds of rating scales;

however,

5 Cf. Ruth Strang, The Role of The Teacher in Personnel Work, Chapter VIII, for a further treatment of Observation. The writer further recognizes the limitation of her own competence in the area of tests and measurements. 7 Cf. Ruth Strang, op. cit., Chapter VIII, for fur­ ther treatment of rating.

Ill the general principles for their construction are much the same*

The qualities that the group desires to be rated are

first analyzed; then they are put in such a form that

11different judgments may be stated In similar objective fashion”; and, finally, they are Mscored by some system of quantitative measure of difference*w& The best way to rate leadership is to make the scale as objective as possible* The student of leadership will find the making of a scale for measuring one of the most concrete and practi­ cal ways of studying leadership* Such a scale boils the major elements of leadership down to a minimum. It is a compact summary of the field.9 As Dr. Bogardus pointed out in the above statement, it should be emphasized that the scale or test should be an objective one*

Even though this is to be preferred, the subjective

element is bound to enter rating scales; it cannot be helped* It has been said that rating scales are ”convenient forms for securing more adequate personal estimates of people than are obtained by less formal methods.”^

True enough, but even

though rating scales may be considered as subjective means of measurement, f,they have sufficient objective quality

8 Ibid., p. 313. 9 Emory S. Bogardus, Leaders and Leadership.(Hew York:

D* Appleton Century Go*, Inc., 1934), P* 312* 1° A. W. Kornhauser, "What are Bating Scales Good *,°r *ff Jomrcflal Personnel Research, V, l89ff.

112 because of their analytic check form to correlate highly with more objective instruments .11-*-1 As a tool of measurement— -whether for discovering the leadership or for further developing it — rating scales should be used periodically and systematically.

Just using

them once or twice cannot give an accurate picture of the individuals in question. A variety of tests and measures appropriate for use in various types of ratings are now available; numerically, they even run into the thousands and are constantly increas­ ing.

Many of these can prove of value in discovering

leadership.

Among these are the following types of measure­

ments: Intelligence— learning ability; attitudes, opinions, and interests; vocational interests and aptitudes; adjustmentsocial maturity; home situation and other phases of environ­ ment; behavior, character, and personality; etc.12 In many instances special scales will need to be constructed in order to suit particular needs and purposes. This is probably especially true in the discovering of leadership.

In fact, the writer is of the opinion that in

11 Ernest J. Chave, Supervision of Religious Education (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1931)* p. 31I4V 12 Cf. Everett Du Vail, Personality and Social Croup Work (New York: Association Press, 19k3), PP. 107-116, for a listing of 11just a few of the more satisfactory instruments for the measurement11 of these various aspects for rating.

113 order to meet the needs, interests, and desires or the par­ ticular group in question, the rating scale to be used should be constructed by that group which is to use it.

The scale

can thus be a product or, by, and ror the group, and the terms ramiliar or peculiar to the group may be used ror rurther clarity.

In this manner a rair estimate or the

group as a whole and or the individuals which comprise it, and the particular data desired, can more readily be ob­ tained. Caution should be given, however, in the construction or such rating devices.

Unless there is a member or the

group, probably an adult, who has had the training that would be essential to the proper construction or such scales, it would be most advisable to use those scales that are now available— insorar as they meet the desired needs.

It is to

be observed, however, that those won speaking terms11 with the literature of psychology and or education can rind much there that would be helprul to those who desired to attempt to construct their own rating Instruments.^*3 On the other hand, the rating scale has its limita­ tions.

These are due to the ract that no really f,satisractory

13 Ibid., p. 93; P. M. Symonds, Diagnosing Personality and Conduct, Ch. Ill; P. S. Bradshaw, ffBe vising Rating Tech­ niques,vf Personnel Journal (December, 1931)* X, 232-2lf5.

llli. and accepted analysis or human traits or characteristics” is available.

Also, 11the terms used to describe social and

religious attitudes, tendencies, qualities of activities, and accomplishments are not uniformly interpreted. ”3-4 Being cognizant of such drawbacks, one has to admit that those measures that are obtained with rating scales usually are better than those which general impression would give; also, when comparison is desired, rating scale measures are especi­ ally needed. The attempt to make an analysis of constituent factors and to rate them against objective measures of some fairly well understood kind is liable to be freer from prejudice than ordinary estimates. 3*5 As was mentioned before, the subjective element that is always present in every rating tends to discredit the findings; therefore, the rating should not be depended upon to any extent unless it is the average of several persons1 ratings.3-6

it is to be expected that efficient rating re­

quires some training, and that raters improve through practice.

Also, people tend to differ in their ability as

raters:

3*4 Chave, op. cit., p. 313. koc. cit. 3-6 Loc. cit.

115 Those who are good judges of themselves tend to he good judges of others; close associates are likely to rate one another more reliably than casual associates; and those who are warned considerably in advance that they are to make ratings have an opportunity to make observa­ tions that will form a basis for more accurate rating.17 Therefore, it is important that only data obtained from those who prove competent and reliable as raters should be used.

It is important in this respect, then, that caution

be taken in giving the raters a thorough understanding of the purpose of the particular rating involved and of their responsibilities as raters.

11The scale to be used should be

carefully explained, and raters should be warned against the common errors in rating.f|!® The methods to be used in discovering leadership among high school youth through rating would seem to fall into the following three categories: (1) Self rating or evaluation, in which the members actually rate themselves. (2) Youth rating of each other.

This method would

include-ratings by the peer group members; it could also in­ clude ratings by those both older and younger than the group or individuals in question for most youth have associations in all such age ranges.

Du Vall^-9 suggests that such

*L7 pu Vail, op. cit.. p. 98*** I8 Ibid., p. 98 . x9 ibid.. p. 97.

ll6 ratings could be made on a ffman-to-man,f or other ranking basis, and also by the technique or identification or Mguess who?” which Hartshorne, May, and (3)

Maller^O

have developed*

Adult rating of the youth.

These could be made

by parents or guardians, by other adult relatives, by church school leaders and teachers, by public school teachers and administrators, or any other persons who would know the youth being rated in various types of associations* The foregoing methods of rating in order to discover leadership abilities may use as tools such devices as the following: Interest finders; check sheets for individual and group participation; personality, attitude, aptitude, and latent skills charts and tests; intelligence tests; etc* The rating scales may be used individually as well as in groups, as the needs arise.

And, evaluation of the scales

themselves and of the results, by the groups and by the individual members of the groups involved, is a very import­ ant step in the whole rating process* Almost every phase of religious education involves testing and measuring of some sort, whether it be done con­ sciously or unconsciously*

It should be here pointed out,

20 Hugh Hartshorne, Mark A* May, Julius B* Mailer, Studies in Service and Self-Control (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1929K pp. St-91*

117 however, that those who are Interested in measurement and In the perfecting of techniques for it need to remind them­ selves frequently that the chief end in religious education is not to be found in measuring devices and statistical statements*

The religious educator, professional or lay,

adult or peer, who is working with the youth should be fundamentally concerned'with 11causing religious faith, ideas, hopes, purposes, and ideals to function” in the lives of these youth.

Therefore, It can be seen that measurement and

scientifically tested techniques ”are but means to make the educational powers more effective.”

Also, it should be re­

membered that ”each measure that is taken should be regarded merely as a convenient index”— that it should not be depended upon in any general way, but that only in a specific sense does it give definite information.21 Sociometry.

Another technique to be used in discover­

ing the potential leadership among high school youth is that of sociometry.22

This Is a technical, quantitative and

21 Chave, op. cit., pp. 307-309* 22 Baxter and Cassidy, op. cit., p. 85; Henrik P. Infield, ”Sociometry and the Concept of the Moment, ” Sociometry, VI, Ho. 3, August 19^3# 2I4.3-2I1I4.; David Krech and Richard S. Crutchfield, Theory and Problems of Social Psycho­ logy, (Hew York: McGraw-&ill Book Company, Inc•, I9I18), p. 375?.

118 systematic method which reveals the study of personality dynamics through determining and portraying the complex net­ work of interrelationships existing within a small group by charting these relationships on the basis of the attitudes and feelings expressed by members of the

g r o u p * 23

Dr. J. L. Moreno in Who Shall Survive?, written in I93I4.# developed this vital new field of research.

Dr. Helen

Hall Jennings was the collaborator with Dr. Moreno in his pioneer work and the initiator of many of the methods used; she has gone even farther in her systematic investigations in order to analyze the choice process— that process “within the individual which underlies his reaching out towards some and rejection of other stt--which seemed to some to be the one thing lacking in the sociometric

method.^

Whenever persons come together, lines of association are formed and the process of social interaction is set up. It is the quality of these associations that produces what

^3 Because the field of sociometry is a relatively new one in the. understanding of group relations, the writer has devoted more attention and space to this technique of leader­ ship discovery than to the other three discussbd in this study. ^ Helen Hall Jennings, Leadership and Isolation (Hew York: Longmans, Green and Company, 19*4-3)* PP* xi-xii. Cf. Jennings, Sociometry in Group Relations ,(Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education, 19I4.8 ), for a full treatment of sociometry; also J* L. Moreno, Who Shall Survive? (Washington, D* C.: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company, 193^«).

119 has been called "an atmosphere for the group."

The roles

which the individual members are to play are determined through thi s social int erac tion: Some individuals come to the fore in the esteem of their classmates, while the efforts of others to join in are resisted. In this atmosphere, furthermore, some indivi­ duals are secure and happy, while others may be rejected or frustrated in their social participation.25 Many adult workers with youth have come to realize that the personal and academic growth of the individual can be affected either favorably or adversely according to his position within the group and that all persons either stimu­ late or thwart each other in many ways.

It should also be

realized that the creation and maintenance of the social atmosphere is very largely done by individual interaction among the peer group and only in part by the tone that is set by the adult in charge.

Also noteworthy is the fact that the

responses of the youth to each other differ significantly from both their responses tcf the adults working with them and from the adults*i responses to them: The basis for the whole distinction is not immediately apparent and may never be completely understood. But it is clear that the children are developing and using their own means of assessing one another. They are also gener­ ating an emotional climate for the class colored by their own loves and hates and reflecting their loyalties and standards— that may have relatively little to do with the teacher's (worker's) behavior.^6

Jennings, op. cit., p. 1. Ibid., pp. 1,2.

120 Dr. Jennings further points out that the kind of group life participated in by an individual contributes to his own personal developments— that nindividuals can fully develop only in interaction with their fellows” t The happiness and growth of each individual student de­ pend in large measure on his personal security with his classmates (group)♦ In a group he also learns to face, to analyze, and to assess problems in a social context, and to develop ways of solving them with others. In interaction with others, furthermore, the broadening of his personal universe takes place; he gets to know his ‘fellows, their values, and ways, and so gradually extends his sensitivity in human relations. His personal social maturity is also dependent on interaction with others.2? The positive role of interpersonal contacts as a psychological necessity should, also, not be overlooked, for as children and youth mature, fftheir interest In, and affectional relations to, one another broaden parallel to their expanding capacity to get satisfaction from social inter­ course*1: Children need approval from others of their own age possi­ bly more than the approval of their teachers. They need to grow in their ability to appreciate others, to assess themselves through the eyes of others, and to make a place for themselves. They should have opportunities for socialization, for the exchange of ideas, for helping one another, and for exploring one another*s personalities. Without such opportunities their perspective will be fore short ene d, their skills for con tact with others limited, and their initiative in reaching out toward other people inhibited. This development cannot take place naturally when interpersonal contacts are not sanctioned or when natural Inclinations and affinities \

27 Ibid., p . I4.

121 are disregarded in the social arrangement provided.28 Most individuals live and work in groups of one sort or another most of the time.

In order to do such success­

fully it is important for each individual to learn what he can get from as well as give to others*

There is need to

learn how to play different roles within the group, how to extend those skills used in living with others, to enlarge the concepts of the group and of those values beyond those of the single individuals within it, to experience achievement as the result of the joint effort of the group, to learn how to relate individual skills and capacities to group concerns, how to get individual satisfaction from shared purposes, to discover that abilities that are pooled actually supplement and complement one another and 11enhance the end result.11

It

needs be pointed out that such skills and attitudes as these do not develop automatically, nor does mere physical proxim­ ity necessarily make a psychological group.

Instead, ex­

periences need to be planned for in order that such ends may be promoted. 29 It was through such observations as those above that the sociometric method was developed.

The objective of this

method, as Dr. Moreno originally used, was wto establish the

28 ibid., p. 5 . 29 Ibid,, p. 7.

122 pattern of feelings of acceptance and rejection, like and dislike (or ftele, f as Moreno calls it) that exist among the members of a group.”

It is his thesis that those social

groupings based on such feelings are more significant than those based on formal structures.

He maintains that the

understanding of group life can be accomplished best "through a study of these fspontaneousf groupings and the way in which they harmonize or conflict with the formal group structure that is imposed externally.”30 As developed by Dr. Moreno, the sociometric method simply involves asking each member of a given group privately specify which other members— of the same group, or of another group if inter-cooperation Is desired— he likes or wishes to work or study or eat or live beside— preferred companions in some situation that is real to them— and also which persons he dislikes or wishes to avoid in such relationships.

When

such data as this Is obtained through this device known as a sociometric test from all the members of the group, it is possible to construct a "sociogram," which is a chart of the organization of the group depicting all the patterns of mutual like, dislike, and Indifference among the whole group. The sociogram is constructed by using a symbol to represent

30 Krech and Crutchfield, op. cit., p. 376.

i23 each, person and drawing lines indicating attraction or re­ pulsion between persons*

This makes it simple for the one

investigating to see at a glance just whatthe "tele” structure of a particular group is— the cliques within the group, those individuals who are much liked or disliked and by whom, those who are social "stars" and those who are nisolates,ft

e t c *31

From the beginning of its use, the

sociometric test has been "focussed upon the organization, the psychological structure of groups* "32

fcas been de­

fined by Moreno as "an instrument to measure the amount of organization shown by social

g r o u p s . ”33

Although the extensive sociometric investigations which Dr* Moreno and many others have made have revealed a large variety of sociometric patterns on the sociogram which turn up repeatedly, the most usual are isolates, pairs, tri­ angles, chains, stars, or networks.

Isolatesare those in­

dividuals who are neither sought nor

dislikedby anyone or

who have little or no contact with the others in the group* Pairs are those groups of two who are mutually attracted;

^ koc* clt*; Baxter and Cassidy, op* cit., p. 86; Jennings, op* cit., p* 11. 32 Jennings, Leadership and Isolation* p* 17f. 33 Moreno, op* cit*, p. I432.

1 z\

triangles, groups of three individuals*

Some individuals

are centers of attraction and thus Mstars” are formed. Other larger groupings include ”chains,f or interlocking ,fnetworks. ”3lf Each pattern is significant in determining how the group as a whole will tend to behave under various conditions: Isolates may break away from the group entirely if put under pressure; star patterns show centralization of the sub-group around one person and without him that sub­ group would probably collapse.

Networks, which often have

many interlocking connections, stand more likelihood of being stronger and more resistant to change. The test situation, in the case of this study that of some phase of leadership, must offer the group members opportunities for choice that are both meaningful and natural to them; therefore, the first criterion in selecting the test situation is to choose situations that ”can be acted upon and the consequences of which matter11 to the members.

Second,

advantage should be taken of what is familiar or customary in that particular group.

Third, opportunities for this choice

should be selected Maccording to their relative freedom from Inhibiting factors.,f35

^ Cf. Baxter and Gassidy, op. cit., pp. 79-81% Jennings, Soclometry in Group Relations, pp. 22,56,57*70,72, 77*78,80; Krech and Crutchfield, op. cit., pp. 377-378, for examples of sodometrie patterns and sociogram forms. 35 Jennings, Sociometry in Group Relations, p. 13.

125 After the test situation has been selected, it is important that the youth express themselves as naturally as possible in their choices of associates.

In doing this the

worker administering the test should make it quite clear that no one else will see or use the results, that it cannot be possible to give everybody his first choice of associate, but that every effort will be made to see that each person will be with at least one of his choice and more than that whenever possible.

Also, the worker should take care not to

say or hint anything about whom to choose as the object of the test is to get the genuine reactions of the group mem­ bers.

It is also better not to use the term 11sociometric

test11 even with those of high school age because of the con­ notations of the word 11test11% instead it might be called a ’’sociometric question.11 If only one question is being asked, the worker should give each group member a blank slip of paper or 3*5 card and ask each to write his own name in a specified corner and the names of his choices— rating them as first, second, third, etc.--below.

Since the wording of the question determines

to quite a measure the usefulness of the results, it Is desirable to follow some well-tried procedure in stating it.36

36 Cf. Jennings, Soclometry in Group Relations, p. 15 for examples of such a statement of a question.

126 In order to more adequately discover leadership, it is both appropriate and desirable to ask, on the same occasion, for the names of any of the group with whom a member may prefer not to work.

This is especially important when it is known

that tensions exist and there may be need for a more complete diagnosis.

In asking for this information, the worker should

be matter of fact, direct, and natural In manner and not indirect, vague, or apologetic.

The worker should make sure

that each member has given the specified number of choices requested, but should make no specifications, nor even Imply that any be made, as to the number of rejections.

The ad­

ministrator of the test should feel free to answer whatever questions may arise, both before and during the test, and should proceed throughout in a businesslike manner.37 As Dr. Jennings points out, the form of the sociometric tests consists of three characteristics: (1) A specific num­ ber of choices Is allowed varying according to the size of the groups tested; (2) A specific criterion ibr choice is used varying with the functional activity of the group (e.g., as above, studying in proximity); (3) Different levels of preference are designated for each choice (1st, 2nd, ete.);38

37 Ibid., pp. 15-16. 38 Jennings, Leadershin and Isolation, p. 18.

127 and* the important things to remember in administering the test are: (l) to include the motivating elements in the introduc­ tory remarks, (2) to word the question so that children (youth) understand how the results are to be used, (3) to allow enough time, (1l) to emphasize any boy or girl so as to approve in advance any direction the choice may take, (5) to present the test situation with interest and some enthusiasm, (6) to say how soon the arrangements based on the test can be made, and (7) to keep the whole procedure as casual as possible*39 Dr* Jennings stresses that 11what ever the particulars of the specific sociometric test, it must live up to the following criteria if It is to fulfill its function” : The basis of the choice must be real and not hypothetical. The test itself must be a means for some actual purpose, never an end in itself. The results are to be carried out in arrangements for living as wanted by all the members. The application is immediate; the action is taken to be effective at once--tomorrow or next week, but not for some vague period in the future.4-9 The sociogram is then filled in, after all members of the group have turned in their data.

As was mentioned

earlier, symbols are used for each person (very often circles for the girls and triangles for the boys, with the name of the specific person written on the particular symbol re­ presenting him or her.

These are connected by arrowed lines

indicating the choices, mutual or otherwise, and are num­ bered as to order of choice at the base of the line.^P-

39 Jennings, Sociometry in Group Relations, p. 1.6. Ibid., p. 17. M- Gf. Ibid.> p. 22, for a sample of a sociogram form.

128 The best way to begin reading a sociogram is to con­ centrate on the symbol Tor one person and follow all the lines that lead from and to that person; this gives more meaning for, particularly when a person is looking at a sociogram for the first time, the vhole chart may seem but a meaningless jumble of circles, lines, and triangles.

In

this way, by tracing the pattern to be found there, the significance of the reading is to be seen and all sorts of questions may suggest themselves for further study insofar as the observed individuals are concerned.4^ In order to check on the change or growth that may have resulted from using this sociometric method, it is wise to have follow-up sociograms.

Unless some special circum­

stances would alter the situation, an interval of seven or eight weeks may be allowed (which time may vary with the situation) before the next sociometric test is given.

The

same principles apply to the follow-up sociograms as applied to the initial one: Mthe sociometric test should primarily meet the felt needs of the members and not a research need of someone studying their interactions,11 And, in order that the successive soeiograms may be compared, each new one should be analyzed In approximately the same way as was the initial

1+2 Ibid., p. 23.

129 one, and the interpretations that result from it should then be compared: For most purposes a rough check on such aspects as shifts in the pattern of choice or rejection, in the number of highly chosen and unchosen individuals, in the formation of cliques and the like, will be suffi­ cient. It is to be expected that the immediate thing that will be done about the findings of a sociometric test is to carry out the agreement time they were asked

that was made with the youth at the

to make their choices known.

This is

the worker1s first real opportunity to prove that the pre­ ferences of the group members are important*

The principle

to be used in translating the sociometric data into action is simple and is the same for all purposes: "each individual should be given the highest degree of satisfaction compatible with maximum happiness for everyone else and maximum stimula­ tion for all.tf This means that the object Is to provide each group member the best possible arrangement from his own par­ ticular point of view; but, It must be remembered that the same consideration must be shown to each individual within the group, so there will have to be some compromise somewhere♦ Dr. ^ennings suggests that the rules that follow have justi­ fied themselves in practice:

Ibid. , pp. Il2-1l3 . Gf ♦ Ibid., pp. if.3-I|lj.* for a sociometric work schedule for those who desire to conduct a more careful studyof comparative analysis of two successive sociograms*

130 First, in order to carry out as many expressed wishes as possible, it is generally best to start with the children who have not been chosen at all or only seldom. It is usually better to give an unchosen pupil his own first choice. • . • Second, give any pupil in a pair relation the highest reciprocated choice from his point of view? his first choice if this is returned, his second if this is re­ turned and his first is not, or his third if this is the only reciprocated choice on his list. . . . Third, if a child has received choices only from people other than the ones he chose, then give him his first choice. . . . Fourth, if there have been any rejections, make sure that no such unchosen child is put with those boys and girls who have asked not to be with him. Fifth and last, check the final arrangement to make sure that every child has been placed with at least one of his indicated choice s.MiThat groups or committees based on their eaqpressed choices often spend all their time at first enjoying one another is usually the case, but in

time they will get busy

and, as a result of the choices, will produce better work than they had previously done.

It must be remembered that

time must be allowed for these new subgroup or group members to adjust to one another and to the new situation. Since one of the recognized ”chief aims in improving human relationships is to help individuals to find both per­ sonal security and appropriate roles in groups,” it is deemed

kk Ibid., pp. Ibid., p. Itf.

131 of ^utmost importance to work with and through each child’s (youth’s) feelings and standards rather than against them.11 Herein lies the value of the sociogram for Tnfoen the i/diole situation has thus been laid before him in broad outline, the worker is often more able to mediate things for unchosen (isolate) students, and this is to be desired in order to aid them to develop into accepted personalities and persons.^ In grouping the youth for work in such informal ar­ rangements as are usually used— committees, panels, special interest groups— it is well to use sociometric procedure since performance closely relates to the interpersonal struc­ ture whether it be a church or community group.

In such work

groups as these it is important to provide for a balance of skills and significant mutual stimulation among the group members just as care should be taken in attempting to release a youth’s energies by fulfilling his choices. suggestions as given by Dr. Jennings

The following

helpful in setting up

such working groups: First, one should vary the size of the committee accord­ ing to how easily students enter into interrelations. The more difficult this is for them, the smaller the size of the group should be-s Second, it is wise to include other students among the groups which have closed formations. It is even wise to break some of these formations by detaching one or two students, provided, of course, that the relatedness is

lj.6 Ibid., pp.

132 not completely broken thereby. The purpose of this is to prevent the students in closed cliques from continu­ ing to be conspicuously off by themselves and to give them a chance to relate themselves to other students. Third, vary the composition of each committee so as to make it a cosmopolitan mixture of such differences as sex, age levels, home backgrounds, and ability. This will help to make their experience in association as varied as possible. Fourth, whenever a mixed group of students are to work together for the first time, it is well to include more than one individual for each difference. . . . This applies to every group factor that matters, such as place of residence, race, religion. Fifth, try to divide up the unchosen students so that not more than two at the most will be in each working group of six or more, and give each the most advantageous in­ terpersonal surroundings that the total situation per­ mits. What this means in terms of group structure, then, is that there should always be a few highly chosen students and roughly the same number of unchosen indivi­ duals on each committee, and that there should be at least as many students of average sociometric position as of the other two types combined* The same procedure holds for any type of working group— panels for book dis­ cussions, project committees, discussion groups, and the like.q.7 It should be pointed out that the sociometric test and its sociogram neither suffice to explain the motives which underlie the choices made nor of themselves reveal the values that affect the group memberfs interaction.

Therefore, each

sooiogram is a "starting point for further investigation,” and a whole series of them are needed at stated intervals in order to properly understand a group "society.11 However, the

k-7 ibid., pp. $11-55.

133 chief significance of a sociogram, as a starting point, Mlies in its comprehensive revelation of the group structure and its clear direction toward the next steps for study or investigation* Others^9 have used Dr. Moreno*s sociometric methods for discovering and improving interpersonal relationships and, as a result, place value in this technique for it is to be observed that the making possible for persons who enjoy and stimulate each other to have opportunities for working and playing together tends to improve the whole psychological climate of a group. The techniques of sociometry which have just been described ”make possible an internal appraisal which eomes directly from the group members themselves and requires no outside interpretation”; hence, that frequent criticism that is made because observations in attempts to appraise relation­ ships are made by persons outside of the group cannot be fired at this technique.

”The many practical uses and adap­

tations which have been made of the Moreno method indicate

Ibid., p. 11. ^9 H. S. Dimock, Rediscovering the Adolescent; Charles E. Hendry, ”Pals and Patrols, ” Scouting for Facts, May 19l|2; Kurt D. Lewin, Ronald Lippitt, Sibylle lC“~Sscalona, Studies In Topological and Vector Psychology I .. (University of Iowa Studies In Child Welfare, Vol. XVI, Wo. 3).

13k its growing popularity as a way of studying the group."50 Behavior and much or personality development during the adolescent period is determined hy the social relation­ ships in which these individuals develop and these social relationships are such that it is possible to describe and measure them through techniques which have furnished in­ creased appreciation for the fact that ”adolescence is a social phenomenon made significant by the kinds of relation­ ships that the young person has with other human beings around him.w

Two general approaches to the soeiometry of

adolescent groupings, as suggested by E. D. Partridge, are: (1) The patterns of these groupings in a given community or neighborhood. (2) The internal structure and dynamics of group behavior and how they affect personality development.51 Those who are interested in the developing of effec­ tive educational or social programs for those of adolescent age, which includes the discovering of their leadership potentialities as well, should indeed take into consideration those social patterns that exist among the youth in the particular community which is in question.

Too often leaders

are merely content with generalizations and do not attempt to become familiar with the specific problems that are peculiar

5° Baxter and Cassidy, op. cit., p. 87. 5l E. D. Partridge, ”The Soeiometrie Approach to Adolescent Groupings,” Soeiometry, VI, No. 3, August 19lf3, 258.

135 to the particular neighborhood involved*

Partridge, there- -

Pore, points out that the Pollowing are among those things which would need to be known with rePerence to a speciPic community or neighborhood: (1) Areas oP most Prequent group Pormation. (2) Tendencies toward inter-group conPlict. (3) Attitudes toward adult-sponsored activities* (Ll) Importance oP race, religion, nationality upon group Pormations* (5) Meeting places oP groups* (6) Parental attitudes toward groups* (7) Carry-over oP spontaneous group liPe into Pormal institutions such as school, church, etc *52 The need to study the individual youth in terms oP his relationships with the group and at the same time to examine carePully the structure oP the group In order to tinderstand the dynamics that may be at work cannot be emphasized too greatly*

A group op adolescents is much more than a collec­

tion oP individuals*

They are individuals, it is true, but

they 11are tied together by traditions, common attitudes and accepted values that can have a propound ePPect upon the character development oP the individual members*”

Upon

closer examination, the group structure indicates that these individuals ”diPPer markedly in such things as cohesiveness, stability, and animation, ” and that individual members diPPer both in the status (the struggle Por which goes on continu­ ally) with their associates and in the inPluence that they

52 Ibid., pp. 258-260

136 exert upon group action; therefore, it Is necessary, in order to realize a full appreciation of adolescent group action, to have an understanding of these group characteris­ tics.^ Partridge goes on to point out that there is a definite relationship between leadership ability and status in the group*

He defines leaders as 11those who influence the

thoughts and actions of their associates11 and states that Mthe person who has the admiration of his peers usually also has the stuff of which leadership is made.”

It has been shown

through studies of adolescent leaders that individual differ­ ences among them are such that every group has at least one or more persons who is able to and does exert influence over his associates. The pattern of friendship existing within even a small group is another interesting and significant phase of group structure, for, as was pointed out above, neither do all in­ dividuals within any given group enjoy the same popularity, nor does complete reciprocity of attachment exist between the individual members.

Moreno has suggested that within a group

exists a nucleus which consists of ”individuals who are more closely associated than other members and who have more

53 Ibid.. p. 260 5k Ibid., p. 261

137 influence upon group structure and behavior than those ©n the periphery of the membership.1155 It is from such basic patterns as these that much of the significant personality influences during adolescence emerge— tfthe struggle for acceptance, the confidence of popularity, the security of bosom companionship11 are all related directly to Individual behavior.

Therefore, it may

well be pointed out that in most cases individual behavior cannot be understood fully without an awareness and knowledge of these patterns of group structure.

In this connection the

sociometric plotting of friendship relations as reported by the group members is a valuable aid In recognizing these significant patterns and in dealing with them accordingly.56 It should also be mentioned that group membership dur­ ing adolescence is fluid--the internal structure changing rapidly in part, probably because of different rates of development— and, also, that as the individual moves from one group to another he will likely find himself playing various roles.

In his own age-group he can maintain equal status as

a member; in an older age-group he may become a ”scape goat,” and in a younger one he may be a leader.57

55 Loc. cit. ^

koc. cit.

57 Ibid.. p. 26lf.

it must be

138 remembered, however, that circumstances, personality, abilities, relationships with associates, and many other factors help to determine whether or not the individual will actually be a leader in any one of these age groupings. The peer culture, then, ffappears to be more influen­ tial than parents1 or teachers* homilies in setting the standards and tastes” of the youth.

It would seem, then,

that the adult and youth leaders of these high school young people should make it their responsibilities to learn about the social interplay within the group, the individual’s reputation among his peers, the prestige-determining factors, the friendship patterns, and the social aspirations.

Tech­

niques that might be used in developing youth1s relations with their peers— after an analysis of the young people’s friend­ ships within a given group has been made, and especially in trying to help isolates to build more satisfying social relations--include such as (1) providing opportunities within the group for the development of friendly relations; (2) building up or improving the social skills of the individual and of the group as a whole which sometimes includes social acceptability; (3) building up within the individual a sense of accomplishment and competency. 58

58 Merle H. Elliott, ,fPat terns of Friendship in the Classroom," Progressive Education, Vol. 18, November 19kl, 383-390. -

139 The findings of a sociometric study made by Moreno and Jennings59 revealed wide individual differences in per­ sonality of the leader-individuals.

"Their reflection in

ways of behaving show leadership to be definable by a manner of Interacting with others."&0 Leadership appears as a process in which no one indivi­ dual has a major role but in which relatively many share The superior capacity which one individual may have to recognise and respond to the needs of others does not show itself as a generalized capacity which may relate him to all other individuals. It appears in the special sensitivity between the individual and specific.other persons, resulting in interaction between them.^1 Jennings also points out that both leadership and isolation seem to appear as "phenomena which arise out of individual differences in inter-personal capacity for parti­ cipation11 and, also, as "phenomena which are indigenous to the specific social milieu in which they are produced11: The "why" of leadership appears, however, not to re­ side in any personality trait considered singly, nor

59 At the Hew York State Training School for Girls, a closed community comprising over lj.00 girls of teen age who had been committed by the Children’s Courts of the State. For fuller treatment, ef. Jennings, Leadership and Isolation 9 "Leadership and Sociometric Choice," Readings in Social Psychology, Newcomb and Hartley (editors) (Hew York: Henry Holt and Company, 19^7)5 Moreno, op. cit.. Jennings, Leadership and Isolation, p. l8f?. 6l Jennings, "Leadership and Sociometric Choice,11Qp cit., p. k!2. . *

even in a constellation of related traits, but in the interpersonal contribution of which the individual be­ comes capable in a specific setting eliciting such contribution from him* Similarly, isolation appears as but the opposite extreme on this continuum of inter­ personal sensitivity between the members of the group and the individual.^2 The sociometric method of charting relationships with­ in the group, therefore, proves useful in ascertaining the feelings of attraction and repulsion which the individuals have for one another.

Since it is to be observed that be­

havior on the part of individuals is so largely a matter of emotional response, it is well for the leader to know how these individuals feel toward one another; if he is aware of the ways in which his group members are affected by one another, the leader can then work to improve the cohesiveness of the group* Investigators have been ingenious and have used the sociometric method in any number of ways, as sociometric literature will reveal*

This literature will also prove of

help as an aid in the discovering of individual responsive­ ness to others and in the taking of constructive steps toward improving personal relationships within groups. Another noteworthy point is that the sociometric method can be simplified.

The charting of relationships can

be done by a person who has had no previous experience with

^

£°c* oit*; Leadership and Isolation, pp. 2(%-205.

lill the method.

For the promise that it holds in discovering

those feelings which control behavior, this sociometric approach is highly recommended for use, 63 It would seem, therefore, that the discovering of re­ lationships within the group would indeed be another means of discovering potential leadership among the high school youth. This sociometric method should prove of unestimable value in this process of discovery. The question might be raised as to the place such a method would have in discovering religious leadership when it works on the principle of placing friends together in the same group or subgroup.

x

Some would ask if this doesn*t negate

the Christian principle of learning to love all fellowman by working with him and in that way getting to understand him. If the ideal of the sociometric method is carried forth, however, with the isolates being discovered and helped to build more satisfying social relations, it will be seen in time that they, too, will be accepted and in that way will come to get the love and appreciation they deserve*

Herein

lies the real challenge to the adult worker and the youth leader alike— not only to discover the leaders through sociometric tests, but also to discover the isolates and help them become adjusted so that their leadership potentialities may

63

Baxter and Cassidy, op. cit., p. 93*

1^2 come to light and be recognized and that they may take their place along with the peer group.

Seen in this light, soci-

ometry ean play a real role in discovering, and also in developing, religious leadership among high school youth. Interviews.

The last technique for leadership dis­

covery with which this study will deal in any detail, al­ though the writer Is fully aware that the techniques for discovery have in no way been exhausted, is that of the use of interviews. As the interview Is said to be the nbackbone of the counseling process,1161$. of equal value is the contribution it can make in the discovering of religious leadership among high school youth.

Each of the foregoing techniques dis­

cussed— observation, rating scales, and sociometry— depend to a great extent on follow-up interviews in order to be most effective in this process of discovery.

Unless interviews

are held with the individuals whose leadership potentialities are revealed through the observations of the various people called on, through the tests and measurements used, and through the charting of relationships within the group, one of the most Important steps has been neglected. 1 It is

61f Ruth Strang, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, I9I16), p. 39k••

11+3 only natural that an interview, or interviews, with the individual should follow if a complete picture of the poten­ tial leadership abilities or qualifications, obvious or latent, is to be gained in order that processes may be set in motion to enlist and develop this leadership in active and creative channels. Interviewing is defined within the whole range from simply stating that it _is ,fdirected conversation*1 through practical analyses and on into such academic considerations that the precise terms of psychology and sociology are used in the definition.

For this study there are two definitions

which seem to be applicable,

Du Vail has stated that

Generically, interviewing is a process of mutual viewing, a co-operative enterprise In which each participant gains some insight into the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes of the other, 65 He then goes on to quote Pauline V. Young as stating that in the process of both diagnosis and treatment: , . . the Interview is in reality an interplay of dynamic personalities which constantly act and react to each other's questions and answers, to each other's gestures, facial expressions, manners, and even d r e s s . 66 Whether the definitions be of a practical nature or academic, they all stress the fact that interviewing is a

65 Du Vail, op. cit., p. ll|.Of. ^ Ihid,» P* lip.# as quoted from Young1s Interviewing in Social Work (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1935), pp. "S-Jj..'

two-way process.

It is only as the adult worker with youth

comes to accept this conception and ,frealizes that what he is and what he does are important factors in the interview11 that he will be able to master the technique of the art. Interviews are often categorized into types, as the purpose or method of the interviewer might suggest,

The three

major types which are usually distinguished are: (1) diag­ nostic— in which the discovery of information about the individual being interviewed and his situation are what concern the interviewer; (2) therapeutic--in which the interviewer uses that information which has been obtained through a diagnostic interview for the benefit of the inter­ viewee in furthering some plan of action; and (3) research— in which the interviewer Is not interested In the particular persons Interviewed, but in facts about a general problem with which they can furnish him.

The interviewer is con­

cerned with collecting facts regarding a certain problem or piece of research, and is interested in the interviewee as a possible source of data toward that end.

Even this classi­

fication of using f,the immediate objective of the interviewer1* to distinguish between the types shows that these three types are seldom mutually exclusive, but are more often interdependent.^8

Du Vail, op. cit*, p. llil. 68 Ibid., pp. 138-1^0.

lk$

Another categorization designates interviews as either informal or formal*

The informal interview is that

which takes place on occasions of casual contact with a mem­ ber of the group--the casual chat, the informal moments, when the personalities of the leader and of the youth member of the group come into contact, when there is ”a mutual sharing of interests*”

Such contacts are both unlimited in

their possibilities and invaluable to the development of both parties concerned.

Only a question or an answer may have

been exchanged, f,but something real may have happened to the life of that young person” or even also to the adult contacted in this manner.

This goes to show that the leader, adult or

youth, ”should share as widely as possible in the experiences of his group”: He should be a comrade, a friend, and a pal to his group. He is one of them and yet he is their leader. . . . A word here, a question answered there, and an encouraging smile given elsewhere mav have more power wrapped up in them than we dare hope.69 The formal interview is usually planned, in one way or another, and takes place in privacy.

A certain time for the

interview is agreed upon by the interviewer and the inter­ viewee after one of them has made the initial approach.

In

cases of therapeutic counseling the Initial approach should

^9 Roy A. Burkhart, Guiding Individual Growth (Hew York: The Abingdon Press, 193i?) $ P P * 97-96.

preferably be made by the interviewee; but in connection with the present study of the discovery of leadership, the interviewer will be able to assume the initiative without question, providing, of course, that the individual summoned knows for what purpose he is being called for an interview* In using the formal interview for leadership discovery, the interviewer would explore the thoughts and reactions of the interviewee in relation to various aspects of possible leadership experiences— his interest, his aptitude, his per­ sonality, his qualifications, etc*, all entering the picture In some way*

The interviewer should make his availability

known for this type of Interviewing*

It is entirely possible,

and desired, that the group could, beginning with such inter­ views as set up for the purpose of discovering leadership, grow into the practice of occasional or periodic conferences with leaders which would be a real means of development and leadership education*TO

Du Vail points out that this latter

type of interview— the formal or planned one— 11affords greater opportunity for effective service because of the time available and the control that may be exercised over the situation*”71

Ibid.. pp. 100-102; Du Vail, o£. cit.. p. 139. 71 Du Vail, op. cit., p. 139.

A third categorization of interviews distinguishes them between the individual interview and the group interview. The foregoing devices of the informal or the formal inter­ view would seem to indicate that their use is most frequent in the individual conference* Even though most interviews are held with one person at a time, there are times when it is desirable for the leader to give help to individuals, or to gain needed infor­ mation that can come through group observation, through the regular program of the group*

In this type of interview to

see that the esqperiences of sharing within the group are properly organized so that they amply fit the needs for leadership discovery is the primary task of the person or persons assigned to this type of conference.

If the proper

guidance or help which the individual needs can be given through the regular work of the group, wall is gained and nothing lost*

With such an approach difficulties are solved

more naturally and often the solution is the

i n d i v i d u a l 1s . ft7 2

Du Vail indicates that In a sense the group interview is nothing more than the operation of the social group work process In situations less formally organized than the regular club or class meeting* In such situations the interviewees often have less well-established pat­ terns of response to the inter-personal stimuli of the

72 Burkhart, op* cit., p. 106.

Ik8 other participants. There is also less of an equilibrium in the social relations involved. This is sometimes an advantage in the achievement of certain short-time objectives.73 The group interview or conference may be carried out through the young people themselves providing, as a group, a real technique for dealing with personal problems or situations of leadership discovery; through informal chats with small groups; or through such a device as a forum following a ser­ mon, one of their regular programs, etc. (These devices of the group approach also have great potentiality in counseling and Individual development and growth. Fourth, as to control by content, interviews may be (1 ) entirely uncontrolled; (2 ) "partially controlled by the central purpose of the interview11; (3 ) "more completely con­ trolled through the use of a schedule of questions or a topical outline”^ or, (I4.) "(as in some research interviews and test situations) with almost every word spoken by the interviewer planned in

a d v a n c e . ”75

The qualifications of the interviewer require skill in the art of interviewing, but these must be reinforced by desirable personality attributes which are not greatly

73 Du Vail, op. cit., p. 139* 7 k Burkhart, op. cit., pp. 106-108. 75 Du Vail, op* cit., p. 139*

Ik9 different from those required by the successful group leader: Ability to get along easily with people, to attract them through manifesting a genuine interest in their experi­ ences, their difficulties and successes, their wishes and desires; willingness and ability to respond to their moods, feelings, and thoughts, to respect their atti­ tudes and point of view . , . Additional attributes includer ability to play a team game, to lose without rancor and win without showing elation; willingness to accept the interviewee as he is, whether culturally or racially, different obstinate and contrary, antisocial, aggressive, crude and vulgar, or otherwise different from the desired standards of the interviewer* Obviously the interviewer should be emotionally stable and well adjusted, self-controlled and able to deal with unsavory situations without shock, have the vigor and strength to command respect but without the need to dominate; be cordial and friendly, sincerely sympathetic, and (perhaps above all) have a sense of humor* Interviewers must also have some knowledge of the fields and areas of experience invoived in the central purpose of the interview* . * . In short, the qualified inter­ viewer must have knowledge of his own limitations and capacities, of the interviewee’s needs and possibilities, and of many factors related to the subject matter of the interview, in addition to an understanding of the art of interviewing. Jo It is further pointed out that the understanding of the process and the mastery of the techniques of interviewing are wimportant elements in the professional equipment of workers who seek to achieve modern objectives*M77 The three major steps to be taken in a personal con­ ference or interview are: (1 ) establishing rapport— the first

76 ibid., pp. Ik2-lk3 77 Ibid.. p. lii.2.

150 task being to put the interviewee at ease which may be done by starting out with a constructive touch; (2) getting a background of information about the interviewee— -with con­ versation laying the foundation for the interview, the interviewer playing the role of a good listener and allow­ ing the interviewee to talk or drawing him out when he doesn11; or through the use of blanks and tests which aid in making a conference objective; (3) dealing with the problem at hand— solving it, or thinking through an interest— through taking definite steps to deal with it (First, ”What causes this problem?11 Second, ”What are the possible solutions?11 Third, what solution or solutions are best— 11those which are Christian”?

In this respect the interviewer must make sure

that the interviewee makes his own choice.

Fourth, ”How can

the solution be made to work?”), and through some enduring motivation or compulsion.7$ Conditions and techniques which make for effective interviewing should also be taken into consideration.

The

time and place of the planned interview are important in determining its success.

The interviewee should understand

the purpose of the interview, as was pointed out before, and also something of the Interviewerfs attitude.

Great care

needs to be taken in order that the interviewee will feel

73 Burkhart, op. cit., pp. 113-129.

151 that; he is "meeting a friend who is genuinely interested in him,11 According to the circumstances involved the introduc­ tion may be either brief or long, but the real interview doesn’t begin until rapport has been established after which the time to come to the point at issue has come*

An impor­

tant and valuable technique in the process of interviewing is creative listening*

The interviewee should be met on his

own terms; however, at times it may be "desirable to provide a set of terms in which the problem or situation may be dis­ cussed in words that are not emotionally charged*"

Any

questions used by the interviewer should be relevant and phrased to bring out new information*

The climax of the

diagnostic interview, which is reached when the source of conflict has been uncovered, may not be reached in the first interview because of certain inhibitions that may be present within the individual.

As to the best length of time for

most interviews, it should probably be less than one hour; and each interview should be "so terminated that, TRhen rela­ tions are resumed, the ground gained may be consolidated"— with the interviewee feeling that he has left an understand­ ing friend with whom he has just had "an experience that was mutually beneficial*"

And, finally, soon after the inter­

view the interviewer should make notes on the topics discussed, on the attitudes expressed, on the progress made toward a solution of problems involved, and on plans or

arrangements for a follow-up Interview*

Of great importance,

also, is the writing of an evaluation of the success of each interview soon after it has been held*79 For this discussion of interviewing it would seem, then, that the diagnostic type would be that used for the interview to discover potential leadership among the high school youth*

It could be either informal or formal, indivi­

dual or group, or uncontrolled or controlled as to content. Or the interview could be a combination of^ any of these devices, for they are all interrelated and are seldom mutually exclusive.

Krech and Crutchfield^ suggest the "free, inten­

sive, clinical-type interview" as "one of the most promising methods available for the rating of attitudes and opinions." They state that in this method "the individual is guided by skillful nondirective^! techniques to discuss the objects in question and thus to reveal--often indirectly or unconscious­ ly— his dispositions of attitudes and beliefs."

Although

this method has not been as widely used for rating social attitudes as it has personal attitudes and sentiments, it

79 Du Vail, 0£* cit*, pp* ll|4-ll|-9* Cf* Ibid* * pp. I49-150, for a sample of criteria which could be used to evaluate the success of each inter­ view* Krech and Crutchfield, op* cit* * p. 238. ®! A resume of directive and non-directive techniques will be made In connection with the aspect of counseling in the next chapter of this study*

153 would seem that it could be of great value in such use. For the interview the individual in charge c ould draw on such resources as were made available through observation, through the use of various types of tests and measurements that had been made previously by and of the interviewee, and through a study of the sociogram which depicts the relation­ ships of every individual within the group.

He has at his

disposal, also, the opportunity to do first hand observation of this individual, as well as to use further rating scales or other tests and measurements if those on hand do not prove adequate, or if such measurements have not been made pre­ viously.

In this respect the relationship of the interview

to the three previously discussed techniques for discovering religious leadership among high school youth is seen as an interdependent process and a needed outgrowth of the fore­ going. The interview for the purpose of discovering potential leadership among the high school youth can be used In several different ways, among which are the following:^ (l) To interview the leader, actual or potential, to discuss his Interests in leadership— what he regards to be the prob­ lems he faces as a leader, or those of becoming a leader.

^ Paul B. Irwin, Assistant Professor of Religious Education, School of Religion, University of Southern California, in an interview.

The realization of these problems may have much to do with his own feelings of inadequacy, with his personal problems, or with his skill, or lack of it, in working with a group* (2) Where the interviewer perceives that there is some per­ sonal difficulty, he can use subsequent interviews to deal with these, assuming, of course, that the young person is in­ terested in coming for such help. (3) Frequently the interviews dealing with skills and tech­ niques lead to an exploration of one's personal needs, which in turn encourages the young person to seek help with his personal difficulties. The interview, then, 11offers an opportunity for the student to use the resources within himself and those avail­ able to the counselor to gain insight and to make sound plans.”83 From this review of the most common techniques avail­ able in the discovering of leadership, this study moves on to consider the available techniques for leadership enlistment among the high school youth.

S3 Strang, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work, p. 391*-. •

155 II.

LEADEBSHIP ENLISTMENT

When potential leaders have been spotted for particu­ lar leadership situations, the youth who have been so discovered and designated should know that they have been and why; and, they should be informed that they are to be trained for such leadership*

Then they should be given

experience in leadership and growth, through an on-going religious educational program within the church and the community. Just how to enlist potential leaders In situations of leadership for which they are qualified, or could be through adequate and proper training, has often been a problem within a group.

Of course, if it is an up-and-coming group which

has at the outset made adequate plans and provisions for the discovery of its leadership, it will only naturally have made the proper plans for enlisting these leaders once they have been discovered. Since it should be up to the individual group to work out the rating scale that is applicable for its own particu­ lar needs, so it is up to that group to discover ways of enlisting the talent found within that group into service for every need that may arise.

Perhaps the best way is, to begin

by the listing of all of the possible leadership opportuni­ ties within that particular group and then by listing all of

l£6 the ways that can b© thought or to secure leaders Tor such situations.

It will no doubt be found that among these some

leadership situations will be found which can be filled immediately while others may require a longer period for preparation of the potential leader in order that he may be truly effective. In this process of enlistment, it would most probably be of help to list the names of the prospective leaders who have been discovered through such techniques as those listed above, check these names with a prearranged system of mark­ ings, and then proceed to begin working to enlist their interest.%

Herein lies the key to the enlistment of leaders—

their interest*

As has been emphasized before, their own

particular interests and needs are the basic motivational forces Inherent in these high school youth; therefore, once the particular individual’s Interests have been discovered along the line of his abilities for potential leadership, the task of enlisting him In those certain leadership responsibi­ lities should not be too great* The first step toward leadership enlistment, then, should be that of becoming aware of the interests of the

^4- The International Council of Religious Education, "Enlisting and Developing Church Worker s ," Educational Bulletin No. 507* nA Guide for Building a-Local Church Program of Leadership Education" Chicago: International Council of Religious Education, 19ip., p. 15*

157 prospective leaders and enlisting them in those responsibili­ ties of leadership in which they are interested to some degree and for which they have at least potential qualifica­ tions* Secondly, the needs of the individuals and of the group should be determined* ®5

A definite plan should be

initiated for ascertaining possible leadership needs within the group and these leaders enlisted and trained in advance of the need*

Such a system is the only fair one for all

concerned, the leader as well as the led; it will aid in doing away with mediocre and unprepared leadership. The International Council of Religious Education^ gives a listing of techniques which have proved effective. These are not here given in the same order as in this educa­ tional bulletin,but in their relative importance as seen by the writer: (l) Use personal conferences as a means of enlistment. If a responsible worker with youth "places the challenge directly before selected individuals in a straightforward but tactful manner,” the results may very likely be favorable.

85 Clarice M. Bowman, The Methodist Youth Fellowship as a Vital Force (Nashville:; Methodist Publishing House, I9I4-I4J , p.

00 International Council of Religious Education, op* cit*, pp. 15-17•

158 Also, the prospective leader undoubtedly will be helped if he is assured that “assistance is available through further personal conferences, resource materials, and sympathetic co-operation of others.’1 Counsel with these new and inex­ perienced leaders “so that they may succeed in their first efforts and gradually train themselves for more effective service.“87 Interviews have been treated above in connection with the discovery of leadership.

Guidance and counseling will

be discussed in more detail in the treatment of leadership education which follows in the next chapter.

Personal con­

ferences and counseling, by the minister, the youth superin­ tendent, or other responsible worker with the youth, can have far-reaching results in the enlistment and development of potential leaders.

This technique is a most important one in

the enlistment of leaders, as well as In their training and development. (2)

Challenge these prospective leaders “to share in

a worth-while enterprise*’1

It is characteristic for indivi­

duals to want to feel that theirs is a really important task; therefore, a person will more probably respond to an invita­ tion “to do something that calls for real work than to one that lwon,t take much time or effort,f“

^7 Bowman, ojd. cit., p . 5k-*

These challenging

159 tasks to be done should be presented clearly and attractive­ ly to the prospective leaders. (3) question.

Bo good work within the particular group in The well-known saying that "nothing succeeds like

success" is true in any group, be it in the church or in some other institution or organization. attracted by fgoing concerns.f"

"Investors are

Individuals really like to

share In those enterprises that are actually living and on­ going.

In order to make the particular group alive and

alert, it may require the elimination of some Inadequate or unworthy leadership that may have crept in, but this, too, can be accomplished happily by various means when the best interests of the work of the group require such a change. (If) Encourage these new leaders to assume minor, but at the same time, worth-while responsibilities in the group. "Uew and untried workers should be given opportunity to grow through experience so that they may undertake major types of work."

It should be pointed out, however, that those first

tasks which are so important to the individual should be of the kind that will challenge both their interest and activity. Too often individuals have been given jobs which were beyond their capability at that time, without further preparation, or have been given menial tasks which could never challenge interest or activity in that particular person.

In this

respect it is all important for the worker with the youth to

i6o know his young people in order that the tasks to he accom­ plished may be properly portioned out. (5) Distribute the responsibilities that are to be found within the group so that no person is overlooked.

Do

this by putting as many of the youth to work as possible; channel in the abilities of many.

With the potentialities

for leadership that are to be found within each group, no one person should have to have more than two or three specific responsibilities in any group.

In this connection,

perhaps it would be well for the group to make a list of the present leaders in the group, Indicating what positions each holds in the group*

It would then be well to work out an

agreement in the group that responsibilities are to be divided as new persons are found, either within the group or new members of the group, to take some of these positions. (6) Ask the individuals in the group for pledges of service.

It would seem just as relevant to ask group members

to make pledges of service as to ask them to make pledges of money, as is so often the case in order to maintain the group financially.

It is possible to distribute a printed, or

mimeographed, card listing various types of group activity and request the group members to check those types whieh they will agree' to perform.

This is an especially good opportuni­

ty for enlisting new members as leaders in a group because it will help them to see that they are joining a group wherein

l6l some definite service is requested and expected of its member s. (7) Give publicity to the on-going program of the particular group.

If the members of the group are kept

aware of all that is going on, through the various means of publicity available, interest will be enlisted for “the members will be challenged with the possibilities of ser­ vice* tf (8) Elect leaders by the group itself.

The importance

of any group*s work demands that a careful selection be made of leaders, which should be done by the group that is responsible for a given phase of the program.

"When persons

are deliberately elected to positions a dignity is given to them and to the work, and it challenges them to do their very best.”

It can readily be seen that this method of en­

listing leaders ”is far superior to a half-hearted request" from some official that a position be accepted.

Elections

may be held at stated intervals as the needsof the particular group require* (9) See that adequate equipment and materials are pro­ vided for all of the personnel of the group* Members as well as leaders should indeed be provided with the best possible equipment and with such materials as adequate books and other resources for further development.

162 An Important aspect which should be added to this list of techniques would seem to be that of encouraging growth^ among both leaders and followers.

Be sure to set

high standards in the group, and don’t accept 11just anybody" to take the particular responsibility.

Even at the expense

of having fewer leaders, strive to get the "right" ones. "Then make it worthwhile for the leaders to come up to those standards."

In this way, more will respond.

It might be

well to work out a "header’s Covenant of Service" for use by the leaders to help remind themselves of their responsibili­ ties and to encourage them to further growth.

Growth through

leadership education in the on-going program of the group and of the church will be treated in more detail in the next chapter. Perhaps the members of the group can make further, or even more adequate, suggestions as to methods of enlisting prospective leaders.

That is much to be desired.

These have

been merely suggestions given in order to motivate the thought processes of others.

-



It is to be remembered that the writer assumes that such enlistment will be made by and through the democratic group process for in that way will the greatest spirit of harmony and co-operation be brought about and maintained.

88 Loc. cit.

Another possibility of techniques for the enlistment of leadership was proposed at a recent meeting of Religious Education Directors$9

These were suggested for use in the

total church, but could very well be used within a particu­ lar division (such as the youth) or group within it.

The

plan, which is being used in some Methodist churches, calls for getting the group ready for such enlistment, and the methods follow: (1) Personnel Survey.

This is to be done within the

group through preparing the members by a good, thorough build-up for such a survey.

A questionnaire to meet the

needs of the particular group should be worked out*

This can

be put to good use by a visitation committee, or committees, that will contact every member to get the needed information. After the information Is obtained through the survey, it is classified for further use. (2) Job Analysis.

A committee from the particular

group would make up a job analysis of every job to be done in the group, or youth division*

This analysis would in­

clude, the description of the job, the kind of person needed, the age, the qualifications, the amount of time required for the job— including study, planning sessions, visitation, etc.

89 (Jerald Harvey, "Techniques on Leadership Develop­ ment,” talk and discussion at meeting of Religious Education Directors of the Southern California-Arlzona Conference of the Methodist Church in Los Angeles, April 27* 195®.

l6i(. (3)

Personnel Placement Committee.

Such a committee

would then be set up to place these various personnel of the group in the jobs for which they would be most qualified. Prom the time such a plan was initiated, every job would be cleared through this commit tee--with the committee, of course, taking into full consideration the information discovered in the personnel survey together with the analyses of the various jobs before assigning each job. (if) Training Program.

This would include a trial

period, one job at a time, and both in-service and extra training. This brief mention of a training program leads to that subject whieh is to be more fully explored in the next chapter— a study of the techniques available for leadership education.

CHAPTER V TECHNIQUES FOR LEADERSHIP EDUCATION OF HIGH SCHOOL AGE YOUTH As has so often been pointed out, a mighty oak tree grows from a tiny acorn.

So should it be acknowledged that

good leadership— even nationally and internationally— can stem from small beginnings of leadership opportunity that can be traced back to some small church or community group. The secret for the success of such good leadership, perhaps, lies in the fact that it was discovered in due time, enlist­ ed in ever-growing tasks for which it was qualified, and was nourished by adequate and proper methods of leadership educa­ tion and experiences for growth of the total personality. Leadership education is always a challenge in the religious education of the high school youth.

By many

leaders it is looked upon rather as a continuous problem; however, with but a change of emphasis it is one of the greatest challenges that can face our churches today or at any time. An integral part of religious education is the educa­ tion, or training, for Christian leadership. considered as

This may be

166 Christian education oriented toward a more purposeful and creative sharing of the Christian life. . . . Christian nurture with emphasis upon being and doing, learning and serving, seeking and sharing.1 One of the central aims of religious education is to produce persons with lives that are worth sharing and with the desire for sharing them.

It is on such a foundation as

this that leadership education seeks to build the skills for more effective sharing.

It may be stated that Christian

leadership education seeks to nurture growing persons in the Christian life, increasing their -knowledge of the will of Cod and of the mind of Christ; deepening their experience; spiritualiz­ ing their attitudes, appreciations, hopes, and purposes; and strengthening their faith; with the specific purpose of developing skills in sharing this knowledge and ex­ perience creatively with other growing p e r s o n s . ^ In this way it seeks to put adequate tools in the hands of growing Christian workers and leaders. The leader is seen as being ’’within the process’1— a student and a learner— for it is only the growing person who can help others to grow.

It is to be noted, therefore, that

one of the aims of leadership education is to help the lead­ ers to grow.

Experience centered, ’’learning by doing”

3- Herman J. Sweet, ’’The Education of Lay and Profes­ sional Religious Education.Leaders,” Orientation in Religious Education, edited by Philip Henry Lotz (Hashville: Abingdon Cokesbury Press, 1930), p. 392.

2 Lo g . cit.

167 education must be provided for the young people of our churches if they are to develop into the vital Christian leaders for which they have the potentialities.

Therefore,

Christian leadership education, or Christian service train­ ing, should help persons to take those qualities of human liv­ ing so fruitfully and often unconsciously used— so naturally and intuitively used--in the best parenthood, in creative friendships, and in good neighborliness, over into the class or group where growing persons seek to share their faith, and their knowledge, and their experi­ ence of the Christian life with other growing persons.3 The challenges afforded by religious education call for a special program of leadership education which will produce adequate Christian leadership among the high school age youth of the church.

The present study has explored ways

and means to be used in developing an adequate leadership from that which is potential in every youth--through the various aspects of guidance, through leadership education classes, and through prac tic urns in Christian leadership. I.

GUIDANCE

Itmay be observed that the best leading takes place when the leader1s personality is intimately touched by the personality of the follower.

3 Loc. cit.

In such a relationship as this,

l68 the leader "must deal in terms of needs, problems, and in­ terestsTt of the follower.

This involves a method of leading

in which the welfare of the individual as an end in Christian leadership education is emphasized, and it stresses "effec­ tive methods of individual help."^* The method of leading here involved— guidance— is one which is of the greatest value in education for leadership. Guidance in religious education may be considered as a one-toone, or one-to-group, relationship in which a mature and experienced person guides the inexperienced individual or group in on-going and growing processes.

Its function should

be regarded "as active and positive rather than as passive and negat ive."5 Several concepts of guidance have emerged.

Some con­

sider the "individual approach" as that approach in which guidance methods are applied to all phases of the program. In this regard, that "particularization" which is found to be essential to operating the group work process suceessfully-the specific needs and Interests of individuals comprising

k■ Percy R. Hayward and Roy A. Burkhart, Young People rs Method in the Church, (New York:; Abingdon Press, 1933TJ P. 114-75 William C. Bower, Character Through Creative Ex­ perience (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1930)> p. itJ'7.

169 the group might be referred to as guidance.

John M. Du Vail

states1 Brewer1s conception of guidance as synonymous with education, while L. V. Hoos and G. N. Kefauver restrict the term to include only those phases of education which aim at distributing persons effectively among both educational and vocational opportunities and, at the same time, to aid them in making the best possible adjustment to such opportunities. Somewhere between these too broad and too restricted con­ cepts is to be found the most useful conception of guidance: It f,must be concerned with the whole range of the members* experiences and should permeate all the other methods used by the workers.11 The term is, therefore, most significant when it is applied to a specific method, one by which members are helped, one at a time or by'groups, ,!to deal with certain kinds of opportunity or problem situations.116 Classifications of this method of leadership may be made as to individual guidance or group guidance: Individual guidance may be considered as an aspect of the democratic leadership education process, even though it is interrelated and interdependent with any other method that may be used.

It is a one-to-one relationship.

objectives are self-direction and self-guidance.

Its

Seeking to

° Everett W. DuVall, Personality and Social Group Work (lew York: Association Press, 19^4-3) ^ pp• 8-16o .

170 further the process of educational nparticular±zation,,f it helps individual group members to make choices and adjust­ ments and to solve problems ”in specific present situa­ tions." 7 Every individual, whether he be brilliant and ad­ justed or dull and maladjusted, needs guidance in finding his niche in the complex sociality of this age.

Each person

should be tfrespected as a distinct personality and guided according to his particular needs,11 thus promoting "self respect and self-confidence in those whom we seek to guide and lead on to higher and nobler achievement. "8 In studying the Gospels in the Hew Testament, it is to be observed that Jesus himself devoted most of his time to guiding individual lives.

Even though he taught the

multitudes, in most instances his sphere of activity and guidance was accomplished through intimately coming in touch with individuals in terms of their specific needs; even in choosing his disciples, he did not make a group appeal, but got them 11one by one as the result of a personal call.w9 Just as important is it for the present day religious leader, whose ultimate interest and concern is in the individual, to

7 Ibid. , p. l6l. ® Hayward and Burkhart, op. cit., p. li^7f. 9 Ibid., lij.7.

171 focus his attention upon the one in contrast with the many as is necessary when playing the role of group leader. The following types" of group members should have individual guidance made available to them: (l) those need­ ing further orientation in the nature and purpose of the particular group, and especially those who may be new to the experience of the democratic, self-directing group process; (2) those identifying themselves with the group and its various activities, but at the same time needing to acquire skill for more complete and intelligent participation (such as filling elective offices, committee appointments, sharing in projects, etc.); (3) those being involved in poor inter­ personal or group relationships and in need of understanding and skill in making more adequate and 'wholesome adjustments; (If) those having personal problems and needing protracted counseling; (5) those being confronted with out-of-the-group difficulties such as home and vocational problems.

It is

observable that these needs are not mutually exclusive in any given member situation.1^

To these, as a result of this

10 Gertrude Wilson and Gladys Byland, Social Group Work Practice (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 19lf9 J, p. 7if. 11 Paul B. Irwin, unpublished outline on Guidance for Religious Education classes in the School of Religion, University of Southern California.

172 study, should be added: (6) those showing potential leader­ ship qualifications and should be educated for religious leadership among the peer group, or those whose leadership could be improved through further leadership education. Guidance techniques may be classified as either for­ mal or informal, and the approach as either directive or indirective.

formal interview or conference is pre­

structured in terms of time and place, while the informal is provided through casual chats characterized by spontaneity and taking place under any circumstances permitting personto-person conversation and mutual sharing; this classifica­ tion corresponds somewhat with the "levels11 to be found in counseling. As Henry C. Morrison has said in regard to teachers, that they "should spend half their time studying their pupils as individuals, and the rest of their time doing what that study shows to be desirable and necessary,"13 so may the same statement be made in regard to leaders and their followers.

1^ See sections on Counseling in Chapter V of this study; Roy A. Burkhart, Guiding Individual Growth (Hew York: Abingdon Press, 1935)» pp. 97-110; Jane Warters, High School Personnel Work Today (Hew York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 194.6 ) pi 59; E.' G. Williamson, How To Counsel Students (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939 )9 Carl Rogers, Counseling and Psychotherapy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co7, 191^2); Snygg and A. W. Combs, Individual Behaviour (Hew York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 194-9) * *3 Ruth Strang, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel

173 The leader guides as he leads and while he works with the group, he keeps the individuals in it in mind.

By knowing

the abilities and backgrounds of his group members, by understanding as much as possible about human behavior, by being sensitive to the individual responses within the group, and by being "alert and ingenious in making the interactions within the group serve individual needs and contribute to group goals or purposes,” the leader can meet the needs of all his group members through "personal relations as well as lectures, group discussions, committee work, plans for inde­ pendent study, individual instruction, and casual, construc­ tive, personal comments.”lii Group Guidance, also, is an aspect of the democratic leadership education process.

It Is a one-to-group relation­

ship in which the experienced leader works in and through the group process in guiding the group and the individual members within it. The classifications and principles discussed above in connection with individual guidance also hold good for group guidance, only that the group as a whole is the concern of

Work (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, l ^ G ), p. 113. l]£ hoc, cit.

17if-

the experienced leader.

The method used may he formal or

informal; and the approach, directive or non-directive. Group guidance can well be used to bring together the leaders who are themselves becoming conscious of leadership interest and ability— or whose abilities have been recognized by mature leaders— to review and evaluate their previous experiences. Whether it be individual or group guidance, the emo­ tional maturity and objectivity concerning his knowledge in the field of guidance is of vital importance in regard to the experienced worker.

He must know how to recognize both his

strengths and his limitations, and to either abide by them or further prepare himself.

Questions he must ask in each

guidance situation include when he should invite guidance, when continue the process, and when make a referral; there­ fore, essential to good group leadership is training in counseling rationale and techniques.15 Guidance, then, should be regarded as a continuum--an on-going process taking into account the experiences of the individual youth being guided, his situation at the present (including whatever problem may need solving or choice, or adjustments to be made) and "the probable demands of both the immediate and the remote future as a consequence of

^•5 Irwin, op. cit.

175 present decisions*11 Assisting the individual in the develop­ ment of the capacity for self-guidance is the ultimate purpose--f,a gradual process of learning how to stand alone and to make wise decisions without continued reliance on external assistance.11 Therefore, knowing how much assist­ ance may be needed and how and when support should be with­ drawn are important to skillful guidance: Guidance does not mean determining for the person guided just what he should or should not do, either in the step-by-step decisions or in such broad choices as selecting a vocation* It means assisting the individual to secure the information and experience essential to making his own decisions, selecting his own course, choosing for himself what he will do.lo Of most importance in guidance, then, are the selections of techniques which are appropriate to the needs and interests of the participants and recognition of the fact that the uwhole person in all his relationshipstf is the major con­ cern* 17

And, the specific steps to be taken in guidance are

to be set by f,the steps by which the growing person learns to interpret, enrich, and control his own experience.f|l8 Studies were made of the major techniques of guidance and the following statements regarding their implications in

Du Vail, op. £it*, p. 166.

17 Ibid** p* 20* 18 Bower, op*, cit*, p* 187.

176 educating high school youth for religious leadership re­ sulted*

These have been divided according to individual and

group guidance* Included under individual guidance techniques are, counseling, shareviews, supervision, apprenticeship, and guided reading*

These follow:

Counseling;*

Counseling may be defined as a f,faee-to-

face relationship in which growth takes place--growth of the counselor as well as of the counselee*”19

This Mface-to-face

relationship,f exists whether the counseling be between two people or between a counselor and a group.

It may be con­

sidered as ,!both an emphasis in the entire program of religious education and a special aspect of that program11: As an emphasis in the entire program it represents an acceptance of the responsibility in and through religious education to help individuals in meeting the everyday situations of life. As a special aspect of the program it involves a recognition of the fact that each indi­ vidual^ situation and problems are unique, and that he may need personal help on his own particular problems and decisions.^ Counseling is sometimes considered to be practically synonymous with guidance; however, in relation to this study of the education of religious leadership among high school

19 Strang, op*cit., p. 252. 20 Harrison S. Elliott, “Individual and Croup Counseling,n Orientation in Religious Education, edited by Philip Henry Lotz (Nashville: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1950 )9 p* 183.

177 youth., the term "counseling" is used in a more limited sense— "to designate a phase of guidance as a major method*" It is, therefore, "essentially an educational process through which Individual members are helped to deal with problem or opportunity situations.”21

As an educational process, a

successful outcome involves even more than a wise decision regarding whatever problem or situation may be immediate; growth on the part of the counselee--in the ability to deal with similar situations In the future— is also involved. Therefore, in a sense "counseling Is teaching"; or, as Strang is quoted as saying, it is, "in part, instruction in selfdirection."

It is more than a single interview or even a

series of them; it is rather "a process that is concluded only when growth and development of ability for self-direc­ tion have made further assistance unnecessary."

As such It

lies at the very heart of individual guidance.^ As was suggested above, counseling for the purpose of developing potential religious leadership can be done through either individual consultations or interviews or through group conferences.23

Both individual and group counseling

21 Du Vail, 0£. cit•, p. 1 22 Ibid. , p. 1^6f. 23 Other techniques and procedures available, according to Du Vail, p. 1519 include such as the administration of tests, rating scales, questionnaires, and other instruments

178 are based on distinctive possibilities in persons: Human beings can carry on these types of exploration in alternation from life’s activities alone, but they often find it helpful to carry on this process in a group, the members of which are facing similar situations and problems, or individually with a counselor in whom they have confidence.2k Regardless of the type of counseling, however, the basic process remains the same.

In fact, the procedure used

in counseling is no different from that in any aspect of the religious education program where helping individuals or groups to find the answers to their problems is the purpose. Also, it is to be further observed that the basic process used in helping persons “with ordinary life situations is similar to that used for helping individuals with personality and behavior difficulties.!,2S

Major steps to be used in

for measurement and diagnosis. “The findings from such in­ struments, together with other inforaation from records, reports, and investigations, are synthesized with the facts coming from the eounselee himself and with the observations of the counselor during the interview. From this unified picture the counselor makes his diagnosis and prognosis re­ garding the eounselee and the situation confronting him. On the basis of this working hypothesis, which is tentatively held and subject to modification, the counselor helps to analyze the situation and to interpret it in the light of all the known significant factors and their interrelatedness; offers suggestions regarding various choices of action; and assists the eounselee to forecast the probable consequences of each possible decision.” 2k Elliott, 0£. cit. , p. 183. 25 Loc. cit.; See Rollo May, The Art of Counseling: How to Gain and Give Mental Health (Nashville: AbingdonCokesbury Press, 1939) 5 Tor fuller treatment of Counseling.

179 this basic process of counseling

include26;

(1)

Arriving at

a real understanding of the question or problem which is under consideration, which involves the "describing and ex­ ploring" of the situation(s) in which the problem has arisen in such a way that "the environmental factors and pressures are taken into account."

Also, it is necessary to allow the

individual facing the situation plenty of opportunity for him to express his attitudes and feelings in order that "the problem as he sees and feels it may be considered and the emotional factors may be taken fully into account."

(2 )

Securing clarification of actual choices being faced by the individual, or of the available alternative possibilities which he may be willing to consider in answer to his problem. It is particularly important that he express just why each alternative may appeal to him or why he may resist it; this exploration will tend to reveal the outlook on life which is basic with him and where he has underlying conflicts in making a choice or a decision. decision.

(3) Making a choice

or a

This is not always arrived at easily, especially

on an important problem.

Discussion back and forth may be

carried on as to the difference between or value of the alternative possibilities; and, there very likely will be

26 Elliott,

0 £.

cit.. p. I83f.

180 ffreal struggle on the part of the eounselee over his person­ al attitudes and feelings and in relation to his basic outlook on life.11

(!{.) Porseeing the difficulties as well as

making plans for carrying out the decision made by the eounselee.

(This step, to the harm of the eounselee, some­

times is omitted.)

There will often be difficulties in

carrying out the choice if it represents a different way of action or a change in the basic attitudes of the individual; therefore, to size up these difficulties and to work out ways and means to carry them out will often help to prevent defeat. Counseling opportunities among potential youth lead­ ers are to be seen as of two main types27j (l) that counsel­ ing which leads to self-discovery— those opportunities wherein the counselor and individual youth explore, appraise, and plan, and in which each youth is helped to develop in the way which is best for him; and (2 ) that counseling which aids emotionally disturbed individuals-’‘•those opportunities in which youth are helped in some crisis or difficulty, by directing the attention of both the counselor and the youth eounselee to the particular choice that is to be made or to the problem or difficulty which needs solving. Included under the second heading are emotional diffi­ culties, problems of boy-girl relationships, family

2? Strang, op. cit., pp. 266-318.

181 relationships, health, so-called discipline problems, failure in one or more subjects, choice of course and further education, and choice and preparation for a vocation.28 As to different levels of counseling, Strang suggests that there are four ,29 which are determined largely by the training of the counselor: (l) The face-to-face counseling relationship in which the counselor uses the experiences of the group to ?,help eaeh individual discover what he can do and become, find good ways of meeting daily situations, and gain the affection, recognition, and security he needs.”

(2 )

Helping the youth to understand himself, which goes a little more deeply into the needs of the individual than does the above.

(3) Counseling in which ftunderlying causes are deep-

seated and complex”— tfthe level on which the social worker and the psychiatrist operate.”

(if) Psychoanalysis, lahich

goes ”still more deeply into the subconscious.”

The counsel­

or of youth should take the responsibility to qualify himself as much as possible in order to work as expertly as he can on these first two levels of counseling, but the last two require real professional help.

Burkhart^O suggests three levels:

(l) Curative--concerned with helping a young person who is in

28 ibid. , p. 266. 29 Ibid., pp. 257-259. 30 Burkhart, op. cit. , pp. 32-3lf.

182 difficulty, or whose conduct doesnft follow the accepted pattern, or who has a problem with which he desires help. (2) Preventative— involving that guidance necessary in helping a young person to "maintain his normal, everyday experience in a wholesome relation with others and in line with his planned program of action; this level "helps him in his group work, coaches him in tasks he has to do, and helps him to break into new fields of work." growth.

(3) Concerned with

As Edwards and Hilgard are quoted as saying:

It is the level at which the counselor ought most to seek to proceed. The purpose here is not primarily restoring health and maintaining it, but it is the development of the richer life of the individual. The counselor must open new doors to the pupil, must furnish new incentives to achievement, if he is to fulfill the responsibility of one concerned with the student’s (youth’s) total life.31 A distinction is made between directive and non-direc­ tive methods of counseling, although Elliott32 points out that "the issue is confused because unless the counselor is to be a wooden image, he will have some kind of influence upon the counseling process, whether or not he admits it." Be that as it may, ,the problem remains as to what kind and degree of direction should be given to the counseling process

31 Ibid., p. 3I4., as quoted from Student Counseling. Bulletin of the National Council on Religion in Higher Educa­ tion, Vol. VII. 32 Elliott, op. cit., p. 190.

183 by the counselor.

"The difference of viewpoint comes more

with reference to the answer to the problem than it does in defining it.tf33

The main issue, then, between directive and

non-directive counseling is concerned with the part that the counselor takes in determining the answer to questions.

Youth and the Church. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: More­ house Publishing Company, 1933. 217 pp. Partridge, E. DeAlton, Leadership Among Adolescent Boys. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1934. 190 Richmond, Winifred V., The Adolescent Boy. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1933. 233 pp. Rogers, Carl R., Counseling and Psychotherapy. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1942. 450 pp. Rorer, Lohn Alexander, Principles of Democratic Supervision. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1942. 230 pp. Seifert, Harvey, Fellowships of Concern. Nashville, Tennes­ see: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1949. 96 pp.

38 5

Shaver, Erwin L., The WorkersT Conference Manual. New York: The Abingdon Press, 1938. 113 pp. Slavson, S. R . , Creative Group Education. New York: Associa­ tion Press, 1937. £47 pp. Smith, Robert Senaca, New Trails for the Christian Teacher: Twelve Studies for Class IJse or Personal Reading. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1934. 260 pp. Snygg, Donald, and Arthur W. Combs, Individual Behavior: A New Frame of Reference. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1949. S86 pp. Soares, Theodore G-erald, Religious Education. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1938. 336 pp. Spriegel, William R. , and Edward Shultz, Elements of Super­ vision. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1943. 373 pp. Strain, Frances Bruce, Teen Days: A Book for Boys and Girls. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1946. 183 pp. Strang, Ruth, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1946. 497 pp. Symonds, P. M . , Diagnosing Personality and Conduct. New York: The Century Company, 1931. 603 pp. Taylor, Katharine Whiteside, Do Adolescents Need Parents?. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1938. 380 pp. Tead, Ordway, The Art of Leadership. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1935. 308 pp. Thom, Douglas A., Normal Youth and Its Everyday Problems. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1933. 367 pp. Thorndike, Edward L., and Arthur I. Gates, Elementary Prin­ ciples of Education. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1939. 335 pp. Thorpe, Louis P., Child Psychology and Development. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1947. 781 pp.

286

______ _, Psychological Foundations of Personality: A Guide for Students and Teachers. New York*- McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1958. 602 pp. Tracy, Frederick, The Psychology of Adolescence. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1923. 246 pp. Tralle, Henry Edward, Psychology of Leadership. The Century Company, 1925. 234 pp.

New York:

Trecker, Harleigh B., Group Process in Administration. New York: The Womanfs Press, 1946. 127 pp. , Social Group Work: Principles and Practices. New York: The Woman’s Press, 1948. 313 pp. Vieth, Paul H . , Improving Your Sunday School: Practical Suggestions for Superintendents, Pastors, and Others Whose Duty it is to Supervise the Teaching of Religion in the Local Church. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1934. 184 pp. Watson, Goodwin, Youth After Conflict. New York: Association Press, 1947. 300 pp. Warters, lane, High School Personnel Work Today. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1946. 277 pp. Wheeler, Olive A ., The Adventure of Youth: The Psychology of Adolescence and Its Bearing on the Extension and Reform of Adolescent Education. London: University of London Press, Ltd., 1946. 212 pp. Williams, lohn Paul, The New Education and Religion: A Chal­ lenge to Secularism in Education. New York: Association Press, 1945. 198 pp. Williamson, Edmund Griffith, How to Counsel Students. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939. 562 pp. Wilson, Gertrude, and Gladys Ryland, Social Group Work Prac­ tice : The Creative Use of the Social Process. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1949. 687 pp. Wittenberg, R., So You Want to Help People. New York: Asso­ ciation Press, 1947. 174 pp.i Wynne, John P . , Philosophies of Education From the Standpoint of the Philosophy of Experimental!sm. New York: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1947. 427 pp.

287

Young, Pauline V., Interviewing in Social Work. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1935. 416 pp. Zachry, Caroline B., Emotion and Conduct in Adolescence. New York: D. Appleton Century Company, Inc., 1940. 563 pp. B.

BOOKLETS AND PAMPHLETS

A Glassified Bibliography of Youth Publications. Chicago: The International Council of Religious Education, 1948. 64 pp. Bowman, Clarice M. , The Methodist Youth Fellowship As A Vital Force. Nashville, Tennessee: The Methodist Pub­ lishing House, 1944. 128 pp. Burt, Roy E., Community Service for Youth. Nashville, Ten­ nessee: The Methodist Publishing House, 1941.- 64 pp. Christian Education Today: A Statement of Basic Philosophy. Chicago: The International Council of Religious Educa­ tion, 1940. 40 pp. Curriculum Guide, Book 1: Objectives in Religious Education. Chicago: The International Council of Religious Educa­ tion, 1932. 114 pp. Enlisting and Developing Church Workers. Chicago: The Inter­ national Council of Religious Education, 1941. 47 pp. Harper, George, Youth and Community Service: A Program Elective for Seniors and Older Youth. Nashville, Tennes­ see: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1949. 48 pp. Hills, lames L . , The Problems of Youth: A Study Guide for Use ..in Schools, Churches', and Summer Camps. San Bernardino, California: (Mimeographed), 1947. 41 pp. Jennings, Halen Hall, Sociometry in Group Relations: A Work Guide For Teachers. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1948. 85 pp. , Sociometry of Leadership. 1947. 28 pp.

New York: Beacon House,

288

Moon, Alleen, Workers With Youth. Nashville, Tennessee: The Methodist Publishing House, 1941. 96 pp. Moreno, J. L., Foundations of Sociometry. New York: Beacon House, 1941. 35 pp. "Qualities of An Effective Leader," The Christian Quest: Youth and JesusT Way of Life. Chicago: The International Council of Religious Education, 1927. 66 pp. Rogers, Carl R., A Counseling Viewpoint. New York: Commis­ sion on Religion and Health, Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1945. 22 pp. -Rupert, Hoover, Handbook of The Methodist Youth Fellowship. Nashville, Tennessee: The Methodist Publishing House, 1949, 128 pp. The Vocational Council of The Methodist Church, "Adventur­ ing . . .," Service Projects Directory, Vol. IV. Nash­ ville, Tennessee: The Methodist Publishing House, n.d. 26 pp. C.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

Bavelas, A., and K. Lewin, "Training in Democratic Leader­ ship," Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology. 37:115-19, Benne, K . , "Leaders Are Made, Not Born," Childhood Education, 24:204-08, January, 1948. Bradshaw, F. S., "Revising Rating Techniques," Personnel Journal, 10:232-45, December, 1931. Eaton, J. W . , "Experiments in Testing for Leadership," Ameri­ can J ournal of Sociology, 52:523-35, May, 1947. Elliott, Merle H . , "Patterns of Friendship in the Classroom," Progressive Education, 18:383-90, November, 1941. Fahs, Sophia Lyon, "Some of the Problems of Supervision," International Journal of Religious Education, 7:17-18, November, 1930. _______ , "Two Supervisors," International Journal of Reli­ gious Education, 6:13-14,45, September, 1930.

289

"Glossary,” Sociatry: Journal of Group and Intergroup Therapy, 2:247/455^250/458, December-March, 1948. Hall, L. K . , "Group Work in Religious Education," Religious Education, 40:257-62, October, 1945. Hendry, Charles E., editor, "Leadership in a Democracy," The Journal of -Educational Sociology, 17:385-448, March, 1944. Herrold, K. E ., "Teachership as Leadership," Teachers College Record, 48:515-21, May, 1947* Infield, Henrik F., "Sociometry and the Concept of the Moment," Sociometry, 6:243-44, August, 1943. Jennings, Helen Hall, "Leadership - A Dynamic Redefinition," Journal of Educational Sociology, 17:431-33, March, 1944. Kornhauser, A, W . , "What Are Rating Scales Good For?,” Jour­ nal of Personnel Research, 5:189-93, May, 1926-ApriI^ F927. Lewin, Kurt, "The Dynamics of Group Action," Educational Leadership. 1:195-200, January, 1944. , R. Lippitt, and R. K. White, "Patterns of Aggres­ sive Behavior in Experimentally Created 1Social Cli­ mates,ttT Journal of Social Psychology, 10:271-99, May, 1939. Limbert, P. M . , "What Group Work Means for Religious Educa­ tion," Religious Education. 40:263-69, September-October, 1945. Lippitt, Ronald, "The Psychodrama in Leadership Training," Sociometry, 6:286-93, August, 1943. Moreno, J. L . , "The Concept of Sociodrama: A Hew Approach to the Problem of Inter-Cultural Relations," Sociometry, 6:454-50, November, 1943. _______, and H. H. Jennings, "Sociometric Method of Grouping and Regrouping," Sociometry, 7:397-414, November, 1944. Partridge, E. D . , "The Sociometric Approach to Adolescent Groupings," Sociometry, 6:258-64, August, 1943. Sabin, T. R ., "The Concept of Role-taking," Sociometry, 6:273-86, August, 1943.

£9 0

D . UIIPUBLISPIED MATERIALS Anderson, Amerette Eaton, "Prediction of Rated Leadership Quality from Objective Personal Data," Unpublished Mas­ ter’s thesis,- University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1946. 48 pp. Belford, Joseph Kenneth, "Factors of Leadership," Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935. 89 pp. Goodwin, Phillip Adams, "An Introductory Study of the Predic­ tion of Personal Leadership Ability Based on Group Atti­ tudes and Opinions," Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1945. 54 pp. Hoffman, Elbert Dow, "The Group Work Process in Religious Education," Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1945. 1S7 pp. Irwin, Paul B., Unpublished Outline on "Group Work,” for Religious Education classes in The School of Religion, University of Southern Californiaj Los Angeles, 1950. 10 pp. , Unpublished Outline on "Democracy," for Religious Education classes in The School of Religion, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1950. 4 pp. Murphy, Florence Elizabeth, "A Study of the Personality Traits of High-School Leaders," Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933. 93 pp. Seifert, Harvey J. D., Unpublished Syllabus for Devotional Practices, a course in-The School of Religion, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1947. 4 pp. _______, Unpublished Syllabus for The Church and Community Reconstruction, a course in The School of Religion, Uni­ versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1947. £4 pp.