Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration 9780300158182

While it may be difficult to achieve and maintain stable democratic governments in countries with deep religious, ideolo

214 87 17MB

English Pages [258] Year 2022

Report DMCA / Copyright


Polecaj historie

Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration

Citation preview

Democracy in Plural Societies

Democracy in Plural Societies A COMPARATIVE EXPLORATION

A rend Lijphart



Copyright© 1977 by Yale University. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in the United States of America

Libra~r of Congress

Cataloging in Publication Data

Lijphart, Arend. Democracy in plural societies. Includes index. 1. Democracy.


Pluralism (Social sciences)

3· Underdeveloped areas-Politics and government. 4· Comparative government. I. Title. JC42 I.L54

32 1.8

ISBN 978-0-300-02494-4



To Yamile and Carlos Andres

Contents Acknowledgments 1. Plural Societies and Democratic Regimes A Challenge to Democratic Pessimists ~~~m

Plural Societies and Democracy in the First World Separation of Powers and Overlapping Memberships Plural Societies and Party Systems Deviant Cases Plural Societies and Democracy in the Third World Overdrawn Contrasts between the First and Third Worlds 2. Consociational Democracy Grand Coalition Varieties of Grand Coalitions Mutual Veto Proportionality Segmental Autonomy and Federalism Secession and Partition Disadvantages of Consociational Democracy 3· Favorable Conditions for Consociational Democracy The Balance of Power Multiparty Systems Size and Consociational Democracy The Structure of Cleavages Crosscutting Cleavages Overarching Loyalties Representative Party Systems Segmental Isolation and Federalism Traditions of Elite Accommodation 4· Consociational Elements in Nonconsociational Democracies A Typology of Democratic Regimes vii

ix 1


3 6 8 12

14 16 21

25 25 31

36 38 41

44 47 53 55 61


71 75 81

83 87 99



Centripetal Democracies Centrifugal Democracies Semiconsociational Democracy: Canada Semiconsociational Democracy: Israel The Limits of Consodationalism: Northern Ireland !l· Consociational Democracy in the Third World The Lewis Model Consociational Democracy in Lebanon, 1943-1975 Consociational Democracy in Malaysia, 1955-1969 Lebanon and Malaysia: Favorable and Unfavorable Conditions Consociational Failure in Cyprus, 1960-1963 Democratic Failure in Nigeria, 1957-1966 Third World Conditions: A General Appraisal Ambivalent Fa