Democratic procedures in secondary schools

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DEMOCRATIC PROCEDURES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Elizabeth Addean Kizer August

1950

UMI Number: EP46409

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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T h is project report, w ritte n under the direction o f the candidate’s adviser a n d app ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty o f the School of Ed u catio n in p a r t ia l f u lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in E ducation.

Date,

A d v is e r

(R.'2jL4/ Dean

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

II.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION TO THE P R O B L E M .................

1

The p r o b l e m .........................

2

Review of related literature

2

.............

Literature on classroom practices ........

3

Summary ....................................

7

Definitions of terms used .................

8

OBJECTIVES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION ...........

9

O b j e c t i v e s ................................

10

Relations of aims to o b j e c t i v e s ........

10

Developing physical fitness ...............

11

Applying fundamental processes to scientific and social phenomena

...................

11

Discovering Interests and aptitudes . . . .

12

Preparing for economic independence or

III.

advanced training .......................

13

Participating In diversified activities . .

13

Evolving high standards of conduct

. . . .

14

Contributing to worthy home l i f e ........

15

Evaluating the past in terms of the present

15

Understanding larger group relationships

16

.

Summary of outcomes of objectives ........

17

ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION BASED ON DEMOCRACY

18

Responsibilities in the democracy ........

18

PAGE

CHAPTER Non-democratic aspects of society ........

20

New standards of society . . . .

. . . . .

20

. . . .

22

Democracy in school administration

Teacher's part in democracy in the classroom

23

Students1 part in education for a democracy

23

Extra-curricular and democratic organizations

25

Student government .......................

26

C l u b s .................................

28

Auditorium programs

. .

Publications .............................. IV.

TEACHING PROCEDURES AND DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION Curriculum and democratic education

.

28 29 31

. . . .

31

Guidance and democratic education .........

37

Teaching techniques in securing democratic values .................................... V.

SUMMARY, TRENDS AND CONCLUSIONS Summary

.............

44

....................................

44

Recent trends Conclusions BIBLIOGRAPHY . . .

42

..............................

45

................................

46

..................................

49

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ^In contrast to the older conservative education, there has been a movement in recent years toward educa­ tion for the Democratic Way of Life.

There has been

much Interest in the rather recent development of a movement which has resulted In a reorganization of the courses of study and methods of instruction in many secondary schools. method:

Many names have been applied to this

namely, the unit method, project method, cor­

relation, integration, or the democratic activity method. Regardless of the name applied, it calls for a more in­ tricate procedure.

This involves training for independ­

ent study, for living together in harmony, for critical thinking, and for democratic behavior.

The training

for behavior differs sharply from the traditional train­ ing in which classroom discipline revolves around a sys­ tem of rewards and punishments where control is superim­ posed upon pupils through external pressures and compulsions.

r '



“I

The new philosophy of teaching discards this

practice entirely.

r-

It believes that behavior is depend­

ent upon a knowledge of right and wrong; that the pupil

2

behaves properly because such behavior is right and not because someone orders him to do so.

It removes the

police function from the classroom in the hope that it will not be needed when the pupil leaves school and takes his place in democratic society.

I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem.

To make a survey of

current literature to determine recent procedures and trends in democratic procedures in the secondary schools. It is the aim of this study to determine the values and methods used to develop the democratic way of life. In this chapter an analysis of the findings from a review of the literature, includes the following fields: (l) instructional leadership, and (2) selected classroom practices.

These studies point out their contributions

to the present study of democratic principles in education. Literature on instructional leadership.

There

have been studies of instructional leadership during the past decade.

Most of them deal with professional agencies

that aim to improve instruction. Reeder1 has outlined the following practices in

1 Reeder, W. G., Fundamentals of Public School

3

instructional leadership in terms of supervisory officers, teachers, and specialists: 1.

Teachers' meetings.

2.

Visitations and conferences.

3.

Demonstration teaching.

4.

Research.

5. Administrative provisions, transferring teachers, pairing teacher leaders and teachers * needing help 6.

Professional reading. -

7.

Supervising work of teachers.

8. Self-supervision and supervision by fellow teachers. 9. 10.

Community agencies. Bulletins.

Literature on classrdom practices.

Reisner

makes

a contribution to the concept of democratic classroom pro­ cedures as follows: *

... pupils should assume individual responsibility as evidenced by the following classroom activities: pupils participate in-free discussion, pupils offer criticisms, and make group decisions; pupils take over certain class responsibilities; and pupils plan curriculum. Classroom atmosphere exhibits an atti-

Administration.

New York:

The Macmillan Company, 1941.

2 Edward H. Reisner, "The Quality of School Exper­ iences Appropriate to a Democracy," Teachers College Record, 40:695, April,. 1939-

v

4

tude of searching for truth, as evidenced by the following: the intellectual pattern is one of truth seeking and of problem solving, the school program exhibits a definite intention of aiding children to learn how to come to conclusions on the basis of facts; pupils discuss controversial issues related to the maturity level of class; facts on both sides of issues are presented. The United States Office of Education, in its 3 Circular Number 190, gives basic principles underlying democratic classroom procedures, as follows: Good American citizens cooperate in solving problems democratically . . . A good American citizen has a* genuine respect for personality. A good American citizen accepts responsibility for straight thinking and appropriate action. A good American citizen recognizes the function of the expert and the importance of rules. A good American citizen is tolerant— tolerance grows through efforts to understand and cooperate with others. The Educational Policies Commission, in its Case 4 Book in Civic Education, gives a statement of principles

3 Julia L. Hahn, "Practicing Democracy in the School,” -Circular N o . 190, Federal Security Agency, United States Office of Education, May, 1941. 47 pp. 4 Robert Elza Cralle, A Critical Analysis of Factors Related to the Diffusion of Classroom Practices Among Schools of California. June, 1$44. PP*

5

governing democratic classroom teaching,-

as follows:

In democratic teaching: 1. good. 2.

There is cooperative action for the common The welfare of each individual is sought.

3. All take part, according to their abilities, in planning and carrying out activities. 4. The experimental method of free inquiry is used,based on faith in informed intelligence. 5. There is freedom for the study and discus­ sion of controversial subjects. 6. Responsibility in action is a condition of the enjoyment of freedom. Gesell^ offers as a basis for developing demo­ cratic classroom procedures with a school faculty, the following: . . . teacher gives attention te? discovering the uniqueness of individuality of each pupil and gives each one in the class the best possible chance to develop to capacity . . . teacher uses discipline which is tempered to the capacity of the child and tolerant of his immaturity, aiming to strengthen the child's self-control and sense of responsibility . . . school environment and procedures are planned so as to develop in the student a standard as to what is fair and just . . . teacher aims to develop . pupils to their fullest capacity rather than to meet grade standards in a given subject. A study was made of the characteristics attributed tO to the high school pupil in applying democratic principles '

Gesell, Arnold, "The Teacher-Pupil Relationship in a Democracy," School and Society, 51:193-98, February 17, 19^0 .

yj

6

in the classroom.

It reveals the following avenues of

appeal in securing pupil cooperation in educational activities: 1.

As a reasonable free-willed person.

2. As a trustworthy person responsible for his own conduct. 3- Through his love of freedom, his self-re­ liance, his pride in independence. 4. Through his sense of justice, his capabil­ ity of understanding and assisting in his own government. 5. Through his love of the novel, of a chal­ lenge, an adventure. 6. Through his responsiveness to person appeal (negatively expressed in over-importance). 7. Through consideration for his sensitiveness, self-consciousness, fear of being laughed at or criticised. 8.

Through his hobbles.

9. Through his aims, attempts to find a vocation, or interest in life occupations. 10. Through his longing to do something different and better. 11.

Through his friends and his social sense in: a.

His sense of loyalty.

b.

His desire to lead, to be with people.

c.

His willingness and desireto help people.

d.

His high idealism, his desire to be a worthy citizen.

The daily effort to live democratically within the classroom will be rewarding.

Here are a few of the

anticipated outgrowths: 1.

More consideration for others.

Pupil atti­

tudes become more wholesome as the give-and-take of so­ cial intercourse is stressed.

There is a pronounced

awareness of the power of words to injure.

Even the

inflections of the voice, one learns, contributes to a good democracy. 2.

Better class cooperation.

Group work is

assured and advances in proportion to the pupil's un­ derstanding of day-by-day democracy. 3*

Better leadership.

the leadership emerges:

A two-fold meaning of

respect for ability proved and

the need for intelligent following and continual anal­ ysis . 4.

More liberties.

Finally, our liberties will

be seen in the light of our corresponding responsibili­ ties, and always in relation to the other fellow. Without exception, democratic teaching has shifted the emphasis from teaching to that of living. Summary.

In this chapter there has been pre­

sented the findings from a review of the literature, in the following fields:

(l) instructional leadership,

and (2) selected classroom practices.

These studies

point out their contributions to the study of democratic procedures in secondary education.

II.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

American democracy.

Democracy is the concept

of individual liberty based on the understanding and the acceptance of the rights and dignity of human person­ ality, limited only by a full consideration of the gen­ eral welfare. The systematic bringing to bear on the individ­ ual student all those influences in school and out of school which will stimulate and assist him to develop to the upmost of his individual capacity, mind, body and character and apply these powers to the work of the world. The ideal of democracy has never been realized completely by any people. After all, true democ­ racy is a thing of the spirit; and unless this spirit is felt by the American people, the study of fundamental principles of democracy will be of little avail. Americans believe, however, that democracy more truly conforms to the spiritual aspirations of mankind than does any other type of organization. So long as Americans hold to this belief, they must continue to strive for the fulfillment of the democratic ideal.'

6 New York: 7

Jane Warters, High-School Personnel Work Today. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1946. 277 PP*

State of New Jersey Guide for Teaching Problems of American Democracy. Trenton, New Jersey: State Department of Public Instruction, 19^1. 7 pp.

CHAPTER II OBJECTIVES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION Through a presentation of desired traits of demo­ cratic education, as a study of the nature of democracy, and of guiding principles in conduct, consideration has been given to the outcome to democratic education.

In

the achievement of the objectives of secondary education, pupil activities which call forth responses of desired traits and attitudes are experienced.

One means of in­

tegrating school life and growth is through these aims. A study of the elements of character encouraged by act­ ivities and experiences which are practiced in a curri­ culum in achieving the educational objectives reveals, at least in part, the nature of the democratic education content of that curriculum. The members of the Commission believed firmly that there were certain imperative needs which youth had In common, needs which youth felt and educational needs which grew out of the requirements imposed by the responsibilities a democratic society makes of its citizens.1

These needs are discussed in this chapter.

10

I.

OBJECTIVES

Relations of alms of democratic education to ob­ jectives for secondary education.

The qualities listed

as desired traits of character are not something apart from the objectives of secondary education but result from the latter when they are interpreted fully.

Devel­

oping physical fitness is obviously in entire harmony with the first division of character traits, physical character, the basis for human life.

The intellectual

character enters into the ability to apply fundamental processes to scientific and social phenomena, and to the evaluation of the past in determining its contribu­ tions to the present.

The working character is involved

in and derived from discovering interests and aptitudes and preparing for advanced training or for economic in­ dependence.

The social character and the emotional

character enter into several of these spheres:

evolving

high standards of personal and group life, understanding the significance of larger group relationships, and in participating in diversified aesthetic and recreational

1 National Association of Secondary School Prin­ cipals, Planning for American Youth. Washington, D.C.: 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W., lgTPH 42 pp.

11

activities, as well as contributing to worthy home life. Attributes of character, ourselves, our personalities, are part of everything that we do.

To limit the sphere

of their development is impossible. In attaining the goals of secondary education, all curricula of the school may be expected to make the following contributions toward the development of char­ acter for a democratic society. DEVELOPING PHYSICAL FITNESS Living healthfully, by making his surroundings as wholesome as possible with regard to air, light, temp­ erature, cleanliness, food, rest, exercise, position, breathing; by surveying physical conditions and doing corrective work; by keeping free from habits of ques­ tionable physical results; by having clean thoughts and words, and good cheer; by controlling thoughts, desires, and conduct. APPLYING FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES TO SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENA This is mastering the tools of learning.

Exer­

cising care and accuracy in the use of the fundamental processes, with a growing recognition of the need for their mastery for any achievement.

Feeling pride in

using them

as tools.

Realizing that the success of any

project in

whihh one has a part depends upon the accur­

acy of the

group andthe individual.

as well as

and as accurately as possible in oral and in

Expressing oneself

written language during the formal class period and in all social situations, especially in informal conver­ sation throughout the day. DISCOVERING INTERESTS AND APTITUDES Utilizing o n e ’s daily program of required courses and those curricular and extra-curricular activities, chosen because of interest or ability for success, to find out what one likes to do and can do.

Investigat­

ing character and ability requirements of many inter­ esting occupations. maximum.

Using native capacities to the

Linking interest with native capacity to such

an extent that the joy of best effort is found in every­ day life. fort.

Each task of the day is a challenge to ef­

Being placed as nearly as the pupil may be in

right relation to ability groups and assignments so that he may realize success on as high a level as pos­ sible.

Giving the best in work, in play and in study.

Giving sincere and whole-hearted co-operation to the projects in which he. participates, making original

13

contributions whenever possible.

Working not for show

and sham, but for thorough, accurate results. PREPARING FOR ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE OR ADVANCED TRAINING Choosing courses according to one's need and pur­ poses.

Learning to do well the skills that prepare one

for useful work or to attend higher schools.

Keeping in

mind the work that he thinks he can best do; preparing for it as best he can.

Gaining an insight into moral

and social qualities of his possible vocation.

Gaining

an understanding of thrift in respect to time, money, and material, as well as energy.

Working on his own

responsibility with economic thoughtfulness and selfdirection. PARTICIPATING IN DIVERSIFIED AESTHETIC AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES Using one's leisure for worth-while hobbies, our games, or the enjoyment of nature, music, art, reading, gardening, to the enrichment of curricular and, extra­ curricular activities.

Having opportunity to take part

in many different interesting occupations that he likes to do, making him resourceful and independent of commer­ cial entertainment.

Finding joy in simple things and

14

giving joy in simple ways. EVOLVING HIGH STANDARDS OF CONDUCT IN PERSONAL AND GROUP LIFE Living honorably, helpfully, happily with school mates and teachers, with respect for law, and reverence toward God.

Regarding accuracy, honesty, thoroughness,

helpfulness, fair play as necessary in group projects. Realizing that he owes it to himself and to the group not to mislead them by careless work.

Learning to be

true to people for what they are, not what they have. Respecting other persons; their property rights. prompt and keeping his word.

Being

Having courage to stand

for better things at all times, and ehlping others to do the same.

Preferring respect rather than popularity.

Understanding and having a part in such school govern­ ment as is necessary, realizing that it is the protec­ tion of common rights.

Gaining respect for law and

order, and a sense of responsibility toward them, real­ izing that through them we attain our liberty and our freedom and our success. and responsibility.

Developing civic consciousness,

Measuring conduct and ideals by

the golden rule, the great commandment, the Beatitudes, and the affirmative answer to the question, "Am I ray brother's keeper?"

15

CONTRIBUTING TO WORTHY HOME LIFE Living appreciatively, helpfully, joyously in the home.

Learning to do things useful in the home.

home work and responsibility.

Sharing

Understanding the cost

of a home, and budgeting.

Exercising thrift in the use

of time, means, and self.

Carrying beauty and recrea­

tion into the home.

Gaining in love, honor, apprecia­

tion and respect of parents and their wishes. them confidence.

Giving

Becoming increasingly helpful and

thoughtful toward them, and toward brothers and sisters. Being thankful for home, parents, and care. sacred home relationships. and comfort of others.

Reverencing

Considering the pleasure

Being kind to the sick, the

poor, the aged, and to little children. and kind in the home and out of it.

Being generous

Being modest.

En­

joying boy and girl friendships and their mutual help­ fulness . EVALUATING THE PAST IN DETERMINING ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE PRESENT Measuring character, conduct, and contributions in the light of the standards of their time.

Using the

past for guidance in improving present conditions.

Study-

ing the work of parents and grandparents and of people

of past epochs.

Appreciating that which they have done

toward improving conditions, making the world a better place in which to live.

Using the past for guidance in

the discernment of good and evil. ing standards.

Observing the chang­

Studying the results of action; the

true and the false, the great and the little.

Being

fair and just toward others, not passing judgment upon them until the whole situation and entire conditions are known.

Appreciating the character and real worth

of people who make up a democracy. UNDERSTANDING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LARGER GROUP RELATIONSHIPS IN THE WORLD TO-DAY Co-operating with humanity.

Gaining tolerance

and sympathy for the ideas and contributions of others, through knowledge of their lives and ideals, gained from wide reading and from contacts with members of other nations.

Recognizing the natural bonds of the

great human family, universal brotherhood, and human needs, through which all men are neighbors.

Gaining

imagination and sympathy which enables one to make the higher social adjustments which progress demands. operating in constructive ways in group life.

Co­

IT

SUMMARY OF OUTCOMES OF OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION Education which develops democratic character calls forth responses in activities and experiences which exercise desired traits of character.

Good char­

acter demands the highest physical, mental, and moral development on which the individual is capable.

Good

character implies that the social obligations and re­ sponsibilities be accepted on the basis of standards and principles of the best ideals.

The ideals and

principles directing character development for a demo­ cratic society show growth.

A study of the objectives

of secondary education shows that activities and exper­ iences designed to attain these aims call for the ex­ ercise of desired traits of character to maintain the democratic way of life.

CHAPTER III ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION BASED ON DEMOCRACY

Responsibilities in the democratic way of life. The increasing emphasis upon the democratic forms of political and social structures throughout the world is bringing new opportunities to each individual.

The cur­

rent stage in the development of democratic education is considered the century for the democratic way of life. These new freedoms bring added responsibilities for their beneficial use. The democratic form of government is dependent upon the democratic way of life for each individual. Failure by members to meet their responsibilities limits the benefits that will accrue to them and to the other members of society.

Education to strengthen democracy,

then becomes education of the individual members of that socialization.

The home, the community and the school

are agencies able to furnish such education because they touch the life of the individual constantly.

When

any agency fails to meet its obligations for such educa­ tion the remaining agencies must assume the burden of the one in default.

The public school can expect to assume an increas ing responsibility for broader education as a result of the increasing complexity of modern democratic society.1 Failure to meet this responsibility to develop a better world will place the blame for continued world disorder and future chaos squarely at the door of the American Public School because of its preeminent position in the development of American Citizens. In order to attain desired democratic development the complexity of the school program necessitates wise guidance for the pupil in arranging his activities to help him to satisfy such needs as may be made conscious and worthy, and to discover possibilities of his interests and aptitudes to develop into a worthy citizen.

2

The secondary school has responsibility for two types of educative processes. of knowledges and skills.

One is the development

The other is the development

of attitudes, ideals and behavior patterns as acceptable to a democratic society. To develop the second type in a successful manner is dependent upon a recognition of the need, and under­ standing of the trends and a familiarity with the tools capable of building the program.

1 Koopman, G. Robert, Alice Miel, and Paul J.

20

Non-democratlc aspects of society.

The demo­

cratic way of life is concerned with the non-democratic social and economic aspects of highly specialized and centralized industrial society. American industrial development has enlarged the social and economic unit from family to community, na­ tional and international in size.

Interdependency re­

quires co-operation, expanded loyalties and humanistic attitudes rather than the rugged individualism of an earlier day.

The chosen point of reference or educa­

tional criterion is the extent to which democratic socialization of the individual takes place.

Special­

ization has generally improved the standard of living but has developed a class of people whose problems are more complex and difficult than those found during the early stage of America's development. New standards of society. changing from the old to the new.

Society is ever The many complexities

of modern life has produced a new responsibility upon the American Public School.

It is that of developing

Misner, Democracy in School Administration. D. Appleton-Century Company, 1943. I7I pp.

2 Ibid., p. 10. 3 rbid.., p. 2 5 -

New York:

21

the individual with attitudes and skills that will evolve into good citizenship.

One new change in our

standards is that of participation of the pupils of each school in the development of human relations, un­ derstanding, and good will toward fellowmen is becoming an important part of the school's program.

There are

four great groups of educational objectives: (1)

The objectives of human relationship.

(2)

The objective of

self-realization.

(3)

The objective of

economic efficiency.

(4)

The objective of

civic responsibility.

The role of the school is especially definite s .

in preparing for civic responsibility.

It must concern

itself with loyalty to society as a whole rather than to the political manifestations of society as revealed in any single institution.

The field of human relation­

ship is shared by the school, the home, and the rest of the environment.

.Education in the field of self-real­

ization or personal development is coming to be more and more a duty of the s.chools although much of this responsibility necessarily Inheres in the home and the church.

Under modern economic and industrial condi­

tions, preparation for economic efficiency is largely a function of the-school.

22

DEMOCRACY IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION The present emphasis on the need for more demo­ cracy In our public school program needs in no way to be taken as a reflection upon its fundamental democratic nature and development.

Democratizing school adminis­

tration is an outgrowth of earlier democratic develop­ ment in the American It Is

Public Schools.

It is not

new.

agreed that it must not only be preached but

practiced. A democratic administrator is quick to:

4

1.

Realize the potential powers of fifty brains.

2.

Knows how to utilize that power.

3.

Knows how to delegate duties.

4.

Frees himself from routine details to have

more time for more supervision. 5.

Recognizes and praises an idea that comes

from someone else. 6.

Maintains the position of friendly, helpful

adviser. 7.

Maintains a respect as a fair and just in­

dividual .

4 Ibid., -p. 15.

8.

Consciously practices democratic techniques.

Even though democracy in administation has made great strides in the last few years, there remains much arm-chair philosophy in this field. TEACHER'S PART IN DEMOCRACY IN THE CLASSROOM Reachers who themselves are socialized and imbued with the spirit of democratic cooperation will treat the 5 learner with sympathy, patiOnce and real understanding. Recent writings of authorities agree that the teachers will be ready to give learners opportunities to cooper­ ate democratically and will endeavor to provide social­ izing experiences for the learner. STUDENTS' PART IN EDUCATION FOR A DEMOCRACY The acceptance of democratic socialization as the unitary objective of education in an American Dem­ ocracy places upon the faculty the responsibility for providing socializing activities and the acceptance of responsibilities by their students.

The successful

operation of any educational program demands a high level of cooperative activities on the part of all the indiv-

5 Ibid., p. 122.

24

iduals who are directly or indirectly involved.

Many

authorities agree that it is extremely worth while to give girls and boys as well as teachers maximum oppor­ tunities to participate in planning, execution and evaluation of curriculum activities.

Children learn

how to live richly in a democratic society only by prac­ ticing such living.

They learn to cooperate only by

engaging in enough realistic activities to teach them to cooperate. PARENT-SCHOOL RELATIONS Reavis

6 expresses the sound philosophy underlying

the new trend for improved parent-school relations when he says: Parents can serve the schools best in four ways: (1) Acquire true understandings. (2) Assist in solving problems which retard the school. (3) Take responsibility for out of school education. (4) Consider school problems from fundamental principles rather than personal experiences and personalities.

f\

Reavis, William C., "How Parents Can Best Serve the Schools," The Elementary School Journal, 41:497-506, !940. ■

25

Baruch

gives parent contacts as follows:

. . . Group discussion meetings are held with parents of pupils in the class . . . Parents ob­ serve classroom work . . . Individual conferences with parents are held . . . Parents share concrete school experiences with teacher and children . . . Parents see results of pupils’ work at open house . . . Fathers tell children about their jobs . . . Mothers assist with lunch supervision . . . Child' ren's special problems are discussed . . . Family background of child is discussed . . .

EXTRA-CURRICULAR AND DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS With adequate supervision, efficient direction, and good planning, there are many opportunities for pupil development in social relationships. The principal objective of the extracurriculum is individual development.

Extracurricular activities

that parallel the desirable out-fo-school activities will aid such development.

This means that care in adminis­

tration of extra-curricular activities in order to pre­ vent the tendency of many students to participate exc essively. The principal divisions of extra-curricula to be discussed in this chapter are:

•7

Dorothy W. Baruch, "Parents and Teachers Work Together," National Education Association Journal, 30:

256-60, 1941.

26

(1)

Student government.

(2)

Service and honorary organizations.

(3)

Auditorium programs.

w

Clubs.

(5)

Publications.

(6)

Athletics.

-

The non-classroom program provides for the most efficient democratic organization.

Each student should

have several opportunities to serve in positions of responsibility during the year. Election of officers furnishes an opportunity for practice in the skills of citizenship.

It provides

definite training in all phases of parliamentary pro­ cedure and other governmental activity and is facil­ itated by the committee type of organization.

It pro­

vides for civic maturity. Student government♦

It is quite possible to

provide student organizations to regulate extracurricular activities that carry on necessary conduct of a demo­ cratic organization.

Student participation in school

control is the medium par excellence for building and fostering the mores so essential to a happy school life. To develop respect for justice, for the rights of prop­ erty, for the sanctity of promises, and for willing

27

obedience to constituted authorities is the earnest business of the student council, and these are mores which are readily transferred to adult life.

8

Parti­

cipation of a maximum number of students in the con­ trol of student affairs is valuable citizenship train­ ing.

Organizations that parallel the adult government

forms provide the best opportunities for education in current, natural and vital settings.

Qualities such

as cooperation, responsibility, leadership, loyalty, self-direction, and respect for law and order are re­ sults to be expected from pupil participation in school government. Pretwell

9

suggests principles to guide the ini­

tiation, promotion, and organization of governmental forms such as the student council.

His requisites

include: (1) Enthusiastic faculty and administration interests, support, and supervision. (2) tion.

School-wide.demand and gradual introduc­

(3) Well defined duties, functions, and re­ sponsibilities.

Q ° Galen Jones, Extra-Curricular Activities in Relation to the Curriculum. New York City: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935* P- 66. 9 Pretwell, Elbert K., Extra-Curricular Activities in the Secondary Schools. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931* pp. 12-18.

28

(4)

Comparatively simple organization.

(5)

Maximum student participation.

Clubs.

The pursuit of the common purpose or

interest in the club activity offers practice in cooper­ ation and tolerance, growth in the capacity for social adjustment, and experience in self-direction and self­ decision.

Clubs are associated both with the curric­

ulum and extracurriculum.

The democratic nature of the

clubs is preserved by the provision that admission to the clubs is not dependent upon election by the club members.

The policy of non-compulsion, consistent with

democratic principles, makes the club open to those of like interest. Auditorium programs.

The potentialities in

assemblies for secondary students are realized through careful program planning and pupil participation.

The

education of the audience rather than the artist is most Important.

These programs usually represent the

school and its work by correlating the interests of the school and community and by recognizing worthy achieve­ ment.

Authorities agree that the principles to guide

the presentation of auditorium programs include: (l)

Provision of programs having both educa­

tional and inspirational merit.

29

(2)

Representation of possible phases of the

school work. (3

Variation in methods,of presentation.

(4

Formulation of standards for all programs.

(5

Provision for maximum pupil participation.

(6

Emphasis upon indirect methods for moral

education (7

Provision of scheduled school time for

auditorium programs. Publications.

The rapid increase in the amount

and importance of journalistic enterprises is one of 10 the phenomenal developments of modern life. The reg­ ular publication is often used as an administrative device.

The handbook is of maximum value to the new

members of the student body, particularly to those entering the secondary school for the first time.

It

serves to speed the transition elementary to the sec­ ondary school. The school newspaper is a project to be devel­ oped through cooperative efforts of the school's print shop and English departments.

It is comparable to the

community influence of the public newspaper and serves

1(^ Jones, op. cit., p. 60.

30

to stabilize and unify the democratic organization of the school.

In addition to the school-wide values

that include fostering school spirit, encouraging de­ sirable enterprises and activities, giving opportunity for self-expression, injecting the element of timeli­ ness and molding school opinions, the paper furnishes opportunities for development of initiative, respon­ sibility, accuracy, tact, and cooperation by the mem­ bers of the publishing staff. There are numerous extra-curricular organiza­ tions that assist in developing the democratic way of life in the secondary school.

CHAPTER IV

TEACHING PROCEDURES AND DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION This chapter considers democratic procedures that contribute to the development of democratic values and objectives of secondary education.

They are discussed

from the standpoint of curriculum, guidance and teach­ ing techniques. CURRICULUM AND DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION The regular curriculum in American secondary schools is, as McClelland1 observes, an organized series of courses of study consisting primarily of subject mat­ ter which, it is presumed, will achieve the outcomes sought by the school, adapted to classroom procedures and approved by school authorities.

The definition of

a curricular offering as used in this study further specifies that it is to be placed on the regular sched­ ule and receive credit toward graduation.

^ Clark R. McClelland, "Theories and Practices Relative to the Administration of Extra-Curricular Act­ ivities In Publid Schools with Some Suggestions for Im­ provement," unpublished Doctor's dissertation, New York University, 1932, p. 11.

32

We are overwhelmed with the pressures‘of the demands of academic achievement.

Our curriculum during

the past few years has been expanded to include new sub­ jects, but few have been removed.

Therefore, we feel

that we cannot possibly accept another responsibility; more is demanded now than we are able to do success­ fully.

However, a program of socialization does not

mean the addition of a new course to our over-burdened curriculum.

Socialization demands opportunities for

growth in attitudes and abilities of democratic living. The new education is here.

The new idea is tran­

sition from a narrow informational curriculum to one rich in functional knowledge and one filled with prac­ tical civic and social content.

"Education is life.

The schools must create situations and conditions in which life activities can be enriched and improved."

2

The enrichment and improvement of life activities comes about through a program made up of broad units of work based upon activities closely related to the child's life. Consequently, the work is of interest to the child, and it is entirely within his understanding. 2

His interests

John J. De Boer, "Integration a Return to First Principles," School and Society, 43:246-53, February 22, 1936.

33

thus assured, most of the necessary motivation has been accomplished.

This type of work is well described by

Gustin and Hayes

3 •.

Informal activity work is that type of work which provides the child with varied, interesting, and worthwhile activities, by participating in which he grows In the acquisition of certain de­ sirable learnings. By desirable learnings are meant those knowledges, skills, abilities, and appreciations that will enable him to adjust himself to present and future environments. These learnings are social, emotional, physical, as well as mental. The new education gets away from the passive learning of factual materials— just for their own sake— without any any apparent need, as far as the child is concerned, In his present life.

Such factual subject

matter has been referred to as "academic s a w d u s t . T h e value of education Is in its effect upon the learner.

A

jumble of facts is of no value unless, while acquiring these, the student has also increased in his ability to see causal relationships and to solve problems by intel­ ligent reasoning; unless he discovers the real meaning of cooperation and learns to share the responsibilities of his social group; unless he develops initiative and

3

Margaret Gustin and Margaret L. Hayes, Activities in the Public Schools. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Uni­ versity of North Carolina Press, 193 P* 19* ^ »

^ Goodwin Watson, "A New Secondary School," Prog­ ressive Education, 8 :303-310* April, 1931*

34 the power of self-direction; and unless he learns to work to the best of his ability. Subject, matter which the pupil acquires in little parcels of knowledge, not necessarily related to his current interests and surround­ ings, is apt to be retained in suspension only, like particles of earth in muddy water that do not bepome assimilated and may be separated again.5 In the new education, facts are learned, of course, but they are learned because they are definitely needed for the solution of a problem.

This problem has not been

dogmatically handed down from above by the teacher or a curriculum committee.

The child has had a voice in the

selection of the problem.

Knowledge that is acquired to

be used as a basis for the forming of opinions in connec­ tion with the solution of a problem is likely to be ab­ sorbed by the intellect and become a part of it. When things are thus sought and used because life situations inherently call for them, they are better learned both because they are person­ ally desired and because they are more intelli­ gently thought through and used. Those are Ideal conditions for study and learning. In case of misunderstanding, and it is feared that the "all-powerful" subject matter Is being neglected, it should be stated that, "We expect to get more subject 5 Henry G. Gellen,."Art and Progressive Education," Chicago School Journal, 19:119-^23, January, 1938. £ William Heard Kilpatrick, Remaking the Curriculum

35

matter, better thoroughness and organization, and be­ sides to build better minds, richer and finer interests and finer personality adjustments, and better moral character. Another outstanding characteristic of the new curriculum is the primacy given the child.

First of all,

the child is being taught, rather than the subjects making up the curriculum. The new curriculum must then put first things first. The child must for us come before the subject matter, as such. This is the everlasting and final condemnation of the old curriculum. It put subject matter first and it bent— or, if need be, broke— the child to fit that. The curriculum can best be built around the child's present life as in contrast to that of the con­ ventional school.

He can have a part in planning it,

thus being assured that it will be significant, compre­ hensible, and important in the mind of the pupil.

He

must be given a responsible part in carrying on the work, or the various activities in the classroom.

If he is a

citizen of his classroom and must be given the opportun­ ity to share in the work and play of the group.

He will

work for the success of the group and feel obligated to

New York:

Newson and Company, 1936, p. 6 8 .

7 Kilpatrick, oj>. cit♦, p. 60. 8 Ibid., p. 31-

£36 accept certain responsibilities. The Postwar Education Commission has worked out improvement in our curriculum by defining the "Imperative Needs .of American Youth," as previously discussed in this project.

The commission believes that they grew

out of the requirements imposed by the responsibilities a democratic society makes of its citizens. The Commission set the learnings in the unified courses at present consists of learning experiences which everyone needs to have, regardless of what occupation he follows or where he happens to live.

These courses

are designed to meet three of the "Imperative Needs of Youth."9 1. Their need to grow in understanding and in competent performance of their obligations as members of the community, state, and nation. 2. Their need to grow in the skills, knowl­ edge of social and ethical principles involved in their relations with other people, particu­ larly in family life. 3* Their need to grow In the understanding of democratic principles, in their application of the scientific method, and in their acceptance of the values basic to our civilization. The general purposes of the courses are planned in ad­ vance but the pupils also assist in planning the details

9

National Association of Secondary Principals, °P* clt., p. 44.

37

of the course. Pleased with the initial success of the unified courses and with the other experimental work going for­ ward in other areas, the school staff made an additional recommendation— that the curriculum of the secondary schools he built around four major areas. The curriculum is divided into these four major areas: 1. ,2.

Personal interests— grades 7

8 and 9*

>

Individual interests— grades 10 through 14.

3.

Vocational preparation— grades 10 through 14.

4.

Common learnings— grades 7 through 14.

5.

Health and physical fitness— grades 7 through 14.

GUIDANCE AND DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION "If, then, the youth were to grow Into citizens capable of furthering democracy, it must be by means of an education suited to a Democracy."10

The academic

subjects were not directed toward developing an under­ standing of, and a loyalty to, democracy.

The greatest

lack, however, seemed to be in the social area.

Assuming

10 Athur D. Hollingshead, Guidance in Democratic Living. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1941, p. vii.

that democracy is a way of life, we are unable to find, save in a few classrooms, any opportunities of living democratically.

According to authorities most schools

are governed by authority.

Immediately two questions

arise: 1;

Must this be so?

2.

Can we not in this country develop a program

of education that is “suited to a democracy?" We must develop a program of socialization.

Ed-,

ucation for®a democracy can never be formalized and still be effective.

As democracy advances, so must education.

Growth in the ways of democratic living in this country must always be supported by growth in,our programs of education. If we define the term group as a collective noun meaning "individuals planning and working together to­ ward the realization of common goals," then guidance has a twofold responsibility, that of the group and guidance of the individual members.

In respect to the

group, guidance is primarily interested in utilizing and creating activities that afford opportunities for cooperative planning and working toward the achievement of common purposes.

Guidance is concerned with the

enlarging of group purposes and interests, improving

39

ways of group thinking and acting, developing group standards, and educating group opinion to support the same.

Guidance, in respect to the individual, is in­

terested in developing a feeling of membership in the group, a feeling of individuality, a feeling of secur­ ity and adequacy, an understanding of group welfare, a sense of personal responsibility, self-control in terms of the best interests of the group, and the at.titudes and abilities of cooperating successfully with others.

The main responsibility of guidance in the

secondary school is to promote growth in the attitudes and abilities of democratic living. Problem solving in democratic living consists of four distinct steps: 1.

Defining the problem.

2.

Planning a solution.

3.

Carrying out the solution in action.

4.

Evaluating the results in terms of group

welfare. Planning a solution, if it is to be efficient, should serve to focus the thinking of the members upon the problem and to carry it on in a problem solving direction, as follows: 1. situation.

Clear and concise definition of the problem

40

2.

Analysis of the Situation into:

(l) condi­

tions that are wrong and why, and (2) conditions that are right and why. 3.

Statement of how the situation should be—

a statement of objectives. 4.

Consideration of possible solutions.

5*

Decision on a tentative solution.

There are occasions when the problem may be solved by drawing upon experience.

Guidance of group action

gives real opportunities for growth.

In all situations

in which the pupils have planned a solution there is a constant danger of the teacher assuming too much re­ sponsibility, thereby bringing the pupils to be respon­ sible to her rather than to the group.

Dominance offers

an’ easy way out of a difficult situation. quires patience and tolerance.

Guidance re­

It Is only natural that

the group will make mistakes: but these mistakes may be used as a means of growth.

This plan shifts the respon­

sibility from meeting the demands of group welfare. Growth rejects any program that has a tendency to crystallize Into habits which bind the individual. Growth demands that experiences in problem-solving be evaluated in order that: 1.

Judgments be made as to the degree to which

the objectives have been attained.

41

2.

Reasons for failure and lack of success may

be remedied. 3.

Meanings be deducted that will serve as a

basis for future development. If the principle of socialization of school problems is to be consistent, they must be solved through the cooperative efforts of all the pupils.

The principal

as well as the teachers must employ the same methods of guidance.

There must be provided the means for all

pupils to share in the planning, to participate in the execution of the plans, and to join in the evaluation of the results. Authorities agree that a guidance program should seek to realize the following purposes: 1.

To give direction and continuity to group

development. 2.

To facilitate cooperative thinking and act­

ing in solving group problems. 3.

To develop an understanding of group pHans and

their corresponding responsibilities. 4.

To develop a group opinion which will support

group projects and standards. 5.

To evaluate group enterprises in terms of

group and individual welfare.

42

The statement of Webster still remains a chal­ lenge:

"If, then, the youth were to grow into citizens

capable of furthering democracy, it must be by means of an education suited to a democracy."

Democracy, as a

dynamic society, requires a dynamic program of education.

TEACHING TECHNIQUES IN SECURING DEMOCRATIC VALUES In a democratic activity curriculum, authorities list the following principles: I.

Clear, desirable, and reasonable objectives.

2*

Committee responsibility.

3.

Educational and inspirational merit.

4.

Appropriate and timely material.

5 . Emphasis upon current events. 6.

Elimination of work that is being done else­

where in the curriculum. 7.

Brief reviews of previous work.

8.

Participation by all members.

9 . Member rather than sponsor activity. 10. Material included from members, sponsors, and administrators. II. Pleasing variety in both methods and materials. 12. Length of program to fit time allotted.

13.

Efficient handling of business and parlia­

mentary matters. 14.

Prevalence of a free and informal spirit.

15.

Appropriate recognition for meritorious

16.

Discussions and problem situations.

17.

Sincere active effort toward achievement.

18.

Measurement of success and progress.

19.

Development of intelligent generalizations

.work.

and applications.

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, TRENDS AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this final chapter is two-fold: first, the significant findings of the survey are brought together and summarized, and second, trends and conclusions are drawn which are based upon the findings of the study. SUMMARY A study of the literature of democratic proced­ ures in the secondary schools, provides data which are significant in the solution of the problem for study In this survey.

These findings can be used as the

basis for very definite conclusions. In summarizing, the problem proposed for solution Is restated below. The purpose of the study.

The purpose of this

study is to determine to what extent democratic proced­ ures are used in the secondary school.

It is the aim

of this study to determine the values and methods used to develop the democratic way of life. Provisions of democratic procedures in secondary school..

Authorities agree that the daily effort to

45 live democratically within the classroom will be re­ warding. 1.

Here are a few outgrowths: More consideration for others.

Pupil at­

titudes become more wholesome as the give and take of social intercourse is stressed.

There is a pronounced

awareness of the power of words to injure.

Even the

inflections of the voice, one learns, can contribute to a democracy. 2.

Better class cooperation.

Group work is

assured and advances in proportion to the pupil's un­ derstanding of day-by-day democracy. 3.

Leadership.

leadership emerges:

A two-fold meaning of the

respect for ability proved and

the need for intelligent following and continual anal­ ysis . 4.

Liberties.

Finally, our liberties will be

seen in the light of or corresponding responsibilities— and always in relation to the other fellow. RECENT TRENDS Summary of recent trends♦

It is an accepted

fact that there is a lag between theory and practice in democratic procedures in our secondary education. of the recent trends may be summarized as follows:

Some

46

1.

A decreasing confidence in the use of formal

rules, courses and formal materials, and a,n increasing confidence in the utilization of opportunities that af­ ford actual practice in natural situations. 2.

A decreasing emphasis upon personal goodness

as a sole aim and an increasing emphasis upon social responsibility and social responsibleness. 3«

A decreasing emphasis upon particularized

and separate elements in a pupil's life and an increas­ ing emphasis upon more or less complete all-roundness. 4.

A decreasing emphasis upon the objective of

a preparation for future life and an increasing emphasis upon real and vital education for the pupil's present life. 5.

In general, a decreasing emphasis upon ab­

stract theory and an increasing emphasis upon concrete practice. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions based on the study.

The above sum­

mary of the findings in this survey, and investigation of current literature, suggests a number of conclusions. The following conclusions seem warranted from the study: 1.

The many courses in the secondary schools

47

are becoming more and more democratic. ing more functional.

They are becom­

This is being achieved by applying

knowledge to everyday things and everyday affairs. 2.

Democratic education in American secondary

schools is not its obsolescence, but rather its vigor, quantity, and variety. 3.

It is the most effective basis for pupil

development and is not merely the mastery of factual textbook materials, but the opportunity of learning by doing. 4.

There are many experts in all communities

who are a great aid to socializing education. 5-

Pupils like delegated responsibilities to

think for themselves and develop more readily, as well as assume the responsibility of the well-being of their fellows. 6.

Pupils will be better citizens if they work

cooperatively in school. 7.

Helping students in the secondary schools to

evaluate their own progress is too recent a procedure to gain an accurate estimate of its achievement. 8.

There is a general lag between theory and

practice in democratic procedures in the secondary schools.

48

9.

Without exception, democratic teaching has

shifted the emphasis from teaching to living. In planning a democratic educational program, it is necessary to consider democracy in its two aspects: (l) its goals, its ends, and the ideals for which those who seek its realization strive, and (2) its tools— the means and the practices which are used in that striving. Whitman, in one of his poems, gives an excellent *

expression of the democratic way of life: I will make the most splendid race the sun ever shone upon, I will make divine, magnetic lands With the love of comrades, With the life-long love of comrades. I will plant companionship thick as trees.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

B IB L IO G R A P H Y

A.

BOOKS

Amidon, Beulah, Democracy's Challenge to Education. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 194I5T 2b 3 pp. Brooks, Eugene C., Education for Democracy. New York: Rand McNally and Company, 1919^ 250 pp. Beery, John R . , Current Conceptions of Democracy. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1943* 101 PP» Campbell, William Giles, A Porm Book for Thesis Writing. San Francisco: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1939* 145 pp. Cralle, Robert Elza, A Critical Analysis of Factors Re­ lated to the Diffusion of Classroom Practices Among Schools of California. June, 1944. 30 pp. De Lima, Agnes, Democracy1s High School. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1941. 90 pp. Fretwell, Galen, Extra-Curricular Activities in Relation to the Curriculum. New York: Teachers College, -Columbia University, 1935* 66 pp. Gellen, Henry G., "Art and Progressive Education," Chicago School Journal, 19:119-123* January, 1938* Gesell, Arnold, "The Teacher-Pupil Relationship in a Democracy," School and Society, 51:193-98* February IT, 1940.

51

Gustin, Margaret, and Margaret L. Hayes, Activities in the Public Schools, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of North Carolina Press, 1931*. 19 PP. Hollingshead, Arthur D . , Guidance in Democratic Living. New York; D. Appleton-Century Company, 1941. Jones, Galen, Extra-Curricular Activities in Relation to the Curriculum. New York: Teachers College, Colum­ bia,“ 1^35^ 55” pp. Kilpatrick, William Heard, Remaking the Curriculum. York: Newson and Company, 193P.

New

Knott, Widnell Dimsdale, The Influence of Tax-Leeway on Educational Adaptability. Koopman, G. Robert, Alice Miel, and Paul J. Misner, Democracy in School Adminlstration. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1943* 171 PPMort, Paul, and Francis G. Cornell, A Guide for Self Appraisal of School Systems. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers college, Columbia University, 1937. Reeder, W. G., Fundamentals of Public School Administra­ tion, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941• Reisner, Edward H., "The Quality of School Experiences Appropriate to a Democracy," Teachers College Record, 40:695, April, 1939Schneideman, Rose, Democratic Education in Practice. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945. 492 pp. Watson, Goodwin, "A New Secondary School," Progressive Education, 8:303-310, April', 1931.

52

Warters, Jane, High-School Personnel Work Today. New York: McGraw-Hill Series in Education, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1946. 277 PP* B.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

Baruch, Dorothy W . , "Parents and Teachers Work Together," National Education Association Journal, 30:259-60, 1941. Bishop, L. K., "Education for Democracy," Texas Outline, 30:21-22, March, 1946. Brickman, B . , "Relation Between Indoctrination and the Teaching of Democracy," Social Studies, 35:248-52, October, 1944. Carey, M. E . , "Leland Stowe Makes an Appeal to American Education," Educational Administration and Super­ vision, 33:88-92, February, 1947Davis, W. R . , "Education for Democracy in Action," Texas Outline, 28:12, September, 1944. Corkery, F. E., "Can American Democracy Survive?" Christian Education, 29:157-63, March, 1946. Edison, C., "Effect of Education on Democracy," National Education Association Journal, 34:17* January, 1945* Field, M . , "Meaning of Freedom," Educational Outline, 20:29-34, November, 1945Gaffney, M. P., "Curriculum Planning for Postwar Educa­ tion," School Review, 53:212-217, April, 1945-

53

Garrison, H. A., "Classroom a Miniature Democracy," Nations. Schools, 39:42-43, January, 1947* Gesell, Arnold, "The Teacher-Pupil Relationship in a Democracy," School and Society, 51:193-98, February 17, 1940. Hubbard, F. W . , "Ways of Organizing to Secure Democracy in Administration," School Executive, 65:70-71* December, 1945* Kefauver, G. N . , "Education for Tomorrow: The Democratic Way of Life," Tii&es Educational Supervisor, 1522: 316, July 1, 1944. McDonald, Mrs. Annie Laurie, "What a Classroom Teacher Thinks of Democracy in School Administration," School Executive. Musselman, D., "Semester's Project in Community Citizen­ ship," Social Education, 8:363-64, December, 1944. McCain, H. D., "Democracy: Two Important Principles in the Grayside Schools," 19:356-57, Clearing House, February, 1945* Penhole, R. R., "Democracy Must Be Inherent in School Organization," American School Board Journal, 109: 15-16, November, 1944. Plewe, L. B., "Teaching the Spirit of Democracy," Clearing House, 19:285-88, January, 1945. Price, E. E., "Democratic Living: A School Experience," Social Education, 9:60-62, February, 1945* Reavis, William C., "How Parents Can Best Serve the Schools," The Elementary School Journal, 41:497-506, 1940.

54

Reisner, Edward H., "The Quality of School Experiences Appropriate to a Democracy," Teachers College Record, 40:695, April, 1935" Robbins, C. J., "Democratic Character Education Through Students Social Experience," Social Education, 10: 73-74, February, 1946. Rogers, Virgil M . , "How Does Democracy in School Admin­ istration Work?" School Executive, December Sexson, John, "Why is Democracy in Administration De­ sirable?" School Executive Schroeder, E. G., "Essentials of Democratic Living and Learning," Minnesota Journal Education, 27:308-309, March, 1947* Spiegler, C. G., "It's the Democratic Way," Parents Magazine, 22:26-27, March, 1947. Thomas, H. P., "Administration: Agency for Democracy," Education Administration and Supervision, 26:125132, February, 1940. Teller, J. D., "Are American Schools Democratic?" School and Society, 33:683-88, May 31, 1941. Wrightstone, J. W . , "Appraisal of Experimental in Selected Public Schools," Teachers College Record, 1936,, p. 194.

U eriversity o f Southern C alifornia