Demographic Statistics of Hawaii: 1778–1965 9780824885175

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DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS OF HAWAII:

1778-1965

DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS OF HAWAII:

Robert C. Schmitt

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII Honolulu

1968

PRESS

1778-1965

Copyright 1968 by the U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii Press Manufactured i n the United States of America L i b r a r y of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-30840

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Three of the chapters in this book o r i g i n a l l y appeared, in somewhat different form, as articles in the Hawaii Historical Review.

Chapter I I was published in two parts, the f i r s t (as

"Population Estimates and Censuses of Hawaii, 1778-1850") in the July 1964 issue and the second (as "Population Characteri s t i c s of Hawaii, 1778-1850") in the April 1965 issue. Chapter VI was published (as "Birth and Death Rates in Hawaii, 1848-1962") in the January 1964 issue.

Chapter V I I appeared

(as "Migration S t a t i s t i c s of Hawaii, 1823-1962") in July 1963. All three chapters have been extensively revised since their i n i t i a l appearance.

The author is grateful to Richard A. Greer,

Editor of the Review, for permission to reprint these a r t i c l e s in their new form. Chapter V and the appendix on intercensal estimates are based in part on studies made by the author for the State Department of Planning and Economic Development. Many librarians and a r c h i v i s t s assisted with the historical portions of this monograph.

Janet E. B e l l , Curator of the

Hawaiian and Pacific Collection, S i n c l a i r Library, University of Hawaii, and Agnes Conrad and her staff at the Archives of Hawaii were particularly helpful.

Assistance was obtained also

from the librarians of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, the Hawaiian Historical Society, the Library of Hawaii, and the Honolulu Municipal Reference Library. v

Dr. Paul Bruyere, Charles G. Bennett, George H. Tokuyama, L i l l i a n Louis, Myrna Sen, and Marie Viele, all of the Research, Planning and S t a t i s t i c s Office of the State Department of Health, provided many of the s t a t i s t i c s on b i r t h s , deaths, migration, marriages, and divorces. Special acknowledgment is due Dr. Andrew W. Lind, Senior Professor of Sociology at the University of Hawaii.

Dr. L i n d ' s

profound knowledge of Hawaiian demography, shared with the author over a span of nearly twenty years, i s reflected in many of the pages that follow.

His c r i t i c a l review of both the

i n i t i a l draft and a subsequent revision of the manuscript contributed greatly to the final book. Other persons providing information, assistance, or encouragement included Dr. Bernhard L. Hormann of the University of Hawaii, Dr. Kenneth P. Emory and his colleagues at the Bishop Museum, members of the Population and Geography Divisions of the U. S. Bureau of the Census, and Rose C. Strombel.

vi

Contents

Foreword (by Andrew W. Lind) I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.

ix

Introduction

3

Estimates and partial censuses: The Hawaiian censuses: The U. S. Censuses:

1847-1896

Birth and death s t a t i s t i c s :

Appendix:

79 1960-1965

1848-1965

130 152

1823-1965

Marriage and divorce s t a t i s t i c s :

14 46

1900-1960

Postcensal estimates and surveys:

Migration s t a t i s t i c s :

1778-1850

175 1829-1965

Intercensal population estimates:

1848-1965

193 217

Notes

225

Bibliography

257

Index

263

FOREWORD The New England m i s s i o n a r i e s who came to Hawaii early in the nineteenth century have been credited with the introduction of many t h i n g s , both good and bad, but r a r e l y , i f ever, have they been e i t h e r praised or blamed as the innovators of social science.

The f a c t remains, however, that well within the f i r s t

decade a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l i n 1820, these Protestant pioneers had become deeply d i s t r e s s e d about the population problem in t h e i r i s l a n d community and were i n i t i a t i n g the use of census methods in determining what was a c t u a l l y happening in t h i s regard.

Just three years a f t e r the f i r s t company of m i s s i o n a r i e s

had appeared, they prepared an estimate of the population on each of the i s l a n d s and of the entire chain, and in 1832 they took a census, with the assistance of native school on each of the f i v e more important i s l a n d s .

teachers,

A second census

four years l a t e r , supplemented by the enumeration of b i r t h s and deaths within some of the d i s t r i c t s , t e s t i f i e s to the genuine concern of the m i s s i o n a r i e s for the population trends among the native Hawaiians.

Thus, i t was only natural that a few years

l a t e r , when the pressure for an o f f i c i a l governmental census had mounted s u f f i c i e n t l y , a Protestant missionary educator should have been placed in charge, and that beginning i n 1860, an o f f i c i a l count of the population, in increasing detail and accuracy, should have been conducted every s i x y e a r s , instead of at the ten year i n t e r v a l s common in most of the advanced countries of the world.

Considering the wealth of detailed information regarding the nature of the population in Hawaii over more than a century of time, probably unrivaled in any other developing region of the world, i t may seem strange that these rich resources have not been more adequately exploited by students of society, particularly in view of the growing interest in the experience of the so-called "under-developed" areas of the world.

This is

doubtless largely a consequence of the very limited circulation of the data in published form.

Copies of the published reports

of the census counts prior to 1900 are available in only a few of the rare-book collections of l i b r a r i e s in Hawaii and scarcely at all outside of the Islands.

Moreover, even for the occasional

serious student of population trends, the task of unraveling the mystery of Hawaiian terms and definitions and the inconsistencies between returns of one census and the next has been sufficient to discourage s i g n i f i c a n t research efforts except by a very few. Romanzo Adams was the f i r s t social s c i e n t i s t to penetrate deeply into the intricacies of Hawaiian demography, and prior to his death in 1942 he was s t i l l busily engaged in the preparation of a manuscript that he referred to as an "attempt to psycho-analyze the census."

He meant simply that he was seeking

to disentangle some of the obvious inconsistencies and to present more meaningfully some of the census findings.

Unfortu-

nately Adams was unable to complete this task, and no one else has thus far ventured to undertake the formidable task in which he was so enthusiastically engaged, x

The author of the present volume has accepted a more modest, and perhaps more prosaic, but no less useful assignment.

Robert

Schmitt has f i r s t of all brought together within the confines of a single volume the basic population data derived from the ten different reports of censuses conducted by the Hawaiian government prior to Annexation and from the seven decennial reports by the United States Bureau of the Census during the present century.

Nowhere else in published form has so much

essential population data for the entire period of Hawaii's experience since Captain Cook's discovery of the Islands been brought together.

The author wisely refrains from attempting

to extract the f u l l significance of these data, which would have required not one but many volumes to complete, but he performs the more immediately useful function of providing the data themselves and of indicating how they hold together from one period to another.

Similarly Mr. Schmitt has brought to-

gether for the f i r s t time, from obscure and little-known government f i l e s , the basic vital s t a t i s t i c s of b i r t h s , deaths, marriages, and divorces, dating back to the early days of the Hawaiian monarchy.

He fortunately c a l l s attention to the in-

adequacies in the early recording of vital s t a t i s t i c s and alludes to the distorted conclusions which may result from the calculation of crude rates, but he also presents the meaningful findings of rates adjusted for under-registration and for the abnormalities in the age and sex structure of the population. xi

Within the covers of t h i s book are the raw and semi-refined demographic materials with which the students of Hawaiian society w i l l have to grapple for many years to come and f o r the gathering and refinement of which they should be g r a t e f u l . Andrew W. Lind

xii

DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS OF HAWAII:

1778-1965

I.

INTRODUCTION

The demographic history of Hawaii i s long, complex, and well documented.

I t s s t a t i s t i c a l record i s broad in scope and

rich in detail, offering important insights for a number of disciplines.

Yet, s u r p r i s i n g l y , this record sometimes seems

poorly understood or appreciated even by historians and students of Hawaii ana. Hawaiian population, as a f i e l d for study, began with the arrival of the f i r s t Polynesian settlers more than a thousand years ago and came to world attention with the v i s i t of Captain James Cook and his men in 1778-1779.

The o r i g i n , s i z e , d i s t r i -

bution, and characteristics of this Island people were matters of immediate interest to Cook and his o f f i c e r s .

Their im-

pressions became the e a r l i e s t recorded population s t a t i s t i c s on Hawai i . For the next f o r t y - f i v e years, the only new information on the population of the Islands was that recorded and published by seafaring men and other occasional v i s i t o r s .

Casual

observations and the roughest kinds of estimates appeared at wide intervals in a variety of journals, logs, and formal narratives.

A l i t t l e was known about the total population and

i t s geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n , but v i r t u a l l y nothing about the composition of the population, f e r t i l i t y , mortality, or migration. This period, extending from Cook's v i s i t to the arrival of the missionaries, was a c r i t i c a l one in Hawaii's demographic 3

history.

When i t began, perhaps 300,000 persons were l i v i n g in

the Islands.

In less than half a century the population f e l l

by 50 percent, the result of wars, disease, s t e r i l i t y , and infanticide.

The crucial character of these years makes the lack

of s t a t i s t i c s particularly frustrating. Estimates and partial censuses by the American missionaries soon began f i l l i n g this gap.

In 1823, only a few years

after their a r r i v a l , the missionaries were responsible for the f i r s t reasonably reliable estimates of the population of the kingdom by island.

They took censuses of five of the larger

islands in 1831-1832 and 1835-1836. of b i r t h s , deaths, and marriages.

Many kept accurate records Missionaries like William

E l l i s were joined by educated natives like David Malo in documenting demographic change.

Their s t a t i s t i c s did much to

influence population policy during this period. The f i r s t o f f i c i a l censuses, and the e a r l i e s t deemed complete in coverage, were undertaken in mid-century. count made in January 1850 was a s t a t i s t i c a l landmark:

The it

combined an accurate enumeration of all inhabited islands with information on age, sex, and nationality.

I t was followed by

other o f f i c i a l censuses in 1853, 1860, and thereafter at regular six-year intervals until 1896.

The man responsible for the

1850 count was Richard Armstrong, a missionary who became an educator and public o f f i c i a l .

His successors greatly expanded

the Hawaiian Census in both scope and detail. The o f f i c i a l registration of births, deaths, marriages, 4

d i v o r c e s , and immigration a l l began about the same time as the f i r s t censuses.

Combined with periodic census tabulations on

age, sex, and n a t i v i t y , these annual s e r i e s - - u n f o r t u n a t e l y marred by considerable u n d e r r e g i s t r a t i o n - - p r o v i d e a useful

index

of trends in the components of population change. I t i s fortunate that the second h a l f of the nineteenth century i s well covered by demographic s t a t i s t i c s , because the period was one of s i g n i f i c a n t change.

Total

population,

plummeting d i s a s t e r o u s l y at the beginning of the period, f i n a l l y leveled o f f in the 1870's and then climbed almost as steeply as i t had formerly dropped. a r r i v e d in 1852.

The f i r s t indentured laborers

They were followed by massive i n f u s i o n s of

new blood, mainly young males from China, Portugal, and Japan, who by 1896 greatly outnumbered the native Hawaiians. changes occurred i n population composition:

Drastic

older persons be-

came a t i n y minority, and there were ten s i n g l e men f o r each s i n g l e woman.

Most of the labor force worked on sugar

plantations. The l a s t census by the Hawaiian Government took place in 1896, and four years later the United States Census Office (now the Bureau of the Census) assumed t h i s function.

In consequence,

the scope of the o f f i c i a l count was g r e a t l y enlarged, and i t s frequency was reduced to once every decade.

Planning of the

census became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Federal o f f i c i a l s , who sometimes lacked s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the I s l a n d s to obtain the most meaningful r e s u l t s .

A f t e r 1900, allowance was u s u a l l y 5

made for the unique characteristics of the Territory, but, with the advent of Statehood, Hawaii was again forced into the mold of the Mainland states. The period covered to date by the U.S. Censuses, 1900 to 1960, was, like earlier s t a t i s t i c a l periods, marked by major changes.

The pure Hawaiian population continued to decline as

a result of low f e r t i l i t y , high mortality, out-migration, and intermarriage.

Part Hawaiians increased rapidly.

Large

numbers of laborers continued to move to Hawaii, with F i l i p i n o s succeeding the Chinese and Japanese as the major source of new workers.

By 1940, however, the direction of movement had been

reversed; instead of peasant peoples from Asia, most of the new a r r i v a l s were soldiers and s a i l o r s , defense workers and other c i v i l i a n s from the Mainland.

Plantation employment declined,

to be replaced by jobs at Pearl Harbor or in Waikiki hotels. Oahu boomed, while the Neighbor Islands lost population. Since 1960 the record has been f i l l e d in by postcensal estimates and sample surveys made by State agencies.

Vital

events have been tabulated in growing detail by the State Department of Health, the f i r s t of the State agencies to employ a nucleus of trained professional s t a t i s t i c i a n s .

New sources of

information on in- and out-migration have been exploited by the State Department of Planning and Economic Development, often working closely with the Hawaii V i s i t o r s Bureau.

Creation of

the position of State S t a t i s t i c i a n in 1963 has further encouraged the development of important demographic series. 6

At

the University of Hawaii, veteran s o c i o l o g i s t Andrew W. Lind has carried forward the pioneering studies of his colleague Romanzo Adams.

Both the State Government and the University

have taken advantage of new data processing equipment, from the f i r s t Hollerith sorter installed by the Health Department in 1931 to the IBM 7040 computer put into operation on the University campus in 1963. Four major themes have dominated this 189-year history: depopulation of the native Hawaiians, immigration of foreign laborers, intermarriage among the various racial groups, and most recently, movement between Hawaii and the Mainland. f i r s t two themes have now passed into history.

The

The t h i r d ,

interracial marriage, i s now being replaced by population exchange with the Mainland as the dominant factor in demographic change in Hawaii. The history of Hawaiian demographic s t a t i s t i c s , summarized in the foregoing paragraphs and described in detail in the pages to follow, i s not nearly as well known as i t might be. General historians have so far shown l i t t l e interest in stat i s t i c a l matters.

Population studies of national scope have

given Hawaii only passing attention.

Romanzo Adams, s t i l l

re-

garded by many as the leading authority on Hawaiian demography, published relatively l i t t l e ; his The Peoples of Hawaii (1925 and 1933) is tantalizingly b r i e f , and his Interracial Marriage in Hawaii (1937) was largely restricted to a single facet of population research.

Except for a few important fragments, 7

most of his unpublished writings are lost or in disarray. Adams's successors have tended to confine themselves to brief articles in professional journals, limited-distribution reports, and similar work of a fugitive nature. The chief exceptions occur in the publications of Andrew Lind and Irene Taeuber.

Lind's An Island Community (1938) and

Hawaii's People (1955 and 1967) are major works of high professional competence.

Their emphasis, however, is on the

charting and interpretation of demographic trends rather than on documentation of sources or methodological

evaluation.

Irene Taeuber's article on "Hawaii" in the April 1962 issue of Population Index is a brief but highly perceptive, carefully documented account directed toward the interests of professional demographers.

Except for the works mentioned, no single study

describing the statistics of Hawaiian demography is currently available. This apparent neglect would cause little concern if the subject were unimportant.

Such however is not the case.

Hawaii

is regarded by authorities as both a demographic laboratory and prototype.

Inhabited by a number of differing ethnic groups in

varying stages of assimilation, it provides an ideal setting for cross-sectional and historical analyses of social, economic, and biological variables.

Moreover, Hawaii has moved

from a primitive, preliterate society to a modern, urban, industrial State in less than two centuries.

This demographic

transition, exhaustively documented by Island statisticians, is 8

in many respects l i k e that now confronting f o l k and peasant s o c i e t i e s throughout the world.

These emerging areas could

learn much from a study of Hawaii's past.

Such study might

hold s i g n i f i c a n t implications for population control and policy. I t i s the purpose of the following chapters to provide some of the raw material f o r analyses of t h i s kind.

Tables

throughout t h i s work summarize trends in total population, geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n , urbanization, population composition, b i r t h s , deaths, migration, marriages, and divorces. trends are further summarized in Tables 1-3.

Major

Table 4 indicates»

in summary form, the subject matter covered by each census since 1832.

S t r e s s i s placed throughout t h i s volume on docu-

mentation and evaluation of sources, methodology, and manner of tabulation and presentation, rather than on population trends and analyses per se.

9

Table 1.--POPULATION OF HAWAII: Estimate or census date

Population

1778 1823 1831-1832. 1835-1836. 1850: Jan. 1853: Dec. 1860: Dec. 1866: Dec. 1872: Dec. 1878: Dec. 1884: Dec.

300,000 134,925 124,449 107,954 84,165 73,138 69,800 62,959 56,897 57,985 80,578

a

26... 24... 7 27... 27... 27...

Percent annual change a

-1 -0 -3 -1 -3 -0 -1 -1 0 5

8 9 6 8 5 7 7 7 3 5

Computed according to the formula:

1778 TO 1965

Estimate or census date

Population

Percent annual change 3

1890: 1896: 1900: 1910: 1920: 1930: 1940: 1950: 1960: 1965:

89,990 109,020 154,001 191,874 255,881 368,300 422,770 499,794 632,772 746,650

1.8 3.3 9.4 2.2 3.0 3.6 1.4 1.7 2.4 3.3

Dec. 2 8 . . . . Sept. 2 7 . . . June 1 A p r i l 15... Jan. 1 April 1.... April 1 April 1 April 1 April 1

r = 100 log e (P-|/P 0 ) / t .

Source: 1778 and 1823 estimates by Romanzo Adams; 1831-1832 and 1835-1836 estimates by Adams from p a r t i a l censuses; 1850-1896 censuses by the Hawaiian Government; 1900-1960 censuses by USBC; 1965 estimate by HDPED.

10

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Table 7.—POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX:

JANUARY 1850

( E x c l u d e s 754 b l i n d or deaf persons and 2,872 f o r e i g n e r s or dependents of

foreigners)

Sex

All ages

Under 18

18 to 30

31 to 52

53 and over

Median (years)

Both s e x e s .

80,,539

23.,366

15.,747

22 ,065

19.,361

32.,2

Males

42.,203

12,,983

7 ,995

11 ,018

10 ,207

31.,2

Females

38,,336

10,,383

1,

,752

11 ,047

9,,154

33.,1

Source:

P o l y n e s i a n , May 4,, 1850.

Table 8.--POPULATION BY RACE: Race All

1778

races

Hawaiian

1778 TO 1850

1823

1832

1836

1850

300 ,000

134.,925

124 ,449

107 ,954

84.,165

300,,000

134 ,750

124,,049

107 ,354

82 ,035

Part Hawaiian... Non-Hawaiian.... Source:

Adams, I n t e r r a c i a l

558 175

400

600

1 ,572

M a r r i a g e i n H a w a i i , p. 8.

43

Table 9.—VITAL STATISTICS:

Year

Natural decrease

129,540

3,503

3,335

184 8

80,641

6,465

1 ,478

7,943

80

18

98

184 9

84,165

2,898

1 ,422

4,320

34

17

51

Source: and 1850.

Deaths

Rate per 1 ,000 Natural Births Deaths decrease

Populat i on

1834-35...

44

Number Births

1834 TO 1849

6,838

27

26

53

Alexander's estimates for 1834-35; o f f i c i a i census data for 1849

Table 10.--ESTIMATED BIRTH AND DEATH RATES OF HAWAIIANS AND PART HAWAIIANS: 1778 TO 1850 ( I n c l u d e s persons absent at sea)

S e r i e s and period

Length of period (years)

Decrease ln population

18 8 1 14 4%

20,000

4

128,000 7,000 10,050

18 7 1 13 4

2 7 4 13 2

Annual rates per 1,000 Natural decrease Births Deaths

S e r i e s A: 1778-1796 1796-1804 1804-1805 1805-1819 1819-1823

457 3 17

35 33 25 29 25

39 33 482 32 42

30,000 4,000 112,000 10,000 9,000

6 2 421 5 17

34 33 20 28 25

40 35 441 33 42

3,950 6,551 16,495 12,498 8,863

15 7 35 9 48

25 29 25 30 22

40 36 60 39 70

S e r i e s B: 1778-1796 1796-1803 1803-1804 1804-1819 1819-1823 Both s e r i e s : 1823-1825 1825-1832 1832-1836 1836-1848 1848-1850 Source:

S e r i e s A, Adams, MS, p.113 (quoted in part by Hormann,

p. 228); S e r i e s B, Adams, MS, p. 458.

45

III.

THE HAWAIIAN CENSUSES:

1847-1896

The Hawaiian Government conducted twelve population censuses during i t s century-long existence.

The f i r s t of these

censuses, taken in 1847, was rudimentary and s e r i o u s l y

in-

complete; the l a s t , made in 1896, was s o p h i s t i c a t e d , accurate, and comprehensive to a remarkable degree.

The twelve enu-

merations charted a period of profound demographic t r a n s f o r mation, during which a precipitous decline was arrested and turned into an equally rapid r i s e , and the composition of the p o p u l a t i o n - - i n age, sex, race, marital s t a t u s , and countless other ways--was d r a s t i c a l l y and irrevocably

altered.

The Hawaiian censuses can be discussed under four headings l e g i s l a t i o n , operations, f i n d i n g s , and evaluation. Legislation As Hawaii neared the middle of the nineteenth century, i t s leaders expressed growing concern over demographic matters. Population estimates made by Captain King i n 1779 and the American m i s s i o n a r i e s in 1823 and censuses taken by the miss i o n a r i e s in 1831-1832 and 1835-1836 c l e a r l y revealed the extent of the decrease of native Hawaiians over the s i x t y - y e a r period since contact.

Unfortunately, the missionary censuses

offered l i t t l e of the detailed information needed in t h i s time of demographic c r i s i s :

they were limited to f i v e of the eight

major i s l a n d s and took no account of age, race, sex, n a t i v i t y , occupation, marital s t a t u s , or detailed geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n (see Chapter I I ) .

Better s t a t i s t i c s were obviously needed.

This concern led to the f i r s t census law, enacted June 7, 1839 and approved by the king on November 9, 1840: Let the tax o f f i c e r s . . . enumerate the people, male and female, together with the children who pay the y e a r l y tax; and make a separate enumeratien [ s i c ] of the old men and women and those children who do not pay t a x e s - - l e t them take a y e a r l y account of the deaths and b i r t h s , by which i t may be ascertained whether the people of the kingdom are r e a l l y dimini s h i n g in numbers or not, and by that means the amount of taxes can be known J This l e g i s l a t i o n f a i l e d to produce usable r e s u l t s , and i t was accordingly replaced by a new law, approved on A p r i l

27,

1846: The m i n i s t e r of public i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be charged with the stated enumeration of the inhabitants of t h i s kingdom, of whom i t s h a l l be h i s duty to make a complete census to be l a i d before His Majesty in privy c o u n c i l . The census to be taken s h a l l comprise, in d i s t i n c t columns, the inhabitants in each d i s t r i c t , between such ages as the p r i v y council s h a l l d i r e c t , s p e c i f y i n g a l s o the proportional number of each sex, and s h a l l , as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e , indicate t h e i r avocations [ s i c ] and such other p a r t i c u l a r s as the privy council s h a l l d i r e c t , i n c l u d i n g an annual b i l l of m o r t a l i t y , and of the natural increase.2 Although the 1846 law s p e c i f i e d no exact dates or i n t e r v a l s f o r the census, annual counts were taken in January 1847, 1848, 1849, and 1850.

The law was thereupon amended to require the

M i n i s t e r of Public I n s t r u c t i o n to conduct a "complete census" o every t h i r d y e a r , beginning in 1853.

This amendment was passed

on June 18, 1851 and signed on July 11, 1851. Further l e g i s l a t i v e changes were i n s t i t u t e d in 1859.

The

new law required the President of the Board of Education to make, in 1860 and every s i x t h year t h e r e a f t e r , a complete population 47

census, showing population by d i s t r i c t , sex, "and other such particulars."

A f i v e - d o l l a r penalty was imposed f o r refusal

to

answer, and appropriations for taking the census were author4 ized.

This act was approved on May 17, 1859. These p r o v i s i o n s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y repeated in the census

act passed by the 1864-1865 l e g i s l a t i v e assembly.

This act,

approved by King Kamehameha V on January 10, 1865, required the Board of Education, every s i x t h year counting from 1860, "to make a complete census of the inhabitants of the Kingdom . . . ; every census s h a l l comprise, in d i s t i n c t columns, the number of inhabitants in each d i s t r i c t , the number of each sex, and such other p a r t i c u l a r s as the Board of Education may d i r e c t , and s h a l l show the increase or decrease of the population."

Persons

r e f u s i n g to answer census queries could be fined as much as f i v e dollars.

The M i n i s t e r of Finance was directed to pay census

expenses upon order of the Board of Education, out of any monies 5 appropriated by the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r that purpose.

The 1865

act was the b a s i s f o r the remaining s i x censuses undertaken by the Hawaiian Government. A f i n a l example of l e g i s l a t i v e concern occurred in 1888, when the L e g i s l a t u r e passed a r e s o l u t i o n noting the need for " f u l l e r s t a t i s t i c s regarding a l l questions of social and economic importance" and urging the appointment of a three-member commission to study p o s s i b l e changes in census p r a c t i c e , to report back to the 1890 s e s s i o n . pointed. 48

The commission was duly ap-

I t s report, submitted two years l a t e r , was considered

by the L e g i s l a t u r e , but no changes were made in the e x i s t i n g law. Operations Adequate understanding of the Hawaiian censuses requires a knowledge of the census operations—schedule development, enumeration procedures, s u p e r v i s i o n , e d i t i n g , t a b u l a t i o n , p u b l i cation, and expenditures.

These considerations g r e a t l y i n -

fluenced the completeness, comprehensiveness, accuracy, and ultimate value of the various enumerations. L i t t l e appears to have been done to implement the 1840 census act.

I t s mandate was heeded by only a few of the tax

o f f i c i a l s entrusted with the enumeration, and no systematic e f f o r t was made to compile t h e i r r e s u l t s .

Evidence of t h i s

abortive census appears in several handwritten account books f o r the years 1840-1843, preserved in the Archives of Hawaii. The e a r l i e s t of these books l i s t s the names of a large number of residents of Waialua D i s t r i c t , Oahu, with t h e i r sex and place of residence.

A tabular summary presents, separately f o r

Kawailoa, Paalaa, Mananui, and Mokuleia, the number of persons in each of the following categories: males, females, male c h i l d r e n , female c h i l d r e n , and parents subject to t a x a t i o n ; mothers; f a t h e r s , mothers, male c h i l d r e n , and female c h i l d r e n exempt from t a x a t i o n ; old men; old women; new born c h i l d r e n , by sex; diseased persons, by sex; teachers; and male c r i m i n a l s . ^ No record e x i s t s , however, of s i m i l a r data f o r other d i s t r i c t s . The 1846 census act gave new impetus to t h i s e f f o r t at 49

enumeration.

On November 20, 1846, William Richards, the

Minister of Public Instruction, recommended in Privy Council that a "census of the people as provided by the Constitution" be taken. begun.

His motion was carried,^ and preparations were soon

"In the month of December, circular letters were sent

to all the general superintendents of schools, giving instructions to take the census of the islands, at the commencement of the present year [1847].

The manner and form of its taking was

prescribed, and blanks for the purpose were forwarded."

o

The circular of December 1, 1846 revealed a good deal of insight and knowledge regarding census procedures.

The instruc-

tions warned against getting information from others than household heads and spoke of the dangers of either missing persons or double-counting.

Avoiding underenumeration of infants was

especially stressed.

In a pioneering effort to establish a

vital-statistics registration system, census takers were instructed to include "all the newly born babes of this year and all the births from the time of the death of Hoapili wahine. And on the right line, insert again those who were born this year 1846."

If blanks proved too short, enumerators were to

"attach additional length of paper to the original by pasting it with poi.

q

Unfortunately, the 1847 count proved little better than its predecessors.

"The returns are not full from either of the

larger island^ and only about one half of the whole are complete," reported Mr. Richards. 50

Tabulations were published for

Kau, Lanai, and N i i h a u J 0

The amount of detail obtained in one

d i s t r i c t i s revealed by a handwritten table for Kauai D i s t r i c t No. 3, which extended from Kalalau to Kealia.

Population counts

were shown by sex and age, using five- and ten-year age groups to age 70; totals were given as well for the blind, the deaf, births, and deaths.^

Returns were so sketchy from other d i s -

t r i c t s , however, that the effort had l i t t l e value. A similar effort was made a year later, in January 1848. Keoni Ana, Minister of the Interior acting provisionally as Minister of Public Instruction, was in charge. port concluded:

His annual re-

"The efforts ... to secure a correct census ...

have not been successful A third annual census was announced for the f i r s t week in January 1849J3

This was the f i r s t of three taken under the

direction of Richard Armstrong, who had just been appointed Minister of Public Instruction.

The printed schedule called for

information on place of residence (both ahupuaa and the smaller i l i maloko), age, sex, nationality, blindness or deafness, and births and deaths occurring during 1848.

Age was to be obtained

by reference to well-known events: the birth of Li hoii ho (1797), the death of Kamehameha I (1819), and the death of Kaahumanu (1832).

The question on nationality provided space for for-

eigners without wives, foreigners with foreign wives, foreign children, foreigners with Hawaiian wives, and hapa haole (half14 foreign) children.

These categories were used in the final

tabulations, published in November 1849. 1 5

Costs of the 1849 51

count were modest.

"My plan has been to make each d i s t r i c t , as

f a r as p o s s i b l e , bear i t s own expenses," wrote A r m s t r o n g . ^ On March 10, 1849, he asked the P r i v y Council " f o r a small sum to meet the expenses of taking the census according to law" and was granted a sum "not to exceed $ 2 0 0 . 0 0 " - - l e s s than ~\/H per c a p i t a ! ^ 7 The r e s u l t s , while s t i l l earlier efforts.

imperfect, f a r surpassed those of

An e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r h a i l e d i t as "probably the

most accurate census which has ever been made."

18

A year l a t e r ,

however, the M i n i s t e r of Public I n s t r u c t i o n admitted some underenumeration:

" I t was then taken at a time of general

sickness.

The measles and whooping cough prevailed throughout the i s l a n d s , and i t i s propable [ s i c ] that the [enumerators] . . . were unable, in many cases, to attend properly to t h e i r d u t y . "

19

Modern

a u t h o r i t i e s have a l t e r n a t i v e l y c a l l e d the 1849 census "incomplete 20 to a moderate extent" and "wholly u n r e l i a b l e . "

I f we accept

the population count and b i r t h and death data reported by the 1850 census, the 1849 population total would appear to have been 87,063, not 80,641. The fourth o f f i c i a l census of the kingdom was conducted in January 1850.

Like i t s predecessor, i t c a l l e d f o r information

on place of residence, sfex by broad age groups, n a t i o n a l i t y , blindness and deafness, and b i r t h s and deaths.

Results were

released in May 1 8 5 0 , ^ and some of the o r i g i n a l

completed

schedules are s t i l l e x t a n t . ^

"This has been

Armstrong wrote:

taken under my general superintendence, both in Jan. 1849 and 52

1850, and I give the r e s u l t as I have received them [ s i c ] from the School Superintendents of the several d i s t r i c t s .

They,

together with the school teachers, a s s i s t e d by the Am. M i s s i o n 23 a r i e s , were the immediate agents of the work."

Armstrong

claimed "greater accuracy . . . t h i s year than l a s t , " a statement generally agreed to by l a t e r a u t h o r i t i e s .

Adams, d i s c u s s i n g

the 1850 census and i t s s u c c e s s o r s , noted that "the data on numbers, sex and geographical location are believed to be reasonably accurate," although "the age data are not to be rel i e d upon in the e a r l i e r censuses. Kuykendall thought that 25 the 1850 f i g u r e s "may be used with some c o r r e c t i o n s . The 1850 census was the l a s t to be made on an annual

basis.

On October 31, 1850, "Mr. Armstrong stated to His Majesty in Council, that i t i s not h i s intention to take the Census of the I s l a n d s during the year 1851, unless ordered to do so by the King.

His Majesty s i g n i f i e d his approbation of t h i s

in-

tention. The next o f f i c i a l

population count was made during the

l a s t week of 1853, j u s t in time to stay within the three-year period s p e c i f i e d by law. and sent out.

27

I n s t r u c t i o n s were h u r r i e d l y prepared

According to R. Armstrong:

The Census was taken on the 26 of December l a s t , under the general supervision of the American M i s s i o n a r i e s , E. P. Bond Esq., of Lihue, Kauai, and Wm. Ap. Jones of Lahaina, to a l l of whom the government i s under o b l i g a t i o n . . . . The native school teachers were employed as the subordinate agents in the work . . . For the e n t i r e accuracy of the work I cannot vouch, but in my o p i n i o n , i t i s as c o r r e c t l y done as i s p o s s i b l e with native 53

agents. The sum total i s probably not f a r from the truth. The gross amount and the numbers of the sexes are the most r e l i a b l e part of the returns. Not much dependence can be placed on those f o r ages, as few natives know what t h e i r ages a r e . " The 1853 census showed f a r more detail than i t s predecessors.

Geographically, data were presented f o r each of the

twenty-four j u d i c i a l d i s t r i c t s (moku) of the kingdom, instead of merely by i s l a n d as in 1849 and 1850.

The native population

was c l a s s i f i e d by sex, marital status (two c a t e g o r i e s ) , age (under 20 and over 20), r e l i g i o n (three c a t e g o r i e s ) , race mixture, and whether b l i n d , deaf, or "insane and i d i o t i c . " Foreigners were c l a s s i f i e d by sex, marital s t a t u s , race of spouse, age (four c l a s s e s ) , length of residence in Hawaii, and place of b i r t h (26 a r e a s ) . three forms:

These tabulations were published in

as s i n g l e broadside sheets, as part of the separ-

ate biennial report of the M i n i s t e r of Public I n s t r u c t i o n , and 29 in the newspaper r e p r i n t of the biennial report. pleted schedules are apparently no longer extant.

The comAccording to

Armstrong's report, "The cost of taking the census has been kept within the appropriation of $1200

"

This came to 1.64

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•-3

Table 1 3 . - P O P U L A T I O N BY ISLAND A N D DISTRICT:

Island and D i s t r i c t 3

All

islands....

Hawaii Puna Hilo Hamakua South Kohala North Kohala North Kona South Kona Kau

1 J > j

Maui Hana Makawao^ Wailuku Lahaina

1853

1860

1866

1872

1878

1884

1890

73.,138

69,,800

62,,959

56,,897

57,,985

80,,578

89.,990

109,,020

24,,450

3,,395 4.,110 3,,113 2 ,210

21,,481 ,158 1 4 .,742 2 ,230 J ' il,,321 2,632 3 ,488 2,,683 2,,227

19,,808 1,,932 4,,655 2,050 1,,089 2,,345 3,,268 2,,449 2,,020

16,,001 1,,288 4.,220 1,,516 892 2 ,086 2 ,218 1,,916 1 ,865

17,,034 1,,043 4,,231 1,,805 718 3,,299 1,,967 1,,761 2,,210

24,,991 944 7.,988 3,908 589 4 ,481 1 ,773 1 ,825 3,,483

26,,754 834 9 ,935 5,,002 538 4.,303 1,,753 1,,812 2 ,577

33,,285 1,,748 12,,878 5,,680 558 4.,125 3,,061 2,,327 2,,908

17,,574 5,,331 2 ,947 4,,463 4 ,833

16,,400 4,,509 3 ,310 3,,695 4 ,886

14,,035 3,,501 2,,653 4,,300 3,,581

12 ,334 2 ,760 2,,512 4 ,060 3 ,002

12,,109 2,,067 3,,408 4,,186 2,,448

15.,970 2 ,814 5 ,073 5.,814 2 ,269

17.,357 3 ,270 5 ,266 6 ,708 2 ,113

17.,726 3.,792 5 ,464 6,,072 2 ,398

600

646

394

348

2 ,614

2 ,826

31 ,194 22 ,907 2,499 1 ,444 1 ,286 903 ,155

40 ,205 29,,920 2.,753 1 ,835 1,,349 1.,281 3 ,067

8 ,935 ,807

11 ,859 2,472

15 ,392 2 ,775

1 ,882

2,101

2,762

1,008

1,984 T,500

2,792 1,755

3,425 1,835

'•no

i.«

7,,748 3.,874

Lanai Molokai Oahu Honolulu Koolaupoko Koolauloa Waialua... Waianae... Ewa Kauai and Niihau... Hanalei ") Koolau ) Kawaihau Puna Lihue Koloa Waimea Niihau

a

1853 TO 1896

2141

3 ,607

2 ,864

2 ,299

2 ,349

19.,126 11 ,455 2 ,749 1 ,345 1 ,126

21,,275 14 ,310 2 ,318 1 ,187 1 ,309

19,,799 13,,521 2 ,195 1 ,163 1 ,136

20 ,671 14 ,852 2,028 1 ,269 851

20.,236 14 ,114 2.,402 1 ,082 939

28 ,068 20,487 2 ,621 1 ,321 1 ,265

2 ,451

2 ,151

1 ,784

1 ,671

1 ,699

2 ,374

7 ,781

7 ,134

6 ,624

5 ,194

5 ,811

1 ,998

1 ,641

2 ,186

1 ,558

1..597

1,615

... 1,738

... 1,478

... 1,301

... 1,832

1,296 2,082 790

F o r changes in judicial

1,324 1,784 647

1,084 1,551 325

833 1,269 233

2,,581 )

1896

(

)

C 2 ,307

f1

m

district boundaries, see R o b e r t D. King, "Districts in the

Hawaiian Islands," in John Wesley Coulter, comp., A Gazetteer of the Territory of Hawaii, pp. 214-230. b

Major shifts were made on Kauai

H a m a k u a before

1866.

105

in 1878, 1880, 1886, and 1887.

Table 14.--AGE AND SEX: Census date and age (in years) 1850, total Under 18 18 to 31 31 to 53 Over 53

...

Male 42,203 12,983 7,995 11,018 10,207

Female 38 10 7 11 9

336 383 752 047 154

1853, total Under 20 Over 20 Not reported.

38,810 34 328 30 ,306 42 518 314

1860, total Under 20 20 to 60 Over 60 Not reported.

37,499 32 301 21 ,476 42 378 5 861 85

1866, t o t a l . . . . Under 15 15 to 40 Over 40

34,395 8,721 14,702 10,972

28 7 11 8

564 957 ,#95 812

1872, t o t a l . . . . Under 6 6 to 15 15 to 40 Over 40

31,650 3,574 4,803 1 ?,282 9,991

25 3 4 10 7

247 295 128 279 545

1878, total Under 6 6 to 15 15 to 40 Over 40

34,103 3,823 4,761 15,540 9,979

23,882 3,785 3,897 9,595 6,605

a

72

1850 TO 1896 Census date and age ( i n years)

Male

Female

1884, total Under 6 6 to 15 15 to 30, 30 to 50 Over 50

51 ,539 5 130 6 574 16 ,823 18 683 4 329

29 ,039 5 ,060 5 759 9 010 6 ,788 2 422

1890, total Under 1 1 to 6 6 to 15 15 to 30,, 30 to 45 45 to 60, , 60 to 75 Over 75

58 ,714 955 4 881 6 ,297 19 ,348 18 ,373 5 898 2 ,338 624

31 276 930 4 ,653 5 802 9 770 5 ,764 2 ,740 1 095 522

1896, total Under 1 1 to 6 6 to 15 15 to 30 30 to 45 45 to 60 60 to 75 75 to 90 90 to 1 0 0 . . . . Over 100

72 ,517 1 ,215 6 ,810 7 694 26 ,781 19 ,883 7 ,248 2 ,462 382 33 9

36 ,503 1 ,294 6 596 6 ,592 11 ,888 6 ,311 2 ,558 940 277 37 10

Data exclude 754 b l i n d and deaf persons and 2,872 foreigners.

Table 15.--AGE AND SEX RATIOS: Sex and age (in years)

1866 TO 1896

1866

1872

1878

1884

1890

1896

Both sexes

62,959

56,897

57 ,985

80,578

89,990

109,020

Under 15

16,678

15,800

16 ,266

22,523

23,518

30,201

Over 15

46,281

41,097

41 ,719

58,055

66,472

78,819

34,395

31,650

34 ,103

57,539

58,714

72,517

Under 15

8,721

8,377

8 ,584

11,704

12,133

15,719

Over 15

25,674

23,273

25 ,519

39,835

46,581

56,798

28,564

25,247

23 ,882

29,039

31,276

36,503

Male

Female Under 15 Over 15 Males per 1,000 f e m a l e s 3

7,957

7,423

7 ,682

10,819

11,385

14,482

20,607

17,824

16 ,200

18,220

19,891

22,021

1 ,204

1,254

1 ,428

1,775

1 ,877

1 ,987

Under 15

1 ,096

1,129

1 ,117

1 ,082

1,066

1,085

Over 15

1,246

1 ,306

1 ,575

2,186

2,342

2,579

26.5

27.8

28.1

28.0

26.1

27.7

Male

25.4

26.5

25.2

22.7

20.7

21.7

Ferna 1 e

27.9

29.4

32.2

37.3

36.4

39.7

Percent under 1 5 . . . .

a

The r a t i o was 1,101 i n 1850, 1 ,131 in 1853, arid 1,161 in 1860.

73

Table 16.--RACE:

Census date

Number: 1853 1860 a 1866 1872 1878 1884 1890 1896 Percent: 1853 1860 a 1866 ,, 1872 1878 1884 1890 1896

All races

Hawaiian ("native")

73,138 69,800 62,959 56,897 57,985 80,578 89,990 109,020

70,036

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

1853 TO 1896

Part Hawaiian ("half-caste")

983 67,084

57,125 49,044 44,088 40,014 34,436 31,019

1,640 2,487 3,420 4,218 6,186 8,485

95.8 96.1 90.7 86.2 76.0 49.7 38.3 28.5

1.3 2.6 4.4 5.9 5.2 6.9 7.8

Non-Hawaiian ( " f o r e i g n " ) Born in 3orn Total Hawai i elsewhere

2,119 2,716 4,194 5,366 10,477 36,346 49,368 69,516 2.9 3.9 6.7 9.4 18.1 45.1 54.9 63.8

291

1,828

849 947 2,040 7,495 13,733

4,517 9,530 34,306 41,873 55,783

0.4

2.5

"i.5 1.6 2.5 8.3 12.6

"7.9 16.4 42.6 46.5 51.2

Chinese l i v i n g i n Honolulu included with the native population.

74

Table 17.--PLACE OF BIRTH OF THE FOREIGN BORN AND NATIONAL ORIGIN OF THE NON-HAWAIIAN POPULATION:

1853 TO 1896

Subject

Total

Portugal 3

Other Europe

United States

China

Foreign born: 1853 1872 1878 1884 1890 1896

1,828 4,517 9,530 34,306 41,873 55,783

35 395 436 9,377 8,602 8,232

571 931 1,236 3,436 2,675 2,741

692 889 1 ,276 2 ,066 1 ,928 2 ,266

364 1,938 5,916 17,939 15,301 19,382

Non-Haw1n:d 1866 1890 e . 1896

4,194 49,368 69,516

12,719 15,191

6,,220 ' 4,161 3 ,086

Other countries 0

Japan

116 12,360 22,329

1,206 29,,362 21,616 24,407

166 364 666

1,372 1,007 833

1,067 1,055

a

For 1853, includes Spain, Spanish America, and B r a z i l .

b

A f t e r 1853, limited to Great B r i t a i n , Germany, and France (plus Norway beginning

in 1884). c

For 1853, includes 22 not reported and 14 omitted from tabulation.

d

I n c l udes Hawaii-born persons of foreign extraction, distributed by parents'

nationality. e

P a r t l y estimated (1890 Census, p. 17).

75

Table 18.—MARITAL STATUS, RELIGION, AND REAL ESTATE OWNERSHIP: 1853 TO 1896

Census date

Unmarried: Percent married 3 males per - Male m r i— Female »1.000 „^„a

1853

...

Religion 13 „ „ i — r Catholic ^r-n nProtestant

56,840

Freeholders

2,778

1866...

61.6

75.1

1,919

...

...

...

7,154

1872...

56.2

71.2

1,983

...

...

...

6,580

1878...

48.0

72.8

3,011

...

...

...

6,717

1884...

36.3

70.4

4,714

29,685

20,072

...

5,729

1890...

36.9

72.9

5,452

...

...

...

4,695

1896...

34.4

71.0

5,830

23,273

26,363

4,886

6,327

a

Based on population over 15.

''Data not a v a i l a b l e f o r other r e l i g i o n s . and part Hawaiian population.

76

11 ,401

aMormon

For 1853, limited to Hawaiian

Table 19.—OCCUPATION: All

occupations Percent of A g r i pop. culturr over 15 alists

1866 TO 1896

Sex and census year

Number3

Both sexes: 1866 1872.... 1878.... 1884.... 1890.... 1896....

24,795 39,541 41,073 55,294

59.4 68.1 61.8 70.2

8,258 9,670 8,763 10,968 5,377 7,570

5,025 4,772 7,871 12,351 25,466 34,438

1 2 2 3 2 2

ale: 1890.... 1896....

38,930 51,705

83.6 91.0

5,280 7,435

23,863 32,027

2 690 2 265

483 942

6 614 9 036

emale: 1890 1896....

2,143 3,589

10.8 16.3

97 135

1,603 2,411

112

155 282

176 761

a

Laborers 0

Mechanics

146 115 606 919 802 265

Professional workers

Other occuDations

512 582

5 555 12 303 638 1,224

6 790 9 797

May include workers under 15.

^"Agriculturalists"

to 1884; "farmers" and "planters and ranchers" f o r 1890; and

"farmers and a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , "

" r i c e p l a n t e r s , " "coffee p l a n t e r s , " and "ranchers" f o r

1896. """Laborers" in 1866, 1890, and 1896; "plantation laborers" in 1872; and "contract laborers" in 1878 and 1884. ^ " P r o f e s s i o n a l i s t s " in 1866; "clergymen," "teachers,"

"licensed p h y s i c i a n s , " and

"lawyers" in 1872; " p r o f e s s i o n a l men and teachers" in 1890; and " d o c t o r s , "

"lawyers,"

and "other p r o f e s s i o n s " in 1896.

77

Table 2 0 . — S C H O O L ATTENDANCE, LITERACY, MATERNITY, AND HOUSING: 1884 TO 1896 Subject

1884

1890

Number attending school Per 1,000 children 6-15

...

9,872 816

13,744 962

Able to read and write 3 Per 1 ,000 persons over 6

39,016 554

38,380 488

59,538 639

...

16,595 10,664 643 46,100 2,778 4,323 28,421 617

17,969 12,391 690 54,039 3,007 4,361 36,569 677

Women ever married Mothers Per 1,000 women ever married Children ever born Per 1 ,000 women ever married Per 1 ,000 mothers Children surviving Per 1,000 children born

... ... ... ... ...

1896

Occupants of inhabited buildings... Private residences Plantation quarters Group quarters 5

... ... ...

89,990 60,703 26,745 2,542

109,020 71 ,809 32,244 4,967

Occupants per inhabited building... Private residences Plantation quarters Group quarters 5

... ... ... ...

5.73 5.05 7.82 10.21

6.09 5.12 9.24 12.90

a

For 1890, "the intention has been to make the expression 'Able

to Read and Write,' apply to Hawaiian, English, or some European language only."

Literacy in Asiatic languages was apparently in-

cluded in 1896.

Treatment in 1884 was not specified.

^Includes hotels and boarding houses, lodging houses, boarding schools, jails and lock-ups, hospitals and asylums, and barracks.

78

IV.

THE U. S. CENSUSES:

1900-1960

Seven decennial population censuses have been made in Hawaii by the United States Bureau of the Census.

The f i r s t

was undertaken in 1900, l e s s than two years after annexation; the most recent, in 1960. a demographic watershed:

The 1900 count marked something of i t was a time when the native Hawai-

ian population was near i t s lowest ebb, three out of f i v e residents were f o r e i g n - b o r n , the sex r a t i o f a r exceeded 200, and i l l i t e r a c y rates reached modern highs.

By 1960 a s t r i k i n g

transformation had occurred in the population and i t s compos i t i o n , d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r i n g age and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n , data on race and place of b i r t h , and education s t a t i s t i c s .

This meta-

morphosis was matched by a corresponding growth and refinement of census procedures and content, from a r e l a t i v e l y naive and limited kind of population inventory to a f a r - r a n g i n g ,

sophis-

ticated survey of s o c i a l , demographic, economic, and housing characteristics. General background The United States Census of Population has been taken dec e n n i a l l y since 1790 under authority of the C o n s t i t u t i o n and a s e r i e s of special Congressional Acts.

Its original

purpose

was to conduct a head-count f o r periodic reapportionment of the U. S. House of Representatives.

Since 1789, when i t was f i r s t

provided f o r by the Constitutional Convention, the census has acquired a p r o g r e s s i v e l y wider scope and range of a p p l i c a t i o n . This expanded function has been given i m p l i c i t recognition by 79

the enabling l e g i s l a t i o n usually passed by Congress shortly before each decennial count. All census work i s now conducted by the United States Bureau of the Census.

In 1900 and e a r l i e r years, the enumera-

tion was made by a special office especially organized for each decennial count and disbanded upon completion of i t s task.

By

virtue of the act of March 6, 1902, a permanent Bureau of the Census was created in the Department of the Interior.

The

bureau was subsequently transferred to the newly formed Department of Commerce and Labor, and s t i l l later to the Department of Commerce.

The Director of the Census serves under the

Secretary of Commerce, a cabinet o f f i c i a l . Decisions regarding the content and format of census schedules, tabulation, and publication are made in Washington by o f f i c i a l s and s t a f f members of the bureau.

Comments and

suggestions by advisory committees of demographers, s t a t i s t i cians, and census users are carefully considered in such work. In defining metropolitan areas, c l a s s i f y i n g industries, and similar a c t i v i t i e s , the Bureau of the Census must follow policies and definitions established by the Office of S t a t i s t i cal Standards of the U. S. Bureau of the Budget. Relatively l i t t l e allowance i s made for regional d i f f e r ences in population composition or s t a t i s t i c a l needs.

Varia-

tion in the treatment of different regions is largely precluded by the magnitude of the census e f f o r t , machine requirements, and other considerations which demand a high degree of uni80

formity and systematic cohesion.

The chief exceptions in recent

years have been in questions on ethnic stock (Aleutians in Alaska, Hawaiians in Hawaii, "persons of Spanish surname" in the Southwest) or citizenship (in New York State).

Much

greater f l e x i b i l i t y has been apparent in the treatment of outlying t e r r i t o r i e s and possessions—a category that included Hawaii before 1960. Machine tabulation has been an important factor in the U. S. Census for seventy-five years.

The f i r s t modern punch-

card equipment was designed during the 1880's expressly for use in the decennial census.

I t was used extensively in tabulating

results of the 1890 count and, in improved form, for the 1900 and succeeding enumerations. troduced in the 1950 census J

The electronic computer was inThese machines greatly increased

the accuracy, speed, and analytic detail possible in mass statistical

operations.

Paradoxically, the switch to machine tabulation appears to have adversely affected analysis of data for Hawaii.

The cen-

suses taken under the auspices of the Hawaiian Government were presumably tabulated entirely by manual methods, inasmuch as neither adding machine, desk calculator, nor punch-card equipment were available in the Islands during the nineteenth century.

(The adding machine arrived in Hawaii around 1903,

the rotary calculator in 1912-1916, and the punch card in o 1930.)

Despite the use of hand methods, the understaffed and

underbudgeted Hawaiian census offices managed to complete their 81

field work and tabulation within a few months of the census date, rushing final

results into print with minimal delay.

The

heavily staffed, well financed U. S. Bureau of the Census, in contrast, often took several years for publication of its final reports, in spite of batteries of Hollerith sorters and Univac computers. The greater delay in tabulation and publication of results was only one of many changes resulting from the transferal of responsibility from the Hawaiian Board of Education to the U. S. Bureau of the Census.

Formerly data had been compiled at

six-year intervals; now the enumeration was on a decennial basis.

Far greater detail became available on age distri-

bution, occupation or industry, and school

attendance.

In con-

trast, beginning in 1900 less information was obtained regarding ethnic stock, housing, and religion.

In many cases it was

impossible to make direct comparisons between results of the U. S. censuses and those taken by the Hawaiian

Government.

Comparability with census findings for the Mainland United States was of course greatly At first, the Federal

increased.

census officials tried to treat

Hawaii like the rest of the country.

Statistical

tables in the

1900 census bulletins listed Hawaii between Georgia and Idaho, and included Honolulu alphabetically with Mainland cities over 25,000.

Data on characteristics by race included a conventional

white-nonwhite breakdown, although a special concession was made to local usage in a few tables: 82

"For the purpose of

presenting the s t a t i s t i c s in the general t a b l e s , in a form s u i t a b l e f o r comparison with the s t a t i s t i c s f o r the states and t e r r i t o r i e s of the United States proper, the Hawaiians, part Hawaiians, Caucasians, and South Sea I s l a n d e r s are included i n the white population; but i n the statements which f o l l o w , each of these elements i s presented s e p a r a t e l y . O t h e r

territories

and p o s s e s s i o n s — A l a s k a , Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma—were s i m i l a r l y integrated into the national

series.

Sentiment apparently changed a f t e r 1900.

One reason may

have been the obvious i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y of many Mainland c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes to the unique conditions found in the o u t l y i n g areas.

The e f f o r t to describe race i n Mainland s t a t i s t i c a l

terms in p a r t i c u l a r may have been regarded as unsuccessful.

A

second reason f o r separate treatment of Hawaii and other outl y i n g areas in the 1910 and succeeding counts was probably the changed geographic complexion of the nation. Mainland areas to change t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l

The l a s t two

status gained s t a t e -

hood in 1912, j u s t as r e s u l t s of the 1910 census were being published.

I t thereupon became e a s i e r f o r the census bureau

to regard the Mainland ( i n c l u d i n g Arizona and New Mexico) as a homogeneous whole, and to banish Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico to a s o r t of s t a t i s t i c a l

limbo.

The form and content of census

reports f o r these l a t t e r areas no longer followed the Mainland 4 models, and the r e s u l t s were excluded from national t o t a l s .

83

Census operations and content 1900 The Twelfth Decennial Census was taken as of June 1, 1900, under p r o v i s i o n s of the census act approved March 3, 1899. The present census, that o f 1900, has been taken as a part o f the work of the Twelfth Census of the United S t a t e s , the D i r e c t o r of the Census having been authorized and directed by s e c t i o n 7 o f the census act to make s u i t a b l e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the enumeration of the population and products of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , and to employ for the purpose e i t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s and enumerators or special agents, as he should deem necessary. The census of Hawaii was accordingly taken by special agents, under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Mr. Alatau T. A t k i n s o n as c h i e f s p e c i a l agent, Mr. A t k i n s o n having p r e v i o u s l y served as the general superintendent o f the Hawaiian census in 1896.5 Many subjects were covered by the 1900 enumeration: geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n , s e x , age, place of b i r t h , parentage, race or c o l o r , c i t i z e n s h i p , conjugal c o n d i t i o n , school tendance, l i t e r a c y , a b i l i t y to speak E n g l i s h , length of

atresi-

dence i n the United S t a t e s , g a i n f u l employment, household memb e r s h i p , and tenure of housing. Geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n was reported by i s l a n d and j u d i cial d i s t r i c t .

Honolulu was included i n tables f o r c i t i e s and

towns; i t s boundaries, f o l l o w i n g local

(but u n o f f i c i a l )

usage,

were based on those of Honolulu D i s t r i c t , extending from Red H i l l to Koko Head.

County governments were not organized u n t i l

1905, and hence were not included i n the geographic data.

The

lack of s t a t i s t i c s on urban places other than Honolulu can be explained by the f a c t that incorporated m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 84

have

never been recognized in Hawaii and unincorporated places were not shown separately in census reports.

Thus, only j u d i c i a l

d i s t r i c t s — l a n d d i v i s i o n s of long standing in Hawaii, despite many minor boundary s h i f t s ^ — r e m a i n e d the b a s i s of small-area statistics. Tabulations on age were l i m i t e d to the T e r r i t o r y as a whole and the City of Honolulu.

For the T e r r i t o r y , s i n g l e - y e a r data

were reported through age 99; for Honolulu, f i v e - y e a r groups were shown to 34 and ten-year groups to 64.

This was an im-

portant advance over the Hawaiian censuses, which used f i f t e e n year groupings past age 15.

Unlike most of the Hawaiian cen-

suses, however, the 1900 count omitted a l l age breakdowns f o r counties and i s l a n d s . For the f i r s t time in Hawaii, s t a t i s t i c s on " f a m i l i e s " were compiled.

This term embraced both " p r i v a t e

families"--

defined in much the same manner as "households" in l a t e r cens u s e s — a n d " f a m i l i e s not p r i v a t e . "

The l a t t e r category i n -

cluded groups of persons in barracks, dormitories,

institutions,

and the l i k e , each of which was treated as housing a s i n g l e family. Occupational s t a t i s t i c s were based on the number of persons " g a i n f u l l y employed," a concept s i m i l a r to that of "experienced labor force" in more recent censuses.

Questions on

gainful employment were asked of a l l persons 10 years of age or more. For the United States as a whole, the Twelfth Decennial 85

Census bore a per capita cost of 18 c ai > ID

+->

•o 0)

+->

•1— E • 1— 1— o CO CTl i—

• •

O LO CTl i—

1

i—

r—

sCL c

i. Q— ,

• (—




•o aj ^ in • r— i—

>,

+->

C (LI d) u a e s(0 ai - C Q_ u

—-

aj

2


ID O ID

r— a.

ai Ol o i— i i

o o 1— II s-

ID i— 3 c o 4aj JC

+->

o CT)

C. •rT3 iO U U ID •a 0)

+->

3 Q. E o o .0

Table 22.--POPULATION BY ISLAND: Island

1900

1910

1920

1900 TO 1960

1930

1940

1960

1950

154,001

191,874

255,881

368,300

422,770

499,794

632,772

0ahu a Honolulu 3 Rest of Oahu..

58,504 39,306 19,198

81,993 52,183 29,810

123,496 81,820 41,676

202,887 137,582 65,305

257,696 179,358 78,338

353,020 248,034 104,986

500,409 294,194 206,215

Other i s l a n d s . . . Hawai i Maui ) Lanai J Kahoolawe Molokai Kauai Niihau

95,497 46,843

132,385 64,895 36,080 185 3 1,784 29,247 191

165,413 73,325 48,756 2,356 2 5,032 35,806 136

165,074 73,276 46,919 3,720 1 5,340 35,636 182

146,774 68,350 40,103 3,136

132,363 61,332 35,717 2,115

2,504 20,562 172

109,881 55,382 ("28,623 { 131 2 1,791 23,744 208

5,280 29,683 222

5,023 27,922 . 254

38.0 25.5 12.5 62.0

42.7 27.2 15.5 57.3

48.3 32.0 16.3 51.7

55.1 37.4 17.7 44.9

61.0 42.4 18.5 39.0

70.6 49.6 21.0 29.4

79.1 46.5 32.6 20.9

All

islands..

25,416

Percent of t o t a l Oahu Honolulu Rest of Oahu.. Other i s i a n d s . . . a

Data f o r I s l a n d of Oahu and C i t y of Honolulu include minor o u t l y i n g

l e g a l l y part of the C i t y :

32 in 1940 ( a l l

islands

i n Palmyra), 14 i n 1950 ( a l l on French

F r i g a t e S h o a l s ) , and 15 in 1960 ( a l l on French F r i g a t e S h o a l s ) .

Excludes Midway,

never part o f the T e r r i t o r y or State o f Hawaii but sometimes reported with Hawaii f o r census purposes.

116

Palmyra was detached in 1959.

Table 23.--POPULATION BY DISTRICT: County and d i s t r i c t ® Total Hawaii County Puna South H i l o North H i l o Hamakua North Kohala South Kohala North Kona South Kona Kau Maui County Hana Makawao Wailuku Lahai na Lanai Molokai

"1 J

"1 J

1900

1910

1930

1940

1950

1960

154,001

191,,874

255,881

368,300

422,770

499,794

632,772

46,843 5,128

55,,382 6,,834 118,468 1 4,,077 9,,037 5,,398 922 3,,377 3,,191 4,,078

64,895 7,282 23,828 5,644 9,122 6,275 1,304 3,709 3,703 4,028

73,325 8,284 29,572 5,028 8,864 6,171 1,250 4,728 4,677 4,751

73,276 7,733 32,588 4,468 8,244 5,362 1,352 3,924 4,024 5,581

68,350 6,747 34,448 3,505 6,056 4,456 1,505 3,607 3,723 4,303

61,332 5,030 31,553 2,493 5,221 3,386 1,538 4,451 4,292 3,368

29,,762 3,,241 8,,855 11,,742 ,787 131 1 ;,006

37,385 3,100 10,900 14,941 7,142 185 1,117

55,541 2,436 17,021 21,363 7,938 2,356 4,427

55,534 2,663 14,915 21,051 8,291 3,720 4,894

48,179 1,495 12,800 19,835 5,973 3,136 4,940

42,576 1,073 10,409 19,391 4,844 2,115 4,744

667

605

446

340

279

123,496 81,820 4,035 4,490 7,641 4,302 1,802 19,406

202,887 137,582 6,385 5,258 8,129 18,103 1,923 25,507

257,698 179,358 9,006 4,968 8,397 22,417 2,948 30,602

353,020 248,034 20,779 5,223 7,906 17,363 7,024 46,691

500,409 294,194 60,238 8,043 8,221 34,595 16,452 78,666

29,438 2,549 4,533 6,223 7,270 8,863

35,942 2,186 7,441 7,515 8,452 10,348

35,818 2,065 6,512 7,896 8,493 10,852

29,905 1,619 6,291 6,760 7,286 7,949

28,176 1,312 6,498 6,297 7,012 7,057

19,785 6,919 4,366 600 3,819 2,372 3,854 27,920 5,276 7,236 7,953 2,504

Kalawao County

\

Honolulu County Honolulu Koolaupoko Koolauloa Waialua Wahiawa Waianae Ewa

58,504 39,306 2,844 2,372 3,285 1,008 9,689

785 S OC ,028 52.,183 3.,251 3.,204 6,,083 799 1.,846 14,,627

Kauai County Hanalei Kawaihau Lihue Koloa Waimea

20,734 2,630 3,220 4,434 4,564 5,886

23,,952 2,457 2 ,580 4,951 5.,769 8,,195

a

1920

1900 TO 1960

Lanai organized from part of Lahaina in 1939.

Kalawao reported with Molokai in 1900.

Wahiawa organized from parts of Waialua and Waianae in 1913.

For other boundary changes,

see Robert D. King, " D i s t r i c t s i n the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , " i n John Wesley Coulter, comp., A Gazetteer of the T e r r i t o r y of Hawaii, pp. 214-230.

117

Table 24.--POPULATION OF SELECTED URBAN PLACES: I s l a n d and place 3

1900

Hawai i : Hilo"

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

6,745

10,431

19,468

23,353

27,198

25,966

3,195 6,306 7,424 4,025

2,149 ["3,054 [4,223 6,969 3,423

3,370 5,874 3,021

179,358 1,540 1,762 5,420 6,906 3,553

248,034 7,740 3,208 8,369 7,169 3,714

294,194 25,622 14,414 15,512

2,399

4,254

3,870

3,908

Maúi : Paia Puunene. Kahului. Wailuku. Lahaina. Oahu: Honolulu 0 Kailua-Lanikai. Kaneohe Wahiawa Waipahud Ai ea

4,171 2,353 6,998 2,730 39,306

52 183

Kauai: Lihue. a

1900 TO 1960

81,820

137,582

4,272 4,4561. 2,193j 7,319 5,217

11 « 826

A l l places with a population of 10,000 or more in 1960 or 4,000 or more (5,000 on

Oahu) in an e a r l i e r census. ^Boundaries greatly enlarged in 1941.

The 1940 population of the annexed area was

893. c

The Honolulu Urbanized Area, f i r s t defined in 1960, included Aiea, Pearl C i t y , and

Waipahu, and had 351,336 i n h a b i t a n t s . d

118

Not separately reported in 1960.

Table 25.--AGE AND SEX: Age and sex

1900

1910

T o t a l , a l l ages

154,001

191 ,909

255,912

368,336

423,330

499,794

632,772

Under 5 years 5 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Not reported

15,084 19,587 31 ,914 70,220 13,956 2,677 563

24,065 32,592 33,726 75,645 22,587 3,238 56

38,550 52,255 45,408 78,653 36,138 4,795 113

48,180 85,161 76,257 105,152 45,845 7,638 103

40,085 90,925 99,415 126,715 53,121 12,914 155

63,991 92,146 94,264 158,847 70,127 20,419

80,962 136,796 105,427 183,092 97,333 29,162

Median age (years) Percent, a l l ages Under 5 years 5 to 14 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Male, a l l ages Under 15 years 15 to 44 years 45 years and over Not reported Female, a l l ages Under 15 years 15 to 44 years 45 years and over Not reported Sex r a t i o , a l l ages... Under 15 years 15 to 44 years 45 years and over

1920

1900 TO 1960 1930

1940

1950

1960

26.9

26.4

23.3

22.0

23.2

24.9

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

24.3

9.8 12.8 20.8 45.8 9.1 1.7

12.5 17.0 17.6 39.4 11.8 1.7

15.1 20.4 17.8 30.7 14.1 1.9

13.1 23.1 20.7 28.6 12.4 2.1

9.5 21.5 23.5 29.9 12.6 3.0

12.8 18.4 18.9 31.8 14.0 4.1

12.8 21.6 16.7 28.9 15.4 4.6

106,369

123,099

151 ,146

222,640

245,135

273,895

338,173

17,919 75,910 12,170 370

28,921 74,845 19,296 37

46,236 74,674 30,157 79

67,659 118,624 36,295 62

66,472 138,020 40,540 103

79,845 140,675 53,375

111 ,120 154,223 72,830

47,632

68,810

104,766

145,696

178,195

225,899

294,599

16,752 26,224 4,463 193

27,736 34,526 6,529 19

44,569 49,387 10,776 34

65,682 62,785 17,188 41

64,538 88,110 25,495 52

76,292 112,436 37,171

106,638 134,296 53,665

223.3

178.9

144.3

152.8

137.6

121.2

114.8

107.0 289.5 272.7

104.3 216.8 295.5

103.7 151.2 279.9

103.0 188.9 211.2

103.0 156.6 159.0

104.7 125.1 143.6

104.2 114.8 135.7

119

Table 26.--ETHNIC STOCK:

1900 a

Ethnic stock Total Hawaiian Part Hawaiian Caucasian Puerto Rican Spanish Portuguese Other C a u c a s i a n . . . Chinese Filipino Korean Japanese Negro Other groups Percent

1920

1930

1940

1960 b

1950

154,001

191 ,909

255 ,912

368,336

423,330

499,769

632,772

29,799 7,857 28,819

23 ,723 18 ,027 54 ,742 5 ,602 2 ,430 27 ,002 19 ,708 23 ,507 21 ,031 4 ,950 109 ,274 348 310

22,636 28,224 80,373 6,671 1,219 27,588 44,895 27,179 63,052 6,461 139,631 563 217

14,375 49,935 112,087 8,296

12,245 73,845 124,344 9,551

11,294 91,109 202,230

103,791

114,793

61,111 233 415

26 ,041 12 ,506 44 ,048 4 ,890 1 ,990 22 ,301 14 ,867 21 ,674 2 ,361 4 ,533 79 ,675 695 376

28,774 52,569 6,851 157,905 255 579

32,376 61,062 7,030 184,598 2,651 1,618

203,455 4,943 12,474

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19.3 5.1 18.7

13.6 6.5 23.0 2.5 1.0 11.6 /./ 11.3 1.2 2.4 41.5 0.4 0.2

9.3 7.0 21.4 2.2 0.9 10.6 1.1 9.2 8.2 1.9 42.7 0.1 0.1

6.1 7.7 21.8 1.8 0.3 7.5 12.2 7.4 17.1 1.8 37.9 0.2 0.1

3.4 11.8 26.5 2.0

2.5 14.8 24.9 1.9

1.8 14.4 32.0

24.5

23.0

6.8 12.4 1.6 37.3 0.1 0.1

6.5 12.2 1.4 36.9 0.5 0.3

25,767

38,197 69,070

Distribution

Total Hawaiian Part Hawaiian Caucasian Puerto Rican Spanish Portuguese Other C a u c a s i a n . . . Chinese Filipino Korean Japanese Negro Other races a

1910

1900 TO 1960

16.7 39.7 0.2 0.3

6.0 10.9 32.2 0.8 2.0

The 1900 Census apparently m i s c l a s s i f i e d many part Hawaiians and used e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s

not e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t with those o f the 1910-1930 enumerations.

Romanzo Adams made two

separate e f f o r t s to a d j u s t these data (see h i s The Peoples of Hawaii, p. 9 and I n t e r r a c i a l Marriage i n Hawaii, p. 8 ) . ^A second t a b u l a t i o n o f 1960 race s t a t i s t i c s , u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t procedure f o r

allocating

nonresponse, r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t o t a l s f o r some g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Hawaiians (see HDPED, 5R 9 [Dec. 26, 1 9 6 3 ] ) .

the

The DPED r e p o r t a l s o d i s c u s s e s the com-

p o s i t i o n of the l a r g e r e s i d u a l category ( c o n s i s t i n g of Koreans, Samoans, and o t h e r small groups) and the treatment o f the Puerto Rican p o p u l a t i o n .

120

Table 27.—PLACE OF BIRTH: Place of b i r t h Total Native Hawaii Other State State not reported Outlying area 3 Foreign® Portugal Other Europe China Japan Philippines" Korea A l l other and not rptd.

1900

1910

1920

1900 TO 1960 1930

1940

1950

1960

154,001

191 ,909

255,912

368,336

423,330

499,794

632,772

63,,221 58,,931 4,,284

98.,157 86,,483 5,,688

168,,671 136,,349 10,,957

299.,799 214,,517 30,,191

370,,717 278,,506 54,,224

423,,174 355,,574 65,,640

6 90,,780 6,,512 3,,570 21,,741 56,,234

5!,986 93 ,752 7,,585 5 ,622 14.,486 59 ,800

2 l ' Î 365 87,,241 5 ,794 4 ,894 11 ,164 60 ,690

55!,091 68.,537 3,,713 4.,539 7,,477 48 ,425

37,,987 52,,613 2.,397 4,,309 4,,868 37,,362

Ï,[723

4 J 72 2 ,087

3'^498 1 ,201

2.3 7 7 1,,406

2!Î454 1,,223

l ' ^960 76 ,620 1 ,508 3.,560 3 ,625 30 ,808 33 ,832 1,,772 1.,515

563,872 421,168 128,992 8,750 4,962 68,900 764 4,629 3,541 24,658 28,649 1 ,124 5,545

100.0

100.0

100..0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

41.1 38.3 2.8

51.1 45.1 3.0 3.1 48.9

65..9 53 .3 4..3 8..3 34..1

81.4 58.2 8.2 15.0 18.6

87.6 65.8 12.8 9.0 12.4

84.7 71.1 13.1 0.4 15.3

89.1 66.6 20.4 2.2 10.9

Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n Total Native Hawaii Other State Other, not r p t d a Foreign^ a

58.9

I n c l u d e s persons born at sea or abroad of American parents.

born in Alaska.

P r i o r to 1960, includes persons

P r i o r to 1950, includes persons born in the P h i l i p p i n e s :

2,372 in 1910, 18,728

in 1920, 52,672 i n 1930, and 35,778 in 1940. ^ P h i l i p p i n e s included with native population p r i o r to 1950.

121

Table 28.--HAWAII-BORN PERSONS IN OTHER STATES: Number

Year

1850 TO 1960

Year

Number

Year

Number

1850...

588

1890...

1,304

1930...

19,457

1860...

435

1900...

1,307

1940...

23,723

1870...

584

1910...

3,741

1950...

51,955

1880...

1,147

1920...

10,551

1960...

115,070

Table 29.--PLACE OF RESIDENCE FIVE YEARS PRIOR TO CENSUS DATE:

1950 AND 1960

Subject

1950

1960

Population 5 years old and over

435,135

551 ,781

L i v i n g i n same house as 5 years e a r l i e r . . . Percent

202,100 46.4

240,895 43.7

In-migrants from other S t a t e s 3

...

94,768

Out-migrants to other S t a t e s b

...

84,740

R e s i d e n t s of Hawaii on census date who l i v e d in another State 5 years e a r l i e r . ^Residents of other States on census date who l i v e d in Hawaii 5 years e a r l i e r .

Mainland r e s i d e n t s , one year old and

over, enumerated in 1950 and l i v i n g in Hawaii one year e a r l i e r numbered 26,460. 122

Table 30.--MARITAL STATUS:

Subject

1900

1900 TO 1960

Persons 15 years of age or over 1936 1910 1920

Persons 14 years of age or over 1540 i960 i960

Males, total Single Married Percent Widowed Divorced Not reported

88,450 52,800 32,464 36.7 2,493 247 446

94,178 46,443 42,491 45.1 4,278 912 54

104,910 45,874 52,977 50.5 5,011 956 92

154,981 79,092 68,187 44.0 6,030 1,622 50

183,448 102,913 71,715 39.1 6,211 2,609

197,874 81,917 103,475 52.3 7,352 5,130

232,805 84,965 134,421 57.7 7,075 6,344

Females, total Single Married Percent Widowed Divorced Not reported

30,880 4,655 24,048 77.9 1,998 120 59

41,074 6,744 31,380 76.4 2,559 364 27

60,197 10,721 45,550 75.7 3,479 416 31

80,014 19,602 53,948 67.4 5,523 934 7

118,238 40,733 66,569 56.3 8,819 2,117

153,515 43,445 94,520 61.6 11,736 3,814

193,684 44,376 128,528 66.4 15,099 5,681

820.0

534.1

354.7

332.9

216.2

160.0

151.0

S i n g l e , widowed, or divorced: males per 100 females..

123

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141

Table 38.—RESIDENCE AND MILITARY STATUS: Jan. 1 , 1964

July 1, 1964

Jan. 1, 1965

July 1, 1965a

713,,997

720,741

743,734

745,110

C i v i l i a n population M i l i t a r y dependents Other c i v i l i a n s Armed forces Stationed ashore Homeported Hawaii

654.,371 65.,976 588.,395 59.,626 48.,242 11,,384

660,901 69,090 591,811 59,840 47,959 11,881

680,898 72,812 608,086 62,836 48,227 14,609

688,997 65,816 623,181 56,113 42,960 13,153

De facto c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n . . . . V i s i t o r s present Residents absent

670.,959 22.,597 6 ,009

674,951 25,153 11,103

695,458 22,167 7,607

702,030 26,271 13,238

Category Total resident p o p u l a t i o n . . .

a

Preliminary.

Table 2).

142

1964 AND 1965

Revised total i s 744,756 (see HDPED, SR 44 [Oct. 21 , 1966],

Table 3 9 . — R E S I D E N T AND DE FACTO POPULATION, BY GEOGRAPHIC AREA: APRIL T, 1965

Resident population3

De facto civi1ian populationb

746,650

Hawaii County City of Hilo Remainder o f county Honolulu C o u n t y c City of H o n o l u l u 0 Remainder of county

Geographic area

Percent increase, 1960-65 Resident population3

De facto population' 3

694,110

18.0

17.6

58,385 24,884 33,501

58,479 24,826 33,653

-4.8 -4.2 -5.3

-4.4 -4.4 -4.5

617,774 347,550 270,224

564,223 339,140 225,083

23.5 18.1 31.0

23.1 .14.9 38.0

224

222

-19.7

-20.4

Kauai County Island of Kauai Island of Niihau

25,992 25,715 277

26,319 26,042 277

-7.8 -7.9 9.1

-6.1 -6.3 9.1

Maui County Island of Island of Island of Island of

44,275 75 2,713 36,024 5,463

44,867

4.0

5.5

2,712 36,700 5,455

28.3 0.9 15.2

Total

Kalawao County

a

Kahoolawed Lanai Maui Molokai (exc. Kalawao)...

I n c l u d e s armed forces.

18.2 2.8 15.4

For minor revisions, see HDPED, SR 44 (Oct. 21, 1966),

Table 2. ^Excludes armed forces. i n c l u d e s outlying islands legally part of the City of Honolulu (42 armed forces and no civi1ians). ^Uninhabited in 1960.

143

Table 40.—COMPONENTS OF CHANGE IN THE RESIDENT POPULATION: APRIL 1, 1960 TO 1965

M i l i t a r y status

Net change

Live births

Deaths

Net migration 3

Total population

109,819

87,837

18,003

39,985

312

3,767

Armed forces

3,455

M i l i t a r y dependents...

10,399

25,048

796

-13,853

Other c i v i l i a n s ^

95,965

62,789

16,895

50,071

a

Includes net movement between military and c i v i l i a n populations

(separations less inductions). ^Migration estimate includes approximately 66,677 in-migrants (55,895 from North America, 10,782 from Asia, A u s t r a l i a , and the South Pacific) and 16,606 out-migrants. Source of Tables 38-40:

HDPED, SR 31 (June 21, 1965), Tables

1, 2, 8, 9, and SR 37 (Nov. 19, 1965), Tables 2, 3, 4, 5.

144

Table 41 .-POPULATION BY AGE:

APRIL 1 , 1960 AND JULY 1, 1965

Number

Age

Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n

Percent increase, 1960-65

1965

1960

1965

1960

710,000

632,772

100.0

100.0

12.2

Under 5 years 5 to 17 years 18 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over...

86,000 197,000 274,000 116,000 36,000

80,962 169,951 255,364 97,333 29,162

12.1 27.7 38.6 16.3 5.1

12.8 26.9 40.4 15.4 4.6

6.2 15.9 7.3 19.2 23.4

14 years and over... 18 years and over... 21 years and over...

481 ,000 427,000 382,000

426,489 381 ,859 348,330

67.7 60.1 53.8

67.4 60.3 55.0

12.8 11.8 9.7

All ages 3

Total for 1965 estimated by State agencies was 744,756. Source:

USBC, "Estimates of the Population of States, by Age: July 1,

1965, With Provisional Estimates for July 1, 1966," Current Population Reports, Population Estimates, Series P-25, No. 354 (Dec. 8, 1966).

145

Table 42.—AGE AND SEX, BY MILITARY STATUS OF HOUSEHOLD, FOR OAHU: APRIL 1964 TO MARCH 1965 Kind of household 3 and sex of household members

Population

All ages

Age, i n years (percent d i s t r i b u t i o n ) Under 6 to 17 to 25 to 45 to 6 16 24 44 64

65 and over

A l l Households' 3 Both s e x e s . . . Male Female

560,996

100.0

15.1

25.1

12.8

27.6

15.1

4.4

277,422 283,574

100.0 100.0

15.0 15.2

25.3 24.8

12.4 13.1

26.7 28.5

16.4 13.9

4.2 4.5

94,406

100.0

24.4

23.0

15.3

34.6

2.4

0.3

48,083 46,323

100.0 100.0

24.9 23.9

22.5 23.6

12.9 17.8

37.1 32.0

2.5 2.3

0.1 0.4

466,590

100.0

13.5

25.4

12.3

26.4

17.3

5.1

229,339 237,251

100.0 100.0

13.2 13.7

25.8 25.0

12.3 12.4

24.8 27.9

18.9 15.8

5.0 5.2

Mi 1 i ta ry Households Both s e x e s . . . Male Female Civilian Households Both s e x e s . . . Male Female a

By m i l i t a r y status of household head.

Excludes barracks and i n s t i t u t i o n s but

includes other group quarters. b

Age d i s t r i b u t i o n computed from combined samples not weighted for d i f f e r e n t

sampling i n t e r v a l s (60.4 f o r c i v i l i a n households and 70.4 f o r m i l i t a r y households). Source:

HDH, Health S u r v e i l l a n c e Program sample survey of 9,066 persons (683

males and 658 females in m i l i t a r y households, 3,797 males and 3,928 females in civilian

146

households).

Table 43.--ETHNIC STOCK, BY MILITARY STATUS OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD, FOR OAHU: APRIL 1964 TO MARCH 1965 (Excludes persons i n barracks and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Household c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on m i l i t a r y s t a t u s o f head)

E t h n i c stock

All

races

All

persons

Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n In c i v i l i a n In military households households

Percent military

100.0

100.0

100.0

14.8

Unmixed Japanese Portuguese Other Caucasian Hawai i an Puerto Rican Filipino Chinese Samoan A l l other

73.7 29.3 3.2 24.2 1.1 0.6 7.2 6.5 0.4 1.2

71.5 34.0 3.7 14.8 1.2 0.7 8.2 7.5 0.4 1.0

86.7 2.5 0.1 78.2 0.2

17.4 1.3 0.7 47.9 3.0 0.0 3.8 1.0 22.5 31.5

Mixed, two s t r a i n s 3 Japanese Portuguese Other Caucasian Hawaiian Puerto Rican Filipino Chinese Samoan A l l other

13.1 2.6 2.4 6.9 6.5 0.6 2.0 3.8 0.0 1.3

13.9 2.8 2.8 6.9 7.3 0.7 2.0 4.2 0.1 1.0

8.8 1.6 0.5 6.6 2.4 0.2 1.9 1.6 2.8

9.9 8.9 3.2 14.3 5.4 5.2 13.7 6.0 (b) 33.0

Mixed, more than two s t r a i n s . . . Part Hawaiian Non-Hawai i an

13.1 11.5 1.6

14.6 12.9 1.7

4.3 3.2 1.0

4.8 4.1 9.7

0.1

0.1

0.3

(b)

Race not reported a

Ì.9

0.4 0.7 2.5

Adds to twice the i n d i c a t e d t o t a l because each race i s represented twice.

''Base i s too small to show a meaningful Source:

percentage.

HDH, Health S u r v e i l l a n c e Program sample survey o f 9,065 p e r s o n s .

147

Table 44.--ALIEN ADDRESS REPORTS RECEIVED: Year

Aliens

1940 TO 1965

Year

Aliens

1940 a

91,447

1962

49,196

1951

66,181

1963

48,025

I960

51 ,316

1964

47,616

1961

50,101

1965

46,143

Includes 38,340 from the P h i l i p p i n e s and 3,385 from other U. S. p o s s e s s i o n s . Source:

HDPED, SR 29 ( A p r i l 9, 1965), p. 14.

Table 45.—HOUSING UNITS AND HOUSEHOLDS, BY COUNTY:

r o u n t vy

Total Hawaii Honolulu Kauai Maui ( i n c l . Kalawao)... Source:

u Households

192,580

Percent increase, .1960-64 Housinq Housed y units

ho1ds

177,416

15.4

15.9

19,105

16,649

5.4

5.4

150,171

139,809

19.4

18.6

9,306

8,356

3.4

3.4

13,998

12,602

11.1

11.1

HRA, Redevelopment and Housing Research, Supplement

f o r Nov. 1964, p. 4.

148

U • Housing units.

APRIL 1, 1964

T a b l e 46.--HOUSEHOLD AND HOUSING C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S , FOR OAHU:

January 1958

Subject

December 1959

1958 TO 1962

O c t o b e r 1962 Military Total

households

Civilian households

Households Number o f h o u s e h o l d s P e r s o n s per h o u s e h o l d P e r c e n t i n same house as one year e a r l i e r 3 P e r c e n t i n armed f o r c e s 3 P e r c e n t employed downtowna Median f a m i l y income ( $ ) Occupied Housing

Refers Source:

116,000 4.35

129,200 4.25

23,900 3.99

105,300 4.30

75.7 20.1 15.4 5,373

72.9 19.9 16.5 6,055

72.9 18.5 13.8 6,883

42.8 100.0 0.4 4,777

79.8 16.8 7,551

47.1 66

47.2 76 18.7 27.3 58.9 63.5 1948 11.3

45.6 86 17.8 22.9 62.9 68.4 1950 13.9

6.7 92 24.7 15.2 64.5 41.6 1954 17.7

54.4 82 15.6 25.3 62.0 71.4 1950 13.0

Units

P e r c e n t owner o c c u p i e d Median m o n t h l y r e n t ( $ ) Median r e n t - i n c o m e r a t i o [ % ) . . . P e r c e n t o v e r 1 p e r s o n per room. P e r c e n t w i t h 5 rooms o r m o r e . . . Percent in 1 - u n i t s t r u c t u r e s . . . Median y e a r b u i l t Percent d i l a p i d a t e d

a

104,000 4.50

to household

31.9 53.5 66.6 1946

head.

HRA, " H o n o l u l u H o u s e h o l d and H o u s i n g S u r v e y , O c t o b e r

Redevelopment and H o u s i n g

R e s e a r c h , No. 23 ( J u l y

1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 1 1 , 1 2 ,

1962," 15-19.

149

Table 47.—SCHOOL MEMBERSHIP, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE: P u b l i c and p r i v a t e schools Other State Oahu islands

School y e a r

1954-1955 TO 1964-1965

Public schools State

P r i v a t e schools

Oahu

State

Oahu

1954-1955...

139,162

98,797

40,365

113,544

77,759

25,618

21,038

1959-1960...

169,925

130,373

39,552

140,666

105,565

29,259

24,808

1964-1965...

193,047

153,579

39,468

160,681

125,610

32,366

27,969

Source:

Hawaii Department of Education, S t a t i s t i c s on P u b l i c and P r i v a t e

School Pupil Membership, 1964-65 ( A p r i l

19, 1965), pp. 3, 19.

Table 4 8 . — R E L I G I O N OF PERSONS 20 YEARS OLD AND OVER, FOR OAHU:

None

Roman Catholic

Mormon

Protestant

100.0

12.1

27.6

2.7

39.0

15.8

2.8

Male

100.0

16.0

27.9

2.5

34.2

17.6

1.8

Female

100.0

8.1

27.3

2.9

43.8

14.0

3.9

Both s e x e s . . .

Source:

Sample survey by U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii, Economic Research Center,

as quoted i n HDPR, S t a t i s t i c a l

150

Other and not reported

Total

Sex

Buddhist

1960

A b s t r a c t of Hawaii, 1962, p. 16.

Table 4 9 . - L A B O R FORCE ESTIMATES, ANNUAL AVERAGES: 1958 TO 1965

Geographic area and year The S t a t e : 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 ahu: 1960 1965 ther i s l a n d s : 1960 1965 Source:

Civilian labor force

Civilian employment

Labor disputes

211 ,540 222.,980 235 ,140 242,,850 246,,180 250 ,880 257 ,630 269,,020

201,,370 216 ,140 228,,050 ' 232 ,910 234 ,420 238 ,630 247 ,560 259 ,680

3,090

184 ,660 214,,610 50 ,480 54 ,410

160 230 20 90

7,080 6,840 7,090 9,940 11,600 12,020 10,050 9,250

3.4 3.1 3.0 4.1 4.7 4.8 3.9 3.4

179 ,350 207 ,450

70

5,310 7,090

2.9 3.3

48,,700 52 ,230

20

1,780 2,160

3.5 4.0

Hawaii Department of Labor and I n d u s t r i a l

Estimates, mimeographed s e r i e s .

Unemployed Number Percent

R e l a t i o n s , Labor Force

VI.

BIRTH AND DEATH STATISTICS:

1848-1965

Official birth and death s t a t i s t i c s for Hawaii go back to the 1840's.

These data are often inaccurate and incomplete.

Many of the figures l i e buried in long-forgotten reports, d i s regarded by historians and demographers.

Since 1915 or 1920,

however, the quality of these s t a t i s t i c s has been generally acceptable, and for the past quarter of a century has been superior.

Taken as a whole, they mirror with some f i d e l i t y the

changing demographic fortunes of Hawaii--the depressed f e r t i l i t y and catastrophic mortality of the 19th century, the rapid s h i f t s in birth rates during the interwar and postwar periods, and the rapid lengthening in expectation of l i f e over the past halfcentury. The compilation of vital

statistics

Knowledge of vital trends in Hawaii before the 18301s i s either scanty or non-existent.

The record i s particularly hazy

for the pre-contact period, from the e a r l i e s t habitation of Hawaii more than 1,000 years ago to the arrival of Captain Cook. Information for the years following Cook's v i s i t i s somewhat more plentiful.

An unpublished manuscript by Romanzo Adams, in fact,

contains a valiant effort to reconstruct the s t a t i s t i c a l

record

back to 1778, in spite of formidable d i f f i c u l t i e s (see Table 10). The rapid depopulation that followed the f i r s t contact did much to stimulate interest in vital s t a t i s t i c s .

Perhaps 300,000

Hawaiians lived in the Islands in 1778; by 1832, when the mis152

s i o n a r i e s completed t h e i r f i r s t census, the number was less than 125,000.

This decline became a cause of considerable

concern. The e a r l i e s t contemporary f i g u r e s on I s l a n d f e r t i l i t y and mortality are those compiled by the m i s s i o n a r i e s .

In 1835 they

passed a r e s o l u t i o n s p e c i f y i n g "that a r e g i s t e r be kept at each s t a t i o n of a l l the b i r t h s and deaths, as far as they come within our knowledge, to be embodied in the annual report of the s t a t i o n s . " ^

Unfortunately, only a few of the s t a t i o n s

heeded t h i s r e s o l u t i o n .

There were also occasional

to estimate the infant mortality rate.

efforts

These scattered reports

suggested crude b i r t h rates ranging from 10 to 26 per 1,000 population, death rates between 40 and 53, and i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y (based on deaths under 2 years of age) in excess of 500 per 1,000 l i v e b i r t h s . ^

P a r t i c u l a r l y severe epidemics drove these

death rates even higher. The o f f i c i a l c o l l e c t i o n of v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s was f i r s t authorized a few years l a t e r .

A law enacted on June 7, 1839

and approved on November 9, 1840 i n s t r u c t e d the tax o f f i c e r s to "take a y e a r l y account of the deaths and b i r t h s , by which i t may be ascertained whether the people of the kingdom are r e a l l y diminishing in numbers or not

...."^

A f t e r i t became apparent that the tax o f f i c i a l s were not heeding t h i s mandate, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was transferred to the newly created Department of Public I n s t r u c t i o n .

An act ap-

proved on A p r i l 27, 1846 charged the M i n i s t e r of Public 153

Instruction "with the stated enumeration of the inhabitants of this kingdom, of whom i t shall be his duty to make a complete census ... including an annual b i l l of mortality, and of the natural increase."

An amendment signed on August 7, 1850 pro-

vided for the appointment of local registrars "from among the school teachers, or other suitable persons," to be paid two cents for every event recorded " i f deemed correct."^

Legis-

lation approved on May 17, 1859 required parents to notify the registrar of births within a period of three months, and the nearest relative to notify the registrar of deaths within a one-week period, under penalty of a $1.00 fine.

An amendment

dated January 10, 1865 assigned the functions of d i s t r i c t 5 registrar to school agents. Responsibility for birth and death registration was transferred to health o f f i c i a l s in 1896.

"An Act for Keeping Records

of Births, Deaths and Marriages," passed by the 1896 Legislature, directed the Board of Health to appoint registrars for each d i s t r i c t , l i s t e d items to be recorded, and set penalties for nonreporting.®

Legislation approved on April 19, 1913 created the

position of Registrar-General.^

The Bureau of Vital

Statistics,

later named the Office of Health S t a t i s t i c s and now known as the Research, Planning and S t a t i s t i c s Office of the Department of Health, was established by the 1937 Territorial

Legislature.®

A model Public Health S t a t i s t i c s Act was approved on May 19, 1949. 9 S t a t i s t i c s compiled by these agencies have typically been 154

published in annual or biennial reports (references are l i s t e d in Footnote 10).

B i r t h and death t o t a l s f o r 1848, the f i r s t

year with reasonably complete s t a t i s t i c a l

coverage, appeared

in conjunction with the 1849 census r e s u l t s . l a t i o n was issued f o r 1849.

A s i m i l a r tabu-

From 1851 to 1863, annual

totals

appeared in reports of the Board of Education, often in considerable geographic d e t a i l .

After a two-year h i a t u s , p u b l i -

cation of annual data was assumed by the Board of Health, a practice i t followed from 1866 to 1877.

The Board of Education

resumed p u b l i c a t i o n of these data several years l a t e r , presenting biennial t o t a l s without any geographic breakdown f o r periods from 1868-1869 to 1888-1889.

Then, in A p r i l 1876, the

Board of Health i n i t i a t e d compilation of detailed s t a t i s t i c s on deaths occurring in Honolulu, c l a s s i f i e d by age, sex, nationa l i t y , and cause of death.

B i r t h data were added and the pro-

gram was extended to the remainder of the T e r r i t o r y in January 1900.

S t a t i s t i c s f o r succeeding years have r e g u l a r l y appeared

in the annual reports of the Board ( l a t e r Department) of H e a l t h . ^ Federal compilations f i r s t presented v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s f o r Hawaii in 1915. 1 1 Findings Trends revealed by these data are traced in the accompanying t a b l e s . The f i r s t four present annual or decennial data on the number of r e g i s t e r e d b i r t h s and deaths and the corresponding crude b i r t h and death rates.

Unfortunately,

underregistration 155

was quite common before 1910 or 1915, and in some years was e s p e c i a l l y noticeable.

Any meaningful comparison between suc-

cessive y e a r s , or even between successive decades, thus becomes exceedingly hazardous.

Such comparisons are f u r t h e r compli-

cated, even f o r the recent past, by the effects of s h i f t i n g age and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The b i r t h and death rates in Tables 51, 52, and 53--expressed as the number of v i t a l events occurring annually per 1,000 mid-period c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n — d i f f e r somewhat from rates published p r e v i o u s l y .

Statistical

u s u a l l y limited to absolute t o t a l s .

reports p r i o r to 1900 were Although l a t e r tabulations

included rates of one kind or another, these rates were u s u a l l y computed e i t h e r from outdated census t o t a l s , postcensal popul a t i o n estimates of dubious accuracy, or population data d i s torted by the i n c l u s i o n of large numbers of m i l i t a r y personnel. The recent r e v i s i o n of semi-annual c i v i l i a n population estimates back to 1848 has made the present study p o s s i b l e (see Appendix). Table 54 compares b i r t h and death rates based on the number of r e g i s t e r e d events with corresponding rates adjusted f o r underregistration.

In 1919-1920, f o r example, the crude b i r t h

rate, already high at 40.4, becomes 49.3 when corrected for underreporting. years.

Less d r a s t i c changes are evident f o r l a t e r

Unfortunately, accurate adjustments are p o s s i b l e only

for the f i v e years for which completeness of r e g i s t r a t i o n was surveyed. Two alternate approaches to the measurement of f e r t i l i t y 156

are explored in Table 55.

With the general f e r t i l i t y

rate,

annual b i r t h s (both r e g i s t e r e d and adjusted) are related to the number of women 15 to 44 years of age rather than to total population, thus reducing the effect of s h i f t i n g age and sex composition on f e r t i l i t y trends.

The second measure, the

f e r t i l i t y r a t i o , shows the number of children under 5 years old per 1,000 women 15 to 44 at each census.

A rough adjustment

has been made in the l a t t e r s e r i e s to eliminate the effect of changes in infant mortality rates.

Unfortunately, both the

general f e r t i l i t y rate and the f e r t i l i t y r a t i o depend on data u s u a l l y limited to census y e a r s .

Inadequate information on

completeness of r e g i s t r a t i o n and c h i l d m o r t a l i t y before 1915 or thereabouts further r e s t r i c t s the value of these measures for long-term trend a n a l y s i s . Gross and net reproduction rates f o r census years since 1930 are reported in Table 56.

The gross reproduction rate i s

the average number of daughters that a hypothetical cohort of females s t a r t i n g l i f e together would bear i f they a l l

survived

from b i r t h to the end of the childbearing period and i f they experienced a given set of a g e - s p e c i f i c f e r t i l i t y rates.

The

net reproduction rate i s the average number of daughters that a hypothetical

cohort of females s t a r t i n g l i f e together would

bear i f they experienced given sets of a g e - s p e c i f i c mortality and f e r t i l i t y

rates.

Table 57 traces infant mortality rates from 1902 to 1965. These rates show the number of deaths among children under 1 157

year of age per 1,000 live births.

Near-completeness in death

registration was attained well in advance of that for b i r t h s ; consequently, infant mortality rates for the f i r s t quarter of the century tended to be seriously overstated. Selected l i f e - t a b l e values appear in Table 58.

The

earliest estimates available are rough approximations for Honolulu for 1884-1885.

More accurate data, statewide in scope,

are available at decennial intervals since 1920.

Estimates for

different islands or ethnic groups are as yet unpublished. Tables 59 and 60 report data on age at death and cause of death for selected years since 1920. The data in these tables help to chart--roughly at f i r s t , later with considerable accuracy—trends and fluctuations in f e r t i l i t y and mortality in the Islands.

Full appreciation of

their meaning, however, requires some knowledge of the underlying s o c i a l , economic, and health conditions of the past. These can be mentioned only b r i e f l y here. Causes of the high level of mortality during the nineteenth century were many and complex.

Contemporary writers blamed

alcohol, sexual promiscuity, and landlessness, among other reasons.

More recent authorities have noted the limited state

of medical knowledge, poor infant care, and economic disorganization.

Taeuber stressed "increased mortality associated with 12

intruded diseases and disturbed subsistence production." Epidemics occurred at frequent intervals.

Measles and

whooping cough struck in 1848, influenza in 1849, smallpox in 158

1853, s c a r l e t fever in 1870, typhoid fever in 1880, smallpox again in 1881, measles again in 1890, A s i a t i c cholera in 1895, bubonic plague in 1899-1900, yellow fever in 1911, influenza in 1918-1920, epidemic meningitis in 1928, and measles again in 1936-1937.

Venereal disease, t u b e r c u l o s i s , and Hansen's

Disease were prominent causes of death well into the twentieth century.

Major d i s a s t e r s a f f e c t i n g the death rate included the

Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1941 and the tsunamis of A p r i l 1, 1946 and May 23, 1960. M o r t a l i t y would have been even greater i f many older immigrant workers had not chosen to return to t h e i r homelands to die. Reasons underlying changes in f e r t i l i t y are even more d i f f i c u l t to a s s i g n with any c e r t a i n t y .

Regarding trends during

the nineteenth century, Taeuber has suggested the l i k e l i h o o d of "a recurrent or l o c a l i z e d low f e r t i l i t y associated with venereal disease, epidemics, or malnutrition . . .

Physiologiaal 13

s t e r i l i t y need not imply altered reproductive mores." role of s y p h i l i s has been mentioned frequently.

The

In more r e -

cent times, b i r t h rates in Hawaii have p a r a l l e l e d rates on the Mainland, dropping during economic recessions and r i s i n g in response to economic recovery or the threat of war.

Other

factors responsible f o r f l u c t u a t i n g f e r t i l i t y rates include the changing proportions of women of child-bearing age, s h i f t s

in

ethnic composition, increasing knowledge of b i r t h control

tech-

niques, and a growing acceptance of American f a m i l y - s i z e

ideals. 159

Accuracy of the data I t should be emphasized that the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n i s based in large measure on data unadjusted f o r

underregistration,

and hence subject to considerable error f o r years marked by i n complete or inaccurate coverage.

This p o s s i b i l i t y suggests the

need for careful evaluation of the adequacy of the underlying data. The population base used f o r computation of rates appears to be reasonably correct.

Adams, who made a thorough study of

the Hawaiian censuses, attested to t h e i r accuracy (at l e a s t as regards total numbers) f o r the years from 1850 f o r w a r d . ^

The

decennial enumerations conducted by the U. S. Bureau of the Census in Hawaii since 1900 likewise seem free of serious defects.

The intercensal estimates used in t h i s a n a l y s i s are r e -

cent r e v i s i o n s based on the best a v a i l a b l e data and, with the p o s s i b l e exception of 1901-1909, appear to be adequate f o r most a n a l y t i c purposes (see Appendix). The b i r t h and death data, unfortunately, i n s p i r e much less confidence.

Numerous d e f i c i e n c i e s mar these s e r i e s well

the twentieth century.

into

Because of these defects, Hawaii was not

accepted into the U. S. Death R e g i s t r a t i o n Area until 1917 and was excluded from the B i r t h R e g i s t r a t i o n Area u n t i l

1929.

O f f i c i a l s were aware of these shortcomings from the beginning, and seldom hesitated to express t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s : The return of b i r t h s and deaths f o r 1851, have been 160

very imperfect, and from two d i s t r i c t s on Hawaii, no returns at a l l have been received.15 . . . made by native agents, not a l l f u l l y s e n s i b l e to the importance of correctness in the matter, and cannot be r e l i e d upon as e n t i r e l y accurate.16 . . . unusually imperfect t h i s year [1855] .. This s i t u a t i o n , bad as i t appeared, soon worsened. wrote:

Adams

"The records of b i r t h s and deaths, 1848 to 1860, kept

by school teachers under the s u p e r v i s i o n of competent M i n i s t e r s of Education, are valuable though incomplete as to d i s t r i c t . 1o A f t e r 1860 such reports became almost worthless Data were l e f t untabulated or unpublished f o r 1864, 1865, and (ex10 cept f o r Honolulu proper) throughout the 1 8 9 0 ' s . Alternate 20

sources sometimes showed v a r i a n t values f o r certain y e a r s . Although the o f f i c i a l

f i g u r e s indicate a crude b i r t h rate under

25 and a death rate below 30 for most of the years between 1882 and 1900, other evidence suggests rates twice as high:

"The

age r a t i o s and the age structures of the populations of 1890 and 1896 suggest b i r t h rates of 50 or more per 1,000 total population.

I f b i r t h rates were at t h i s level and [the Hawaiian]

population was d e c l i n i n g , death rates must have been above 21 50."

Official

s t a t i s t i c s on b i r t h s , deaths, and migration

f a i l e d to account f o r 30,500 of the 36,500 increase in popul a t i o n between 1900 and 1910 (see Appendix). R e g i s t r a t i o n was poor in Honolulu but was even worse e l s e where.

The Executive O f f i c e r of the Board of Health complained

in 1897 that "not h a l f of the b i r t h s in the c i t y are

161

r e g i s t e r e d . T w o years later he wrote .that "The reports of births, marriages and deaths from most of the d i s t r i c t s of the 23

Islands outside of Honolulu are very unsatisfactory

Mortality returns for rural areas were termed "merely nominal" 24 and "of very l i t t l e value from a s t a t i s t i c a l point of view." These considerations suggested the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a separate tabulation of data limited to Honolulu proper.

These

s t a t i s t i c s , shown in Table 52, cover the period from 1852, when Honolulu figures f i r s t became available, to 1910, when geographic d i f f e r e n t i a l s in completeness of registration began to lose their significance.

I t was hoped that computation of

separate data for Honolulu would provide both a check on the admittedly defective a l l - i s l a n d rates and a clue to mortality patterns for 1890 to 1899, when published tabulations omitted other areas.

As i t turned out, however, the Honolulu rates

were sometimes lower than the a l l - i s l a n d rates, particularly before 1864.

During years when the Honolulu rates exceeded

those for the entire kingdom by a sizeable margin (1867-1877), the former seemed so unreasonably high and the latter so close to expected values that one suspects that gross misallocation rather than differential completeness was at fault.

As noted by

the Board of Health: The death-rate of Honolulu ... is unfair; the number of non-residents dying in Honolulu i s increasing continually ... The Chinese laborers particularly, find their way to Honolulu when s i c k , and many die within a few hours after landing.25 162

Non-resident deaths eventually dropped from 11 percent of the total in 1884-1885 to 2 percent in 1897. Registration improved considerably after 1910.

A test

conducted by the U. S. Bureau of the Census in 1918 indicated that 98 percent of a l l deaths occurring in Hawaii were r e p o r t e d . ^ The same agency tested birth registration for the second half of 1919 and estimated i t to have been 82 percent complete.^ Their 1930 check found 93 percent of all births

registered.^

Reporting of births reached 97.7 percent completeness in 1940 and 99.9 percent in 1950, the last time a systematic test was conducted. The limitations of the nineteenth century data in the accompanying tables are evident.

Underreporting and misallocation

were frequent, and varied both from year to year and place to place.

S t a t i s t i c s were particularly bad for rural areas during

the last third of the century. In spite of these shortcomings, the data offer much of value for s o c i a l , demographic, and medical research.

The crude

birth and death rates and other vital indexes presented in the tables provide at least a rough quantitative measure of public health progress and demographic change in Hawaii over a 117year period. adequate.

Data covering the last half-century are quite

Many p o s s i b i l i t i e s remain for further exploitation

of these s t a t i s t i c a l

resources.

163

Table 5 0 . - - L I V E BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND CRUDE BIRTH AND DEATH RATES: ANNUAL AVERAGES FOR SELECTED PERIODS, 1848 TO 1965 (Place of occurrence b a s i s .

Not adjusted f o r u n d e r r e g i s t r a t i o n ,

thought to be extensive in many of these y e a r s ; see Table 54 f o r adjusted data f o r a v a i l a b l e years.

Because of doubtful

accuracy,

the data before 1910 should be used with utmost caution) Live bi rths

Deaths 3

1848-1859 1860-1869 1870-1879 1880-1889 1890-1899C 1900-1909

1,635 1,751 2,320 1,799 ... 2,796

1910-1919 1920-1929 1930-1939 1940-1949 1950-1959 1960-1965

6,872 11,590 9,680 12,042 15,883 17,476

Period

Death rate"

3,641 2,638 2,922 1,923 .•• 2,763

21. 3 27. 1 41. 0 23. 6 16. 6

45.8 40.8 51.4 25.3 26.4 16.6

3,530 4,181 3,548 3,062 3,043 3,543

31. 3 39. 5 26. 2 26.,6 31. 8 27. 3

16.3 14.4 9.6 6.8 6.1 5.5

»

a

I n c l u d e s armed forces to 1940 but excludes them thereafter.

b

Annual events per 1,000 population computed as average of

annual rates f o r period. after 1897. c

Population base excludes armed forces

Residence b a s i s to 1950; de facto b a s i s

C i t y of Honolulu only. Source:

164

Birth rate"

Computed from Tables 51-53.

thereafter.

Table 5 1 . - - L I V E BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND CRUDE BIRTH AND DEATH RATES: 1848 TO 1910 (Place of occurrence b a s i s . Not a d j u s t e d f o r u n d e r r e g i s t r a t i on, thought to be e x t e n s i v e i n many o f these y e a r s . Because o f d o u b t f u l a c c u r a c y , t h e s e data s h o u l d be used w i t h utmost c a u t i o n )

Yeara

Live bi r t h s

Deaths

Birth rateb

Death rateb

88 0 50 5

Year3

Live births

Deaths

Birth rate/

Death rate/

2,338 2,372 2,217 2,558 2,147 1,843 4,753 4,701

3,056 3,009 2,770 2,988 2,426 1,869 5,782 5,101

40 7 42 1 40 2 47.2 39 4 33.2 41 0 35 6

53.2 53.4 50.2 55.1 44.5 33.7 49.8 38.6

1848... 1849... 1850... 1851... 1852... 1853... 1854... 1855...

1,478 1,422

7,943 4,320

16 4 16 6

2,424 1,852 1,513 1,381 1,642

5,792 2,822 8,026 1,439 1,685

29 23 19 18 22

6 2 8 9 5

70 35 105 19 23

6 3 1 7 1

1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878-79... 1880-81...

1856... 1857... 1858... 1859... 1860... 1861... 1862... 1863...

1,287 1,615 1 ,756 1,612 1,672 1,543 1,474 1,594

1,579 2,017 2,140 2,291 2,343 2,249 2,426 2,657

17 7 22 4 24 5 22 7 23 8 22 3 21 6 23.8

21 28 29 32 33 32 35 39

7 0 9 3 4 5 6 7

1882-83... 1884-85... 1886-87... 1888-89... 1890-99... 1900 1901 1902

3,188 3,178 3,087 3,832

3,648 3,584 3,140 3,761

22 19 18 22

2 7 3 2

25.4 22.2 18.6 21.7

1,026 2,058 2,350

2,376 3,029 2,578

6 7 13 3 15 0

15.4 19.5 16.4

1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908C 1909 1910

2,526 2,510 2,609 2,830 3,574 2,138 4,941 4,302

2,657 2,781 2,686 2,854 3,065 1,376 2,851 2,941

15 6 15 0 15 7 17.0 20 5 23.7 26 8 22 8

16.4 16.6 16.1 17.2 17.6 15.2 15.4 15.6

1864... 1865... 1866... 1867... 1868... 1869... 1870... 1871...

1,713 1,747 2,104 2,163 2,413 2,559

2,941 2,606 3,351 2,528 3,819 3,502

26 9 28.0 34 5 36 0 40 8 44 0

46 2 41 8 54.9 42 1 64.6 60.2

C a l e n d a r y e a r s ended December 3 1 , 1848 to 1877 and 1900 to 1907; 24-month p e r i o d s ended December 31, 1879 to 1889; s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d ended June 3 0 , 1908; twelve-month p e r i o d s ended June 30, 1909 and 1910. ''Annual forces after c

Six

P o p u l a t i o n base e x c l u d e s armed

1889.

months.

Source: estimates

events per 1,000 m i d - p e r i o d p o p u l a t i o n .

B i r t h s and deaths from o f f i c i a l

sources.

Rates computed from p o p u l a t i o n

in Appendix.

165

Table 5 2 . — L I V E BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND CRUDE BIRTH AND DEATH RATES, FOR HONOLULU: 1852 TO 1910 {Place of occurrence b a s i s . Not adjusted for u n d e r r e g i s t r a t i o n , thought to be extensive in many of these years. Because of doubtful accuracy, these data should be used with utmost caution) Li ve births

Deaths

Birth rateb

Death rateb

Year a

1852... 1853... 1854... 1855... 1856... 1857... 1858... 1859... I860.. . 1861...

337 191 320 371 115 442 627 335 246 265

906 3,759 539 379 268 595 667 454 538 402

27.4 16.1 27.4 30.4 9.1 34.0 46.8 24.3 17.3 18.5

73.7 315.9 46.1 31.1 21.3 45.8 49.8 32.9 37.9 28.1

1882... 1883... 1884... 1885... 1886... 1887... 1888... 1889... 1890... 1891...

542 637 567 566 593 553 547 564 692 724

30.6 33.7 28.2 27.2 27.7 25.7 25.1 25.5 30.6 30.5

1862... 1863... 1864... 1865... 1866... 1867C.. 1868C.. 1869C.. 1870C.. 1871c..

344 269

608 596

24.2 19.2

42.8 42.6

"¿61 994 1,016 1,372 1,561

1,052 1,566 1,549 1,913 2,000

48.6 72.0 72.1 95.9 107.7

77! 4 113.5 109.9 133.8 137.9

1892... 1893... 1894... 1895... 1896... 1897... 1898... 1899... 1900... 1901...

253 562

571 614 612 731 673 659 926 1,153 1,290 1,125

¿'.4 14.1

23.0 24.1 23.2 26.5 23.0 21.5 28.9 32.3 32.8 28.2

1,489 1,353 1,290 1 ,553 1,015 764

1,878 1,639 1,725 1,703 981 624 545 777 607 818

100.6 92.7 90.8 112.5 74.1 55.8

126.9 112.3 121.5 123.4 71.6 45.5 39.2 52.5 38.2 48.7

1902... 1903... 1904... 1905... 1906... 1907... 1908d.. 1909... 1910...

708 596 582 606 610 798 493 1,096 1,116

971 864 925 792 964 988 503 925 1.030

17.4 14.1 13.3 13.8 13.8 17.2 20.3 22.0 21.8

23.9 20.4 21.1 18.0 21.8 21.2 20.7 18.6 20.2

Year 3

1872c.. 1873C.. 1874 c .. 1875C.. 1876C.. 1877C.. 1878... 1879... 1880... 1881... a

Li ve bi rths

Deaths

Birth rateb

Death rateb

Calendar y e a r s , 1852 to 1907; six-month period ended June 30, 1908; twelve-month

periods ended June 30, 1909 and 1910. ^Annual events per 1,000 mid-period population. c

Values f o r 1867-1877 appear to be s e r i o u s l y overstated,

' ' s i x months. Source:

B i r t h s and deaths from o f f i c i a l

estimates in Hawaii H i s t o r i c a l

166

sources.

Rates computed from population

Review, I ( 6 ) , Jan. 1964, pp. 123-124.

Table 5 3 . - - L I V E BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND CRUDE BIRTH AND DE'ATH RATES:

1911 TO 1965

(For 12-month periods ended June 30. Place of occurrence b a s i s , except where otherwise s p e c i f i e d . Not adjusted f o r u n d e r r e g i s t r a t i o n ; see Table 24 f o r adjusted d a t a ) Live births

Year

Deaths 3

Birth rateb

Death rateb

Year

Live births

Deaths 3

Birth rateb

Death rateb

1911... 1912... 1913... 1914... 1915... 1916... 1917...

4,494 5,147 5,568 6,756 7,278 7,899 8,707

3,296 3,071 3,232 3,707 3,556 3,940 3,498

23.3 26.1 27.0 31.4 33.1 35.1 37.4

17.1 15.6 15.7 17.2 16.2 17.5 15.0

1939... 1940... 1941c.. 1942... 1943... 1944c.. 1945...

9,038 9,524 9,607 10,385 10,979 12,211 12,597

3,216 3,025 3,047 3,301 2,989 2,984 2,861

23.1 24.1 23.8 24.3 24.5 26.7 27.3

8.2 7.6 7.6 7.7 6.7 6.5 6.2

1918... 1919... 1920... 1921... 1922... 1923... 1924...

9,404 9,164 10,165 10,156 11,249 11,335 12,128

4,010 4,051 4,564 3,789 4,113 4,654 4,218

39.3 37.4 40.4 39.6 42.5 40.8 41.9

16.8 16.5 18.1 14.8 15.5 16.8 14.6

1946... 1947... 1948... 1949... 1950... 1951... 1952...

11,945 14,050 14,523 14,604 14,124 13,845 15,024

3,095 3,155 3,002 3,160 2,897 2,909 2,947

25.7 29.7 30.0 29.8 29.5 29.2 32.0

6.7 6.7 6.2 6.4 6.1 6.1 6.3

1925... 1926... 1927... 1928... 1929... 1930... 1931...

13,109 12,417 12,296 11,543 11,498 10,873 10,831

4,017 4,056 3,929 3,992 4,481 3,976 3,805

43.3 39.6 38.4 35.0 33.7 31.1 30.2

13.3 13.0 12.3 12.1 13.1 11.4 10.6

1953... 1954... 1955... 1956... 1957... 1958... 1959...

16,150 15,928 16,146 17,112 16,852 16,944 16,701

2,808 2,964 3,140 3,112 3,228 3,295 3,134

34.7 33.6 33.4 33.8 32.0 30.5 29.4

6.0 6.3 6.5 6.1 6.1 5.9 5.5

1932... 1933... 1934... 1935... 1936... 1937... 1938...

10,652 10,014 9,431 9,252 8,960 8,763 8,986

3,688 3,646 3,679 3,236 3,335 3,684 3,219

29.1 27.2 25.7 25.1 24.0 23.1 23.4

10.1 9.9 10.0 8.8 8.9 9.7 8.4

1960... 1961... 1962... 1963... 1964... 1965...

17,236 17,338 17,988 17,679 17,508 17,107

3,519 3,368 3,376 3,655 3,690 3,652

29.2 28.6 28.5 27.2 26.1 24.6

6.0 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.5 5.3

a

I n c l u d e s armed forces to 1940; excludes them t h e r e a f t e r .

^Annual events per 1,000 mid-period (January 1) population. excludes armed f o r c e s .

Population base

Residence b a s i s to 1950; de f a c t o b a s i s t h e r e a f t e r .

M o r t a l i t y data on place of residence b a s i s . Source:

B i r t h s and deaths from o f f i c i a l sources.

Rates computed from population

estimates in Appendix.

167

Table 54. — LIVE BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND CRUDE BIRTH AND DEATH RATES, ADJUSTED AND UNADJUSTED FOR UNDERREGISTRATION:

SPECIFIED YEARS,

1918 TO 1950 Years ending June 30

Percent complete

Live b i r t h s : 1920 b 1930 1940 1950

82 93 97.7 99.9

Deaths: 1918

98

a

Number Unadjusted Adjusted

Rate 8 Unadjusted Adjusted

10,165 10,873 9,524 14,124

12,396 11,691 9,748 14,138

40.4 31.1 24.1 29.5

49.3 33.4 24.6 29.6

4,010

4,092

16.8

17.1

Annual events per 1,000 mid-period c i v i l i a n population.

^Percent complete based on data f o r July-November 1919. Source: the Census.

Percent complete from t e s t s conducted by U. S. Bureau of Unadjusted data from Table 53.

Rates computed from Appendix.

168

Adjusted data computed.

Table 55.--GENERAL FERTILITY RATES AND FERTILITY RATIOS: 1872 TO 1960 Live b i r t h s Per 1,000 women 15-44 Unadjusted Adjusted"

Women 15 to 44 a

Number registered

1872. 1878. 1884. 1890. 1896. 1900.

12,617 11,642 14,899 15,534 18,199 26,224

2,355 2,376 1,589

187 204 107

1910. 1920. 1930. 1940. 1950. 1960.

34,526 49,387 62,785 88,110 112,436 134,296

4,398 9,792 11,019 9,460 14,141 17,122

127 198 176 107, 126 127

180 240 190 110 126 127

Children under 5 Number Per 1,000 women 15-44 reported Unadjusted Adjusted* 1 5,724 6,340 8,492 9,512 13,234 15,084

454 545 570 612 727 575

750 850 850 900 1,000 780

24,065 38,550 48,180 40,085 63,991 80,962

697 781 767 455 569 603

900 900 850 485 585 620

E s t i m a t e d before 1890. . ^Annual averages f o r two-year periods centered approximately on census dates.

Not a v a i l -

able f o r 1890, 1896, and 1900. E s t i m a t e d before 1900.

Not adjusted f o r underenumeration.

d

R e g i s t r a t i o n was assumed around 70 percent complete in 1910, as

For underregistration.

given i n Table 54 f o r 1920-1950, and complete in 1960.

No b a s i s e x i s t s f o r p o s t u l a t i n g

adjustments before 1910, although the 1872 and 1878 r a t i o s appear reasonably accurate and the 1884 r a t i o i s obviously understated, perhaps by as much as 50 percent. e

F o r e f f e c t s of i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y , assumed to have declined from 400 per 1,000 l i v e b i r t h s

i n 1868-1872 to about 260 i n 1896-1900.

Adjustments f o r 1906-1910 to 1956-1960 were computed

from Table 57.

169

Table 56.—GROSS AND NET REPRODUCTION RATES:

Year

Gross reproduction rate

1930 TO 1960

Net reproduction rate

1930

2.48

1.99

1940

1.48

1.34

1950

1.64

1.57

1960

1.85

1.82

Source:

170

HDH, records.

Table 57.—INFANT MORTALITY: Year a

Number'5

Rate c

Urban: d 1902... 1903... 1901... 1905... 1906...

323 307 244 308 323

360.5 389.1 286.0 319.5 355.7

Total: 1906... 1907... 1908... 1909... 1910... 1911... 1912... 1913... 1914... 1915... 1916... 1917... 1918... 1919... 1920...

757 863 714 765 884 1,042 1,033 1,111 1,244 1,210 1,259 1,250 1,280 1,019 1 ,083

283.3 303.0 155.5 154.8 205.5 231.9 190.6 181.3 178.5 156.8 157.6 137.4 138.8 105.8 108.8

Year 3 1921... 1922... 1923... 1924... 1925... 1926... 1927... 1928... 1929... 1930... 1931... 1932... 1933... 1934... 1935... 1936... 1937... 1938... 1939... 1940... 1941... 1942... 1943...

1902 TO 1965

Numberb

Rate 0

Year 9

1,275 1,500 1,587 1,296 1,414 1,157 1,150 973 1,135 889 799 799 695 699 620 627 617 530 489 422 408 406 444

119.7 134.3 135.4 100.3 112.2 94.2 97.3 83.4 101.0 82.3 76.3 76.1 72.1 75.1 67.4 73.0 68.7 58.5 52.7 43.7 40.3 39.0 38.2

1944... 1945... 1946... 1947... 1948... 1949... 1950... 1951... 1952... 1953... 1954... 1955... 1956... 1957... 1958... 1959... 1960... 1961... 1962... 1963... 1964... 1965...

Number*5

Rate c

389 340 389 449 415 358 335 341 331 338 363 336 384 407 385 409 399 381 369 399 342 349

30.6 27.6 30.7 30.8 28.7 25.2 23.8 23.6 21.2 21.0 22.4 20.6 22.4 23.9 23.0 24.0 23.2 21.7 20.6 22.5 19.8 21.5

aVears ended June 30, 1902 to 1911; calendar years 1912 to 1965. ^Deaths under 1 year of age occurring in Hawaii. c

Deaths under 1 year of age per 1,000 l i v e b i r t h s .

Rates before 1908 are probably

overstated because of underregistration of b i r t h s . ^City of Honolulu and Hilo J u d i c i a l Source:

District.

Report of the President of the Board of Health, T e r r i t o r y of Hawaii f o r

1902-1911; Annual Report, Department of Health, State of Hawaii, S t a t i s t i c a l

Supplement

for 1960-1965.

171

Table 58.—AVERAGE REMAINING LIFETIME IN YEARS AT SELECTED AGES, BY SEX: Sex and period

Birth

Both sexes: 3 1884-1885..

36.5

Male: 1919-1920. 1929-1931. 1939-1941. 1949-1951. 1959-1961. Female: 1919-1920. 1929-1931. 1939-1941. 1949-1951. 1959-1961. a

1884-1885 TO 1959-1961 1

15

25

45

65

41.2

33.9

27.8

18.4

5.1

47.79 52.63 59.46 67.76 69.10

57.24 61.79 68.77 69.84

46.43 49.38 55.54 56.32

38.03 40.31 46.20 46.95

22.01

23.37 28.01 28.35

8.71 9.10 13.70 13.10

47.27 55.31 62.60 71.29 73.23

58.55 64.32 71.86 73.63

47.38 51.67 58.51 60.10

39.10 42.51 48.93 50.38

23.63 25.26 30.50 31.44

9.16 9.85 15.11 15.17

C i t y of Honolulu only. Source:

Preliminary.

HDH, unpublished data f o r two year period ended

March 31, 1885 (computed e s p e c i a l l y f o r the present s t u d y ) ; USBC, United States Abridged Life Tables, 1919-1920, (1923), pp. 24 and 26; Annual Report, Department of Health, State of Hawaii, S t a t i s t i c a l Supplement, 1963, p. 4.

172

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f i s c a l y e a r e n d i n g June 3 0 ; 5 ^ :

s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d e n d i n g June 3 0 .

54-

Where two symbols

a p p e a r , t h e f i r s t r e f e r s t o n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e and t h e second t o n e t m i g r a t i o n . bNot

a d j u s t e d f o r u n d e r r e g i s t r a t i on.

Minus s i g n ( - ) i n d i c a t e s n a t u r a l

E x c l u d e s m i l i t a r y d e a t h s a f t e r J u l y 1 , 1940.

decrease.

• " I m m i g r a t i o n , 1852 t o 1 8 5 9 , 1864, and 1865; n e t p a s s e n g e r movement f o r o t h e r years.

E x c l u d e s n o n - O r i e n t a l s , June 14, 1900 t o June 3 0 , 1905.

Excludes m i l i t a r y

p e r s o n n e l and i n c l u d e s d i f f e r e n c e between m i l i t a r y s e p a r a t i o n s and i n d u c t i o n s , t o 1962; d a t a f o r e a r l i e r y e a r s p r e s u m a b l y l i m i t e d t o c i v i l i a n movements. sign ( - ) i n d i c a t e s net dFor e

1941

Minus

out-migration.

f i s c a l 1905, - 4 , 1 4 5 ; f o r c a l e n d a r 1905, - 6 , 4 8 7 .

for fiscal

1927, - 1 , 4 4 6 ; f o r c a l e n d a r 1927, - 3 , 9 3 9 .

221

Table 82. —COMPONENTS OF INTERCENSAL CIVILIAN POPULATION CHANGE:

1850 TO 1960

Period

Net change3

Natural increase^

1850 to 1853...

-11,000

-10,900

400

-500

1853 to 1860...

-3,300

-2,500

300

-1,100

1860 to 1866...

-6,800

-3,900

800

-3,700

1866 to 1872...

-6,100

-5,500

1,800

-2,400

1872 to 1878...

1,100

-2,400

6,600

-3,100

1878 to 1884...

22,600

-1,600

27,400

-3,200

1884 to 1890...

9,400

-200

12,700

-3,100

1890 to 1896...

19,000

19,500

-500

1896 to 1900...

44,700

44,900

-200

1900 to 1910...

36,500

1 ,900

3,700

30,500

1910 to 1920...

61,200

35,100

12,100

14,000

1920 to 1930...

100,500

76,500

14,000

10,000

1930 to 1940...

44,500

61,000

-18,800

2,300

1940 to 1950...

80,400

93,400

-18,500

5,500

1950 to 1960...

108,600

130,300

-15,100

-6,600

Error of closure

a

Excludes military personnel after 1900.

b

Not adjusted for underregistration or missing years.

Minus sign indicates natural decrease.

222

Net migration

Table 83.--ESTIMATED C I V I L I A N POPULATION:

JANUARY 1 AND JULY 1, 1848 TO 1965

(By place of usual residence p r i o r to J u l y 1950; de f a c t o b a s i s , i n c l u d i n g v i s i t o r s present but excluding r e s i d e n t s absent, J u l y 1950 and t h e r e a f t e r . M i l i t a r y personnel, present i n small numbers in e a r l i e r y e a r s , omitted from t o t a l s beginning i n 1898)

Year

Jan. 1

July 1

Year

1848... 1849... 1850... 1851... 1852... 1853... 1854... 1855... 1856... 1857... 1858... 1859... 1860... 1861... 1862... 1863... 1864... 1865... 1866... 1867... 1868... 1869... 1870... 1871... 1872... 1873... 1874... 1875... 1876... 1877... 1878... 1879... 1880... 1881... 1882... 1883... 1884... 1885... 1886... 1887...

93,500 87,100 84,200 83,700 80,300 79,600 73,100 72,900 72,800 72,400 71,800 71,300 70,600 69,800 68,800 67,600 66,100 64,900 64,300 62,900 61,800 60,300 59,800 58,400 57,900 56,900 55,700 54,600 53,900 55,100 55,800 58,000 63,200 66,100 69,700 71,800 78,500 80,600 83,400 84,500

90,300 85,600 83,900 82,000 80,000 76,400 73,000 72,900 72,600 72,100 71,600 71,000 70,200 69,300 68,200 66,900 65,500 64,600 63,600 62,400 61,000 60,000 59,100 58,200 57,400 56,300 55,200 54,200 54,500 55,500 56,900 60,600 64,600 67,900 70,700 75,100 79,500 82,000 84,000 84,700

1888... 1889... 1890... 1891... 1892... 1893... 1894... 1895... 1896... 1897... 1898... 1899... 1900... 1901... 1902... 1903... 1904... 1905... 1906... 1907... 1908... 1909... 1910... 1911... 1912... 1913... 1914.. . 1915.. . 1916... 1917... 1918... 1919... 1920... 1921... 1922... 1923... 1924... 1925... 1926... 1927...

Source:

Jan. 1 84,900 86,500 87,300 90,000 94,900 96,000 97,800 100,400 103,700 110,800 115,600 125,500 149,100 154,500 156,000 159,700 165,000 167,500 164,100 168,700 179,600 184,600 188,300 192,600 197,400 206,400 214,900 219,900 225,300 232,500 239,100 245,000 251,500 256,300 264,800 277,500 289,200 302,600 313,200 320,000

July 1 85,700 86,900 88,700 92,400 95,400 96,900 99,100 102,000 107,300 113,200 120,600 137,300 153,900 155,200 157,100 162,300 167,600 166,400 166,400 174,200 182,000 186,600 191,300 193,900 200,900 212,000 217,800 222,000 228,600 236,400 241,700 248,300 254,500 258,100 271,500 283,500 294,800 310,400 316,100 324,000

Year 1928... 1929... 1930... 1931... 1932... 1933... 1934... 1935... 1936... 1937... 1938... 1939... 1940... 1941... 1942... 1943... 1944... 1945... 1946... 1947... 1948... 1949... 1950... 1951... 1952... 1953... 1954... 1955... 1956... 1957... 1958... 1959... I960... 1961... 1962... 1963... 1964... 1965...

Jan. 1 330,200 340,900 349,700 358,500 365,900 368,100 367,000 368,800 373,800 378,600 384,700 391,100 395,500 403,033 427,390 448,664 457,730 461,167 464,119 473,140 483,772 490,767 478,119 474,624 468,957 464,966 473,743 483,720 506,760 527,109 555,222 568,661 590,650 605,336 631,927 649,590 670,959 695,458

July 1 336,400 345,300 354,100 362,900 368,900 367,300 366,700 370,900 376,600 380,600 388,800 393,500 397,405 408,660 446,119 451 ,209 464,250 458,084 470,153 476,127 491,146 481,537 472,780 471,853 462,494 468,301 474,391 491,899 512,200 538,296 560,448 580,505 595,024 612,673 635,888 655,546 674,951 702,030

Estimates f o r January 1940 and e a r l i e r dates from present s t u d y ; July

1940 and l a t e r dates from HDH, C i v i l i a n P o p u l a t i o n , B i r t h s , Deaths, and M i g r a t i o n Data of Hawaii by Geographic Area, 1950-1964 (March 1964), mimeographed r e l e a s e s , and records.

223

Table 84.—ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION, TOTAL AND CIVILIAN:

JULY 1, 1940 TO 1965

( I n thousands)

Year (July 1)

Total resident population

Civilian resident population

Year (July 1)

Total resident population

Civilian resident population

Year (July 1)

Total resident population

Civilian resident population

1940...

428

398

1949...

511

480

1958...

605

550

1941...

459

411

1950...

498

478

1959...

622

565 582

1942...

582

446

1951. ..

514

470

1960...

641

1943...

650

450

1952...

517

460

1961...

658

597,

452

1953...

510

463

1962...

695

616

1944...

859

1945...

815

460

1954...

505

468

1963...

685

625

1946...

545

480

1955...

539

482

1964...

712

639

1947...

626

488

1956...

559

501

1965. ..

710

657

1948...

517

484

1957...

584

525

Source:

US8C, Current Population Reports, Population Estimates, S e r i e s P-25:

"Revised

Estimates of the Population of Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Canal Zone, and the V i r g i n I s l a n d s of the United S t a t e s :

1940 to 1950," No. 80 (Oct. 7, 1953); "Revised Estimates of

the Population of States and Components of Population Change: ( A p r i l 8, 1965); and "Estimates of the Population of S t a t e s : (Sept. 16, 1966).

224

1950 to 1960," No. 304 July 1, 1965," No. 348

NOTES Abbreviations HDH:

Hawaii Department of Health

HDPED:

Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development

HDPR:

Hawaii Department of Planning and Research

HRA:

Honolulu Redevelopment Agency

USBC:

U. S. Bureau of the Census

USCO:

U. S. Census Office

LHM: RR: SLH: SR:

Laws of His Majesty Research Report Session Laws of Hawaii Statistical

Report Chapter

1.

II

Albert S. Baker, "Ahua a Umi," Hawaiian Almanac and Annual

1917, p. 63.

for

See also Clarice B. Taylor, "The O r i g i n of Aha-a-Umi,"

Honolulu S t a r - B u l l e t i n , March 14, 1960. 2.

For the work of Romanzo Adams, see his two u n t i t l e d , undated,

and unpublished manuscripts in custody of the Department of Sociology, University of Hawaii.

The f i r s t , which c o n s i s t s of four chapters from

a work in progress, runs from p. 86 to p. 151.

The second, apparently

prepared as a substitute for the f i r s t , c o n s i s t s of an appendix running from p. 439 to p. 463.

Parts of both are quoted in Bernhard Lothar

Hormann, Extinction and S u r v i v a l : A Study of the Reaction of Aboriginal Populations to European Expansion (unpublished Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1949). 3.

Adams, MS, pp. 105-106 (Hormann, op. c i t . , p. 221).

4.

Extracts from the Minutes of the General Meeting of the Sand-

225

wich I s l a n d s '

M i s s i o n , Held at Honolulu, June and J u l y , 1835 (Oahu,

1835), p. 17. 5.

M i s s i o n a r y Herald, July 1837, p. 277.

6.

Hawaiian Spectator, Oct. 1838, pp. 426-427; Sandwich I s l a n d

Gazette, Oct. 6, 1838. 7.

Polynesian, Aug. 15, 1840 and Oct. 17, 1840; George Simpson,

Narrative of a Journey Round the World During the Years 1841 and 1842 (London, 1847), I I , 11. 8.

"Laws of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , " Polynesian, Sept. 18, 1841.

9.

Statute LHM Kamehameha I I I

10.

(1846), Part I V , Sect. I l l , p. 222.

"Report of the M i n i s t e r of Public I n s t r u c t i o n , "

Polynesian,

May 22, 1847. 11.

Report of the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r . . . A p r i l 28th, 1848,

12.

"Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s

p. 3. ... January, 1849,"

P o l y n e s i a n , Nov. 10, 1849. 13.

F r i e n d , Nov. 15, 1849; "Report of the M i n i s t e r of Pub.

I n s t r u c t i o n . . . A p r i l 22, 1850," P o l y n e s i a n , May 4, 1850; Ralph S. Kuykendal1, The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1778-1854 (Honolulu, 1938), p. 336. 14.

Robert C. Schmitt, "A Census Comparison of H a w a i i ' s

Citizens,"

Paradise o f the P a c i f i c , June 1953, pp. 28-29 ( r e v i s e d as HDPR, RR 25, July 11, 1962). 15.

"Report ... A p r i l 22, 1850," P o l y n e s i a n , May 4, 1850; Adams,

MS, p. 106 (Hormann, op. c i t . , p. 221). 16.

Kenneth P. Emory, Changing Hidden Worlds of Polynesia (paper

presented to the Social Science A s s o c i a t i o n , Dec. 3, 1962), p. 5; d i s c u s s i o n with Dr. Emory, Feb. 7, 1964.

226

17.

Adams, MS, p. 88.

18.

I b i d . , pp. 87-88 (Hormann, op. c i t . , p. 220); Kenneth P.

Emory, The I s l a n d of Lanai:

A Survey of Native Culture, Bishop Museum

B u l l e t i n 12 (1924), p. 122; Samuel M. Karrakau, Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii (Honolulu, 1961), p. 235. 19.

Andrew W. L i n d , An I s l a n d Community (Chicago, 1938), p. 93.

20.

Footnote by W. F. Wilson, e d i t o r , in Archibald Menzies,

Hawaii Nei 128 Years Ago (Honolulu, 1920), p. 136. 21.

James Cook, The Three Voyages of Captain James Cook Round

the World (London, 1821), V I I (by James K i n g ) , 118-119. 22.

Rupert T. Gould, " B l i g h ' s Notes on Cook's Last Voyage,"

M a r i n e r ' s M i r r o r , Oct. 1928, p. 385. 23.

George Dixon, A Voyage Round the World, (2nd ed.; London,

1789), p. 267. 24.

V. M. Golovnin, Tour Around the World (1822).

MS t r a n s -

l a t i o n by E l l a M. Embree ( i n S i n c l a i r L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of H a w a i i ) , pp. 74, 75, 80, 81. 25.

"An I n q u i r y i n t o the Causes of Decrease in the Population

of the Sandwich I s l a n d s , " Hawaiian Spectator, Jan. 1838, p. 53; S. E. Bishop, Why Are the Hawaiians Dying Out? (paper read to the Honolulu Social Science A s s o c i a t i o n , Nov. 1888), p. 2. 26.

E d i t o r i a l , Nov. 6 , 1862.

27.

A. 0. Forbes, "The Decrease of the Hawaiian People and the

Causes Assigned f o r I t , " Hawaiian Gazette, Jan. 10, 1883. 28. p. 26.

A. M o u r i t z , Our Western Outpost Hawaii (Honolulu, 1935), I have been unable to f i n d M o u r i t z ' s source f o r M a l o ' s

estimates. 29.

Henry T. Cheever, The I s l a n d World of the P a c i f i c (New

York, 1851), p. 84; W. B. E l k i n , "An I n q u i r y Into the Causes of the Decrease of the Hawaiian People," American Journal of S o c i o l o g y , V I I I (Nov. 1902), 399. 227

30.

S. E. Bishop, loc. c i t .

31.

Simpson, op. c i t . , I I , 10; Manley Hopkins, Hawaii:

Present, and Future of I t s Island Kingdom

the Past,

(2nd ed.; New York, 1869),

p. 368; Joseph King Goodrich, The Coming Hawaii (Chicago, 1914), p. 84. 32.

C. E. Dutton, The Hawaiian Islands and People (Washington,

1884), p. 27. 33.

A. Marques, "The Population of Hawaiian I s l a n d s :

Hawaiian A Doomed Race?

I s the

Present and Future Prospects," Journal of the

Polynesian Society, I I (Sept. 1893), 257; Goodrich, loc. c i t . 34.

E d i t o r i a l , "What Was Hawaii's Native Population?"

Honolulu

S t a r - B u l l e t i n , July 16 and 17, 1951. 35.

Jack A. Myerson, Depopulation Among the Native Hawaii ans

(unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, June 1953), p. 39. 36.

Menzies, op. c i t . , p. 42.

37.

Log and MS j o u r n a l , both cited i n Kuykendall's notes in

custody of S i n c l a i r L i b r a r y , University of Hawaii. 38.

George Vancouver, A Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c

Ocean and Round the World . . . (London, 1801), I I I , 391-393; Menzies, op. c i t . , pp. 135-136. 39.

Emory, Lanai, p. 122.

40.

James Montgomery, comp., Journal of Voyages and Travels by

the Rev. Daniel Tyerman and George Bennet, Esq. . . . (Boston, 1832), I I , 15-16. 41.

James Jackson Jarves, History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich

Islands (London, 1843), pp. 366-377. 42.

Romanzo Adams, Interracial Marriage in Hawaii (New York,

1937), p. 2, and Adams, MS, p. 112; Hormann, op. c i t . , p. 223; Andrew W. Lind, Hawaii's People (Honolulu, 1955), pp. 4, 15; lecture

228

notes c i t e d by Mrs. Marion K e l l y , Bishop Museum, i n l e t t e r to present author, March 15, 1963. 43.

HDPR, S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t of Hawaii, 1962 (May 1962), p. 7

HDPR, H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s of Hawaii, 1778-1962 (Sept. 1962), p. 5. 44. I I , 585.

Louis de F r e y c i n e t , Voyage flutour du Monde ( P a r i s , 1839), T r a n s l a t i o n by Dr. Lewis Schipper.

45.

I n custody of S i n c l a i r L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii.

46.

Adams, MS, p. 117.

47.

I b i d . , p. 457 (Hormann, op. c i t . , p. 233).

48.

A. M o u r i t z , Booklet I I .

H i s t o r y of the P a c i f i c

and Explorers (Honolulu, 1942), p. 27.

Navigators

I have been unable to f i n d

any other references to M a l o ' s 1798 estimate, and no source i s given. 49.

P a c i f i c Commercial A d v e r t i s e r , Nov. 6, 1862.

50.

MS, pp. 112, 457 (the l a t t e r quoted by Hormann, op.

cit.,

p. 223). 51.

Montgomery, op. c i t . , I I , 35.

52.

G i l b e r t Farquhar Mathison, Narrative of a V i s i t to B r a z i l ,

C h i l e , Peru, and the Sandwich I s l a n d s (London, 1825), p. 439. 53.

M i s s i o n a r y Herald, June 1824, p. 185.

54.

C. S. Stewart, Journal of a Residence in the Sandwich

I s l a n d s During the Years 1823, 1824, and 1825 . . . (London, 1828), pp. 141 , 25-27. 55.

William E l l i s , A Narrative of a Tour Through Hawaii

(Honolulu, 1917), pp. 20-32. 56.

J a r v e s , op. c i t . , p. 373.

57.

I n t e r r a c i a l Marriage in Hawaii, p. 8.

58.

Extracts from the Minutes of the General Meeting o f the

Sandwich I s l a n d s '

M i s s i o n , Held at Honolulu, June and J u l y , 1836

(Oahu, 1836), p. 18; W. C. Woodbridge, He Hoikehonua (Geography)

(Oahu, 1836), back cover. 59.

Hormann, op. c i t . , p. 222.

60.

Andrew W. L i n d , personal

61.

I n t e r r a c i a l Marriage in Hawaii, p. 4, as corrected to include

discussion.

the non-Hawaiian population indicated on p. 8. 62.

Report of the American Board of Commissioners f o r Foreign

M i s s i o n s , Read at the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting . . . 1835 (Boston, 1835), Table 1, p. 78; Extracts from the Minutes of the General Meeting of the Sandwich I s l a n d s M i s s i o n Held at Honolulu, June and July 1834 (Oahu, 1834), p. 32. 63.

Extracts . . . General Meeting ... 1836, p. 18.

64.

Woodbridge, l o c .

65.

I n t e r r a c i a l Marriage in Hawaii, p. 8.

66.

Simpson, loc.

67.

Hawaiian Kingdom, 1778-1854, p. 336.

68.

" M i g r a t i o n s in the P a c i f i c Ocean," Polynesian, July 24, 1847.

69.

P o l y n e s i a n , Aug. 2, 1862.

70.

Polynesian, Nov. 10, 1849.

71.

"Report of the M i n i s t e r of Pub. I n s t r u c t i o n . . . A p r i l

cit.

cit.

22,

1850," P o l y n e s i a n , May 4, 1850. 72.

Cook, op. c i t . , V I , 212.

73.

John Ledyard's Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage, James

Kenneth Munford, ed. ( C o r v a l l i s , 1963), p. 129. 74.

Extracts . . . General Meeting . . . 1836, p. 18.

Slightly

d i f f e r e n t t o t a l s for 1835-1836 are shown in Woodbridge, loc.

cit.

A t h i r d s e t of data, somewhat d i f f e r e n t from other two, appears i n Ke Kumu Hawaii f o r Dec. 9, 1835, Jan. 20, 1836, March 2, 1836, March 16, 1836, and A p r i l 13, 1836. 75. 230

1798:

Table 5 uses data from E x t r a c t s .

Ebenezer Townsend, J r . , Extract from the Diary of

Eberiezer Townsend, J r . , Hawaiian H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y R e p r i n t s , No. 4 (Honolulu, 1921), pp. 24-25. p. 209.

1822:

loc. c i t .

1821:

M i s s i o n a r y Herald, July 1822,

James Montgomery, op. c i t . , I I , 30.

Others:

1822:

Mathison,

c i t e d i n Daniel James K i t t e l s o n , A Population

Table f o r Hawai i (May 24, 1960), copy of t y p e s c r i p t in S i n c l a i r L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii. 76.

John F. G. S t o k e s , "Honolulu and Some Speculative Phases

of Hawaiian H i s t o r y , " Forty-Second Annual Report of the Hawaiian H i s t o r i c a l Society f o r the Year 1933, pp. 41-42. 77.

" E x t r a c t s from the Journal of Mr. Bingham at Honolulu,"

M i s s i o n a r y Herald, Nov. 1832, pp. 353-354. 78. Missions

Report to the American Board of Commissioners f o r Foreign ... 1835 (Boston, 1835), Table 2, pp. 78-79; Answers by the

Sandwich I s l a n d s M i s s i o n a r i e s to the Questions i n the C i r c u l a r of March 15, 1833 . . . , t y p e s c r i p t dated A p r i l 30, 1936 in Hawaiian Historical Society 79.

Library.

Woodbridge, l o c . c i t . ; Edwin 0. H a l l , "Notes of a Tour Around

Oahu," Hawaiian Spectator, Jan. 1839, p. 112. 80. p. 448.

1822:

Montgomery, op. c i t . , I I , 29.

1822 or 1823:

1822:

Mathison, op.

M i s s i o n a r y Herald, Oct. 1823, p. 315.

E l l i s , op. c i t . , p. 27.

1828:

( P a r i s , 1835), I I , 301.

Mid-1830's:

cit.,

1823:

A. Duhaut-Ci1ly, Voyage Autour du Monde . . . Alonzo Chapin, "Remarks on the Sand-

wich I s l a n d s . . . , " Hawaiian Spectator, July 1838, p. 265.

1838:

John

D i e l l , "Sketch of Honolulu, Oahu," Hawaiian Spectator, A p r i l 1838, p. 84. 1840:

Gustavas H i n e s , Wild L i f e in Oregon (New York, 1887), p. 79.

Early 1840 1 s:

Alexander Simpson, The Sandwich I s l a n d s :

Events . . . (London, 1843), p. 108. 81.

1845:

Progress of

F r i e n d , Oct. 1, 1845, p. 145.

E l l i s , op. c i t . , p. 311; Answers by the Sandwich I s l a n d s

Missionaries

. . . , p. 22. 231

82.

Missionary Herald, April 1821, p. 121.

83.

Report to the ABCFM ... 1835, pp. 78-79; Woodbridge, loc. c i t . ;

George Simpson, op. c i t . , I I , 169. 84.

Woodbridge, loc. c i t .

85.

Cook, op. c i t . , V I , 212; Vancouver, op. c i t . , I , 406.

86.

I b i d . , I , 405-406; Answers by the Sandwich Islands

Missionaries . . . , p. 38. 87.

Missionary letter ( I I I , 914) cited in the notes of Ralph S.

Kuykendall, in custody of S i n c l a i r Library, University of Hawaii. 88.

Polynesian, Nov. 10, 1849; Robert C. Schmitt, "The Population

of Northern Kauai in 1847," Hawaii Historical Review, I I (April 1966), 300-304. 89.

John Turnbull, Voyages in the Pacific Ocean (London, 1805?),

p. 229. 90.

E l l i s , op. c i t . , p. 329.

91.

Missionary Herald, July 1829, pp. 211-212.

92.

Missionary Herald, July 1822, p. 209; Montgomery, op. c i t . ,

I I , 15-16; E l l i s , op. c i t . , p. 91; Emory, Lanai, p. 122. 93.

Missionary Herald, Oct. 1823, p. 315.

94.

Mary Charlotte Alexander, comp., William Patterson Alexander

In Kentucky 95.

The Marquesas

Hawaii (Honolulu, 1934), p. 195.

Alonzo Chapin, op. c i t . , p. 265.

See also Robert Crichton

Wyllie, "Notes . . . , " Friend, July 1, 1844, p. 61.

The a l l - i s l a n d

population base used by Alexander was evidently about 129,540, only s l i g h t l y less than the 1831-1832 missionary count and well over the 1835-1836 total. 96.

Polynesian, Nov. 10, 1849.

97.

Polynesian, May 4, 1850.

These 1848 and 1849 rates were

computed from end-of-year population t o t a l s . 232

For rates based on

estimated mid-year population, see Chapter VI. 98. 100.

Irene B. Taeuber, "Hawaii," Population Index, 28 (April 1962),

For a different view on l i f e expectancy before 1778, see Kamakau,

op. c i t . , p. 235. 99.

Lind, Hawaii's People, p. 17.

100.

Adams, MS, pp. 108-109, 111, 455 (Hormann, op. c i t . , p. 225).

101.

Adams, MS, p. 455.

102.

David Malo (translated by L. Andrews), "On the Decrease of

Population on the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , " Hawaiian Spectator, April 1839, p. 125.

See also the editorial in Pacific Conmercial Advertiser,

Nov. 6, 1862. 103.

Missionary Herald, Dec. 1829, p. 371.

104.

Kuykendall, op. c i t . , p. 49.

105.

Adams, MS, p. 117.

106.

Forbes, op. c i t .

107.

Friend, Nov. 15, 1849; "Hawaiian Epidemics," Hawaiian Almanac

See also Adams, MS, p. 129.

and Annual for 1897, p. 97; Kamakau, op. c i t . , pp. 236-237, 410-411. 108.

"An Inquiry into the Causes of Decrease in the Population of

the Sandwich I s l a n d s , " Hawaiian Spectator, Jan. 1838, p. 54. 109.

Adams, MS, pp. 98-104, 108-109.

110.

Taeuber, op. c i t . , pp. 98-99.

111.

Emory, Changing ... Polynesia, pp. 1-2.

P. Emory, "East Polynesian Relationships.

See also Kenneth

Settlement Pattern and Time

Involved as Indicated by Vocabulary Agreements," Journal of the Polynesian Society, 72 (June 1963), 78-100. 112.

Adams, MS, p. 88.

113.

David Kittelson, "Hawaiians and Fur Traders," Hawaii

Historical Review, I (Jan. 1963), 16. 114.

I b i d . , p. 19.

115.

Marques, op. cit., pp. 263-264.

116.

Adams, MS, p. 112.

117.

The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1778-1854, p. 312.

118.

Ibid., p. 328.

See also, Missionary Herald, Oct. 1849,

p. 362. 119.

Quoted in Polynesian, Oct. 2, 1847.

120.

Robert C. Schmitt, "A Century of Hawaiian Out-Migration,"

Social Process in Hawaii, 20 (1956), 40. 121.

Ibid., p. 39.

Chapter III 1.

Polynesian, Sept. 18, 1841, p. 58.

2.

Statute LHM Kamehameha III ... (1846), p. 222.

3.

LHM Kamehameha III ... 1851, p. 87.

4.

The Civil Code of the Hawaiian Islands:

Passed in Year of Our

Lord 1859, Sec. 759, 760, 761. 5.

LHM, Kamehameha V ... 1864-65, Sec. 41, 42, 43.

6.

Archives of Hawaii, Accounts A166 and file on "Census--1843."

7.

Privy Council Records (typescript translation), II, 46.

8.

Report of the Minister of Public Instruction ... April

ninth, 1847, p. 7. 9.

twenty-

Also published in Polynesian, May 22, 1847.

Untitled circular in Archives 1846 [sic] census file.

10.

Report ... 1847, p. 7.

11.

Archives 1847-1866 census file.

These data have been sum-

marized and evaluated in Robert C. Schmitt, "The Population of Northern Kauai," Hawaii Historical Review, II (April 1966), 300-304. 12. p. 3.

Also published in Polynesian, May 13, 1848. 13.

234

Report of the Minister of the Interior ... April 28th, 1848,

Polynesian, Dec. 30, 1848.

14.

"Papa Helu i Na Kanaka o Hawaii Nei No Ka Makahiki 1849,"

f i l e d in Archives 1847-1866 census f i l e . 15.

"Census of the Hawaiian Islands—From O f f i c i a l Documents--

Taken January, 1849," Polynesian, Nov. 10, 1849; Friend, Nov. 15, 1849.

The census results had been presented to the Privy Council

on Oct. 31, 1849; see Privy Council Records (typescript transl a t i o n ) , I I I A, 395. 16.

"General Instructions," handwritten statement dated March 7,

1849, in Archives 1849 census f i l e . 17.

Privy Council Records, I I I A, 233.

18.

"Census of the I s l a n d s , " Friend, Nov. 15, 1849, p. 79.

19.

"Report of the Minister of Pub. Instruction ... April 22,

1850," Polynesian, May 4, 1850, p. 202. 20.

Romanzo Adams, "The Hawaiian Censuses, 1831-1896," un-

published MS formerly f i l e d in the Romanzo Adams Social Research Laboratory of the University of Hawaii.

Ralph S. Kuykendall, The

Hawaiian Kingdom 1778-1854 (Honolulu, 1938), p. 336. 21.

"Report ... 1850."

22.

Archives 1850 census f i l e .

All census schedules, when ex-

tant, are in the Archives census f i l e for the year of the relevant census. 23.

"Report ... 1850."

24.

Romanzo Adams, untitled and undated MS in f i l e s of Department

of Sociology, University of Hawaii, pp. 106, 451. 25.

Kuykendall, loc. c i t .

26.

Privy Council Records (typescript t r a n s l a t i o n ) , VI A, 66.

27.

A copy of these instructions is kept in a folder, " S t a t i s -

t i c s of Population," in the Hawaiian Mission Children's Society Library, Honolulu. 235

28. p. 13.

Report of the M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n . . . A p r i l 8, 1854, The same report a l s o appeared in the P o l y n e s i a n , A p r i l 15, 1854,

where i t gave the census date as "the 20th of Dec. l a s t

"

According

to the Friend, March 1, 1854, p. 21, the census was taken during the l a s t week of December. 29.

"Census Table of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s f o r 1853.

The P o l y -

nesian Race only i s included" and "Foreign Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s f o r the Year 1853"; Report . . . 1854, pp. 13-14 and unpaged table at end of the r e p o r t ; Polynesian, A p r i l 15 and A p r i l 22, 1854. 30.

The census was scheduled f o r December 24, 1860; see

Polynesian, Dec. 22, 1860. 31.

"Census," P o l y n e s i a n , Dec. 22, 1860.

32.

"Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , Taken December 7th, 1866,"

broadside t a b l e , footnote. 33.

"Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s f o r 1860"; "The Census" and

t a b l e , "Census Tables of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s f o r 1860,"

Polynesian,

Feb. 2, 1861; Biennial Report of the President of the Board of Education . . . 1862, pp. 23-36 and Table

III.

34.

LHM Kamehameha IV . . . 1860, p. 39.

35.

"Table 1/Papa 1" i n Archives 1866 census

36.

"Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , Taken December 7th, 1866"

file.

and "Census of the Kona (Honolulu) D i s t r i c t , I s l a n d of Oahu, Taken Dec. 7th, 1866"; Hawaiian Gazette, Jan. 30 and A p r i l 3, 1867; B i e n n i a l Report of the President of the Board of Education . . . 1868, p. 7 and table a f t e r p. 10. 37.

LHM Kamehameha V . . . 1866-67, p. 24.

38.

"Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , Taken December 27th, 1872,"

broadside table published i n both E n g l i s h and English-Hawaiian v e r s i o n s ; "The Census of 1872. 236

Report of the Inspector-General

of

Schools" and half-page i n s e r t , "Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , Taken December 27th, 1872," Hawaiian Gazette, A p r i l 9 , 1873; B i e n n i a l

Report

of the President of the Board of Education . . . 1874, pp. 16-17 and table at end. 39.

LHM Kamehameha V . . . 1872, Chap. XXXV, p. 38.

40.

Hawaiian Gazette, A p r i l 9 , 1873.

41.

O f f i c e of the Board of Education, "Prospectus or Plan to

be Followed f o r Taking the Census of the Kingdom in 1878" (1878), i n f o l d e r " S t a t i s t i c s of P o p u l a t i o n , " i n the Hawaiian M i s s i o n

Children's

Society L i b r a r y . 42.

"Census Table, 1878.

Archives 1878 census 43.

Papa Helu i Na Kanaka, 1878," in

file.

"Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , taken December 27th, 1878,

under the D i r e c t i o n o f the Board of Education," P a c i f i c Commercial A d v e r t i s e r , March 22, 1879; B i e n n i a l Report o f the President of the Board of Education . . . 1880, f o l l o w i n g p. 35.

I have been unable to

locate a broadside v e r s i o n , although one was probably i s s u e d .

Brief

n a r r a t i v e s accompanied the table in both the A d v e r t i s e r ("The Census") and the Biennial Report, p. 31.

Another account, without t a b l e , ap-

peared in the Hawaiian Gazette, March 5, 1879. 44.

LHM Kalakaua . . . 1878, Chap. X X X I I , p. 58.

45.

Census of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s Taken December 27th, 1884,

Under the D i r e c t i o n of the Board of Education. Hawaii Paeaina 46.

Helu Kanaka o Ko

....

Bureau of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , Report of the General

Superintendent of the Census, 1890, p. 6. 47.

Report of Committee on Census of 1888, on B i l l

Relating

to the Subject. 48.

LHM Kalakaua I . . . 1884, Chap. L I V , p. 119; Biennial

Re237

p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n . . . 1 8 8 6 , p. 4 0 . 49.

Department o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , R e p o r t o f t h e General

S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Census, 1896, p. 11.

P e r s o n n e l expenses

for

1890 and 1896 a r e a l s o g i v e n . 50.

R e p o r t . . . 1888 • • • , pp. 3 - 1 0 .

51.

Report . . . 1890, p. 7.

52.

LHM Kalakaua I . . . 1 8 9 0 , Chap. L I , p. 9 8 .

53.

Report . . .

54.

I r e n e B. T a e u b e r , " H a w a i i , " P o p u l a t i o n I n d e x , 28 ( A p r i l

1890, pp. 3 6 - 3 9 . 1962),

99-100. 55.

Report . . .

1896, p. 117.

56.

Romanzo Adams, "The H a w a i i a n Census C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f Popu-

l a t i o n B e f o r e 1 9 0 0 , " u n d a t e d t y p e s c r i p t i n f i l e s o f Department o f S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , p . 2. 57.

Report . . .

1896.

58.

Laws o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f Hawaii

59.

For changes i n j u d i c i a l d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s , see R o b e r t D.

...

1896, A c t 5 6 , p. 174.

K i n g , " D i s t r i c t s i n t h e H a w a i i a n I s l a n d s , " i n John Wesley C o u l t e r , c o m p . , A G a z e t t e e r o f t h e T e r r i t o r y o f Hawaii ( H o n o l u l u , pp.

1935),

214-230. 60.

Romanzo Adams, The Peoples o f Hawaii ( H o n o l u l u ,

1933),

pp. 7 - 9 , and I n t e r r a c i a l M a r r i a g e i n Hawaii (New Y o r k , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 8. 61.

Andrew W. L i n d , H a w a i i ' s People ( H o n o l u l u , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 27. C h a p t e r IV

1.

Mary L o u i s e M a r k , S t a t i s t i c s i n t h e M a k i n g , Bureau o f B u s i n e s s

Research P u b l i c a t i o n No. 92 (Columbus, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 28. 2.

R o b e r t C. S c h m i t t , "From Umi t o U n i v a c :

Data P r o c e s s i n g

H a w a i i , 1 5 0 0 - 1 9 6 5 , " S e v e n t y - F o u r t h Annual R e p o r t o f t h e H a w a i i a n 238

in

H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e Year 1965 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 3.

17-28.

USCO, Census R e p o r t s , V o l . I I , T w e l f t h Census o f t h e U n i t e d

S t a t e s , Taken i n t h e Year 1 9 0 0 , P o p u l a t i o n , P a r t I I p.

(1902),

ccxvii. 4.

For c o m n e n t , see R o b e r t C. S c h m i t t , " S t a t e h o o d and N a t i o n a l

S t a t i s t i c s , " American S t a t i s t i c i a n , 15 ( F e b . 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 7 , 2 8 , 30. 5.

Census R e p o r t s , V o l . I I , T w e l f t h Census . . • ,

P a r t I I , p. c c x v i .

See a l s o , i b i d . , V o l . I , T w e l f t h Census

P o p u l a t i o n , P a r t I ( 1 9 0 1 ) , pp. x v , 6.

Population,

xvii-xviii.

See R o b e r t D. K i n g , " D i s t r i c t s i n t h e H a w a i i a n

Islands,"

i n John Wesley C o u l t e r , c o m p . , A G a z e t t e r o f t h e T e r r i t o r y Hawaii ( H o n o l u l u , 1 9 3 5 ) , pp. 7.

of

214-230.

L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r f r o m Henry S. S h r y o c k , J r . ,

C h i e f , P o p u l a t i o n D i v i s i o n , USBC, Nov. 6 , 1964.

Acting

I n f o r m a t i o n on

t h e c o s t s o f a l l censuses t h r o u g h 1960 i s f r o m t h i s 8.

•..,

Census R e p o r t s , V o l . I , T w e l f t h Census . . • ,

letter. Population,

P a r t I ; i b i d . , V o l . I I , T w e l f t h Census . . . , P o p u l a t i o n , P a r t 9.

II.

USBC, T h i r t e e n t h Census o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Taken i n t h e

Year 1 9 1 0 , V o l . I l l , P o p u l a t i o n 1 9 1 0 , Nebraska-Wyoming, A l a s k a , H a w a i i , and P u e r t o Rico ( 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 1155. 9a.

P a r a d i s e o f t h e P a c i f i c , V o l . XXIV, No. 12 (Dec.

1911),

p. 64. 10.

I b i d . , pp. 1 155-1 178; i b i d . , A b s t r a c t o f t h e Census

w i t h Supplement f o r H a w a i i , pp. 5 6 5 - 6 1 9 ; i b i d . , V o l . I V , 1910, O c c u p a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s 11.

.••

Population

(1914).

USBC, F o u r t e e n t h Census o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Taken i n t h e

Year 1920, V o l . I , P o p u l a t i o n 1920, Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f

In-

h a b i t a n t s ( 1 9 2 1 ) , p. 6 8 2 ; i b i d . , V o l . I l l , P o p u l a t i o n 1920, C o m p o s i t i o n and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n by S t a t e s ( 1 9 2 2 ) , p p .

1171-1193; 239

i b i d . , Vol. I V , Population 1920, Occupations 12.

USBC, Fifteenth Census of the United S t a t e s :

l y i n g T e r r i t o r i e s and Possessions 13.

(1923). 1930, Out-

(1932).

For a complete h i s t o r y of the development of the census t r a c t

system i n Hawaii, see Honolulu Census Tract Committee, Census Tracts i n Hawaii, 1937-1964, Report CTC-7 (Nov. 20, 1964). 14.

Information s u p p l i e d by John F. C h i l d , J r . , Jan. 25, 1965.

15.

USBC, 16th Census of the United S t a t e s :

1940, Population,

F i r s t S e r i e s , Number of I n h a b i t a n t s , Hawaii (1942), and Population, Second S e r i e s , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population, Hawaii (1943); 16th Census . . . , Housing, General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Hawai i (1943); 16th Census . . . , Population, Vol. I , Number of I n h a b i t a n t s (1942), pp. 12071214. 16.

USBC, Enumerator's Reference Manual, 1950 Census of Hawaii,

17 Fld-100 Hawaii ( n . d . ) ; USBC, The 1950 Censuses--How They Were Taken, Procedural Studies of the 1950 Census, No. 2 (1955). 17.

Information supplied by Lloyd Lee, formerly of the T e r r i t o r i e s

and Possessions S e c t i o n , USBC, i n a d i s c u s s i o n sometime before 1958. 18.

USBC, U. S. Census of Population:

1950, Report P-B52 ( 1 9 5 2 ) ,

p. v i . 19.

For additional d i s c u s s i o n , see HRA, Redevelopment and Housing

Research, No. 5 (July 1956), pp. 31-39 and No. 14 (Dec. 1958), pp. 2224, 27. 20.

USBC, B u l l e t i n P-C52, p. v i i .

21.

Letter from H. S. Shryock, J r . , 1964.

22.

U. S. Census of Population: 1950, Reports P-A52, P-B52, P-C52;

USBC, U. S. Census of Housing: 1950, General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Hawaii, Report H-A52 (1952); U. S. Census of Population: 1950, V o l . I l l , Census Tract S t a t i s t i c s , Chap. 62, Honolulu, T e r r i t o r y of Hawaii and Adjacent 240

Area (1952). 23.

U. S. Census of the Population: 1950, Vol. I , Number of

Inhabitants (1952), pp. 5 2 : 1 - 5 2 : 8 ; i b i d . , Vol. I I , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population, Parts 51-54, T e r r i t o r i e s and P o s s e s s i o n s

(1953),

pp. 52:1-52:154; U. S. Census of Housing: 1950, V o l . I , General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Part 7: A l a s k a , Hawaii, Puerto R i c o , V i r g i n

Islands

of the U. S. (1953), pp. 52:1-52:22. 24.

USBC, Enumerator's Reference Manual, 1960 Census of Popu-

l a t i o n and Housing, F-210 (1960); USBC, United States Censuses of Population and Housing, 1960:

P r i n c i p a l D a t a - C o l l e c t i o n Forms and

Procedures (1961), and Procedural Report of the 1960 Censuses of Population and Housing, Working Paper No. 16 (1963). 25.

USBC, U. S. Census of Population:

1960, Vol. I , Charac-

t e r i s t i c s of the Population, Part 13, Hawaii ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p. x x v i . ' 26.

U. S. Census of Population: 1960, Subject Reports, Non-

white Population by Race, Final Report PC(2)-1C (1963), Table 61. 27.

For a summary of data in these reports and a d e t a i l e d d i s -

c u s s i o n of the treatment of race i n 1960, see HDPED, SR 9 (Dec. 26, 1963). 28.

HDPED, SR 3 (Aug. 27, 1963).

29.

Procedural Report of the 1960 Censuses of Population and

Housing, Working Paper No. 16 (1963). 30.

Honolulu S t a r - B u l l e t i n , May 24, 1960; U. S. Department of

Commerce, " P r e l i m i n a r y County Totals f o r Hawaii, 1960 Census of P o p u l a t i o n , " transmitted June 9 , 1960; USBC, 1960 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Population Counts f o r Standard Metropolitan S t a t i s t i c a l Areas, Honolulu, PC(P2)-69 (June 1960); i b i d . ,

Preliminary

Reports, Population Counts f o r S t a t e s , Hawaii, PC(P1)-13 ( J u l y 1960) (see a l s o Honolulu A d v e r t i s e r and Honolulu S t a r - B u l l e t i n f o r July 25, 241

1960); I960 Census of Population, Advance Reports, Final

Population

Counts, Hawaii PC(A1)-13 (Nov. 10, 1960); i b i d . , Advance Reports, General Population C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Hawaii , PC(A2)-13 (March 30, 1961). 31.

Final Report PC(1)-13A (1961), l a t e r bound in U. S. Census

of Population: 1960, Vol. I , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population, Part A, Number o f Inhabitants (1961), pp. 13:1-13:11; Final

Report

PC(1)-13B (1961); Final Report PC(1)-13C (1962); Final

Report PC(1)-

13D (1962); U. S. Census of Population: 1960, Vol. I ,

Characteristics

of the P o p u l a t i o n , Part 13, Hawaii 32.

(1963).

U. S. Census of Population and Housing: 1960, Census T r a c t s ,

Final Report P H C ( l ) - 6 2 , Honolulu, Hawaii, Standard Metropolitan S t a t i s t i c a l Area (1962). 33.

USBC, U. S. Census of Housing: 1960, Vol. I , States and

Small Areas, Hawaii, Final

Report HC(1)-13 (1961), a l s o bound as Vol.

I,

States and Small Areas, Part 3: Delaware-Indiana (1963), pp. 13:1-13:44; U. S. Census of Housing: 1960, Metropolitan Housing, Final Report HC(2)80 (1962), a l s o bound as Metropolitan Housing, Part 3: Dallas-Kalamazoo Standard Metropolitan S t a t i s t i c a l Areas (1963), pp. 8 0 : 1 - 8 0 : 3 0 ; U. S. Census of Housing: 1960, V o l . I l l , C i t y B l o c k s , S e r i e s HC(3), No. 125, H i l o (1961); i b i d . , No. 126, Honolulu (1961); i b i d . , No. 127, Lahaina (1961); i b i d . , No. 128, Wailuku (1961). 34.

For example, the f o l l o w i n g :

U. S. Census of Population:

Subject Reports, State of B i r t h , Final Report PC(2)-2A (1963);

ibid.,

M o b i l i t y f o r States and State Economic Areas, Final Report PC(2)-2B (1963). 35.

HDPED, SR33 ( J u l y 26, 1965) and SR 34 (Aug. 2, 1965).

36.

The Honolulu consumer price index (March 1943 = 100) was

77.1 in March 1940, 126.0 in March 1950, and 163.0 i n March 1960. 242

1960,

See HDPR, S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract of Hawaii, 1962, p. 73. 37.

USBC, unpublished data f o r enumeration d i s t r i c t s .

38.

D e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the 1960 treatment of race appears

i n HDPED, SR 9 (Dec. 26, 1963). 39.

Hawaii Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e c o r d s .

40.

USBC, 16th Census of the United S t a t e s : 1940, Population,

Second S e r i e s , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population, Hawaii (1943), p. 2. 41.

Hawaii Department of Labor and I n d u s t r i a l

R e l a t i o n s , Re-

search and S t a t i s t i c s O f f i c e , Comparison and A n a l y s i s of Employment Data Reported in the U. S. Census of 1960 with Revised Employment Estimates Published by the Hawaii State Department of Labor and I n dustrial

Relations, April

1960 (Jan. 1965), and Comparison and A n a l y s i s

of Unemployment Data Reported in the U. S. Census of 1960 with Revised Estimates Published by the Hawaii State Department of Labor and I n dustrial

R e l a t i o n s , State of Hawaii, A p r i l 1960 (Jan. 1965).

42.

HDPED, SR 33 and SR 34.

43.

USBC, "Estimates of the Population of S t a t e s : J u l y 1, 1963,"

Current Population Reports, Population Estimates, S e r i e s P - 2 5 , No. 289 (Aug. 31, 1964). 44. Services, 45.

O f f i c e of Secretary of Defense, D i r e c t o r a t e f o r

Statistical

records. Hawaii State Planning O f f i c e , M i l i t a r y Personnel and

Dependents i n Hawaii, 1960, S t a f f Research Memorandum 29 (June 27, 1960). 46.

I n t e r r a c i a l Marriage in Hawaii, pp. 14-15.

47.

Among the most important works are the f o l l o w i n g :

State

Department of Health, O f f i c e of Health S t a t i s t i c s , The Race Item in V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s Records ( n . d . ) ; Andrew W. Lind, H a w a i i ' s People (Honolulu, 1955), pp. 19-25; Bernhard L. Hormann, " ' R a c i a l '

Statistics 243

i n Hawaii," S o c i a l Process in Hawaii, X I I (1948), as reprinted in Hormann, ed., Community Forces i n Hawaii (Honolulu, 1956), pp. 268273; Newton E. Morton, Chin S. Chung, and Ming-Pi M i , Genetics of Interracial

Crosses in Hawaii ( B a s e l , 1967); Norma McArthur, " E s s a y s

in Multiplication:

European Seafarers in P o l y n e s i a , " Journal of

P a c i f i c H i s t o r y , I (1966), 91-105. Chapter V 1.

See, f o r example, USBC, "Estimates of the Population of

S t a t e s : J u l y 1, 1965," Current Population Reports, Population Estimates, S e r i e s P-25, No. 348 (Sept. 16, 1966), and " P r o v i s i o n a l Population of the Largest Metropolitan Areas:

Estimates of the

July 1, 1965," Current

Population Reports, Population Estimates, S e r i e s P-25, No. 347 (Aug. 31, 1966). 2.

Annual estimates from 1940 to 1964 are reported in HDPED,

SR 31 (June 21, 1965), Table 6 , p. 10.

Revised OBE e s t i m a t e s , 1960 to

1965, appear i n HDPED, SR 43 (Sept. 30, 1966), Table 3. 3.

Letters from USBC and O f f i c e of Business Economics

officials,

c i t e d i n HRA, Redevelopment and Housing Research, No. 5 ( J u l y 1956), pp. 31-32, and No. 14 (Dec. 1958), pp. 22-23. 4.

HDH, C i v i l i a n Population, B i r t h s , Deaths, and M i g r a t i o n Data

of Hawaii by Geographic Area, 1950-1964 (March 1964) and semi-annual mimeographed r e l e a s e s . 5.

HDH, Estimated C i v i l i a n Population and Dwelling Units of Oahu

Census T r a c t s , July 1, 1965 ( A p r i l 1966), and Estimated Population and Dwelling Units of Hawaii County Census T r a c t s , A p r i l

1, 1960 and

July 1, 1965 (Nov. 1965). 6.

Under the s e r i e s t i t l e The Population of Hawaii, see, f o r

example, SR 29 ( A p r i l 9, 1965), SR 31 (June 21, 1965), and SR 37

244

(Nov. 19, 1965).

The April date, not normally used, was chosen for

SR 31 because i t f e l l midway between the 1960 and 1970 census dates. S t a t i s t i c s on armed forces and dependents are issued in a separate series under the t i t l e M i l i t a r y Personnel and Dependents in Hawaii; see, for example, HDPED, SR 36 (Sept. 24, 1965). 7.

For comparisons back to 1940, see HDPED, SR 31, Table 6.

Detailed comparisons of data on the armed forces, 1960 to 1965, appear in HDPED, SR 43 (Sept. 30, 1966), Table 3. 8. States:

See, for example, USBC, "Estimates of the Population of July 1, 1963," Current Population Reports, Population

Estimates, Series P-25, No. 289 (Aug. 31, 1964), pp. 10-11. 9.

See, for example, USBC, "Estimates of the Population of

States, by Age:

1960 to 1965," Current Population Reports, Population

Estimates, Series P-25, No. 354 (Dec. 8, 1966). 10.

See, for example, The Health Surveillance Program.

April-

September 1964, Report No. 1, and Demographic and Health Characteri s t i c s of M i l i t a r y Households (Dec. 1, 1965). Manual, Health Surveillance Program, 1964.

See also Interviewer's

These publications were

issued j o i n t l y by the Research, Planning and S t a t i s t i c s Office and the Public Health Nursing Branch. 11.

HRA, Redevelopment and Housing Research, Supplemental

Research Notes for March 1965, pp. 3-4 (family income data), April 1965, pp. 1 , 3 (income of the aged), and Nov. 1965, pp. 1 , 3 (vacancy rates); HDPED, SR 37, Tables 12, 13 (age, sex, military status, and ethnic stock). 12.

SR 31, Tables 12, 13, pp. 15-16.

13.

"Honolulu Household and Housing Survey, October 1962,"

Redevelopment and Housing Research, No. 23 (July 1963), pp. 1-24. 14.

See, for example, SR 23 (Oct. 30, 1964), Table 18, p. 20; 245

SR 29, Tables 13, 14, pp. 14-16. 15.

See, for example, "Changes in Hawaii's Housing Supply,

1964-1965," Redevelopment and Housing Research, No. 25 (July 1965), pp. 1-10. 16.

Hawaii State Department of Labor and industrial

Relations,

Employment and Payrolls in Hawaii, 1965 (Dec. 1966). 17.

Hawaii State Department of Labor and Industrial Re-

l a t i o n s , Where Do People Work in Hawaii? ( i n press). 18.

U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , Survey

of Consumer Expenditures: 1960-61.

Consumer Expenditures and Income:

Honolulu, Hawaii, 1961, BLS Report 237-78 (Advance Report) and Supplement 1 (Nov. 1963). 19.

See, for example, HDPED, SR 38 (April 15, 1966).

20.

Hawaii Newspaper Agency, 1963 Consumer Analysis of Metro-

politan Honolulu (1963), p. 8.

Chapter VI 1.

Extracts from the Minutes of the General Meeting of the

Sandwich I s l a n d s ' Mission, Held at Honolulu, June and July, 1835 (Oahu, 1835), p. 17. 2.

See, for example, Mary Charlotte Alexander, comp., William

Patterson Alexander

In Kentucky

The Marquesas

Hawaii (Honolulu,

1934), p. 195, and Alonzo Chapin, "Remarks on the Sandwich Islands

...,"

Hawaiian Spectator, July 1838, p. 265, regarding W. P. Alexander's work at Halelea; and Extracts from the Minutes of the General Meeting of the Sandwich Islands Mission, Held at Honolulu, May and June, 1848 (Oahu, 1848) regarding data for Koloa.

Alexander used his findings to make

estimates for the entire kingdom (see Table 9).

246

With respect to

infant mortality, see for example, Artemas Bishop, "An Inquiry into the Causes of Decrease in the Population of the Sandwich I s l a n d s , " Hawaiian Spectator, Jan. 1838, p. 54, and a letter written by Dr. Seth Lathrop Andrews on January 8, 1844 and published in "Island Mission Letters Found," Sunday Star-Bulletin & Advertiser, April 11, 1965. 3.

"Laws of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , " Polynesian, Sept. 18, 1841.

4.

Statute LHM Kamehameha I I I , An Act to Organize the Executive

Departments of the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , Part IV, Department of Public Instruction, General Provisions, Section I I I , p. 222.

Amendment in

Penal Code of the Hawaiian Islands Passed by the House of Nobles and , Representatives on the 21st of June, A. D. 1850; to which are appended the other acts passed ... 1850, pp. 200-201. 5.

The C i v i l Code of the Hawaiian Islands ... 1859, T i t l e 2,

Art. XXIX, Sec. 762-765.

Amendment in LHM Kamehameha V ... 1864-65,

Sec. 44. 6.

Laws of the Republic of Hawaii ... 1896, Act 50.

7.

Laws of the Territory of Hawaii ... 1913, Act 86.

8.

Laws of the Territory of Hawaii ... 1937, Act 86.

Approved

April 28, 1937. 9.

Laws of the Territory of Hawaii ... Regular Session 1949,

Act 327. 10. 1850.

1848:

1851-1863:

Polynesian, Nov. 10, 1849.

1849:

Polynesian, May 4,

Report of the Minister of Public Instruction for

years 1852-1855; Report of the President of the Board of Education for 1856 and 1858; Biennial Report of the President of the Board of Education for 1860, 1862, and 1864. year from 1851 to 1863. never published.

These reports present data for each

Data for 1850, 1864, and 1865 were apparently

1866-1877:

Report of the Board of Health for 1868,

1870, 1872, 1874, 1876, and 1878.

Education:

Biennial Report of the 247

President of the Board of Education for 1882, 1884, 1886, 1888, and 1890.

Health (deaths): Biennial Report of the Board of Health ... 1878;

Report of the President of the Board of Health for 1880, 1884, 1886, 1888, 1890, 1892, 1894, 1895, and 1899; Board of Health Report ... 1882; Report of the Board of Health ... 1897.

Health (births added):

Annual

data for the period from 1900 to 1909 were recapitulated in Report of the President of the Board of Health ... 1909, pp. 33-46.

Health:

Report of the President of the Board of Health for years 1909-1930; Annual Report of the Governor of Hawaii to the Secretary of the Int e r i o r for 1931 and 1932; Board of Health of the Territory of Hawaii, I t s Major A c t i v i t i e s , 1933; Annual Report, Board of Health for years 1934-1939; Board of Health, Territory of Hawaii, Report for Fiscal Year 1940.

Because of changing coverage and reporting periods, 1941-1965

data used in the present study were obtained directly from the Department of Health.

Calendar year data back to 1912 are recapitulated in

Annual Report, Department of Health, State of Hawaii, S t a t i s t i c a l Supplement, 1960.

Data for 1961 and later years appear in the

S t a t i s t i c a l Supplements for those years. 11.

Mortality data for Hawaii appeared i n i t i a l l y in USBC,

Mortality S t a t i s t i c s , 1915, Sixteenth Annual Report (1917); natality data, in USBC, B i r t h , S t i l l b i r t h , and Infant Mortality S t a t i s t i c s 1929 (Washington, 1932).

...

Beginning with data for 1937, these series

were carried in USBC, Vital S t a t i s t i c s of the United States, Part I . Effective with the 1945 volumes, publication of these annual reports was assumed by the Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service, National Office of Vital S t a t i s t i c s .

The 1950 report was the f i r s t

issued by the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Office of Vital S t a t i s t i c s . National Vital S t a t i s t i c s Division a decade later. 248

N0VS became the

12.

Irene B. Taeuber, "Hawaii," Population Index, 28 (April

1962), 98-99. 13.

I b i d . , p. 100.

14.

Romanzo Adams, unpublished and undated manuscript in custody

of the Department of Sociology, University of Hawaii, p. 106. 15.

Report of the Minister of Public Instruction ... 1852, p. 45.

16.

Report of the Minister of Public Instruction ... 1855, p. 15.

17.

Report of the President of the Board of Education ... 1856,

p. 11. 18.

Adams, MS, p. 107.

19.

See, however, Adams, MS, p. 108:

"From 1890 on, records of

births and deaths were kept for all the Islands and, while there i s considerable incompleteness, they may be used with some allowance." I have been unable to find these data. 20.

See, for example, the different figures for 1867 in the

Report of the Board of Health for 1868 (p. 11) and 1870 (p. 22) and the discrepancies between Board of Health and Board of Education totals for 1881, reported by Dr. Charles T. Rodgers in the unpublished minutes of the Social Science Association of Honolulu for December 4, 1882.

Dr.

Rodgers 1 paper is summarized in Stanley D. Porteus, A Century of Social Thinking in Hawaii (Palo Alto, 1962), p. 32. 21.

Taeuber, op. c i t . , p. 100.

22.

Report of the Board of Health ... 1897, pp. 55-56.

23.

Report of the President of the Board of Health ... 1899,

p. 22. 24.

A. Marques, "The Population of Hawaiian Islands.

Hawaiian a Doomed Race?

I s the

Present and Future Prospects," Journal of the

Polynesian Society, I I (Sept. 1893), 260; Report of the President of the Board of Health, November 10th, 1900 to February 1st, 1901, p. 7. 249

25.

Report of the President of the Board of Health ... 1884,

p. civ. 26.

Letter from Anders S. Lunde, Chief, Natality S t a t i s t i c s

Branch, National Vital S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n , Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, April 18, 1963. 27.

Annual Report of the President of the Board of Health ...

1920, pp. 10, 99. 28.

Letter from Lunde, April 18, 1963.

29.

U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public

Health Service, National Office of Vital S t a t i s t i c s , "Birth Registration Completeness in the United States and Geographic Areas, 1950. Part I.

Data for Each State," Vital S t a t i s t i c s — S p e c i a l

Reports-

Selected Studies, 39 (Sept. 21, 1954), 57. Chapter V I I 1.

Interracial Marriage in Hawaii (New York, 1937), p. 8; un-

t i t l e d and undated manuscript in custody of the Department of Sociology, University of Hawaii, p. 112. 2.

Sources of information on Hawaii-born persons on the Mainland

are l i s t e d in Robert C. Schmitt, "A Century of Hawaiian Out-Migration," Social Process in Hawaii, 20 (1956), 39. 3.

David Malo (translated by L. Andrews), "On the Decrease of

Population in the Hawaiian I s l a n d s , " Hawaiian Spectator, April 1839, pp. 127-128; Polynesian, May 23, 1846 and Oct. 2, 1847; A. Marques, "The Population of Hawaiian Islands.

I s the Hawaiian A Doomed Race?

Present and Future Prospects," Journal of the Polynesian Society, I I (Sept. 1893), 263-267; Ralph S. Kuykendall, The Hawaiian Kingdom, 17781854 (Honolulu, 1938), pp. 312, 313, 328; David Kittelson, "Hawaiians and Fur Traders," Hawaii Historical Review, I (Jan. 1963), 16-20.

250

4.

Summarized in HDPR, RR 21 (March 20, 1962), and HDPED, SR 5

(Oct. 14, 1963). 5.

Polynesian:

"Custom House S t a t i s t i c s . . . " in issues of

Oct. 15, 1859, Jan. 18, 1862, Jan. 10, 1863, and Oct. 17, 1863. Broadside:

"Custom House S t a t i s t i c s

Collector General:

. . . " for years 1866-1871.

Custom House S t a t i s t i c s ... for years 1872-1884,

and Annual Report of the Collector General of Customs of the Hawaiian Islands ... for years 1885-1900.

Commerce and Labor:

Fourth

Report of the Commissioner of Labor on Hawaii, Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, No. 94 (May 1911), pp. 724-725.

Governor:

U. S. Depart-

ment of the I n t e r i o r , Report of the Governor of Hawaii to the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r for years 1919-1934. 1912-1927.

Health:

Thrum:

Hawaiian Annual for years

C i v i l i a n Population, B i r t h s , Deaths, and Migration

Data of Hawaii by Geographic Area, 1950-1964 (March 1964) and records. 6.

"Components of Population Change, 1950 to 1960, for Counties,

Standard Metropolitan S t a t i s t i c a l Areas, State Economic Areas, and Economic Subregions," Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 7 (Nov. 1962), p. 22. 7.

Robert C. Schmitt, "Hawaii on the Move," Paradise of the

P a c i f i c , 65 (Aug. 1953), 25. 8.

Report of the President of the Bureau of Immigration to the

Legislative Assembly of 1886, p. 278. 9.

Labor Problems in Hawaii.

Hearings Before the Committee on

Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives (1921), p. 542. 10.

Hawaii State Planning Office, Hawaii's In-Migrants, 1951-58

(Sept. 30, 1959), and quarterly or annual reports issued by the State Planning Office, Department of Planning and Research, and Department of Planning and Economic Development for 1959-1965. 11.

1960 Census:

Summarized in HDPR, RR 21, pp. 15, 19, 20, and 251

HDPED, SR 13 (Feb. 15, 1964). pp. 3, 8, 12.

High school graduates:

College enrollment:

See RR 21,

Summarized in Mildred D. Kosaki,

Business A f f a i r s Office, University of Hawaii, "Residence and Migration of Hawaii's College Students, Fall 1958 and 1963," IRP-4, (March 31, 1965).

Oahu households:

RR 21, pp. 2-3, 4, 7, 12, 17, 18; HRA,

Redevelopment and Housing Research, No. 21 (June 1962), Table 4, p. 13, and No. 23 (July 1963), Table 5, p. 15.

The same survey included a

question on place of b i r t h ; see Robert C. Schmitt and Robert A. Souza, Place of Birth of Household Heads on Oahu, 1962 (University of Hawaii, Romanzo Adams Social Research Laboratory, Report No. 38, June 1963). Labor mobility: 1965), p. 15.

See HDPR, RR 21, pp. 6-7, and HDPED, SR 31 (June 21, Social Security beneficiaries:

HDPR, RR 39 (Feb. 19,

1963), p. 10; HRA, Redevelopment and Housing Research, Supplemental Research Notes for April 1966, pp. 3, 5.

Net migration:

I b i d . , p. 7;

Irene B. Taeuber, "Hawaii," Population Index, 28 (April 1962), 107108, as corrected. Chapter V I I I 1.

This section i s based largely on Robert C. Schmitt and Rose

C. Strombel, "Marriage and Divorce in Hawaii Before 1870," Hawaii Historical Review, I I (Jan. 1966), 267-271. 2.

SLH 1913, Act 8; SLH 1937, Act 59.

For l e g i s l a t i o n re-

quiring consent of parents or guardian, see SLH 1929, Act 104.

For

law permitting marriage of a g i r l at fifteen with court consent, see SLH 1939, Act 122. 3.

Laws ... 1878, Chap. XXVI; SLH 1903, Act 22; SLH 1909, Act 25;

SLH 1915, Act 192; SLH 1919, Act 10; SLH 1935, Act 27; SLH 1949, reg., Act 174; SLH 1957, Act 72. 4.

Couples with children face a one-year waiting period

under recent l e g i s l a t i o n (SLH 1965, Act 52, approved May 8, 1965). 252

5.

1829:

No Ka Moe Kolohe (Oahu), Sept. 21, 1829.

1840:

Laws ... 1842, Chap. X, in Lorrin A. Thurston, ed., The Fundamental Law of Hawaii (Honolulu, 1904), p. 48. pp. 21-22.

1850:

1851, pp. 59-60.

1864:

Laws ... 1864-65,

Penal Code ... 1850, pp. 200-201. 1859 and 1865:

1851:

Laws ...

C i v i l Code ... 1859, Sec. 762 and

763; Laws ... 1864-65, "An Act to Repeal Chapter 10 . . . , " Sec. 44. 1896:

Laws ... 1896, Act 50.

1913:

SLH 1913, Act 86.

1949:

SLH 1937, Act 86; SLH 1949, Act 327.

1937 and

See also SLH 1903,

Acts 28 and 31; SLH 1913, Act 8; SLH 1929, Act 104. 6.

F i r s t Annual Report of the Chief Justice of the Supreme

Court (1853). 7.

SLH 1951, Act 62.

8.

Missionary Herald, Feb. 1829, p. 53.

9.

I b i d . , Oct. 1830, p. 312; Missionary Register, Feb. 1831,

p. 93. 10.

Extracts . . . :

Missionary Herald:

Reports for 1832-1844, 1848-1849, and 1851.

Issues of Oct. 1830 (p. 312), March 1832 (p. 74),

July 1847 (p. 218), June 1848 (p. 188), Oct. 1849 (p. 362), Dec. 1850 (preliminary f i g u r e s , p. 398), March 1851 (p. 98), Dec. 1851 (p. 401), Nov. 1852 (p. 324), and Dec. 1853 (p. 372).

Missionary Register:

Issues for Feb. 1831 (p. 93) and Oct. 1832 (pp. 453-454). 11.

Missionary Herald, March 1832, p. 74; Missionary Register,

Oct. 1832, pp. 453-454. 12.

Ralph S. Kuykendall, The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1778-1854

(Honolulu, 1938), pp. 140-143. 13.

Report of the Minister of the I n t e r i o r . . . Aug. 1, 1846,

14.

Report of the Minister of the Interior . . . April 30, 1847,

p. 7.

p. 9. 253

15.

Report of the Minister of the Interior (1850), pp. 8-9.

16.

Report of the Minister of Public Instruction for years

1852-1855; Report of the President of the Board of Education for years 1856, 1858, and 1860; Biennial Report of the President of the Board of Education for 1862 and 1864. 17.

Each report carried data for the preceding year or biennium,

often with a recapitulation of data for a number of e a r l i e r years. These reports were used in preparing the series in Tables 76-78. 18.

Report to the Legislature of the Chief Justice of the

Supreme Court for 1911-1912 (p. vi) and 1913-1914 (p. x i x ) . 19.

Report of the President of the Board of Health ... 1899,

p. 22. 20.

Data for the period from July 1, 1902 to June 30, 1906

were scattered through the reports, without any indication of the all-island totals. 21.

Annual

Report, Department of Health, State of Hawaii,

S t a t i s t i c a l Supplement, 1960, Tables 3 and 4, pp. 6-9. 22.

Annual Report of the Board of Health, Territory of Hawaii,

for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1937, pp. 87-94. 23.

Detailed s t a t i s t i c s on divorce for the f i r s t six months

under Health Department j u r i s d i c t i o n were reported in M. A. Taff, Jr. and Fred M. Colland, Whom Man Hath Put Asunder (Honolulu, Department of Health, Aug. 20, 1952); s t a t i s t i c s from 1952 forward appeared in the annual report s t a t i s t i c a l 24.

supplements.

Data for 1946, 1947, and 1948 were published in the Federal

Security Agency, Public Health Service, National Office of Vital S t a t i s t i c s , Vital S t a t i s t i c s of the United States, 1948, Part I , Supplement for Hawaii (1950), Table 1.

Annual figures for later years

were carried in succeeding annual issues.

The publications were

prepared by the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Office of Vital S t a t i s t i c s from 1950 onward.

The name of NOVS was changed to National Vital

Statistics

Division prior to publication of the 1960 reports. 25.

U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Vital

S t a t i s t i c s of the United States, 1960, Vol. I l l , Marriage and Divorce (Washington, 1964), p. 7-5. 26.

Romanzo Adams, Interracial Marriage in Hawaii (New York,

1937), p. 46; Andrew W. Lind, Hawaii's People (Honolulu, 1955), pp. 102-107, and "Interracial Marriage as Affecting Divorce in Hawaii," Sociology and Social Research, 49 (Oct. 1964), 17-26. George K. Yamamoto, "Some Patterns of Mate Selection Among Naichi and Okinawans on Oahu," Social Process in Hawaii, 21 (1957), 42-49. C. K. Cheng and Douglas S. Yamamura, " I n t e r r a c i a l Marriage and Divorce in Hawaii,"' Social Forces, 36 (Oct. 1957), 77-84. Irene B. Taeuber, "Hawaii," Population Index, 28 (April 1962), pp. 97-125, esp. pp. 109-115 and 122, n. 4. Robert C. Schmitt, Age, Race, and Marital Failure in Hawaii (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, Romanzo Adams Social Research Laboratory, Report No. 34, June 1962), and "Interracial Marriage and Occupational Status in Hawaii," American Sociological Review, 28 (Oct. 1963), 809-810; "Demographic Correlates of Interracial Marriage in Hawaii," Demography, 2 (1965), 463-473.

Robert C. Schmitt and

Robert A. Souza, "Interracial Households and Family Income D i f f e r e n t i a l s , " Sociology and Social Research, 46 (Jan. 1962), 203-206, and "Social & Economic Characteristics of Interracial Households in Honolulu," Social Problems, 10 (Winter 1963), 264-268.

A number of

studies bearing in some measure on this subject are cited in Bernhard L. Hormann, Selected Bibliography on Social Research in Hawaii by Sources (Honolulu, Adams Laboratory, Report No. 37, May 1963). 255

27.

Robert C. Schmitt, "Research Note on Components of Change in

Marital Status on Oahu, 1940-1950," Social Forces, 34 (March 1956), 238-240, and "Age Differences in Marriage and Divorce in Hawaii," Sociology and Social Research, 44 (March-April 1960), 266-268. 28.

Schmitt, "Demographic Correlates of Interracial Marriage

in Hawaii," Demography, 2 (1965), Table 5, p. 468. 29.

Biennial Report of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

to the Legislative Assembly of 1882, p. 4; Biennial Report of the Chief Justice . . . 1880, p. 2.

256

BIBLIOGRAPHY This bibliography c i t e s some of the more important publications on the demographic s t a t i s t i c s of Hawaii. No e f f o r t has been made to be exhaustive; readers i n terested i n more detailed l i s t i n g s should refer to the footnotes i n t h i s volume or to b i b l i o g r a p h i e s in the books and reports below. Four c l a s s e s of work are considered:

general demo-

graphic studies of Hawaii; general s t a t i s t i c a l lations; official

census r e p o r t s ; and s e r i a l

compipublica-

tions on b i r t h s , deaths, migration, marriage, and divorce. General demographic studies Although many general accounts of the population of Hawaii have appeared in p r i n t , the f i v e l i s t e d below merit special

attention:

Romanzo Adams, The Peoples of Hawaii.

Honolulu:

American Council, I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1933. Romanzo Adams, I n t e r r a c i a l Marriage in Hawaii. York:

New

Macmillan Co., 1937. Andrew W. Lind, An I s l a n d Community.

Chicago:

U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1938. Andrew W. Lind, Hawaii's People.

Honolulu:

U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii P r e s s , 1955 and 1967. Irene B. Taeuber, "Hawaii," Population Index, 28 (April 1962), pp. 97-125. 257

General s t a t i s t i c a l

compilations

The following works provide information not only on Hawaiian demography but also on a number of related soci a l , economic, and governmental Thrum's Annual.

topics:

F i r s t published as the Hawaiian

Almanac and Annual f o r 1875 by Thos. G. Thrum, compiler and p u b l i s h e r .

After Thrum's death in 1932 t h i s

was continued (as The Hawaiian Annual f o r —

series

) by the

Printshop Co., L t d . , terminating with the 1940 e d i t i o n . Soon thereafter i t was absorbed by the S t a r - B u l l e t i n Press (now known as the S t a r - B u l l e t i n P r i n t i n g Co.) and issued as Thrum's Hawaiian Annual Combined with A l l About Hawaii, 1940-1941.

In 1948 the t i t l e was changed to All

About Hawaii, 1948-49, Combined With Thrum's Hawaiian Annual and Standard Guide. Report of the Governor of the T e r r i t o r y of Hawaii to the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r . 1900 to 1959.

Issued annually from

Published by the U. S. Government P r i n t -

ing O f f i c e , Washington, D. C. S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract of Hawaii, 1962.

Prepared by

Robert C. Schmitt and published by the Hawaii State Department of Planning and Research (the present Department of Planning and Economic Development) in May 1962. O f f i c i a l census reports Major census reports published by the Hawaiian Government and United States Bureau of the Census since 258

1849 are l i s t e d below.

Chapters I I I and IV present more

extensive l i s t i n g s . "Census of the Hawaiian Islands - - From Official Documents - - Taken January, 1849," Polynesian, Nov. 10, 1849. "Report of the Minister of Pub. Instruction, read before the King to the Hawaiian Legislature, April 22, 1850," Polynesian, May 4, 1850.

Includes census of

January 1850. "Report of the Minister of Public Instruction to the Legislature of 1854," Polynesian, April 15, 1854. Includes census data for 1853.

Additional

information

was published in the Polynesian for April 22, 1854. Biennial Report of the President of the Board of Education to the Legislature of 1862, pp. 23-26 and Table III.

Presents 1860 census data. Biennial Report of the President of the Board of

Education to the Legislature of 1868, p. 7 and table following p. 10.

Presents 1866 census data.

Biennial Report of the President of the Board of Education to the Legislature of 1874, pp. 16-17 and unpaged table.

Presents 1872 census data.

Biennial Report of the President of the Board of Education to the Legislative Assembly of 1880, p. 31 and table after p. 35.

Presents 1878 census data.

Census of the Hawaiian Islands Taken December 27th, 259

1884, Under the D i r e c t i o n of the Board of Education. Bureau of Public I n s t r u c t i o n , Report of the General Superintendent of the Census, 1890 (1891). Department of Public I n s t r u c t i o n , Report of the General Superintendent of the Census, 1896 (1897). U. S. Census O f f i c e , Census Reports, Volume I , Twelfth Census of the United S t a t e s , Taken in the Year 1900, Population, Part I (1901); Volume I I l a t i o n , Part I I

... Popu-

(1902).

U. S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the United S t a t e s , Taken i n the Year 1910, Abstract of the Census . . . with Supplement f o r Hawaii

(1913).

U. S. Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United S t a t e s , Taken in the Year 1920, Volume

III,

Population, 1920, Composition and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population by States

(1922).

U. S. Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930, Outlying T e r r i t o r i e s and Possessions (1932). U. S. Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census of the United States: 1940, Population, Second S e r i e s , Charact e r i s t i c s of the Population, Hawaii

(1943).

U. S. Bureau of the Census, U. S. Census of Popul a t i o n : 1950, V o l . I I , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population, Parts 51-54, T e r r i t o r i e s and Possessions

(1953).

U. S. Bureau of the Census, U. S. Census of Popu260

l a t i o n : 1960, Vol. I , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population, Part 13, Hawaii (1963). Other o f f i c i a l

reports

Various s e r i a l s present o f f i c i a l

statistics,

u s u a l l y on an annual b a s i s , of b i r t h s , deaths, migration, marriage, and divorces.

The following b r i e f l i s t c i t e s

only those s e r i a l s s t i l l

in publication.

More detailed

references, i n c l u d i n g publications no longer issued, are given in Chapters V I , V I I , and V I I I . Annual Report, Department of Health, State of Hawaii, S t a t i s t i c a l Supplement.

Presents data on b i r t h s ,

deaths, marriages, and (since 1951) d i v o r c e s .

Issued

annually or b i e n n i a l l y , under various t i t l e s , since the l a s t t h i r d of the nineteenth century.

Initially

titled

Report of the Board of Health to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Hawaii's In-Migrants.

Issued on a quarterly basis

through 1963, annually t h e r e a f t e r , by the T e r r i t o r i a l Planning Office (1959) and i t s successor agencies, the State Planning Office (1959-1961), the Department of Planning and Research (1961-1962), and the Department of Planning and Economic Development (1963 forward). The Population of Hawaii.

Issued semi-annually by

the Department of Planning and Economic Development since 1963.

Includes considerable detail on the e s t i -

mated components of population change. 261

INDEX Abortion, 37 Adams, Romanzo, 7, 15, 18, 22, 24, 25, 26, 35-36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 53, 63, 65, 66, 113-114, 120, 160, 161, 176, 182, 203, 257 Age: of population, 18471896, 4, 12, 13, 31, 43, 51-65 passim, 72, 73, 169; 1900-1960, 12, 13, 82, 8494 passim, 96, 98, 103, 108, 110, 119, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 169; since 1960, 136-137, 139, 145, 146; migrants, 177, 181; minimum f o r marriage, 194; at death, 173; l i f e t a b l e s , 12, 34, 158, 172. See a l s o Infant mortal i ty A g r i c u l t u r e , 55, 60, 62 Ahupuaa, 28, 29 Aiea, 105, 118 Alexander, William P., 33, 44 A l i e n s . See C i t i z e n s h i p ; Nationali ty American Board of Commissioners for Foreign M i s s i o n s (ABCFM), 29 Americans, 75, 121 Ana, Keoni, 51 Area i n square m i l e s , 11 Armed f o r c e s : 1900-1960, 6, 12, 99-100, 107, 113, 127, 175, 218; since I960, 130136 passim, 139, 142, 144, 146, 147, 149; f e r t i l i t y , 144, 178; migration, 144, 178, 191 Armstrong, Richard, 4, 51, 52, 53, 54 Atkinson, Alatau T., 62, 63, 84 Automobiles, 13, 103 Barracks. See Group quarters Bayly, William, 22, 27 Bennet, George, 22, 24, 29, 32 Bingham, Hiram, 29

B i r t h , place o f : Hawaii r e s i dents, 1850-1896, 12, 13, 32, 40, 54, 55, 65, 75, 176177, 182, 183; 1900-1960, 79, 84, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 103, 121, 176-177, 182, 183; since 1960, 139; Hawaii-born persons on Mainland, 122, 177 B i r t h s : r e g i s t r a t i o n or reporting a c t i v i t i e s , 4, 5, 17, 33, 50, 51, 52, 152155, 261 ; completeness of r e g i s t r a t i o n , 4 - 5 , 17, 33, 152, 155, 156, 160-163, 168, 169, 218; numbers and r a t e s , 12, 33, 34, 35-36, 44, 45, 61, 164-169; r e g i s t r a t i o n laws, 16, 17, 33, 47, 153, 154; factors affecting r a t e s , 155, 156, 178 Bishop, Artemas, 21, 37 Bishop, Charles R., 57 Bishop, S. E., 21 B l i g h , William, 15, 20, 27, 42 B l i n d persons, 31, 43, 51, 52, 54 Block s t a t i s t i c s , 13, 94, 98, 104, 107 Bond, E. P., 53 Buck, Peter, 21 Caucasians, 75, 120, 147 Census County D i v i s i o n s , 104, 105 Census t r a c t s , 13, 93, 94, 98, 102, 104, 105, 107, 133 Censuses, Hawaiian (1840-1896): operations, 4, 5, 14, 17, 18, 28, 49-64, 66-67, 81-82; evaluation, 4, 17-18, 26, 33, 46, 48, 50-59 passim, 62, 64, 65, 66-68, 160; subject matter included, 4, 13, 17, 18, 31, 49, 51, 52, 54-63 passim, 67, 176-177, 180, 202-203; data, 10, 11, 12, 26, 31, 32, 33, 40-44, 64-66, 69-78, 182, 183, 214, 263

215, 220; l e g i s l a t i o n , 17, 47, 48; Committee of 1888, 48-49, 58-60; o f f i c i a l s , 4, 50-57 passim, 60, 62, 84; published r e p o r t s , 50-58 passim, 61, 64, 259260; c o s t s , 52, 54-62 passim, 64 Censuses, missionary (1832, 1836): operations, 4, 14, 16, 28; data, 10, 2526, 29, 30, 42, 43; subject matter included, 13; evaluation, 16-17, 46 Censuses, U. S. (1900-1960): operations, 5, 79-107 passim; evaluation, 5 - 6 , 79, 86, 87, 100-101, 104, 110-114, 160; data, 10, 11, 12, 40, 106, 107-110, 112, 113, 114, 115-129, 182, 183, 192, 214, 215, 220; l e g i s l a t i o n , 79, 84, 86, 89, 91, 92, 96, 102; subject matter included, 13, 79, 84-106 passim, 176-177, 180, 202-203; o f f i c i a l s , 84, 89, 90, 92, 95, 101-102, 106; c o s t s , 85-86, 88, 90, 92, 95, 101, 106; published r e p o r t s , 86, 89, 90-91, 92, 95, 102, 106-107, 260-261 Census, Umi's (c. 1500), 15 Chamberlain, L e v i , 36 Chapin, Alonzo, 29 Cheever, Henry T . , 21 Cheng, C. K., 203 C h i l d , John F . , J r . , 95 Children. See Age; B i r t h s ; Children ever born; Fertility ratio; Infanticide; I n f a n t mortality Children ever born, 13, 61, 62, 67, 78, 96, 97, 104, 126 Chinese, 5, 6, 55, 75, 120, 121," 147, 162 C h u r c h i l l , Charles W., 106 C i t i e s and towns, 13, 84-85, 87-88, 90, 91, 93, 98, 264

104, 107-108, 110, 118. See a l s o Urban population; s p e c i f i c place names C i t i z e n s h i p , 13, 59, 84, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 104, 130, 138, 148. See also Nationality C i v i l i a n s . See Labor f o r c e ; Population, c i v i l i a n C l a r k , Victor S . , 89 Clarke, F. L . , 57 Class of worker, 93, 95, 96, 104, 127 C o i l , Fred W., 95 College enrollment. See School attendance College graduates. See School, years completed Color, 82-83, 84, 103, 105, 110, 177. See a l s o Ethnic stock Committee on Census of 1888, 48-49, 58-60 Components of population change, 32, 135-136, 144, 217-219, 221, 222. See a l s o Births; Deaths; Migration Consumer a n a l y s i s , 139, 140, 149, 181 Cook, James, 3, 15, 22, 27, 30, 32, 36 Coulter, John Wesley, 117 Counties, 84, 87-88, 117, 143, 148, 179, 181, 189, 192 Crime, 60 Data processing, 7, 81-82, 100-101 Daugherty, Wayne F . , 106 Deaf persons, 31 , 43, 51 , 52, 54 Deaths: r e g i s t r a t i o n or reporting a c t i v i t i e s , 4, 5, 17, 33, 50, 51, 52, 152, 153-155, 261; completeness of r e g i s t r a t i o n , 4 - 5 , 17, 33, 60, 152, 155, 156, 160163, 168, 218; numbers and r a t e s , 12, 33, 34, 44, 45, 153, 161, 164-168, 173, 174; r e g i s t r a t i o n laws, 16, 17,

33, 47, 153-154; factors a f f e c t i n g r a t e s , 155, 156, 159. See a l s o Components of change; Epidemics; Infant mortality de Freycinet, L o u i s , 33 Density, 11 Diel 1, John, 29 D i s a s t e r s , 159 Disease, 158-159. See a l s o Epi demies D i s t r i c t s , 13, 54, 55, 56, 58, 61, 63, 64, 71, 104105, 107, 117, 133 Divorced persons. See Marital status Divorces: r e g i s t r a t i o n or reporting a c t i v i t i e s , 4 - 5 , 193, 200, 201-202; numbers and r a t e s , 12, 203-204, 212-214; divorce laws, 193, 194, 195, 207; r e g i s t r a t i o n law, 196-197; completeness of reporting, 200-201 , 202; rates defined, 203-204; factors a f f e c t i n g r a t e s , 203-204, 206-208 Dixon, George, 15, 20-21 Drunkenness, 37, 38, 158 Duhaut-Ci 1 l y , A . , 29 Dutton, C. E . , 21 Dwelling u n i t s , 93, 96, 102103, 112. See a l s o Housing Earnings. See Income Education. See Illiteracy; School attendance; School years completed Education, Board (or Department) of. See Hawaii Board of Education E l k i n , W. B . , 21 E l l i s , William, 4, 25, 29, 31, 32 Emory, Kenneth P., 22, 2728, 32, 38, 42 Employment. See G a i n f u l l y employed; Labor force; Occupation E n g l i s h , a b i l i t y to speak, 13, 84, 87, 89, 91 , 93, 125

Epidemics, 24, 30, 34, 35-37, 158-159 Estimates of population: 1779 and e a r l i e r , 10, 15, 19-22, 30, 35, 41, 42, 43; 17921819, 15, 23, 24, 28, 30, 41, 42; 1820-1849, 10, 1516, 24-30 passim, 41, 42, 43; 1848-1965, semi-annually, 160, 217-223; 1940-1965, annually, 224; since 1960, 10, 11 , 113, 130-135, 136139, 141-147 Ethnic stock: before 1849, 32, 43, 176; 1849-1896, 12, 13, 31, 32, 43, 54, 55, 57-58, 62-63, 65, 74, 75, 87, 176; 1900-1960, 12, 13, 65, 79, 82, 83, 84, 87, 89-99 passim, 103, 105, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114, 120, 181; since 1960, 130, 137-138, 147. See also Marriage, i n t e r r a c i a T ; s p e c i f i c ethnic groups Europeans, 75, 121 Families (1950 d e f i n i t i o n ) : 13, 96, 99, 104, 124. See a l s o Households; Income Fay, William T . , 106 Females. See F e r t i l i t y ; Sex F e r t i l i t y , 32-38, 152, 159. See a l s o B i r t h s ; Children ever born; Completed f e r t i l i t y rate; F e r t i l i t y r a t i o ; General f e r t i l i t y rate; Reproduction rate: g r o s s ; Reproduction rate: net; S t e r i l i t y F e r t i l i t y rate: completed, 108109, 126; general, 157, 169 F e r t i l i t y r a t i o , 12, 108-109, 126, 157, 169 F i l i p i n o s , 6, 92, 120, 121, 147, 148 Forbes, A. 0 . , 21, 36 Foreigners. See B i r t h , place of; Citizenship; Nationality Freeholders. See Real estate ownership French Frigate S h o a l s , 98, 116 F u l l e r , J . , 54, 55 Fur trade, 39, 177 265

G a i n f u l l y employed, 84, 85, 87, 89, 91, 95, 99-100, 109, 127. See a l s o Labor force; Occupation Geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n : before 1850, 13, 20, 26-30, 42, 51, 54, 70, 71; 18501896, 11, 13, 42, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 61, 63, 64, 70, 71; 1900-1960, 11, 13, 84, 87-88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 96, 98, 103, 104, 105, 107108, 115-118, 189, 192; since 1960, 11, 131, 133, 139, 143, 148, 150, 151 Golovnin, V. M., 21, 27 Goodrich, Joseph King, 21 Grogan, Starke M., 92 Group q u a r t e r s , 12, 61, 66, 78, 84, 85, 95, 103, 108, 109, 124 Hana: town, 29, 30; d i s t r i c t , 71, 117 Handicaps, physical or mental, 13, 31, 43, 51, 52, 54 Hawaii, I s l a n d o f , 19-20, 27, 42, 70, 71, 116, 117, 139, 143, 148 Hawaiians, 6, 32, 35-36, 3840, 43, 45, 74, 79, 111 , 113-114, 120, 147, 176, 177, 182. See also Part Hawaiians; Polynesians Hawaii Board of Education (or Bureau of Public I n s t r u c t i o n , Department of Education, Department of Public I n s t r u c t i o n ) , 139, 150, 153, 154, 155, 161 , 165, 166, 195, 196, 199200. See also Censuses, Hawaiian, operations Hawaii Board (or Department) of Health: population estimates, 6, 130, 132141 passim, 143, 146, 147, 178, 217, 223; Hawaii Health S u r v e i l l a n c e Program survey, 136-138, 140, 146, 147; v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , 154, 161, 162, 165-174, 266

187, 196, 197, 201, 202, 210 Hawaii Bureau of Immigration, 179, 190 Hawaii C o l l e c t o r General of Customs, 177, 184 Hawaii Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (or Board of A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y ) , 133, 180 Hawaii Department of Education. See Hawaii Board of Education Hawaii Department of Health. See Hawaii Board of Health Hawaii Department of the I n t e r i o r , 195-196, 199, 210 Hawaii Department of Labor and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , 112, 140, 151, 181 Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development, 6, 130-141 passim, 180, 258, 261 Hawaii Department of Transport a t i o n , 112, 133 Hawaii Governor's Reports, 177, 179, 186, 210, 258 Hawaii Newspaper Agency, I n c . , 139, 140 Hawaii Supreme Court, 200, 201, 212, 213 Hawaii tax o f f i c e r s , 153 Hawaii V i s i t o r s Bureau, 6, 133, 180 Health, 34, 37-38. See a l s o Deaths; Epidemics; Hawaii Board of Health; Infant deaths; Venereal disease Hi l o : c i t y boundaries, 29, 88, 107, 118; c i t y population, 30, 88, 90, 104, 107, 118, 143; d i s t r i c t population, 71, 117 Hines, Gustavas, 29 Hitchcock, H. R., 56 Home ownership. See Tenure Honolulu, c i t y o f : boundaries, 28-29, 84, 88; population before 1850, 29; 1850-1896, 70, 71; 1900-1965, 82, 84, 88, 90, 104, 107, 111, l i e l l S ; since 1965, 133, 143; b i r t h s and deaths, 162-163, 166; l i f e expectation, 172

Honolulu, City and County. See Oahu, Island of; Outlying islands Honolulu Redevelopment Agency, 112, 132, 137, 138, 139, 148, 149 Honolulu Urbanized Area, 104, 105, 118 Hookena, 98 Hopkins, Manley, 21 Hormann, Bernhard L . , 22 Household relationship, 13, 103 Households: inclusion in censuses, 13; 1900-1930 (as " f a m i l i e s " ) , 85, 87, 90, 91, 124; 1940 (as "occupied dwelling u n i t s " ) , 93, 94-95, 110, 124; 19501960, 96, 99, 103, 124; since 1960, 138-139, 148, 149. See also Families ; Persons per household Housing: before 1900, 13, 59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 78; 1900-1960, 82, 92-93, 94-95, 96, 102-103, 109, 110, 112, 129; 1958-1965, 138-139, 148, 149. See al so Tenure Housing units, 102-103, 129, 138. See also Dwelling u n i t s ; Households; Housing Idiocy, 54 Idolatry, 37 I l l i t e r a c y : inclusion in censuses, 13; 1853-1896, 12, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 66, 78; 1900-1960, 12, 79, 84, 87, 89, 91, 93, 108, 125; and marriage, 194, 207 Immigration, 4, 5, /, 14, 38, 40, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 175, 179-180, 185, 186, 190 In-migration. See Migration Income, 13, 59, 60, 93, 9697, 104, 109, 128, 139, 140, 149 Industry, 12, 13, 9 3 , ' 9 5 ,

96, 97, 104, 127, 140. See also Gainfully employed; Occupation Infanticide, 31, 37 Infant mortality, 31, 37, 153, 157-158, 169, 171 Insanity, 54, 60 I n s t i t u t i o n s , 78, 85, 95 Intended residents, 180, 191, 261 Intercensal population estimates, 217-224 Interracial marriage, 7, 193, 197, 203, 211 Islands, 11, 20, 24, 42, 70, 71, 104-105, 116, 143, 150, 151. See also specific islands Jaeger, A., 58 Japanese, 5, 6, 63, 75, 120, 121, 147 Jarves, James Jackson, 22, 25, 28, 42 Jones, Wm. Ap., 53 Judicial d i s t r i c t s . See Districts Kahoolawe, Island of, 20, 42, 116, 143 Kahului, 118 Kailua (Kona), 30 Kailua-Lanikai, 118 Kalapana, 98 Kaneohe, 118 Kauai, Island of, 15, 20, 21, 22, 27, 32, 42, 51, 70, 71, 116, 117, 143 Kealakekua, 19-20, 22 Keanae, 98 Kekuanaoa, K., 54, 55 King, James, 15, 19-20, 22, 27, 32, 42 King, Robert D., 71, 117 Kittel son, David, 39 Kona, 19-20, 22, 30, 71, 117 Koreans, 120, 121 Kuykendal1, Ralph, 23, 36, 53 Labor force, 12, 59, 93, 95, 96, 99-100, 101, 104, 109, 110, 112-113, 127, 130, 140, 151. 267

See also G a i n f u l l y employed; Occupation Labor m o b i l i t y , 181. See also Immigration Lahaina: town, 29, 30, 104, 107, 108, 118; d i s t r i c t , 71, 117 Lanai, I s l a n d o f , 20, 22, 42, 51, 70, 71, 116, 117, 143 Land, 11. See a l s o Real estate ownership Language, 13, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 103, 125 Ledyard, John, 27 Leeward Hawaiian I s l a n d s , 89, 94, 98, 104, 116, 143 Lehua, I s l a n d o f , 20, 22, 42 L i f e expectancy, 12, 34, 158, 172 L i f e table values, 172 Lihue: d i s t r i c t , 71, 117; town, 107-108, 118 Lind, Andrew W., 7, 8, 22, 34-35, 65, 66, 203, 257 Literacy. See Illiteracy Livestock, 55, 62 Mainland, Hawaii-born persons on, 12, 40, 108, 122, 175, 183 Males. See Sex Malo, David, 4, 21, 24, 27, 28, 35-36 Marital s t a t u s : 1849-1896, 12, 51, 54, 55, 58, 59, 61, 62, 65, 76, 78, 202, 214, 215; 1900-1960, 12, 84-87, 91, 93, 96, 103, 123, 202, 214, 215; i n c l u s i o n in censuses, 13 Marques, A . , 21 Marriage: r e g i s t r a t i o n or reporting a c t i v i t i e s , 4, 5, 193, 197, 199, 200, 201; i n t e r r a c i a l , 7, 193, 197, 203, 211; numbers . and r a t e s , 12, 197, 209-211, 214; completeness of rep o r t i n g , 162, 198-200, 201, 202, 204-205; customs, 193-194, 198; marriage 268

laws, 193, 194, 207; r e g i s t r a t i o n laws, 193, 195196; rates defined, 203-204; f a c t o r s affecting r a t e s , 203-204, 206-207 Married couples, 96, 99, 104, 124 Married persons. See Marital status Maternity. See Children ever born Mathison, G i l b e r t F., 24, 29 Maui, I s l a n d o f , 20, 32, 42, 70, 71, 116, 117, 143 Menzies, Archibald, 22 Midway I s l a n d s , 89, 94 M i g r a t i o n , 4, 5, 7, 12, 38-40, 122, 130, 133, 175-192, 261 M i l i t a r y dependents, 107, 113, 131, 136, 142, 144, 146, 147, 149, 175, 191 M i l i t a r y inductions and s e p a r a t i o n s , 131, 133, 135 M i l i t a r y personnel. See Armed forces M i l o l i i , 98 M i s s i o n a r i e s , 4, 15-16, 24, 28, 32, 33, 53, 153, 193-194, 197-199, 204-205, 209 Moku. See D i s t r i c t s Molokai, I s l a n d o f , 20, 27, 42, 70, 71, 116, 117, 143 M o r t a l i t y , 32-38, 152, 158. See a l s o Deaths; Infant m o r t a l i t y ; L i f e expectation Mortgage s t a t u s , 59, 60 Mueller, Robert B . , 101-102 Myerson, Jack A . , 21 N a t i o n a l i t y , 4, 32, 43, 51-63 passim, 65, 75, 178. See a l s o B i r t h , place o f ; C i t i z e n s h i p ; Ethnic stock N a t i v i t y . See B i r t h , place of N a t u r a l i z a t i o n . See Citizenship Negroes, 120 Net migration. See Migration Niihau, I s l a n d o f , 20, 22, 27, 42, 70, 71, 116, 143 Nonwhites. See Color

Northwest Hawaiian I s l a n d s , 89, 94, 98, 104, 116, 143 Oahu, I s l a n d o f : area and d e n s i t y , 11; population before 1900, 11, 20, 28, 42, 70, 71 ; 1900-1965, 11 , 116, 117, 143, 146, 147; households and housing, 129, 148, 149; school membership, 150; r e l i g i o n , 150; labor force, 151 Occupation: i n c l u s i o n i n censuses, 13; 1866-1896, 55-62 passim, 65-66, 77; 1900-1960, 82, 93, 95, 96, 99-100, 104, 127; since 1960, 139. See a l s o G a i n f u l l y employed; Labor force Out-migration. See Migration Outlying i s l a n d s , 89, 94, 98, 104, 116, 143 P a c i f i c Commercial Advert i s e r , 21, 24 Paia, 118 Palmyra I s l a n d s , 94, 116 Part Hawaiians, 6, 32, 43, 51, 74, 113, 114, 120, 147 Passenger movement, 133, 176, 177-179, 184-187 Pearl C i t y , 105 Persons per household or housing u n i t , 12, 13, 32, 78, 93, 108, 124, 139, 149 Philippines, classification as foreign area, 92, 121, 148 Polynesians, 3, 38, 147. See also Hawaiians Population, c i v i l i a n , 130136 passim, 141-144, 146, 147, 191, 218, 220, 222224 Population, de f a c t o , 57, 60, 132-135 passim, 141143, 218, 223

Population, natural increase or decrease, 32. See a l s o B i r t h s ; Deaths Population, r e s i d e n t , 130-134 passim, 141-143. See a l s o Censuses, U . S . ; Estimates of population Population, total compared with c i v i l i a n population, 130, 132, 133-135, 141-144, 146, 147, 220, 224 Portuguese, 5, 75, 120, 121 , 147 Postcensal estimates, 130-151, 223, 224 Precincts and wards, 13, 55, 58, 61, 91 Public emergency workers, 95, 101,

112

Puerto Ricans, 120, 147 Pukoo, 98 Puunene, 118 Race. See Ethnic stock Race mixture, 54, 96, 97, 98-99, 104, 114, 147. See also Interracial marriage; Part Hawaii ans Real estate ownership, 13, 37, 55, 58, 61, 62, 65, 76, 158. See a l s o Tenure R e l i g i o n , 13, 54, 58, 59, 62, 65, 76, 82, 139-140, 150. See a l s o M i s s i o n a r i e s Representative d i s t r i c t s , 61, 91 Reproduction rate: g r o s s , 34, 157, 170; net 157, 170 Residence, length o f , 13, 54, 59, 84, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 103 Residence at e a r l i e r date, 13, 96, 97, 98, 103, 122, 139, 149, 180, 181, 192. See also B i r t h , place of Resident population. See Population, resident Residents absent, 132, 133, 142, 178 Richards, William, 30, 50, 197 Rodgers, C. T., 60 Rooming and boarding houses. See Group quarters 269

Rural population, 11, 105, 115 Samoans, 147 Sampling, 97, 100-101 , 105106 School attendance, e n r o l l ment, or membership: before 1900, 12, 59, 61 , 62, 66, 67-68, 78; 19001960, 12, 82, 84, 87, 89, 91, 93, 96, 103, 125; since 1960, 130, 139, 150; i n c l u s i o n i n censuses, 13 School years completed, 13, 93, 96, 103, 108, 125 Separated (as marital s t a t u s ) , 207-208, 215 Settlement of Hawaii, 3, 38, 175 Sex: population by sex before 1900, 4, 5, 12, 31, 43, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 62, 72, 73; 1900-1965, 12, 79, 84, 87, 89, 91, 93, 94, 96, 103, 108, 119, 137, 146, 206; i n c l u s i o n in censuses, 13; l i f e expectation, 172; migrants, 177, 181. See also F e r t i l i t y ; Labor f o r c e ; Marital status Sexual promiscuity, 37, 38, 158 S h i p s ' crews: Hawaiians away at sea, 39, 175, 176, 177, 182; census treatment, 60, 99, 111, 113; since 1960, 130-131, 132, 134, . 135, 142 Simpson, Alexander, 29 Simpson, George, 21 S i n g l e persons. See Marital status Smith, W. 0 . , 58 South Sea I s l a n d e r s , 63 Souza, Robert A . , 203 Spaniards, 120 S t e r i l i t y , 34, 36, 37 Stewart, C. S . , 23, 24-25, 30 Swenson, B. David, 106 270

Taeuber, Irene, 8, 34, 38, 66, 181, 203, 257 Tenure, 12, 13, 59, 62, 84, 87, 89-90, 91, 93, 96, 103, 129, 149 Thrum's Annual, 177-178, 210, 258 T o u r i s t s , 132, 133, 142, 178 Towns. See C i t i e s and towns; s p e c i f i c places Townsend, Ebenezer, J r . , 28 Townsend, H. S . , 58 Transportation to work, 13, 104 Turnbul1, John, 31 Tyerman, D a n i e l , 22, 24, 29, 32 Umi 1 s census, 15 Unemployment, 13, 91, 95, 101, 127, 140, 151 U. S. Bureau of the Census, 80-83, 130-137 passim, 141, 163, 168, 172,' 224, 260-261. See also Censuses, U. S . , operations U. S. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , 140 U. S. Census O f f i c e , 80, 84-86 U. S. Commissioner of Labor, 177, 179, 185 U. S. House of Representatives Committee on Immigration and N a t u r a l i z a t i o n , 179, 190 U. S. Office of Business Economics, 130, 132, 134-135, 141 U. S. Office of Education, 180181 U. S. Office of S t a t i s t i c a l Standards, 80 U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii, 6 - 7 , 139, 150 Unrelated i n d i v i d u a l s , 13, 96, 99, 104, 124 Urban population, 11, 104-105, 107, 115. See also Cities and towns Vancouver, George, 22, 30 Venereal disease, 34, 36, 37, 159

Veteran s t a t u s , 13, 103-104 V i l l a g e s . See C i t i e s and towns V i s i t o r s present, 132, 133, 142, 178 Voting r e g i s t r a t i o n , 13, 61, 62, 67-68 Wages. See Income Wahiawa: d i s t r i c t , 107, 117 town, 118 W a i k i k i , 30 Wailuku: d i s t r i c t , 71, 117; town, 104, 107, 118 Waimea (Kauai): town, 30; d i s t r i c t , 71, 117 Waipahu, 105, 118 Waipio, 95 War: effect on m o r t a l i t y , 4, 30, 37, 159; on marriage and divorce, 206, 207 Wards and p r e c i n c t s , 13, 55, 58, 61, 91 Weeks worked, 93, 96, 104 Whalers, 39, 175, 177 Whites. See Color Widowed persons. See Marital status W i l l i a m s , J o e l , 101 Work, place o f , 104, 139, 140, 149 Yamamoto, George K., 203 Yamamura, Douglas S . , 203 Young, John, 31 Youngson, George, 15, 2324, 28, 42