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Deciphering organic foods : a comprehensive guide to organic food production, consumption, and promotion
 9781536105179, 1536105171

Table of contents :
Content: Preface --
Chapter 1 : Consumer awareness and motivation for organic food consumption --
Chapter 2 : Pricing disparities --
Chapter 3 : Consumer decision-making process for organic food --
Chapter 4 : Promotional strategies for organic food marketing --
Chapter 5 : Selling organic foods through conventional retail stores --
Chapter 6 : Cracking the code of organic food labels --
Chapter 7 : Catching and keeping consumers' attention --
Chapter 8 : Introduction to global markets and marketing --
Chapter 9 : U. S. organic production and marketing --
Chapter 10 : Organic pet food - is it worth it? --
About the editors --
Index.

Citation preview

GREEN RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENTS, AND PROGRAMS

DECIPHERING ORGANIC FOODS A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION, AND PROMOTION

No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.

GREEN RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENTS, AND PROGRAMS Additional books in this series can be found on Nova’s website under the Series tab.

Additional e-books in this series can be found on Nova’s website under the eBook tab.

GREEN RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENTS, AND PROGRAMS

DECIPHERING ORGANIC FOODS A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION, AND PROMOTION IOANNIS KAREKLAS AND

DARREL D. MUEHLING EDITORS

New York

Copyright © 2017 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. We have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to make it easy for you to obtain permissions to reuse content from this publication. Simply navigate to this publication’s page on Nova’s website and locate the “Get Permission” button below the title description. This button is linked directly to the title’s permission page on copyright.com. Alternatively, you can visit copyright.com and search by title, ISBN, or ISSN. For further questions about using the service on copyright.com, please contact: Copyright Clearance Center Phone: +1-(978) 750-8400 Fax: +1-(978) 750-4470 E-mail: [email protected].

NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. Additional color graphics may be available in the e-book version of this book.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ISBN:  (eBook)

Library of Congress Control Number: 2016958254

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. † New York

CONTENTS Preface Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

vii Consumer Awareness and Motivation for Organic Food Consumption: Exploring the Environmental and Health Considerations Surrounding the Production of Organic Food; Understanding Perspectives on Organic Products from the Consumer, Producer and Retailer Mark R. Mulder and Richie L. Liu

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Pricing Disparities: When Is It Worth Paying a Price Premium for Organic versus Conventional Food? Kim Sheehan and Charles Deitz

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Consumer Decision-Making Process for Organic Food Jyoti Rana

53

Chapter 4

Promotional Strategies for Organic Food Marketing Hayk Khachatryan, Alicia L. Rihn, Chengyan Yue and Benjamin Campbell

Chapter 5

Selling Organic Foods through Conventional Retail Stores Shahidul Islam and Varghese Manaloor

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105

vi Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Contents Cracking the Code of Organic Food Labels – Consumer Confusion about Label Claims and Practitioner Guidelines Jeffrey R. Carlson and Bill Bergman

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Catching and Keeping Consumers’ Attention: Incorporating Eye Tracking into Organic Marketing Research Hayk Khachatryan, Alicia L. Rihn, Ben Campbell and Chengyan Yue

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Introduction to Global Markets and Marketing of Organic Food Susanne Padel

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Chapter 9

U.S. Organic Production and Marketing Catherine Greene

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Chapter 10

Organic Pet Food – Is It Worth It? Jennifer C. Kareklas

225

About the Editors

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Index

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PREFACE When one considers the term “organic,” a number of images and/or reference points come to mind. For example, “organic” is often thought of as a label, a seal, a standard, a regulation, a requirement, a farming practice, a production process, an operation, a market, a type of food, meat, or good, a chemical composition of foodstuffs, a nutritional quality, a safe and healthy alternative, and/or a contributor to a clean and healthy environment. For some, it is considered a fad, a trend, or a marketing ploy. For others, it describes a choice, a decision factor, a cause, a lifestyle, or perhaps, even a principle that guides our everyday lives. No matter how it is perceived, there is little question that organic is big business. Consider the following:1       

In 2015, American consumers spent more than $43 billion on organic products. Consumer demand has grown by double-digit margins nearly every year since the 1990s. In 2015 alone, organic food sales grew 10.9% (compared to 3.3% growth for the overall food market). From 2011-2015, organic fruits and vegetables sales have doubled. 13% of all fruit and vegetable sales are now organic. The average U.S. household spends $323 annually on organic produce alone. Organic is the fastest growing sector of the U.S. food industry, and is one of the fastest growing segments of U.S. agriculture.

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  

 

Growth in organic acreages and farming practices is strong (a recent survey indicated that more than 5000 U.S. producers intend to increase organic production over the next five years). Since 2002, there has been a 300% increase in the number of firms certified organic. Market penetration (the percentage of American households that purchase organic) is now estimated to be 75%. Organic consumers are becoming more mainstream (e.g., more than half of all parents who buy organics are Millennials – the coveted 18-34 year-old age range for marketers). Many consumers are willing to pay a price premium when purchasing organic. Health, environmental concerns, and animal welfare are the primary reasons consumers choose organic.

In the chapters that follow, a variety of topics related to organic food production, consumption, and promotion are covered. Some of the key topics in the organics domain that are discussed include: (a) consumer motivations to purchase and consume organic products, as related to the environmental and health benefits of organic consumption (Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, and 10), (b) how organic foods are produced and distributed (Chapters 1, 2, 5, and 9), (c) how organic food is marketed (Chapters 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9), (d) consumer confusion regarding the plethora of organic labels that have emerged, and insights regarding what they mean and how they are used by consumers in their decision making process (Chapters 2, 5, 6, and 10), (e) pricing disparities between organic and conventional foods and the reasons driving the organic price premiums (Chapters 2, 9, and 10), and (f) insights for pet owners considering organic pet food (Chapter 10). It is our hope that readers will be enlightened and informed, and perhaps some myths associated with organic will be dispelled. And, while we trust that many questions associated with organic will be answered, we acknowledge here that the chapters are designed to raise additional questions in the reader’s mind which will require further inquiry and empirical investigation.

Preface

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REFERENCES 2016 Organic Industry Survey, Organic Trade Association. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Organic Integrity Database, 2016. Organic Production Survey, National Organic Statistics Service, September, 2015. “We Are What We Eat: Healthy Eating Trends Around the World,” Nielsen, January 2015. U.S. Families’ Organic Attitudes and Beliefs 2016 Tracking Study, 2016, Organic Trade Association. Food Business News: http://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/news_home/ Business_News/2016/03/Four_trends_driving_growth_in.aspx?ID=%7BA 97BA0C1-E1AA-408E-AF06-297C080DC834%7D. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/natural-resources-environment/organicagriculture.aspx. “Consumers Want Healthy Foods – and Will Pay More for Them,” Nancy Gagliardi, Forbes, February 18, 2015: http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/ natural-resources-environment/organic-agriculture.aspx. The Shelby Report, July 15, 2016: http://www.theshelbyreport.com/2016/ 07/15/new-findings-show-organic-produce-market-is-is-driving-trends/.

In: Deciphering Organic Foods ISBN: 978-1-53610-517-9 Editors: I. Kareklas and D.D. Muehling © 2017 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 1

CONSUMER AWARENESS AND MOTIVATION FOR ORGANIC FOOD CONSUMPTION: EXPLORING THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS SURROUNDING THE PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FOOD; UNDERSTANDING PERSPECTIVES ON ORGANIC PRODUCTS FROM THE CONSUMER, PRODUCER AND RETAILER Mark R. Mulder1 and Richie L. Liu2 1

Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA, US Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, US

2

ABSTRACT Consumer attraction to organic food often includes environmental concerns and considerations. Food production has a major impact on the fertility and viability of land, and concerns over potential ripple effects from chemical additives (e.g., fertilizers, herbicides, etc.) can be drivers for consumer preference for organic food products. Potential health benefits are often conjoined with environmental concerns, and both can serve as motivators for organic food consumption. This chapter explores

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Mark R. Mulder and Richie L. Liu this shared starting point for consumers, recognizes the role of research and media content surrounding organics and the environment, and includes perspectives and insights from indigenous groups, consumers, and a major international retailer.

Keywords: organics, environment, sustainability, health, organic retail

INTRODUCTION The organic food and beverage market is growing significantly. The market is estimated to reach $161.5 billion by the year 2018, up from $80.4 billion in 2013 (BCC, 2014). In the midst of the growth of organic farming and product sales, some natural questions emerge. A key question is, why are consumers seeking organic food products? One key reason appears to be concerns over the environment and health. For this reason, this chapter explores the environmental benefits of organic food production, and how health and environmental practices may be linked in the minds of consumers. To understand the environmental benefits in the minds of consumers, however, requires further exploration of the often symbiotic relationship between consumer perceptions of the environmental benefits alongside the health benefits of organic food production. Next, the role of research and the media are highlighted, as consumers can readily find information about environmental benefits, as well as concerns, over organic food production. Next, an exploration of the reciprocal relationship between the environment and cultural drivers of ethical/spiritual beliefs (i.e., the Quechua and Pachamama) which encourage a deep respect for the environment are highlighted. In cases such as these, caring for the environment is natural, as is the growth and consumption of organic food. Next, perspectives from a large national retailer offers insight into consumer perceptions and buying patterns. Finally, new research is conducted which explores how consumers see organic food, the perceptions of health, and how prevalent the environment is in their decision to purchase organic food.

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THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG: THE FUNDAMENTAL LINK BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH IN CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCE FOR THE CONSUMPTION OF ORGANIC FOOD Consumers have shared their own perceptions, vocally and via their own spending, about the potential health benefits of organic food. In the present section of this chapter, the symbiotic link between consumer perceptions of health and the environment is explored. Perhaps it could be described as the chicken or the egg, and which concern (environment vs. health) arose first. In the end, the origination of the concern may not matter, as both may be mutually important in the minds of consumers. Indeed, many consumers are concerned about the impacts of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides in the production of food. It is these types of synthetic materials from which environmental and/or health concerns emanate. Consumers have growing concerns that introducing inorganic materials into the environment can have substantial negative impacts. Similarly, it is often these types of inorganic materials that have a carryover effect into the concerns about health as food emerging from synthetic fertilizer, or food treated with synthetic pesticides, will ultimately be consumed and processed by the human body. Imagine a consumer named David. David decides to buy organic food because he has concerns over pesticides, and the impact of pesticides in the environment and the potential health effect of residual pesticides in his food. The two concerns could easily be flipped, in that David decides to buy organic food because he has concerns over pesticides, and the potential health effect of residual pesticides in his food, and the impact of pesticides in the environment. Interestingly, however, the root of David’s concern is the pesticide, and the pesticide is applied in the environment (i.e., the grower’s field). It is noted that the cause of the concern (i.e., pesticide) could perhaps be replaced with a synthetic fertilizer or a synthetic weed killer. Regardless of the source of the concern, there is one thing they all have in common, and that is the root of these symbiotic concerns originates in the environment. Thus, consumer perceptions regarding the environment represent an important area for review and research. Finally, by nature of the sequence of food production and prior to potential human impacts of inorganic food production (e.g., food must first be grown before it can be consumed), the initial impacts of inorganic materials in

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food production are environmental in nature. How the environment responds or is potentially harmed by synthetic fertilizers, weed killer and pesticides has been a topic of conversations amongst consumers, is often reflected in media coverage, which has led to a growing stream of discussion and research.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: RESEARCH SOUNDS AN ALARM To best understand the impact of organics on the environment, consider the growth of crops and food in the environment. In this example, soil serves as a key component in the growth cycle. This overview of the importance of soil draws from the work of Berg Stack (2016). In the ecosystem, soil provides a place for roots to anchor; oxygen is provided in space amongst the soil, as is water; soil offers more temperature stability; and soil offers nutrients and holds nutrients from other sources (i.e., fertilizer). Previous living matter (i.e., organic matter) decomposes into a source of nutrients known as humus. Soil can only provide so much humus naturally, and must be amended with external nutrients (i.e., fertilizer) when soil is used for crop production. Humus not only provides nutrients, it also helps with water retention and soil structure. An environment that supports plant growth includes an interplay of water, organic matter, and chemical properties (i.e., pH levels and cation exchange). The chemical process is both interesting and instrumental for understanding the impact of synthetic materials and their impact on the environment. As an example, a healthy ecosystem has a variety of living organisms living in the soil, serving to decompose organic matter, aerate soil, or offer organic matter to soil. As explained by Berg Stack (2016), the chemical process matters a great deal. Some ions are positively charged (e.g., nutrients) while others are negatively charged (e.g., organic matter or clay). When positive ions connect with negative ions, the soil can latch onto and hold the nutrients. How well soil can hold onto nutrients is called a cation exchange capacity (CEC). Further, nutrient accessibility is facilitated via pH levels (an acid/alkaline reaction) which naturally differs depending on the type of soil. Inorganic and synthetic compounds often found in farming are held in increasing quantities by soil with increased levels of organic matter (Andreu and Pico 2004). Thus, the more robust and healthy soil (i.e., with more naturally occurring organic matter) will hold more inorganic compounds and

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for longer periods than less healthy soil. Further, synthetic compounds such as herbicides can harm helpful organisms in the soil, harming nutrient content of the soil (Savonen 1997). Recent research has found that these chemicals have lethal effects on organisms (e.g., soil microorganisms, vertebrates, invertebrates, etc.) and the macro effect could reduce “ecosystem services, either consumptive (e.g., food, fuel) or nonconsumptive (e.g., health)” (Chagnon et al., 2015, pg. 130). One challenge with synthetic materials is that they often don’t all get applied on the target area (e.g., mist) nor remain attached to the ground on which they are applied. This can cause the material to become airborne, affecting both the air breathed by humans and animals, as well as being found in the atmosphere (USGS 1999; Savonen 1997). Research near the Mississippi River Delta found pesticides in over 50% of samples of air and rain, and the compound glyophosphate (e.g., Roundup) was found more than 75% in air and rain samples (Majewski et al., 2014). Inorganic material can also leech from fields into water, impacting the health and ecosystem of bodies of water and waterways. Researchers studying waterways in the United States found synthetic materials (i.e., pesticides) in water and fish more than 90% of the time in waterways near agriculture (USGS 1999), and more recently pesticides were found in those waterways in over 95% of studies. The impact also appears to be spreading from agricultural areas to urban areas, as more recent research by the USGS found that the presence of pesticides in urban streams jumped from 53% (1992-2001) to 90% (2002-2011), while the presence in other water sources was stable (Stone et al., 2014). As of this study, only one stream exceeded human-health benchmarks for pesticides, though 93% exceeded the aquatic-life benchmark. Indeed, the aquatic ecosystem is sensitive, and degradation of water quality can challenge the habitat for water organisms and fish by reducing food supplies or reducing the available oxygen in the water (Helfrich et al., 2009). Certainly marine and water environments are areas of concern, and heighten the macro environmental concerns of consumers.

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A GROWING TREND: THE ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTION. THE CASE OF ORGANIC WINE, WINE LABELING AND GRAPE GROWING PRACTICES In present times, organic wine demand appears stronger than supply (100% price premium) and plenty of fluctuation (Greene et al. 2009). To continue under the assumption that the pet food industry strives for truth and accuracy in labeling, what benefits are in the organic pet food label, and are they worth the price increase?

PART 3: PET FOOD INDUSTRY The relevance of the following pet food specific considerations will vary depending on the underlying reasons a specific consumer chooses organic, but they certainly influence actual and perceived value as they affect both convenience and price.

Food ‘Not Fit for Human Consumption’ vs. ‘Human Grade’ Ingredients Pet food is not subject to the same standards as human food (Lau 2009). So, in some cases consumers may consider non-organic ingredients higher quality than organic if the sourcing, freshness, and manufacturing are held to the higher standard of ‘human grade’ ingredients (Carter, Bauer, Kersey, and Buff 2014; Lau 2009; The Honest Kitchen 2014). The Honest Kitchen won a lawsuit allowing their products to be labeled as human grade because all

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ingredients are sourced according to regulations and processed in USDA inspected plants (The Honest Kitchen 2007).

Organic Labeling In the United States, pet food does not currently have its own standards for organic labeling. Rather, the pet food industry is instructed to use USDA rules set for the human market. USDA certified organic producers have specific guidelines which may increase the value of their products to certain consumers, i.e., dairy animals must be on pasture (therefore “grass-fed”) for a minimum number of days per year (Lippert 2014). However, it remains up to consumers to educate themselves on the differences between “USDA certified organic,” “100% organic,” “made with organic ingredients,” etc.

Effects of Processing and Storage on Raw Ingredients Product limitations sometimes eliminate the characteristics a consumer perceives as superior in organic foods. Only certain perceived valuable characteristics of organic food can be maintained in processed commercial pet foods (Buff et al. 2014; Carter 2014; Wynn 2014). For example, antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and certain phytonutrients have been shown higher in organic than conventional foods (Crinnion 2010; Dangour, Lock, Aikenhead, Aleen, and Uauy 2010, Palupi 2012). Such label claims are often highlighted on “premium” pet foods. However antioxidants, certain fatty acids, and nutraceuticals can be negatively affected by high heat, high pressure processing, and/or the limited effectiveness of natural preservatives (i.e., mixed tocopherols, rosemary) in organic pet food products (Buff et al. 2014; Carter 2014; Wynn 2014). Products can also be negatively affected by heat and/or oxidation during use. For example, some consumers purchase large bags of kibble for their pets because the price per pound typically goes down as the bag size goes up. To start with, ingredients, freshness, and quality are variably regulated in the pet food industry (Carter 2014; Lau 2009). Given this uncertainty, it is possible the beneficial nutraceuticals are lower in a pet food than they would be in a human food product with the same ingredients. Then, after purchase it can take several months for the bag to be used up; as time goes on some beneficial components naturally degrade. Busy pet owners may leave the bag open,

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exposed to air and/or extreme temperatures, thereby speeding up oxidation, and potentially negating the qualities of the food for which they paid extra. A brief foray into the current market options will help to further outline this point. Standard types of pet food on the market include kibble, canned/pouch, semi-moist (roll/loaf, moist morsels), and packaged treats. All of these types of foods are likely to be high heat, high pressure processed, and some contain high levels of sugar, salt, and/or chemical preservatives. Natural vitamins degrade during processing and their synthetic counterparts are supplemented back in to balance the diet before packaging (Brooks 2003). However, because they are the most commonly sold products the popular brands have high turnover and are unlikely to sit on the store shelves too long. They may fare better with prolonged use and improper storage, as they are more powerfully preserved. Alternatives to conventional types of pet food include frozen commercial raw blends, freeze dried or dehydrated commercial recipes, low temperature baked kibble style foods, and homemade raw or cooked diets. These pet foods generally have gentler processing and preserving methods, therefore maintaining varying degrees of fresh foods benefits if used in a timely fashion. They are typically more expensive than conventional products. Some are highpressure pasteurized. They are less convenient than most conventional food types, because they involve more attention to food storage and preparation (i.e., freezing/thawing/washing dishes, mixing/hydrating, or even cutting/blending/cooking). Depending upon the knowledge base and ideals of the consumer, these considerations affect perceived product value to varying degrees, as they affect the pet food’s price, convenience, or both.

Labeling and Manufacture Oversight It can be hard to know what is really in most pet products (Cima 2015; Dell 2007; Landers 2013). Understanding the industry is an important first step. Historically, manufacturing regulations for pet foods have been much different than those for the human food supply industry. The United States recently passed legislation to apply standards of Good Manufacturing Practices to pet foods, set to take effect late 2016. Not only must companies comply with higher production standards, but for the first time the FDA has mandatory recall authority over pet foods. Additionally, U. S. animal feed companies are newly required to verify the safety and quality of their imports from foreign suppliers (Department of Health 2015; U. S. FDA 2016). This is

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a huge shift towards attempting to regulate quality and purity of commercial pet foods. In the current pet food market it is extremely difficult to evaluate label claims or product integrity. Recalls due to contamination and adulteration of pet foods are frequent (AVMA 2016). Many more may pass unidentified. A recent JAVMA study showed that even the protein sources listed on dog food labels are highly unreliable (Cima 2009). New and improved manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations for the pet food industry are set to go in effect in the United States in 2016 (Department of Health 2015). It remains to be seen how successful this oversight program will become long term. The American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) sets minimum nutrient requirements for complete and balanced maintenance dog and cat food diets. These are not ideal criteria, but minimum standards which should be met for basic health maintenance. It is up to the pet food companies themselves to formulate their diets accordingly. The oversight and regulation of these companies belongs to state and federal Feed Control Officials. Resources for oversight of pet food manufacturing facilities are generally very limited. Every state has its own feed control official, however as of August 2016, 35 categories of Feed Ingredient Investigators are listed on the AAFCO website; 14% (5 of the 35 positions) listed are vacant (2016). Not only are many consumers concerned about oversight of pet food manufacture, but many consumers believe meat meals and by-products have lower nutritional value for their pets than muscle meats (Carter 2014). In fact there are strong nutritional benefits for pets ingesting some organ meats (Bender 1992; Lau 2009). In reality, the problem isn’t always the label ingredients themselves; it’s adulteration of ingredients, and/or their sourcing and processing. This leads consumers to mistrust meals and by-products as categories, but there is likely some misunderstanding as to why. Highly publicized media scandals reveal industry shortfalls at different steps of production, from source adulteration at rendering facilities, to the multitudes of factory recalls for pathogens and other contaminants (i.e., melamine, Salmonella, Listeria, aflatoxin, cyanuric acid, inappropriate vitamin content, etc.) (AVMA 2016; Carter 2014; Dell 2007; Landers 2013). Since the problem with meat meals is not the raw ingredients, but the denaturing and contamination during processing that are the problem, there may be little value to organic over conventional from a health standpoint in this case. Most pet foods, whether conventional or organic, are processed in the same facilities (Dell 2007).

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By-products may do better than meals with organic sourcing, but they are not allowed in USDA certified organic products, as they can be untraceable (Lippert 2014). One problem with by-products isn’t that they are unhealthy, but rather that they may concentrate toxins. Many are filter and endocrine organs which are heavily impacted by pollutants (i.e., liver, kidney) (Alonso, Benedito, Miranda, Castillo, Hernandez, and Shore 2000). Organically raised meat by-products may have a healthier toxin profile; at least theoretically these animals should be exposed to fewer pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, growth promotants, and other chemicals. “Meat” other than beef, pork, sheep, or goat is supposed to be labeled in pet food in the U. S. Zoo animals, roadkill, shelter animal and pet remains are not legal ingredients; however there have been many publicized concerns about these animals ending up in pet foods, particularly through the rendering process (Dell 2007; Landers 2013). While it may be extremely difficult to prove or disprove these concerns, it becomes difficult for consumers to trust companies in the face of label inaccuracies and continuous recalls. Many societies struggle to keep safe food for human consumption on the market. Resources simply do not exist to thoroughly scrutinize the pet food market. Organic pet foods continue to be vulnerable to adulteration during processing and may lack oversight at the sourcing and production levels. Although all pet foods labeled USDA certified organic in the U. S. must follow organic agriculture standards, it remains to be proven whether or not this extra layer of regulations is producing a genre of safer or healthier pet foods since a big problem with the laws regulating pet foods is lack of funding for oversight. The organic label may reassure some consumers, but others worry they are paying extra for false promises (Dangour et al. 2010). Third party certifications in niche markets are longstanding and have grown side-by-side with the human organic food market (i.e., Certified Humane, Fair Trade, Verified non-GMO, Oregon Tilth, etc.). This is not so for pet foods. Although there is a well-established, voluntary, third party certification organization for pet supplements (National Animal Supplement Council), this is new for pet foods specifically. Incorporating USDA certified organic pet food products introduces opportunity for third party certification in part of the process, and may reassure consumers familiar with the niche in the human market. As of 2016, third party certifiers can oversee any foreign suppliers/producers, so this may also help standardize the global market (U. S. FDA 2016). Similarly, the “human grade” designation on pet food may introduce more confidence in pet food labels, as it signifies the entire process

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from sourcing through manufacture is required to be in a USDA approved facility. This has introduced a well-known regulatory body overseeing at least some part of the pet food manufacturing process to the standards for human food production (The Honest Kitchen 2014).

DISCUSSION Purchasing organic pet food is a good value for some consumers but not for others. Determining this value is complicated and multi-factorial. Price, convenience, alignment with consumer ideals, product quality, and product availability vary widely. It is especially challenging for consumers to purchase standardized pet food products and make informed choices. This may soon change in the U. S. market, with new regulations and oversight practices coming into effect. As prices fluctuate and trendiness spikes or potentially recedes, it will be interesting to observe the progress of the organics market and the future of organic commercial pet food.

REFERENCES Alonso, M. L., J. L. Benedito, M. Miranda, C. Castillo, J. Hernandez, and R. F. Shore. 2000. “Toxic and trace elements in liver, kidney and meat from cattle slaughtered in Galicia (NW Spain).” Food Additives and Contaminants 17:6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030050034028. Al-Taie, W. A. A., M. K. M. Rahal, A. S. A. Al-Sudani, and K. A. O. Al-Farsi. 2015. “Exploring the Consumption of Organic Foods in the United Arab Emirates.” SAGE Open April-June 2015, 1-12. doi: 10.1177/2158244015 59200. American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006. “Spending on pets projected to hit all time high.” JAVMA News. https://www.avma.org/News/ JAVMANews/Pages/060801c.aspx. American Veterinary Medical Association. 2016. “Animal Food Recalls and Alerts.” American Veterinary Medical Association. Accessed August 20, 2016. https://www.avma.org/News/Issues/recalls-alerts/Pages/pet-foodsafety-365-day.aspx.

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ABOUT THE EDITORS Dr. Ioannis Kareklas is Assistant Professor of Marketing at the School of Business, University at Albany (State University of New York). He completed his doctoral studies in Business Administration with a concentration in Marketing at the University of Connecticut in 2010. His research focuses on advertising effectiveness, public policy issues related to pro-social behaviors, and sensory perception. Dr. Kareklas often employs implicit measures and meta-analytic techniques in his research. His work appears in the Journal of Consumer Psychology, Journal of Advertising, Journal of Consumer Affairs, and Journal of Marketing Communications. Several leading news outlets report on his research, including: NBC, CBS, ABC, and Fox TV stations, National Public Radio (NPR), CBS Radio, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Huffington Post, New York Magazine, Slate, and Fast Company. Dr. Kareklas teaches Consumer Behavior, Social Marketing and Public Policy, and Retailing.

Dr. Darrel Muehling is Professor and Chair of the Department of Marketing & International Business at Washington State University where he has been a faculty member since 1985. He received his Ph.D. in Business Administration (major in marketing, minor in communications and social psychology) from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1985. His teaching interests include promotion management and principles of marketing (both at the undergraduate and graduate levels). He has been the recipient of a number of teaching awards since joining WSU.

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Dr. Muehling’s research focuses on various aspects of advertising/communications theory and practice, and has appeared in the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, Journal of Business Research, and Journal of Consumer Affairs, among others, as well as in the proceedings of several national academic conferences. In 2006, Dr. Muehling received the American Academy of Advertising’s “Outstanding Contribution to Research Award” – one of only 20 people so honored by the AAA since 1958. Dr. Muehling serves as a reviewer for a number of academic journals and textbooks and has held several leadership positions, including President of the American Academy of Advertising, and chair of the AAA publications committee.

INDEX A access, 13, 15, 17, 32, 33, 34, 38, 40, 95, 121, 122, 129, 136, 137, 162, 200, 210, 229 accounting, 114 accreditation, 33, 205 acid, 4, 33, 227, 232 acquisitions, 112 additives, 1, 32 adults, 30, 39, 95 adverse effects, 188 advertisements, 84, 87, 96, 97, 106, 122, 124, 139, 156, 165, 168 advocacy, 9 affordability, 105, 122, 125, 127, 229, 236 Afghanistan, 128 aflatoxin, 232 Africa, 116, 188, 189 African-American, 149 age, 18, 31, 39, 41, 42, 59, 63, 64, 67, 156, 159, 161, 174, 191 agencies, 9, 119, 128, 139, 179 agricultural market, 147, 191 agricultural producers, 193 agriculture, vii, ix, 5, 7, 51, 54, 80, 81, 98, 101, 102, 103, 110, 111, 142, 146, 147, 148, 183, 187, 188, 194, 197, 199, 200, 203, 204, 206, 210, 211, 212, 218, 221, 223, 233

air quality, 227 amalgam, 188 ammonia, 32 animal welfare, viii, 31, 33, 48, 83, 108, 129, 195, 210, 227 ANOVA, 41, 42, 43, 44 antibiotic, 31, 132, 227 appetite, 23, 27 apples, 15, 29, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 87, 88, 90, 103, 104, 147, 160, 178, 222 aquaculture, 136 Argentina, 120, 128, 189 artificial fertilizers, 30 Asia, 188 Asian countries, 188 assessment, 141, 192 asymmetry, 136, 205 atmosphere, 5, 92 attitudes, 35, 47, 51, 57, 74, 76, 84, 87, 89, 96, 102, 142, 148, 200, 214 audit, 194 Austria, 212 authenticity, 9, 119 authority, 119, 129, 133, 195, 231 avoidance, 122 awareness, 31, 67, 73, 81, 92, 93, 94, 98, 124, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 188, 189

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Index

B baby boomers, 162 bacteria, 11, 31 bargaining, 117, 195 barriers, 126, 141, 202, 206, 207, 209, 212 base, 102, 117, 135, 170, 171, 199, 200, 231 beef, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 44, 164, 233 behaviors, 34, 40, 45, 57, 115, 162 Belgium, 76, 94, 112 benchmarks, 5 best practices, 151, 160 beverages, 106, 131, 219 bias, 101, 157, 165, 172, 183 bilateral, 117, 120, 136, 194 biodiversity, 7, 8, 13, 25, 80, 188, 218 biodynamic, 6, 7, 110 biological activities, 54 biotechnology, 101 birds, 46, 129 blends, 231 blogger, 10 blogs, 10, 165 brand loyalty, 58, 91 brand perception, 84 Brazil, 148 Britain, 110 business model, 228 business strategy, 193 businesses, 86, 105, 128, 129, 137, 193, 195, 196, 200, 203, 210 buyer, 15, 56 buyers, 14, 36, 90, 115, 118, 141, 190, 193, 195, 199, 208, 212 by-products, 232, 233

C cable television, 162 Cairo, 75 calorie, 132, 161, 162, 164 campaigns, 94 cancer, 9, 18, 20, 26

capital accumulation, 137 carbon, 8, 16, 218, 227 carbon emissions, 16 case study, 51, 109, 140, 142, 184 category a, 133 category d, 208 cation, 4 cattle, 32, 33, 40, 46, 110, 234 Caucasians, 91 causal inference, 22 CEC, 4 Census, 103 certificate, 193, 205 certification, 15, 35, 46, 49, 51, 55, 81, 87, 95, 97, 98, 101, 105, 116, 117, 119, 120, 125, 127, 128, 131, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 144, 148, 152, 164, 166, 176, 177, 178, 182, 188, 202, 205, 208, 212, 213, 222, 233 CFIA, 119, 120, 128, 141 CFR, 223, 235 challenges, 8, 14, 16, 100, 134, 135, 136, 137, 141, 143, 187, 189, 193 changing environment, 191 chemical, vii, 1, 4, 6, 30, 32, 38, 45, 46, 54, 83, 110, 111, 114, 115, 121, 125, 136, 218, 227, 231 chemical properties, 4 Chicago, 27 chicken, 3, 48, 166 children, 9, 10, 11, 59, 66, 71, 83, 89, 90, 156, 161, 162 Chile, 120 China, 55, 76, 116, 120, 146, 148, 189 chronic illness, 228 cities, 63 citizenship, 76 clarity, 45 classes, 92 cleaning, 202 clients, 227, 229 climate, 191 cluster analysis, 176 clusters, 173, 176 Code of Federal Regulations, 103

Index coding, 62 coffee, 81, 94, 131, 175, 185, 221 cognitive processing, 53, 172 collaboration, 15, 17, 200 collateral, 137 Colombia, 120 commercial, 34, 48, 80, 137, 194, 198, 230, 231, 232, 234, 237 commodity, 34, 80, 119, 196, 203, 211 commodity producers, 203 communication, 45, 206, 209, 210 community, 13, 81, 83, 91, 129, 130, 131, 132, 154, 188, 197, 200, 208, 228 community support, 81, 197 comparative costs, 138 competition, 81, 92, 114, 121, 130, 133, 135, 138 competitive advantage, 59, 144 competitiveness, 212 competitors, 117, 132 compilation, 49, 101, 164, 182, 213 complement, 8, 119 complementary products, 191 complexity, 172 compliance, 128 composition, vii, 18 compost, 12, 16 compounds, 4, 9 comprehension, 156 computer, 14, 170, 171 conditioning, 123 conference, 50 confinement, 129 conflict, 128 conflict of interest, 128 Congress, 50, 119, 214 consciousness, 49, 76 consensus, 154 conservation, 92, 138, 217, 222 consolidation, 107, 113 consumer behavior, 48, 49, 84, 93, 101, 103, 147, 167, 168, 170, 172, 179, 182, 184 consumer choice, 101, 165, 183, 184, 227

243

consumer confusion, viii, 37, 51, 80, 81, 85, 86, 89, 94, 97, 151, 153, 163, 176, 179 Consumer Decision-Making, 53 consumer knowledge, 46, 94, 99, 122, 124, 125, 161 consumer markets, 229 consumer motivation, viii, 76, 77, 83, 147, 149, 226 consumer perceptions, 2, 3, 31, 50, 76, 79, 80, 82, 85, 87, 95, 100, 165, 178, 181, 215 consumer segments, 89, 90, 91, 92 consumer surplus, 126 consumption, viii, 1, 2, 10, 11, 20, 31, 36, 51, 54, 58, 66, 76, 77, 100, 102, 111, 113, 114, 129, 133, 138, 140, 142, 145, 148, 163, 164, 169, 189, 191, 197, 198, 202, 211, 219, 233 consumption patterns, 145 contamination, 7, 228, 232 control group, 158 conventional retail stores, 105, 107, 108, 109, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 123, 124, 126, 133, 134 conversations, 4, 12, 95, 97 conviction, 135 cooking, 131, 231 correlation, 43, 44, 82, 125 cosmetic, 87, 88, 90, 98, 103 cost, 15, 26, 30, 31, 35, 38, 41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 85, 94, 107, 108, 114, 116, 118, 120, 124, 125, 129, 130, 138, 142, 145, 175, 182, 202, 203, 206, 225, 227, 229 Costa Rica, 120 Costco, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 23, 26, 27, 106, 113, 116, 124, 132, 141, 142, 146, 218 costs of production, 34, 169, 203 Coup, 106 credentials, 193 crop, 4, 8, 16, 80, 110, 129, 136, 137, 191, 193, 204 crop production, 4, 129, 136 crop rotations, 204 crops, 4, 7, 12, 16, 33, 47, 111, 128, 131, 137, 187, 192, 195, 203, 218, 221

244

Index

CSA, 200, 201, 213 cues, 205 cultivation, 110 cultural practices, 83 culture, 12, 13, 54, 129 currency, 35 current trends, 79, 100, 142 customer loyalty, 115 customer relations, 91 customer satisfaction, 115, 145, 192, 204 customers, 14, 16, 95, 106, 113, 115, 118, 124, 125, 126, 130, 131, 134, 136, 145, 183, 197, 199, 200, 210 cycles, 8, 54, 188, 194 cycling, 80, 218 Czech Republic, 104

D dairies, 131 danger, 127 data analysis, 63 data collection, 172, 200 database, 165 DDT, 30 decision makers, 181 decision-making process, 100, 182 definitions, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 45, 86 degradation, 5, 23 democracy, 144 demographic characteristics, 90 demographics, 59, 86, 89, 90, 95, 108, 126, 131, 144, 156 demonstrations, 183 Denmark, 50, 148, 189, 199, 212, 214 Department of Agriculture, ix, 7, 30, 51, 119, 148, 165, 223, 236 Department of Commerce, 53 Department of Health and Human Services, 235 depth, 11, 26, 210 designers, 160, 161 detection, 182 developed countries, 74, 116, 120 developing countries, 9, 54, 116

diabetes, 13 diet, 13, 34, 59, 91, 162, 201, 231, 236 disclosure, 139 diseases, 83, 228 disposable income, 59 dissatisfaction, 58, 92 distribution, 47, 63, 64, 65, 66, 74, 89, 91, 102, 106, 107, 108, 109, 112, 113, 118, 120, 121, 125, 132, 133, 138, 147, 181, 182, 184, 188, 196, 197, 198, 199, 206 divergence, 154 diversity, 194 dogs, 236 DOI, 183, 184, 223 domestic markets, 218 dominance, 198 Dominican Republic, 128 drought, 35 drugs, 32 dumping, 202 dyes, 32

E earthworms, 8 eco-friendly, 13, 84, 85, 87, 100, 111, 156 eco-labeling, 144 ecological processes, 188 ecological systems, 194 ecology, 8, 54 economic incentives, 104 economic performance, 145 economic relations, 190 Economic Research Service, ix, 142, 143, 144, 148, 182, 217, 221, 222, 223, 236 economic theory, 190, 191, 192, 203 economics, 100, 181, 189, 190, 192 economies of scale, 114, 116, 118, 129, 130, 133 ecosystem, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 19, 20, 22, 24, 131 education, 59, 91, 95, 139, 156, 162, 191, 193 EEG, 180 egg, 3, 129, 147, 165

245

Index Egypt, 75 elasticity of demand, 125, 126 elders, 13 electroencephalography, 180 emerging markets, 148, 197 encouragement, 122 endocrine, 228, 233 energy, 13, 26, 30, 46, 218 England, 101 environment, vii, ix, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 34, 35, 46, 50, 51, 54, 58, 59, 66, 83, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 92, 97, 99, 103, 108, 111, 123, 130, 131, 136, 148, 156, 158, 161, 171, 181, 192, 194, 228 Environmental Beliefs, 155, 156 environmental characteristics, 85 environmental concerns, viii, 1, 5, 18, 19, 20, 22, 82 environmental impact, 31, 51, 143, 208, 227, 228 environmental issues, 31 environmental movement, 30 environmental protection, 207 equipment, 15, 172, 202 equity, 94, 95, 96, 101, 165, 183 erosion, 7, 80 ERS, 81, 103, 223 ethics, 200, 227 ethnic groups, 132 ethnicity, 86, 131 Europe, 31, 50, 80, 110, 113, 116, 119, 141, 145, 188, 189, 205, 206, 213 European Commission, 212 European market, 50, 214 European Union, 30, 46, 188, 189, 218, 222 evidence, 31, 94, 127, 135, 145, 152, 154, 156, 157, 183, 199 evolution, 109 exercise, 34, 117, 133 expenditures, 84, 94, 95, 140, 180 export market, 222 exporter, 128 exports, 120, 222 exposure, 9, 31, 95, 172

extracts, 170 eye fixations, 168 eye movement, 172, 183 eye tracking technology, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 174, 175, 179, 180 eye-tracking, 181, 184, 185

F Facebook, 95, 96 fairness, 194, 208 faith, 74, 154 families, 129, 236 family members, 63, 226, 228 farmers, 7, 8, 46, 55, 81, 83, 85, 92, 103, 105, 111, 115, 117, 118, 121, 130, 131, 134, 135, 138, 140, 144, 185, 188, 189, 195, 196, 197, 199, 200, 202, 207, 210 farmland, 221 farms, 8, 12, 30, 31, 45, 48, 80, 85, 89, 106, 111, 113, 129, 130, 135, 194, 202, 204, 227 fast food, 106, 123, 133, 143 fat, 131, 132, 133, 161, 178 fatty acids, 230 FDA, 33, 231, 233, 237 fear, 12 Federal Register, 223, 235 feelings, 159 fertility, 1, 110, 204 fertilizers, 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 19, 20, 23, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 44, 48, 50, 54, 83, 110, 111, 114, 125, 233 fiber, 132 financial, 129, 135, 137, 175, 201, 203 financial performance, 203 financial stability, 201 Finland, 120 fish, 5, 25, 33, 110, 128, 136 fixation, 172, 176, 178, 184 flexibility, 95, 172 flour, 94 fluid, 176, 219 fMRI, 180 food additive, 55

246

Index

Food and Drug Administration, 33, 235, 237 food chain, 116, 140, 146 food industry, vii, 79, 80, 84, 87, 91, 99, 105, 107, 108, 109, 112, 114, 118, 134, 135, 138, 139, 169, 170, 177, 225, 229, 230, 232 food poisoning, 48 food production, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 19, 20, 23, 35, 110, 111, 112, 114, 118, 125, 129, 142, 191, 206, 208, 211, 227, 228, 234 food products, 1, 2, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 82, 84, 99, 111, 114, 116, 117, 119, 126, 128, 131, 136, 141, 144, 152, 153, 155, 158, 159, 160, 162, 170, 177, 184, 195, 198, 204, 230, 233, 234, 235 food safety, 60, 74, 76, 90, 91, 92, 97, 108, 111, 132, 133, 140, 175 food web, 13 force, 11, 122, 134 forecasting, 201 formation, 112 framing, 101, 183, 206 France, 101, 189, 201, 205 free market economy, 190 free range, 33, 40, 46, 209 freedom, 203 freezing, 231 fruits, vii, 40, 87, 88, 91, 125, 127, 131, 219, 222 functional food, 91 funding, 233 fungi, 35

G Gallup Poll, 31, 50 generic drugs, 125 genetic engineering, 32 genetically modified ingredients, 227 genre, 233 geography, 29, 46 Georgia, 79, 167 Germany, 7, 50, 76, 96, 110, 120, 147, 189, 197, 201, 205, 208, 212

glasses, 170, 171 Global Markets, 24, 187 global scale, 188, 212 global trade, 134, 193, 210 goods and services, 129, 192 governance, 211 governments, 30, 137, 188, 195, 204, 217, 222 grass, 33, 40, 44, 46, 230 Great Britain, 148, 214 Greece, 49, 102, 141 green food, 55 Green Food, 27, 55, 76 greenhouse, 8 greenhouse gas, 8 growth, vii, ix, 2, 4, 6, 14, 15, 16, 20, 23, 30, 32, 36, 54, 80, 92, 105, 107, 108, 111, 117, 134, 141, 199, 200, 210, 214, 218, 220, 233 growth hormone, 32, 36, 80, 111 growth rate, 6 Guatemala, 120 guidelines, 39, 112, 119, 131, 151, 153, 154, 160, 205, 230

H habitat, 5 hair, 9, 124 halos, 164 harmonization, 147 harmony, 54 health, viii, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 59, 60, 66, 70, 76, 82, 84, 85, 87, 89, 91, 92, 93, 97, 98, 99, 108, 110, 111, 133, 141, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 169, 175, 185, 187, 188, 194, 201, 208, 218, 226, 227, 228, 232, 235, 236 health benefits, viii, 1, 2, 3, 23, 87, 97, 111, 158, 164 health effects, 235 heart disease, 13 heavy metals, 228 herbicides, 1, 5, 227, 233

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Index high school, 39, 142 high school diploma, 39 higher education, 59 Hispanic population, 91 history, 12, 101, 140, 145, 211, 213, 214, 223 homeowners, 14 Hong Kong, 120 hormones, 34, 38, 40, 44, 83, 110, 116, 132, 227 host, 10, 11 House, 101 household income, 39, 62, 63, 219 human, 3, 5, 9, 22, 23, 27, 31, 59, 108, 111, 115, 116, 121, 131, 132, 180, 194, 212, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233, 235, 236, 237 human body, 3, 22 human health, 23, 59, 131 Human Resource Management, 74 human right, 31 human values, 212 humus, 4, 110 Hungary, 214 Hunter, 50, 228, 237 husband, 6 hypothesis, 195

I Iceland, 126, 135 identity, 11, 76, 134 imbalances, 228 imports, 81, 120, 221, 231 income, 13, 18, 26, 59, 66, 85, 90, 91, 92, 97, 118, 130, 131, 156, 191, 219, 229 income distribution, 118 increased access, 113 increased competition, 127, 133, 143 India, 53, 55, 63, 74, 116, 120 individual perception, 225 individuals, 13, 37, 39, 40, 41, 45, 86, 99, 168, 229 industrialized countries, 54 industries, 180

industry, 8, 50, 79, 80, 81, 84, 91, 98, 99, 105, 106, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 118, 119, 121, 123, 127, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 161, 162, 169, 170, 175, 179, 208, 218, 229, 231, 232 inefficiency, 118 inferences, 158 information processing, 158, 172 information search, 123 Information Search, 61 information sharing, 124 ingestion, 227, 228 ingredients, 9, 116, 119, 128, 132, 136, 139, 161, 163, 227, 229, 230, 232, 233 institutions, 89, 136, 137 integration, 101, 113, 139, 196 integrity, 105, 107, 109, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 128, 131, 134, 135, 139, 189, 232 interest rates, 137 intermediaries, 204 international competition, 80 international trade, 105, 117, 120, 122, 133, 136, 142, 189 intrinsic value, 32 invertebrates, 5 investment, 23, 59, 92 invisible hand, 190 ionizing radiation, 80 ions, 4 Iowa, 25 Ireland, 141 irradiation, 32 Islam, 105, 107, 115, 121, 126, 144 Israel, 120 issues, 10, 35, 94, 100, 161, 179, 182, 190, 201, 209, 228 Italy, 75, 120, 189, 199, 201

J Japan, 110, 116, 119, 120, 139, 188, 201, 222 Jefferson, Thomas, 129 jumping, 106 jurisdiction, 119

248

Index

K kidney, 233, 234 kill, 8 knowledge and interest, 99 Korea, 222

L labeling, 6, 7, 49, 80, 89, 93, 94, 98, 100, 102, 107, 123, 124, 131, 136, 138, 139, 153, 154, 157, 158, 159, 164, 178, 182, 184, 225, 229, 230 labor market, 37 land tenure, 201 landscape, 154, 159, 163 Latin America, 188, 189 laws, 233 leaching, 32 lead, 31, 37, 54, 81, 92, 95, 115, 157, 158, 190, 191, 192 legislation, 231 lice, 9 Likert scale, 61 literacy, 156, 165 liver, 233, 234 livestock, 35, 80, 110, 128, 131, 187, 193, 195, 236 loans, 137 lobbying, 128 local authorities, 202 local conditions, 188 longitudinal study, 148 love, 16 lower prices, 35, 108, 114, 116, 121, 122, 126, 127, 135, 200 loyalty, 92, 122, 132 Luxemburg, 189

M magazines, 124 magnetic resonance imaging, 180 Malaysia, 50

management, 7, 13, 54, 80, 87, 110, 129, 161, 193, 197, 199, 203, 221 manufacturing, 225, 229, 231, 232, 234 manure, 35 market conditions, 79, 80 market economics, 192 market economy, 212 market failure, 192 market growth, 199 market orientation, 193 market segment, 156 market share, 9, 109, 132, 203 market structure, 112 marketing, vii, 9, 25, 37, 50, 60, 72, 75, 79, 81, 82, 84, 86, 89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 106, 109, 112, 113, 117, 121, 127, 132, 134, 135, 136, 137, 140, 141, 147, 153, 160, 161, 162, 167, 168, 170, 177, 179, 180, 181, 187, 189, 190, 192, 193, 196, 197, 203, 206, 209, 210, 211, 213, 219 marketing mix, 160, 187, 190, 193, 196, 206 marketing strategies, 79, 82, 86, 89, 90, 95, 97, 98, 99 marketplace, 45, 81, 82, 98, 133, 170, 195 mass, 81, 106, 124 mass media, 106, 124 materials, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 17, 20, 23, 32, 125, 126, 169, 191 meat, vii, 10, 14, 24, 29, 32, 35, 36, 46, 51, 115, 132, 142, 166, 200, 208, 219, 232, 233, 234, 235 media, 2, 4, 9, 10, 11, 67, 77, 89, 95, 96, 98, 102, 106, 124, 125, 126, 146, 161, 162, 166, 204, 232, 237 median, 41, 42, 143 mediation, 143 medical, 9, 65, 228 memory, 26, 184 merchandise, 182 messages, 45, 86, 97, 210, 228 meta-analysis, 10, 31, 51, 137, 203, 237 metaphor, 190 methodology, 17, 170, 183 Mexico, 120, 222

249

Index microorganisms, 5, 26 middle class, 118 mildew, 16 Minneapolis, 79 misconceptions, 33 misperceptions, 82, 84, 85, 86, 91, 98 Misperceptions, 84, 92 mission, 130 Mississippi River Delta, 5 misunderstanding, 232 mixing, 231 models, 168, 190, 192, 200, 201 modifications, 38, 122 momentum, 111 monopsony, 117, 118 motivation, 18, 97, 108, 156, 157 multidimensional, 122 multinational companies, 107, 112, 130 multinational firms, 113, 120 multiple factors, 227

N National Academy of Sciences, 212 National Public Radio, 163 natural food, 33, 55, 113, 133, 135, 162, 206, 218 natural resources, 13, 83 nature conservation, 195 negative consequences, 84 negative effects, 206 negotiating, 199 Netherlands, 25, 76 networking, 57 neuroimaging, 180 neuroscience, 181 New Zealand, 120 newspaper coverage, 140 niche market, 91, 106, 204, 233 nitrogen, 32, 191 nitrous oxide, 32 North America, 112, 113, 116, 120, 143, 188, 189 nostalgia, 84 nutrient, 4, 5, 7, 16, 31, 194, 218, 232

nutrients, 4, 7, 8, 12, 27, 34 nutrition, 1, ii, iii, 11, 24, 26, 74, 75, 83, 91, 102, 140, 142, 144, 146, 149, 152, 154, 156, 158, 163, 165, 184, 185, 221, 223, 228, 235, 237 nutrition labels, 156

O obstacles, 162, 202 Oceania, 188 oil, 35, 94, 191 Oklahoma, 144 old age, viii oligopoly, 118 olive oil, 81, 94, 221 omega-3, 230 operations, 23, 112, 129, 130 opinion polls, 206 opportunities, 13, 17, 92, 112, 117, 121, 122, 124, 134, 143, 155, 156, 159, 187, 189, 194, 195, 217, 218 organ, 146, 232 organic acreage, viii, 218 organic agriculture, 7, 54, 80, 98, 101, 102, 110, 111, 146, 147, 183, 187, 194, 199, 206, 210, 211, 212, 218, 221, 223, 233 organic demand, 16, 103, 219 organic food certification, 119, 152 organic food industry, 79, 80, 81, 84, 87, 91, 98, 99, 105, 107, 108, 109, 112, 118, 119, 127, 134, 135, 138, 139, 177 organic food labels, 101, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 162, 163, 182 organic food market, 79, 96, 99, 107, 108, 113, 117, 143, 148, 187, 189, 193, 196, 213, 214, 233 organic food marketing, 79, 96, 99, 113, 187 organic food sales, vii, 30, 86, 93, 99, 109, 116, 122, 133, 218, 219 Organic Foods Production Act, 80, 119

250

Index

organic logo, 93, 98, 99, 119, 120, 124, 128, 139, 160, 168, 169, 173, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 205, 215 organic matter, 4, 30, 218 organic pet food, viii, 225, 227, 229, 230, 233, 234 organic producers, 80, 81, 82, 87, 88, 89, 107, 109, 112, 114, 118, 121, 122, 137, 138, 169, 193, 197, 203, 204, 210, 217, 219, 222, 230 organic wine, 6, 8, 9, 74, 102 organism, 207 organs, 233 originality, 184 ornamental plants, 184 outreach, 13 overlap, 90, 197 oversight, 232, 233, 234 ownership, 196, 199 oxidation, 230 oxygen, 4, 5

P pairing, 85 palm oil, 141 parents, viii, 31, 161, 162, 227 participants, 10, 17, 18, 19, 20, 36, 37, 44, 84, 88, 112, 133, 139, 170, 172, 174, 176, 178, 220 pasture, 33, 38, 40, 221, 230 pastures, 32, 129 path analysis, 237 pathogens, 149, 232 pathways, 140, 173 perceived benefits, 89, 98, 226 peri-urban, 140 personal communication, 95 persuasion, 164 Peru, 11, 23 pesticides, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 38, 40, 48, 50, 54, 55, 83, 85, 86, 91, 97, 110, 114, 149, 206, 214, 218, 227, 233, 235

pests, 35, 110 pH, 4 pharmaceuticals, 142 physiology, 235 pigs, 12 pilot study, 75 placebo, 158 plant growth, 4 plants, 7, 8, 103, 175, 177, 179, 227, 230 platform, 37 point of origin, 113, 128 point-of-purchase promotions, 92, 177, 179 policy, 8, 130, 137, 144, 195, 203 policy makers, 8, 130, 137 politics, 214 pollen, 9 pollutants, 233 pollution, 7, 218, 227 population, 18, 89, 91, 110, 201 population growth, 110 Portugal, 99 positive attitudes, 90 positive relationship, 93, 156, 175, 177, 179 poultry, 16, 46, 219 practitioner guidelines, 151, 153, 154, 160 predatory pricing, 130 President, 14, 116, 131 preventative care, 228 price elasticity, 126 price premium, viii, 35, 36, 81, 107, 108, 114, 115, 126, 127, 135, 138, 140, 144, 155, 159, 169, 175, 204, 218, 229 price taker, 203 pricing, viii, 14, 29, 47, 123, 130, 136, 142, 187, 189, 192, 201, 203 primary data, 53, 61, 66, 72 principles, 30, 141, 187, 192, 194, 202, 211, 214 prior knowledge, 158 private firms, 170 private sector, 137 procurement, 202 product attributes, 89, 102, 169, 170, 175, 178, 207 product market, 179

Index product orientation, 193 production costs, 35, 82, 114, 115 profit, 81, 114, 115, 119, 125, 126, 129, 201, 203, 204 profit margin, 81, 114 profitability, 98, 192, 204 project, 55, 93, 118, 120, 235 promotion campaigns, 204 promotional strategies, 79, 97, 167, 169 proposition, 175 protection, 192, 207 public goods, 138 Public Policy, 164 public support, 130, 137 public welfare, 138 purchasing intent, 79 purity, 109, 116, 128, 232

Q quality assurance, 97, 205 quality of life, 228 Quartz, 50 query, 26 questionnaire, 61, 62, 63

R radio, 106 rationalisation, 199 raw materials, 195, 202 reactions, 48, 142, 159, 168, 185, 212 reading, 36 real time, 171 reality, 100, 113, 132, 182, 190, 226, 232 reasoning, 19, 20 recall, 231 recession, 80 reciprocity, 11, 13 recognition, 205, 210 recycling, 178, 194, 228 regression, 37 regulations, 119, 128, 133, 138, 219, 226, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234

251

regulatory framework, 112 regulatory system, 136, 139 relationship marketing, 91, 101 relationship quality, 101 relevance, 124, 199, 229 reliability, 135, 144, 199 relief, 134 religion, 191 religious beliefs, 126 replication, 26 reproduction, 141 reputation, 96, 130 researchers, 23, 33, 37, 74, 122, 137, 168, 170, 172, 175, 179, 180, 199 residues, 8, 25, 31, 55, 83, 218, 227 resilience, 13, 27 resources, ix, 51, 57, 80, 102, 103, 148, 162, 175, 201 response, 38, 62, 102, 107, 118, 135, 143, 166, 184, 218 restaurants, 87, 97, 123, 133, 143, 158, 218 retail, 2, 15, 27, 60, 81, 89, 90, 92, 93, 97, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 123, 124, 125, 127, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 146, 148, 162, 170, 179, 180, 181, 196, 197, 198, 203, 204 retail stores, 108, 109, 111, 113, 115, 117, 118, 122, 123, 124, 126, 131, 139, 198 revenue, 91 rewards, 96, 200 risk, 7, 8, 10, 11, 24, 48, 88, 109, 137, 138, 217, 222, 228 risk management, 138, 217, 222 ROI, 92, 98 root, 3, 4, 8, 17, 188 routes, 197 Royal Society, 146 rules, 112, 119, 160, 188, 194, 230 runoff, 16 rural areas, 198 rural poverty, 80, 110

252

Index

S saccades, 172, 174 safety, 12, 35, 54, 60, 66, 90, 91, 92, 97, 141, 152, 157, 158, 212, 231, 234 sales channels, 187, 198 salmon, 140 Salmonella, 232 saturated fat, 34 Saudi Arabia, 120 scarce resources, 190 school, 202 school community, 202 science, 11, 24, 26, 37, 50, 236 scientific knowledge, 151 scope, 229 seasonality, 29, 46, 191 secondary data, 60 seed, 9 self-definition, 96 self-expression, 96 self-regulation, 119 self-view, 84, 101, 183 seller, 142, 190 sellers, 107, 114, 117, 190 semantics, 86, 97 sensitivity, 91, 93, 131, 177 sewage, 80 shape, 13, 96, 189 sheep, 233 shelf life, 136, 207 shelter, 233 shopping convenience, 105, 108, 122, 123, 124, 133, 145 Shopping Convenience, 122 short supply, 197 shortage, 136, 221 showing, 9, 45, 92, 98, 218 signals, 34, 46, 157 signs, 93, 123, 169, 181 single market, 189 sludge, 80 social class, 191 social group, 227 social influence, 121

social interactions, 96 social media, 10, 89, 95, 96, 98, 102, 106, 146, 161 social network, 103 social norms, 142 social responsibility, 117, 118, 199, 212 social standing, 13 social welfare, 114, 118 society, 46, 47, 87, 97, 136, 192, 211 socio-demographic groups, 81 sodium, 132 software, 170 soil erosion, 227 solvents, 32 Sources of Information, 67 South Africa, 76 South Korea, 96, 120 sovereignty, 13, 27 soybeans, 81, 218, 221 Spain, 48, 75, 141, 234 species, 8, 110 speech, 237 spending, 3, 164, 191, 202 Spring, 30, 47 SSI, 165 stability, 4 stakeholders, 97, 169, 175, 177, 179, 208 standard deviation, 62 standard of living, 211 statistics, 91, 92, 219 stimulus, 56 stock, 14, 93 stomach, 12 storage, 114, 116, 118, 138, 228, 231 stress, 7 structure, 4, 197, 201, 203, 206 style, 192, 231 subsidy, 121 substitution, 129 sulfites, 6, 7 Sun, 49 suppliers, 15, 16, 114, 116, 117, 196, 197, 199, 202, 203, 231, 233 supply chain, 135, 146, 192, 195, 196, 197, 198, 203, 204, 205

253

Index surplus, 74, 114 survival, 12, 107, 201 sustainability, 2, 80, 89, 92, 96, 97, 98, 110, 146, 166, 168, 175, 180, 185, 192, 195, 199, 204, 212, 227 Sustainability, 185 sustainable agriculture practices, 80 Sustainable Development, 75, 141 Sweden, 94 Switzerland, 110, 120, 189, 222, 223 synthesis, 23, 181 system analysis, 147

T Taiwan, 120, 222 takeover, 144 target, 5, 79, 82, 89, 90, 91, 95, 204 target market, 79, 89, 91, 95, 204 Task Force, 26 taxes, 18 teams, 161 techniques, 18, 54, 62, 111, 140, 161, 206 technology, 13, 54, 106, 110, 112, 137, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 174, 175, 179, 180, 184, 223 telephone, 26 temperature, 4, 231 tension, 153 testing, 55, 128 textbooks, 190, 192 texture, 132 Thailand, 120 Third World, 27 thoughts, 159, 189 time pressure, 184 tocopherols, 230 total costs, 204 toxin, 233 trace elements, 234 trade, 16, 31, 83, 87, 88, 94, 102, 103, 114, 119, 120, 128, 142, 144, 145, 184, 191, 198, 204, 209, 217, 221, 222 trade agreement, 120 trade-off, 16, 87, 88, 209

training, 13, 92 traits, 81, 83, 85 transactions, 93, 123 transparency, 139, 189, 204 transport, 35, 118, 196, 204 transportation, 108, 116, 118, 120, 134 treaties, 13, 25 trial, 74, 161 Turkey, 76, 199 turnover, 198, 231

U U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), ix, 7, 32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 40, 45, 48, 54, 80, 81, 84, 85, 89, 93, 103, 108, 116, 119, 127, 128, 133, 134, 138, 139, 142, 143, 144, 148, 152, 154, 157, 160, 164, 165, 166, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 230, 233, 234 U.S. Department of Commerce, 221 U.S. economy, 219 unique features, 57 United Nations, 7, 8, 9, 27, 235 United States (USA), ix, 5, 7, 14, 23, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 39, 50, 51, 80, 101, 103, 106, 119, 143, 144, 148, 153, 165, 189, 218, 220, 221, 222, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232, 235, 236 urban, 5, 75, 85, 117, 145, 198 urban areas, 5, 85 urine, 10 USGS, 5, 27

V Valencia, 11 valuation, 98, 104, 172, 175 variable costs, 203 variables, 62 variations, 107, 132 varieties, 73, 80, 110, 130

254

Index

vegetables, vii, 35, 87, 88, 91, 125, 131, 147, 191, 197, 200, 204, 208, 219, 222 vertebrates, 5 vertical integration, 117, 196 Vice President, 14 vision, 193 visual attention, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185 visual field, 169 visual processing, 181 visual stimuli, 168, 171, 172, 180 vitamins, 32, 33, 231 voting, 23, 190

W Wales, 213, 214, 215 Washington, 13, 103, 182, 217, 223 waste, 16, 136, 228 water, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 16, 19, 20, 27, 35, 92, 218, 227

water quality, 5, 16 waterways, 5 wear, 170 websites, 56, 162, 168 weight loss, 161 welfare, 34, 81, 114, 129 well-being, 194 Western Europe, 86 White House, 13, 25 wholesale, 81, 89, 93, 114, 124, 127, 147 wildlife, 110, 227 willingness-to-pay, 35, 49, 79, 87, 101, 168, 175, 182, 184, 185 workers, 201 World Health Organization, 9 worldwide, 188, 222 worry, 153, 164, 233

Y yeast, 6 yield, 8, 16, 137, 146